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[COMMITTEE PRINT] 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN 

ACTIVITIES TO THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF 

REPRESENTATIVES, EIGHTIETH CONGRESS 



INVESTIGATION OF 
UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN THE 

UNITED STATES / 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
, c * __ HOUSE Of REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTIETH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

Public Law 601 

(Section 121, Subsection Q (2) ) 



DECEMBER 31, 1948 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
83400 WASHINGTON : 1949 






COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

J. PARNELL THOMAS, New Jersey, Chairman 

KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia 

JOHN MCDOWELL, Pennsylvania JOHN E. RANKIN, Mississippi 

RICHARD M. NIXON, California J. HARDIN PETERSON, Florida 

RICHARD B. VAIL, Illinois F. EDWARD HEBERT, Louisiana 

Robert E. Stripling, Chief Investigator 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN 
ACTIVITIES TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTA- 
TIVES, EIGHTIETH CONGRESS 

The end of 1948 marks the close of the most active and productive 
period in the history of the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities. By virtue of the authority conferred upon it by Public 
Law 601 (sec. 121, subsec. Q, (2) ), giving the committee certain special 
functions not applicable to any other agency of the Government, the 
committee is in a position to report the following highlights of its 
record.f or the past 2 years : 

1. For the first time in the 30-year history of the Communist 
Party of the United States, the committee made a full exposure of the 
activities of a representative of the Communist International, operat- 
ing illegally in this country for more than a decade, namely Gerhart 
Eisler, alias Hans Berger, Edwards, Gerhard, Samuel Liptzen, etc., 
and now a subject of prosecution by the Justice Department. 

2. Extensive hearings dealt with Communist penetration of the 
motion-picture industry. 

3. The operations of the International Music Bureau with head- 
quarters in Moscow and reaching into Hollywood through Hanns 
Eisler, were the subject of public hearings. 

4. Leon Josephson, for many years an international operative for 
the world Communist movement and official procurer of false pass- 
ports, was brought into the public spotlight for the first time and 
brought before the bar of justice. 

5. The proceedings in connection with Gerhart Eisler, Leon Joseph- 
son, Hanns Eisler, and others, demonstrated the operations of a vast 
Communist passport ring. 

6. Continuing its efforts to demonstrate the aims and methods of 
Communist penetration of labor unions, the committee conducted 
hearings dealing with such activities in the United Automobile Work- 
ers Union, CIO, the United Electrical, Kadio and Machine Workers 
of America, CIO, and the Food, Tobacco and Agricultural Workers, 
CIO. 

7. Eugene Dennis, general secretary of the Communist Party of the 
United States, was brought before the committee. His full record 
and many aliases were noted. He has been cited and convicted for 
contempt of Congress. 

8. For the first time in the history of Soviet- American relations, 
the House of Representatives was apprised through our committee of 
the practice of "legal" espionage by the Amtorg Trading Corp., an 
official Soviet commercial agency. 

9. For the first time in the history of Congress, the committee 
inaugurated a series of public hearings on bills to curb or outlaw 
the Communist Party of the United States. The Attorney General 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

and outstanding members of the legal profession, as well as leading 
public men, participated. As a result, an authoritative body of data 
was collected on this hitherto neglected subject and the committee 
introduced H. R. 5852, known as the Mundt-Nixon bill, which was 
adopted by an overwhelming vote of the House of Representatives. 

10. The committee initiated an exhaustive investigation into espio- 
nage in the field of atomic energy and its findings were embodied into 
a report entitled ''Report on Soviet Espionage Activities in Connec- 
tion With the Atom Bomb." 

11. The operations and activities of Communists in the United 
States were the subject of testimony by J. Edgar Hoover, Director 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and such witnesses as Louis 
F. Budenz, former managing editor of the Daily Worker, and Victor 
A. Kravchenko, former Soviet representative. 

12. In a series of hearings the operations of a Communist espionage 
ring operating through top-flight Government officials during the 
past 10 years were revealed through the testimony of Elizabeth T. 
Bentley and Whittaker Chambers, former members of the ring. 

13. The committee has published a series of reports on various 
phases of the Communist problem in the interest of public enlighten- 
ment in this field, notably : 

The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent of a Foreign Power (26,000 

copies ) . 
The Communist Party of the United States as an Advocate of Overthrow of Gov- 
ernment by Force and Violence ( 8,000 copies. ) 
The American Youth for Democracy (6,000 copies.) 
The Southern Conference for Human Welfare (3,000 copies.) 
Report on the Civil Rights Congress as a Communist Front (3,000 copies.) 
100 Things You Should Know About Communism in the USA (507,000 copies.) 
100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Religion (17,000 copies.) 
100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Education (23,000 copies.) 
100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Labor (22,000 copies.) 
100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Government (20,000 copies.) 
Citations by Official Government Agencies of Organizations and Publications 
Found to be Communist or Communist Fronts (2,300 copies.) 

The intense interest of the country in these publications is demon- 
strated by the fact that our supply of these publications is almost 
exhausted at this time. In a number of instances committee reports 
were reprinted in full or in major part by newspapers throughout the 
country. 

Eight-Point Program 

Early in 1947 the committee adopted the following eight-point pro- 
gram which outlined the scope of its activities. This program furnishes 
an appropriate standard by which the work of the committee should 
be judged. 

1. To expose and ferret out the Communists and Communist sym- 
pathizers in the Federal Government. 

2. To spotlight the spectacle of having outright Communists con- 
trolling and dominating some of the most vital unions in American 
labor. 

3. To institute a countereducational program against the subversive 
propaganda which has been hurled at the American people. 

4. Investigation of those groups and movements which are trying 
to dissipate our atomic bomb knowledge for the benefit of a foreign 
power. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



5. Investigation of Communist influences in Hollywood. 

6. Investigation of Communist influences in education. 

7. Organization of the research staff so as to furnish reference 
service to Members of Congress and to keep them currently informed 
on all subjects relating to subversive and un- American activities in 
the United States. 

8. Continued accumulation of files and records to be placed at the 
disposal of the investigative units of the Government and armed 
services. 

Opposition to the Committee 

In a sense the storm of opposition to the activities of the committee 
is a tribute to its achievements in the field of exposure of those who 
threaten our national security. It is to the credit of the great mass 
of the American people that they have not been blinded to the major 
issues involved and the solid and far-reaching importance of the com- 
mittee's work by the raising of minor procedural issues or attempts to 
belittle the work of the committee through pett} 7 ridicule. In the main 
such opposition has come from the following sources : 

1. The Communists and their close fellow travelers who fear 
exposure. 

2. Those who have been duped or compromised by the Communists 
and who seek to cover up their own gullibility. 

3. Those who are too naive to believe that there is a serious Com- 
munist menace to our way of life. 

Never in the history of this committee has it encountered so extensive 
and highly coordinated an effort to challenge its authority, by organiza- 
tions and individuals of a subversive character seeking to shelter their 
activities behind legal safeguards. They outline the nature of Com- 
munist legal strategy before investigative and judicial bodies. These 
challenges have fallen within the following categories, which in some 
cases have been the subject of court review and decision : 

1. Refusal to produce official records on grounds that such a request 
is outside the scope of the committee. 

2. Charge that the committee is illegal and unconstitutional, both in 
the manner in which the authority given to it by the Congress has been 
executed, and by the terms of that authority itself. 

3. Refusal to answer questions regarding political or other affilia- 
tions on the grounds that they do not fall within the purview of the 
committee's authority, and that such questions violate the provisions 
of the first amendment. 

4. Denial of the right of the committee to compel a witness to testify. 

5. Charge that the committee's investigations are an intrusion upon 
the judicial function which is invested in the judiciary according to 
article III of the Constitution. 

6. Charge that the committee is illegally constituted by reason of 
the violation of the fourteenth amendment in the election of one of 
its members. 

7. Refusal to answer questions under the privilege extended by the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution against self-incrimination. 

The authority of the committee has been upheld by a number of 
recent decisions of the courts, in test cases of precedent-making im- 
portance. 



4 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Authority Upheld by the Courts 

leon josephson 

The case of Leon Josephson before the United States Circuit Court 
of Appeals for the Second Circuit on December 9, 1947, provided an 
early test of the committee's power. Josephson had refused to be 
sworn or to testify at a hearing held on March 5, 1947. The court 
found that the committee had been established under Public Law 601, 
Seventy-ninth Congress, and House Resolution No. 5 of the Eightieth 
Congress, and that Josephson had been indicted under Title 2, United 
States Code, section 192. The latter statute provides insofar as pres- 
ently pertinent that — 

Every person who having been summoned as a witness by the authority of 
either House of Congress to give testimony or to produce papers upon any matter 
under inquiry before either House * * * or any committee of either House 
of Congress, willfully makes default, or who, having appeared, refuses to answer 
any question pertinent to the question under inquiry, shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor * * * (Rev. Stat. sec. 102, as amended, 52 Stat. 942, 2 U. S. C. A. 
sec. 192) 

The court further recognized that — 

The Committee on Un-American Activities has been duly authorized under 
the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 to conduct investigations. 

in line with the provisions of Public Law 601. 
The court ruled that — 

At the very least, the language of the authorizing statute permits investigating 
the advocacy of the idea that the Government or the Constitutional system of the 
United States should be overthrown by force rather than by the peaceful process 
of amendment of the Constitution set forth in Article V * * * 

Surely, matters which potentially affect the very survival of our Government 
are by no means the purely personal concern of anyone. And investigations into 
such matters are inquiries relating to the personal affairs of private idividuals 
only to the extent that those individuals are a part of the Government as a 
whole. ( U. S. v. Josephson. ) 

The court fully agreed with the opinion of Judge Holtzoff in 
United States v. Btyan (D. D. C. 72 F. Supp. 58, 62) : 

That the subject of un-American and subversive activities is within the inves- 
tigating power of the Congress is obvious. Conceivably, information in this field 
may aid the Congress in legislating concerning any one of many matters, such as 
correspondence with foreign governments (U. S. C. A. title 18, sec. 5) ; seditious 
conspiracy (Id. sec. 9) ; prohibition of undermining the morale of the armed 
forces (Id. sec. 9) ; suppression of advocacy of overthrow of the Government 
(Id. sec. 10) ; the registration of organizations carrying on certain types of propa- 
ganda (Id. sees. 14 and 15) ; qualifications for entering and remaining in Gov- 
ernment service; the authorization of governmental radio broadcasts to other 
countries; and other innumerable topics. (U. S. v. Josephson.) 

Answering the appellant's argument seeking recourse in the first 
amendment of the Constitution to the effect that the committee's power 
to investigate is limited by Congress' power to legislate, that Congress 
is prohibited from legislating upon matters of thought, speech, or 
opinion and hence a statute empowering a congressional committee 
to investigate such matters is unconstitutional, the court held : 

But clearly Congress can and should legislate to curtail this freedom at least 
where there is a "clear and present danger" that its exercise would, as by armed 
rebellion or external attack, imperil the country and its constitutional system, 
including, until amended, the peaceful process of amendment. (Sehcnck v. United 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 5 

States, 249 U. S. 47, 52.) Such legislation might ultimately be the only means for 
the preservation of this freedom * * * 

The appellant's argument runs counter to the very purpose of the first amend- 
ment. The power of Congress to gather facts of the most intense public concern, 
such as these, is not diminished by the unchallenged right of individuals to speak 
their minds within lawful limits. When speech, or propaganda, or whatever it 
may at the moment be called, clearly presents an immediate danger to national 
security, the protection of the first amendment ceases. 

In common with other witnesses appearing before our committee, 
the appellant demanded protection under the "equal protection of the 
laws" clause of the fourteenth amendment and the denial of due proc- 
cess clause of the fifth amendment to the Constitution. The court ruled 
as follows on this point : 

Certainly, if the question were one of Congress' legislating, it could validly 
legislate regarding one type of propaganda and not another, at least if there 
were a clear and present danger from the former and not the latter * * * 
Clearly the congressional power to investigate is as flexible as its power to legis- 
late, once the latter power is established. That it is established, at least for 
purposes of this case, seems abundantly clear. 

On December 20, 1948, the United States Supreme Court refused to 
review the case of Leon Josephson. 

EDWARD K. BARSKY, ET AL. 

The case of Edward K. Barsky, et dl., Appellants v. United States of 
America, Appellee, was decided by the United States Court of Ap- 
peals, District of Columbia, on March 18, 1948. Involved in this case 
was the failure of Dr. Edward K. Barsky and his fellow officials of 
the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, to produce the records 
of their association. The court held : 

We are unable to visualize the particular in which civil rights are violated by 
a requirement that persons who collect funds from the public in this country for 
relief purposes abroad account for the collection and distribution of such funds. 

The appellants further contended that the congressional committee 
was unconstitutional because it authorized inquiry into political opin- 
ion and expression, in violation of the first amendment. The Court's 
decision on this question bears directly upon other cases before this 
Committee in which similar objection was raised. The court rules : 

We hold that in view of the representations to the Congress as to the nature, 
purposes and programs of Communism and the Communist Party, and in view 
of the legislation proposed, pending and possible in respect to or premised upon 
that subject, and in view of the involvement of that subject in the foreign policy 
of the Government, Congress has power t<i make inquiry of an individual which 
may elicit the answer that the witness is a believer in communism or a member of 
the Communist Party. And we further hold that the provision we have quoted 
from House Resolution No. 5 is sufficiently clear, definite and authoritative to 
permit this particular committee to make that particular inquiry. 

GERHART EISLER 

On February 6, 1947, Gerhart Eisler appeared before the Committee 
on Un-American Activities and refused to be sworn in. He demanded 
instead, the right to submit a lengthy typewritten statement. Testi- 
mony before the committee established that Gerhart Eisler, alias Hans 
Berger, Gerhard, Edwards, Brown, Julius Eisman, and Samuel 
Liptzin, although denying before the Immigration and Naturaliza- 



6 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

tion Service on June 14, 1941, that he was or had ever been a member 
of the Communist Party or any Communist organization, was in fact 
"an important international Communist and responsible representa- 
tive of the Communist International." 

Under the name of Edwards' he had served in this capacity from 
1933 until 1938 "by virtue of which position," according to J. Edgar 
Hoover, "he was responsible for and instrumental in the determina- 
tion of American Communist policy and the control and direction of 
American Communist operations," and "actually the liaison between 
the Comintern and the authorities in Moscow and the Communist 
Party, U. S. A." He had sworn before the immigration authorities 
that he had never previously been in the United States. 

It was further established that Gerhart Eisler had traveled on a 
false passport in 1934 under the name of Samuel Liptzin, the passport 
application being made out by Leon Josephson. Liptzin is a promi- 
nent Communist Party official on the staff of one of its organs, Morn- 
ing Freiheit. 

It is interesting to note that William Odell Nowell, a student at the 
Lenin School in Moscow, who testified to meeting Eisler in both Moscow 
and Detroit, also mentioned among those he met in Moscow the fol- 
lowing : Beatrice Siskind, now held for deportation as a member of an 
organization advocating the overthrow of government by force and 
violence; Steve Nelson, shown by recent testimony before our com- 
mittee to have been involved in espionage concerning information on 
atomic energ} T ; Jack Stachel, later mentioned as a leader of the inner 
circle of Communist leaders in liaison with the underground appa- 
ratus; Earl Browcler, former general secretary of the Communist 
Party, U. S. A. and Morris Chilcls (Chilofsky), former editor of the 
Daily Worker. In other words we have here an impressive picture of 
American Communist officials operating at headquarters in Moscow. 

Further testimony disclosed that Eisler had been active in the Ger- 
man, Chinese, and Austrian Communist Parties and that he was a 
notorious, international terrorist, and operative for the GPU, the 
Soviet secret terrorist organization. 

Louis F. Budenz, former managing editor of the Daily Worker, 
testified that on a number of occasions, Eisler had been in contact with 
Samuel Carr, alias Kogan, organizing secretary of the Communist 
Party of Canada, who was involved in the Communist spy ring in 
Canada according to the report of the Canadian Royal Commission. 

Though an illegal alien, Gerhart Eisler had not hesitated in his 
articles to attack Secretary of State Byrnes, General Wedemeyer, and 
Governor Dewey. He was even sufficiently powerful to discipline 
William Z. Foster, chairman of the Communist Party, U. S. A., and 
Clarence Hathaway, the editor-in-chief of the Daily Worker. Among 
other international Communist agents, with whom he had been in 
contact, Budenz mentioned Brown, alias Alpi, alias Mariano; J. V. 
Peters, alias Roberts, alias Stevens. 

Listed as references on Eisler's application to depart dated Septem- 
ber 5, 1945, are Dr. Edward K. Barsky and Helen Bryan of the Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, who have been cited and convicted 
for contempt of Congress. This organization furnished Eisler with 
funds during his stay in the United States. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 7 

The committee's action in the case of Gerhart Eisler lias been fully 
upheld by the courts as the following record will show : 

Contempt of Congress. — February IS, 1947, cited for contempt of Congress by 
House of Representatives. February 28, 1947. indicted by Federal grand jury 
in District of Columbia. June 10. 1947, convicted of contempt of Congress. June 
27, 1947, sentenced for contempt of Congress to 1 year in jail and $1,090 fine by 
Judge Alexander Holtzoff of District Court in District of Columbia ; freed pending 
appeal. 

Court of Appeals. — April 5, 1948, argued before Justices Clark, Prettynian, and 
Proctor. June 14, 1948, opinion affirmed. June 17, 1948, order denying petition 
for rehearing. August 10, 1948, order staying mandate to September 1, 1948. 
September 3, 1948, order granting motion to authorize clerk to transmit original 
transcript of record to Supreme Court. 

Supreme Court. — (Case No. 255) August 31, 1948, petition for certiorari filed. 

Passport Fraud Case. — April 14, 1947, indicted on three counts of passport 
fraud by Federal grand jury in District of Columbia. August 15, 1947, convicted 
of passport fraud in District Court of United States in District of Columbia. 
Justice James W. Morris presiding ; freed under $20,000 bond and deferred sen- 
tence while defense tiled motions. February 2, 1948, motion for new trial, here- 
tofore argued, was denied. March 24, 1948, sentenced on charge of passport fraud 
to serve 1 to 3 years in jail consecutively following the 1 year sentence imposed 
for contempt of Congress. Allowed to remain at large on $20,000 bond pending 
appeal. 

Court of Appeals. — July 28, 1948, record filed. August 10, 1948, order extending 
time to September 30, 1948, to file appellant's brief. 

The committee deplores the fact, however, that this international 
criminal has been permitted to remain at large for nearly 2 years to 
continue to carry on his nefarious activities, a case showing up glar- 
ingly the inadequacy of our present laws and prosecution machinery. 

HANNS EISLER 

On September 24, 25, and 26, 1947, the committee held hearings deal- 
ing with the case of Hanns Eisler, brother of Gerhart Eisler. Hands 
Eisler had been acclaimed by the Communists as "a revolutionary 
musician," composer of officially sponsored and approved Communist 
compositions as Comintern, Red Front, Red Wedding. He was listed 
in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia of 1933 as a Communist. 

Hanns Eisler was one of the founders of the International Music 
Bureau in Moscow in November 1932, the aims of which have been 
published in the magazine, Soviet Music, for March-x\.pril 1933 : 

We should not verge one single iota from a program of progressive class strug- 
gle. We can be successful in our efforts only if we know how to transplant 
our political slogans to the sphere of music. * * * We should prove that 
the only right road for artistic creations, which include also that of musicians, 
is in the service to the objectives of proletarian revolution. 

Mr. Eisler has frankly avowed that "Communist music becomes the 
heavy artillery of the battle for communism." 

The voluminous record of Hanns Eisler's Communist activities and 
his avowed revolutionary aims, demonstrate his real purpose in com- 
ing to this country and the far-reaching objectives of Communist 
propaganda even in the field of music. Despite this record and these 
objectives, he had free access to the United States and was allowed to 
come and go, almost at will in violation of the immigration laws 
against the admission of Communists. He falsely denied any sym- 
pathy or affiliations with the Communist movement before the im- 
migration authorities. He entered as a visitor in February 1935, 

83400 — 49 2 



8 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

reentered on October 4, 1935, again on January 21, 1938, and Septem- 
ber 11, 1939. On July 17, 1940, the Department of Labor issued a 
warrant for the arrest of Hanns Eisler and his wife, on the ground 
that they had remained in the United States for a period longer than 
permitted, but these warrants were never served. On October 22, 
1940, they were admitted into the United States on a nonquota visa and 
on October 30 of the same year, the warrant was canceled. Again he 
reentered from Mexico on January 6, 1941. 

The evidence before the committee disclosed that Hanns Eisler's 
admission to this country in violation of our immigration laws was 
advanced by certain individuals in the highest circles of the 
Government. 

At the end of February 1948, the immigration authorities agreed 
to halt deportation proceedings and Mr. and Mrs. Hanns Eisler were 
permitted to depart by plane for Czechoslovakia. The fact that he 
had sworn falsely as to his Communist record was ignored. 

EUGENE DENNIS 

During the past 2 years, the committee has sought to reach the very 
roots of the Communist movement in the United States. In line with 
this policy, Eugene Dennis, general secretary of the Communist Party, 
USA, was summoned before the committee on April 9, 1947. 

It was revealed that Dennis had employed various aliases during 
his career, such as Francis Eugene Waldron Dennis, Gene Dennis, 
Paul Eugene Walsh, Francis Xavier Waldron, Jr., Milton, and so 
forth. He has a long criminal record. He had falsely registered his 
birth before his Selective Service draft board as of August 10, 1904, 
instead of August 10, 1905, under the name of Francis Eugene 
Waldron. 

On December 11, 1930, Eugene Dennis, under the alias of Paul 
Walsh, made application for an American passport to visit Germany, 
France, Italy, and England. On December 13, 1932, this passport was 
renewed at Johannesburg, South Africa. In 1934, an operative 
known as Paul Walsh was active in Shanghai, China, assisting Arthur 
Ernst Ewert, alias Harry Berger, a representative of the Communist 
International. Walsh or Dennis was specifically engaged in disin- 
tegration work among the British armed forces at Shanghai. He 
remained in the Soviet Union during 1934 and 1935, his passport being 
renewed in Moscow in the latter year. 

Mr. Dennis refused to appear before the committee on April 9 and 
subsequent action was as follows : 

Contempt of Congress: April 22, 1947, Eugene Dennis, also known 
as Francis Waldron, cited for contempt of Congress by the House of 
Representatives. April 30, 1947, Dennis was indicted on the contempt 
charge by District of Columbia grand jury. June 26, 1947, convicted 
of the charge in District Court in District of Columbia. July 8, 1947, 
sentenced by Associate Justice David Pine of District Court to 1 year 
in jail and a $1,000 fine; released on $10,000 bond pending appeal to 
the United States Court of Appeals. September 16, 1947, recognition 
on appeal delivered to court of appeals. 

Court of appeals: November 10 % 1947, defendant's brief filed in court 
of Appeals. December 24, 1947, Government's brief filed. May 7, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 9 

1948, argued before Justices Clark, Prettyman, and Proctor. On 
motion of Mr. David Rein, Messrs. Louis F. McCabe of the bar of 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and Earl B. Dickerson of the 
bar of the State of Illinois were permitted to argue for appellant 
pro hac vici by special leave of court. October 12, 1948, decision 
upholding conviction handed down by court of appeals. Indicted 
by Federal grand jury, July 20, 1948. 

Motion-Picture Industry 

In conformity with point 5 of its eight-point program, the com- 
mittee devoted the final week of October 1947 to an investigation of 
Communist influence in the motion-picture industry. At the outset 
the chairman outlined the purpose of the inquiry as follows : 

We all recognize, certainly, the tremendous effect which moving pictures have 
on their mass audiences, far removed from the Hollywood sets. We all recog- 
nize that what the citizen sees and hears in his neighborhood movie house carries 
a powerful impact on his thoughts and behavior. 

With such vast influence over the lives of American citizens as the motion- 
picture industry exerts, it is not unnatural — in fact, it is veiy logical — that sub- 
versive and undemocratic forces should attempt to use this medium for un- 
American purposes. 

These factors assume special importance in the present period in 
which the international Communist propaganda machine is engaged 
in a cold war of slander against the United States. 

The chairman expressed "every confidence that the vast majority 
of movie workers are patriotic and loyal Americans." Any desire on 
the part of the committee to establish a censorship over the industry 
was categorically denied. 

The committee heard the testimony of leading producers, script 
writers, actors, and labor leaders in the industry. 

While the committee could not within the limits of its time and 
resources examine every single phase of Communist activity in the 
industry, the outlines and the pattern of such activity was clearly dis- 
closed. 

Certain individuals were named as responsible for the activity de- 
scribed : John Howard Lawson, Dalton Trumbo, Albert Maltz, Alvah 
Bessie, Samuel Ornitz, Herbert Joseph Biberman, Edward Dmtryk, 
Adrian Scott, Ring Lardner. Jr., and Lester Cole. In each case the 
witnesses were accompanied by counsel. Each of these witnesses re- 
fused to affirm or deny membership in the Communist Party, claiming 
that the committee had no right to inquire into his political beliefs or 
affiliations. In each case the committee presented voluminous evidence 
to show affiliations with Communist organizations and a copy of the 
witness' Communist Party registration card. Contempt proceedings 
in these cases have since been presented to the courts with the following 
disposition : 

ALBERT MALTZ 

Contempt of Congress: November 24, 1947, Albert Maltz cited for 
contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. December 
5, 1947, Maltz indicted by Federal grand jury in District of Columbia 
for aforesaid contempt, January 5, 1948, trial set for January 9, 
1948, before United States District Judge David A. Pine. January 



10 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

9, 1948, arraigned's plea, not guilty, entered; 15 days asked in which 
to file motions, etc. February 13, 1948, motion to dismiss and for 
change of venue heard in part; continued to February 16, 1948. Feb- 
ruary 16, 1948, motion to dismiss and motion for change of venue 
denied. April 30, 1948, defendant's motion for a continuance because 
of unavailability of material witness heard and denied. Defendant's 
motion to take deposition of Hon. J. Parnell Thomas heard and 
granted. May 3, 1948, House Resolution 570 in response to a subpena 
duces tecum to John Andrews, Clerk of the House of Representatives, 
filed. May 10, 1948, House Resolution 583 in response to a subpena 
duces tecum to John Andrews, Clerk of the House of Representatives, 
filed. May 11, 1948, defendant's proposed stipulation for disposition 
of this case approved by Judge Pine. Case continued for disposition 
pursuant to this stipulation. May 18, 1948, waived jury trial. Agreed 
to submit written presentation of case to court for a decision. 

DALTON TRUMBO 

Contempt of Congress: November 24, 1947, Dalton Trumbo cited 
for contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. December 
5, 1947, Trumbo indicted by Federal grand jury in the District of 
Columbia for aforesaid contempt charge. December 15, 1947, and 
January 5, 1948, appeals for stay until start of individual trial denied 
by United States District Judge David A. Pine ; trial set for January 
9, 1948. January 9, 1948, arraigned's plea of not guilty, entered; 15 
days asked in which to file motions, etc. February 13, 1948, motion 
to dismiss and for change of venue, heard in part; continued to 
February 16, 1948. February 16, 1948, hearing of motion resumed. 
Motion to dismiss and motion for change of venue denied. April 19, 
1948, date set for trial. April 27, 1948, defendant's motion for trans- 
fer from District of Columbia heard and denied. April 29, 1948, 
jury sworn. House Resolution 561 in response to a subpena duces 
tecum to Representative John McDowell filed ; House Resolution 562 
in response to a subpena duces tecum to Representative Richard B. 
Vail filed ; House Resolution 560 in response to a subpena duces tecum 
to Representative Adolph Sabath filed. May 3, 1948, House Reso- 
lution 569 in response to a subpena duces tecum to John Andrews, 
Clerk of the House of Representatives, filed. Deposition of Hon. J. 
Parnell Thomas filed. Report on hearings before the Committee on 
Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, October 20, 21, 
23, 24, 27, 28, 29, and 30, 1947, filed. Offer of proof regarding testi- 
mony of members of the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
filed. May 4, 1948, trial resumed, same jury. Defendant's prayers 
(78) filed, May 5, 1948, trial resumed, same jury. Verdict, guilty as 
indicted. Case referred. Defendant permitted to remain on bond 
pending sentence. May 10, 1948, motion for new trial and points and 
authorities in support thereof filed. May 21, 1948, sentenced to 1 
year in jail and fined $1,000. Permitted to remain on bond pending 
appeal. 

Court of appeals: Record filed July* 28, 1948. August 21, 1948, 
order extending time to September 30, 1948, to file appellant's brief. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 11 

SAMUEL ORNITZ 

Coribi m pt of Congress: Xovember 24, 1947, Samuel Ornitz cited for 
contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. December 
5, 1947, Ornitz indicted by Federal grand jury in the District of Co- 
lumbia for aforesaid contempt charge. December 15, 1917, and Janu- 
ary 5, 1948, appeals for stay until start of individual trial denied 
by United States District Judge David A. Pine ; trial set for January 
9, 1948. January 9, 1948, arraigned's plea, not guilty, entered; 15 
days asked in which to file motions, etc. February 13, 1948, motion to 
dismiss and for change of venue, heard in part; continued to February 
16, 1948. February 10, 1948, hearing of motion resumed. Motion to 
dismiss and motion for change of venue denied. May 11, 1948, de- 
fendant's proposed stipulation for disposition of case filed and ap- 
proved by Judge Pine. Case continued for disposition pursuant to 
this stipulation. May 18, 1948, waived jury trial. Agreed to sub- 
mit written presentation of case in court for a decision. 

ROBERT ADRIAN SCOTT 

Contempt of Congress: November 24, 1947, Robert Adrian Scott 
cited for contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. De- 
cember 5, 1947, Scott indicted by Federal grand jury in the District 
of Columbia for aforesaid contempt charge. December 15, 1947, and 
January 5, 1948, appeals for stay until start of individual trial denied 
by United States District Judge David A. Pine; trial set for January 
9, 1948. January 9, 1948, arraigned's plea, not guilty, entered; 15 
days asked in which to file motions, etc. Motions to be heard Febru- 
ary 13, 1948. February 13, 1948, motion to dismiss and for change of 
venue heard in part; continued to February 1(3, 1948. February 16, 
1948. hearing of motion resumed. Motion to dismiss and motion 
for change of venue denied. May 11, 1948, defendant's proposed 
stipulation for disposition of case filed and approved by Judge Pine. 
Case continued for disposition pursuant to this stipulation. 

JOHX HOWARD LAWSON 

Contempt of Congress: Xovember 24, 1947, John Howard Lawson, 
cited for contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. De- 
cember 5. 1947, Lawson indicted by Federal grand jury for aforesaid 
contempt charge. December 15, 1947, and January 5, 1948, appeals 
for stay until start of individual trial denied by United States District 
Judge David A. Pine ; trial set for January 9, 1948. January 9, 1948, 
arraigned's plea of not guilty, entered; 15* days asked in which to file 
motions, etc. Motions to be'heard February*13, 1948. February 13, 
1948, motion to dismiss and for change of venue heard in part; con- 
tinued to February 16, 1948. February 16, 1948, hearing of motion re- 
sumed. Motion to dismiss and motion for change of venue denied. 
April 12, 1948, affidavit of bias and prejudice of defendants and at- 
torney Martin Popper argued and denied. Defendant's challenge to 
and motion to dismiss jury panel, points and authorities in support of 



12 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

motion and affidavit of counsel Ben Margolis filed, argued and denied. 
Defendant's motions for transfer from District of Columbia, affidavit 
and points and authorities in support of motion argued and denied. 
April 14, 1948, jury sworn and trial begun. April 15, 1948, defendant's 
oral motion for judgment of acquittal submitted and denied. Govern- 
ment's oral motion to quash subpenas submitted. April 16, 1948, trial 
resumed, same jury. Defendant's oral motion for judgment of acquit- 
tal denied by court. April 19, 1948, trial resumed, same jury. Verdict 
of guilty as indicted. Defendant to remain on bond. April 23, 1948, 
motion for new trial filed. Motion in arrest of judgment filed. Memo 
of points and authorities in support of motion for new trial and in 
support of motion in arrest of judgment filed. May 3, 1948, House 
Resolutions 524, 528, 538, 541, 542 filed as of April 19, 1948. May 21, 
1948, motion for new trial heard and denied. Sentenced to 1 year 
in jail and fined $1,000. Allowed to remain on bond pending appeal. 

Court of Appeals : July 28, 1948, record filed. August 21, 1948, order 
extending time to September 30, 1948, to file apellant's brief and joint 
appendix and to October 30, 1948, to file appellee's brief. 

Supreme Court: October 2, 1948, case filed. October 4, 1948, peti- 
tion filed. November 8, 1948, petition denied. 

EDWARD DMTTRTK 

Contempt of Congress: November 24, 1947, Edward Dmytryk cited 
for contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. Decem- 
ber 5, 1947, Dmytryk indicted by Federal grand jury for aforesaid 
contempt charge. December 15, 1947, and January 5, 1948, appeals 
for stay until start of individual trial denied by United States Dis- 
trict Judge David A. Pine; trial set for January 9, 1948. January 
9, 1948, arraigned's plea, not guilty, entered; 15 days asked in which 
to file motions, etc. February 13, 1948, motion to dismiss and for 
change of venue, heard in part; continued to February 16, 1948. 
February 16, 1948, hearing on motion resumed. Motion to dismiss 
and motion for change of venue denied. May 11, 1948, defendant's 
proposed stipulation for disposition of case filed and approved by 
Judge Pine. Case continued for disposition pursuant to this stipu- 
lation. May 18, 1948, waived jury trial. Agreed to submit written 
presentation of case to court for decision. 

LESTER COLE 

Contempt of Congress: November 24, 1947, Lester Cole cited for con- 
tempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. December 5, 1947, 
Cole indicted by Federal grand jury for aforesaid contempt charge. 
December 15, 1947, and January 5, 1948, appeals for stay until start 
of individual trial denied by United States District Judge David A. 
Pine ; trial set for January 9, 1948. January 9, 1948, arraigned's plea, 
not guilty, entered ; 15 days asked in which to file motions, etc. Feb- 
ruary 13, 1948, motion to dismiss and for change of venue heard in 
part; continued to February 16, 1948. February 16, 1948, hearing of 
motion resumed. Motion to dismiss and motion for change of venue 
denied. May 11, 1948, defendant's proposed stipulation for disposi- 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 13 

tion of case filed and approved by Judge Pine. Case continued for 
disposition pursuant to this stipulation. 

ALVAII BESSIE 

Contempt of Congress: November 24, 1947, Alvah Bessie cited for 
contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. December 15, 

1947, Bessie indicted by Federal grand jury for aforesaid contempt 
charge. December 15. 1947, and January 5, 1948, appeals for stay 
until start of individual trial denied by United States District Judge 
David A. Pine; trial set for January 9, 1948. January 9, 1948, ar- 
raigned's plea, not guilty, entered; 15 days asked in which to file 
motions, etc. February 13, 1948, motion to dismiss and for change 
of venue, heard in part; continued to February 16, 1948. February 
16, 1948, hearing of motion resumed. Motion to dismiss and motion 
for change in venue denied. May 11, 1948, defendant's proposed stipu- 
lation for disposition of case filed and approved by Judge Pine. Case 
continued for disposition pursuant to this stipulation. May 18, 1948, 
waived jury trial (agreed to submit written presentation of case to 
court for a decision ) . 

HERBERT BIBERMAN 

Contempt of Congress: November 24, 1947, Herbert Biberman, cited 
for contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. Decem- 
ber 5, 1947, Biberman indicted by Federal grand jury for aforesaid 
contempt charge. December 15, 1947, and January 5, 1948, appeals 
for stay until start of individual trial denied by United States District 
Judge David A. Pine ; trial set for January 9, 1948. January 9, 1948, 
arraigned's plea, not guilty, entered; 15 days asked in which to file 
motions, etc. February 13, 1948, motion to dismiss and for change of 
venue, heard in part; continued to February 16, 1948. February 16, 

1948, hearing of motion resumed. Motion to dismiss and motion for 
change in venue denied. May 11, 1948, defendant's proposed stipula- 
tion for disposition of case filed and approved by Judge Pine. Case 
continued for disposition pursuant to this stipulation. May 18, 1948, 
waived jury trial. Agreed to submit written presentation of case to 
the court for a decision. 

RING LARDNER, JR. 

Contempt of Congress: November 24, 1947, Ring Lardner, Jr., cited 
for contempt of Congress by the House of Representatives. Decem- 
ber 5, 1947, Lardner, Jr., indicated by Federal grand jury for afore- 
said contempt charge. December 15, 1947, and January 5, 1948, 
appeals for stay until start of individual trial denied by United States 
District Judge David A. Pine ; trial set for January 9, 1948. January 
9, 1948, arraigned's plea, not guilty, entered; 15 days asked in which 
to file motions, etc. February 13, 1948, motion to dismiss and for 
change of venue, heard in part; continued to February 16, 1948. Feb- 
ruary 16, 1948, hearing of motion resumed. Motion to dismiss and 
motion for change of venue denied. May 11, 1948, defendant's pro- 
posed stipulation for disposition of case filed and approved by Judge 
Pine. Case continued for disposition pursuant to this stipulation. 



14 report of committee on un-american activities 

Labor Unions 

In line with point 6 of its eight-point program, the committee held 
a number of hearings in February and July 1947, dealing with Com- 
munist penetration of labor unions. These hearings furnished a wel- 
come tribunal for loyal, American trade-unionists who, heretofore, 
had no other recourse for the presentation of their grievances against 
their self-constituted Communist labor czars. The committee is grati- 
fied to note that these revelations were followed by an extensive house 
cleaning of Communists in many sections of the labor movements. 
The testimony dealing chiefly with the Allis-Chalmers local of the 
United Automobile Workers of America; the United Electrical, Radio 
and Machine Workers of America ; and the Food, Tobacco and Agri- 
cultural Workers, all of the CIO, brought out the following significant 
points regarding Communist activity in these organizations, and thus 
outlined for the benefit of American labor, the pattern of their activity 
in all labor unions : 

1. That Communist strike strategy fluctuates in complete accord- 
ance with the current Communist Party line, being prostrike during 
the Stalin-Hitler pact (1939-41), antistrike while Russia was an ally 
(1941-45), prostrike during the period following World War II 
(1945 to date). 

2. That Communist unions infiltrated into atomic-energy plants 
and plants manufacturing strategic defense material. 

3. That Communist union officials used their posts for Communist 
activity including distribution of Communist literature, promotion 
and support of Communist-front organizations, and dissemination of 
Communist propaganda. 

4. That fraud, coercion, and violence are employed by the Com- 
munists to control elections, strike votes, and votes on matters of union 
policy in general. 

5. That workers who oppose Communist policy are victimized 
through job discrimination and in many other ways open to powerful 
union officials. 

6. That Communist union meetings are used as a pressure instru- 
ment in behalf of pro-Communist and anti-American resolutions 
especially in the field of foreign policy. 

7. That Communist unions are endeavoring to block our recovery 
program. 

8. That Communist control of unions does not reflect the attitude of 
the vast majority of the union membership which is overwhelmingly 
patriotic, but is the result of the machinations of a small, tightly knit, 
self-constituted minority. 

"Legal" Espionage 

On January 29, 1947, Hon. Karl E. Mundt informed the House of 
Representatives concerning an investigation made by the Committee 
on Un-American Activities into the extent of "legal" espionage by 
representatives of the Amtorg Trading Corp., official Soviet commer- 
cial organization. Disclosing that there were 3,696 Russian agents 
in the United States at the time, inspecting our defenses and assem- 
bling information about American railroads, dams, power plants, and 
airplane and automobile factories, he presented a volume published by 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 15 

the Amtorg described by military intelligence officers as a veritable 
""manual for bombing America." 

Mr. Mundt described the contents of this publication as follows : 

In this volume are airplane views, which may be blown up to any size for 
military purposes, of the Pratt-Whitney plant at West Concord, Conn., the 
Kaiser shipping plant in California, the Ford plants at River Rouge and Willow 
Run, and the Hamilton-Standard Propellor Co. plant at Hartford, Conn. 

Every big bridge in the United States, including the Golden Gate and San 
Francisco-Oakland Bridges, and the George Washington Bridge of New York 
City, has been photographed from every angle together with complete informa- 
tion concerning its structure. 

Huge maps of the Tennessee Valley power plant are presented and members 
will not need to be reminded that our atom-bomb plant at Oak Ridge, Tenn., 
is not far distant from the TVA. 

Soviet Espionage Within the United States Government 

» 

The most startling disclosures ever confronted by the committee, 
disclosures which should rock our national complacence to its founda- 
tions, have been those developed in connection with the testimony of 
Elizabeth Terrill Bentley and Whittaker Chambers, both confessed 
former members of Communist espionage rings, operating within 
the Government of the United States. Here is revealed for the first 
time the pattern of this espionage apparatus operating through small, 
conspirative groups of about five individuals, and consisting of Gov- 
ernment employees stationed in top-flight posts. These groups some- 
times do not know of each other's existence. Their contact with the 
Soviet military intelligence is maintained through a single individual 
known only by an alias. They have no visible Communist Party ties 
and disclaim membership or affiliation of any kind. According to the 
testimony presented, these agents maintain a steady flow of secret 
and confidential Government documents to special couriers, which 
are quickly microfilmed for transmission to Soviet intelligence officers, 
after which the originals are returned to Government files. These 
conspirators also seek to and indeed have influenced major decisions 
of Government policy. 

These activities are described more fully in the interim report on 
hearings regarding Communist espionage in the United States Gov- 
ernment dated August 28, 1948, hearings regarding Communist es- 
pionage in the United States Government dated July 21 through Sep- 
tember 9, 1948, and the committee report on Soviet espionage within the 
United States Government, dated December 31, 1948. It is not our 
purpose to recapitulate these reports here which go to the very roots 
of the Communist conspiracy, but we would like to call attention to 
the startling way in which the links in the network are closed by cor- 
roborative testimony from one witness after another, over a long 
period of investigation relentlessly pursued by our committee. 

Miss Bentley named the participating members of the two espion- 
age groups with which she had contact, namely, the Silvermaster 
group and the Perlo group. Members of these groups were examined 
by the committee and some refused to answer all questions as to their 
participation and association with the Communist Party on the 
grounds of self-incrimination. 

Miss Bentley further testified that there were certain individuals 
employed in the Government who cooperated in obtaining information 



16 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

from the files of the Government for the use of Russian agents but 
who were not actually attached to either the Silvermaster or Perlo 
groups. 

On August 3, the committee heard the testimony of Whittaker 
Chambers. He testified regarding an underground apparatus which 
was set up by the Communist Party in the early thirties for the purpose 
of infiltrating the Federal Government. The members of this group, 
according to Mr. Chambers, were known as the Ware- Abt- Witt group. 

The inadequacy of our present legislative and prosecuting ma- 
chinery is alarmingly demonstrated by the fact that not one of 
these individuals has been prosecuted to date on these grave charges, 
with the single notable exception of Alger Hiss, indicted for perjury 
on two counts by a New York Federal grand jury on December 15, 
1948. 

J. V. PETERS, ALSO KNOWN AS J. PETERS, ALEXANDER GOLDBERGER, ISADOR 
BOORSTEIN, STEVE LAPIN, ROBERTS, PETE STEVENS, STEVE MILLER, ALEX- 
ANDER STEVENS 

On August 3, 1948, Whittaker Chambers described J. Peters as "the 
head of the whole underground United States Communist Party," a 
former member of the Soviet Government of Hungary. 

In 1940, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities re- 
printed in its appendix I, a considerable part of the pamphlet, The 
Communist Party — A Manual on Organization, by J. Peters, published 
in 1935, in which Jack Stachel, whose role in the network will be 
described later, describes the author as one who "is thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the fundamental principles of Leninist organization" 
with "a wide and varied experience in organizational work--over a 
period of many years." 

The files of the committee show that J. Peters was a frequent con- 
tributor to a secret, internal organ of the Communist Party, U. S. A., 
known as the Party Organizer, in June 1931, September 1933, July 
1934, and February 1937. Our files further show that on March 7 
and 17, 1932, J. Peters filled out credentials in Moscow in behalf of 
Andrew Smith, in which Peters signed himself as "Acting Representa- 
tive CPUS A (Communist Party, U. S. A.) , "E. C. C. I." (Executive 
Committee of the Communist International). 

He was an instructor at Krumbein Training School for Communist 
leaders in 1936. 

Testimony further showed that on May 3, 1942, Alexander Stevens, 
alias J. Peters, visited Los Angeles where he met with Herbert Biber- 
man, John Howard Lawson, and Lester Cole, who are all cited as Com- 
munists operating in the motion-picture industry. He was in contact 
and received funds from Louise Bransten, mentioned in the hearings 
on atomic espionage. 

On November 22, 1946, Louis F. Budenz, former managing editor 
of the Daily Worker, testified before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities that J. V. Peters, alias Jack Roberts "introduced me to the 
idea of the conspiratorial apparatus of the Communist Party," com- 
paring the party to a submerged submarine with its main apparatus 
beneath the surface. 

Alexander Stevens was summoned to appear before the committee 
on August 30, 1948, at which time he refused to answer any questions 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 17 

regarding the foregoing on the ground that his answer might tend to 
incriminate or degrade him. He is now the subject of deportation 
charges by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. 

JACOB N. GOLOS, ALSO KNOWN AS JACOB RAISIN 

On July 31, 1948, Elizabeth T. Bentley testified that Jacob Golos 
had asked her to take charge of contacting members of the Communist 
espionage apparatus within the United States Government. 

On July 17, 1935, Jacob Golos and the manager of World Tourists, 
Inc., a Soviet travel agency, wrote to Intourist, Inc., Paris, France, 
urging the best accommodations and the best attention for Samuel 
Liptzin, the name under which Gerhart Eisler traveled at the time. 

Ou February 6, 1947, Louis F. Budenz testified before our com- 
mittee that "the late Jacob Golos introduced me to the Soviet police, 
with whom I worked for 3 years." 

Legislation 

Confronted as we are with a problem entirely new in our history, it 
is fully understandable that little attention has been paid in the past 
to the difficult task of drafting legislation to curb the activities of the 
Communist fifth column. How to check the machinations of a con- 
spiracy inspired and directed by a foreign power and involving many 
thousands of individuals including some native-born Americans, with- 
out at the same time infringing upon the rights guaranteed by the 
Constitution, is a task which our forefathers could scarcely have en- 
visaged over 150 years ago. It is a task which will tax the genius of 
our most brilliant legal minds in the years ahead. Upon its successful 
solution may well depend our preservation as a democratic nation. 

The committee has done pioneer service in breaking the ground in 
this field. Endeavoring to approach the problem from the broadest 
possible angle, the committee in March 1947 heard the views of such 
distinguished public figures as Col. John Thomas Taylor, director, 
national legislative committee of the American Legion; James F. 
O'Neil, vice chairman of the national Americanism commission of the 
American Legion ; William Green, president of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor; Allen P. Solada, national executive director of the 
AMVETS ; Dr. Emerson P. Schmidt, representing the United States 
Chamber of Commerce; Hon. Jack B. Tenney, chairman of the Cali- 
fornia Joint Fact Finding Committee on Un-American Activities; 
Mrs. Julius Y. Talmadge, president general of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution; Louis E. Starr, commander in chief, Veterans 
of Foreign Wars ; Eric Johnston, president, Motion Picture Associa- 
tion of America; Hon. Kim Sigler, former Governor of Michigan; 
Hon. George Earle, former Governor of Pennsylvania ; Hon. Gordon 
L, McDonough, Member of Congress from California ; Hon. William 
C. Bullitt, former American Ambassador to the Soviet Union and 
France ; J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation ; and Walter S. Steele, representing 84 patriotic organizations. 
The committee also heard the views of the Communist Party, U. S. A., 
through its official representatives, Eugene Dennis, general secretary, 
and Norman Schrank, secretary of the Communist Party of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Approximately 400 pages of testimony was presented. In 
general the opinion of these spokesmen with few exceptions was, at 



18 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

that time, against legislation to outlavi the Communist Party of the 
United States, at the same time recommending decisive measures to 
curb its activities. These views were perhaps best summarized by- 
Mr. Hoover when he declared : 

I have always felt that the greatest contribution this committee can make is 
the public disclosure of the forces that menace America — Communist and Fascist. 
That is why the venom of the American Communist and the now defunct 
German-American Bund has been directed at this committee as it has also been 
directed at the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This committee renders a dis- 
tinct service when it publicly reveals the diabolic machinations of sinister figures 
engaged in un-American activities. 

He added — 

I do favor unrelenting prosecution wherever they are found to be violating our 
country's laws. 

Pursuing the inquiry still further, the committee in February 1948 
heard the views of Hon. Tom C. Clark, Attorney General of the United 
States, and such outstanding representatives of the American bar as 
Robert R. Milam and Walter M. Bastian of the American Bar Associa- 
tion; Donald R. Richberg; Louis Waldman; Samuel N. Birnbaum, de- 
partment judge advocate of the American Legion, Department of New 
York; Kenneth D. Parkinson, Edmond D. Campbell, Dr. Charles S. 
Collier, and George E. McNeill of the District of Columbia Bar Associ- 
ation ; Arthur Garfield Hays of the American Civil Liberties Union ; 
Selma Borchardt of the Women's Bar Association of the District of 
Columbia; Adolf A. Berle, Jr., former Assistant Secretary of State; 
Morris L. Ernst; Dr. Robert A. Maurer, professor, Georgetown Uni- 
versity Law School; Dr. William Y. Elliott, professor of government, 
Harvard University; John Foster Dulles, American delegate to the 
United Nations; Thomas Reed Powell, professor, Harvard University 
Law School; Robert B. Gaston; Robert Emmet HeiTernan of George- 
town University; and Felix B. Cohen of the Institute of Living Law, 

Heard also were such eminent public figures as Hon. Gordon L. 
McDonough, Member of Congress, California ; Hon. Karl E. Mundt, 
Member of Congress. South Dakota ; Hon. George A. Dondero; Mem- 
ber of Congress, Michigan; Hon. E. Wallace Chadwick, Member of 
Congress, Pennsylvania; James Truslow Adams, historian; Ferenc 
Nagy, former Premier of Hungary; Charles S. Sullivan, chairman, 
committee on un-American activities of the Veterans of Foreign Wars; 
Edgar C. Corry, national commander, AMVETS; Raymond Moley, 
editor, Newsweek; George M. Dimitrov, former Agrarian Party leader 
of the Bulgarian Parliament; James Burnham, philosopher and 
writer; and Eugene Lyons, author. It also received a presentation of 
the official views of the Communist Party, U. S. A., from Benjamin J. 
Davis, a member of its national executive board. 

The 500 pages of testimony taken during these hearings on legisla- 
tion to define communism and to make the practice of communism a 
treasonable act in the United States contain matter of priceless ex- 
plorative value, which has never been previously compiled in one 
volume, for the guidance of those engaged in the field of legislation 
against subversive activity. 

On May 2, 1948, the Committee on Un-American Activities unani- 
mously approved H. R. 5852, incorporating the views arrived at after 
more than a year of exhaustive hearings, investigation, and study. 
This bill is aimed primarily at cutting the connection of the Ameri- 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 19 

can Communist Party with the Soviet Union and bringing the party's 
activities out into the open. The bill provides heavy penalties for 
anyone attempting to establish in this country a totalitarian dictator- 
ship dominated by a foreign government ; it requires Communists and 
Communist-front organizations to register with the Attorney General 
and to label their propaganda for what it is; it forbids employ- 
ment in the Federal Government and the granting of passports to 
Communists. 

On May 19, 1948, the House passed H. R. 5852 by a roll-call vote of 
319 to 58. 

The 'Senate Judiciary Committee held extended hearings on the 
measure and has formulated certain amendments. It is our firm con- 
viction that the incoming Congress will place high on its order of busi- 
ness the adoption of legislation along the lines we have worked out. 

Atomic Energy 

It will be recalled that point 4 of our eight-point program dealt with 
the field of atomic energy. Pursuing this line of investigation, the 
committee took up the case of Edward U. Condon, Director of the 
Bureau of Standards and scientific adviser to the Special Committee 
on Atomic Energy. Dr. Condon's case was the subject of .an investi- 
gation by the Special Subcommittee on National Security of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, based largely upon a confidential 
letter from J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation, to W. Averill Harriman, Secretary of Commerce, and 
dated May 15, 1947. On April 22, 1948, the House of Representatives 
by a vote of 301 to 29 on House Resolution 522 directed Mr. Harriman 
to transmit forthwith the full text of this letter. Compliance with 
this request was prevented, however, by an Executive order. The 
entire case was made the subject of a report to the full Committee on 
Un-American Activities by the Special Subcommittee on National 
Security. No final disposition of the case was made by the full com- 
mittee. 

On September 9, 1948, the committee heard Clarence F. Hiskey, a 
chemist, formerly engaged in highly secret research work on atomic 
energy at the SAM Laboratory at Columbia University, and at the 
metallurgical laboratory of the University of Chicago. An official 
military intelligence report dated June 5, 1945, contained a long 
record of Communist affiliations and statements on the part of both 
Hiskey and his wife. Our investigations disclosed that Hiskey had 
contacted and given information to Arthur Adams, a man with a long 
record as a Soviet espionage agent. In 1944 Government agents 
searched Adams' room and found highly secret information regarding 
the atomic bomb plant at Oak Ridge as well as other vital information 
regarding the development of atomic energy. On a number of occa- 
sions he was in contact with representatives of the Soviet consulate 
in New York. 

It was further disclosed that Mr. Adams' activities had been aided 
and abetted by Samuel Novick, president of the Electronics Corp. of 
America, a firm engaged in manufacturing highly secret military 
equipment during the last war and a supporter of a number of Com- 
munist ventures; Samuel J. Wegman of Hollywood, now deceased; 
Julius Heiman, a New York businessman who has rendered conspira- 



20 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

tive aid to the Communist movement for many years ; Victoria Stone, 
associated with Heiman ; Eric Bernay, a manufacturer of phonograph 
records and at that time a member of the Communist Party ; and Dr. 
Louis Miller, Heiman's physician. 

Hiskey refused to answer questions on any of the above matters on 
the ground that his answers might tend to incriminate or degrade him. 

It was further established that Hiskey had utilized the services of 
John Hitchcock Chapin, a chemist, also connected with the SAM 
Laboratories in New York and the metallurgical laboratory in Chicago, 
for the purpose of communicating with Arthur Adams. Chapin was 
a fully cooperative witness. 

Steve Nemarosh, alias Louis Evans, alias Steve Nelson, former com- 
missar in the Communist inspired Abraham Lincoln Brigade in Spain ; 
a section organized for the Communist Party in Luzerne, Pa. ; in 1936, 
its candidate for the Pennsylvania State Legislature; and a member 
of its national committee in 1939, 1942, and 1944, was also involved. 
He was stationed in Moscow in 1934. 

Nelson had received a complicated, scientific formula from a scientist 
whom we must refer to as Scientist X, engaged in work connected with 
the atomic bomb at the University of California radiation laboratories. 
He had thereupon contacted Peter Ivanov, Soviet vice consul at San 
Francisco and also Vassili Zubilin of the Soviet Embassy from whom 
he received 10 bills of unknown denomination. When Nelson testified 
on September 14, 1948, he refused to answer all pertinent questions on 
the ground that his answers might tend to incriminate him. The com- 
mittee recommended his immediate prosecution under section 2 of the 
Espionage Act of 1917, as well as for contempt of Congress. In view 
of a conflict in testimony, further investigation in the case of Scientist 
X was recommended to the office of the Attorney General. 

Martin David Kamen, staff chemist for the radiation laboratories 
at the University of California, assigned in 1944 to an important 
project at the Manhattan engineering district's atomic bomb project, 
met Gregory Kheifets, Soviet vice consul in San Francisco, and his 
successor, Gregory Kasperov, on July 1, 1944, which meeting took 
place in a San Francisco restaurant and was observed by various in- 
telligence officers. It was alleged by the intelligence officers that 
Kamen had divulged classified information to the Soviet officials dur- 
ing the course of the meeting. As a result of the information supplied 
by the intelligence officers to officials of the Manhattan project, Kamen 
was dismissed from employment on the atomic-bomb project. Based 
upon the evidence presented to the committee, the committee is in- 
clined to believe that Kamen committed a serious act of indiscretion 
rather than an act of espionage. The Kamen matter is being included 
in this report because of the involvement of a Soviet official, Gregory 
Kheifets, with persons known to be engaged in espionage on behalf 
of the Soviet Government. 

It should also be recalled that in October 1947 testimony before the 
Committee on Un-American Activities disclosed that Peter Ivanov 
was in contact with George Charles Eltenton, who in turn persuaded 
Haakon Chevalier of the University of Chicago to approach J. Robert 
Oppenheimer, director of the atomic-bomb project, for information 
to be furnished to our Russian ally. Professor Oppenheimer refused 
to accede, considering such an act as treasonable. Louise Bransten, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 21 

mentioned above in connection with J'. Peters, was in turn in close 
association with Steve Nelson, concerning which she refused to answer 
on the ground that it might incriminate her. She was also in touch 
with Peter Ivanov, Haakon Chevalier, George Charles Eltenton, and 
Gregory Kheifets, showing the close interrelation of this Communist 
clique. 

In its report on espionage activities in connection with the atom 
bomb, dated September 28, 1948, the committee urged the abolition 
of the Presidential directive closing executive files to Congress in order 
that the full story of the Soviet espionage in this field might be told. 
Here it must be pointed out again that not a single member of this con- 
spiratorial group has been the subject of prosecution. 

Files of the Committee 

The files of the Committee on Un-American Activities constitute a 
vast and unexcelled storehouse of information concerning subversive 
individuals and organizations in the United States. The committee's 
collection of information covers 10 years of diligent investigation 
and inquiry into subversive activities. 

Numerous witnesses have testified in public and executive hearings 
before the committee and submitted evidence in support of that testi- 
mony. In the course of its widespread investigations, the committee 
has amassed records of individuals, histories of organizations, reports, 
pamphlets, periodicals, photostats, photographs, documents, and 
books. Its files include information and documentary material ob- 
tained from regional offices which were maintained in Chicago, Los 
Angeles, and New York, records turned over to the committee by other 
agencies, and information compiled by law-enforcement agencies in 
many States. 

The volume of this valuable collection of basic informational 
material covering un-American activities can be measured by the 
fact that it would fill 200 file cabinets. It is one of the most voluminous 
collections of its kind in existence. 

During the 10-year life of the committee, more than 1,000 witnesses 
have testified in public and executive hearings before its members. 
The testimony of individuals in public hearings and evidence sub- 
mitted by them fill 29 large volumes with a total of 25,000 pages. The 
committee has issued 60 reports and pamphlets since it began its in- 
quiries in 1938 with an investigation of the German-American Bund. 
Its investigations have covered Nazi and Fascist leaders, activities 
and organizations in the United States, subversive activities of Japa- 
nese individuals and groups, Communist leaders and movements, the 
nature and aims of the Communist Party, and Communist and Com- 
munist-front activities in all phases of American life. During its ex- 
haustive studies and investigations, the committee has acquired 
thousands of irreplaceable documents and records which have been 
carefully cataloged and filed. 

About one-fourth of the testimony of witnesses before the committee 
and a corresponding amount of file material concern the subversive 
activities of Nazis, Fascists, and Japanese in this country. The study 
of communism, begun in 1938, has led to an unequaled collection of 
material covering Communist Party organization here and abroad, 



22 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

its finances, publications, educational activities, its work among mi- 
nority groups and organizations. 

The vast reference collection of the committee is in constant use 
by committee members and staff employees. Information is also made 
available to individual Members of Congress, other congressional 
committees, and various agencies in the executive branch of the Fed- 
eral Government. From June 20, 1946, to December 22, 1948, reports 
on 25,591 individuals and 1,786 organizations were compiled by staff 
members at the request of Members of Congress. These written re- 
ports cover all information found in files, records, and publications 
of the committee concerning the individual or organization. 

The files of the committee have been open to accredited agents of 
the executive departments and have been widely used in security 
checks. In Presidential Executive Order 9835, dated March 21, 1947, 
which prescribes procedures for administration of the loyalty pro- 
gram for Federal employees, the files of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities are listed as one of the pertinent sources of information 
to be checked in determining the loyalty of employees and applicants 
for employment. They have been widely used for this purpose. 

Indexes to public hearings and committee publications contain 
48,221 references to individuals and 8,593 references to organizations. 
These indexes and the committee's card files are consulted daily by 
authorized personnel from numerous Government agencies in con- 
nection with loyalty or security investigations. During the period 
January 22, 1947, to December 21, 1948, accredited representatives of 
Government agencies made 5,975 visits to the committee file room to 
secure information. The length of such visits varied from 20 or 30 
minutes to an entire day, during which time files were checked for 
available information concerning 3 to 200 or more individuals. 

Visitors during this period were representatives of the following 
agencies : Federal Bureau of Investigation. Civil Service Commission, 
State Department, Treasury Department, United States Coast Guard, 
United States Secret Service, War Department, United States Air 
Force, Central Intelligence Agency, Navy Department, Labor De- 
partment, Federal Communications Commission, Securities and Ex- 
change Commission, Commerce Department, Agriculture Depart- 
ment, Economic Cooperation Administration, National Labor Rela- 
tions Board, Federal Power Commission, Civil Aeronautics Board, 
War Assets Administration, and Metropolitan Police Department. 

Material relating to individuals and organizations has been so care- 
fully indexed that Government agents may make their own checks of 
committee publications and card files. Numerous questions arise as to 
the source of information found, however, and staff members are con- 
stantly available to furnish reference material and answer inquiries. 
On an average, each person who consults the files makes two requests 
for assistance. 

Government investigators have made constant use of the consoli- 
dated card records, a collection of 300,000 card references to activities' 
and affiliations of individuals. Eight cabinets are devoted to these 
references which are an index to source material in committee files. 

In addition to the consolidated card records, which contain refer- 
ences to thousands of individuals, files are maintained on the activities 
of some 3,040 persons. Five cabinets are devoted to information con- 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 23 

cerning these individuals, many of whom are top leaders in subversive 
groups or prominent fellow travelers of the Communist Party. These 
collections are a valuable guide to the activities of various subversive 
groups as well as individuals'. 

The committee has compiled fists of signers of Communist Tarty 
election petitions for various years in 20 States, showing 363,119 signa- 
tures. These lists' have been obtained from original petitions or photo- 
static copies of original petitions. The committee has published 
printed lists of signers of election petitions of the Communist Party 
for 1910 in the following States: Arizona, California, Connecticut, 
Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Hamp- 
shire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, 
Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

The committee has also indexed the following Communist Party 
election petitions : California, 1932, 1934, 1936, and 1938 ; 1942 peti- 
tions in Colorado and New York ; 1946 petitions in Colorado, Con- 
necticut, Michigan, and Pennsylvania; New York City, 1936, 1939, 
1940, and 1945 : Philadelphia, 1941 and 1946. 

Of the 363,119 signatures, some 335,660 have been indexed and 
printed by the committee. The remaining signatures have been indexed 
and filed in the consolidated card record file. This large completely 
indexed collection has been a helpful guide in the study of Communist 
activity in these States and serves as a valuable and readily accessible 
reference collection for investigators from Government agencies. 

In 1948, Government agencies made 80 requests for photostatic copies 
of signatures to Communist Party election petitions, and other exhibit 
material in committee files, with the number of pages of photostats 
in such requests ranging from 1 to 36. During the year, 50 requests 
were also made by various agencies for the use of material in file on a 
loan basis for photostating. 

Since subversive forces try to infiltrate other organizations while 
working through their own, the committee has acquired a vast store of 
information concerning thousands of organizations in the United 
States. Its scope can be illustrated by the fact that files contain 
information concerning 380 organizations with names beginning with 
the letter "A." 

Organization material in file is composed chiefly of material issued 
by the organizations themselves: Letterheads, statements of purpose 
and policy, reports on proceedings, press releases and literature, an- 
nouncements of activities, news clippings — material from which the 
nature of the organization may be determined. 

During the past 10 years, the committee has acquired 5,000 pam- 
phlets. Most of these have been written by leaders prominent in 
subversive movements or issued by subversive organizations. This 
huge collection contains numerous Fascist and Nazi pamphlets and 
hundreds of publications of the Communist Party. The collection 
ranges from subtle to open propaganda, through story, song, and verse, 
and reflects the constant effort of subversive groups to incite hatred, 
capitalize on prejudice, enmesh the unsuspecting, and divide the Amer- 
ican people on national and international issues. 

Some 8,553 issues of 644 periodicals serve as valuable sources of 
information. These periodicals reveal the motives and policies of 
hundreds of subversive groups and the activities of their leaders. The 



24 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

collection, dating back to 1923, contains irreplaceable copies of publica- 
cations issued by Japanese, Fascist, and Nazi groups. It includes 
publications of labor unions, religious and racial groups, anti-Fascist, 
anti-Nazi, and anti-Communist publications. 

Ninety of the periodicals in the collection are publications of the 
Communist Party or its front organizations. The comprehensive 
current file includes all major Communist publications. The com- 
mittee has acquired copies of the Communist newspaper, the Daily 
Worker, dating back to 1924. Its file of the Communist weekly, New 
Masses (now merged with Mainstream into a monthly, Masses and 
Mainstream), dates from September 1927. 

Through this collection of daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly 
publications of the Communist Party covering a quarter of a century, 
the Communist enterprises in the United States and the devious party 
line may be traced. 

The committee has in file hundreds of reports compiled by staff 
investigators. These reports, dating from 1939 and paralleling com- 
mittee investigations, cover a wide range of subjects and contain refer- 
ences to thousands of subversive individuals. The card index shows 
that reports of investigators contain references to 15,825 organiza- 
tions. Many contain documentary evidence which is useful as exhibit 
material. 

The committee has collected numerous books dealing with subver- 
sive activities in the United States for use as reference material, copies 
of hearings held by other groups investigating subversive activities, 
and necessary general reference books. 

Each day brings a huge amount of valuable new material to com- 
mittee files: News clippings pamphlets, and literature of subversive 
organizations, reports of Communist activities here and in foreign 
countries, and material pertinent to the work of the committee. This 
material is classified, indexed, and added to the growing specialized 
collection. 

This ever-expanding storehouse of information has been a valuable 
tool in exposing enemy agents, alien subversives, those who promote 
un-American ideologies — those who seek to destroy our Government 
by force and violence. It is a valuable tool in furnishing infor- 
mation to the American people about such individuals and the organi- 
zations they create — information which the American people demand 
in self-defense. 

Conclusion 

In its annual report of January 3, 1940, the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities characterized the Communist Party of the 
United States not as a true political party but as a conspiracy in behalf 
of the Soviet Union. Our investigations and hearings during the past 
2 years have borne out this conclusion in the most startling fashion. 
The evidence now before us establishes beyond a doubt that espionage 
and treasonable activity against these United States is, in fact, the 
primary purpose of the organization. We are convinced that all other 
outward activity and propaganda of the Communist Party, its front 
organizations and controlled unions, serve merely to — 

1. Enlist new recruits for the primary, underground, espionage 
apparatus. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 25 

2. Lend an idealistic camouflage to this sinister, conspiratorial 
apparatus. 

3. Act as its protective defense mechanism. 

4. Provide it with funds and other resources. 

The enacting of legislation adequate to cope with this problem is a 
task confronting the incoming Congress. 

We recommend the early passage of legislation modeled substan- 
tially after the so-called Mundt-Nixon bill, which passed the House 
last year by a roll-call vote of 319 to 56. 

In addition, we recommend that the espionage laws of the United 
States be substantially strengthened by early laws of the new Con- 
gress, with special attention to means for returning aliens to other 
countries upon conviction for crimes against the United States. We 
also recommend that the penalties for those properly cited for con- 
tempt of Congress be increased to a minimum of 5 years in prison and 
a $5,000 fine. 

We further suggest that our immigration laws and passport-visa 
regulations be carefully studied to determine what changes are neces- 
sary to prevent disloyal elements from entering this country and re- 
maining here. 

Finally, we recommend that the new Congress appropriate adequate 
funds for expanding the staff for the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities so it can step up its action in disclosing the identity and 
functions of un-American elements both in and out of public office in 
this country. 

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