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Full text of "Annual report"

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FOREST, F 





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EIGHTH ©NINTH REPORT! 




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Eigfjtf) and Rintf) Reports 



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^tate of New ^lortj 



J. B. LYON COMPANY, PRINTERS, 
ALBANY, NEW YORK. 




Table of Contents 



PAGE. 

Preface n 

Report of the Commissioners — for 1902 17 

Report of the Superintendent of Forests 20 

Forest Fires 21 

Reforestation 25 

Area of Forest Preserve 33 

Private Preserves 36 

Adirondack Summer Business . 44 

Lumber Product 53 

Partition of Lands 56 

Loan Commission Lands 57 

Foresters' Reports . 59 

Report of the Secretary of the Commission 74 

Shipments of Deer 75 

Moose and Elk 79 

Black Bear 80 

Report of the General Foreman of Hatcheries . 81 

Hatchery Improvements ; 81 

Rearing Black Bass 82 

Maskalonge Supply 83 

Mongolian Pheasants 84 

Report of the Chief Game Protector 85 

The Force of Protectors 85 

Illegal Devices Seized 86 

Cold Storage Case 87 

Report of the Superintendent of Shellfisheries .......... 90 

Oyster Crop ■..'.. 91 

Shellfish Culture . . . ." . . . - 91 

Lobster Fisheries 94 

The Menhaden Catch ........ 95 

3 



4 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Report of the Commissioners — for 1903 97 

Report of the Superintendent of Forests .......... 101 

Forest Fires 101 

Lumber Product • 117 

Forest Summer Resorts 120 

Extracts from Firewardens' Reports 123 

Report of the Secretary of the Commission 139 

Shipment of Deer 139 

Elk and Moose 145 

Black Bear and Beaver 146 

Fish Hatcheries 148 

Distribution of Fish 150 

Report of the Chief Game Protector . . ... 154 

Pheasants, Quail and Grouse 155 

Salaries of Protectors . 158 

Prosecutions and Recoveries 159 

Report of the Superintendent of Shellfisheries 161 

State Control of Oyster Beds 163 

Interstate Conferences 164 

Statistics of Oyster Industry 169 

New York Oyster Market 172 

Oyster Culture 174 

Food Fisheries . 177 



The Cultivated Forests of Europe 179 

By A. Kneclitel. 

Forest Nurseries and Nursery Methods in Europe ....... 201 

By William F. Fox. 

Birds as Conservators of the Forest ........... 236 

By Dr. F. E. L. Beal. 

Fishes and Fishing in the Adirondacks ........... 275 

By A . Judd Northritp. 

The Albino Brock Trout 295 

By Clifford R. Pettis, F. E. 



TABLE OF CONTEXTS. 5 

PAGE 

Descriptions of Fish ■ 3°3 

By Dr. Tarleton H. Bean. 

Blue Gill; Blue Sunfish 313 

Carp 3 11 

Channel Catfish 303 

Crappie 307 

Goldfish . • • 3°9 

Moon-Eye 315 

Red Horse 3°5 

Rock Bass; Red Eye 317 

Notes on Adirondack Mammals 3 X 9 

By Madison Grant. 

The Squirrels and Other Rodents of the Adirondack^ 335 

By Frederick C. Pauhnier. 

The Wild Fowl of the St. Lawrence River 352 

By J. H. Durham. 

A Forest Working Plan 373 

By the United States Forestry Bureau. 



List of lustrations 



Attacking a Fire in Time Facing 

An Adirondack "Fire-Trap" " 

Maps (Two) of Plantations on State Lands, Township 21, 
Franklin County, N. Y 

An Adirondack Interior 

Adirondack Cottage op the Late President Harrison 

A Warning to the Thoughtless 

Pin Oaks Killed by Leakage from Gas Main 

Tree Top of Fallen Spruce Filled with Cones 

Red Spruce Cones — The Drying Room 

Lumber Job Where the Cones Were Picked 

Planting an Old Beaver Meadow Near Lake Clear Junction 

Pike Fishing . 

Spark Arrester, or Screen, in Locomotive ....... 

Section of Spark Arrester — Actual Size 

Forest of Friedrichsruh, Germany 

A Beech Forest in Northern Prussia 

Packing in Food for the Fire Fighters 

The Fire Fighters' Cook 

Fire Under Control 

Plowing Furrows to Stop Progress of a Ground Fire .... 

A High One 

Oyster Float and Sloops — Oyster Bay 

Along the Street Front 

Heaps of Pine Needles and Moss Ready for Market .... 

Bundling Spruce Fagots for Market 

Going Home from Their Work in the Forest 

Star-Shaped Plantation, with Roads Radiating from Common 
Centers ........ 

Preparing Ground for a Forest Plantation 

A Clean Cutting; Planted Forest of Spruce in Left Fore- 
ground 

Planted Forest of Silver Fir, Fifteen Years Old 

A Thinning for Reproduction of Silver Fir, with Timber Cut 
Full Lengths and Peeled Ready for Transportation . 

Ground Covered with Natural Reproduction of Silver Fir, 
Seed Trees Having Been Left for That Purpose after 
the Final Thinning . 

Oak and Beech 

A Good Seed Year for Norway Spruce 



PAGE 
22 



26 

42 
42 
64 
64 

66 

66 

70 

70 

86 

102 

102 

106 

106 

no 

no 

J 3° 
130 
146 

174 
174 
180 
180 
180 

182 
182 

182 
182 

184 



184 
186 
186 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Hauling Timber in the Schwarzwald .• Facing 

Forest Railway, with One Rail Only, for Hauling Out Fire- 
wood and Minor Products " 

Interior of an Old Sawmill " 

Gang with Sixteen Saws; Log Sawed Entire ' : . " 

Horizontal Band Saw " 

Log Yard of a German Sawmill " 

Fire Lane " 

Cutting Firewood " 

House of an Oberforster " 

Monument in the Woods to the Memory of a Forester ... " 

Raft of Long Timber, on the Rhine " 

Plant for Impregnating Wood with Preservative Solution — 

Treatment of Telegraph Poles " 

Italian Foresters : . . . " 

Nursery Beds Shaded by Planted Trees " 

Forest Tree Nursery, Italy " 

Royal Forestry Institute, Vallombrosa, Italy ....... " 

Forest Tree Nursery, at Xettes " 

Forest Tree Nursery, near Gerardmer, France " 

Norway Spruce, Four Years Old, Once Transplanted ... " 

Seed Bed of Scotch Pine, Two Years Old " 

Beds of Four-Year-Old Transplants, Norway Spruce ... " 

Forest Tree Nursery, near Luzerne, Switzerland . : ■ . . . , " 

Temporary Nursery " 

Nursery with Seed Beds Protected from Birds amd Mice by 

Wire Screens and Stone Borders " 

Young Plantation of Norway Spruce, Made by the Seed-Spot 

Method , " 

Temporary Nursery, Northern Austria " 

Part of Forest Tree Nursery, Thuringia, Germany .... " 

Forest Tree Nursery in the Thuringer Wald, Saxe-Gotha . . " 

Nursery Planted Exclusively with Norway Spruce . . . . " 

Forest Tree Nursery, near Friedrichsruh, North Prussia . . " 

Nursery for Deciduous Trees, Bismarck Forest " 

Weeding Transplant Beds of Scotch Pine " 

Forest Tree Nursery, Germany " 

Commercial Nursery, Halstenbek, Holstein 

Field of White Pine, Four Years Old, Transplanted .... " 

Weeding Transplant Beds " 

Large Beds of Norway Spruce, Four Years Old, Once Trans- 
planted " 

Red-Headed Woodpecker — Adult and Young " 



PAGE 

188 

188 
190 
190 
190 
190 
192 
192 
196 
196 
198 

198 
201 
204 
204 
208 
208 
210 
210 
212 
212 
214 
214 

218 

218 
220 
220 
222 
222 
224 
224 
226 
226 
230 
230 
232 

232 
238 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Northern Hairy Woodpecker — Male 

White-Backed Three-Toed Woodpecker — Male and Female 

Flicker — Male 

Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker — Male and Female . . . . . 
Black-Backed Three-Toed Woodpecker — -Male and Female 

Red-Breasted Nuthatch — Male and Female 

Blackburnian Warbler — Male and Female 

Mourning Warbler — Male and Female ......... 

Yellow-Billed Cuckoo 

Solitary Vireo 

Black-Capped Chick-a-Dee . 

Brown Creeper 

Blue Jay ................... 

American Red Crossbill — Male and Female 

"Going In" — Old Style 

Inscription on Rock in Cranberry Lake • . 

An Old-Time Sanitarium 

Oswegatchie Falls, Near Hume's ........... 

"Chris" Wagner 

"Joe " Dunbar ....'... 

Twitchell Creek 

On the Beaver River 

Little Rapids, Below Muncy's Hotel 

Lamont's Hotel, on Smith's Lake (Lake Lila) ...... 

Albino Brook Trout 

Channel Cat 

Red Horse 

Crappie' . . 

Goldfish 

Carp 

Blue Gill Sun Fish . 

Moon-Eye . . " . . . . . 

Rock Bass . 

Black Bears in Yellowstone National Park 

Bears in Yellowstone National Park — Tourists Looking On 

Puma in the New York Zoological Park 

Puma in the New York Zoological Park 

Antlers of One of the Last Moose Killed in the Adirondacks 
Antlers of Elk Killed in Genesee Valley About 1845 
Raccoon Photographed by Flashlight by Hon. Geo. Shiras, 3D . 

Raccoon in the New York Zoological Park 

Timber Wolf in the New York Zoological Park 

Gray Foxes in the New York Zoological Park ... . 



PAGE 

Facing 242 
244 
246 
248 

250 

254 
256 
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260 
262 
266 
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268 
270 
276 
276 
278 
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282 
284 
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296 

3°4 
306 
308 
310 
312 

3*4 

316 

3i8 
334 
334 
334 
334 
334 
334 
334 
334 
334 
334 



IO 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Red Fox in the New York Zoological Park 

Opossum in the New York Zoological Park 

Canada Lynx in the New York Zoological Park 

Canada Lynx in the New York Zoological Park . . . . . 

Bay Lynx in the New York Zoological Park 

Beaver in the New York Zoological Park ....... 

WOODCHUCK IN THE New YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Marten in Steel Trap 

muskrat from rocky mountains 

Porcupine in the New York Zoological Park 

Albino Porcupine, Taken by Flashlight by Hon. George Shiras, 3D. 

Skunk in the New York Zoological Park 

Mink in the New York Zoological Park 

Marten in Philadelphia Zoological Garden 

Fisher in National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C. . 
Fisher in National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C. . 

Wolverine 

Weasel 

Wolverine from British Columbia , 

Wolverine Killed by Robert Walcott in Labrador .... 
Weasel or American Ermine in White Winter Coat .... 

Otter in the New York Zoological Park . . 

Porcupine 

Red Squirrel 

Gray Squirrel . 

Chipmunk 

Sea Gull Eating a Fish . . ... 

Retrieving a Gull . . . . 

Hooded Merganser . 

Snapping Turtles in Quest of Young Birds 

Mossback Turtle Eating a Gallinule 

Pintail Duck — Male and Female 

Golden Eye Duck — Male and Female 

Coot (or Mud-Hen) and Nest 

Least Bittern and Nest . . 

Pied-Billed Grebe and Nest with Young Birds 

Pied-Billed Grebe Watching Its Nest 

Map of Townships 5, 6, 40, and 41, Hamilton County, N. Y. . 

A Loon on Its Nest 

Lower Spruce Slope — Medium Stand . . . 

Upper Spruce Slope — Medium Stand 

White Cedar .... 

Hemlock and Yellow Birch — Bottom Land 



Facing 



PAGE 

334 
334 
334 
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35 2 
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3 6 4 
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37° 
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37° 
384 
384 



Preface 




HE preparation of the Annual Report of the 
Commission, in this enlarged or supple- 
mentary form, requires so much time and 
care that its publication has been delayed beyond 
the date which appears on the title page. It has 
been the custom of the Commission to issue its 
Annual Report promptly in January of each year 
as required by law, but in pamphlet form, con- 
taining the usual financial statement and a brief 
record of the more important work accomplished, 
together with such suggestions or recommenda- 
tions for further legislation as seemed advisable. 
This pamphlet was followed in time by the 
larger, supplementary volume, bound in cloth, 
containing additional articles and illustrations of 
a character pertinent to the various lines 
of work and interests included within the scope 
and province of the Commission. The department official to whom is entrusted 
the work of collecting and editing the material for this larger volume, together 
with the selection of the illustrations, is unable to devote any time to the work 
except such spare intervals as may occur while attending to his regular duties, 
after which the State printer must have the time necessary for the production 
of a book of this character and the artistic colored illustrations that accompany 
the text. For these reasons the publication of the large illustrated quartos 
containing the final or supplementary reports have been delayed so much 
that it has become necessary to include the Eighth and Ninth Reports of 
the Forest, Fish and Game Commission in one volume, as presented here. 
Hereafter, if the Legislature decides that the publication of these amplified, 
illustrated reports shall be continued, the volume should be issued biennially 
and include two years in one binding. 

ii 




12 PREFACE. 

The action of the Legislature in authorizing the publication of these volumes 
is amply justified by the high esteem with which they are regarded by the 
people, and the urgent, widespread demand for extra editions. Requests for 
copies, in great number, are received from people outside the State and from 
libraries in Europe. The Imperial Library of Japan has sought earnestly to 
secure a full set of these books, and far-off Australia has been more than once 
represented in the applications received from scientific men engaged in the study 
of fish culture, the problems of forest preservation and of water storage, and the 
work of game protection. 

The contributed articles on forests, fish and game are written by men who are 
acknowledged authorities on the subjects treated by them, and these pages, 
together with the beautiful colored illustrations, have an educational value that 
cannot be computed in dollars and cents. 

For the articles courteously written expressly for this volume the Commission 
desires to make suitable acknowledgment to Mr. Madison Grant, Secretary of 
the New York Zoological Society; Dr. F. E. L. Beal, of the United States 
Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. ; Hon. A. J. Northrup, of Syracuse N. Y ; 
Dr. Frederick C. Paulmier, Zoologist in the Division of Science, New York State 
Museum, and Major J. H. Durham, U S. A., Cape Vincent, N. Y. These 
papers, together with those furnished by officials of the Commission, contain 
valuable information as to forestry, tree planting, birds, wild fowl, fish, game, 
and the culture of shellfish, which the people of our State cannot find elsewhere 
conveniently. Furthermore, these articles will be read with deep interest by 
scientific and professional men, although they may be already familiar with the 
subjects treated. 

Particular attention is called to the valuable report on forest conditions 
existing on Townships 5, 6, and 41, in Hamilton County, N Y., as this great 
tract of 75,000 acres, covered with a virgin forest, belongs to the State and forms 
a part of the Adirondack Park. The field work, which forms the basis of this 
special report, was done in cooperation with the United States Forest Service, 
Washington, D. C. , through an arrangement made by the Commission with 
Mr. Gifford Pinchot, Forester, the head of the Government forestry bureau. 
Under this arrangement the General Government furnished, free of expense, the 
services of an expert corps of foresters, while the State of New York defrayed 
the cost of camp maintenance, guides, helpers, and other expenses. Although 
this report, as made by the United States official in charge of the work, is 
designated a "Working Plan," it was distinctly understood by both parties that, 



PREFACE. 13 

owing to the restrictions in the forestry clause of our State Constitution, no 
timber cutting could be done, and that in this respect the plan was necessarily 
inoperative. But after a long and thorough examination of this large tract with 
reference to its conditions, the forester in making his report deemed it a proper 
opportunity to indicate the large revenues that could be obtained annually from 
this forest under an intelligent, conservative management in case the State 
Constitution were amended at some future time so as to permit the adoption of 
such a plan. 

The Commission on its part improved the opportunity to obtain for its 
information and guidance the valuable data giving in detail the amount of stand- 
ing timber, the different species, the rate of growth, the topographical features 
of the tract, and other valuable items showing the condition and value of the 
property. 

In view of the general opposition to any amendment of the forestry clause in 

the State Constitution the Commission disclaims any responsibility for the sugges 

tions contained in the article referred to, although the plan is necessarily only a 

tentative one. 

THE COMMISSION. 



Eicrfyff) Report 

of tf>e 

Potest Pis!) and Game Commission 



Albany, N. ^L, January )o, l?o'). 
Hon. 5. Frederic^ Nixon, 

CSpeal^er of tf>e Assembly : 

Sir. — We I)ave tf)e f)onor to submit fyerewift), as 
required b^ law, tl)e official report of ti)is Commission for 
tl)e ^ear ending September }o, ljo'Z* 

Yzr% tmt^ ^oars, 

Timotl)^ L. Woodruff, 

President, 

Dewitt C i'liddleton, 
CI)arle^ H. §abcod$, 

Commissioners of Forest, Fisi) and dame. 



atate of Rev ^Iorl^ 



Forest, Fisf) and (Same Commission. 

Timothy L. Woodruff, President, - Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Dewitt C. Middleton, - - - - Watertown, N. Y. 

Charles H Babcock, - ...... Rochester, N. Y. 

standing Committees. 

Forestry, - - ....... Commissioner Middleton. 

Fishculture and Hatcheries, ------ Commissioner Babcock. 

Shellfishenes, --------- Commissioner Woodruff. 



Assistant Secretary, ...... John D. Whish, Albany, N. Y. 

Superintendent of Forests, - ... William F. Fox, Albany, N. Y. 

Chief Game Protector, - - - J. Warren Pond, Albany, N. Y. 

Superintendent of Shellfisheries, - - - B. Frank Wood, Jamaica, N. Y. 



Report 



of the 



Pore^t Pisf) and Game Commission 



To ti)e Honorable tl)e legislature: 



THE Commission, in presenting its final report as at present constituted, has 
the pleasant satisfaction of knowing that its work has had the commenda- 
tion of the public, and that the value of what has been done for the 
protection of fish and game and the reforestation of denuded woodlands in the 
Adirondack and Catskill regions has been recognized both at home and abroad. 

Standards of comparison for such matters are not as well established as yet in 
our own country as they are in other parts of the civilized world, and an occasional 
criticism is consequently to be expected either from the uninformed or the unthink- 
ing. But it is certain that, dollar for dollar, the State of New York is getting more 
for its expenditure for the business which the Commission has had in charge than 
any other locality at present known. The work of the Forestry Department has 
developed in value to the extent that its success is frequently commended, and its 
documents are considered very desirable for public distribution. Advice on 
important questions is sought by the experts of other countries from our Depart- 
ment of Fisheries, and the game laws of this State are frequently used as models 
by other lawmakers. 

The sagacious editor of the London Spectator, in reviewing a recent report of this 
Commission, after paying a high tribute to the wisdom shown by the State of New 
York in providing adequately for the preservation of its forests and the increase 
of its fish and game supply, says : 

Omitting moneys spent on purchasing land and maintaining forests the total cost 
of fish propagation, fish and game protection, the Shellfish Department and taking 
deer to the forests, with some items for printing, was about ^30,000. The fish cost 

2 17 



1 8 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

a little over ^11,000, the gamekeeping generally ^10,000, and the shellfish (a 
remunerative item) ^2,000. In return for this the public had free fishing of every 
kind over a vast territory, and killed deer to an amount which, at the ordinary 
rate reckoned per stag in Scotland (^40), would represent a sporting rental in this 
country of ^169,000! 

In the same line of testimony is the following quotation from a scientific 
monograph produced in our own State by an expert of well-established reputation. 
In a recent bulletin on "The Clam and Scallop Industries," issued by the State 
Museum, Dr. J. L. Kellogg says: 

Every one is familiar with the extensive and remarkably successful work of 
the United States and the various State Fish Commissions in the propagation 
of marine and fresh water market fish. In many cases the continued supply is 
probably directly and entirely due to the artificial hatching and judicious 
distribution of the young fish. These institutions have made it very clear that 
public moneys could not be better expended for the benefit of all classes of people 
than in their support. * * * If the fact were only recognized that this extinction 
of forms really is occurring, these Commissions and similar institutions would 
receive much greater support in the form of legislative appropriations. * * * It 
is money most profitably invested for rich and poor alike. 

Such testimony and approval of the work that is being done could be continued 
at length, but the facts are, for the most part, known to your honorable body and 
to the well-informed taxpayers of the State at large. The value of the Adirondacks 
as a wealth-producing element in the State is properly shown in one of the appended 
reports, and the figures given indicate that millions of dollars are annually spent 
because of the attractions of the woods and waters for health and pleasure seekers 
and sportsmen. To preserve and build up the forests has been the constant care 
of the Commission, and many members of the Legislature can testify from actual 
knowledge as to what has been done toward providing trees to fill out the denuded 
places. The nurseries for producing the young trees are well established, and will 
increase steadily in value as the work advances. In time the State will be able to 
provide from them not only all the trees necessary for use in the forests but also 
for beautifying roadsides and the streets of our cities, as well as for renewing the 
old and neglected woodlots of our farms. 

Attention is also called with pride to the work done in protecting the forests 
from fire. The State now has a most excellent organization for this purpose, and 
the result is readily seen from the fact that our forests have practically escaped 
damage from this source. Reports from other States do not show such immunity. 
The statements in detail in the reports of the Superintendent of Forests, the 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 9 

Chief Protector and the Superintendent of Shellfisheries, which follow, are well 
worth the attention of every sportsman and every taxpayer as well. Therein will 
be found ample evidence that the money appropriated for the propagation of fish 
and the protection of game has been well expended, and that the result secured 
has merited the favorable comment already quoted. Communications received 
from time to time bear witness to the fact that line fishing in the waters of the 
State was never better, while the returns from the net fishermen prove that a far 
greater variety of cheap food-fish of the best quality is easily procurable on account 
of the constant care exercised by the State in stocking its waters. The increase 
in the number of deer taken is also worth noting, as an evidence of the wisdom 
of existing laws. So also is the suggestion which experience has shown to be 
necessary for the preservation of certain fisheries by stopping fishing through the 
ice. Protective action would also seem to be necessary to keep the Black Bear from 
extermination. 

The Commission, in conclusion, takes pleasure in calling attention to the success 
which has thus far attended the work of restoring Moose to the Adirondacks, and 
to the valuable additions made to the herds of Elk during the past year. 

The following recommendations are presented for your consideration : 

That the number of expert foresters be increased to four, and their compensa- 
tion be made such as to retain them in the service of the State. 

That the John Brown house be repaired so as to preserve this historic structure. 

That spring shooting of wild fowl and birds of all kinds be prohibited. 

That the shooting of Black Bear in the Adirondack region be prohibited for a 
period of five years. 

That a license fee of fifty dollars be imposed on non-resident hunters, excepting 
members of organized clubs in the Adirondacks, who shall present certificates of 
membership, and Adirondack landowners. 

That provision be made for the licensing of guides. 

BY THE COMMISSION. 

John D. Whish, 

Assistant Secretary. 



Report of C3operintendent of Forests 

tyoz 



To tf)e Forest, Fist) and Game Commission: 

GENTLEMEN. — In carrying on the forestry work of the Commission during 
the past year special attention has been given, as usual, to the protection 
from fire of the forests in the Adirondack and Catskill towns, both public 
and private. The results are satisfactory and encouraging.* While many other 
States, especially those of the Northwest and Pacific slope, have suffered severe 
losses from forest fires, the wooded areas of New York have been comparatively 
free from any serious or extensive damage from this source, the fires in this 
State having occurred, for the greater part, on waste lands or tracts that had been 
burned over previously, some of them repeatedly. 

The total area thus injured in 1902, as shown by the reports of the town 
firewardens, embraced 21,356 acres, three fourths of which, or thereabouts, consisted 
of waste land, on which there was no standing timber of merchantable value. 
The actual area of forest land overrun by fire amounted to only 4,345 acres, of 
which 458 acres belonged to the Forest Preserve. 

The total loss on this standing timber, as taken from the estimates in the 
firewardens' reports, amounted in the aggregate to $9,150. The total number 
of days worked by the men ordered out to fight fire was 2,405. As the State 
refunds to the towns half of the expense incurred in such work, the amount due 
from the Commission in settlement of these claims is estimated at $2,700. The 
exact sum cannot be stated now, as a few of the firewardens' accounts have not 
yet been adjusted by their respective towns, the auditors having taken exception 
to some of the items, or having refused to pay the bill entirely. There will be no 
rebate to towns which are still in debt to the State for money advanced to hire 
men during the fires of 1899. 

As usual the causes of these fires were various, the principal ones being in 



*The great fires of 1903 had not occurred at this time. For a full account of this disaster see 
Annual Report of the Superintendent of Forests for 1903, page 101. 



20 



EIGHTH REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 2 I 

their order as follows: The carelessness of farmers in burning brush for agricultural 
purposes; sparks from railroad locomotives, and the camp (or coffee) fires left by 
fishermen and hunters. Berry-pickers, tramps, picnic parties, summer boarders 
and boys at play were each responsible for one or two cases. One fire was started by 
an insane man, and one caught from a charcoal-burner's pit. The returns include 
also, as in previous years, a large number of reports with the statement, "Cause 
unknown. ' 

The figures for the forest area burned (4,345 acres) and the total damage 
(89,150) show a gratifying decrease when compared with the great losses from 
this source which occurred almost annually in New York before the establishment 
of its Forestry Department. Perhaps their significance will be better understood if 
considered in connection with the statistics showing the total burned area and loss 
from forest fires throughout the United States, in which, according to the estimates 
of the United States Bureau of Forestry, there occur annually forest fires that 
on an average burn over an area of 10,274,089 acres, destroying at least $25,000,000 
worth of real property and in which on an average, sixty human lives are lost 
yearly. A special agent of the Government Bureau, after a careful examination 
of the territory, reports that the forest fires this last fall in the States of Oregon 
and Washington destroyed standing timber and other property to the value of 
$12,767,100. He might have added that these fires were accompanied by the 
usual loss of life. Thirty-eight dead bodies were found in one place- — in the 
Lewis River Valley, Washington. In our neighboring State of New Jersey forest 
fires last year covered 98,850 acres, and inflicted damages to the amount of S168 333 
as officially reported. 

These statistics need not excite surprise if one recalls the terrible loss of life and 
widespread destruction of timber from forest fires that have occurred repeatedly 
in the Northwestern States. In the great fires that swept over parts of Northern 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota in October, 187 1, over 1,000 persons lost their 
lives and 15,000 were made homeless. The value of the standing timber destroyed 
was never estimated closely, but it amounted to several million dollars. In the 
fires of 1881, 1894 and 1896 hundreds of people were burned to death and wide 
areas of valuable timber destroyed in that same region. 

And yet these fires started from some little blaze that, as was the case with 
the Hinckley disaster in 1894, had smoldered for days before it attained head- 
way,* and which could have been prevented had there been an efficient organiza- 
tion for extinguishing them while in an incipient stage. 



* A detailed and interesting account of the great fires of 1894 may be found in the Annual Report 
of the New York State Forest Commission for that year. 



2 2 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

In the returns made by the firewardens of the State of New York for the year 
1902 much of the burned territory included in their reports consisted of open 
country on which there were no trees, the land being covered with brier patches 
or shrubs of small growth. There were large areas also, covered with huckleberry 
bushes, that were set on fire and burned over by the natives to increase the crop 
of fruit gathered annually from these places. This was especially the case in 
some of the Catskill towns, where the picking of berries on wild land furnishes 
employment each season for a large number of people — men, women and children. 
These areas, if not burned over, would in time be covered with a growth of trees 
that would be valuable for the protective functions exercised, even if the species 
did not furnish marketable timber. These trees would be available also for fuel; 
and the saplings, when properly thinned by foresters, would supply, to a large 
extent, the market for hoop-poles. The wardens have made special efforts to 
prevent fires of this class, with the result that the burned areas from this cause 
have been materially reduced. Still, as there is great difficulty in detecting 
offenders of this kind, the recurrence of the evil to some extent may be expected 
each season. It is doubtful if the time will ever come, however vigilant and 
watchful our firewardens may be, when forest fires will entirely cease. If all our 
citizens were intelligent, careful and honest there would be no fires. But this 
millennial condition has not arrived, and we cannot expect entire exemption for 
our forests any more than for our cities and villages, which for many years 
to come will find it necessary to maintain their fire departments. 

In some of the Catskill towns there has been a disposition on the part of the 
auditing boards to throw out the bills of the firewardens entirely, the supervisors 
claiming that as there is little or no State land in the town the Forest Commis- 
sion had no right to appoint a firewarden, and that the town can take care of its 
own affairs in this respect without any intervention by the State authorities. But 
the Forest Law provides that: "The Commission shall from time to time in every 
town having lands which are part of the Forest Preserve, and may in every town 
having lands which would become part of the Forest Preserve if acquired by the 
State, appoint a firewarden who shall act during the pleasure of the Commission." 

The clause italicized here became necessary because of the negligence shown 
by the authorities of certain forest towns in protecting their woodlands from fire. 
It is conceded that the State holdings in these towns are small, and that in a 
few instances there are none But these towns contain large wooded areas, a 
great portion of which are owned by non-residents. The public interests demand 
that these forests should be protected and preserved, no matter who owns them. 
True, a private owner can cut his timber if he wants to, but the people at large 




C. R. PETTIS, PHOTO, 



ATTACKING A FIRE IN TIME. 
















AN ADIRONDACK "FIRE-TRAP." 



A. B. STROUGH, PHOTO. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 23 

will naturally protest against its unnecessary destruction by fire. The observation 
of the Department has been that in the towns where there are no firewardens 
belonging to the organized force the forests are destroyed to an alarming extent. 
In such towns the supervisor is firewarden ex officio, being invested with all the 
powers and duties pertaining to that office elsewhere. But the supervisor too often 
is unaware that he must act as firewarden; he is not in touch with the Chief 
Firewarden of the State; he lacks the interest and efficiency displayed by the 
firewardens in the organized force, and, as he holds an elective office, he must give 
way in time to his successor instead of holding the position permanently like the 
firewardens appointed by the Commission. 

It has been suggested that when a recalcitrant town board refuses to recognize 
the firewarden appointed by the Commission, merely because the State owns little 
or no land in the town, the Commission might in retaliation make no appointment 
of a firewarden and thus deprive the town of the rebate of one half the expenses 
incurred in fighting its forest fires. But this would not remedy the real evil — the 
undue destruction of woodlands in that locality. 

As an instance of the lack of attention given to forest fires in towns outside 
the counties containing the Forest Preserve, and in which there is no organized 
force under the control of the Chief Firewarden, let me cite a representative case: 
In 1899, in the town of Adams, Jefferson County, a forest fire was raging, where- 
upon the residents in its vicinity notified the supervisor that he ought to give it 
necessary attention. He neglected to do so, paying no heed to the danger aside 
from asking some one to look after the fire and extinguish it. Ineffectual attempts 
were made by a few of the people to check its progress, and from Tuesday to 
Friday of the same week the supervisor was appealed to by interested parties 
to protect their property. These people informed him that the men he had asked to 
go to the fire were not accomplishing anything, and that the neighbors would not 
turn out to fight the fire under the orders or direction of the men he had engaged 
to attend to it. 

On Friday, after much had been said about his neglect of duty, he went to the 
fire, ordered out a posse of citizens, assumed charge of the work and extinguished 
the flames; but not until the woodlands of several people had been destroyed or 
seriously damaged. One of the parties whose woods had been injured, Mrs. Lois 
L. Garnett, sued the supervisor for neglect of duty. The case was finally disposed of 
in the Supreme Court at Watertown, N. Y., in May, 1902, the plaintiff obtaining a 
verdict for damages in the sum of $252. As others were ready to commence 
similar actions as soon as the case was decided, an appeal was taken for the purpose 
of effecting a settlement with the various claimants in order to save the supervisor 



24 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

from the expense of further litigation, after which he made a satisfactory arrange- 
ment with each of the aggrieved parties. The negligence of the supervisor in this 
instance cost him $1,659.79 to settle the various claims, not including the additional 
expense of litigation, all of which he must lose unless the taxpayers of the town 
vote to reimburse him. 

It has also happened that in the prosecution of persons for violation of the Fire 
Law satisfactory results were not always obtained, owing to the reluctance of the 
jury to find a verdict in favor of the State as against a neighbor In each case 
the attorney for the defendant appealed to the sympathy of the jury in favor of 
his poverty-stricken client, so described, and at the same time derided and denounced 
the State officials, who were represented as persecuting the poor farmer and seeking 
to prevent him from planting a few potatoes on his own land, or burning a fallow 
preparatory to the same. 

Last spring the Chief Firewarden arrested two men in Lewis County for burning 
brush and logs during a period prohibited by law, and for allowing the fire to 
escape to adjoining forests, where it caused a serious destruction of timber. It was 
a second offense, the defendants having been convicted of the same violation of 
law in the previous year. The case was tried at Lowville before a justice of the 
peace and a jury summoned especially for this action. The evidence was more 
than sufficient to prove the guilt of the prisoners. Reputable citizens testified that 
they were on the ground and saw the parties heaping up the brush and logs on 
burning piles. The local firewarden swore that he remonstrated with them for 
starting a brush fire at that time in violation of the statute, and further testified 
that the forest fire which ensued was directly traceable to the burning brush heaps. 
But the jury rendered a verdict of not guilty. The evidence against the defendants, 
however, was so ample and convincing that the Chief Firewarden appealed the 
case to the Supreme Court, where the action is now pending. 

Some of the farmers living in the forest towns complain that the close season 
on fallow fires interferes with their agricultural work. The State Forestry Law 
provides that in certain specified towns fallows shall not be burned between April 
1st and June 10th, or from September 1st to November 10th. This provision 
became necessary owing to the large number of woodland fires that caught from 
burning fallows each year during these periods, and which could not well occur if 
the trees were in full leaf. It is admitted that the law is a hardship to some extent, 
but the carelessness of petty farmers in the use of fire for clearing wild land 
became so widespread and unrestrainable that no other remedy was available. 

During the past season the Chief Firewarden has prosecuted successfully thirteen 
actions against parties who burned their fallows out of season, the fines thus 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 25 

collected ranging from fifteen to twenty-five dollars in each case — in most of 
the instances the latter amount. Some of the parties thus arraigned protested 
strenuously, urging in extenuation of their offense that the fire was wholly on 
their own land; that it had not escaped therefrom into any woods or on to the 
property of any other person, and furthermore, that they had gone to an extra 
expense to prevent any such occurrence. In reply it was pointed out to them 
that, while this was readily conceded, there were many others who were not so 
careful in managing their fires, and that, in prosecuting the latter, no opportunity 
should be given them to charge that any distinction or alleged favoritism had 
been made in proceeding against all persons who set fire to their fallows during 
the close season established by law. 

In connection with this subject ample acknowledgment is due Mr. L. S. Emmons, 
the Chief Firewarden, for the energetic, fearless work performed by him in prose- 
cuting violations of the law, and for the efficient service rendered in discharge of 
all the various duties pertaining to his office. 

Reforestation. 

At the risk of what may seem a useless repetition of former reports, I again 
call attention to the fact that, owing to the restrictions in the forestry clause of 
the State Constitution, this Department cannot undertake any scientific work 
in the line of forest improvement that necessitates the cutting of timber. The 
woodlands placed under the care and management of the Commission must remain 
as they are — untouched and unimproved. Our foresters are debarred from doing 
any work that would increase the productivity of these forests by the cutting of 
diseased or decaying trees, or by the substitution of merchantable species for 
worthless ones. Matured trees must be left to fall and become breeding places 
for destructive insects, while under the clearly expressed mandate of the law no 
timber can be removed and converted into money, even when it is killed by fire, 
or where, still green and uninjured, it covers the ground for a thousand acres or 
more in some windfall. This is not said in any spirit of complaint, or in advocacy 
of any change in the law ; but rather to account for the absence of any scientific 
forestry work in the management of the woodlands belonging to the State. Some 
such explanation seems necessary in view of the thoughtless criticisms that have 
been made by persons who were evidently unaware that the improved methods 
of forest treatment suggested by them could not be undertaken lawfully by the 
Commission. 

Fortunately, the Constitutional restrictions do not interfere with silvicultural 
operations incidental to the reforesting of denuded lands, and so the Commission 



26 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

has undertaken the work of planting the burned and waste areas of the Preserve 
with seedling trees of merchantable species. That there is a wide field for opera- 
tions of this kind is evident, in view of the fact that within the Adirondack 
Park there are 50,592 acres classified as waste, burned or denuded, to say nothing 
of a similar class of lands in the Forest Preserve which is situated outside the 
park boundary, or so-called " Blue Line." 

Small plantations had already been made by our foresters on State lands in the 
Catskills in 1900 and 1901, the comparatively slight expense of which encouraged 
the Commission to undertake, last spring, the reforesting of a large tract in the 
Adirondacks. In Franklin County, near Lake Clear Junction, there is a large 
area of State land that had been closely lumbered, after which it became denuded 
by repeated fires. The ground, which originally sustained a growth of large White 
Pine, was covered with ferns and huckleberry bushes, with here and there small 
areas of swampy land or thickets of young evergreens and poplars. It was mostly 
an open plain, extending several miles in either direction, its level expanse being 
broken in places by low hills or long, rolling ridges. The soil is sandy, covered 
with a thin deposit of ashes left from forest fires. The latter conditions, however, 
were not unfavorable; for a sandy soil forms the natural habitat of the White 
Pine, and the small admixture of ashes has some value as a fertilizer. 

The highway from Saranac Inn to Harrietstown skirts the northern boundary 
of the tract, while a branch of the New York Central Railroad, running from 
Lake Clear Junction to the village of Saranac Lake, passes through its central 
portion. The land includes all, or parts, of Lots 105, 106, 93, 63, 62 and 64 
of Township 21, Macomb's Purchase, Franklin County, as shown on the large 
Adirondack map published by the Commission. 

Early last spring, as soon as the ground was free from snow, a careful exam- 
ination of this territory was made by Commissioner Middleton and the Superin- 
tendent of Forests with reference to the feasibility of undertaking reforesting 
operations there. The only objection noted at the time was the proximity of the 
railroad, which would form a constant source of danger from fire. This difficulty 
was offset to a considerable extent by the fact that a district firewarden resided 
close by, and that a number of people living in the immediate vicinity were 
always available as a force for fighting fire. 

Having decided to undertake the planting of about 700 acres of this tract the 
question naturally arose as to the species which should be used. The White Pine 
is the most available of our forest trees, and, as it had originally covered this 
ground with a natural growth, preference was given to this species. The selection 
was further indicated by the sandy soil which elsewhere throughout the Adiron- 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



27 



dacks is generally found in connection with this famous tree. But, as white pine 
seedlings sufficient to cover the entire area could not be obtained at a satisfactory 
price, other species would have to be used. Preference was accordingly given to 
spruce as the next best; and, as none of the nurseries in this country or abroad 
had done anything in the way of propagating our native spruce, recourse was had 
to the Norway Spruce, a species which has been grown successfully in European 
forests as a timber tree, and has also been raised extensively in American 
nurseries for park or lawn purposes. 

The Axton nurseries, operated by the State College of Forestry, having offered 
a stock of seedlings at a low price, an order was given at the following rates: 



50,000 White Pine transplants, 4 years old, at $6.25 
10,000 White Pine seedlings, 2 years old, at $5 . 
40,000 Scotch Pine transplants, 3 years old, at $4 . 
10,000 Scotch Pine seedlings, 2 years old, at $3 . 
50,000 Norway Spruce transplants, 3 years old, at $4 
200,000 Norway Spruce seedlings, 2 years old, at $1.50 
25,000 Douglas Fir seedlings, 2 years old, at $5-. 
30.000 European Larch seedlings, 2 years old, at $2 
5,000 Black Locust seedlings, 2 years old, at $1 







$312 


5° 






50 


00 






160 


00 






30 


00 






200 


00 






300 


00 






125 


00 






60 


00 






5 


00 




$1,242 


So 



The White Pine transplants, four years old, were from ten to twelve inches in 
height; the seedlings, two years old, ranged from four to six inches The small 
quantity of Larch, or Tamarack, as it is called in this country, was ordered for 
experimental purposes, these plants being used principally where the ground 
was low and wet ; for this species finds its habitat, as a general rule, in swampy 
land, although at some places in the Adirondacks it has attained a thrifty growth 
on a high, dry situation. The Locust was also ordered for experimental work. 
The plants were hauled in wagons from Axton to the planting ground, a distance 
of seventeen miles, at a cost of $106.50, not including the board of the men and 
teams employed on this part of the job 

The work of setting out the little trees, together with the general management, 
was entrusted to Abraham Knechtel, F. E., assisted by Mr. Clifford R. Pettis, F. E., 
who attended to the alignment of the rows, acted as timekeeper, and who has 
had charge of the plantacion since. Mr. Ernest A. Sterling, F. E., also on the 
staff of the State Forestry Department at that time, remained at Axton, where 
he prepared tht- plants for shipment and verified the count. The planting was 



28 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

commenced on April twenty-second and was completed May thirteentn, during 
which period over half a million of young trees were set out. From iorty to 
sixty- two men were employed daily on the work. The weather was cool and 
cloudy with an occasional flurry of snow, conditions that, on the whole, were deemed 
favorable. The plants were placed in rows, at spaces six feet apart each way, a 
somewhat crowded condition being sought in order to facilitate the proper shedding 
of the lower limbs in time, and to promote the necessary growth in height. This 
spacing was adopted with reference to a thinning fifteen to eighteen years hence, 
at which time the trees should be from sixteen to twenty feet high. The thinnings 
can then be sold for pulp-wood or fuel; and it is expected that the revenue from 
this source will offset the expense of the plantation up to thac time. 

The advantages of a plantation composed of mixed species as compared with 
one containing a pure stand were fully discussed, preference being given to the 
former, more especially for White Pine and Larch, which, on account of their habit 
of open growth, expose the soil to the drying influences of sun and wind, and which, 
when grown in pure stand, do not readily shed their lower branches. These 
were mixed with Norway Spruce, only a small area of each being planted unmixed 
for comparison. 

In setting out the plants the men were divided into two gangs, one of which 
was provided with mattocks for digging the holes, while the other carried pails 
filled with the seedlings, the roots of which were immersed in thick, muddy water. 
The men were formed in two parallel lines, the mattock men in the front line six 
feet apart, closely followed by the second line, which was composed of the planters 
with their pails of seedlings. 

Three or four strokes of a mattock* were enough to make a shallow hole in 
the sandy soil of sufficient depth for a seedling tree. The planter, who in each 
case followed a mattock man, dropped on his knees at each hole, and taking a 
plant from his pail placed it quickly in the ground, packing the loose earth 
closely around the roots with his hands, after which he packed it still more firmly 
with his foot before going to the next place. With the work thus systematically 
arranged, the two lines of men moved across the fields at an even pace, covering 
the ground at a rate that was extremely satisfactory. As the planters, in order 
to keep up with the mattock men, had the hardest task, the gangs changed off 
in their work after each crossing of a field, the planters then digging the holes 
and the mattock men carrying the pails. 



*The Commission imported a supply of Wiirtemberg planting irons from Germany for use on 
this plantation, but for general work a mattock or grub hoe (single blade) proved more satisfactory 
than the heavier German implement. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 29 

As this was State work the men labored only eight hours a day in accordance 
with the provision of the Labor Law regulating the hours on public works. The 
laborers received a dollar and fifty cents per day, while the foremen, of whom 
there were three, were paid two dollars per day. Ordinarily men cannot be 
obtained in the Adirondacks at these wages, but the work was done at a season 
of the year when there is little doing in the lumber regions or on the farms, a fact 
which should be remembered when discussing the relative advantages of spring 
and fall planting. 

On favorable ground, when free from interruption by bad weather or other 
causes, two men (a mattock man and his planter) set out about 1,600 plants in 
eight hours, or one day's work. But this average was not sustained during the 
entire course of the planting. It required 747 days' labor — including foremen, 
laborers and water boys — to set out the 500,000 seedlings provided, or 669 plants 
per day for each man and boy on the job. The total expense of the plantation, 
including purchase price of seedlings, cartage on same and labor, amounted to 
$2,496.22, or less than half a cent per plant. 

The large gang of laborers employed obtained board and lodging at houses in 
the immediate vicinity of Lake Clear Junction, or near Lots 105 and 106, the first 
ones planted. But when the work extended to the lots farther south it was found 
that too much time was consumed in walking to the ground each morning and 
in returning at night. Forester Knechtel then made a written application to 
Mr. F. A. Harrington, Division Superintendent of the New York Central Railroad, 
asking for transportation for the men to and from their work, whereupon 
Mr. Harrington kindly ordered that free transportation be furnished on the 
railroad, and that the passenger trains on the Saranac Lake Branch should stop 
morning and evening to let off or take on the planting gang at whatever points on 
the line might be most convenient for the work. 

The seedlings having been set out at intervals of six feet, there were 1,210 
plants per acre, and hence the ground actually occupied by the half million 
seedlings includes only 414 acres. But owing to frequent obstructions, swampy 
places and thickets of sapling trees, the boundaries of the territory planted embrace 
nearly 700 acres. 

The thick growth of ferns, which covered the ground and could not be removed 
except at too great an expense, caused some apprehension through fear that it 
might choke the young plants or seriously retard their growth. But nothing of 
the kind occurred, and the little trees grew thriftily among the overshadowing 
brakes, which, in fact, proved valuable as a protection against the heat of the sun 
in July and August. 



30 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Mixed with the ferns was an abundant growth of huckleberries that furnished 
another cause for anxiety when the picking time came lest the young trees, hidden 
from view by the ferns and bushes, might be trampled and killed by the people 
who thronged the adjoining plains while gathering the fruit. As the plantation 
was on public land, unfenced, some plan had to be devised for keeping the berry- 
pickers off the ground. To this end Forester Pettis, with two laborers, using 
short scythes or bush-hooks, went over the planted territory and cut off the tops 
of the huckleberry bushes before the fruit was ripe. As a result of this simple 
expedient the berry-pickers went elsewhere, and the plantation was not injured 
by them. 

So far as can be observed the condition of the plantation at the present time 
is very encouraging. Of the half million plants set out the percentage of loss was 
astonishingly small — far below the number expected as based on the usual 
percentage of failures given in tables published by various authorities. It was 
only after a long and careful search that a dead plant could be found. Most of 
the seedlings showed a rapid growth also, the leaders on the White Pine attaining 
a length of from four to ten inches during the summer following the planting. 
The Forestry Committee of the State Legislature, Hon. Thomas M. Costello, 
Chairman, while on its annual tour of inspection in the Adirondack Preserve, 
visited the plantation last August in company with Commissioner Babcock, and 
each member of the Committee expressed himself as highly pleased and satisfied 
with the appearance of the work. 

For several years to come, in early spring or late fall, there will be some 
danger from locomotive sparks, which may start fires in the dead leaves on the 
ground and spread into the plantation. But this evil can be minimized greatly 
by employing one or two patrols during the few months in which there is a 
liability to loss from this source. Last spring a fire, caused by a locomotive, 
started in the immediate vicinity of a planted area while the men were at work 
there. Driven by a high wind, it quickly assumed a threatening aspect; but the 
forester in charge of the planting immediately detailed a gang of men to fight it, 
and it was extinguished before any damage was done. 

The planting having been completed, Forester Pettis was directed to make a 
topographical survey of the lots included in the work, using contours of ten feet. 
I submit herewith the map made by him in connection with this survey, on 
which the area occupied by each species is indicated by the special color desig 
nated in the legend. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 3 1 

Forest Nurseries. 

If the Commission is to continue its work of reforesting the denuded lands of 
the State Preserve, there will be some difficulty in obtaining a sufficient quantity 
of seedlings for the annual plantings. It is doubtful whether the desired species 
can be procured in sufficient quantities. Assuming that the plants are obtainable, 
the current rates quoted in the price lists of the nurserymen indicate that the 
expense would make reforesting operations too costly or unprofitable. This 
difficulty may be successfully obviated by establishing State nurseries in which 
our foresters can propagate seedlings to furnish annually the necessary supply. 
Availing itself of its ownership of the land and the expert services of its 
foresters the Commission can provide a stock of seedlings at a comparatively 
small expense. 

To this end a nursery has been established in the Catskills, at a location in 
Ulster County about one mile south of Brown's Station, on the Ulster and 
Delaware Railroad. After a careful examination of various pieces of land suitable 
for nursery purposes in that vicinity a selection was made of about four acres 
situated on the farm of Egbert Dederick, located as just described. The ground 
was prepared early last spring — ploughed, harrowed, picked free of stone — and 
laid out into beds four feet by twenty, which were planted with the seeds of 
White Pine, Scotch Pine, Norway Spruce and European Larch. Some planting 
was also done in rows, in which were used the seeds of Chestnut, Black Walnut, 
Red Oak, Pin Oak and Basswood. The soil is a clayey loam, somewhat gravelly. 
The land slopes to the northwest, and is partially protected from unfavorable 
winds by a belt of woods close by. A northwestern exposure may seem, at first 
thought, to be an unfavorable condition, but it has this advantage- — -that the 
plants will not thaw out too quickly after a late frost in the spring. 

As most of the reforesting operations conducted by the Commission will be 
carried on in the Adirondack Preserve, a site for another and larger nursery was 
selected in Franklin County, at Saranac Inn Station. Here there is an open field 
of about seven acres, immediately adjoining the State Hatchery at that place, 
and sheltered on all sides by a standing forest. The soil is a sandy loam, which, 
under proper treatment, is best adapted to the growth of the coniferous species 
to be propagated there. 

This nursery will have a capacity of 1,000,000 seedlings and transplants, and 
in time will furnish the entire stock necessary for the reforesting work of the 
Commission in the Adirondacks. Its close proximity to the railroad station will 
save considerable expense in the transportation of seedlings, while the employees 



$2 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

at the State Hatchery will at all times furnish protection in case of fire. The 
location is an ideal one, and no other place in the Adirondacks can be found that 
will so completely satisfy all the requirements. Work was commenced on the 
ground this fall, two teams and five men being employed in ploughing and preparing 
the soil. Next spring it will be laid out in beds four feet by twenty, in which 
will be planted seeds of White Pine and the native Adirondack Spruce, together 
with .such other species as may be deemed advisable for experimental purposes. 

The operation of this nursery will be dependent on a small annual appropriation 
by the Legislature — say $450 or thereabouts. An additional sum may also be 
necessary, when it is well started, to provide for a fence and for a small house 
in which there should be a sleeping room for the forester in charge, and a loft 
where the supply of seeds can be prepared and safely stored. A tool shed will 
also form a convenient addition to the building. 

The Legislature, at its last session, appropriated the sum of $4,000 for under- 
taking reforesting operations and other work incidental thereto. Of this sum 
$2,496.22 were expended in the purchase of seedlings and for labor in setting them 
out on the Lake Clear Plantation, and $706.37 were paid out in establishing the 
Catskill Nursery. The latter amount included $92.65, paid to J. M. Thorburn & Co., 
New York City, for seeds. The balance of the appropriation will be available 
for the preliminary work at the Saranac Nursery. 

Instead of purchasing seed for its nurseries the Commission intends to obtain a 
supply from our native forests. Fresh, live seed will thus be secured; and the 
foresters, in collecting it, will have a good opportunity to familiarize themselves with 
that important branch of silvicultural work. As 1902 was not a seed year for the 
White Pine we were unable to collect any this fall, and so will have to purchase 
seed of this species for our nursery work next spring. An effort was made to find 
seed-cones of the White Pine in the Adirondacks, and Forester Knechtel made a trip 
to the Ontario forests for the same purpose, but without success in either locality. 

Last season, however, was a seed year for the Adirondack Spruce, and so 
Forester Pettis, with the aid of a few laborers, collected a supply of cones which 
yielded ten bushels of these tiny seeds. Part of this supply will be used in the beds 
of the Saranac Nursery next spring; the rest will be available for some broadcast 
sowing on denucied lands, and also for free distribution in small quantities to any 
of our citizens who may wish to start small nurseries for forestry purposes, or for 
raising spruce-trees direct from the seed without transplanting. 

As the details connected with the work of gathering spruce-cones and extract- 
ing the seed may be interesting to people who desire information as to the method 
employed, I append a report, made by Mr. Pettis, in which it is fully described. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 33 

Present Area of tl)e Forest Preserve. 

During the past year there has been some increase in the acreage of the Forest 
Preserve through acquisitions made by the tax sales of 1900, for which the period 
of redemption expired just before January 1, 1902, and also by purchases made 
under the last appropriation granted for that purpose. This appropriation was 
made in 1900, but, owing to delay in perfecting the titles, several tracts were 
not conveyed until after January 1, 1902, and hence they were not included in 
our printed land list or in the statement of acreage published in the report sent 
to the Legislature one year ago. The acreage as stated at that time was: 

ADIRONDACK PRESERVE.* 

Counties. Acres. 

Clinton ■• 20,105 

Essex . 231,764 

Franklin 159,633 

Fulton 21,426 

Hamilton 578,34c 

Herkimer 146,733 

Lewis 4,53° 

Oneida 6,637 

St. Lawrence 34,683 

Saratoga 11,588 

Warren 108,283 

Washington 2,129 

Total 1,325,851 

CATSKILL PRESERVE. 

Delaware 12,936 

Greene ....♦,.. 4,269 

Sullivan 888 

Ulster . 64,237 

Total 82,330 

Summary. 

Adirondack Preserve 1,325,851 

Catskill Preserve ............. 82,330 

Total Forest Preserve 1,408,181 

*To prevent confusion in the use of terms, it is well to remember that the Adirondack Preserve 
includes the State lands outside the Adirondack Park as well as the lands within the Park boundaries 

3 



34 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

To the foregoing, the total Forest Preserve, must be added the acreage 
acquired in 1902, which is computed to be as follows: 

Acres. 

Tax sale of 1900 15,513 

Purchases in 1902 . 13,150 

28,663 
Less redemptions 158 



Total 



2»,5°5 



Adding the latter amount to the acreage reported one year ago, the total 
acreage of the Forest Preserve on January 1, 1903, will be 1,436,686 acres. 

Although the time for redemption of non-resident lands from the tax sale of 
1900 expired in December, 1901, certain other lands, on which there may be a 
so-called occupancy, are entitled to a longer period of grace, and may be redeemed 
at any time within the six months following the service of the Comptroller's 
notice on the occupants. As the agents of the Comptroller served these notices 
last September and October, the title of the State to these parcels cannot be 
perfected until April, 1903, or thereabouts, the exact time varying with each lot 
according to the date when the agent filed his return, or affidavit of notice, in 
the office of the Comptroller at Albany. This leaves the exact acreage of the 
Forest Preserve somewhat in doubt just now, as there will still be numerous 
redemptions made under this provision of the law, amounting, perhaps, to 2,000 
acres or more. 

The total acreage just shown does not include the State lands in the towns of 
Altona and Dannemora, Clinton County, which are excepted in the law defining 
the Forest Preserve. These tracts, which were reserved for the use of the 
Dannemora Prison, contain 14,347 acres, and should be included in the Forest 
Preserve, even if the amendment making the necessary transfer contains some 
proviso that the care and custody of these forests shall remain in the Prison 
Department. The lands in the International Park, situated on the St. Lawrence 
River, in Jefferson and St. Lawrence Counties, are also omitted in computing 
the area of the Forest Preserve, although this property is placed by law under 
the care and management of the Forest Commission. 

In my report, one year ago, I submitted a tabulation showing the classified 
acreage of the Adirondack Park as based on the returns of Foresters Bryant and 
Williams, who made a personal examination of all the townships included within 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 35 

the park. (See pamphlet containing Seventh Annual Report of the Commission, 
January 30, 1902.) But within the past year the lumbermen and pulp-wood 
operators have cut and removed 501,765,565 feet of Spruce, Pine, Balsam and 
Hemlock, four fifths of which or more came from the forest? within the "Blue 
Line," or park, boundaries. Some of this output was obtained also by a third 
cutting on park lands that were previously classified as lumbered. No supple- 
mental work was undertaken to determine the area of virgin forest cut over last 
year, but it may be safely estimated at 70,000 acres. With the former tabulation 
revised, accordingly, we have for the classification at this date the following 
statement: 

CLASSIFIED ACREAGE OF THE ADIRONDACK PARK. 

January i, 1903. 

Private Individuals or 
Class. State. preserves. companies. Total. 

Forest .• 455.4-15 257,186 375,453 1,088,054 

Lumbered 59 2 , 6 3° 3 68 , I1[ 5 780,394 1,741,139 

Waste 10,275 22,483 15,793 48,55! 

Burned 14,617 5,3 QI 23,247 43, l6 5 

Denuded ....... 15, 739 *3»555 27,388 56,682 

Wild meadows 9,961 380 12,188 22,529 

Improved 4,642 6,239 9°,°99 100,980 

Water . 60,135 32,655 3 2 , 2 54 125,044 

Total 1,163,414 705,914 1,356,816 3,226,144 



The term "Lumbered," as used here, is intended to include lands that are not 
covered with virgin forest, and from which the lumbermen have removed the 
merchantable Spruce, Balsam, Pine and Hemlock, leaving the hardwood trees, 
which, as a general thing throughout the Adirondacks, constitute from sixty to 
seventy per cent of the forest. But it was difficult for the foresters to classify 
these lands exactly in every case, for on some tracts there was a sparse growth 
of small Spruce and Balsam that was available for a second or third cutting of 
young trees suitable for pulp-wood. Hence it is not claimed that the classification, 
so far as it relates to lumbered land, is strictly accurate or definite. Much of the 
land thus described will still yield from one to three cords of pulp-wood per acre, 
while here and there may be found small clumps of large Spruces which were 
not cut by the lumbermen because the unfavorable location of these trees made 
their removal unprofitable at that time. 



36 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Private Preserves. 

In the Adirondack region there are sixty preserves, with an aggregate of 791,208 
acres, held as private property by sportsmen's clubs or individuals. The boundaries 
of each preserve are posted at intervals of forty rods, with printed notices warning 
people that it is private land on which no trespassing, fishing or hunting will be 
permitted, the posting of such notices being required by the law authorizing the 
establishment of private parks or preserves. The club or individual is not neces- 
sarily the owner of the property; in some instances the land thus occupied and 
posted is leased, the exclusive fishing, hunting and camping privilege having been 
obtained through some such arrangement with the lumber company or person in 
whom the title is vested. Some of these preserves are situated, wholly or partly, 
outside the Adirondack park, and hence the acreage just mentioned exceeds that 
given in the table showing the classification of lands within the park. 

Throughout all the private preserves the land is well wooded, and each contains 
some lake, pond or fishing stream. The forest, on some of these holdings, is a 
primeval one — untouched by axe or fire. On several of the larger preserves the 
owners are conducting lumbering operations; but as the cutting is done under a 
conservative and intelligent management, and is restricted to softwood species 
of medium diameter, a large revenue is derived from the property without 
impairing its capacity for future production. Then again there are clubs which 
own large tracts that have been lumbered, but as the logging was done fifteen 
years ago, or more, at a time when the lumbermen took the large timber of one 
species only, these forests retain much of their primitive condition. 

The private preserves in the Adirondacks, with a slight exception, have been 
established within the last sixteen years — most of them within eleven years — and 
the comparatively sudden exclusion of the public from its old camping-grounds 
has provoked a bitter hostility on the part of the hunters, fishermen and guides who 
formerly ranged over this territory. The sportsman who returns to some favorite 
haunt only to find himself confronted with the words, "No Thoroughfare," turns 
back with a resentful feeling, while the guides, who were wont to conduct their 
patrons wherever game was plentiful, view with threatening looks the hired game- 
keepers that guard the forbidden lands. 

On the other hand, the owners of the preserves point to the protection of the 
forests, fish and game afforded by them, and to the large number of guides and 
woodsmen to whom they furnish constant and lucrative employment. In 1899, 
the dry season in which forest fires were raging in the Adirondacks to an unusual 
extent, it was noticed that there were no fires on the private preserves, aside 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. T>7 

from incipient ones that were extinguished before any serious danger was incurred. 
This was due to the large number of forest patrols employed by the owners of 
these tracts. 

It is not necessary that the State should purchase these private holdings in 
order that the tree growth may be protected, for the owners can be relied upon 
to preserve the forest conditions that are so essential to the enjoyment of their 
property. The acquisition of these high-priced lands may be safely deferred until 
the rest of the Adirondack Park has been purchased. But the tenure of title to 
these private preserves is not permanent like that of the State Preserve; these 
properties change hands frequently ; public sentiment is always gratified when any 
of this territory is opened to the people, and so it would be well if the State 
kept a fund on hand, available at all times, for the purchase of such tracts 
whenever any portion is thrown upon the market. 

The ownership and acreage of the various preserves are as follows: 



ADIRONDACK PRIVATE PRESERVES. 



Acres. 



Adirondack Club. — Mclntyre Iron Company, owner. Townships 45, 46 
and 47, gores east and west of Township 47, and part of Township 27, 
Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the western part of Essex County. 
Includes the larger portion of Mounts Marcy, Colden and Mclntyre, and 
all of Mounts Santanoni, Henderson, Redfield, Allen and Adams, with 
Lakes Sanford, Henderson, Colden, Avalanche and Harkness . . . 59,300 

Adirondack League Club. — Hon. Warren Higley, President. Townships 
1, 2, 6 and part of 7, Moose River Tract, in the counties of Hamilton 
and Herkimer. Embraces twenty lakes and ponds, including Honnedaga, 
Little Moose and Woodhull Lakes 79,172 

Adirondack Mountain Reserve. — William G. Neilson, President. Town- 
ship 48, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the central part of Essex 
County, part of the Roaring Brook Tract and Lot 68 of Townships 1 
and 2, Old Military Tract. The boundary lines cross the summits of 
Mounts Marcy and Dix. The high mountains known as Noon Mark, 
The Gothics and Haystack are within its boundaries, as are also the 
two Ausable Lakes 25,912 

Adirondack Forestry Association. — Gen. Hazard Stevens, Oscar B. 
Ireland and George E. Terry, Trustees. Part of Township 22, Totten 
and Crossfield Purchase, in the northern part of Hamilton County. Is 
near Long Lake, a part of the land adjoining the same ..... 4,35? 



38 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Acres. 

Altamont Club. — Union Bag and Paper Company, owner. Northern part 
of Township 8, Moose River Tract, in the western part of Hamilton 
County. Contains the Middle and West Canada and some other lakes. 
Altitude 2,348 feet above tide 4,595 

Ampersand Preserve. — Santa Clara Lumber Company, owner. Part of 
Township 27, Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, Franklin County. 
Mount Seward, with several lakes and ponds, are on this property . . . 32,407 

Anthony Ponds. — Harper Brothers, owners. Part of Township 22, Totten 

and Crossfield Purchase, in the Northern part of Hamilton County . . 7,221 

Bog Lake Camp. — Charles A. Tatum and Edmund C. Converse, owners. 
Part of Township 37, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the northern 
part of Hamilton County. Contains Bog Lake and Clear Pond . . . 5,618 

Brandreth Park. — Franklin Brandreth, Ralph Brandfeth and Gen. E. A. 
McAlpin, owners. Township 39 and part of 42, Totten and Crossfield 
Purchase, in northern parts of the counties of Hamilton and Herkimer. 
Contains the headwaters of Raquette, Beaver and Moose Rivers, Bran- 
dreth Lake and several smaller lakes or ponds . 27,298 

Camp Arbutus. — Archer M. Huntington, owner. Parts of Townships 27 
and 28, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the western part of Essex 
County. Lake Arbutus (Ockerman Pond) is on this preserve . . . 1,699 

Childwold Park. — Henry G. Dorr et al., owners. Part of Township 6, 
Great Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the southeastern part of St. 
Lawrence County. Includes Lake Massawepie 13,09° 

Caughnawaga Club. — William H. Clark, President. Part of Township 28, 
Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the counties of Essex and Hamilton. 
Includes Catlin Lake 8,838 

Cutting Preserve. — Frank A. Cutting, owner. Part of Township 12, 
Great Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the eastern part of St. Lawrence 
County 7,510 

De Bar Mountain Park. — -William Rockefeller, owner. Parts of Town- 
ships 12 and 15, Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, in the central part 
of Franklin County. Contains De Bar Mountain and De Bar Pond 
(see also Everton Park and Rockefeller Preserve) 11,675 

Deer Lick Rapids Club. — Part of Township 4, Great Tract 2, Macomb's 
Purchase, in the central part of St. Lawrence County. Contains Spruce 
Pond and other waters .... 7,500 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 39 

Acres. 

Everton Park. — William Rockefeller et al., owners. Parts of Townships 
ii and 12, Great Tract i, Macomb's Purchase, in the central part of 
Franklin County. Stacey Mountain is on this tract (see also De Bar 
Mountain Park and Rockefeller Preserve) 20,000 

-Fenton Game Preserve Association. — Leased land. Charles Fenton, 
Secretary. Parts of Townships 3, 4 and 5, John Brown's Tract, in the 
counties of Herkimer and Lewis. Contains Beaver, Francis and several 
other lakes or small ponds 60,000 

Follensby Pond Preserve. — Titus B. and Ferris J. Meigs, owners. Parts 
of Townships 25 and 26, Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, in the 
southern part of Franklin County. Contains Follensby Pond . . . 4,855 

Forest Park and Land Company. — William W. Durant, President. Part 
of Township 34, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the central part of 
Hamilton County. Contains Utowana and Eagle Lakes, and adjoins 
Blue Mountain Lake 4,838 

"G" Lake Preserve. — E Z. Wright and John D. Collins, owners. Part 
of Oxbow Tract, in the southern part of Hamilton County. Includes 
"G" Lake 480 

Granshue Club. — Charles R. Holmes, President. Part of Township 7, 
Great Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the central part of St. Lawrence 
County. Contains Long Pond 8,752 

Grasse River Outing Club. — Charles E. Brown, President. Part of Town- 
ship 5, Great Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the southern part of 
St. Lawrence County 5,5 2 ° 

Hamilton Park. — Hon. William C. Whitney, owner. Townships 23, 36, 
north half of 35, parts of Township 21 and of the triangle east of 
Township 23, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the northern part 
of Hamilton County. Contains Little Tupper, Round, Big Salmon 
Lakes and many other smaller lakes and ponds 71,281 

Hamilton Lake Preserve. — John A. Starin, owner. Part of Township 1, 
Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the central part of Hamilton 
County 3,202 

Hollywood Club. — Dr. C. C. French, President. Part of Township 7, 
Great Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the central part of St. Lawrence 
County. Contains Clear Pond .... 2,360 



4-0 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Acres. 

Horseshoe Forestry Company. — Augustus A. Low, President. Parts of 
Townships 2 and 3, Great Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the southern 
part of St. Lawrence County. Contains Horseshoe Lake, Lake Marian 
and many other lakes and ponds. The Bog River flows through this 
preserve 2 7,43 r 

Inlet Club Preserve. — Part of Township 9, Great Tract 2, Macomb's 
Purchase, in the eastern part of St. Lawrence County. Contains 
Whitney Pond and other waters . . . . . 6,700 

Kamp Kill Kare. — Hon. Timothy L. Woodruff, owner. Parts of Town- 
ships 5 and 6, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the central part of 
Hamilton County. Contains Lake Kora, formerly Sumner Lake . . 1,030 

Kildare Club. — Ehrich Brothers, owners. Part of Township 9, Great 
Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the eastern part of St. Lawrence 
County. Contains Amber and Jordan Lakes 8,536 

Knollwood Club. — Louis Marshall et al., directors. Part of Township 21, 
Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, in the southern part of Franklin 
County, on the northern shore of Lower Saranac Lake 450 

Lake Placid Club. — Melvil Dewey et al., owners. Lands in town of 

North Elba, about Lake Placid and Mirror Lake 2,148 

Lake Reserves. — Dr. William Seward Webb, owner. Part of Township 8, 
John Brown's Tract, in the eastern part of Herkimer County. Lands 
about Big Moose and the Fulton Chain of Lakes (see also Nehasane 
Park) 8,470 

Litchfield Park. — Edward H. Litchfield, owner. Part of Township 25, 
Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, in the southern part of Franklin 
County. Contains Lake Madeline (formerly Jenkins Pond) and several 
other bodies of water 12,427 

Long Lake Preserve — Raquette Falls Land Company, owner. Part of 
Township 22, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the northern part 
of Hamilton County 2,200 

Lloyd Triangle. — Theodore Page et al., owners. Triangle in northwest 
corner of Township 41, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, comprising that 
portion of the township which is situated in Herkimer County. Con- 
tains Russian Lake and Merriam and Gull Ponds . . . . . . . 3,600 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 41 

Acres. 

Massawepie Club. — Hon. A. P. Hepburn, owner. Part of Township 4, 
Great Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the southern part of St. Lawrence 
County. Contains Brother Ponds and other waters 1,720 

Mat-a-Mek Preserve. — Hon. Ashbel P. Fitch, owner. Parts of Town- 
ships 8 and 9, Old Military Tract, in the eastern part of Franklin 
County. Contains a part of Ragged Lake I ,854 

Meacham Lake Preserve. — Part of Township 15, Great Tract 1, Macomb's 
Purchase, in the central part of Franklin County. Contains East 
Mountain, Meacham Lake and several ponds 5,58° 

Mohegan Lake Camp. — J. Pierpont Morgan, owner. Part of Township 5, 
Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the central part of Hamilton County. 
Contains Mohegan Lake L55 1 

Moose Pond Preserve. — Hon. George R. Finch, owner. Part of Town- 
ship 26, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the southwestern part of 
Essex County. Contains Moose Pond and several other bodies of 
water 800 

Morehouse Lake Club. — W. W. Mosher, President. Part of Arthurboro 
Patent, in the southwestern part of Hamilton County. Contains 
Morehouse Lake 1,500 

Nehasane Park. — Dr. William Seward Webb, President. Parts of Town- 
ships 3.7, 38, 42 and 43, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the 
northern parts of Hamilton and Herkimer counties. Contains Lake 
Lila, Nehasane Lake and several other bodies of water, large and 
small 42,848 

North Woods Club. — James Yalden, Secretary. Part of Township 16, 
Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the southwestern part of Essex 
County. Mink Lake and several ponds are on this property . ... 4,583 

Paul Smith's Preserve. — Paul Smith's Hotel Company, owner. Parts of 
Townships 18 and 21, Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, in the 
southern part of Franklin County. Contains the St. Regis Lakes, 
Osgood Pond and other bodies of water 18,484 

Pine Lake Club. — Watson T. Dunmore, President. Part of Arthurboro 
Patent, in the southwestern part of Hamilton County. Contains Pine 
and Snowshoe Lakes 987 



42 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Acres. 

Pleasant Lake Club. — Thomas H. Wagstaff, President. Part of Glen, 
Bleecker and Lansing Patent, in the northwestern part of Fulton 
County. Contains Pleasant Lake 1,000 

Pleasant Lake Preserve. — -Part of Township 7, Great Tract 2, Macomb's 
Purchase, in the central part of St. Lawrence County. Contains 
Pleasant Lake and Blue Mountain 8,750 

Putnam Preserve. — Dr. Charles P. Putnam, owner. Parts of Roaring 
Brook and North River Head Tracts, in the central part of Essex 
County. Contains Twin Ponds and several other small bodies of 
water 2,960 

Read and Strong Park. — Part of Township 25, Great Tract 1, Macomb's 
Purchase, in the southern part of Franklin County. Contains Mount 
Morris and Little Simon and McBride Ponds . . ' 7,375 

Rockefeller Preserve. — William G. Rockefeller, owner. Townships 16 
and 17, Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, in the central part of 
Franklin County. Contains Follensby Junior, Wolf and McDonald 
Ponds and several other bodies of water (see also De Bar Mountain 
and Everton Parks) 5 2 ,335 

Sabattis Park. — Charles R. Christy, owner. Part of Township 37, Totten 
and Crossfield Purchase, in the northern part of Hamilton County. 
Contains Bear Pond and some other small bodies of water .... 1,633 

Sagamore Park. — Alfred G. Vanderbilt, owner. Part of Township 6, 
Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the central part of Hamilton 
County. Contains Lake Sagamore (formerly Shedd Lake) . . . . 1,530 

Santanoni Park. — Hon. Robert C. Pruyn, owner. Part of Townships 27 
and 28, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the western part of Essex 
County. Contains Newcomb Lake and several ponds 11,205 

Saranac Club. — Jonathan J. Broome, President. Part of Township 23, 
Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, in the southern part of Franklin 
County, on the old Bartlett Carry, between the Upper and Middle 
Saranac Lakes 267 

Stillwater Club Preserve. — J. H. Rushton, Secretary. Part of Town- 
ship 6, Great Tract 3, Macomb's Purchase, in the central part of 
St. Lawrence County. Contains Cranberry Pond and many other 
bodies of water 20,000 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 43 

Acres. 

Upper Saranac Association. — Dr. Samuel B. Ward, President. Part of 
Township 20, Great Tract 1, Macomb's Purchase, in the southern part 
of Franklin County, at the north end of Upper Saranac Lake . . . 2,751 

Vilas Preserve. — E. A. Carpenter, owner. Parts of Townships 9 and 12, 
Great Tract 2, Macomb's Purchase, in the eastern part of St. Lawrence 
County . 18,075 

Wilderness Park. — W. S. De Camp, owner. Parts of Townships 1 and 7, 
John Brown's Tract, in Hamilton and Lewis Counties. Contains Nick's, 
Blackfoot and Gibbs Lakes and several ponds 29,567 

Wilmurt Club. — Hon. Titus Sheard, President. Part of Arthurboro 
Patent, in the southwestern part of Hamilton County. Contains 
Wilmurt Lake x >655 

Zack Lake Preserve. — Raquette Falls Land Company, owner. Part of 
Township 27, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, in the western part 
of Essex County. Zack Lake is on this preserve I ,7 2 5 



Total acreage 791,208 



The total area of the private preserves as given here is much less than that 
shown in the list published by the Forest Commission in its annual report for 
1893. This decrease is due to large sales made to the State and to lumber 
companies. Since 1896 the State has purchased 75,000 acres from the Nehasane 
Park Association; 35,932 acres from the Adirondack League Club, and 30,000 
acres from the owners of the Santa Clara Preserve. 

In addition to the preserves mentioned in the foregoing list, there is a large 
amount of forest property in the Adirondacks composed of small holdings — from 
five acres to one hundred acres each — on which cottages, or "camps," as they are 
called, have been erected. These summer residences, with their pretty boathouses 
and other buildings, are often located at sightly points on the lakes — - particularly 
the Raquette, Saranacs and St. Regis — where they form a never failing source of 
interest to the tourist, as they represent large expenditures of money and are 
models of good taste combined with solid comfort. They furnish employment 
at high wages for a large number of people — ''house guides," servants and men 
on private launches — and contribute in various other ways to the prosperity of 
the region. Together with the "camps" on the larger private preserves, there are 
at present 419 of these summer residences in the Adirondacks, costing from 



44 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

$5,000 to $100,000 each, in which the investment for buildings, exclusive of land, 
amounts in the aggregate to $3,846,500. 

If there are any to whom these figures may appear unduly large, their attention 
is respectfully called to the beautiful and costly summer homes, near Raquette 
Lake, owned by Mr. J. P. Morgan, Mr. A. G. Vanderbilt, Hon. T. L. Woodruff and 
the late Mr. Collis P. Huntington; to the forest villas on the St. Regis Lakes 
of Hon. Whitelaw Reid, Mr. F. W. Vanderbilt and Mr. H. McK. Twombly; 
to the expensive and tasteful "camps" on Upper Saranac Lake belonging to 
Hon. L. P. Morton, Mr. Isaac Seligman, the Messrs. Swenson, Mr. Julius S. Bache, 
Dr. L. E. Holt and Mr. D. H. Kahn; to the buildings of the Knollwood Club on 
Lower Saranac; the numerous fine cottages of the Adirondack League Club 
on Little Moose, Honnedaga and the Bisby Lakes; the houses of the Saranac 
Club on the Bartlett Carry; the large number of beautiful cottages at Lake 
Placid and Keene Valley, and the extensive buildings on the private preserves 
of Hon. Robert C. Pruyn, Dr. W. Seward Webb, Mr. William Rockefeller, 
Gen. E. A. McAlpin and Mr. A. A. Low. 

Adirondack jammer lousiness. 

The business done each season by the hotels and boarding-houses in the 
Adirondacks contributes largely to the development and prosperity of Northern 
New York, fairly approaching in its magnitude that of the great industries which 
are dependent on the forest product of that region. In the management of this 
business employment is furnished to thousands of people, trade is stimulated by 
the large purchases of supplies, building operations increase the demand for skilled 
labor, while the railroad and steamboat lines reap the benefits accruing from the 
large passenger and freight traffic. Of more importance, however, far greater in 
its humane aspect than mere commercial advantages, are the sanitary benefits 
afforded by the Adirondack forests to the thousands who there find relief from 
disease and enjoy a new lease of life. The healthful climate is due largely to the 
pure air, which, carried by mountain winds over great forest areas, is freed from 
dust, smoke and miasmatic influences, while in its course it is charged with balsamic 
exhalations that carry healing to the lungs of invalids. 

The statistics published in the annual reports of the Adirondack Cottage 
Sanitarium show a remarkable percentage of cures effected in patients suffering 
from incipient consumption ; and a large proportion of the population in some of 
the Adirondack villages is composed of people who enjoy comparatively good health 
in that climate, although they could not live long elsewhere. Of this class many 
find employment in various vocations, while others, whose incomes will permit, 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 45 

maintain a permanent residence there without engaging in any business or 
occupation. 

I submit herewith a carefully prepared table showing the capacity of the hotels 
and boarding-houses in the various localities throughout the Adirondack region, 
compiled from their advertisements, in which each proprietor states the number 
of people that can be accommodated, this advertised capacity being cut down in 
many instances to better suit the facts in the case. It does not include the 
occupants of private camps and sanitariums: 

ADVERTISED CAPACITY OF ADIRONDACK HOTELS AND 
BOARDING-HOUSES. 

COMPILED BY LOCALITIES. 

Clinton County. 

Bluff Point 40 

Chateaugay Lake (Upper) ..'•.. 385 

Chazy Lake 85 

Cliff Haven (Champlain Assembly) 875 

Hotel Champlain 525 

Redford 223 

Silver Lake ' 20 



Total 2,153 



Essex County. 

Aiden Lair 50 

Ausable Forks 233 

Bloomingdale 299 

Blue Ridge 20 

Boreas River 24 

Cascade Lakes 85 

Chilson Lake 55 

Crown Point 237 

Elizabethtown 686 

Elk Lake 30 

Essex ' 102 

J a y 191 

Keene Centre 65 

Keene Heights 315 

Keene Valley 525 

Keeseville 280 



46 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Essex County — [Concluded'). 

Lake Placid . . . . 2 > 2 59 

Lewis 54 

Loch Muller 45 

Minerva 65 

Newcomb 55 

New Russia 68 

North Elba 170 

North Hudson 70 

Olmstedville 34 

Paradox Lake 35 

Port Douglas 65 

Port Henry ' 191 

Port Kent 41 

Pyramid Lake 95 

Ray Brook 45 

Schroon Lake 555 

(See also Schroon Lake, Warren County.) 

Schroon River 80 

South Schroon . 35 

Underwood 45 

Wadham's Mills 49 

Westport 391 

Willsboro 20 

Wilmington 135 

Total 7,799 

Franklin County. 

Axton 15 

Chateaugay Lake (Lower) 65 

Duane 95 

Gabriels 48 

Goldsmith's 28 

Harriettstown 70 

Lake Clear 185 

Loon Lake . . . 385 

McCollom's 45 

Meacham Lake 85 

Mountain View 95 

Onchiota 35 

Paul Smith's 475 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 47 

Franklin County — {Concluded). 

Rainbow Lake 120 

Raquette River 35 

St. Regis Falls 40 

Saranac Lake (Upper) 589 

Saranac Lake (Middle) 85 

Saranac Lake (Lower) 550 

Saranac Lake (Village) . . . J, 1 38 

Spring Cove 65 

Tupper Lake 188 

Tupper Lake (Junction) 172 

Vermontville 18 

Total 4,626 



Fulton County. 

Canada Lakes 245 

Caroga Lakes 55 

Northville . 75 

Stratford ..... 35 



Total 410 



Hamilton County. 

Blue Mountain Lake 625 

Cedar River 40 

Chain Lakes (Township 18) . 35 

Fulton Chain (Fourth Lake) 295 

Fulton Chain (Seventh Lake) 65 

(See also Fulton Chain, Herkimer County.) 

Hope 30 

Indian Lake 85 

Indian Lake (Village) . 35 

Lake Pleasant • 360 

Long Lake 460 

Long Lake (West) 35 

Morehouseville 55 

Piseco Lake 45 

Raquette Lake 195 

Wells '.\ 35 

Total 2,395 



48 



EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 



Herkimer County. 

Beaver River 80 

Big Moose 3SS 

Bisby Lakes 85 

Clearwater 35 

Fulton Chain 886 

(See also Fulton Chain, Hamilton County.) 

Fulton Chain Station 45 

Honnedaga Lake no 

Little Moose Lake 265 

McKeever 45 

Moose River Chain 85 

Moose River (North Branch) 20 

Nobleboro 30 

Northwood 25 

Old Forge 225 

Otter Lake 35 

Twitchell Lake 55 

Wilmurt , 34 

Total 2,415 

Lewis County. 

Brantingham Lake 85 

Croghan . 35 

Harrisville 115 

Lake Bonaparte no 

Number Four (Fenton's) 130 

Oswegatchie River 35 

Total 510 

Oneida County. 

Otter Lake 45 

Trenton Falls "....... 90 

White Lake 45 

Total 180 

St. Lawrence County. 

Benson Mines . 35 

Child wold 325 

Cranberry Lake . 265 

Gale's 55 

Hollywood ............... 45 

Kildare 30 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

St. Lawrence County — {Concluded). 

Newton Falls 85 

Piercefield 43 

Sevey 25 

Star Lake 315 

Total 1,223 

"Warren County. 

Brant Lake 195 

Chestertown 382 

Friends Lake 220 

Horicon 33 

Johnsburgh 28 

Loon Lake 25 

Luzerne (Hadley) 381 

North Creek , 80 

North River 65 

Potters ville ' 39 

Riverside 15 

Schroon Lake 320 

(See also Schroon Lake, Essex County.) 

Stony Creek 85 

Thirteenth Lake 25 

Thurman 62 

W'arrensburgh 196 

Total 2,151 

Lake George 3,640 

SUMMARY. 

Clinton County 2 , I 53 

Essex County 7,799 

Franklin County . . , •. . . . 4,626 

Fulton County 410 

Hamilton County . 2,395 

Herkimer County 2,415 

Lewis County . . 510 

Oneida County 180 

St. Lawrence County 1,223 

Warren County 2,151 

Lake George 3,640 

Total 27,502 



49 



50 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

In August the hotels and boarding-houses, with few exceptions, are filled to 
their utmost capacity, and the total just given (27,502) indicates closely the 
number of guests in the Adirondacks at that time. With these figures must also 
be kept in mind the equally large capacity of the private "camps" and cottages, 
each occupied during the season by some family and its guests. But the summer 
boarders are coming and going from June to September, staying, on an average, 
about two weeks each. In the White Mountains an exhaustive census of the 
summer people and the hotel business shows that sixty-two per cent of the arrivals 
remained less than one week.* A careful estimate of the total number of summer 
visitors from the beginning to the end of the season, as reported by the Adirondack 
hotels and boarding-houses, to which are added the occupants of private "camps," 
shows that j 93,681 people went there last season for recreation and health. This 
also includes the sportsmen who went there in May for the fishing, and in October 
or November for deer shooting. 

That this number is not an overstatement is evident from the information 
kindly furnished this office by the general passenger agents of the New York 
Central and the Delaware and Hudson Railroads, from which it appears that 
225,000 passengers were carried on the Adirondack divisions during the summer 
season. These figures do not represent the entire passenger traffic during that 
period, but the difference obtained by deducting from the total summer traffic 
an amount equal to that of the winter months, the difference evidently showing 
the number of summer boarders, hotel employees and sportsmen on their way to 
and from the woods. 

The following statistics are based on the returns made to this office by each 
hotel and boarding-house in the Adirondack region: 

VOLUME OF ADIRONDACK BUSINESS. 

Capital invested in buildings, furniture, boats, horses, carriages, etc., not 
including land: 

Hotels and boarding-houses $7,°37i9 2 3 

Private "camps" and cottages 3,846,500 

Total $10,884,423 



* " The Summer Season in New Hampshire." Special Report by the State Bureau of Labor. 
L. H. Carroll, Commissioner, Manchester, N. H. Public Printer, 1900. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 5 I 

Number of male help employed (clerks, porters, 
cooks, bell-boys, musicians, boatmen, stable- 
men, drivers, laborers, etc.) 3,461 

Number of female help employed (waitresses, 
chambermaids, cooks, laundresses, musicians, 
telegraph operators, typewriters, etc.) . . . 9,846 



i3,3°7 



Total wages paid $993,53° 

Cash received for board, carriages, boats, etc 5,213,210 

Cash received for railroad and steamboat fares . . . 875,000 
Total number of hotel guests, boarders, fishermen, hunters 

and occupants of private "camps" or cottages . . 193,681 



It is not claimed that- the foregoing figures are absolutely correct, as the 
statements made by some of the hotel proprietors and boarding-house keepers, in 
filling out their returns, were at times somewhat confused and indefinite ; but they 
will give a fair idea of the stream of wealth' that flows into Northern New York 
each summer, conducing so materially to the development and prosperity of the 
State. It is also well to note that a good share of the patronage comes from 
people who reside in other States, and that the profits derived from their 
business furnish a revenue that is especially valuable in that respect. Hence the 
continuance of this business, with all its accruing benefits, is dependent on the 
preservation of the Adirondack forests. 

The average wages received by the employees, and the average amount paid 
by guests, may seem too small unless one keeps in mind the short season, during 
which it is necessary for the Adirondack hotels to employ their help, and the 
short stay of a very large proportion of the summer boarders. In connection 
with the preparation of these statistics the following letters, containing interesting 
and valuable information, were received : 

The Delaware and Hudson Company. 

Office of the General Passenger Agent. 

Albany, N. Y., December 24, 1902. 

Col. William F. Fox, Superintendent State Forests, Albany: 

Dear Sir. — A careful examination of our passenger traffic statistics, made 
with reference to ascertaining, as nearly as possible, the number of passengers 
carried and the revenue derived from strictly pleasure and recreation travel to 
the Adirondack region (in which are included Lake George and Lake Champlain) 



52 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

during the season of 1902, discloses that this traffic approximates closely to 
175,000 passengers and $475,000 passenger revenues to the company. We estimate 
that about sixty per cent of this traffic originates in other States. These 
estimates do not include the freight and express companies' earnings. 

It is apparent to those who have kept in touch with the remarkable development 
of the health and pleasure resort region of Northern New York during the past 
ten years that the State has in that country an asset of almost incalculable 
value to its citizens in its power to attract revenues to its farmers, its merchants 
and its hotel and transportation interests. As one who, in connection with his 
avocation, has made a life study of the best means of developing health and 
pleasure travel resorts, I would suggest that the best investment the State could 
make in this direction would be the construction of a model system of highways 
through its Adirondack domain, affording means of easy communication between 
points of interest to the tourist somewhat after the policy adopted in Switzerland, 
in the Austrian Tyrol, in the mountainous tourist region of Norway and through 
the White Mountains of New Hampshire. If this were done, it would result in 
a great increase of travel, not only from other States, but from Europe as well, 
and I believe that the roads could be properly maintained by tolls without 
further expense to the State than their initial cost. 

Very respectfully yours, 

J. W. Burdick, 

General Passenger Agent. 



New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Company, 
George H. Daniels, General Passenger Agent, 
Grand Central Station. 

New York, December 23, 1902. 
Subject: New York State Summer Resort Business. 
Col. William F. Fox, Superintendent State Forests, Albany: 

Dear Sir. — Mr. Burdick wrote me recently in reference to your call upon 
him for information which you desired to embody in your annual report, covering 
the value of summer and pleasure travel to the Northern New York resorts. 

Our auditor has made an examination of our reports and approximates the 
following figures, covering business for three months of the summer : 



Adirondack section . 
Thousand Island section 
Niagara Falls 
Catskill Mountains . 



Total 



Passengers. 


Railroad 
fares. 


100,000 


$400,000 


50,000 


l6o,000 


l6o,000 


170,000 


85,000 


155, °°° 


395, 00 ° 


$885,000 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 53 

This information, of course, can only be given approximately; but this will 
afford an opportunity for the people to get some idea of the development of the 
Adirondacks and other resorts, and what it means to the transportation and hotel 
interests in the State at large. A large amount of this business comes from 
outside the State. 

The aggregate number of tourists carried by all lines, and the amount of 
money spent by them for railroad fares, hotel and boarding accommodations and 
incidental expenses, amounts to large revenues to the transportation lines and 
residents of the State. It is worthy to be recognized as a business, and its possi- 
bilities of development should command attention. 

I shall be glad to give any further information desired in connection with this 
question, and shall be pleased to receive a copy of your report after it is printed. 

Very truly yours, 

George H. Daniels, 

General Passenger Agent. 

The large amount of summer business done in the Catskill region, as indicated 
by the figures in Mr. Daniels's letter, is also worthy of consideration in discussing 
the great advantages accruing to our State from its forest districts, but through 
lack of time I was unable to include in this report any details relating to the 
hotels and boarding-houses in that region. 

Forest Product for 190I. 

As customary in the annual report, I include here a statement showing the 
amount of timber cut for various purposes in the Adirondack and Catskill forests 
during the year 1901. Considerable time is required for collecting the returns 
from the different lumber and pulp mills, and as such returns cannot well be 
made until the year has expired, the publication of these statistics is necessarily 
delayed until the next annual report of the Commission. 

The figures for the year 1901, as compiled from the reports made to this office 
by the various lumber, wood-pulp, cooperage and wood-acid operators, show a 
slight increase in the amount of timber cutting in the Great Forest of Northern 
New York when compared with those of the preceding year, but as compared 
with 1898 the output is nearly the same. While the total production has not 
varied much of late years, there has been a continuous increase in the amount of 
Spruce used for pulp-wood. The returns also show an increase in the cutting of 
hardwoods throughout the Adirondacks, due, in part, to the recent erection 
of cooperage and wood alcohol plants. 

The amount of Spruce cut for pulp-wood, as stated here, contains considerable 
Balsam and some Poplar; but as the Balsam is mixed with the Spruce in the log 



54 EIGHTH REr-ORT OF THE 

drives and shipments by rail it would be very inconvenient for the operators to 
determine the amount of each, and hence no distinction was made in their 
returns. The amount of Spruce reported by the sawmills also contained some 
Balsam, but the proportion of the latter, cut into lumber, is much less than that 
used by the pulp-mills. 

OUTPUT OF ADIRONDACK FORESTS. 

: 9 01 - firm. 

Spruce (sawmills) ............ 154,430,030 

Spruce (pulp-mills) 237,483,126 

Hemlock 63,809,318 

White Pine . 46,043,091 

Hardwoods (sawmills) . 36,452,529 

Hardwoods (cooperage, chemicals, etc.) . . . . . 6,036,804 

Total 544,254,898 



Shingles 32,628,500 

Lath 51,528,400 



OUTPUT OF CATSKILL FORESTS. 

: 9 01 - Ft.B.M. 

Spruce 2,578,000 

Hemlock 18,825,358 

White Pine 9,185,346 

Hardwoods . . 27,314,452 

Wood for chemicals (95,124 cords) 52,223,076 

Wood for excelsior (3,800 cords) 2,086,200 

Wood for furniture (1,510 cords) 828,990 

Wood for pulp (3,800 cords) 2,086,200 

Total ... 115,127,622 

Shingles 5,519,750 

Lath 4,867,800 



The hardwoods used in the Catskill sawmills consist mostly of Chestnut and 
Oak — species which do not grow on the Adirondack plateau. The hardwood 
output of the latter region is composed of Yellow Birch, Beech and Maple, with 
a small amount of Basswood, Cherry and Elm. 

Some of the furniture factories in the Catskills made their returns in feet 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 55 

(board measure) and some in cords. When the amount was expressed in feet it 
was tabulated with the sawed lumber, but if in cords it was placed with the 
items of that class. 

The total output of the Adirondack and Catskill forests is : 

Ft. B. M. 

Adirondacks 544,254,898 

Catskills 115,127,622 



Total 659,382,52 



o 



Shingles 38,148,250 

Lath 56,396,200 



But the forest product of the Empire State is not confined to the output of 
the Adirondack and Catskill regions. There is a large area of primitive forest in 
Lewis County, west of the Black River Valley, in the towns of Osceola, Montague 
and Highmarket, which, owing to its isolated situation, is not considered as a 
part of the Adirondack district. A wide area of productive woodland still remains 
in some of the counties on the southern tier, especially in Cattaraugus and Chau- 
tauqua, while throughout all the farming districts there are scattered belts of timber 
that furnish a stock of logs, principally hardwoods, for many small mills. Hence 
the entire forest product of New York is considerably greater than that reported 
here from the Adirondack and Catskill counties. Any consideration of the latter 
two districts would thus be misleading as to the total extent of the forest wealth 
and resources of the State. 

Hitherto this Department has made no effort to secure accurate returns from 
the sawmills outside the Adirondack and Catskill counties, this information being 
obtainable at intervals from the report of the United States Census. From the 
latter it appears that the total forest output of New York for the year 1899 was: 

Ft. B. M. 

Spruce ... . 255,939,000 

Hemlock . . 314,191,000 

White Pine 122,756,000 

Other conifers . . . 5,950,000 

Hardwoods 207,976,000 

Spruce (pulp-mills) 199,520,325 

Poplar (pulp-mills) 17,630,586 

Other species (pulp-mills) 5,196,834 



Total 1,129,159,745 



56 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

The pulp-wood in the foregoing table is given in the census returns as 363,425 
cords of Spruce, 32,114 cords of Poplar and 9,466 cords of other species, which 
are converted here into feet on a basis of 549 feet (board measure) per cord. As 
the total output of the Adirondack and Catskill counties in 1901 — the largest in 
any of the last ten years — amounted to 659,382,520 feet, it leaves 469,777,225 
feet as the lumber output of the outlying counties. 

Aside from the Adirondack and Catskill forests, it is doubtful if the woodlands 
of this State produced 469,777,225 feet of lumber in 1899, and we are forced to 
the conclusion that the returns for this industry, as made to the Census Bureau 
by its agents, included some overestimates. 

Be this as it may, however, the information contained in the Twelfth Census 
relating to the lumber and pulp industry of New York is extremely interesting, 
giving all the statistics pertaining to forest products with a wealth of detail that 
makes the report valuable to every one interested in- these lines of business. From 
the censuses of the preceding years it appears that the lumber output of New 
York passed its maximum years ago. In 1850 it was the leading State of the 
Union in this industry ; in i860 it was passed by Pennsylvania, and in 1900 it 
dropped to twelfth place on the list. But it still retains its supremacy in the 
manufacture of wood-pulp and paper, having a long lead of any other State in 
the magnitude of these industries. 

Partition of Lands. 

The printed land-list, published in 1901, is an octavo of 367 pages, containing 
a schedule of the 5,934 different lots or tracts constituting the Forest Preserve. 
In this list there are sixty-one parcels, amounting to 16,088 acres, in which the 
State has an undivided interest, or joint ownership, amounting to 7,478 acres. In 
the past year a partition of interest was effected in two cases, the land being 
divided so that the State received a tract of equal acreage and value, set off by 
itself, and in which the State has the sole ownership. 

One of these partitions was made with the Raquette Falls Land Company 
with whom the State owned an undivided ten forty eighths in certain lots situated 
in Townships 25 and 26, Totten and Crossfield Purchase, Essex County; the 
other was made with Charles A. Darby, with whom the State owned an undivided 
one half interest in Lot 85, Paradox Tract, Essex County. Before making any 
division the lands were inspected by Forester Sterling, who filed in the office a 
report in which he described fully the amount and kinds of standing timber, and 
submitted maps showing the location and topography. As Lot 85 is situated on 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 57 

Paradox Lake, a division was made which gave the State half of the shore-line 
as well as its share of the land and timber. 

It is extremely desirable that a partition of interest should be made in all the 
lands of the Forest Preserve where the State has a joint ownership, for the joint 
owner has partnership rights which, if exercised, would conflict with the forestry 
laws and the management of the public interest. The parties who own these 
lands jointly with the State seldom ask for a division of the property, preferring, 
as a general thing, to let the titles remain as they are. If a division of the 
lands is to be effected, it will be necessary for the Commission to authorize 
its attorney to commence partition suits as provided for in the Forestry Law ; 
or, what would be better, obtain from the Legislature an appropriation sufficient 
to purchase these outstanding interests. 

Loan Commission Lands. 

Another source of annoyance in the care of the Forest Preserve are the lands 
acquired by the State through foreclosure of mortgages made to the Commissioners 
of the United States Loan. Perhaps some explanation may be proper here in 
relation to this class of lands, showing how they were acquired and why they are 
included in the Preserve. 

In 1836, the United States being free from debt and with a large surplus in 
its treasury, apportioned this surplus among the various States in proportion to 
their representation in Congress, retaining $5,000,000 in the Government Treasury. 
These moneys were given to the several States as a loan, to be repaid when 
called for. 

The Legislature of Xew York then enacted (Chapter 150, Laws of 1837) that 
the money thus received should be distributed to the various counties accord- 
ing to population ; that the Governor should appoint two commissioners in each 
county who should loan these funds ''on mortgage on improved land" in sums 
not exceeding $2,000, and for periods not longer than five years; that in case of 
foreclosure the property should be sold to the highest bidder, and that in case no 
bidder appeared it should be bid in for the State by the commissioners. 

Under the provisions of this law the State acquired and now owns parcels of 
land, containing in the aggregate 10,488 acres, situated in the Adirondack and 
Catskill counties. The loan commissioners have the right, under the law of 1837, 
to sell these lands again, and acting under its provisions they sold last year 
several lots in Ulster County that are borne on the Comptroller's books and on 
the land-list of the Forest Commission. 



55 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Although the law of 1837 confines these loans to improved property, many of 
the farms thus mortgaged included considerable wild land, wood lots and areas of 
forest, the cleared ground on which the buildings stand forming in some instances 
only a small portion of the acreage. In some cases the farms have been abandoned, 
and the parts that were cleared have become overgrown with small trees or bushes. 

For instance, take Lot 375, Township 11, Old Military Tract, in the town of 
St. Armand, Essex County. This lot contains 160 acres. About thirty-five acres 
were cleared at one time and a house built, but the farm was abandoned and the 
clearing has grown up largely to brush and scrubby trees. The rest of the tract 
is covered with a hardwood forest, the Spruce and other softwoods having been 
cut out by lumbermen several years ago. Only a few acres were cultivated by 
the last occupant, who also cut some wild hay on this lot. The State acquired 
title to this land in 1893 through foreclosure of a mortgage, and has paid taxes 
on it since that time. It is assessed to the State oh the tax-roll of St. Armand 
for this year; is borne on the Comptroller's books as part of the Forest Preserve; 
is on the published land-list of the Forest Commission, and is colored red on the 
Adirondack map to indicate the ownership. And yet the loan commissioners of 
Essex County leased this lot on January 14, 1892, to one Joseph Fortain for five 
years, at an annual rental of twenty-five dollars. 

The law defining the Forest Preserve provides that it "shall include the lands 
owned or hereafter acquired by the State" in sixteen specified counties, with 
certain exceptions, among which are: "Lands not wild lands acquired by the 
State on foreclosure of mortgages made to loan commissioners." This would 
indicate that the forest areas and "wild lands" thus acquired belong to the 
Preserve ; otherwise the exception is meaningless and unnecessary. Still, where 
one of these lots is part clearing and part forest, it is difficult to determine its 
status at present and whether it is within the jurisdiction of your Commission. 

To avoid conflict with any loan commissioners as to the management of such 
properties I would respectfully suggest that a survey be made of each, and that 
a map of the same be filed with the Comptroller, showing just how much is wild 
or forest land ; that the portion so described be set off in each case and added 
permanently to the Preserve, and that the legislation necessary to effect such an 
arrangement be obtained. If this is deemed unadvisable or impracticable, it would 
be well to amend the clause containing the exception quoted so as to leave all 
these lands in the care and custody of the loan commissioners. 

It may be well to add here that the peculiar class of lands discussed in the 
preceding paragraphs should not be confounded with the bonded lands on our 
land-list, title to the latter having been acquired from a different source. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 59 

Foresters' Reports. 

Though centuries old, forestry is a science which is a progressive one. Modern 
inventions and mechanical appliances are developing improved methods for exploit- 
ing our woodlands, while the researches of foresters and horticulturists are evolv- 
ing new lines of silvicultural work. 

The American Chestnut is a forest tree that has always furnished merchantable 
timber; and now, through scientific experiment, its desirability as a nut-bearing 
species has been enhanced by the propagation of varieties which bear fruit of 
large size and superior . quality, thereby giving an increased value to a species 
which is so common in the Catskill forests and other parts of New York. My 
attention having been called to the successful efforts made in a neighboring State 
for the cultivation of this species and the improvement of its nut-bearing capacity, 
Forester Sterling was directed to make an extended tour through the localities 
where Chestnut groves have been established. He was instructed to obtain all 
possible information as to the result of this experimental work, to secure photo- 
graphs of the plantations, and to make a written report to this office.* 

The Forestry Department of the Commission has received several letters from 
citizens soliciting information regarding the management of their woodlands, or 
advice as to the treatment of trees which were failing, or dying, from some 
unknown cause. In some of the latter cases, when the regular business of the 
Department would permit, a forester was detailed to visit the place, examine the 
trees, give such information or advice as the circumstances seemed to demand, 
and make a written report on the same to the Superintendent. As some of these 
special reports contain information and suggestions that may be of benefit to 
others, I append here one made by Forester Knechtel regarding the destruction 
of shade-trees in Flushing and Port Jefferson, Long Island, where he had been 
sent in response to demands on the Department for expert assistance. 

All of which, together with the subreports of the foresters just referred to, 

are respectfully submitted. 

William F. Fox, 

Superintendent State Forests. 



*This article, "Chestnut Culture in the Northeastern States," by E. A. Sterling, was published 
in the supplementary volume of the Seventh Report. 



60 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Special Report of Forester Fjnecfytel on Dead and Diseased 
Trees in Flashing and Port Jefferson, I^ong Island. 



Albany, N. Y., December 9, 1902. 
Col. William F. Fox, Superintendent State Forests, Albany: 

Sir. — On the twenty-eighth of last March I visited Flushing, N. Y., in 
accordance with your instructions, to determine, if possible, the cause of the 
death of trees reported to the Forest Commission by the Good Citizenship League 
of that place. Dr. E. P. Felt, State Entomologist, whom I chanced to meet at 
that time in New York City, very kindly accompanied me. 

The shade-trees of Flushing are remarkable for their number, beauty, size and 
variety. One hundred and forty species, native and foreign, together with 
numerous varieties, have been counted within the limits of the place. For two 
centuries its trees have been the pride of the old town. 

Nurseries founded there in early times have facilitated the planting of trees. 
The horticultural interests of America were first established commercially in 
Flushing, although the arts of budding and grafting had been previously practiced 
by the French Huguenot immigrants. In 1737 William Prince began a nursery 
and garden which, in i860, contained 113 acres. The Civil War, however, curtailed 
the patronage to such an extent that the business was ruined and the lands were 
afterwards appropriated by the village for building purposes. 

In the year 1790 James Bloodgood founded the nurseries bearing his name, 
now under the very successful management of Messrs. Keene & Foulk. These 
are the oldest nurseries in continuous existence in the country. For nearly half 
a century they were conducted by Mr. Joseph H. King, one of the most 
enterprising citizens in the town. 

The Parsons Nurseries were established in 1840, and, with the others mentioned, 
have made Flushing known to horticulturists all over America. 

To the nurseries must be attributed much of the taste for rural adornment so 
characteristic of the place. Besides the native species of trees are to be found 
the Cedar of Lebanon, the Chinese Taxodium, the Southern Cypress, the Paulownia, 
Japanese Maples, and many other nursery varieties. 

Some of these trees are very noted. A stone near the sidewalk on the west 
side of Bowne avenue, opposite the Bowne House, marks the site where stood two 
famous Oaks called the "Fox Oaks." Under these trees George Fox, the founder 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 6l 

of the Society of Friends, held a "glorious and heavenly meeting," as he himself 
described it. They measured respectively thirteen feet and twelve feet four inches 
in circumference. One of them fell in the year 1841 and the other in 1863. In 
Washington Place stands a Weeping Beech which Sir Joseph Hooker pronounced 
the largest specimen of its kind in the world. On Parsons avenue, just south of 
Broadway, there is perhaps the finest row of Taxodiums in the United States. 
A very fine Cedar of Lebanon stands in the dooryard of the Prince House, on 
Bridge street and Lawrence avenue. The streets are beautiful with great Oaks, 
Tulips, Maples and Lindens. 

Like men, trees live, grow old and die. Many of the trees in Flushing are old, 
some being more than 100 years of age. To be sure, in the forests trees may 
be found that have lived 500 years; but in a city, where so many injurious 
influences are at work, a tree does well if it lives a century. Robert Hartig, a 
German writer upon plant pathology, does not admit that a tree dies from internal 
natural causes. The cause of death, he asserts, is always to be found in unfavor- 
able influences. Be this as it may, when the decay of trees becomes epidemic it 
is evident that it must be attributed to external' causes. A large number of the 
Flushing trees died in the years 1901 and 1902, and it was on this account that 
the request came to the State Forest Commission from the Good Citizenship 
League for an investigation. 

On examining the trees of the place many species were found to have on the 
bark numerous cocoons of the white-marked tussock moth. These cocoons are of 
a dirty gray color, and each bears upon it a glistening white object which, upon 
close examination, is found to consist of numerous eggs partly covered by white 
spittle-like matter. Sometimes this mass consists of 700 eggs. The eggs hatch 
about the middle of May, and the young caterpillars scatter over the tree and 
feed upon the leaves, often causing entire defoliation. A full description of the 
insect and its habits, accompanied by colored illustrations, can be found in an 
article by Dr. Felt in the Fourth Annual Report of the Forest, Fish and Game 
Commission. 

Evidence of a great ice storm, which occurred in this locality last February, 
was everywhere visible. Very many trees were broken, some being utterly 
destroyed. Along the streets were large piles of rubbish, consisting of limbs 
broken off by the storm. 

On examining these branches it was found that the leopard moth had also 
been active among the trees. This is considered probably the worst insect enemy 
of the shade-trees in the vicinity of New York City. The eggs are deposited in 
crevices of the bark. On hatching the young caterpillars enter the twigs, usually 



62 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

at the base of a bud, and tunnel along the pith, eating away the wood here and 
there almost to the bark. As the caterpillars increase in size they attack the 
larger limbs and even the trunk of the tree. 

The curiously shaped bags, or larval cases, of the bag-worm were also found 
suspended from some of the trees. This insect, in the adult stage, is a moth. 
The larvae are caterpillars, which are leaf-feeders, attacking many species of trees, 
but more especially the Arbor-vitas and the Red Cedar. 

There is need of more definite observation to determine how long trees will live 
when defoliated each year by insects. It is well known that they will endure 
defoliation once without serious injury. Certain trees in Flushing, which were 
pointed out as having been entirely stripped of leaves last year, were in 
August of this year in the most luxuriant foliage. Mr. W. S. Egerton, 
Superintendent of Parks of Albany, states that a tree will endure defoliation by 
insects for about four years. Borers, such as the leopard moth, that destroy the 
branches, are more to be feared than the leaf-feeders. Evidences of the work of 
the leopard moth, however, were not sufficiently abundant to warrant the 
conclusion that the trouble was very largely due to this insect. 

No doubt the trees of Flushing have suffered from insect attack, especially from 
that of the white-marked tussock moth, and I advised the Good Citizenship League 
to have the school children collect and burn the cocoons of this insect, also the 
larval cases of the bag-worm. As a result many thousands were thus destroyed 
last spring. 

However, the impression seemed to be general among the people that the 
trouble was due not so much to the insects as to electricity from the trolley 
wires and to gas leaking from the mains. To investigate this matter a blank 
was prepared for the purpose of locating trees that had died within two years, 
and to determine whether the trees stood on the same side of the street as the 
gas mains or trolley wires, or across the street from the same. Twelve copies of 
this blank were sent to Mrs. Mary K. Whittaker, who distributed them among 
members of the Good Citizenship League. Twelve streets were recorded as 
having dead trees. All these streets had gas mains and five had trolley lines. 
Twenty-six trees were reported as killed. Eleven were on the same side as the 
gas main and five were across the street from it. The remaining ten were 
indefinitely reported. Two trees were mentioned as being on the same side as 
the trolley line and one across the street. Thirteen were on streets that had no 
trolley line. The trees reported as killed were Tulip, Linden, Southern Cypress, 
Elm, Maple, Oak and Fir. From the tabulation of answers the evidence seems 
strongest against the gas mains. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 63 

I visited the place again in August and had a dead tree dug up to see if gas 
had injured the roots. In this I was kindly assisted by Mr. Charles Thomas, 
Vice-President and General Manager of the Flushing Gas Company, who furnished 
the men to do the digging. A Maple tree, fifteen inches in diameter and about 
thirty-five feet high, which stood in front of the schoolhouse on Sanford avenue, 
was selected, a permit having been obtained from the Commissioner of Parks. 
The roots were much blackened, as if colored by acids, and a strong odor of gas 
came from the excavation. It should be stated, however, that the branches of 
the tree had been broken by the ice storm which occurred in February ; telephone 
wires were strung upon it, and it had suffered somewhat from insects. Sections 
of the trunk and branches were sent to Albany by Mr. Frank A Collins, Deputy 
Superintendent of School Buildings. These, though showing some rot, do not 
give evidence that the borers had injured the tree sufficiently to cause its death. 
It is well known, however, that leakage from gas mains is a common cause of 
the destruction of trees. Twenty were thus killed in Albany this year: six Norway 
Maples on Western avenue and fourteen Elms on State street. How much the 
death of trees in Flushing is due to leakage from gas mains can be determined 
only by the examination of a large number of dead trees, and this examination 
can be carried on best by the people who have suffered damages from this 
cause. 

Trees are, no doubt, injured by electricity when feed wires come in immediate 
contact with the branches. Many instances are known of their having been set 
on fire from trolley wires. Unless such contact exists, however, it is doubtful if 
the trees receive any injury from electricity. 

As in all cities, many trees had been damaged by mutilations, some by the 
gnawing of horses, and some by having been cut in digging for water mains, gas 
mains and sewers, and in laying curbstones. Trees also die, no doubt, from lack 
of plant-food, or from lack of water and air about the roots. Streets and sidewalks 
are made hard and nearly impervious to water and air, and trees standing close 
to them must suffer as a consequence. 

I would refer the Good Citizenship League to Bulletin 131, published in 
November, 1900, by the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, 
Conn., and would advise that they act, as far as possible, upon the following 
recommendations, which I have here given essentially as they are written in that 
publication : 

(1) The rigid enforcement of the city ordinances which forbid the bruising, 
injuring or destroying of trees, and the fastening of animals to trees in such a 
way as to injure the latter. 



64 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

(2) That all trees, standing within reach of horses in the street, be protected 
by frames or wire netting so that they cannot be mutilated. 

(3) That when limbs are removed from trees greater care should be exercised 
to cut them smoothly, close to and even with the trunk and without tearing the 
trunk bark. The exposed wood should be painted with coal tar.* 

(4) That the stringing of electric wires be done only, under the supervision of 
the Board of Public Works, and that this supervision be paid for by the company 
doing the work. 

(5) That when trees are killed by gas leaking from the mains, the owners of 
the mains be required to pay to the city the cost of the removal of trees killed 
and of planting new trees in their places. 

(6) That the land under trees in city parks be annually dressed with wood 
ashes. 

(7) That on new streets, when the building line is far enough from the street 
line, it is desirable to plant just in front of the property line rather than just 
back of the curb. 

(8) That trees infested with leaf-feeding insects be sprayed regularly for a few 
years, and thereafter as seems necessary. 

(9) That in winter insects and the cocoons of insects that injure the trees be 
collected and destroyed. 

I advised the Good Citizenship League concerning the measures that should be 
taken for the protection of the trees. As my recommendations, however, con- 
tained practically the same advice as those quoted from the bulletin referred to, 
it is unnecessary to repeat them here. 

Tree<> at Port Jefferson. 

On the twenty-first of November I visited Port Jefferson, Long Island, to deter- 
mine, if possible, the cause of the unhealthy condition of Pine trees reported by 
Mr. A. W. Law, of New York City. 

The trees I found to be Pitch Pine (Pinus rigidd). They are in a park on the 
property of the Crystal Brook Park Association, of which Mr. Law is a member, 
and are situated on a gravelly ridge; excellent soil, I should judge, for the growth 
of this species. A number of trees were dead and others were fast dying. 

Two trees were dug up by the roots and examined thoroughly. One of these 
was still alive though in a very weak condition, due, it appeared, to two causes. 
The tree had been pruned probably two or three years ago and decay had entered 



* Professor L. H. Bailey, of Cornell University, recommends lead paint. 






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FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 65 

the trunk through the wound. It was also suppressed by the shade of larger trees 
surrounding it. Several Pines in the park were found to be suffering from this 
latter cause. The other tree examined was dead. The roots, to the distance of 
four or five feet from the tree, had been attacked by fungi, which also had 
ascended the trunk for about two feet. The tree had also been much damaged 
by borers and bark beetles. I examined a large number of trees in the park and 
judged that disease among them was very largely due to insects and fungi. 

The trees were being pruned at the time of my visit, the branches being 
chopped off at a distance of from three to six inches from the trunk, and fresh 
stable manure was being placed around the roots. 

I would suggest that all old, rotting logs, all dead trees, and all dying trees 
beyond hope of recovery, be removed from the park, as this dead material 
furnishes excellent breeding-places for insects, and gives food for fungi, which 
also attack the living trees. 

The trees should be trimmed with a saw and the branches should be cut close 
to the trunk. Spores of fungi, which will cause the tree to decay, find a good 
lodging place on a ragged cut, such as is made with a dull axe. If the branch is 
sawed off even with the trunk of the tree the new wood will grow over the 
wound, while no such healing will take place if it is cut leaving a stub. The 
wound should be covered with lead paint. This will exclude bacteria and fungi 
and check the weathering without injuring the cambium and bark. March is 
perhaps the best month for pruning, although the season is not so important as 
the manner in which the work is done. 

I would suggest that wood ashes be used as a fertilizer. Stable manure con- 
tains beetles and fungi and brings them with it to the soil where it is applied, 
while these are destroyed by the ashes. Moreover, wood ashes contain all the 
elements that trees take from the soil, and hence are an ideal fertilizer. 

A suppressed tree should be either relieved or removed. If, on account of its 

species, or for any other reason, it is a more desirable tree than the others that 

shade it, it should be relieved by the removal of one or more of the latter. 

Otherwise it should be cut. a s it hinders the growth and symmetrical development 

of its neighbors. 

Very respectfully, 

Abraham Knechtel, 

Forester. 



66 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 



sSpecial Report of Forester Pettis on tl)e Gathering of 

^prace deed. 



Albany, N. Y., December 8, 1902. 
Col. William F. Fox, Superintendent State Forests, Albany : 

Sir. — In accordance with your directions I spent some time this fall in 
collecting a supply of seed from our native Red Spruce for use in the State 
nurseries next Spring, and would respectfully submit, in the following pages, 
a report on the details of the methods and operations connected with that work. 

The collection of tree seed is as much the work of the forester as the 
gathering of seed-corn is that of the farmer. The market price of Red Spruce 
seed, when obtainable at all, is two dollars or more per pound, with no assurance 
of its quality or that it will germinate — facts which stimulated us in our efforts 
to secure a supply. The results obtained from this work may render a record of 
our experience valuable to others who may wish to collect Feeds of this species, 
and may be useful at the office of the Commission in answering requests for 
information. Further work along this line will probably suggest better methods; 
but, such as they were, I will venture to describe them here. Only Red Spruce 
seed was collected, as no White Pine cones could be found in our forests 
this year. 

Red 3praoe Cones. 

The cones of the Red Spruce (Picea ritbens Sarg.) are ovate-oblong, narrowing 
gradually from near the middle to an acute apex. In length they vary usually 
from about one and one fourth to two and one fourth inches, with a diameter at 
the middle of five eighths to one inch. The cones are made up of scales attached 
to a central stem and overlapping one another, an average-sized cone having 
about fifty scales. At the base and on the upper side of each scale are two little 
depressions, each of which contains a winged seed. The seeds are small, about 
one third the size of a grain of buckwheat. 

The largest quantity and best quality of cones were found on medium-sized 
trees, twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, situated above the swamps or on the 
hillsides. Similar trees were often found side by side — one with cones, the other 
without. There was no apparent reason for this difference unless it was that the 
fruiting tree enjoyed more light. 













**4 i Oil 







A. KNECHTEL, I'HOTO. 



TREE TOP OF FALLEN SPRUCE FILLED WITH CONES. 




C. R. PETTIS, PHOTO. 



RED SPRUCE CONES — THE DRYING ROOM. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 6j 

The cones are found on the uppermost lateral branches, and usually at the 
tips, within six to ten feet of the crown. The greatest number are on the tip 
top, with the largest and best cones on the ends of the lateral branches or twigs. 

Cratfyering tl)e Cones. 

After a trip through the Adirondack forests to find a favorable location for 
carrying on the work, a place was selected in the vicinity of Fulton Chain, where 
the trees were bearing well. There were six large lumber camps within a few 
miles, and the trees that were felled by the axemen gave us easy access to the 
cones, which were clinging thickly to the tops. 

Progress at first was very slow. It was difficult to obtain laborers for this 
peculiar work. The men around the logging camps could not understand why 
any one wanted "Spruce buds," as they commonly call the cones. They hesitated, 
and were afraid to pick by the bushel. No amount of assurance that they could 
pick a certain number of bushels per day would get them started. Then again 
the "loose men" about a place are usually not very reliable, and one hesitates in 
hiring them by the day, especially if they are to be left to work by themselves. 
But the State requires only eight hours' labor for a day's wage, while the men in 
the lumber camps had to work ten hours or more, and so I succeeded finally in 
hiring enough help. 

The cones were picked from the fallen tops on the lumber jobs; but as the 
location of each job was three or four miles from Fulton Chain, it became neces- 
sary for the men to board in the logging camps. These camps were crowded 
with their own men, but through the courtesy of Messrs. McMulkin, Wakely and 
Harwood I secured accommodations for the cone-pickers. It was a pleasure to 
note the interest taken by the lumbermen in this work, and I desire to acknowl- 
edge here the substantial assistance afforded by them whenever an opportunity 
occurred. 

The prevailing high rate of wages — thirty-five dollars to forty dollars per 
month, with board — rendered the task of securing good men more difficult, 
especially as our job was a short one. But I finally obtained the few men I 
needed, industrious fellows, who did good work. The first man began September 
tenth at two dollars per day, and the second man on the twelfth. On the morn- 
ing of the fifteenth four men went to work at seventy-five cents per bushel, and 
on the sixteenth a third man by the day. 

Each man provided himself with a small axe, pail and a bottle of kerosene oil. 
He worked alone, following up a pair of sawyers, picking the cones from the 



68 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

fallen tops, bagging and carrying them to where they could be loaded on a wagon 
or sled. The method employed varied with the individual. Some pickers put the 
pail on the ground, pulling off the cones with one or both hands, after the fashion 
of picking blackberries. Another method followed was to cut off the small, heavily 
laden twigs, and thrash them over the edge of the pail until the cones had all 
fallen into it. Probably the best way, especially for a man picking by the bushel, 
is one that might be termed the stripping method. The pail was set on the 
ground, under the end of a Spruce branch, or held between the legs. The picker 
reaches back along the branch, one hand on either side, shuts his hands and pulls 
towards him, stripping the cones off into the pail. A quart or more may often be 
obtained in this way at a single pull. The only disadvantage is that many small 
ends of twigs are broken off and have to be picked out later. As most of the 
cones are covered with large globules of soft pitch, the collecting is both unpleasant 
and slow. This difficulty, however, is easily remedied by a few drops of kerosene 
oil, which effectually cuts the pitch and allows the cones to fall from the hand 
into the bucket. 

The cones were drawn to the drying-house at Fulton Chain every third day, 
or oftener. They could not be left in the sacks any longer, as they are at all 
times apt to become heated. A reddish-brown color, a feeling of warmth, or a 
strong, sprucy odor, are indications of heating. The topography will naturally 
affect the expense of cutting roads and difficulty in getting the cones to the 
drying-house. In this case the cartage amounted to ten cents per bushel, the 
distance averaging six miles for the round trip. 

Drying- fl)e Cones. 

A room for drying the cones, so that the scales would open and loosen the 
seeds, was rented at Fulton Chain Station. Wooden frames or racks, like the bunks 
in a logging camp, were erected, into which the sacks were emptied and the cones 
spread out to dry. Two stoves were put up in the room, and the drying process 
was thus hastened by artificial heat. 

Where a considerable quantity of seed is to be gathered, the bulky volume of 
the cones necessitates a large room with a great area of drying space. From our 
experience in this particular part of the work it would appear that the best form 
for the racks or bins can be obtained by using two by four scantling for uprights, 
with cross-pieces for the support of the boards which form the bottoms of the 
bins. As the cones are heavy, these uprights should be olaced at intervals of 
six feet. The bins should be in tiers, one above another, four tiers high. The 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 69 

bottom one may rest on the floor; the next one should be twenty inches above 
the floor, while the two upper ones may be eighteen inches apart, the distance 
being dependent on the ease with which the cones can be stirred and handled. 
The tiers should run the whole length of the room, with aisles of suitable width, 
say two feet and a half wide. The bins should be five feet wide; if wider, it will 
be inconvenient to reach the middle, and if narrower, there will be too great 
a proportion of aisle space. For the sides of the bins, inch boards, four or five 
inches wide, turned on edge, may be used, although the mass of cones should not 
be over three inches deep. The sides and bottoms should be made of inch boards 
dressed on one side and jointed on the edges; then any shrinkage of the bottom 
boards, caused by seasoning, can be taken up by inserting wedges between the 
upright and the edge of the outer board. No nails are necessary, and the boards 
can be taken down whenever the space is needed for other work. A tight bottom 
can also be obtained by using tongued and grooved flooring ("matched stuff'), 
but the framework cannot be taken down so readily. 

The cones, when brought to the drying-room, were emptied from the sacks in 
a pile on the floor, where they were shoveled into a half-bushel measure, carried 
to the racks or bins and spread out to dry, a record being kept of the number 
of bushels thus handled. For clean cones the measure was taken level full, but 
when they were not clean the measure was heaped to make allowance for dirt 
and bits of twigs. "When the cones were very dirty, the leaves, dirt, bark, dead 
cones and twigs were picked out before measuring. 

Cost of (iatl)ermcr Cones. 

Eleven and one half bushels were received September thirteenth ; fifty-four 
bushels on the eighteenth ; seventy-two and one half bushels on the twentieth ; 
thirty-three bushels on the twenty-second; twenty-nine and one half bushels on the 
twenty-third; total, two hundred and one half bushels. Of this amount one hundred 
and forty-two bushels were received from the men who picked by the bushel and 
fifty-eight and one half bushels from the men who worked by the day. 

The cost of the cones obtained from men working by the day was eighty-seven 
cents per bushel, or twelve cents more than those picked by the job. Good men 
can easily average six to eight bushels per day when the yield of cones is as 
large as it was this season. One man, by stripping the cones from the branches, 
picked twenty-eight bushels in three days. The difficulty is in getting men 
started, and it was for this reason that the liberal rate of seventy-five cents was 
offered. In a good seed year fifty cents per bushel would be a sufficient inducement, 



70 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

as profitable wages can be earned at a less rate by men who are not afraid to 
work. The total cost for picking the two hundred and one half bushels was one 
hundred and fifty-seven dollars and twenty-five cents, an average of seventy-eight 
cents per bushel. 

Extracting tl)e 3eeds. 

Drying the cones and extracting the seeds is by far the most important and 
critical part of the entire work. It is the longest process, one requiring the 
most careful attention and the exercise of good judgment. When cones dry 
naturally the scales near the base do not open and liberate the seeds, but in 
a room properly warmed these scales open freely so that the seeds will drop out. 
The length of time necessary for Spruce cones to dry, so that they will open 
satisfactorily, depends: 

(i) On the number of square feet of drying space per bushel. 

(2) Whether the cones dry naturally, or whether artificial heat is used. 

(3) The time of year when the cones are picked. 

(4) The humidity of the air during the drying process. 

(5) The care exercised in stirring, sorting and cleaning while in the racks. 
Naturally the thinner the cones are spread on the floor of the bin the faster 

they will dry. A liberal allowance of space would be twelve square feet per 
bushel. In a drying-room, which is well heated and thoroughly ventilated, they 
will open much quicker than if the process is conducted under other conditions. 
Ventilation is necessary to carry off the moisture and thus prevent mildew, for 
if no heat is used the cones will lie in the racks a month or more without 
opening. 

Spruce cones picked when green are especially slow in opening. Those gathered 
before September twentieth were, in this case, the last to open, while those 
picked last opened first. Those received on September thirteenth lay in the racks 
three weeks without showing any signs of drying, but the stock received last 
began to open in less than a week. 

When a few pounds of seed only are needed, September twenty-fifth, or 
thereabouts, would be the best time for gathering Spruce cones in the Adirondacks. 
After October first the shock to the tree in falling is sufficient to shake a large 
part of the cones from the branches. It does not pay to pick them off the 
ground, for they are too much scattered and covered with the rubbish that clings 
to their pitchy surface. 

When the cones are first brought in from the woods they are so thickly 
smeared with sticky, resinous matter that, when spread out on the racks, they 



*Mi*f ■■"'■ ? 4S*s 




LUMBER JOB WHERE THE CONES WERE PICKED. 



A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 




C. R, PETTIS, PHOTO. 



PLANTING AN OLD BEAVER MEADOW NEAR LAKE CLEAR JUNCTION. 

A STACK OF WILD HAY APPEARS AT THE RIGHT, NEAR THE BROOK. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 71 

are liable to form a solid mass and harden. Unless they are .stirred daily to keep 
this cake thoroughly broken up the drying process will be seriously delayed. 
After a week or ten days, however, this troublesome condition ceases. 

During the drying process heat may be used all the time, or only at the finish. 
A large box-stove in the room, combined with ample means for ventilation, will 
greatly facilitate the work. Should the weather be damp and cloudy, and no heat 
be used, the cones will lie on the racks for weeks without showing any signs of 
opening; but if the air in the room be warmed and dried, in a few days you will 
both see and hear the scales open. 

When the drying and opening process is fairly under way the partly opened 
cones are assorted and placed in some warmer spot, after which the basal scales 
will also yield and liberate their seeds. While the cones are drying considerable 
moisture is thrown off, necessitating a complete ventilation of the room and a 
daily stirring of the cones to prevent mildew. Should mildew appear the cones 
must all be picked over and any thus affected thrown away. The racks must be 
stirred twice each day and better ventilation provided. 

The Spruce cone is frequently infested with a borer which burrows in it and 
destroys it without eating the seed. It usually bores into the smaller end, making 
a hole scarcely larger than a pinhead. On this job the cones were all picked over 
carefully by two men, who removed and burned the ones thus infested, after 
which I had no further trouble from these worms. 

The cones, as fast as they opened fully, were picked out of the bins and 
thrashed at the rate of ten bushels per day. A bushel of green cones doubles its 
bulk in the opening process. The removal of the opened cones depleted the 
contents of the racks so that the remaining ones dried much faster — so rapidly 
that we were soon able to take them off the upper bins- by the double handful 
and to reduce the temperature in the room. Towards the close of the work three 
rren could assort and thrash forty bushels of open cones per day. 

Tl)rasl)ing Out deed. 

When the cones were fully opened, ready for thrashing, they were sacked and 
left until ten bushels had accumulated. Then a peck of the opened cones were 
put into a two-bushel bag, swung in the air and pounded on the floor, first 
swinging the bag over one shoulder and then over the other so that the bag 
would strike alternately on opposite sides. About twenty-five hard strokes removes 
the seeds from the cones. The contents of the bag were then poured out on a 
wire screen with a quarter-inch mesh (a ' sand screen") through which the little 



72 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

black seeds were sifted into a receiving-box, the cones and refuse remaining on 
top being thrown into a heap to be used for fuel. 

One man can thrash ten bushels per hour, but the work should be arranged 
so that the thrashing should not last over an hour or so at a time. It should be 
done in a separate room or out of doors, because in pounding the cones the dried 
pitch is pulverized and fills the air so that breathing becomes difficult. To 
alleviate this annoyance each man wore a wet sponge over his mouth and nose 
while thrashing. 

Cleaning tl)e 3eeds. 

The small size of Spruce seed renders the cleaning process difficult. The seeds 
and dirt that fell through the screen into the box were sacked and stored in the 
drying-house, where they would not gather dampness, to await the final process 
of cleaning. When the time came to take up this part of the work the seeds and 
fine dirt were taken from the sacks and rubbed through a screen with a fine mesh 
to remove the larger particles of dirt, after which the seeds were put through a 
fanning-mill. The wings of the seeds were broken and removed, for the most 
part, in the thrashing, but some pieces, together with other material, still clung 
to the seeds, and a fanning-mill was necessary to thoroughly clean them of all 
chaff and dirt. On this job no mill was easily obtainable, and so I constructed 
one to suit the emergency. It had four fans on its shaft, and was provided with 
a double row of sieves. A four-inch pulley was attached to the shaft and belted 
to a grindstone for the power. It was a crude, home-made arrangement, but it 
did the work all right. 

When the mill was in motion the seeds were emptied into it, just back of the 
fan and in front of the first sieve. The heaviest ones fell directly down, through 
the mill, in front of the sieve and into a bag, while the dust and lighter seeds 
were carried back where they received a further winnowing. The heavier seeds 
that fell in front, freed from chaff and impurities, were kept separate. The lighter 
seeds that fell through the farther opening were put through the mill again, and 
these were also kept separate. Any seeds that were blown beyond the front 
screens a second time were thrown away, as they evidently were not well filled. 

As a final result we obtained 375 pounds of seed, or nine and three eighths 
bushels, from the 200 bushels of cones. Of this amount 205 pounds were seeds of 
the first quality. The following summary of facts, obtained during the course 
of the work, may be valuable for future reference: 

Six to eight bushels of cones can be picked, on the average, by one man in a 
day's work of eight hours. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 73 

Fifty cents per bushel will enable a man to earn a fair day's wages. 

Ten to fifteen square feet of drying space is required for a bushel of cones. 

Sixty pounds per bushel is the weight of green cones. 

One bushel of green cones will make two bushels of opened cones 

One bushel of green cones will yield, on an average, iyi pounds of seeds. 

One bushel of green cones will yield, on an average, x}i quarts of seeds. 

One quart of seeds will weigh 1 J .( pounds. 

One bushel of seeds will weigh 40 pounds. 

One ounce of seeds contains 7,500 grains. 

One pound of seeds contains 120,000 grains. 

One quart of seeds contains 150,000 grains. 

Three hundred and seventy-five pounds of seeds contain 45,000,000 grains. 

Three hundred and seventy-five pounds of seeds cost for collection S355.72. 

One pound of seeds costs for collection 95 cents. 

One quart of seeds costs for collection Si. 19. 

One pound of seeds costs at dealer's price $2. 

One dollar and five cents per pound saved in collecting our own seed. 

Three hundred and ninety-three dollars and seventy five cents saved on 375 
pounds of seeds. 

The seeds are stored for the winter in a building near Lake Clear Junction, 
Franklin County, ready for our spring work. They are in paper sacks, fifteen 
pounds to the sack, packed in sand, well protected from mice, moisture, drying 
out and other injurious conditions. The stock on hand is larger than is needed 
for our nursery work, but the surplus can be used to good advantage for broad- 
cast sowing on denuded areas, or for underplanting in forests where it may seem 
desirable to create an undergrowth of Red Spruce. As we have such a large 
supply on hand, some of the seed might be distributed free to any of our citizens 
who may want to reforest their lands with trees grown direct from seed. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Clifford R. Pettis, 

Forester. 



74 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 



Ti)e Fauna of tl)e Woods. 



Facts and Statistics About the Elk, Deer and Moose of the Adirondack 

Region. 

In response to a continued and growing demand for information about the 
larger animals of the Adirondack region, the Commission has followed its usual 
course in collecting various facts and statistics relating to the fauna of the woods. 
Great care has been exercised to have the facts and figures given represent 
accurately the conditions as they exist, and it is believed that the camper, the 
sportsman, and even the resident of the Adirondack counties, will find something 
of interest and value in what follows. The proof that the herds of Deer are 
steadily increasing will, of itself, give much satisfaction, and the success that has 
attended the effort to restore Moose to the woods will undoubtedly prove grati- 
fying to the many citizens interested in the movement. The introduction of Elk 
is at best an experiment, but it has thus far proved to be successful, and the 
people of the State are indebted to a public-spirited citizen for generous donations 
of these valuable animals. Many letters received by the Commission attest the 
pleasure which the vast army of visitors to the Adirondack region has experienced, 
and is yet to experience, from the introduction in this territory of the animals 
mentioned. 

Tl)e Adirondack Deer. 

One of the very best evidences of the value of protection is furnished by the 
marked increase in the number of Deer secured by hunters in the Adirondack 
region annually. In spite of all predictions to the contrary the herds of Deer 
have steadily grown; and although the army of hunters is continually increasing, 
as shown by the heavy travel to the woods during the hunting season, the inroads 
made yearly have not appreciably diminished the number of these animals within 
the State's forest domain. In response to the continued demand of those interested 
in this subject, the Commission has collected, with the aid of the American and 
the National Express Companies, a record of the shipments made during the 
hunting season of 1902. These figures, and those of the two preceding years, 
are as follows: 

Year. Carcasses. Saddles. Heads. 

1900 . I,O20 89 95 

1901 1,062 103 121 

I9° 2 1,354 113 : 93 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



75 



From the increase in the number of carcasses shipped it will be seen that, in 
round numbers, about thirty per cent more Deer were secured by hunters in the 
Adirondack^ during the season of 1902 than during the previous year. By 
following the generally accepted rule, that four Deer are killed in the woods 
for every one shipped out by rail,* the great increase in the returns secured 
by sportsmen as a result of protecting these animals will be readily seen. 

The interesting statistics furnished by Superintendent John L. Van Valkenburgh, 
of the American Express Company, and Superintendent T. L. Smith, of the National 
Express Company, who vouch for the accuracy of the figures given, are as follows: 



SHIPMENTS OF DEER FROM POINTS IN THE ADIRONDACK REGION. 

Season of 1902. 
Mohawk and Malone Railroad. 



RAILROAD STATION. 



Carcasses. 



Saddles. 



Heads. 



Beaver River . 
Big Moose 
Brandreths 
Childwold . . . 

Clear Water . 
Eagle Bay . 
Floodwood . . ' . 
Forestport . . . . 
Fulton Chain . 
Hinckley . . . . 
Horseshoe . . . . 
Lake Clear Junction 
Lake Placid . 
Little Rapids . 
Long Lake West 
Loon Lake 
McKeever . 
Minnehaha 
Ne-ha-sa-ne 
Nelson Lake . 
Onchiota . . . . 
Otter Lake 
Paul Smith's . 
Piercefield . . . . 



117 

45 

4 

16 

20 

14 

13 

24 

58 

1 

2 

7 
1 

3 

44 

8 

17 
9 
2 

3 

5 

TO 

II 
31 



2 
19 



* A large number of deer are taken out of the woods each season in wagons by farmers and 
sportsmen who live near the borders of the Great Forest of Northern New York ; and a large 
amount of venison is consumed in the hunting camps, lumber jobs, hotels and by the "natives" 
or residents of the woods. 



7 6 



EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 
Mohawk and Malone Railroad — {Concluded'). 



RAILROAD STATION. 


Carcasses. 


Saddles. 


Heads. 


Pleasant Lake 


9 

17 






Poland 






Rainbow Lake 


2 

5 
2 






21 

6 
3 

64 
9 

24 




Tupper Lake Junction 

White Lake Corners 


6 


6 


\Voods Lake 












Total 


618 


46 


74 



Brandon 

Derrick . . . . 

Dickinson Center 

Kildare . . . . 

Madawaska 

Santa Clara 

Spring Cove . 

Sherman 

St. Regis Falls . 

Tupper Lake . 



Total 



/Uder Creek . 
Benson Mines 
Boonville . 
Carthage 
Castorland 
Glenfield 
Harrisville 
Jayville . 
Lowville 
Lyon Falls 
Natural Bridge 
Newton Falls 
Oswegatchie . 
Port Leyden . 
Prospect 



Total 



New York and Ottawa Railroad. 



29 
2 
8 
6 
14 
18 
3 



Utica and Black River Railroad. 



42 

4 
2 

5 
27 
30 

3 

S 
13 

5 
74 
18 

1 
40 

277 



18 



19 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 
Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Railroad. 



77 



RAILROAD station. 


Carcasses. 


Saddles. 


Heads. 


Antwerp ... . . . . 


2 

8 






Canton ... 




2 




■t 


Edwards ... 


3 


I 






I 


Limerick 


i 

36 






Potsdam . 


I 








Total 


50 


2 


5 





Broadalbin 
Gloversville 
Johnstown 
Northville . 



Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville Railroad. 

2 



Total 



Dolgeville 



Fonda . 
Little Falls 

Total . 



Malone . 
Winthrop 

Total 



Corinth . 
Warrensburgh 
Saranac Lake . 
Ticonderoga . 
Port Henry . 
Loon Lake 
Stony Creek . 
Bloomingdale . 
North Creek . 



7 

8 

96 



113 



Little Falls and Dolgeville Railroad. 



New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. 



Rutland Railroad. 



Delaware and Hudson Railroad. 



1 
1 

24 
1 

23 

1 

104 



13 



13 



4 
1 


2 








5 


2 





3 
4 




21 
1 


7 




22 



28 



/8 



EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 
Delaware and Hudson Railroad — {Concluded). 



RAILROAD STATION. 


Carcasses. 


Saddles. 


Heads. 


Riverside 


27 




5 
1 


Hadley 


Caldwell . . 


2 
4 

4 
1 












Westport 




17 
1 








Total 


193 


31 


43 





RECAPITULATION 

Mohawk and Malone Railroad 

New York and Ottawa Railroad . 

Utica and Black River Railroad 

Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Railroad 
Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville Railroad 
Little Falls and Dolgeville Railroad 
New York Central and Hudson River Railroad 

Rutland Railroad 

Delaware and Hudson Railroad 



Total shipments 




From the weight of the carcasses recorded in the shipping bills of the express 
companies it will readily be seen that the Adirondack Deer, when properly 
protected, will develop a size and weight fully equal to or surpassing that of 
the species in any other locality in North America. The following are some 
of the shipments reported which seem worth noting: 



SHIPMENTS OF ADIRONDACK DEER. 



RAILROAD STATION. 



Big Moose 
Eagle Bay 

Hinkley . . . . 
Lake Clear Junction 
Benson Mines 
Benson Mines 
Boonville . . . . 
Carthage . . . . 
Castorland . . . . 



Consigned to- 



C. P. Floyd, Remsen 
J. Larsehn, New York City 
J. L. Roberts, New York City 
J. Mulholland, Saranac Lake . 

C. Simmons, Ogdensburg . 
H. Miller Jr., Harrisville . . 
W. A. Brown, Utica 

D. Mosher, Watertown 
Harry Waugh, Fulton 



Dressed 
weight.* 



203 
200 

225 
206 
200 
202 
225 
200 
209 



Live 
weight. 



254 
250 

281 

257 
250 
252 
28l 
250 
261 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 
Shipments of Adirondack Deer — {Concluded). 



79 



RAILROAD STATION. 



Glenfield 
Lowville 
Lowville 
Lyon Falls 
Newton Falls 
Prospect 
Johnstown . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Dolgeville . 
Winthrop . 
Otter Lake 
Tupper Lake 
Port Henry 
Stony Creek 
North Creek 
Riverside . 



Consigned to — 



George Bacon, Herkimer . 
L. Freis, New York City . 
A. G. Lewis, Buffalo 
H. L. Smallinger, Utica 
D. G-ayne, Watertown . 
George Windheim, Utica . 
J. Stewart, Albany .... 
J. Reeifer, New York City . . 
C. C. Weimer, Albany . 
H. M. Bowler, Amsterdam 
R. Christian, Amsterdam . 
J. Osborne, Johnstown . 
Ralph Graham, New York City 

F. F. Stevens, Ogdensburg 
W. E. Champayn, Corning 
A. W. Lasher, Canajoharie 
J. E. McGue, Rouse's Point 

G. A. Lawton, Hadley . 

Mrs. Charles Smith, Glens Falls 
F. Pallarand, Saratoga . 



Dressed 
weight.* 


Live 
weight. 


208 


260 


200 


250 


205 


256 


200 


250 


208 


260 


211 


264 


200 


250 


235 


294 


202 


252 


210 


262 


210 


262 


215 


269 


204 


255 


200 


250 


226 


282 


250 


313 


204 


255 


220 


275 


219 


273 


240 


300 



* As weighed and billed by the agent of the express company. 

By adding one fourth to the dressed weight, the live weight of the animal may be 
determined with reasonable accuracy. 



Aoose and Elfy 

Under the appropriation of $5,000 made for the purpose of restoring Moose to the 
Adirondacks, the Commission will, by the time this report reaches the public, have 
procured and liberated in the forest a dozen of these animals. It is expected that as 
many more will be secured in the near future. The restrictions on the shipment of 
Moose from other States and from Canada have made it extremely difficult to procure 
these animals, and carload lots are practically an impossibility. Stringent laws 
exist in Canada and elsewhere against the shipment of live Moose at any season. 
Those which have been secured and placed in the Adirondacks have done well, 
and Protector J. Edward Ball, who has had charge of the work of liberating the 
animals, reports that they are now in excellent condition. The Moose were set 
at liberty near Uncas Station and have yarded for the winter in two places — one 



80 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

just south of Raquette Lake and the other about three miles east of Big Moose 
Lake. The report of the protector says: "The Moose are doing well, and there 
seems to be no reason why they should not increase in the Adirondacks. They 
have plenty of food, and will do well if let alone." He says further: "The resi- 
dents of the Adirondacks are taking great interest in the work of restocking the 
woods with Moose, and, with the railroad employees, render all possible assistance 
in handling the animals." One of the Moose liberated last summer was shot by 
unknown campers in the vicinity of Eighth Lake, and the Department is now 
investigating the matter. Under the appropriation furnished the work already 
done toward procuring Moose has greatly encouraged all those interested in the 
effort to secure the return of this magnificent animal to the Adirondack region. 
In addition to the twenty-two Elk placed in the Adirondack forest a year ago, 
which were the gift of Hon. William C. Whitney, forty others have been shipped 
by him from his private preserve at Lenox, Mass. This generous gift will be 
thoroughly appreciated by all lovers of the Adirondack forests, and entitles Mr. 
Whitney to the thanks of the people of the State. The Elk were donated from 
Mr. Whitney's October Mountain estate, and were shipped to Long Lake West. 
Five other Elk were given during the year to Mr. William Dart, of Dart's Camp, 
near Big Moose Lake, by the Binghamton Park Commission. They will be cared 
for during the winter by the Brown's Tract Guide Association and liberated in 
the spring. Mr. Harry V. Radford, who is an enthusiastic supporter of the plan 
to restock the Adirondacks with Elk and Moose, recently paid a visit to the 
woods for the purpose of estimating the number of Elk now there. His figures 
show that there are upwards of eighty, which include those liberated and those 
born in the forest. Both the Elk and the Moose are greatly admired by visitors 
to the Adirondacks, of which there are thousands every summer, and it is believed 
that these animals will thrive and become an important feature of the northern 
wilderness. 

Tl)e glad$ §ear. 

The same forces which united to secure the restocking of the woods with 
Elk and Moose are now interested in an effort to protect the Adirondack Black Bear. 
Reports from all sections of the forest indicate that this is a move in the right 
direction, and that, with suitable protection, the Bear will soon multiply to such 
an extent as to become again an important factor in the game of the region. 
No estimate has been made of the number of these animals in the Adirondacks, 
but there is no doubt that unless proper protection is given, the Black Bear is in 
danger of becoming extinct in Northern New York. 



Report of tl)e General foreman of 

Hatcheries 



To tl)e Forest, Pisl) and Game Commission: 

GENTLEMEN. — I herewith present my report for the year ending Septem- 
ber 30, 1902, showing the number of fish distributed by the Commission, 
the number of each kind of fish and the size, from which hatchery or 
hatching station distributed, and where the fish were planted. 

There were 1,459 applications received by the Commission during the year 
and 240 carried over from the previous year, making a total of 1,699 to be filled 
during the year. Of these 1,078 were filled, 94 rejected for various reasons, 
leaving 527 on hand at the close of the year. 

No applications for Black Bass have been filled during the year, but several 
thousand have been taken out of the canal and waterworks reservoirs at Rochester 
and planted in near-by waters. 

The policy adopted by the Commission, of rearing fingerling and yearling fish 
for distribution, has been followed throughout the year, and every effort has been 
made to increase the output of these sizes. The results of planting fingerlings 
have been particularly satisfactory and productive of good results. 

Improvements Aade. 

An additional pipe has been put in at the Adirondack Hatchery which will 
more than double the capacity of that hatchery for rearing fingerlings. The out- 
put from that hatchery has been much larger than ever before. 

I would suggest that the plan adopted for improvements at that hatchery be 
also adopted at the Fulton Chain Hatchery. This would give an opportunity for 
a larger distribution in a section of the Adirondacks where the fish are much 
needed. 

The increased number of applications for fingerling fish will make it necessary 
for the Commission to continue increasing the facilities for rearing fingerlings at 
each of the hatcheries. Very few applications are made now for Trout fry. 
6 81 



82 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Spring Creek at the Caledonia Hatchery has been thoroughly dredged and 
cleaned during the past year, and I have every reason to believe that the results 
will be much more satisfactory during the coming year. 

During the past year a new hatchery building, sixty by twenty-two feet, on 
Whortleberry Creek in Cold Spring Valley (Margaretville, Delaware County), has 
been built. The stream is a never failing one of pure spring water, with a very 
even temperature throughout the year. About 120,000 Trout have been reared 
during the past summer, a part of which has been distributed, and the balance of 
about 50,000 was carried over for yearlings. This hatchery is located in a part 
of the Catskills where there are numerous Trout streams and water suitable for 
Trout, making it an admirable location for distribution. The result of the work 
of this hatchery will be very evident in a year or two, and cannot help but add 
to the attractiveness of the Catskill region. An expenditure of $3,000 or $4,000 
for the purpose of constructing rearing ponds, races, dams and ponds would add 
very much to the efficiency of the hatchery, and the output could be increased 
about four times. 

Rearing I^tacfcj I^ass. 

The season at the Oneida Hatchery has been most satisfactory. I would 
suggest that $2,000 be expended at this hatchery for the purpose of constructing 
suitable ponds and races for rearing Black Bass, which are much sought after 
from all sections of the State. I know of no better place for the purpose, as the 
waters are suitable for Black Bass and the grounds are adapted to the construction 
of the necessary ponds and races. 

The Beaverkill Hatchery has been closed, as the location was not suitable for a 
hatchery, the water being insufficient. All of the implements, cans, etc., have 
been transferred to the Delaware County Hatchery. The building is of good 
construction and in good condition, and I would suggest that the Commission 
make some disposition of it as soon as possible 

The output of the Cold Spring Hatchery has comprised the usual number. 
The quality of the fish sent out has been of the best. A new heater should be 
put into the hatchery and some repairs should be made to the foundation of the 
building. 

The usual number of fish have been reared and sent out from Pleasant Valley 
Hatchery. The results of the work of this hatchery are apparent in Keuka Lake, 
where fishing, during the last two or three summers, has been better than in any 
other waters of the State. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 83 

TI)e Aa^alonge ^ctppl^. 

The work at the Chautauqua Lake Hatchery has not been as satisfactory as I 
could wish. The spearing of Maskalonge through the ice in the winter will sooner 
or later completely deplete the lake of this species. I have been informed by 
reliable persons that thirty tons of these fish were killed with spears last winter. 
Of course, there can be but one end if such a slaughter continues. You will note 
from a previous report that the number of fry taken from Chautauqua Lake each 
year decreases very materially. It is to be regretted that the law permitting 
spearing cannot be repealed. 

The Sacandaga Hatchery is not well located and the water supply is not what 
is necessary to show good results under the policy adopted by the Commission, 
i. e., rearing fingerlings. A small expenditure of money for the construction of 
rearing ponds on some suitable spring brook, a few miles from a railroad station, 
would show much better results with the same cost of maintenance. 

The United States Commission has granted every request we have made, and 
thanks are returned for assistance rendered. 

Every effort has been made to increase the output of cheap food-fish, and the 
figures will show the result in the numbers planted. The result of stocking 
the larger bodies of water of the State and Lake Ontario must show satisfactorily 
in the very near future. 

The usual exhibit was made at the State Fair. These exhibits are inexpensive 
and always prove very instructive and attractive. I would suggest that they be 
continued. 

The increase of Carp in some of the best fishing waters of the State still 
continues, and there appears to be no way of stopping it. They are a very 
difficult fish to exterminate. 

Few, if any, complaints have been made of the messengers who delivered fish 
to the applicants, and very few fish have been lost in transportation. The few 
losses in every instance proved to be due to the fault of the applicant, who failed 
to meet the fish promptly at the time specified. 

The policy of the Commission of beautifying the grounds about the hatcheries 
and making them attractive has been adhered to strictly. The expense is slight, 
as nearly all the labor is performed by the regular employees of the hatcheries. 
The grounds at the Caledonia Hatchery might well be called a park, as they are 
extensive and well arranged. The flower beds are large and very attractive, and 
it is a popular resort for a large number of people during the summer months. 



8 4 



EIGHTH REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The grounds at the Cold Spring, Adirondack and Pleasant Valley Hatcheries 
are small, but are made attractive with well-kept lawns, numerous flower-beds 
and shrubbery. 

Mongolian Pfyea^ant^. 

The rearing of Mongolian Pheasants is still carried on at the Pleasant Valley 
Hatchery at a very slight expense to the State, and the birds are distributed to 
applicants as usual. Reports from various localities indicate that the Pheasants 
are thriving, and that they are highly valued by those who receive them and 
who, in every case, pay careful attention to their increase. 

In conclusion, your attention is called to the very liberal courtesies extended 
to the Commission by the railroads of the State (particularly the New York 
Central and Hudson River Railroad, the Ontario and Western, the Delaware and 
Hudson Company, and the Buffalo, Rochester and ■ Pittsburgh Railroad) for trans- 
portation furnished free to the State fish car and to the messengers in charge of 
the fish, and in returning the empty fish cans. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Richard Cotchefer, 

General Foreman of Hatcheries. 




Report of tf)e CI)ief Game Protector 

1903 



To the Forest, Pisf) and Game Commission: 

GENTLEMEN. — I have the honor to submit the following report, showing 
the work of the force of protectors under my supervision, and calling 
attention to some of the changes which occur annually in the form of 
amendments to the law, and to other points that may be of interest to your 
Honorable Board, as well as to the many persons who take a deep interest in 
the protection of the forests and game of the State and the propagation and 
distribution of fish, which has been carried on so systematically and extensively 
that nearly all of our once depleted waters have become profitable for commercial 
fishing and furnish sport for myriads of anglers. 

Having been in the service for more than fourteen years, I feel like intruding 
a little by calling attention to some very important changes that have occurred 
in the work, so that recent converts to protection may know something of the 
darker days and the difficulties under which the small handful of protectors and 
the few sympathizers and supporters of the law labored at that time as compared 
with the present state of affairs. 

Tl)e Force of Protectors. 

Prior to 1892 there were but fifteen protectors for the entire State, with 
apparently no prospect of an increase, as the market hunter, together with the 
net fisherman, presented such a solid front that it seemed impossible to make 
any headway against their opposition to better laws. But, many thanks to the 
few never tiring associations and persons who could see that, with the forests 
denuded and the fish and game exterminated, the health and pleasure seeker 
would soon abandon this State for other fields, thereby entailing expense which 
many could not afford and which would have left the now prosperous health and 
sporting resorts surrounded by barren ledges and unprofitable farming land as 
against untold wealth at the present time. The first notable change for the better 
was brought about by an act of the Legislature in 1892, as that body began to 

85 



86 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

see the force of the argument presented by lovers of fair play, increasing the 
number of game protectors to twenty. This broke the ice, although many protests 
were made on account of an increase in taxes. In 1895 a more liberal act was 
passed, increasing the number to thirty-eight, which was further increased by 
twelve by the Legislature of 1902, making at the present time a force of fifty 
game protectors. I must say for the benefit of persons interested, and as a 
compliment to the Forest, Fish and Game Commission, who have taken the 
utmost care in selecting the additional twelve men, that the State now has fifty 
game protectors who, with scarcely an exception, are bright, intelligent men, well 
located to carry on the work assigned them. One can see this is not a large 
force when taking into consideration the vast tracts of land which the State has 
in the Adirondacks and Catskills which require constant watchfulness, as against 
trespassers, the protection of game over the entire State, the numerous rivers 
and lakes where incessant warfare is necessary against a persistent horde of 
net fishermen and dynamiters, together with the large interests the State and 
individuals have in oysters, clams and lobsters in the waters over which the 
State has jurisdiction. The entire expense for the protectors is much less than 
many of the second-class cities of the State are paying for their police forces. 
It is a wonder to many how such efficient men can be secured when informed 
that the average protector only received $500 per year, with an allowance of 
thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents per month for expenses. 



Illegal Devices $m<z(L. 



The table in the appendix will show the work of the protectors during the past 
year as to the number of nets and other devices which, while being illegally 
operated for the taking of fish, were seized and destroyed; also the number of 
actions brought and concluded. 

Several cases which are commenced near the close of the year necessarily 
go over from year to year, fail to be reached for trial, or are appealed to higher 
courts. 



Actions Acrainsf ^qaaffers. 



Many actions for ejectment have been commenced against "squatters" on 
State land who persist in building and otherwise trespassing. One important 
case, known as Wells vs. Johnston & Gibby, was decided by the Court of Appeals 
in favor of the people, which settled any further question as to the State's title 




s 

en 
to 
W 

to 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 87 

to a tract of land known as the North Gouverneur Tract, in Oneida County. 
The action arose on account of the seizure and sale by the Commission of about 
$700 worth of pulp-wood cut on said lot and sold to Johnston & Gibby, whom the 
Commission were bound to protect in the purchase. Mr. Wells claimed title to 
the land by a county tax sale of Oneida County, and this decision settles for all 
time any claim against land acquired by State tax sales over county sales. 

Tf)e Cold Storage Case. 

The noted case of the People vs. The Arctic Refrigerating Company of New 
York City, which was being pressed in the Appellate Court at the time of the 
issuance of the last report of the Commission, is now in the Court of Appeals 
waiting its turn with other cases, and, judging by the decisions of the Supreme 
and Appellate Courts, the people will be successful as to the major portion of their 
claims. The defective points in the law, which affected a portion of the amount 
claimed by the people, was so amended by the last Legislature that it now conforms 
to what the courts held it should have been, and the masses of people interested 
in the protection of song and insectivorous birds now realize that they have a law to 
stand on no matter what may have been said to the contrary. 

(iarne L,aw Amendment^. 

Several amendments were made by the last Legislature which materially 
improve the Game Law and make possible the maintaining of actions as against 
the former law. One very important amendment, which refers to fish and game 
coming from without the State, now puts the Department in a position to bring 
and maintain actions for possession no matter where said fish and game come 
from. This was not possible under the old law after the decision of the Court of 
Appeals in the case of the People vs. The Buffalo Fish Company, as the Court 
held in that case that it was not the intent of the Legislature, when passing the 
law relative to possession, that it apply to fish coming from without the State. 

While continuous amendments from year to year are not advisable, as a 
constant tampering with the law is confusing and misleading to the many people 
interested, I feel that a few slight changes are necessary: First, for a more 
uniform law as to open and close season in all counties, and make it possible for 
one to hunt and fish in safety without stopping to determine the county lines. 
Many of these laws are useless, and the benefit derived is of little or no value. 



88 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

digested Legislation. 

The law affecting Black Bass should be uniform, and not as at the present 
time, one law for the waters of the Thousand Islands, where the season opens six 
days before it does through the State generally — especially as it makes two dates 
in one county, viz: St. Lawrence County. 

It is evident that Grouse are becoming scarcer yearly, and especially this year, 
as last spring was so very wet and cold that it is generally believed many broods 
were drowned; therefore it is recommended that the sale of Grouse killed in this 
State be prohibited. 

I would also suggest prohibiting the sale of venison killed within the Adiron- 
dack Park. This would do away with quite a few market hunters who manage 
to get around the law relative to transportation and make a business of hunting 
wholly for the market. While the anti-hounding law is working admirably and 
the Deer are steadily on. the increase, the law cannot be made too strict or 
severe as to taking or harboring dogs of any description in forests which Deer 
inhabit, as it is an undisputed fact that nearly all species of dogs will follow a 
Deer and aid in its capture. In view of what the State has expended in past years 
in purchasing Deer to restock the Catskill region, the law ought to be amended so 
as to continue a close season in all the Catskill counties for at least three years. 

I would also recommend that no Deer be taken for at least three years in 
Oswego County, and in all that portion of Oneida, Lewis and Jefferson Counties 
lying west of the Black River Railroad from Utica to Carthage and south of 
Carthage, and the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Railroad from Carthage 
to Richfield Junction. In this locality there is a large tract of timbered land 
well adapted for Deer where they were exterminated many years since, but in the 
last few years several Deer have found their way into that locality and should be 
protected. 

The law regarding the use of nets in Raritan Bay is such that it affords no 
protection to the inhabitants of Staten Island and Greater New York, who are 
interested in angling, as against non-resident Menhaden fishermen — mostly from 
New Jersey. The law should be amended to either prohibit the use of nets in 
said bay, or a law passed compelling purse-net fishermen to procure licenses, 
which would give a protector some authority to board vessels to determine what 
fish are being taken. The law regarding a non-resident paying a license to fish 
or hunt in this State is not at all plain, neither does it fix an amount as a fee. 
Therefore, as many States charge a license fee to non-residents, we would 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



8 9 



recommend the law being amended so as to be more explicit, and also to specify 
the amount of the fee. 

As in my last year's report, I would recommend that if game or fish are 
found in the close season outside of warehouses where they can be bonded under 
the present law, a law should be enacted declaring that if a seizure is made, 
after the articles have served their purpose as evidence, they should be turned 
over to the nearest charitable institution intead of being allowed to waste, thereby 
giving the officer making the seizure, or the Court before which it had been used 
as evidence, something definite under which to act. 

I must continue, as in the past, to commend the work of the local protective 
associations throughout the State, and assure them that the assistance rendered 
is ever appreciated. I would also express the gratitude of the Department for 
the assistance which is rendered by the express companies, which are ever ready 
to assist in detecting violations by persons who persist in illegally shipping 
fish and game. 

Respectfully submitted. J. Warren Pond, 

Chief Game Protector. 




Report of tl)e ^aperintendent of 

iyoz 



To tf)e Forest, I%I) and dame Commission: 

GENTLEMEN. — Though frequent treatises upon the shellfish industry of 
this country have appeared in print and from time to time articles 
of considerable value concerning this subject have been produced, it 
remains true that the public generally, and particularly those who reside at 
points remote from the seacoast, have but faint ideas of its relative importance- 
Next to the State forests, which conserve the rainfall over a vast area and con- 
stitute the reservoirs which equalize the flow of our mountain streams and great 
rivers, preventing alternate floods and droughts, and preserving the navigability 
of our waterways, so bringing continued prosperity to commerce and with regu- 
larity watering the thirsty land, comes the shellfish industry in importance among 
the subjects under the care of the Forest, Fish and Game Commission. 

Years ago the State of New York adopted a policy calculated to foster and 
encourage this industry, which, with the threatened exhaustion of the natural 
beds of oysters and clams, bade fair to continue in but a languishing condition. 
The result of this system was at once apparent, and so rapidly did the business 
respond that at a net outlay of little more than $5,000 per annum from the State 
Treasury a delicious food product, valued at many millions of dollars, is annually 
gained for the entire people and is supplying an excellent and cheap item of diet 
at a time when all other foodstuffs have materially enhanced in price to the 
consumer. It is one great industry which has not been taken over by a trust, 
though many attempts have been made to control it, with the result that never 
have oysters been cheaper than at the present time. The oyster planters' busi- 
ness is at best uncertain and precarious. From the moment the beds under the 
waters of our sounds, bays and rivers are cleaned, scraped and prepared and 
the seed planted until the mature bivalve is dredged for market the work is 
experimental. A severe wind from an unfavorable quarter, with its incidental 
high waves and shifting sands, may in a few hours blot out the investment and 

90 



EIGHTH REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 9 1 

labor of the year. Starfish may swarm over a well planted and well tilled bed 
and leave scarcely a living oyster behind. The borer and periwinkle perform 
their deadly work, and in addition to these known agencies of destruction, there 
are conditions of water, etc., as yet not understood (as during the present season) 
which materially affect the output. 

TI)e Ouster Crop, 

The crop of the present season has been short, though unimpaired in quality, 
it being stated that the quantity of oysters marketed does not exceed, in bushels, 
the amount of seed oysters planted. The reason of this condition is obscure and 
cannot be explained by the planters, who, in consequence of the poor supply, have 
sustained severe loss, and were it not for the favorable system maintained by 
the State many of them would have been forced out of business. About once 
in from five to seven years there occurs in New York waters an abundant set of 
young oysters. The last extensive set was in the summer of 1899, and in its 
abundance it was altogether unprecedented. As the oyster requires from three 
to five years to mature, a few years of plenty follow each general set of young 
oysters to those planters who industriously cultivate their grounds and are 
fortunate enough to escape all or most of the many dangers attendant upon the 
occupation. 

The liberal policies of the States of New York and Connecticut in dealing with 
the shellfish planters have been imitated by other States with like excellent results. 
Even the States upon the Pacific coast have been giving much attention to the 
subject. State Fish Commissioner Kershaw, of Washington, is quoted as having 
said: "Eastern transplanted oysters are coming to the front everywhere. People 
who never investigated the subject do not know the importance of this 
fishery question. It is now one of the four great industries of Washington, and 
ranks with coal, lumber and wheat as a money producer. The oyster business 
will, in my opinion, soon become more important than other fisheries." 

ai)eUfi$l) Calfcire. 

It may be of interest to describe here something regarding the men engaged 
in the shellfishing business, and of the methods used by them in this odd style of 
farming. 

There are two classes of oyster planters: The first is represented by the poor 
bayman who, without capital, cultivates a small piece of ground by his individual 



92 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

labor, with possibly the assistance of some member of his family or of a similarly 
situated "partner." There are many hundreds of these who, by arduous toil, while 
subjected to constant hardship and exposure, manage to wrest from the sand and 
mud of our bays and harbors a frugal livelihood for themselves and families. The 
numbers of this type are constantly increasing. Second, the planter with capital 
sufficient to enable him to use every device and appliance necessary or convenient 
to large operations, including the employment of well-manned steamers equipped 
with steam dredges, Starfish mops, etc., together with extensive oyster houses where 
oysters are opened or otherwise prepared for shipment, whence the product is sent 
throughout the country, and indeed to all parts of the civilized world. 

In commencing, or upon enlarging his business, the first care of the planter is 
to select a tract of land under water which he believes to be unappropriated and 
suitable for cultivation, marking out the boundaries by stakes or buoys; he then 
consults the maps and records in the Shellfish Department of the Forest, Fish 
and Game Commission for the purpose of determining that the lands in question 
are open to entry. He is now prepared to make his formal written application 
for a lease from the State, for which blank forms are provided by the Depart- 
ment, giving, without actual survey, the best possible description of the ground, 
making oath that the same has not within five years produced naturally sufficient 
oysters to enable a man by taking them up to make a living, and that he intends, 
in case a lease is granted, to use the lands for the purpose of shellfish culture 
only. The application is thereupon filed and advertised during three weeks by 
posting a notice in each of three places, to wit : in the shellfish office, in the 
postoffi.ee nearest the location and in the office of the town clerk of the town 
in which the tract is situated, the time and place of sale of the grant being indi- 
cated in the notices. At the expiration of the period of advertisement a certificate 
is prepared, signed and filed by the clerk of the shellfish office that no objection, or 
that objection, as the case may be, has been made to the granting of a lease. 
If no valid objection has been received within competent time, the Superin- 
tendent of Shellfisheries and the Surveyor of Oyster Lands unite in a certificate 
(they having made any necessary investigation of the ground) that the tract is 
not, or does not include, a bed of oysters of natural growth. At the shellfish 
office, upon the appointed time, the grant of the lease of the land for the purpose 
of shellfish cultivation is offered at public auction and awarded to the highest 
bidder, the minimum price being twenty-five cents per acre per annum. After 
the lease has thus been granted, the land is carefully surveyed and the boundaries 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 93 

marked by the State Surveyor of Oyster Lands, who plots the tract upon the 
maps of the office and furnishes an accurate description for the purposes of 
the deed of lease, which is then prepared, executed by the Commission and delivered 
to the lessee. Only inhabitants of the State may become original lessees or hold by 
assignment of lease. 

In certain localities the law permits what are called perpetual leases, or 
franchises of land under water, for shellfish cultivation. 

TI)e dear's Easiness. 

During the past year 125 applications were received for shellfish lands. Of 
these applications eight were withdrawn, some of them covering ground for which 
previous applications had been made. Of the remaining applications the lands 
included in 114 have been leased to the highest bidders, and three are now in 
process of advertisement. Thirteen hundred and seventy-two and four tenths 
acres, to be added to the total of lands previously awarded, are included in these 
117 applications. The total of lands held under lease and franchise by shellfish 
cultivators now amounts to 27,252 acres. The lands applied for during the past 
year are under the waters of Long Island Sound, Raritan Bay, Pelham Bay and 
Jamaica Bay. 

Mr. Charles Wyeth, the Surveyor of Oyster Lands, with an experience of 
twelve years in this office, has carried forward during the year the surveys and 
maps of the Department, a work commenced fifteen years ago under the charge 
of Hon. Eugene Blackford, then Commissioner of Fisheries. 

During the past few years the jurisdiction of this Department has by law 
been extended to the lands under the waters of Pelham Bay. In Hempstead 
Harbor and Manhasset Bay it has been contended that the lands are controlled 
by the respective towns. The Attorney-General of the State has, however, 
examined the questions carefully and advised that the jurisdiction is in the 
State. 

The effect of this enlargement of jurisdiction has been to extend the coast- 
line, adjacent to State shellfish lands, to over 210 miles. Along this entire distance 
it is necessary to maintain signal monuments, which constitute the basic points 
of our system of hydrographic surveys. From these the necessary triangulations 
are made and permanent maps prepared, by means of which the individual oyster 
tracts are definitely located. 



94 EIGHTH REPORT OF THE 

Lobster Fisheries Dispate. 

There has been no material change since my last annual report in the position 
of the residents of the village of Noank in the State of Connecticut, who claim the 
right to fish for lobsters in the waters of "The Race" in this State. Perhaps 
the following correspondence between the Superintendent of Shellfisheries and the 
Attorney-General of the State of Connecticut will make clear the present status 
of the matter : 

Office Superintendent of Shellfisheries, 
No. i Madison Avenue. 

New York, July 28, 1902. 
Hon. Charles Phelps, Attorney-General, Hartford, Conn.: 

Dear Sir. — About two years have passed since the case of the People vs. 
Morgan was instituted. At that time it was claimed upon the part of the Noank 
lobster fishermen that they possessed a prescriptive right to fish for lobsters in 
the waters of "The Race," southwest of Fisher's Island, in this State. This 
right has not been established, though from time to time it has been said that 
the Connecticut fishermen would institute proceedings to test the question. The 
only proposals looking to a solution of the matter have proceeded from this 
Commission, which, in the fall of 1900, in a spirit of heartiest amity, suggested 
reciprocal legislation upon the part of the Legislatures of the two States, which 
suggestion was embodied in a recommendation to the New York Legislature 
of 1901. 

Mr. David Welch, who at that time represented the Noank people as their 
attorney, undertook to draft a proposed law for adoption in both States, which 
this Commission promised to recommend for enactment in the State of New York. 
Upon consulting with his clients, Mr. Welch gave up the idea of reciprocity, and 
reported that the passage of such an act by the Legislature of Connecticut 
at that time would be "an utter impossibility." It does not appear that the 
question is any nearer being solved than at the beginning. 

There is nothing pending upon which this Department can act, and as numerous 
complaints are made that our shellfish non-resident law is not properly and 
equally enforced, we cannot with fairness ask our protectors to overlook violations. 

I beg to assure you of our most friendly disposition and entire readiness to 
take up any promising measure which you may propose, and which will involve 
not merely inaction by this Department in the execution of the law. 

Appreciating your many courtesies, I am, with kind regards, yours respectfully, 

B. Frank Wood, 

Superintendent of Shellfisheries. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 95 

State of Connecticut, 
Attorney-General's Office. 

Hartford, July 30, 1902. 
Hon. B. Frank Wood, State Superintendent of Shell fisheries, New York: 

Dear Sir. — Your favor of July twenty-eighth, concerning the matter of the 
Noank lobster fishermen, is received. 

I regret with you that results in the adjustment of the difficulties appear to 
have been delayed. I hope now, however, that some progress will be made at an 
early date. 

The services of Mr. Hadlai A. Hull, a prominent lawyer of New London, have 
been secured to bring the matter, if possible, to a speedy and amicable termina- 
tion. Mr. Hull's location and experience, I understand, will be of special 
advantage to all parties concerned. I received a telephone message from him on 
Monday that he was about to have an interview with your Mr. Overton, and 
consequently I sent him a copy of your letter of July twenty-eighth, and you will 
no doubt hear from him personally or through Mr. Overton. 

I realize your position in the matter, and I desire to acknowledge my 
appreciation of your most friendly disposition and continued courtesy concerning 
the subject in question. 

Thanking you for past favors, I remain, very truly yours, 

Charles Phelps, 

A ttorney- General. 

It has been customary to distribute annually from the State Hatchery at Cold 
Spring Harbor, in the waters of Long Island Sound, from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 
young lobsters. During the past year this work was necessarily abandoned as the 
Department had no boat which could be used for the purpose. The naphtha 
launch belonging to the Commission, not being a sea-going craft, was taken from 
the waters of the coast and is now in use upon the inland waters of the State. 
In many directions the work of this Department has been hampered by lack of 
a suitable boat, and it is hoped that one may be provided for use upon our 
coast and bays. Such a boat would be constantly employed in doing necessary 
work. 

TI)e Aenfyiden Catd). 

The Fisheries Company reports that the Menhaden catch during the season of 
1902 has amounted to 1,375,786 barrels, from which was obtained 55,000 barrels 
of oil, 11,000 tons of dried scrap and 32,000 tons of acidulated scrap. Not only 
has the catch been large, but the price also larger than last year. It is said 



9 6 



EIGHTH REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



that the catch of the year now closed has not been equaled in twenty years, 

and fully fifty per cent more fish might have been taken had the factories 

been of sufficient capacity to handle them. It has been determined that food-fish 

and Menhaden do not school together, scarcely enough food-fish being taken by 

the Menhaden steamers to supply the wants of the crews in that direction. The 

United States Fish Commission caused a searching investigation to be made, with 

a view to determining this question, and has reported as above. Regarding the 

periodical scarcity or abundance of food-fish many theories have been advanced, 

but no good reason has appeared for the sudden changes from scarcity to 

abundance and vice versa. Those who, from experience and study of the subject, 

would be deemed most competent to answer such questions, say that it is beyond 

the power of man to explain why fish, after having been supposed to be almost 

extinct along certain lines of coast, will suddenly appear in great quantities. The 

difficulty of regulating the ocean fisheries by legislation is therefore apparent, 

and serious results are apt to follow such attempts. 

Respectfully submitted. 

B. Frank Wood, 

Superintendent of SJielljisheries. 




Nintf) Report 

of ti)z 

Forest Fisf) and Game Commission 



Albany, N. ^1., Jamiar^ 15, i«o4«. 
Hon. 5« Frederic^ Nixon, 

v3peatjcr of tf>e Assembly : 

^3ir. — We I)ave ff)e I)onor to submit l)erewitl), as 
rehired b^ lav, tl)e official report of tl)is Commission for 
fl)e ^ear ending September 3.0, i?o). 

Ver^ tral^ ^ocrrs, 

Devitt 0. Hiddieton, 

Commissioner, 

J. Demean Lawrence, 

DepaiY Commissioner. 
7 97 



atate of Nev ^Iorl^ 



Forest, Ftsf) and Game Commission. 

Dewitt C. Middleton, Commissioner, - - - Watertown, N. Y. 

J. Duncan Lawrence, Deputy Commissioner, - - - Bloomville, N. Y. 



Secretary, -'.■-.--.- - - John D. Whish, Albany, N. Y. 

Superintendent of Forests, ..._■_ William F. Fox, Albany, N. Y. 

Chief Game Protector, ------ J- Warren Pond, Albany, N. Y. 

Superintendent of Shellfisheries - B. Frank Wood, Jamaica, N. Y. 

98 



Report 



Of tl)C 



Forest Tist) and Game Commission 

1903 



To tl)e Honorable fl)e legislature: 

IN transmitting the Ninth Report the Forest, Fish and Game Commission calls 
your particular attention to the facts and statistics presented, which are calcu- 
lated to show the actual value received by the people from that portion of the 
business of the State entrusted to its care. 

Every department (Forestry, Fisheries and Game Protection) is productive of 
some return, and in each case the income is greater than the appropriation made 
annually for its support. 

The Adirondack forest, concerning which a separate and more extended report 
will be presented to your honorable body later in the session, is a source of great 
revenue to at least ten of the counties of the State, and the purchase of land in 
this region has been a most valuable investment. Up to January 1, 1903, the 
State had paid for Adirondack lands, exclusive of tax sales, $2,329,101.60. The 
receipts from visitors to this region during the yeaj 1903 amounted to $3,999,139. 
This large sum of money was distributed lirectly to the people, and was spent by 
thousands of visitors who sought the forest for rest, recreation or health. 

Within the woodland territory in particular, and also in many other localities, 
are located almost innumerable lakes and streams which are stocked liberally from 
the system of fish hatcheries which the State has established. To these waters 
flock annually thousands of fishermen who are able and willing to spend money 
freely in pursuit of their favorite pastime. It is no longer disputed that the 
continual replenishing of our waters with fish is necessary to keep pace with 
the steady growth of our population. Without such attention as is given to public 
waters by the Commission, it is conceded by those who have studied the problem 

99 



IOO NINTH REPORT OF THE FOREST. FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

that a most desirable and comparatively inexpensive variety of food would 
speedily be lost to the people, not to mention the loss of a form of recreation 
that finds favor with thousands of sportsmen whose requirements have created 
industries which produce goods worth great sums annually and which give 
employment to an army of workingmen. The hatchery system, maintained at a 
moderate cost, returned last year in the actual market value of the fish produced 
more than three dollars for every dollar spent for its maintenance. The value 
to the people of the inland fisheries thus fostered amounts to hundreds of 
thousands of dollars annually, as the statistics show. 

In the Department of Shellfisheries, to which careful supervision is given by 
the Commission, an even greater value is shown by the returns. The figures 
given indicate that the business done amounts to nearly $7,000,000 yearly, that 
this results in the payment of over $250,000 in wages, and that vessels are employed 
in the work worth over $600,000. The amount of money spent by the State for the 
care of this great industry is very small in comparison with the results secured. 

Similar remarks might be made with reference to the work of protection, 
which gives employment to a limited number of experienced men whose constant 
watchfulness is necessary to prevent infractions of the law, and whose work is 
productive of much good to all the interests concerned. 

Finally, the Commission makes no recommendations for legislation, believing 
that this may well be left to the representatives of the people in the Senate and 
Assembly. Your attention is, however, respectfully called to the suggestions 
contained in the appended reports of the Superintendent of Forests, the Superin- 
tendent of Shellfisheries, the Chief Protector and the Hatchery Foremen. To 
such enactments as your honorable body mav be pleased to make, and which 
receive Executive approval, our best attention will be given. 

BY THE COMMISSION. 

John D. Whish, 

Secretary. 



Report of .Superintendent of Forests 

1903 



To tl)e Forest, Fisf) and Game Commission: 

GENTLEMEN. — -.1 respectfully submit herewith my annual report in relation 
to the work of the Forestry Department and such other business as was 
entrusted to its care during the past year. Owing to the prolonged drought 
last spring, together with certain causes beyond the control of the Department, the 
forest fires at that time were the most extensive and destructive of any that have 
occurred since the organization of the Forest Commission. Other States also 
suffered serious losses, the extent of the burned areas and destruction of timber 
in some of them exceeding that in New York. 

Forest Fires. 

The woodland fires in the Adirondacks generally occur in April and May. At 
this time of year the ground in our forests is covered with a thick layer of dead 
leaves, which, with the first warm sun and south wind, become so dry that a single 
spark will ignite them and start a blaze that will immediately spread in all directions; 
or, under the influence of a strong breeze, travel rapidly over brush lands and 
through the timber belts. If in its course it reaches the slash or dry refuse of an 
old lumber job, the flames cannot be controlled, and the fire increases in its headway 
and intensity. 

In June, or after the hardwood trees are in full leaf, there is little danger. 
Fires occur but seldom then; and if they do they cannot run far, as the dense 
shade and leafy undergrowth retain moisture and promote conditions that prevent 
any serious damage. During the last eighteen years we have had but one serious 
fire in the summer — that of 1899 — which was due to the extraordinary heat and 
prolonged drought in August and September of that year. The fires at that time 
occurred mostly on open, waste lands; and it was noticed that in many places 
their progress was arrested when they reached a body of green timber. But in 

101 



102 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

April and May of every year, when the trees and undergrowth are bare, the mass 
of dead leaves, stumps and fallen tree trunks are exposed to the sun and drying 
action of the wind, rendering them highly inflammable and ready to burst into 
flames wherever a spark may fall or a camp fire be carelessly left burning. 

No rain, except slight local showers, fell in the Adirondack region from April 
fourth to June eleventh. The month of May was the driest in seventy-seven 
years — since 1826. In Albany the rainfall was only fifteen one hundredths of an 
inch, and it was still less in Northern New York. Combined with the lack of rain 
there was an unusually high temperature, the month of May showing an accumu- 
lated excess above the normal of eighty-nine degrees. On May sixth and nineteenth 
the temperature at Saranac Lake was in the eighties. On the twenty-seventh the 
mercury stood at eighty-five degrees, with a strong south wind blowing; and on 
June sixth and seventh it reached over ninety degrees in the shade. 

In the early spring this year, soon after the ground was free from snow, 
several small fires occurred; but as usual in other years these were quickly extin- 
guished by the firewardens and their men before the flames had attained any 
headway or done any damage. In the latter part of April forest fires broke out 
with alarming frequency along the lines of the New York Central, the Chateaugay, 
the New York and Ottawa, and the Saranac and Lake Placid Railroads. 

At first the firewardens extinguished these railroad fires wherever they 
appeared, but the locomotives continued to throw sparks and start fresh ones 
faster than the men could attend to them. The dead leaves, bushes, undergrowth, 
stumps, logs and leafless trees became so dry that- it was only by the utmost exertion, 
combined with skillful, experienced methods, any one fire could be controlled. 
The conditions were such that incipient fires sprang up in the wake of nearly 
every railroad train. The line of the New York Central, from Fulton Chain to 
Mountain View, was bordered with smoke and flames, except on the eight-mile 
stretch through the private preserve of Dr. W. Seward Webb, where a large 
number of patrols were employed at his expense to follow each train, night or 
day, and extinguish the locomotive sparks that fell along the road. 

A question may arise here: Why did not the firewardens do the same? But 
the law defining their duties does not permit them to employ men until a fire is 
seen; it makes no provision for patrolling, or for the prevention of fires. Never- 
theless, when it became evident that patrolling was absolutely necessary to save 
the remaining forest in certain localities, orders were issued to watch the railroads 
at these exposed places, after which few new fires started along the tracks, and 
the larger gangs of men were employed in fighting those which were already 
burning:. 




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FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. IO3 

Another disastrous condition existed in the wind, which was blowing steadily 
most of the time, generally from the northwest, and which on April thirtieth 
became a furious gale that filled the air with sand and gravel, forcing travelers on 
the highways to seek shelter, and pelting the buildings with a sound like that 
of driving hail. The wind carried sparks and burning brands from the railroad 
fires a long distance through the air and started fresh flames miles away. The dry 
condition of the forest generated an intense heat when once fairly aflame, rendering 
it extremely difficult and dangerous to approach a burning area except on the 
safe side. In the fire on Township 41, where the large trees grew close 
to the side of a quiet pool in the inlet of Big Moose Lake, the burning timber 
threw out a fierce heat that raised the temperature in the pool so that its surface 
was strewn thickly with dead Trout. These were the conditions under which the 
firewardens and their men were obliged to fight in the fires of 1903. 

At the first outbreak of the trouble the attention of the railroad authorities 
was called to the dangerous conditions existing along their respective lines, where- 
upon they issued orders that the screen on each locomotive should be inspected, 
and that defective ones should be repaired immediately. Still, the engines con- 
tinued to throw sparks and ignite the dead grasses along the track, or kindle 
flames in the dry brush and fallen leaves along the boundaries of the adjacent 
forest. As the resident population was too small in numbers to cope successfully 
with the increasing fires, the New York Central sent several carloads of Italian 
laborers to assist in the work along their line, for which no charge was made to 
the town or State. The superintendent of the Adirondack Division, in compliance 
with a request from this Department, placed patrols, one man to the mile, on the 
Saranac branch in order to protect the State plantation of 700 acres near that portion 
of his line. Freight trains were divided and run in two sections for the purpose of 
lessening the load on the engines and thereby decreasing the force of the exhaust; 
and on May seventh orders were issued discontinuing some of the freight trains 
temporarily in hopes that rain would soon relieve the situation. 

But the officials of the Saranac and Lake Placid Railroad made no apparent 
effort to lessen the danger from their trains, and manifested a surprising indiffer- 
ence when notified of the destruction caused by their locomotives. The great 
fire which at one time threatened the hotels at Lake Placid, and burned over an 
area of several square miles, was started by a locomotive on that road. At this time 
a construction company was engaged in the work of widening the gauge of this line 
and making a new roadbed in places. In the performance of its contract this com- 
pany employed some small engines — such as are used by contractors in railroad 
building — which were evidently starting some of the fires along that line as well as 



104 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

the locomotives on the regular trains. The Chief Firewarden, Mr. L. S. Emmons, 
while watching one of these construction engines, saw two fires start up behind it 
immediately after it passed by. On its return he stopped it, examined the stack, 
and found it without a screen of any kind. He compelled the engineer to put 
one on before going any farther; but he could not arrest the man, because the 
section in our fire law relating to railroads makes no provision for any such action. 
Under the law he could only sue the engineer in a civil action, and, if successful, 
recover $100. But he would have the railroad company to contend with instead of 
the individual as the actual defendant, the case would be appealed to the higher 
courts, and years might elapse and thousands be expended by the State before he 
got the hundred dollars. 

Although the railroad officials claimed 'that every locomotive was properly 
screened in compliance with the law, there were nights when the usual quantity 
and size of the coals thrown from some stack could be plainly seen in the 
darkness, and indicated that the appliance was not in good condition. 

On the other hand, we had cases like this : A fire was started May thirteenth 
near Colby Pond, Franklin County, by sparks from Engine No. 683 of the New 
York Central Railroad, which destroyed several hundred acres of timber. A forestry 
official immediately obtained permission to examine the screen of this engine, but 
he found it unbroken and in proper condition. Most of the iron netting used 
for locomotive screens has a mesh five sixteenths of an inch square, or two and 
one half openings to the linear inch; and experts assert that a locomotive cannot 
"make steam" with a mesh of smaller size. Still, live coals as large as a pea 
will be thrown by the exhaust through nettings of this pattern. The screens are 
not placed in the stack, as many suppose, but are bolted firmly to a framework 
in the forward extension of the boiler. The sparks and live coals from the flues 
or tubes first strike a solid wrought iron shield, which slopes downward at an 
angle of forty-five degrees, and are deflected to the bottom of the smoke box, 
after which such as are carried upward by the draft strike the screen, which 
slopes upward and forward, and, with the exception of the smaller ones that go 
through this netting, fall back. But in the little engines used by the contractors 
on construction work — such as the ones just referred to — the screen is in the stack. 

On the nineteen miles of the Raquette Lake Railway, running through the 
State forest from Clearwater to Durant, no fires occurred, because in granting a 
charter for this road the Legislature stipulated that the locomotives must use 
petroleum for fuel. 

The railroad officials expressed themselves as anxious to do everything practicable 
to prevent the starting of fires by their locomotives, as the company is legally 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. I05 

responsible for all damages arising from this source. They also manifest an 
interest in forest preservation because their summer traffic is dependent on it. 

Our present law is insufficient in its provisions to prevent a recurrence of 
these railroad fires, and the only remedy lies in an amendment compelling 
the companies to use electric motors or petroleum burners; or, failing to do this, 
to patrol their lines during the dry season with a sufficient number of men to 
extinguish the live coals and sparks wherever they may fall outside the tracks. 

In the forests of Germany, although traversed most everywhere by railroads, 
there is no loss caused by locomotives; at least the fires from this source are so 
few and far between that the woodlands of that country are practically exempt 
from this evil, a fact often alluded to in discussing the damage to woodlands 
caused by railroads in the Adirondacks. But it must not be inferred from this 
that the widespread destruction of standing timber caused by the railroads in 
Northern New York is due to any inefficiency on the part of the forest 
management. The conditions differ widely from those which exist in the European 
forests — conditions beyond the control of the Department. 

The locomotives in Europe throw sparks the same as here. But in a German 
forest, where timber cuttings have been made, there is an entire absence of tree- 
tops, limbs and brush. All this is removed when the timber is taken out, leaving 
the forest floor clean and free from inflammable material. Moreover, there is 
scarcely any undergrowth aside from the seedlings which are to furnish the future 
crop, while in some forests even these are not found, the ground being as free 
from litter or young growth as a city park. The right-of-way along the railroads 
is cut out to a greater width than in our State, and is entirely free from logs, 
stumps and bushy growth. Except in mountainous districts, the land between 
the railroad tracks and the adjoining forest is ploughed, leaving a broad strip of 
fresh, upturned earth over which a creeping fire cannot pass. Where the right- 
of-way is wide enough two strips of fresh earth are thus exposed, which are 
connected at short intervals by cross-ploughing, thereby preventing a fire running 
lengthwise in the grass between the strips. A good example of this may be seen 
by tourists in traveling along the railroad from Heidelberg to Darmstadt. I 
mention this route in particular as so many of our summer tourists travel that 
line. For many miles this railroad is bordered on either side by contiguous 
forests of Scotch Pine, a highly resinous species. The ground is level, sandy and 
easily ploughed. 

But in our Adirondack forests we have entirely different and more dangerous 
conditions. The forests along the railroad lines, owing to their accessibility, have 
all been lumbered recently, and the ground is covered waist deep with dead tree- 



106 NINTH RETORT OF THE 

tops, limbs and dry brush. When a surface fire starts at the railroad track and 
reaches this mass of tinder a furious conflagration ensues, which can be extin- 
guished only by the most arduous work and at great expense. It is useless to 
talk about ploughing along our railroad lines as done in Germany. Any one who 
has traveled over the line of the Adirondack divisions and noted the topography 
will readily understand the difficulties of attempting such a method. In place 
of the level, sandy soil, so often found in European forests, there is a rocky, 
uneven surface interspersed with stumps, the right-of-way presenting a succession 
of steep knolls and depressions. Even if the stumps were grubbed out by the roots 
the broken rock, which crops out everywhere, renders ploughing impracticable. 

Furthermore, it is doubtful whether any law could be passed, even if it were 
constitutional, that would enable the State to dictate to the lumbermen as to how 
they should conduct their business on private lands. The lumberman cannot 
convert his tops and limbs into money, as is the case in Germany; neither do we 
have the peasantry, who would go into the woods afterwards and clean up every 
faggot and little twig. The time will undoubtedly come when, with a scarcity 
of wood and higher prices, our forests will be exploited in as safe and intelligent a 
manner as abroad. But until then we must recognize existing conditions, and in 
our forest management modify them as best we can. Any talk about European 
forestry with reference to our railroad fires is therefore a waste of time, and 
any indulgence in it betrays an ignorance of the actual situation. 

But all the Adirondack fires did not originate along the railroads; there were 
other causes at work. At this season of the year there are a large number of 
fishermen in the woods, many of them belonging to a careless, shiftless class, 
unworthy the name of sportsmen. They employ no guides, but straggle aimlessly 
through the forests, camping out wherever night overtakes them. As they move 
on from place to place they generally leave their camp fires burning; when they 
make coffee at noon they make little or no effort to extinguish the small fire 
kindled for that purpose. With the woods as dry as they were last spring, several 
fires, which started up in remote, unfrequented places, were fairly attributable 
to fishermen of this class, some of whom were reported as having been seen in 
these localities. 

Hitherto we have had but little success in prosecuting these offenders, because 
it was so difficult under the circumstances to secure the positive evidence neces- 
sary to conviction. The local juries, too often in sympathy with the defendant, 
refuse to render a verdict for the State on presumptive evidence merely. The 
only remedy for this evil is the employment of patrols in sufficient numbers so 
that each fishing party may be followed and closely watched. This plan may 






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FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. IOJ 

be expensive, but it would be far cheaper than fighting the fires which otherwise 
will occur. 

"With few exceptions the private preserves escaped damage, for the lands of 
this description were thoroughly patroled by men in the employ of the owners. 
A notable exception, however, was the Rockefeller Preserve, through which the 
line of the New York and Ottawa Railroad runs for several miles, which was burned 
extensively by fires started by locomotives before measures were taken to thoroughly 
patrol the road. 

As in previous years, some of the burned area was due to farmers who kindled 
their brush or fallows in violation of the law forbidding agricultural work of this 
kind between April first and June first. But each offender of this class, as shown 
farther on in this report, was arrested and punished.. 

Some conflagrations were started by incendiaries and degenerates, prompted by 
malice, revenge, or criminal instincts. It has been alleged that some fires were set 
by men in order to get employment, but no evidence whatever has been furnished 
thus far in support of this theory. The rate of wages for fighting fire in each 
town is fixed by the town board of auditors, not by the State. The price varies 
in the different towns from one dollar and twenty-five cents to two dollars per day. 
The work, when properly performed, is the hardest and most exhaustive that men 
are ever called upon to do, and the wages paid are none too high for the services 
rendered. In view of the scarcity of labor and high wages in the Adirondacks 
there was little or no need of any one becoming an incendiary in order to get work. 
A man who would set fire to the woods is a criminal in every sense of the word. 
Now, a criminal will commit crime in order to evade work, but not to get 
work. The arduous service required by the firewardens offers no inducement to 
men of this character. It is granted that bad men will burn the woods through 
motives of revenge, but hardly to get honest employment. In each case where a 
man was convicted of incendiarism last spring it was noticed that he had not 
applied to any firewarden for employment. Furthermore, the towns, as a rule, do 
not pay immediately, but wait until the boards of supervisors meet in December 
to apportion the money for the payment of their fire accounts and other expenses, 
and these payments are delayed still further until the taxes then levied can be 
collected. Every man in the Adirondacks knows this, for the delay is a matter 
of common complaint. I am aware that some of the lumber companies paid cash 
down to the men who protected their property at this time, but as these men were 
called from other work for this purpose they did not have to light brush heaps 
in order to get a job. Even if it should appear conclusively that some man had 
kindled the woods in order to get work, it would be absurd to abandon the employ- 



IOS NINTH REPORT OF THE 

ment of men for fighting forest fires on that account, for men will not perform 
the hard labor necessary for the protection of forest property without pay. If, 
as claimed by some, the rate of wages is unnecessarily high in this service, the 
auditing board of each town has the remedy in its own hands. I have discussed 
this matter before in previous reports, and regret that it seems necessary to 
allude to it again. 

Another serious condition which confronts our forest management in the Adiron- 
dack^ is the ever increasing number of residents. I do not refer to our summer 
hotels and their patrons. The trouble is caused by the farmers who are carrying 
on agricultural operations of a minor character, and by the large number of men 
who remain in the region after the lumbering operations on which they were 
employed have ceased. Fifty years ago, when there were scarcely any people in 
our woods, forest fires were almost unknown. Fires do not start spontaneously; 
some man' or railroad is responsible for them in every case. The more railroads 
we have the more of the idle, shiftless class come in, hence the greater the danger 
to our woodlands. It is to be hoped, however, that the State in carrying out its 
policy of acquiring lands will purchase the holdings of the small farmers, together 
with other petty interests detrimental to the safety of forest property, and thereby 
minimize this prolific source of evil. 

Though an unpleasant duty, attention is called to the laxity of public opinion 
which prevails in certain parts of the Adirondack region as to the cause of forest 
fires. In nearly every village there is a disreputable class whose presence is 
inimical to the preservation of our forests. They are the men who, having been 
arrested at some time for violation of the Game Law or timber stealing, have 
a grievance against the authorities. They hang around hotels or taverns and 
when any so-called "State man" is in hearing, delight in making threats that, 
''The State has got to look out or there will be more fires in the woods," to which 
the bystanders listen with smiles or nods of approval. It is discouraging to 
post the rules and regulations regarding the use of fires only to have them torn 
down by a fellow who afterwards struts around some barroom bragging of his 
exploit. Nor is this all. It frequently occurs that when a farmer wilfully burns 
his fallow in defiance of the law and warnings of the firewarden, thereby destroy- 
ing the adjacent forest, the citizens refuse to furnish evidence of the crime, 
although they are fully cognizant of the facts. 

- Aside from the railroads, the remedy for this evil lies with the residents them- 
selves. It rests with them to create a healthy public sentiment that will prevent 
the careless and criminal use of fire. If the taxes caused by the expense of 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. IOQ. 

protecting forest property in the town become burdensome, they are largely 
responsible for it; and instead of spending their time in useless complaint they 
can utilize it better in remonstrating with the men who carelessly or wilfully 
violate the law. 

Whatever the causes of the fires may have been, there was no remissness or 
inefficiency on the part of the firewardens in attacking them promptly and ener- 
getically wherever they broke out. Everything was done that human activity 
and experience could accomplish. I heard some unfavorable criticism at times, 
but it came from persons who were hanging around hotels, stores or railroad 
stations — men who refused to work when ordered out, preferring to spend their 
time in finding fault with those who were at work, and in explaining to each 
other how the thing should be done. There are 132 town firewardens appointed 
bv the Commission, each one of whom appoints district firewardens in his town, 
making 661 in all. In this large number there undoubtedly are some who are 
not as competent, or as well adapted to the work, as could be desired. But so 
far as I can learn each one of them did the best he could. 

As the fires increased in number it became difficult to get men enough to 
fight them. The railroad companies brought in large gangs of laborers from 
outside the woods to work along their lines, but that did not relieve the situation 
at other places. A great many who had turned out willingly and fought fire at 
the start abandoned the work after a while, explaining that they could not afford 
to labor any longer and wait on the town nine months for their pay. I then 
made an arrangement with some of the lumber companies, whose lands were in 
danger, to send in all the men they could spare from their jobs and to advance 
the cash needed to pay them promptly, the companies to wait for reimbursement 
until the towns could settle the account. Under this agreement a large number 
of experienced woodsmen were set to work. 

But this did not help materially in protecting the great areas of State forest 
in which there was no resident population, and in which no one had any individual 
interest. Everywhere, with few exceptions, men refused to fight fire on State 
land if they had to depend on the town for their money. In this emergency I 
applied to Governor Odell, who promptly requested the Comptroller to place 
$15,000 at the disposal of the Commission. With this fund available we were 
able, whenever a fire broke out in the Preserve, to quickly hire a gang of selected 
men and set them to work. Of the total burned area in the Adirondack and Catskill 
forests only twelve per cent was State land, this low percentage and immunity 
from extensive loss being; due largelv to the assistance rendered bv the Governor. 



IIO NINTH REPORT OF THE 

There seems to be an impression on the part of some people that the efforts of 
the firewardens were of little avail, and that the termination of the fires was due 
solely to rain. This is an error to a great extent. The rain was certainly a great 
blessing, but when it finally came, on June eleventh, the greater part of the fires 
had been extinguished, or were under control, although the burned area in many 
places was still smoking. By the phrase "under control" I mean that the 
wardens had reported that these fires were completely corralled, and that a crew 
was on watch to prevent any fresh outbreak. 

In many cases, as just stated, the flames were completely extinguished — the 
one on Township 41, for instance, which occurred on State land in a heavily 
timbered Spruce forest that had never been lumbered. In other places, where the 
progress of the fire had been effectually stopped, the burned area continued to 
smoke and smolder, owing to the extraordinary dry condition; but the ground 
was closely guarded, and whenever there was any indication that the wind might 
cause a fresh outbreak measures were taken to prevent it. 

A noticeable example of good work was seen at Fulton Chain Station, where 
by judicious back-firing and effective work a general disaster was averted and the 
village saved from destruction. Also on Township 28, Hamilton County, the lumber 
crews, acting under the direction of Mr. John Anderson and the Chief Firewarden, 
after working night and day, stopped a large fire that threatened at one time to 
sweep over the entire town. Many other instances could be cited if necessary 
where extensive and dangerous fires were fought to a standstill without the aid 
of rainfall. 

Though they extinguished many fires new ones were starting continually, hence 
the question may arise as to why this was permitted. But under the weather 
conditions no earthly power or organization could prevent this evil when loco- 
motives were daily kindling fires in the dry grass along the railroads, and wandering 
fishermen were leaving their smudge and coffee fires burning in the woods uncared 
for. The city of Chicago had a model fire department, but that did not prevent 
the great catastrophe in 1871, when a large portion of the city was destroyed by 
fire. And so the firewardens of Northern New York, energetic and efficient as 
they are in fighting fire, have to work under discouraging conditions so long 
as the railroads and careless natives are continually firing the woods. 

Every effort was made to enable the gangs to work to good advantage. The 
best time to check a large fire is early in the morning — at daybreak — for the flames 
die down in the night. The air then is cool and damp; there is little or no wind. 
Where a fire occurred at any considerable distance from a camp or boarding- 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



PACKING IN FOOD FOR THE FIRE FIGHTERS. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



THE FIRE FIGHTERS' COOK. 

PREPARING SUPPER FOR A PARTY OF MEN WHO ARE FIGHTING FIRE IN THE WOODS CLOSE BY. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. Ill 

house, the crew was ordered to remain there all night and sleep on the ground, 
arrangements having been made at the same time to send in food and blankets 
to them. This involved no hardship, as the men were used to camping out; 
moreover, the nights, with one exception, were warm, and there was no rain. In 
each case of this kind the firewarden was ordered to make a contract for food 
supplies and some simple camp equipment at the nearest store, lumber camp, 
hotel or boarding-house, and to detail one or more men with pack-baskets to 
carry in this material. Under this plan many fires were checked and extinguished 
which could not have been controlled by fighting them in the daytime only 
and allowing the crew to leave their work at a critical time to go some distance 
for meals and lodging. Expenses thus incurred, as well as the wages of the men, 
were assumed by the towns. 

Some idea of the activity with which the work was carried on is attested by the 
fact that 6,487 men were ordered out by the wardens, and that the total number 
of days worked at the fires in the Adirondacks amounted to 77,290. Moreover, 
there was only a sparse population to draw from. Hamilton County, one of the 
largest in the State, has only 4,947 people all told — men, women and children. 

Had it not been for the active, efficient work of the wardens and their men 
during this prolonged drought, the numerous fires would have coalesced — "run 
together," as it is termed — and the Adirondack forest would have been destroyed, 
leaving nothing but a bare and blackened ruin throughout its entire extent. 

A careful tabulation of the firewardens' reports of each and every fire enables 
me to submit the following result: 

ADIRONDACK FOREST FIRES. 

1903. 

Acres of timber land burned 292,121 

Acres of brush land burned 172,068 

Value of standing timber destroyed . . . . . . . $666,207 

Value of logs, pulp-wood, etc., destroyed 145,457 

Value of buildings burned 34,418 

Total number of days' labor 77,290 

Acres of State timber land burned * 33,698 

Acres of State brush land burned f 24,420 



* Included in first item. f Included in second item. 



I 12 



NINTH REPORT OF THE 



CATSKILL FOREST FIRES. 

1903. 

Acres of timber land burned 

Acres of brush land burned 

Value of standing timber destroyed .... 
Value of pulp-wood, etc., destroyed .... 

Value of buildings burned 

Total number of days' labor 

Acres of State timber land burned * . . . . 
Acres of State brush land burned f" .... 

Losses by Counties. 
Adirondack Region. 



20,469 
15,860 

M9,°75 

7,934 

25 

4,49 2 

100 

65 



COUNTIES. 



Total days' 
labur. 



Acres of 
timber land. 



Acres of 
brush land. 



Value of 
standing tim- 
ber destroyed. 



Value of 
logs, pulp- 
wood, etc. 
destroyed. 



Value of 

buildings, 

fences, etc , 

burned. 



Clinton . 
Essex 
Franklin 
Fulton . 
Hamilton 
Herkimer . 
Lewis 
Oneida . 
St. Lawrence 
Saratoga 
Warren . 
Washington 

Total . 



969 

10, 794 

26,678 

810 

11,882 

5,589 

5.285 

i,397 

10,221 

271 

2,534 
860 



2,290 
32, 755 
84, 081 

2,155 
54,317 
15,895 
20, 990 

4,665 

68, 076 

196 

6,091 
610 



3,470 
24, 701 

45, 287 
1,185 
6,638 

8,315 

15,258 

4,720 

58, 974 

780 

2,376 

364 



$5,020 

55,870 

179,272 

2,890 

257,550 

40, 280 

30, 800 

4,500 

75,26o 

1,400 

11,765 

1,600 



$775 

35,335 

73,247 

100 

2,746 

I5,i7i 

4,650 

304 

12,532 

562 
35 



$280 

16, 895 

5,198 

75 

7,n5 

450 

985 

900 

2,380 

140 



77, 290 



292, 121 



172,068 



207 



$145,457 



$34, 4i8 



Catskill Region. 



Delaware 


1,387 


3,694 


3,231 


$3, 185 


$5,5H 


$10 


Greene 


921 


1,237 


1,207 


4,270 


120 




Sullivan 


1,775 


13,170 


8,884 


21,215 


2,138 


15 


Ulster 


409 


2,368 


2,538 


405 


165 




Total 


4,492 


20, 469 


15,860 


$29, 075 


$7,934 


$25 



* Included in first item. f Included in second item. 



forest, fish and game commission. 113 

The area burned over, as reported by each firewarden, was carefully proved or 
corrected by referring to the recorded acreage of each lot mentioned in his report. 
At the same time no deduction was made for the fact that on many lots the fire 
ran across in streaks, a part or parts of the tract thus escaping damage. For this 
reason the area reported exceeds somewhat the actual acreage damaged. 

In estimating the value of the standing timber destroyed the firewardens were 
cautioned against placing it any higher than the market price per acre at which 
these lands had been selling. The percentage of virgin forest was small. By far 
the greater part of the timber burned was on what are known as lumbered lands, 
such as the State had been buying for one dollar and fifty cents per acre, but 
which, through the recent rise in value of this class of property, are now worth 
from two dollars to three dollar per acre. Some lands of this class, situated near 
a railroad, or otherwise accessible, are worth more. 

The firewardens were also directed, in making their estimates, to deduct the 
value of standing timber that was killed, but which was still available if cut 
within a year or so, for timber, pulp-wood or cordwood. A large proportion 
of the timber included in the reports was damaged by what are known as 
ground or surface fires, which killed the trees without consuming any part of 
them. Where this damage occurred on private lands the owners have been busy 
all this season in cutting their dead trees, leaving their live timber for future 
operations. Consequently this large amount of salvage has reduced the estimate 
of loss materially. 

But on the State lands the standing timber killed by the fire, though still in 
marketable condition, will result in a complete loss, as the Attorney-General 
has rendered an opinion that, owing to the restrictions in the forestry clause 
of the Constitution, this material cannot be cut or removed. This state of 
affairs is also unfortunate, because these areas of dry, dead timber and slash are 
very liable to take fire again and burn with uncontrollable fierceness. 

The loss in buildings, fences, etc., includes the large hotel south of North 
Elba, known as the Adirondack Lodge; the Loomis Camp, on Little Tupper Lake; 
several miles of wire fence on Nehasane Park, and several barns or outbuildings 
at various places. 

The loss in logs, pulp-wood, etc., includes the large amount of acid wood 
that was cut and piled on the lands of the Brooklyn Cooperage Company; several 
thousand cords of pulp-wood and cordwood, belonging to the Chateaugay Iron 
and Ore Company, piled at Plumadore Station, Franklin County; numerous skid- 
ways of logs left in the woods last winter through lack of snow, and piles of 
cordwood in forests near villages or shipping points. 



114 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

There was also a loss in the burning of young trees and seedling growth ; in 
the destruction of the forest humus, and in the creation of barren conditions that 
prevent, in a great degree, the natural reforesting of the denuded lands. But no 
estimate could be made of consequential damages or prospective losses. 

CAUSES OF FIRES AS REPORTED. 

Railroad locomotives 121 Wintergreen-pickers 3 

Burning fallows 88 Lunatic 1 

From other fires by wind . . .61 Dooryard fire 1 

Fishermen 47 Children at play 1 

Tobacco smokers 23 Smoking out a hedgehog .... 1 

Hunters 7 Burning a straw bed 1 



Incendiaries 6 Burning brakes (ferns) .... 1 

Camp fires 6 Blasting stone 1 

Burning buildings 3 Sparks from torch 1 

Sparks from chimneys .... 3 Lightning 1 



There were the usual large number reported as "Cause unknown," many of 
which were started by sparks carried through the air a long distance from other 
fires, and several that probably were caused by locomotives, as they began at 
some railroad line. 

As in other years, a number were started by farmers who took advantage of 
the dry spell to burn their fallows; but with a few exceptions these did not result 
in serious damage. They occurred mostly at places where there was a resident 
population, and hence were seen immediately by some district warden and quickly 
extinguished. 

The law prescribing a close season, in which the farmers are forbidden to 
burn their brush or log heaps, has been in operation but a few years. During 
this time, however, copies of this section of the law, printed on cloth, have been 
posted conspicuously throughout the entire region. Several thousands of these 
notices for posting, or replacing those that have become defaced or weather-beaten, 
are sent each year into the forest districts by the Commission. Ignorance of the 
law is no excuse for its violation. 

When the fires ceased last June, Mr. L. S. Emmons, the Chief Firewarden, 
commenced immediately the prosecution of all persons who had burned their 
fallows between April first and June first as forbidden by law. Suits were 
commenced against each offender, irrespective of the fact that in many instances 
the fire did not escape from the owner's premises. The law was intended to stop 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. I 1 5 

a dangerous practice ; hence no distinction was made in this respect. Up to this 
date Mr. Emmons has obtained judgments in fifty-six cases, and has collected 
fines to the amount of $1,781.45, not including costs, which in each case were 
paid by the defendant in addition to the penalty. The fines imposed ranged from 
twenty dollars to one hundred and seventy-five dollars, and in a few instances, 
where the defendant refused to pay, he was sent to jail. Several suits are 
awaiting trial, and other prosecutions will be commenced as soon as the necessary 
evidence is obtained. This work has kept the Chief Firewarden busy the entire 
summer. Also, several arrests were made by the town firewardens, which resulted 
in the conviction of the various defendants and the enforcement of a penalty in 
each case. 

It may be reasonably expected that this vigorous, wholesale enforcement of 
the law will tend to decrease largely the number of fires from this source in the 
future. Anyway, there are fifty-six farmers who will not burn their fallows here- 
after in the close season, and their neighbors have had a good opportunity this 
summer to learn what they also may expect in case they violate this section 
of the law. 

Of the incendiaries arrested, three are now serving terms in State Prison for 
their offence. In some other prosecutions begun for this crime we were unable to 
obtain a conviction. Among the different causes reported by the wardens there 
are many attributed to fishermen, hunters, campers, etc. This may suggest that, as 
the firewardens knew the source of these fires, some arrests should have been made 
in connection with them. But these statements of the wardens were based upon 
their opinion in the matter, and not upon any positive facts or information. 
While they had every reason to believe that the fire originated as described, 
they could not obtain evidence of the definite character necessary to secure 
a conviction of the suspected parties. This will always be the case until we 
are authorized to employ patrols who can follow and watch fishermen, hunters,, 
campers and other persons who would be liable to start fires while wandering 
through the woods. 

The Forestry Law of the State of New York, so far as it relates to extinguish- 
ing fires, is a good one. It is admirably drawn, is well adapted to the various 
requirements which it is designed to meet, and it has been perfected by years of 
experience in its practical working. It has been used as a model by the forestry 
departments of other States, which have copied it, in the main, making only 
such modifications as their peculiar conditions or amount of appropriations made 
necessary. While its various sections enable the Commission to use all proper 
means for fighting forest fires, it' does not contain sufficient provision for their 



Il6 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

prevention. The best way to fight fires is to have no fires. Our present law 
works well enough in ordinary years, but it does not accomplish its purpose in a 
season of exceptional drought, and it fails to eliminate the danger from railroads. 
Unless amended in these respects it will be only a question of time before there 
will be a recurrence of a similar or worse disaster. 

The patrol system may be expensive some years, but it will cost less than 
fighting fires that otherwise will surely occur, to say nothing of the loss of prop- 
erty and injury to forest conditions. It cost $153,000 to fight fires this year, the 
most of which could have been prevented by the expenditure of a small propor- 
tion of this money in hiring patrols to guard the railroad lines and to watch the 
dangerous parties who were strolling through the woods. I doubt, however, if 
any law or force of patrols can prevent incendiary fires, for the men who commit 
these crimes in most instances select places and opportunities that enable them 
to avoid detection. 

The patrols are needed only during a part of April and May, and in many 
years a rainy spring would render their services unnecessary. A summer drought 
may occur some year (as in 1899) when the firewardens would have to order 
them on duty to guard the forest. That portion of the expense incurred by 
patrolling railroad lines should be borne in part by the railroad companies, 
the proportion to be determined by the Legislature. But however this may 
be arranged, the patrols should be under the sole authority and control of the 
local firewardens. In other localities the expense should be borne by the town 
and State, as provided under the present law for fighting fire. If the railway 
managers would consent to the use of petroleum in April and May, and at such 
other times as the forest conditions might require, the number of men needed 
for this purpose would be greatly reduced. But petroleum is much more expensive 
than coal, and so the companies may prefer to employ patrols rather than make 
any change in their motive power. 

This is no new idea. The system has already been in force for several years 
by the Canadian Government with good results. In 1902 there were 234 rangers 
employed on the Crown lands at an expense of $34,200. This plan was put in 
operation in 1885, at which time thirty-seven men were employed on this duty. 
The result was so satisfactory that the number was increased from year to year, 
until now there are 234 men employed on this work. The great Algonquin Park, 
in the Province of Ontario, which has an area of 1,109,383 acres, is also watched 
carefully by forest guards whose principal duty is the prevention of fires. The 
Dominion Government has found that, in the administration of its own lands, 
the method of prevention is the cheapest in the end. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. WJ 

I here wish to call your attention to the important services rendered by- 
Mr. L. S. Emmons, the Chief Firewarden of the Commission. During the fires 
last spring he was on the ground every day from first to last, assisting the wardens 
in organizing working parties, and, at times, superintending the men personally. 
When this work was finished he devoted his time to the prosecution of persons 
who had violated sections of the Fire Law, after which he returned to the Albany 
office, where he has been busily engaged in the adjustment of the accounts between 
the various towns and the State. 

I also desire to acknowledge the valuable assistance received from Foresters 
Knechtel and Pettis, each of whom worked faithfully during the critical period 
of the fires. Through the energetic care and activity of Mr. Pettis the extensive 
plantation of seedling trees at Lake Clear Junction was saved from destruction. 
With a party of men he stopped a dangerous fire that burned its way to the edge 
of the plantation and extinguished it there before any loss was sustained, except 
on a small area of planted ground along the border. Forester Knechtel also 
rendered valuable assistance in the tabulation of the statistics in the 643 reports 
received from the firewardens, and in preparing for future reference a practical 
digest of other information, which also appears in these returns. 

Animal Forest Product. 

As customary in my previous reports, I also submit here, for your informa- 
tion, the yearly statement, showing the extent of the timber cutting in the 
Adirondack and Catskill forests and the amount of the product. The statistics 
given are for the year 1902, as the returns for the current year are never 
obtainable in time for my annual report. 

A tabulation of the returns made to this office from each sawmill, pulp-mill, 
acid factory, cooperage plant and wood-consuming industry, drawing its supply 
of raw material from the Adirondack forest, shows the following output: 

ADIRONDACK FOREST. 

Feet B. M. 

Spruce 148,859,311 

Hemlock 60,177,715 

Pine 40,218,643 

Hardwood 34,851,571 

Pulp-wood (461,806 cords) 253,531,494 

Wood for chemicals, cooperage, etc 34,383,870 

Total 572,022,604 



1 1.8 



NINTH REPORT OF THE 



Adirondack Forest — {Concluded'). 

Pieces. 

Shingles 32,826,000 

Lath 45,987,200 

Total .-. . 78,813,200 



This is the largest output of any year in the history of the State, and exceeds 
that of the previous year by 27,767,711 feet. 

The sixth item includes 35,000 cords of wood cut by the Chateaugay Ore and 
Iron Company and used in their works at Lyon Mountain, Clinton County. 

Lumber Companies Using the Largest Amount of Stock. 



COMPANY. 


Location. 


Feet B. M. 


Norwood Manufacturing Company 

Finch, Pruyn and Company 

Beaver River Lumber Company 

Kenyon Lumber Company 

Moose River Lumber Company 

Sherman Lumber Company 


Glens Falls 

Castorland 

Sandy Hill 

Canton 


22,355,000 

20, 550, 000 
12, 900, 000 
12,753,260 
11,000,000 

10,325,000 
10,052,035 



Industries Consuming the Largest Amount of Pulp-Wood. 



COMPANY. 


Location. 


Cords. 


International Paper Company 

J. and J. Rogers Company 

Hinckley Fibre Company 

Union Bag and Paper Company 

International Paper Company 

Dexter Paper Company ....".... 
International Paper Company 


Watertown 


■ 40, 688 
33,049 
33,ooo 
30, 000 
28, 292 

23, 923 
18, 000 

i7,5i5 



These figures do not indicate the relative amount of business done by the pulp 
companies, as many of them get a large proportion of their stock from Canada, 
and hence some of the largest concerns do not appear in this list. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. II9 



CATSKILL FOREST. 
Output op This Region and Industries in Which Used. 

Feet B. M. 

Lumber (mostly hardwood) 58,618,352 

Acid factories (92,099 cords) 50,562,361 

Excelsior, pulp, etc. (17,333 cords) 9,515,817 



Total 118,696,53 



o 



Pieces. 

Shingles 4,698,000 

Lath 4,454,500 

Total . 9,152,500 



Lumber Product of the Catskill Region by Counties. 

Feet B. M. 

Delaware 26,770,858 

Greene 6,205,794 

Sullivan 17,218,840 

Ulster 8,422,860 

Total . 58,618,352 



SUMMARY. 

Feet B. M. 



Adirondack forest 572,022,604 

Catskill forest 118,696,530 

Total •-.. . 690,719,134 



As the collection of the information relating to the annual forest product 
necessitated a correspondence with 655 different firms or individuals and the 
tabulation of the statistics thus obtained, it will be seen that no small amount 
of time and work were expended on this part of our office business. In some 
instances, where a firm or individual failed to make a return, a special journey- 
to the mills of these parties was made in order to obtain the desired information. 

The thanks of the Commission are due to the various persons engaged in these 
industries for their prompt and courteous replies to our request for a statement, 
their cooperation in this respect enabling us to ascertain definitely the facts 



120 NINTH RETORT OF THE 

as to the extent of the annual output, a knowledge of which is so essential to a 
correct understanding of the forestry situation in our State. In the collection 
and tabulation of the statistics thus obtained I am indebted to the assistance of 
Mr. A. B. Strough of this office, his previous experience for several years on this 
same work enabling him to collate the figures with accuracy. 

Forests as a jammer Resort. 

The annual supply bill, passed by the Legislature of 1903, contained the 
following item : 

"For the expense of collecting and publishing statistics and other information 
relating to amount of capital invested, number of persons employed, wages paid, 
and volume of business done at the summer resorts in the counties containing the 
Forest Preserve and public parks of the State, $1,5130, or so much thereof as is 
necessary." 

It was further provided in the act that the work necessary in securing and 
publishing this information should be done by your Commission. During the 
summer a list was made of the 3,526 hotels and boarding-houses in the Adiron- 
dacks, Catskills and at the Thousand Islands. A circular-letter was mailed to 
each proprietor explaining the object of the Commission in thus addressing him, 
and with the circular was sent an information-blank, which he was asked to fill in 
with the desired statistics. The forms used for this purpose read as follows: 

State op New York. 

Forest, Fish and Game Commission, 

Albany, October 1, 1903. 
Dewitt C. Middleton, Commissioner. 

J. Duncan Lawrence, Deputy Commissioner. 



, N. Y. 

Dear Sir. — We shall include in our annual report for 1903 some statistics 
showing the extent of summer-resort business carried on by the Northern hotels 
and boarding-houses, the total capital invested in buildings, the number of guests, 
number of employees, total wages paid, and gross receipts from all sources. As 
it is essential that these statistics should be based on statements furnished by the 
proprietors of the various hotels and boarding-houses, instead of on estimates 
made by others, a copy of the enclosed circular has been mailed to each. 

The figures thus obtained will not be printed, but will be treated as a confi- 
dential communication. In no case will they be shown to any assessor, or used 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 121 

in any way that might influence the assessment of property. The published 
statistics will contain no information as to any particular hotel or boarding-house, 
but will show only the total footings of the returns. 

Will you kindly fill out the blank in the enclosed circular at your earliest con- 
venience and remail it to us. In case you cannot readily refer to your accounts 
or hotel register, you are at liberty to fill out the answers from memory, or as 
near as you can. 

The combined figures from the returns will show the volume of the Northern 
summer-resort business of New York, the large amount of money distributed 
there for wages, and the influence of this business on the development and pros- 
perity of that region. This valuable and interesting information, together with a 
schedule of the summer hotels and boarding-houses, their proprietors, and the 
capacity of each place, will be printed in a special report, a copy of which will 
be mailed to your address. 

Trusting that the interest you must feel in all information of the kind will 
prompt you to cooperate with us in this work, we remain, 

Yours very truly, 

Forest, Fish and Game Commission. 



COPY OF INFORMATION-BLANK FURNISHED. 

State of New York. 

Summer Hotels and Boarding-Houses. 

Season of 1903. 

Name of hotel or boarding-house 

Name of proprietor Postoffice address 

Railroad station Capacity 

Total number of guests, boarders, fishermen and hunters in 1903 : 

Number of guests that remained over two weeks . „ 

Number of guests from outside of the State of New York 

Total capital invested in buildings, all kinds, and furniture, not including land, $ 

Total number of employees (clerks, cooks, porters, waiters, chambermaids, bell-boys, 

house mechanics, musicians, stablemen, drivers, house guides, etc.) 

Total wages paid employees and help, male and female, $.__ , 

Total receipts for board, laundry, carriage hire, boat hire, golf grounds, etc., $ 

Note. — If your hotel is open all the year, please omit any figures for your winter or commercial 
business, but include tourists, pleasure and health seekers, fishermen and hunters. 

As a general thing the replies were prompt and satisfactory. But many of the 
proprietors, fearing that the information might be used to their disadvantage 
by the town assessor, answered only in part and omitted the figures showing the 
value of their buildings or capital invested. This omission was unnecessary, as 



122 



NINTH REPORT OF THE 



the circular sent them stated plainly that their replies would be treated as a confi- 
dential communication. Still, some persons flatly refused to furnish this particular 
item, and so an official of the Commission, competent to make a fair estimate as 
to the value of this class of property, was sent to obtain the lacking information. 

In some instances, where parties made a complete return, the value of the 
property was evidently an understatement, the owner having the assessors in mind 
when he filled out his report. On the other hand, some hotel proprietors, actuated 
by a feeling of rivalry or pride in their business, reported their yearly receipts at an 
amount beyond that which the extent of their buildings and accommodations 
would indicate. For these reasons the figures in the condensed statement may 
be regarded as approximate rather than strictly accurate. 

The information compiled in the course of this work is too voluminous for 
insertion here, and hence it will be sent to the Legislature as a special report. 
I am able, however, to submit the following: 

Summary. 



LOCALITY. 


Total 
advertised 
capacity. 


Total 

number of 

guests. 


Guests 
remaining 
over two 

weeks. 


Guests 

from outsidf 

of New York 

State. 


Adirondacks 

Lake George 

Thousand Islands 


32, 863 

89,978 
5,389 
4,9l8 


204, 523 

224, 382 

26, 272 

47, 209 


44,956 

89, 732 

5,237 

4,3l6 


22, 876 

44, 866 

3,no 

17,251 


Total 


133, 148 


502, 386 


144,241 


88, 103 


LOCALITY. 


Total capital 

invested 

(exclusive of 

land). 


Total 
number of 
employees. 


Total 
wages paid 
employees. 


Total 
receipts. 


Catskills . . 


$4, 164, 620 

II, 131,200 

1,131,500 

1,243,500 


7,452 

17,986 

1,009 

1,155 


$541,959 

539, 58o 

48, 508 
63,694 


$3,999,139 

4, 443, 848 

282, 227 

350,156 


Total . . . 


$17,670,820 


27, 602 


*$i,i93,74i 


$9,075,370 



* Does not include board. 



These figures show that our forests occupy a valuable place in the political 
economy of the State, aside from their product and the industries dependent 
on them. In addition to the sanitary benefits, the esthetic advantages, and the 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 23 

maintenance of fish and game, they offer this peculiar source of wealth and 
further diversification of business. But it must be remembered that this desir- 
able condition is solely dependent for its continuance on the preservation of the 
forests, which constitute the sole attraction to the thousands who throng these 
summer resorts. If the mountain slopes and upland plateaus of the Adirondack 
and Catskill regions are denuded of their forest cover — ■ if in place of these 
sylvan attractions there is to be only a dreary waste of stump fields and fire- 
blackened areas — the thousands of summer visitors will seek other places, the 
hotels and boarding-houses will then be tenantless, and the people of the State 
will lose this source of revenue. The permanence of our forests will depend 
largely on the permanence of tenure; and there is no permanence of tenure aside 
from that of the State. 

I append to this report some extracts from the firewardens' reports which 
you will find readable and interesting. They throw a sidelight on the situation 
and furnish certain items of information that are necessary to the obtaining of 
a full and correct idea as to events in the Adirondacks during the fires of 1903. 

Trusting that the discussions in this report will meet with your approval, and 
that the suggestions may receive your favorable consideration, I am, 

Yours very respectfully, 

William F. Fox, 



Albany, N. Y., December 31, 1903. 



Superintendent State Forests. 



Wl)af tl)e Firewardens Had to $&%. 

I append here some extracts from the reports of the town firewardens which 
furnish additional information of a special character and serve to give a better 
idea of the conditions under which their work was carried on. They are from 
practical, experienced men whose opinions are entitled to careful consideration. 
While I do not always agree with the firewardens in their views and suggestions, 
it seems proper to call the attention of the Commission to what they have to say 
about these matters. In these extracts from the "Remarks" in their reports, 
it is highly satisfactory to note the keen interest and zeal which they evidently 
take in the discharge of their duties. Nowhere have I found anything indicating 
apathy or indifference. I also include some extracts from letters and telegrams 



124 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

received from them, which were sent in order to get instructions or advice as 
to doubtful questions that came up in the course of their work; also some from 
letters sent by citizens in relation to the fires in their towns or on their property: 

Mr. George W. Meader, Dannemora, Clinton County. — We had a drought 
lasting sixty days. The land had been cut over and left with brush and some 
standing timber in small spots. I worked two days in putting out fire at the edge 
of a 6oo-acre tract of State land near Dannemora Prison, and stopped it before it 
did any damage. I have arrested five persons for building fallow fires without 
permission, and so have stopped any more setting of such fires. 

Mr. William Hopkins, Ausable Forks, Clinton County. — I do not think the 
fires this season were of incendiary origin. Never in my experience have 
conditions been so favorable for fire. For seven weeks not one drop of rain fell, 
and the drought began so early that vegetation did not get a chance to start. 
If it had, it would have retarded the fire materially. ■ 

Mr. B. R. Brewster, Newman, Essex County. — This fire was the worst of all. 
A terrible wind arose on the third of June about twelve o'clock. The wind carried 
the sparks through the woods at a rapid rate. In the territory around the South 
Meadows and Adirondack Lodge about 6,000 acres had been lumbered. The Spruce 
and Balsam brush made good fuel, and the fire swept over an area of 10,000 acres 
in one afternoon. The timber burned was of little value, as it was all hardwood 
and too far from market. 

Mr. Robert H. Wilson, Olmstedville, Essex County. — -This tract was lumbered 
last season, and all the large timber was cut off. There was quite a lot of small 
Spruce and Balsam left, which in time would have been valuable; but now every- 
thing is killed. There was so much brush to feed the flames that the fire burned 
very fast. 

Mr. Washington Chase, Newcomb, Essex County. — This fire would have been 
very disastrous had it not been for the prompt action of a large force of men who 
stopped it and held it under control until rain came. 

Mr. William H. Broughton, Moriah, Essex County. — We could not put the 
fires out, but we kept them from running by leaving men to watch the ground after 
they were once under control. 

Mr. Charles Giddings, Ausable Chasm, Essex County. — This fire was on Pine 
land that had been lumbered. The tops and brush left in the woods made a very 
hot fire; the young timber was mostly killed. This fire (May fourth) was on Trem- 
bleau Mountain. It did very little damage, for we kept it out of the valuable timber 
and held it at the top of the mountain where there was very little to burn. We 
fought it for three days against a strong south wind, then the wind shifted to the 
west and the fire was soon extinguished. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 25 

Mr. C. W. Rowe, Chesterfield, Essex County. — The Delaware and Hudson Rail- 
road has about ten miles of track in this town — nearly all of it along a mountain 
side, and with very few buildings in sight of the road. This mountain side was 
covered with forest when the railroad was built, but it has been burned over so many 
times since that nearly all the timber has been killed and is falling down, making 
excellent fuel for a forest fire. The law requiring railroad companies to pay all losses 
from fires caused by their engines has been utterly ignored. Not a dollar has ever 
been paid for damages, the company claiming that we must prove that their engines 
set the fires, and to prove this we must see the fire leave the engine and strike the 
ground. If the railroads cannot prevent these fires by putting proper appliances 
on their locomotives, then it is a serious problem. If they can do so and do not 
attend to it they should be prosecuted. The fires in this town are now under 
control, but the engines on the Delaware and Hudson Railroad set fires on the 
mountain south of Port Kent nearly every day. If the trainmen on this road 
make any effort to prevent them, such efforts are of no avail. Their fire screens 
are not worth a straw, and if the officials of the road don't know it, it is time 
they did. I venture to say that 100 fires have been set by engines on this road 
within sight of my residence, a distance of four or five miles. 

Mr. C. A. Jordan, Elizabethtown, Essex County. — In regard to my estimate 
on the value of buildings destroyed, I would say that it was made up as follows: 
Euba Mills, $2,000; house, barn and blacksmith shop, $ 1,000; three tenant houses 
($500 each), $1,500; one farmhouse, barn and outbuildings, $1,500; total, $6,000. 
No fences or bridges of any value were destroyed. 

Mr. James Wood, Schroon, Essex County, — I have been putting up posters. 
I find that I have a good many fallows to burn, if they don't burn them before 
they have a right to. The people claim that they can burn on their own land 
when they have a mind to, for the law is no good. If that is the case, I don't see 
any need of firewardens. But I gave them to understand that I should do my 
duty, and that I would report them. They said that I could not prove that they 
set the fire. I told them if the fire was there it was evidence that they started it 
or knew who did. I further told them that if they did not have a printed permit 
from me they were liable to a fine. I told them you had written me cranky 
letters and said for me to report them, and that you would put the law in force. 
They say you cannot unless the fire goes off their land. I told them it made no 
difference whether the fire got off their land or not; that they were liable to a 
fine just the same. I mean to do my duty as long as I am firewarden. 

Mr. Charles Hooper, Westport, Essex County. — I spoke to the station agent 
at Westport about these railroad fires and he got quite mad about it. He said the 
railroad was blamed for everything. The agent admitted that he did not think 
there was anything to prevent the sparks from escaping. Most of the damage is 
done by freight trains. 



126 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

Mr. George H. McKinney, Ellenburg, Franklin County. — The fire did not run 
much until a high wind drove it over a large area. On April thirtieth the wind 
blew again very hard, and it was then that nearly the whole tract of 500 acres was 
burned over. The Spruce had been mostly cut off, leaving only hardwoods. 
The fire ran in the Spruce tops left in the woods. I could not get men enough 
to stop it, as the wind was blowing so hard and the timber was so dry. The fire 
was checked the next day (May first) by the weather becoming cold. 

Mr. B. L. Reynolds, Reynoldston, Franklin County. — The district burned over 
was mostly brush and wild lands. It was not very valuable, but it was quite 
near to buildings, and work was principally directed to protecting these. It is 
almost impossible to extinguish fires completely now. The best one can do is to 
be sure it is out all around the edge far enough so that it will not throw sparks. 
But to put out absolutely all old logs, stumps, etc., all over the tract, would take 
a whole pond of water. This fire (June ninth) came from the adjoining town of 
Dickinson, and could be controlled only on the virgin forest land. It was held 
there by continual work until rain came. 

Mr. Benjamin A. Muncil, Paul Smith's, Franklin County.- — I had miles of 
ditches dug. 

Mr. Fremont F. Smith, Loon Lake, Franklin County. — The timber on some 
of these burned lots is falling down. I think something should be done in 
regard to the donkey engines they are using on the new road which they are 
building. They have burned the whole country up now, and they are going 
to run up to the outlet of Loon Lake with them in a few days. We cannot 
keep men enough over there to keep the fire out, as they start flames wherever 
they go. I don't think they are using any screens at all. 

Mr. Perkins Smith, St. Regis Falls, Franklin County. — I went over the burned 
area (300 acres) and found that it was entirely virgin forest, heavily timbered 
with White Pine. But I think this Pine will not die for two or three years yet. 
The hardwood had been cut before this fire occurred, but a large amount of pulp 
timber was standing which was badly damaged. Shall I allow men pay for fighting 
fire on their own lands? The point in question is this: The agent for O. P. Dexter 
has worked his men in connection with other men warned out to fight fire on 
Dexter's land. 

Mr. A. N. Skiff, Onchiota, Franklin County. — There were times when the men 
were away in other places fighting fire, and so I got the women out to help. If 
I hadn't done so nothing could have stopped the fire from burning every building 
for miles around here. The women fought two nights, all night long, and waded 
brooks clear to their knees. I say they fought fire better than the men, they 
were that scared, and were more thorough in putting it out than the men were. . 
I kept their time the same as the men and made out their account and swore to 
it, and then the town firewarden would not allow them anything for it. The 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 12J 

board said they ought to have it as well as the men, but he wouldn't allow it. 
When Henry Paye was firewarden he had to get the women out in some places, 
and he allowed them the same as the men, for he said they fought better. Up 
in the town of Brighton they had women fighting fire and they got their pay the 
same as the men. There are lots of times when the fires are raging so bad that every 
one has to turn out. I am going to send this account to you and see if you 
don't think the}- ought to have their pay. I say it is a shame if they don't, and 
I think you will pay the same.* 

Mr. Edward M. Smith, Saranac Lake, Franklin County. — I think the railroad 
company should put more men on the track in a dry time. 

Mr. William J. Bellin, Fulton County. — The fire is still burning in the ground 
at places. It cannot be extinguished now, as there is no water. I am watching it 
all the time so that it will not spread. 

Mr. Netus Lancaster, Stratford, Fulton County. — The fire is burning into 
the muck very deep. 

Mr. F. W. Abrams, Piseco, Hamilton County.- — I can see how a camp might 
have prevented this fire. There is no camp on this lake (Sand Lake), and this is 
the second time that a fire has occurred here. A fire for cooking is built in the 
woods, and a high wind arising, sparks are blown into the forest, starting a fire that 
soon gets beyond control. I have had no fires where there were camps for people 
to use. 

Mr. R. B. Nichols, Indian Lake, Hamilton County. — We kept the fire from 
running except on the day when the wind blew so hard. Then it got the advantage 
of us, but as soon as the wind went down we surrounded it again. I have the 
fires under control and nearly all out at this time (May second). No great 
damage has been done, as the fires ran mostly in the leaves and did not burn 
very deep; but over in Minerva, Essex County, on Township 15, it burned pretty 
hard. I think perhaps it would be well for you to come here after the fires 
are over, as we will have to do some business with some of those fellows for burning 
fallows ; also with some that would not go to the fires when ordered out to do so 
by the district wardens. 

Mr. Wellington- Kenwell, Inlet, Hamilton County. — All of the men turned 
in and carried water. At night three of them carried water and had the fire all out 
by morning. Then three men connected a pipe line, turning a one and one half inch 
stream of water on the burning ground. We kept this pipe line running for 
three weeks. One fire started opposite the mouth of Indian River, just about 
the Beecher Camp. I think it was started by a smoker, as there were parties 
fishing there. The fire on Lime Kiln Lake was started by parties camping 
there. I employed a man to get the names of the sportsmen who were seen there 



The women were paid. — W. F. F. 



128 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

the day before the fire was discovered. This case seems easy of proof. Smokers 
start most of the fires in this locality. A match thrown down, or a pipe knocked 
out, will start a fire in a few minutes. 

Mr. Byron Ames, Nehasane, Hamilton County. — The origin of this fire will 
always be a mystery. There appears to be no reason to suspect malicious intent; 
and there is small probability that it was due to carelessness. It started near an 
old stump where some bottles and tin cans had been thrown from camp buildings 
unoccupied for many months. Some claim that the rays of the sun acting on the 
bottoms of the old bottles were brought to a focus, the same as when passed 
through a sunglass. Another theory is that the fire caught from flying embers 
blown from other fires. This is a very plausible theory, because for days the air 
had been full of sparks, and of the millions falling some few must have carried fire. 
Only the day before (May nineteenth) the men at work there found a small 
fire spreading on the surface of a path or road in some old sawdust and they 
extinguished it. They could not account for its origin. Mr. Conklin, a log jobber, 
within four or five miles of this point, about this time found two fires in the woods, 
the origin of which he could not account for. It is very probable that they 
caught from wind-dropped embers. The Chief Firewarden of the State and the 
warden of the town of Long Lake were at this fire. They approved of the course 
pursued in handling it, and no unfavorable criticism was made to me either during 
or after the fire. The situation was a trying and desperate one, and the wonder is 
that the destruction was not greater. 

Mr. W. D. Jennings, Long Lake, Hamilton County. — I sent District Fire- 
warden Michael McManus to the fire. He claims that it was the same one which 
had been burning in the muck, and that the wind blew it up. We supposed it was 
entirely extinguished. I sent to Newcomb for help, and by June first we had 125 
men on the line back-firing and trenching. 

Mr. Martin Boh, Morehouseville, Hamilton County. — This would have been 
a very serious fire but for the promptness of Theodore C. Remonda, district 
firewarden, to whom great credit is due for reaching the place with men and 
teams as soon as it was possible to do so. By sundown we had it under control, 
so that on the next day we wholly extinguished it. 

Mr. Frank Stanyon, Wells, Hamilton County. — I am sorry to say we have 
got three fires in this town, but they have not done much damage yet, as they are 
burning on land that has been burned over before. It is covered mostly with 
briers, brakes and dead timber. Perhaps you are aware that it is hard to put 
out fire in such a place as that when it is so dry as it is now, and we have 
quite a wind every day, which makes it bad. I am doing my best to stop it with 
as few men as possible. It is not yet near any valuable timber. It is the opinion 
of some of our citizens that these fires are started to make feed for Deer. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 29 

Mr. J. H. Higby, Big Moose, Herkimer County. — We have a bad fire at Sisters 
Ponds, in Township 41. I put on about sixty men yesterday and some thirty more 
last night. The belt is about half a mile wide by one mile long, but it is burning 
like a furnace. The smoke and heat are intense, but we have held it on the west and 
south. I have got another tough proposition. The men say that I have no right 
to order them to go into Hamilton County to fight fire. If you will do so, please 
send me a written order that I may show them. That is not all: there is a lot 
of men that refuse to go, not knowing where the pay is to come from. You know 
there is no provision for the pay before next winter. You see, I am handicapped 
all around. I am sending in seven men that I will pay myself, and the other 
hotels are sending in some men also. These floating chaps demand their pay at 
once, but I am unable to advance the money. Mr. Parsons, the town firewarden, 
cannot send in men because he has a bad fire down at Old Forge.* I have no 
idea how the fire started, nor can I find out anything about it. I have now sixty 
men on the ground night and day. We are doing all we can and will save every rod 
of timber possible. I go around the fire line myself and direct the men where the 
work is needed most. I was not on the ground this morning, but I put my son in 
charge in my absence. He was up day before yesterday, night before last, and 
all day yesterday, without sleep or rest. The men have worked in heat and smoke. 
I think I can handle affairs now. I have taken up blankets and put in boats, 
tools and provisions. I haven't weighed out anything as yet because my time has 
been so much taken up. But I will make an offer to board the men at four dollars 
per week to save the bother of weighing out provisions. Now, another thing: how 
many hours is a day's work? The men say eight hours. I don't know what you 
think about it, but I am keeping the time by the hour. 

Mr. J. E. Roberts, Old Forge, Herkimer County. — The fire at Fulton Chain is 
not the same as when you were here. Another one caught near the railroad and 
is burning on the east side of the track below Fulton Chain, but I have it under 
control. I have sixty men at the Big Moose fire, and have notified the warden in 
Long Lake, as it is outside of this town by three miles. The fire at Beaver River 
is burning slowly, but Bullock is doing good work and keeping it from spreading. 
It is so far through the woods to the fire on Watson's East Triangle that I have 
asked Miller to take care of it from the town of Croghan. A new fire started on 
the land of the Adirondack League Club, caused by a camp fire. It burned 
fiercely, but to-night I have it down in good shape. Mr. De Camp is very anxious to 



*This letter was received the same day that the Governor placed funds at the disposal of the 
Commission. The Superintendent notified Mr. Higby to hire all the men necessary to extinguish 
this fire, which was on State land and was running in the direction of the Raquette Lake Township. 
The State has 100,000 acres of virgin forest land in a solid block where this fire occurred, but 
it was completely extinguished before it burned a very large area. The fire was in Hamilton 
County and there were no residents within several miles, except a few who were in a lumber camp 
near Big Moose Lake. It could be fought only by sending men in from Herkimer County, as the 
firewarden at Long Lake, the town in which it occurred, lived thirty-six miles away. — W. F. F. 



I30 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

know what can be done in regard to raising money, but I tell him I don't see as 
anything can be done at present. He has paid his men, upon my orders on bills, 
about $1,000, and he does not want to wait until the town audits the bills for his 
pay. I wish you would see him in regard to the matter. Many of the fires are 
greatly exaggerated by people who tell what they hear but who do not go near 
the fires at all. They say the fires burn over more land than they actually do. 
A report was made to-day of 1,000 acres when it did not exceed 250 acres that 
were burned. 

Mr. Riley Parsons, Old Forge, Herkimer County.- — The way I have done so 
far is to give the men a regular voucher okayed by me and have them paid by the 
individuals upon whose land the fire occurred. The latter can turn these vouchers 
ov ( er with the duplicate to the town board when they audit accounts, and I will 
see that they correspond to the abstract sheet which I keep of them. 

Mr. Duane Norton, Brantingham, Lewis County. — -We take our tents with 
us and stay right at the fire line. I tell you we don't lose much ground where we 
drive our stakes. I have been at work along the Lewis County line and have 
not been driven back more than half a mile at any time. Mr. Marvin admitted 
that he set his fallow* on fire Thursday, the seventh. The district firewarden 
discovered it, and calling out all the available men stopped it in the face of a heavy 
wind. An hour's delay and it would have been beyond control. He did excellent 
work and at the right time. We paid our men two dollars per day and board, as we 
had to keep them in camps and tents along our fire line. Our town board, at my 
request, came together and borrowed $500, and I got two other parties to advance 
as much more. So, you see, our men knew they would get their pay as soon as 
they were through. I tell you I could do as much with that class of men as could 
be done with a trainload of city men. We took none but thorough woodsmen. 

Mr. D. D. Graham, Harrisville, Lewis County. — The air was so full of smoke 
that we could not see a fresh fire when it started. The whole country seemed to 
be on fire at once. 

Mr. Charles Corbett, Osceola, Lewis County. — I went to the fire as soon as I 
could, on the fourteenth, and got help from the sawmills and three men — a clerk 
in a store, a minister and a farmer. These three men do not want any pay. 
This fire (May fourth) was on the farm of Adelbert Kinney. He lost thirty cords 
of stovewood and all of his pasture. The pasture was an old slash that had 
been burned over and sown to grass seed. 

Mr. Eugene Hathaway, Diana, Lewis County. — The situation here is bad. 
We have been on the fire line since April twenty-eighth with no signs of a let up. 
It is hard for me to get help enough to take care of the fires; we have to employ 



*This man was arrested and fined for burning a fallow in the close season. — W. F. F. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



FIRE UNDER CONTROL. 

MEN DIGGING TRENCHES TO PREVENT IT FROM SPREADING. 




K. GOLDTHWA1TE, ?HOTO. 



PLOWING FURROWS TO STOP PROGRESS OF A GROUND FIRE. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 3 1 

all the men we can get, and the most of them are poor men, with families, who 
must have their pay as fast as they can earn it. I have to find some man that 
will buy their account so they can have their money to live on. Any help you can 
give me at this time will be greatly appreciated. 

Mr. Stephen Waldron, Chase's Lake, Lewis County. — In reply to your tele- 
gram I beg to say that I am at work, with about eighty men, and am doing all 
that can be done. The supervisor and members of the town board are also 
at work with me. 

Mr. John A. Leyndecker, Croghan, Lewis County. — Mr. Hecker has shown me 
the telegram you sent him in regard to the fire. Miller and Parsons have not sent 
me any help as yet, but I have sent some men across the Herkimer County 
line to fight the fire in Watson's East Triangle. The fire here burns through the 
mucky land from twelve to fifteen inches deep, and therefore we have to dig 
trenches for miles on both sides of it. We are digging them three feet wide, 
and have thus far done fine work since your telegram to Mr. Hecker. 

Mr. G. V. Norton, Chase's Lake, Lewis County. — Fires will sweep the forests 
if the towns will not pay men honest wages in the future. Men will not work 
without pay. All they paid men for labor in our towns was one dollar and fifty 
cents per day, and a man must board himself at that price. Kindly write me what 
to do about the board bill, as I have waited all summer now. 

Mr. Warner Yeomans, Porestport, Oneida County. — This was a hard fire to 
extinguish because it was burning in the muck. When it was apparently all out, 
and no smoke could be seen, a high wind would fan it into life and cause it to 
break out again. Please send me two dozen blank reports as soon as possible. 
I have been very busy driving from one fire to another organizing squads of men. 
The fires have been in different parts of the town at once; when I would go to 
one fire I could see another one in a different direction. I would organize squads 
to fight one fire and then start for another. All of my district wardens were 
just as busy. I cannot report exactly the number of days each warden and his 
men served at each separate fire, as they were on from two to four different ones 
the same day, and back and forth. Will get it as near as I can and will give 
you the accurate amount. This has been a very lively time in this town. Each 
warden and myself have done our best to quench and prevent fires. 

Mr. R. R. Prichard, Remsen, Oneida County. — -In answer to your telegram 
and the complaint that was made to you that I neglected to do my duty as fire- 
warden in this town, I will say that I have done everything that could be done 
to stop the fire, and it was done in good shape. I had men out working at all 

points where there was danger. I went myself with five men to work at 

place and got the fire under control. But Mr. had seven or eight men 

working on his barn and he, by spells, put them to work in the woods to put out 



132 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

fire, and sometimes doing other work. He called out lots of men to come to 
help him. He wanted me to say that I called them out so that they would get 
paid from the town and State. I refused to do that. I told him that I would 
not lie for him or for any other man, and that is the reason why he makes the 
complaint. I wish you would write to any officer in this town and ask him about 
my work as firewarden. I will do what is right with all persons, but I will not 
lie for any man, and I know that you don't ask me to do it. Please let me know if 
there is anything wrong and I will correct it. 

Mr. A. C. Hickok, Corinth, Saratoga County. — The fire started about eight 
miles west of South Corinth. It was reported to me at a time when the air 
was very smoky; ashes and burned leaves were falling thickly. Everybody was 
frightened and supposed the woods all around us were burning up. I telephoned 
District Warden Eggleston to start at three o'clock the next morning, with all the 
men he could get, and look for fire. He was busy nearly all night ordering out 
his men. The next day he traveled over a large territory, but finding only 
this one fire, which was soon extinguished, he concluded that the smoky condition 
was due to fires outside of the town. 

Mr. Horace Webb, Edwards, St. Lawrence County. — There were springs 
and small streams in the woods from which the men carried water. They also 
dug ditches, where practicable, and used dirt to cover and smother the fire. Men 
were kept constantly on the watch, and yet it would spread to some extent, 
usually during the afternoon. 

Mr. Edgar Reed, Degrasse, St. Lawrence County. — The men fought fire until 
midnight, some of them without any supper. 

Mr. J. F. Evans, Fine, St. Lawrence County. — The past week has been the 
worst time for fires that I have seen in years. The entire woods in the west half 
of this town, and, in fact, clear to Cranberry Lake, are on fire. The New York 
Central Railroad started seven fires on one run last week from Carthage to 
Oswegatchie. This fire is burning from the line of the railroad and Bear Lake 
clear through the woods. I have had out nearly seventy men at times. 

Mr. Emery P. Gale, Piercefield, St. Lawrence County. — Have you any funds 
on hand to pay these men? There should be some way provided to pay men for 
fighting fire. These poor men have to live by day labor, and it is hard to make 
them wait until the following winter for their money. 

Mr. Arthur Flanders, Hopkinton, St. Lawrence County. — I came out of the 
woods on Friday night (May thirtieth) for the first time to get a day off since 
May eighth. I wish you would come here if you can, as there are about 4,000 acres 
burned over, mostly lumbered land. There is very little timber land burned. 
When you telephoned me from South Colton to meet you on Sunday I did not get 
the word until afternoon. I was seven miles away in the woods fighting fire, and 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. I33 

was short of help. Must I get the number of acres and the timber land burned 
over ? If so, it will take me a month to do it. Will report again as soon as I 
feel it is safe to call all the men off. 

Mr. William W. Cheney, Caldwell, Warren County. — The grade from Lake 
George south to near the point of this fire is very heavy. There is also quite a 
heavy grade from the south to near this same point, and when trains pass 
up these grades a large number of live coals are thrown out from the smokestacks 
of the engines. 

Mr. Miles Frost, Thurman, Warren County. — I would have written you before 
now, but since the death of our firewarden, Mr. W. J. Fuller, I have been trying to 
ascertain whom we could appoint in his place. I think we had better appoint one 
Henry Combs. He is a young man and has always lived here. I think it is 
best for me to see the deputy wardens in Districts Nos. 2 and 3 this spring and have 
a talk with them, as they are young men and I would like to consult with them. 
The firebugs you speak of are now in jail. A boy caught them setting a fire, and 
there was a bill found against both of them, the leader on two indictments — 
one for shooting at the boy who caught him, and the other for setting a fire. 
These fellows have set a great many fires in our town. 

Mr. E. H. Sturtevant, Fort Ann, Washington County. — Mr. Charles De Golver, 
a justice of the peace, was called on by the owner of Lot 24 at one o'clock 
Wednesday night. He got the men out early the next morning and did a good job, 
for the people were frightened almost out of their wits on account of the drought, 
heat, smoke and desperate fires. These men say that they had rather lose their pay 
than have to lose a day and travel thirty miles to get their bills sworn to. They 
are the best lot of men I ever saw to climb mountains and fight fires. But some of 
them say they will answer no more calls to fight fire. They are all poor men and 
cannot afford to lose their time and have so much trouble to get their pay. The 
deputy wardens claim they cannot get help for the price, which is one dollar per 
day, as fixed by the town board. 

Mr. Robert Steves, Whitehall, Washington County. — At the commencement 
of the fire we had hard work to get men to fight it, as the town board had 
voted to pay only one dollar per day. Later, when the supervisors instructed 
me to pay a fair price for the work, the fire had gained such headway that the 
district warden had difficulty to manage it even with a large gang of men. When 
the fire reached the village limits the hose company was called upon by those 
endangered, and I would like to have you instruct me who will settle the claim. 

Mr. John D. Graham, Putnam Station, Washington County. — I wish you would 
call the attention of the officials of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad Company 
to the danger of fires which are being set by their locomotives nearly every day in 
this town, and to the fact of the insufficient work being done by their trackmen 
in putting fires out when they do occur. 



134 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

Mr. C. W. Rowe, Chesterfield, Essex County. — These fires were set by engines 
on the Delaware and Hudson Railroad. Fires are started every day, and I have to 
keep men watching all the time. Engines Nos. 55, 71, 113, 139 and 388 have been 
known to set fires, and we are willing to swear to it. 

CATSKILL COUNTIES. 

Mr. George A. Eller, Callicoon, Delaware County. — We worked until mid- 
night, and could stand it no longer on the mountain without food and water, 
so we retired for the night and started again at daybreak, when we succeeded in 
putting the fire out. 

Mr. Thomas S. Miller, Andes, Delaware County. — The fire is supposed to have 
been started by William Van Kuren. He told different stories about it; one was 
that he was smoking out a hedgehog; another, that he lit a cigarette and dropped 
a match. 

Mr. Thomas Ford, Shavertown, Delaware County. — A back-fire was set, though 
forbidden by the district firewarden. In my opinion the fire from this cause burned 
over 100 acres more than it would have done otherwise. 

Mr. M. W. Knight, Hancock, Delaware County. — This fire occurred on the line of 
the Ontario and Western Railroad, and the work-train coming along with its gang 
extinguished it, so I had no men to pay. The other fire started in a fallow and 
spread to State land. There is quite a lot of Hemlock timber burned on the State 
land, and it ought to be cut and peeled this year in order to save it. In another 
year it will all be spoiled. 

Mr. E. A. Howes, Trout Creek, Delaware County. — This fire had to be watched. 
It was extinguished several times, but as it was a very dry time it would start up 
after we thought it was entirely out. 

Mr. Jeremiah E. Haines, Haines Falls, Greene County. — The fire was so far 
from where men could be obtained to fight it that it was necessary to employ 
teams to carry the men back and forth. The dead Spruce branches made a fierce 
blaze, and one that was hard to fight and control. 

Mr. W. B. Hall, Cairo, Greene County. — I shall either appoint a new warden in 
his place or a deputy, as you suggest. He is a good, practical man, but on account 
of rheumatism he is unable to climb mountains. I have given plenty of warning to 
certain careless people, and they had better look out this summer. I think it 
about time that they realize that the State is not doing this for fun. 

Mr. Plymouth Davis, Livingston Manor, Sullivan County. — I have had the 
following notice inserted in the newspaper: "On account of the great number of 
forest fires, I wish to inform farmers and taxpayers in general that it is to their 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 35 

interest to see that the law relating to setting forest fires is fully observed. 
After June tenth fallows may be burned, and farmers may burn same by applying 
to the firewarden of their town and obtaining permit. From September first to 
November tenth no person will be allowed to burn any fallow or brush heap, and 
they should arrange accordingly. I earnestly request all taxpayers to inform me 
of any person who starts a fire, and to see that no fires are started on their 
own property. By so doing they will greatly lessen their taxes and at the same 
time contribute to the safety of our forests." 

Mr. J. W. Darbee, Roscoe, Sullivan County. — Thunder and lightning began, 
and looking over on the mountain I saw a fire about the size of a barrel. It 
burned rapidly, but the rain stopped it from running. Three men, about a mile 
distant from one another, claim to have seen the lightning strike a stub where 
I noticed this fire. 

Mr. M. O. Sergeant, Eldred, Sullivan County. — The town board has fixed the 
price for fighting fire at one dollar per day. There is a number of men here 
who say they will not fight fire if ordered out, claiming it is unconstitutional to 
force a man to work for so small a sum. What will be my duty in case they 
refuse to go when ordered out ? I do not anticipate any trouble unless fire should 
break out on lands of some individuals who are very strict in regard to trespasses. 
Is this town obliged to pay those men for putting out fires inside Mr. Chapin's 
enclosure, men who also get their pay from Mr. Chapin ? The park consists of 
several thousand acres, only a small portion of which is in this town. It is fenced 
with barbed wire to the height of ten feet, and any man found on his grounds, 
inside or outside, is prosecuted. His men shoot every dog that comes within 
gunshot, so you can see why there are so many fires near his park. Of course, 
the sympathy of all honest men is with Mr. Chapin. 

Ml. Philip Gerhardt, Fremont, Sullivan County. — On examination I found 
that a party of hunters had passed through the woods and immediately thereafter 
the fire was discovered. The fire was undoubtedly started by them. I wish to 
further state that I warned out one Charles Stosser, who refused to go. This 
has a bad effect on others, and I would recommend that something be done in 
his case. 

Mr. Jay H. Simpson, Phoenicia, Ulster County. — Fire started, in Broadstreet 
Hollow, May first. The wind was blowing fifty miles an hour, and the fire swept 
towards Phoenicia. I warned out men. Fought the fire all night Friday, Satur- 
day and Saturday night and Sunday, and held it from coming into Shandaken. 
Walter Evans (firewarden) held it on the other side. We ditched and back-fired. 
In places the wind would carry the fire 300 feet over our lines. 



I36 . NINTH REPORT OF THE 

Wl)at fl)e People Had to 3a^. 

Mr. Harvey J. De Silva, a citizen of Grant Mills, Delaware County. — I have 
a brier patch which I want to burn over. It is contiguous to my woodlands, 
with a front of only ten rods. I apply for permission to do so, providing you 
will permit me to inform our district firewarden, Mr. Everett Butler, to be present 
at my expense. The forest is in full leaf now, and I am sure that by diligent 
effort this proposed fire can be controlled. I do not wish to disobey our laws, 
and therefore make this request of you.* 

Mr. Reuben Lawrence, custodian of the John Brown Farm, North Elba,. 
Essex County. — Please come here at once. The firewarden, Mr. Byron Brewster, 
was here this morning and said he would like to have a private talk with you 
right away. He wants you to see the condition the fires are in near the 
John Brown Farm and other State lands. The men are doing all they can to keep 
it from the house. The fire is under control now, but I cannot tell how long it 
will stay so if the wind comes up. We are living in hopes that God will send rain 
in a short time to help the poor men that are trying to keep the fire down. All 
the men in this town are tired out and sick and exhausted. Still they will have 
to work. The firewarden is doing all he can. 

Mr. Fred Clemens, Lassellsville, Fulton County. — The origin of that fire was 
a peculiar one, and I would be pleased to have the board pass upon it. It was 
set by school children whom the teacher sent into the woods to gather flowers. 
A teacher whom the State helps to pay I should consider the first cause; therefore 
I believe the State is responsible to a certain extent for the damage done. This 
person whom the State has sent out as a proper one to manage children has caused 
me this great damage, and I think the State ought to help me bear the loss. 

Mr. William S. De Camp, Fulton Chain, Herkimer County. — I telegraphed 
Mr. Emmons and you yesterday under the spur of a raging fire. I addressed 
myself also to Firewarden Parsons, who replied that he "thought he had done 
pretty well for me." He gave me the following authority in writing: "In my 
capacity as firewarden I hereby deputize you to hire and pay men to extinguish 
the fires." I proceeded to engage men upon the strength of the above. I have 
good evidence that the railroad, up to last Saturday, continued to use defective 
engines through this district, thereby continuing to set fires. Roberts, the dis- 
trict firewarden, has just now telephoned me in reply to a request for help 
that he "cannot be everywhere." I address this note to Colonel Fox in 
particular, as I am personally acquainted with him and am in communication 
with him on this matter by telegraph; also knowing that he will connect up with 
the proper authorities. 



Permission was refused. — W. F. F. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 37 

Mr. Eugene M. House, Big Moose, Herkimer County. — There is due me twenty- 
three dollars for fighting fire on State land in Township 41. I was left there on 
duty after all the other men had gone out of the woods. I agreed to pay twenty 
dollars to any man who would find fire there after I left. This was not a political 
job like tending a bridge or canal lock, where a man would not do enough for healthy 
exercise, but good, solid, hard- work with axe and shovel. I think I have waited 
long enough. Please send check by return mail. 

Mrs. Ella Flagg, Saranac Lake, Franklin County. — I would like to call your 
attention to Messrs. Stratton & Lundstrom, contractors, engaged on construction 
work along the Saranac and Lake Placid Railroad, in regard to their engines setting 
fires. This morning the engine named " Grace " set a fire and ruined our private park. 
It would have burned our cottage only for myself and daughter fighting fire until 
the fire department arrived. The fire department of this place said that not one 
engine had a screen. One of the engineers told me that he had put on the screens 
to-day. They are setting forest fires from this place to Lake Placid.* 

Mr. Chester W. Chapin, President New England Railroad Company, 511 Bullitt 
Building, Philadelphia, Pa. — They are making it very hot for me up in Sullivan 
County. As soon as the wind blows towards my woods in goes the fire. The scamps 
have made the boast that they would burn me, and they are doing their best. The 
elements are in their favor, for we cannot get a drop of rain. I wish some of the 
rascals could be caught, for they must have injured 6,000 or more acres of mine 
already, and they have injured others even more. I am keeping a sharp watch, 
having plenty of men, horses and wagons, with water barrels and pails. These same 
fellows that fire the woods violate other laws. I would like to work with the Com- 
mission to help catch them. 

Mr. W. K. Benedict, New York. City. — I was a passenger on the New York 
Central train from Saranac Lake to New York last Saturday night, and happening 
to stand in the rear vestibule of the last car of the train saw what I consider 
a good demonstration of how most of the fires that have been devastating the 
Adirondack forests recently are started. At very frequent intervals the tracks 
in the rear of the train were strewn with live coals, dumped from the locomotive, 
and in many instances these coals, dropping on the wooden ties, burned into 
bright flames, which only required a slight breeze to spread to the side of the tracks 
and to the forest. After seeing the miles upon miles of blackened ruin, caused 
by the recent fires, this struck me as a piece of wanton carelessness on the 
part of the railroad company that calls for investigation by the authorities, and 
it should be stopped at once if we care to save what remains of our fast disappearing 
Adirondack forests. 



* These are the small locomotives employed by the contractors on the construction of the new line ; 
the contractors are in the employ of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad. The engines are the ones 
referred to in my report. — W. F. F. 



138 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

" Plattsburg Sentinel," May 29, 1903. — On Wednesday, while a man named 
Sancombe was driving along the road between Hunter's Home and Goldsmith's, 
his horse was struck by a falling tree, which had burned off near the bottom, and 
was instantly killed. 

' Ticonderoga Sentinel," May 7, 1903. — A farmer's boy near Everton went to 
the pasture after a horse, and both boy and horse were burned to death. 

''-Evening Journal," Glens Falls, June 9, 1903. — Yesterday, at Indian Lake, 
some cattle were turned out in a swamp which had been burned over, but which was 
apparently free from fire by reason of the recent rains. However, the cattle sank 
into the soft earth and fire burst forth in several places, seriously burning the 
animals. 

"Troy Record," June 4, 1903. — A dispatch from Plattsburg says that at 
Cadyville the woods were all afire near the village. The Catholic Cemetery 
was burned over, and a large force of men finally succeeded in saving the 
Catholic Church. At Twin Pond, on the Chateaugay Railroad, a wooden trestle 
took fire from the forest fires, and a freight engine broke through, carrying 
Engineer Kelly down with it. He escaped, however, with slight bruises. 

"Essex County Republican," May 29, 1903. — George McDonald's camps near 
Tupper Lake were destroyed. Mrs. Joseph Prevost had given birth to a child 
only a few hours before. She was carried on a mattress to the railway, where she 
was placed on a hand-car and removed from danger. Members of her rescuing 
party were severely burned. A woman was left in one of the camps through 
some mistake, and when this was discovered George McDonald and Chester Carr 
ran through the flames and rescued her. They found her on her knees praying, 
and, strange to say, this camp did not burn, although another, a short distance 
away and seemingly in much less danger, was destroyed. 

The loss of life in all of these fires, if any, was small. There were reports 
from time to time of persons who were burned to death, but thus far I have 
been unable to verify these rumors. 

While I was at the Fulton Chain fire there was a story afloat that two of the 

Italians belonging to a large gang sent in by the New York Central had lost 

their way, or been cut off by the flames, and were burned to death. I cannot 

learn, however, that their bodies were found, as would probably have been the 

case if this accident had happened. The Utica Herald of June fifth states that 

William Howe, of Lake Placid, was shut in by the flames, while fighting fire 

near the foot of Mt. Marcy, and smothered to death by smoke. I have been 

told since that this was a mistake. In view of the thousands of men who were 

at work under extremely dangerous conditions it is a matter of congratulation 

that there was no greater loss of life. 

W. F. F. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 39 



Tt)e Wild Animals. 

Number of Deer Taken During the Season — Condition op the Elk and 

Moose — Black Bear and Beaver. 

It will be a matter of satisfaction to all sportsmen to know that the statistics 
show a steady increase in the number of Deer in the State forests. No better 
argument can be advanced in favor of the present system of protection, and it is 
believed that local interests are steadily becoming convinced that the laws as they 
exist are for the good of all concerned. The eagerness with which information is 
sought as to the success of the hunters annually is an evidence of the widespread 
interest that is taken in these returns, affecting, as they do, a very large number 
of those who derive a considerable portion of their income from the sportsmen 
who seek a few weeks recreation in the forest, as well as from the transportation 
lines whose business is materially increased by the hunting season. 

Adirondack Deer. 

From the statistics furnished by the American and the National Express Com- 
panies the following figures, showing the shipments of Deer, have been compiled : 

Year. 

1900 ......... 

1901 . . 

I902 

1903 ......... 

The percentage of increase in the shipments, which last season was about 
thirty per cent, is seen this season to be more than forty-four per cent over that 
of the previous year. Following the apparently reasonable rule that for each 
Deer shipped out at least four others are killed in the woods, it can be readily 
seen how greatly they have increased under our present laws. 

According to the carefully compiled figures of the shipments furnished by 
Mr. John L. Van Valkenburgh, Superintendent of the American Express Com- 
pany, and Mr. T. N. Smith, Superintendent of the National Express Company, 
the number of Deer sent out of the Adirondacks by hunters during the season 
just closed was shown to be as follows: 



Carcasses. 


Saddles. 


Heads. 


1,020 


89 


95 


1,062 


103 


121 


■ i,3S4 


IJ 3 


1 93 


. 1,961 


145 


188 



140 



NINTH REPORT OF THE 



SHIPMENTS OF DEER FROM POINTS IN THE ADIRONDACK REGION. 

Season of 1903. 
Mohawk and Malone Railroad. 



RAILROAD STATION. 


Carcasses. 


Saddles. 


Heads. 


Beaver River . 


234 
58 

5 
1 

10 

106 

6 

4 

44 

82 
1 

10 
4 


7 
7 


II 


Big Moose 




Bog Lake 




Brandreths 


2 
2 
1 

1 
6 

6 


3 


Childvvold 


Clear Water 


2 


Eagle Bay 


I 


Floodvvood 




Forestport 


4 


Fulton Chain 


Horseshoe 




Lake Clear 


2 




Lake Kushaqua 




Lake Placid 




5 


Little Rapids 


1 
81 
10 
24 

4 
3 

1 

14 
8 

17 
55 

4 
35 

6 
30 

2 

6 
82 
12 
25 




Long Lake 


1 
2 


2 


Loon Lake 




McKeever 


3 

1 


Mountain View . . . ' 


Onekio 




Onchiota 






Otter Lake 






Owls Head 






Paul Smith's 


4 
5 


9 

5 


Piercefield 


Poland 


1 




Rainbow Lake 




Raquette Lake 


4 
4 




Saranac Inn 


2 


Saranac Lake 




Tupper Lake Junction 


1 


1 


White Lake Corners 






2 


2 






Total 


985 


58 


5i 





FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 
New York and Ottawa Railroad. 



141 



railroad station. 



Carcasses. 



Saddles. 



Heads. 



Brandon 
Derrick . 
Kildare . 
Madawaska 
Minnehaha 
Santa Clara 
Spring Cove . 
St. Regis Falls 
Tupper Lake . 



Total 



Alder Creek . 
Aldrich . 
Benson Mines 
Boonville . 
Carthage 
Castorland 
Glenfield 
Harrisville 
Jayville . 
Lowville 
Lyon Falls 
Natural Bridge 
Newton Falls 
North Croghan 
Oswegatchie . 
Port Leyden . 
Prospect 



Total 



Cranberry Creek 
Gloversville 
Johnstown 
Northville . 



Total 



Utica axd Black River Railroad. 



6 

65 

7 

2 

10 

34 

10 

7 

7 



148 



36 
7 
3 

16 

44 
37 
18 

24 
12 

1 
40 

1 
25 
13 
54 



349 



Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville Railroad. 



20 



2 

2 

12 

13 



33 



I 

13 


I 




2 


I 


I 


Il8 


19 


24 


134 


21 


25 



142 



NINTH REPORT OF THE 

Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Railroad. 



RAILROAD STATION. 


Carcasses. 


Saddles. 


Heads. 


Antwerp 


3 
5 
1 

7 
1 
1 
24 
3 






De Kalb Junction 


3 






I 


I 






Philadelphia 








s 




Watertown 










Total 


45 


9 


I 







Dolgeville 



Fonda . 
Little Falls 

Total . 



Bangor 
Knapps 
Malone 
Winthrop 

Total 



Wanakena 



Bloomingdale 
Caldwell 
Crown Point 
Hadley . . 
Keeseville . 
Loon Lake 



Little Falls and Dolgeville Railroad. 



17 



New York Central and Hudson River Railroad. 



Rutland Railroad. 



Cranberry Lake Railroad. 



61 



Delaware and Hudson Railroad. 




2 

I 
3 

4 












IS 
1 


10 




16 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 
Delaware and Hudson Railroad — {Concluded). 



143 



RAILROAD STATION. 


Carcasses. 


Saddles. 


Heads. 


Lyon Mountain 


I 
127 

14 
10 

4 

37 

4 

2 


27 
I 


I 


North Creek 


5 
2 
8 


Riverside 


Saranac Lake 






.... 


1 




5 
1 1 








Total 


203 


29 


4i 





RECAPITULATION . 

Mohawk and Malone Railroad 

New York and Ontario Railroad 

Utica and Black River Railroad 

Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Railroad .... 
Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville Railroad .... 

Little Falls and Dolgeville Railroad 

New York Central and Hudson River Railroad 

Rutland Railroad 

Cranberry Lake Railroad 

Delaware and Hudson Railroad 

Total shipments 



98S 

148 

349 
45 

134 

17 

9 

10 

61 

203 



1,961 



58 

20 
9 

21 
1 
1 

6 
29 



145 



5i 

33 

9 

1 

25 



16 
12 

4i 



Some of the larger Deer mentioned in the shipping receipts indicate a growth 
that is highly gratifying. Among the shipments were these: 



SOME NOTABLE SHIPMENTS. 



RAILROAD STATION. 


Consigned to — 


Dressed 

weight 

(pounds). 










J. McGuire, Utica 


200 


Long Lake West 


H. Walters, New York 


'00 




M. Keefer, Utica 


200 




Kate Butrick, Malone . 


250 
200 




E. W. Savage, Moira 


250 
210 







144 



NINTH REPORT OF THE 
Some Notable Shipments — {Concluded). 



RAILROAD STATION. 



Consigned to- 



Dressed 

weight 

(pounds). 



Potsdam 
Benson Mines 
Harrisville . 
Newton Falls . 
Newton Falls . 
Oswegatchie . 
Port Leyden . 
Prospect 
Prospect 
Derrick 
Derrick 
Derrick 
Derrick 
Santa Clara 
Northville . . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Northville . 
Onekio . 



J. F. Kelley, New York . . . . 
W. Richardson, Canton . 

R. Harding, Syracuse 

W. Heims, Oakfield 

H. Mathews, Syracuse . 

E. W. Eissig, New York . . . . 

F. Price, Great Bend 

J. W. Seator, Utica 

Arthur Martell, Utica 

John Kimball, Utica 

W. M. Bell, Long Lake West . . 
C. Naylake, Tupper Lake Junction 
W. Jarvis, Big Moose 

E. Walsh, New York 

J. Bartholomew, Amsterdam 

John Kreed, New York . . . . 

J. Kinnear, Albany 

R. M. Evans, Johnstown . 

B. D. Smith, Johnstown . . . . 

J. H. Kaston, Fonda 

F. S. Dunn, Albany 

E. Shannon, Amsterdam . 
H. Brownell, Amsterdam 

F. M. Jackson, McKeever 



203 
200 
207 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
210 
210 
220 
210 

237 
200 
210 
200 
200 
200 
200 
205 
250 



In addition to these interesting figures, a correspondent of Forest and Stream, 
on November twenty-first, mentions several large Deer, within his knowledge, as 
having been shot. His list included a 230-pound ten-pronged buck, shot near 
Minnehaha, by George Benton, of Utica; a 250-pound buck, shot at Horn Lake, 
by Seth W. Pride, of Holland Patent; a 250-pound seven-pronged buck, shot near 
Star Lake, by Schuyler S. Bardlong, of Chicago; a 250-pound buck, shot near Boon- 
ville, by Captain William Connor, of New York; a 250-pound buck, shot by 
J. F. Dorrance, of Camden, and a 247-pound buck, having fifteen prongs, shot 
near Alpine, by Edward Floyd. The last weight given is specifically mentioned 
as being dressed weight. A number of other Deer shipped out by the express 
companies weighed over 200 pounds, but unfortunately the names and addresses 
of the successful hunters were not given. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 145 

Mr. Wesley D. Jordan, of Saranac Lake, shot the only Albino, or White, Deer 
reported during the season. It was killed near Raquette Falls, and will be mounted 
for exhibition. 

It is a matter of satisfaction to be able to note that very few casualties were 
reported this year in connection with the Deer season. The number of minor 
accidents was inconsiderable, and the number of fatalities so small as to warrant 
the belief that the warnings of previous years have had a salutary effect. 

Ti)e EU$ and ti)e Aoose. 

The effort to restore Elk and Moose to the Adirondack forest, which was begun 
by the State two years ago, with the cooperation of a number of public-spirited 
citizens, continues to be a subject of much interest to the people. The restoration 
of the Elk, thanks to the continued generosity of Hon. W. C. Whitney and others, 
has progressed so rapidly since the first consignment of twenty-two was liberated 
at Raquette Lake, in June, 1901, as to have passed almost beyond the experimental 
stage. During the year just closed seventy-three Elk were liberated at various 
points in the woods, the work being superintended by Mr. Paul Smith, the veteran 
hotel proprietor; Dr. F. E. Kendall, of Saranac Lake, and Mr. Ernest H. Johnson, 
the superintendent of Mr. Whitney's Adirondack estate. These Elk were all 
contributed by Mr. Whitney. 

The total number of Elk which have thus far been liberated in the Adirondacks 
is one hundred and forty. The number of young which have been born in this 
region during the past two years has been approximated at fifty. Of this total of 
one hundred and ninety Elk, four have been accidentally killed by trains and 
eight are known to have been shot. Allowance should also be made for perhaps 
ten deaths, through natural causes, since June, 1901. There would thus remain at 
large in the Adirondacks one hundred and sixty-eight Elk, which estimate probably 
represents very closely the actual number in the Adirondacks to-day. When first 
liberated the Elk seemed disinclined to roam far from the immediate locality in 
which they had been set free, and for months they could be seen grouped together 
within a few miles of the spot where they had first been liberated at almost any 
time. But as the young were born and the animals became more accustomed to 
their surroundings, the herds began to split up into families of three or four and 
to move off into the deeper forest in every direction until, within the past few 
months, their presence has been reported in seven out of the ten Adirondack 
counties. Wherever thev have been seen they have caused much admiring com- 
10 



146 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

ment on the part of summer tourists, many of whom have found great pleasure 
in photographing the animals. It is probable that, as the young Elk gradually 
take the place of the older ones, these animals will again become as truly a wild 
denizen of the Adirondacks as naturalists tell us they were in the past. 

Without a continuation of the appropriation which lapsed last year nothing 
further can be done toward restocking the Adirondack region with Moose. Thus 
far the animals liberated have done well and have scattered widely through the 
forest. Three have been shot by unknown persons, and no natural increase has 
thus far been reported. If the experiment is to be continued, it will be necessary, 
in the opinion of those who have given attention to the problem, to procure 
and liberate at least fifty, or preferably one hundred, more of these animals in the 
Adirondacks. The Commission stands ready to carry out the instructions of 
the Legislature in the matter, and undoubtedly that body will respond to the 
public sentiment which makes itself apparent. 

TI)e $lac^ §ear. 

The Commission has previously recommended and again suggests the passage 
of an act giving to the Black Bear of the State some measure of protection. 
The trend of modern sportsmanship is toward the pursuit of large game, as is 
shown by the great number of hunters who annually visit Canada, the Rocky 
Mountains and the Southwest, and who even cross the ocean to hunt still larger 
and more savage game. Could the Black Bear of this State, an animal absolutely 
harmless to human life, yet affording the keenest sport to its pursuers, enjoy for 
a few years the protection of a close season it would be possible to introduce 
Bear hunting as a feature of Adirondack life, even as it is now carried on as 
a profitable sport in many parts of the West and South. The Commission 
recommends that, as the Bear is commercially valueless during the summer 
months, his pursuit be prohibited at this season of the year, and that suitable 
regulations be provided as to trapping. 

Tl)e Reaver. 

This most interesting of North American fur-bearing animals, which formerly 
existed so abundantly in this State, is on the brink of extinction within our 
borders. " No animal," says Dr. C. Hart Merriam, "has figured more prominently 
in the affairs of any nation than has the Beaver in the early history of the new 




A HIGH ONE. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 147 

world. Its influence on the exploration, colonization and settlement of this 
country was very great. The trade in its peltries proved a source of competition 
and strife not only among the local merchants' but also between the several 
colonies, disputes over the boundaries having frequently arisen from this cause 
alone. Indeed, on more than one occasion jealousy of the Beaver trade led to 
serious difficulties in the struggles for supremacy between the three rival powers, 
the Dutch, English and French." 

How great the number of wild Beavers in this State once was may be 
inferred from the statement of the Dutch author quoted by Dr. Merriam, who, 
writing in 167 1, states that at that time the colony of New Netherlands furnished 
"80,000 Beavers a year." As late as the year 1815 we learn from De Kay that 
the Beaver still existed in such plentiful numbers in the Adirondack region that 
it was possible for a party of St. Regis Indians, who that year ascended the 
Oswegatchie River, in St. Lawrence County, for the purpose of pursuing these 
valuable animals, to return after an absence of a few weeks with three hun- 
dred Beaver skins. In 1895 Mr. Wilbur C. Witherstine, of Herkimer, shot a 
Beaver in the outlet of Madawaska Pond. About the same time two Beavers 
were caught by trappers from Saranac Lake. These are, as far as known, the 
last wild Beavers to have been taken in this State. The following winter 
the Legislature passed a law absolutely prohibiting their pursuit under a severe 
penalty. 

While the Beaver to-day is practically extinct in the State, there are known to 
exist one or two small families in the Adirondacks. Mr. Harry V. Radford, the 
New York sportsman, to whose energy and persistency is chiefly due the inaugu- 
ration by the State of the experiment of restoring Moose and Elk to its forests, 
and. who also has been one of the most interested in the plan to secure protection 
for the Black Bear, is in possession of a number of interesting specimens of 
Beaver work. These consist of fresh wood cuttings — sections of small Aspen 
trees which have been peeled of their bark by the Beavers, and in which their 
tooth-marks can be plainly seen. The specimens were collected recently in the 
Adirondacks. The Commission is of the opinion that, as the Adirondack region 
is a natural Beaver country, and as the Beaver multiplies rapidly, a small appro- 
priation is desirable to procure several colonies of these interesting and valuable 
animals for the purpose of eventually restoring them to the woods. 



I48 NINTH REPORT OF THE 



Tl)e Fisl) Hatcheries. 

Work of the Year — Suggestions for Improving the Plant and Increasing 

the Output. 

In reporting the work of the State's hatchery system for the year, the Com- 
mission calls particular attention to the fact that the returns from this branch of 
the business intrusted to its care are far above any outlay. During the year 
which ended on September 30, 1903, there were distributed among the waters of 
the State 140,982,805 fish of various varieties. (In 1902 the total distribution was 
128,672,516.) With the exception of 1,750 fish which were saved from the wide- 
waters of the canal when it was emptied for the winter, these fish were all reared 
in the State hatcheries. 

Owing to the interest taken in the work by the railroads of the State, the 
entire output of the hatcheries was distributed to the people without expense 
for transportation, messenger service or other cost of delivery, which, in the case 
of commercial hatcheries, is figured at about fifty per cent of the value of each 
shipment. The market value of the total output of fish, at the lowest prices 
charged by hatcheries which sell their product, exclusive of the cost of delivery, 
was $108,069.02. 

The number of applications received for fish during the year was 1,908 (in 
1902 it was 1,459), an d there were carried over from the previous year 395, 
making a total of 2,303 applications to be filled. The number actually filled was 
1,551, and 240 were rejected for various reasons, making a total of 1,791 applica- 
tions which were acted on. Owing to the fact that the State fish car "Adirondack" 
was badly damaged in a railroad accident while the season was at its height, the 
work of distributing the fish from the hatcheries was considerably retarded, 
although the railroad officials kindly provided every facility possible to push the 
work. Notwithstanding this interruption, however, but. 512 applications were 
carried over, as compared with 527 carried over in 1902. 

Of the total number of fish distributed 136,518,850 were of the various varieties 
of food-fish, and 4,463,955 were of the varieties known as game-fish. Of the game- 
fish over thirty-three per cent were of the size called " fingerlings," and over ten 
per cent were yearling fish. The Commission has made it a rule not to distribute 
yearling fish unless the waters stocked are closed for a period of at least two 
years. The demand for fingerlings is steadily increasing, and in order to keep 
up with it some few improvements will be necessary at several of the hatcheries. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. I49 

The demand for Black Bass also continues, for which reason the suggestion made 
a year ago, as to the desirability of providing suitable rearing ponds, is repeated. 
Other improvements necessary at the several hatcheries are indicated in the 
abstracts of the reports of the hatchery foremen, which are appended. 

Advices received from various parts of the State show that the work of the 
Commission in stocking inland waters is thoroughly appreciated by commercial 
fishermen and the sportsmen. In fact, it would not be a difficult matter to 
demonstrate to the average citizen that the fish planted in the waters of the 
State form a valuable asset in every community. Game fishermen annually spend 
many thousands of dollars in the localities in which they seek their favorite 
sport, and a fair livelihood is earned by thousands of men who pursue the business 
of fishing for the markets. Without the continual replenishing of the State 
waters with fish from the hatcheries to meet the demands of our steadily increas- 
ing population there would be but little sport and much less income in a very 
short time. 

Approximately, whac the work of the Commission means in this connection 
may best be, judged from the figures which show the commercial value of the 
fisheries of the State in an average year. These figures, which are authenticated 
by the United States Commission, are as follows: 



Value of the Hudson River fisheries . .... . $150,000 00 

Fisheries of inland lakes and streams .... 80,000 00 

Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and the Niagara and 

St. Lawrence Rivers 250,000 00 

The coastal fisheries 3,700,000 00 



These figures are given in round numbers and the totals do not vary to any 
great extent from one year to another, the tendency being toward an increase 
rather than a decrease, as will be apparent from the fact that the actual com- 
mercial value of the fisheries of the inland waters during the year 1902 was 
$87,897 instead of $80,000, as given, which sum represented 1,530,918 pounds of 
fish of all kinds. Further argument would not seem necessary to show how 
highly important is this portion of the Commission's work, which, statistics show, 
has been one of steady progress along the lines indicated ever since the Legis- 
lature created the first Fisheries Commission, thirty-five years ago. 

A very attractive and satisfactory exhibit was made at the State Fair at 
Syracuse, where permanent aquaria have been constructed for this purpose. The 



15° 



NINTH REPORT OF THE 



great interest taken in this inexpensive display of the work done at the hatcheries 
was apparent to every visitor, and the exhibit received many favorable comments. 
The fish, with the exception of the Albino Trout, were turned over as usual to 
the Anglers' Association of Onondaga County for distribution in near-by waters. 

Acknowledgment is made of the receipt of 1,830,896 Lake Trout eggs from 
the United States Fisheries Commission, which were forwarded to the Caledonia 
Hatchery on November 9, 1902. 

The Commission has abandoned the Sacandaga Hatchery for the reasons given 
in last year's report. This hatchery was located twenty-two miles from the rail- 
road station and could only be reached over a rough mountain road. Experience 
showed that it could not be successfully operated, and improvements made at the 
Adirondack Hatchery, which is easily accessible, will make it possible for this 
hatchery to do all the work. 

Following are tables showing in detail the distribution for the year and the 
work done by each hatchery : 



FISH DISTRIBUTION. 

Summary for Year Ending September 30, 1903. 

Brook Trout fry 1,395,000 

Brook Trout fingerlings 761,300 

Brook Trout yearlings 130,840 

Brown Trout fry 670,000 

Brown Trout fingerlings 179,000 

Brown Trout yearlings 55>5°° 

Grayling Trout fry 180,000 

Lake Trout fry 184,000 

Lake Trout Fingerlings 443,400 

Lake Trout yearlings 250,275 

Rainbow Trout fry 32,000 

Rainbow Trout fingerlings 130,000 

Rainbow Trout yearlings . 48,100 

Redthroat Trout fingerlings 1,000. 

Landlocked Salmon 2,040 

Frostfish 3,055,000 

Maskalonge 4,107,600 

Pike-Perch 69,080,000 

Shad 1,250,000 

Smelt 5,160,000 

Shrimp 50,000 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Summary for Year Ending September 30, 1903 — (Concluded). 

Tomcods 34,700,000 

Whitefish 19,116,000 

Total . 140,981,055 

Saved from canal ^ilS 

Grand total 140,982,805 



151 



Record of Each Hatchery During Year 1903. 

adirondack hatchery. 

Brook Trout fry 190,000 

Brook Trout fingerlings 373,000 

Brook Trout yearlings 15,000 

Lake Trout fry 85,000 

Lake Trout fingerlings . 71,000 

Rainbow Trout fingerlings 61,000 

Redthroat Trout fingerlings 1,000 

Frostfish 260,000 

Whitefish 2,500,000 

Total 3,556,000 

CALEDONIA HATCHERY. 

Brook Trout fry 305,000 

Brook Trout fingerlings 47,500 

Brook Trout yearlings 35,340 

Brown Trout fry 395,000 

Brown Trout fingerlings 26,000 

Brown Trout yearlings 25,000 

Lake Trout fry 50,000 

Lake Trout fingerlings . . . ... . . . . . . 324,400 

Lake Trout yearlings 201,775 

Rainbow Trout fingerlings 37,000 

Rainbow Trout yearlings 33,600 

Landlocked Salmon fingerlings 2,040 

Pike-Perch 8,500,000 

Whitefish 6,000,000 

Shrimp 50,000 

Total 16,032,655 



I52 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

CHAUTAUQUA HATCHERY. 

Maskalonge 4,107,600 

COLD SPRING HATCHERY. 

Brook Trout fry , 400,000 

Brook Trout fingerlings 197,300 

-Brook Trout yearlings 32,500 

Brown Trout fry . . . . 10,000 

Lake Trout fry 49,000 

Lake Trout fingerlings 1,000 

Rainbow Trout fry 12,000 

Pike-Perch . . . . ; 300,000 

Shad 1,250,000 

Smelt 5,160,000 

Tomcods 34,700,000 

Whitefish 250,000 

Total 42,361,800 

DELAWARE HATCHERY. 

Brook Trout fry 95,000 

Brook Trout fingerlings 45,500 

Brook Trout yearlings 39,000 

Brown Trout fry 100,000 

Brown Trout fingerlings 72,000 

Total 35^,5°° 

FULTON CHAIN HATCHERY. 

Brook Trout fry 260,000 

Grayling Trout fry 180,000 

Rainbow Trout fry 20,000 

Frostfish 2,795,000 

Total 3,255,000 

ONEIDA HATCHERY. 

Pike-Perch 60,280,000 

Whitefish 10,366,000 

Total 70,646,000 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 
PLEASANT VALLEY HATCHERY. 

Brook Trout fry 145,000 

Brook Trout fingerlings 98,000 

Brook Trout yearlings 9,000 

Brown Trout fry 165,000 

Brown Trout fingerlings 81,000 

Brown Trout yearlings . 30,500 

Lake Trout fingerlings 47,000 

Lake Trout yearlings 48,500 

Rainbow Trout fingerlings 32,000 

Rainbow Trout yearlings 14,500 

Total ....... ..:.'.:.. . 670,500 

Grand total output 140,981,055 



153 




Report of tfye Cfyief Game Protector 

1903 



To tl)e Forest, Pisl) and (iame Commission: 

GENTLEMEN. — In accordance with your instructions I hereby submit a 
report of the business of my Department for the year ending on Septem- 
ber 30, 1903. It shows the work performed by the force of protectors in 
the bringing of actions, the amount of recoveries in fines and penalties, and the 
time served in jail by several persons; the number and value of nets and other 
devices for the taking of fish which, while being used in violation of law, were 
seized and destroyed; the amount received for the sale of the timber confiscated 
from trespassers who had been lumbering on State land, and the sale of old 
abandoned buildings, together with a summary of the licensed nets operated by 
commercial fishermen, with the fees received; the amount and value of the fish 
caught during the year, and other matters of interest. 

Much credit is due the Legislature for the valuable amendments, passed at the 
last session, which secured more uniform laws; the abolition of spring Duck 
shooting; the prohibition of the sale of Woodcock and Grouse taken in this State, 
and the sale of Trout in certain counties, which last should, in the opinion of 
many, apply to the entire State. 

In speaking of the excellent legislation secured, I believe I am expressing the 
sentiment of the Commission in saying that the Department is under great 
obligation to the New York State Fish, Game and Forest League for the valu- 
able assistance rendered in educating the general public up to the necessity for 
the enactment of better laws. 

Ti)e Value of Protection. 

From answers to letters sent to nearly every county in the State, my personal 
observation, and conversations had with well-informed persons, I feel warranted 
in reporting that there is more interest being manifested each year in the protec- 

154 



NINTH REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 55 

tion of the forests, fish and game, and the artificial propagation of fish and game. 
All admit that but for the work of the hatcheries the inland waters would have 
been depleted of fish and the St. Lawrence River of the Maskalonge, which is 
also true to a great extent of the Shad of the Hudson River and the Whitefish 
of Lakes Erie and Ontario. 

Too much cannot be said by the residents along the St. Lawrence River in 
praise of the work done in stocking that river in past years with Maskalonge 
from the Chautauqua Hatchery. The fish are becoming quite plentiful, and large 
catches have been made in the past two years as against a very few prior to 
artificial stocking. The fish are a great attraction to tourists who visit the 
Thousand Islands, and are also profitable to the residents along the river. 

The reports from the Catskills and Adirondacks show that the Deer inhabiting 
those localities have increased one hundred per cent since the anti-hounding law 
went into effect. Deer can now be found also in a number of the counties that 
are not classed in the Adirondacks or Catskills — as, for instance, in Columbia, 
Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Montgomery, Oswego and the western portions 
of Lewis and Oneida Counties, where but a few years ago none were to be found. 
This proves beyond any doubt that the law which prohibited the use of dogs in the 
hunting of Deer is the cause of the increase, and it is to be hoped that this law 
will not be repealed to please a very few who are agitating for it. 

Condition of P>irds. 

The reports from various localities where Pheasants have been liberated are 
very gratifying. As a rule, the residents are using every means to assist in pro- 
tecting them, and are looking forward every spring to securing an additional 
supply from the State. 

Quail are becoming quite scarce, except in Suffolk County, where a fresh 
supply is liberated every spring by private clubs, and I believe that a small appro- 
priation should be made for the purchasing of live Quail. They are a hardy bird, 
and there is no reason why they should not be propagated by the State and again 
become plentiful. 

Grouse suffered severely, in the spring of 1902, from the continuous cold 
and heavy rainstorms, which drowned many broods of young birds. They also 
suffered to some extent in localities that were swept by forest fires in the early 
summer of 1903, but as the fires were confined largely to the Adirondacks, and 
as Grouse are not as plentiful in the deep forests as in the second-growth timber, 



I56 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

the loss was not as great as it otherwise would have been. But in view of the 
law passed in the winter of 1902-03, which prohibits the sale of Grouse that are 
taken in this State, which law was very generally observed during the past open 
season, there is every reason to believe that Grouse will again become plentiful 
in the Adirondack region. 

No little dissatisfaction is being manifested in regard to the private parks and 
preserves that have been created in localities where the State has planted millions 
of fish for the benefit of the public. The park owners are waging war on the 
natives as well as on the tourists, who both feel that their rights are being 
trampled upon, and that the park owner has no more property interests in 
fish that migrate from one water to another than has the general public who 
contribute towards maintaining the State hatcheries. 

Tl)e Wild Animals. 

With reference to the Elk that have been liberated in the Adirondacks since 
the summer of 1901, I can say that they have done extremely well, and, in fact, 
much better than was expected by those who expressed an opinion relative to 
the matter. The first shipment, comprising twenty-two Elk, donated the State by 
Hon. William C. Whitney in 1901, that were liberated in the vicinity of Raquette 
Lake, went through the first winter without any loss and came out in fine con- 
dition the next spring, much to the surprise of every one, and several calves were 
found with them in the early summer, showing that they were breeding fully as 
well as the Adirondack Deer. 

The three carloads of Elk that were donated by Mr. Whitney in the fall of 
1902, forty of which were liberated in the vicinity of Little Tupper Lake and 
'twenty at Raquette Lake, wintered equally as well as those the previous winter, 
and the seventy-three liberated during the past summer near Paul Smith's, 
Saranac Inn and Saranac Lake, except a few that have been killed by cars, have 
done well and are now reported as having gone back into the deep forest, where 
they should have been liberated instead of turning them loose near the settlement 
and railroad. 

It is safe to say that there are now 180 Elk in the Adirondacks, not including 
many that escaped from Mr. Webb's park by reason of a fire having destroyed 
the fences, or those that have escaped from time to time from Mr. Litchfield's 
preserves near Big Tupper Lake. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 157 

Condition of ti)z ]$aw. 

I would not recommend any extensive revision of the game laws, now that 
they appear to be in very good shape. Some minor changes as to phraseology 
and to make plainer a few sections are, however, needed. One relating to 
Jamaica Bay and adjacent waters, where the use of nets is prohibited, is especially 
necessary for the benefit of the numerous anglers who visit that locality and who 
cannot fish with safety outside in the ocean. The law relative to the licensing of 
nets, especially in the Great Lakes, should be changed, as the license fee is now 
practically nothing. This is not the case in other States bordering on Lake Erie, 
particularly in Pennsylvania, where the State derives a large revenue from these 
licenses, and where they charge according to the tonnage of the boat. The license 
law was first advocated for the protection of residents of New York State, but 
fishermen from Ohio and Pennsylvania evade the law by coming into this State, 
registering their boats and giving a bill of sale (in some instances) to residents 
of this State, who apply for a license, which may cover a gang of gill nets one 
mile long, at a cost of only one dollar. 

The size of the mesh of nets, especially in Lake Erie, should be increased to 
at least a one and one half inch bar as against the present mesh of one and 
one eighth inches. This is advocated by the fishermen themselves, who claim 
that myriads of small fish that are of no value are caught and killed in the 
gill-nets, which must tend to lessen the fish supply. 

If possible, something should be done to induce the Legislature of Vermont 
to pass uniform laws with this State governing the fishing on Lake Champlain, 
which is interstate water, and in which the residents of this State are much 
interested. Our own laws absolutely prohibit the use of nets, but their last 
Legislature, instead of repealing a law which allows the use of nets in the lake, 
as had been promised, not only failed to do so, but passed a law which allows 
the taking of Black Bass in the lake during the entire year as against a close 
season in this State from January first to June fifteenth. As there is but an 
imaginary line between the two States, it is difficult to enforce the laws of this 
State on the lake. It might be possible for the Legislature to appoint a commis- 
sion to act with a commission from Vermont to agree upon some uniform law 
and give each State concurrent jurisdiction over the lake, as was done in the 
eighties by this State and Pennsylvania over the Delaware River where it divides 
the two States. 



158 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

I would also recommend a law that would prohibit the killing of Deer between 
one half hour after sundown and one half hour before sunrise, as the law relative 
to the use of artificial lights cannot well be enforced with the improved methods 
now in use in the operation of an electric jacklight, with a storage battery, which 
it is difficult to detect. 

The figures obtained from the express companies show that the number of 
Deer transported during the fall of 1903 is a trifle in excess of that of 1902, 
which might be expected from the large increase in Deer and the increase yearly 
in the number of hunters. But as Deer seemed plentiful at the close of the 
hunting season, and as reports show that there are plenty of Deer signs now in 
the woods, there does not seem to be any necessity of a change in the law in the 
way of shortening the season, although three months and a half, as the law now 
provides, seems a long time in which Deer can be taken. Possibly, if the season 
did not open until September fifteenth instead of the first, it would be better, as 
Deer are not at their best and fawns are not sufficiently grown to be deprived 
of their mothers. 

The usual facts about the Deer and other Adirondack animals will be found 
elsewhere in this report. 

Salaries of Protectors. 

I must continue to advocate an increase in the salaries and expense accounts 
of the protectors. A salary of $500 is not a fair recognition for the services of 
a competent official, and an expense account of $350 is inadequate. An increase 
of $100 per year, making a salary of $600, and $50 added to the expense account, 
making $400, would only require an additional appropriation of $6,750, and would 
be something of an encouragement, besides giving the protectors to understand 
that their services were being recognized, and, in the course of time, will be 
more fully appreciated and an effort made to compensate them adequately for 
the hazardous work they have to perform. 

The twelve protectors added to the force by the laws of 1902, who were 
appointed at the beginning of the present fiscal year, have added materially to 
the efficiency of the Department. These protectors have been able to cover much 
more territory than could have been properly guarded by a lesser number, and 
have secured results which clearly demonstrate the wisdom of the Legislature in 
making; the increase. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



159 



Actions and Recoveries. 

The following statement will show the number of actions brought and the 
amount of recoveries in fines and penalties, which does not include numerous 
actions now pending against persons for trespassing on State land and for the 
recovery of lands where adverse title is claimed, and does not also include several 
actions now pending in the Supreme Court, the Appellate Division and the Court 
of Appeals for the taking and possession of game in close season, some of which 
have obtained no little notoriety: 



SUMMARY OF RECOVERIES. 





Fines and 
penalties. 


Trespass 
fines. 


Regular protectors 


$10,971 47 

1,691 75 
1,335 90 


$4,640 98 

no 50 














$14,049 12 


$4,75i 48 
14,049 12 


Grand total 


$18,800 60 







As a result of the actions brought three hundred and seventy-seven persons were 
fined, twenty-seven were acquitted, twenty-two were sent to jail for nine hundred 
and twenty-one days, one was held for the grand jury, eleven had suspended 
sentences, six cases are pending, one was a nonsuit, in one the jury disagreed, 
and in one the suit was withdrawn ; total, four hundred and forty-seven. 

SUMMARY OF ACTIONS. 



Fines and 
penally aciions. 



Trespass 

actiuns. 



Regular protectors 
Special protectors 
Firewardens . 



293 

7i 
34 



398 



Total fines and penalty actions 
Grand total . 



4i 



49 
398 



447 



l6o NINTH REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

STATEMENT OF TIMBER SOLD. 

October 8 ' R. B. Poole 

November 25 ! J. E. Leavitt 

May 27 j C. W. Pratt 

August 8 : E.Burhans 

September 2 B.H. McCollom 



Total 




$10 


00 


20 


00 


4,335 


00 


75 


00 


3^ 


50 


15 


00 



$4,487 50 



I wish to assure the numerous fish and game protective associations throughout 
the State that the assistance they render the local protectors, which directly 
benefits the work of the Department, is ever appreciated. 

In conclusion permit me to extend my most sincere thanks for the cordial 

support received at your hands in sustaining every effort put forth by me and 

by the protectors in the enforcement of the laws. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. Warren Pond, 

Chief Game Protector. 




Report of ff)e ^Qperintendent of 

>5I)eUfisf)erie$ 

1903 



To 11)e Forest, FisI) and Game Commission: 

GENTLEMEN. — I have the honor to present the following report of the 
business of the Shellfish Department, which, under the supervision of 
the Commission, has been assigned to my management as Superintendent 
of Shellfisheries. There are now held by the shellfish planters, under lease and 
franchise from the State, 27,871 acres for cultivation. 

The lands leased during the past year are located under the waters of Long 
Island Sound, Raritan Bay, Jamaica Bay, Princes Bay, Great Kills and Lower 
New York Bay. 

For the purpose of insuring accurate surveys of these lands coast signals, or 
monuments, are established and maintained along the shores of the bodies of water 
mentioned. Each tract leased and surveyed is carefully platted upon the maps 
and described upon the records of the Shellfish Office. These maps and records 
are of great and permanent value to the shellfish industry, as upon them depend 
the titles to all the lands held for shellfish cultivation in State waters. 

Twenty-nine applications for grounds in Pelham Bay, East Chester Bay and 
adjacent waters have been received. As these waters constitute new territory for 
leases, it will be necessary to make a triangular survey for the purpose of 
erecting signals by which the tracts may be located. 

Cold Spring Harbor. 

No finer oysters are to be had than those which are taken from the waters 
of Cold Spring Harbor. Planters in those waters have for many years received 
their leases from the town of Huntington upon the assumption that the title 
to the harbor was, under an ancient grant, vested in the town. During the 
year the title of the town has been questioned and several applications for such 
11 161 



1 62 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

shellfish lands have been presented at this office. These applications have not 
been filed and advertised (the usual course), but are held in abeyance until an 
authoritative opinion, determining the matter of jurisdiction, may be had. The 
question is now under consideration by the Attorney-General, as will appear by 
his letter of November 9, 1903, as follows: 

State of New York, 
Attorney-General's Office. 

Albany, November 9, 1903. 
Mr. B. Frank Wood, Superintendent of Sltellfisheries : 

Dear Sir. — I beg that you will pardon my delay in acknowledging receipt of 
your letter of September eleventh, requesting my opinion as to whether your 
department has jurisdiction to lease lands under water of Cold Spring Harbor for 
shellfish cultivation. 

The question you ask my opinion on is one intimately connected with the 
applications of Walter Jennings and others for grants of land under water of 
Cold Spring Harbor, in which the first hearing before the Standing Committee 
of Remonstrances of the Commissioners of the Land Office (of which I am a 
member) was held on the fifth instant. The several parties to these applications 
were given a reasonable time to submit briefs. Upon consideration of the various 
questions involved in these proceedings the question you ask will also be looked 
into, when I will be pleased to answer your question. 

Respectfully yours, 

John Cunneen, 

A ttorney- General. 

Should it be decided that the jurisdiction for the purpose of shellfish cultiva- 
tion in those waters is in the State, it will be necessary, as in the cases already 
mentioned, to erect monuments for the purpose of a triangulation survey. 

In the year 1884 a United States Coast Survey signal, known as " Ludlum 2," 
stood upon the northerly bluff of Center Island. This bank or bluff was gradu- 
ally being worn away, and as the signal was of importance to our State oyster 
survey the Commission, in 1888, placed a new signal point exactly ten meters in a 
southerly direction from "Ludlum 2" and in a line with "Roosevelt's Windmill," 
known as "Ludlum 3." The bank has since caved away, carrying with it the 
United States signal. The monument over "Ludlum 3" had also disappeared 
when, this past fall, the Surveyor of Oyster Lands, under the direction of your 
Superintendent, undertook the relocation of this necessary signal. After many 
measurements he succeeded in finding the "point,'' which consisted of a bottle 
with a brass nail through the center of the cork, buried two and a half feet 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 63 

under the ground. As this point was upon the lawn of property now owned by 
Mrs. Le Roy Dresser, this Department utilized, for the purpose of marking the 
spot, a flagpole which has long been in possession of the Commission. 

This pole constitutes an admirable monument (" Ludlum 3") which can be 
seen in different directions and for a considerable distance over the water. The 
pole was firmly and permanently set in a stone and cement foundation. Then 
Mr. Wyeth, Surveyor of Oyster Lands, by means of mensuration and plumb, located 
down the bank the proper position of the United States signal ("Ludlum 2") and 
there drove down a piece of iron pipe six feet in length, so preserving this United 
States Government point. 

3tate Control. 

The better conditions of the shellfish industry and the increased production 
under State control was shown by your Superintendent in his report for the year 
1901, published in the Seventh Report, from which I quote as follows: 

From comparatively small beginnings the urgent necessities of the rapidly 
expanding industry of shellfish cultivation led, a few years ago, to the adoption 
by the State of a system of control of lands under the public waters suitable for 
the business; a system which includes a unification of laws; an elaborate plan of 
surveys, based upon the triangulations of the United States Coast Survey; the 
establishment of numerous intermediate coast signals and the preparation of neces- 
sary and carefully prepared maps and charts, together with grants of leases and 
franchises under well-defined boundaries. Thus has the older plan of control by 
localities, so palpably inadequate, been outgrown. 

The obsolete local plan contemplated a right to the farmer or citizen, whose 
lands happened to be adjacent to or near a bay or sound, to take possession of 
a small piece of land under' water, in size ranging from the fractional part 
of an acre to three acres, upon which he might dredge or rake a few bushels of 
shellfish for domestic consumption, or upon which the bayman owning a small 
boat could dredge the natural-growth oysters for the market. The laws of a 
given locality were sure to differ with those of every other locality, the point of 
greatest resemblance being that these rights were confined to residents of the 
particular town or community. 

In one large bay the land granted to an individual was limited to three acres, 
at an annual rental of five dollars per aGre, while in another bay the limit was 
five acres at three dollars per acre, an effort always being made to increase the 
revenues of the town or community by the income from these grants, while noth- 
ing was done by the town to protect its lessees in their rights. No hydrographic 
surveys were made. Lessees fixed their own stakes or buoys marking the. bound- 
aries of the lots. These marks being constantly removed by tides, ice and storms, 
led- to contentions between adjacent owners. Larceny of planted shellfish was a 



164 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

crime almost impossible of punishment, property lines being very uncertain and 
the visible marks unreliable. Under that expensive system doubtful or experimental 
ground was not taken. Extensive growers, requiring grounds in different localities 
suitable for different stages of shellfish growth, were obliged to use subterfuge 
and employ men resident in each locality to rent grounds as though for their 
individual use, when, in fact, they were to be used by the larger planters. 

Under the local system efficient means of destroying the enemies of the shell- 
fish, involving the use of steamers, was out of the question. Under the present 
system of State control the planters may obtain sufficient lands, employ capital 
to advantage, combat the natural enemies of the shellfish and have the benefit of 
proper surveys and boundaries, the lines being accurately fixed and easily relocated 
when necessary 

While the shellfish business under State care has made great progress toward 
escaping from the bondage under which it so recently .labored by reason of being 
held within town and county lines, it finds, in its now rapid development, that it 
is also hampered by being held back at State lines. 

This situation is particularly apparent upon the boundary line, in Long Island 
Sound, between this State and the State of Connecticut. 

Interstate Conferences. 

After several conferences between the authorities in Connecticut and your 
Superintendent of Shellfisheries, the matter was taken up by the Legislature of 
Connecticut at its recent session and the following resolution adopted: 

Section i. That the Governor is directed to appoint a Commission consisting 
of six persons, three of whom shall be the Shellfish Commissioners of this State. 

Sec. 2. Said Commission is authorized, empowered, and directed to confer 
with the Forest, Fish and Game Commission of the State of New York, in relation 
to proposed reciprocal legislation concerning lobster and shellfisheries in the waters 
of the State of New York and the State of Connecticut. Said Commissioners 
shall be paid their actual expenses when approved by the Comptroller. 

Sec. 3. Said Commissioners shall report to the Governor on or before Septem- 
ber 1, 1904, the result of their conferences, together with recommendations of such 
legislation as may seem to them practical and desirable. The Attorney-General 
shall thereupon prepare appropriate bills, embodying such proposed legislation, to 
be submitted to the next General Assembly. 

During the summer of 1903 the following named gentlemen were appointed as 
members of this Special Commission, to wit : The members of the Connecticut 
Shellfish Commission (Mr. Waldo, Mr. Schwartz and Mr. Atwater) ; Senator 
Hamilton, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Fish and Game; Assemblyman 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 165 

Arnot, Chairman of the Committee on Fish and Game of the House of Repre- 
sentatives; Mr. Pike, and General William A. King, Attorney-General. 

On November 9, 1903, your Superintendent received a notice from General King 
of a meeting of the Special Commission, to be held at the office of the Shellfish 
Commission, at New Haven, on Monday, November sixteenth, requesting his 
presence. 

The New Haven meeting was organized with Senator Hamilton in the chair. 
Your Superintendent being called upon for a statement of his views upon the issues 
under discussion, read a report covering the matter which he had, in the spring 
of 1903, submitted to the Forest, Fish and Game Commission of New York State, 
as follows: 

Office Superintendent of Shellfisheries, 
No. 1 Madison Avenue. 

New York, March 9, 1903. 
To The Forest, Fish and Game Commission, Albany: 

Gentlemen. — Following a correspondence, which has covered a period of over 
two years, conferences have recently been held, in Hartford and in New York, 
with the Connecticut State authorities for the purpose of giving effect to recom- 
mendations made by your Superintendent of Shellfisheries in November, 1900, 
and published in the Sixth Report of the Commission. It was then suggested 
that, in view of the fact that upon the statute books of both States were laws 
limiting the right to take shellfish in public waters to citizens of each State 
respectively, some legislation of a reciprocal character should be enacted in the 
two States,, which, in its operation, might be beneficial to the residents of both 
States. Between Long Island, in the State of New York, and the coast of the State 
of Connecticut, lies Long Island Sound, an immense arm of the sea. The inter- 
state boundary being a line about one hundred miles in length, established 
along what is practically the center of the Sound, the shellfish cultivators being 
restricted in their operations to one or the other side of this line, accordingly as 
their place of residence is in one State or the other, naturally questions have 
arisen affording problems of greater or less difficulty. 

In the month of July, 1900, one John Green, a resident of Connecticut, was 
arrested while taking lobsters in the Sound near Port Jefferson. He paid a small 
fine after pleading guilty. At the hearing, in the presence of the justice, he said 
that it was scarcely fair to take him alone — -that more than one hundred men from 
Connecticut were regularly taking lobsters in "The Race,'' southwest of Fisher's 
Island. Green, upon saying that he knew these persons, was requested to notify 
them that they must not continue to violate the law. One month later some 
arrests of non-resident lobster fishermen were made near Fisher's Island. One of 
these defendants made a contest, but was unsuccessful in the courts. The Forest, 
Fish and Game Commission, recognizing the hardships likely to fall upon the 



1 66 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

citizens of either State under the non-resident law, and adopting the solution 
proposed, recommended in their Sixth Report "That there should be no discrimi- 
nation by this State, in the matter of hunting or fishing, against any citizen of the 
United States, except in cases of citizens of States which discriminate against the 
State of New York." 

Counsel for the Connecticut lobster fishermen undertook to prepare a measure 
for enactment in both States and was promised the endorsement of this Commis- 
sion, but later reported that his clients were not prepared for this full measure of 
reciprocity. At this time the Legislatures of 1901 were in session in the respec- 
tive States. In 1902 the question was taken up with Hon. Charles Phelps, then 
Attorney-General of Connecticut, and with the Shellfish Commissioners of that 
State, without result. 

Hon. William A. King, the present Attorney-General of Connecticut, has become 
interested in the subject, and at his invitation your Superintendent visited Hart- 
ford on February sixth and conferred with the Attorney-General, the Shellfish 
Commissioners, the Fish and Game Commissioners, the respective Chairmen of the 
Senate and House Committees on Fish and Game, and others. 

This conference resulted in an agreement to recommend in the two States 
legislation of a reciprocal character, under which citizens of both States might 
enjoy mutual rights in the shellfisheries so far as these fisheries are within the 
jurisdiction of the State governments, with the exception of the use of the natural 
growth seed-oyster beds, which our neighbors thought should be reserved for the 
people of each State respectively. It was believed that such an arrangement 
would greatly benefit the shellfish industry and give effect almost fully (for it 
stopped a little short of full reciprocity) to the ideas for settlement expressed by 
this Commission for more than two years past. 

The conclusions of the meeting at Hartford on February sixth, however, did 
not seem to be pleasing to some of the Connecticut planters, and a hearing was 
announced for February twenty-fifth before the joint committees, and your Super- 
intendent was notified that his presence would be desirable. At this hearing a 
number of Connecticut oyster planters was present, and it was urged by them that 
they should be allowed, under any new plan, to take lands in Peconic and Gardners 
Bays in New York. It was explained to them that these lands were not under 
State jurisdiction, having been ceded by the State to the County of Suffolk 
in 1884, and that if shellfish lands under local New York jurisdiction could be 
opened up to them, it would involve a similar privilege to New York planters 
in Connecticut local jurisdictions. The lands under the waters of Peconic and 
Gardner's Bays are, by law, excluded from State jurisdiction so far as making 
grants for shellfish cultivation are concerned, and as they are not located upon 
the coast of the Sound and are not in their position opposite to the coast of 
Connecticut, they cannot be considered in this arrangement. 

Some of the Connecticut towns hold, under ancient grants, shellfish lands over 
which jurisdiction and control is held by said towns, and it was not supposed that 
such control would be affected by the reciprocal legislation proposed. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. l6" 

By reason of the overanxiety of the Connecticut lobster fishermen to fish in 
"The Race," in this State, and of the Connecticut oyster planters to be permitted 
to take shellfish lands in Gardner's and Peconic Bays, some measures have been 
proposed and bills introduced in the Legislature of Connecticut (apparently for the 
purpose of securing action of the New York authorities in the matter) which 
are, in their provisions, detrimental to the shellfish interests of citizens of New 
York, to wit: House Bill No. 446 declares forfeited all grants and franchises held 
by non-residents of this State in shellfish lands; House Bill No. 233 provides 
that oysters from the natural oyster beds of Connecticut shall not be conveyed 
out of the State within two years from the time said oysters are taken from 
the bed. 

In explanation of what is intended to be secured by Bill No. 446, it should be 
stated that in former years, by reason of a lax enforcement of the shellfish laws, 
non-residents in both States have taken assignments from original grantees of 
oyster lands. It will therefore be understood that many planters residing in New 
York are cultivating lands in Connecticut and vice versa, and that the enactment 
of this measure would involve an ejectment of New York planters from grounds 
thus held in Connecticut. 

House Bill No. 233 affects the right, as it at present exists, of residents of 
New York to purchase seed oysters from the natural seed beds of Connecticut, 
and if enacted would deleteriously affect the interests of our planters. 

It is but just to say that neither of these measures meet the approval of the 
Shellfish Commissioners of Connecticut, nor of the Attorney-General of that State, 
nor of any Connecticut official, so far as your Superintendent is informed; in 
fact, a bill amending Section 3215 of the General Statutes of Connecticut has 
been drafted by the Attorney-General of that State, under the provisions of 
which reciprocal rights, as proposed by the New York Commission, will be secured 
so far as that State is concerned. It also confirms to citizens of New York 
State title to such shellfish lands as they may have taken by assignment from 
residents of Connecticut. 

It has also been proposed by the Connecticut authorities that, if necessary, 
a Commission shall be appointed by the Governor to confer with the Forest, Fish 
and Game Commission of New York State for the purpose of considering and 
reporting upon the questions at issue. 

Respectfully submitted. B. Frank Wood, 

Superintendent of Shellfisheries. 

It was agreed by the gentlemen present, all of whom, except Mr. Atwater, 
had attended the Hartford and New York conferences, that in his report your 
Superintendent had stated the matter fairly and correctly. 

After a short discussion of the matters involved an adjournment, subject to the 
call of the chair, was taken. 



l68 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

Tl)e Boston Convention. 

A convention of the Commissioners of the lobster-producing States and British 
maritime provinces was held at the State House at Boston, Mass., on Wednesday, 
September 23, 1903, upon the call of Hon. Joseph W. Collins, Chairman of the 
Department of Fisheries and Game of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for 
the purpose of considering what can be done to secure a better protection of 
the lobster; and, if possible, to obtain laws upon this subject as nearly uniform 
as possible in the various States and provinces. It was fully appreciated that 
some immediate and concerted plan must be adopted to prevent the ultimate 
commercial extermination of the lobster. 

The Dominion of Canada, and Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut 
and New York States were represented. The convention continued for two days 
and developed much of interest and importance. 

Upon the organization of the convention Captain Collins was called to preside, 
and Dr. George W. Field, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who for 
several years has made a specialty of investigating the habits and natural history 
of the lobster from a scientific standpoint, was elected secretary. 

In his address Captain Collins called attention to the fact that the statute 
laws existing in the several States have proved entirely inadequate to prevent 
the considerable and continuing diminution in the supply of lobsters. He stated 
that the question before the convention was, "Shall present conditions continue, 
or shall we endeavor to bring about the adoption of uniform rules in the different 
municipalities which may insure the conservation and proper protection of these 
crustaceans? " 

The following recommendations were reported by a committee consisting of 
Captain J. W. Collins, of Massachusetts; A. R. Nickerson, of Maine; E. H. Greer, 
of Connecticut; B. Frank Wood, of New York; W. H. Boardman, of Rhode Island, 
and Dr. George W. Field: 

First. — We recommend that a law be enacted to limit lobster catching to men 
having permits from the State; that the penalty for catching lobsters without a 
permit shall not be less than $100. and that a person convicted of violating the 
laws for the protection of lobsters shall have his permit revoked, and that no other 
shall be issued to him for a year thereafter. 

Second. — The committee recommends that it is our desire, if possible, to have 
uniform, or nearly uniform, laws for the protection of the lobster in the New 
England States and New York, more especially so far as the legalized length of 
the lobster is concerned. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 69 

Third. — Your committee further recommends the general adoption of the law 
relating to lobster meat now enacted in the statutes of Maine. [The Maine 
law allows the sale of lobster meat in the shell only, so that lobsters shorter 
than the legal limit, known in the trade as "chicken" lobster, may be more 
readily detected.] 

Dr. George W. Field advanced a theory regarding the protection of lobsters 
which deserves careful consideration upon the part of those who are making a study 
of this interesting subject. He maintains that it is the egg-bearing, or "berry,"' 
lobster, rather than the immature lobster, that needs protection, on the same 
principle upon which the laying, or mother, fowl is preserved while the broilers 
are sent to market. He proposes to create a perpetual close season for the adult 
breeding lobster by putting it out of the power of fishermen to capture them. 
To secure this condition he suggests legislation limiting the size of the orifice or 
ring at the entrance to the lobster trap, so that it will be impossible for a lobster 
more than eleven inches in length to enter. As all lobsters above this size will 
be excluded, they will consequently never come into the hands of the fisherman, 
and therefore there will be no temptation for him to surreptitiously market them. 
He thinks that lobsters betweer eight and eleven inches are of suitable size for 
market, and are superior to the ^rger ones for the table. 

It was suggested by your Superintendent that lobsters too small for the market 
might be allowed to escape from the traps by making the space between the side- 
bars or slats sufficiently wide to enable them to pass out. Under such a plan fewer 
small lobsters would be brought to the surface when the traps are raised, while 
absolutely none above eleven inches in length would be taken. 

The minutes of the convention, it is expected, will soon be in print and ready 
for distribution, when copies will be forwarded to the New York Commission. 

During the season multitudes of young lobsters have made their appearance 
upon out coast, notably in the New York Lower Bay and in Jamaica Bay. This 
gives encouragement for an increased market supply in the near future. 

statistics of tl)e Industry. 

Though without an appropriation for this purpose, an effort has been made by 
your Superintendent to gather statistics of the shellfish industry. The results 
presented in this report are of very great interest, and, while not as complete as 
they may be in the future, bear out the estimate made two years ago by this 
Department — that New York annually transacts a business in shellfish amounting 
to about $7,000,000 



170 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

The preparation of statistical returns being a new thing, it was impossible 
to get reports from every planter and dealer. However, with the assistance of 
the common carriers, freely given, and with the cooperation of a majority of the 
planters and market men, we are enabled to show the great development of 
the shellfish business under State control, covering the cultivation, marketing 
and export trade. 

On or about October 1, 1903, the following letter, with question blank enclosed, 
was sent out to shellfish cultivators, to wit: 

Office Superintendent of Shellfisheries, 

No. 1 Madison Avenue. 

New York, October 1, 1903. 

Dear Sir. — For the purpose of obtaining reliable statistics of the extensive 
and growing shellfish industry of the State of New York' (pursuant to the require- 
ments of Chapter 433, Laws of 1903) you are requested to kindly answer the 
questions upon the enclosed blank and send the same by return mail to this 
office. 

The information obtained in this manner from individual planters, firms and 
corporations will be held as being of a strictly confidential nature. This is a 
matter of necessity and importance and is required by law (as above cited). 
Please give it your immediate attention, and oblige, 

Yours respectfully, 

B Frank Wood, 

Superintendent of Shellfisheries. 

This letter brought returns from about one half of the acreage held under 
State leases and franchises, as shown by the following summary compiled from 
the statistics furnished: 

SUMMARY. 

Acres held under lease 6,274.0 

Acres held under franchise ...... ... 7,694.2 

Total acres cultivated 9,274.7 

(Location of tracts — Jamaica Bay, Princes Bay, Long 
Island Sound and tributary bays and harbors, Great 
South Bay, Raritan Bay.) 

Number of steam vessels employed 71 

Tonnage of steam vessels . 1,223.08 

Value of steam vessels $299,850 00 

Value of outfit . • 121,585 00 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. I 7 1 

Summary — {Concluded). 

Number of sail vessels employed 104 

Tonnage of sail vessels 1,372.32 

Value of sail vessels $84,100 00 

Value of outfit 44,375 °° 

Number of other boats employed 392 

Value of other boats . $35,944 00 

Value of outfit 28,206 00 

Number of tongs used 722 

Number of dredges used 446 

Number of hands employed 870 

Amount paid in wages $258,015 41 

Value of shore property $88,950 00 

Bushels of market oysters produced 879,861 

Bushels of seed oysters produced . . . . . . . . . 138,559 

Bushels of seed oysters planted 755,419 

Bushels of seed oysters sold 90,803 

Value of seed oysters sold $37, I 5 I 5° 

Value of market oysters sold 1,052,841 62 



Bushels of clams produced 26,813 

Value of clams sold $58,742 09 



Principal market — New York and Europe. 

This does not imply that the production is double the amount specified, for 
one grower with ten acres may produce more marketable oysters than another 
with 100 acres. The same applies to all the statistics here given as to number, 
tonnage, values of vessels employed, number of men employed, quantity and 
value of equipment, value of shore property, amounts paid in wages, etc. 

Careful efforts were made to secure from various transportation lines the quan- 
tity of oysters brought to market in the course of a year. In very few instances 
were the figures immediately available, as no separate records of oyster shipments 
were kept. Officials and employees very courteously estimated the quantities and 
offered all the aid possible in determining tne volume of business. In nearly every 
case, however, the figures were given, not as officially exact, but rather as 
underestimates. Hence it may be assumed that the oyster trade of New York 



172 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

State in a year, as reckoned from the business of the carriers, is rather more 
than less than the figures given. Reckoning the quantities of oysters sent to 
market in the shell and "shucked," or opened, the total number of bushels 
represented in the transportation companies' reports amounted to 6,275,000. As 
the average wholesale price of oysters amounts to one dollar or more per bushel, 
this represents, in round figures, a valuation of $7,000,000 annually. 

As indicative of the variation of the sale of oysters during the twelve months 
of the year the following report of one year's shipment by freight on one trans- 
portation line will prove instructive, remembering, of course, that these figures 
are estimated and are intended to understate rather than exaggerate the volume 
of business: 

Net tons. 

January 2,500 

February •..'..'. 2,500 

March 2,000 

April 1,000 

May . 290 

June 267 

July 200 

August 162 

September I ,37 2 

October 2,584 

November 3>5°° 

December 3>5°° 

Total tons 19,875 

One ton equals, barrels 9 

Nine barrels to ton equals,- barrels 178,875 

Three bushels to barrel 3 

Total bushels 536,625 



New ^Iorl^ Cit^ Ouster Rar^ef s. 

In New York City there are two principal oyster markets: the West Washington 
Oyster Market and the Fulton Market. The business of the oyster dealers is 
principally done in large house-boats, or floats moored at the water fronts. These 
unique craft are familiar and picturesqe objects to New Yorkers. The use of these 
boats has grown from the necessities of the business. Proper houses upon the 
wharfs or docks are scarce and would be hard to obtain. The use of the floats 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 73 

is a measure of economy, the cost of dockage being one dollar and ninety cents 
per day; and it is then said that the oyster merchants are discriminated against, 
as canal boats, occupying greater space, are docked for twenty-five cents per day. 
Canal boats are transient customers at the docks, while the oyster boats are 
permanently located. 

These oyster houses rise and fall with the tides, and are therefore always upon 
the level of the boats comprising the oyster-carrying fleet, and thus are favorably 
situated to have the cargoes transferred. There are nineteen of these floats at 
West Washington Market and seven at Fulton Market. 

TI)e Ouster Fleet. 

Subsidiary to the large market floats are perhaps 500 boats engaged in the 
trade of carrying oysters from the oyster beds to the market. This fleet com- 
prises boats of almost every description, including steamers, naphtha-power boats, 
schooners and sloops, and they carry loads varying from 300 to 5,000 bushels 
each. Five hundred bushels is probably a fair average cargo for a sailing vessel. 
In addition to the boats, there are from fifty to sixty wagons regularly employed 
in taking oysters to market from the Rockaway beds. These wagons are built 
upon the lines of the Long Island market gardener's wagon, and carry a load of 
21.000 oysters, put up in bags, containing about 400 oysters to the bag. 

Oysters in the shell are shipped to the retailers in barrels and bags, and the 
opened ("shucked") oysters in half barrels and tubs. 

There are about 250 oysters, in the shell to the bushel; these, when opened, 
give about one gallon of solid meat. A half barrel holds eighteen gallons, there 
being twelve gallons of solid oysters. The tubs contain nine gallons, with six 
gallons of meat. 

Aofor I^oafs. 

A great saving in time and money in the handling of oyster stock is being 
wrought by the employment of power boats in the business. Indeed, the trade is 
being revolutionized by the rapid advancement in this respect, as many more 
trips can be made and much larger burdens carried than with the old-time oyster 
craft. This, with modern processes of refrigeration in transit, is doing wonders 
for the business. 

Shipments of oysters to European ports began on October twenty-second, and 
have now amounted (in less than two months) to 6,925 barrels. During the fall 
shipments amounting to five carloads daily have been made to California. Oysters 
now go everywhere, and can be delivered in good condition at remote points. 



174 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

Great numbers of markets, groceries, etc., throughout the country are engaged 
in handling the bivalves, and constitute an important factor in the ever increasing 
demand. 

Ouster Oltare. 

The large increase in the quantity of oysters produced and marketed is 
an evidence of the popularity and high dietetic value of this palatable and easily 
digested sea food. It has been pointed out by the Lancet that the nutritive 
material in a raw oyster comprises all classes of food substances, including proteid, 
carbohydrate, fat and certain mineral salts which are present in a peculiarly 
assimilable form. 

That the oyster can be propagated by artificial means has long been known, 
the difficulty having been to apply the methods economically upon a commercial 
scale. Experiments for this purpose are constantly being carried on by the United 
States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. The process in use by oyster planters, 
usually spoken of as "cultivating" the oyster, consists in assisting nature to the 
extent of preparing suitable beds upon which the spat or spawn can attach itself and 
make its growth. Slime and mud are fatal to the young oyster. It is therefore 
necessary for the planter to thoroughly clean his ground under water by use of the 
dredge. He then covers the bottom with shells which have been cleansed by scour- 
ino- and drying, or with clean broken stone. This preparation, in the case of the 
larger tracts of oyster land, may cost many thousands of dollars, which are literally 
cast upon the waters in the hope that the oyster spat may attach. 

The oyster exudes thousands of eggs, which are carried along by the tides 
until a clean, hard surface is encountered, when, if the limit of existence in the 
free-swimming stage has not been reached, it attaches, and there it remains 
during its life history, unless removed by the planter to other grounds. The 
uncertainties of the business to the planter are apparent. The spawn from the 
oysters upon his own grounds may be carried miles away by the currents, while 
the set upon his lands comes from an unknown quarter; or he may fail entirely 
to get a set, with the result that the money spent by him in preparing the beds 
has actually been thrown overboard. Thus, from an oyster farm, other lands may 
be fertilized and enriched. 

There is occasionally a season during which the oyster set is abundant and 
general and when all goes well with the planter, but usually the set occurs over 
small areas or spots, and often there is a season showing almost an entire absence 
of oyster set. The oyster requires from three to five or more years to mature, 
so that the business can endure for a few years a dearth of the spat. There has 
been no general oyster set in New York waters since the year 1899. The abun- 



! 




OYSTER FLOAT AND SLOOPS— OYSTER BAY. 




ALONG THE STREET FRONT. 

WEST WASHINGTON MARKET, NEW YORK CITY. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 1 75 

dance of that year has ever since furnished the trade with market stock and will 
carry the dealers over another year, during which, however, higher prices may 
be looked for. Should the next season not prove more bountiful in this particular 
the planters will be in dire straits. 

Minute oysters, known as "seed" oysters, are regularly dealt in and carried 
from one locality to another and transplanted. Our growers usually purchase 
large quantities of seed from the Connecticut natural beds, but our Connecticut 
neighbors, as well as our own people, have lately failed to find a set. Seed 
oysters from Southern waters will not thrive upon our colder coasts, though 
Northern seed prospers well in the South. Our planters, consequently, cannot be 
supplied from that source; we have, therefore, to face a condition of scarcity 
of oysters during ths next two years. No doubt nature could always, under 
normal conditions, be depended on to renew and perpetuate this species, but it 
must be remembered that by the agency of man the natural beds have been 
depleted and nature's balance disturbed. Notwithstanding the deadly attacks of 
the starfish, the borer, the periwinkle and other enemies of this bivalve, nature 
has always provided for the survival of the oyster; but when the oystermen rake 
up the shellfish of entire bays and arms of the sea it will be understood that 
every advance in intelligent methods of cultivation is welcomed, and that experi- 
ments such as the General Government is making along the line of artificial 
propagation are watched with the greatest interest. 

Our New York oyster is the best and most sought shellfish that the market 
affords. Blue Points, East Rivers, Rockaways and those from Princes Bay are 
too well known and too highly esteemed to require further mention here. Our 
domestic markets demand them, and thousands of barrels are exported to foreign 
countries. Perhaps it may be of interest to note that we also import oysters, 
though the quantities imported are infinitesimal in comparison with the exports; 
still there are certain epicures who, to satisfy a taste which might properly be 
called a fad, require that the bills of fare at their favorite restaurants shall afford 
"Green Marennes," a French oyster, which, to the extent of five or six barrels a 
week during the season, are brought to this country. While the New York oyster 
is unsurpassed in quality and may be had fresh from its salty medium, its foreign 
relative commands a fourfold greater price. 

A Hazardous Occapafion. 

Some of the difficulties which make the business of oyster culture hazardous 
and laborious have been mentioned, but more might be related; in fact, more 
exist than are actually known, such as storms, tides, temperature of water and 



176 NINTH REPORT OF THE 

the fate of being stifled by the smothering mud. One oyster planter relates the 
difficulties he encounters in oyster cultivation as follows: 

Dear Sir. — I am in receipt of your request to fill out blank relating to oyster 
cultivation. It is impossible for me to fill this out as you request, but am 
perfectly willing to give you all the information possible. 

In the first place, I do not know how much ground I have planted, as it is 
all creek bottom. I have permission and in some cases pay for the privilege 
of planting to the owners of adjoining uplands. The town presumably owns the 
bottom, but it was voted in town meeting not to lease any creek bottoms. This 
is largely an experiment, last season being the first year that oysters in any 
quantity were planted in this creek. The bottom planted does not lie in any con- 
tinuous tract or tracts, but follows the shore largely and wherever bottom seems 
to be hardest. 

Last season I planted about 700 bushels and did very well with them. This 
spring, in partnership with another party, I planted about 3,000 bushels; have had 
bad luck with them, so far losing, I should think, certainly one third by reason 
of a growth of moss or a mosslike substance growing from the bottom to a length of 
about six inches, forming a solid mat and smothering whatever oysters it covered. 
This growth occurred in the month of June. We also had another growth, which 
grows from bottom to top of water; this we could seine off, but the first named 
there did not seem to be any way of getting rid of. Have not as yet this season 
handled any oysters to speak of, so cannot tell number of bushels or value. 

%%%%%%%*%% 

I am, 

Yours truly, 



Cultivation for Private Use. 

There are some instances of citizens who have peculiar facilities for growing 
shellfish, or who, having wealth at command, can indulge their taste for fresh 
salt-sea oysters and clams by cultivating private shellfish beds. To mention 
a notable case: Last year Mr. Howard Gould leased from the State two tracts 
of land under the waters of Long Island Sound, upon which he immediately 
caused to be planted 2,500 bushels of young oysters. He reports under date of 
October 14, 1903, that he now has in cultivation about five acres located off 
Sands Point, and adds: 

The lands which I hold at Sands Point were planted with sufficient oysters 
and clams for my own use only, and, as I have never sold any or kept any 
account of the amount I have taken out, it is impossible for me to answer many 
of the questions on the form you send me. 



FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 177 

Clams. 

The delicious and appetizing clams produced in this State (among which are 
the popular Little Necks and Rockaways) are far-famed. As the natural supplies 
have continued to diminish, planters have, in many instances, given careful atten- 
tion to cultivating this succulent bivalve. Notably, in Jamaica Bay they have 
been successfully grown in considerable quantities. No difficulty has been experi- 
enced in disposing of the stock right at the beds at good prices. Clams, although 
a staple article of trade, are especially sought at times when the oyster is out of 
the market. Our native stock finds ready sale, often bringing from ten dollars to 
twelve dollars per barrel. 

Ti)e Aen^aden Cafcl). 

The Menhaden fishermen have enjoyed two years of plenty following upon 
several years of scarcity. The vicissitudes of this business are common to all 
coast fisheries and tend to prove the theory that ocean fish have their periods 
of being scarce and plentiful entirely irrespective of any agency of man. This 
fluctuation of supply is well understood by fishermen. The Menhaden business 
has, during the year, yielded results as follows: 

Number of steamers 30 

Catch of fish (about), barrels 1,500,000 

Oil made (about), barrels 70,000 

Scrap (about), tons 40,000 

Value (about) . $1,500,000 



Vood Fisheries. 

Food-fish of all kinds have been fairly abundant upon our coast. Bluefish, 

however, did not come North in as great abundance as during last season, but 

were plentiful in Southern waters. The net fishermen in the vicinity of Montauk 

Point and along our outer coast line have been favored with large catches which 

have brought satisfactory prices in the market, making for this season prosperous 

times for those engaged in this hazardous and often unprofitable occupation. 

Respectfully submitted. 

B. Frank Wood, 

Superintendent of Shell fisheries. 

New York, N. Y., December 30, 1903. 



Tf>e Cultivated Forests of Carope 

By A. Knechtel. 

THE general interest in forestry affairs which now occupies largely the 
attention of the people in this country, has led to discussions in which 
European forestry methods are frequently referred to as a desirable system 
to be followed in the management and exploitation of American woodlands. In view 
of this fact it may be well for the casual reader, who is interested in this subject, to 
devote a little time to a study of the methods employed in the maintenance and 
management of European forests in order to determine how far they are applicable 
to the lumber business, and to forestry in general, in our own land. 

It would be impossible, within the limited scope of this article, to discuss all 
the questions involved, but a brief statement of the salient facts, together with 
a short description of certain fundamental and controlling conditions, may assist 
largely in understanding the differences which necessarily exist in the conduct of 
the business as now carried on in the two countries. 

Nor is it intended that this article shall be especially instructive to foresters. 
It is written rather with the hope that it may interest the general reader, 
permitting him to consider certain forest conditions without having his patience 
taxed with mathematical calculations or technical phraseology. 

Wi)% tl)e Forests Are Clean. 

In the cultivated forests of Europe the absence of underbrush and fallen, 
decaying logs and limbs, the density of the forest, and the even distribution of 
trees, often planted in long, straight rows, arrest immediately the attention 
of the American visitor. One can stroll with comfort among the trees, or drive 
anywhere among them, except, of course, where the hills are too steep or stony, 
or where the trees stand too closely together, the latter being always the case in 
young woods. 

In these forests trees are not permitted to reach the full limit of their life, 
and then, as the result of decay, to fall and remain rotting on the ground. 
They are considered as a wood capital which adds interest to itself as long as 
the trees continue to grow, at first slowly when the trees are small, more rapidly 
when they are of medium size, and more slowly again when they become large. 
When the trees die the wood interest ceases entirely, and as they decay the 

i79 



l8o REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

capital itself is reduced. The forester leaves this wood capital as long as interest 
continues to add to it satisfactorily. Then when the- growth declines, whether 
on account of insect attack, disease, or old age, until it no longer warrants 
leaving the timber in the forest, it is removed, the forester taking the trunks 
and limbs and the peasant gathering up the brush and often digging out the 
stumps, although these also are not infrequently taken care of by the forester 
and placed on the market, bringing always a price sufficient at least to pay the 
cost of their removal. 

Everywhere in the woods of southern Europe may be seen people gathering 
brush and taking it home in carts, drawn frequently by cows or dogs. Often, 
however, it is tied into a bundle and carried, sometimes a long distance, strapped 
on the back or poised on the head. Permission to gather brushwood for fuel is 
usually given free of charge. In some places a nominal sum is charged; in others 
the workmen in the woods are granted the privilege- as an extra compensation 
for their labor. Sometimes with this permission goes also the privilege of 
gathering leaves and nuts, the leaves being fed to goats, or used as bedding for 
horses and cattle. The nuts are mostly used as food for domestic animals; 
but many of the poor people dry the acorns and use them in place of coffee. In 
the cities of Italy pine cones are peddled on the streets. 

In the Spessart, in Bavaria, it has been so long the privilege of the peasants 
to gather litter from the forest that it is now considered their right, and even so 
recognized by law. The privilege has its restrictions, however, which have been 
stated as follows by Sir Dietrich Brandis: "It must not be exercised in young 
woods which have not yet attained half the age prescribed by the term of 
rotation ; * further, an area where litter has been collected must have at least 
six years' rest before it is again opened for that purpose; and lastly, the areas 
opened for the collection of litter must be assigned annually by the responsible 
forest officers, and this is done in accordance with a well-considered plan. Never- 
theless, the quantity of leaves removed annually is enormous. In spring and 
autumn long strings of wagons filled with huge mountains of litter leave the forest 
in every direction, and the result is that the soil does not improve as much as it 
might, and in places it is much impoverished." f 

In some districts all products of the forest are put upon the market. In a 
forest belonging to the city of Grabow in Mecklenburg a good layer of leaves 
and moss sells for sixteen dollars per acre. 



*The term of rotation prescribed for oak is 300, for beech 120, for Scotch pine 96, and for 
spruce 72 years. 

t Garden and Forest, May, 1894. "Mixed Oak and Beech Forests of the Spessart," by 
D. Brandis. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



BUNDLING SPRUCE FAGOTS FOR MARKET. 

NEAR TITISEE, IN THE BLACK FOREST. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



GOING HOME FROM THEIR WORK IN THE FOREST. 

NEAR OBERWIESENTHAL, IN THE ERZGEBIRGE, SAXONY. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. l8l 

Aetljods of Calf ore. 

Tn European forests there is always a large quantity of small timber for sale 
on account of the manner in which the forests are cultivated. Pine and spruce 
trees are mostly started in nurseries, in which beds are made and seed is sown in 
much the same way as in the vegetable garden. After growing in these seed 
beds for two years* the little trees, then about six inches high, are transplanted 
into other beds, where they are spaced about five or six inches apart, and where 
they remain for two or three years more. They are then about a foot or fifteen 
inches tall, and are taken to a field from which the forest has been removed and 
are set in the ground spaced only four feet apart, or thereabouts, so that in a 
short time they will crowd each other. This crowded condition compels the trees 
to grow tall and slender and to shed their lower branches, thereby permitting a 
growth of timber free of knots. It also hinders evaporation by shading the soil, 
a matter oF prime importance. After attaining a satisfactory height growth 
the trees take on a diameter growth in due time. The trees are usually planted 
in straight rows, in some cases by means of a rope stretched across the field as a 
guide. 

If the soil is of a good quality the ground receives no previous preparation, 
except that the stumps may be taken out. In light, sandy soils it is a common 
practice to run furrows about three feet apart. A surface plow with a double 
moldboard is used, which goes about eight inches deep. This is followed, in the 
same furrows, by a narrow subsoil plow which sinks to the depth of one foot, 
and which is usually drawn by two teams. 

Instead of being plowed, the ground is sometimes dug with a spade. The 
diggers advance in straight lines across the field making square holes, twenty 
inches on a side and twenty inches deep, the soil removed in digging each being 
thrown into the preceding hole. The soil thus loosened retains the moisture 
better. Pine is almost invariably the species planted in such poor, sandy ground. 

In about twenty years a thinning is necessary, as the trees then crowd each 
other so much that many are suppressed, in more or- less degree, by their stronger 
neighbors, and these latter are also hindered materially in their growth. In spruce 
forests sometimes more than half the trees are removed in this first thinning 
These are sold for firewood, poles and various other purposes. The fuel wood 
brings, laid at the roadside, about two dollars and twenty-five cents a cord, the 



* Scotch pine is, in many localities, taken from the seed bed directly to the field when it is one 
year old. If left for a longer time in the nursery, it is much damaged by a fungal disease called 
" Schiitte." 



152 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

poles selling for various prices, according to their size and form. As the crowns 
of the trees soon close again, subsequent thinnings are necessary about every ten 
or fifteen years, the better sticks being taken for building purposes while the rest go 
mostly for pulp-wood if spruce, for firewood if pine, all sorts increasing in price 
with the quality. Building material laid at the roadside brings about nine cents 
per cubic foot; good spruce fuel wood about three dollars a cord. 

On the poor, sandy soil of Mecklenburg a thinning in Scotch pine, when the 
trees are twenty years old, yields about two dollars per acre; when forty, five 
dollars; when sixty, ten dollars; when eighty, twenty dollars; when one hundred, 
thirty dollars. The total wood from thinnings gives about one hundred and thirty 
dollars per acre. On good soil in the Erz mountains, Saxony, a thinning in 
spruce, when the trees are twenty years old, yields four dollars per acre; when 
forty, fifteen dollars; when sixty, eighty dollars. The total wood from thinnings 
yields about two hundred dollars per acre. The thinnings largely offset the cost 
and interest on the plantation up to the time of the final cutting. 

The final cutting is not often made before the trees reach the age of eighty 
years. Sometimes they remain until they are one hundred and twenty years old, 
especially where the soil is poor or the climate severe. These are the finest trees 
in the forest, the diseased, deformed or injured ones having been removed in the 
successive thinnings. Then about one hundred and sixty to two hundred straight, 
cylindrical trees, twelve to fifteen inches in diameter and about eighty feet high, 
with shafts free of branches, stand on an acre, offering in all about 40,000 to 50,000 
feet of lumber and selling on the stump for from $500 to $600. These are felled 
and taken from the woods in almost full tree lengths. It is common in Europe 
to see logs sixty feet long being hauled from the forest. 

In Germany the forest is managed largely in compartments, each of which, when 
the mature trees are considered ready for removal, is cut clean and planted 
with the new crop. Sometimes the compartments are located so that the cutting 
proceeds regularly in a certain direction, usually from east to west as a protection 
against the prevailing winds, the cuttings being made at intervals of perhaps ten 
years, in which case the forest shows distinctly ten or twelve age classes arranged 
in a series of progressive heights. If a compartment is harvested and restocked 
each year, the number of age classes will, of course, equal the age to which the 
trees are allowed to grow. This method of cutting clean and planting is the one 
most commonly in use in the pine and spruce forests of Germany. 

Instead of planting the field with young trees, it is occasionally restocked by 
sowing seed in spots hacked in the soil, the spots spaced about four feet apart. 
Scotch pine seems to do quite well planted in this way, especially where the soil 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



STAR-SHAPED PLANTATION, WITH ROADS RADIATING FROM COMMON CENTRES. 

THURINGIA, GERMANY. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



PREPARING GROUND FOR A FOREST PLANTATION. 

FORSTAMT HAI.V, IN THE SPESSART, NORTHERN BAVARIA. 









A. KNECHTEI., PHOTO. 



A CLEAN CUTTING; PLANTED FOREST OF SPRUCE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. 

NEAR DREIANNEN-HOHNE, HARTZ MOUNTAIN'S, HANOVER. 




■&*j'*UL*t.±&l >i r .* 



^^^msmm^m^^^uy^ 



for 



A. FRANCHI, PHOTO. 



PLANTED FOREST OF SILVER FIR, FIFTEEN YEARS OLD. 

NEAR CAMALDOLI, IN THE APENNINES, ITALY. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. 183 

is fresh and the weeds few. European foresters place little dependence upon the 
reproduction of pine and spruce from self-sown seed, though one occasionally 
sees a forest fairly well stocked in this way, more frequently with pine than with 
spruce. Results with spruce may be observed at Baden-Baden in the Black 
Forest and at Winterthur in Switzerland. 

Where the hills are steep and great danger of erosion exists a selective system 
of cutting is followed. The method is practiced in Germany, but is more common 
in the French Vosges and in Switzerland, in some places denudation being even 
forbidden by law. In a forest managed in this way there is a mixture of all age 
classes, the mature trees being removed and thinnings being made as the foresters 
deem advisable. In this case the young growth comes usually from self-sown 
seed. 

A fir or beech forest is generally reproduced from seed that falls from mother 
trees left standing over the area to be restocked. These are left properly 
distributed and in sufficient number, not only for the dispersion of seed, but also 
to furnish the right degree of shade for the young crop to get started. Some- 
times, when a full mast occurs on the beech trees, the ground beneath is hacked 
up for the reception of the seed, as it germinates more readily in the mineral soil. 
The distribution of the beechnuts is also aided by hand, and fail places are 
planted with trees from the nursery. After the growth is well started the mother 
trees are removed in the winter. 

Fir and beech are very much alike in their growth requirements. Both species 
endure much shade; both are much injured by late frosts, and are sensitive to 
intense heat; hence, both need protection from mother trees. On account of this 
similarity of behavior the two species have in recent years been much cultivated 
in mixture. 

Oak and beech are also grown together. Oak cannot endure much shade ; the 
crowns of the trees must be kept constantly free from one another by thinning. 
Hence, beech, a good shade-enduring tree, is used as an undergrowth to shade the 
soil which otherwise would be much exposed to the drying influences of the sun. 

"When an oak forest is to be restocked, mother trees of oak and beech are 
left distributed over the ground. The soil is prepared by rooting up any little 
beech trees that may have started, as their shade would hinder the growth of 
the j'oung oaks. This also brings some mineral soil to the surface. The ground 
is then left until seed falls, sometimes four or five years, unless the work is done 
during a seed year. If the beech seed falls before the oak, the growth from it 
is destroyed by raking the ground in the following spring after the beech seed 
has germinated, the object being to hold the ground ready for the oak. When 



184 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

a seed year for oak occurs, after the acorns fall the ground is hacked up T 
generally in lines about three feet apart, and the seed covered. 

Where no seed trees exist, or where a new forest is to be started, acorns are 
sown broadcast, twenty-two bushels per acre, and hacked into the soil in lines. 
Occasionally the whole area is dug up, but this is seldom considered necessary. 

The beech is not permitted to come in among the oak until the latter has a 
start of a few years. It is then encouraged. By the time the oak is sixty years 
old the ground beneath is well covered with beech. Where it fails to come in 
from seed, small trees are planted. After the young growth is well started the 
mother trees are gradually removed, in several cuttings made in the winter, 
and the young growth is thinned out as necessity requires. 

The beech, though shaded, grows more rapidly than the oak, and when it 
rises into the branches of the oak it is cut away and another generation started. 
Thus under one crop of oak is grown two crops of beech. 

Pine, spruce, fir, beech and oak, one species of each, are the noble trees that 
make up the great cultivated forests of Europe, and in those forests the trees are 
raised from seed. But on many small areas coppice woods exist; that is, woods 
in which the young growth comes as sprouts from stumps. Oak for tanbark and 
firewood; chestnut for vine props; willow for basket twigs, and alder for turnery, 
are the common coppice trees, although other broad-leaf trees — ash, elm, birch, 
beech and maple — are somewhat so cultivated for firewood. The fuel wood of 
southern Italy is mostly obtained from coppice. 

The trees are usually cut in late winter or early spring. At Naples the season, 
which is governed by law, is from September to March, but at higher elevations 
in southern Italy it continues through April. In Germany, oak for tanbark is 
cut in May and June; willow in August or December. The alder is usually 
grown in marshes and is cut while the ground is frozen. Coppice trees are 
cut down close to the ground and with an oblique section, so that the surface 
of the stump is quite smooth and allows the water to run off freely. Usually, 
scattered among the coppice, are trees grown from seed. In fact, these are 
indispensable to the perpetuation of coppice woods, as trees are soon killed by 
repeated cutting. 

From the foregoing description of the manner in which forests are cultivated 
it becomes apparent that, whether the trees are raised from seed or from coppice, 
whether they are started in nurseries and afterwards set in the field, or are repro- 
duced in the forest from self-sown seed, the forests all require thinning, and this 
throws upon the market large quantities of small material. Mr. Gifford Pinchot, 
in writino- of the Sihlwald, a forest of 2,400 acres in Switzerland, states that 






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THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. 1 85 

almost half the annual yield consists of thinnings. He says : "With an average 
stand of 2,800 cubic feet per acre, the annual yield of wood, almost half of which 
is from thinnings alone, reached last year 377,023 cubic feet, an amount which may 
be taken as slightly above the average."* None of this material from thinnings 
goes to waste. In short, all the products of the forests of southern Europe find 
ready utilization. 

Tl>e Aari^ef. 

This thorough utilization of the forest product is due to the good market, dis- 
tribution of population, low wages and good roads. The effect of the market is 
everywhere apparent in the great economy of wood. In the hotels heat is a luxury 
for which guests are often required to pay an extra charge. In the wayside inn 
a bucket of hot ashes placed in the center of the room is often the only fireplace 
around which' the smokers can hold their cheerful converse, while at night the bed 
is made ready for its occupant by a pan of coals hung beneath a chair placed 
under the blankets. 

The houses in the villages, and even those of the workmen in the forest, are 
seldom constructed of wood. Walls of plaster or cement, with only sufficient 
wood to hold the material in place, are the rule, though houses of brick and stone 
are also quite common. The floors are very frequently made of stone, while the 
roof is rarely made of shingles, tile or iron being used instead. Wooden fences, 
plank sidewalks and block pavements are very uncommon. 

In Germany, where forestry has been practiced for centuries, and where the art 
has had its highest development, the forests, which cover one fourth of the entire 
land area, fall far short of furnishing the country its timber requirement. In 1902 
Germany imported logs and lumber to the value of $21,991,200.! 

Consul Henry W. Diederich, in his report dated Bremen, 1901, writes as follows 
concerning the demand for lumber in Germany: "The demand for lumber is 
steadily increasing, and it is utterly out of the question for Germany to ever 
supply that demand. In spite of all the high import duties placed on all foreign 
woods, which average 28 cents for every 210 pounds of rough timber or logs, 
and $1.15 for every 210 pounds, or 1 cubic meter, of dressed timber, Germany 
has been unable to materially increase her forestry supply. In the year 1899 
there were imported into Germany not less than 353,160,000 cubic feet of timber. 
During the same period Germany's own production amounted to from 565,056,000 to 



* Publication of the American Economic Association. Vol. VI, No. 3, May, 1891. "Govern- 
ment Forestry Abroad," by Gifford Pinchot. 

+ Commercial Relations of the United States with Foreign Countries, 1903. Vol. I, p. 413. 
Report of U. S. Consul-General Frank H. Mason, Berlin. 



1 86 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

600,372,000 cubic feet. If Germany were to supply this deficiency of 353,560,000 
cubic feet of timber from her own soil she would need an additional acreage of 
19,768,000 acres. In other words, the percentage of soil now devoted to forestry 
would have to be increased from 26 per cent to 40 per cent. But it is claimed 
that throughout all this empire not more than 2,471,000 acres fit for that purpose 
might be found. Even if every available nook and corner were thus utilized, and 
all of the waste lands that are not well adapted for agriculture were planted in 
pine and other forest trees, it would require, on an average, fifty years for them 
to be ready for market, and then the supply would not begin to equal the 
demand. Of all sections of Germany only Bavaria and Wiirtemberg have a 
surplusage of home lumber, all the other districts needing a great deal more than 
they can ever produce."* 

In Germany timber is not purchased by mill owners as in America, by general 
estimate. It is the. custom to buy individual trees rather than forests. There is, 
however, in common use a market unit of volume by which timber is generally 
purchased called the "festmeter." It is a cubic meter and is equivalent to 1.44 
markets, or 19-inch standards, or about 288 feet, board, measure. But it is not 
used in quite the same way as we use the standard. In America, large and small 
logs are scaled and sold together, distinction seldom being made in the price per 
standard. In Germany, when the trees are felled, each one is marked with a 
number stamped in the butt. They are then sold by number in five or six classes, 
according to size, the larger logs bringing more per festmeter than the smaller 
ones. Logs are generally measured in the middle. 

An idea of the activity of the German market for building material may be 
gained by a study of the following prices offered for spruce by a sawmill 
at Hasserode, in the Hartz, in 1904. Timber is purchased in the woods in 
full-tree lengths, felled and trimmed of branches. For tree trunks containing 
530 feet, board measure, $12 each; 450 feet, $10.25; 3&3 feet, $8.63; 325 feet, 
$7.38; 276 feet, $5.12; 233 feet, $4.25 ; 196 feet, $3.63 ; 161 feet, $3; 132 feet, $2; 104 
feet, $1.50; 81 feet, $1.25. In other words, $22.65 P er 1, 000 feet, board measure, 
was offered for tree trunks containing more than 300 feet; $18.56 for trunks with 
from 150 to 300 feet, and for smaller sizes about $15. 

For poles suitable for rafters, if 23 feet long, $1 each; if 20 feet long, 75 cents; 
if 17 feet long, 52 cents; if 13 feet long, 43 cents; if 10 feet long, 25 cents. 

In the Spessart, oak was quoted in 1904 at the following prices for sound 
timber per 1,000 feet, board measure: Trees with middle diameter 24 inches and 



* United States Consular Reports, 1901. Vol LXV, p. 490. "German Market for American 
Lumber," by Henry W. Diederich. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



OAK AND BEECH. 

NEAR ROTHENBUCH, IN THE SPESSART, BAVARIA. 




A. KNECHTEL, l'HOTO. 



A GOOD SEED YEAR FOR NORWAY SPRUCE. 

NEAR EISENACH, TIIURINCER WALD. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. 1 87 

over, $118; 21 to 24 inches, $86.80; 18 to 21 inches, $69.44; 14 to 18 inches, 
$52.08; 10 to 14 inches, $34.72; 8 to 10 inches, $21.70. 

Beech was quoted as follows: Logs with middle diameter 24 inches and over, 
$35.60 per 1,000 feet, board measure; 21 to 24 inches, $30.38; 18 to 21 inches, 
$21.70; 14 to 18 inches, $13.90; 10 to 14 inches, $10.42; 8 to 10 inches, $9.55.* 

The live market for wood appears also in the number of metal ties one sees 
in the railroads of Europe. In Germany they are used in one fifth of the entire 
mileage. The use of wooden ties has, however, in recent years been greatly 
encouraged by the discovery of methods of impregnating wood with one of the 
following substances: creosote, chloride of zinc, sulphate of copper, corrosive 
sublimate, or a mixture of the salts of iron and copper, by which the durability 
of the wood is greatly increased. A beech tie, which ordinarly lasts about five 
years, may thus be made to last twenty years. The life of an oak tie is 
increased from fifteen to thirty years, a pine from six to twenty-four. A beech 
tie 8 feet 10 inches long, 6.4 inches high, 10.4 inches wide, Avith 6.4 inches top 
measure, costs, laid at the works, about $1.06; an oak tie of the same dimen- 
sions, $1.63; a pine tie, $1.12. Impregnating with creosote costs, respectively, 
about 65 cents, 30 cents and 25 cents. 

Tf)e Distribution of Population. 

The distribution of the large population facilitates very much the removal of 
the forest products. The woodland districts are quite thickly peopled. Even 
in the Black Forest there are a great many villages and summer resorts, their 
population in the aggregate exceeding 1,000,000 people. If the Adirondack lakes 
were drained of water and their beds occupied by farms and villages the landscape 
would be quite similar to that of the forested regions of middle Europe. Thus 
the market is close at hand, at least for the small material, permitting its more 
extensive use. 

Tl)e l5ov Wages. 

With a large population everywhere close by, not only is the market better, 
but labor is more available, and at a lower price. Compared with the price of 
wood, wages in Europe are very low. Men in the woods are paid about sixty 
cents a day. Much of the work, however, is done by women and boys, the former 
receiving forty cents, the latter twenty-five cents, for a day of twelve hours. 



*In the Adirondacks spruce is worth on the stump about four dollars, and beech about two 
dollars per 1,000 feet. In New York oak is worth about fourteen dollars per 1,000 feet. 



1 88 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

TI)e Good Roads. 

The good roads are also a factor to be considered. Since the forests are to 
be lumbered perpetually, the roads are made for permanency, consisting often 
of stone, laid with much expense, and not infrequently macadamized. In the 
Spessart, four dollars and fifty cents a cubic meter for stone laid at the roadside 
and broken, is not considered an exorbitant price. In 1903 Saxony spent $175,000 
on forest roads. The roads are properly graded, and some of them have along 
their sides, at intervals of about fifty feet, large stones set on edge, which serve 
as a guide in winter. On much traveled roads these stones are often painted 
white to serve as a guide at night. At each important crossroad a guidepost 
is placed so that the traveler can easily find his way. Occasionally, in an ever- 
green forest, hardwood trees are planted along the "chaussee," the foliage in 
autumn contrasting charmingly with the dark green of the conifers. With roads 
thus carefully made and kept constantly in good condition the hauling of timber 
is an easy matter. In the dukedom of Brunswick, Germany, the building of a 
system of good roads increased the income from the forest management by twenty 
per cent. 

Hov Timber Is Transported. 

Timber is not skidded. It is drawn to the roads from the woods, or the field 
where it is felled, in about the same way as it is snaked to the skidway in 
America. The small material is frequently brought out on sleds, even in summer. 
Tramways have recently become quite common for this purpose. Occasionally 
the tramway is constructed with only one rail, especially where ledges occur 
along its course which are too narroAv to permit a two-rail track. The car for 
such a track has, besides the wheel that runs on the rail, a wheel at each side, 
either of which is made to run on the ground by the weight of a man who stands 
on the rear end of the car and moves from side to side as necessity requires. 

Felled timber is peeled of bark, especially when cut in the summer. This is 
generally done before it is hauled out of the woods. Pulp-wood is sometimes 
taken to the railroad with the bark on, and then peeled close to where it is to 
be loaded upon the cars. This method saves expense in transportation, prevents 
damage by insects, and preserves the white color of the wood. Occasionally, 
among the peeled logs, two or three are left with the bark on as a trap to catch 
the insects. These are burned when they become much infested. 

Logs are usually hauled on trucks drawn by oxen or horses, in France the 
horses being hitched tandem. In Italy, high-wheeled carts are used, with the long 




G. W. MANCHOT, PHOTO. 



HAULING TIMBER IN THE SCHWARZWALD. 

AT GEROLDSAU, NEAR BADEN-BADEN. 




\. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



FOREST RAILWAY, WITH ONE RAIL ONLY, FOR HAULING OUT FIREWOOD AND 

MINOR PRODUCTS. 

IN THE MARIEN-TAL, THURINGIA. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. 1 89 

timbers suspended below the axles. For great distances the streams were formerly- 
much used, and many timber-rafts still float down the larger rivers, the Elbe 
and the Rhine, for instance. The railroads are penetrating the forests, however, and 
now transport large quantities of wood that was formerly put into the streams. 

Along the Enz river, in the Black Forest, are located some of the largest 
sawmills in Germany. The stock for these mills comes mostly on the railroad in 
long, large logs, much of it being brought from Wiirtemberg and Swabia. For 
each load of logs, two cars are necessary. In a railroad train, every three of these 
couples must be followed by a protective car laden either with freight or 
passengers, and weighing, with its load, not less than 4,500 pounds. 

Tfye Sawmills. 

The sawmills are mostly small, occasionally with the dwelling-house of the 
mill owner under the same roof. They are, for the most part, run by water, the 
streams of the forests having a constant flow since the hills are kept wooded. 
The old "up-and-down" saw is still in common use, though many of the better 
mills are equipped with circular saws, band saws, or gangs with eight or ten saws 
in a frame. However, things move slowly in a European mill. There is a 
noticeable lack of the buzz and activity that characterizes the American mill, with 
its "nippers," "niggers," "shot-gun feed," and "hog." A large mill in Europe 
will cut about 25,000 feet, board measure, per day of ten hours; a fair-sized 
American mill, 100,000 feet. But the small mill of Europe is permanent, being 
supported by perpetual crops of timber from the cultivated forests of the 
neighborhood. The large American mill is only temporary, as it depends for its 
existence upon a single crop that is being consumed with amazing rapidity, 
and is not being restored. 

In piling lumber in the mill yard it is a common custom to put together the 
boards of each log in the same relation as they held before the log was sawed, 
small strips being placed between the boards to allow the lumber to dry. Thus, 
one part of the mill yard has the sawlogs, another part the sawed logs. Customers 
can then see that they get all the lumber their logs will afford. The logs are 
recognized, each by a number previously marked upon one end of the log, and 
recorded in the notebook of the customer. Sometimes, in order that the number 
may not be effaced, the log is not sawed entirely through, but remains intact at 
one end for about half an inch. In the larger mills, however, it is assorted and 
piled as in America, at least for the commercial trade. 



I9O REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Forest Fires. 

Since dead timber is not left in the forests, there is but little loss from fires. 
In Saxony, with 435,000 acres of forest, the loss from this cause is rarely more 
than $300 per annum. Wiirtemberg, with 418,904 acres of forest has an annual 
loss of about $650. The Duchy of Baden, with 240,000 acres, had only 99 acres 
burned in nine years.* 

The fires are started mostly by careless smokers and workmen. Locomotives 
do slight damage, causing, perhaps, not more than ten per cent of the fires. In 
Wiirtemberg, from 1887 to 1897, there was a total of 120 fires, only eight caused 
by sparks from locomotives, and among these only one causing considerable 
damage (S3, 570). f Along the railroads, however, precautionary measures receive 
considerable attention. In many places along the forested side of the track 
there is a ditch about eight feet wide, which is kept free of all vegetable growth. 
Frequently a strip of forest about a rod wide, running parallel with the railroad 
is specially prepared in the following manner: A path along the edge of the 
woods is spaded about four feet wide. In the forest, about a rod from this, 
and running parallel with it, a second path is made. Cross-paths joining these two 
are made at intervals of a rod. These paths are at all times kept free of vegeta- 
tion, and the ground in the strip is raked free of leaves and twigs. Sometimes a 
double strip is made, two rods wide, with three paths parallel with the railroad, 
and cross-paths as in the single strip. Frequently, the white birch is the tree 
grown on these strips, but a general opinion prevails that the spruce gives 
equally good protection with less trouble from the fallen leaves. Occasionally, 
along a pine forest, can be seen a protecting strip of birch without the spaded 
paths. 

The forest may belong to a state, a city or other community, a charitable 
institution, a corporation, or a private individual. The railroads are required to 
pay in full all damages caused by them to the forest. But, since the railroads 
are nearly all government property, claims against them are easily adjusted. 
Locomotives are provided with spark arresters. The right-of-way is sixty-six feet 
wide and is kept clean. 

The forest itself is intersected more or less with fire lanes, each two or three 



*For further figures in regard to forest fires, see the Tenth Annual Report of Gen. C. C. Andrews, 
Chief Firewarden of Minnesota. The publication also contains much other useful information in 
regard to European forestry. 

fU. S. Consular Reports, 1897. Vol. LV, page 64. "Forestry in Wiirtemberg, " W. Hahn. 




A. KNF-CHTEL, PHOTO. 



INTERIOR OF AN OLD SAWMILL. 

HOLLENTHAL, BLACK FOREST. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



GANG WITH SIXTEEN SAWS ; LOG SAWED ENTIRE. 

NEAR ANNABERG, ERZGEBIRGE, SAXONY. 




■Hi 



HORIZONTAL BAND SAW. 

CANTON OF ZURICH, SWITZERLAND. 



A. MOSEK, I'MOTC 




A. k'NECHTEL, PHOTO. 



LOG YARD OF A GERMAN SAWMILL. 

AT HASSERODE, IN THE HARTZ MOUNTAINS. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. I9I 

rods wide. These are kept free of all inflammable material. In a coniferous forest 
the trees stand close together, facilitating, in a dry time, the progress of a top fire. 
These fire lanes make a break in the continuity of the crown-cover and give an 
opportunity to check the flames. 

The small loss from forest fires is due, in a large measure, to the fact that 
villages are numerous in the forests, and hence fire fighters are easily obtainable. 
The European forests are not much troubled with trespassers. The woods are, as 
a usual thing, well patrolled and the property limits are plainly marked. Where 
watercourses, rocks, or other natural boundaries are wanting, the lines are marked 
by artificial signs, such as heaps of earth, stones, or iron stakes. This leaves no 
chance for the American excuse of ignorance concerning the line. 

Injaries and Diseases. 

To describe all the injuries inflicted upon the woodlands by domestic and 
game animals, rodents, insects and fungi, would cover many times more pages 
than can be given to this article. Besides, one hears, in Europe, general complaint 
concerning only the deer, snow-press or snow-break, a few insects, and a few fungi. 

The deer are numerous and injure the trees by biting off the buds and young 
shoots, often killing young plants, and crippling and stunting older ones. They 
also injure saplings or poles by barking them in rubbing off upon them the velvet 
from their antlers in early summer. They also tread down the seedling growth, 
and devour acorns and beechnuts. The young trees are sometimes protected by 
smearing the tips with a mixture of beef blood and manure, the deer refusing 
then to eat them. Reducing the number of the deer by shooting them seems, 
however, to be the only general remedy. 

Conifers are much damaged by snow, which at times falls in wet, large flakes 
and hangs together as a thick, white mantle upon the crowns of the trees. 
When the snow freezes upon the trees the danger is much increased, as it cannot 
then be shaken off by the wind and further accumulations are facilitated. 
Conifers from twenty to sixty years of age, and growing at an altitude of from 
1,600 to 2,500 feet, receive the most injury. As the broad-leaf trees are without 
foliage in winter, they are damaged only by an unusually early or late fall 
of snow. The Scotch pine is brittle and suffers chiefly by having its branches 
broken off. The spruce and fir are similarly injured, but, being more pliable, 
they are often bent to the ground and sometimes have their roots torn out of 
the soil. 



I92 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The Scotch pine is often much injured by moths and beetles. Among the 
former the large Pine Moth {Bombyx pini) does perhaps the most damage. The 
caterpillars of this moth appear in August, eat upon the needles of the pine, go 
into winter quarters under the surface of the soil, come forth again in March, 
reascend the trees and feed upon the foliage till about the end of June. In bad 
years the trees are defoliated, and even the buds are devoured, in which latter 
case the crop is killed. 

The Pine-shoot Tortrix {Tortrix buoliand) is also troublesome. The eggs of 
this moth are laid in the terminal buds, which, in spring, are eaten and. hollowed 
out by the caterpillars. The trees are not usually killed, but are made very 
crooked, as some one of the lateral shoots then becomes the leader. 

The Scotch pine is subject also to fungus diseases, which soon reduce the 
wood to a quality fit only for firewood. One of the worst of these {Trametes 
radiciperdd) causes a red-rot, attacking the roots and extending upward into 
the stems. 

Another parasite {Trametes pini) is very abundant in the pine woods, causing 
a so-called bark-shake, ring-shake or heart-shake. The injury begins at a wound 
where, for instance, a branch has been broken off. It grows through the entire 
tree, manifesting itself on the outside by a brown, bracket-like growth. 

The fir is chiefly injured by a fungus disease called " Krebs " (Acidium 
elatinum) which shows itself in a swelling that often entirely encircles the tree. 
The "Witches Broom," a thick, distorted growth of the branches, is caused by 
the same fungus. 

The spruce is often injured during the first few years of its growth by a 
beetle called Riisselkafer (Hylobius abietis), the larvae of which eat the bark, often 
removing it entirely around the tree. Various devices are in use for collecting 
the beetles, the following, being perhaps the most practicable: Pieces of bark 
about eight or ten inches square are taken from trees and laid fresh on the ground, 
the cambium side down. The insects come at night, go beneath the bark to get 
the cambium and are caught and destroyed by the workmen early in the morning. 

The Nun Moth (Liparis monachd), so called on account of its plain black 
and white colors, does great damage to the spruce. It also attacks pine, beech, 
oak, birch and nearly all other species of trees. The damage to the broad-leaf 
trees is, however, seldom fatal. The eggs are laid in July or August, on the stem, 
beneath the scales of the bark. The caterpillars hatch out in April or May of 
the next year, ascend the tree and commence feeding on the foliage. They 
devour entirely the needles of the spruce, but bite off the pine needles at about 
the middle and eat only the lower portion. 




A. KNECHTHL, PHOTO. 



FIRE LANE. 

BISMARCK FOREST, FRIEDRICHSRUH, NORTH PRUSSIA. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



CUTTING FIREWOOD. 

CITY FOREST OF GRABOW, MECKLENBURG, NORTH GERMANY. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. 



193 



The destruction of insects and fungi is attended with great difficulties and is 
not very- satisfactory. Preventive measures, however, receive great attention. 
» Diseased trees and rotting wood are carefully removed from the forest, as these 
favor the spread of fungi and offer breeding-places for the insects. Stumps are 
often taken out of the ground on this account and sold by the forester, even 
though they may bring no profit. 

Extent and Location of tl)e Fore^. 

The forests of Europe occupy land that is unfit for agriculture — mountains 
where the climate is severe, hills where the ground is rocky, plains where the 
soil is sterile. In some of them the wood supply is only a secondary consideration, 
the forest being kept principally as a game preserve, a tourist resort, or because 
it exercises certain protective functions. In the Spessart there is a forest devoted 
largely to raising wild boars. Another, visited by many tourists, has splendid 
drives, with species of trees planted for their esthetic effect. 

The following brief table gives an idea of the extent of area devoted to forests 
in several countries of Europe. The figures are taken from " Forstwissenschaft," 
by Dr. Adam Schwappach: 

TABLE OF FOREST AREAS IN EUROPE. 



COUNTRY. 



Germany .... 

Austria 

Hungary . 

France 

Russia in Europe 
Finland .... 

Norway 

Sweden 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Total forest area 



Forest area, 
in acres. 



34 
24 
22 
20 
478 
50 
19 
43 
10 
2 



981,067 
456,272 
958, 977 
992, 827 

845,175 
971,125 
405,250 
395,430 
231,840 
053,630 



708,291,593 



Percentage of 

total land area 

in forests. 



^5.0 
30.7 
35-2 
15-9 
38.3 
56-0 

31-5 
34-1 
14.2 
20.0 



31-5 



Percentage of 

forest belonging' 

to the State 

and Crown. 



33-3 

7-3 

16. 1 

12.9 

60.3 

71. 1 

12.5 

19.9 

4-0 

4.2 



These countries are constantly increasing their forest areas. From 1872 to 
1892, France acquired 300,000 acres; Prussia, 280,000 acres. Austria purchased 
60,000 acres in 1886, 230,000 in 1888 and 210,000 m 1891. 
1 3 



i 9 4 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The mountain slopes are covered mostly with spruce and fir, the pines and 
broad-leaf trees occupying the lower land. Germany has 23,000,000 acres covered 
with conifers and 12,000,000 acres with broad-leaf trees. Of the conifers 8,000,000 
acres are spruce and fir and 15,000,000 acres pine. The broad-leaf trees are 
mostly beech and oak. Sandy soil, not strong enough for the growth of other 
species, is planted with pine. The following table shows the distribution of species 
according to the quality of the soil: 

SOIL TABLE. 





Conifers. 


Broad-Leaf Trees. 
































COMMON 












.G 
u 
u 

►J 



3 

a 


V 

c 

s 

u 
rt 
t— , 

c 
rt 

E 

< 


4J 
C 

'£ 
is 

c 
u 

e 

< 


c 

E 

u 



C/3 


u 

V 

< 

c 
a 

V 

a. 


3 
W 


u 

V 

■a 
< 
•a 

V 

5 
u 

a 
w 


J3 
O 

m 


6 

u 

c 

u 

O 

X 




<j 


•a 




c 



V 


a 

a. 


OAK. 


O 

■a 
(S 

c 

(J 

B 

<! 


3 


►J 

C 
n) 

V 

£ 
< 




SPECIES. 


■a 

V 

c 

3 
•a 
aj 


T3 
<L> 



s 

(L) 


6 


Lowlands: 
















































+ 


- 


+ 






1 




- 


- 












+ 




Loamy sand 




1 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


• 1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Clay loam 




1 


1 






1 


1 


+ 




1 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


1 


Clay bottom land .... 




1 


1 




+. 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


- 


+ 




+ 


Rich meadow land . 










1 




+ 


- 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


' 1 








Boggy sand 








1 




- 


+ 




+ 


- 


- 


1 








- 






— 


Medium Altitudes: 








































Light sand 


- 


- 




+ 




1 




1 


1 




- 


- 












1 


1 


Loamy sand 


1 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


1 


+ 


1 


1 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


Clay loam 


+ 


- 


1 




+ 




1 






1 




+ 


1 


1 


1 


+ 


1 


+ 


1 


Moist, rich clay 


1 


- 


+ 




1 




1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


1 


+ 






+ 


Boggy sand 


- 


— 


1 


1 






+ 




+ 


— 


— 


I 






— 


— 






— 


High Altitudes: 








































Lime soil 


- 


+ 


+ 




1 


1 


1 


+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


1 






1 


+ 




1 




Limey drift 


- 


1 








1 




I 


1 






















Slopes, gneiss rock . . . . 


1 


+ 


+ 








1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
















Slopes, lime rock . . . . 




+ 


1 










+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


1 
















High plains and meadows . 






1 










1 

























Soil Table. — Signs: + Indicates culture with success. I Indicates culture with partial success; 
the species serves for the protection or improvement of the soil. — Indicates culture with little 
success; the species suffers. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. 1 95 

History of Forestry. 

The art of forestry may be said to have had its origin among the Germanic 
tribes about 1,000 years ago, although Plato, 400 years before the coming of 
Christ, deplored the destruction of the forests of Greece. 

The first comprehensive code of forest laws is attributed to Canute, a famous 
King of England, Denmark and Norway, who reigned from 1014 till 1035. These 
laws defined the forest as a hunting-ground for the King. The trees were con- 
sidered as only a shelter and covert for the game. Later, under Norman rule, 
the laws were much modified and became very objectionable to the people. It is 
said that their severity was one of the causes which brought about the passing 
of the Magna Charta, with which was associated the Charta Foresta.* 

Until quite recent times the forest was considered as only a hunting-ground. 
The following statement appears in Manwood's "Forest Laws," published in 1598: 
"A forest is a certain territory of woody grounds and fruitful pastures, privileged 
for wild beasts and foules of forest, chase and warren, to rest and abide 
in, in the safe protection of the King for his princely delight and pleasure." 
Blackstone's definition of a forest reads thus: "Forests are waste grounds belong- 
ing to the King, replenished with all manner of chase or venery, which are 
under the King's protection for the sake of his recreation and delight, "f 

The artificial reforesting of waste lands was begun by the city of Nuremberg, 
Bavaria, in 1368, by the planting of pine, a practice soon imitated by many 
communities in southwestern Germany. 

About the middle of the seventeenth century, forest exploitation was carried 
on in Europe much in the same way as it has been carried on in America to 
the present day, the forests there at that time having come to be valued for 
their wood more than for the shelter they afforded to the game. There was but 
little regard for the conservation of the forest. The question as to whether trees 
should be taken from the woods or left therein was simply a market question. 
The trees that would bring in the market a price sufficient to leave a margin 
after paying the cost of removal were taken, the rest were left. This method is 
called, in French, jardinage, or gardening, as the procedure is similar to that 
of a gardener gathering vegetables. 

Under this system there was a reckless destruction of forests, and the disastrous 
consequences began to be apparent. Colbert, the minister of Louis XIX, clearly 



* See English Estate Forestry, page 8, by A. C. Forbes, 
f See Forests in England, by J. C. Brown. 



I96 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

saw the peril of such treatment of the Avoodlands and gave expression to his fears 
in the oft-quoted words: France perira faute des dot's/ — "France will perish 
through lack of woods." Agitation for an improvement upon the method of 
forest exploitation became very active and resulted in the French ordinance 
of 1669* which established a system called La Metlwde a tire et aire. By this 
method the forest was divided into lots, to each of which, in succession, ordinary 
fellings were confined, trees being left properly distributed for the dispersion of 
seed. Thus, for example, a timber forest was divided into one hundred and twenty 
lots, and each year only one lot was lumbered and then left to restore itself from 
the seed trees for one hundred and twenty years. 

This system was adopted in Germany and was practiced in both countries until 
about the middle of the eighteenth century. It was then observed that the forests 
exploited under this method were not well restored. The conifers did not seed 
sufficiently, and the beech failed to give a satisfactory growth, either of seedlings 
or of shoots from the stumps left in the ground. 

The French, though recognizing the evils, were slow to attempt a remedy; 
but the Germans, toward the end of the reign of Frederick the Great, issued an 
ordinance which confined the fellings upon the different lots to the removal of 
mature trees upward of 70 or 80 years of age, and the bad wood. But even 
this mode of exploitation failed of the desired result — a sustained yield. 

The modern system of forestry was devised by Hartig, who, in 17 91, published 
a treatise entitled, "Instruction in Forest Economy for Foresters," which con- 
tained his views on the exploitation and reproduction of the forest. Cotta, who, 
in 1817, published a work entitled, "Instruction in the Culture of Woods," carried 
forward the work of Hartig. It is to Cotta that the credit is due for modern 
forest economy in its complete development. 

^tafas of fl)e Forester. 

Forestry in Europe is now a well-established profession for which the candidate 
must prepare himself thoroughly. He must learn the science in a forestry school, 
where the course of study requires as much labor as that for any other learned 
profession. After graduation he must practice the art for several years under a 
forest master, an officer who has charge of a range. He takes, first, a position 
called in Germany " Forstreferender," at a salary of about 1,200 marks. In two 
or three years he is advanced to that of " Forstassessor," at 3,000 marks. With 



*See French Forest Ordinance of 1669, by J. C. Brown. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



HOUSE OF AN OBERFORSTER. 



IN THE HARTZ, GERMANY. 




. A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 

MONUMENT IN THE WOODS TO THE MEMORY OF A FORESTER. 



MECKLENBURG, GERMANY. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. 



197 



successful service he may then be promoted to the position of "Oberforster," 
with a salary of 4,500 marks. 

The Oberforster is held in very high esteem in his community. He is usually 
a man of fine physique and sterling qualities. His dwelling is called the " Ober- 
fb'rsterei." It is a fine, commodious building, erected specially to suit his needs. A 
part of it is occupied by his family, and part is fitted up as offices for the 
transaction of forestry business. The Germans have a beautiful and impressive 
way of doing honor to an Oberforster, after his life's labors are over, in erecting 
to his memory a monument in the heart of the forest which he has managed. 

Revenues. 

The business side of forestry is always kept very prominently in view. The 
forest must be made to yield a profit on the investment, especially if it is 
cultivated for its wood supply. It rarely fails in this respect. The following 
table was compiled by Ernest L. Harris, United States Consular Agent at 
Eibenstock. It gives statistics for the twelve principal forest districts into which 
the kingdom of Saxony is divided. The figures were taken from the "Forest 
Year Book," published at Tharandt in 1898. The forests covered in all, at that 
time, 434,896 acres: 



PRINCIPAL DISTRICTS. 



Dresden 
Moritzburg 
Schandau . 
Grillenburg 
Tharandt 
Barenfels 
Marienberg 
Schwarzenberg 
Eibenstock . 
Auerbach . 
Zschopau ' . 
Grimma 



Totals 



Income. 



$112, 
89, 

353, 
200, 

13, 
334. 
436, 
535, 
384, 
361, 
206, 
218, 



312 70 
929 85 
335 36 
421 70 
727 52 
701 10 

286 03 

287 01 
646 04 
884 86 
383 03 
061 22 



$3,246,796 42 



Expenses. 



$57, 758 95 

48,044 42 

127.773 11 

74,296 10 

7,i33 81 

95,362 12 

121,016 12 

135,471 65 

112,691 90 

141,871 72 

85,725 15 
88,219 80 



$1,005,364 85 



Value of forests. 



$3, 

3, 

10. 

5, 

7, 
11, 
10, 

8, 

7, 
5, 



234,253 00 
491,388 00 
066, 185 00 
057, 721 00 
396, 184 00 
274, 692 00 
283, 580 00 
257,204 00 
779,320 00 
364, 981 00 
541,759 00 
791,132 00 



$79, 538, 399 00 



Dividends, 
per cent. 



I.69 

1.2 

2.24 

2.45 
1.29 

3-3 
2.79 

3-9 

3-13 

2.99 

2.18 

1.94 



* 



2.71 



* Average. The net profit was $2,241,611.57. The net profit per acre was $5.15. 



I98 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

A net revenue of three per cent may be considered a low rate of interest, but 
one should bear in mind that the state must have wood; that the forest occupies 
non-agricultural land; that the investment is continuous; and that the risk is not 
great. Relative to this question is also the fact that in Germany the state is 
considered under moral obligation to furnish employment to its citizens. "About 
$40,000,000 is paid every year in Germany for the creation and preservation of 
forests; 200,000 families are supported from them, while something like 3,000,000 
persons find employment in the various wood industries of the empire. The total 
revenue from the forests amounts to $14,500,000, and the current expenses, 
$8,500,000."* 

Where the market conditions are very favorable, the net revenue may be con- 
siderably greater than that indicated by the table. The canton of Zurich in 
Switzerland gives a net receipt per annum of 91.06 francs per hectare of forest, 
which is equivalent to $7.28 per acre. About half of this comes from the sale of 
brush and small wood from thinnings. 

Fore^fr^ Pro^pecf^ in America. 

That America will be compelled to practice forestry very extensively is self- 
evident. It will be a long time, however, before the results will be as satisfactory 
as they are in Europe. The factors upon which the growth of trees depend are 
about the same here as there. Other conditions, however, are widely different. 
There, the forests are comparatively small, broken, densely populated, and the 
roads are fine. Our forests are very large, compact, without population, and 
without roads. There, wages are very low and the market for wood is high ; here, 
wages are high and the market for wood is low. There, the limbs, tops and brush- 
wood are all utilized; here, they are practically without market value. There, the 
woods are clean and free from the danger of fire; here, the woods are a veritable 
fire-trap. Not only are the tops and limbs left in the forest here, but they are 
thrown into heaps as if the woods were made ready to be burned. There, since 
the woods are clean, the conditions for the spread of insects and fungi are reduced; 
here, the abundance of rotting wood in the forest offers to the insects good breeding- 
places, and to the fungi favorable conditions for their growth. 

In America there are also certain notions of government which will hinder 
the achievement of results such as have crowned the efforts of European foresters. 
In Europe it is held that the forests are all national property; not state forests 



* Garden and Forest, November, 1892, p. 576. 




A. KNECHl'EL, PHOTO. 



RAFT OF LONG TIMBER, ON THE RHINE. 

AT BONN, GERMANY. 




*>■ 



'ktjJS^Sir'nt 'rA'thx*. 



A. MOSER, PHOTO. 

PLANT FOR IMPREGNATING WOOD WITH PRESERVATIVE SOLUTION. TREATMENT 

OF TELEGRAPH POLES. 



SIHLWALD, SWITZERLAND. 



THE CULTIVATED FORESTS OF EUROPE. I99 

alone, but all forests. Hence many private forests are brought under government 
management. It is considered that each generation has a right to the forest 
products, but the forest itself must be left to the succeeding generation in as 
good condition as it was found. In France no clearing is permitted in private 
forests without the sanction of the government authorities. In Wiirtemberg, 
Germany, clearing on private property is under state control. In Russia a 
law provides for the control and management of the forests of individuals where 
the public welfare seems to demand it, and the cutting down of such forests is 
prohibited when it might endanger the best interests of the whole community. 

It will be a long time before this tenet will be accepted in America. In this 
country, at least in New York State, it seems to be the policy of the State to 
permit wholesale destruction of private forests and to deny to the people forever 
the use of the products of the State forest. There is a clause in the Constitution 
of the State of New York which forbids the removal of timber, dead or alive, 
from State lands. It reads thus: "The lands of the State, now owned or 
hereafter acquired, constituting the forest preserve as now fixed by law, shall 
be forever kept as wild forest lands. They shall not be leased, sold, or exchanged, 
or be taken by any corporation, public or private, nor shall the timber thereon be 
sold, removed or destroyed." 

Since the people of New York are denied the use of the wood on State land, 
it is of prime importance that the culture of forests on private land should be 
encouraged. Since the State is to depend wholly upon the private forests for its 
home timber product, private forestry should, under favorable conditions, become 
as profitable here as anywhere else in America. But in this State private forestry 
is confronted with unfavorable conditions. Our rate of taxation gives but little 
chance for profit. Forest lands in New York, public and private, have an average 
assessed valuation of two dollars, and bear a State tax of seven cents per acre. 
Private forestry cannot be practiced under such a high rate of taxation. If a 
forest is planted on denuded land, at the end of thirty years — about the time 
when the first thinning will be made — the taxes, with accumulated interest, will 
have amounted to more than the sale value of the timber.* 

In France and Switzerland reforested land is released from taxes for thirty 
years. In Italy, instead of this, the forest department contributes to associations 
and private owners three fifths of the total expense of the work of reforestation 



*See Economics of Forestry, p. 251, by B. Fernow, LL. D Also, Fifth Annual Report of the 
New York State Forest, Fish and Game Commission, p. 397; Forest Taxation, by C. A. Schenck, 
Ph. D. 



'.OO 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



upon the condition that the plans for the work, prepared by the department, be 
followed, and the work be done in the specified time. 

It is difficult for a forester to see good reason in the constitutional clause 
which prohibits State land from being used to provide the people with wood. Its 
advocates cry: "The forest must be preserved!" But this law compels conditions 
under which the forest may be destroyed by fire, insects and fungi ; and, by the 
annual decay and loss of unharvested material, the forest product is allowed to 
go to waste. "Ah, but the forest must be left to protect the headwaters of our 
streams!" Aye, but the forest is not permitted to be managed so that it can best 
subserve this purpose. A cultivated forest gives much better protection than a 
wild, ragged woods, with many large areas along the streams entirely bare. 
"But we are afraid of collusion between the lumbermen and the State officials, 
and we think it better to endure the ills we have, than fly to others that we 
know not of." This is an unjust and unnecessary arraignment of the officials 
who have been appointed to look after the forests. If the people of the State of 
New York are so degenerate that they cannot find men of integrity to take care 
of their public affairs, it is immaterial whether the forests are preserved or not. 





A. FKABtHI, PHOTO. 



ITALIAN FORESTERS. 

OFFICERS OF THE FORESTRY DEPARTMENT, FLORENCE, ITALY. 



Forest Rarseries and Norser^ Metljods 

in Earope 



By William F. Fox. 



InfrodaCfor^. 

IN the management of American forests the time has come when it would 
seem evident to all interested in the work that the future timber supply- 
in many localities is dependent on reforestation. But natural reforestation is 
unsatisfactory from the forester's point of view. In results it falls short, by far, 
of the maximum in quantity and quality of merchantable timber which a given 
area can be made to yield through proper methods of silvicultural work. 

The highly satisfactory results attained from planted forests in Europe, where 
this practice has been followed for two centuries or more, justifies clearly the 
adoption of this system in America. The New Forest in England was "afforested" 
by order of William the Conqueror, in 1079, and since then reforestation has been 
practiced from time to time in European countries, until cultivated forests are 
now the rule rather than the exception. Throughout Germany, France, Belgium 
and Italy most of the wooded areas show high forests of a density and regularity 
that indicate plainly their artificial growth. For these and other reasons the 
planting of forests is engaging the attention of American foresters to-day. It is 
no new idea. 

A planted forest, like the primitive one, is grown from seed, but in the former 
the dissemination is under intelligent control. This may be done by broadcast 
sowing, by the seed-spot method, or by the intermediate process of raising small 
seedlings in garden or nursery beds; and, large areas of trees are propagated 
from wind-sown seeds, skilfully directed and managed. 

Broadcast sowing may be a desirable method under certain conditions — where 
economy is necessary, where a supply of seedling plants cannot be obtained con- 
veniently, or where a rocky, uneven surface, covered with a scrubby growth, 
compels its use. But it has the disadvantages of uncertainty, irregularity and 
the subsequent expense of filling m the blanks where seeds failed to germinate. 
As the planting of seedlings at regular intervals gives the forester better control 

201 



202 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



of his future work, this plan is in general use abroad. It necessitates, however, 
the establishment of nurseries for the propagation of the young plants. 

The management of tree nurseries, in connection with forest plantations, has 
been carried on for so many years in Europe that the American forester who is 
about to engage in this branch of silvicultural work will find there an ample field 
in which to study and gain the information available for similar efforts. These 
nurseries will be found in most of the forest regions abroad — the baumschule in 
Germany, the pcpiuicre in France, and the piantonaio in Italy. The object of 
these pages is to describe briefly, but as plainly as possible, the technical methods 
employed in the forest nurseries of various European countries. 

For this purpose the descriptions are confined to certain ones in which the 
construction and management are fairly typical of the others in that particular 
country. To attempt more would involve needless repetition and unnecessarily 
extend the scope and province of this article. 

We have heard so much of German forestry and its superior methods that 
our American foresters, when they go abroad for study and information, are too 
apt to devote their time exclusively to travel within Germany. It would be well 
if, when not limited as to time or expense, they were to extend their observations to 
some of the other continental forests and nurseries. But few of our foresters 
seem to have paid any attention to Italy. This may be due to the small per- 
centage of woodlands in that country. But the Italian Government is steadily 
increasing its forest areas, and is conducting silvicultural operations of a high order. 

The nurseries have an annual output of about 9,000,000 plants, and new 
plantations of large areas are made each year. The surplus seedlings, or trans- 
plants, not necessary for fieldwork are distributed free to persons who may need 
them in reforesting private lands. 

The location, area and product of the various nurseries maintained by the 
Italian Government are as follows: 



PROVINCE. 



Firenze 

Arezzo 

Firenze 

Belluno 

Bergamo 



Name of the forest nursery. 



Vallombrosa 
Camaldoli 
Boscolungo 
Pian Spini 
Pradoni 



Area in 
hectares.* 



5-4538 

7-3354 
2.9605 
2.9836 
1 . 6022 



Yearly 

expenditure for 

maintenance. 



Francs. 
6,538.25 
6,203.00 
2,978.40 
3,071.76 
669.18 



Number of 

plants 
produced. 



1,000,000 

800, 000 
600, 000 

1 , 200, 000 
140,000 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 



203 



PROVINCE. 



Brescia 

Cagliari 

Caserta 

Chieti 

Cosenza 

Foggia 

Genova 

Grosseto 

Macerata 

Novara 

Palermo 

Potenza 

Sassari 

Teramo 

Total 



Name of the forest nursery. 



Begotta 

Aie, Maitoppi . 
Bandio 
Martice 
Migliano . 
Giacomelli 
Trincata . 
Follonica ... 
San Giuseppe 
Aldec .... 
Lavatoio . 
Vigna .... 
Fraigada Pisanu 
Buragna Paggiara 



Area in 
hectares* 



.2000 
I . 8000 
I . I936 
2.0479 
IO.69OO 
I . 0000 
I . 2000 
4.0107 
I . 5000 

3 . 8000 

4 . 2000 

.9416 

2.9994 

2.1814 



58.1001 



Yearly 

expenditure for 

maintenance. 



Francs. 

250.00 

883.42 

276.16 

1,509.48 

3.363-93 
680 . 40 
960.31 

4,235.00 
859-4I 

2,771-39 
2,504.49 
1,232.58 
743-40 
1 , 298 . 00 



1 41, 028.56 



Number of 
■ plants 
produced. 



20, 000 
110,000 
100, 000 

300, 000 
600, 000 

100,000 

125,000 

2, 500, 000 

3S,ooo 
500, 000 
400, 000 
200, 000 
130,000 
118,000 



8, 978, 000 



* A hectare is equal to 2.471 acres. f Or, $7,795.43. 



The above statement will give some idea of the large extent to which nurseries 
are used by European governments in their work of forest extension. In Germany 
and France the nurseries are much more numerous, owing to the larger area of 
forest, greater amount of timber cutting, and more extensive replanting. 

The different species of trees propagated in these Italian nurseries are shown 
in the following list, which was kindly furnished by Inspector A Franchi, of the 
Forestry Department of Tuscany. The botanical designations, some of which are 
not used in this country, are as given in his list, and include some species which 
are rare in America: 

Silver fir Abies alba Willd. (Pinus picea Linn.) 

Norway spruce Abies picea Willd. {Pinus abies Linn.) 

Norway maple Acer platanoides Linn 

Sycamore maple Acer pseudo-platamis Linn. 

European alder Alnus glutinosa Gaertn. 

Speckled alder . . Alnus incana Willd. 

Chestnut , Fagus castanea Linn. 

Beech . Fagus sylvatica Linn. 

European ash Fraxinus excelsior Linn. 

Flowering ash Fraxinus ornus Linn. 

Walnut Juglans regia Linn. 



204 REPORT OF THE FOREST FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Larch Larix europaea Dec. 

Austrian pine .... . Pinus ciustriaca Reich. 

Aleppo pine .... Pinus Jialepensis Mill. 

Corsican pine Pinus laricio Poir. 

Maritime pine Pinus pinaster Ait. 

Stone pine Pinus pinea Linn 

Scotch pine . . . . . . Pinus sylvestris Linn. 

Turkey oak . . ... Quercus cerris Linn. 

Holly or evergreen oak . . Quercus Hex Linn. 

English oak Quercus robur Linn. 

Siberian oak . . ... Quercus sessiliflora Smith. 

Cork oak Quercus suber Linn. 

Locust . . ■ . . . . . Robinia pseudo-acacia Linn. 

Basswood Tilia grandifoiia Smith. 

English elm Ulmus campestris Linn 

Cypress Cupressus se7iipervirens Linn. 

Besides these forest nurseries there are those belonging to the societies for the 
replanting of forests, which receive subsidies from the government. 

In the forest nurseries of the government additional native plants are cultivated 
as well as many foreign species. This year at Vallombrosa and Camaldoli the 
hard, or sugar, maple, Acer saccharum Marsh, will be cultivated from seeds 
furnished by the Forestry Department of New York. 

At Camaldoli are some of the finest forests in Europe and a large nursery 
that, in size and cultural methods, will compare favorably Avith any. In most of 
the forest managements abroad a preference is given to small nurseries, of two 
acres or less, distributed so that each will be near the place where the seedlings 
will be planted. But at Camaldoli and Migliano large areas have been set apart 
for the propagation of seedling trees, and nearly all the public forests in Italy 
are supplied with young plants from these nurseries. 

Camaldoli is in the Apenines, Province of Tuscany, and should not be con- 
founded with the well-known place of that name near Naples. The former is 
easily reached by rail from Florence to Arezzo, thence by a branch railroad to 
Bibbiena, and thence by a drive of fifteen miles up the mountain pass to the old 
monastery, which has been converted by the government into a commodious, 
fashionable hotel. 

The nursery, or piantonaio, at this place covers about thirteen acres, and has 
an altitude of 2,910 feet above the sea. The ground, which has a gentle slope 
to the northeast, is laid out in terraces so as to afford a level situation for the 
beds. The exposure is favorable, as it furnishes protection from late frosts and 




A. FRANCHI, PHOTO. 



NURSERY BEDS SHADED BY PLANTED TREES. 

AT CAMALDOLI, PROVINCE OF TUSCANY, ITALY. 




FOREST TREE NURSERY, ITALY. 

WEEDING THE TRANSPLANT BEDS. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 



205 



the rapid evaporation caused by south winds. Although not closely surrounded 
on all sides by high forests, there is a dense tree growth near by of various age 
classes. Owing to the altitude the natural soil is thin and poor, but the entire 
surface of the nursery is deeply covered with rich, friable earth composed largely 
of humus mixed with fertilizers. It has the appearance of a fine loam, with no 
black earth in it aside from that brought from the forest near by, and with 
enough clay and sand to give it a light color. 

The beds for conifers are four feet wide, and of various lengths to suit the 
terraces, most of the beds being about thirty feet long. The greater part of 
the area is occupied by transplants, the seed beds needing comparatively small space. 

In preparing the seed beds the seeds are planted in rows running across the 
beds. Formerly the seeds were sown broadcast in these beds, but this was 
abandoned because, as claimed by the forester in charge, by sowing in rows a 
much smaller amount of seed is used, the plants grow stronger and more even 
in size, are more easily weeded, and can be taken up with less work and injury 
to the roots. 

The seedlings are taken from the seed beds when two years old and trans- 
planted into the long beds, where they remain two or three years more. The 
transplants are then four or five years old, from twelve to eighteen inches high, 
and are ready for transfer to the grounds where the final planting for the future 
forest is made. The Italian foresters seldom use two-year-old seedlings in their 
fieldwork, preferring to wait for the four-year-old transplants on account of the 
advantages which the latter have in size, hardiness and better root system. 

The plants are allowed to remain in the seed beds and transplant beds 
respectively as follows: 



Spruce 

Pine 

Larch 

Beech 

Oak 

Maple 

Ash 



Seed beds, 
years. 



2 
2 
2 

2 to 3 



Transplant beds, 
years. 



Removal to 

plantations at, 

years. 



5 
4 
4 
3 
3 
4 to 5 
3 



The locusts are not transplanted in the nursery, but are taken from the seed 
beds when they are one year old and sent directly to the final plantation in the 
field. 



206 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The principal species growing in the Camaldoli nursery are: Silver fir, Norway 
spruce, longleaf pine, stone pine, Austrian pine, larch, beech, chestnut and sycamore 
maple. 

No lath frames are used for shade. Protection from heat and drought is 
obtained when necessary by using pine brush, which is stuck into the ground 
on the sunny side of the beds. Screens of thatched straw are also used for the 
same purpose. Unlike other nurseries in Europe, small trees, twenty-five feet in 
height, or thereabouts, are standing at intervals of twenty feet throughout the 
greater part of the area, and their moving shade contributes to the refreshment 
and protection of the tender plants. An ample supply of water for irrigation is 
obtained from a small, artificial lake situated on the side of a hill just above the 
nursery. 

The beds containing the transplants are kept in fine condition, all the plants 
being alive and green, and at even spaces in the rows. In some of the seed beds, 
however, bare spots may be seen at times, due to the destructive work of birds 
and squirrels. These blanks are also liable to occur after an unusually wet season, 
when the excessive moisture prevents to some extent the germination of the seeds. 

The management of this nursery is in charge of a forestry official who is 
termed in Italy a "brigadier," a title somewhat puzzling to the foresters of other 
countries who may have served in the army. The work of preparing, planting 
and weeding the beds is done almost wholly by women at daily wages of about 
thirty cents each. One woman will set out about 1,200 seedlings in the trans- 
plant beds in a day, a day's work being counted as ten hours. Hence the cost 
of transplants is only one fourth of that in American nurseries. 

Although somewhat of a digression, some mention seems pardonable here of 
the high forest about Camaldoli, which consists mostly of silver fir, unmixed with 
other woods. An hour's walk to Sacre Eremo takes one over a good road through 
the best of the timber, and affords an opportunity to see this famous species in a 
very heavy stand per acre. The trees are tall, straight and of large diameter, 
the dense growth indicating a possible yield of 70,000 feet, board measure, per 
acre, exclusive of the minor product. It was planted by the monks of Camaldoli 
over a century ago. Protection from fire is attained by patrols, and by watchmen 
posted in little cabins placed on surrounding hilltops and mountain peaks, from 
which they announce by signals the first appearance of smoke. 

But on this tract, containing 3,600 acres, no cutting is seen. In 1901 the 
government enacted a law that no timber should be cut in a public forest within 
a certain distance of any summer resort. Perhaps the Italian legislators had read 
the restrictions in the forestry clause of the State Constitution of New York and 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 20~j 

followed that. The proprietor of the hotel at Camaldoli seemed satisfied with 
this embargo on lumbering in his immediate vicinity, and lamented the fact that 
on an adjoining tract of 10,000 hectares (25,000 acres) a fine forest was being 
cleared away by its non-resident owner, a member of the Austrian nobility. 

At Vallombrosa there is also a well-managed nursery belonging to the Forestry 
Institute at that place. It is in Tuscany, and the forester desirous of visiting 
this famous resort can go by rail from Florence to San Ellero, thence by a cog- 
wheel railway up the mountain, five miles, to Saltino. From the latter place it 
is only a few minutes' walk to the Hotel di Foresta and the " Istituto Forestale " 
at Vallombrosa. The nursery at this place is on the college grounds, with an 
altitude of 3,050 feet. The air is quite cool in summer, although the temperature 
may be excessively warm in the Tuscan valleys. A high elevation is a desirable 
condition for a forest nursery in this latitude. 

The plot contains between one and two acres, and is situated on a level terrace 
surrounded by groves of forest trees. It is further sheltered from wind by the 
mountain which, densely covered with tall firs, slopes upward from the rear of 
the college buildings. The beds, planted mostly with silver fir, are in fine con- 
dition and divided by well-kept paths. Through years of repeated working 
the earth has been converted into a composite of rich soil in which there is a 
large admixture of forest humus. Some of the seedlings are taken up when two 
years old and sent to the plantation direct, without any previous transplanting. 
At times a free distribution of seedlings is made to farmers or landowners who 
may wish to reforest their denuded lands. 

The nursery at Vallombrosa has a capacity of about 800,000 plants. In 1903 
the species growing there, and the number of each, were as follows: 

Silver fir 400,000 

Norway spruce ... 30,000 

European larch . 10,000 

Scotch pine 45,000 

Corsican pine 32,000 

Austrian pine 55,000 

Beech 50,000 

Chestnut 30,000 

Norway maple 1,000 

Sycamore maple 3,5°o 

Locust 125,000 

Other species 15,000 

Total 796,500 



208 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Adjoining the nursery is an arboretum of several acres, mostly young trees. 
It contains many of our common American species, and to the forester from 
over the sea their familiar appearance is as welcome as the sight of old friends 
in a strange country. With the nursery and arboretum so close at hand, the 
students of the Forestry School have a fine opportunity for study and experience 
in this branch of silvics. 

The dense forests and leafy conditions about Vallombrosa recall readily the 
literary quotation which has made this place so famous. The mountain slopes 
are thickly covered with fir and spruce, while near the college there are mixed 
woods of pine, locust, sycamore, mountain ash, white birch, chestnut, oak and 
poplar. 

Prance. 

In a country where the forests are managed mostly under the selection system 
and for the formation of coppice growth, as in France, the need of nurseries is 
consequently not so great as in one where clean cuttings are the rule. But 
whatever the method employed in reforesting, there is always a need for nursery- 
grown plants to fill the fail places. Hence there are pepinieres in ail the forest 
districts of France, some of which are absolutely perfect, not only in the 
technical methods employed but, also, in their attractive appearance. 

One of the best, perhaps, of these may be found at Xettes, in the mountains 
of the French Vosges, near Gerardmer, Southeastern France. The plot is rect- 
angular, 200 by 175 feet in size, and is inclosed by a rustic fence of neat design. 
It is surrounded closely on all sides by a dense, high forest of Norway spruce. 
The ground is nearly level, with a slight slope to the south, and has an altitude of 
906 meters. The neat fence, clean paths, long, well-kept beds and pretty summer- 
house at one side well repay the long climb up the mountain from Gerardmer 
to find this secluded spot. The polite and attentive forester in charge wears a 
distinctive uniform, as is the case in all the government nurseries and forest 
reviers in Europe. 

The entire area is devoted to the propagation of conifers — spruce and fir. 
To maintain the regular annual output nine seed beds are made, each about 
sixteen feet long, and inclosed in frames of wide boards placed on edge. These 
seed beds are covered with wire screens to protect them from the depredation of 
birds, and the screens are allowed to remain in place until August, or until the 
germination has advanced far enough to permit their removal. 

The seedlings, when two years old, are transplanted into the long beds, where 
they remain two years more. The beds containing these transplants are four 




A. KNECHTHL, PHOTO. 



ROYAL FORESTRY INSTITUTE, VALLOMBROSA, ITALY. 

THE LOCATION OF THE NURSERY APPEARS IN THE BACKGROUND. 




H. G. STEVENS, PHOTO. 



FOREST TREE NURSERY, AT XETTES. 

IN THE FRENCH VOSGES. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 209 

feet wide and extend from the central walk to the side of the inclosure. The 
seedlings are placed in longitudinal rows, the latter being eight inches apart. 
The natural soil is a rich loam, mixed with humus, to which fertilizers have been 
added each year after the removal of the plants. As a result the four-year-old 
transplants when taken up are strong, thrifty, and from fourteen to eighteen 
inches in height, with a well-developed root system. Owing to the moist climate 
of the French Vosges, the great altitude and the close proximity of the forest, it is 
but seldom that the beds require any watering. 

In other districts of France many of the nurseries are used in part, and in 
some instances entirely, for the propagation of broad-leaved species. In the Forest 
of Roumare, near Rouen, there is a pepinicre which is stocked wholly with beech 
and oak. The beech is raised in seed beds, and then transplanted the same as is 
done with the conifers. The surrounding forests, however, are composed almost 
entirely of Scotch pine in pure stands. But it will be noticed throughout 
Northern France that, where a clean cutting occurs in a forest of the latter species, 
the ground is often left to reforest itself by natural dissemination. 

There are several nurseries in the Forest of Rouvray — Department of the 
Seine — which are largely occupied by conifers, and in which the coniferous beds 
are frequently failures, owing to the depredation of rabbits. The foresters seemed 
to be unable to protect their inclosures from these pests. This is not surprising, 
for our American nurseries suffer serious injury at times from rodents. In the 
winter of 1904, after a fall of snow, one of the large forest-tree nurseries in 
Northern Illinois suffered a loss in white pine seedlings, caused by a swarm of 
field mice that cut off the stems close to the ground and inflicted damages 
estimated at $5,000 before their presence was discovered. 

P>elgmm. 

Although Belgium has no place on the pages of our forestry textbooks, 
seventeen per cent of its area is well wooded. Its forests are of a high class 
that indicate an intelligent, intensive management, and the extensive formation 
of artificial ones is provided for by numerous nurseries. 

In the great Forest of Soignes, at Groenendael, there is a pepinicre of two 
acres, in which some interesting experiments are carried on at the present time 
in addition to the regular work. Some germinating beds are set apart for testing 
the relative efficacy of various materials for covering and protecting the tender 
yearlings. For this purpose trials are made of straw, dead leaves, moss, dried 
manure, humus, plain earth pressed down around each plant and plain earth applied 
14 



2IO REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

loosely. The results thus far are indeterminate, but seem to favor the use of 
dead leaves. Mention is made of this matter here, because each of these materials 
is in use in one place or another. 

Other beds are devoted to experiments in deep, medium and shallow planting. 
Thus far the best results have been attained by a medium depth in which the 
root-collar was slightly covered. Experiments are also being made with reference 
to quick and delayed transplanting. As might be naturally expected, of the 
plants which were set out immediately all lived, while most of those which were 
delayed died sooner or later, according to the period of delay. 

Interesting tests were made in trimming the roots of the two-year-old seedlings 
before transplanting. The thriftiest plants were obtained from those with uncut 
roots, a fact which seems to be at variance with the practice in some of the 
German nurseries. 

Experiments were also made to ascertain the relative ability of seedlings to 
withstand the effects of sun and frost. While it was found that certain species 
were much more susceptible to injury in this respect than others, it also appeared 
that none were hardy enough to enable the forester to dispense entirely with some 
kind of protection. 

In one part of the inclosure mustard plants are used to furnish shade for 
the tender species growing there, while some of the beds are covered with racks 
on which straw and brush are placed for protection from the sun. Many of the 
beds which had been planted with broad-leaved species contained young trees 
from six to eight feet high. The coniferous transplants were not over twelve 
inches in height, although four years old. In general, the minor details of the 
technical work is the same as that described later on in connection with the 
German nurseries. 

This nursery, which is quite irregular in outline, is nearly level, with a slight 
slope to the south. Labels, neatly and plainly lettered, which can be read at a 
glance by one standing in the paths, are placed in each bed to show the species 
planted there. About one half of the area is occupied by broad-leaved plants, 
conspicuous among which are ash, beech, European chestnut and oak, the latter 
including the red, scarlet, English and pedunculate. This place is well worth 
visiting by any forester who may happen to be in its vicinity. 

Adjoining the nursery, and separated by a fence, is an arboretum which was 
commenced in 1897, and hence the trees are small. But it already contains three 
hundred and twenty-one species, among which our native American trees are 
largely represented. 




H. G. STEVENS, PHOTO. 



FOREST TREE NURSERY, NEAR GERARDMER, FRANCE. 

SEED BEDS COVERED WITH WIRE SCREENS TO PROTECT THE SEED FROM BIRDS. 




A? 




H. G. STEVENS, PHOTO. 

NORWAY SPRUCE, FOUR YEARS OLD, ONCE TRANSPLANTED. 

BLACK FOREST. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 211 

leaden. 

The extensive areas of planted woods in the Black Forest require a large 
number of nurseries for carrying on the work and for renewing the growth 
on lands as fast as the timber is removed. The well-managed baumscJiiile at 
Geioldsau, near Baden-Baden, is a fair type of the small but numerous nurseries 
that may be found in the various districts of the Schwarzwald. 

It has a square area of about half an acre, is located in a valley running east 
and west, and is situated about one hundred feet above the bottom of this valley 
on the southern slope. The forest approaches closely on three sides, while the 
precipitous slope on the opposite side of the valley is also well covered with tree 
growth. The nursery is surrounded by a paling fence, and a good road, used mostly 
for hauling timber, skirts the lower side of the inclosure. 

The area contains one hundred and sixty-eight beds, each fifteen feet long and 
forty inches wide, separated by paths of convenient width. Two broad paths, 
four feet wide, one running through the middle up the slope and one at right 
angles to it, divide it into four equal parts. The main paths which separate 
the beds, and which run up the slope, are three feet wide, while the crosspaths 
at the ends of the beds are twelve inches wide. 

The earth in the beds is a rich, sandy loam, prepared by mixing one load of 
ordinary forest soil with one of manure. This compost, until used, is piled just 
outside the fence, where it is allowed to remain undisturbed for three years. 
Three large heaps are necessarily kept on hand to furnish the proper annual 
supply. 

The seed beds, eight in number, occupy only five per cent of the total area. 
These beds have a framework of boards around their edges, eight inches high, 
and are covered with wire screens of a small mesh, which are kept there until the 
seeds have germinated to protect them from the depredation of birds. The seeds 
are sown thickly and broadcast instead of in rows. 

If the supply of plants from the seed beds is insufficient to stock the area set 
apart for transplants, the deficiency is made up by gathering two-year-old seedlings 
from the adjacent forest. 

In 1903 the species growing in this nursery were: 

(1) Weisstanne, or silver fir, three and four years old. 

(2) Rottanne, or Norway spruce, four years old. 

(3) Sitka spruce {Abies sitchensis), three years old. 

(4) Forle, or Scotch pine, four years old. 

(5) Douglas spruce, four years old. 



212 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

In addition there were, in a few beds which contained an assortment of species, 
some larch, sycamore, maple, Colorado spruce, white fir (Adzes concolor) and Larix 
leptolepis. 

The seedlings, as customary in most nurseries, are allowed to remain in the 
seed beds until they are two years old, when they are transplanted into other beds 
in the same nursery. These transplants are set out lengthwise of the beds in 
eight rows, fifty in each row, four inches apart in the row, and with a space 
of about six inches between the rows. This is closer than usual, but the forester 
claims that if the rows of transplants are set too far apart there is a tendency to 
fork, to the formation of two leaders, which, by the way, is one of the 
disadvantages urged by some against a plantation formed of nursery stock. 

In transplanting a furrow is first made with a "hand-plough," which is drawn 
by one man and guided by another. Then a board with notches cut in the edge at 
distances corresponding to the spaces between the plants is placed on the bed with 
the notches over the furrow. The seedlings are then placed, one in each notch, the 
roots covered with prepared soil, and pressed into place. In some nurseries a 
planting board* is used which has half circles along the edge at the required 
spaces instead of V-shaped notches. 

The longer roots of each seedling in the Geroldsau Nursery are clipped 
slightly to insure a greater amount of branching and a better root system in the 
transplants. This is deemed desirable by the forester, as it saves the expense 
of making a deeper hole when the final planting is made in the forest, and 
because there is less liability to loss in transplanting. 

The transplants of the Weisstanne remain from three to four years in the beds, 
mostly four years, while the Rottanne are held in the transplant beds from two 
to three years, the length of time in each case depending on the height-growth 
attained. For the Rottanne a height of about twelve inches is deemed desirable 
in the transplant before removing it from the bed and taking it to the forest for 
final planting; but the Weisstanne, which is slower in growth, is removed from 
the nursery when eight or ten inches high. 

At the corners and sides of each bed there are posts, about three feet high, 
which support long poles placed horizontally on top of the posts. If the post has 
no natural crotch in which the poles can rest, a hole is bored near the top of 
the stake and a round sticK is inserted to furnish a bearing. From the first to the 



*In New York we use this kind of board in our nursery work, but we set out our transplants 
here in rows running across the bed, which enables us to use a shorter board and to make the 
furrows by hand with a trowel pressed deeply into the soft earth. Furthermore, with rows placed 
this way a man sitting in the path can do the weeding more easily. Still, each way has its 
advantages, and, some disadvantages also. 




G, \V. MANCHOT, l'HOTO. 



SEED BED OF SCOTCH PINE, TWO YEARS OLD. 

IN NURSERY AT GEROLDSAU, BADEN. 




H. G. STEVENS, PHOTO. 



BEDS OF FOUR-YEAR-OLD TRANSPLANTS, NORWAY SPRUCE. 

IN NURSERY BELONGING TO A PRIVATE FOREST, GERMANY. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 213 

twentieth of May these horizontal poles are covered with brush to protect the 
transplants from the frost which is liable to occur in the valley. 

The total number of transplants in this nursery, in 1903. was 65,000, of which 
17,000 six-year-old Weisstanne were to be set out in plantations the following year. 
The Weisstanne formed the principal species raised in this plot, comprising ninety 
per cent of the plants. The Rottanne, or Norway spruce, occupied only five beds, 
or about three per cent of the area. There were also a bed of Sitka spruce, 
one of Douglas fir and one of Scotch pine. But there is another nursery in this 
revier, under the same forstmeister, in which the plants are nearly all Rottanne. 

The cost of the plants, when placed in their final position in the forest, is 
from 2 to 4 pfennig (one half to one cent) per plant, a laborer being able to set 
out from 1,000 to 1,200 in a day. In setting out these plants in the field he uses 
a kind of mattock for making the holes, the same as is used in our plantations in 
New York. The daily wage of a laborer in this range is 1 mark 80 pfennigs, and 
hence the cost of annual planting in the forest, at the rate of 1,100 plants per 
day, is 1.6 pfennigs per plant, which leaves the apparent cost of the nursery work 
from .4 to 2.4 pfennig per plant, not including certain incidental expenses, which 
increase it somewhat.* 

There are six nurseries in the Baden Revier, each about the size of the one 
at Geroldsau ; but they vary greatly in the species propagated, some of them 
having ninety to ninety-five per cent of their area devoted to Norway spruce. 
The broad-leaved species are cultivated only to a small extent in this part of the 
Schwarzwald. 

The nursery in the Wendlingen Revier, near Freiburg, is also devoted largely 
to the propagation of the silver fir. It is a permanent one, so denoted to 
distinguish it from the temporary ones often made to supply a local need. The 
natural soil is from gneiss, and is a limy sand. Manure is used as a fertilizer, 
that from cows being preferred. This is spread over the ground and spaded 
under before the seed is sown. Thomasmehl and kainit also are used. 

The seeds in the seed beds are sown in rows, the rows being three inches 
apart, and are dropped so thickly in the row that they nearly touch each other. 
The beds are then covered with branches of fir or beech, which are allowed to 
remain all summer, at first close to the ground, after which they are raised 
gradually until they are about twenty inches high. These shades are also left on 
through the winter to keep the ground from freezing and heaving with the frost. 
Moss, or fine brush, laid between the rows might serve this purpose as well. 



* These figures seem somewhat questionable, but they were noted down carefully from the 
forester's personal statement. 



2 14 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The seedlings are transplanted, when two years old, in rows six inches apart 
and at spaces in the row of about three and one half inches. They are held in 
the transplant beds until they are five years old before removing them to the 
plantations. 

Although the purchase of seeds for nursery purposes is a common practice in 
some localities, the forester in charge of this revier gathers his own supply. 
As to the silver fir, a full mast occurs about every five years, although this 
species yields a small amount of seed each year. The cones are gathered about 
the middle of October. A man climbs up among the branches and breaks off the 
cones, which are carried immediately to the storehouse and spread out so that 
the air can circulate through them freely. They are stirred every day and kept in 
the drying-room until the scales have fully opened or fallen apart. They are then 
put into baskets and shaken vigorously until the seeds have fallen to the bottom, 
after which they are easily separated from the refuse material. 

The seed beds are sown in autumn, sometimes in November or December, if 
snow does not fall too early. If the weather is very moist the cones may 
not open in time for fall planting. In that case the seed is, of course, sown 
the next spring. 

The absence of nurseries in some parts of the Black Forest, or elsewhere, 
does not necessarily imply that young plants are not used there in reforesting 
operations. In the Sulzburg reviers, for instance, the oberforster, as explained 
by him, is doing very little in the way of seed plots, because he can buy seed- 
lings from the commercial nurseries as cheaply as, if not cheaper than, he can 
raise them himself. This is not remarkable, as it is evident that in a nursery 
of one hundred acres or more, devoted solely to commercial purposes, the plants 
can be raised more cheaply, and with a profit, than in one of two acres, espe- 
cially as in the latter case the forester has other and more important duties 
that engross his attention. Furthermore, under the excellent and intensive 
management of the Sulzburg reviers a satisfactory reproduction is obtained 
through natural dissemination. 

3 wither land. 

As most of the forests in this country occupy slopes, more or less steep, 
they exercise protective functions which necessitate the selection system in their 
exploitation, and hence there is not the same need for nurseries as in countries 
where clean cutting is practiced. Reproduction by natural dissemination is largely 
the rule, noticeably so in the forest of the Sihlwald, famous for its intensive 
management and the highly profitable returns per acre which have been main- 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



FOREST TREE NURSERY, NEAR LUZERNE, SWITZERLAND. 

ENCLOSED WITH A HEDGE INSTEAD OF A FENCE. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



TEMPORARY NURSERY. 



PATHS PLANTED PERMANENTLY WITH NORWAY SPRUCE, WHICH WILL BE LEFT IN PLACE WHEN THE STOCK IN 
THE BEDS IS FINALLY REMOVED. A PLANTATION THUS TAKES THE PLACE OF THE NURSERY. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 215 

tained annually for a long term of years. Still there are several nurseries con- 
nected with the management of the various cantonal forests, but the technique, 
as observed does not vary materially from that already described. 

Although nurseries are not as essential to the management of high forests in 
Switzerland as elsewhere, a large number are used in the work of forest extension 
and the formation of new forests on wild or cultivated land that had hitherto not 
been used for the production of timber. From 1878 to 1885 the annual output 
of the nurseries devoted to this purpose amounted, on an average, to 5,263,474 
conifers and 351,430 broad-leaved plants.* 

In the "Winterthur range temporary nurseries are used to a considerable extent. 
In some of these, when the stock is removed, a sufficient number of transplants 
are left standing at proper intervals in the beds to form an artificial forest 
in time on the site of the abandoned nursery plot. The permanent nurseries 
wherever seen are in admirable condition and have an attractive appearance. 
One of them, near Luzerne, is enclosed by a well-kept hedge instead of a fence, 
as customary everywhere else, and is equipped with water pipes and several 
hydrants for sprinkling the beds. 

In the canton of Zurich there is a nursery connected with the Forest Research 
Station, in which experiments are carried on with different species of forest-tree 
seedlings and plants. It is situated at Adlisberg, four miles from the city of 
Zurich, at an elevation of two thousand three hundred feet above the sea. 

To determine the species suitable for planting in various parts of Switzerland, 
soils from these places are brought to the nursery, seeds are planted, and the 
little trees as they grow are studied and their development carefully recorded. 

An important experiment is being carried on with the seed of Norway spruce. 
Good seed collected in the mountains, some from trees growing at an altitude of 
one thousand five hundred feet above sea level, and some from similar trees 
at an altitude of six thousand feet, were planted in a bed in the nursery, half of 
the bed being given to each kind of seed. The seedlings, now six years old, 
show a remarkable difference in height, those from the seed taken at the lower 
altitude being twenty-four inches tall, while those from the higher altitude have a 
height of only twelve inches. 

The natural laws under which the roots of trees are developed are being studied 
as follows: Boxes thirty inches high, eighteen inches wide and six inches through, 
with the sides made of glass, are filled with earth and sunk into the ground their 
full length, the glass sides standing vertically in close contact with the earth out- 
side the box. In each box is planted a tree, which, as it grows, sends some of 



■* U. S. Consular Reports. it 



2l6 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

its roots against the glass sides. From time to time the boxes are pulled out of the 
ground and the root growths observed and recorded. 

Observations upon white pine, Scotch pine, silver fir, beech, oak, birch and 
maple have been carried on for three years on plants aged from one to six years. 
During the winter, from November till March or April, the roots of the needle 
trees, as observed in the boxes, make no growth. Those of deciduous trees, on 
the contrary, do not go through this period with complete rest, but grow wher- 
ever the temperature becomes mild, even in midwinter. In February and the 
beginning of March, however, the roots show very little growth. 

It is noticed that in the spring the roots begin to develop before the buds, in 
some cases several weeks. The larch and alder are an exception to this rule. 
The buds of these species have been observed to unfold even a month before the 
roots started. 

Since the soil has a temperature below that of the lower air it follows that the 
roots begin their growth at temperatures lower than that necessary for the develop- 
ment of the aerial parts. The minimum temperature necessary for the growth of 
needle trees, as recorded by a thermometer placed in the boxes, is from five to six 
degrees Centigrade ; for the maple and beech, from two to three degrees. 

The roots have also a summer rest, in August and September,- a time when 
the water content of the soil in the nursery is at its minimum. This interruption 
may last from three to eight weeks, according as the summer is wet or dry. Then 
follows in October a period of more active growth and of longer duration in the 
deciduous trees than in the conifers. 

The most rapid development takes place at the beginning of summer. The 
oak has its maximum at the end of June or the beginning of July. The root 
growth is then about 3.54 inches a day, that of the fir and Scotch pine about 
2.36 inches. From these observations a judgment is formed as to the most favorable 
time to plant trees in the forest. For the success of a plantation it is essential that, 
as soon as the trees are placed, the roots should enter upon a period of active 
growth to replace the water taken from the tree by evaporation. On the other 
hand, the plantation should be made when transpiration is at its minimum. These 
conditions are usually best secured in the spring. In a country, however, where 
the spring is usually dry and the fall mild and moist, the plantation should be 
made in the autumn. 

For deciduous trees to grow well when planted in autumn they must form 
root hairs before the arrival of the great cold, and must lose very little water by 
evaporation during the winter. Hence, in countries where the winter is very cold 
and dry these, as well as the conifers, should be planted in the spring. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 21 7 

Alsace. 

The Oberfdrsterei Miinster, in the German Yosges, has an area of 21,325 acres, 
of which one half, or thereabouts, is occupied by silver fir;* the remainder by 
Norway spruce, Scotch pine (1,500 acres), beech (mixed with maple), elm and 
carpinus (5,000 acres), oak (1,150 acres), chestnut (180 acres) and locust. 

The total nursery area for the tract is four acres, which furnish an average 
annual output of 160,000 coniferous plants. This nursery area is in several small 
plots distributed conveniently throughout the tract. One of these, located about 
five miles from Metzeral, has an area of five ares (5,380 square feet). It is in the 
forest and is closely surrounded by trees. A wire fence of four strands, with a 
round top-rail of poles, protects it from deer. The exposure is towards the west. 
It has a slope of one foot in eight, terraced with retaining walls of stone three 
feet high. 

The soil is from gneiss, with some lime in its composition. Thomasmehl and 
kainit are used as fertilizers;! but as kainit is strong and liable to injure the plants 



* The silver fir {Abies pectinata) of Southern Europe resembles the American balsam closely 
in its foliage and in many other respects ; but it is much larger and taller and has a better fiber. 

f Thomasmehl, or Thomaschlacke (Thomas slag), is a slag or scoria produced in the "Thomas- 
Gilchrist" process for manufacturing steel, and is obtained as a by-product from certain rich 
phosphatic iron ore. In this process the phosphorus of the crude iron is converted into phosphoric 
acid, which passes into the slag in combination with lime and iron. This slag is ground finely 
and sold as fertilizer. It contains from thirty to forty per cent phosphate of lime, the greatest part 
of which appears to be in an available condition, so that the slag, when ground or pulverized, 
may be used on the soil as a source of phosphoric acid without further treatment. 

It is a new form of phosphate to which attention has already been attracted throughout Europe, 
and which has been tried experimentally to some extent in this country. From extensive trials of 
it at experiment stations it seems that all such slags have not an equal value, some being much 
more available to the plants than others. The better classes of slag have, however, given better 
results than bone meal, and have been sold at so low a rate the foresters can use it profitably. 
This slag meal is now manufactured at Pottstown, Pa., and is put on the market under the name 
of "odorless phosphate." 

Kainit, or Kalidungung, is a product of some salt mines, notably the mines at Stassfurt, 
Germany. It is a mixture of compounds containing about twenty-five per cent sulphate of potash, 
equivalent to twelve per cent of actual potash, together with about thirty-five per cent of common 
salt, some sulphate and chloride of magnesia, and a small amount of gypsum. Large amounts are 
annually exported to America, one year as high as 87,635 tons. 

Kainit, sprinkled on manure, tends to the checking of fermentation ; also, to attract and hold 
moisture. One precaution should be observed in the use of this fertilizer ; animals should be 
kept away from it, as their feet may be injured by treading in it. It is better, therefore, to apply 
it mixed with fresh manure, and to cover the ground afterwards with some kind of litter. [See 
bulletins on "Commercial Fertilizers," issued by the Departments of Agriculture in various 
States. For further definitions of Thomasmehl and Kainit, see Illustriertes Forst und Jagd 
Lexikon, by Dr. Hermann von Furst. Berlin: Paul Parey. 1904.] 



2l8 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

if applied when fresh, kali salts are used at times. This is a product of the 
German mines, containing about fifty per cent sulphate of potash and thirty-five 
per cent sulphate of magnesia. 

Silver fir and Norway spruce are the species cultivated for the most part. 
These are transplanted when two years old, and allowed to remain until they are 
four or five years old before they are taken to a plantation. 

In winter, to prevent the plants from heaving out by frost, they are covered 
with leaves from deciduous trees. Twigs of fir are stuck into the beds at close 
intervals, so that the wind will not disturb the leaf covering. 

In no European country have improved forestry methods attained a higher 
development and degree of efficiency than in Saxony. In the United States con- 
sular reports it is stated that there is probably no country in the world where higher 
revenues from the forests are obtained, nor where greater or more intelligent care 
is bestowed upon them, and the forestry publications, official or otherwise, issued 
in that country indicate that this statement is well founded. Forests of wide 
extent exist everywhere, not only on the Erzgebirge and on the mountains of 
the Saxon Switzerland, but also in the vicinity of the principal cities. 

The area devoted to the formation of coniferous forests is six times that 
given to the growth of deciduous species. Gen. C. C. Andrews,* in his "Notes 
on European Forestry," says of the Saxon forests: "The entire area planted 
annually varies according to circumstances. On the average it will reach 6,900 
acres. Of this area 800 acres are planted up with seeds, and 6,100 acres are 
planted up with plants." This statement will give some idea of the large number 
of nurseries in Saxony which are necessary in making such extensive plantations. 

On the Olbernhau Revier, in the Erzgebirge, there are several nurseries. This 
revier contains 4,694 acres, of which four fifths is covered with Norway spruce. 
The nurseries are temporary ones (saatschnle unstandige) , small plots situated 
convenient to the areas in which the plants are to be set out. 

The soil is good, consisting of disintegrated gneiss with considerable lime. 
For the temporary nurseries, small areas only are used. When a new place is 
selected for a "saatkamp," as the plot is called, the ground is not fertilized 
at first; but if it is used for a second crop the ground receives an addition of 
Thomas slag or kainit. Potash (kali) is sometimes applied instead of kainit, as 
the latter is too strong, and if used when fresh it injures the plants at times. 



* Ninth Annual Report, Minnesota Forest Commission. St. Paul. 1904 




A. KXECHTEL, PHOTO. 

NURSERY WITH SEED BEDS PROTECTED FROM BIRDS AND MICE BY WIRE SCREENS 

AND STONE BORDERS. 

AT OLBERNHAU, IN THE ERZGEBIRGE, SAXONY. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 

YOUNG PLANTATION OF NORWAY SPRUCE MADE BY THE SEED-SPOT METHOD. 

THARANDT, SAXONY. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 219 

These fertilizers are applied immediately after the plants are removed from the 
nursery, which is generally done in April. They are mixed with the soil, after 
which the ground is left undisturbed for two weeks. The beds are then made 
and the seed is sown in them. Where the nitrogen in the soil has been lost 
through washing and leaching, lupine is sown in the spring and left to grow until 
September, when it is spaded under. 

The seeds in each row are placed thickly, nearly touching each other, in 
a depression made by a square-edged slat two and one quarter inches wide. The 
depression thus made is about three quarters of an inch in depth. The rows 
are about four inches apart. The beds are forty inches (one meter) wide, 
with intervening paths of one foot in width. For sowing an area of one are 
(1,076 square feet) about seventeen and one half pounds of spruce seed is used. 
The seeds are not soaked, but are coated with red lead to prevent the birds from 
eating them. After sowing, the seeds are covered lightly with sand which has 
been mixed with a compost made from leaves and grass. 

The beds are covered with low screens of brush, preferably pine, which are 
left on the frame until the latter part of July. Water is not used for sprinkling 
unless there is a supply conveniently at hand. 

Seedlings are left in the seed beds until they are two years old, when, as a 
general rule, they are transplanted into other beds; but sometimes they are left 
in the germinating beds until they are four years old, in which case they are 
sent direct to the field plantation. The climate in the Erzgebirge, however, is 
so unfavorable that the foresters deem it advisable, in general practice, to use 
transplants. 

The expense of raising two-year-old seedlings in the Olbernhau Revier is from 
one to two marks per thousand plants; to prepare the soil and transplant them 
costs one and one half marks more per thousand; and to set them out in a 
plantation, from ten to fifteen marks per thousand. 

Field planting by the seed-spot method, a modified form of nursery work, is exten- 
sively practiced in Saxony, and plantations of this kind are made at Tharandt, the 
seat of the Royal Forest Academy. The Saxon foresters generally sow the seeds 
along the edge of the strip or patch, where they are not so liable to be heaved 
or thrown out by frost. In the Erzgebirge, wherever this method is used, spruce 
is not mixed with pine or larch as at Tharandt. At the latter place a mixture is 
used to protect the spruce from the deer. A few seeds of pine and larch are 
mixed with the spruce seed, and as the former have a more rapid growth, and 
are preferred by the deer, the spruce remains uninjured. 



220 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

At the Oberwiesenthal Revier, in the Erzgebirge, along the Austrian border, 
the technical work in the nurseries is about the same as that just described. 

The nurseries are devoted almost exclusively to the propagation of Norway- 
spruce. The soil for the most part is of a kind known there as fillet, which is 
composed largely of fine particles of gneiss. 

For fertilizing bone meal iaufgescJilossenes) is used exclusively, sixteen pounds 
per are. In making a plot ready the trees are cut, the stumps taken out, the 
ground dug up and thrown into heaps in autumn, after which the bone meal is 
mixed with the heaps. In the following spring these heaps are spread over the 
ground, beds are made and sown, the seed having been mixed with lead-oxide, 
two pounds of the latter to sixteen pounds of seed. The depression in the bed 
having been made, the seed is sown thickly in them and then covered with a thin 
layer of fine earth that has been put through a sieve,, after which the surface is 
pressed down gently. 

Dry branches of spruce, bare of foliage, are laid on the beds for shade, and 
are held in place by poles laid on them. This brush is left on the beds until 
the plants come up through the ground, when it is removed and is not used again. 
Dead branches are used, because the spruce needles, which otherwise would fall 
on the beds, are heating in their effect and would injure the plants. 

In July or August fresh humus is strewn between the rows, two cubic meters 
per are. This keeps the ground moist, hinders the growth of weeds and prevents 
heaving out by frost. This humus, composed of decayed needles, is found in the 
forest underneath the layers of freshly fallen leaves. 

The plants are not watered. The foresters in these reviers claim that if water 
is once used during a drought the sprinkling must be continued until rain comes, 
or the plants will deteriorate in a noticeable degree. 

The seed beds are made one and two tenths meters wide and of any convenient 
length. On a slope they are laid out lengthwise across the slope so that the flow 
of water from a heavy rainfall is checked or hindered. Side paths are twenty-five 
centimeters wide, and are made shallow, so that the beds will not dry out too 
much along their sides. The end paths are fifty centimeters broad, and are a 
little deeper. If the slope is such that there is danger of flooding and washing, 
a ditch is dug near the upper side of the inclosure, which is fenced for protection 
from deer. 

As usual, the plants are left in the seed beds until two years old, when they are 
transplanted into other beds in the same nursery and treated with a fertilizer the 
same as the seed beds. At Oberwiesenthal the transplant beds are nearly square, 
three and five tenths centimeters on a side, with paths fifty centimeters wide. 




- ■*.- i .- 



*- -- 



A. KNECHTEL, PHOTl'. 



TEMPORARY NURSERY, NORTHERN AUSTRIA. 

THE GROUND OUTSIDE THE FENCE IS PLANTED WITH FOUR-YEAR-OLD TRANSPLANTS. 




A. KNECtllEL, . 



PART OF FOREST TREE NURSERY, THURINGIA, GERMANY. 

THE BEDS IN THE BACKGROUND, WITH ROWS SHOWING DISTINCTLY, ARE WHITE PINE. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 22 1 

Square beds are very unusual in European nurseries, although in some of the 
commercial nurseries in Germany large areas filled with transplants may be seen 
in which there are no paths. 

A spade is used to take up the seedlings for transplanting. It is shoved 
down between the rows, then pressed upwards, after which the plants are gently 
and carefully removed by the workman with his fingers and placed in a box-like 
frame made of slats. The seedlings are carried to the new bed, where they are 
set out in drills four inches apart and the earth pressed firmly by hand around 
the roots. The rows or drills in the transplant beds are made at intervals of five 
inches. The infant trees are transplanted only once in the nursery and are left 
there until they are five years old, as the climate is somewhat severe. Weeding is 
necessary only twice a year, in the spring and fall. 

In the Erzgebirge a plot is generally used for a nursery only once or twice, 
after which it is abandoned. If used a second time, bone meal and humus are 
applied in the same quantities as at first. The humus is not only a fertilizer, 
but it acts mechanically, making the soil looser where it is too firm and firmer 
where it is too loose. 

Field plantations are made from the middle of May until the middle of June, 
the spring being late in these reviers, as they are situated 2,800 feet or more 
above sea level. The stumps are not removed from the ground which is to be 
planted, but good earth is hauled there and distributed in small heaps, and in 
quantities of about ten cubic meters per hectare (two and one half acres). 

Transplants are taken out of the nursery bed and heeled in. At the proper 
time they are hauled in a wagon to the planting ground, and heeled in again as 
deep as they stood in the nursery. They are taken up again as fast as needed, 
placed in pails or baskets and carried to the men who do the planting. They are 
planted 1.4 meters apart, and are set in the earth that is thrown up at the side 
of the hole (locJiliiigelpflanziing), two or three handfuls of the good earth being 
packed around the roots of each. By this method the plants receive nourishment 
from the grass and sod beneath the hillock. 

The preparation of the ground for a seed plot costs about 22 marks per are, 
the expense being made up as follows: Clearing and digging the ground, 10 marks; 
bone meal, 1.20 marks; seed, 1.20 marks; making the beds and sowing the seed, 
5 marks; covering with brush, 2 marks; lead oxide, 0.10 marks; spreading humus, 
3.2 marks — or about $5.50 for a plot 33 feet square. These figures may seem 
rather high, but they were furnished by the oberfdrster from his account book. 

Transplanting costs: Digging over the ground in autumn, io marks; bone 
meal, 1.2 marks; making beds, 3 marks; transplanting, 10 marks, and humus, 



2 22 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

3.2 marks; total, 27.4 marks per are, or about $6.75 per area of 33 feet square. 
Removing the plants from the nursery and setting them out in a plantation 
costs about $4.25 per 1,000 plants, and to grow the trees in the nursery, ready 
for planting, about Si. 75 per 1,000. 



Tljoringia. 



At Eisenach, in the Thuringian Forest, there is a revier of about 11,000 acres 
in which there are six permanent nurseries, each in the vicinity of the planting 
grounds where the young stock will be needed. 

The soil is fertile, being composed largely of disintegrated gneiss and feldspar. 
The nurseries are located on gentle slopes, where the plots can have a northern 
or eastern exposure in order to avoid so far as possible any injury from frost, and 
preferably on land from which a growth of beech has been removed. In many of 
them sufficient space is maintained between the sides of the enclosure and the 
forest so that the ground will not be shaded by tall trees. Protection from wind 
is deemed unnecessary. 

In preparing the plot the trees are cut and the stumps taken out. The ground 
is spaded to the depth of one foot, so that it may freeze and pulverize in the 
winter. In the spring it is again dug over and beds are made, thirty-nine inches 
wide, with narrow sidepaths one foot in width. 

Fertilizers are not applied for two or three years. Then humus and rich earth 
are mixed with the soil immediately after the plants are removed. Seed is sown as 
soon as the danger from frost is passed, about the last of April. The coating 
of the seeds with red lead is deemed unnecessary here. The rows in the seed 
beds are four and one half inches apart. A narrow slat of wood, pressed into 
the earth with the foot, is used to mark the rows and make the depression in 
which the seeds are placed. 

Spruce is sown twice as thickly as pine and about one fifth of an inch apart. 
Larch is sown as thickly as spruce, because fifty per cent of the seeds do not 
germinate. Spruce and larch seed is covered to a depth of a quarter of an inch 
with humus or sand, or with a mixture of both, while pine is sprinkled with it 
so lightly as to barely hide the grains from sight. 

Branches of pine are then laid on the beds; but spruce brush is not used, as 
the dead needles, falling on the ground, are liable to become heated and thus 
injure the seedlings. When the plants appear and are a month or so old, the 
branches are placed upright for shade. These are taken off in a dry time to allow 
the night dew to refresh the plants, and are removed entirely when the seedlings 
are strong: enough to do without shade. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



FOREST TREE NURSERY IN THE THURINGER WALD, SAXE-GOTHA. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



NURSERY PLANTED EXCLUSIVELY WITH NORWAY SPRUCE. 

AT RUHLA, SAXE-GOTHA. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 223 

Ammoniated superphosphate is scattered broadcast over the beds in June, 
twenty grammes per square meter, preferably just before a rainfall. It may be 
added a second time a month later, but usually this is not necessary. In autumn 
moss is laid between the rows to keep the seedlings from heaving; if a supply 
of moss cannot be obtained conveniently, dead leaves are used for the same 
purpose. This covering is removed the next spring, as soon as the danger from 
frost is over. 

Seedlings are transplanted when one year old, as they grow better than when 
left in the seed bed until they are two years old, and the transplanting is less 
expensive. The seedlings are put into water when lifted from the seed bed to 
prevent them from drying out in any degree whatever during the transfer. They 
are set out in the transplant beds two and one half inches apart and in rows five 
inches apart, just wide enough to permit the use of a hoe in weeding. They are 
left in the transplant bed two years; but if they are to be used in a plantation 
on grassy land they are held there one year more, or until they are four years old, 

The nursery near Annathal has a rectangular area of 100 by 138 feet, sloping 
slightly to the southeast. The natural soil is a fertile loam, enriched by a liberal 
admixture with forest humus and supplemented annually with mineral fertilizers. 

In the ground plan the beds are laid out sixty-five feet long and three and 
one quarter feet wide. A walk, three feet in width, runs across the middle of 
the plot and around its sides at the fence. Long paths, twenty-two in number and 
a foot wide each, separate the beds, with one wide path down the middle. 

The seedlings in the germination beds, one and two years old,* are in rows 
running across the beds, the seed having been sown in furrows or depressed lines, 
not broadcast over the entire surface as practiced in many European nurseries. 
But the transplants are set out in rows running lengthwise of the beds, six rows 
in a bed. The coniferous species propagated in this nursery consist entirely of 
Norway spruce and Scotch pine. In a small portion of the enclosure there are some 
thrifty broad-leaved plants — horse chestnut, European alder and speckled alder. 

Another nursery, in an adjoining range on the road to Liebenstein, has an area 
of 120 by 150 feet, and is situated on ground sloping to the south, where it is 
bordered on that side by a clearing of ten acres or more. The other three sides 
are closely hemmed in by a dense forest. The beds are three and one quarter by 
fifty feet, containing five rows of plants, lengthwise, mostly Norway spruce. 
Quite a large area, comparatively, is occupied by sycamore maples, three years old. 

In making a forest plantation in Thuringia the transplants are set out by 
women mostly, who work for one and one half marks per day of ten hours. The 



*Seed beds are made each year. 



2 24 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

plants are placed in the field at a cost of one pfennig each, including all incidental 
expenses. They are planted at intervals of one meter, or 10,000 plants per hectare 
— about 4,000 per acre. 

Most of the nurseries in the Thuringer Wald are small, each with an area of 
less than one acre. But at Ruhla there is a permanent one of two and one half 
hectares (six and one quarter acres) planted entirely with Norway spruce. In 
fertilizing, four centners (four hundred and forty pounds) of Thomasmehl and two 
centners of kainit are used for one morgen or quarter hectare. After the seeds 
have germinated in the seed beds ammoniated superphosphate is strewn between 
the rows. 

The seed is sown by hand, about the end of May, in drills along the beds so 
that the plants can be protected with moss in the late autumn. The seed is sown 
thickly. No screens are used. The seedlings stand in the seed beds until two 
years old, when they are removed to other beds, where they remain two years 
more. As a general rule, four-year-old transplants are used in making a plantation. 

Prussia. 

The forest at Friedrichsruh, near Hamburg, covers 18,750 acres, divided into 
eight reviers. The eight nurseries necessary for the annual planting occupy, in all, 
four hectares, or about ten acres of ground. One of the best of these is situated 
about two miles from the railroad station at Friedrichsruh, in the Bismarck Forest, 
a large tract of woodland presented to the German Chancellor by the government 
in recognition of his services in the Franco-Prussian war. 

This nursery has an enclosure of 200 by 150 feet, is on level ground and is 
surrounded on all sides by an old forest, mostly beech, which comes close to the 
fence. 

The coniferous plants raised here are mostly rottanne, with a few beds of 
Douglas spruce. About one fourth of the area is devoted to broad-leaf plants, 
the greater part of which are pedunculate oak. There is no arrangement for 
screening the seed beds to protect them from birds; but a stuffed hawk, perched 
on a stake close by, seems to answer the same purpose to a satisfactory extent. 

At the Revier Holme, in the Hartz, temporary nurseries located in the center 
of the planting ground are the rule. The soil, derived from granitic formations, 
has a natural fertility that is sufficient for the propagation of plants; but if a plot 
is used a second time, mineral fertilizers, of the kinds already described, are 
applied, with some lime (kalk) also in a few instances. Its elevation is only forty- 
five feet above the sea. In both seed beds and transplant beds the rows run 
lengthwise. 




*#»■ ■! 






'$-, 



- '' 



:' g 





FOREST TREE NURSERY, NEAR FRIEDRICHSRUH, NORTH PRUSSIA. 





_iJ 



H. G. STEVEN?, PHOTO. 



NURSERY FOR DECIDUOUS TREES, BISMARCK FOREST. 

GERMAN FORESTERS IN UNIFORM. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 225 

As usual, in Northern Germany, spruce is cultivated almost exclusively, or to a 
large extent. Seed, coated with lead-oxide, is thickly sown in the germinating beds 
about the middle of May, in rows four and one half inches apart. Brush is not laid 
on the beds, as this is considered unnecessary except as a protection from birds; 
but moss is used to protect the seedlings during the winter. The latter is placed 
on the beds in October and is not removed in the spring until the snow has melted. 

Seedlings are usually left in the beds two years — or one year if very strong 
and thrifty — and are then transplanted in rows six inches apart, where they remain 
two years; but if the field where they are to be set out finally is covered with 
grass the plants are given one year more in the nursery beds. 

The Forest of Grabow, in Mecklenburg, belongs to the city. It has an area 
of 6,470 acres A forester (stadtfb'rster) manages it; a hunter (stadtyager) protects 
the game, and an overseer (forstaufseher) guards it against fire and trespass. The 
overseers are not technically educated men, but are chosen from the ranks of 
the workmen. The revenues are paid into the city treasury, after which the net 
income is applied to the reduction of taxes. This custom is common in most 
of the city and communal forests in Germany. 

As the soil in the vicinity of Grabow is sandy, its forests consist almost 
entirely of Scotch pine {Pinus sylvestris), a small area only being planted with 
spruce (Picea excelsa) and silver fir {Abies pectinata). The broad-leaved trees also 
occupy a small area, where the fertility of the soil may indicate their use. But 
the soil is very poor, to a great extent consisting of a light colored sand which, 
even when damp, will not cohere if squeezed in the hand. 

The nursery is located at an altitude of 335 feet. In summer the temperature 
rises as high as thirty-two degrees (Reaumur) in the sun, and twenty-four degrees 
in the shade; in winter it falls as low as twenty degrees below zero, same 
standard. The winters, however, are mild. The first frost occurs about the 
middle of November, and freezing weather is liable to last until the middle of 
. April, with an occasional frost in May. 

The seed for the nursery is generally purchased from commercial dealers, 
mostly from a seed house in Darmstadt. The seed beds require a large amount 
of mineral fertilizers, owing to the barrenness of the natural soil. For this pur- 
pose the forester uses Thomas meal, sixteen per cent citrates, in quantities 
of 880 pounds per hectare' (2*4 acres); carnallite, about 2,200 pounds per hectare, 
and slaked lime, 6,600 pounds per hectare. These compounds are mixed with fine 
turf, scattered thickly over the ground in winter and in the following spring are 
worked thoroughly into the soil. The turf is also strewn between the seedlings 
in the second summer of their growth. 



226 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The Grabow nursery has an area of about half a hectare. The beds are laid 
out forty inches wide, and of any convenient length. The sidepaths are one foot, 
end paths thirty-two inches, and wagon roads ten feet in width. 

The seed is sown from the fifth to the fifteenth of April, in rows about four 
inches apart and so thickly that the grains touch one another in many places. 
Sowing in rows instead of broadcast is done to facilitate weeding. The seeds are 
covered, about half a centimeter- deep, with natural soil, unfertilized, which is not 
pressed down as dene elsewhere in many instances. Scotch pine is usually sown 
first. No screens are used; but the beds are sprinkled daily in time of drought, 
enough water being used to moisten the ground thoroughly. 

Scotch pine is left in the seed beds for one year only, after which the 
seedlings of this species are sent to the plantations. If left in the seed beds 
after they are one year old the crowded condition of the plants induces the fungal 
growth known as " schiitte. ' If, however, the plants are needed for a plantation 
on grassy land, the seedlings are transplanted into the nursery beds, set out there 
eight inches apart each way, and allowed to remain another year before their 
removal to the field. 

Havana. 

The forests in the Spessart are composed so largely of oak and beech that in 
this region the proportion of nurseries is not so large as elsewhere. 

In the, Forstamt Hain the plots are about one eighth of an acre each in size. 
In one of these, near the village of Hain, various coniferous species are grown — 
white pine, Norway, spruce and larch predominating. 

The method by which the beds are covered for winter is somewhat peculiar. 
Green branches of silver fir are used for this purpose. The beds containing white 
pine yearlings have each a pole fixed along the center at a height of one foot 
above the ground. Long branches are laid against this, with their lower ends 
resting on the paths between the beds. The white pine and Norway spruce, 
two years old, have twigs laid between the rows. The Norway spruce, one year 
old, is covered with the branches laid flat upon the bed, entirely covering it. The 
larch is left uncovered through the winter. 

The nursery lies almost level. It is protected from deer by a fence of woven 
wire with a round top-rail, above which are two strands of barbed wire. In its 
minor details the management is the same as that at most other nurseries 
in Germany. 

The methods prevailing in the various nurseries as described here will give a 
fair idea of the technique employed. Further examples might be given, but they 
would offer no additional information and would involve unnecessary repetition. 




A. K.NECHTEL, PHOTO. 



WEEDING TRANSPLANT BEDS OF SCOTCH PINE. 

THIS NURSERY BELONGS TO THE CITY OF GRABOW, MECKLENBURG. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



FOREST TREE NURSERY, GERMANY. 



IN THE FOREGROUND ARE BEDS OF RED OAK SEEDLINGS, TWO YEARS OLD. II 



FOUR YEARS OLD. 



N THE BACKGROUND, SAME SPECIES, 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 227 

In General. 

By way of summary it may be said that, in general, the following methods 
are observed: 

In locating a nursery no great importance is attached to the question of 
exposure or slope, the site being selected with reference to reasons that are more 
essential in connection with the management of the revier. Neither is the 
altitude taken into consideration, as nurseries may be found everywhere, from 
the low countries at sea level up to the mountain forests of the Apennines or 
Vosges 3,000 feet above tide. The location may be determined by the nearness 
of water, which may be needed for sprinkling the beds in time of drought, or for 
irrigation. But the use of water is avoided as far as possible on account of the 
extra expense, and because, as claimed by some, that when once resorted to it 
must be continued. 

Square or rectangular enclosures are generally made in order to secure a better 
ground plan, regularity in the form of the beds, and to economize in fencing. 

In nearly every instance the enclosure is closely surrounded by a high forest 
that furnishes climatic protection to a great extent, although in a few localities 
the foresters deem the shade from the trees as somewhat of a detriment. All 
use carefully prepared or screened earth, free from gravel, stones and roots, to 
which a liberal addition of compost or mineral fertilizers is made each year. 

In making the ground plan long beds are preferred, with the rows of transplants 
running lengthwise. But in many nurseries the seed beds are planted with cross- 
rows to facilitate weeding. The broadcast method for sowing seed beds, however, 
seems to be a favorite one. Where this is practiced the seeds are distributed 
thickly and as evenly as possible over the surface of the bed, after which the top 
earth is raked over carefully and smoothly to cover the seeds. Another method 
consists in spreading a very thin layer of rich, fine earth over the seeds instead of 
raking them under; and it is claimed that a more even catch is thus secured. 

In order that the ground may attain the highest degree of fertility the forester 
often suspends operations in his nursery at intervals of four or five years, and, after 
the plants have been taken up, allows the ground to lie fallow one season, as the 
exposure to rain, frost and snow has a recuperative effect on the soil. Good 
results are further obtained by using the ground one season for an agricultural 
crop, in the cultivation of which manure is used; and there is in addition a 
beneficial working or division of the soil 

The size and number of the nurseries under any one management is propor- 
tioned to the area of the plantations to be made. If two-year-old seedlings are 



228 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

to be used in the fieldwork, set out at spaces of four feet each way, the nurseries 
for this purpose have, as a general rule, a combined area equal to one per cent, 
or less, of that of the planting grounds. Schlich says one half of one per cent.* 
But if four-year-old transplants are to be used the nurseries must necessarily 
have a larger area, one which in their aggregate will be equivalent to four per 
cent of that of the plantations. This percentage, however, applies to coniferous 
species only. Broad-leaf plants, which are usually set out at wider spaces, require 
a much larger percentage of area for their propagation. An enclosure of two 
acres, after setting apart enough ground for seed beds, will furnish each year 
about 138,000 four-year-old transplants of coniferous species, the number varying 
somewhat according to- the space allotted to paths and roadways. 

A nursery may be permanent or temporary as forest conditions may require. 
The latter is made in some instances merely to supply plants for some particular 
locality, after which, being no longer necessary, it is abandoned. If the plot will 
not be needed again for many years it is allowed to grow up to a young forest, 
some of the taller and more promising transplants being left in the beds at 
proper intervals for this purpose. 

In most nurseries screens are used for protection against heat and frost and for 
protection against birds; and the beds are covered during the winter with moss 
or litter to prevent the seedlings from heaving. But the practice in these respects 
varies with the species and according to the climate or soil. 

Protection from Deer. 

Although every nursery is surrounded by a fence or hedge to protect the stock 
from the deer, there are often large areas just outside the enclosure, freshly 
planted with four-year-olds, to which these animals have access. If the leaders on 
the plants are cropped by deer or cattle, the young tree is retarded in growth, 
and is liable to become distorted in shape. 

At a nursery in Thuringia a large area just outside the fence was recently 
filled with five-year-old transplants of Norway spruce. To prevent the deer from 
nipping the leaders, for which these animals have a decided partiality, each plant 
had a sharp tin guard bent around the tip. (See illustration.) These tins 
before using are flat, one and three quarter inches long, one half an inch wide, 
and notched into four points at the top edge. This strip of tin is bent into a 
square, each side having a point, and slipped on the leader so that the points 
project above the tip. They are bought by the thousand, and are placed on the 



*Schlich's Manual of Forestry. Vol. II, p. 99. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 229 

plants at a merely nominal expense. As a deer nips at the leader first instead of 
the side shoots, its sensitive nose receives a pricking that induces the animal to 
desist immediately from further effort. 

This device has proved very effective. But the tins fall off in time, become 
rusty, and when the barefooted women and children who work in the nurseries 
and plantations step on one of them lockjaw is . . . . 

liable to ensue. Deaths from this cause have ML m A A 

occurred so frequent.lv that some foresters will Bm «M K&\ Bm 

no longer permit their use. A forstmeister at IH II fll IB 

Eisenach, who deprecated their use strongly, B HLJH £JH 9mm R a 
secures protection for his plants by painting the Bvu 

leader on each with a mixture in which beef's " Hi 

blood forms a large component, the putrid odor <—- /^ > 

proving- as efficacious and as repulsive to the Shape.of tin guard before using it is bent 

r & r squarely at the places indicated by dotted lines 

r , , , , , 1 .,-,. _ , before placing it on the tip of the leader. 

nose of the deer as the sharp-pomted tin. Small 

wads of cotton or tow tied to the terminal buds are also used by some foresters 
to protect young plants, but this method requires so much time in affixing the 
material that it is regarded generally as expensive and impractical. 

Commercial Norgeries. 

The commercial nurseries in Germany are remarkable for their great areas, 
intelligent management and economical methods. Their annual output of plants and 
seedlings is figured in millions — many millions *• — and their superior advantages 
enable them to supply, at a profit, the demand from forest reviers, and also from 
the smaller nurseries in Europe and America, the proprietors of which prefer to 
buy their seedlings instead of operating seed beds themselves. These commercial 
nurseries are well worth the careful attention and personal observation of any 
one who is interested in this branch of silvics. 

The principal nurseries of this class are located at Halstenbek, in Holstein, 
and at Knittelsheim (railroad station at Bellheim), in the Rheinpfalz. The former 
is near the city of Hamburg, and the Amarican forestry student who crosses the 
ocean on the Hamburg line will find Halstenbek a convenient place to visit in 
pursuing his studies. The latter is not far from the northern part of the Black 
Forest, and is easily reached from there. 



* The advertising circular of one firm this year showing the number of plants of each species 
for sale indicates a stock on hand of 56,959,000 seedlings and transplants. 



230 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



There are. several firms at Halstenbek engaged in this business one of them 
having 200 acres or more laid out in beds, or large plots without paths, with an 
annual product of several million plants. They supply the managers of State, 
communal and private forests who have no nurseries of their own, or who find 
that they can purchase their plants cheaper than they can propagate them on 
their own reviers, or who may need an extra supply at times in addition to that 
raised on their own land. Shipments are also made to America, both to foresters 
and nurserymen. The latter import one and two year old seedlings, and set them 
out in their nurseries. 

A visit to the commercial nurseries of Germany, and an observation of their 
immense annual output, will give some idea of the great extent which the planting 
of artificial forests has attained throughout Europe. It indicates clearly the prac- 
tical value of the system and commands the attention of American foresters, who 
will find in it a good precedent for similar work at home. 

A notable feature of the business at these places is their large sales of two- 
year-old seedlings and three-year-old transplants. The demand for four-year-old 
transplants is comparatively small, due largely to the extra price and greater expense 
of packing and freight. 

The three-year-old plants may be seedlings, or yearlings that, having been 
transplanted, remained two years in the beds ; or, two-year-old seedlings that were 
taken up and given one year in the transplant beds. 

The prices of coniferous plants at the commercial nurseries, delivered free on 
board cars at the nearest railway station, are about as follows: 



SPECIES. 



Age. years. 


Inches. 


Per ioco. 


4 


8 to 15 


$2 75 


4 


8 to 16 


2 50 


4 


10 to 18 


2 50 


3 


4 to 6 


1 75 


3 


6 to 12 


1 75 


3 


8 to 16 


5 50 


3 


16 to 22 


4 50 


2 


4 to 6 


1 25 


2 


3 to 4 


1 50 


2 


6 to is 


2 00 


2 


4 to 12 


75 


2 


5 to 12 


3 00 


1 


2 to 3 


50 



White pine, once transplanted . 
White spruce, once transplanted 
Norway spruce, once transplanted 
White pine, once transplanted . 
Norway spruce, once transplanted 
Douglas spruce, once transplanted 
Larch, once transplanted . 
Scotch pine, once transplanted . 
White pine seedlings .... 

Larch seedlings 

Norway spruce seedlings . 
Douglas spruce seedlings . 
Scotch pine seedlings .... 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO, 



COMMERCIAL NURSERY, HALSTENBEK, HOLSTEIN. 

NOTE THE HEDGES OF WHITE CEDAR, TO SCREEN THE BEDS FROM WIND. 






'M 







5»_i. 



%' 



FIELD OF WHITE PINE, FOUR YEARS OLD, TRANSPLANTED. 

COMMERCIAL NURSERY, GERMANY. 



A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 23I 

For large orders (50,000 to 100,000) a satisfactory discount is made from the 
above figures; but the price-lists of the nurserymen vary at times, influenced by a 
surplus stock or scarcity of the particular species quoted. The plants, wrapped in 
damp moss, are packed for shipment in large baskets, or in crates constructed 
of open willow-work, and an extra charge is made for packing and packages. On 
shipments to the United States there is a tariff of twenty-five per cent ad valorem, 
which together with the freight and the risk in transportation — the long time 
in which the plants are packed — renders an importation a somewhat doubtful 
expedient.' 

The methods employed in the commercial nurseries are substantially the same 
as in the nurseries belonging to the forest reviers; but more attention is paid 
to minor details. The supply of seed, however, is purchased from salesmen instead 
of collecting it from the forest. The seeds of all needle-trees are kept during winter 
in sacks, stored in a cool place, but the seed is not mixed with sand as advised in 
some textbooks. The sowing is done in April and May. 

The Halstenbek nurseries are on level ground, at an altitude of only thirty-two 
feet above tide. The seed beds are made of black soil — a good loam that will 
not fall apart if pressed in the hand. Manure from the streets of Hamburg is 
used largely as a fertilizer, and it is scattered over the ground in winter. 

The seed beds are mostly four feet wide and about sixty-five feet long. 
Broadcast sowing is the rule, in order to obtain a fuller utilization of the soil. 
If the seeds when tested show a high percentage of germination, they are sown 
so that the grains lie about one quarter of an inch apart; if the seed is poor it is 
sown more thickly. The coniferous plants are not screened; but in time of 
drought the beds are sprinkled, some of the nurseries having installed an irriga- 
tion plant for this purpose. 

White pine, Norway spruce, balsam (Abies balsameci) and silver fir are left in 
the seed beds until two years old; sometimes the firs are left still another year. 
Scotch pine can be left in the seed bed only one year with safety, as the plants 
are liable to suffer from "schutte,'' a fungous disease that is developed in this 
species by the crowded condition of the seedlings in the second year. 

White pine and Norway spruce, when transplanted, are set two inches apart 
in the row, if the plants are to remain there only one year; but they must be 
placed farther apart if they are to remain a longer time in order to permit of 
their increased growth. The rows are made with spaces of six inches between 
them, or wider if the plants are to stand there two years. These simple 
requirements must be observed in order to secure thrifty plants and to avoid 
crowding in the beds. 



232 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Scotch pine yearlings, when transplanted, are placed two and a half inches 
apart in the row, and the rows are laid out ten inches apart. This wide spacing 
of the rows is to prevent any loss from schiitte. If this species is given another 
year in the nursery the plants must be transplanted again and given more space 
for growth.* 

In Germany Scotch pine is generally taken directly to the forest plantations 
when the seedlings are one year old. If they are to be set out on grassy land, 
however, they are allowed the benefit of one year first in a transplant bed; and 
if the grass is thick or apt to overshadow them too much, they are transplanted 
twice. 

From the Halstenbek nurseries white pine is often sent to the forest when two 
years old, untransplanted; or three years old, once transplanted, if they are to 
to be used on grass land. It is claimed by the commercial nurserymen that this 
species grows too slim and that the root system is poorly developed if left in 
the seed bed more than two years. 

Douglas spruce, balsam fir (Abies concolor) and silver fir are protected from 
frost for the first two years by mats made of coarse reeds supported by long 
poles laid along the beds on stakes one foot in height. The Douglas spruce is 
protected from the wind by hedges, for which purpose white cedar is planted at 
one side of the beds. These hedges are used to considerable extent at Halstenbek, 
although they are not essential to the growth of other species. They also serve 
to shelter the workmen from the cold winds prevalent there in spring and fall. 

The seeds of most of the broad-leaved trees are sown in March and April; but 
the seeds of basswood, ash and thorn are kept in "seed-chests" eighteen months 
before planting. These seed-chests are compartments made of brick, with an 
inside measurement of thirty-nine inches in length, twenty inches in width, and 
twenty inches high. They are placed out doors, partly below the surface of the 
ground, in rows of ten, each row surrounded by a thick hedge of white cedar. 
The seeds stored in them are usually mixed with sand, although this is not 
deemed essential, and a mat made of straw is laid over them. With this treat- 
ment the seeds when planted germinate and come up quickly, usually in two 
weeks. 

In the propagation of deciduous species, beds are made about the same as for 
the needle-trees, and the seeds are sown in rows lengthwise with the bed, seven 
rows in each. The drills or depressed grooves are made with a machine; but 



* While this treatment of Scotch pine may be necessary at Halstenbek to prevent disease, in 
American nurseries this species is left in the seed beds two years, and in the transplant beds two 
or three years with perfect safety, no matter how closely the seeds may be sown or the transplants 
placed. 




WEEDING TRANSPLANT BEDS. 

COMMERCIAL NURSERY, GERMANY. 



KNECHTEL PHOTO. 




HHHBMKHm 

A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 



LARGE BEDS OF NORWAY SPRUCE, FOUR YEARS OLD, ONCE TRANSPLANTED. 

COMMERCIAL NURSERY, GERMANY. 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 233 

the seed is sown and covered by hand. The rows are seven inches apart, 
but after one year the alternate rows are taken out. The seeds are sown 
thickly, so that the plants will stand about four inches apart. 

Needle-plants are shipped in large, cylindrical baskets — Scotch pine, one year 
old, 15.000 in a basket; Avhite pine, one year old 30,000; two years, 10,000; three 
years, 7.000; and Norway spruce, two years, 15,000- three years, 8,000. Paper is 
laid in the basket, on the bottom and around the sides, next to which is placed 
a layer of moss. A bunch of straw is then placed vertically in the center of the 
basket. The plants, which are tied into small bundles before taking them from 
the field, are placed in the basket with their tops towards the outside. From the 
center to the side of the basket three circular rows of bundles can be placed, 
which, however, overlap each other at one end like the shingles on a roof. Each 
layer of bundles is covered with loose turf before the next layer is put into the 
basket. The bunch of straw standing in the center permits the escape of heat, 
the paper prevents the escape of moisture, while the moss and turf hold the 
water that supplies the necessary moisture during transportation. 

"When a shipment is to be made the plants are lifted from the beds during 
the day, tied in small bundles and each bundle buried lightly in the earth, this 
work being done usually by women. Then in the evening the bundles are gathered 
and hauled to a cellar where they are packed in baskets the next day for ship- 
ment. Two men pack from 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 plants (one and two years old) 
in a day. The baskets are then weighed, loaded on wagons and hauled to the 
railroad station, which at Halstenbek is close by the nurseries. Broad-leaf trees 
are put up in large bundles and wrapped in straw for shipment, the roots covered 
with burlap. The proprietor of a large commercial nursery at Knittelsheim, in his 
instructions to purchasers, says: 

"Plants should be taken from the railway station promptly after their arrival. 
If they cannot be planted immediately they should be heeled in, care being taken 
that the roots are properly covered with earth. During transportation, whether 
on the railroad or on the delivery wagons, the plants should be covered with 
straw or otherwise sheltered from the sun and winds. If, on account of frosty 
weather, they cannot be set out immediately, they should be put in a cellar in 
upright position close together. Plants which arrive in a heated condition, as some- 
times happens with Scotch pine, should be treated the same way. Immediate 
watering while stored in damp cellars must be avoided, or the roots will become 
rotten; and in no case should frozen plants be put in a warm room. It is also 
dangerous to hold a Scotch pine yearling in the hand longer than necessary, as 
the warmth will affect it unfavorably. Shortening the roots will, in most cases, 



234 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

promote a better development of the fibrous growth. A sharp knife should 
be used, and a downward cut made. In trimming transplants it is sufficient to 
shorten the root-hairs merely and to remove the dead ones. Transplants cost 
more than seedlings; but, in most cases, it is false economy to buy the latter 
for transplants are stronger have a better root system, and are more able to 
withstand all unfavorable influences." 

Commercial Seedsmen. 

In all nurseries, whether commercial or otherwise, a supply of good seed is an 
important matter. To a great extent the commercial nurseries, and many of the 
forest nurseries as well, obtain their seed from dealers who make a specialty 
of collecting, preparing and storing forest-tree seed in large quantities. Mercantile 
houses that deal in seeds only may be found in most any of the principal cities 
of Europe. Having superior facilities, through specialized work for carrying on 
this business they are able to offer better seed and at lower prices than the 
nursery managers can collect it. 

Seeds of the principal coniferous species can be bought from any of the large 
seed houses in Europe at the following rates, subject to variation at times caused 
by a scarcity or plenty of some particular kind: 

Per pound. 

White pine .... $2 05 

Scotch pine . 57 

Norway spruce . . 23 

Silver fir 14 

European larch 35 



Seeds that show a very high percentage of germination may command a slightly 
higher price. 

Their houses in which the cones of the needle-trees are dried and the seed 
extracted are each furnished with a specially devised apparatus. In some of them 
the heat is regulated by electricity in order to secure a more even temperature and 
thereby avoid any overheating of the cones, which would destroy the germi- 
nating quality of the seeds. They also have special facilities for cleaning, drying 
and storing seed; and in every detail the methods employed are based on long 
experience in this special work. 

In any of these seed houses may be seen some kind of device or apparatus for 
testing the vitality of seeds and their percentage of germination, an important 



FOREST NURSERIES AND NURSERY METHODS IN EUROPE. 235 

item in the business. Still, in order to satisfy customers, official tests are also 
obtained by prominent dealers. A seed house in Knittelsheim advertises that its 
collections are tested for "purity and germination" by the "Swiss Control Office 
for the Examination of Seeds," at Zurich, Switzerland. 

Foresters who gather seed for use in their own nurseries have various well- 
known tests of a simple character to determine its value. But there are several 
government stations to which samples of stock may be sent to be tested and to 
determine the percentage of germination. The principal ones are located at 
Eberswalde and Tharandt, in Germany; Zurich, in Switzerland, and Mariabrunn, 
in Austria. 

These official tests enable the nursery manager to avoid any loss caused by sowing 
worthless grains, to protect himself against fraud on the part of unscrupulous 
dealers and to determine the quantity that should be sown. 

If a report is needed immediately from the station, a number of seeds are cut 
open and examined for color, plumpness, taste, odor, etc. For example, the 
kernel of the beech and the chestnut, if all right, is white and very pleasant 
to the taste; that of the oak is reddish white; the maple, green; the ash, white 
and waxy ; pine, white with a strong odor of turpentine. Coniferous seeds are 
crushed with the finger nail upon a piece of white paper, upon which a good seed 
leaves an oily stain. 

If time permit the seeds may be actually germinated. The larger sorts, such 
as the oak seeds, are placed in vessels filled with earth, covered the proper depth, 
kept moist and at a temperature favorable to germination. Conifer seeds are 
placed between folds of flannel which are dipped into water kept at a medium 
temperature. There are also several forms of porous vessels made specially for 
such tests. 

It is hoped that the descriptions given in the foregoing pages, together with 
the illustrations accompanying them, may be useful in calling public attention 
to the practical value of planted forests. In America the reforesting of denuded 
lands by artificial means — the formation of planted forests — is a question that 
sooner or later will confront our foresters. The student, on graduating from a 
forestry school, should supplement his course of study with a trip abroad in 
order to see the plantations there and the nurseries which are an indispensable 
adjunct to this particular system of forestry. 



P>irds &$ Conservatory of tf)e Forest 

By F. E. L. Beal.* 

THE enemies of the forest may be roughly grouped in three categories — 
vegetable enemies, such as fungi and bacteria; invertebrated animals, 
mostly insects; and, lastly, vertebrates. These will include birds, mice, 
rabbits, etc., and, most destructive of all, man. Of the three groups, the second is 
by far the worst in its effects, and is the most difficult to combat. There is prob- 
ably not a single species of land plant which does not have an insect enemy that 
preys upon it, and most of them have several, while the trees of the forest 
furnish food for a legion. In the Fifth Report of the United States Entomological 
Commission, over 400 species of insects are recorded as preying upon the oak, 
and the opinion is expressed that this number is far below what are actually in 
existence. In the same work the elm is said to have about 80 species which feed 
upon it, the hickory 170, the locust 41, the maples 100, the birch 105, the willow 186 
and the pine 165, and in each case the list is confessedly incomplete. 

On this point Dr. Hopkins has said: 

"The results of investigations lead to the conclusion that the annual loss from 
insect work on forest trees, and their crude and finished products, amounts to at 
least one hundred million dollars. 

"No period in the life history of a tree is exempt from insect attack, and 
every part, from the smallest roots to the terminal buds, leaves, flowers and fruit, 
may be infested by one or many species. The seed in the ground, the tender 
shoots of both roots and stems, and the young seedling, to the matured tree, 
may all be attacked by special enemies which injure or destroy different parts or 
the entire plant. In fact, living, diseased, dead, or decaying, a tree may be the 
home of hundreds of species and thousands of individuals of insect life. " f 

From these considerations it may be seen at once how important any agency 
must be which will in any considerable degree reduce or restrain this great army 
of tree destroyers. 



* Biological Survey, U. S. Dept. Agr. 

f From Lecture on Forest Insects and Their Destructive Work; by Dr. A. D. Hopkins, in 
charge of Forest Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agr. 

236 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 237 

girds ff)af Destroy Insects. 

One very important means which Nature has provided for the restriction of 
these pests within reasonable bounds is found in the insect-eating birds, many 
species of which spend the most of their lives upon trees, and subsist upon the 
insects found thereon. The insectivorous habits of birds have been matters of 
common observation for centuries, but their scientific demonstration has been 
reserved for more modern times. The examination of birds' stomachs has shown 
that nearly all of the smaller species, and .many of the larger ones, such as the 
crow, subsist largely upon insects in the summer time, while rearing their young, 
and, as a general rule, all the small birds feed their nestlings on this food no 
matter what the adults may eat. It is perhaps unnecessary to say that birds do 
not select their food with any special reference to the good or harm they may 
be doing to man, and those persons who expect to find in them a series of 
beneficent organisms wisely designed to do a certain amount of good and no 
harm are doomed to disappointment. 

In the selection of their food, birds are either guided by their natural tastes 
or driven by a blind necessity, and it may be stated as a general rule that each 
species eats that kind of food which it finds by its own special method of 
foraging — that is, a flycatcher eats such insects as it catches in midair, and 
blackbirds and other terrestrial species such as they find upon the ground, while 
cuckoos, woodpeckers, and titmice gather their food mostly from trees. It does 
not follow, however, that birds eat all the insects which are found in their own 
peculiar haunts, but when they have a special method of their own they rarely 
abandon it for any other. 

To what extent birds are guided by a natural taste in their selection of food 
is a point which is far from being settled. Whether a bird will pass by an 
abundant supply of insects in order to secure others that are more to its taste is 
a question which, aside from its biological interest, has an important bearing 
upon the economic side of ornithology. This problem can not be solved by 
stomach examination alone, but requires also patient and delicate field observation, 
combined with a thorough knowledge of the available food supply of the locality 
under consideration. 

Some insects are supposed to be especially protected from birds by color, smell 
or taste, but stomach examinations have seemed to demonstrate that such devices 
are of but little use when brought in opposition to the keen senses and sharp 
appetites of their feathered enemies. The same method of investigation has 
shown that protective coloration is not so potent a factor in saving insects from 



238 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

destruction by birds as many writers have supposed. Many species that have a 
disgusting odor, and rank, acrid taste, were formerly thought to be protected 
by these means, but it is found that these insects often form a very important 
percentage of the food of birds, and are eaten to some extent by nearly all 
insectivorous species. 

In seeking for food, birds destroy useful insects as well as harmful ones; and 
while in many cases this is to be deplored, yet in the long run the birds are doing 
a good service by this indiscriminate destruction. Investigation and observation 
have furnished grounds for the belief that the true function of the insectivorous 
birds is to reduce the too crowded ranks of insect life as a whole, rather than to 
prey upon this or that particular pest, although this may be a very welcome 
service. If birds ate only harmful vegetable-eating insects, the predaceous species, 
which also prey upon them, would have their food supply reduced, and as it is 
well-known that many of them can and do feed to some extent upon vegetable 
matter, they might in their search for food attack some valuable products of the 
farm, orchard, or forest, and so in their turn become as great a pest as was their 
former prey. The woodpeckers feed largely upon woodboring grubs, the cukoos 
and orioles subsist upon caterpillars, all of which are practically harmful insects, 
while the flycatchers prey to a great extent upon parasitic Hymenoptera, which 
would otherwise live upon the grubs and caterpillars, so that these groups of birds 
complement each other in their food habits, the one devouring the pests upon 
which the prey of the other would have subsisted. 

While many birds belonging to various families gain their living largely from 
tree-infesting insects, there are some families of which every species practically 
lives upon trees, and subsist upon the insects or other food which they find there. 
At the head of these may be placed the family of woodpeckers (Picidae) and fol- 
lowing these, but scarcely inferior in rank of usefulness, are the titmice (Paridae), 
the creepers (Certhiidae), the kinglets (Silviidae), the vireos (Vireonidae), and the 
wood warblers (Mniotiltidae). To these may be added certain species of wrens, 
orioles, flycatchers and swallows, of which many species subsist to a very consider- 
able extent upon arboreal insects. In the following pages all references to the 
contents of birds' stomachs, unless otherwise stated, are based on examinations 
made by the writer. 

The Woodpeckers. 

Among birds which decidedly affect the welfare of the forest the family of 
woodpeckers probably takes the Lead. Of these there are about forty-five species 
and subspecies that are found within the limits of the United States, all of 
which are of decidedly economic importance. The value of their work in dollars 




RED-HEADED WOODPECKER, Adult and Young 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 



239 



and cents is difficult of determination, but careful study has brought out much of 
practical importance by ascertaining approximately to what degree each species 
is harmful or helpful in its relation to the forests. Their subsistence is obtained 
for the most part upon trees, a mode of life for which they are specially adapted. 
The character of the feet and tail enables them to cling easily to upright trunks, 
and the structure of the bill and tongue gives them the power to cut into solid 
wood and withdraw the insects lodged within. The toes are in pairs, one pair 
projecting forward and the other backward, and are furnished with very strong, 
sharp claws, an arrangement which insures a firm hold upon the bark. The tail is 





Fig. 1 — Tongues of woodpeckers : 
a, hyoid of flicker (Co/aptes auratits); 
by tip of tongue of downy wood- 
pecker {Dryobates ptibescens). 



Fig. 2. — Special development of tongues of woodpeckers : a, skull 
of flicker (Colapies aitratus). showing root of tongue extending to 
tip of bill (after Lindahl); />, head of hairy woodpecker (Dryobates 
vilZosus), showing root of tongue curving around eye (after Audu- 
bon). 



composed of very strong feathers, each with a sharp, stiff point at the end, which 
can be pressed against the tree trunk, and thus made to support and steady the 
bird. The beak is rather long, but stout, with a chisel-shaped point which is 
hardened and sharpened so as to render it a most effective wood-cutting instru- 
ment. The tongue, which is the most peculiar portion of the anatomy of these 
birds, is extended backward by two slender, flexible filaments of the hyoid bone, 
each incased in a muscular sheath (Fig. 1, a). These filaments, instead of ending 
at the back of the mouth, curve up over the back of the skull, across the top of the 
head, and down on the forehead (Fig. 2, b), and in some species enter the opening 
of the right nostril and extend forward to the end of the beak (Fig. 2, a). In the 
last case the tongue is practically twice as long as the head. By means of its sur- 



24O REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

rounding muscular sheath, the tongue can be protruded from the bird's mouth 
a considerable portion of its length, and can thus be inserted into the burrows of 
wood-boring larvae. In order to secure grubs or other insects, it is usually fur- 
nished with a sharp point and is barbed on the sides (Fig. 1, b). It is evident 
that a bird possessing such an apparatus must be capable of doing work which less 
advantageously endowed species can not accomplish. Hence, while most birds 
content themselves with eating such insects as they find upon the surface, wood- 
peckers seek those larvae or grubs which are beneath the bark, or even in the 
very heart of the tree. To render more effective the mechanism here described, 
these birds are gifted with a remarkably acute sense of hearing, by which to 
locate their prey within the wood. That they do so with great accuracy is proved 
by examination of their work, which shows that they cut small holes directly to the 
burrows of the grubs. 

The name " sapsucker " has been applied to two or three of the smaller kinds 
of woodpeckers, in the belief that they subsist to a great extent upon the juice of 
trees obtained from small holes which they peck in the bark. There can be little 
doubt that one species, the yellow-bellied woodpecker {Sphyrapicus variics), does live 
to a great extent upon this sap. Observation does not show that other species have 
the same habit, but it is a difficult point to decide by dissection, as fluid contents 
disappear quickly from the stomach. The rings of punctures often seen around 
the trunks of trees are certainly the work of the sapsucker, though sometimes 
attributed to the downy and hairy woodpeckers. It is true, however, that wood- 
peckers sometimes do serious harm by removing large areas of the outer bark from 
trunks of trees, but this work has been definitely fixed upon the sapsucker alone. 
It is supposed that the object is to get at the mucilaginous layer called cambium, 
lying just inside of the bark, and from which both bark and wood are formed. 
Except in the case of this one species, stomach examination does not bear out 
this view, since cambium, if present at all, was in such small quantities as to be 
of no practical importance. The yellow-bellied woodpecker, however, is evidently 
fond of this substance, for the stomachs of this, species were found to contain it 
in very considerable quantities. Moreover, as the true cambium is a soft and easily 
digested substance, it is probable that what is usually found in the stomach is 
only the outer and harder part, which therefore represents a much larger quantity. 

Among the insects which enter into the diet of the woodpeckers the most 
important are the larvae of the woodboring beetles belonging to the families of 
longicorns (Cerambycidae), and the metallic woodborers (Buprestidae), with some 
woodboring caterpillars, the larvae of carpenter moths (Cosiidae), or the clear 
winged moths (Sesiidae). During all seasons of the year these larvae constitute 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 24 1 

a remarkably constant element of the food of most species of woodpeckers, which 
from their peculiar physical conformation are able to secure them though concealed 
in the solid wood, and in this way protected from the attacks of other birds. 
Stomach examinations show that with some species very few days pass when they do 
not get at least one meal of this kind of food. Besides these larvae many adult 
beetles of the same families are also taken, as well as others which prey upon trees, 
such as the engravers (Scolytidae) and some of the leaf-eaters (Chrysomelidae). 

The ants are another family of insects that prey upon trees and do great dam- 
age. When a tree has been damaged by woodboring larvae, and these have been 
destroyed by woodpeckers, a colony of ants will generally occupy the vacant burrow, 
which they at once enlarge and extend till in course of time, as the colony increases, 
the whole trunk is riddled. Upon these the woodpeckers bring to bear the same 
tactics that were used in dislodging the woodboring grubs. The ants are dug out 
and devoured, and examination of the stomachs of many individuals of several 
species of these birds shows that they constitute a very considerable element of 
their food. Many stomachs contained nothing else, and, like the woodboring grubs, 
they form an almost daily article of diet. They are eaten in all stages — eggs, 
larvae, pupae, and adults, and all of these forms may sometimes be found in a 
single stomach. 

Besides the direct injury which the ants cause to the trunks of trees, they are 
indirectly responsible for a good deal of mischief to the foliage done by the plant- 
lice (Aphides), which they distribute and protect. The relation of the ants to the 
plant-lice is quite like that of a dairyman to his cows. In fact, a French writer 
upon popular natural history has spoken of the ant as "the little black milkmaid, 
who pastures her green cows in the meadow of a rose leaf." This is a graphic, if 
somewhat fanciful, picture of the relations of ants and plant-lice, but unfortunately 
the black milkmaid does not limit her pasture to the rose leaf meadows. There are 
comparatively few plants which do not suffer to some extent from the ravages of 
plant-lice, and many forest trees seem to be especially subject to their attacks. 
Ants protect these lice from harm, and when the plant on which they are feeding is 
exhausted, carry them to fresh pastures and in some cases actually build shelters 
over them. Besides destroying the ants the woodpeckers eat many of the plant-lice. 

Bark-lice, or scales (Coccidae), are also eaten quite extensively by the smaller 
species of woodpeckers, and as these creatures are very difficult to distinguish after 
they have been partially digested, it is probable that more of them are really 
taken than are credited to the birds. Many insects' eggs are eaten by the smaller 
woodpeckers, more especially those of the tent caterpillars (Malacosoma), which are 
found during the fall and winter months. 
16 



242 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescens). 

This little woodpecker is the smallest of all those inhabiting the United States. 
It is also one of the most familiar, being a frequent visitor to the shade trees 
about houses and parks, while its fondness for orchards is well known. It is, how- 
ever, no stranger to the forest, where it often nests, and in the winter season 
may be frequently met in a mixed company of chickadees, creepers, nuthatches and 
kinglets, with whom it seems to be on the most amicable terms. It is moreover 
so quiet and unobtrusive in its movements that the first notice one has of its 
presence is perhaps a gentle tapping or scratching on the limb of a tree within 
one or two yards of one's head, where our diminutive friend has discovered a 
decayed spot inhabited by woodboring larvae or ants. 

About 300 stomachs of this bird have been examined by the United States 
Department of Agriculture and found to contain about 75 per cent of animal food 
to 25 of vegetable. The animal matter practically consisted entirely of insects and 
their allies, and was made up of beetles, both adult and larval, ants, bugs, flies, 
caterpillars and grasshoppers, with a few spiders and myriapods. The relative 
proportions of these elements, however, differ widely. Beetles and their larvae 
constitute nearly one-third of the animal food — 24 per cent — and the greater part of 
these were woodboring species or those which are acknowledged to be the worst 
enemies to forest trees. Cerambycid and Buprestid larvae, as well as the engraver 
beetles (Scolytidae), are such constant elements of the food that they were found in 
almost every stomach, and in some were the only contents. If to these we add the 
caterpillars (16 per cent of the whole food), all of which were tree feeders, and 
most of them borers, we have the total of 40 per cent, or over half of the animal 
food, made up of these enemies of the forest. The American tent caterpillar (Mal- 
cosoma aniericana) , a notorious pest to both orchard and forest trees, was found in 
many of the stomachs. Some other beetles besides the woodborers are also eaten 
by the downy woodpecker. Over 50 specimens of Dorytomus mucidits, one of the 
snout beetles or weevils, and a species which subsists on trees, were taken from 
one stomach. 

Ants enter the diet of the downy to nearly the same extent as beetles, viz, 23 
per cent of the entire food. These are largely species of the genus Camponotus, 
which inhabit the interior of the more or less solid wood, and constantly enlarge 
their quarters by extending their galleries in all directions. Other of the species 
upon which they feed are those that protect and care for the plant-lice, with many 
that get their living in various ways. 

Bugs (Hemiptera) are represented in the downy 's diet by several families, but 




NORTHERN HAIRY WOODPECKER, MALE 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 243 

most notably by plant-lice and scale insects. The former constitute 4 per cent 
of the year's food, but as they can only be found during the warmer portion of 
the year, they amount to quite a considerable percentage of the food for those 
months. Moreover, it must be borne in mind that these soft-bodied creatures 
are so soon reduced to an unrecognizable pulp in the stomach it is probable that 
many more are eaten than were positively identified. Scale insects (Coccidae) were 
also eaten, and several stomachs were entirely filled with them, but like the 
plant-lice, they are difficult to determine after digestion has somewhat progressed, 
so that it is probable many were overlooked. 

The Hairy Woodpecker {Dryobates villosus). 

The hairy woodpecker is as common as the downy in most parts of the United 
States, and to the ordinary observer is only to be distinguished by its greater size, 
as its colors and markings are very nearly the same. The hairy is a noisier bird, 
however, and usually makes its presence known by loud calls and other obtrusive 
behavior, such as rapid flights from tree to tree. Besides the general resemblance 
of the two birds there is also a remarkable similarity in their food habits, as 
shown by the contents of their stomachs. The greatest difference is that the hairy 
eats a somewhat smaller percentage of ants than does the downy. From an exam- 
ination of 172 stomachs the relative proportions of animal and vegetable food were 
found to be about 74 per cent of the former to 26 of the latter. 

Beetles, both adult and larval, constitute 24 per cent of all the food, or more 
than one third of the animal matter. As is the case with the downy, these beetles 
are mostly woodboring species dug out of the solid wood by the sharp chisel of the 
bird. Larvae of both the great woodboring families Cerambycidae and Bupresti- 
dae were identified in most of the stomachs. From one stomach 1 adult and 70 
larval Cerambycids were taken; from another, 100 larvae; and 50 and 25 respectively 
were taken from two others. These are samples of what this bird is doing in 
the work of forest preservation. But it also eats other beetles which prey upon 
the trees; 109 individuals of Dorytomus mucidus, the snout beetle, that was eaten 
so freely by the downy, were found in one stomach of the hairy, with 6$ in another 
and less numbers in several others. Another interesting insect found in the stomach 
of this bird was Polygraphus rtifipennis, a destructive enemy of the pine tree. 
Another stomach contained several specimens of Tomicus caelatus, another pest of 
the forest. 

Caterpillars amount to 21 per cent of the diet of the hairy woodpecker, and are 
mostly, of the woodboring species, and are all enemies to forest trees. Ants do 



244 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

not constitute so large an element of food with this bird 'as they do with the downy. 
Only 17 per cent were found as a total of the year's consumption, but these were 
mostly of the genus Campanotus, which lives in the more or less decayed parts of 
trees, from which the woodpeckers can alone dislodge them. Plant-lice and scales 
were found in a few stomachs, and in several the latter constituted the whole 
contents. 

One point to be especially rioted in regard to the food habits of the two birds 
just considered ' is that the relative proportion of animal and vegetable foods in 
their diet varies but little from month to month throughout the year. Most 
birds that live on the same range through the whole year are found to subsist on 
insect food during the warmer months, but in winter, when these are not easily 
obtained, they change to a vegetable diet, such as seed, mast, etc. This, however, 
is not the case with the two birds under discussion. While the animal food which 
they consume does vary to some extent from month to month, there is no decided 
increase in the warmer season or decrease in winter. This is evidently owing to 
the fact that so large a proportion of the food consists of woodboring larvae, which 
can be found in their burrows at all seasons, and which the birds prefer to dig 
out rather than subsist upon other food which may be more abundant or more 
easily obtained. It is this very marked preference for wood boring larvae, shown by 
the amount of hard labor they are willing to undertake in order to get them, that 
gives these birds their great value as conservators of the forest. 

The Three-toed Woodpeckers {Picoides arcticus and P. americanus). 

The two species of three-toed woodpeckers are so much alike in their food as 
well as in their general habits that they may be considered together, as they eat 
almost identically the same food and in the same proportions. They are both found 
only in the northern portions of the country. They breed to some extent in the 
northern tier of New England States, and some of those farther west, but even 
there they are most abundant during winter. They are eminently forest-haunting 
birds, and live in and gain their livelihood from trees. Like the hairy and downy 
woodpeckers, their principal food consists of wood-inhabiting coleopterous and 
lepidopterous larvae — that is, grubs and caterpillars that bore into trees and 
fallen logs. 

An examination of a number of their stomachs shows that more than nine- 
tenths of their food consists of animal matter, and that more than four-fifths of this 
is made up of these destructive woodborers. The remainder is composed of ants, a 
few engraver beetles and some scales. As with the hairy and downy woodpeckers, 




JPoittsUpafffr QQeffe. 



WHITE-BACKED THREE-TOED WOODPECKER, 
Upper Figure Female, Lower Figure Male 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 245 

their diet varies but little with the season. In the dead of winter, when all 
insect life is apparently at a standstill, these birds still demand and obtain their 
daily fill of their favorite meat. Flies and bees no longer sport in the sunshine, 
butterflies and flowers are replaced by sleet and snow, the beetles are either dead 
or snugly ensconced in some crevice in the bark, awaiting the return of warmth, 
while the larvae repose in their burrows of solid wood, apparently safe from all 
disturbance. But undaunted by any degree of cold and undeterred by any amount 
of labor our intrepid little friends tear open the secure retreats in the bark, or 
chisel into the more solid wood, and drag forth the luckless insects to certain 
destruction. 

In the Report on Forest Insects by the United States Entomological Commis- 
sion, some twenty-five species of Cerambycid and Buprestid beetles are noted as 
preying upon the ash tree alone, and thirty-five upon the pine. When we reflect 
that the family Cerambycidae contains upwards of 7,500 species, of which 600 are 
found in America, and all of which pass their larval stage within the substance 
of some tree or woody plant, and that many of them remain in the larval state 
two or three years, and eat all the time, it is not difficult to comprehend the 
immense amount of damage that these creatures inflict upon forest trees and other 
plants. It is not probable that there is any other agency more destructive to 
timber than this family of beetles. Nor is timber safe even after it has been 
cut. Logs lying in the mill yard or forest will be much injured, if not ruined, 
in a single season if some precautions are not taken to prevent these creatures 
from depositing their eggs. So long do some of these larvae live in the wood that 
it has frequently happened that they have emerged from an article of furniture 
after it has passed into household use. 

It is far within the limits of probability to say that each individual bird of the 
four species already discussed destroys during every day of its life at least twelve 
woodboring beetles, either in the adult or larval form. In any extensive area of 
forest land, like the Adirondack Woods, there must be thousands of these birds, and 
the numbers of insects that ar3 every year stopped in their career of devastation must 
reach into the millions. Is there any other agency so effectual in the destruction 
of these pests, or so efficient in holding them in check ? In orchards, or even in 
parks, it may be possible to combat insect enemies by insecticides or other artificial 
appliances, but in the forests this becomes wholly out of the question, and it 
behooves the forester to take every advantage of such forces as nature has kindly 
placed at his disposal, and among these the insectivorous birds must take high 
rank. It is unfortunate that the three-toed woodpeckers are not so numerous as 
most other species, and for this reason they should be rigidly protected. 



246 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The Redheaded Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephahis). 

The redhead is a common bird in suitable localities throughout the United 
States east of the Rocky Mountains, but is only casual in New England. It is not 
so much of a forest lover as some of the other woodpeckers, preferring to keep on 
the outskirts rather than in the depths of the woodlands. It is a familiar object 
on telegraph posts and dead trees, and seems to prefer these apparently rather 
barren hunting grounds to more fruitful fields. The character of its food, however, 
shows that it is largely taken upon these bare surfaces, or, as has been observed, 
caught in mid air. 

Examination of many stomachs of the redhead shows that its food is composed 
of about 52 per cent of animal to 48 per cent of vegetable matter. While all of the 
more common orders of insects are eaten to some extent, beetles are evidently 
the favorite food, as they constitute nearly one-third of the whole. Unlike the 
downy, hairy, and three-toed woodpeckers, however, the redhead takes most of 
its beetles in the adult stage. Many of them belong to the May beetle family 
(Scarabaeidae), with representatives of several others. It seems to be a prominent 
characteristic of this bird to prefer large insects for its prey, such as the dor-bug 
(Lachnosterna), the June bug {Allorhina nitida), and the fire ground beetle (Calo- 
soma calidum), a predaceous beetle of large size and vile odor. Passalns cornntus, 
a large species that lives in rotten wood, was also found in some of the stomachs, 
and a pair of mandibles belonging to Prionus brevicornis, one of the largest beetles 
in the northern United States. This last is a very destructive forest insect, as its 
larvae lives in the trunks and roots of certain trees, and being of enormous size 
its burrows are a great damage to the timber. Weevils were found in many 
stomachs, and as many as ten were contained in one. The rest of the food 
consists of ants, which constitute eleven per cent of the food, with a few bugs, 
grasshoppers, caterpillars, etc. The redhead eats fewer ants than any of the 
foregoing species, as these insects are not so often found on the bare poles which 
the bird so persistently haunts. 

The Flicker (Colaptes auratus). 

Three species of the genus Colaptes, with several subspecies, are found within 
the limits of the United States. Their differences in form, size and plumage 
are not remarkable, and their variations in diet are still less noticeable — in fact, 
whatever may be said of the food of one may be said of all, making due allowance 
for differences in the available food supply of various localities. 




fa/S Cjparst'z [faerfer. 



FLICKER, Male 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 247 

The Eastern form, commonly known as the flicker, or golden-winged wood- 
pecker, is one of the largest and best known of our common woodpeckers, and is 
more migratory than either the downy or hairy. In winter it is absent, or at least 
very scarce, on its breeding range in the Northern States, where it is- abundant in 
summer and early fall. In most places it is a much shyer bird than any of the 
preceding, and while it frequents the farm, and comes about the buildings freely, 
it keeps more in the tops of the trees, and does not allow so near an approach of 
its greatest enemy — man. It is the most terrestrial of all the woodpeckers, in spite 
of its high-perching and high-nesting proclivities, and may often be seen walking 
about in the grass like a meadow lark. 

From the examination of over 400 stomachs of the flicker, it has been found that 
its food consists of approximately sixty per cent of animal matter and forty per 
cent of vegetable. The animal matter is made up of ants, beetles, bugs, grass- 
hoppers, crickets, caterpillars, May flies and white ants. Three fourths of this, or 
forty-five per cent of the whole, consists of ants. No North American bird has 
yet been investigated whose record for eating ants is equal to this. Quite a number 
of the stomachs were entirely filled with these insects, and in many, even where 
there was other food, more than a thousand of them were found. The contents 
of three stomachs were carefully counted, and two of them were found to contain 
over 3,000 each and the third over 5,000 of these creatures. A large part of the 
ants eaten by the flicker are the small species which live in burrows in the ground, 
but many of the wood-boring species are also taken. Another interesting insect 
found in the flicker's stomach is the white ant (Termes flavipes). While this 
insect has no natural relationship to the ordinary ant, it very much resembles 
it in its habits, often inhabiting rotten logs, and sometimes living in and injuring 
living trees. It also bores into timber in buildings. 

Beetles constitute about 10 per cent of the flicker's food, and a much larger 
proportion of them are adults than is the case with the preceding species. Still 
it does eat some of the wood-boring larvae, which it obtains from the tree, where 
the wood is not too hard. May beetles (Lachnosterna) and their allies were found 
in several stomachs, as were also a few predaceous ground beetles (Carabidae), 
and some larvae of tiger beetles (Cicindelidae). The two last, taken in connection 
with the ants and a few grasshoppers which had been eaten, emphasize the ter- 
restrial habits of the species. 

The vegetable portion of the flicker's food is larger and more varied than that 
of any of the foregoing species, but this part of the woodpecker's diet will be 
taken up and discussed on another page. 



248 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

It is unfortunate that the flesh of the flicker is very palatable, so that in 
many places they are considered as a game bird, and slaughtered accordingly. 
When the wild black cherries {Priinas serotind) are ripe, they form a favorite food 
for the flickers, as well as for many other birds, and at such times they are so 
busy in the cherry trees that they seem to lose their customary shyness, and are 
easily approached and shot. Eefore the game laws were made so stringent, 
thousands of flickers were annualy shot for food in the northeastern portion of the 
country during the last of August and September. This is now to some extent 
prevented, and should be wholly suppressed. 

The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, or Sapsucker. 

This species is probably the most migratory of all our woodpeckers. In the 
United States it breeds only in the most northerly parts, and in some of the 
mountains farther south. In the fall it ranges southward, and in the winter is 
found in most of the Gulf States and beyond. It is not so generally distributed 
as most of the other species, being quite unknown in some districts, while it is 
very abundant in others. Dr. C. Hart Merriam states that in the Adirondack 
region during migration it outnumbers all other species of the family together, 
and in summer is second in numbers only to the hairy woodpecker. At Mount 
Chocorua, in New Hampshire, Mr. Frank Bolles found it the most abundant 
species. In Minnesota, also, it is very common, while on the other hand in 
Massachusetts and Iowa it is comparatively rare. 

It is to this species that the term "sapsucker" is most often and most justly 
applied, for it drills holes in the bark of certain trees and drinks the sap. It 
also feeds on cambium, insects, wild fruit and berries. 

In writing of the woodpeckers of this species in northern New York, in 1878, 
Dr. Merriam states: 

"They really do considerable mischief by drilling holes in the bark of apple, 
thorn apple and mountain ash trees in such a way as to form girdles of punctures,, 
sometimes 2 feet or more in breadth (up and down) about the trunks and branches. 
* * * The holes, which are sometimes merely single punctures, and some- 
times squarish spaces (multiple punctures) nearly half an inch across, are placed 
so near together that not unfrequently they cover more of the tree than the 
remaining bark.. Hence, more than half of the bark is sometimes removed from 
the girdled portions, and the balance often dries up and comes off. Therefore it 
is not surprising that trees which have been extensively girdled generally die, 
and mountain ash are much more prone to do so than either aople or thorn apple 




YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER 
Full Figure Male, Upper Figure Female 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 249 

trees, due, very likely, to their more slender stems. The motive which induces 
this species to operate thus upon young and healthy trees is, I think, but partly 
understood. It is unquestionably true that they feed, to a certain extent, both 
upon the inner bark and the fresh sap from these trees, but that the procure- 
ment of these two elements of sustenance, gratifying as they doubtless are, is their 
chief aim in making the punctures I am inclined to dispute. As the sap exudes 
from the newly made punctures, thousands of flies, yellow-jackets and other insects 
congregate about the place, till the hum of their wings suggests a swarm of bees. 
If, now, the tree be watched, the woodpecker will soon be seen to return and 
alight over the part of the girdle which he has most recently punctured. Here 
he remains, with motionless body, and feasts upon the choicest species from the 
host of insects within easy reach. * * * In making each girdle they work 
around the trunk, and from below upwards, but they may begin a new girdle below 
an old one. They make but few holes each day, and after completing two or three 
remain over the spot for some little time, and as the clear fresh sap exudes and 
trickles down the bark they place their bill against the dependent drop and suck it in 
with evident relish — a habit which has doubtless given rise to the more appropriate 
than elegant term sapsucker, by which they are commonly known in some parts 
of the country. I have several times watched this performance at a distance cf 
less than 10 feet, and all the details of the process were distinctly seen, the bird 
looking at me meanwhile 'out of the corner of his eye.' When his thirst is satis- 
fied he silently disappears, and as silently returns again after a few hours, to feast 
upon the insects that have been attracted to the spot by the escaping sap. This 
bird then, by a few strokes of its bill, is enabled to secure both food (animal 
and vegetable) and drink in abundance for an entire day; and a single tree, 
favorably situated, may suffice for a whole season."* 

The late Frank Bolles has published some interesting detailed observations 
respecting the food habits of the sapsucker. His conclusions are: 

"That the yellow-bellied woodpecker is in the habit for successive years of 
drilling the canoe birch, red maple, red oak, white ash, and probably other trees, 
for the purpose of taking from them the elaborated sap, and in some cases parts of 
the cambium layer; that the bird consumes the sap in large quantities for its own 
sake and not for the insect matter which such sap may chance occasionally to 
contain; that the. sap attracts many insects of various species, a few of which 
form a considerable part of the food of this bird, but whose capture does not 
occupy its time to anything like the extent to which sap drinking occupies it; 
* * * that the forest trees attacked by them generally die, possibly in the second 



Bull. Xuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. IV, January, 1879, PP- 3S- 



25O REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

or third year of use; that the total damage done by them is too insignificant to 
justify their persecution in well-wooded regions."* 

In a subsequent article Mr. Bolles gives the results of an attempt to keep 
several young sapsuckers alive on a diet of diluted maple syrup. Unfortunately 
for the success of the experiment, the birds obtained and greedily devoured many 
insects that were attracted to the cage by the syrup. How many insects were 
eaten was not known, but all of the birds died within four months. Examination 
of their bodies showed fatty degeneration of the liver — a condition said to be 
usual in cases of starvation. Mr. Bolles has thus proved that concentrated sap 
(saturated with sugar) is not sufficient to sustain life, even with a small percent- 
age of insects. The natural inference is that sap, while agreeable to the birds, and 
consumed in large quantities, holds but a subordinate place as an article of food. 

The examination of the stomachs of quite a number of yellow-bellied wood- 
peckers shows that they eat animal and vegetable food in about equal proportions. 
The animal food consists of ants, beetles, flies, bugs, grasshoppers, crickets, May flies 
and spiders. Ants amount to thirty-six per cent of the whole, a greater record 
than that of any other woodpecker except the nicker. The other insects do not 
appear in any remarkable quantities, so that it is as an ant eater that this bird 
does the greatest good. It is here, if anywhere, that it compensates for what 
harm it commits in girdling trees. In this last respect, however, it is doubtful 
if the bird ever inflicts any very appreciable damage upon a natural forest. In 
these, trees are usually superabundant, and the few that are killed only give 
a better chance for those that remain. 

Another point, to which Dr. A. D. Hopkins has recently called attention, is the 
fact that the wounds made in the bark or cambium of trees by the beak of this 
bird, while sometimes resulting in injury or death to the tree, at other times 
leads to certain distortions of the grain in future growth which gives a variegated 
appearance to the polished surface of the timber when used, and often very 
much enhances its beauty. As the wounds heal over the new layers of wood are 
either elevated or depressed at the point where the wounds were made, and when 
the logs are cut into boards the appearance of what is called "bird's-eye" is 
produced, or if a radial cut is made we have the "curl." These effects resemble 
very closely the bird's-eyes and curls which are produced naturally in maple and 
some other woods, but are usually less in numbers in a given area. 



*The Auk, Vol. VIII, July, 1891, p. 11-9. 




BLACK-BACKED THREE-TOED WOODPECKER, 
Upper Figure Female Lower Figure Male 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 25 I 

The Great Pileated Woodpecker (Ceophlocus pileatus). 

This bird, variously known as the log cock, cock of the woods, or pileated 
woodpecker, is the largest of the family now found within the limits of the 
United States, with the single exception of the ivory-billecl woodpecker, which is 
very rare. It is essentially a bird of the forests, and is only found where there 
are rather extensive tracts of timber. It is a shy, retiring bird, difficult to 
approach, and, where not abundant, is better known by its work than by sight 
of the bird itself. Its large size, loud voice, and habit of hammering upon dead 
trees, render it conspicuous, however, at a considerable distance. Its strength is 
wonderful, and one unacquainted with it can scarcely credit a bird with such 
powers of destruction as is sometimes shown by a stump or dead trunk on which 
it has operated for ants or boring larvae. I have seen strips of wood two feet in 
length and four inches wide, by one inch thick, torn from a stump, and thrown 
several yards away by this bird. It is a well known fact that various species of 
woodpeckers have a way of signaling to each other by hammering upon a dead 
tree or branch, or any other resonant body, such as the metallic cornice of a build- 
ing, as has been sometimes observed. The pileated woodpecker is an adept at this 
method of telegraphing, and once gave the writer an exhibition of skill in 
this respect which will long linger in his memory. It was toward the close 
of a sultry afternoon among the mountains of Virginia, and a thunder shower was 
rapidly approaching. The sky was all overcast, and it was as dark as twilight, 
though the sun was several hours above the horizon. The wind had died away, 
every leaf hung motionless, and, except for an occasional low mutter of thunder, 
not a sound could be heard. Suddenly from near the top of a ridge came the 
loud, sharp rub-a-dub-dub of the great woodpecker drumming on a dead chestnut 
stub. Immediately came the answering drum of another half way down the slope, 
then another from farther along the ridge, then from across the valley, and so on 
until at last a dozen performers were callng and answering to each other in turn, 
until the downpour of the shower put a stop to the whole. 

The food of the pileated woodpecker is nearly evenly divided between insect 
and vegetable matter. The former consists of beetles and ants, with a few of 
some other orders. The beetles are mostly taken in the larval stage, and are 
nearly all wood-boring species. Even those that are eaten in the adult form 
are of the same species as the larvae. The ants are all of the large species that 
infest wood, decayed or otherwise. All of the insects taken are such as are found 
in the forests where these birds feed almost exclusively. 



252 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION, 

The scarcity of this species in most parts of the country renders it such an 
object of curiosity that it is usually shot on sight by hunters or by anybody 
who happens to have a gun with him. This should not be allowed. The bird is 
not fit for food, and there is no possible use to which its body can be put after its 
death, while when alive it is one of the most valuable conservators of the forest. 

The Titmice (Paridae). 

The titmice are mostly small, plain-colored birds, with but little attempt at 
ornamentation beyond a crest or tuft of feathers upon the head, which can be 
raised or lowered at will. Their colors are, for the most part, black and white, 
with some brown and plain gray. While they may often be seen in groves and 
orchards, and even on wayside trees, they are by nature, inhabitants of the forests. 
This is more especially true of the Eastern species, most of which are nonmigra- 
tory, and in winter time may be met in loose flocks rambling through the woods, 
every one busy searching the trees for food, and at short intervals giving his call 
note, which enables the company to keep together. At such times there will 
usually be a few birds of other species with them, notably the downy woodpecker, 
the brown creeper and one or both of the common species of nuthatches. This 
is not entirely a case of birds of a feather flocking together, but of birds of 
similar food habits banded for a common purpose. Community of taste in the 
matter of diet, and the method of obtaining it, is evidently the bond which holds 
these different species together. 

If one will watch these tiny creatures as they flit from tree to tree, he will 
wonder that anything suitable for food can escape their prying eyes. When 
one of them alights upon a tree it at once begins a minute investigation 
of the trunk and limbs, paying particular attention to every place, such as a 
knothole or a decayed spot, where any insect might be concealed or where its 
eggs might be laid. In doing this it swings itself under horizontal branches, runs 
up the perpendicular trunk, or stands head downward while it examines a particu- 
larly promising spot. It searches every crack in the bark, peeks under every bit 
of moss or lichen, and, if it be the time when the leaf-buds are beginning to swell, 
it will peer into every one in search of the newly hatched caterpillar, which it 
literally "nips in the bud." 

The birds of the titmice family, though insignificant in size, are far from 
being so in the matter of their food habits. What they lack in size of body they 
more than make up in numbers of individuals. While in the case of some of 
the larger birds — as, for instance, the flicker — there is one pair of eyes to look 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 253 

for food for one large stomach, we have in the ten times as numereus titmice an 
equivalent stomach capacity divided into ten parts, and each portion furnished 
with a pair of eyes and other accessories, such as wings and feet. As against 
the one place occupied by the larger bird, ten are being searched for food at the 
same time by the lesser ones. It is evident that this arrangement is more 
effective in the destruction of the smaller species of insects than the plan of a 
single large bird. 

The character of the food of the titmice gives a peculiar value to their services, 
for it consists largely of the smaller insects and their eggs, objects which either 
escape the search of the larger birds or are too insignificant to be considered 
worthy of notice. Among the prominent elements of food which the titmice find 
in their inspection of the trees in the winter are hibernating insects and their 
eggs. A great many species pass through this cold season in the shape of eggs, 
and thousands of these come to an untimely end in the stomach of these minute 
birds. Others spend the winter in the larval or pupal state, still others hibernate 
in the adult form, but unless buried beyond reach they are dragged forth from 
their places of concealment and devoured. 

There are within the boundaries of the United States seventeen species, with 
several subspecies, of titmice, all of them inhabitants of the forests and foragers 
upon trees. Comparison of the food of the various species shows that it is of the 
same general character for all, but that the particular kind of insects which 
are eaten varies somewhat with the geographical range of the bird. But whatever 
insect may be chosen it is nearly always some species that preys upon the foliage, 
flowers, or fruit of some tree or shrub. Nearly one thousand stomachs of different 
species and subspecies of titmice have been examined, and the result of careful 
analysis has confirmed the observations made in the field and proved beyond 
question that this family of birds is one of the most efficient conservators of the 
forest. 

The common black-capped chickadee is abundant over the northern portion of 
the country, as far south as the Potomac and Ohio rivers in winter, and remains 
in one or two of the most northerly tiers of States during the whole year. With 
its two subspecies it extends entirely across the continent from ocean to ocean. 
In June the food of this species consists almost entirely of insects, and in winter 
this part of the food sinks only to about forty-two per cent of the whole, which 
is a large percentage for the cold months. Caterpillars and a few moths, with 
many of their eggs, constitute one third of the entire food, and the consumption 
of these during the winter months is but little below the average for the year. 
This shows that these birds do not in vain search the trunks and branches of 



254 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

trees — that they do find the eggs and hibernating insects which are concealed 
in the crevices and cracks, and destroy them. Besides caterpillars, the titmice 
also eat some beetles, ants and bugs, with quite a number of spiders. The 
insects' eggs taken by them consist largely of those of the two species Malacosoma, 
or tent caterpillars, in the region where they are to be found. The beetles 
eaten are of the smaller species of leaf -eaters (Chrysomelidae), the engraver beetles 
(Scolytidae) and other weevils or snout beetles, especially the genus Balaninus, 
which lays its eggs in acorns and other nuts, where the grub feeds and destroys 
the seed. At times they find and destroy the beetles that are the parents of the 
woodborers — that is, the Cerambycidae and Buprestidae. Bugs are represented 
in the stomachs by a few stink bugs (Pentatomidae), but more especially by the 
bark scales (Coccidae). The larger species, belonging to the genus Lecanium, 
are evidently a favorite food, as they are found in many stomachs. The black 
olive scale (L. oleae), which infests many kinds of trees besides the olive, is 
especially abundant on the Pacific coast, and is freely eaten by that pigmy of the 
family, the California bush tit (Psaltriparus minimus calif omicus). Other scales, 
however, are frequently eaten. Plant-lice and their eggs are also found in the 
stomachs, the latter occurring in the winter months. 

The Nuthatches {Sitta carolinensis and S. canadensis). 

The nuthatches are, like the titmice, lovers of the forest, and like them they 
do not disdain to visit parks and orchards, and may occasionally be seen scrambling 
over the trees in the dooryard. As acrobats they are unsurpassed; the wood- 
peckers, the titmice and the creepers will run up a tree with ease and skill, but 
they will not try to run or walk down the trunk as the nuthatches do, nor can they 
walk along the under side of a horizontal branch with that apparent disregard for 
the attraction of gravity that the fly displays when on the ceilings. But this is 
an ordinary matter to the nuthatches. They walk down a tree trunk, or around 
it, or on the under side of a branch, and stop with their body hanging downward, 
while they inspect a knothole, apparently not in the least inconvenienced by this 
upside-down position. Nor when pecking at anything which they think may 
promise food do they rest upon their tails as do the woodpeckers, but, held in 
place by the clutch of their sharp claws, they stand and work at perfect ease. 
Four species and three subspecies of nuthatches are found within the limits of the 
United States. They all belong to the same genus, and vary but little in general 
appearance, or in their food habits, and the two whose names stand at the head 
of this chapter may be taken as types of all. 












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RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH 
Upper Figure Male, Lower Figure Female 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 255 

It is almost unnecessary to say of these birds that their food is made up of 
precisely the same element as that of the titmice, but somewhat varied in the 
proportions of each. Like them they eat a great many caterpillars, and the eggs 
from which caterpillars would be hatched. Small beetles, ants and bugs are also 
favorite food. Scales and "spittle insects" (Cercopidae) are some of the enemies 
to trees of which they appear to be very fond. The particular species of these 
last which they eat are probably those that feed upon the pine, as most of the 
stomachs in which they were found were taken in a pine forest. Of the nut- 
hatches Dr. Coues has said: "In their relation to man, these birds are heedless 
and familiar, as if they trusted to his good will in return for the valuable services 
they render him in destroying incalculable numbers of noxious insects — a confidence 
too often abused by the vulgar and ignorant, who harbor against them the same 
prejudice that exists against the sapsucker (Sphyrapicus), the innocent and 
industrious nuthatches being supposed to injure trees, when the fact is they 
spend the whole of their laborious lives in man's service."* 

The Brown Creeper (Certhia familiaris amertcana). 

This diminutive bird is one of the companions of the titmice in their winter 
foraging parties, and appears to go with them merely for the sake of their 
company, as its chance for food would evidently be better if alone. Like the 
titmice, it gets its food upon trees, and eats practically the same things, but hunts 
upon trunks of trees rather than on the branches. It almost invariably alights 
upon the tree near the ground and then runs spirally upward, sometimes to near 
the top, at others only half way or less, and then wings its way to another. 
It is very much of a forest bird, where for the most part it feeds and nests, 
but it will occasionally visit an orchard or park in the winter season. The 
geographic range of the creeper corresponds in a general way with that of the 
black-capped chickadee. 

It might be inferred from ordinary field observation that the food of this bird 
would very closely resemble that of the titmice, as they hunt in the same places 
and in nearly the same manner. This inference is confirmed by stomach exam- 
ination, which shows that the food of the two birds is almost identical, and that 
whatever may be said of the food of the titmice may also be said of that of the 
creeper. The insects eaten are those which prey upon the foliage, flowers and 
fruit of trees, as well as some that bore into the trunk or branches and do much 
harm thereby. 



* Birds of the Colorado Valley, p. 133. 



256 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

There is no better description of the working habits of this bird than that 
given by Dr. Coues: 

"The leading trait of the Brown Creeper is its extraordinary industry — the 
'incomparable assiduity,' as it has been well styled, with which it works for a 
living. Like all good workers, the Creeper makes no fuss about it, but just sticks 
to it. So quietly, yet with such celerity, does it go about its business that it 
scarcely seems to be at work, but rather to be rambling in an aimless way about 
the trunks of trees, or at most only caring to see how fast it can scramble to the 
top. During all this time, however, the bird is on the alert in the search for 
insects, which it extracts from their lurking-places with such dexterity that 
its progress is scarcely arrested for a moment; and the number of these minute 
creatures yearly destroyed is simply incalculable."* 

The Warblers. 

The wood warblers, or, as they are usually called in America, the warblers, 
simply, are a large family of small birds noted for the brilliancy of the plumage 
of many species, and for the sweetness of their song. They are peculiarly 
American in distribution and in most cases are inhabitants of forests. The 
majority of the species obtain their food from trees and shrubs, but a few are 
more terrestrial and feed largely upon the ground. There are within the limits 
of the United States fifteen genera, with about fifty-nine species and eighteen 
subspecies of this family, and there are few areas of any considerable size that 
do not have their complement. They are as a family very small, many of them 
being no bigger than the common house wren, and the largest ones only exceeding 
the bluebird by a trifle. 

There can be no finer tribute to the usefulness of this family than that of 
Dr. Elliot Coues, who says: 

"With tireless industry do the warblers befriend the human race; their 
unconscious zeal plays due part in the nice adjustment of Nature's forces, 
helping to bring about the balance of vegetable and insect life, without which 
agriculture would be in vain. They visit the orchard when the apple and 
pear, the peach, plum and cherry are in bloom, seeming to revel amid the sweet- 
scented and delicately-tinted blossoms, but never forgetting their good work- 
They peer into the crevices of the bark, scrutinize each leaf, and explore the very 
heart of the buds, to detect, drag forth and destroy those tiny creatures, singly 



Birds of the Colorado Valley, p. 147. 




BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER 
Upper Figure Male, Lower Figure Female 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 257 

insignificant, collectively a scourge, which prey upon the hopes of the fruitgrower, 
and which, if undisturbed, would bring his care to naught."* 

The food of the warbler, with the exception of the few ground-feeding species, 
consists of such insects as are found upon the trunks, branches, leaves and flowers 
of trees, mostly those of the forest, though many species of these birds visit the 
orchard for food, and sometimes nest there. As might be expected, small beetles, 
ants, and caterpillars, with some scales and plant-lice, make up the bulk of the 
food of the tree-feeding species. The three elements which appear most prominently 
in the stomachs are beetles, ants and caterpillars. These are remarkably constant 
elements of the food, and are found in most of the stomachs examined. The 
beetles are largely of the family of snout-beetles (Rhyncophora), all of which are 
injurious to some plant, and many of them to forest trees. To show the capacity 
of some of these small birds, the contents of several of their stomachs may be 
cited. No. 1 contained 68 weevils, some scales, a pupa case and a spider. 
No. 2 contained 65 weevils, with a few other insects. No. 3 had at least 53 
weevils, with fragments of others, and some other insect. No. 4 contained 
50 weevils, with remains of others, a leafhopper and some ants. No. 5 was filled 
with 35 weevils, remains of Hymenoptera (wasps), caterpillars, a pupa case and 
a spider. These five birds had eaten altogether 271 of these injurious weevils, 
and from the broken remains contained in their stomachs it is highly probable that 
300 is much nearer the true figures. In another stomach were found 52 specimens 
of another beetle, with remains of other insects. 

While the different species of the warbler family show some peculiarities in 
the selection of their food, there is still a pronounced similarity in the elements 
selected by all those whose haunts are the same. The species that live upon 
trees, which constitute a majority of the family, not only show the same tastes 
in diet, but also strongly resemble in this respect the birds of other families that 
live and obtain their food in the same places. Thus the food of the warblers is 
strongly suggestive of that of the titmice, the nuthatches, the creepers and the 
kinglets. 

A single instance may serve to illustrate the kind of work done by this family 
of birds. The spring of 1900 was remarkably cold and backward in the Northeastern 
States, and a multitude of birds had migrated as far north as Massachusetts, but 
were held from going farther by the cold and snow which still lay upon the ground 
in New Hampshire and northward. In the meantime, owing to the cold northerly 
winds, the insects were slow to come from their hiding-places, so that the birds 



' Birds of the Colorado Valley, p. 201. 
17 



258 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

were in some straits for food. At this time the apple trees had advanced so far 
that the end of every twig presented a rosette of slightly expanded leaves, often 
enclosing undeveloped flower buds. A flock of warblers composed of several 
species was one morning observed by the writer flitting from tree to tree in an 
orchard, and examining each of these rosettes. So silent and industrious were 
the birds that they paid no heed to the observer, but kept at their work even 
when only a yard or two from his head. In order to determine what food these 
birds were finding on the trees, a number of the rosettes were examined upon a 
tree at some distance ahead of the birds, and each one was found to contain 
from one to half a dozen large green plant-lice (Aphides). These insects were 
large, full grown, and ready not only to suck the juice from the leaves and 
flowers, but to bring forth a numerous progeny to prey upon the further growth 
of the trees. But the birds came just at that time when by destroying the 
mother insect they not only prevented her from doing further harm herself, 
but cut off the future generations which would have continued in a steady 
succession all summer. This work was observed on several days, and probably 
was continued until the warmer weather brought an abundance of insect food. 

The Kinglets {Regulus satrapa and R. calendula). 

These two minute birds may be considered as titmice in disguise, for as far 
as actions are concerned they are the complete counterparts of those restless 
birds. They have the same tireless industry, the same unending search for insects 
in the crevices of bark, under leaves, in buds or tufts of moss. Perhaps they do 
not as a rule frequent such large trees as the titmice, but rather prefer small 
trees or shrubs, but still they are forest inhabitants, and are to be found where 
large trees are the principal growth. In color they are decidedly more stylish than 
the titmice, in so far at least as their head dress goes, which consists of a 
particularly jaunty cap of bright colored feathers, golden in one and ruby-colored 
in the other — hence their two common names, the golden-crowned and the ruby- 
crowned. 

Their food is mostly composed of insects, with only a small percentage of 
vegetable matter. An examination of several hundred of their stomachs shows 
that the insects eaten are mostly small beetles, particularly weevils, ants, bugs 
(Hemiptera), and small caterpillars, with a few of other orders. The first three 
of these, however, make up the great bulk of the food. In the case of the ruby- 
crowned kinglet {Regulus calendula), ants, with a few other Hymenoptera, amount 
to more than thirty-six per cent of the whole food of the year, and are an 




MOURNING WARBLER, 
Upper Figure Female, Lower Figure Male 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 259 

important element in every month. Hemiptera constitute nearly thirty per cent 
of the food, and are composed mostly of plant-lice and scales, which are eaten at 
all times when they can be found, and the scales can be obtained in every month, 
as they pass the winter on the bark in a dormant state, or in the shape of eggs. 
Beetles are eaten to the extent of eighteen per cent of the food, and are nearly 
all injurious species. All of the above insects are of the smaller species, such as 
larger birds are apt to pass by, yet some of the worst enemies of forest 
trees are found in these minute creatures. As a sample of what one of these 
little birds can do in the way of devouring insects, the following account of a 
stomach contents of Regulus calendula may serve. The principal item consisted 
of the remains of something over 100 small beetles, Notoxus alamedae, with several 
others of the genus Anthicus, a few Chrysomelids (leaf-eating beetles), some 
Scolytids (engraver beetles), one Scymnus and one beetle too badly mangled for 
recognition. All of these are harmful insects except the last two, and the unknown 
one might have been. 

The Cuckoos {Coccyzus crythrophthalmus and C. am eric anus). 

Cuckoos are quiet birds and rather retiring in their habits. Their notes, though 
frequently heard in warm weather, are not loud or obtrusive. However, they do 
not avoid the haunts of men, but have a way of concealing themselves amidst the 
foliage, and shunning naked branches or exposed places, so that they are not often 
seen. Their favorite resorts are the open groves or woods, the edges of forests, 
orchards, and clumps of trees and shrubs. They often visit the shadetrees about 
farmhouses, and are frequently heard in the trees along village streets, or even in 
city parks. 

While there are three species and two subspecies of these birds in the United 
States, only two are abundant enough to become of economic importance. These, 
with one subspecies, practically occupy the whole country except the plains and 
deserts, but in winter are found only in the extreme southern portion of their 
range. The yellow-billed cuckoo {Coccyzus americanus) breeds from the Gulf of 
Mexico to southern Canada; the black-billed ranges still farther northward. The 
migration does not begin until spring is well advanced, and on the return movement 
most of the species leave the Northern States in August, though a few linger a 
little longer. Their northern season is therefore comparatively short, a peculiarity 
which is partly explained by the character of their food. From an economic point 
of view the cuckoos take a high rank amcng useful birds. Their habit of living 
more or less concealed among the leaves of trees or shrubs suggests, what observation 



260 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

proves, that their diet consists for the most part of insects — very largely cater- 
pillars — that are found in such places. 

An examination of 155 stomachs of the two species mentioned shows that 
their food is practically all animal matter — that is, insects. Of this, nearly 
one-half consists of caterpillars. These are eaten at all times, and stomachs taken 
in every month of the cuckoos' stay on their northern range show a large per- 
centage of these insects. Some pains were taken to ascertain the exact number 
of caterpillars contained in the 155 stomachs, but as the process of digestion was fair 
advanced in some cases, the result can only be considered as an approximation. 
The number actually counted was 2,771, which were all found in 129 stomachs, the 
other twenty-six being filled with other food. It is probable, and almost certain, 
that 3,000 would be nearer the exact number. If the contents of all the stomachs 
examined be regarded as so many daily meals of the same bird, then the result 
indicates that the bird had eaten 2,771 caterpillars in 155 consecutive days, at 
the rate of only one meal each day, and some days not eating any. Now 155 
days is about the length of time that cuckoos remain on their summer range; 
moreover, one cuckoo must eat several meals a day, so this number (2,771) probably 
falls short of the actual number of caterpillars devoured by each cuckoo during the 
season. From these considerations it appears that cuckoos must eat an enormous 
number of larvae in the course of a summer. These insects are crude feeders, eating 
immense quantities of vegetable tissue, and are usually so distended with it that 
the amount of real nutrition contained in any one of them must be small. In 
fact, stomachs of birds that have eaten largely of caterpillars always show a quantity 
of this finely cut vegetable matter derived from the insects' stomachs. As 
digestion in birds is rapid, it would seem necessary to fill the stomach several 
times a day with such quickly digested and slightly nutritious food as this, so that 
the number of caterpillars found in a stomach at any one time probably repre- 
sents but a small portion of the actual daily consumption. As to the kinds of 
caterpillars eaten by the cuckoos, it is a singular fact that the hairy and spiny 
species far outnumber the smooth ones; this may be due either to the greater 
abundance of the hairy ones or to the birds' preference. This disregard of hairs 
or spines was well illustrated by one stomach which contained seven larvae of 
the Io moth {Automeris io). These caterpillars are thickly studded along the 
back and sides with tubercles from which grow many spines, that are not only 
sharp but poisonous, and sting the hand quite severely when carelessly handled. 
Several other stomachs contained a less number of these insects. 

Among the insects eaten by the cuckoos which are of economic interest to 
forestry may be mentioned the tent caterpillar (Malacosoma), the fall webworm 




YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 26 1 

(Hyphantria cunea), and the white-marked tussock moth {Hemerocampa leucostigmd). 
The former is eaten to such an extent that it constitutes at least half of the food 
during the time when it can be obtained. Of the fifty stomachs taken while 
the tent caterpillars could be found, seventeen contained these insects, and several 
were entirely filled with them. In one stomach 250 were found. These, of 
course, were small ones taken in the early stages of their growth, before they 
had done much damage. The fall webworms are evidently another favorite food 
of the cuckoo, as they were found in a number of stomachs, and in one 217 
heads of these insects were counted. Twenty-eight species of caterpillars were 
identified in the 155 stomachs, and, as many specimens were unidentifiable, it is 
probable that there were more species than those noted. Other important insects 
in the cuckoo's diet are the larvae of sawflies. These so closely resemble cater- 
pillars that they have been called "false caterpillars" and the cuckoos appear to 
like them as well as they do the real caterpillars. They were found in many 
stomachs, and one contained over sixty individuals. Larvae of the largest species 
of sawfly (Cimbex americand) were found in several stomachs. The other insects 
eaten by cuckoos were distributed through several orders, but with no great 
percentage of any one. The most important, from a forestry point of view, are 
ants, which were found in many stomachs, but not in large quantities. 

The good done by these birds in their destruction of caterpillars can scarcely 
be overestimated. In the summer of 1898 the writer observed the sugar maple 
trees in the State of Vermont over a very extensive tract of country nearly 
defoliated by the forest tent caterpilliar (Malacosoma disstrid). The damage was 
so extensive as badly to affect the next year's crop of sugar. Had a sufficient 
number of cuckoos been present to materially reduce the number of caterpillars, 
much of this defoliation would have been saved, as the trees would stand a 
moderate reduction of their foliage without detriment. The cuckoos are, unfortu- 
nately, rather shy, timid birds. All foresters should know their value, and afford 
them every protection. The following is a list of all the caterpillars which were 
positively identified in the stomachs of the 155 cuckoos, but it is almost certain 
that there were many more so badly mangled as to be unrecognizable. 

List of caterpillars identified in stomachs of cuckoos: 

Yellow-necked caterpillar Datana ministra. 

Handmaid moth Datana contractu. 

Nadata gibbosa. 
Red-humped caterpillar Symmerista albifrons. 

Heterocampa manteo. 
Army-worm Heliophila unipuncta. 



262 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Zebra caterpillar Mamestra picta. 

American dagger Apatela americana. 

White-marked tussock moth .... Hemerocampa leucostigma. 

The eight-spotted forester .... Alypia octomaculata. 

Grapevine epimenis Psychomorpha epimenis. 

Pear wood nymph Eutliisanotia unio. 

Fall webworm HypJiantria cnnea. 

Yellow bear Diacrisia virginica. 

Southern tobacco-worm Phlegethontius sexta. 

White-lined sphinx Deilephila lineata. 

Imperial moth Basilona imperialis. 

Rosy-striped oak- worm Anisota virginiensis. 

Orange-striped oak-worm Anisota senatoria. 

Green-striped maple-worm .... Anisota rubicunda. 

Io moth Automeris io. 

Polyphemus silk moth Telea polyphemus. 

Luna moth Tropcea Inna. 

Tent caterpillar Malacosoma americana. 

Locust leaf-folder Epargyreus tityrus. 

Mourning cloak Euvanessa antiopa. 

Viceroy butterfly . . . . . . . . Basilar cilia archippus. 

The Baltimore Oriole {Icterus galbula). 

Next to the cuckoos the oriole takes rank as a destroyer of caterpillars. 
Stomach examination shows that thirty-four per cent of the food for the months 
when the bird is on its summer range is composed of these destructive leaf-eating 
insects. One stomach contained no less than ioo of these creatures. The oriole 
is not a lover of the forest, but prefers the more open groves, or the borders of 
the dense wood. The insects which it eats, however, are the same as those which 
feed upon the leaves of forest trees, so that by destroying them the bird reduces 
the sum total of the species, and so benefits the forest as much, if not so directly, 
as it would if it ate them upon the forest trees. Several other species of orioles are 
found within the borders of our country, and all of them show the same fondness 
for caterpillars for food. 

The Robin {Morula migrator id). 

The common robin can scarcely be called a forest bird, though instances have 
been known where it has nested in the depths of the woodland, and it was observed 
by the writer in the backwoods of Maine, far from farms or any extensive cleared 




SOLITARY VIREO 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 263 

lands. The diet of the bird, however, merits some consideration in treating of 
the good work done by birds in destroying forest enemies. The robin eats a large 
number of injurious insects, but the ones to which attention is particularly 
called now are the leaf-destroying caterpillars.' These constitute over eight per cent 
of the robin's yearly food, as determined by the examination of 330 of their 
stomachs. They are a very constant element of the diet, and even the birds taken 
during the winter months had in some way found quite a number of them, probably 
from crannies where they were hibernating. 

In the summer of 1898, when the forest tent caterpillar overran the maple 
woods of Vermont, and thereby did much injury to the sugar orchards, thousands 
of acres were stripped nearly bare of foliage. The insects were of course preyed 
upon by many birds, but the good work done by one pair of robins deserves to be 
placed on record. This pair had built their nest upon a maple tree which stood 
in the corner of a farmer's cowyard, and, like all the other maples in that 
vicinity, it was covered with caterpillars. The farmer told the writer that every 
night and morning, as he milked his cows, he watched these robins, which busily 
fed their young as long as he was there. They did not spend their time going to 
other trees, but simply took the insects from the outer twigs and leaves, brought 
them to the nest, and stuffed them into the gaping mouths of the nestlings. 
This they were always doing at all hours while under observation, until the 
young were able to leave the nest. 

The good work done by robins in distributing seeds will be detailed on 
another page. 

The Vireos. 

The vireos are a genus of birds that live largely in the forest, and obtain 
their food from trees. They are rather quiet and unobtrusive, though active, 
birds, and their plumage is of modest, subdued colors, with no startling or vivid 
tints. There are thirteen species and ten subspecies within the boundaries of the 
United States. They are migratory, so that the good work they do in the northern 
forests is confined to the summer season. As a rule, they do not frequent the 
deepest recesses of the forests, but choose the more open and parklike portions. 
Deciduous trees are also preferred to the evergreens. In foraging they somewhat 
resemble the orioles in the care with which they examine each leaf for possible 
caterpillars and other insects. They are birds of tireless industry, and seem 
always to be engaged in their search for insect food. 

The vireos are practically wholly beneficial to the interests of man in the matter 
of their food, which consists almost entirely of insects which are for the most 
part injurious species. Of these the two most prominent items are bugs (Hemiptera) 



264 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

and caterpillars. In the case of one species of vireo, the bugs amount to nearly 
forty-five per cent of the food of the year, and in some months rise to over seventy- 
five per cent. The families represented are the soldier bugs (Pentatomidae), the 
buffalo tree-hoppers (Membracidae), the jumping plant-lice (Psyllidae), the spittle 
insects (Cercopidae), the leaf-hoppers (Jassidae) and scales (Coccidae). All of 
these insects are to a greater or less extent inhabitants of trees, upon the foliage 
of which they subsist. Some species of the spittle insects are very harmful to 
pines, while the scales in some of their numerous species infest nearly every form 
of tree or shrub. 

The next most important element of the vireo's food is made up of caterpillars, 
with a few of the adult insects (moths). The harm that these creatures do to the 
foliage of trees has been discussed so often as to require no further comment. 
The remainder of the food is made up of small beetles, including some weevils, 
many ants, a few grasshoppers and some other insects. 

The following observation illustrates how much good work a pair of these 
birds may do in the way of insect destruction while rearing a brood of their off- 
spring. A nestful of young, four in number, of the red-eyed vireo was kept 
under observation from the time that the birds were first hatched until they 
were able to leave the nest. They were watched for several hours each day in 
hour periods, which were selected to fall in different parts of the day, so that 
every hour was represented from early dawn until darkness closed the work. The 
result was that the young were found to be fed by the parents on an average of 
somewhat more than twelve times in each hour of daylight, from the time of hatch- 
ing till they were able to fly. As there were at that time fully fourteen hours of 
daylight in each day the birds were fed 168 times a day at least; or, as there 
were four of them, forty-two times each. This means the destruction of 168 
insects every day, and probably several times that number. 

Besides the various species of birds which have been discussed in the fore- 
going pages, there are many others that incidentally do a good work in forest 
preservation by the destruction of its insect enemies. As the tree-destroying 
beetles migrate from tree to tree, which they sometimes do in swarms, they are 
preyed upon by the various species of fly-catchers, swallows and other birds that 
habitually take more or less of their food upon the wing. To illustrate: the 
destructive engraver beetle Tomicus pini has been identified in the stomachs of 
the following birds: Contopus virens, Hirundo erythrogaster, Petrochelidon hinifrons, 
Iridoprocne bicolor, and Chordeiles virginianus. 

With the exception of the first, none of these is in any sense a forest bird, and 
the insect must have been taken on the wine: as it was migrating- to new fields 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 265 

of destruction. In the same way many destructive weevils have been found in the 
stomachs of birds that never could have taken the insect in its feeding and breeding 
haunts, but while it was migrating for the purpose of finding fresh foliage and 
new unoccupied feeding grounds. In like manner the whole body of insect-eating 
birds are at all times preying upon insects that may be more or less harmful to 
forest trees, but which they find, not in the place where that destruction is wrought, 
but while in transit from one place to another. Wherever an insect is destroyed, 
if it be a species that ever feeds upon a forest tree, the forest is benefited by the 
work, for the species is reduced in numbers, and fewer progeny will be brought 
forth to prey upon vegetation in general, forests included. 

P)ir<l5 a^ Distributors of ^Seeds. 

Thus far the vegetable portion of the food of the birds under discussion has 
not been considered. In the case of many of the foregoing species it is the minor 
part and of least importance, but still should not be neglected, as some of it plays 
an important part in relation to the forest. Many trees bear fruits or nuts which 
constitute an important element of the food of many species of birds, and by them 
are transported from the forest tree to other places, where they are dropped and 
often spring up, and if the conditions are favorable grow to be trees. In this 
way the cedars, the wild cherries, the dogwoods, tupelos, maples, ashes, and all 
the nut-bearing trees are often propagated. While nature has in many cases 
provided the seeds of plants with special means for their distribution, many of 
them are dependent upon the animal kingdom to place them in a situation where they 
can germinate and grow. In this work various birds play an important part. 

When seeds are eaten by birds, one of two things is liable to happen. Either 
the seeds themselves are broken and ground up by the action of the stomach, 
aided by the gravel contained therein, or else some digestible coating is taken off 
and assimilated, and the remainder either passed out through the intestine or 
regurgitated uninjured. The former takes place in the fringelline birds, the black 
birds, the gallinaceous birds, and some others that subsist largely upon seeds. 
In the case where small fruits containing seeds are taken as food, it is the pulp 
which is sought for, and when the process of digestion has removed this, the 
seed is usually passed out in a condition to germinate. 

It is a time-honored belief that a seed which has passed through the digestive 
tract of an animal is in a much better condition for germination than before. How- 
ever this may be, it is certain that when swallowed by a bird the seed has a better 
chance to be dropped at a distance from the parent plant, where the conditions for 



266 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

growth are likely to be more favorable. Of all the seeds thus distributed, some are 
certain to find conditions under which they can thrive, while, if they fell directly 
to the ground from the branch where they grew, few or none would ever survive. 

Vegetable Food of the Woodpeckers. 

The vegetable portion of the food of the downy and hairy woodpeckers consists 
largely of small fruits of trees or shrubs, the seeds of which pass through the 
bird or are disgorged uninjured and ready to germinate and grow. The most 
important seeds found in the stomachs of these species are those of dogwood 
(Cornus), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus), June or service berries (Amelanchier), 
hornbeam (Ostrya), sour gum (Nyssa), and wild, black cherries (Prunus). Some 
of these only rise to the dignity of shrubs, but still have their uses in the forest, 
while others attain to the size of trees and produce useful timber. Many of the 
wild berry-bearing shrubs are of no mean importance in the economy of nature. 
They furnish food for birds, and in many cases for man also. Of these the rubus 
fruits (blackberries and raspberries) are good examples. The berries are eaten freely 
by the woodpeckers, which scatter the seeds far and wide, to germinate and 
produce thick masses of brambles that act as covers to young forest growth, 
as well as furnish berries. 

The two species of three-toed woodpeckers eat practically no vegetable food, 
or at most none which has any bearing upon the welfare of the forest. 

The vegetable food of the nicker is much more extensive in variety and quantity 
than that of the downy and hairy. It eats many more berries, such as elder- 
berries, huckleberries, spiceberries, mulberries, hackberries, and, in addition to the 
tree seeds eaten by the foregoing species, it eats juniper berries (Jtiniperus 
virginiana). This last forms a very favorite winter food for many species of 
birds, and in the Middle and Southern States this tree is to be seen growing 
in rows along every fence and by the roadsides, where the seeds have been 
dropped by the birds when perched upon the fence. 

The redheaded woodpecker eats about the same vegetable matter as the preced- 
ing, but when there is a crop of beechnuts the bird, instead of migrating, remains 
north all winter and lives upon them. Dr. C. Hart Merriam has given much 
testimony upon this point. He states that in northern New York, where it is one 
of the commonest woodpeckers, it subsists almost exclusively on beechnuts during 
the fall and winter, even picking the green nuts before they are ripe and while the 
trees are still covered with leaves. He has shown that these woodpeckers 




BLACK-CAPPED CHICK-A-DEE, Upper Figure 
BROWN CREEPER, Lower Figure 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 267 

invariably remain throughout the winter after good nut yields, but migrate when- 
ever the nut crop fails.* 

Mr. O. P. Hay says that in central Indiana, during a good beechnut year, 
from the time the fruits begin to ripen the redheads were almost constantly on 
the wing, passing from the beeches to some place of deposit. They hid the nuts 
in almost every conceivable situation. Many were placed in cavities in partly 
decayed trees; large handfuls were taken from a single knothole; they were 
found under a patch of raised bark and single nuts were driven into cracks in 
the bark. Others were thrust into the cracks of gateposts, and a favorite place 
of deposit was behind long slivers on fenceposts. In several instances the space 
formed by a board springing away from a fence was nearly filled with nuts, and 
afterward pieces of bark and wood were brought and driven over the nuts as if 
to hide them from poachers, f 

Now it seems to be fairly probable, if not absolutely certain, that in all this 
passing back and forth, carrying beechnuts, some of them would be dropped upon 
the ground, in places favorable to germination and growth. Observation shows 
that when a bird drops a nut in this way it does not attempt to pick it up, but 
simply goes for another. Nor is it improbable that many of these nuts are placed 
at first in places where they can sprout and grow if left undisturbed, as must 
often be the case. There is no testimony to show that the woodpeckers themselves 
ever hide the nuts in the ground, as some other birds are known to do, but there 
seems to be no reason to doubt that they might sometimes do so. 

The yellow-bellied sapsucker eats rather fewer articles of vegetable diet than 
the downy and hairy, but they are practically of the same kind. 

The same may be said of the pileated woodpecker. This bird shows a fondness 
for fruits, which constitute a larger percentage of its vegetable food than of any 
other woodpecker except perhaps the flicker. The seeds of the sour gum, wild 
grapes, and persimmons appear in many stomachs, and indicate that these fruits 
are a favorite food. 

There is one seed that is found in the stomachs of nearly all the woodpeckers 
and many other birds, especially in winter, whose presence there, however, is to be 
regretted. This is the seed of the poison ivy {Rhus radicans), which is a favorite 
winter food for many birds. The seed is surrounded by a coating of white wax- 
like substance which appears to be quite nutritious, so that although it is but a 
small part of the seed it evidently affords sufficient nutriment to supply the bird's 
wants. It is not unusual to find a stomach completely filled with these seeds from 



* Birds of Connecticut, 1877, p. 66; Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. Ill, 1878, p. 124; Mammals 
of the Adirondack^, 1884, p. 226. 

fAuk, Vol. IV, 1887, pp. 194, 195. 



268 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

which the wax has all been removed by the process of digestion. This large quantity 

of seeds then passes through the intestine, or in some cases, notably the crow, 

regurgitated and scattered broadcast, ready to grow and produce a great number 

of these disagreeable and, to some people, dangerous plants. This vine is in 

itself ornamental, especially in autumn, and were it not for its poisonous qualities 

would be a desirable plant for covering unsightly objects like stumps and dilapidated 

walls and stone piles. As it is, however, its presence is always to be deplored, and 

while it subserves a useful purpose in furnishing food for many birds in a season 

of scarcity, it is unfortunate that the seeds are not devitalized in the process of 

digestion. There is at least one bird, the chickadee, which, while it subsists to some 

extent upon this seed, does not assist in its dissemination. This bird is too 

small to swallow so large a seed, so it merely pecks the wax from the outside 

and leaves the seed upon the parent vine. There is another vine which closely 

resembles the poison ivy, but is harmless. This is the Virginia creeper or 

woodbine (Parthenocissus quinque folia) , and as its seeds are borne in an attractive 

berry they are eaten by birds nearly as much as those of the ivy, and are scattered 

in the same way. For this we are duly thankful, as the plant is at all times 

ornamental, and its beauty in the fall is proverbial. The resemblance between 

the two is unfortunately very close, and many distressing accidents have happened 

when inexperienced persons have gone in quest of autumn leaves and have mistaken 

the ivy for the woodbine. 

The Robin. 

As an eater of fruit and a distributor of seeds the robin has few, if any, rivals, 

except possibly the cedarbird. In the examination of 380 stomachs there were 

identified forty-two different species of wild fruits, of which the seeds would either 

pass through the intestine unharmed or would be regurgitated, but in either case 

would in all probability fall where they could sprout and grow. Some of these, 

like the wild cherry, the sour gum and junipers, are genuine trees, while others, like 

the dogwoods, the bird cherries and the amelanchiers, are of smaller growth, and still 

others are only shrubs. As the robin is not a frequenter of the forest depths, 

the seeds would be dropped, as a general rule, away from overshadowing trees, 

and so have the best possible chance for growth, and in this way the forest is 

extended. 

The Cedarbird (Ampelis cedrorunt). 

This bird, like the robin, subsists largely upon fruits, the seeds of which it 
distributes far and wide. The wild cherry, the sour gum and the juniper are 
three species whose fruit is much eaten by the cedarbird, and the seeds scattered 
in a thousand places where they have a chance for germination and growth. 




BLUE JAY 



birds as conservators of the forest. 269 

The Jays. 

There are within the limits of the United States ten species, with several 
subspecies, of jays, all of which inhabit the forest, or at least avoid the habitations 
and improvements of man. In the east there are two species, the blue jay 
(Cyanocitta cristatd) and the Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis). On the Pacific 
coast several species of jays are found, but two are conspicuous, as they inhabit 
the more thickly settled portion of that region. These are the California jay 
(Aphelocoma californica) and Stellar's jay {Cyanocitta stclleri). In their general 
habits they strongly resemble the blue jay of the east, and their food habits are 
much the same, though the western species feed much more freely on fruit than 
their eastern relative. This perhaps is owing to greater opportunities, and the 
taste may be an acquired one. Like the eastern species, however, mast is a 
prominent ingredient of their food, and it is this which renders the group of interest 
to foresters. 

The Blue Jay. 

Of all the birds of the forest, there are few that are more conspicuous than 
the blue jay of the east. Its plumage is of the most brilliant hues, and its voice 
is loud and piercing. Besides, it is an active bird, and always seems to have a 
good deal of business on hand, but still has plenty of time to inquire into yours 
if you happen to trespass upon what it considers its own especial domain. As 
the bird is a resident in most parts of its range, it is seen most often and to the 
best advantage in fall and winter. At such times the brilliant hue of its plumage 
is finely contrasted with the crimson leaves, or with the snows of winter. 

It is as a nut eater that the jay becomes of the most interest in its relation 
to the forest ; still its diet does contain a fair percentage of harmful insects. 
Among those eaten were a number of beetles' belonging to the. genera Cotalpa, 
Pelidnota and Lachnosterna, all of which are injurious to trees, while some 
Chrysomelids were taken, which feed upon foliage. Besides these, several weevils 
belonging to the genus Balaninus were eaten. This insect infests acorns, chestnuts, 
etc., and was probably taken by the jay while collecting mast, which is its favorite 
food. Caterpillars are also eaten to some extent in the last of summer and early 
fall. In the winter months the jay eats the eggs of injurious moths, notably 
those of the tent caterpillars (Malacosoma). Mr. E. H. Forbush records that it 
fed freely upon the larvae of the gypsy moth, perhaps the most destructive 
enemy to the forest ever known in America. 

The largest item of food in the yearly diet of the jay is mast — that is, acorns, 
chestnuts, chinquapins, beechnuts, etc. The jay not only eats these but stores 



27O REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

them up for winter use in various cracks and crannies, or frequently simply 
places them in a fork of a tree branch, and it is in this work that it does its 
greatest good for forest propagation. The writer has often found stray acorns, 
chestnuts, etc., in open fields far from the parent tree, where they had probably 
been accidentally dropped by jays when being carried to some place of concealment. 
At such times these birds have a great deal of business on hand, and do a great 
deal of flying about and screaming; and whether they can scream and hold a nut 
in the beak at the same time is doubtful, so it is probable that a goodly propor- 
tion of the nuts that are intended for storing are dropped in transit. The 
California jay has the habit of storing acorns in the ground, and Dr. Merriam 
informs me that the Indians of that region call the jay the oak planter, and say 
that every oak that grows is from an acorn planted by one of these birds. 
Whether the eastern species ever intentionally places acorns in the ground I am 
unable to say, but it is certain that it puts many there by accident, and often 
those that are stored are in positions where they may germinate and grow, such 
as cracks in stumps or partially decayed logs. Moreover, many nuts are either by 
intention or through carelessness left on the tops of fenceposts, or in forks of trees, 
from which the wind will easily dislodge them. 

The Canada jay is the most northerly of any of the jays, extending its range 
well up into the Arctic regions. It is a denizen of the coniferous forests, and it 
is not known whether it ever feeds upon the seeds of these trees. If it does it prob- 
ably aids in their distribution. 

The Common Crow {Corvus brachyrhyncos). 

As a distributor of forest seeds the crow deserves at least a passing notice. 
During the winter season the crow feeds largely upon the more or less dried up 
fruits of the previous summer, with many seeds of the poison ivy. The indigestible 
portion of this food — that is, the seeds or stones — are disgorged after the available 
nutrient part has been removed by action of the stomach. The seeds so disgorged 
are in no way injured, but are in excellent condition to sprout and grow. In 
many parts of the country, crows have a habit of gathering in one place to roost 
at night, though during the day they distribute themselves over a large area of 
country to forage. One of their roosts which was inspected by the writer was 
estimated to be occupied by at least 250,000 crows at night, and extended over 
several acres of forest. All through this area every square inch of ground 
was covered by the disgorged pellets made up of seeds and gravel which were 
rejected by the birds during the night. On this ground many bushels of seeds 







AMERICAN RED CROSSBILL 

Upper Figures Males, Lower Figure Female 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 2"/l 

of wild grapes, sour gum, juniper, dogwood, viburnum and poison ivy could have 
been gathered. As the crow is an inhabitant of the forest or its immediate 
vicinity, it feeds largely upon the fruits of the forest, and thus distributes the 
seeds by which it is replenished. 

The Pine Grosbeak {Pinicola enucleator). 

The pine grosbeak is an inhabitant of the northern portion of North America, 
and a winter visitant to the more northerly parts of the United States, sometimes 
coming as far south as Pennsylvania. It is, however, rather erratic in its move- 
ments, and is often absent from some localities for a series of years, after which 
it may again become abundant. During its winter stay in the United States it is 
wonderfully tame and confiding, and can usually be approached to within a few 
feet, and sometimes can be taken with the hand. 

The food of the grosbeak is mostly obtained upon trees, and consists of seeds 
and small fruits during the months when the bird is not breeding. Accurate 
data are lacking as to the bird's diet while engaged in rearing its young, but 
it is probable that at that time it consists principally of insects or other animal 
matter. The seeds eaten consist mostly of those of trees such as the ash and 
the conifers. It takes the seeds from the cone by means of its stout beak, and 
while most of them are eaten and so destroyed, many fall to the ground where 
they can germinate. The fruit which these birds eat is mostly of such species as 
grow upon trees or the larger shrubs, like the juniper, the sour gum and the vibur- 
nums. The seeds of these of course pass through the intestinal tract uninjured 
and are distributed where they have a chance to sprout and grow. Besides seed and 
fruit, the bird subsists to some extent upon buds, and is accused of doing damage 
to trees in this way, but it is doubtful if the injury is serious. 

The Crossbills {Loxia cttrvirostra minor and C. leucoptera). 

The crossbills, like the pine grosbeak, are residents of the north, and make 
irregular excursions into the country lying farther south. While in a general 
way these southern migrations occur at the beginning of cold weather, and the 
return northward in the spring, yet in the case of the red species (L. c. minor) 
the birds often linger in the south till spring is far advanced. Another of their 
peculiarities is that they frequently breed in midwinter, even in a climate as 
cold as that of central New England, and this may account for the fact that they 
are in no hurry to get back to the north in the spring as their procreative 
duties may have been already performed. 



272 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The food of the crossbills resembles that of the grosbeak, as they are strictly 
forest inhabitants, and obtain most of their food from trees. A small number of 
stomachs of these birds has been examined, and the uniformity of their contents 
leads to the belief that they give a fair idea of the general food. Seeds are the 
favorite article of diet for the greater portion of the year, yet during the summer 
time some insects are eaten. A number of stomachs of the red crossbill taken 
in the summer months yielded specimens of only two orders of insects — viz, 
caterpillars and plant-lice. These last appear to be a very favorite food, for several 
stomachs were nearly filled with them, and one contained nothing else. It scarcely 
needs to be pointed out that in eating these insects the crossbills are doing a 
good work for the forest. 

It is, however, in their character as seed-eaters that the crossbills are best 
known. Their preference for coniferous forests as a place of residence and their 
fondness for the seeds from the cones has long been a matter of observation. 
The peculiar structure of their bills enables them to extract and hull the seeds 
of the pines and other conifers with a deftness which can be equaled by no 
other bird. As a consequence, the seeds of the cone-bearing trees form the largest 
item of their food. Of course the seeds that are thus eaten do not help to 
perpetuate the forest, but many seeds are scattered broadcast, and it is probable 
that by this means more of them are placed in a location suitable for germi- 
nation than would happen if the cones were left upon the trees unopened until 
they fell of their own weight. 

Tl)e lairds of Pre^. 

While the smaller mammals, such as mice, voles, wood-rats and rabbits do not 
habitually do any remarkable damage to the grown forest, they are very destructive 
to young trees, and in the forest nurseries often cause great losses by girdling 
young stock. These creatures have long been a source of annoyance and expense 
in young orchards and nurseries of fruit trees, and where efforts are being made to 
raise forest trees for the purpose of artificially restocking forest areas it is found 
necessary to take measures to guard against these pests, or much of the labor 
and expense will be wasted. 

It is in such emergencies as these that the beneficial work of the hawks and owls 
is appreciated. The food of these birds has been thoroughly studied and discussed by 
Dr. A. K. Fisher, and his publication upon the subject is a model of painstaking 
labor.* 



*The Hawks and Owls of the United States, in Their Relation to Agriculture, Bulletin No. 3, 
Div. Ornithology and Mammals, U. S. Dept. Agric. By A. K. Fisher, M. D. 



BIRDS AS CONSERVATORS OF THE FOREST. 273 

Dr. Fisher has shown that the principal food of these birds, with a few excep- 
tions,' consists of small noxious mammals, such as rats, mice, rabbits, etc., and 
it is probable that they are the most potent factor in preventing the undue 
increase of these pests. The common cotton-tail rabbit, as well as others of his 
ilk, is a constant menace to young nursery stock of either fruit or forest trees, 
and as these creatures are nocturnal in their habits, they feed at a time when it is 
practically impossible to protect the trees from their depredations. But nature 
has kindly arranged that two of our largest species of nocturnal birds — that is, 
the great horned owl and the barred owl — should prey upon the rabbits, and so keep 
their numbers within bounds. In most cases they would do this work effectually 
if unmolested, but it seems impossible for a man with a gun to abstain from 
killing an owl if a chance is presented, and then to justify himself will declare 
that owls kill pigeons, poultry and game birds. 

That the majority of the birds of prey feed to an injurious extent upon birds 
or poultry is a contention which has been thoroughly refuted by Dr. Fisher. 
That they do occasionally attack poultry, and sometimes, when hard pressed, kill 
small birds or game no one will have the hardihood to deny, but, as Dr. Fisher 
has demonstrated, these cases constitute the exception and not the rule. The 
normal food of the various species of hawks and owls, with two or three exceptions, 
consists of the small mammals, mostly of the order of Rodentia, all of which are 
more or less harmful to the interests of agriculture, and some are pests. The 
smaller species of owls, preying as they do in the night, come in contact with 
mice and voles, whose habits are more or less nocturnal, and find the principal 
source of their food supply in these noxious creatures. During the winter season, 
particularly if the snow be deep, these mice and other rodents subsist largely 
upon the bark of young trees, which they girdle beneath the surface of the snow, 
and in this way ruin thousands. During daylight many of these creatures are 
captured by the various species of hawks, so that the good work of destroying 
them is carried on throughout the whole twenty-four hours. 

Perhaps the most striking instance of the good work accomplished by birds of 
prey is the case of a pair of barn owls that have for a number of years occupied 
one of the towers of one of the public buildings in Washington. Dr. Fisher has at 
various times visited this eyrie and gathered the disgorged pellets containing the 
undigestible portion of their prey, which it is well known the birds regurgitate. 
In all there were collected 675 of these pellets, and by a careful analysis they 
were found to contain the bones of 1,787 small mammals, thirty-two birds and 
two frogs, or 1,821 individual animals in all. These, it must be borne in mind, 
were collected in the parks and the immediate vicinity of a large city, which one 



2 74 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

would scarcely consider as the best kind of a hunting ground. This species of 
owl is an abundant resident on the Pacific coast, and must have a very decided 
effect upon the small mammalian fauna of that region. 

Damage Done to Trees H I^trds b% Desfro^incr gads. 

In treating of the pine grosbeak, reference was made to the fact that a portion 
of its food consists of buds of trees. The pine grosbeak, the crossbills, the 
purple finch (Carpadacus purpureas) and other species of the finches, and the ruffed 
grouse and perhaps some others, have all been accused of doing harm to trees 
by eating the buds, both of blossoms and leaves. As far as the writer has been 
able to observe, very little such harm is done, even when the disbudding has 
been quite extensive. As a general rule, buds upon- trees are superabundant. 
Moreover, nature has kindly arranged that when one set of buds are taken from 
a tree a new supply are at once developed from around the bases of the old set, 
or often at a distance from these places, and the tree appears to suffer no appreci- 
able harm. In one case which came under the writer's observation, a portion of 
the mowing land of an abandoned farm was by nature seeded to poplars {Popiilus 
tremuloides) , which came up very thickly over a considerable area. When these 
trees were a few feet in hight they became the feeding ground for ruffed grouse 
from the adjacent woods, and these birds might be seen feeding there any evening 
during the winter months. 

As the area of forest was quite extensive, there were many grouse that soon 
made the poplar patch their regular foraging ground ; but, in spite of this, within 
ten years the trees had grown to between thirty and forty feet in hight, and 
were as thrifty as could be desired. 

In another instance an apple orchard was bounded on two sides by woodland and 
the grouse "budded" extensively upon the trees that were nearest to the forest. 
These birds are supposed to have a special fondness for the blossom buds of apple 
trees, and often venture to quite a distance from their forest retreats in order 
to gratify this taste, so it is to be inferred that in the instance where the trees 
were so easily accessible they did their best, or, from a horticultural point of 
view, their worst. In any case a careful inspection year after year of the trees 
nearest the woods did not show any inferiority in fruit bearing or in any other 
respect as compared with those at a distance. Most trees, either of the orchard 
or forest, produce several times as many blossoms as they are able to mature, so 
that the taking away of a portion of them, if not carried too far, is a positive 
benefit. 



Pisi)e# and Firmer in tl)e (ldirondact)S 

From tl)e Sportsman's Point of View. 



By A. Judd Northrup. 

IT might as well be confessed at the outset that the Forest, Fish and Game 
Commission are not to be held responsible for any faulty views or erroneous 
opinions expressed in this article. They have kindly left the writer free 
to say what he will, and he alone is responsible. Some things he may say will 
doubtless be "random casts," and often wide of the mark, but that is not an 
uncommon experience of fishermen. 

Prior to forty years ago, or thereabouts, very few of the people of this State 
had much knowledge or any due appreciation of the special nature and value 
of the Adirondacks. In ''the good old times" before Murray wrote his facts and 
fables of that enchanting region, the sportsmen and the dwellers along the fringes 
of the forest had the monopoly of the fish and game, and the lovers of nature 
among them the enjoyment of the marvelous forests, lakes, rivers and mountains. 
Year after year, " accoutered as they were," in their old woolen clothing, with 
pack baskets, "supplies," fishing tackle and guns, they rather shyly (for they were 
frowned on in those days) slipped off to the "North Woods" for their glorious 
sport with rod and gun and camp. In May, and again in July, they reached 
the edge of the forest as best they could, with no railroads to make approach 
easy, and then came the rough trails, the unmarked ways to the favorite resorts, 
the streams down which the waters tumbled over rocks and precipices, with here 
and there a welcome "still-water," until at last the chosen spot on stream or 
lake, and possibly a rude camp of logs or bark built in other days of delight, 
was reached. And then heaven smiled on them, and the leaf-clad earth gladdened 
them, and the forest swayed its great tree tops in joyous welcome ! Fish ? 
Worlds of them! Trout, speckled and "salmon," mostly. These had little fear 
of man; they were not educated to fear. They took the deceitful fly, worms, fish 
tails or fin, pork rind, the red rag — anything. 

275 



276 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The deer, too, were there, and venison steak was in season all the year round. 
There were no game laws to speak of — at least none that the sportsman 
remembered. And the sportsman had the primeval hunger. He lived like a 
lord, a lord that had fresh air all day, on the streams or lakes, and through 
the night in his open camp; and his appetite was like that of a modern locomotive 
going up grade. Trout, venison, flapjacks and maple sugar, and coffee went 
into his cavernous stomach, and he got up steam for long tramps, and slept 
without a bad dream. 

The sportsman had all this world to himself (save the invasions by the pot 
fisherman of the semicivilized border settlers in other clays). And he kept it to 
himself and a few chosen friends, for the public counted him a tramp, a vagrant, 
rather than a sportsman. Those were the barbarous days before vacations came 
into fashion. So, the good steady people of the State knew very little of the 
Adirondacks, their beauty and sublimity, their healthfulness and health giving, 
the material riches and value of the forest growths, the mines of ore, the reservoirs 
of water in the leaf-mold soil and in the lakes — water that fed the lazy rivers of 
the outer world in summer, and turned the wheels of many mills outside. None 
of these goodly, steady people cared much for the rude, rough wilderness up 
north, where wheat and corn and meadow were unknown. Legislators had no 
incentive to make stringent laws for the protection of a region deemed worthless 
nor executive officers to execute the few laws for the unappreciated wealth of 
forest and waters. 

A few simple wise men, it is true — even the guileless Emerson at one time 
and his company of like-minded philosophers — loved and sought nature here, and 
sang the glories of the forest. But their voice sounded afar off to the common ear. 

Then came Murray and Headley with blare of trumpets and the speech of the 
people, and dear old W. C. Prime, who put "I Go a-Fishing " into a book with 
artistic and scholastic taste; and they severally told the story of their happenings 
and happiness in the forest. 

The secret was out! The Adirondacks were discovered. Then came the rush 
of the multitudes; later, the rude highways, and lastly the railroads and the 
screech and scream of the steam whistle on rails of iron, on streams and lakes; 
and the great hotels, with gas, electricity, dancing, card parties and all the 
paraphernalia of a new Saratoga. Vanished then the happiest days of the 
primitive sportsman, with his rude camp and rough clothing and his as yet guileless 
guide. The command of the new events and new multitudes was to "move on!" 
and he hied himself to valleys among mountain fastnesses and the little lakes 
hidden there; or, he changed, not his skies, but his nature, put on good clothes, 




GOING IN"— OLD STYLE. 




INSCRIPTION ON ROCK IN CRANBERRY LAKE 



IN MEMORY OF REUBEN' WOOD, A GENIAL GENTLEMAN AND GOOD FISHERMAN, WHO WAS FOND OF THESE 

SOLITUDES." 



FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACK^. 277 

knickerbockers, a linen collar, lived in a caravansary, made "trips," dined in a 
dress suit and attended "hops," and became another creature altogether. For 
the old fishing resorts were fast being depleted; the rude camps were supplanted 
by cottages and hotels; sport became work; fish baskets grew smaller, and too 
large at that, for they seldom ran over. 

Yet, the genuine sportsman — not the man who fishes to fill' a tub and salts 
down trout for his winter's food — think of that! — did not regret that women 
and children and invalids came to his old haunts and drank in the beauty and 
joy and health that so long had been his own. The "gentle sportsman" sighed for 
what had departed, but breathed a thanksgiving that these others might now 
share these blessings — even a goodly portion of his own. 

Still, he of the generous soul clung to his old ideals, the open camp, the 
hidden lakes and streams, the immediate contact with nature, made his own fight 
with whatever of hardships of tramp or weather, and gloried in the freedom from 
the outer world's work and worry — and by and by, came out strong from the 
old, old toil and fun! 

In the old times we built our rude camps substantially in this wise: First, 
we laid logs two or three feet high on three sides (sometimes we omitted the 
logs), leaving an open front; then put up crotches to sustain a pole in front 
seven or eight feet above ground, on which poles were laid sloping to the logs 
(or ground) in rear, as a framework for the roof. On these were laid broad 
sheets of bark peeled from the bodies of spruce trees; on the sides were 
upright sheets of bark tucked snugly under the roof; the whole structure making 
an open camp extending in length according to the requirements of the number 
to be housed. A heap of stones, if obtainable, was placed in front a few feet 
distant for the fire of logs on which the cooking was done and a fire kept up to 
warm the camp at night and afford the evening light for the talks, fish stories 
and the soothing pipe. The bed in camp was composed of the finer twigs of 
balsam boughs, or hemlock if balsam could not be procured. Sometimes rude 
bedsteads were constructed on which the boughs were laid, but oftener, especially 
if the camp was to be used only for a short time, the boughs, well "shingled" 
and the finest on the top, were laid, six inches or more thick, upon the ground. 
A single small log laid on the ground at the front of the camp served as a seat 
before the fire and to keep things snug under cover. Various additions to 
comfort, by way of stools, rude camp chairs, etc., often were constructed, lines 
were stretched and nails driven on which to hang clothing and blankets. 

The dining-room (a luxury sometimes indulged in), built separately, consisted 
simply of a nearly flat bark roof supported by posts set in the ground, and the 



278 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

"room" furnished with a bark table, and a long seat on two sides consisting of 
strong poles. Then the ''camp" was deemed to be complete and comfortable 
if not elegant. Sometimes, if the same party visited a camp ground year after 
year, a rude structure of logs was made — always with bark for a roof- — and 
often even indulging in the luxury of a door. 

The peeling of spruce trees for the bark was a fearfully wasteful but some- 
what indispensable and excusable matter at a period when it was impossible to 
procure other matertal than bark for roof and siding for the forest home. That 
necessity has passed since the means of transportation have so vastly improved, 
and serviceable and comparatively light and cheap paper roofing is made. Besides, 
light waterproofed tents for camping are easily transported, quickly set up, and 
serve the camper's needs fairly well. The old-time camper, however, still laments 
the passing of his open camp, his bed of boughs, and the cheerful fire in front. 
Even the smoke that brought tears to his eyes and choked him in the middle of 
his best fish story had a fascination that the tent can never create. 

It requires a bit of genius to know where to build the camp or pitch the 
tent. It must not be under or near a tree liable to fall or blow down. Of course 
it must be reasonably near the fishing ground, by stream or lake. It ought, too, 
to be near a good spring of drinking water, or a very clear and cold stream. One 
should, and will be inclined to, drink an abundance of water — water with no 
bacteria to bother him when he goes home. By the way, the less bottles one 
carries into the woods the better. Better even to have a few bacteria now and then 
than an abused stomach and befuddled brain. One doesn't need to be much of 
a sportsman to learn after a little that punkies, black flies and mosquitoes are 
the black clouds of which good fishing is the silver lining. The less cloud, 
however, the better. The camp, if possible, should face toward the prevailing 
breeze. That drives away some thousands of the pests. Sunlight, to make the 
camp dry, is desirable. A breezy, sunlit camp, near a good spring of water, 
facing a pleasant view, near good fishing grounds, is a joy forever — in memory 
as well as realization. 

The game fish of the Adirondacks, until recently, were all of the trout 
family. The black bass is a new comer, and he came because he had to. He 
was drafted to fill the depleted ranks of the trout. Perhaps he continues the 
process of thinning out the trout — which the lumberman began and the multitude 
continued. It probably depends largely on conditions. If he can otherwise get 
all the food he wants, quite likely he will not seriously disturb the spawning 
beds of the trout or chase to their death the troutlings. But the black bass is a 
glorious fighter, game to the last, and the sportsman will not quarrel with his 



FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACKS. 279 

coming in waters that practically have ceased to be inhabited by trout. A fine 
feature in Adirondack fishing certainly has been added. 

The great enemy of the trout is the wicked pickerel. Anathema MaranatJia ! 
say all sportsmen, upon the heads of the villains who for revenge or from pure, 
unadulterated accursedness have introduced this fish demon into the happy home 
of the trout family! 

How to catch trout, is the question the beginner asks, and the answers will 
depend on various facts — seasons, waters, weather, times of day, and amount 
and quality of food the fish are having, and the mood of the fish themselves. 
Then, again, the ardent fly fisherman will decry bait fishing; the bait fisherman 
will boast of his catches and tell you that his basket contains the larger and more 
numerous fish. Again, the fly caster will descant upon flies learnedly and show you 
such a variety that you will wonder how he learned so much of the tastes 
and preferences of the trout family. 

However, some facts about the matter are plain. In May, after the ice goes 
out of the rivers and lakes, the trout are hungry, and roam about in search of 
food to break their long fast. Bait fishing is then in its best estate, and fly fishing 
only mildly satisfactory. Earth worms and grubs seem to be most attractive, but 
other kinds of bait will serve. Trolling in the larger lakes along the shores and 
around rocky islands, with bright spoons to draw attention to the angle worms 
trailing from the hook, is successfully practiced. Very early the fish begin to ascend 
the rapids, and there fly fishing is likely to be good. 

Spring is the season when parties from the "border" come into the Adiron- 
dacks and fish for the tub. They camp by a lake, and clean it out. It is said 
that last year one such party, in two weeks, caught, in one of the smaller lakes 
not far from Cranberry Lake, four hundred pounds, which they salted down like 
so much pork! It is not surprising that the summer fisherman found that lake 
"poor fishing." In Cranberry Lake, in the spring of 1904, a whole fishing 
fleet trolled along the rocky points at the south end of the lake and around 
Buck Island, day after day, taking a vast quantity of large trout. The following 
summer, sportsmen wondered why that celebrated fishing resort had ceased to 
afford the royal sport of former years and why the spring holes yielded so few 
trout. The story of the spring fishing gave the answer. 

Late in June, and during July and August, the trout seek the cool water, 
and crowd into the little coves where cold streams enter lake or river, or ascend 
streams toward their fountain head. Then artificial flies are the most attractive 
lure and give the sportsman his greatest pleasure. Bait, however, takes the big 
sly fish that hug the bottom, although at certain hours, notably at evening, they 



280 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

rise to the fly; and if the fisherman's chief desire is to fill his basket, without 
regard to the pleasure, he may perhaps successfully with bait compete with the- 
fly fishing sportsman. This he can do, however, only where there is deep water. 
There is no comparision in the pleasure of the two methods, even when baskets 
are even. 

Lake trout may be taken, in the spring, by trolling along the shallow water 
near shore or around rocky ledges, and in the summer with bait or by deep 
trolling. Such fishing, however, is mainly a matter of providing a breakfast, 
and can hardly be called sport. 

On no point do sportsmen differ so much, perhaps, as upon choice of, or 
preference for, certain flies. The amateur will show you a gorgeous hued assort- 
ment that would bewilder the wisest fish and cause inextinguishable laughter in 
his family. The old-timer — who has had that craze and recovered from it — 
meanwhile will have a half dozen tried and true favorites, each with a history 
of victories fairly won, and now on the retired list, while recruits of the same 
sort are on duty. If, however, one were on a tramp through the forest, and 
his life depended on now and then capturing a trout, and he could have but one 
fly, it should be the humble, modest brown hackle. It is perhaps suited to more 
times, seasons, waters and fish appetites than any other — and yet one may still 
have his half-dozen favorites. For use on the dark Adirondack waters trout flies 
may be larger than those used on clearer waters. 

As for rods, the good old ash and lance wood variety of former days has 
disappeared, and the light, strong, supple split bamboo has taken its place. A 
good bamboo rod is the acme of excellence. The steel rod has its admirers also. 
The automatic reels are a delight to those who have learned how to use them 
and when and when not to "push the button." The finer the tackle the more the 
pleasure with a skillful hand at the butt. The success, however, measured 
by the basket is not always commensurate. The rough and tumble of much of 
Adirondack fishing suggests the use of a fairly substantial fishing outfit. 

By reason of destructive agencies, some of which have been mentioned, only 
on the private preserves, in streams and lakes somewhat inaccessible to the less 
enterprising sportsman, and here and there a lake unusually fitted for the growth 
of trout, are they found in anything like satisfactory numbers. Do what they 
may, the State hatcheries cannot do much to. meet or arrest the decrease while 
these abuses continue, and the sportsman predicts in sadness that if they are 
not checked the next generation very likely will know nothing of Adirondack 
trout fishing except from tradition and books. 




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FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACKS. 251 

There are some very evident causes of this condition — causes which the State 
could have prevented or arrested if it had begun the work of preserving the 
forest, fish aud game in time. Apparently, it was only when it began to see 
that commercial interests were involved, and water for navigation and water 
power was diminishing from a denuding of the forest, that the State awoke to 
the situation, then too late to undo the mischief, and undertook to save some- 
thing from the wreck. The damage cannot be repaired within a decade, a 
quarter or half century. But a beginning has been made, and with a serious 
effort the Adirondacks some time — not while the older sportsmen are on earth 
to enjoy it — the forest may come back to something like its old glory, and the 
native home of the trout fitted for their return. 

The greatest injury to the forest — and incidentally to the game fishing — has 
been caused by the reckless lumbering of privately owned lands, and some of 
the worst results of this profligate use of the forest growths have come about 
by the destructive fires that frequently follow the cutting and removal of pretty 
much all the trees, large and small. There is no desolation more gloomy and 
forbidding than a forest section stripped of nearly all its trees and then burned 
over, the very soil destroyed, and the bare rocks and ghostly scattered tree 
trunks, dead and blackened, telling of the raging, devouring forest fire. Bird and 
beast shun the region as if it were accursed. The streams, once cool and full, shrink 
and shrivel; the shady nooks and covering under which the trout used to sport and 
multiply are gone, and the trout themselves have sought other homes — if the 
devastation has left access to any such. 

Then, too, the traffic by steamers plying on the lakes and navigable streams, 
however desirable or necessary, disturbs the shy fish in their natural haunts and 
sometimes destroys or seriously disturbs their hatching beds. 

No doubt it is wise to introduce bass in certain waters which from one cause 
or another the trout have practically ceased to inhabit and to which, for various 
reasons, they cannot be restored. The bass is a game fish with which the expert 
angler will be glad to test his skill and fill his basket and to meet and enjoy at 
his table — if he cannot follow the trout. Nevertheless, he is a menace to the 
trout, and, as has already been suggested, if not otherwise well fed will complete 
the work of extermination of the trout still struggling to maintain the reputation 
and traditions of the old fishing waters. There is no excuse, however, for the 
pickerel in the Adirondacks. His introduction there was fiendish and his work 
among the gentle trout family is as devilish. Both these fish multiply rapidly 
and work out their instincts vigorously. Where they both abound, the old type 
of Adirondack sportsmen will certainly be seen no more. 



252 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Of course, the immense increase in the number of fishermen — legitimate 
sportsmen in large part, perhaps — accounts for a part of the decrease of the 
trout. For a long time, pot fishermen from the "border" have entered 
the Adirondacks in the early spring and "fished to death" the lakes and 
streams they infest. 

Fishing the small streams where the young trout betake themselves — their 
nurseries — is one of the most destructive agencies for depleting the larger 
streams and lakes, to which these trout if allowed to live would return grown to 
a size enabling them to maintain themselves with the enemies of their babyhood. 
The slaughter of these innocents out-Herods Herod. If a man claiming to be a 
sportsman is guilty of this murderous business, he is somewhat paid for it in the loss 
of legitimate sport in the larger waters. He ought to be prohibited from the 
act by law and punished vigorously for doing it. The writer remembers still, with 
a share of his old rage yet in his blood, seeing the catch in the northern wilderness 
of two fish murderers from his own city some years ago, who returned at night 
after one day's fishing a small stream, showing with great glee their catch of about 
four hundred baby trout! And at that time and place there was no law to 
prevent their cruel and wasteful work. Between the pot fishers who in spring 
"clean out" the lakes and these July baby killers the trout have a hard time. 
State and Preserve hatcheries wage a doubtful warfare against such enemies, but 
with the help of legal restraints and rigid enforcement of law they may yet win the 
battle. 

The first remedy for this state of affairs is to bring the wild lands of the 
Adirondacks into the State Park as rapidly as possible, and then guard it from 
abuses such as have been described. It will take money to do this, of course, 
but it is money well spent. This wilderness ought to belong to the people of the 
State. It is unique, like Niagara Falls; of value as the sanitarium of the people; 
the great vacation park, and "play ground" of grown up men and women; and 
now that the sportsman is no longer in popular estimate "an idle fellow," 
and his name has become legion, it would seem as if he might be considered 
just a little in this matter. 

First and foremost, the denuding of the forest should be stopped where it is; 
or, if valuable lumber is to be removed, it should be by selection and care and 
under stringent regulations, by which a sufficient proportion and quality of trees 
to really preserve the forest should be left standing, and by which — and this is 
all important — the material for forest fires shall be removed or carefully destroyed. 
Where the State acquires the whole title to a tract, this, by proper means, can 
readily be accomplished. Where the State acquires title subject to the right of 




CHRIS ' WAGNER. 



FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACKS. 283 

the original owner to cut trees, as it is sometimes compelled to do in order 
to acquire the lands at all, the enforcement of the protective regulations should 
be followed up with the greatest watchfulness and effectiveness. Of course, 
this is exceedingly difficult in such a secluded and wide area. 

Laws should be enacted controlling the methods of lumbering on forest lands 
owned by private individuals or companies; on the same general principle that in 
cities the erection of buildings may be controlled in the way of preventing fires. 
It cannot reallv be difficult to frame legislation to compel individual owners to so 
use their own property as not to imperil the property of their neighbors, whether 
their neighbors be the State or individuals. 

Again, there ought to be a permanent State law against fishing the small streams 
in the Adirondacks. It is not easy to say in a statute what a "small stream " is, and 
perhaps some provision could be framed leaving that as a designation to be applied 
by the Forest, Fish and Game Commission to certain streams and the provisions 
modified from time to time. At all events, fishing in fish nurseries should be 
absolutely prohibited if any protective laws whatever are worth having. 

Limiting the number or quantity of trout one person in one day may take 
would certainly be wise. The Forest Preserve belonging to all the people, and 
its fishing privileges and fish being theirs in common, and since there is not now 
"enough to go around," legal restraint of those who selfishly would take more 
than their share is right in principle and has become necessary. The golden rule 
needs to be put on the statute books, with penalties to back it up to make it 
effective — the millenium not yet having arrived. 

With all these provisions accomplished and in working order, the State and 
club hatcheries would play a still more effective and important part in their 
attempt to restore the sportsman's paradise lost. With the clubs owning and 
protecting their own preserves, they accomplish their object. The forest — 
their portion of it — is kept intact; the streams do not dry up; forest fires are 
prevented; small streams are sacred to the fingerling trout; the individual catch 
is limited to a reasonable number or weight; there are "rest days" for the fish, in 
which they gambol and leap and take flies without fear of a barbed hook; and 
the gray haired old sportsman who knew the virgin Adirondacks, as he passes 
through these parks, dreams of the old elysium, feels anew the thrill which in 
his younger days filled every nerve with delight. 

Those who are inclined to rebel against the fact that men of wealth have 
appropriated the best parts of the Adirondacks and closed the gates to all but 
themselves and their friends have this to console them, that but for these rich 
men and clubs the same senseless and destructive abuse of the forest and fish 



284 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

which has prevailed elsewhere would have devastated these preserved spots; 
that something has been rescued from the gross selfishness of the pot fisherman, 
the thoughtless greed of the so-called sportsman, the "worse than an infidel," 
who skulks along the little streams and murders the fingerlings, and that chief of 
sinners, the slashing lumberman. These portions of the forest have been, literally, 
"snatched from the burning." It will at least afford the sad-eyed outsider grim 
satisfaction to remember that some of the fish and game, bred and preserved 
here, escape to the yet open streams and forest which he may capture — if he can. 
He may have some liberal crumbs if not a full loaf, when, except for them, the 
crumbs would be lacking. Nevertheless, without further loss of time or oppor- 
tunity, the State, and not individuals, should purchase all the remaining "choice 
places " and hold them in perpetual trust for all the people. That is the present 
pressing duty, the performance of which the "plain people" insistently demand. 

The State is struggling against many obstacles, with a wider domain to look 
after and protect, with laws less effective than the regulations of private owners 
and clubs, to accomplish the same good purpose. Hatcheries, game protectors and 
foresters do much, but more stringent laws, well enforced, will aid much, 
and their aid is needed to carry out effectively the will of the people when they 
dedicated this State Park for the use of the people. It is of pressing importance 
to purchase detached tracts which now separate those already owned by the State. 
The laws already provide for it; let the appropriations follow. These parcels are 
increasing in value, and it is good business policy on the part of the State 
to purchase them at the earliest possible time. And while they thus divide the 
park into detached portions the difficulty of guarding the State lands is vastly 
increased. 

The effects of dams upon rivers and outlets of lakes in the Adirondacks have 
been both disastrous and beneficial, so far as the pleasures of sportsmen are 
concerned. Two notable instances are the dam raising Cranberry Lake, constructed 
many years ago, the other of comparatively late construction on Beaver River 
where the Beaver River Club has its preserve. The former flooded a large tract 
of land, made the formerly beautiful lake a region of ghostly dead trees along the 
shores lined with the "groaning dead wood, in pain with every wave," and on 
the low grounds great swamps of tangled upturned roots and still standing dead 
trees, a veritable picture of nature's woe and despair. Time, however, has at 
length made the lake shores normal again, and the State has made a commodious 
passage way up the sluggish inlet to the mushroom town of Wanakena. Enlarge- 
ment of the lake and the backing of the waters of the stream entering it made 
this body of water, by its size and other conditions, one of the best breeding 




JOE" DUNBAR. 



FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACK^. 285 

grounds and fish food productive waters in the Adirondacks, where the largest 
trout grow and afford the finest sport yet remaining in the whole State. For 
a time it seemed as if fish pirates, lumbermen and increasing hordes of fishermen 
could not affect the fish production, but the time has at length arrived when even 
these grand waters are yielding to the inevitable effects of abuse and overfishing. 

The Beaver River dam flooded the long valley through which the river used 
to wander and wind, with beauty and delight at almost every turn of its crookedness, 
and where the good fishing holes were, and numerous deer tracks on sandy 
points told of the nightly family gatherings by the grateful waters. The bushy, 
line-entangling alders, and the overhanging trees and all the green and lush 
vegetation, and bird songs, and camping places, and everything else at the memory 
of which the old sportsman's heart leaps, are gone, all gone, and a desolation 
indescribable has taken their place. Yet, the State is trying to redeem some 
portions of this dear old resort and has already removed some of the ugliness, 
and the lake that has been formed is becoming, and later on will become, a 
beautiful resort. For a time the trout lost their reckoning, could not find their 
old nesting beds, or discover new ones, and despairingly wandered about the flooded 
lands. At length they have found new homes for domestic life, learned where 
food abounds in the new conditions, and have become happy, large, fat and numerous. 
The fishing there was never better than now — but, then, the waters are protected. 

The streams below the dams have also been benefited. The uneven flow in 
summer — especially since wholesale tree cutting destroyed so much of the spongy 
soil which used to be the regulator of the flow of the streams — has been 
regulated and the normal flow measurably sustained. Utilitarianism and the 
needs of the hungry mills below, in this case, have been the sportsman's friend. 

One does not want to, and cannot if he wants to, fish all the while. Some 
days the trout seem to take a short vacation of a day or two (alas! sometimes 
a week or two), and often during the day they indulge in a siesta. Then is the 
time when that much-abused "camera fiend," who loves to take the beauties of 
forest and stream home with him for his winter's solace, gets in his work. In 
the days of dry plates — "films" not yet having been introduced — a camera 
carrying a glass dry plate, 5 by 8 inches in size, was almost invariably a part of 
the writer's luggage. It traveled over many a mile of trail and along many a stream, 
in the pack basket of a guide, and was almost always our companion in the 
canoe. When the fishing was dull, especially at the siesta hour of the trout, 
or whenever a particularly interesting and picturesque scene presented itself, the 
camera was elevated upon its three spindling legs, the loaded plate holder put in 
position, and the vision of beauty captured for the friends at home and for the 



250 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

angler's own delight in the coming long winter evenings, when a sniff at the "tar 
oil " bottle, and a pipe of the fragrant weed, and the photographs, revived 
precious memories of happy days. 

And then, too, the particularly good "catch" was photographed, furnishing 
indisputable evidence of the truth of the fish stories we told to our wonder- 
ing friends — and skeptical stay-at-homes — the only disadvantage being that one 
had to be reasonably truthful, contrary to all precedent in the matter of fish 
stories. Camp scenes, also, were admirable subjects. The walls of the "den," 
snug and warm, where this article is being written while a blizzard is raging 
outside, this cold winter's night, are adorned with scenes of camp, lake, river, 
mountain, falls. The pictured outlines of a 3^-pound trout, taken with the fly 
at the "Glory Hole" on the upper Oswegatchie, almost seem to start into life in 
such company, and the broad tail — no, it doesn't move! It is the imagination 
and memory of his captor that revel in the scenes, but the trout is not dashing 
along the wall into that other picture, the beautiful river with its overhanging 
banks and cool retreats. 

The big, heavy camera and glass plates have been stowed away. The kodak, 
with its films, fits the large loose pocket and does not expose the old sportsman 
to the quiet scorn of — the other sort of folks. When this lover of pictures gets 
home, he looks over his prints (he lets the photographer make them), selects 
those he loves best and has enlargements made of them. Look around these 
walls, and see if, after all, it doesn't pay to fish, even with a camera! 

After all, what is the secret of this fascination of fishing in the Adirondacks 
which we old sportsmen feel; which makes us count the days when in February 
they begin to lengthen, and later we watch the reports about the ice going out? 
Is it the heat and discomfort of the hot July days that drive us out of our homes 
into the cool forest? Or, is there not something there that draws us thither? Is 
it the fishing alone; the fierce leap of the trout when the fly alights on the 
water; the thrill of the strike; the joy of the fight and victory; visions of full baskets, 
and the memory of rich, unique feasts? 

These do, indeed, let us confess, draw us, and move us; but there is something 
still stronger — a haunting memory of a subtle something one never can quite 
define even to his own consciousness. The solemn forest, all the mysteries of 
sound, the low murmur of the pine leaves, the sweet odors of soil and vegetation, 
the silences, the glittering waters, the dark-hued pools, the hermit thrush's note 
at evening — a hundred other things we can name and label; but beyond all 
these there is something like the secret of what is life itself, which no mortal 
has ever solved. The humblest blade of grass, the tiniest insect, hides this 






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FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACK^. 287 

sublime secret of life, and laughs at man's ineffectual effort to reach the mystery 
by observation, analogy or analysis. So with this secret of the forest's enchantment. 

Better thus. All unknown but not unfelt the charm and mystic influence. 
Let us not pick our flower in pieces to find how and of what it is made. While 
we destroy the flower the secret escapes us — the life, the soul of this charm we 
would hold in our hands vanishes, like the odor of the flower. Let us enjoy 
the great beauty of nature with thankfulness, but without searching too curiously 
to know what her winning power is which she will forever hide from us. 

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the Adirondacks is the mountains, 
hidden among which are some of the best fishing ponds and streams. Some of 
them standing alone are majestic in themselves. Others, in huge masses and 
rugged, crowd together in hordes. Climb one that towers well toward the sky — 
Blue Mountain, for instance — and gaze upon the marvelous plan which nature 
has wrought out, the map of her handiwork spread before you, the vast stretches 
of forest in every direction, the gleaming lakes hidden in valleys, now brought to 
view, the silver streams winding their devious ways, but, above all, the grand 
outlines of the true Adirondack mountains ranging off to the northeast. There 
are no Alpine heights with snowy peaks, to be sure, but many bold and bald 
heights where storms and strong winds and possibly great fires have raged 
and wrought desolation, and a scene of such imposing majesty as to move you, 
it you have the reverent soul, to lift your eyes to the heavens over you and feel in 
your heart of hearts a new reverence and worship for the power of which this 
majestic grandeur is an expression. On such a day as this on the heights, the 
lover of the great forest gets very near the elusive secret of his love. For this 
day, the minor delights and joys of his forest life recede and are silent for a 
while, and this heart communion with the deities of this rugged garden of the 
gods fills all his soul. 

Blessed is the sportsman who can come now and then to this height of experience, 
and then descend to the common life retaining something of its inspiration. When 
again, in quieter scenes and in gentler ways, he, still a sportsman, but one who 
has seen visions and dreamed dreams, is tramping the shaded trails, or swaying 
his supple rod over smiling waters, or before the evening campfire talks with 
chosen companions and thinks of the themes of common life, there is a subconscious 
thought through it all, an undertone of feeling that came down the mountain 
with him hidden in the very soul of his soul. Of these he cannot talk; they are 
sacred, and henceforth, even if unconsciously, a part of his very life. 

"It is not all of fishing, to fish." 



288 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

And how this fascination — rather, this love — persists. Other pleasures grow 
dull ; the things which thrilled the nerves and made the blood hot with joy when 
youth and vigor were fresh and ardent cease to excite more than a languid 
interest when age creeps on apace; but as the old and wornout warhorse at the 
hurried beating of the drum and the clarion call of the bugle springs to his feet, 
ready for the charge upon the ranks of an unseen foe, so the " Old Adirondacker " 
at mention of his ancient haunts feels the old fire in his veins and his eyes gaze 
with a new light and longing off toward the forest scenes where his younger days 
were filled with an inexpressible joy. 

Some years ago (alas! it is a quarter of a century ago) the writer perpetrated 
upon the public a little volume of personal experiences and observations in the 
Adirondacks. One chapter was upon a happy summer at "Jock's Lake" (now 
Honnedaga) in 1863 — his first taste of the Adirondacks. An old friend, who for 
many months had been painfully and hopelessly ill, heard of the little book, sent 
to the bookstore for it, and amid the racking, torturing, almost insufferable 
pains of his body, read and reread the simple story of "Jock's Lake," where he 
had spent some of the happiest days of his life. They said that while reading 
it he forgot his pain and seemed to live over again with undiminished enjoyment 
those other happy days. His grateful letter to the author also told it all. It was 
a revelation of the strength and persistency of the fisherman's love of forest and 
angling. 

Another instance — but let this same little book tell it in a brief quotation. 
It happened (long ago, as we measure time in these days) at Paul Smith's, on 
the St. Regis: 

"There was one learned old doctor and professor from New Haven who 
interested me very much. He was quite infirm, and his son, who accompanied 
him, with filial devotion anticipated every want. The brave old man was out 
early every morning, and with a guide rowed around the little rocky peninsula, 
southeasterly from the hotel, to the mouth of a cold stream that comes through 
the tamaracks into the lake not far beyond. There at the edge of the lily-pads 
(successors of those noted by W. C. Prime in his delicious volume, ' I Go 
A-Fishing,' on page 125), he skillfully and patiently cast his flies until he took 
the one big trout awaiting his morning call, and then returned to the hotel to 
breakfast and for the day. 

"It was something more than a splendid trout that he brought to view as we 
met him at the landing. The young heart in the old body, the genuine enthusiasm 
of the veteran angler, the glorification of the gentle art which has soothed and 
comforted many an aged philosopher — all this he revealed to us, and we wanted 






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FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACK^. 289 

to lift the grand old man to our shoulders and bear him in reverent triumph up 
the ascent." » 

Possibly the "sportsman's view" — especially if he is past the age when 
Dr. Osier says he should be chloroformed — may be extended to another subject 
which concerns him indirectly, but very much. He will venture to "say his say." 

By the terms of section 7, Article VII, of the Constitution of 1894 the lands 
of the State, then owned or thereafter acquired, within the limits of the Forest 
Preserve, are forever to be kept as "wild forest lands." "They shall not be leased, 
sold or exchanged, or be taken by any corporation, public or private, nor shall 
the timber thereon be sold, removed or destroyed." This new provision of the 
Constitution outlined and fixed the policy of the State with reference to these lands. 

Chapter 220, Laws of 1897, created a Forest Preserve Board and provided for 
the acquisition of land and waters and structures within the territory embraced - 
in the Adirondack Park, or such portions thereof as such board may deem it 
advisable to acquire for the interests of the State. The board was given the 
power by a quick and simple proceeding to take, and reduce to immediate 
possession, such lands, etc., and to adjust the claims of the owners if they can 
be agreed upon. If they are unable to agree with the owner for the value of 
the property and the damages for taking it, the owner is given the right to go 
to the Court of Claims and obtain judgment therefor. 

This power to appropriate real property, so vested in the Forest Preserve 
Board, is limited to the appropriation of real property adjoining land already owned 
or appropriated by the State at the time the description and certificate (for the 
new appropriation) are filed in the office of the Secretary of State; "except that 
timber land not so adjoining State land may be appropriated whenever in the 
judgment of the board timber thereon, other than spruce, pine or hemlock, is being 
cut or removed to the detriment of t lie forest, or the interests of the State." 

The owner of land taken under the act of 1897 may at his option, to be exer- 
cised within certain limitations, reserve the spruce timber thereon ten inches or 
more in diameter at a height three feet above the ground; and land acquired 
by purchase may be taken subject to the reservation of the soft timber thereon 
down to eight inches in diameter on the stump with the right to remove the 
same. There are various restrictions on this reservation of timber and the exer- 
cise of the right; notably, the reservation does not include or affect timber within 
twenty rods of a lake, pond or river, and such timber cannot be reserved. By chapter 
94, Laws of 1 901, the Forest Preserve Board was abolished, and its powers 
(herein set forth) granted to the Forest, Fish and Game Commission; and two 
Commissioners of the Land Office may be designated to act with them. 
19 



29O REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

It may be presumptuous, but perhaps not unpardonable, to comment some- 
what suggestively upon some of these, in the main, most commendable provisions 
of the Constitution and statutes. The judgment of the Constitutional Convention 
and the Legislature solemnly expressed in Constitution and statute, doubtless took 
into account facts and conditions existing at the times of their enactment not 
readily ascertained or wisely considered by the general observer. 

In the laudable zeal to forever preserve the Adirondack^ as "wild forest lands," 
for economic reasons, the important economic fact seems to have been forgotten, 
or its importance minimized, that the forest contains and continually produces a 
vast wealth of timber much needed for both public and private uses and doomed 
under the provisions of the Constitution to inevitable decay, some portions of which 
might be removed, under wise regulation and strict supervision, without injury or 
detriment to the forest, its waters, its beauty or its productiveness as affecting 
the great rivers it feeds. The revenue that might be derived from utilizing the 
surplus timber would go far toward relieving the State treasury of much of 
the burden of administering the State's supervision of the Adirondack Park, and 
enabling the State eventually to acquire substantially all the lands within the borders 
of the Preserve. 

It seems quite possible that at no remote period the constitutional provision 
that the timber on the Forest Preserve shall not be sold or removed will be modified 
so as to permit sale and removal of some portions under such restrictions as will 
practically leave the Preserve "wild forest lands." 

It is very fortunate for all except the younger sportsmen that here and there 
throughout the Preserve there are private lands on which hotels and cottages 
have been and, as years go on, will be erected. They supply one great and 
important want of the people, and do not destroy, or tend to any great degree 
to destroy, the beauty or public use of the Preserve. The Fulton Chain of Lakes, 
Lake Placid, St. Regis Lake, Cranberry Lake, and many other lakes afford 
examples amply illustrating and supporting this view. The few facilities for this 
sort of use of the forest and its waters at Raquette Lake lead one to surmise 
what a misfortune it would be if throughout the Preserve no structure could 
be erected better or more ample than a tent. 

The wise policy of the Forest Preserve Board, and the Commission which 
succeeded it, in not seeking to appropriate by condemnation these lands and 
structures so occupied, notwithstanding its legal power to do so, is doubtless 
founded in a due appreciation of the benefits, to the people as a whole, of the 
existence of this private ownership, and improvement by way of cottages and hotels, 
of these practically exempted lands. Fortunately, public opinion and the evident 




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FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACKS. 291 

benefits of such a condition have sustained the Board in its recognition of the 
simple fact that, after all, it does not best serve the State or the people of the State 
to make all the Preserve "wild forest lands." 

And this leads to the further thought and questioning whether or not some 
carefully restricted and fairly exercised power should not be given to the 
Commission, in some future amendment to the Constitution — a power, possibly, 
to be exercised through an application to the higher courts — for the leasing, for 
moderate periods, of points of land upon some of the lakes, for hotel purposes 
or cottages, or both. This would be but an extension of the present policy 
which permits owners of private lands to retain their hotels and cottages in 
seeming violation of the intent of the Constitution to reduce the entire Preserve 
to "wild forest lands" — an intent which, if strictly carried out, would make it a 
"wilderness" indeed to three-fourths of the people who now enjoy its benefits. 

It might be supposed that one who ventures to pose as a "sportsman" and 
to give his "view" of fish, would have some expert and scientific knowlenge of 
icthyology in general and of Adirondack fishes in particular, but he confesses 
that he is one of those who go to the woods and waters principally to rest 
and enjoy and not so much to learn; that he loves the trout fisherman-wise and 
gastronomically, and to this day calls him Salmo fontinalis although he reads 
that he ought to say Salmo salvelinus; and although in his boyhood days he 
wrestled with Cicero's native tongue, he prefers plain "brook trout" to either. 
Yet he knows he is wrong and ought to be scientific in his nomenclature if he 
would be understood outside of his own bailiwick. 

He attempts, however, although conscious of his deficiencies, but borrowing ' 
from others who know, to give some facts about Adirondack fish in general for 
the possible benefit of some reader who is not already familiar with them. He 
is amazed at the outset to see how even scientific authorities differ in their 
scientific nomenclature of fishes, while the varieties of the common names of the 
same fishes in different localities are utterly confounding. It will be better 
to steer clear of difficulties by giving only a few names of well-known fishes 
than to plunge into the deep waters of a critical essay on the subject. 

Fred Mather, that genial gentleman and wise sportsman who wrote fascinating 
books on fishing, at the request of Verplanck Colvin, Superintendent of the New 
York State Adirondack Land Survey, in 1882, made a serious and protracted 
attempt by actual investigation to learn all about and describe scientifically the 
fishes inhabiting the Adirondack waters, and made a very full and clear report, 
published in Colvin's Report in 1891. Careful use here is made of Mather's 
article and of some later authorities. 



292 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The "Family Salmonidae " is first in importance, embracing as it does the 
original and most esteemed game fish of the Adirondacks, and some cousins of 
his later introduced. 

At the head of all stands the "brook trout" or "speckled trout" (Salmo salve- 
linns or fontinalis), native to nearly all the Adirondack waters. The " rainbow 
trout " of California (Salmo iridens) and "brown trout" of Europe (Salmo fario) 
have been introduced in late years, and thrive under the same conditions as the 
brook trout, and are not distinctively unlike the brook trout as game fish. The 
rainbow trout seems to thrive as well in deeper and warmer waters than brook 
trout require. 

The "lake trout" — erroneously called "land-locked salmon," "salmon," and 
"salmon trout" — (Salvelimis namaycush, also Cristivomer namaycush), as their 
names imply, inhabit a number of lakes. They require colder water than the 
brook trout and are usually found only in the deepest waters of those lakes which 
have a depth of forty or more feet. In the early spring, however, while the 
water is cold, they are found in shallow water near the shores and then are easily 
taken by trolling, and they sometimes rise to the fly. In the summer they must 
generally be fished for in deep water. In Fourth Lake, Fulton Chain, and perhaps 
in other lakes, they are taken in the summer by deep trolling. They are 
usually of good weight, from four to ten pounds, often weighing fifteen to twenty, 
occasionally much more. It is an excellent food fish. 

The "frost fish," sometimes called "white fish" (Prosopium quadrilaterale), 
belongs to the salmon family, and is a good food fish. It does not take the hook 
and is usually captured in the fall, in traps or nets, while running up the brooks 
to spawn. 

The "Family Centrarchidae," or bass family, are next in importance as game 
fish. Only one variety, however, is known to have been introduced into the 
Adirondack waters, namely, the " smallmouth black bass" (Micropteras bolomieii), 
not native to any of these waters, but introduced into many of them, notably in 
Raquette Lake and the Fulton Chain of Lakes, and wandering into others. As 
a game fish it deserves high rank, averaging a larger size than the brook trout, 
taking the fly readily, and making a gallant fight when hooked. Its cousin, the 
"Oswego bass," or " largemouth black bass" (Micropterus salmoides), resembles 
closely the smallmouth variety, and possibly has been placed in some of the lakes. 

The troublesome "rock bass" (Ambloplites rupestris), a nimble biter in waters 
where his gamier relatives exist, does not infest the Adirondacks. But the still 
humbler member of the bass family, the "sunfish," or "pumpkin seed" of our 



FISHES AND FISHING IN THE ADIRONDACKS. 293 

boyhood experience (Eupojuotis anvens), is found in great numbers, with the same 
bad habit of "taking the bait" which characterizes him in the outside waters. 

The "Family Esocidas," or "the pikes," are not native to the Adirondacks, 
but unfortunately, through ignorance and sometimes through malice, have been 
placed in waters inhabited by trout, proving to be among the most destructive 
enemies of that royal fish. The true "pike " {Esox lucins) and the " pickerel " (Esox 
reticulatus), a smaller fish of the Esox family ("pickerel" properly meaning "a 
little pike"), are often confounded with each other. The pike was found by Mather 
in Long Lake and Forked Lake, but now exists in quite a number of lakes. It is 
believed that the pickerel {Esox reticulatus) also has been placed in some Adiron- 
dack lakes. Guides and sportsmen usually, perhaps universally, apply the name 
"pickerel " indiscriminately to both varieties, and always in emphatic deprecation. 

The "Family Siluridae," "the cat fishes," are represented in Adirondack 
waters by the "bullhead" {Amiurus catus). They thrive best in sluggish waters 
having muddy bottoms. The fisherman for trout abandons his "choice spot" 
when the bullhead begins to take his bait. It is an excellent food fish when 
properly cooked. 

The "Family Anguilla," "the eels," has one representative in many Adiron- 
dack waters, "the common eel" {Anguilla rostrata), although its presence is 
hardly ever suspected by or made known to the sportsman. 

The "Family Calostromidae," "the sucker." Of these, four varieties were 
found by Mather in abundance in the Adirondacks — the "long nosed," "common," 
"June" and "dwarf." They bear a great variety of common names. In the 
Adirondacks they are of value as food for other and better fishes. 

The "Family Cyprinidae." In this "family" there are over a hundred 
genera, and nearly a thousand species. "In the Old World," says Mather, "there 
are several species of this family which grow to good size and are recognized as 
game fish. In America there is but one species which grows to a size that 
entitles it to the notice of the angler. This is the 'big chub,' 'fall fish,' 'roach,' 
etc. The other members of the family are lumped together in the popular 
nomenclature as chubs, dace, shiners and that name which covers a multitude of 
fishes, 'minnows.'' These smaller fishes are very abundant in most Adirondack 
waters and constitute the most important fish food upon which the existence of 
the trout and bass families largely depends. In lakes or streams where they 
do not abound, or other sufficient live food supply is not furnished, these noble 
game fish cannot live. The memory of many a gray-haired sportsman goes back 
to his juvenile days when with pin hook and tow string he had his first piscatory 



294 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

triumphs and joys at the foot of some mill dam with these same despised but 
useful little chubs, dace and shiners, and some of them still serve him as bait. 

Other fish food for the smaller fish found in the Adirondacks are insect 
larvae — of mosquitoes, "black flies," gnats, midges and "punkies." The larva 
of the helgramite fly is a famous bait for the black bass. The common crayfish 
and the little "fresh water shrimp" are excellent fish food, especially the latter, 
which forms an important part of the food of the trout family. 

The life of the fishes is in constant peril from natural enemies. The aquatic 
birds — loons, herons, fish eating ducks, kingfishers, fishhawks, and others — wage 
constant warfare upon them. The otters and minks unrelentingly pursue and 
destroy them. The fishes themselves are cannibals, devouring their own unborn 
babies in the egg and the helpless infants of their families, and by instinct the 
stronger devour the weaker. The savagery hidden under the calm surface of the 
waters parallels that upon the land among human savages. Nature, to meet 
those destructive agencies, has given to the fishes marvelous reproductivity, and 
the races and families, genera and species survive and flourish, holding an equilib- 
rium of existence practically undisturbed — until man comes with new modes of 
destruction. Then Nature is defeated in her wisely adjusted plan. The equilibrium 
is broken up. 

Just here is where the wisdom of the law comes in to check the indiscrimi- 
nately destructive work of man, and to help restore the fast failing powers of 
the hard pressed hosts of the fish kingdom to their true place and rank in the 
economy of nature. 

So, it is one of the most important departments of the work of the Forest, 
Fish and Game Commission so to administer the laws of the State and aid the laws 
of nature as to return to nature what the thoughtless greed of man and his 
unwise use of nature's gifts have rudely taken from her. 



Tf)e Albino rjroot, Troat* 

By Clifford R. Pettis, F. E. 

AT the various fish hatcheries of this State there have appeared in the regular 
hatch of fry from eggs of both wild and domesticated brook trout, fry 
which were white. They have naturally been called albinos. In some 
cases they have been selected and reared separately. At other times they have been 
raised without any particular care, planted with the general stock, and been lost 
to notice. 

The albino brook trout is a form of our common brook trout, the Salvelinus fonti- 
nalis. It differs from the regular form only in color. Its skin is a creamy white, 
mottled or barred with brownish yellow, the white" on the ventral side shading to 
the darker color of the dorsal portion. The dorsal and caudal fins are yellowish, 
while the lower fins are light colored. The eyes are pink. 

Albino Trout in tl)is 5*^- 

The first authentic record of albino trout in this State that I am able to find 
were those raised by the late James Marks, then foreman of the State Hatchery 
at Caledonia. About 1875 some albino fry appeared among the hatch of that 
season, from which a female fish was raised that lived to be six years old, and 
attained a length of about eleven inches. When she was three years old she produced 
eggs Having no albino male, her eggs were fertilized by an ordinary brook trout. 
The fry produced were mostly straight brook trout, but a few, however, were 
albinos. All record of the fry thus hatched has been lost. Albinos have appeared 
at this hatchery from 1880 to 1888, the number varying from 15 to 300 in a 
season. No particular attention was paid to them, and they were planted with 
the others. Albino brown trout have also been hatched at the Caledonia Hatchery. 

At the Fulton Chain Hatchery, albinos appear nearly every season both among 
the lake and brook trout fry. Foreman Davidson, in 1902, saved five from the fry 
hatched that spring out of 300,000 brook trout eggs. Four of these lived and 
were liberated with the other fingerlings in the same year. 



* A portion of this article appeared in a contribution by the same author to the June number 
of Science, 1904, and is reprinted here by permission. 

295 



296 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The late Seth Green, who for many years had charge of all the fish hatcheries 
of this State, wrote an article in 1885 from which the following extract is taken. 
"Another curiosity which is sometimes seen in the propagation of fish is the 
albino, as perfectly as could possibly be imagined, pure white with pink eyes. 
They are quite rare, probably not more than one making its appearance among a 
million fry. On several occasions Ave have kept them until they were several 
months old, and four until they were two years old, when all but two were caught 
by kingfishers. They are such a perfect mark and can be seen so much easier than 
other trout that they are easily caught. One was raised until it was three years 
old when unfortunately it died, much to the regret of all as it was a great curiosity 
to visitors. From this fish we took 300 eggs and impregnated them with ordinary 
brook trout. A good percentage of the spawn hatched, but the young showed no 
differences from the ordinary fry. 

Albino brook trout were raised at the Sacandaga State Hatchery from eggs 
taken from wild fish. At least one of these fish lived to be two years old. 

At the Adirondack Hatchery, Saranac Inn, albinos have hatched nearly every 
year. In March, 1902, there were about fifty of them from an entire hatching 
of 800,000 eggs taken from both wild and confined brook trout. As there were so 
many they attracted attention and were put by themselves. They received the 
best of care, but only four lived. Two of these are typical specimens, con- 
forming to my description, while the other two are without the colored spots. 
Color, silvery ; black eyes, and appear to be barren fish. They have all been 
kept in the races at the hatchery and fed on ground liver. One of the pure albinos 
is a male and the other a female. November 10, 1903, when the two albinos were 
twenty months old, they were stripped for eggs and fertilization. At that time 
their combined weight was approximately one half pound, the female being much 
the larger. 

Foreman Winchester made the following experiments in fertilization: First 
cross, 527 eggs from female albino x albino male ; second cross, 103 eggs from 
female albino x natural male; third cross, 424 eggs from natural female x albino 
male. The eggs, after fertilization, Avere placed in the hatchery races the same as 
done with all brook trout eggs. The hatching began March 1, 1904, and continued 
until the thirteenth of the same month, the period of incubation being the same 
as that for the other trout eggs. The results of the hatching were as follows: 

First cross, . . 32 hatched, . . approximately 6 per cent. 
Second cross, . ..' 4.3 hatched, . . approximately 42 per cent. 
Third cross, . . 416 hatched, . . approximately 98 per cent. 




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THE ALBINO BROOK TROUT. 297 

The fry from the pure albino strain all died within sixty days from time of 
hatching. Their characteristics of color were pure albino. Their weakness 
is indicated in that only six per cent of the eggs proved fertile, and that several of 
the fish were imperfect. Those that hatched from the second cross all died 
within thirty days. Those from the third cross are all living and making a fine 
growth. As the fry from the eggs of the pure albino female lived so short a 
time it would indicate her weakness. 

On the other hand, the eggs of a wild trout fertilized by the albino male 
produced a higher percentage of fertile eggs than is generally secured in fish 
culture. One hundred of the fingerlings from the third cross were given 
to the Carnegie Institute, for research work at their laboratory, Cold Spring 
Harbor, N. Y. The fry from both the second and third crosses resembled 
almost entirely their natural parents, the albino characteristics having practically dis- 
appeared. 

Some fry from both ordinary trout and the pure albino were sent to 
Dr. Charles K. Winne, Jr., of the Bender Laboratory, Albany, N. Y., who made a 
microscopic examination and reported as follows: "The ordinary fry contain an 
abundant layer of pigment in and just beneath what would correspond to the epider- 
mal layer in human skin. In the albino fish there is absolutely no appearance of 
pigment anywhere." Hence it is conclusive that this difference of color is simply 
one of presence or absence of pigment under the outer skin. These fish were 
exhibited at the State Fair, in Syracuse, last fall, where the male died on 
account of someone shutting off the water supply from the tank. The male at that 
time had reached a length of nine inches. The female is now ten and one half 
inches long } and will weigh about half a pound. 

Albino*} at Private Hatcheries. 

Mr. James Annin, Jr., proprietor of the Caledonia Trout Ponds, says: "I 
have had quite a number of albino brook trout hatch m past years, but have 
no memorandum on this subject. In 1902 I had four or five fine albino yearlings 
that I raised from fry. In the spring, when they were yearlings, we placed 
them with some brook trout yearlings in a tank provided with plenty of shade. 
But with all our care, as they were so conspicuous, the kingfishers got them all 
before they had been in the tank a week. I have hatched albinos from both 
wild and domesticated brook trout. I have also hatched albino brown trout. These 
fish were a creamy white with pink eyes. At my Randolph Hatchery, in 1899, I had 
an albino brown trout that weighed nearly three pounds. I gave this fish to 



298 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

the New York Aquarium. The albinos mentioned above were strong, and perfect 
in every way, and fully as large as any of the fish from the same hatch." 

At the Combs Brook Hatchery, belonging to the Adirondack League Club, 
out of 300,000 brook trout eggs hatched in 1897 there appeared four pure albinos. 
One of these lived to a year old, and reached a length of five inches. 

Mr. A. W. Marks, who has had charge of private hatcheries at Cedar Island, 
Wis., at Detroit, and now at Munising, Mich., says: "We find more or less 
albinos among our fry, but more among the salmon or lake trout than among 
the brooks. One season at Cedar Island we hatched 100 of these fish. They 
were the pure albinos with pink eyes and white flesh, the fins tinged with 
pink. The eggs were taken from wild brook trout. The fish were raised with our 
brook trout until planted, and were as healthy and grew as rapidly as the others." 

United States; Hafcfyerie^. 

Mr. Livingstone Stone, Superintendent of the United States Fisheries Station, 
Cape Vincent, N. Y. author of "The Domesticated Trout," says; "About one 
albino trout appears from a million eggs that are hatched, and always from 
domesticated fish. I never saw pure albinos except from the ordinary eastern 
brook trout. My fish died soon after beginning to feed, and had attained the 
same size that brook trout of that age reach." 

Albino^ in Otfyer 5?&fe<y 

Correspondence with several commercial fish hatcheries in Massachusetts brings 
different replies. In some cases they never heard of an albino while others say 
they have a few each year. They gave them no particular attention and they 
disappeared with the others. 

The Minnesota State Fish Hatchery, at St. Paul, has had remarkable success 
in the propagation of these fish. In 1893 they got three albinos from the fry 
hatched that year. Two of these died later and one reached maturity. Two 
years later three or four were found, and two of these reached maturity. From this 
beginning they now have some 25,000 eggs, about 10,000 fry, and perhaps 500 
adults of all ages. The first albinos hatched came from pond fish which were 
raised from wild ones. Mr. S. F. Fullerton, Executive Agent, advises me that they 
fertilize the albino egg with milt of the albino male, and that the result is 
pure albinos every time. A dark fish has not appeared among them in several years. 
They propagate them entirely from this strain, the fish being all domesticated 
and fed on liver. They make the same growth as the native brooks and are just as 



THE ALBINO BROOK TROUT. 299 

game; in fact, he thinks the young are more lively than those of the brook trout. 
Mr. Fullerton tested their gameness and ability to secure food by throwing 
minnows to Scotch, German brown spotted, rainbow, native brook and albino 
trout and steelhead salmon. The albino got their minnows quicker than the 
other varieties. At St. Paul they have tried experiments in crossing back, taking 
the female native brook trout and the male albino, also vice versa, but they have 
never been able to propagate any white ones from this experiment. They always 
tone back to the original. 

Commissioner Meehan, of the Department of Fisheries, State of Pennsylvania, 
writes as follows: "Several years ago a few albino trout appeared in a hatchery 
at Corry four or five years in succession. One year there were about one 
hundred, but in other years there were not more than half a dozen. This was at 
least twelve or fifteen years ago, when the annual output of the hatchery was 
about a million and one half. Since then they have not appeared at Corry, 
and there has never been any albinos at the other hatcheries. They were all hatched 
from impounded fish eggs, and never from wild fish. You will notice from the 
above that the percentage of albinos was very small. They were all pure albinos 
with pink eyes. Apparently the albino thrived as well as the ordinary trout, 
except that their growth was not as rapid. We have never had albinos among 
fish other than trout. We are now raising about seven millions of trout annually, and 
from the fact that we find no albinos among them their rarity is indicated." 

Hon. W. H. Venning, for twenty-two years Inspector of Fishing and Fish 
Hatcheries in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, writes that he never saw an albino 
trout, and that my letter asking for information was the first intimation he had 
that such a fish existed. 

Correspondence with many noted fishermen indicates that if albinos exist 
among wild fish they are rare, as none of these gentlemen ever saw one. 

(Jlbintsro and Color in Animal^. 

Albino is a term first applied by the Portuguese to the white negroes of West 
Africa, but now applied to any individual in which there is a congenital deficiency 
of pigment in the skin, hair, iris and choroid of the eye. The skin is abnormally 
pale, the hair is white or pale flaxen, and the iris is pink. Animals thus 
affected are albinos. The absence of pigment in the iris renders the eye of an 
albino sensitive and partially blind in the sunlight. Mr. Livingstone Stone thought 
that his albinos were blind ; but probably it was only the absence of pigment in the 
iris which caused them to appear blind. Albino brown trout raised by the State 



300 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

in the Caledonia Hatchery were put in outdoor ponds when they were yearlings, 
where the sunlight caused their eyes to bulge out of their heads, and the fish 
died in a short time. 

Albinism is a condition known among all races, and all people; hence, neither 
climate nor race are its causative factors. The most widely accepted theory is that 
the condition is due to the arrest of the development of the pigment layer in the 
embryo. Cushing found it frequently among the Zuni and other tribes in Arizona, 
and its form was not confined to man, but occurs frequently among rabbits, mice, 
birds, and other lower animals as well as in plants. An albino is usually 
considered a sport or freak of nature — e. g., when one of a brood of crows or 
blackbirds is white — but albinism tends to become hereditary and establish itself, 
as in white mice, white rabbits, and white poultry. Similarly, albino brook trout 
have become established at the St. Paul Hatchery. Albinos are distinguished 
from animals that are naturally white, as the snowy heron or polar bear; 
also, from those that are periodically white, as the arctic fox and polar hare. Some 
animals are more susceptible to albinism than others, but probably all are liable to 
have this deficiency or total lack of pigment which constitutes the affection. 
Among the mammals, albinos are not uncommon among our Adirondack deer, 
woodchuck, hedgehog and a few others. 

The opposite of albinism, melanism, occurs when there is an undue development 
of coloring matter in the skin and its appendages. We refer to this condition in 
people by saying, "they have a very dark complexion." Among the animals 
it is noticed in their pelage and in the plumage of birds. It occurs frequently in 
some groups — e. g., squirrels and hawks; sometimes it becomes an inherent 
specific character, as in the black rat {Mits rattus), which is believed to be a 
permanent melanism of the white-bellied rat. The black squirrel appears as a form 
of the red squirrel. 

Albinism and Chancre °f Color in FisI). 

There are very noticeable differences in the color of fish caught from different 
waters. These differences of color are usually caused by one or more of the 
following conditions: 

Depth cf Water. — Deep water is darker, and the fish become darker through 
adaptation to their surroundings. Similarly, shallow water is lighter and the fish 
are lighter colored. 

Nature of the Bottom. — Fish that live in bodies of water that have a 
light-colored bottom have a tendency to be light colored, while those in waters 
that have a dark-colored bottom r.re d~rker. 



THE ALBINO BROOK TROUT. 3OI 

Shade. — Fish in water that is densely shaded are darker than those living in 
the open under similar conditions. 

The breeding season produces periods of changes in color. 

The amount of food and kind of food are said to produce changes in the 
color of the fish. 

Certain waters seem to be particularly adapted for trout, and in some waters a 
large number of minute hydra exist which is thought to produce a greater number 
and more intense coloring of the small red spots on the sides' of the fish. 

These changes are accounted for by an increase or decrease of the black, red, 
and yellow pigment cells or chromatophores in the skin of the fish; or by rapid 
contraction or expansion of the chromatophores which happen to be developed. 
Black chromatophores predominate in a fish which lives in deep water on a black 
bottom. This is an example of the melanic form. Fish that live in shallow 
water with light-colored bottom have the pale chromatophores predominating. 
These differences in depth of water, shade, and nature of the bottom would have 
no effect in producing changes in the color of albinos, as they have no chromato- 
phores. 

An ordinary fish can be changed in color by an experiment in an aquarium. 
If the light coming from above, to an aquarium, is cut off and all light is admitted 
from below, thus reversing the usual direction of the light ray, the fish will 
become light on the back and dark on the belly. This would seem to indicate 
that the color of fish is due in part to the direct effects of light, a fact 
which has been denied. The different colors of fish are produced by different colors 
of pigment in their skin, the same as different races of people are distinguished by 
the different colors of their pigments. Many fish living in caves, but not all, have 
lost their color and become white and limpid; but in the deep sea, where no light 
comes, the fish are said to be usually pearly or black. 

Dr. Gunther, in his book "Introduction to the Study of Fish," says: "Total 
absence of chromatophores in the skin, or albinism, is very rare among fish; 
much more common is incipient albinism in which the dark chromatophores 
are changed into cells with a more or less intense yellow pigment. Fishes in a state 
of domestication, like the Crucian carp of China, the carp, the tench, and the ide, 
are particularly subject to this abnormal coloration and are known as the common 
gold fish, the gold tench and the gold orfe. But it occurs also, not rarely, in fishes in 
a wild state and has been observed in haddock, flounders, carp, roach and eels. The 
amount of variation is greater in fish than in any of the higher class of vertebrates. 
Greater in some families than in others Naturally greater in the few species 
which have been domesticated." 



302 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



Besides the albino forms of brook, lake, and brown trout to which I have 
referred, the United States Fish Commission has reared to adult form albino 
landlocked salmon. As they did not prove productive under domestication the 
experiment was abandoned. 

There are some reasons why albino trout will never become common as a wild 
fish. First, there are the natural enemies of fish, such as the kingfisher and blue 
heron (crane), which live on fish they catch from the water. The albino being 
so noticeable, on account of its color, is most likely to be caught. I have already 
related a few circumstances where this has occurred. The Pennsylvania Department 
of Fisheries received about two hundred albinos from the Minnesota Commission 
last summer, and Commissioner Meehan says: "I am sorry to say all of them 
were devoured by cranes in a single day while the employees of the hatchery were at 
their dinner." On account of their color, they would be a prey of the other fish 
in the same water. Their rarity is another factor. Judging from the success of 
the Minnesota Commission there is no doubt but that they can be propagated, 
and will be able to secure their food in competition with other fish. Their chief 
value seems to lie in their beauty as a fish for exhibition purposes. 




Description of Colored Plates 



Channel Cat 



304 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



CI)<3.11nd C&t (ylctalurtis punctatus Rafinesque). 

Ictalnrus punctatus Jordan, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Hist., 95, 1876; Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. 16, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 108, 1883; Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., I, 134, 1896, 
pi. XXV, fig. 58, 1900. 

This species is variously styled the channel cat, white cat, silver cat, blue 
cat and spotted cat. It is found over a vast extent of country, including the 
Mississippi and Ohio Valleys and the Great Lakes region. In the Eastern States 
it is absent from streams tributary to the Atlantic, but occurs from Vermont 
south to Georgia, westward to Montana, and southwestward to Mexico. In 
Pennsylvania it is limited to the Ohio and its affluents. 

The adults of this species are bluish silvery, and the young are spotted with 
olive. It is one of the handsomest of the family of catfishes and an excellent 
food fish. The spotted cat grows to a length of three feet and a weight of 
twenty-five pounds. It is extremely variable in color and in number of fin rays, and 
has consequently been described under more than twenty different names. It is 
most abundant in large, clear streams. The species is less hardy than most 
of the other catfishes. 





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Red Horse 



306 REPORT OK THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Red HorSC (Moxosto?na aurcolum LeSueur). 

Catostomns aureolus DeKay, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes, 201, pi. 42 fig. 133, 1842. 

Moxostoma aureolum Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. 16, U. S. Nat. Mus., 140, 1883; Bean, Fishes 
Penna., 30, 1893 ; Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., I, 192, 1896. 

The red horse has the additional names of golden red horse, golden sucker, 
mullet, golden mullet, and lake mullet. It inhabits the Great Lakes and the 
region northward, also the Ohio Valley. It is common in Lake Erie, but not in 
Ohio. 

This, species grows to a length of 18 inches and is one of the handsomest of the 
suckers. Prof. Forbes records it from lakes of Northern Illinois, also abundantly in 
the central part of that State. 

Dr. Evermann, in collecting fishes of the Lake Ontario region, secured it at the 
following localities: Lake Ontario, four miles off Nine Mile Point, N. Y. , June 12, 
1893; Lake Shore, three miles west of Oswego, July 17, 1894; mouth Salmon River, 
July 25, 1894; Long Pond, Charlotte, N. Y., August 17, 1894; Sandy Creek, North 
Hamlin, N. Y. , August 20, 1894. 

DeKay records the species as very common in Lake Erie. In August and 
September he observed them to be full of worms. In his New York Fauna, Fishes, 
p. 198, he describes a sucker or mullet under the name Oneida Sucker. This he 
stated is common in Oneida Lake. The species is considered identical with 
Moxostoma aureolum. His description shows a very close agreement with that of 
aurcolum. 

The food of the red horse consists chiefly of mollusks and insects. It is not 
a choice food fish. 

Eugene Smith records this form as occurring in the vicinity of New York 
City. Mention has already been made of the doubt concerning the northern 
limits of the range of macrolepidotum ; but for the sake of comparison the brief 
description of macrolepidotum published by Jordan & Evermann is given herewith. 

Head moderate, rather stout, its length four and three fifths in body; eye one 
and two thirds in snout ; dorsal fin with its free edge concave; scales usually with 
dusky shade at base; lower fins pale. Streams about Chesapeake and Delaware 
Bays and southward to North Carolina. It seems in some respects intermediate 
between M. aureolum and M. crassilabre ; we cannot at present identify it with 
either. 




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308 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Cr&ppiC (Pomoxz's annularis Rafin'esque). 

Pomoxis a?imclaris Bean, Fishes Penna., 103, pi. 30, fig. 59, 1893 ; Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 
47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 987, 1896, pi. CLIV, fig. 415, 1900. 

Color clear silvery olive, the sides mottled with dark greenish blotches. On 
the upper part of the body are traces of narrow vertical bars. The dorsal and 
caudal are mottled, but the anal is usually uniform pale. 

Among the many names which have been applied to the crappie are: Bachelor, 
newlight, campbellite, Sac-a-lait, bridge perch, strawberry perch, chinquapin perch, 
speckled perch, tin perch, goggle-eye, John demon, shad, white croppie and timber 
croppie. 

The crappie is a very general favorite for pond culture, can be readily 
transported and under favorable conditions multiplies prodigiously. Its range has 
been very much extended by artificial means. The best distinguishing marks 
between the crappie and the calico bass are the more elongated form of the crappie, 
the presence of six spines in the dorsal and the nearly uniform whitish color of the 
anal. In the crappie the greatest depth of the body is usually contained two 
and one half times in the total length .without the tail, while in the calico 
bass the depth equals one half the length. These two species are so similar in 
size and habits that they are rarely distinguished except by ichthyologists. 

The crappie grows to a length of about one foot and usually weighs one pound 
or less, but in a lake near St. Louis an individual weighing three pounds has 
been recorded. 

Crappie fishing usually begins in June and lasts till the coming of cold weather. 
Large numbers of these fish are collected near Quincy, 111., for distribution to 
other waters. At Peoria, 111., Prof. Forbes has taken them in March and April; 
he has found them also in Pistakee Lake and at Ottawa. Cedar Lake, Ind., and 
Kings Lake, Mo., are celebrated crappie waters. Near Covington, Ky., in private 
ponds belonging to Joseph Schlosser, there are myriads of crappies as well as 
other game fishes. 

The crappie is a very free biter and can be caught readily with minnows or 
worms. Spoon bait has been successfully used in trolling for this species. It is 
recorded that two men have taken a thousand crappies in three days' fishing with 
hook and line. As the fish is gregarious, congregating in large schools, and fearless, 
it can be taken in the immense numbers given. The best bait for crappie is a 
small shiner. It rises well also to the artificial' fly. As a food fish this is one 
of the best in our inland waters, and its adaptability for life in artificial ponds 
should make it a favorite with fish culturists. 




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3IO REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Cioldj^isI) (Carassins auratus Linnaeus). 

Cyprinus auratus DeKay, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes, 190, 1842. 

Carassius auratus Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. 16, U. S. Nat. Mus., 253, 1883; Bean, Fishes 
Penna., 54, pi. 25, fig. 43, 1893. 

The common goldfish or silverfish is a native of Asia, whence it was introduced 
into Europe and from there into America, where it is now one of the commonest 
aquarium fishes and is extremely abundant in many of our streams. In 
Pennsylvania it abounds in the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. 

DeKay made the following remarks about the goldfish, or golden carp, as he 
styled it : 

"The golden carp, or goldfish, as it is more generally called, was introduced 
from China into Europe in the early part of the seventeenth century, and probably 
shortly after found its way to this country. They breed fresly in ponds in this 
and the adjoining States. They are of no use as an article of food, but are kept 
in glass vases as an ornament to the parlor or drawing room. They are said to 
display an attachment to their owners and a limited obedience to their commands." 

They are introduced into lakes, ponds, fountains and reservoirs generally. 
An individual was kept in a fountain at Forty-second Street and Fifth Avenue, 
New York, by Patrick Walsh nine years and was then presented to the aquarium. 

At Cold Spring Harbor Hatchery, L. I., several varieties were hatched from 
the same lot of eggs. These included the normal form, the typical fan-tail, and 
one which was so deep bodied that it could scarcely balance itself in swimming. 

The goldfish in the New York Aquarium were never troubled by fungus 
parasites. 

"In many of our streams and ponds, the goldfish has run wild, and hundreds 
of the olivaceous type will be secured to one of a red color. In the fauna of the 
moraine ponds and in quarry holes, the goldfish stands first. It will breed in 
foul water where only catfish and dogfish {Umbra) can be found." Eugene Smith. 

The goldfish is extremely variable in color and form. It is usually orange, or 
mottled with black and orange, yet in some streams and even in pond culture, 
silvery individuals are often more common than any of the mottled varieties. 
The species grows to the length of twelve inches. It spawns early in the spring 
and is subject to many dangers and is attacked by many enemies. The fish, 
however, is extremely hardy, prolific, and tenacious of life. 




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312 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



C&rp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus). 



Cypri?ius carpio DeKay, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes, 188, 1842; Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. 16, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 254, 1883; Bean, Fishes Penna., 55, pi. 1, colored, 1893. 

The carp is a native of Asia and has been introduced into Europe and America 
as a food fish, chiefly for pond culture. It thrives in all warm and temperate 
parts of the United States, and reaches its best condition in open waters. In 
Texas it has grown to a length of twenty-three inches in eleven months after 
planting. The leather variety is most hardy for transportation. Mr. Hessel has 
taken the carp in the Black and Caspian Seas; salt water seems not to be 
objectionable to it, and it will live in stagnant pools, though its flesh will 
be decidedly inferior in such waters. The carp hibernates in winter except in 
warm latitudes, takes no food and does not grow; its increase in size in temperate 
latitudes occurs only from May to August. 

The spawning season begins in May and continues in some localities till 
August. A carp weighing four to five pounds, according to Mr. Hessel, yields 
from 400,000 to 500,000 eggs; the scale carp contains rather more than the other 
varieties. During the spawning the fish frequently rise to the surface, the female 
accompanied by two or three males. The female drops the eggs at intervals 
during a period of some days or weeks in shallow water on aquatic plants. The 
eggs adhere in lumps to plants, twigs and stones. The hatching period varies 
from twelve to sixteen days. 

According to Hessel the average weight of a carp at three years is from three 
to three and one half pounds; with abundance of focd it will increase more 
rapidly in weight. The carp continues to add to its circumference till its thirty- 
fifth year, and in the southern parts of Europe Mr. Hessel has seen individuals 
weighing forty pounds and measuring three and one half feet in length and two 
and three fourths feet in circumference. 

The carp lives principally on vegetable food, preferably the seeds of water 
plants such as the water lilies, wild rice and water oats. It will eat lettuce, 
cabbage, soaked barley, wheat, rice, corn, insects and their larvae, worms and 
meats of various kinds. It can readily be caught with dough, grains of barley 
or wheat, worms, maggots, wasp larvae and sometimes with pieces of beef or fish. 

Large individuals are found in Prospect Park Lake, Brooklyn, where the 
species was introduced. The food of the fish in captivity includes hard clams, 
earthworms, wheat, corn, lettuce and cabbage. Its growth is remarkable; a 
leather carp has fully doubled its weight in one year. 






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314 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

I)tue~(iiU; f^lae 5 an fiS^ (Lepomis pallidus Mitchill). 

Labrus pallidus Mitchill, Trans. Lit. & Phil. Soc. N. Y., I, 407, 1815, near New York. 

Pomotis incisor Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VII, 466, 1831, New Orleans; 
DeKay, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes, 33, 1842 (extra limital). 

Lepomis pallidus Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. 16, U. S. Nat. Mus., 479, 1883; Meek, Ann. N. Y. 
Ac. Sci., IV, 313, 1888; Bean, Fishes Penna., 112, pi. 31, fig. 62, 1893; Jordan & 
Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1005, 1896, pi. CLX, fig. 427, 1900. 

The propriety of using Mitchill's name pallidus for the blue sunfish is extremely 
doubtful. His decision can be much more readily referred to a species of 
Enneacanthus, and the locality "near New York" does not possess this sunfish 
among its native species. 

The blue sunfish, blue bream, copper-nosed bream or dollardee is a very widely 
diffused species and varies greatly in size, color and length of the ear-flap. It is 
found in the Great Lakes and throughout the Mississippi Valley to Mexico. 
East of the Alleghanies it ranges from New Jersey to Florida. In Pennsylvania 
it is abundant only in the western part of the State, including Lake Erie. Dr. 
Abbott has recorded it from the Delaware River. Dr. Meek says that it is found 
in the Cayuga Lake basin in small numbers with the blue-spotted sunfish, Apomotis 
cyanellus, which he took near Montezuma. It is recorded also from Chautauqua 
Lake by Dr. Evermann. 

The blue sunfish grows to a length of nearly one foot, and individuals weighing 
nearly two pounds are on record. Adults, however, average eight inches in length, 
with a weight of less than one pound. The size of the individuals depends on the 
habitat. In large lakes and streams it grows to a greater size than in small 
bodies of water. In southern waters it attains to a larger size than in northern 
waters. It lives in ponds as well as in streams and thrives in warm waters. It 
is considered equal to the rock bass as a pan fish and can very readily be taken 
by hook fishing. 

In spirits the color is pale brown, the scales with a pale margin ; a dark blotch 
on the hind part of the soft dorsal; a black opercular flap, its width and length about 
equal, shorter than the eye. The living fish varies with age from light green to dark 
green. The young have the sides silvery, tinged with purple and with many vertical 
greenish bands, which are sometimes chain-like. The dark blotch of the soft 
dorsal is often indistinct in the young. In very old individuals the belly is often 
coppery red. 




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T^OOn-r^C (Hiodon tergisus LeSueur). 

Hyodon tergisus DeKay, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes, 265, pi. 41, fig. 130; Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. 16, 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 260, 1883. 
Hiodon tergisus Bean, Fishes Penna., 57, pi. 25, fig. 44 (named alosoides), .1893; Jordan & 

Evermann, Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. Mus., I, 413, 1896, pi. LXVIII, fig. 180, 1900. 

This species is called moon-eye, toothed herring and silver bass. It is found 
in Canada, the Great Lakes region and the upper part of the Mississippi Valley, 
being very common in large streams and lakes. It abounds in Lake Erie and the 
Ohio and is seined in large numbers. DeKay observed the fish in the Alleghany 
River, N. Y. He recorded it also from Buffalo and Barcelona, on Lake Erie, at 
which places it is known as moon-eye, shiner and lake herring. He says it is very 
indifferent food. 

This species grows to a length of one foot and, like the other, though a 
beautiful fish and possessed of excellent game qualities, its flesh is full of small 
bones. It is a good fish for the aquarium; it will take a minnow or the artificial 
fly very readily, and the utmost skill is required in its capture. Its food consists 
of insects, small fishes and crustaceans. 

Dr. Richardson describes this fish as a member of the minnow family, which, 
he says, is known to the Canadians under the name La Quesche. The fish is 
described as having the back brilliant green, sides and abdomen with a silvery 
luster. The specimens which were taken in the Richelieu, where it falls into the 
St. Lawrence, were about nine or ten inches long. 



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3l8 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

RpCr^ J>ass; I(ed-I^e (Ambloplites rupestris Rafinesque). 

Centrarchus aenens DeKay, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes, 27, pi. 2, fig. 4, 1842, Lake Cham'plain; Great 

Lakes; streams of Western New York; Hudson River. 
Ambloplites rupestris Bean, Fishes Penna., 105, color pi. 10, 1893; Jordan & Evermann, Bull. 47, 

U. S. Nat. Mus., 990, 1896, pi. CLVI, figs. 419, A, B, C; Meek, Ann. N. Y. Ac. Sci., IV, 

313, 1898; Eugene Smith, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. Y. for 1897, 33, 1898; Mearns, Bull. Am. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., X, 319, 1898; Bean, 52c! Ann. Rept. N. Y. State Mus., 104, 1900. 

Color olive green with a brassy tinge and much dark mottling; the young are 
pale or yellowish, irregularly barred and blotched with black; adults with a dark 
spot at the base of each scale, the spots forming interrupted black stripes; a 
dark spot on the opercle; soft dorsal, anal and caudal fins with dark mottlings; 
iris golden overlaid with crimson. 

The rock bass is known under a variety of names. Among them are the 
following: red-eye, red-eyed perch, goggle-eye and lake bass. It is found in Lower 
Canada, Vermont and throughout the Great Lakes region, West Manitoba, and 
it is native in Minnesota and Dakota ; southward it ranges through the Mississippi 
Valley to Texas. 

Under circumstances favorable as to water and food supply the rock bass 
grows to a length of fourteen inches and a weight of two pounds. It increases 
in depth and thickness with age. The largest example we have examined is one 
of two pounds weight, length fourteen inches, from the James River, Va., taken 
near Richmond. Dr. William Overton reports that rock bass weighing three and 
three fourths pounds have been taken in his vicinity at Stony Creek, Va. 

In February and March this fish frequents the mouths of small streams, and 
in summer it seeks shady places under high banks or projecting rocks. The 
species is gregarious, going in large schools It thrives where there is not much 
current and is very well adapted for culture in artificial ponds. It is as common 
in lakes and ponds as in the streams. Sluggish, pure dark water suits it best. 

The fishing season begins in June and lasts till the approach of cold weather. 
The rock bass feeds on worms, crustaceans and larvae of insects early in the 
season; later its food consists of minnows and crawfish. The young feed on 
insects and their larvae. The spawning season is May and June, and gravelly 
shoals are resorted to for depositing the eggs. 

The rock bass bites very freely and is a fair game fish and excellent for the 
table. It fights vigorously, but its endurance is not great. Suitable baits are 
white grubs, crickets, grasshoppers, crawfish and small minnows. Common earth- 
worms are also successfully used. 




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Hote5 on Adirondack inanimate 

Witl) Special Reference to tl)e Fctr-^earers. 



By Madison Grant.* 

THE Adirondacks occupy a somewhat unique position in relation to the 
faunal areas of North America and, being located at the meeting point 
of two of these life zones, contain an exceptionally varied group of 
animals. The earliest account of the zoology of this region is found in the 
"Description of New Netherlands" by Arnoldus Montanus, 1691, which contains 
some rather startling information and is worth quoting in full, as follows: 

"Lions, whose skins the Indians bring to market, are caught on a high 
mountain, situated fifteen days journey to the southwest. Here also are many 
pitch black bears, shy of men, but which when attacked, spring on the hunters; 
they first stop the wound with a pledget of leaves, and if the hunter, meanwhile 
take refuge in a tree, climb after and above him, then stick their head between 
their legs and fall downward. They sleep during winter, lying six weeks on one 
side and an equal time on the other, sucking their paw. A cripple bush or hollow 
mountain serves them for a resting place. 

"On the borders of Canada animals are now and again seen somewhat 
resembling a horse; they have cloven hoofs, shaggy manes, a horn right out of 
the forehead, a tail like that of the wild hog, black eyes, a stags neck and 
love the gloomiest wilderness; are shy of each other so that the male never 
feeds with the female except when they associate for the purposes of increase. 
Then they lay aside their ferocity; as soon as the rutting season is past, they 
again not only become wild, but even attack their own. 

"South of New Netherland are found numerous elks, animals which according 
to Erasmus Stella constitute a middle class between horses and deer. They 
appear to deserve the Dutch appellation (eelanden) from elende (misery) because 
they die of the smallest wound however strong they may otherwise be; also 
because they are frequently affected with epilepsy. They have broad branching 
horns, a short tail, a shaggy neck, variable hair, according to the difference of 
the season, wide and long ears, prominent lips, small teeth, a thick hide, which 
cannot be easily pierced. The females separate from the males when they have 



* Secretary of the New York Zoological Society. 

319 



320 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

shed their horns. Both can be easily tamed. They possess great strength of 
hoof so as to strike a wolf dead at a blow. The flesh either fresh or salted, 
is very nutritious, their hoofs cure the falling sickness. 

"But no game is more abundant here than deer, which browse everywhere in 
large herds. When flying before wolves or hunters they oft times head towards 
streams, betake themselves to the water, where they are taken in great numbers, 
forwhilst across they get frightened by the echo from the mountains raised by 
the hunters on the opposite bank; they dare not, consequently, approach land — 
meanwhile the hunters tie branches together, by which the deer after being chased 
are sometimes draped down."*' 



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15 ear. 

Among the larger animals the bear is, perhaps, in point of popular imagination, 
the most important animal in the North Woods. The variety found there differs 
in no respect from the widespread type species (Ursus americanus) which extends 
from Quebec to Georgia and westward to the Mississippi. At the borders of this 
range it is supplanted by closely allied subspecies, into which it merges by 
imperceptible degrees. 

There is no reason whatever why the bear should not be permanently protected 
in the Adirondacks and allowed to regain something of its former abundance. 
A step in this direction was made last year (1904) by the enactment of a law 
prohibiting for three months of the year the killing of this interesting animal. 
Legislation of this sort is at present a novelty, but protection will ultimately be 
extended during proper seasons to all animals not known to be noxious. The 
black bear is an absolutely harmless animal, feeding on berries, nuts and grubs, 
and only occasionally dining on flesh. In fact there is very little game that the 
bear is active enough to catch. 

As a feature of curiosity to visitors any live bear is worth to the State many 
times the value of its fur, and if it were protected throughout the year and freed 
from the annoyance of dogs there is no reason why the North Woods should not 
resemble the Yellowstone National Park, where not only the black bear but even 
the once dreaded grizzly now form most interesting exhibits. They can be 
seen daily in numbers near the large hotels in the Park, feeding on the hotel 
refuse. 

To accomplish such a result, however, it will be necessary to keep dogs out of 
the woods, and no effort to restore game can be wholly successful unless this 
is done. 



* The first paragraph evidently refers to panther and bear, the second paragraph probably refers 
to wapiti and possibly to caribou, and the third and fourth paragraphs clearly refer to moose and 
Virginia deer. — M. G. 



NOTES OX ADIRONDACK MAMMALS. 321 

In 1892 a bounty of ten dollars was placed on bear by the State of New 
York, and before the repeal of this law in 1895 bounties were paid on nine 
hundred and seven bears. During the autumn of 1904 it is estimated that about 
one hundred and fifty bears were killed in the Adirondacks, eleven of them weighing: 
over three hundred pounds each, and the largest recorded turning the scales at four 
hundred and twenty-eight pounds. 

Pumcr. 

The puma, panther or catamount {Felts concolor) is only recently extinct in this 
State, and is identical with the variety which was found throughout the eastern 
states north to the St. Lawrence, and through New England eastward to Maine. 

The American puma has an immense range, from British Columbia south to 
Patagonia and the Straits of Magellan, and is now being divided by naturalists 
into many species and subspecies. It preys chiefly on deer, only turning to smaller 
game when its accustomed food runs short. In the Yellowstone National Park 
the puma (known in the "West by the grandiloquent name of "mountain lion") 
has become very destructive to young elk and the wild sheep, and a systematic 
effort is now being made to destroy it, or at least to reduce its numbers. The puma 
is a. slinking and cowardly beast, and it is hard to account for the bloodcurdling 
stories about this big cat that once passed current. 

It would be interesting to record accurately the latest appearance of this 
animal in New York, as the most recent authentic occurrence in Pennsylvania 
was in 187 1. Rumors of puma are rife in the Adirondacks, but most panther 
stories can be traced to the screech owl. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, writing in 1886, says that he estimates that nearly one 
hundred pumas have been killed in the Adirondacks since i860. Since 1871 the 
State of New York has paid bounties for the killing of ninety-nine of these 
animals. Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., writing in 1899. says the animal still exists in the 
wilder portions of the Adirondacks. The last bounty was paid in 1894, for a 
puma killed in Herkimer County. This may well be the last of these animals 
in New York. 

The bison or buffalo {Bison americanus) was once found in the State of New 
York as far east as Syracuse, and may have reached the southwestern limits of 
the Adirondacks a couple of centuries ago. Stragglers entered the State all 
through the seventeenth century, but more exact information on this point 
is- greatly needed. 
21 



32 2 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Among the hoofed animals, the caribou (Rangifer caribou) occurred formerly 
in abundance in northern New England, southern Quebec and the Maritime 
Provinces, but never reached the Adirondacks. Probably the absence of suitable 
barrens had more to do with this than any climatic cause. 

The American elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis), on the other hand, was at 
one time numerous in the Adirondacks, to which it is now very properly being 
restored. It existed in the western half of the State during the early part of 
the last century. 

The Adirondack elk belonged to the type known as the eastern elk, which 
is probably now entirely extinct. The difference, however, between it and the 
well-known elk of the Rocky Mountains would not be great in the eyes of an 
unscientific observer. 

With the permission of Major W. Austin Wadsworth, the former President 
of the Forest, Fish and Game Commission of this State, a photograph is published 
herewith, showing antlers of several elk killed in the Genesee Valley about 1843. 
There is a definite record of an elk killed at Bolivar, in Allegany County, New 
York, in 1834. The celebrated Flag Swamp elk was killed in Elk County. Penn- 
sylvania, in 1867, and was probably the last of this species in the Allegheny 
Mountains, unless some stragglers lingered on later in West Virginia. 

The late Eli Parker, captain in the United States Regular Army, and a 
full-blooded Seneca Indian, who recently died at an advanced age, told the writer 
that, as a boy, he remembered clearly hearing the old men of his tribe, then 
located in western New York, tell of their annual hunts to the south — Pennsylvania 
— for elk, and to the east — Adirondacks — for moose. 

In 1901 an effort was made to restore this animal to the Adirondacks by 
liberating twenty-two elk, and in 1903 a large herd was liberated in the woods 
through the liberality of the late William C. Whitney. The attempt has been 
successful, and it is estimated that there are to-day fully two hundred of these 
splendid creatures at large in the North Woods. If from time to time some new 
stock is introduced — a few bulls would be sufficient — the elk will certainly be 
reestablished. 

The moose (A/ces americanns) is, of course, well known to have existed in the 
Adirondacks as late as the early '6o's and was specifically identical with the type 



NOTES ON ADIRONDACK MAMMALS. 323 

still inhabiting Quebec and Maine. A photograph of the only set of Adirondack 
moose antlers of which the writer has knowledge is reproduced herewith by 
permission of the American Museum of Natural History, where they are now 
on exhibition. These antlers were the property of the late Hamilton Fish, and 
belonged to a moose killed about 1855 in this State, one of the last of this species 
in the Adirondacks. 

The moose can easily be restored to the Adirondacks if a sufficient number — 
not less than one hundred individuals — be liberated under proper precautions. 
Sooner or later this will be done, and a very successful beginning has been made 
through the energy of Mr. Harry V. Radford and the Game Commission of this 
State. 

Deer. 

The deer of the Adirondacks (Odocoilens virginianus . borcalis) is probably as 
abundant to-day as at any former period, and bids fair to permanently adapt 
itself to the quasi-civilization which now prevails in the North Woods. It belongs 
to the northern variety of the Virginia deer, which embraces all the members of 
the genus from Pennsylvania north and east. The true type of Virginia deer 
(Odocoileus virginianus) is found to the south of this subspecies. 

It is a satisfaction to be able to note the entire success of the law prohibiting 
the hounding of deer, and also the recent change in public sentiment regarding this 
unsportsmanlike mode of hunting, in spite of the fact that the measure, when first 
proposed, met with violent opposition from the guides and innkeepers. New York 
was one of the last States to prohibit the use of hunting dogs, but the protection 
of game is everywhere becoming increasingly popular. 

About two thousand deer are killed annually in the Adirondacks, and that the 
species is not deteriorating is proved by the records of weight. In 1904 not less 
than thirty deer weighed, when dressed, above two hundred and up to two hundred 
and fifty pounds, certainly full size for the deer of this region. 

Among the smaller carnivora in the Adirondacks we find representatives of 
four families. 

Raccoon. 

The first of these, the Procyonidae, is represented in the Adirondacks by the 
raccoon, which is here found close to the northern limit of its range. The raccoon 
family is widely distributed throughout South and Central America and northward 
to the fiords of British Columbia. In the extreme northeast it is found on 
the borders of the Adirondacks, but seldom enters the more thickly wooded 
portions. 



324 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

It is probable that in the Adirondacks the raccoon will flourish, as it prefers 
clearings and open groves to the denser forest. In this respect the raccoon is in 
sharp contrast with the marten and fisher, both of which retire before the 
approach of civilization deeper and deeper into the woods. 

The wolf and red fox are the representatives of the second family, the 
Canidae, in the Adirondacks. 

Wolf. 

The Appalachian gray or timber wolf {Cants mexicanus nubilus) was originally 
very abundant in the Adirondacks and remained so down to 1871. That year a 
bounty was placed on wolf scalps, and, curiously enough, this animal became 
scarce. The disappearance of wolves at that time has never been satisfactorily 
explained, as from that date to 1897 only ninety-five, bounties were paid. There 
were said to be, in the early days, a gray and a black variety, but it is too late 
now to determine this question. 

Vanderdonck, writing in 1645 of the region of the lower Hudson River, says 
that on account of the ravages of wolves it was almost impossible to keep sheep 
in the colony. These animals find their chief food supply among the deer, and it is 
quite possible that the disappearance of wolves noted in 187 1 was due to a decrease 
in number of the latter, as hide hunters were very active in those days. It is 
interesting to note the persistence of wolves in Europe, where a considerable number 
are still annually killed in Germany and France, as contrasted with their rapid 
decline nearly everywhere in America. The universal habit of carrying firearms 
and the use of poison in this country probably account for the difference. 

That the wolf in the Adirondacks is not altogether extinct is evidenced by 
the bounty records, which show that six wolves were killed in each of the years 
1895, 1896 and 1897, although in the six years preceding no bounties were paid. 

Fox. 

The Adirondack red fox is indistinguishable from the type species {Vulpes 
fulvus), which extends from Minnesota to Nova Scotia and from Quebec and Maine 
to North Carolina. This fox is subject to color variations, culminating in the alihost 
priceless pelt of the black fox, and in that of the valuable silver or cross fox. 
These variations were once supposed to represent distinct species, but inasmuch 
as the animals showing them have been found in the same litter, the question is 
no longer open to dispute. The black and silver foxes are scarce in all countries, but 
tend to increase in numbers in the north. They appear to be particularly 
rare in the Adirondacks. 



NOTES ON ADIRONDACK MAMMALS. 325 

It is a well-known fact that the numbers of the fox, as of the lynx, fluctuate 
greatly. From 1853 to 1877, inclusive, the Hudson Bay Company sold in London 
260,775 re d, 59*650 cross and 20,100 silver and black foxes. This will afford some 
idea of the proportionate number of the several colors. 

Gra^ Fox. 

The gray fox (Urocyo)i cinereoargenteus) does not reach the Adirondacks, in 
fact, barely enters southern New York. 

Opossum. 

The Virginia opossum {Didelpliis virginiana) likewise occurs in the lower counties 
of the State, but does not reach the North "Woods. 

In the Adirondacks the only two members of the Felidae or cat family, in addition 
to the puma mentioned above, are the two lynxes. 

Canada L^nx. 

The Canada lynx {Lynx canadensis) is of wide distribution, and formerly 
extended south into Pennsylvania, along the line of the Alleghenies. It is, however, 
exceedingly rare, and in recent years has been almost unknown in the Adirondacks, 
although probably not altogether extinct. 

This animal, known to the Canadians as the loup cervier, which in Maine is 
corrupted to "lucivee," is large, powerful and savage, and is closely related 
to the European lynx. It is a rabbit-killer by profession, and many of the stories 
which are referred to the puma should be properly credited to this animal. 

The Canada lynx apparently culminates, as far as the northeast is concerned, 
both in point of size and in numbers, in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. In the 
latter colony it has taken to preying on young caribou, and has greatly increased 
in numbers, apparently occupying, in the economy of nature, the place of the wolf, 
which has almost disappeared. 

Perhaps the most interesting fact about the Canada lynx is its periodic increase 
and decrease in numbers, which occur every decade. The records of the 
Hudson Ba}* Company indicate that the catch of Canada lynx for each of the 
three seasons when they are least numerous falls as low as four to five thousand skins 
for the whole territory covered by the company's posts. In the fourth year the 
catch is twice as large, and the fifth year will often more than double the catch 
of the preceding year. The sixth year's catch doubles that of the fifth, while 



326 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

the seventh year would almost invariably witness the maximum trade in lynx 
skins. The catch of the eighth year would still be good, while that of the ninth 
and tenth years would show a startling decline in the numbers of lynx taken. In 
twenty-five years, from 1853 to 1877, the Hudson Bay Company sold, in London, 
more than half a million lynx skins, the minimum number being 4,488 in 1863 
and the maximum number 76,556 in 1868. 

The bay lynx {Lynx ritfits), called the wild cat or bob cat, is widely distrib- 
uted from Maine to Georgia, and westward to the Mississippi Valley. It is 
widespread and far from extinct. Several fine specimens have been taken within 
recent years in Tuxedo Park, near New York. This lynx is rather smaller than 
the preceding species, and is the chat cervier of the Canadians. They were so 
numerous in the early days that in 17 12 an act was passed offering a large 
bounty for wild cats in Suffolk County, now the eastern end of Long Island. 
It may be stated in passing that there are no true long-tailed cats in America 
north and east of Texas, except the puma, and all stories of "wild cats " may be 
safely referred to this species. 

Reference need only be made to three rodents, as the remaining Adirondack 
species of this order are of small size and are far more numerous than all the 
other mammals taken together. 

Woodd)QC^. 

The northeastern woodchuck, ground hog, whistler or siffleur of the Canadians 
{Arctomys monax canadensis) has a wide distribution, covering the region from 
Hudson Bay and Newfoundland westward to the great plains, but is scarce except 
in the cultivated portions of the Adirondacks. 

There are a number of ill-defined subspecies, but the Adirondack variety 
belongs to the dark race of the Hudson Bay region rather than to the Maryland 
form. Its habits are too well known to call for much notice. 

Reaver. 

In former days the most important of the Adirondack fur-bearing animals was 
the beaver {Castor canadensis), which presents no clearly defined variation in 
type throughout northeastern America, although the forms in the southern states, 
in Mexico and on the Pacific Coast are assigned to subspecific rank. Its 



NOTES ON ADIRONDACK MAMMALS. 327 

American distribution is from the Rio Grande in the southwest, northward, gen- 
erally to the limit of tree growth. It is also found along the Colorado River 
near its mouth. 

The American beaver is closely related to its European congener, which still 
lives in some of the more remote rivers of eastern Europe. They are found as 
far south and east as the Caucasus Mountains. We have little information about 
their occurrence in Siberia beyond the fact that they are found there. 

It is almost impossible to estimate the part this animal played in the early 
history of America. Its pelt was for a long time a standard of value, and so remains 
to-day in certain districts in the far north. In the unbroken forest which extended 
from Hudson Bay to Florida, the first clearings of the settlers were made by break- 
ing out the beaver dams and draining their ponds. The dry mud flats thus exposed 
yielded meadow hay the second year, and could soon after be tilled. Thus the 
cabins of the first settlers came to be located along streams and rivers out of 
supporting touch with one another when the Indian attacks came. 

The abundance of beaver is subject to fluctuation, and the animals will some- 
times almost disappear from an entire district. They can readily be restored to 
the Adirondacks, and if left undisturbed will rapidly multiply. Several pairs 
of beaver have been recently liberated in the North Woods, and if this good begin- 
ning is followed up, these interesting animals and their works will again be seen 
along our streams and lakes. Beaver had become very scarce in the Adirondacks 
by the beginning of the nineteenth century, but the war of 181 2 put a check 'to 
hunting and trapping and allowed a great increase in the number of all the fur- 
bearers. As soon as hunting was resumed after the war, beaver again disappeared, 
and by 1840 were very rare. A few still linger on in the North Woods. 

When too much harassed, this animal ceases to build dams and houses, and 
becomes what is known as 'bank beaver." The writer has in recent years 
found bank beaver in the waters of Maine and the Maritime Provinces, and such 
few individuals of the original stock as have survived in the Adirondacks 
have adopted these habits. An ordinary beaver pond usually contains only one 
family, but the deserted cabins of preceding years often cause an exaggerated 
idea of the number of beaver in the pond. 

Some idea of the former abundance of beaver and their proportion to otter is 
furnished by the statistics of the ten years following 1624, which show that 
80,183 beaver skins and 7,247 otter skins were exported in those years from New 
Amsterdam. In the twenty-five years from 1853 to 1877 the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany sold in London nearly three million beaver skins. In these later days, however, 
the annual catch is rapidly declining. 



328 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The attempt to establish beaver in the New York Zoological Park in New York 
City resulted in the pond assigned to them being taken possession of by three large 
individuals, who promptly destroy other beaver as fast as introduced. 

When cutting wood on the shore the beaver is almost helpless, and is captured 
by many animals, the lynx being probably its most dangerous enemy. The otter 
also is generally credited with killing it, but this can scarcely be true, since the 
beaver could be easily exterminated by this powerful and agile animal, which 
could enter its houses from below water. The wolverine is sometimes called by 
the Indians the beaver-killer, and it is supposed to tear open and destroy beaver 
houses, but beaver could not be caught in this way, as all the cabins have exits 
under water and many beaver ponds have deep tunnels or holes in the bank, for 
refuge in case the house is destroyed or the water lowered by the destruction of 
the dam. 

The muskrat or musquash [Fiber zibetliicus) is of almost universal distribution 
in North America, extending from the delta of the Mackenzie River as far south as 
Louisiana. It thrives so well in civilization as to be a nuisance in the New York 
Zoological Park. In Prospect Park Lake, Brooklyn, a trapper is specially employed 
to keep these animals in check, and the catch in 1903 amounted to over 2,000, 
and in 1904 to 1,230. The fur of the muskrat is becoming commercially impor- 
tant, and the Hudson Bay Company sold in London in 1901 two million skins 
of this animal. This is the largest sale on record. 

The muskrat is not exclusively a vegetable eater, but sometimes indulges in a 
meal of flesh. It is suspected of occasionally feeding on turtles, and is known 
to be fond of fresh-water mussels. It is, on the whole, an interesting animal, 
harmless, except in parks, and in the Adirondacks well deserves toleration. 

Porcapine. 

The only remaining rodent that we need to consider is the Canadian porcupine 
or quill pig {Erethizon dorsatum). Its distribution is from the northern limit of 
timber south into Pennsylvania. The porcupines originated in South America 
and worked north from that continent at an early date, geologically speaking, 
and have become thoroughly adjusted to boreal conditions. 

This animal is numerous in the Adirondacks, but the natives there feel a bitter 
antipathy toward this curious and harmless creature. This hatred is probably a 
relic of the old days when dogs were used for hunting deer, and when many fine 
hounds were destroyed or seriously injured by the quills of porcupines. In Nova 



NOTES ON ADIRONDACK MAMMALS. 329 

Scotia and eastern Canada, on the other hand, it is considered almost a crime to 
wantonly destroy a porcupine, as it is the only animal which a lost and starving 
man can kill with a club. 

The quills of the porcupine are exceedingly penetrating, and when once 
inserted in an animal will work in between the skin and flesh, and sometimes 
through the sinews to the uttermost parts of its anatomy. 

The puma and fisher are both credited with a fondness for porcupine meat, 
and are said to pay a high price for it. The writer, however, does not believe 
that either of them, unless starving, would attack this animal. 

The porcupine is a bark-eater with a special fondness for the hemlock, but 
will make a meal of the bark of any of the conifers. In the Bitter Root Mountains 
many of the spruces were found deeply scarred at the base, where the bark had been 
stripped half way round the tree. This cutting was generally credited to the 
porcupine, which is also very destructive around lumber camps, as it gnaws away 
the floor logs to get at the salt left from the brine of the pork barrels. It is 
one of the few creatures seen by the average tourist or visitor in the North 
Woods, and the present foolish persecution of it should be stopped by law. 

The last and perhaps most important family or the fur-bearing animals in the 
Adirondacks is the Mustelidae. This group includes a large and varied series 
of animals, ranging in size from the pigmy weasel to the otter and wolverine. 

Least Weasel. 

The smallest member of the family is the least weasel (Putorius alleglieniensis) , 
a diminutive and ferocious animal. Like most of the small carnivores it feeds on 
mice, which it hunts tirelessly and with a relentless persistency which is almost 
without parallel in the animal kingdom. 

Weasel. 

The true weasel or American ermine (Putorius noveboracensis), so called from its 
fur turning white in the winter, is a large edition of the last species. It, too, preys 
on mice and also on rats, grouse and squirrels. Its lack of agility, as in the case 
of the least weasel, is more than compensated by the extraordinary pertinacity 
with which it trails down its victims. This relentless chase ultimately wears out 
the most active rat, and in the end the unfortunate quarry is so completely 
paralyzed by fear that it almost invites the death stroke. The attack is nearly 
always made at the base of the skull, where the sharp teeth of the weasel tear open 
the brain case with a single stroke. In 1903, 33,883 weasel or ermine skins were sold 
by the Hudson Bay Company in London. This was far above the normal catch, 



33° REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The skunk {Mephitis mephitis putida) is widely distributed throughout North 
America. In Texas and the southwestern states the fur of an allied species known 
as the hydrophobia skunk, characterized by a narrow white stripe down the back, has 
recently become quite fashionable. The fur of a common skunk is known among 
furriers as "Alaska sable." 

All the Mustelidae 'are provided with an offensive odor, but it is only in the 
skunk that this scent is sufficiently developed to be protective. When deprived 
by a simple operation of its power of offense the skunk can be tamed and made 
a most attractive and interesting pet, although it will probably not become 
popular in that capacity. The strongly marked coloring of its coat serves as 
certain identification and consequently is a protection against attack. The skunk 
is one of the few animals which appear indifferent to the presence of man, and it 
will scarcely take trouble to get out of his road. Fortunately it is nocturnal in its 
habits, or it would more frequently be seen. 

The reputation of the skunk is far worse than it deserves to be. This animal 
is of value to the husbandman for the thoroughness with which it destroys mice 
and insects, although it occasionally raids hen-roosts. Like the porcupine, the 
skunk hibernates only during the severest portion of the winter. 

The Adirondack mink {Putorins vison) belongs to the type subspecies which 
extends throughout Canada westward to the Rocky Mountains, north to the Arctic 
Ocean, and southward into the Adirondacks. It is closely related to the 
European and Siberian mink. 

DeKay, in his natural history, suggests that there are two varieties in the 
North Woods, one the mountain mink, small and black, and the other a water 
mink, large and of a chestnut-red color. We have had nothing in recent times 
to confirm the existence of these two types. 

The mink is a restless animal, making regular trips along fixed routes on the 
shores of streams or lakes. It is a fierce little beast, feeding chiefly on fish, which 
it catches with great dexterity. It is fond of crayfish, and is destructive to 
muskrats. Chicken roosts are often invaded by this small marauder, and many 
a fisherman who has left his trout on the bank has been robbed by this 
animal. 

The mink has been the victim of much persecution on account of its beautiful 
fur, but if given half a chance would easily recover its original numbers in the 



NOTES ON ADIRONDACK MAMMALS. 331 

Adirondacks. So persistent is it that several specimens are killed every year 
in the New York Zoological Park. While subject to fluctuation in numbers, like 
other fur-bearing animals, the mink holds its own fairly well. 

Garten. 

After the beaver, the most important fur-bearing animal in the Adirondacks is 
the Canada pine marten or American sable (Hlnstela americana), which is closely 
related to the European pine marten and Siberian sable, although its coat does 
not compare in beauty with the rich dark fur of the latter animal. The specimens 
from the Adirondacks are much lighter in color than the furs from farther north. 
In British Columbia large black skins are relatively common. 

The marten is a tireless traveler and hunts in the daytime for its quarry, 
chiefly red squirrels, which it" runs down and captures by superior agility and 
strength. The writer found marten quite numerous around Little Tupper Lake 
as late as 1891, but it has been trapped almost to extinction since that time. 

The enormous rise in the value of the skins of this animal has nearly resulted 
in its extermination. It is usually taken by traps set on a line running sometimes 
for miles, with from six to ten traps to the mile. A drag of meat is drawn 
from one trap to another, and in this way an entire district can be covered 
so that sooner or later nearly every marten can be caught. In the winter of 1901 
some enterprising trappers in the Bitter Root Mountains in Idaho started a marten 
farm to take advantage of the increased price of fur. After a number of these 
animals had been captured they were discovered to be all males. Apparently it 
was the breeding season and the males alone were cruising about while the 
females were hidden away. 

There are known to be seasons of abundance and of scarcity of marten. Epi- 
demics seem to occur every few years and greatly reduce the numbers of certain 
fur-bearing animals. The most interesting case of this periodic plague is the 
mysterious disease which occurs at regular intervals in the Canadian northwest 
and almost exterminates the rabbits throughout an immense extent of countrv. For 
a year or two the species appears to have entirely perished. The rabbits then 
rapidly increase and in two or three years the countryside swarms with them 
until the pest again appears and the cycle is repeated. The lynx, which depends 
on the rabbit for its food supply, suffers and starves during the years of scarcity, 
and greatly decreases in numbers. Many of the survivors migrate long distances. 
When the rabbits regain their abundance the lynx follow suit and multiply. 
Nothing could better demonstrate the balance of nature and the interdependence 
of animal life. 



33 2 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The fisher, black cat or pekan of the Canadians (Mustela pennantii) is one of 
the most important of the weasels. It is a large, powerful black marten and 
originally was thinly distributed from the Atlantic coast to the Cascade Mountains 
close to the Pacific Coast, where it was supplanted by a closely allied species. It 
extended formerly from timber line in the north well into the Alleghenies 
of Pennsylvania. It would be interesting to know whether this animal was ever 
abundant; but, if so, it felt at a very early period the effect of encroaching 
civilization. In New York it was confined to the Adirondacks as early as 1842. 

In spite of its relatively large size it is extremely agile and active, and preys 
largely on pine marten, which it captures in open chase. It is popularly supposed 
to live on porcupines, but it is probable that the legend arose from the fact that in 
the leg joints of one of the earliest specimens to find its way into the hands of the 
naturalists were found embedded the quills of that animal. When pressed by 
hunger the fisher undoubtedly will attack the porcupine, but under ordinary 
circumstances it could get its food without such extreme danger and discomfort. 

The fisher is a sworn foe to the trapper, and will follow up and destroy his 
line of traps with great persistence. In this last respect it has been remarked 
that the fisher "is less objectionable than the wolverine, in that it leaves the traps 
where it finds them, while the other blackleg lugs them off and hides them." 

Fishers are rare throughout the north, and are seldom seen in captivity, 
although at present (June, 1905) several specimens are on exhibition in the National 
Zoological Park, Washington, D. C, and one in the New York Zoological Park. 
It is doubtful whether this animal can be restored to the Adirondacks, but it 
would do no harm to protect the few that probably linger on in the remoter parts 
of the wilderness. 

The Hudson Bay Company sold in London, in 1902, 3,679, and in 1903, 3,223 
skins of this animal. 

Wolverine. 

The last of the true weasels is the wolverine (Gulo liiscus), improperly called 
the glutton. This is the carcajou of the French Canadians, and is called by the 
Ojibway Indians the "quingagee," or tough customer. The American type is 
so closely related to the European form that it has not yet been described 
as a separate species, although it would undoubtedly prove to be such on close 
investigation. 

The wolverine was originally supposed to be one of the bears, but further 
investigation proved it to be nothing more than a gigantic weasel. It is one of 



NOTES ON ADIRONDACK MAMMALS. 333 

rarest and least known of North American animals, and about the only place where 
specimens can be obtained with any certainty is in the barren grounds of northern 
Canada and Alaska. The specimens from the extreme northwest have recently been 
assigned to a new species. This species formerly extended south to Pennsylvania 
and Colorado, and reached from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. It probably 
occurred in the Adirondacks, but was never abundant there. 

Through the north country this animal has an evil reputation for robbing food 
caches. No matter how deeply buried under stones or logs may be the food supply 
stored up by the hunters for their return trip, if once found by the wolverine the 
cache is torn apart and scattered. Things which cannot be eaten are destroyed, 
and many articles actually are carried off and hidden. 

Trappers have been driven out of a district by the persistence with which this 
animal followed up and destroyed not only the traps and bait, but marten caught 
in them. The restoration of the wolverine to the Adirondacks need not be 
considered, as, aside from its impossibility, the popularity of the animal with campers 
would be more than doubtful. 

In the twenty-five years from 1853 to 1877, inclusive, the Hudson Bay Company 
sold in London 32,975 skins of the wolverine. In 1902 and 1903, only 635 and 695 
skins, respectively, were sold. Most of them came from the Mackenzie basin. 

Otter. 

The largest of the Mustelidae in the Adirondacks is the otter {Lutra canadensis). 
The American otter is found throughout eastern America north of the Carolinas, 
and is closely related to the European species. The genus itself is one of the 
most widely distributed of the Mustelines, extending even into South America, 
where in the waters of the Amazon is found a giant otter. 

The otter is almost as well adapted to aquatic life as the seals, and in the 
distantly related sea otter of the North Pacific the resemblance to the seals 
becomes still more striking. Of course this resemblance does not indicate 
relationship with the seals, but is merely in response to similar environment, 
called by zoologists parallelism. Like the seal, the otter is an expert fisher, and 
by its skill in swimming can capture even the swift trout in shallow streams. 
It is also much given to feeding on ducks, which it catches by swimming under 
water and seizing them by the legs. 

The otter is scarcely ever at rest, and in the early days of the Adirondacks it 
was not an uncommon sight to see one of these graceful animals thrust his head 
above the surface of a pond or lake, turning it round until the resemblance to 
a bent and gloved hand thrust above the surface of the water was most striking. 



334 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The trapping of otter in this State is now prohibited until 1906. This close 
season should be extended for a further period of ten years at least if the otter is 
to regain its former abundance. 

This animal is so keen in avoiding traps that the difficulties of capturing it 
would be much greater were it not for its habit of building slides. These slides 
are used simply for amusement, but a trap placed at the end of one of them has 
been the undoing of many a playful otter. 

In the twenty-five years preceding 1878, 318,140 otter skins were sold in 
London by the Hudson Bay Company. 

Most of the animals described above could and should be restored to their 
native haunts in the Adirondacks. If alive, and brightening the somber North 
Woods with their presence, they would be worth far more to the State than the 
mere value of their skins. 

The time is rapidly approaching in this country when game refuges will be 
recognized as the only means of protecting our American fauna. Some section 
of the Adirondacks embracing forest, stream and lake should be set aside for a 
breeding ground for all the native animals, where they should be left absolutely 
undisturbed, and no one allowed to set a trap, light a fire or enter with a gun 
or dog; and above all, no foreign species should be introduced. 

A few years after the establishment of such a sanctuary in the Adirondacks 
the excess of animal population would supply the adjoining country, and the 
interest and value of the wilderness would be greatly enhanced. It is only a 
question of time when something of this sort will be done in the North Woods, 
and the privilege of carrying a gun at all times and slaughtering everything in 
sight will be abridged. When that day comes, the old order of things in America 
will have passed and the conditions which have long prevailed in portions of 
Europe will spread over the country. 



The writer desires to acknowledge the skill and patience shown by Mr. Elwin R. Sanborn in 
photographing the animals of the New York Zoological Park. 




BLACK BEARS IN YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 



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BEARS IN YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. TOURISTS LOOKING ON. 




PUMA IN THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 




ANTLERS OF ONE OF THE LAST MOOSE KILLED 
IN THE ADIRONDACKS. 

DONATED BY THE HEIRS OF THE LATE HAMILTON FISH TO THE 
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, NEW YORK CITY, 
AND ON EXHIBITION THERE. 




ANTLERS OF ELK KILLED IN GENESEE VALLEY ABOUT 1845. 

PROPERTY OF MAJOR W. AUSTIN WADSWORTH, GENESEO, N. Y. LAST ELK KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE STATE OF 

NEW YORK. 




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TIMBER WOLF IN THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 




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OPOSSUM IN THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 




CANADA LYXX IN THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 




BAY LYNX IN THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 




WOODCHUCK IN THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 




MARTEN IN STEEL TRAP. 

COURTESY OF JOHN M. PHILLIPS. 




MUSKRAT FROM ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 

COURTESY OF HON. GEORGE SHIRAS, 3D. 




PORCUPINE IN THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 




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MARTEN IN PHILADELPHIA ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN. 

COURTESY OF E. T. SETON. 




FISHER IN NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

COURTESY OF DR. FRANK BAKER. 




FISHER IN NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

COURTESY OF DR. FRANK BAKER. 




WOLVERINE. 

COURTESY OF J. S. EDWARDS. 




WEASEL. 

FROM W. H. WRIGHT, SPOKANE, WASHINGTON. 




WOLVERINE FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

IN THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 




WOLVERINE KILLED BY ROBERT WALCOTT IN 
LABRADOR. 



COURTESY OF WILLIAM B. CABOT. 




ELWIN R. SANBORN, PHOTO. 




ELW1N R. SANBORN, I'HOTO. 

WEASEL OR AMERICAN ERMINE IN WHITE WINTER COAT. 

FROM THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 



Ti)e 3q,airreis and Otfyer Kpdenis; 
of tbjz Adirondack 

By Frederick C. Paulmier.* 

EXCEPT for the comparatively few domesticated animals, which include the 
horses and cattle, belonging to the Ungulata, or grazing animals, and 
the carnivorous cats and dogs, by far the greater number of those which 
come into economic relations with man belong to the order Rodentia, or the 
gnawing mammals. In distinction, however, from the domesticated forms, which 
are used as food, or as beasts of burden, or as companions, the Rodentia are 
nearly all injurious, only in a very limited degree serving man as food or furnish- 
ing him with useful skins. True it is that some forms are hunted, and noted 
apologists for this form of sport are not wanting. Still, when the balance is 
struck, it is found that the misdeeds of some of them many times counterbalance 
what value the rest of them possess. 

Scientifically speaking, the Rodentia may be described as mammals in which 
the number of teeth is reduced, the back teeth, or molars and premolars, varying in 
number from four to six on each half of the jaw, and with the eye teeth, or canine 
teeth, always wanting. It is in the front, or incisor teeth, however, that the greatest 
modifications occur, for they are specially adapted for gnawing, and to this end 
have only the front edge composed of hard enamel, while the back part is composed 
of softer dentine, which, wearing away more rapidly than the harder enamel, 
under the constant use that the teeth are put to, leaves a sharp, chisel-like edge 
to the latter. To compensate for this wear, which would soon bring the teeth 
down to the gums, these teeth, unlike other mammal teeth, grow continuously 
at the base, throughout the life of the animal, at a rate which just compensates 
for the loss at the tip. Should, however, as sometimes happens, one of these 
front teeth become broken or lost so that its fellow in the opposite jaw has nothing 
to wear against, and by that be kept short, the latter grows to an inordinate 
length, usually curving around into the mouth of the animal and killing it, either 
by preventing it taking food or by growing through the roof of the mouth into 
the brain. 



* Zoologist, Division of Science, N. Y. State Museum. 

335 



336 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Another point characteristic of the rodent's mouth is the peculiar manner of 
growth of the hairy integument, which is continued inward behind the incisors, 
and apparently prevents the wood or other hard substance the animal is gnawing, and 
which is not intended for food, from getting into his throat. 

The rodents are nearly all of comparatively small size, but make up for this 
in their great numbers, both of species, of which there are over 900 known in 
the world, and of individuals, which are far more plentiful than of any other 
group. They are all herbivorous, only occasionally taking to animal food, and 
they obtain their food by gnawing. They are found in all sorts of habitats; some, 
like the squirrels, being arboreal, and being even provided with a parachute for 
taking long leaps from tree to tree; others, like the hares, are cursorial; the 
kangaroo mice are agile jumpers, the mole rats are burrowers and the beavers 
and water voles aquatic. 

Then, too, the group is the most cosmopolitan of any, no country being without 
some representative of it. This, however, is partly due to the agency of man, 
for wherever he goes the domestic rats and mice follow him. 

In New York State the rodent population numbers twenty-eight species, and of 
these the largest, the beaver, is now extinct. Attempts, however, are now being 
made to reintroduce him into the Adirondacks, two small colonies having recently 
been placed in different parts. It is to be hoped that this experiment will prove 
to be successful, for the beaver is the most interesting of the rodents and everyone 
knows of his tree cutting and dam building operations. Then, too, he is of 
considerable interest, for his was one of the most valuable furs found in the New 
World, and was the object of eager pursuit by the early settlers. Many were 
the quarrels which arose, not only between individuals, but even between the 
colonies, in regard to the proper delimitation of the trapping grounds. So numerous 
was he in those early days that, according to Pennant, 54,670 skins were sold in 
a single sale of the Hudson' Bay Company. In fact, so important was he 
recognized to be to the commonwealth, that the provincial seal of New Netherland 
was a beaver on a shield. 

The muskrat is another form which was hunted for its fur, though that is of 
greatly inferior value to that of the beaver. Still, Richardson, writing in 1829, 
says that between four and five hundred thousand skins were annually imported 
into Great Britain from North America. At the present time it is mainly the 
object of pursuit of the small boy, for it is probably the most easily trapped of 
our mammals, besides being quite common in inhabited districts. They prefer 
swamps and sluggish streams, and in the Adirondacks, in such places, their irregular 
mound-like winter huts, composed of aquatic plants and mud, are often to be 




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THE SQUIRRELS AND OTHER RODENTS OF THE ADIRONDACKS. T,37 

found. Besides these, they have burrows in the shores of streams, and where there 
are dams they sometimes do considerable damage by undermining their banks. 

The woodchuck, which is about as uninteresting an animal as there is, occurs 
rarely in the Adirondack woods, but is much more at home in the cultivated areas 
surrounding them. Here, in the meadows or hillsides, where there is a good supply 
of grass or clover, he digs his burrows, which often prove a nuisance to the farmer 
with his horses. 

Still another large rodent, belonging to another family, is found in the 
Adirondacks. This is the Canada porcupine. This curious beast, on account of 
its formidable armature of spines, has but few enemies, of which the fisher and the 
panther were the chief, and since these have become rare or extinct, the porcupine 
has probably increased in numbers. Fear of man, too, is apparently lacking, or 
more probably he has not sufficient intelligence to appreciate what man can 
do, for he often wanders into camps and explores the surroundings in search of 
salt in the most familiar way. A specimen the writer met this summer had 
to be assisted with the boot before he would move from the trail. In spite of his 
commonness he is not often seen, as he spends most of his time high in the trees, 
where he may be mistaken for a bunch of twigs or a crow's nest. He also 
possesses, as a permanent domicile, a den, usually among the rocks. 

Ranking next in size of the rodents, we find the rabbits, or hares, as they 
should more properly be called, the domesticated white rabbit, which is an 
English form, being the only one to which the term properly applies. Of these 
there are two species found in the Adirondacks, the larger of which is known as 
the varying hare or white hare. This species is divided into two subspecies, 
of which one is called the northern varying hare, and is distinguished by the 
fact that, while, like all of our other mammals, he has two coats during the year, 
a summer and a winter one, his winter coat is a pure white, which, matching 
the snow, enables him the more easily to escape his enemies. This change is 
common in many of the northern mammals, and, of the New York forms, the 
ermine and the least weasel adopt it. This subspecies is found in the forests 
in all parts of the Adirondacks and Catskills above 1,500 feet. 

The other subspecies, the southern varying hare, which replaces the former 
along the southern and eastern borders, lives in a region where the snow is not 
so deep or so abundant during the winter, and as during its absence a white 
coat would render him too conspicuous, he has adopted a mottled, lighter brown. 
This form, according to Stone, is not holding its own very well, but has been 
replaced to a great extent by the gray rabbit or cottontail, which is a smaller 
and even more defenceless species than the varying hare. The cottontail occasionally 
22 



338 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

does some damage in the orchard and garden, but his principal economic value 
is in furnishing sport for the man with the gun. 

We come now to the squirrels, of which there are five distinct species found 
within the limits of New York State. They belong to the family Sciuridae, and 
are distinguished from the other rodents by their bushy tails and by several 
anatomical points, of which an important one is the nonfusion of the lower leg 
bones, which takes place in the mice and their allies, and which allows a much 
freer use of their legs in climbing trees, a habitat to which most of them are 
partial. The five species are the red squirrel, the gray squirrel, the chipmunk and 
two flying squirrels, the common southern form and the northern flying squirrel. 

To the wanderer in the Adirondack forests the red squirrel is probably the 
commonest mammal seen. Originally described as Scinrus hudsonicus by Erxleben, 
in the light of more recent and careful research it has been found necessary to 
divide the species into two subspecies, which have been described by Bangs as the 
northern or Canadian red squirrel, 5. h. gymnicus, and the southern, 5. h. loquax. 
Both subspecies are found in the State, the southern extending over the greater 
portion of it except the Adirondacks, where it is replaced by the northern form. 
The difference between the two is but slight, consisting mainly in the deeper, 
redder color of the northern form, and where the two meet each other, individuals 
intermediate between the two forms occur, and it is impossible to say to which 
variety they belong. As there is no difference in the behavior or habits of the 
two forms almost anything that may be said about the one applies to the other. 

If there is any one animal to which dry, scientific terminology does not fit, it 
would seem to be the red squirrel, for a merrier, happy-go-lucky scamp does 
not appear to exist. Even in the deepest part of the Adirondacks, in the ever- 
green forests, where the deep shade would appear to cast a gloom over the spirits 
of almost anything, the wanderer will find these cheerful animals chasing through 
the tree tops, or sitting on a limb, chattering and scolding at him in a most 
impudent manner. 

Dr. Clinton Hart Merriam, to whom we are indebted for a most interesting 
account of the mammals of the Adirondacks, and whose paper has been fre- 
quently drawn on in the preparation of this, sums up the character of the red squirrel 
in a most happy manner. He says: "The Chickaree combines qualities so 
wholly at variance, so unique, so incomprehensible, and so characteristic withal, 
that one scarcely knows in what light to regard him. His inquisitiveness, 
audacity, inordinate assurance, and exasperating insolence, together with his 
insatiable love of mischief and shameless disregard of all the ordinary customs and 
civilities of life, would lead one to suppose that he was little entitled to respect; 




RED SQUIRREL (SCIURUS HUDSONICUS GYMNICUS) 



THE SQUIRRELS AND OTHER RODENTS OF THE ADIRONDACKS. 339 

and yet his intelligence, his untiring perseverance, and genuine industry, the 
cunning cleverness displayed in many of his actions and the irresistible humor 
with which he does everything, command for him a certain degree of admiration. 
He is arrogant, impetuous, and conceited to an extreme degree, his confidence in 
his own superior capabilities not infrequently costing him his life. In fact, these 
contradictions in character and idiosyncrasies in disposition render him a 
psychological problem of no easy solution." 

As mentioned above, he is found in all parts of the Adirondacks and at all 
times. From the earliest morning till sunset he is always abroad and busy, and 
even after dark, especially on moonlight nights, he may sometimes be seen, 
stealing through the trees, and much more quietly than during the day. Then, 
too, cold has no effect on him, for even when the mercury is at its lowest and 
the snow is many feet deep, he is abroad, often tunneling through it, apparently 
merely for the pleasure of the thing. When, however, the wind blows in the heavy 
storms he makes for his nest, to reappear when it becomes calmer. He is not 
very particular about his choice for a nest, but makes it in a hollow tree or 
branch, or sometimes in a log or in the ground. Outside of the colder regions 
of the Adirondacks he usually builds outside nests. Generally this is in the top of an 
evergreen, though sometimes in other trees, and is a round mass composed 
of the bark of the red cedar or other soft material. In this or in the other nest, 
four to six young are born in the spring. In summer, while these are still to be 
cared for, the industrious squirrel is already beginning to. prepare for the coming 
of the cold weather and is busily engaged in biting off the young and green 
cones of the spruce and sweet balsam. In fact, even in the latter part of June, 
the writer found the ground in parts of the woods near Old Forge covered with the 
green cones, some of which the squirrel had apparently been sampling. Later, when 
the white pine and other cones are formed, he bites those off, often doing considerable 
damage in this way. All these he buries, usually a few at a time, under the leaves or 
pine needle3 in the earth, or in the hollows of trees or limbs, and often carries 
large quantities to his burrow. Later still, when the beechnuts, which form his 
staple food, are ripe, he collects immense quantities of them, often, too impatient 
to wait for their ripening, biting off the yet green nuts, so that they fall to the 
ground, wheie he afterwards collects them in heaps and then stores them away, 
as he does his cones. Being thus dependent upon the supply of beechnuts, his 
numbers vary with their abundance. It seems to be a more or less regular rule 
that, in the Adirondacks, the beechnut crop is larger every alternate year and the 
number of squirrels is greatest when the mast is plentiful. Alternate years they 
are much less common, and from the fact that they sometimes increase or decrease 



34° REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

suddenly in numbers in certain places seems to prove that the squirrels migrate 
in search of more food. The fact, also, that they are sometimes met with in 
considerable numbers swimming lakes and streams, and always in one direction, 
seems to point in the same way. 

Besides the beechnuts and acorns which he collects, he often, in more inhabited 
regions, visits the farm and takes his share from the orchard, where, amid the 
apples, he often does much damage. Mushrooms also he stores away, and often 
visits the corncribs for additions to his supply. On these stores he feeds during 
the winter and appears to have no difficulty in finding them, digging through the 
snow, no matter how deep. Still he is always on the lookout for any other 
things he may find, and he may often be seen in the dead of winter feeding on 
the cones still hanging on the trees. Then, too, his insatiable curiosity leads 
him into all sorts of places in search of stores that 'the chipmunk has hidden 
away. In the spring, when the young buds are swelling, he gets a variety of 
food, biting off and eating the buds of the spruce, and often covering the ground 
with the twigs he has bitten off. Hardwood trees, also, are not exempt from 
him in his desire for green things, and he often does considerable damage in this way. 

Then, as the spring advances, one of his worst propensities comes to light. 
This is his habit of sucking the eggs and destroying the young of the insectivorous 
birds. In this he is worse than any other of the bird enemies; for, unlike the 
crows, jays, and the blacksnake, he continues his depredations after the eggs are 
hatched. This one habit is enough to condemn the red squirrel to destruction 
wherever one desires to have birds. 

In return for this, however, he is preyed upon by the hawks and owls; but 
they must take him unawares, for in a chase through the tree tops the squirrel has 
much the advantage. Should he find one of these enemies resting anywhere near 
him, he at once adopts offensive tactics, and worries the bird till it is glad to get 
away. Then, too, the red squirrel occasionally falls a prey to the mink or to 
the weasels, whose long, slender bodies enable them to follow the squirrels into 
their holes. Besides these, the man and the small boy with the gun are always 
abroad. 

In spite of all these the red squirrel has held his own and in fact has taken 
to the proximity of man very well, even turning some of man's contrivances to 
his own account. Thus the zig-zag rail fence is one of his delights, and as Stone 
says, nothing pleases him better than to run a race with you while you are 
driving along the road. Then, they like to play tag, and a pair may often be 
seen chasing each other over and through all .sorts of obstacles, with the utmost 
recklessness. When hunted with a shotgun he soon learns its power, and after 




^^^^'^0Mi 




GRAY SQUIRREL (SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS-LEUCOTIS ) 



THE SQUIRRELS AND OTHER RODENTS OF THE ADIRONDACKS. 34I 

that it is often a difficult matter to get a shot at him. In his undisturbed 
haunts, however, his curiosity often gets the better of him, and when discovered 
he is just as liable to sit on the branch and chatter and scold and stamp, some- 
times approaching closer till he comes right up to you. Merriam tells of one that 
jumped on his face while he was asleep in camp. This curiosity was the source 
of considerable trouble in earlier days when there was more trapping in the 
Adirondacks than there is how; for after sitting on a limb and watching the trapper 
bait his traps and leave them, down would come the squirrel and spring the trap. 
True, he was often caught; but that was small satisfaction to the trapper. 

The red squirrel is a good swimmer, and may often be seen crossing the lakes 
and streams with much of his head, back and tail out of the water. This occurs 
most frequently during the periodical migrations, such as take place at Lake 
George, where the chestnuts are common on the eastern side, but rare on the 
western. Sometimes they even cross the widest parts of Lake Champlain. 

The gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Icucotis Gapper, unlike the red, does not 
like the dense coniferous forests of the Adirondacks, and is consequently absent, 
or very rare, from the greater part of the interior. On the edges, where the hardwood 
trees are, and throughout the greater part of the State, he is quite common. The 
best place to study the gray squirrel is near villages or farms where he is undisturbed ; 
for he is quick to perceive the advantages of civilization, and in our parks he 
often becomes a most arrant beggar, dependent entirely upon the bounty of man. 
Still we must not judge the whole race by the degradation of the few; for, 
though not equalling the red squirrel in activity or industry, he is still a pretty 
good fellow. 

Like the red squirrels, the gray, where he is found in the Adirondacks has his 
nest in a hollow tree, while in warmer regions he builds outside nests. These 
closely resemble those of the crow, being placed far up a tree, where a branch 
leaves the trunk, or in a fork, and are composed of sticks, lined with a softer bark, 
and with the opening on one side. In them, three to five young are born in 
April, and in a most undeveloped stage, without hair and with fast-closed eyes.. 
In other regions two litters are often brought forth in one season, the second coming 
in September or October. 

The staple food of the gray squirrel are the beechnuts and butternuts, which 
are the commonest kinds in the region under consideration, and his abundance, 
like that of all the squirrels, is dependent upon the supply of nuts. As 
mentioned before, the beechnut crop is large every other year, and the number 
of squirrels is greatest in the summer and fall of the following year, for the 
reason that when the nuts are abundant the squirrels come from all parts, winter 



342 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

well, and in the spring bring forth their young. Then the young and the old ones 
together bring the number up to its maximum. Then the nut crop fails and the 
squirrels migrate, just where we do not know. Merriam finds that a good nut 
year is a good one for the squirrels' rival, the redheaded woodpecker, between 
the two of which a constant warfare is waged for the possession of the beechnuts 
which still hang on the winter trees, and which the woodpecker considers his 
exclusive property, harassing and driving away the squirrels, who find it easier 
to steal them than to dig up their own buried supplies. Gray squirrels do not 
make large hoards of their nuts, but bury them one or two at a time in holes in 
the ground, and they never seem at a loss to be able to find them. 

At the present time the clearing away of the extensive forests which once 
covered the State, and the change to an agricultural country, has greatly diminished 
the natural habitat of the gray squirrel, and his numbers, we know from history, 
are far less than they were 150 years ago. In 1749 they invaded Pennsylvania in 
such numbers that the entire agricultural district was endangered, and it was 
necessary to offer a premium of three pence a head for them. As a result 
640,000 individuals were killed, necessitating a payment of 8,000 pounds sterling, 
a large drain on the treasury of a State at that time. Later, in 1764, we find 
that in the western part of New York they were so common that Munro, in a 
"Description of the Genesee Country," says: "Squirrels are so numerous in some 
years as considerably to injure corn; and upwards of 2,000 of them have sometimes 
been killed in a day, which is occasionally appointed for that purpose by the inhab- 
itants. The most common kinds of them are the black and the red; the gray 
colored being very scarce." On account of the necessity of combating these the 
"squirrel hunts" he mentions were organized, all the inhabitants of a certain 
area who could manage to get any kind of a firearm collecting together at one 
place and being divided into two parties. Then, from early morn till the sun set 
there was constant destruction, and then a supper, paid for by the party which 
had shot the fewest squirrels. 

These days are past, probably never to return, for, though we still have small 
migrations of the squirrels, the immense hosts are gone. Now, even where the 
squirrels are known to be common, we can wander all day without getting a 
shot at one, for they are adepts at keeping on the other side of the tree from 
you, and the tip of his tail, as he goes around, is all you. are liable to see. 

From the economic point of view there is little to be said about the gray 
squirrel, for now that his numbers are so depleted the damage they do is 
but trifling. True, they steal corn and fruit from the farmer, but they are 
guiltless of the red squirrels' crimes against the birds. 



THE SQUIRRELS AND OTHER RODENTS OF THE ADIRONDACK^. 343 

In former times the black squirrel, which is nothing but a color variety of the 
gray, and the two of which were often found in the same nest, was very abundant, 
but now appears to be very rare. At least, in the five years of the writer's 
official experience in the State he has heard of but one live specimen. 

Another large species, the fox squirrel, Sciurus ludovicianus vicinus Bangs, was 
formerly found in many parts of the State and occasionally in the Adirondacks. 
Bachman, in 1839, says: "In the northern part of New York it is exceedingly 
rare, as I only saw two pairs during fifteen years of close observation." Three 
specimens, taken in Rensselaer county, in 1853 and 1854, are in the State Museum. 
It is probably entirely extinct in the State, though occasionally found in more 
southern regions, which suit them better, as they are more improvident than the 
gray squirrels, and, not caring to lay up such supplies, they like regions where 
there is less cold and deep snow. 

The eastern chipmunk, like the red squirrel, has recently been divided into 
two subspecies. Of these Tamias striatus striates Linnaeus, the southeastern 
chipmunk, which is of a richer, browner color, occurs in New York only in the 
lower Hudson valley. The other, T. s. lysteri Richardson, is of a paler yellow 
color and is found abundantly throughout the State. 

The chipmunk is the only eastern representative of the group of ground 
squirrels, which are so much more common in the Western States. He is usually 
seen chasing across the roads or trails, or around the brush heaps, which furnish 
him with plenty of nooks into which he can dash when pursued, but which still 
enable him to see what is going on. He is not at all fond of tree climbing 
and rarely takes to them except when hard pressed, and he is then obviously ill 
at ease, often preferring to come down and take his chances with his pursuers 
rather than stay up. Still, with those personal peculiarities, which we so often 
find in animals, some chipmunks do not appear to mind climbing to a 
considerable height, and Merriam tells of one he saw making regular journeys 
from the top of the beechnut trees to his nest. This, in the woods, is usually 
found with its openings, for it has several, under the roots of a tree or among the 
rocks. Into this he will dart when pursued, but before his tail has disappeared 
he will have whisked around and his bright eyes will be peering out at you. Sit 
down in front of the hole and he will sit there and watch you, occasionally 
chippering and stamping, darting back at every move you may make. In the hot, 
sunny pastures, where he delights to live, one of the openings is usually under a 
rock and the other off in the grass. Stone has described these holes, which are 
about an inch across at the surface, suddenly widen, go straight down for a little ways 
and then branch off into the galleries. There is no trace of the excavated earth near 



344 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

the opening, but some little distance away we find the pile, and it seems probable 
that the chipmunk, filling his cheek pouches with the excavated earth, carries it 
away and deposits it there. In these galleries they lay up what, for such a little 
animal, is a very large supply of food. Audubon and Bachman, in the " Quadrupeds 
of North America," tell of what they found in a nest occupied by four chipmunks. 
"There was about a gill of wheat and buckwheat in the nest; but in the galleries 
we afterwards dug out we obtained about a quart of the beaked hazelnuts 
{Cory lus rostratits), nearly a peck of acorns, some grains of Indian corn, about 
two quarts of buckwheat, and a very small quantity of grass seeds." Besides 
these stores, they lay up little hoards like the gray squirrel, filling their cheek 
pouches, which hold an astonishing amount, full of seeds or nuts and burying 
them in the ground under the leaves. 

The chipmunk, like the other squirrels, is dependent for the greater part of 
its food supply upon the beechnuts, and as the supply of these in the Adirondacks 
varies from year to year the number of chipmunks also varies. Of course a 
certain number of them are always present; but in the alternate years, when the 
nut crop is going to be good, the chipmunks commence coming during September 
and October. Then they lay up their winter supply, and in the spring bring 
forth their young. In July of the year when there are no nuts, the number is at 
its maximum, but knowing that the nut crop will fail that year, most of the 
chipmunks start to leave in July and soon only a few are left. Besides the nuts, 
the chipmunk has a variety of other foods. As mentioned before, it is fond of 
grain and corn, and sometimes digs up what the farmer has planted. They also 
occasionally eat meat, and their cheek pouches are sometimes found filled with 
insect larvae. Stone also tells of seeing them catch and eat large grasshoppers. 
Then, too, they dig up roots, the tuberous ones of the dwarf ginseng and the 
squirrel corn being favorites. The chipmunks at Old Forge were observed eating 
the seeds of the maple, from whose papery envelops they neatly extracted them. 
Both there and at North Creek their holes could be recognized by the heaps of 
seeds they had stripped from the spruce cones and the naked stalks. The 
chipmunk in his search for diversity of food occasionally eats birds' eggs, but is 
not nearly so great an offender in this respect as the red squirrel. 

When the cold days of the late fall come the chipmunk repairs to his burrow; 
but as several weeks are supposed to elapse before he enters his winter sleep, it 
is probable that he spends his time laying on a sufficient supply of fat to last 
him till the spring. Then in the warm, sunny days of April and May he reappears 
again, but should a cold wave come on he will retire to his burrow for some 
more sleep. 




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THE SQUIRRELS AND OTHER RODENTS OF THE ADIRONDACKS. 345 

Chipmunks, in spite of the familiarity they attain when undisturbed around 
the house, where they are often perfectly willing to eat out of your hand, do not 
make very good cage pets, being rather too much inclined to use their sharp 
teeth. 

The Iroquois had an interesting legend explaining the origin of the peculiar 
markings on the chipmunk's back. It runs thus: "Once upon a time the porcupine 
was appointed to be the leader of all the animals. Soon after his appointment he 
called them all together and presented the question, ' Shall we have night all the 
time and darkness, or daylight with its sunshine?' This was a very important 
question and a violent discussion arose, some wishing for daylight and the sun to 
rule, and others for continued night. The chipmunk wished for night and day, 
weeks and months, the night to be separate from the days, so he began singing, 
'The light will come; we must have light,' which he continued to repeat. Mean- 
while the bear began singing, 'Night is best; we must have darkness.' While the 
chipmunk was singing, the day began to dawn. Then the other party saw that 
the chipmunk was prevailing, and were very angry; and their leader, the bear, 
pursued the chipmunk who managed to escape uninjured, the huge paw of the 
bear simply grazing his back, as he entered his hole in a hollow tree, leaving 
its black imprint which the chipmunk has since retained." We may as well add, 
"but night and day have ever continued to alternate."* 

Two varieties of flying squirrels are found in the Adirondacks, one, the common 
flying squirrel, Schtropteriis volans Linnaeus, being found all around the borders, and 
another, larger species, the Canadian flying squirrel, Sciuropterus sabrinus macrotis 
Mearns, occurring in the higher central parts. The two species are quite distinct, 
though they are often found in the same localities, where their habitats overlap. 
The common flying squirrel measures something over nine inches in length, and 
is drab above, with under parts pure white, while the other species is over eleven 
inches long, and on the back is cinnamon brown in summer and sooty brown in 
the winter, and the fur of the under parts is gray at the base. 

Except for the bats, they are the most exclusively nocturnal of our mammals, 
and for that reason one very rarely sees them. When, however, one is camped 
in the woods in the warm fall evenings, and, lying under the trees, listens to the 
many sounds coming from above, then the flying squirrel is conspicuous, and 
you can hear him as he scolds and drops the shells of the beechnuts he is eating. 
Then, on cloudy afternoons, he may sometimes be seen sailing from one tree to 
another, but it takes a pretty dark day to bring him out, and such occasions 
are rare. 



* E. A. Smith. Bureau of Ethnology, 2d Rept., p. 



346 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Flying squirrels are the most highly specialized of the squirrels in regard to 
an arboreal life, and the folds of skin which extend between the legs enable it 
to make far greater leaps than any of the other squirrels. It is, however, quite 
unable to sail horizontally, so its first move is to climb some distance up a tree 
and then make its leap from there. Audubon and Bachman describe most 
interestingly a number they once saw: "At times one would be seen darting 
from the topmost branches of a tall oak, and with wide extended membranes and 
outspread tail gliding diagonally through the air till it reached the foot of a tree 
about fifty yards off, when at the moment we expected to see it strike the earth it 
suddenly turned upwards and alighted on the body of the tree. It would then 
run to the top and once more precipitate itself from the upper branches, and sail 
back to the tree it had just left. Crowds of these little creatures joined in these 
sportive gambols; there could not have been less than two hundred. Scores of 
them would leave each tree at the same moment and cross each other, gliding 
like spirits through the air, seeming to have no other object in view than to 
indulge a playful propensity." 

Flying squirrels make their nests in hollow trees, often using the holes that 
have been deserted by the woodpeckers. Here, early in the spring, they bring 
forth their young, and according to all accounts they make most interesting and 
attractive pets. As so littie can be said of their wild life, we cannot do better 
than to quote some of a description of them given by Prof. G. H. Perkins: "At 
dusk they begin to stir. Not all at once, it would seem, do they awake, for the 
material of the nest quivers and shakes for some time before the squirrel appears. 
When, however, they conclude that they are all ready, out pop their heads, each 
to be followed by the rest of the body, after a glance on all sides with the 
glistening black eyes, and now all drowsiness has disappeared and an activity 
more incessant and intense than can be described takes its place. All night long, 
often with only the briefest rest now and then, these little animals are in vigorous 
motion, jumping, bounding, capering, running with ever-varying movement and 
astonishing energy. Everything they do is done with all their might. It would 
seem to anyone watching them that the exercise of the first few minutes must 
wholly exhaust their powers; but, on the contrary, the more their muscles are 
used the more capable of use they seem, and great as is the energy of their 
movements at first, they usually increase in vigor and speed until after midnight 
and scarcely grow less before morning. Nothing affords them so much gratifica- 
tion as a large wheel which is placed inside the cage. Into this wheel they jump 
whenever aught disturbs or pleases them, and even when quite hungry they often 
find it necessarv to take a few turns before commencing their meal, after which 



THE SQUIRRELS AND OTHER RODENTS OF THE ADIRONDACK^. 347 

exercise they draw themselves into a bunch with the tail over the back after the 
manner of squirrels, and set briskly to work on the nut or other food which 
they may have received. They are almost as fond of riding as of running and 
work their passage by running till the wheel is in rapid motion and then clinging 
to its wires, and so are carried around and around, the pure white of the under 
side of the body contrasting prettily with the soft brownish gray of the back 
and sides as each comes into view. When both are in the wheel one often rides 
while the other turns the wheel, the latter bounding over the other as each turn 
brings him around, and no matter how rapidly the wheel turns these movements 
are executed with perfect exactness and gracefulness. Being desirous of knowing 
with seme degree of accuracy how rapidly the wheel moved, I made some 
experiments for the purpose and found that the usual rate of revolution was from 
sixty to over a hundred and twenty times a minute, and, as the wheel is forty-four 
inches in circumference, when its rate is the latter of the two numbers named, 
the squirrel turning it must travel four hundred and forty feet a minute, or 
about five miles an hour, a distance requiring a great many steps when they are 
as short as squirrels must take. The sides of the wheel are formed of spokes 
radiating as in any wheel; these spokes are only five inches apart at the circum- 
ference and of course constantly grow less towards the center ; yet through this 
narrow space which passes, when the wheel is at full speed, in the sixteenth 
part of a second, they dart in and out with perfect ease. So quickly do they 
move that the eye can scarcely follow them ; one instant the squirrel is in the wheel 
running with all his might, and the next he is seated on a shelf at the opposite 
end of the cage, the wheel whirling behind him. * * * Indeed it is impossible 
for them to be awkward or clumsy in any of their movements. Though usually very 
quiet, they are not always displeased with noise, if it be a lively one; for instance 
they drop a nut in the wheel and then as it rattles while the wheel moves they 
are highly delighted, sometimes more so than some of the other listeners. * * * 
Now and then the freak takes one or the other to leave the wheel altogether for 
several days, and in the meantime they relieve their over-buoyant feelings by 
executing a brilliant series of somersets with an agility and daring that would 
excite the envy of the most skillful acrobat. They always turn backward, going 
completely over and alighting almost exactly upon the spot from which they started. 
Xow they run a few steps before going over, and now stop and turn round and 
round as if a spit ran through the center of the body, on which it turned. 
* * * I once found one of them at my inkstand eagerly lapping the ink as if 
he enjoyed it greatly; pretty soon, however, he left it with sneezings, sniffings 
and grimaces of a most comical sort, but the next chance he had he tried to get 



348 REPORT OK THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

some more. Salt they eat greedily and also sugar. Beetles they are very fond 
of and several birds' eggs which I left in their way they, devoured, shells and all. 
* * * When the actions of an animal are so suddenly varied, so constantly 
changing and of such interest in all their phases as are those of the flying 
squirrel, a complete account can scarcely be given. Certainly it is not easy for 
words to represent the merry, rollicking, don't-care manner in which these flying 
squirrels do everything. Such a combination of earnestness and carelessness are 
seldom seen. For they are earnest about their work, and in emptying a box of 
nuts they seem to feel the great importance of their undertaking and the necessity 
for soberness and dignity in its execution; but yet one cannot help seeing that all 
this is but assumed for the occasion, for their eyes, and indeed their whole body, 
are all the time expressive of mischief, and the little rogues are never so sedate 
that they do not seem to be bubbling over with fun and to be ready at a 
moment's notice to engage in any mischief that may occur to their scheming 
little heads."* 

Like all the other squirrels, these feed on nuts, seeds and buds and appear to 
have a liking for flesh, and can often be taken in traps baited with meat. From 
their quick and noiseless movements, it seems probable that they can and do 
prey upon the small birds which spend the night in the trees. 

The northern flying squirrel is a more hardy animal than the common one, 
and no amount of snow or cold is enough to drive him to his nest in the winter 
nights. Like the red squirrel, his curiosity, combined with his hunger, lead him 
to investigate every out-of-the-way object, and he is therefore almost as much of 
a nuisance as that hardy adventurer. Even the fact that the trap is baited with 
one of his captured brethren does not seem to deter him from investigating it 
and getting caught. 

The remainder of the New York rodents are nearly all small forms and include 
the rats and mice and the lemmings. The latter are hardly to be distinguished 
from the mice, and are inhabitants of cold sphagnum bogs, in which they make 
their burrows, and where there is an abundance of the vegetable matter on 
which they feed. They are close relations of the lemming of Norway, whose 
extensive migrations in enormous numbers are well known. There, when driven 
by overcrowding and consequent lack of food, they start out, urged by some 
impulse, stopping neither for towns or broad streams, devouring everything 
they can which comes in their way and only end by coming to the sea, into 
which they, plunge, still going onward, and are drowned. As far as we know, 



* American Naturalist. Vcl. 7, p. 129. 1873- 



THE SQUIRRELS AND OTHER RODENTS OF THE ADIRONDACKS. 349 

our American forms are not subject to such migrations. Two species are 
found in New York State; but of these, one has been taken but once. 

The rats and mice are more common — in fact, too common by far. Of the 
former, the common or Norway rat is found everywhere in inhabited districts, 
though he has failed to penetrate in very great numbers very far into the 
Adirondacks. He is not a native species and according to De Kay, was introduced 
by the foreign mercenaries during the Revolutionary War. Though they are 
intelligent beasts, they are unattractive in appearance, and are probably as little 
liked as any animal. They are of some value as scavengers, but do far more 
damage, and are therefore only regarded as a nuisance. 

Before them came the black rat, which was also introduced from Europe, and 
which spread throughout the country and was found in many parts of this State. 
This was rather more attractive in appearance than the Norway rat, but the 
latter has entirely driven him out, and he is now probably extinct here. This 
process has been repeated throughout the world, and the black rat now exists 
only in places to which the Norway rat has not penetrated. 

Like the rats, the house mouse is not a native species, but, originating in 
southern Asia, they have gone with man wherever he has traveled, and now are 
spread throughout the entire globe. This migration is still going on, and probably 
there is no vessel tha't sails that does not either leave some on this side or carry 
back toward their native land some specimens of the house mouse. Their habits 
are too well known to need description here. 

Of the species of native mice, the jumping mice are interesting little forms, 
with long tails and long hind legs, with the aid of which they make astonishing 
leaps, when they want to get away. There are two species of them in the State, 
and the woodland jumping mouse is found throughout the Adirondacks in the 
deep woods, making its nest under the laurels and hemlocks beside the brooks. 

Another pretty little mouse, common in the woods, is the whitefooted mouse, 
often called tho deer mouse. In their native haunts they make their nests high 
up in the hollow trees or in logs, or in burrows in the earth, but it has been 
quick to see the advantages of civilization, and is now often found in the houses. 
Here it lives in harmony with the house mouse, taking its share of any food 
that may happen to be around. In its wild state the whitefooted mouse lives 
mainly on beechnuts and almost any kind of seeds, of which it stores away an 
immense quantity in its nest. During the winter it feeds upon these, but the coldest 
weather seems to have no effect upon it, and it may often be seen running over 
the snow in search of more food. In captivty it becomes very tame and makes 
a mcst interesting and attractive little pet. Some individuals appear to have the 



350 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

gift of song, with most musical, bird-like notes. It may be said also that some- 
times the same ability is present in some of the house mice. 

The mice which do the greatest damage, however, in the country are the 
redbacked mouse and the meadow mouse. Of these, the former is the smaller 
and may be recognized by its chestnut color. It prefers the woods and clearings and 
the vicinity of bogs, where they make their burrows just under the surface, and their 
nest under some log and pile of bark. They feed on seeds, berries, and various 
kinds of roots, and, during the winter, on the bark of shrubs and trees. The 
writer found a very serious, though limited, case of damage by this mouse at 
Paul Smith's, where they had been exceptionally plentiful during the winter, and 
had attacked everything, including even some of the softwood trees. Within this area 
they had stripped off all the bark from the larger exposed roots and from the trunk, 
up to a height of about four feet. It is probable- that the presence of an 
abundance of food from the hotel had originally attracted them, and then, not 
finding enough food in the winter, they had attacked the trees. Along the roads 
near the same place, there were many dead saplings, which were apparently the 
results of the work of either this species or the meadow mouse. These were 
usually girdled within a foot of the ground, and the marks of their sharp teeth 
could be seen on the underlying wood. They were particularly partial to the 
maple and ash; but beech, alder, and wild cherry were 'also attacked. This 
meadow mouse is probably the most destructive of any ; for, not liking the deep 
woods, he is fond of settling down in the meadows and pastures, where he lives 
upon the roots of grasses and clover. Then in the winter he attacks the young 
fruit trees in the nurseries and the shrubs around the farm, girdling them and 
often killing them. During the summer they live in burrows; but when the ground 
becomes frozen they abandon these and make a nest of dry grass upon the 
surface of the ground, with runways going off in all directions. Soon the nest 
is covered with snow, but the heat from the bodies of the mice soon melts a 
dome-shaped chamber over the nest and from this they tunnel through the snow 
in search of food. It is then that they do the damage to the trees, for the 
snow enables them to work well up the trunks and at the same time protects 
them from the weather. Usually they are not sufficiently numerous to attract very 
much attention to their depredations; but occasionally, though rarely, they multiply 
in such numbers that the damage is very extensive. Whether this abundance is 
due to migrations or simply to conditions favoring unchecked reproduction is not 
known. One of these conditions is the destruction of the birds and mammals 
which prey upon the mice, and Merriam has these pertinent remarks concerning 
this: "The amount of food consumed by a single individual is of course compara- 



THE SQUIRRELS AND OTHER RODENTS OF THE ADIRONDACK^. 35 1 

tively insignificant, but that required to sustain the total number inhabiting a 
given district is not to be ignored. And when it is borne in mind that the food 
of this species consists almost exclusively of the produce of the agriculturist, the 
fact becomes evident that the animal is a source of continuous pecuniary loss to 
the farmer. Omitting reference to the years when the species is present in 
excessive numbers, it is a low estimate to say that twenty-five mice live upon 
every acre of meadow land. Hence the total number present upon an ordinarily 
productive farm of two hundred acres would not be less than five thousand. 
Now suppose that the owner of a farm of this size should capture and keep in 
confinement five thousand meadow mice, feeding them upon their natural food grain 
and the roots of grass. Would it not be strange if, in the course of a few 
months, he should become so alarmed at the cost in dollars and cents of keeping 
such a host of these ravenous creatures that he should have them all put to 
death? And yet our farmers not only look on in stolid indifference while their 
property and the fruits of their labors suffer, from this source, annual losses 
which they can ill afford to bear, but they even help the mice to increase in 
numbers and maintain supremacy over their fields! This they do in several ways, 
chiefly by neglecting measures for the riddance of the mice, and, what is of vastly 
more consequence, by encouraging the destruction of those birds and mammals 
that habitually prey upon mice. Preeminent among these may be mentioned the 
marsh and rough-legged hawks, all the smaller hawks and owls, the shrike, 
the skunk, and the weasels. Thus the farmer in his shortsightedness omits no 
opportunity to deprive himself of Nature's means of holding in check the vermin 
that ruin his crops." 

The following works may be consulted by anyone interested in a further study 
of the group. More detailed bibliographies will be found in the papers by Miller 
and Stone. 

Audubon and Bachman. The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America. 1846-54. 

Mearns, E. A. A Study of the Vertebrate Fauna of the Hudson Highlands. Bull. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist. Vol. X, p. 303. 1898. 
Merriam, C. H. Trans. Linnaean Soc. New York. Vol. 1 and 2. 1882-84. 

Miller, G. S., Jr. Preliminary List of New York Mammals. N. Y. State Mus. Bull. No. 29. 1899. 
Stone, Witmer, and Cram, W. E. American Animals. New York. 1902. 



Tl)e Wild Pov( of tf)e at. Lawrence 

River 

By J. H. Durham. 

SINCE the advent of the white man into the valley of the St. Lawrence River 
the region of the Thousand Islands — " Les Milles Isles" of the Canadian 
voyageur — has been noted as a resort for wild fowl innumerable; and as a 
natural consequence it has become a veritable paradise for the sportsman, and 
also that other accompanying evil, the mere "pot hunter." 

A glance at a map embracing the watershed of the upper St. Lawrence river, 
that extent of country known to the Algonquin by the name "Cataraqui," 
signifying, "A land of many lakes," and which includes that cluster of inland 
island dotted lakes, rivers and creeks lying back of Kingston and Gananoque, on 
the north, and the lakes and streams of Jefferson and St. Lawrence counties 
on the south, will convince the most casual observer that nature here dealt her 
favors to the feathered flock with no niggard hand. The constant succession of 
rocky ridges, fertile valleys, wide reaches of wooded plateaus, low-lying meadows 
and marshes, sedgy swamps with here and there a "salt lick," was an ideal 
range for myriads of wild fowl and herds of four-footed game. 

As a matter of fact, Lake Ontario, including Bay de Quinte, was "Cataraqui" 
lake; the St. Lawrence river was "Cataraqui" river; and the whole region on 
both shores, as I have indicated above, was the paradise of the red hunter, 
whether of fish, flesh or fowl. 

In view, therefore, of all these natural advantages, there is little wonder that 
the red tribesmen fought furiously for the possession of this "land of many 
lakes," where everything they most craved was so abundant, in variety so great, 
and so easy to procure; but so . it was, until the white man came, and drove the 
red men from their hunting grounds, and then proceeded to destroy the game 
recklessly and in some localities to. almost completely eradicate every vestige of it. 

To-day, governments, through the medium of laws and special enactments, 
are trying, with only partial success, to preserve some few remnants of the many 
species of fish, flesh and fowl which Mother Nature distributed with lavish hand 
among the ideal haunts in forest, lake and stream ; and which are now almost extinct 

352 




). E. STANLEY, I'HOTO. 



SEA GULL EATING A FISH. 




J. E. STANLEY, PHOTO. 



RETRIEVING A GULL. 



THE WILD FOWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 353 

in some localities, through wanton and reckless destruction. To effect the desired 
result, more stringent laws are necessary, a more rigid enforcement of those we 
have, and a more thorough supervision everywhere. 

The territory embraced by the Thousand Islands and the foot of Lake Ontario 
is practically the game center of the region to which I have alluded; since every 
species of wild fowl known to those localities will be found within its borders at 
one time or another during the season. The object, therefore, of this article 
is to briefly notice the different species of fowl and shore birds that yet breed 
here, or make it a resort at their usual periods. 

I am glad that I am able to state that the species common here are still 
numerous, notwithstanding the encroachments of civilization in the way of 
summer cottages iipon the shores and islands of the lakes and rivers, with all the 
accompanying accessories of innumerable water craft, from the great steamer 
down to the steam and motor yacht, the launch and skiff, which are constantly 
increasing every season among our watering places. 

Indeed, no better proof is needed of the adaptability of this region to the 
habits of wild fowl than the fact that, despite the difficulties and, to them, 
dangers of constant encroachments upon their haunts, they instinctively return 
thereto year after year to rear their young, and then fall a prey, perchance, to 
the enthusiastic sportsmen; and, too often, I am sorry to say, to the greed of the 
mere pot hunter. 

In the following notes I have confined myself to the briefest descriptions, for 
which I am mainly indebted to the "Color Key to North American Birds" and 
"Birds of Eastern North America," by Frank M. Chapman; and to Mr. James 
E. Stanley, of Cape Vincent, N. Y., a noted taxidermist and an enthusiastic 
ornithologist, for the privilege of verifying some of the descriptions by an exami- 
nation of many of the exquisite specimens with which his cases are liberally 
supplied. I am also indebted to Mr. C. T. Sacket, also of Cape Vincent, for the 
privilege of research through his extensive library, to me a source of great 
satisfaction. 

I am also indebted, in some measure, to Gurdon Trumbull's "Names and Por- 
traits of Birds," more especially for the scientific names, although in some instances 
I have followed Mr. Chapman in that respect, because his classification seemed 
to me to be the most logical. I make no claim, however, to any expert 
knowledge of bird nomenclature; so, where the "doctors disagreed," I have 
chosen — it may be neither "wisely nor well" — and I trust I am not far wrong. 
I am also much indebted to "Our Feathered Game," by that entertaining writer 
and sportsman, Dwight W. Huntington. 
2 3 



354 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Dad^S (Anseres). 

I commence my descriptive list with the ducks, because the species is by far 
the most numerous of any of the water fowl that frequent this locality. 

Of the forty-nine species of the duck family {Anatidae), twenty-seven are 
found in this locality. By locality I mean the St. Lawrence River region. Some 
of them breed here, while others remain until very late in the season. Again, 
some species are numerous, while of others only an occasional specimen is 
obtainable. 

Mergansers (Merginai). 

Three species of the Merganser family are found here. The American merganser 
[Merganser aviericanus) is common, during the season, to all parts of the river 
and lake. 

The mergansers are called ducks in common parlance, though in fact they do 
not seem to belong to the true ducks, only in some particulars; in others, they 
differ materially. This part of the subject, however, I leave to the scientist. 
As game birds they will have to be included, I suppose, among others of the 
inferior class, though I suppose that if nothing better is in sight the average gunner 
will not let the chance to bag one pass by. They are voracious devourers of fish. 
Mr. Allan Brooks, in the March number of Recreation, avers that a "Sawbill" can 
"digest five pounds of fish daily." This being admitted, it is easy to conclude 
that the merganser does not rank high as a table delicacy. In fact, as I have 
had occasion to remark of another bird, it would scarcely be accounted a sin to 
eat one on a Friday because of the difficulty in distinguishing whether fish 
or flesh predominated. 

The mergansers are all birds of beautiful plumage, the American merganser 
being superior in that respect to any of the others. They are all tree breeders, 
and to some extent they all breed at some point within the St. Lawrence River 
region. In fact, the American merganser is essentially an inland dweller, though 
not so numerous here. It is an early breeder; the young ones are very precocious, 
being able to take small fish before they (the birds, not the fish) are fairly 
feathered out. 

Sheldrake and sawbill are names often used locally for all the mergansers 
indiscriminately, though when applied to the hooded merganser the name is 
usually qualified by ''little"; as litttle sawbill, little spikebill, etc. The American 
merganser is described as follows: "Head and crest black, reflecting green; upper 
parts black ; rump and tail coverts gray ; wing white with black bai ; under parts 
salmon color; tail gray; bill and feet red." 




4iotj Qj&Wz £oerfes 



HOODED MERGANSER, 
Upper Figure Male, Lower Figure Female 



THE WILD FOWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 355 

The red-breasted merganser {Merganser serrator), locally known as the " Red- 
breasted sawbill," breeds here, and is well known to sportsmen throughout the 
entire region. This bird decoys easily. It subsists entirely on fish, and therefore 
is no better for table use than its congener, the American merganser. 

Just here I am reminded of a recipe for cooking a merganser, which was 
given me some years ago by one of our local guides, now deceased, who was so 
good a camp cook that his "shore dinners" became widely celebrated and were 
eagerly sought for by our summer visitors. He used to say: "I use the 'soup 
stone' receipt." Further inquiry developed a little story, to this effect: A 
"way down easter " decided to take a look at the "far west," which was at 
that time limited by the Mississippi River. Being light in purse and withal 
of a saving disposition, instead of putting money in his "scrip," he put a 
smoothly polished oval stone of strange and variegated markings and colors 
in its place, shouldered his knapsack, and set forth on his travels toward the 
setting sun. 

Stopping at the old-time wayside taverns (hotels were not known in those days), 
he readily, Yankee fashion, ingratiated himself, first with the landlord and his 
family and then with the guests, with whom he skillfully broached such subjects 
that a showing of the stone Avas necessary, by way of illustration. Of its virtues 
he was at once secretive, yet eloquent and enthusiastic. Of course, there were 
doubters; and the only thing that remained for our traveler to do to sustain 
his reputation for truth and veracity was to submit to a trial of the virtues of 
the stone then and there. 

To this he agreed; but he said: "Gentlemen, you must understand that the 
virtoos of this stun are in its flavorin' and thickenin' qualities. It don't make 
the hull soup of itself; there are other ingrejunts necessary, which, if I had, I 

would show you in " "Just name 'em," said the landlord, "and they will be 

forthcomin'." "A fryin' pan, some bilin' water, a pertater or two, a small ingun, 
and a passnip ef handy; a slice or two of bread, and a spoonful or two of injun 
meal; and a leetle salt and pepper," enumerated the traveler. 

The "ingrejunts" were "forthcomin'" in short order, and to them our Yankee 
friend slily added a bay leaf; and when everything was properly prepared for its 
reception, and as our friend remarked, the " witchin' time had arriv," the ''stun" 
was carefully placed in the center of the seething mass. In a few minutes it was 
taken out, carefully cleaned and put away, the soup was turned out into a 
dish and duly sampled by everyone present, and pronounced perfect as to "body 
and flavor." It is needless to say that our Yankee friend had demonstrated the 
"virtoos" of the "stun," and that he consumed the bulk of the soup himself, 



356 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

and departed satisfied, to repeat the demonstration at the next tavern. Reader, 
you have the recipe; and should know by this time how to cook a merganser. 

Description. "'■Adult male. Breast, with broad cinnamon band, streaked 
with black; head feathers lengthened. Female. Crown grayish brown, washed with 
rusty. Chin and throat paler; rest of underparts and speculum white; back and 
tail ashy." 

The Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatiis). 

This bird is also very common, being one of our best known tree breeders, 
staying with us until very late before migrating. 

Description. "Adult male. A large circular black and white crest. Female. 
A small cinnamon crest; head, neck and breast grayish brown; back blackish; 
belly white." 

By some of our local sportsmen, this bird is known as the "hooded sheldrake." 
It is smaller than the other mergansers, and is oftener found on ponds and 
sluggish streams. 

The Mallard (Anas boschas). 

This is one of our commonest birds, breeding largely, when undisturbed, in 
the marshes of the bays and among the islands. The mallard is the original 
of our domesticated duck, with which it readily mates; and from the fact that 
the mallard has the familiar quack of the barnyard duck there are times when 
it is difficult to distinguish them. This similarity leads sometimes to ludicrous 
mistakes, not to say costly ones also, on the part of amateur duck hunters, 
to whom a duck is just a duck, and to whom the difference in the species is a 
sealed book. 

A case in point occurred not many years ago in this immediate vicinity. A 
couple of young hunters, from a city which shall be nameless, went duck shooting, 
armed with the most approved weapons in the way of breechloaders, shooting jackets 
of the best material and latest pattern, gorgeous gamebags, and, in short, all the 
paraphernalia ever invented to make the taking of wild fowl at once a pleasure, 
pastime and success. They were accompanied also by a well-trained retriever. 

Evidently, they had been informed by some friend, who had been here before, 
of the best locality for game on which to exercise their skill; for without any 
hesitation or inquiry of any kind they engaged a boatman to take them at an 
early hour the next morning to a bay in a nearby Canadian island, where the 
Anas boschas breeds numerously, and where in several instances it has been 
known to liberally mingle its wild blood with its congener of the barnyard. 




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THE WILD FOWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 357 

Landing his sportsmen at a suitable point, the boatman rowed away, so that 
the sport might not be disturbed by his presence, and yet be where a signal 
to return could easily be seen. In a little time the firing began, and soon grew 
fast and furious. Afterward, the old boatman, who was a veteran of the Civil 
War, said, while indulging in a brief reminiscence of the occurrence, that "from 
the sound of the firing he thought that his men had formed a skirmish line and 
opened fire on the Canadian garrison at Kingston." 

However, they soon made the signal agreed upon, and taking them on board he 
rowed away for the hotel. They were elated with their success. Their game bags 
were filled to repletion, and they had several brace each, besides. They were 
elated with their wonderful success ; even the eyes of the panting retriever sparkled 
with pleasure. Their success had been phenomenal, and not caring to dim its 
brightness by any chance of future failure, they concluded to take themselves 
and trophies home on the evening train. 

A dinner, such as mine host Fox always provided, with perhaps certain 
accompaniments usually printed on the back of the bill of fare, only added to 
their elation. They repeated again and again to a circle of envious admirers just 
how they did it, the pith of which, as told by the chief narrator, was: "A big 
flock of these mallards — that's what they call 'em, isn't it? — came swimming 
around the point and we let them have it right and left ; and, by George, 
gentlemen, we got all but one; all but one, gentlemen, for a fact." 

Just then, an old farmer and his son and hired man, who lived over on the 
island, came in and after complying with an invitation to share in the liquids, 
turned to inspect the game. But why prolong the painful scene ? The hunters, 
now become the hunted, paid for the mallards, and something over, and were 
allowed to retain them. The old farmer remarked suggestively that he thought 
likely he could have another flock ready by next year. Full of newly acquired 
knowledge and other things, those hunters went home on the next train; and 
whether or not their friends ever learned their mistake as to mallards, the deponent 
saith not. 

This is not the only case of the kind by any means, and similar mistakes are 
liable to occur again. 

The common method employed here for shooting mallards is over decoys ; and 
among all the species which frequent this region the mallard is undoubtedly 
the favorite with a great majority of hunters. 

Another incident, related to me by Mr. James E. Stanley, shows what mav be 
accomplished by an amateur hunter whose knowledge of the game he seeks is 
practically "nil." 



358 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Mr. Stanley had placed a fine lot of decoys in Mud Creek, a couple of miles 
or so from the village of Cape Vincent. Himself and Mr. Henry Morrison, one 
of our enthusiastic local gunners, had placed themselves in the proper positions to 
await the incoming of the expected game, when they were startled by an unex- 
pected fusillade from a clump of undergrowth not more than thirty feet from 
the decoys, and yet more startled to see the split, mangled and disfigured decoys 
floating recklessly about in badly disheveled, duckly dignity. It would be hard 
to imagine a more astonished individual than was the unlucky amateur when 
Mr. Stanley pounced upon him with an outflow of language not only emphatic but 
lurid. The fellow was so completely dumbfounded that he could only exclaim: 
"Great Scott! ain't them ducks nothin' but wood?" An undeniable compliment 
to Mr. Stanley's skill as a decoy maker. In consideration of his dense ignorance, 
Mr. Stanley "let him down easy." And he went- away, a "wiser" if not a 
sadder man. 

Description. "Adult male. Head green; breast chestnut; a white neck ring ; 
speculum purple bordered by black and white; under surface of wing pure white. 
Female. Above blackish and buffy; below rusty buff mottled with dusky grayish 
brown." 

Other species of this family common here are the black duck {Anas obscura), 
also a home breeder. 

The black duck closely resembles the mallard in its habits, and the "quack" 
of the mallard, the black duck, and that of the barnyard fowl are so nearly alike 
that one might easily be mistaken for the other. Mr. Stanley has a pair bred 
from the black duck and the mallard, and now proposes to continue the new 
strain in order to see the result. His opinion is that they will "breed back;" 
and he is waiting with no little curiosity as to the outcome. A Wolf Island 
farmer tells me of an instance in which eggs of the domestic duck, the mallard 
and the black duck were found in the same nest not more than a rod from the 
water's edge. 

The black duck is an exceedingly cautious bird, and not easy to take. Owing 
to the nocturnal habits of the species, some of our local hunters formerly 
indulged in night shooting, but with no marked result, other than to drive the 
birds from their feeding grounds. 

Description. "Adults. Speculum bluish purple, tipped with black; no white 
in the wing; wing lining white; crown without paler margins; throat usually 
without markings; legs 'olivaceous' brown; bill greenish black or olive green." 

The gadwall (Anas strepard), which is not so common here, often goes by the 
name of the "gray duck," and is often confounded with the widgeon. In fact, 







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THE WILD FOWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 359 

some of our local, hunters insist that the gadwall and widgeon are the same bird. 
It breeds in our marshes, but not in great numbers. 

Description. "Adult male. Wing coverts chestnut; under wing coverts and 
axillars white; breast ringed with white. Feinale. Head and throat like male; 
back fuscous and buffy; breast and sides ochraceous, thickly spotted with blackish; 
speculum ashy gray and white." 

The widgeon (Anas amcricand). By some of our gunners this bird is known 
as the "green-headed widgeon," or "greenhead," and also the "bald pate." 
Owing to its extreme wariness it is not only hard to take, but it often succeeds 
in frightening other birds away with its peculiar alarm signal, a sort of whistle. 

Description. "Adult male. . Head and neck reddish brown; crown buff; sides 
with wavy white and black lines. Adult female. Head and throat rusty, finely 
streaked and barred with black; breast and sides rusty; speculum blackish." 

Two species of teal are local breeders also ; the green-winged teal (Anas 
carolinensus) and the blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The latter is also locally 
known as the "white-faced teal." These are the smallest of the wild fowl that 
visit this region, or that breed here. They are much sought after, as they are 
considered superior to the canvas back for eating. This question of suitableness 
for table use is, after all, a relative one. It depends wholly upon the quality and 
kind of food the birds consume. Those that feed upon the wild celery of the 
South, or fatten upon the wild rice found in so many localities, are superior in 
flavor to those that feed upon inferior foods. Generally speaking, however, teal 
are excellent table birds, inferior to none. 

The blue-winged teal are among the earliest to visit us, arriving here early in 
September. Many remain to nest in our marshes, unless too often disturbed. 
They are rapid flyers, and rise from the water quickly. The usual method of 
taking them here is with decoys, or shooting over points. 

Description. "'Adult male of the green-winged teal. Wing coverts gray, 
tipped with buff or white, a white crescent in front of wing; speculum green, 
bordered by black, tipped with white. Female. Wings same as male, throat and 
sides of neck white, finely spotted with black; breast and sides rusty, marked 
with black. Adult male of the blue-winged teal. Blue wing coverts, and white 
cheek patch. Female. Resembles female green-winged teal, but has wing 
coverts blue, with speculum greenish brown." 

The canvas back (Atliya valisneria). Though not by any means as common 
here as some other species, it visits us in considerable numbers and is often 
bagged. The usual method of taking them in the St. Lawrence region is by shooting 
over decoys, or from points as they pass from one feeding ground to another. 



360 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Description. "■Adult male. Head and whole neck dull reddish brown. 
Female. Head and neck rusty grayish brown; back grayish brown finely barred 
with black and white." 

The canvas back is one of the largest of the duck family, and is also a handsome 
bird, qualities which, combined with its excellent table qualities, have given to 
this species the distinguished name, "King of Ducks." It arrives here quite 
early in the fall, and remains until there is no longer any open water to be seen. 

Dwight W. Huntington, in his admirable volume on "Our Feathered Game," 
says: "The canvas back is distinctly an American bird. No other ducks resemble 
it excepting the red-head duck, and the pochard of Europe." This fact accounts 
for the opinion expressed by an enthusiastic southerner in an after-dinner speech 
that: " Sah, the only bird that should be adopted as the emblem, sah, of these 
United States is the canvas back of the Chesapeake, sah." 

The red head (At/tya americana). By many of our epicures, this bird is 
thought to be much superior to the canvas back for table use, and hence they 
are much sought after. These birds usually arrive here late in March, or certainly 
by the first of April, and now that spring shooting is prohibited, they will 
remain until late in the spring, and no doubt many will breed here. The method 
of taking them is the same as employed. for the canvas back. 

Description. "-Adult male. Head and upper neck entirely a bright rufous; 
lower neck, breast and back of the neck and upper back black ; the rest of the 
back and scapulars finely barred with wavy black and white lines of equal width; 
wing coverts brownish gray; upper tail coverts black; belly white, lower part more 
or less barred with black. Female. Throat white; back grayish brown without 
fine bars; speculum gray." 

The American scaup or bluebill (At/iya marzla). 

Description. "Adult male. Head glossed with greenish; sides without distinct 
black bars. Female. Feathers about base of bill white; breast and back rusty 
grayish brown; speculum white." 

The lesser scaup, or little bluebill (Athya affinis). 

Description. "Adult male. Head glossed with purplish; sides with distinct 
black bars. Female. Similar to female of American scaup." This bird is common 
and is often taken among the islands and in the bays. 

As indicated, there are two distinct species of the scaup showing no appreciable 
difference except in size. They have several names, but the most common seems 
to be the "big bluebill" and the "little bluebill." Though these birds are often 
mistaken one for the other, so far as I have been able to learn it is the lesser 
scaup or little bluebill that is oftenest seen here. 




PINTAIL DUCK 
Upper Figure Male, Lower Figure Female 



THE WILD FOWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 361 

The ring-necked scaup (At/iya collaris), though partial to our lakes and ponds, 
is not so often met with along the river. With the exception of a chestnut 
collar or neck ring, this species does not differ materially in its markings from 
the other Athyae. 

Another species, the pintail (Dafila acuta), known also as the " piketail" and 
"sprigtail," is sometimes found here, though by no means common. It is 
distinguished principally by its central tail feathers, which are black and about 
seven and a half inches in length. 

The pintail arrives here usually in September, but sometimes it is not seen 
until October. When the teal put in an appearance the pintail may be looked for. 
Huntington speaks of a remarkable performance of this bird, that of drumming like 
the snipe, arising high in the air, and then falling suddenly, producing a loud drum- 
ming sound by the action of the wings. It frequents our marshes with the mallard, 
and is often shot over decoys at the same time. It is one of our best table birds. 

A favorite bird here, because of its superior table qualities, is the shoveller 
(Spatula clypeata), often known to our sportsmen as the "red-breasted shoveller." 
For table use it also is considered by many far superior to the canvas back. 

In plumage it is one of the most beautiful birds that visit us ; and hence I 
indulge in a description of an adult male, as given by Mr. Gurdon Trumbull: 
"Head and upper neck of a very dark greenish tone with purple reflections; 
lower neck and breast white; belly and flanks rich chestnut brown; front part of 
wing conspicuously blue, of light shade but vivid; back of this blue, a green wing 
mark or speculum, bordered with white and black; feathers striped with white 
sweeping backward from inner region of wings; back dusky brown; rump above 
and below tail black with greenish gloss; at either end of tail a white patch." 
Though not especially numerous, enough of these birds are seen from time to 
time to keep the epicurean sportsman on the qui vive, in the hope of securing a 
brace or two for his game bag. 

One of our home breeders, conceded to be the most beautifid of our water 
fowls, and scarcely inferior to any for table use, is the wood duck (Aix sponsa), 
also called the "summer duck." I refrain from attempting a description of this 
beautiful bird, because mere words can give no adequate idea of its gorgeous 
plumage; and, moreover, it is so well known that description is superflous. Only 
a colored plate could give an appreciable idea at the best. Mr. Huntington says: 
"The wood duck is the most beautiful duck in the world." 

Linnaeus named this bird sponsa, the bride; but that seems rather inconsistent, 
since it is the bridegroom that appears in gorgeous raiment, while the bride is a 
plain little body, very modestly attired. 



362 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

There was a time, and that not long ago, when it looked as though this 
species would become extinct; indeed, in some localities where they were numerous 
a few years ago there is now hardly one to be found. Notably is this the case 
along the wooded shores of Kent's or Mud Creek in the town of Cape Vincent, 
Jefferson County. There the species has been pretty thoroughly obliterated; and 
unless the law against spring shooting is promptly and thoroughly enforced, we 
may bid farewell to the wood duck in that locality. Hon. Elon R. Brown, when 
he procured the enactment of the law against spring shooting in Jefferson County, 
performed a meritorious and most creditable act; and now, if the officers to 
whom the enforcement of the law is entrusted will do their duty promptly and 
effectively, great good may be accomplished. It is a source of regret that the 
provisions of the law were not extended to other counties, especially those 
embraced in the lake and river region. 

It may be considered somewhat out of place to make a suggestion here; but 
I hope that it is not wholly inappropriate. In view of the fact that the area of 
cleared land is constantly increasing, and in the same ratio the wooded area 
diminishing, so also are the nesting places of many of our home breeders, such 
as the wood duck and other tree fowl, becoming fewer and more difficult of 
access to the birds. In proportion as suitable nesting places grow less the broods 
fall off; and these causes, in connection with corpulent game bags filled to 
repletion by greedy hunters, soon result in ridding us entirely of these species. 

My suggestion is, that a law should be passed limiting the number of ducks 
and shore birds to be taken at any one time to not more than a dozen. Anglers 
are limited to taking a certain number of bass at any one time. Why not 
extend the law to fowl ? Bass are a hundred times more numerous than our game 
fowl, and yet I have seen as many ducks brought in, the spoil of a single gun, 
as the angler was allowed bass as the trophy of a single rod. The true sportsman 
ought to be satisfied with half a dozen brace of ducks, while the pot hunter should 
be legislated out of business entirely. What really ought to be done, is the 
enactment of a law prohibiting the killing of any of our home breeding birds, ducks 
especially, for a term, say, of five years. At the end of that period duck shooting 
would be a pleasant pastime, and there would be some chance that now and then 
a choice morsel might reach our tables. 

My attention has just now been called to another fact which may be very 
properly considered by our lawmakers, and that is, that one of the greatest enemies 
of the wood duck in this locality is the pickerel, so called here, but properly the 
pike. These fish are classed among game fish in our waters, a bit of the most 
inconsistent legislation on our statutes. The pickerel destroys more bass spawn, 



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GOLDEN EYE DUCK 

Upper Figure Male, Lower Figure Female 



THE WILD FOWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 363 

except perhaps the eel, than does any other of the finny tribe; and besides its sins in 
that direction it is doing no end of damage in the destruction of young ducklings. 
Pickerel are to our wood duck and other home breeders what carp have proved 
to be elsewhere. 

The law should relegate pickerel to the grade of food fish and turn them over 
to the netter. By so doing a double benefit would be achieved. There would 
soon be a notable increase of bass and also of our home breeding ducks, while 
there would be, in addition, a marked increase in fish food. It seems like folly to 
protect a fish by law that no true angler would think of keeping should he catch 
one. 

. ■ Another tree breeder, the American golden eye, or whistler (Clangula ameri- 
cana), is also common on the St. Lawrence, returning here from the north in 
autumn. The golden eye is never seen in large flocks; often single or in pairs. 
It is a rapid diver and as difficult to shoot as a loon. The flesh is not especially 
desirable. I quote again from Huntington: "The Indians call it a 'spirit duck.' 
On the Yukon they stuff the skin to make a toy for the children." 

In Xeltje Blanchan's book, "Birds that Hunt and are Hunted," the following 
story is credited to Allan Brooks: "The Indians of the Frazer River valley tell 
a story of two men in one of their tribes who had a dispute as to how the whistler 
made the noise, one claiming that it was produced by the wings, the other, that 
it was vocal or made through the nostrils. Others joined in the dispute which 
resulted in the death of the majority of the warriors, leaving the question 
unsettled." 

Description. '■'Adult male. Head greenish; circular white patch at base of 
bill. Female. Head and throat brown ; breast and back gray, a white throat ring ; 
belly and speculum white." 

Barrows' golden eye (Clangula islandicd). This bird is by no means common 
here, though specimens have been taken and mounted. 

Description. "Adult male. Head purplish blue; white patch at base of bill 
twice as high as wide. Female. Same as the American golden eye." 

The buffle head (CJiaritonella albeola) is one of our local tree breeders, and 
has, in common with others of its class, suffered from spring shooting and pickerel. 

Description. "Adult male. Head blue, purple and green; a white band from 
eye to eye across the nape. Female. A whitish patch on either side of the head; 
throat and upper parts grayish brown; belly and speculum white." 

The ruddy duck {Erismatura rubida) is one of our most common species. It 
breeds in the marshes along the bays of the St. Lawrence, among the islands, and 
also on the shores of our inland lakes. This duck is a veritable gformand, and is 



364 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

known locally as the "butter ball," and by some as the "deaf duck," though 
why, it is not so easy to see, as it never shows any signs of defective hearing, 
as many a hunter can readily testify. 

Description. " Adult male. Cheeks white; cap black; back reddish brown; tail 
feathers narrow and stiff; bill short. Female. A whitish streak through dusty 
cheeks; back grayish brown, with fine buffy bars; belly silvery whitish." 

The "old squaw" {Clangula hyemalis) is plentiful throughout the St. Lawrence 
and lake region, large numbers wintering on Lake Ontario. Locally it is known 
to our Canadian neighbors as the " cock-a-wee," and the local names of "John 
Conolly " and "John Hollenbeck " are common. When a boy the writer was taught 
to call this bird the "south, south southerly," words which its cry closely imitated. 

Description. '■'Adult male. Central tail feathers much lengthened; in winter, 
crown, nape, throat and neck all around white; in summer, black with rusty 
markings on back. Female. In winter, cheeks, neck all around and under parts 
white; breast and sides of neck dusty. In summer, crown, cheeks and nape blackish; 
throat and breast dusky; a whitish patch back of eye." 

The harlequin (Histrionictis liistrionicus) has been taken here, but it is very scarce. 

Description. "Adult male. Back and breast slaty blue ; head darker. Female. 
Front half of cheeks and spot over ears whitish; above blackish brown; below 
dusky and whitish." 

The American eider {Somateria dresseri) is the only individual of that species 
ever found here. It is not numerous at any time, though several are taken 
every autumn. It comes to us very late, and its stay is limited to two or three 
weeks at the most. 

Description. '■'Adult male. Crown black with a white wedge. Female. 
Brownish black above, margined with rusty and buff; below dusky finely margined 
with buff; bare spaces on either side of feathers of culmen rounded at the base 
(posteriorly)." 

The American scoter (Oidemia americand) is common enough in this locality, 
though no hunter will go out of his way to kill one. They are exceedingly 
poor eating, their flesh being very strong and fishy, so much so that to eat 
one in Lent would hardly violate any church rule. Locally they are known as 
"niggers" and "ironclads." 

Description. "Adult male. Wholly black; bill black, yellow at base. Female. 
Brownish above, lighter below; no white on wings or sides of the head." 

The white-winged scoter {Oidemia deglandi) is also found here, but for the same 
reason it is in no greater demand as a table bird than its relative, the 
American scoter. 




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Description. "Adult male. Black, a white spot about the eye; bill orange, 
black at base. Female. Dusky brown above; lighter below." This species has 
also "a white patch on the wing; feathers extending forward along the sides 
and top of the bill nearly to the nostrils." 

Geese. 

Order Anseres. Family Anatidae. 

Of these, there is but a single species that may be said to frequent the 
St. Lawrence river, or the islands and bays at the foot of Lake Ontario; it is 
the Hutchins goose {Canadensis hutchinsii). 

This species is smaller than the common wild goose {Branta canadensis), but it 
is marked almost identically the same, and hence I do not deem it necessary to 
append a description. 

Occasionally a specimen of the common brant {Br ant a bernicla) is taken here, 
but they are by no means common. They are highly esteemed for table use, but 
it is very seldom that the hunter is enabled to gratify his palate with a taste of 
this delicious goose. 

3l)Ore lairds {Limicolae). 

Of this order, two families, snipes {Scolopacidae) and plovers {Charadridae) 
with a single individual of the Aprizidae, the turnstone, are all that are repre- 
sented in this region. In mentioning each individual species I have condensed 
its description as much as possible, confining it to adults entirely. With this 
explanation, the reader will have no difficulty in the application. Because of 
their brevity, I have borrowed the descriptions from Chapman's "Color Key 
to North American Birds " 

The shore birds closely follow the geese and ducks in their northward migra- 
tion, their stay here being very short. Some of them breed here, and now that 
the law has designated a close season for them, it is hoped that their numbers 
will increase. They return from the north late in the summer, but are rarely 
disturbed now by our local sportsmen, nor are they sufficiently numerous to 
attract the professional or the 'market hog." I am told by old-time sportsmen 
that in the early days of snipe and plover shooting in the St. Lawrence River 
region it was not an uncommon thing to bag a hundred "Wilson plover in a day 
on the shore of any one of our inland lakes, and that it was no difficult matter 
to take half as many Avoodcock in the same time. 



366 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

The day of such sport here is passed; though it is hoped that conditions may 
improve to some extent, even though environments are less favorable to our 
wild fowl. 

Plovers (Charadridae). 

There are five species of the plover family, two at least, and probably three, 
of which breed here. 

The American golden plover {CJiaradrius dominions) is one of the most common, 
following close after the snipe in the spring. In this region they may be looked 
for early in May; and by the last of that month they have left us for their 
breeding grounds in the far north. 

They return to us, as a rule, in September, 'often in quite large flocks, but are 
rarely disturbed now by our local gunners, who usually have "something to do," 
as one expressed it, "besides hunting jack snipe." Sportsmen who come here at 
the- proper time in the fall usually meet with good success, unless they are 
expecting to secure large numbers. In such cases they are likely to be disap- 
pointed; while he whose desires are moderate is quite likely to enjoy a fair 
modicum of sport. 

Markings. "Above, conspicuously spotted with yellow, below, black; sides of 
breast white; no hind toe; axillars dusky." 

The bartramian sandpiper (Bartramia lougicaitda), also known locally as the 
"upland plover," is a home breeder, and is found more especially on the higher 
points and ridges at the foot of Lake Ontario, and around our inland lakes. 
Though very difficult to capture, it is much sought after by sportsmen. ' This 
bird is decidedly musical, its song being a long, sweet, melodious whistle. 

Though strictly a sandpiper, I have placed this bird among the plovers, .because 
to the sportsman it is the upland plover, and is likely to remain so. ' While to the 
local dweller it is sometimes known by some other name, the upland plover is its 
prevailing designation. Then, too, its habits are not those of the sandpiper, 
as it does not frequent either our inland lakes, ponds or rivers; nor does its flesh 
have the fishy taste so often found in other sandpipers, because its food is chiefly 
insects. As a table bird it is considered among the very best by those well 
qualified to judge. I am sorry to say, however, that the sportsman who expects 
to bag many of these birds in a clay's shooting in this region will be sadly 
disappointed. First, they are very scarce, and, second, they are very shy and 
hard to get. 

Markings. "Outer primary barred black and white; above black, ochraceous, 
and brownish gray, breast and sides with dusky arrowheads, throat and belly 
whitish." 




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THE WILD FCWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 367 

The black-bellied plover {Charadfius squatarola), known also as the "lapwing'' 
or "Swiss plover,'' is a frequenter here, arriving at the same time with the 
golden plover, on its way north, returning usually in September. They are by 
no means numerous in this region at any time; but when found it is usually 
about the sandy shores of our inland lakes, and on similar shores around the 
islands in the St. Lawrence. 

Markings. "Hind toe present but small; above, black and white, no yellowish; 
below, black." 

The Wilson plover {Ochthrodromus wilsonius) is found here, one of its best- 
known local breeding places being along the shores of Mud Creek in the town of 
Cape Vincent, though it no doubt breeds at numerous other places near the river. 

Markings. "No black on hind neck. One black breast, and crown band; 
some rusty about the head." 

Though not common, the turnstone {Arenaria interpres), known also as the 
"red-legged plover," is frequently seen and sometimes killed, but not often. 

The ring-tailed marlin (Lvnosa fedod) is occasionally taken here. 

The dowitcher {Macrorhamplms griseus) is occasionally taken. This bird is 
also known as the "red-breasted snipe" and by some hunters who come here the 
"New York godwit." 

Markings. "Rump, tail under wing coverts and axillars barred black and 
white; above, black margined with rusty; rump white; below, reddish brown 
spotted and barred with black." 

Wilson snipe (Galhnago delicatd) breeds here in abundance, and is much sought 
after by our sportsmen. Many of our local hunters call this the "jack snipe." 
In fact, jack snipe is really the only name one hears for this species, unless it 
may be just "snipe." 1 It usually arrives here when the ice is leaving the river. 
A few nest here; but when the weather begins to grow warm they nearly all 
take their flight northward, breeding beyond the northmost boundary of the United 
States. The snipe bores in the mud and soft earth for its food, and the hunter, 
if he sees no evidences of boring for worms, may be sure that there have been 
neither snipe nor woodcock ahead of him. 

There is seemingly nothing more uncertain than the arrival and departure of 
this bird. ( Usually they arrive from the north the last of September; but no matter 
how soon a sharp frost occurs they are away as suddenly as they came, leaving 
scarcely a straggler behind. 

Huntington gives one leason for the disappearance of snipe from many localities, 
which I am inclined to think is in a great degree applicable to this region. He 



o 



68 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



says: "There is a reason for the absolute disappearance of these birds from many 
places, to be found in the draining of the lands." 

From the fact that their feeding grounds are low meadows and bog lands, easily 
bored for worms, it is evident that drainage would destroy them for feeding 
purposes, and therefore they are driven to other haunts for subsistence. I have 
known snipe to bore into the fresh-turned earth where the great breaking plow 
with its two yoke of oxen had made deep furrows through a boggy swale. While 
the plowmen were at dinner up at the house, scores of snipe were gathering 
luscious earthworms from the newly turned black soil of the bog down in the field. 
There is good reason to suppose that with some additional protection snipe may 
become much more numerous than now. 

Markings. "Throat and belly white or whitish; breast rusty buff indistinctly 
streaked; sides barred; above, streaked black and- cream buff; tail black and 
rusty; outer feathers barred black and white." 

The Woodcock {Philohela minor). 

This bird easily takes first place among the waders. Because what he has 
said of this bird is so well said, I have taken the liberty of quoting largely from 
Mr. Dwight W. Huntington's admirable chapter, devoted to the woodcock. He 
says: "No American game bird is more highly prized by shooters than the 
woodcock. Dr. Coues observes: 'This is the game bird after all, say what you 
please of snipe, quail or goose;' and Gurdon Trumbull adds, 'Yes, Doctor, either 
in the field or on toast.'" 

It is easily distinguished from the other game birds. "The general color is a 
rufous gray, effectively marked above with black; its head is larger than that 
of the snipe or partridge (bob white), and its eyes are set well back and high to 
enable it to see when boring in the mud with its long bill. The legs and bill 
are of a gray flesh color; the bill is about two and three quarter inches long; 
twice the length of the head." In extent of wings the woodcock will measure 
about eighteen inches, and a full grown bird will weigh from seven and one half 
to ten ounces according to its condition. 

While the general haunt of the woodcock is boggy and low-lying woodland, 
he is often found in the hillside forests, and not infrequently at the summit of 
the hill. 

The woodcock arrives on the St. Lawrence River usually about the first of 
April, and many breed in its vicinity. In some places, however, where only 
a few years ago they were numerous there is scarcely one to be found. There is a 




Q 

o 



H 
en 

P 

< 

« 
a 

Q 

i 

Q 

a 



THE WILD FOWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 369 

strip of woodland in the town of Cape Vincent, Jefferson county, where, Mr. Stanley- 
tells me, a pair of woodcock have bred for several years. 

His explanation of the scarcity of woodcock is, first, the "game hog" hunter 
who used to frequent this section as long as there was anything left to shoot; 
and now, the robbing of their nests by vermin and the destruction of their young 
by hawks and other predatory fowl. Not long since Mr. Stanley shot a large 
hawk just as it had eaten about half the flesh from a partridge. On another 
occasion while preparing a night hawk for setting up he found in its crop a 
couple of young yellow legs, so that he is convinced that similar depredations on 
the young woodcock are one of the causes that prevents a more rapid increase of 
this very desirable bird. 

Their food is principally earthworms, though insects, common in damp and 
spongy woods, are readily devoured. It is said that a woodcock will devour more 
than its weight of worms in a single night. It has certainly been, demonstrated 
by actual experiment that it is a gormandizer of no mean capacity. 

Bearing in mind the many obstacles which prevent the increase of this fowl, it 
seems to me that the law should lend its aid to any reasonable extent necessary 
to prevent its total extermination. The present law says: "Woodcock shall not 
be taken from December first to September fifteenth, both inclusive. No person 
shall take more than thirty-six woodcock in an open season." 

The length of the close season is not so objectionable, though it would have 
been better had it been a month longer. I would move to amend the law, 
however, by striking out the word "thirty" in the compound "thirty-six," as 
the least the Legislature ought to do. 

If, however, our lawmakers were disposed to really do what ought to be done, 
I would move to amend by striking out all but the enacting clause and substituting: 
Woodcock shall not be taken, killed, had in possession, nor sold within the State 
nor carried without the State for a period of ten years after the passage of this 
act, under a penalty of one hundred dollars for each and every offense upon 
conviction thereof. Upon conviction the second time for either of the above 
offenses, a fine of two hundred dollars and an imprisonment at hard labor for one 
year, or both, at the discretion of the court. This act to take effect immediately. 

From the fact that none of them are sufficiently numerous at any time to 
attract attention, or to offer any great inducement to the hunter, I have made 
only a brief allusion to the remaining shore birds which are found throughout 
this region in greater or less numbers, in proportion to their facilities for 
obtaining food, or for breeding unmolested. 
24 



37° REPORT OK THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

With regard to cranes, rails, gallinules, etc., the Paludicolae, I have followed 
the same plan, and for a similar reason I have indulged, also, in but little more 
than brief mention of the bitterns, loons, grebes, gulls and terns. 

It seems quite probable that under proper protection our shore birds will 
increase to a considerable extent in some of the more sparsely settled localities — 
sufficiently so, at least, to afford the sportsman of moderate desires a fair bag in a 
day's shooting. 

The greater yellow legs ( Totanus melanoleucus) is abundant in every part of 
the St. Lawrence region, and so is its congener "yellow legs" (Totanus flavipes), the 
latter being smaller in size. 

Markings. "No rusty; upper tail coverts mostly white; tail barred with 
black and white or gray; above, black margined with whitish; below, white 
and black." 

The long-billed curlew (Numenius longirostris) is common here, and so also is 
the Hudsonian curlew (Numenius liudsonicus). Both species are plenty in their 
season, every marsh having its contingent. Occasionally, a specimen of the 
Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis) is taken, but not often. 

The killdeer (Oxyechus vociferus) is too common the country over and too 
well known to make a written description at all necessary. 

The sand-hill crane (Grus mexicana) is common to the entire St. Lawrence valley. 

The king rail (Rallus elegans) abounds here, together with the Carolina rail 
(Por sana Carolina) . 

The Florida gallinule (Gallinula galeata), known also as the "American 
gallinule," is a frequenter of the entire Thousand Island region. By some of our 
sportsmen this species is known as the " water chicken," and by others, as 
the "water rail." The most common local name, however, for this bird is the 
" mud hen." 

Occasionally, a specimen of the pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarius) is taken 
in this locality, but not often. Mr. James E. Stanley has a very fine specimen 
in his collection. 

The American coot (Fulica americana) is common all along the St. Lawrence river. 

Bitterns. 

Two of the bittern family are common to our swamps and marshes — the 
American bittern (Botaurus /entiginosus), locally called a " schytepoke," and the 
least bittern (Ardetta exilis). % 




J. E, STANLEY, PHOTO. 



PIED-BILLED GREBE WATCHING ITS NEST. 




J. E. STANLEY, PHOTO, 



A LOON ON ITS NEST. 



THE WILD FOWL OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 371 

Loons (Gaviidae). 

Two species of the loon family are found in this vicinity — the loon {Gavia 
imber) and the black-throated loon {Gavia arcticus). The latter species is very 
like the former in its markings, but is a smaller bird. The loon is one of the 
commonest sights to the traveler on the St. Lawrence, and to amateur sportsmen 
a source of never-ending interest because of the difficulty in securing a specimen. 

Grebes (JPodicipidae). 

The pied-billed grebe {Podilymbus podiccps) breeds readily in the marshes and 
is very common especially along the upper St. Lawrence. This bird is locally 
known as the "hell-diver." 

The horned grebe (Colymbus auritus), known also as the "hooded grebe," is 
also a home breeder, but is less common than the pied-billed grebe. 

Gulls and Terns (Laridae). 

The American herring gull {Larus argentatus) breeds throughout the St, 
Lawrence region, and is common to both river and lake. 

The laughing gull {Larus atricilla) is often seen and oftener heard; but it is 
by no means as numerous as the species just mentioned. The same may be said 
of the Bonaparte gull {Larus pliiladelphia). Neither of these is known to breed in 
this vicinity. 

The common tern {Sterna hirundd) breeds in our marshes and is very common 
during the season. This is the case, also, with the black tern {Hydrochelidon 
n igra su rum mensis) . 

The kittiwake {Rissa tridactyla) and the Iceland gull {Larus leucopterus) are 
numerous during the summer and autumn. 

There was a time here when the gulls and terns were shot in large numbers, 
their plumage being in great demand for millinery decoration; but of late these 
birds remain practically undisturbed. 

It is quite likely that in this article I have omitted some names which should 
have been inserted in order to make the list more complete. If so, I have left 
something to be supplied by some one who will write for the next report. I can 
only say that I have done the best I could under the circumstances. My chief 
regret lies in the fact that I am not better qualified to do full justice to a subject 
of so much interest. 



$J2 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

As an appropriate ending to this article I append the following letter, which 
speaks for itself. The writer's opportunities for gathering facts, and his well-known 
habit of close observation, especially upon a matter in which he takes so much 
interest, give great weight to his statements and cannot fail to interest the reader. 

Water/town, N. Y. , March 17, 1905. 

Friend Durham: — Your inquiry regarding the breeding of wild fowl in this 
county is one that interests me very much. From reports that have come to 
me, as president of the Sportsmen's Association, and from my own personal 
observation, the results of stopping spring shooting in Jefferson County have far 
exceeded the expectations of its most ardent supporters. 

The wood duck and the blue-wing teal are nesting here in larger numbers 
each year. These birds are the first to leave us in the fall; and since the opening 
season was extended to September fifteenth very few of them have been killed, 
which may account for your belief that they do not nest here to any great extent. 

The increase of the black duck, or dusky mallard, has been marvelous, reports 
showing that it nests in all sections of the county and in places where it was 
never known to nest before. Not only have the marsh ducks nested here, but 
the divers also — but to a lesser extent. I have undoubted proof that the whistler, 
shelldrake, broad-bill, red-head, in fact nearly every known duck which frequents 
our waters, have remained and nested, and also the English snipe. 

I would suggest a limit of twenty-five ducks to one gun for one day; that the 
season open September first instead of September fifteenth; a better enforcement 
of the game law during the summer on the lake and the St. Lawrence Reserva- 
tion both as to the size and limit of black bass, and the wanton slaughter of 
unpledged wild fowl by visiting sportsmen. 

Very truly yours, 

W. H. Tallott, 
Preside?it Jefferson County Sportsmen's Association. 

I desire to call especial attention to the half-tone illustrations, from photo- 
graphs by J. E. Stanley, Jr., of Cape Vincent, N. Y., some of which were achieved 
under difficulties which no one but an enthusiast like himself would have over- 
come. The pictures themselves show that they could not have been easily 
obtained, and are, therefore, of necessity, rare and consequently valuable. Some of 
these pictures have taken valuable prizes in contests where photographs of a similar 
character were exhibited. 



A Forest Wording Plan 



For 



Tovnsf)ip£ 5, 6 and li, 

Totten and Grossfield Purchase, 
Hamilton Coant^, 

Nev ^lort) >State Forest Preserve. 



RalpI) 3. Hpsmer, Field Assistant, and 

^tigene 3. I^mce, lumberman, 

^ureau of forestry, United states Department of Agriculture. 

373 



Contents 

PART I. 



INTRODUCTION. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRACT. 

Area. 

Topography. 
Rock and soil. 
The watersheds. 

Raquette River system. 

Moose River system. 

The Fulton Chain. 

Cedar River system. 
Description of the townships. 

Township 5. 

Township 6. 

Township 41. 

LAND CLASSIFICATION. 
THE FOREST. 

General description. 
Forest types. 

Spruce land. 

Swamp. 

Upper spruce slope. 
Forest description by townships. 

Township 5. 

Township 6. 

Township 41. 

THE RESERVES. 

Water front reserve. 
Summit reserve. 

FIRE. 

PRIVATE PRESERVES. 

Township 5. 
Township 6. 
Township 41. 

375 



376 REPORT- OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

THE ESTIMATE. 

Compartments. 
Merchantable area. 
Volume tables. 
Yield tables. 
Future yield. 

SPECIES RECOMMENDED TO BE LUMBERED. 
PROPOSED DIAMETER LIMIT. 
REMAINING SPECIES. 

PART II. 

INTRODUCTION. 

NATURAL OUTLETS FOR TIMBER. 

DIVISION OF TOWNSHIPS INTO COMPARTMENTS. 

Shallow Lake Compartment. 

Seventh and Eighth Lakes and Brown's Tract Pond Compartment. 

South Inlet Compartment. 

Bear Pond Compartment. 

Cedar River Compartment. 

Silver Run Compartment. 

Sumner Stream Compartment. 

Pear Pond and Red River Compartment. 

Fourth Lake Compartment. 

Big Moose Compartment. 

SALE OF STUMPAGE BY THE STATE. 

EFFECT OF THE ADVISED IMPROVEMENTS UPON STUMPAGE VALUE. 

RULES GOVERNING LUMBERING OPERATIONS. 

MARKING TIMBER. 

METHOD OF CUTTING. 

CUTTING HEIGHT OF STUMP. 

DIAMETER LIMIT AT TOP END. 

FELLING TIMBER AND CUTTING ROADS. 

USE OF TIMBER FOR BUILDING SKTDWAYS, CORDUROYS AND BRIDGES. 

LOPPING TOPS. 

OUTLETTING ROADS TO LAKES. 

SCALE RULE ADVISED. 

METHOD OF SCALING. 

RULES TO BE EMBODIED IN A LUMBERING CONTRACT. 

INSPECTION. 

NAMES OF TREES MENTIONED IN WORKING PLAN. 



A Forest Wording Plan 

For Townships J, 6 and ll, Toff en and Oossfteld Purdue, 
Hamilton County, Nev *Iorl$. 



PART I. 
InfrodQCfton. 



THE object of this report is to present a definite and comprehensive plan by 
which a certain part of the Adirondack Forest Preserve in New York 
may be managed in accordance with the principles of practical forestry. 
It sets forth the methods which should be followed in removing the timber now 
merchantable, in order that repeated crops may be harvested and the general 
productive condition of the forest not only maintained but improved. 

This working plan is the result of a continuation of the work carried on in the 
Adirondack Forest Preserve by the Bureau of Forestry during the summer of 1900, 
in response to a request made by the Forest, Fish and Game Commission of 
New York to the United States Department of Agriculture for cooperation in the 
study of the Adirondack Forest Preserve. In accordance Avith that request, which 
followed an appropriation from the Legislature, a forest working plan was prepared 
for Township 40, Totten and Crossfield Purchase. This was published during the 
spring of 1901 as a bulletin of the Bureau of Forestry.* 

In order that the study begun on Township 40 might be extended, the 
Legislature of 1901 voted an appropriation of $3,500, through the means of which, 
and in accordance with the terms contained in Circular 21 of the Bureau of 
Forestry, this working plan for Townships 5, 6, and 41 was made. 

These three townships, together with Township 40, containing, in all, nearly 
100,000 acres, form one of the largest and most compact blocks of State land 
within the proposed Adirondack Park. The forest problems presented on all 
four townships are the same, and when taken together these townships form a 
better unit for economical administration than if managed separately. 

Therefore the present working plan must be considered as a supplement to 
that for Township 40, in which may be found facts and figures relating to the 



* Bulletin No. 30, "A Forest Working Plan for Township 40," by Ralph S. Hosmer and 
Eugene S. Bruce, Washington, D. C, 1901. 

. 377 



3/8 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

three other townships of the block, together with recommendations for forest 
management within them. 

For this, and for the further reason that it has been found advisable in a 
number of cases to discuss the problems presented without reference to township 
lines, there are frequent references in the following pages to Township 40. 
Especially is this the case in regard to certain watersheds, parts of which are 
in more than one of the four townships. This working plan for Townships 5, 6, 
and 41, however, can stand alone, although in the actual working out of the 
problems presented on the whole block it would undoubtedly be used in close 
conjunction with that for Township 40. 

General Description of fl)e t^loc^. 

Townships 5, 6, 40, and 41 form a roughly rectangular block on the western 
side of Hamilton County in the west-central section of the Adirondack Park. 
The county line between Hamilton and Herkimer counties cuts off the northwest 
corner of Township 41, which is the only part of this township not owned by 
the State. Townships 40 and 41, with the exception just noted, are situated 
wholly in the town of Long Lake. Township 5 lies partly in the town of 
Morehouse and partly in Arietta, while Township 6 is also in two towns, Arietta 
and Lake Pleasant, the southeast corner of Township 6 lying in the latter.* 

The lines of Townships 5, 6, and 41, like those of Township 40, run N. 63 E. 
and N. 27 W., the former being referred to as north and south lines, the latter 
as the east and west. The lines of Townships 6 and 40 are approximately 6% by 
6 miles in length, while those of Townships 5 and 41 are 7^ by 5^2, the longer 
distances in each case being the east and west lines. 

Area. 
The area of Townships 5, 6, and 41, including private holdings, is as follows: 

Acres. 

Township 5 23,106 

Township 6 26,619 

Township 41 23,117 

Total 72,842 

This area together with that of Township 40 — 25,660 acres — gives a total for 
the four townships of 98,502 acres. 

*It may be noted that the township in the Adirondacks is distinct from the town. The 
township refers solely to the subdivision of the land as originally allotted, while the towns are the 
political divisions. A town may consist of a number of townships or parts of townships. 



a forest working plan. 379 

Topography. 

The block is characterized by generally broken topography. Long ridges, 
trending generally east and west, extend partly or entirely across each of the 
townships, making, with the lesser hills, a number of watersheds. 

The slopes of the ridges are usually steep — in some places precipitous. They 
are for the most part covered with forest, although on a few of the exposed and 
wind-swept summits the vegetation is reduced to shrubby growth or gives place 
to bare rocks. 

Many of the broader valleys contain ponds, which are gradually being 
transformed into swampy land by the growth of moss and other vegetation. 
This development is illustrated by the open pond, the one in which the sphagnum 
moss has begun to encroach, the quaking bog, the haymarsh, with its fringe of 
tamaracks, and the swamp, thickly studded with balsams. 

Rock and Soil. 

The prevailing rock on these townships is granitic in character. It is overlaid 
more or less deeply by a covering of glacial drift and in the swamps and low 
valleys by alluvial deposits. Throughout the forest there is a fairly deep layer 
of humus. The mineral soil, when exposed, is usually a sandy gravel. 

The Watersheds. 

The streams draining the three townships form parts of four important 
drainage systems: The Raquette River, the Moose River, the Fulton Chain and the 
Cedar River. 

The extreme northeastern corner of Township 41 is tributary to the Shingle 
Shanty Brook on Township 39, a stream belonging to the Beaver River watershed. 
Only a small area is so inclined, and from this the timber could easily be hauled 
back into the Big Moose watershed. It will not therefore be considered further. 

Raquette River Svstem. — The Raquette River System is the most important 
on the block. In it are included all the streams tributary to Raquette Lake, 
which is, in turn, drained by the Raquette River, flowing north into the 
St. Lawrence. There are five principal streams in this system on Townships 5, 
6, and 41. 

The most important of these is South Inlet. This empties into South Bay of 
Raquette Lake, draining a good share of Township 6 and part of Township 5. 



o 



So REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



Mohegan Lake also flows into South Inlet, as do a number of small streams 
from the hills in the central part of Township 5. 

Next in importance is Sucker Brook, which gives the name to the large bay in 
the northern part of Raquette Lake. This stream drains Shallow and Queer 
Lakes, Pelcher Pond, and the Haymarsh Ponds, all on Township 41. Its water- 
shed covers all the southern third of that township. 

Another stream is the Brown's Tract Inlet, emptying into Raquette Lake at its 
western end. This drains parts of Townships 5 and 41 and receives the waters 
from the Brown's Tract Ponds and the streams flowing into them. 

The fourth stream is Beaver Brook, flowing into Beaver Bay and draining the 
small valley in the southeastern part of Township 41, much of which is open 
marsh. 

The remaining stream is the Bear Pond Brook on Township 6, which flows 
into the Marion River at a point on the Utowana Carry. 

Moose River System. — The second principal drainage area is the Moose River 
System. This includes the chain of lakes making the North Branch of the Moose 
River and composed of First and Second Lakes — now called respectively Lake 
Rondaxe and Dart's Lake — and Big Moose Lake. The water from Constable 
Pond, with its tributaries, Chubb and Pigeon Ponds, empties into the South Bay 
of Big Moose; Russian Lake into East Bay; while into Inlet Bay flow the most 
important brooks draining the northern part of the township. The characteristic 
features of the valleys of each of these streams are the balsam swamps through 
which they flow, and the steep hills on either side of the U-shaped valleys. 

The Fulton Chain. — The greater part of the Fulton Chain watershed on the 
block is on Township 5, which contains the upper part of Seventh and the whole 
of Eighth Lake. The tributary brooks are short and usually nameless, with the 
exception of the Seventh Lake Inlet, which drains a valley of considerable size 
in the center of the township. To this watershed also belong Eagle Creek (a small 
brook in the southwest corner of Township 41 flowing into Fourth Lake) and the 
stream draining the little valley just north of Black Bear Mountain and lying 
partly in Township 5 and partly in Township 41. This brook also flows into 
Fourth Lake. 

The streams tributary to the South Branch of Moose River are in the southwest 
corners of Townships 5 and 6. They are Red River; Benedict Creek, which drains 
Bear Pond on the Nivins Lot; Sumner Stream, the outlet of Lake Kora; and the 
North Branch of Silver Run, draining the valley lying between Bradley and 
Wakeley Mountains. 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 381 

Cedar River System. — The remaining system is represented by a small brook 
in the extreme southeast corner of Township 6, which flows into Cedar River, a 
branch of the Hudson. This section has been cut over and is of relatively small 
importance, but is interesting as belonging to the Hudson River Drainage Basin. 

Following is a brief description of each of the three townships: 

Township 5. 

Township 5 is bounded on the north by Townships 41 and 40; on the east by 
Townships 6 and 4; and on the south and west by Township 4, Totten and Cross- 
field Purchase, and Townships 3 and 4 of the Moose River Tract. 

In common with the remainder of the block the topography of Township 5 is 
mountainous. There are several ranges of hills without continuous ridges as on the 
other townships, but broken up into irregular groups. The summits of a number 
of these hills have elevations of over 2,200 feet. The highest point on the town- 
ship is 2,580 feet. 

In the northern third of Township 5 lie Eighth Lake, a portion of Seventh 
Lake, and the Brown's Tract Ponds, a scarcely perceptible divide separating the 
two watersheds. The drainage from the high ridges in the center of the town- 
ship, and from the southeastern part, is mainly through brooks flowing into the 
South Bay of Raquefte Lake, while the water from the southwestern corner is 
carried to the South Branch of the Moose River through several streams. 

Township 6. 

Township 6 lies to the southeast of Township 40 and is further bounded 
by Townships 34, 33, 7, 4 and 5, all of the Totten and Crossfield Purchase. It is 
approximately of the same size as Township 40, the boundary lines being six and 
one half by six miles in length. The dominant features in the topography 
are the hills of irregular shape in the northern half of the township and the 
much higher ridges within and bordering its south edge. The highest point in 
the township is the summit of the Blue Ridge, which reaches an elevation 
of 3,460 feet. 

The water on Township 6 goes into each of the three principal watersheds. 
The largest area is that tributary to the South Bay of Raquette Lake. Its main 
stream is South Inlet. The rest of the water finding its way into South Bay 
flows through Death Brook which drains the northern side of the hills facing 
Raquette Lake. 



382 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Another and smaller area is tributary to the South Branch of the Moose River 
into which flows Sumner Stream, which drains Lake Kora and the country 
immediately adjacent thereto, and the North Branch of Silver Run which flows 
from the high valley lying between the ridges of Bradley and Y/akeley Mountains 
in the extreme southwestern corner of the township. 

A third area in the southeastern corner of the townsnip is drained by a stream 
which finds its way into the Cedar River and eventually into the Hudson. The 
portion of Township 6 lying in this watershed was cut over some twenty years 
ago in connection with lumbering then in progress on Township 7. 

Township 41. 

Township 41 is the most westerly of the block made up of Townships 5, 6, 40 
and 41. It is bounded on the north and east by Townships 42, 39 and 40; on the 
south by Township 5 (all in the Totten and Crossfield Purchase), and on the west 
by Township 8, in the John Brown's Tract. The Herkimer-Hamilton County line 
crosses the northwest corner of this township. 

In topography Township 41 is decidedly mountainous. The northern part is 
characterized by long, high ridges traversing the township from east to west and 
alternating with U-shaped valleys through which flow the brooks, many of them 
bordered with balsam swamp. The streams in this half of the township are 
tributary to Big Moose Lake. The largest of them drains the Twin Sisters Ponds 
and South Pond on Township 39, emptying into Inlet Bay at the northeast end 
of Big Moose Lake. It is navigable by guide boats for a short distance only 
above its mouth, but a good trail follows it across the township. Toward the 
western side of the township are a number of ponds which lie among the hills. 
These also are all tributary to Big Moose Lake. 

In the south half of the township is a fairly broad valley containing Shallow 
Lake, Pelcher Pond, and Queer Lake. This water is all tributary to Raquette 
Lake and flows into it through Sucker Brook. Only short stretches of this stream 
are navigable by guide boats. 

There are also three other minor watersheds in the south part of Township 41. 
Beaver Brook, which flows into Raquette Lake ; a small part of the Lower Brown's 
Tract Pond, also tributary to Raquette Lake through the Brown's Tract Inlet ; and 
Eagle Creek, in the southwest corner. This stream flows into Fourth Lake, 
but all the timber on its watershed could easily be brought back into the Brown's 
Tract Valley. 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



Land Classification. 



;3 3 



The total area of each of the three townships is divided into several classes of 
land — the merchantable area, consisting of the spruce land and the swamp types 
combined, the water front and the summit reserves, the burned-over land, and 
the private holdings. In the following table is given the acreage of each of the 
several classes of land in each of the three townships : 



TABLE IV.— AREAS — TOWNSHIPS 5, 6, and 41. 
Reserves, Merchantable Area. 



TOWNSHIP. 


Burned-over 
land. 


Water 
front. 


Summit. 


Spruce land. 


Swamp. 


Total. 


Private 
holdings. 


Total, 
township. 


No. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


s 


963 


I.7S8 


397 


12,691 


4,462 


17,153 


2,835 


23, 106 


6 


14 


986 


1,411 


15,298 


6. 164 


21,462 


2,746 


26,619 


4i 


26 


1,962 


1,270 


14,206 


5-653 


19, 859 




23,H7 




1,003 


4,706 


3,078 


42,195 


16, 279 


58, 474 


5,58l 


72, 842 



Tl)e Forest. 

General Description. 

The forest on the three townships is of the general spruce and hardwood 
type common to the Adirondack region. While similar to that on Township 40, 
the forest on each of the other three townships in the block possesses certain 
individual characteristics, due mainly to the topography. 

Red spruce is everywhere the commercially important tree. In mixture with 

it are found balsam, hemlock, arborvitae, white cedar, yellow birch, sugar maple, 

and beech, together with scattering individuals of other valuable species, the most 

important of which are white pine and black cherry. As is the case on Township 

40, the forest on these townships has, with the exception of a few very limited 

areas, never been cut over. Together the four townships form the best continuous 

body of existing original forest in the Forest Preserve, if not in the whole 

Adirondack region. 

Forest Types. 

Four types of forest were distinguished — spruce land, swamp, upper spruce 
slope, and pine land. The spruce land and swamp types are commercially the 



384 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

important ones. The upper spruce slope type embraces the higher portions of 
the hills and ridges and no lumbering was recommended for it, the land being set 
apart as "Summit Reserve," and so named upon the map. The pine land type 
is small in area and is found only upon Township 5, but is important as an 
additional asset to be obtained from the township. 

Spruce Land. — The spruce land type covers the well-drained portions of three 
townships, embracing practically all the land above the swamp except the tops of 
the higher hills, which, as stated, are set apart as summit reserves. Spruce land 
is characterized by a mixed forest of spruce and hardwoods. The predominant 
trees are red spruce, yellow birch, sugar maple, beech, balsam and hemlock, with a 
scattering of ash, black cherry, basswood and elm, and, on the lower portions, 
occasionally a white pine. 

Spruce land is commercially the most important type, forming about seventy 
per cent of the merchantable area in each of the three townships. On some of 
the slopes, especially in Township 41, are stands of pure spruce of large size and 
excellent quality. The most favorable situation for this species seems to be a 
southwestern slope of moderate steepness. The greater part of the balsam on the 
spruce land type is found on the lower part of the slopes near the streams, while 
the hardwoods do best midway on the slopes of the higher ridges or on the 
well-drained, rolling land near the lakes. On the higher slopes more exposed to 
the wind the spruce differs somewhat from that at lower levels. The trees are 
shorter and the limbs farther clown the trunk, rendering them of less commercial 
value than those from which long, straight, clear boles can be obtained. 

The forest floor over the greater part of the spruce land type is covered by a 
fairly deep layer of humus. On the surface of the ground is a covering of leaf 
litter and duff, above which in many places is an undergrowth of witch hobble 
and the two low maples — the striped maple or moose wood and the mountain or 
spotted maple. 

The first growth to come in on the burned-over areas, most of which fall 
within the limits of spruce land, consists of the aspens, wild cherry, and paper 
birch. Under these trees the spruce and balsam spring up, eventually forming a 
pure stand of conifers, or, with the broadleaf trees, a mixed forest. 

Swamp. — The swamp type includes the low-lying land bordering many of the 
streams and some of the lakes. It differs from spruce land in the proportion of 
spruce in mixture with other trees. On the swamp the balsam plays a very 
important part in the mixture. Here also is found the greater part of the white 
pine. 




A, KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 1903 



LOWER SPRUCE SLOPE. MEDIUM STAND. 




A. KNECHTEL, PHOTO. 1903 



UPPER SPRUCE SLOPE. MEDIUM STAND. 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 385 

Both the spruce and the pine do best in the swamp type on little hills or 
knolls rising above the general elevation of the typical swamp, but which are 
not large enough in area to be segregated from the remainder of the type. 
On such knolls are found also what little birch, sugar maple, and beech the type 
contains. 

Taken as a whole the typical swamp conditions may be said to be characterized 
by the absence of birch, beech, and sugar maple, and the presence of large 
quantities of balsam growing on low-lying flats, with occasional knolls on 
which are found the spruce and pine. The other typical trees of the swamp type 
are the tamarack, the arborvitas, and the red maple. Scattering white and black 
ash are also found on the better-drained portion. 

Upper Spruce Slope.— The third type, upper spruce slope, embraces the 
higher slopes of the mountains and principal hills. It has been set apart as 
one of the reserves and will be discussed in detail under that heading. 

In the following is given a description of the forest upon each township. 

Township 5. 

The forest on Township 5 is a mixed one of conifers and broadleaf trees. 
Each of the three forest types is represented, but spruce land is the most important, 
covering 74 per cent of the merchantable area and 63 per cent of the total area. 

On many small areas may be found good stands of spruce, but taken as a whole 
the number of trees per acre is not as large nor are the trees themselves of as 
good size as those on the other townships. The proportion of hardwoods, too, is 
greater. While there has been no organized lumbering on Township 5, a belt 
of spruce timber, to be used for bridges, fencing, etc., was cut across the town- 
ship at the time of the construction of the Uncas Road. The removal of this 
timber, which was among the best on the township, makes the forest on Township 5 
less valuable than that on the rest of the block. 

The spruce land type on Township 5 contains large mixed stands of hardwoods 
and spruce in which the proportion of spruce is considerably less than the average 
for the whole township. 

The swamp on Township 5 occurs mainly near the Brown's Tract Inlet in 
small bodies adjacent to Seventh and Eighth Lakes and in larger belts in the south 
part of the township. Here the stand is largely composed of balsam. This type 
covers twenty-six per cent of the merchantable area and twenty-two per cent of 
the total area of the township. 

The upper spruce slope of summit reserve on Township 5 is smaller in area than 
2 5 



3o6 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

on either of the other townships, making only two per cent of the total area. 
It occurs on the crest of the high hills where several summits have been reserved. 
There is an area lying in the watershed of Benedict Creek in the southwestern 
corner of Township 5 on which there is a considerable stand of original white 
pine. It is the northern extension of a large pine forest which formerly covered 
the upper part of the valley of the South Branch of Moose River. This type 
includes portions of both the - spruce land and the swamp types, although most of 
it lies within the limits of the swamp. For the purpose of estimating this stand 
the portion of the township on which there were enough pine trees to constitute 
a merchantable quantity was set aside as pine land. The area is outlined on the 
accompanying map by a line made up of black crosses. This type covers 786 
acres of State land and 211 acres of Lot 4 of the Nivins Tract. 



TABLE I.— MERCHANTABLE STAND — TOWNSHIP 5. 
Trees 10 inches and over in diameter breasthigh on 943 acres. 



SPECIES. 



Spruce . 
Yellow birch . 
Beech 

Sugar maple . 
Balsam . 
Hemlock 
Soft maple . 
Cedar 

Black ash . 
White pine 
Dead spruce . 
White ash . 
Basswood . 
Black cherry . 
Aspen . 
White birch . 
Hornbeam . 
Tamarack . 

All species 



Average 

number of 

trees per acre. 



24-37 

14-73 

II-50 

7-17 

7.00 

4.00 

1.78 

1-59 

■34 

■ 23 

.22 

.21 
.20 
.18 
•05 
.04 
.02 
.01 



73-64 



Percentage 

of 
each species. 



33-09 
20.00 

15.62 

9-74 

9-51 

5-43 

2.42 

2.16 

.46 

• 3i 

-30 

.29 

.27 

.24 

.07 

•05 

•03 

.01 



100.00 



Average 

diameter 

breasthigh. 



Inches. 
13.6 



14.4 



Maximum 

diameter 

breasthigh. 



Inches. 
32 
40 
31 
40 
32 
38 

35 
3i 
28 
50 
28 
28 

34 
28 

19 
28 

13 

15 



a forest working plan. 387 

Township 6. 

Township 6 is the only township in the block where any considerable portion 
of the forest has been lumbered. In the southeast corner is an area of some 2,700 
acres lying in the watershed of the small stream tributary to Cedar River and 
shown on the accompanying map by a dotted black line. This was cut over about 
twenty years ago when the adjoining tract, Township 7, was lumbered. On this 
area there is now a fair stand of young spruce and balsam which will some 
day be of commercial importance. 

Another cut-over area consists of about 180 acres tributary to the Marion 
River. The lumbering operations on both these tracts were carried on while the 
township was in private ownership. 

The forest on Township 6 is better in character than that on Township 5. 
There is a larger proportion of spruce in the mixture than on either of the other 
townships, although the number of spruce trees per acre, ten inches and over in 
diameter breasthigh, is less than on Township 41. The broadleaf trees on Town- 
ship 6 are also better in quality than are those on the other townships, which fact 
is of importance in view of the greater accessibility of a considerable portion of 
this township. 

The spruce land type covers all the higher part of Township 6, constituting 
seventy-one per cent of the merchantable area and sixty-four per cent of the total 
area of the township. 

The swamp on Township 6 lies mainly in the valley of the Shedd Lake Inlet, 
where the forest is made up of balsam, red spruce and black spruce. The balsam 
does not make as dense a stand in the swamp on Township 6 as it does on 
Township 41, and there are more open places. In addition to the areas just 
mentioned, there are small bodies of swamp in the vicinity of Bear and Slim 
Ponds and adjoining the open marsh near the Township 40 line. The swamp on 
Township 6 makes up twenty-nine per cent of the merchantable area and twenty- 
six per cent of the total area. 

The upper spruce slope type on Township 6 includes six per cent of the total 
area of the township. Within its limits falls the ridge of Estelle Mountain, where 
all the crest has been set aside as a summit reserve. The boundary lines of this 
reserve have been drawn more with the idea of protecting the side of the moun- 
tain seen from South Bay than with reference to the contour lines, although most 
of the portion set aside lies above the 2,300-foot contour. The summit of the 
Blue Ridge forms another large oortion of the reserve. The other bodies of 



3 88 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



summit reserve in Township 6 embrace the summits of Bradley Mountain and 
of the several nameless hills scattered throughout the township. 

The total number of valuation surveys run in the merchantable area in Town- 
ship 6 was 1,240. The data compiled from these surveys appear in Table II. 



TABLE II. — MERCHANTABLE STAND — TOWNSHIP 6. 
Trees 10 inches and over in diameter breasthigh on 1,240 acres. 



SPECIES. 



Spruce . 
Yellow birch . 
Balsam . 
Sugar maple . 
Beech 
Hemlock 
Soft maple . 
Cedar 

Dead spruce . 
White pine 
Black cherry . 
Black ash . 
Tamarack . 
Basswood . 
White ash . 
White elm . 
Other hardwoods 

All species 



Average 

number of 

trees per acre. 



26. 
14. 

7 
4 
3 
2 
1 



82 
18 
88 
09 

05 
42 

15 
23 
23 
13 
08 

OS 
01 
01 
01 
01 
01 



60.36 



Percentage 

of 

each species. 



44 
23 
13 
6 
5 
4 
1 



100.00 



43 
49 
07 
78 
OS 
01 
90 
38 
38 
22 

13 
08 
02 
02 
02 
02 
02 



Average 

diameter 

breasthigh. 



Inches. 
13-7 
16.5 
12-5 

15-7 
I5-I 
17.6 

13-5 

13-2 

15.6 
24.2 
13.0 
12.2 
12.3 
13-5 
13-5 
13-5 
13-5 



15.6 



Maximum 

diameter 

breasthigh. 



Inches. 
31 

44 
26 

33 
28 

43 
26 
28 
30 
33 
27 
19 
18 

17 
25 

25 

24 



Township 41. 

The forest on Township 41 contains the three forest types. The spruce land 
type covers a greater proportion of the area than the swamp, making up sixty- 
one per cent of the total area and seventy-two per cent of the merchantable 
area. It embraces all the higher portions of the township lying between the 
upper limit of the swamp and the lower line of the summit reserve. The char- 
acteristic of this type is well-drained soil on which is found a mixed forest of 




A. KNECHTF.L, I'HOTO. 1903 



WHITE CEDAR. 



BUG POND, TOWNSHIP 5, TOTTEN AND CROSSFIELD PURCHASE. TREES RANGING FROM FOURTEEN TO THIRTY- 
TWO INCHES IN DIAMETER, THREE FEET FROM THE GROUND. 




A. K.NECHTEL, PHOTO. 19C3 



HEMLOCK AND YELLOW BIRCH. BOTTOM LAND. 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 389 

spruce and hardwoods. The best of the spruce on Township 41 occurs on the 
southwest slope of the long ridges, especially in the northern part of the township. 
On the hills in the center of the township the broadleaf trees are more in evidence, 
while on the lower slopes a larger percentage of balsam comes into the mixture. 
The stand of spruce on Township 41 is heavier than on either of the other 
townships or that on Township 40. On spruce land in Township 41 the spruce 
makes up nearly half of the forest, the percentage in mixture for trees ten inches 
and over being forty-one. Next in importance comes the yellow birch, followed 
closely by beech, the percentage in mixture of these species being respectively 
twenty and nineteen. Sugar maple, hemlock, and balsam, with a scattering of 
white pine, cedar and black cherry, make up the remainder of the forest. 

The swamp type on Township 41 occurs mainly in the bottoms of the U-shaped 
valleys and on the lower slopes of the ridges, especially in the northern part of 
the township and on the low-lying land along the Sucker Brook. It makes 
twenty-eight per cent of the merchantable area and twenty-four per cent of the 
total area of the township. It is characterized in this township by the abundance 
of balsam, the stand of this species being in many cases pure and having a 
density so great that one can only with difficulty penetrate the thickets. The 
percentage in mixture of balsam is twenty-eight. There is forty per cent of 
spruce, the average number of trees per acre being twenty-three. Two areas 
of open marsh occur in the swamp type on Township 41 ; one of these surrounds 
Haymarsh Pond, the other is in the lower part of Sucker Brook valley. 

Near the Haymarsh Ponds there is a fair stand of young tamarack which is 
spreading out into the open marsh. This species is a very intolerant tree which 
grows only where it can have every advantage of light. It has become charac- 
teristic of the swamp because of its ability to live in wet situations. 

Upper spruce slope, or, as it appears on the map, the summit reserve, occurs 
along the tops of the ridges, for the most part above the 2,300-foot contour line, 
although there are instances where the reserve line comes as low as 2,200 feet 
and others where the spruce land runs up as high as 2,400 feet. It covers five 
and one half per cent of the total area of the township. 



390 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



TABLE III.— MERCHANTABLE STAND — TOWNSHIP 41. 
Trees 10 inches and over in diameter breasthigh on 929 acres. 



SPECIES. 



Average 

number of 

trees per acre. 



Percentage 

of 
each species. 



Average 

diameter 

breasthigh. 



Maximum 

diameter 

breasthigh. 



Spruce . 
Yellow birch . 
Beech . 

Balsam . . . . 
Sugar maple . 
Hemlock 
Soft maple . 
Cedar . . . , 
Dead spruce . 
White pine 
Black ash . 
Tamarack . 
Black cherry . 
Other hardwoods 

All species 



29-75 

14-47 

11. 19 

7.08 

4-94 
2.91 

1-57 
.46 
.28 
.21 
•05 
.04 
.02 
• 03 



40-75 
19.82 

15-33 

9.70 

6.77 

3-99 

2.15 

.63 

.38 

.29 

.07 

• 05 

•03 

.04 



Inches. 
14. 1 
14 
13 
12 

14 
16 

13 
12 
16 
28 

13 
II 

13 
14 



73.00 



100.00 



14. 1 



Inches. 

33 

46 
28 
29 
31 

43 
27 
25 
3i 
45 
20 
16 

33 
22 



Tl)e Reserves. 

In accordance with the policy adopted on Township 40, certain areas have 
been set aside on Townships 5, 6 and 41 on which it is recommended that no 
lumbering be done. These reserves are of two sorts, the water front reserve 
and the summit reserve. The location and extent of these areas is shown on the 
accompanying map. 

Water Front Reserve. 

The water front reserve consists of a strip at least two hundred feet in width 
around all the lakes and ponds and bordering some of the main streams. The 
purpose of this reserve is to protect the belt of forest adjacent to the lakes, 
which adds so much to the attractiveness of this region. This strip has been 
carefully plotted on the map and is believed to be of sufficient width to shut out 
from the view of persons passing on the lake any sight of the lumbering in 
the woods. 



a forest working plan. 39 1 

Summit Reserve. 

The summit reserve includes that portion of the hills and higher ridges which 
are prominent in the landscape, and which, if lumbered, might present an 
unsightly appearance. 

The summit reserve was treated as a forest type and under the name of 
upper spruce slope has already been described for each township. The forest 
on this portion of the tract is of inferior quality. Because of its exposed situa- 
tion the timber growing at this elevation is, for the most part, short and some- 
what limby, as well as being inaccessible. While it is perfectly possible to 
remove the trees from these situations, the cost of lumbering such places very 
nearly covers the value to be received, so that as a business proposition there is 
no great objection to leaving them uncut, especially as by so doing another 
point, important on a forest preserve tract, the preservation of the beauty of the 
forest, is gained. For these reasons it is strongly advised that no lumbering 
be done on this type. 

Fire. 

Taken as a whole, the four townships of the block have been remarkably free 
from damage by fire. 

Township 5 has suffered most, there having been in this township several 
fires covering considerable areas. The largest of these is in the Red River 
valley, where almost seven hundred acres were burned over about twenty years 
ago. This burn marks the eastern extension of a very large fire which occurred 
on the lower portion of the Red River and the South Branch of the Moose 
River. 

Next in importance is the burned area on the carry between Seventh and 
Eighth Lakes, which is somewhat more recent than that on the Red River. 
There are, also, a few acres of burned land on the hill at the other end of 
Eighth Lake. 

The most recent fire of importance on Township 5 was that which denuded 
the summit of Black Bear Mountain. This fire occurred during the autumn of 
1899 and forms the subject of a part of the report of the Superintendent 
of Forests for the following year.* 

Other burns on Township 5 are those on the shore of Seventh Lake adjoining 
Township 3, a smaller area bordering the Township 40 line, which, with two 



* Preliminary Report to Fifth Annual Report of the Commissioners of the Fisheries, Game and 
Forest. Albany, N. Y., 1900. Pages 61, 68 and 69. 



392 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

other little patches on the hill above, were started by construction gangs during 
the building of Raquette Lake Railway, and one more in the extreme southwestern 
part of the township, lying near the point where the town line between Arietta 
and Morehouse crosses the south line of the township. The total number of 
acres burned over on Township 5 is 963.2, which is 4.75 per cent of the total area 
of the township. 

Township 6 has been the most fortunate, the only burned area of at all recent 
date on this township being the small patch on the northern slope of the Blue 
Ridge, which covers 14.4 acres. This burned area dates back some twenty to 
twenty-five years and is now growing up with a dense stand of young spruce, 
balsam, and paper birch. In the total area of the township the burned-over land 
is only 0.06 per cent. 

In Township 41 only a few small areas have been burned over, the total 
amounting in all to less than 30 acres. The largest of these little patches covers 
one of the points jutting into Shallow Lake. The others are the small areas on 
the ridges south of Sucker Brook valley, and the still smaller one on the lower 
of the Twin Sisters Ponds. The total burned area in this township is 25.6 acres, 
which is o. 1 1 per cent of the total area of the township. 

On Township 40 the burned-over land amounted to one per cent of the 
forested area. 

With the exception of those near the Raquette Lake Railway and on Black 
Bear Mountain, none of the fires were of recent date, and most of the burned- 
over area is now growing up to a fairly dense stand of forest trees. In some 
cases only the preliminary stage of birch and poplar has been reached, but 
almost everywhere the spruce and balsam will in time work their way in under 
these species. 

In this connection it may be noted that the locomotives on the Raquette 
Lake Railway are oil-burning. This is a distinct improvement, so far as the 
danger from forest fire is concerned, over the type commonly used on 
the railroads penetrating the Adirondack region. The reason why this type of 
locomotive is used on this road is that in granting the charter it was stipulated 
that the railroad be allowed to cross the lands of the Forest Preserve only on 
the condition that oil be used as fuel. 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 393 

Private Preserves. 

On the three townships now under consideration are a number of private 
preserves. The title to these lands was either held before the remainder of the 
townships became State property or was acquired in such a way as to be 
recognized by the State. 

Township 5. 

Township 5 contains three areas of private land. The largest is the tract 
containing Mohegan Lake, which is owned by Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. This 
preserve contains 1,568 acres. In the southeastern part of Township 5 is a part 
of the Hon. Timothy L. Woodruff's preserve around Lake Kora. The portion 
lying in Township 5 contains 155 acres. 

The other private holdings on Township 5, recognized by the State, are the 
narrow strip making the right of way along the Raquette Lake Railway, certain 
holdings along the shores of the Seventh Lake, which are included in the water 
front reserve, and Lot 4 of the Nivins Tract. 

The southwest, quarter of Township 5 was originally subdivided into five lots, 
which together with a similar subdivision in Township 4 constitute the Nivins 
Tract. Four of the lots in Township 5 now belong to the State. The title of 
the other lot, No. 4, still rests with private owners. 

During the summer of 1901 there seemed to be good reason for believing that 
this lot would soon be acquired by the State, rounding out the State's holdings 
in this township. For this reason, although Lot No. 4 was still privately owned, 
an estimate of the standing timber on it was made, which is given in tables that 
follow later in this report. 

Township 6. 

Township 6 was acquired by the State in 1896 through purchase from Mr. 
W. W. Durant. When the property was turned over, certain portions of the 
township were reserved. These are the private preserve around Sagamore Lake, 
owned by Mr. A. G. Vanderbilt ; the tract about Lake Kora, on which is 
"Kamp Kill Kare," owned by Mr. Timothy L. Woodruff, and two smaller lots, 
known respectively as the C. P. Huntington wood lot, and Lot No. 37, sometimes 
called the "Mill Lot." These are the only lands on the township of which the 
State recognizes the private ownership. 



394 report of the forest, fish and game commission. 

Township 41. 

There are no private claims recognized by the State on the portion of Town- 
ship 41 lying within Hamilton County, except the 100-foot right of way of 
the railroad across one corner of it. That part of Township 41 in Herkimer 
County is owned by Mr. Aaron Lloyd. 

Several camps have been erected on the township, but all are on State land, 
notably the one at Shallow Lake, consisting of two log cabins which in 1901 
were in a fair state of repair. There are open lean-to camps at the Lower 
Brown's Tract Pond and at Queer Lake, and the remains of others at Haymarsh 
Pond, Palisade Camp, Twin Sisters Ponds, and elsewhere. The Sucker Brook 
highway, built by Mr. Durant in 1897 and 1898, crosses part of the township, 
but having been abandoned since the railroad was completed it has now fallen 
into a state of disrepair. There are a number of good trails on the township 
which could be much improved by a little labor, were there a resident game 
protector or forest warden. 

Tl)e Estimate. 

Compartments. 

To facilitate the estimate of the standing timber the three townships were 
divided into a number of compartments. These compartments consist of portions 
of the principal watersheds already described. The boundary lines of the com- 
partments follow the natural divisions, except in one or two cases where from 
the nature of the topography it would be possible by a short, uphill haul to save 
a long distance in getting the logs to a shipping point. The compartment 
boundaries are shown on the accompanying map by broken red lines, and are 
designated by roman numerals, also in red. There are on the three townships 
ten compartments, which bear the following names: 

I. Shallow Lake. 

II. Seventh and Eighth Lakes and Brown's Tract Ponds. 

III. South Inlet. 

IV. Bear Pond in Township 6. 
V. Cedar River. 

VI. Silver Run. 

VII. Sumner Stream. 

VIII. Red River. 

IX. Fourth Lake. 

X. Big Moose Lake. 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 395 

Following is a brief description of each compartment : 

Compartment I. The Shallow Lake Compartment lies wholly in Township 
41, occupying a broad belt across the lower center of the township. It com- 
prises the valley of Sucker Brook. Tributary to this compartment is also the 
land about Cascade Lake, whose waters go out through the Moose River. 
Beaver Brook, in the southeastern part of Township 41, is included in this 
compartment. This stream empties into Beaver Bay in Raquette Lake. 

Compartment II includes the southern edge of Township 41, the northern 
half of Township 5, except that portion falling into Compartment IX, and the 
northwestern corner of Township 6. It is made up of three watersheds, but on 
account of the low divides between them it is possible to haul all the logs from 
this compartment into Raquette Lake. The most important of the watersheds 
in the compartment is that containing Seventh and Eighth Lakes. Next is the 
Brown's Tract Inlet, draining the Brown's Tract Ponds. The third is that of 
Eagle Creek, in the southwestern corner of Township 41. This stream flows into 
Fourth Lake. 

Compartment III lies in both Townships 5 and 6 and embraces all the streams 
tributary to South Bay of Raquette Lake. The most important valley in this 
watershed is that of South Inlet, in the northwestern corner of Township 6. 
The remaining part of Township 6 tributary to South Bay fronts on or is near 
the lake. 

Compartment IV lies wholly in Township 6. It consists of the watershed of 
Bear Brook, which empties into Marion River just below Utowana Lake. 

Compartment V is in the southeastern corner of Township 6 and covers the 
area draining into the Cedar River. 

Compartment VI lies in the southwestern corner of Township 6 and is the 
valley of the north branch of Silver Run, a tributary of the South Branch of 
Moose River. 

Compartment VII is also in the southwestern part of Township 6. A very little 
of the southeastern corner of Township 5 also comes into it. This compartment 
contains the headwaters of the Sumner Stream, which drains Lake Kora on the 
Woodruff Preserve. 

Compartment VIII is altogether in Township 5, and consists of the upper 
part of the valleys of Benedict Creek and of Red River. Both these streams 
empty into the South Branch of Moose River. The greater part of Lot 4, Nivins 
Tract, is tributary to Benedict Creek. 



396 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



Compartment IX is the small valley just north of Black Bear Mountain, 
lying partly in Township 5 and partly in Township 41. Its waters flow into 
Fourth Lake. 

Compartment X includes practically the northern half of Township 41. With 
the exception of the extreme northeastern corner, where a few acres are tribu- 
tary to Shingle Shanty Brook, all of this compartment slopes toward Big Moose 
Lake, 

Merchantable Area. 

The merchantable area, as has been stated, is made up of the spruce land 
and the swamp types combined. The following table shows for each compart- 
ment in each township the number of acres of merchantable area. In the last 
column the acreage of the merchantable area is shown by compartments irrespec- 
tive of township lines. 



TABLE V.— TOTAL MERCHANTABLE AREA IN EACH COMPARTMENT. 

Townships 5, 6 and 41. 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 



compartment. 



Total 



Township 5. 



Acres. 



10, 376 

4,405 



54 

2,072 

246 



17,153 



Township 6. 



122 

12,156 

3,609 

2,779 
i,332 
1,464 



21,462 



Township 41. 



Acres. 
6,960 
1,869 



10, 982 



19,859 



Total area. 



Acres. 

6,960 
12,367 
l6, 56l 

3,609 

2,779 
1,332 
1,518 
2,072 

294 
10,982 



58, 474 



Volume Tables. 

In the computation of the present yield of merchantable timber on Townships 
5, 6 and 41, the volume tables prepared in connection with the working plan for 
Township 40 (Bulletin No. 30, page 23) were used, with the exception of those 
for white pine and for hemlock. These were computed during the autumn of 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



397 



1901 on the tract of the Hon. William C. Whitney, Township 23^ Totten and 
Crossfield Purchase, Hamilton County, and on the Rockefeller Tract, Townships 
16 and 17, Macomb's Purchase, Great Tract, No. 1, Franklin County, 571 white 
pine and 1,445 hemlock trees being analyzed. The volume tables for white pine 
and hemlock follow: 

TABLE VI.— MERCHANTABLE VOLUME PER TREE IN STANDARDS BY 

DIMICK'S RULE. 



DIAMETER 
BREASTHIGH. 


White Pine. 


Hemlock. 


DIAMETER 
BREASTHIGH. 


White Pine. 


Hemlock. 


Inches. 


Standards. 


Standards. 


Inches. 


Standards. 


Standards. 


10 


0-5 


0.02 


26 


4-7 


2.13 


II 


.6 


•03 


27 


5-2 


2.38 


12 


•7 


•05 


28 


5-7 


2.69 


13 


•9 


.08 


29 


6.2 


3.00 


14 


1.0 


.12 


30 


6.8 


3-34 


15 


1.2 


.18 


31 


7-4 


3-67 


16 


1.4 


•25 


32 


7-9 


4.04 


17 


1-7 


•34 


33 


8.5 


4.41 


18 


2.0 


.46 


34 


9.1 


4-79 


19 


2.2 


•59 


35 


9-7 


5-19 


20 


2-5 


.76 


36 


10.3 


5.6i 


21 


2.9 


•94 


37 


10.9 


6.04 


22 


3-2 


1. 16 


38 


11. 4 


6.45 


23 


3-5 


1.36 


39 


12.0 


6.86 


24 


3-9 


1. 61 


40 


12.6 


7.27 


25 


4-3 


1.85 









Yield Tables. 



Present Yield. — The following tables show the present yield of merchant- 
able timber for the eight commercially important trees growing on Townships 5, 
6 and 41. They were compiled from the valuation surveys taken on the three 
townships in the following manner: The data from the surveys run in a given 
compartment show, when compiled, the average number of trees per acre of each 
species in each diameter class. By the use of volume tables the average yield 
per acre can be determined. The total yield for the compartment is then got 
by multiplying the yield for the average acre by the total number of acres in 
the compartment. 



; 9 8 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



In the yield tables the results are given in standards by the Standard Rule 
for the conifers and for the broadleaf trees. In the tables the yield is shown to 
diameter limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter breasthigh for the 
soft woods and fifteen, seventeen and nineteen for the hardwoods. 

The following table gives in markets by the Standard Rule the present yield 
of spruce on Township 5 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE VII.— SPRUCE — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 5. 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 



NUMBER OF 
COMPARTMENT. 



Type. 



Area. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

10 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



II 

III 

VIII 

IX 



Total 



II 

III 

VII 

VIII 



Total 



II 

III 

VII 

VIII 

IX 



Total 



r 

Spruce j 
Land j 



- Swamp 



r 

Spruce 
Land j 
and 
Swamp 



Acres. 

8,586 

2, 760 

1,099 

246 



12,691 



1,790 

1,645 

54 
973 



4,462 



io,3/6 

4.405 

54 

2,072 

246 

17,153 



-Standards. . 



-Standards.- 



24-35 

27.04 
29.41 

25-58 



25.40 



22.00 
10.70 



17.02 



16.48 



23-94 
20.93 



23-59 

25.58 

23.08 



209,069.10 
74,630.40 

32,321.59 
6,292.68 



20.32 
22.23 

24-45 
20.12 



322,313.77 



21.09 



39,380.00 

i7,599-36 



17.21 
7.27 



16,560.46 



11.65 



73,539-59 



248,449.10 
92, 229 . 76 



19.78 
16.64 



48,882.05 
6,292.68 

395,853-59 



18.44 
20.12 

18.76 



i74,467-.52 

61,354.80 

26,870.55 

4-949-52 



267,642.39 



30,805.90 

ii,959-I5 



",335-45 



54,100.50 



205,273.42 
73,313-95 



38,206.00 
4,949-52 

321,742.89 



-Standards. - 



17.49 

I7-65 
19-52 
14.87 



17-65 



13 



15 



84 



150,169.14 

48, 714.OO 

21,452.48 

3,658.02 



223,993.64 



23,735-40 
7,797-30 



7, 929. 95 



39,462.65 



173,904.54 
56,5ii-30 



29,382.43 
3,658.02 

263,456.29 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



399 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
spruce on Township 6 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE VIII.— SPRUCE — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 6. 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 



NUMBER OF 
COMPARTMENT. 



Type. 



Area. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

io Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



II 
III 
IV 

V 

VI 
VII 



Total 



II 

III 

IV 

V 

VII 



Total 



II 
III 
IV 

V 

VI 

VII 



Total 



Spruce 
Land 



■ Swamp -j 



Spruce 

Land 

and 

Swamp 



Aces. 

84 
8,490 

2,587 
I,6ll 
1,332 
1,194 



15,25 



38 

3,666 

1,022 

1,168 

270 



6, 164 



122 
12,156 
3,609 
2,779 
1,332 
1,464 

21,462 



-Standards. 



16.79 



28 



17 



36 



96 



25-36 



1,403 
222, 682 

86, 140 

35,204 

57, 804 
30,54i 



433, 776 



736 

7i,075 

18, 140 

16,468 

4,287 



no, 709 



2, 140 

293, 758 

104,280 

51,673 

57,804 

34, 829 



544,486.54 



82 



50 



60 



70 



-Standards. - 



13-52 
21.72 
29.05 
17.16 
38.26 
21.17 



23-83 



15-31 
15-31 
14.26 
10.02 
11.38 



I3.96 



14.03 
19.79 
24.86 
I4.16 
38.26 
I9.36 

21.00 



1,130 

184, 394 
75, 146 
27,648 
50, 969 
25, 266 



364, 555 



58i 

56, 120 

14,579 

11,703 

3,072 



86,057 



1, 712 
240,514 
89, 725 
39,35i 
50, 969 
28, 339 



450.612.99 



50 



, Standards. — , 

10.88 I 907.57 



16.83 !42, 879 

23.98 62,031 

11.87 19,124 

31.88 42,470 

17.61 21,017 



18.85 288,432 



11.69 444 

11.69 42,850 

10.79 1 1. 031 

6.40 7,475 



7.0^ 



11.08 
15-28 
20.24 

9-57 
31-88 
15-65 

16.41 



02 



1,895 40 



10.33 63,697.38 



i,35i 
185,730 
73,063 
26, 600 
42,470 
22,912 



352,129.40 



4oo 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
spruce on Township 41 to limits of ten, twelve, and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE IX.— SPRUCE— PRESENT YIELD —TOWNSHIP 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 



41. 



NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

10 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Tota. yield. 







Acres. 


, Standards. , 


, Standards. , 


, Standards. , 


I 


1 r 


5,430 


34.22 


185,814.60 


29.20 


158,556.00 


23.40 


126,510.00 


II ..... 


! Spruce J 


1,366 


24.22 


33,084.53 


20.47 


27,962.02 


16.35 


22,334.10 


IX 


: Land j 


48 


32.38 


1,554-24 


23.66 


i,i35-68 


I7.6l 


845-28 


X 


J I 
1 f 


7,362 


39-92 


293,891.04 


34-77 


255,9/6.74 


31-74 


233,669.88 


Total . . . 


14, 206 


36.20 


514,344.41 


31.22 


443,630.44 


26.99 


383,368.26 


I 


i,S30 


19.19 


29,360.70 


14.89 


22, 781 . 70 


10.86 


2,845.80 


II 


}- Swamp \ 

j 1 

1 c f 
Spruce 


502 


19.40 


9,738.8o 


15.20 


7,630.40 


11.80 


5,923.60 


X 


3,621 


24.68 


89,366.28 


20.37 


73,759-77 


15-95 


57,754-95 


Total . . . 


5,653 


22.73 


128,465.78 


18.43 


104, 171.87 


11.77 


66,524.35 


I 


6,960 


30.92 


2i5,i75-30 


26.05 


181,337.70 


18.59 


129,364.80 


II 


Land j 


1,869 


22.91 


42,823.32 


19.04 


35,592.42 


15.12 


28,257.70 


IX 


and 


48 


32.38 


1,554-24 


23.66 


1,135-68 


17.60 


845-28 


X 


Swamp 


10,982 


34.02 


383,257.32 


30.03 


329,736.51 


26.54 


291,424.83 


Total . . . 


19,859 


32.37 


642,810.18 


27-58 


547,802.31 


22.65 


449,892.61 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



40I 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
balsam on Township 5 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE X.— BALSAM— PRESENT YI 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by 



ELD — TOWNSHIP 5. 
Standard Rule. 



NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

10 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


II 

Ill 

VIII ..... 

IX 


1 

J Spruce 
Land | 

I 

1 

!- Swamp I 

i I 

f 
Spruce 
1 Land 
and 
Swamp 


Acres. 

8,586 

2, 760 

1,099 

246 


. St 

2.48 
2.03 
2.02 


andards. , 

21,293.28 
5,602.80 
2,219.98 


, St 

1-43 
1.03 

1 --5 


andards. , 

12,277.98 
2, 842 . 80 

1,373-75 


, Sta 

0-59 

•39 

•52 


ndards. , 

5,065.74 
1 , 076 . 40 

571-48 
















Total . . . 


12,691 


2.29 


29, 116.06 


1-30 


16,494.53 


0-53 


6,713.62 


II 

Ill 

VII 


1,790 
1,645 

54 
973 


IO.27 

IO.38 


18,383.30 
17,075.10 


5-24 
5-13 


9,379.60 
8,438.85 


2.07 
1 .92 


3,705-30 
3,158.40 


VIII 


7.69 


8,455-37 


3-ii 


3,026.03 


1.02 


992.46 


Total . . . 


4,462 


9.84 


43,913-77 


4.67 


20, 844 . 48 


1.76 


7,856.16 


II 

Ill 

VII 


10,376 

4-405 

54 

2,072 

246 


3-82 

s- 15 


39,676.58 
22,677.90 


2.08 

2.56 


21,657.58 
11,281.65 


0.84 
.96 


8,771-04 
4,234.80 


VIII 

IX 


5-15 


10,675.35 


2. 12 


4,409.78 


■75 


1,503-94 
















Total . . . 


17,153 


4.26 


73,029.83 


2.18 


37,349-or 


0.85 


14,569.78 



26 



4-02 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
balsam on Township 6 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 

TABLE XL— BALSAM — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 6. 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 



NUMBER OF 
COMPARTMENT. 



Type. 



Area. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

io Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of. 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



II 
III 



IV . . . . •. 1 j Spruce j 



Y 

VI 

VII 



Total 



II 

III 

IV 

V 

VII 



Total 



II 
III 
IV 

V 

VI 

VII 



Total 



Land 



Swamo- 



Spruce 

Land 

and 

Swamp 



Acres. 
84 
8,490 

=, 587 
I,6ll 

1-332 
1,194 



15, 2g 



3,666 

1,022 

1,168 

270 



>, it 



122 

12,156 
3,609 
2, 779' 
1,332 
1.464 

21,462 



-Standards. - 



O.63 
2-77 
2-94 

2.74 

4-3i 
2.77 



2.92 



30 



4.66 



52.92 

23,517-30 
7,605.78 
4,414.14 
5,740.92 
3,307.38 



44,638.44 



3i,857-54 
8,012.48 
9,787.84 
1,525.50 



51,183-36 



52.92 

55,374-84 

15,618.26 

18,391.98 

5,740.92 

4,832.88 

100,011.80 



Standards 

0-33 



I.44 
I.36 
1.27 
I.77 
1.36 



I.42 



3.84 
3.76 
3-32 
2-44 



3-64 



0.23 
2.l6 
2.04 

2.66 
1.77 
1.56 

2.13 



12,225.60 

3,518.32 
2,045.97 
2,357-64 
1,623.84 



21, 799.09 



14,077-44 

3,842.72 

3,877.76 

658.80 



22,456.72 



-Standards. 



0.48 


4-075-20 


-52 


1-345-24 


■ 32 


515-52 


.61 


812.52 


• 34 


405 • 96 



0.47 



1.22 
1.36 

■77 
■79 



1. 13 



27.72 
26,303.04 
7,361.04 
7, 383 • 73 
2,357-64 
2,282.64 

45,7i5-8i 



0.70 

.76 
.65 
.61 

• 42 

0.68 



7,154-44 



4,472.52 

i,399-92 

899.36 

213.30 



6,985. 10 



8,547-72 

2,735.16 

i,799-88 

812.52 

619.26 

i4,5i4-54 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



405 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
balsam on Township 41 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE XII.— BALSAM — PRESENT YIELD— TOWNSHIP 41. 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 









Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 








10 Inches in 


r2 Inches in 


14 Inches in 


XUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 


Average 


Average 










yield ] Total yield. 


yield j Total yield. 


vield 


Total yield. 








per acre. 


per acre. 


per acre. 





I 
II 

IX 
X 



Acres. Standards. , Standards. , 

5.430 I.75 9.502.50 O.93 j 5.O49.9O 

I Spruce 1,366 ! 1.92 2,622.72 1.24 1 1,693.84 
! Land j .,« 

7,362 2.12 15,607.44 1.23 9,055.26 



, Standards. 

0.41 2,226.30 

■57 j 778.62 



Total 



■57 ! 4,196.34 



14.206 1.95 27. 732. ( 



1. 11 15.799.00 0.51 7.201.26 



I 



II Swamp • 

X 



1,530 6.59 10,082.7c 2.89 4,421.70 1.09 1,667.70 

502 ! ~.;2 3,775-04 3-87 ' 1-942-74 1-47 737-94 

3,621 11.64 42,148.44 6.12 22,160.52 2.39 8.653.29 



Total 



5,653 9.92 56.006.18 5.05 28,524.96 1.97 11,058.93 



I 

II 

IX 

X 



Spruce 

Land 

and 

Swamp 



6.960 ! 2.81 19,585.20 : i.}6 9.471.60 

1,869 ! 3.42 6.397.76 1.95 3-636.58 

48 ! 

10,982 5.26 57-755-88 2.84 31.215.78 



0.56 3,894.00 
.80 1. 516.56 



Total 19,859 4-22 83.738.84 2.23 44,323- 



1.17 12,849.63 



0.92 18,260.19 



404 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following- table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
white pine on Township 5 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE XIII.— WHITE PINE — PRESENT 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by 



YIELD— TOWNSHIP 5. 
Standard Rule. 









Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 








10] 


NCHES IN 


12 Inches in 


14 Inches in 


NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diametei 


Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 




Average 




Average 










yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 








per acre. 




per acre. 




per acre. 








Acres. 


, Standards. . 


, Standards. , 


, Standards. , 


II . ... 


1 r 

1 


8.586 


0.08 


686.88 


O.08 


686.88 


0.07 


6oi.02 


Ill .... . 


! Spruce i 


2,760 


•15 


414.00 


•13 


358.80 


•13 


358.80 


VIII 

IX 


Land j 


1,099 
246 














J I 

1 f 
1 




























Total . . . 


12,691 


0.09 


1,100.88 


O.08 


1 , 045 . 68 


0.08 


959.82 


II 


1,790 


I .22 


2,183.80 


1. 18 


2,112.20 


' I. 16 


2,076.40 


Ill 

VII 

VIII 


1 
[ Swamp-! 


1,645 

54 
973 


1.28 


2, 105.60 


1.23 


2,023.35 


1. 10 


1,809 50 


! 




























Total . . . 


1 r 


4,462 


O.96 


4,289.40 


0-93 


4,135-55 


O.87 


3,885.90 


II 


10,376 


0.28 


2,870.68 


0.27 


2, 799.08 


0.26 


2,677.42 


Ill 

VII 


Spruce 

Land i 

-i 
and 


4-405 

54 


•57 


2, 519.60 


• 54 


2,382.15 


•49 


2, 168.3O 














VIII .... 


1 1 
1 Swamp 1 


2,072 


























IX 


J I 


246 
























Total . . '. 


17-153 


0.31 


5.390.28 


0.30 


5,181.23 


0.28 


4, 845 • 72 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



405 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
white pine on Township 6 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE XIV.— WHITE PINE — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 6. 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 



NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

10 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


II 


1 1 
1 . 1 

1 Spruce 1 
Land 

1 I 

1 f 

1- Swamp - 

1 

i i 
1 I 

1 

I Spruce 
Land 

;- , - 

and 
! Swamp 1 

J I 


Acres. 
84 
8,490 

2,587 
I,6ll 
1,332 
1,194 


. St 


andards. , 


St 


andards. 


, Standards. , 


Ill 

IV 

V 


0.03 

•39 


679.20 
1,008.93 


O.Oo 
.38 


679.20 
983 . 06 


O.08 
.36 


679 . 20 

93L32 


VI 

VII .... . 


.01 

.06 


13-32 
71.64 


.01 

.c6 


1.3-32 
71.64 


.04 


47-76 


Total . . . 


15,298 


0.12 


1,77303 


0.11 


1,747.22 


O.II 


1,658.28 


II 


38 

3.666 

1,022 

I,l68 

270 












Ill 

IV .... . 
V 


2.00 
I .00 


7,332.00 
1 , 022 . 00 


1.99 

1. 00 


7,295-34 
1 . 022 . 00 


i-95 
•97 


7,148.70 

991-34 


VII 




























Total . . . 


6,164 


1.36 


8,354.00 


i-3S 


8.317-34 


1-32 


8, 140.04 


II .... . 


122 

12,156 

3,609 

2,779 

1,332 
1,464 






0.66 
06 








Ill 

IV 

V 


0.66 

.56 


8,011 .20 
2,030.93 


7,974-54 
2,005.06 


0.64 

•53 


7,827.90 
1 , 922 . 66 


VI 

VII 


.01 

.05 


13-32 
71.64 


.01 
• 05 


13-32 

71.64 


• 03 


47-76 


Total . . . 


21,462 


0.47 


10, 127.09 


0.47 10,064.56 


0.46 


9,798.32 



406 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
white pine on Township 41 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE XV.— WHITE PINE — PRESENT YIELD -TOWNSHIP 41. 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 









Cutting 


to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 








10 


Inches in 


12 j 


NCHES IN 


14 Inches in 


NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 




Average 




Average 










jield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 


- 






per acre. 




per acre. 




per acre. 








Acres. 


St. 


tndards. , 


St 


andards. 


Standards. , 


I 


r 


5.430 


0. 14 


760 . 20 


0.13 


705.90 


O.II 


597-30 


II 


Spruce 

t t 1-1 
Land 


1.366 


.o3 


109. 23 


.Co 


IO9.28 


.08 


109.28 


IX 


4S 














X 


] [ 


7-30-2 


0.41 


3,018.42 


.41 


3,018.42 


.41 


3,018.42 


Total . . . 


14. 206 


0.27 


3,887.90 


O.27 


3,833.60 


0.26 


3.725.00 


I 


1,530 


6.23 


9o3I-90 


6.13 


9,378.90 


6.06 


9,271 80 


II 


- Swamp - 


502 


.80 


401 .60 


.69 


346.38 


.62 


311.24 


V" 


! I 

Spruce j . 
Land ] 


3,621 


3-i8 


II. 514.78 


3.16 


11,442.36 


3-ii 


11,261.31 


Total . . . 

- 


5-653 


3-79 


21,448.28 


3-74 


21, 167.64 


369 


20,844.35 


I 

II 


6,960 
1,869 


1.48 
■27 


10. 292.10 
510. 83 


1-45 
•24 


10,084.80 

455-66 


1.42 
. 22 


9,869.10 
420.52 


IX 


and 


48 
10,982 














X 


Swamp 


1.32 


14-533-20 


1-32 


14,460.78 


1.30 


14,279.73 


Total . . . 


19,859 


1.28 


25,336.18 


1 .26 


25,001.24 


1:24 


24,569.35 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



407 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
hemlock on Township 5 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE XVI.— HEMLOCK — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 5. 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 









Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 








10 I 


NCHES IN 


12 I 


NCHES IN 


14 Inches in 


NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter 


Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 




Average 




Average 










yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 








per acre. 




per acre. 




per acre. 








Acres. 


, — - — Standards. 


, Standards. , 


-Standards. , 


II 


1 

| 


8.586 


8.88 


76,243.68 


8.6l 


73>925-46 


8.01 


68,773-86 


Ill 


I Spruce ! 


2, 760 


3 • 74 


I0,3£2.40 


3.62 


9,991.20 


3-39 


9,366.40 


VIII 


Land 1 


1,099 


3 -"o 


4,066.50 


3-59 


3,945-41 


3-45 


3,79i-55 


IX 


J I 
1 f 


246 


7.04 


I,73I-84 


6.25 


1,537-50 


5-25 


1,291.50 


Total . . . 




7. 28 


92,564.22 


7.08 


89,399-57 


5-66 


83,223.31 


II 


1,790 


5-05 


9,039-50 


4-58 


8,189.20 


3-97 


7, 106.30 


Ill 

VII . . . 


Y Swamp |- 


1,645 

54 
973 


1. 19 


1,957-55 


1 -IS 


1,891.75 


1. 11 


1,825.95 


VIII 


J . 1 

1 


1.60 


1,556.80 


1-49 


1,449-77 


1-49 


1,449-77 


Total ... . 


4,462 


2.81 


12,553-85 


2.58 


11,530.72 


2-33 


10,382.02 


II 


10,376 


8.22 


85,283.18 


7.91 


82, 114.66 


7-3i 


75,880.16 


Ill 

VII 


Spruce 

Land 
- 

and 

Swamp 


4,405 

54 

2, 072 


2.79 


12,279.95 


2.70 


11,882.95 


2-54 


11,182.35 


VIII 


2.71 


5,623.10 


2.60 


5, 395- 18 


2-53 


5,241-32 


IX 




246 


7.04 


1,731-84 


6.25 


1,537-50 


5-25 


1,291,50 


Total . . . 


17,153 


6.12 


104,918.07 


5-88 


100,930.29 


5-44 


93,595-33 



4o8 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
hemlock on Township 6 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE XVII.— HEMLOCK — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 6. 
Merchantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 



NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

10 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


II 

Ill 

IV 

V .... . 

VI 

VII 


1 1 

Spruce | 

Land j 
i 

J L 

1 f 
. Swamp j 

I 

1 f 

Spruce 

Land 

and 

[ Swamp 

1 


Acres. 

84 
8,490 

2,587 
I,6ll 
1,332 
1,194 


St 

8. II 
6.72 
7.O4 
•24 
1. 18 
I.27 


andards. , 

678.OO 

57,052.80 

18,212.48 

386.64 

I, 57C-76 

1,516.38 


Standards. 

7.85 656.26 
6.51 55,269.90 
6.89 17,824.43 
•21 338.31 
I. l6 1,545.12 
1.22 1,456.68 


Standards. , 

7.66 640.38 
6.15 52,213.50 
6.65 17,203.55 
.17 273.87 
1. 14 1,518.48 

1. 1 7 1,396.98 


Total . . . 


15,298 


5.19 


79,418.06 


5-04 


77,090.70 


4-79 


73,246.76 


II 


38 

3,666 

1,022 

1,168 

270 














III 

IV 

V 

VII 


2.56 

2.71 

.07 

■37 


9,384.96 

2, 769.62 

81.76 

99.9O 


2.46 

2.64 

.07 

■37 


9,018.36 

2,698.08 

81.76 

99.9O 


2.21 

2.41 
• 05 
■37 


8, I0I.C6 

2,463.02 

58.40 

99.90 


Total . . . 


6, 164 


2.00 


12,336.24 


1-93 


11,898.10 


1.74 


10, 723.18 


II 

Ill 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 


122 
1-2,156 
3,609 
2,779 
1,332 
1,464 


5.56 
5-47 
5-8i 
•17 
1. 18 
1. 10 


678.OO 

66,437-76 

20,982.10 

468 . 40 

I,57I-76 

I,6l6.28 


5.38 
5-29 
5.69 

•15 
1. 16 
1 .06 


656 . 26 
64,288.26 
20,522.51 

420.07 

1,545-12 
1,556.58 


5-25 
4.96 
5-45 
•15 
1. 14 
1.02 


64O.38 

60,315.36 

19,665.57 

332.27 

1,518.48 

1,496.88 


Total . . . 


21,462 


4.28 


91,754-30 


4-15 


88,988.80 


3.91 


83,969.94 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



409 



The following table gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield of 
hemlock on Township 41 to limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches diameter 
breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE XVIII. 
Merc 



HEMLOCK — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 41. 
hantable Yield in Markets by Standard Rule. 



NUMBER OF 
COMPARTMENT. 



Type. 



Area. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

10 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

t2 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



I 
II 

IX 

X 



Total 



I 

II 
X 



Total 



I 

II 

IX 

X 



Total 



I Spruce 
Land 



;- Swamp 



Spruce 1 
Land | 
and 
Swamp 



Acres. 

5,430 

1,366 

48 

7,362 



14, 206 



1.530 

502 

3,621 



5-653 



6,960 

1,869 

48 

10, 982 

19,859 



-Standards. - 



7.19 

7.72 

16.50 

3-72 



5-47 



2.17 

2.74 
1. 17 



.1.58 



6.09 

6.38 

16.50 

2.88 

4-37 



59, 041 . 70 

10,545-5-' 

792 . 00 

27,386.64 



77,765.86 



3,320.10 
1,375-48 
4,236.57 



8,932.15 



42,361.80 

II,g2I.00 

792 . 00 

31,623.21 

86,698.01 



-Standards.- 



6-79 
6.96 
I5.8I 

3-54 



5-15 



1.85 
2.44 
1.09 



1.42 



5.70 

5-74 

i5-8i 

2-73 

4.09 



36,869.70 

9,507.36 

758.88 

26,061.48 



73,197-42 



2,830.50 
1,224.88 
3,946.89 



8,002.27 



39, 700 . 20 

10,732.24 

758.88 

30,008.37 

81, 199.69 



-Standards.- 



6.25 
6.O9 

14-25 
3-32 



4-74 



1-52 
2.17 
1 .02 



1.26 



5-21 

5-03 

14.25 

2.56 

3-75 



34,937-50 

8,318.94 

684 . 00 

24,441.84 



67,382.28 



2,325-60 
1,089.34 
3,693-42 



7,108.36 



36,263.10 

9,408.28 

684 . 00 

28,135.26 

74,490.64 



4-io 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following table gives in board feet by old Scribner Rule the present yield 
of yellow birch on Township 5 to limits of fifteen, seventeen and nineteen inches 
diameter breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the average 
yield per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and swamp, 
separately and combined. 



TABLE XIX.— BIRCH— PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 5. 
Merchantable Yield in Board Feet by Old Scribner Rule. 









Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 








15 


NCHES IN 


17] 


NCHES IN 


19 Inchestn 


NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 




Average 




Average 










yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 








per acre. 




per acre. 




per acre. 








Acres. 


, Board feet. : — , 


, Board feet. , 


, Board feet. , 


II 


1 ( 


8,586 


2,431 


20, 872, 566 


2, 202 


18, 906, 372 


1,910 


16,399,260 


Ill . . . . 


j Spruce 
' Land 1 


2, 760 


2,872 


7, 926, 720 


2,6l4 


7,214,640 


2,314 


6, 386, 640 


VIII 


1,099 


2,667 


2,931,033 


2,431 


2,671,669 


2,083 


2,289, 217 


XI 


I 

1 ' r 


246 


1,985 


488,310 


1,747 


429, 762 


1,513 


372, 198 


Total . . . 


12.69I 


2,539 


32,218,629 


2, 303 


29, 222, 443 


2, 005 


25,447,315 


II 


1,790 


1,280 


2,291,200 


1,037 


1,856,230 


798 


1,428,420 


Ill 


i 1 


1,645 


1,258 


2, 069, 410 


1,029 


1,692,705 


786 


1,292,970 


VII 


[ Swamp J 


54 


























VIII 


J I 

1 r 


973 


1-043 


1,014,839 


816 


793, 568 


501 


487, 473 


Total . . . 


4,462 


1.205. 


5,375,449 


973 


4, 342, 503 


719 


3,208,863 


II 


10,376 


2 232 


23, 163, 766 


2,001 


20, 762, 602 


I,7l8 


17,827,680 


Ill 


Spruce 


4,405 


2,269 


9,996,130 


2, 022 


8. 907, 345 


1,743 


7,679,610 


VII 

VIII 

IX 


Land | 
and j 
Swamp 

I 


54" 
2,072 
246 














1,904 
1,985 


3,945,872 
488,310 


1,672 
1,747 


3,465,237 
429, 762 


1,340 
1,513 


2, 776, 690 
372, 198 


Total . . . 


17,153 


2, 192 


37,594,078 


1,957 


33, 564, 946 


1,671 


28,656,178 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



411 



The following table gives in board feet by old Scribner Rule the present yield 
of yellow birch on Township 6 to limits of fifteen, seventeen and nineteen inches, 
diameter breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the 
average yield per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land, 
and swamp, separately and combined. 



TABLE XX.— BIRCH — PRESENT YIELD —TOWNSHIP 6. 
Merchantable Yield in Board Feet by Old Scribner Rule. 









Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limitof 








15 Inches in 


i 7 I 


nches in 


19 Inches in 








Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthtgh. 


NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 










COMPARTMENT. 


Average 




Average 




Average 










yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 








per acre. 




per acre. 




per acre. 








Acres. 


, Board feet. 


Board feet. , 


Board feet. . 


11 


! 1 


84 


280 


23, 520 


247 


20, 748 


226 


18,984 


Ill 


j ■• 


8,490 


2, 475 


21,012, 750 


2, 226 


18, 898, 740 


1,883 


1.5,986,670 


IV 


1 Spruce 1 


2,587 


2,416 


6,251,092 


2,159 


5,585,333 


I,8l2 


4,687,644 


V 


Land 1 


I,6ll 


3,494 


5,628,834 


3,132 


5,045,652 


2,695 


4,341,645 


VI 




1,332 


2,264 


3,015,648 


1,982 


2, 64O, 024 


I,6l5 


2, 151, l80 


VII 


1 1 

r 


1,194 


3.012 


3,596,328 


2,655 


3,170,070 


2,243 


2. 678, 142 


Total . . . 


15,298 


2,584 


39,528,172 


2,3H 


35,360,567 


1,952 


29, 864, 265 


II 

Ill 


38 

3,666 
















947 


3,47L702 


746 


2, 734, 836 


516 


1,891,656 


IV 


)- Swamp-! 


1,022 


729 


745,038 


542 


553,924 


411 


527, 352 


V 




1,168 


794 


917,392 


676 


789, 568 


493 


575,824 


VII .' . . • . 


J I 

1 ( 


270 


750 


202, 500 


486 


131,220 


314 


84, 780 


Total . . . 


6,164 


866 


5,336,632 


683 


4, 209, 548 


500 


3,079,612 


II 


122 


193 


23, 520 


170 


20, 748 


156 


18,984 


Ill 


1 Spruce 


12,156 


2,014 


24,484,452 


1,780 


21,633,576 


1,470 


17,878,326 


IV .... . 


Land 


3,609 


i,938 


6,996,130 


1, 701 


6,139,257 


1,445 


5,214,996 


V 


and 
] Swamp 1 


2,779 


2, 355 


6, 546, 226 


2, 100 


5,835,220 


1,770 


4,917,469 


VI 


1,332 


2,264 


3,015,648 


1,982 


2, 640, 024 


1,615 


2, 151, l80 


VII . . . . . 


J I 


1.464 


2,595 


3,798,828 


2,255 


3,301,290 


1,887 


2, 762, 922 


Total . . . 


21,462 


2,090 


44, 864, 804 


1,844 


39,570,115 


1,535 


32,943,877 



412 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following table gives in board feet by old Scribner Rule the present 
yield of yellow birch on Township 41 to limits of fifteen, seventeen and nineteen 
inches diameter breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and 
the average yield per acre in each compartment in the township for spruce 
land and swamp, separately and combined. 



TABLE XXL— BIRCH — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 41. 
Merchantable Yield in Board Feet by Old Scribner Rule. 









Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 








15 


'nches in 


17 


Lnches in 


19 Inches in 


NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


COMPARTMENT. 


Average 




Average 




Average 










yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 








per acre. 




per acre. 




per acre. 








Acres. 


Board feet. 


, Board feet. , 


Doard feet. , 


I 


1 r 


5,430 


2,663 


14, 450, 090 


1,249 


6, 782, 070 


898 


4, 876, I40 


II 


1 Spruce 1 
Land j 


1,366 


1,677 


2, 290, 782 


1,476 


2,016,216 


1,253 


1,711.598 


IX . . . 


48 


2,266 


108, 768 


2,187 


104,976 


1,688 


81,024 


X 


J I 


7.362 


2,931 


21,578,022 


2,675 


19,693.350 


2.318 


17,065, Il6 


Total . . . 


14,206 


2, 706 


38, 427, 662 


2,013 


28, 596,612 


1,671 


23,733,878 


I 


1,530 


817 


1,250,010 


653 


999, 090 


527 


806,310 


II 


I Swamp \ 


502 


999 


501,498 


823 


413,146 


680 


341,360 


X .... 


1 
J I 

Spruce 


3,621 


864 


3, 128, 544 


718 


2, 599, 878 


548 


1,984,30s 


Total . .*.! 


5.653 


863 


4, 880, 052 


710 


4.012, II4 


554 


3. I3L.978 


i ! 


6,960 


2,260 


15, 710, 100 


I,Il8 


7, 781, 160 


816 


5,682,450 


11 j 


Land j 


1,869 


i,494 


2, 792, 280 


1,300 


2, 429, 362 


1,098 


2,052,958 


IX 


and 


48 


2,266 


108, 768 


2,187 


104,976 


1,688 


81,024 


X 


Swamp 


10,982 


2,250 


24, 706, 566 


2,030 


22,293,228 


1,735 


19,049,424 


Total . . . 


19,859 


2, 181 


43,317.714 


1,642 


32, 608, 726 


i,353 


26,865,856 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



413 



The following table gives in board feet by old Scribner Rule the present 
yield of sugar maple on Township 5 to limits of fifteen, seventeen and nineteen 
inches diameter breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and 
the average yield per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land 
and swamp, separately and combined. 

TABLE XXII.— SUGAR MAPLE — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 5. 
Merchantable Yield in Board Feet by Old Scribner Rule. 



NUMBER OF 
COMPARTMENT. 



Type. 



Area. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

15 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

17 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

19 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



II 
III 

VIII 
IX 



Total 



II 

III 

VII 

VIII 



Total 



II 

III 

VII 

VIII 

IX 



Total 



f 
Spruce I 



Land 



Swamp-j 
J I 



1 r 

Spruce 
Land ! 
and 
Swamp 1 
J I 



Acres. 

8,586 

2, 760 

1,099 

246 



12,091 



1,790 

1,645 

54 
973 



4,462 



10,376 

4-405 

54 

2,072 

246 



17,153 



, Board feet.- 



998 
928 

438 

373 



922 



150 
107 



8, 568, 828 

2,561,280 

481,362 

9i,758 



. Board feet. , 


Board feet. , 


802 


6,885,972 


599" 


5,143,014 


741 


2,045, 160 


567 


1,564,920 


299 


328, 601 


182 


200,018 


171 


42, 066 


43 


10,578 



11,703,228 



733 



268, 500 
176,015 



11,676 



104 
84 



456, 191 



74 



852 
621 



238 

373 



709 



8,837,328 
2,737,295' 



493, 038 
91,758 



12,159,419 



682 
495 



114 
171 



562 



186, 160 
138, 180 



6,811 



33i,i5i 



7, 072, 132 
2, 183,340 



335,412 
42, 066 



9,301,799 545 6,918,530 



57 



102, 030 
123,375 



55 



225,405 



505 
383 



97 
43 



5,245,044 
1,688,295 



200,018 
10, 578 



9,632,950 1 416 ; 7,143,935 



4H 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following table gives in board feet by old Scribner Rule the present yield 
of sugar maple on Township 6 to limits of fifteen, seventeen and nineteen inches 
diameter breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and the 
average yield per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce land and 
swamp, separately and combined. 

TABLE XXIII.— SUGAR MAPLE — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 6. 
Merchantable Yield in Board Feet bv Old Scribner Rule. 









Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 


Cutting to a Limit of 








15 


NCHES IN 


i 7 ] 


NCHES in 


19 Inches in 








Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


Diameter Breasthigh. 


NUMBER OF 


Type. 


Area. 












COMPARTMENT. 


Average 




Average 




Average 










yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 


yield 


Total yield. 








per acre. 




per acre. 




per acre. 








Acres. 


, Bo; 


ird Feet. , 


, Board Feet. , 


, Board Feet. 


II 


1 f 


84 


247 


20, 748 


205 


17,220 


205 


17, 220 


Ill 




8,490 


769 


6,528.810 


63O 


5,348,700 


482 


4, 092, 180 


IV 


1 

Spruce I 
Land 


2,587 


692 


I , 790, 204 


574 


1,484,938 


458 


1,184,846 


V 


I,6ll 


425 


684,675 


351 


565,461 


268 


431,748 


VI 




1,332 


376 


500, 832 


299 


398, 268 


2l6 


287,712 


VII 


J 

1 r 


1,194 


1,024 


1,222,656 


832 


993,408 


576 


687, 744 


Total . . . 


15,298 


703 


10,747,925 


576 


8,807,995 


838 


6,701,450 


II 


38 

3,666 














Ill 




47 


I ~j2, 302 


37 


135,632 


; 27 


98, 780 


IV 


" Swamp ' 


1,022 


80 


8l,760 


58 


59, 276 


35 


35,770 


V 


J 
1 


1,168 
270 














VII 


36 


9,720 


21 


5.670 






Total . . . 


6, 164 


43 


263, 782 


33 


200, 578 


22 


134,552 


II 


122 


170 


20, 748 


141 


17,220 


141 


17,220 


Ill . . . . 


Spruce 


12, 156 


551 


6, 701, 112 


451 


5.484,342 


345 


4, 191, 162 


IV 


Land 


3,609 


519 


1,871,964 


428 


1,544,214 


338 


. 1,220,616 


V 


and 


2,779 


- 246 


684,675 


203 


565,46l 


155 


43I-748 


VI 


| Swamp 


1,332 


376 


500, 832 


299 


398, 268 


216 


287,712 


VII 


■ 
J L 


1,464 


842 


1,232,376 


682 


999, 078 


469 


687, 744 


Total . . . 


21,462 


51.3 


11,011, 707 


420 


9, 008, 583 


319 


6, 836, 202 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



415 



The following table gives in board feet by old Scribner Rule the present 
yield of sugar maple on Township 41 to limits of fifteen, seventeen and nineteen 
inches diameter breasthigh. The table shows, also, the total present yield and 
the average yield per acre on each compartment in the township for spruce 
land and swamp, separately and combined. 

TABLE XXIV.— SUGAR MAPLE— PRESENT YIELD —TOWNSHIP 41. 
Merchantable Yield in Board Feet by Old Scribner Rule. 



NUMC2R OF 
COMPARTMENT. 



Type. 



Area. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

15 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

17 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

19 Inches in , 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



I 

II 

IX 



Total 



I 

II 
X 



Total 



I 

II 

IX 

X 



Total 



Spruce j 
Land | 



Swamp -| 



I Spruce 
j Land 
and 
Swamp 



Acres. 

5,430 

1,366 

48 

7,362 



14,206 



1,530 

502 

3,621 



5,653 



6,960 

1,869 

48 

IO.982 



19,859 



-fioard feet.- 



.— Board feet.- 



701 
762 
152 

449 



574 



3,806,430 

1 , 040, 892 

7,296 

•3,305,558 



540 
520 



346 



8, 160, 176 



436 



74 

171 

64 



76 



563 
603 
152 
322 



433 



113,220 

85,842 

231,744 



43 
127 



430, 806 



3,919,650 

1,126,734 

7,296 

3,537,282 



8, 590, 962 



54 



43i 

414 



248 

327 



2,932, 200 
710,320 



2,547,252 



6, 189, 772 



65, 790 

63, 754 
173, 808 



303, 352 



2, 997, 990 
774, 074 



2,721,060 174 



-Board feet.- 



410 

317 



242 



313 



30 

75 
37 



38 



326 

253 



6,493,124 235 



2, 226, 300 
433,ooo 



1, 781,604 



4, 440, 904 



45,900 

37,650 

133,977 



217,527 



2, 272, 200 
470,650 



i,9i5,58i 



,43i 



4i6 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FESH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The following table is a summary of Tables VII to XXIV, with the yields of 
cedar and beech included and Township 40 added. The standards of the softwoods 
have been reckoned at 200 board feet each. 



TABLE XXV.— PRESENT YIELD ON TOWNSHIPS 5, 6, 40 AND 41 SEPARATELY. 
Merchantable Yield in Board Feet by Old Scribner Rule. 
Township 5 — 17,153 Acres. 



SPECIES. 



Spruce 
Balsam 
White pine 
Hemlock 
Cedar . 
Birch . 
Sugar maple 
Beech . 



Cutting to Breasthigh 
Diameter Limits of io 
and 15 Inches for Soft- 
woods and Hardwoods, 
Respectively. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



4,6l6 

85^ 

62 

1,224 

Il6 
2, I92 

709 

551 



oard feet. — 

70. 170, 

14,605, 

1,078, 

20,983, 

1,997, 
37, 594, 
12.159. 

9, 448, 



Total 10,322 



718 
966 
056 
814 
980 
078 
419 
139 



177,038,170 



Cutting to Breasthigh 
Diameter Limits of 12 
and 17 Inches for Soft- 
woods and Hardwoods, 
Respectively. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



1 Board feet. 



3,752 
436 

60 
I, 176 

92 

i,957 
562 
348 



8,383 



64, 348, 578 
7, 469, 802 
1 , 036, 246 

20, 186, 058 
1,591,500 

33,564,946 
9,632,950 
5,981,263 



143,811,343 



Cutting to Breasthigh 
Diameter Limits o- 
14 and 19 Inches for 
Softwoods and Hard- 
woods, Respectively. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



3,072 

170 

56 

1,088 

68 

1,671 

416 

1 99 



Board feet. , 

52.691,258 

2,913,956 

969, 144 

18,719,066 

1.165,790 

28,656,178 

7,143,935 

3,409,784 



6,740 



115,669, III 



Township 6 — 21,462 



Spruce .1 5,072 



Balsam 

White pine . 

Hemlock 

Cedar 

Birch . . 

Sugar maple 

Beech 

Total 



932 

94 
856 

28 

2,090 

513 

175 



9,760 



108,897,308 

20, 002, 360 

2.025,418 

18, 350, 860 

610,994 

44, 864, 804 

11,011. 707 

3,769,440 



Acres. 

4,200 

426 

94 
830 

22 

1,844 

420 

99 



209, 532, 



7,935 



90, 122, 598 
9, 143, 162 
2,012,912 

i7,797,76o 
475, 590 

39-570,115 
9, 008, 583 
2,143,294 



170,274,014 



,282 

136 

92 

782 

18 

.535 

319 

55 



6,219 



425,880 
902, 908 
959, 664 
793, 988 
370,622 

943, 877 
836, 202 
199,912 



133,433.053 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



417 



Table XXV.— (Concluded). 

Township 40 — 16,896 Acres. 



SPECIES. 



Cutting to Breasthigh 
Diameter Limits of io 
and 15 Inches for Soft- 
woods and Hardwoods, 
Respectively. 



Cutting to Breasthigh 
Diameter Limits of 12 
and 17 Inches for Soft- 
woods and Hardwoods, 
Respectively. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to Breasthigh 
Diameter L.mits of 
14 and 19 Inches for 
Softwoods and Hard- 
woods, Respectively. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



-Board feet.- 



Spruce 4. 588 

Balsam 638 

White pine 336 

Hemlock . . . . ... . i,770 

Cedar 126 

Birch 1,624 

Sugar maple 507 

Beech . . 397 

Total 9,986 



77.5ia>378 

io, 783, 622 
5.678,236 

29,905.416 
2,118,558 

27, 438, 598 
8.565,062 
6, 699, 364 



168, 708, 234 



, Board feet. , 

3,886 ! 65,657,510 

324 5.463,184 

334 5- 654, 130 

1.702 28,766,876 

104 1,755,420 

1,459 24,655,158 

397 6. 708, 675 

262 4,431,985 



, Board feet , 

3,112 j 52,590,736 



124 

332 

1,588 

76 

1,132 

29I 

I49 



2, 092, 434 
5,611.552 

26, 852, 698 
1,291,966 

19, 122,098 
4,913,563 
2.5I9,H9 



8.468 '. 143,092,938 



6.804 I 114,994- l66 



Spruce 
Balsam 
White pine . 
Hemlock 
Cedar . 
Birch . . . 
Sugar maple 
Beech 



Township 41 — 19,859 Acres. 
. 6.474 128,562,036 5.516 109,560,462 



Total 



844 
256 

874^ 

54 

2. 181 

433 
789 



16, 747, 768 
5,067,236 

17,339.602 
1.061,416 

43,317,714 

8, 590, 962 

15,661,822 



446 8, 864, 792 
252 : 5, 000, 248 

818 16,239,938 

42 846, 332 

1,642 32,608,726 1, '353 

327 6,493,124 \ 235 

495 9,824,134 I 328 



4,530 

184 

248 

750 

30 



3, 

4, 

14, 

26. 
4, 



97», 522 
652,038 
913, 870 
898, 128 
586, 470 
865, 856 
658,431 
519,575 



11,905 236,348,556 ; 9,538 189,437,756 7.658 152,072.890 



27 



4i8 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION., 



TABLE XXVI.— PRESENT YIELD ON THE WHOLE BLOCK OF FOUR TOWNSHIPS- 
TOWNSHIPS s, 6, 40 AND 41—75,370 ACRES. 
Merchantable Yield in Board Feet by Old Scribner Rule. 



SPECIES. 



Cutting to Breastfiigh 
Diameter Limits of 10 
and is Inches for Soft- 
woods and Hardwoods, 
Respectively. 



Average 

yield 
per acre 



Total yield. 



Cutting to Breasthigh 
Diametek Limits of 12 
and 17 Inches for Soft- 
woods and Hardwoods, 
Respectively. 



Average 

yield 
per acre 



Total yield. 



Cutting to Breasthigh 
Diameter Limits of 
14 and 19 Inches for 
Softwoods and Hard- 
woods, Respectively. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total. yield. 



Spruce 
Balsam 
White pine 
Hemlock . 
Cedar . 
Birch . 
Sugar maple 
Be^ch . 



Board feet. 



5.229 
824 
184 

1,149 

77 
2,033 

535 
472 



394, 149,440 

62, 139,716 

13,848,946 

86, 579, 692 

5,788,948 

153,215,194 
40,327,150 
35, 578, 765 



4, 374 
411 
182 

1. 101 



i,730 
422 
297 



Board feet. , 

329,689, 148 
30, 940, 940 
13,703,536 
82,990,632 

4, 668. 842 

130,398,945 

31,843,332 

22, 380, 676 



Board feet. 



Total .10,503 791,627,851 



8,579 



3,525 


265,686,396 


153 


11,561,356 


178 


13,454,2-0 


1,025 


77.263,880 


45 


3,414,848 


1.428 


107, 588, 009 


313 


23,552,131 


181 


13,648,396 



646,616,051 I 6,848 j 516,169.220 



Pine Land — Township 5. — Table XXVII shows the present yield of white 
pine on the "pine land " area in the southwestern corner of Township 5. As pointed 
out in the description of this area (page 383), the pine land type is made up of 
parts of the spruce land and the swamp types, and is used merely to obtain the 
yield of white pine in this particular stand. The table shows the yield for the pine 
land both in Compartment VIII and in Compartment XII, the latter being Lot 4 
of the Nivins Tract. 

TABLE XXVII.— WHITE PINE — PRESENT YIELD — PINE LAND, TOWNSHIP 5'. 
Merchantable Volume in Markets bj' Standard Rule. 



NUMBER OF 
COMPARTMENT. 



VIII 



Type. 



Pine \ 
XII I.j Land I 

Total 



Area. 



Acres. 



786 



997 



Cutting to a Limit of 
10 Inches in 

Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Average 
Total yield. yield 

per acre. 



Total yield. 



-Standards. 



37-54 
25.96 



.09 



29,506.44 
5,477-56 



34,984. 00 



. —Standards.- 



37-39 

25-85 



34-95 



29,388.54 

5-454-35 



-Standards. 



37-05 
25.62 



29,121.30 
5,405.82 



34,842.89 34.63 34,527.12 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



419 



Table XXVIII gives in markets by Standard Rule the present yield for soft- 
woods on Lot 4, Nivins Tract. Table XXIX gives the present yield for 
hardwoods on the same area. Both tables show also the total yield and the 
average yield per acre on the lot for spruce land and swamp, separately and 
combined, and Table XXVIII shows the total present yield and the average yield 
per acre of white pine on the pine land. 



TABLE XXVIII.— SOFTWOODS — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 5. 

Merchantable Volume in Markets by Standard Rule. 

Spruce Land — 696 Acres. 



Spruce . 
LI em lock . 
Balsam . 
White pine 
Dead spruce 

Total . 

Spruce . 
Balsam . 
White pine 
Hemlock 
Dead spruce 



Total 



SPECIES. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

10 Inches in 
Diameter Bkeasthigh. 



Cutting to a Limit of 

12 Inches in 
Diameter Breasthigh. 



Average 

yield 
per acre. 



Average 
Total yield. yield 

per acre. 



Total yield. 



Cuti ing to a Limit of 

14 Inches in 
Diameter Bkeasthigh. 



Average j. 

yield 1 Total yield, 
per acre. I 



-Standards. 



, Standards 



28.II 

3-69 

3.60 

.64 

.09 



19,564.56 
2,568.24 
2,505.60 

445-44 
62.64 



21.66 

3-43 

2. 19 

.62 

.09 



15,075 
2, 422 

1,524 

431 

62 



36.13 25,146.48 



28.04 



19,515-84 



-Standards. 



15.22 
3-17 

94 
62 
09 



20.04 



io,593 
2, 206 

654 

431 

62 



13,947.84 



32 
24 

52 
64 



Swamp Land — 336 Acres. 
19.87 
8.16 
2.60 



-44 
.16 



6,676.32 


14.06 


2, 741 ■ 76 


3-57 


873.60 


2.56 


147.84 


-3i 


53 • 76 


.16 


10.493.28 


20.66 



4,724.16 

1,199.52 

860.16 

104, 16 

53 ■ 76 



9-53 
.82 

- 56 

14 
n 



6,941.76 13 



16 



3,202 


08 


275 


52 


860 


16 


47 


04 


36.96 


4,421 


76 



Merchantable Area — Spruce Land and Swamp Combined — 1,032 Acres. 



Spruce . 
Balsam . 
Hemlock 
White pine 
Dead spruce 

Total . 



White pine 



25-42 

5-o8 

2.63 

1.28 

.11 



34-52 



26,240.88 


19.19 


.5,247-36 


2.64 


2, 716.08 


2-45 


1,319.04 


I . 25 


116.40 


. II 



9,799-52 


13-37 


13,795-20 


2. 7^3 ■ 76 


.90 


929.76 


2,526.24 


2.18 


2,253.36 


1,291 .68 


1-25 


1,291.68 


116.40 


.10 


99.60 



35,639.76 25.64 26,457.60 17.80 



18,369.60 



Pine Land — 211 Acres. 
■| 25.96 ! 5,477-56 I 25.85 



5,454-35 



25-62 



5,405-82 



420 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



TABLE XXIX.— HARDWOODS — PRESENT YIELD — TOWNSHIP 5. 

Merchantable Volume in Board Feet by Old Scribner Rule. 

Spruce Land — 696 Acres. 



SPECIES. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

15 Inches in 
Diameter Bkeasthich. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

17 Inches in 
Diameter Brf.asthich. 


Cutting to a Limit of 

19 Inches in 
Diameter BreasthiGH. 




Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 


Average 

yield 
per acre. 


Total yield. 




Board feet. , 


, Board feet. , 


. Board feet. , 


Birch 


4.I9O.55 |2,9l6,622.8o 


3.560.70 


2,478,247.20 


2,864.55 


1,993,726.80 


Maple 


434-85 


302,655.60 


239-85 


166,935.60 


161.85 


112,647.60 


Beech 


425.IO 


295.869.60 


198.90 


138,434.40 


113. 10 


78.717.60 


Total 


5.050.50 


3,515.148.00 


3.999-45 


2,783,617.20 


3.139-50 


2, 185,092.00 



Birch 



Swamp Land — 336 Acres. 



:h '■ 

)le 


L764-75 
35-10 


592,956.00 

11,793.60 


1,443.00 
21-45 


484,848.00 
7,207.20 


1. 156.35 


388,533.60 


ch 




















Total 


1,799.85 


604, 749.60 


I.464-45 


492.055.20 


1,156.35 


388,533.60 



Merchantable Area — Spruce Land and Swamp Combined — 1,032 Acres. 



Birch I 3,400.80 

Beech .':.... 286.65 
Maple 304.20 



Total 3,991.65 



3,509.578.80 
295,869.60 
314,449.20 



4, 119,897.60 



2,870.40 

134-55 
167.70 



3,172.65 



2,963,095.20 

138,434.40 
174, 142.80 



3,275,672.40 



2,308.80 

76.05 

109.20 



2,382,260.40 

78,717.60 

112,647.60 



2,494.05 2,573,625.60. 



Future Yield. — On the valuation surveys the smaller trees down to five 
inches diameter breasthigh were counted and tallied. From the figures so 
obtained, by the table of the growth of spruce given in Bulletin No. 30 (page 
31), and from the volume tables, an estimate has been made of the future yield 
of spruce on Townships 5, 6 and 4.1. 

These figures are given in the following table, which shows for the merchant- 
able area on Townships 5, 6 and 41 the yields of spruce expressed in standards 
which might be obtained after successive ten-year periods, and the number of 
years which must elapse before an equal cut can be had, provided that the 
diameter limit adopted now be adhered to then. 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 



42 1 



TABLE XXX.— ESTIMATE OF FUTURE YIELD OF SPRUCE ON MERCHANTABLE 

AREA IN TOWNSHIPS 5, 6 AND 41. 

Volume in Markets by Standard Rule. 

Township 5. 







Average Cut Per Acre Obtainable at the End of io-Yeak Periods 


Interval 


Cutting limit: 


Average 




in Standards 






required 


diameter 


present yield 
per acre. 










between 


breasthigh. 


10 


20 


3° 


40 


5" 


equal cuts. 


Inches. 


Standards. 












Years. 


10 


23.08 


2.70 


5-66 


11 .72 


19-35 


26.l8 


46 


12 


18.76 


2.72 


8.34 


15-15 


24-43 


39-19 


34 


14 


I5.36 


2-54 


H-33 


19-75 


3I-I3 


44-71 


25 








Township 6. 








10 


25-36 


2.52 


6.09 


1 1. 71 


17.16 


24.76 


5i 


12 


21.00 


2.76 


8.29 


14-74 


25.12 


39-04 


36 


14 


16.4I 


2.84 


12.28 


20.87 


31-97 


47-03 


25 








Township 41. 








10 


32.37 


2-44 


5-99 


12.37 


20.29 


27-34 


56 


12 


27.58 


2. 9 8 


9.00 


15-46 


26.13 


41.91 


4i 


14 


22.65 


3-37 


13.86 


23.44 


34 -90 


50.52 


29 



The following table shows in percentages of the present cut for the three 
diameter limits what the future cuts would be in from ten to fifty years: 

TABLE XXXI.- ESTIMATE OF FUTURE YIELD OF SPRUCE ON MERCHANTABLE 

AREA IN TOWNSHIPS 5, 6 AND 41. 
Township 5. 



Cutting limit: 
diameter 


Average 

present yield 

per acre. 


Average C 


jt Per Acre Obtainable at the End of io-Y 
Expressed in Percentages of Present Yield 


ear Periods 


Interval 

required 

between 

equal cuts. 


breasthigh. 


10 


20 


.S° 


40 


5° 


Inches. 


Standards 












Years. 


10 


23.08 


11. 7 


24.4 


50.6 


83.6 


H3-5 


46 


12 


18.76 


14-5 


44.6 


80.9 


130.5 


209.9 


34 


14 


I5.36 


17-5 


78.I 


136. 1 


214-5 


308.1 


25 . 








Township 6. 








10 


25.36 


9.6 


23-3 


44.8 


65.7 


94-8 


5i 


12 


21.00 


12.7 


38.2 


67.8 


H5-6 


179-7 


36 


14 


16.41 


16.7 


72.2 


122.6 


187.8 


276.3 


25 








Township 41. 








10 


32.37 


7.6 


18.7 


38.7 


63-5 


85.5 


76 


12 


27.58 


10.9 


33- 1 


56.9 


96.1 


I54-I 


4i 


14 


22.65 


15-5 


63.8 


107.9 


160.6 


232.5 


29 



4^2 



REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 



The total future yield of spruce to be expected from the merchantable area 
in Townships 5, 6 and 41 in from ten to fifty years after cutting to ten, twelve 
or fourteen inches is given in the following table: 

TABLE XXXII.— ESTIMATE OF TOTAL FUTURE YIELD OF SPRUCE ON MER- 
CHANTABLE AREA IN TOWNSHIPS 5, 6 AND 41. 
Township 5. 



•Cutting- limit: 


Total 


Total Yield Obtainable at the End of 


io-Year Periods in Standards. 


Intervals 


diameter 


present 












required 


breasthigh. 


yield. 


10 


20 


30 


40 


5° 


between 
equal cuts. 


Inches. 


Standards. 












Years. 


10 


395,853-59 


46,315.80 


97,091.64 


201,044.88 


331,929.90 


449,091.72 


46 


12 


321,742.89 


46,658.88 


143,064.36 


259,883.10 


419,072.22 


672, 265 . 26 


34 


T 4 


263,456.29 


43,5/I-l6 


194,354.82 


338,791.50 


568', 312.02 


766,955.34 


25 



10 

12 
14 



544,486.54 
450,612.99 
352,129.40 



54,081.72 
59,232.36 
60,949.24 



130 
177 
263 



Township 6. 
697.49 
911.69 

541.08 

Township 41. 



251 


308 


31 


316 


335 


14 


447 


891 


07 



368,270.76 
539,100.32 
686,108.17 



531 


.374 


76 


837,837 


44 


1,009 


310 


83 



51 

36 

25 



10 


642,810.18 


48,455-96 


Il8.955.4i 


245,655-83 


402,939.11 


542,945.06 


56 


12 


547,802.31 


59,179.82 


178,731.00 


307,020.14 


5l8,9I5-67 


832, 29O . 69 


41 


14 


449,892.61 


66,924.83 


275,245.74 


465,494-96 


693,079.10 


1,003,276.68 


29 



Species Recommended 'to be Lumbered. 

While figures of present yield have been given for five species, it is advised- 
that at present only the spruce, balsam, and white pine be logged on Townships 
5, 6 and 41. 

Proposed Diameter Limit. 

The proper diameter limit breasthigh which should be used can only be 
■determined after taking into consideration several factors. A sufficient number 
of seed trees must be left in order to insure the reproduction of the valuable 
species, and the cutting must not be too severe, or the period in which an equal 
cut may be expected will be too long. On the other hand, the diameter limit 
must not be made too high or the lumberman can not get enough timber to pay 
for the logging. 

Tables are given showing the present and future yield of spruce with diameter 
limits of ten, twelve and fourteen inches. A careful study of these has led to 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 423 

the decision that, taking everything into consideration, twelve inches, breasthigh 
is the proper limit. This will give a large enough cut on all, the townships so 
that there will be a safe margin of profit in the logging operations and at the 
same time plenty of seed trees will be left and the period of waiting for a second 
crop will not be too long. 

Balsam is relatively less important than spruce, and the question of future 
yield is not so vital. The point to be decided is, rather, what diameter limit will 
give that percentage of balsam in the total cut which is commonly allowed in 
logging contracts. 

Fifteen per cent has been the common rule, but with the decrease in the 
supply of spruce, balsam is bound to be more eagerly sought as a substitute. 
Cutting to a diameter of ten inches will give a percentage of twenty-two per 
cent on Townships 5 and 6, and fifteen per cent of the spruce on Township 41. 
Hence, ten inches seems to be the ideal cutting limit for balsam. 

'The white pine on Townships 5, 6, and 41 is comparatively scarce, but is of 
large size and good quality. By cutting to a diameter limit of fourteen inches 
many seed trees will be left, but all the mature trees removed. This will give the 
following proportion of pine, compared with spruce, on the townships: Town- 
ship 5, one and one half per cent; Township 6, two per cent; Township 41, four 
and one half per cent. 

It should be distinctly understood that the diameter limits are not arbitrary 
figures, but are merely intended as a guide for the man who marks the timber. 
For example, where the stand is thin it will be advisable to leave trees over the 
diameter limit in order to provide seed, and in too dense stands smaller trees 
should be marked. In general, the amount cut on one side of the limit will 
equalize that left uncut on the other side. - 

Remaining Species. 

Whether or not the remaining species of commercially important trees on the 
block should be logged in connection with those recommended to be cut, depends 
very much on the manner in which the block is to be managed. 

It is recognized that great benefit would result to the young trees of the 
more valuable kinds if the larger hardwoods were to be removed, and that, if 
this were done, the general productive condition of the forest would be bettered. 
But, on the other hand, it would not be expedient as a business proposition to 
recommend the logging of these species, unless conditions were more favorable 
than they are at present. 



PART II. 

Limbering Plan 



Introduction. 

In studying this lumbering plan for Townships 5, 6 and 41, it should be borne 
in mind that the greater part of all the timber on these townships is naturally 
tributary to Raquette Lake in the center of Township 40, and, from a lumbering 
view-point, this fact so closely binds together all four townships that this plan 
may properly be called a supplement to the one already made for Township 40. 

There are a number of small watersheds within the limit of these three town- 
ships, however, from which the timber, although naturally tributary by stream 
descent to other waters than Raquette Lake, could be brought back to this timber 
center without any very great additional cost. The several advantages mentioned 
in the preceding report on Township 40, such as the railroad facilities for bringing 
supplies, men, etc., steamboat lines, telegraphic and telephone conveniences for 
making possible a quick connection with a purchasing point, apply in a degree 
to Townships 5, 6, and 41. Raquette Lake railroad station (Durant), being very 
nearly in the center of the four townships, would furnish an advantageous location 
for a general lumbering headquarters for distributing supplies, paying men, etc. 

This plan has as its object the best interests of the people of the entire State. 
In it is included all such information and recommendations necessary to facilitate 
the removal of the timber in the cheapest manner possible, and only such 
improvements are recommended as will materially add to the price which the 
State would ordinarily receive for its stumpage. 

It is not necessary that branch railroad tracks or mills should be made a per- 
manent feature, or that the parties constructing them should be granted a charter 
for an unlimited length of time. Permission to make these improvements should 
be granted only on condition that any unnecessary damage should be deemed 
a sufficient reason for discontinuing the charter. Then, if the operations in and 
around the mill, or on the railroad branches, were not being performed in a 
satisfactory manner, or in compliance with the regulations governing their use, 
they could at once be summarily stopped by the State authorities without recourse 

to litigation. 

424 



a forest working plan. 425 

Natural Outlets for Timber. 

The timber in the northern and western parts of Township 41 is naturally 
tributary to the North Branch of the Moose River via Big Moose Lake and the 
streams discharging their waters into it. The timber in the southern and western 
portions of Township 5 is tributary by natural outlet to the North and South 
Branches of the Moose River, and a small portion of the timber in Township 6 
is also tributary to the South Branch of Moose River via Silver Run and the 
outlet of Lake Kora. 

The timber in the southern and eastern parts of Township 6 (given a dis- 
tinctive color on lumbering map) can be taken either to the Cedar River 
through Wakeley Brook or it can be brought to Raquette Lake by making a long 
haul to South Inlet. The timber around Eighth and Seventh Lakes in Town- 
ship 5, although naturally tributary by water course to the North Branch of 
Moose River through Fulton Chain of Lakes, could be most cheaply and econom- 
ically brought out upon a branch railroad track connecting with the main line of 
the Raquette Lake Railway near Brown's Tract Pond (see lumbering map) either 
to Raquette Lake or outside points for manufacture, or be driven down below 
the lake. This timber could all be hauled by team direct to Raquette Lake, but 
it would necessitate a long and costly log haul. If one party purchased all 
the timber in this compartment it would be more economical to take the timber 
out on cars. It could then be taken out just as it was desired for manufacture 
at Raquette Lake or elsewhere. 

One of the main outlets for all this timber, and one of the greatest advan- 
tages to the lumbermen, is the Raquette Lake Railway, which furnishes facilities 
for bringing in supplies, outfit, men, etc., and at the same time opens up for a 
purchaser whose manufacturing plant might be located in some distant part of 
the State a possible means of transporting logs or timber to his plant for manu- 
facture, and thereby gains for the State the advantage of additional bidders for 
the stumpage. By the construction of branch tracks the greater part of the 
timber on these four townships can be taken out by rail either in a manufactured 
or rough state. Such an additional outlet cannot fail to add to the value of the 
stumpage on these tracts, and it is certainly a wise policy to allow improvements 
to be made that will so materially advance the prices of the timber stumpage on 
so large a tract as the one under consideration. 



426 report of the forest, fish and game commission. 

Division of Townships into Compartments. 

In formulating this working plan it has been considered advisable, for the 
purpose of estimating the stand of timber, to divide the townships into compart- 
ments based upon natural lines, which take in the timber standing in each 
watershed. The boundaries of each compartment are defined by the height of 
land. The divisions between the separate watersheds are shown upon the lumbering 
map by broken lines. Because there are many different compartments from 
which the timber, if it were taken down the natural water courses, would go 
to widely diversified markets, each compartment will be spoken of separately. 
A brief statement of the conditions existing on the different compartments and 
the most advisable methods of removing the timber follow. Attention is invited 
to the data shown upon the lumbering map for the purpose of conveying more 
clearly to the lumberman a thorough understanding of the different compartments. 
The following is a list of the compartments: 

No. 1. Shallow Lake Compartment. 

No. 2. Seventh and Eighth Lakes and Brown's Tract Pond Compartment,- 
Tpwnships 5 and 41. 

No. 3. South Inlet Compartment. 

Bear Pond Compartment, in Township 6. 

Cedar River Compartment. 

Silver Run Compartment. 

Sumner Stream Compartment, Townships 5 and 6. 

Bear Pond and Red River Compartment, Township 5. 

Fourth Lake Compartment. 
No. 10. Big Moose Compartment. 

No. 1. Shallow Lake Compartment. — The natural outlet by water for all 
the timber in this large compartment, as well as the timber in the southwesterly 
portion of Compartment 5, Township 40, to Raquette Lake is by way of the 
outlet of Queer Lake, Shallow Lake and Sucker Brook. If it was intended t.o 
take the timber out by way of Raquette Lake, it would be advisable to so 
improve the streams that the timber could be driven direct into a large storage 
boom located in the west end of Sucker Brook Bay. In order to make it possible 
to drive the streams, it would be necessary to construct a small flood dam on 
Township 40, near the head of the rapids between Raquette Lake and Cranberry 
Pond at the point shown on the lumbering map. It would also be necessary to 
improve the stream between Raquette Lake and Cranberry Pond by blasting out 



x\ u. 


o- 


No. 


4; 


No. 


5- 


No. 


6. 


No. 


7- 


No. 


8. 


No. 


9- 



A FOREST WORKING PLAN. 42/ 

some rocks, cutting the small brush in the flow near Raquette Lake, and making 
cuts across some of the crooked bends in the stream. Another small dam would 
need to be constructed on the outlet of Shallow Lake at the point designated on 
the lumber map as an available site for a dam (see map). Some improvements 
would also be necessary on the stream between Shallow Lake and Cranberry Pond 
before logs could be driven from Shallow to Raquette Lake. 

If all the stumpage in this watershed was purchased by one party, the improve- 
ment of this stream would furnish the cheapest means of getting the timber to 
Raquette Lake. If the recommendations made in the working plan of Township 
40 were carried out, it could be manufactured at this point and. shipped out by 
rail, or driven down stream to the markets on the river below. 

The timber in the western part of this compartment, along the line of Town- 
ships 41 and 8, is naturally tributary to Raquette Lake by way of the outlet of 
Queer Lake. The improvement of the streams and construction of dams need 
not necessarily do any injury to the timber standing along the shores of the 
lakes or streams, as log driving for this short distance should be finished before 
the leaves commence to come out on the trees. With a properly constructed 
dam, built with the trip-sill and bed-pieces of the sluice low enough so that the 
water would not be raised above its normal height in the lakes when the dam 
was open, the danger of flooding the roots of the standing trees would be avoided. 
No improvement of streams or construction of dams should be allowed, however, 
except under the direct supervision of an inspector competent to determine 
whether or not the work is being carried out as first specified. 

There is a very small amount of timber near the west line of Township 41, 
in the Cascade Lake drainage, which would require some up-grade hauling in 
order to bring it to Shallow Lake, but the grade is not sufficient to cause any 
serious difficulty in bringing the timber over the divide. 

If only the timber on this compartment in Township 41 was purchased, and 
it was to be shipped by railroad to some point for manufacture, it could be 
hauled to Shallow Lake, and a branch track from the Raquette Lake Railway 
to Shallow Lake constructed, leaving the railroad at the same point as the 
branch advised to Sucker Brook Bay (see working plan of Township 40), 
• and turning from that route to Shallow Lake near the point where the trail 
from Shallow Lake to Lower Brown's Tract Pond connects with the old Sucker 
Brook wagon road (see lumbering map). This would save the expense of driving 
timber from Shallow Lake to Raquette Lake. Some up-hill hauling would be 
necessary in bringing the timber from around Cranberry Pond to Shallow Lake, 
but the grade is light. 



428 REPORT OF THE FOREST, FISH AND GAME COMMISSION. 

Jack works could be erected at Shallow Lake for loading the logs upon cars. 
There is a wide marsh, as shown on the lumbering map, which it would be 
necessary to cross, but nothing to prevent the construction of a branch railroad 
track if it was desirable to take the timber out this way. All the timber 
around Pelcher and Haymarsh Ponds and Queer Lake would naturally come into 
Shallow Lake with a short and cheap log haul. The natural snow and watershed 
of Queer Lake is so