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Union Calendar No. 1134 

81st Congress, 2d Session ------ House Report No. 3249 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

for the Year 1950 




January 2, 1951. — Committed to the Committee of the Whole House 
on the State of the Union and ordered to be -printed 



Prepared and released by the 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

U. S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1951 



<z>Mt" 






Committee on Un-American Activities 
U. S. House of Representatives 



John S. Wood, Georgia, Chairman 

Francis E. Walter, Pennsylvania 
Burr P. Harrison, Virginia 
John McSweeney, Ohio 
Morgan M. Moulder, Missouri 
Francis Case, South Dakota 
Harold H. Velde, Illinois 
Bernard W. Kearney, New York 
Donald L. Jackson, California 



Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Senior Investigator 

John W. Carrington, Clerk of Committee 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



^33 <T. <//*/<// 




CONTENTS 



Page 

Facts behind committee investigations 1 

Shipment of -atomic material to the Soviet Union 5 

Communism within the Government — 

William W. Remington 6 

Solomon Adler 9 

Lee Pressman 10 

Abraham George Silverman 11 

Nathan Witt 12 

Charles Kramer-' 12 

John J. Abt 13 

Expose 1 of the Communist Party of western Pennsylvania 13 

Activities in the Cincinnati area 15 

Communist Party of Hawaii . 16 

Hearings, regarding communism in the District of Columbia, part 2 20 

National Lawyers Guild 23 

National Committee To Defeat the Mundt bill 24 

Communist "peace petition" campaign 27 

Legislative activity 27 

Conclusions 29 

Contempt citations 30 

In retrospect 31 

Harry Bridges 31 

Eugene Dennis 32 

Alger Hiss . 32 

Hollywood Ten 33 

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 33 

George Marshall 34 

Richard Morford 35 

Distribution of publications 35 

Files of the committee 40 

in 



Union Calendar No. 11 34 

81st Congress ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES j Report 
2d Session j (No. 3249 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE TON UN-AMERI- 
CAN ACTIVITIES, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FOR 
THE YEAR 1950 



January 2, 1951. — Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
State of the Union and ordered to be printed 



Mr. Wood, from the Committee on Un-American Activities, submitted 

the following 

REPORT 

[Pursuant to Public Law 601, 79th Cong.] 

Facts Behind Committee Investigations 

The Committee on Un-American Activities, during the Eighty-first 
Congress, took testimony from more witnesses and issued more reports 
than during any other Congress in the history of the Special Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities or the permanent committee created 
under the Legislative Reorganization Act of August 2, 1946. This 
accomplishment, which is verifiable through the public records of the 
committee, does not, however, demonstrate the detail and volume of 
work in which the committee engaged. 

The case of William Walter Remington, who is presently on trial 
in New York under an indictment for perjury in denying before a 
Federal grand jury that he had ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, was a case that the Committee on Un-American Activities re- 
opened at the start of the Eighty-first Congress. It was resumed after 
a clearance of Remington by the President's Loyalty Review Board 
and a conclusion of hearings by a Senate committee. At the time the 
Remington case was reopened, no investigative agency of the executive 
or legislative branch of the Government had in its files any information 
which would establish Remington's membership in the Communist 
Party. There was available the testimony of Elizabeth T. Bentley 
to the effect that Remington had acted as a Soviet espionage inform- 
ant and that Remington was a member of the Communist Party. 
However, the testimony of Bentley was uncorroborated by any other 
witness or documentary evidence. 

1 



2 REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Convinced that the testimony of Bentley was true and that 
Remington was a member of the Communist Party, not only during 
the time of his association with Bentley but even during the days of 
his employment by the Tennessee Valley Authority, the committee 
conducted a full investigation of Remington's past activities. Inves- 
tigators were dispatched to Knoxville, Tenn., where an exhaustive 
investigation was made concerning Remington's employment by the 
TVA. The identity of many members of the white-collar branch of 
the Communist Party among TVA employees in Knoxville and 
Norris was ascertained. Knowledge of Remington's participation 
and association with these individuals was acquired. It was also 
determined that Remington was closely associated with the successful 
efforts of a left-wing union to oust a right-wing union as the bargaining 
agent for TVA employees. However, nothing definite in the way 
of evidence was revealed as to Remington's Communist Party mem- 
bership. The investigators returned to Washington, D. C., and 
reviewed the files of the right-wing union which had formerly acted 
as bargaining agent for the TVA employees. These voluminous files 
indicated that Remington was a member of this union and, during 
his membership therein, received union literature at a post-office 
box in Knoxville. With this lead and other minor information 
obtained from the union files, the investigators again returned to 
Knoxville, Tenn. A search of postal records relating to the post- 
office box from which William Remington received union literature 
disclosed the names of four individuals. The records of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities indicated that at least three of these 
individuals were known members of the Communist Party. At the 
same time, the identity of a one-time organizer for the Communist 
Party in Knoxville was learned. Realizing that it was unlikely that 
members of the Communist Party would permit a non-Communist 
to share a post-office box, an all-out search by the committee's inves- 
tigative staff was instituted to locate the persons identified in the 
postal records, and the former Communist Party organizer. All 
these persons, except the organizer, had been employees of the TVA, 
and it was necessary to determine from TVA records where each 
employee was born, where he was educated, where he worked prior 
to TVA and his employment following TVA, and the reasons for 
his resignation from that agency. 

One individual was traced into the Army and it was learned that he 
had died as a result of an illness. Another individual was traced 
through his employment in several States until he was finally located 
in New York. An investigation of this person disclosed that he was 
an organizer for the Communist Party in Knoxville, Tenn., during the 
time of Remington's employment; that his present wife had been 
employed by the TVA ; that she was also a member of the Communist 
Party; and that prior to her present marriage she was married to 
another Communist Party organizer. These individuals were brought 
before the committee, at which time they refused, on the grounds of 
self-incrimination, to answer all questions propounded to them with 
respect to the activities of the Communist Party in Knoxville, Tenn. 
The man questioned occupied a room with William Walter Remington 
during the period of Remington's residence in Knoxville. 

To locate the former organizer and first husband of the woman 
referred to above, the committee traced his activities from Tennessee 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN! ACTIVITIES 3 

to'California and eventually located him in a remote section of the 
State of North Carolina. This witness identified himself as a former 
Communist Party functionary and organizer in Knoxville, Tenn. 
He also identified Remington as a member of the Communist Party 
in Knoxville. Other than Elizabeth T. Bentley, this was the first 
witness uncovered by the Government who could place Remington 
in the Communist Party. 

Another individual, whose name appeared in the postal records, was 
traced from Tennessee through several States and located in the 
State of New Jersey. This person admitted membership in the 
Communist Party, but had no knowledge one way or the other as to 
the membership of William Remington. 

The last individual, whose name appeared in the postal records, was 
traced from Tennessee to North Carolina, to the New England States, 
to the United States Navy where he served during World War II, 
and to his present employment in the State of Massachusetts. This 
individual was subpenaed before the committee, and he related his 
activities with the Communist Party in Knoxville, Tenn., testifying 
that William Remington was a member of the same cell. 

During the investigations, the identity of other persons connected 
with the Communist Party in Knoxville, Tenn., was ascertained. 
However, no action was taken to subpena these individuals because of 
the indictment of Remington by a Federal grand jury. 

The case of Remington, a Government employee, demonstrates the 
difficulty with which the committee is faced as a result of the inability 
of the committee to obtain leads from Government files. Several other 
individuals presently employed by the Federal Government are under 
investigation. The location of witnesses who can testify that these 
individuals were at one time, at least, members of the Communist 
Party is extremely difficult, as illustrated by the Remington investi- 
gation. The committee is also frequently thwarted by the refusal of 
witnesses to testify on the ground of self-incrimination. 

In December 1949 a witness before the committee testified, under 
oath, in detail as to espionage on the part of the Soviet Union accom- 
plished through the lend-lease program and shipments to the Soviet 
Union through the lend-lease air supply route from Great Falls, Mont. 

To determine the extent of espionage on the part of the Soviet 
Union, a full investigation was ordered by the committee, and the 
results of this investigation may be found in the hearings regarding 
shipment of atomic material to the Soviet Union during World War 
II. To produce these results, it was necessary to dispatch investi- 
gators into the State of Montana for the purpose of reviewing Air 
Force records and interviewing civilian and military personnel who 
handled the lend-lease shipments through Great Falls. Leads to 
persons or documents then necessitated sending investigators into the 
States of Illinois, Kansas, Georgia, Pennsylvania, and New York. In 
addition to this, committee investigators examined over 10,000 
documents contained in the Army, Air Force, State, and Commerce 
Departments files. 

Nothing is more vital to the security of the United States than a 
knowledge of Soviet espionage activities, together with the identity 
of Americans who are assisting or have assisted the Soviet Union in 
its plot to destroy the United States. The committee views with 
horror the actions of American citizens who have aided the Soviet 



4 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN.-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Union and who are free to masquerade as respected Americans only 
because they know the Government can produce no legally acceptable 
proof of their crimes. The committee knows, as do the intelligence 
agencies of the executive branch, the identity of an individual who 
has turned over secret and confidential information for the use of the 
Soviet Union. Proof of this traitorous act, together with proof that 
this individual has perjured himself when he denies the accusation, is 
contained in the form of evidence which cannot be used in court be- 
cause of a prohibition contained in the Federal Communications Act. 
The committee is aware that this is not the only case in which prose- 
cution is affected by the Federal Communications Act. In the com- 
mittee's opinion, it is foolhardy and inexcusable for the people of the 
United States to be denied protection from individuals who plot their 
very destruction by an act which forbids investigative agencies the use 
of evidence obtained as a result of a technical surveillance. In its 
recommendations, the committee strongly urges amendments to the 
Federal Communications Act which will give intelligence agencies the 
right to conduct technical surveillances and permit the use in evidence 
of information obtained thereby in prosecution of several types of 
crimes. While this legislation cannot be retroactive, the committee 
intends to devote a major share of its efforts to a continued investiga- 
tion of the persons who have engaged in espionage, and the proof of 
their activities. As illustrated by the Scientist X case, this is a long, 
tedious process. A score of witnesses in the Scientist X case have 
been located and subpenaed by the committee. Prosecution is not yet 
possible because a majority of these witnesses refuse to cooperate with 
then Government, even though they themselves are not involved in 
any espionage activities, by refusing to answer questions relating to 
their Communist Party activities on the ground of self-incrimination. 

To conduct the expose of the Communist Party of Western Pennsyl- 
vania, it was necessary for the investigative staff to interview over 
100 persons and to review several thousand documents in order to 
conclusively establish the Communist Party membership in western 
Pennsylvania and to prove the Communist activities of numerous 
organizations. 

The same tedious investigation of details was necessary prior to the 
successful exposure of Communist activities in the Territory of Hawaii, 
of Communist Party activities in Cincinnati, Ohio, and in the com- 
mittee's investigation of Communist fronts such as the National 
Lawyers' Guild, the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill, 
the Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee, the Communist "peace" 
campaign, and other front organizations. 

Considerable time has been spent in investigating the activities of 
individuals participating in the international Communist movement. 
An extensive investigation was conducted into the activities of Agnes 
Smedley. The committee planned to subpena, and expose the activi- 
ties of, Agnes Smedley upon her return from England, but, because 
of her death, the results of this investigation have not been made 
public. The same is true with respect to the activities of Louis 
Dolivet, as was disclosed by an extensive investigation by this com- 
mittee. The investigation disclosed that Dolivet held a semiofficial 
position with the United Nations, as a result of which he traveled 
under diplomatic passport, and at the same time was the editor of the 
United Nations World. The United Nations World, due to its title, 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 5 

is deemed to be a publication of the United Nations but, in fact, has no 
connection with this international body. As a result of the investiga- 
tion and hearings held by the committee, Dolivet's contract with the 
United Nations has not been renewed, and it is the committee's 
understanding that he was removed from editorship of the United 
Nations World. Dolivet is presently in Paris and is excludable for 
admission to the United States under the provisions of the Wood- 
McCarran Communist Control Act. 

Shipment of Atomic Material to the Soviet Union 

In December 1949 George Racey Jordan, a former major in the 
United States Air Force, testified with respect to the laxity of con- 
trols over shipments to the Soviet Union, proceeding through the 
Great Falls, Mont., Ah Base, under the lend-lease program. Jordan 
testified that the Soviets shipped out of the United States on lend- 
lease aircraft, documents which contained information of a highly 
secret nature; information pertaining to Uaited States defense pro- 
duction and capacity; and information relative to United States 
relations with foreign governments, as well as information regarding 
the atomic bomb. 

An investigation following the testimony of George Racey Jordan 
developed that the United States, through actions of the office of the 
Foreign Economics Administration, had licensed for export to the 
Soviet Union materials vital to the production of the atom bomb. 
The Soviet Union received on one occasion a shipment of 200 pounds 
of uranium nitrate. On another occasion, the Soviet Union received a 
shipment of 468 pounds of uranium oxide and 1,000 pounds of uranium 
nitrate. The Soviet Union also received two shipments of heavy water 
of 1,000 grams and 100 grams, respectively, and 25 pounds of uranium 
metal. Investigation further disclosed that the Soviet Union was 
permitted, without regard to censorship or customs-inspection regula- 
tions, to send out of the United States blueprints of the General 
Electric plant at Lynn, Mass.; diagrams of an electrically operated 
ship developed by the Groton, Conn., Shipbuilding Works; diagrams 
of an A-20 type military aircraft; and other blueprints and data 
relating to the industrial strength and know-how of the United States. 

Victor Kravchenko, a former employee of the Soviet Purchasing 
Commission, testified on March 7, 1950, that every Soviet diplomat, 
whether he be Malik in the United Nations, Panyushkin in Washing- 
ton, or their colleagues in Paris or London, has gone through extensive 
training along the lines of espionage and that espionage is one of the 
principal duties connected with Soviet official diplomatic work. He 
further stated that every Soviet representative — diplomatic, military, 
or economic — is a potential spy. 

During Mr. Kravchenko's testimony, he was questioned with 
respect to a shipment of so-called diplomatic mail which the com- 
mittee's investigation disclosed had passed through Great Falls in 
February 1944, which had been accompanied by Semen Vasilenko. 
Kravchenko testified that when Vasilenko was getting ready to fly 
to the Soviet Union, he (Kravchenko), Vasilenko, and an individual 
by the name of Vdovin packed six large bags which Vasilenko took 
with him as diplomatic mail. Kravchenko testified he knew that 
the six bags contained special information concerning metallurgical 



-»*■ QO/IQ C1 O 



6 REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

research and other developments vital to the military. Vasilenko, 
today, is head of the production of metal pipes and tools in the Soviet 
Union. Kravchenko further testified that he knew of two Russian 
Navy captains who had been sent to the United States to obtain, 
which they did, technological processes and details on the develop- 
ment of submarines. 

Communism Within the Government 

william w. remington 

William W. Remington, Commerce Department economist, was 
suspended by that Department in August 1948 as a result of charges 
brought against him by Elizabeth T. Bentley before the Senate 
Investigations Subcommittee on Expenditures in the Executive 
Departments in July of that year. The Loyalty Review Board 
ordered him reinstated on February 10, 1949, on grounds that "the 
evidence does not establish reasonable grounds for belief that William 
W. Remington is disloyal." On April 26, 1950, Hon. John S. Wood, 
chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities, announced 
that the committee had unearthed additional evidence and asked Mr. 
Seth W. Richardson, chairman of the Loyalty Review Board, to 
reopen the case.  Hearings on the Remington case were held before 
the Committee on Un-American Activities in April, May, and June 
of this year with the following witnesses: Kenneth McConnell, 
Merwin Scott Todd, Howard Allen Bridgman, William W. Remington, 
Elizabeth T. Bentley, Horace Bryan, William Wheeler Hinckley, and 
Margaret C. Hinckley. 

Kenneth McConnell admitted under oath his membership in the 
Communist Party in the Knoxville, Chapel Hill, Chattanooga, and 
Norfolk areas from 1935 into 1939, in which he served as an organizer. 
Mr. McConnell identified Mr. Remington as a member of the Com- 
munist Party of Knoxville, Tenn., during the afore-mentioned period 
and listed the names of other members as well. 

Merwin Scott Todd refused to admit membership in the Com- 
munist Party of Tennessee, on grounds of self-incrimination. He gave 
the same answer when asked whether he had roomed with William 
W. Remington in Knoxville and whether he had known the latter as 
a member of the Communist Party. Despite Todd's denials, Mr. 
McConnell, resuming his testimony, insisted that Mr. Todd had intro- 
duced him to Remington. Mrs. Elizabeth Winston Todd, an associ- 
ate director of the Columbia Broadcasting Co., refused to testify on 
the same grounds when asked the same questions as her husband. 

Howard Allen Bridgman admitted membership in the Communist 
Party from December 1938 to September 1939, having been a member 
of its Knoxville branch during that period while he was employed as a 
file clerk with the Tennessee Valley Authority. Among others, he 
identified William Walter Remington as an active member of his party 
branch. 

William W. Remington was examined by the committee on May 4, 
1950. He detailed his employment with the Government, which in- 
cluded the Tennessee Valley Authority, National Resources Planning 
Board, Office of Price Administration, War Production Board, United 
States Navy, Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion, Council 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN1 ACTIVITIES 7 

of Economic Advisers, and the Office of International Trade in the 
Department of Commerce. 

Under oath, Mr. Remington admitted association with the Ameri- 
can Student Union while at Dartmouth College. This organization 
has been cited as subversive by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities in 1939, 1940, 1942, and 1944. Remington denied having 
been a member of the Young Communist League or the Communist 
Party at any time. He admitted rooming with Merwin Todd, 
identified as a Communist Party member by previous witnesses, and 
of rooming with Henry Hart and Horace Bryan, both of whom 
admitted Communist Party membership under oath before the com- 
mittee. He admitted having had dealings with Howard Allen 
Bridgman, Elizabeth Todd, Bernard Borah, Muriel Speare, Ted 
Wellman, Mabel Abercrombie, John M. Frantz, Kenneth Cameron, 
and Francis Martin. He acknowledged having met a number of 
Communists at the home of his mother-in-law, Elizabeth Moos, 
among them being Joseph North, editor of the New Masses. Through 
North, he testified he had met Jacob Golos, identified in previous 
testimony as supervisor of the underground group within the Com- 
munist Party operating in Washington, D. C. He further acknowl- 
edged being "sympathetically associated" with the Workers Alliance, 
which was cited as subversive by the Attorney General on December 
4, 1947. He was a member of the KnoxviJle Workers Education 
Committee, which was operated by members of the Communist Party 
listed above. After denying that he had received mail at the post- 
office box of this organization, he was confronted with a photostatic 
copy of a union mailing list showing that he had. Post-office records 
showed that this box was used jointly by other identified members of 
the. Communist Party. Confronted with the testimony of previous 
witnesses regarding his membership in the Communist Party, Mr. 
Remington reiterated his absolute denial. 

Indicative of the information to which Mr. Remington had access 
is his admission that he knew of the Manhattan project as early as 
1944, because of certain "overriding priorities" with which he dealt. 
He also affirmed knowledge of other important priorities "issued for 
many military uses." Describing his duties with the Orders and 
Regulations Bureau of the War Production Board in 1943, he declared: 

I was general assistant to the Director of the Bureau. In that capacity I was 
partly responsible, largely responsible, I should say, for the supervision of the staff 
economists. The nature of our work was to circulate proposed orders and regu- 
lations to the interested agencies, to review their comments, to decide what 
changes would be necessary before approval of a proposed order or regula- 
tion * * *. 

In describing Joseph North's continuing interest in his work "with 
the War Production Board, Mr. Remington sought to have the com- 
mittee believe that Mr. North had been primarily concerned with 
"whether or not the administration in Washington was making a 
sincere and determined effort to produce war materiel." This 
concern extended even to detailed knowledge of Board personnel. He 
further sought to persuade the committee that Mr. Golos was intro- 
duced to him as a writer interested in the "facts about the organization 
of the war production program" and the personalities connected with 
it. According to the committee's information, the Russian-born Mr. 
Golos was wholly unequipped to serve as an American writer and has 



8 REPORT OF THE. COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

never written anything of any public consequence in English. Mr. 
Golos in turn, Remington declared, introduced him to Helen Johnson, 
alias for Elizabeth T. Bentley, saying that "he would appreciate it if 
I chattered with her about this kind of problem." It should be noted 
here that Elizabeth T. Bentley occupied no position in the newspaper 
business, nor had any recognition in the literary field. These facts 
could have easily been determined by Remington, had he made any 
inquiries in this direction. Remington admitted to at least half a 
dozen meetings with her, never, however, in his office and always 
allegedly "social in character." He did not recall specifically men- 
tioning to his superiors his meetings with Elizabeth T. Bentley, alias 
Helen Johnson. He did, however, recall her interest in airplane 
production, but he did not consider this improper. He discussed with 
her "the policies of the War Production Board regarding the control 
of materials." 

Asked whether he had furnished Miss Bentley with aircraft figures 
including "little formulas and figures on scraps of paper because they 
were easier to put in his pocket," as Miss Bentley had testified, he 
admitted his use of "rough notes for my own information." He ad- 
mitted furnishing her with a formula for the production of synthetic 
rubber and gasoline, although the War Production Board never 
indicated any desire to publicize this. 

It is common knowledge that the Daily Worker is the indispensable 
mentor and guide for Communists everywhere. Mr. Remington dis- 
closed that Miss Bentley (Johnson) had "passed her personal copy of 
the Daily Worker" to him. He confessed to giving her money in 
1942 and 1943 allegedly for "refugees from Hitler," following an appeal 
from Jacob Golos. He indicated that his donations had been given 
to the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, whose officers have been 
convicted for contempt of Congress and which has been cited as sub- 
versive by the Attorney General. 

Miss Bentley took the stand on May 6, 1950. She identified Joseph 
North as "a lookout man for Russian intelligence," serving Mr. Golos. 
Her description of the functions of Golos, who had been her superior 
in the Soviet intelligence apparatus, are highly significant: 

Mr. Golos was head of one of the branches of Russian intelligence, and was my 
superior. 

Russian intelligence made it a point to look for good espionage people. That 
means that they were very much interested in this Government, and that meant 
also they could not use their own nationals, because you can't put a Russian 
national in a sensitive job in the Government in this country. Therefore they 
had to get Americans. They knew if they bought a man somebody else could 
outbuy them, but if they could get an ideologist they could use him better than 
they could an adventurer. 

The type of American they wanted was a person who (was) absolutely impec- 
cable. They wanted a person whose background was so sound from every point 
of view, morally and every other way, that nobody would ever suspect him of 
being a spy; the type of person who any day could get a recommendation from his 
Sunday-school teacher or college professor, or, if it was a woman, from her Girl 
Scout leader. 

Every person they picked up came from the Communist Party via these look- 
outs. Joe North was one; Grace Granich was one; Intercontinent News was 
another lookout. * * * 

Nevertheless, what you had to work on was whether or not these people, in 
addition to being highly respectable, were good Communists. Therefore, their 
dossiers were checked over and over again before they were taken. That was 
easy in the case of Mr. Golos, because he was one of the three men on the disci- 
pline commmittee, which keeps dossiers on every single Communist in this 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 9 

country * * *. So Mr. Golos checked and rechecked every dossier before 
even considering a person for espionage work. 

Miss Bentley recalled that Golos had made the following report to 
her on Remington when he turned the contact over to her: 

He has been in the party quite some years, and I have checked him and he is 
O. K. He was referred to me by Joe North, and he is O. K. In addition to 
that, he is a highly respectable person. 

Miss Bentley then testified that she had had rendezvous with Rem- 
ington at least 10 or 20 times "on park benches, in drug stores, at 
street corners * * * in front of the Mellon Art Gallery" and 
similar places. She collected party dues from him for which he was 
furnished a receipt. 

William Wheeler Hinckley, former chairman of the American 
Youth Congress, and employed from time to time by the Railroad 
Retirement Board as an economist, the Treasury Department, and 
the American Red Cross, was identified by Miss Bentley as a contact 
of Remington. While admitting his associations with such Com- 
munist fronts as the American League Against War and Fascism, the 
American League for Peace and Democracy, and the American Youth 
Congress, he refused to affirm or deny connections with Miss Bentley, 
Mr. Remington, or the Communist Party, on grounds of self-incrimi- 
nation. He did this despite the fact that he had previously signed an 
affidavit under the Maryland Ober law denying membership in any 
subversive organization. Mrs. Margaret C. Hinckley took the same 
position. 

The case of William W. Remington was reopened by a Federal 
grand jury on May 10, 1950, and on June 8 he was indicted for per- 
jury in denying his Communist Party membership. His case is still 
pending in the courts. He resigned from the Commerce Department 
on June 9, 1950. 

SOLOMON ADLER 

Solomon Adler has been employed by the Government as follows: 
February 26, 1936, to November 30, 1936, associate economist, 
National Research Project, WPA; December 7, 1936, to October 1, 
1942, economic analyst, Treasury Department, Division of Monetary 
Research; October 1, 1942, to February 29, 1944, American repre- 
sentative, Chinese Stabilization Board, on payroll of the Chinese 
Government; March 1, 1944, to February 7, 1949, Treasury Depart- 
ment representative; February 7, 1949, to October 5, 1949, on leave 
from Treasury Department without pay; October 5, 1949, to May 
11, 1950, Office of International Finance, Treasury Department. 
He had been previously cited by Miss Elizabeth T. Bentley as a 
member of an underground group of the Communist Party, known as 
the Silvermaster group. He appeared before the committee on 
April 25, 1950. Following the investigation by the committee and 
his appearance, Mr. Adler resigned his position with the Treasury 
Department. 

Mr. Adler admitted that he had first been introduced for a position 
at the Peoples Junior College of Chicago, through Harold Glasser, 
cited by Miss Bentley as a member of the so-called Perlo group of 
the Communist Party. He resided for some time with the Glassers. 

Letters in the files of the Works Progress Administration disclose 
that Mr. Adler was offered a position with the National Research 



10 REPORT OF THEi COMMITTEE ON UNI- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Project by Irving Kaplan, who, according to committee testimony, 
had also placed Whittaker Chambers on the same payroll. Kaplan 
had been identified by Miss Bentley as associated with both under- 
ground Communist groups. 

Through Harry Dexter White, assistant secretary of the Treasury, 
and a contact of the Silvermaster group, Adler filed an application 
with, and was subsequently employed by, the Treasury Department. 

Mr. Adler admitted associations with other members of the under- 
ground Communist group, including Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, 
William Ludwig Ullmann, Virginius Frank Coe, Abraham George 
Silverman, William Henry Taylor, Victor Perlo, Solomon Lischinsky, 
Harry Magdoff, Charles Kramer, John Abt, Nathan Witt, Donald 
Wheeler, and Edward J. Fitzgerald. 

LEE PRESSMAN 

According to the testimony of Whittaker Chambers in August 1948, 
Lee Pressman had been a member of the Ware-Abt-Witt group of the 
Communist Party operating within the Government. Appearing on 
August 20 of that year, Mr. Pressman refused to affirm or deny his 
membership in the Communist Party under first, fifth, and sixth 
amendments to the Constitution, claiming further that the inquiry 
was without the jurisdiction of the committee and that the committee 
was unlawfully constituted. He appeared before the committee 
again on August 28, 1950, in response to a subpena subsequent to his 
resignation from the Communist-dominated American Labor Party. 

At his last appearance before the committee he admitted having 
been a member of the Communist Party in 1934 and 1935. Although 
he declared that he was prepared to "answer any and all questions" 
regarding his activities, the committee was not impressed with any 
notable desire on his part to reveal the inner workings of the Com- 
munist conspiracy in which he had played a prominent part, although 
he did denounce the Communist Party and its forces in the labor 
movements as "supporters and apologists for an aggressive war." 
He denied any knowledge of the "political beliefs or affiliations of 
Alger Hiss." While mentioning Harold Ware, since deceased, as a 
fellow Communist, Mr. Pressman objected strenuously when asked to 
name others. He permitted the names of John Abt and Nathan Witt 
to pass unchallenged as members of the group and added the name of 
Charles Kramer, which was information already in the hands of the 
committee. He also mentioned the name of J. Peters, who has since 
been deported. He asked the committee to believe that the function 
of this group was merely to read Communist literature and discuss it. 

He denied that the party had given him any instructions. He 
warned that there were many actions of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities with which "segments of the population disagree." 
At one point he said that the fact that an organization had been cited 
as subversive by the committee "would not terribly impress me." 
He admitted that he had not cooperated to any substantial extent 
in divulging information to the FBI. He admitted meeting with 
"leaders of the Communist Party" while employed as general counsel 
of the CIO and after his declared break with the party. Although 
serving as general counsel of the CIO for a number of years, he had 
never informed the organization of his Communist affiliation. As 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 11 

late as 1948 he testified that he legally represented the following 
Communist-dominated unions: Fur Workers Union; Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers; Food and Tobacco Workers; United Public Workers. 
He was a law partner of Nathan Witt from February 1948 until 
November 1949. He met John Abt as late as 1948 and 1949. 

Mr. Pressman admitted knowing, at least "socially," a number of 
persons who have been linked to the Communist Party, particularly 
its underground apparatus and some of its top-flight leaders including: 
Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, Louise Bransten (now Berman), 
Richard Bransten, Henry Collins, Victor Perlo, Donald Hiss, George 
Silverman, Harry Bridges, Roy Hudson, Eugene Dennis, Simon Ger- 
son, Harold Cammer, J. Peters, and Carol Weiss King. He asked 
the committee to believe that he met with leaders of the Communist 
Party subsequent to his break but accepted no "directions or in- 
structions from these representatives," stating that by 1948 he had 
not yet ideologically broken with the Communist Party. 

In 1936 the Communist Party was active in promoting aid to the 
Spanish Loj-alists. Mr. Pressman remembered that Whittaker 
Chambers introduced him to an individual engaged in purchasing 
war materials for the Spanish Loyalists, and that he cooperated in 
furthering this highly confidential mission. 

The witness acknowledged his affiliations with the following Com- 
munist-front organizations: Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern 
Policy (until 1950); International Juridical Association (1931 to 1932); 
Civil Rights Congress (1949) ; Washington Committee for Democratic 
Action; Washington Book Shop; Win-the-Peace Conference (1946); 
Film Audiences for Democracy (1939) ; Lawyers Committee on Ameri- 
can Relations with Spain; National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties. He stated that he had severed his relations with all these 
organizations. 

Pressman was entrusted with legal work by the Amtorg Trading 
Corp., the Soviet trade representative in this country, during 1950, 
according to his own avowal. In the same year he represented the 
estates of persons with heirs in Russia, in the settlement of which the 
Soviet Government is deeply interested. These cases had been 
brought to him by a representative of the Soviet Embassy, Mr. 
Novikov, who also consulted him as to the choice of an attorney for 
Valentine Gubitchev, a Russian engineer with the United Nations, 
arrested with Judith Coplon, on espionage charges. 

ABRAHAM GEORGE SILVERMAN 

Abraham George Silverman was another of those identified by Miss 
Elizabeth T. Bentley and Whittaker Chambers as a member of an 
underground group of the Communist Party. When he testified on 
August 12, 1948, Silverman refused to admit knowing other members 
of this group or to affirm or deny membership in the Communist 
Party on grounds of self-incrimination and possible prosecution by a 
Federal grand jury which was meeting at that time. In view of the 
fact that the jury had been dismissed, the committee desired to give 
Mr. Silverman an opportunity to answer accusations made against 
him and to cooperate with the committee. At a hearing held on 
August 31, 1950, he refused, however, to do so, basing his refusal 
upon the grounds that to do so might tend to incriminate him. This 



12 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

applied to his dealings with Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, William 
Ludvvig Ullmann, Solomon Adlei^ Chao' Ting Chi, Joseph B. Gregg, 
Ruth Gregg, Whittaker Chambers, Irving Kaplan, William H. Taylor, 
David Niven Wheeler, Gedyge Shaw Wheeler, Allan Rosenberg, 
ISlorman Bursler, Frank Coe r ' Veet Bassie, Harry Magdoff, and Lee 
Pressman, all mentioned at one point or another in connection with 
investigations regarding Communist activity within the United States. 

He did admit access to security information of vital importance. 
In the office of the assistant to the Chief of the Air Staff, Materiel and 
Services of the United States Air Force from March 1942 to August 
1945, he supervised the execution of production schedules not only in 
connection with airplanes, but "all other materiel that went into the 
fighting of the war so far as the Air 'Force was concerned." 

It seems that Mr. Silverman was loaned to the Treasury Depart- 
ment in an advisory capacity at the instance of Harry Dexter White, 
who was his superior in that agency. 

NATHAN WITT 

When Nathan Witt appeared before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities on August 20, 1948, he refused to testify as to his dealings 
with those listed as members of the underground group of the Com- 
munist Party, as outside the scope of the committee under the first 
and third amendment to the Constitution, on the ground that the 
committee is illegally constituted, and on the ground that the inquiry 
violates the sixth amendment to the Constitution. He was given 
another opportunity to testify on September 1, 1950. He then re- 
iterated his previous stand. He first entered Government employ- 
ment in 1933 when he was attached to the Agricultural Adjustment 
Administration of the Department of Agriculture, having been recom- 
mended by Lee Pressman, and ultimately advancing to the post of 
assistant general counsel. He was closely associated with Alger Hiss, 
John Abt, Lee Pressman, and Charles Kramer. 

In the course of this hearing, Nathan Witt was confronted with a 
letter dated October 16, 1940, which he (Witt), as secretary of the 
National Labor Relations Board, sent to the chairman of a special 
committee of the House of Representatives to investigate the National 
Labor Relations Board. In this letter, Mr. Witt wrote: "I am not 
now, nor have I ever been, a member of the Communist Party, a 
'Communist sympathizer' or one who 'hews to the Communist Party 
line.' Despite the fact that this was an official communication, 
Mr. Witt at this hearing refused, on the ground of self-incrimination, 
to state that he had sent the letter or that the statements contained 
therein were true or false. 

CHARLES KRAMER 

On the same day Charles Kramer, who had testified previously on 
August 12, 1948, was given the opportunity to appear. He had 
refused to answer questions as to his Communist affiliations or activ- 
ities on the ground of self-incrimination and took the same position 
on his second appearance. Under questioning he admitted acquaint- 
anceship with David Wahl, Max Lowenthal, James Roy Newman, 
Herbert Schimmel, Harry Dexter White, Martin Popper, Monroe 
Stern, Jack Abbott, William and Edwina Pomerantz, Lee Pressman, 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OX UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 13 

and John Abt. He declined to affirm or deny such knowledge in all 
other cases. He insisted that a man can be a Communist and a loyal 
American at the same time. 

JOHN J. ABT 

John J. Abt had testified previously on August 20, 1948, refusing to 
answer questions regarding Communist activities or affiliations on the 
same ground maintained by Nathan Witt. He appeared before the 
committee on September 1, 1950, and assumed the same position. 
The only persons he admitted dealings with were Lee Pressman, 
Charles S. Flato, and Simon Gerson, refusing to answer as to all others 
on the ground of self-incrimination. 

Expose of the Communist Party of Western Pennsylvania 

From February 21 to March 25, and again at intervals from June 
to October, 1950, the committee conducted hearings dealing with the 
activities of the Communist Party in the important industrial area 
of western Pennsylvania. The committee was fortunate in securing 
the cooperation of Matthew Cvetic, who had been working as an 
undercover agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation within the 
Communist Party from 1943 to 1950. From the role of an ordinary 
party member, Cvetic, through his skill and intelligence, raised him- 
self to membership on the district committee of the Communist Party 
and to membership on its nationality commission dealing with foreign- 
language minority groups. 

Mr. Cvetic first of all placed the spotlight upon an extensive list of 
Communist Party members and officials who, because of the con- 
spiratorial nature of the organization, would not otherwise have been 
known. A number of those named had penetrated, or had become 
employed by, key industrial plants in the Pittsburgh area. 

In view of the large proportion of foreign-born in western Penn- 
sylvania, particularly in the basic industries, Mr. Cvetic's exposure 
of the operations of the party among these groups is vitally important. 
According to this witness, the party supervises this activity through 
local and national commissions for each language group such as 
Croatian, Slovene, Slovak, Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, Italian, 
Greek, Jewish, and Serbian. Mr. Cvetic was secretary of the Slovene 
Commission of the party and a member of the executive board of the 
American Slav Congress. He declared that the function of the national 
commission and its subdivisions was "to plan and direct the work 
of the Communist Party members in the front organizations, the 
language press, fraternal organizations, trade unions, and other mass 
organizations" which might include foreign-language groups, partic- 
ularly such organizations as the American Slav Congress, the Croatian 
Fraternal Union, the United Committee of South Slavic Americans, 
the American Committee for Yugoslav Relief, the American Associa- 
tion for Reconstruction in Yugoslavia, the International Workers 
Order, the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, the 
Serb Yidovdan Council, the National Council of Americans of 
Croatian Descent, and the Federation of American Croatian Women. 

Mr. Cvetic outlined the functions of the political commission of the 
Communist Party, which included being "responsible for carrying 
the Communist Party line into the Progressive Party." 

H. Rept. 3249, 81-2 3 



14 REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



An important phase of Mr. Cvetic's testimony was his description 
of the precautions adopted by the Communist Party, including the 
destruction of all lists, records, and party membership cards. 

The western Pennsylvania district of the Communist Party main- 
tained a steel commission, headed by the district organizer, which 
selected "key concentration areas" for activity, including the following 
steel plants: Crucible Steel Co., Jones & Laughlin, and the United 
States Steel Co. In August 1948 a meeting of 110 party members was 
held in the North Side Carnegie Library which was addressed by 
Henry Winston, speaking in behalf of the national board of the party. 
He stressed the importance of western Pennsylvania to the party 
"because the basic industries are located here — steel, mining, and 
electrical," and announced that Steve Nelson was to be the new 
organizer. In previous reports we have described fully Nelson's 
record as a member of the Communist espionage ring, who had 
received extensive training in both sabotage and espionage in Moscow 
and the Spanish Civil War. The logic of the selection is obvious. 

Mr. Cvetic indicated how the relatively small Communist Party was 
able to exercise influence far out of proportion to its numbers, citing 
how, with 8 or 10 members, it was able to control the union at the 
Crucible Steel Co. with a membership of 2,800. 

Included as part of Mr. Cvetic's testimony was an analysis of the 
personnel and activities of the party machine in the United Electrical, 
Radio and Machine Workers of America, the United Mine Workers, 
and the Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union. 

Mr. Cvetic paid a tribute to the work of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities in exposing the American Youth for Democracy 
and the American Slav Congress and in crippling the Communist 
usefulness of these organizations. 

"A Communist never stops receiving instructions, either in classes 
or through 'must' reading," declared the witness as he enumerated the 
various types of classes responsible for the Communist indoctrination, 
such as classes for beginners, party functionaries, advanced classes, 
and even classes for sympathizers. In the event of a conflict with the 
Soviet Union, a party member is bound, according to this teaching, 
"to wage a struggle against his own government, even to the point of 
a revolution and . . . overthrow," Cvetic stated. 

During the committee's investigation, a number of documents were 
obtained pertaining to the operations of the Labor Youth League of 
Western Pennsylvania, the current Communist youth organization. 
Among these documents was a breakdown of membership for various 
States, including: 

California : 

Alameda County 135 

Los Angeles 531 

San Francisco J 98 

Connecticut 85 

Illinois 286 

Indiana 10 

Massachusetts 110 

Michigan 210 

Minnesota 53 

New Jersey 200 

New York 2 3, 515 

1 46 included in State total not included in breakdown. 
' 357 included in State total not included in breakdown. 

Source: Cvetic Exhibit No. 11, Expose of the Communist Party of Western Pennsylvania, pt. 2, p. 2415. 



Ohio 


276 


Pennsylvania: 

Eastern - _ - - 


174 


Western - 


._ . 43 


Texas . __ _ 


22 


Utah 


9 


Washington (State) 

Washington, D. C_ 

Wisconsin.. - - 


46 
59 
28 







Total 5,890 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 15 

One of the most active Communist fronts in western Pennsylvania 
was the Civil Rights Congress whose main objective, according to 
Mr. Cvetic, was "the defense of the Communist Party leadership." 

Activities in the Cincinnati Area 

Inquiry into Communist activities in the Cincinnati, Ohio, area 
covered the period of July 12, 13, 14, 15, and August 8, 1950. 
Witnesses included John J. Edmiston, Martha Nichols Edmiston, 
Victor Decavitch, David H. Levison, Frank Hashmall, Talmadge 
Raley, Marjorie Elaine Steinbacher, and Esther M. Tice. 

Mr. Edmiston testified that he had been an undercover member of 
the Communist Party in the State of Ohio. He had been recruited 
through such front organizations as the Workers Alliance and the 
Emergency Peace Mobilization. In the course of his testimony, he 
described some of the methods by which the Communist Party 
secured signers for its election petitions. The heading for Earl 
Browder, candidate for president, and James Ford, for Vice-President, 
was turned down. Another caption was substituted at the top. The 
petition was carried on a clip board, so that the signer saw not what was 
actually on the petition, but the superimposed strip of paper. Seven 
individuals were arrested as a result of this fraud. He also listed and 
identified a number of Communists operating in this area. He verified 
the fact that the principal source of instruction and indoctrination 
for American Communists is the book known as The History of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 

Describing the Communist-inspired strike at the William Powell 
Valve Co., Mr. Edmiston declared: 

It was the principal bottleneck of the Navy's building program for submarine 
valves, and the entire Navy building program was held up by that * * * 
strike. 

Mr. Edmiston described a Communist project known as the 
Congress of Southern Ohio Youth headed by Marcia Spofford, which 
was organized ostensibly for the purpose of protecting the welfare of 
conscripts but actually was intended to "break down the morale of 
the men who were conscripted." Its activities included writing to 
soldiers in camps, soliciting letters from them complaining of unsanitary 
conditions, poor food, brutality of officers, immorality, segregation, 
etc. It can be expected that, in the event of any conflict with Com- 
munist forces, similar efforts will be employed by American Com- 
munists to sow disaffection in our Armed Forces. 

Mrs. Martha Nichols Edmiston, who also acted as an undercover 
Communist, testified on her activities within the League of Women 
Shoppers and the Workers Alliance. She referred to the former organ- 
ization as "almost entirely dominated by the Communist Party" 
and oftentimes labeled as the "Communistic Ladies Aid." 

The behind-the-scenes manipulations of the Communists in the 
conference of the American Youth Congress held in Columbus, Ohio, 
in the summer of 1940 was described. 

The next witness was Victor Decavitch, former district president of 
the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America and a 
former member of the Communist Party, who placed in the record 
the names of Communists holding the key positions in that union. 
He estimated that 99.9 percent of its paid staff were party members. 



16 REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

It would seem that serious friction often arose within the union as 
to the authority of the Communist Party as against that of union 
officials. 

Marjorie Elaine Steinbacher, a former member of the Communist 
Party, had been employed in a secretarial capacity with the National 
Maritime Union and the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine 
Workers of America. She identified the many Communist Party 
members with whom she had met, both in local 766 and in the neigh- 
borhood group to which she was attached. Robert Gunkel, Com- 
munist organizer, would come into the UE office from time to time, 
according to Miss Steinbacher, and "read all the leaflets, papers, and 
articles that were written" and edit them. He would write articles 
for the union paper and have "one of the field representatives sign 
his name." 

Frank Hashmall, executive secretary of the Communist Party of 
Franklin County, Ohio, refused on grounds of self-incrimination to 
answer all pertinent questions regarding the activity of his organiza- 
tion and the identity of those connected with it. The same procedure 
was followed by Talmadge Raley, representative of Local 766 of the 
United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America. 

Esther M. Tice, identified as a Communist and secretary-treasurer 
of the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers, local 766, 
refused to answer questions as to her activity and affiliations, on 
grounds of self-incrimination. 

One witness, David H. Levison, who at first refused to answer ques- 
tions on similar grounds, ultimately changed his plans and decided to 
testify on August 8, 1950. He had joined the party in 1935 after 
having been active in one of its fronts, the Pen and Hammer Club, 
which paraded as "an anti-Fascist club for intellectuals." He added 
valuably to the list of Communist Party members operating in this 
area. 

According to this witness, considerable reliance was placed upon the 
circulation of the Daily Worker for party building. It was "the 
means by which we by and large received the party line," he said. 
"The editorials of the Daily Worker were the bible, as it were, of local 
organizations of the party." 

Communist Party of Hawaii 

Public hearings held in Honolulu, T. H., from April 10 to 20, 1950, 
revealed that the Communist Party of Hawaii is a subdivision of 
district 13 of the Communist Party of the United States, with the 
announced chairman as Charles K. Fujimoto, but actually headed by 
Jack Hall, the regional director of the ILWU. The importance of 
Hawaii to our national security made this investigation of paramount 
significance. 

The Communist Party of the Territory of Hawaii began organiza- 
tion during the year 1938 with the influx of Communist Party members 
as organizers for the ILWU, which entered the Territory of Hawaii to 
organize for the first time the waterfront, sugar, and pineapple workers. 
Jack Hall, identified by numerous witnesses before the committee as 
a long-standing member of the Communist Party, became regional 
director of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's 
Union. Jack Hall was an appointee of Harry Bridges, the head of 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 17 

the ILWU, who was recently convicted of perjury by the United 
States courts, in denying his Communist Party membership at the 
time of naturalization. Testimony before the committee revealed 
that Jack Hall, while regional director of the ILWU, was introduced 
at Communist Party meetings in the Territory of Hawaii, as the 
Communist Party organizer for that area, and that he has remained 
in control of the Communist Party activities to the present day. 

To cover up the leadership of Jack Hall, the Communist Party, on 
October 15, 1948, publicly announced that there was a Communist 
Party of Hawaii, and that Charley K. Fujimoto was assuming the 
chairmanship. Fujimoto, prior to this announcement, had been 
employed as a research scientist by the University of Hawaii. Fuji- 
moto, subpenaed as a witness before the committee, which subpena 
called for the production of all records of the Communist Party in the 
Territory of Hawaii, refused to produce any records, and refused also 
to answer any questions propounded to him, relating to his Communist 
Party activities on the ground of self-incrimination. 

Upon organizing the workers of the waterfront, sugar, and pineapple 
industries, Jack Hall surrounded himself with individuals identified 
before the committee as members of the Communist Party. These 
Communists were placed by Jack Hall in the most strategic positions 
within the union, thereby assuring the control of the union by members 
of the Communist Party. Testimony taken at the hearings revealed 
that in some instances individuals recruited into the Communist 
Party were elected to union offices without knowledge that they were 
even candidates. Through this method, a well-knit minority of Com- 
munist Party members exercised complete control over the large 
membership of the ILWU. Today, therefore, we find a curious situa- 
tion where the so-called International Longshoremen and Warehouse- 
men's Union has within its membership and under the control of the 
Communist Party, the workers of the basic industries of the Territory 
of Hawaii; namely, shipping, pineapple, and sugar. 

To maintain this economic control of the Territory of Hawaii, the 
Communist-controlled ILWU has pitted race against race and creed 
against creed in any issue where it was losing ground with the workers. 
In this manner, a well-knit minority has been able to maintain rigid 
control over the rank and file of a powerful union. 

In recruiting workers to membership in the Communist Party, the 
Communist leaders of the ILWU were successful in being able to dupe 
many workers into joining the Communist Party. Testimony heard 
time and again during the hearings disclosed that many of these 
individuals were duped into believing that they could best serve the 
cause of organized labor through membership in the Communist 
Party. However, when the true Communist philosophy was made 
known to these individuals, it not only alienated them, but was 
responsible for their disassociating themselves from the Communist 
Party. It is indeed encouraging to read the testimony of many 
witnesses who testified that when they obtained a true knowledge of 
Communist teachings, as contained in the constitution of the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union, calling for the overthrow of demo- 
cratic governments, they lost no time in severing their relationship 
with the Communist Party. The fact that many individuals were 
duped into joining the Communist Party on the pretense of gaining a 
labor education does not mean that there is not present in the Territory 



18 .REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMElRIOANi ACTIVITIES 

of Hawaii a hard core of dyed in the wool Communists, who are 
devoted to the overthrow of the Governments of the United States 
and the Territory of Hawaii. It must be remembered that the 
Communist movement spread to the Territory of Hawaii through 
organizers of the Communist Party who were born and received their 
Communist training on the mainland of the United States. The 
hard core of Communists presently in the islands, is therefore com- 
posed of mainland Communists, or Hawaiians who were trained by 
Moscow-dominated Communists on the mainland. 

In addition to their control over the basic industries, the Communist 
Party in the Territory of Hawaii had gained some measure of political 
control through its infiltration of a major political party. In line with 
this venture, the Communist Party in the Territory of Hawaii, in 
1945, embarked on a most energetic campaign in an attempt to secure 
control of the Democratic Party in the Territory of Hawaii. Testi- 
mony presented to the committee at its hearings in Honolulu reflected 
that at Communist Party meetings in Hawaii during the year 1945, 
instructions were given to party members to become active in their 
local precinct of the Democratic Party in an effort to gain some office 
or position within that precinct. These instructions were issued 
repeatedly to Communist Party members at Communist Party 
meetings in the Territory of Hawaii in the year 1945. 

The next phase of this campaign was the establishment of the 
Territorial CIO Political Action Committee. The main function of 
this Political Action Committee was the endorsement of candidates 
who were to be supported by the rank and file members of the ILWU. 
A perusal of the make-up of the Political Action Committee clearly 
shows who dictated the policies and practices of that committee. Of 
the seven officers of the CIO Political Action Committee, six were 
identified as members of the Communist Party in the Territory of 
Hawaii by witnesses appearing before this committee during the recent 
hearings in Honolulu. Testimony heard at these hearings revealed 
that, in actuality, the decisions of the PAC were never released until 
the problems had been fully discussed by the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party in the Territory of Hawaii. Communist Party 
discipline was employed most effectively in directing the activities of 
the Territorial PAC in the general election of 1946. A summary of 
the success of the Politial Action Committee activities in the general 
election of 1946 indicates that out of 51 candidates endorsed for office 
by the PAC, 35 were elected to Territorial, city, or county offices. 

During this same period and subsequent thereto, members of the 
Communist Party were not lax in carrying out the instructions given 
them to infiltrate their local Democratic precincts. A careful survey 
of the list of delegates who attended the Territorial Democratic Con- 
vention held at McKinley High School on May 2, 1948, in Honolulu, 
34 delegates were positively identified as members of the Communist 
Party in Hawaii by witnesses appearing before the committee. 

Of the witnesses who appeared before the committee, three were 
notable because of their positions in public life. Mr. Richard Kage- 
yama, the first witness heard by the committee, is a duly elected mem- 
ber of the Board of Supervisors for the City and County of Honolulu, 
T. H. He was also an elected delegate to the Hawaii State Constitu- 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN1 ACTIVITIES 19 

tional Convention, which was sitting in the city of Honolulu at the 
time of the committee's hearings. 

Mr. Kageyama told of his experiences within the Communist 
Party in great detail and was most cooperative with this committee. 
Subsequent to this testimony before the committee, he resigned his 
delegate's position within the constitutional convention, stating 
that he felt that if he remained within the convention it might 
endanger Hawaii's chances for statehood. Mr. Kageyama exhibited 
courage and determination in his testimony before this committee 
in exposing the evils of communism as he had come to know them. 

Another witness who was notable because of his position in public 
life, was Mr. Frank Silva, business agent for ILWU, on the island of 
Kauai and also an elected delegate to the State constitutional con- 
vention. Mr. Silva was identified by two witnesses before the com- 
mittee as a member of the Communist Party in the Territory of 
Hawaii. When he was subpenaed to answer these charges, he 
declined to answer any questions regarding his membership in the 
Communist Party on the ground of self-incrimination. In addition, 
he refused to answer questions put to him by the committee relating 
to his education within the United States. Subsequent to his appear- 
ance before the committee, he refused to resign from the consti- 
tutional convention, but was expelled by a vote of the convention 
delegates. 

Since the conclusion of the committee's hearings in Honolulu, the 
citizens of Hawaii have taken it upon themselves to "put their house 
in order." The Democratic Party is moving to rid itself of any and 
all Communists or Communist influence within its ranks. Within 
the Territory of Hawaii, there is in existence a legislative committee 
on un-American activities and a Territorial commission on sub- 
versive activities, both embodied with the power of subpena and 
established for the purpose of investigating and exposing any and 
all subversive activities within the Territory of Hawaii. 

In addition, the national CIO organization, on May 17 through 19, 
inclusive, conducted hearings in the city of Washington, D. C, before 
a subcommittee of the executive board of the CIO to hear testimony 
and evidence on the question of expelling Harry Bridges and the 
ILWU from the national CIO organization; subsequent to these 
hearings, they were expelled. 

The hearings of the Committee on Un-American Activities of the 
House of Representatives conducted in Honolulu have served as a 
beacon light to the people of Hawaii in apprising them of the degree 
of Communist activity which has taken place in their Territory. 
The committee feels that these citizens now know moie of the methods 
and practices of the Communist Party and are much better equipped 
to meet any new threat that may arise as a result of activity on the 
part of the Communist Party. 

The individual citizens of the Territory of Hawaii who played a 
part in the exposure of this evil and its direct purposes can well be 
proud of their contribution to the Congress of the United States. 
The people of the Territory of Hawaii owe a debt of gratitude to those 
persons who possessed the courage and determination to come forward 
and expose this foreign-directed conspiracy which seeks to undermine 
and ultimately overthrow our own American way of life. 



20 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN* ACTIVITIES 

Hearings Regarding Communism in the District of Columbia, 

Part 2 

On December 6, 11, 12, and 13, 1950, the committee continued its 
investigation into Communist activities in the District of Columbia. 
Of the 11 witnesses who were called to testify, six admitted former 
membership in the Communist Party and gave information regarding 
many persons whom they had known to be members of the Communist 
Party and various Communist activities in which they had partici- 
pated. The other five witnesses refused to answer questions regarding 
their alleged Communist membership and activities. 

Henry Thomas, president of Building Laborers' Local Union 74, an 
affiliate of the International Hodcarriers, Building and Common 
Laborers Union of America, A. F. of L., testified on December 6 and 11, 
1950, that his Communist membership began in 1937 and was termi- 
nated just prior to his signing the non-Communist affidavit under the 
Taft-Hartley Act on April 26, 1949. 

During the time that he was a member of the Communist Party, 
Thomas stated that he had known of the following branches of the 
party which operated within the District of Columbia: Frederick 
Douglas Branch, White Collar Club, a super super secret branch com- 
posed of Government employees, the actual name of which he was 
unaware, branches at Howard University and at one other university 
in Washington, a branch set up in Central High School, the Petworth, 
Stanton Park, Southeast, West End, Thomas Jefferson, Northwest 
branches, and the Tom Paine branch of the Young Communist League. 
These were all controlled by the city committee and above that by the 
State committee (Maryland-District of Columbia). 

More than 30 persons were identified by Henry Thomas as having 
been known to him as members of the Communist Party in the 
District of Columbia among whom are the following: 

James Branca l Clarence (alias Casey) Dan O'Day 

Tansel Butler Gurewitz 1 Elizabeth Searle 

Ernest Chambers 2 Norris Hammond 2 Benny Secundy 

Martin Chancey Al Lannon Mary Stale up 

Leroy Coad William S. Johnson Shirley Taylor 

Calvin Cousin George Mevers William C. Tavlor 

Eddie Felder Robert Paul > Gladys G. R. Thomas 

Philip Frankfeld Ray Pinkson Albert Underwood 

McKinlev Gray 2 Florence Plot nick Thomas Waller 

William Gray 2 Thomas G. Sampler 2 Roy Wood ' 

Thomas described a Communist school located at One Hundred 
and Twenty-eighth Street, off Seventh Avenue in New York City, 
where he had been sent at the expense of the Communist Party to 
take special courses in Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. He said that 
he had been selected because he was thought to be — 

a good prospect for someday becoming a professional revolutionary. * * * 
You become a professional revolutionary and sever all ties with family, church, 
all institutions that would in any way tie you down and prevent you from going 
from one place to another at any time. * * * You were at the command of 
the Communist Party. That is all you worked for. That is what you lived for. 

i When questioned regarding Communist Party membership, refused to testify on the ground of possible 
self-incrimination. 
* Admitted former Communist Party membership. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 21 

Among the things that Thomas had been taught in these Commun- 
ist classes were the plans of the part}>- for establishing a Negro Soviet 
in the so-called Black Belt of the United States, the area stretching 
from Maryland to Texas. Also taught was the importance of the 
tactical line of the Communist Party working within the A. F. of L. 
and the C. I. O. 

On December 12, 1950, Thomas G. Sampler, secretary-treasurer of 
the Building Laborers' Local 74, testified that he had been recruited 
into the Communist Party of the District of Columbia in May 1947 
by Henry Thomas, and had become affiliated with the Frederick 
Douglas Club of the party. According to Sampler's testimony the 
objective of the Douglas Club of the Communist Party had been "to 
see that Henry Thomas controlled the union (local 74)." Orders 
came down from the Trade Union Commission of the Communist 
Party designating those who should run for office in the local union. 

Communist activities which Sampler said he had participated in 
in the District of Columbia included: Citizens Committee for Paul 
Robeson, Citizens Committee for the Negro Committee Rally, Civil 
Rights Congress, Progressive Party, and classes in Communist teach- 
ings held at 4402 Georgia Avenue NW. In these classes he said that 
the plans of the Communist Party for establishing a Negro Soviet in 
the area known as the Black Belt were discussed. He was also 
taught Marxist theory. At State board meetings of the Communist 
Party which were held in Baltimore, he saw Alice Stapleton, Professor 
Blumberg of Johns Hopkins University, and his wife, Dorothy 
Blumberg. 

Thomas Sampler resigned from Communist Party membership by 
letter addressed to Roy Wood, secretary of the party in the District 
of Columbia, in April 1949, before signing the non-Communist affi- 
davit under the Taft-Hartley Act. Before resigning, he stated that 
he had realized that the Communist ideology was not what it had 
appeared to be and that he had wished to withdraw his membership. 

The following persons were named by Thomas Sampler as having 
been known by him to have been members of the Communist Party : 

Lem Belton Mrs. Rob Hall Sally Peake 

James Branca 1 Tom Hurney Ray Pinkson 

Tom Buchanan William S. Johnson Alice Stapleton ' 

Ernest Chambers 2 Chester Kurrier J Shirley Taylor 

Gertrude Evans Lois Kurrier William C. Taylor 

Phil Frankfeld Nonnie Lautman Gladys Thomas 

McKinlev Gray 2 Norris Hammond 2 Henrv Thomas 2 

William Gray 2 Robert Paul 1 Thomas Waller 

Clarence (Casey) Gurewitz * Charles "Top" Payne Roy Wood * 

The testimony of William Gray, business agent, Building Laborers, 
Local 74, taken by the committee on December 12, 1950, revealed 
that he had joined the Communist Party in 1945 and had been 
assigned to the Douglas Club. His membership in the Communist 
Party was terminated in late 1948 or early 1949 because he had become 
dissatisfied with the party. Among the persons who were named by 

i When questioned regarding Communist Party membership, refused to testify on ground of possible 
self-incrimination. 
2 Admitted former Communist Party membership. 



22 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

William Gray as having been known to him as members of the Com- 
munist Party are the following: 

James Branca x Ray Pinkson Gladys Thomas 

Ernest Chambers 2 Thomas G. Sampler 2 Henry Thomas 2 

Leroy Coad I'lizabeth Searle Al Underwood 

McKinley Gray 2 Mary Stalcup Thomas Waller 

Norris Hammond 2 William C. Taylor Roy Wood ' 
William S. Johnson 

Also testifying before the committee on December 12, 1950, Norris 
Hammond, sergeant at arms of Building Laborers' Local 74, testified 
that he had been recruited into the Communist Party in the District 
of Columbia by Henry Thomas and had been assigned to the Douglas 
Club. He stated that he had resigned from the Communist Party 
before signing the non-Communist affidavit under the Taft-Hartley 
Act. Other than the persons who had been named previously in the 
course of this hearing as having been known by him to have been 
affiliated with the Communist Party, Hammond included the name 
of Mose Mannigan. 

In his testimony before the committee on December 12, 1950, 
Ernest L. Chambers, trustee of Local 74, Building Laborers' Union, 
described the Echo Club to which he had been invited by Henry 
Thomas as "really a clearing house for those they [Communists] 
were recruiting" into the Communist Party. Ernest L. Chambers 
became a Communist Party member in 1943, and was assigned to the 
Douglas Club. The persons he had known as members of the party 
have previously been named in preceding paragraphs of this report. 
In union work, Chambers said that he had been taught to follow 
directions of the Communist Party rather than directions of officials 
of the union. He testified that he broke with the party in April 
1949, before signing the non-Communist affidavit under the Taft- 
Hartley Act. 

McKinley Gray, an executive board member of Local 74, Building 
Laborers' Union, also testifying on December 12, 1950, admitted 
having joined the Communist Party in 1948 or 1949, and that he had 
become disinterested and stopped attending meetings shortly there- 
after. 

The committee heard testimony of Roy Wood, who, according to 
newspaper accounts and sworn testimony of former members of the 
Communist Party, was elected chairman of the Communist Party 
in the District of Columbia in 1948 and also served as secretary. 
This witness appeared before the committee on December 12, 1950, 
and, when faced with charges of Communist Party activities and 
membership, refused to answer questions on the ground of possible 
self-incrimination. As a former Government employee, he had been 
connected with the Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps, Forestry Department of the Department of Interior, and 
the Federal Security Agency. 

Robert Paul, alleged chairman of the northeast branch of the 
Communist Party of the District of Columbia, and formerly book- 
keeper and window clerk of the Building Laborers' Union, Local 74, 
when appearing before the committee on December 12, 1950, refused 
to answer questions regarding Communist allegations and other 

1 When questioned regarding Communist Party Membership, refused to testify on ground of possible 
self-incrimination. 

2 Admitted former Communist Party membership. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OX UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 23 

questions put to him by the committee. He did state that at one 
time he had been a waiter at Boiling Field. 

On December 13, 1950, Alice Mary Theresa Stapleton, now a resi- 
dent of New York City, was a witness before the committee. Miss 
Stapleton had been named in sworn testimony as having been a 
member of the Communist Party in the District of Columbia. When 
queried regarding her alleged Communist Party membership and 
her emplo}Tnent record, Miss Stapleton refused to answer all questions 
on the ground of possible self-incrimination. During the interroga- 
tion of Miss Stapleton, she was shown a photostat of a document 
known as Foreign Official Status Notification, purportedly signed by 
her which reflected that she had been employed by the OWI as a 
CAF-4 in the code and cipher section; as English teacher in the 
Soviet Embassy; and as typist in the Bulgarian Political Mission. 
She declined to answer all questions concerning this document on the 
same ground. 

Chester L. Kurrier, an employee at the Superior Print Shop in 
Washington, D. C, was heard by the committee on December 13, 
1950. He declined to answer questions about his alleged Communist 
activities on the ground of possible self-incrimination, but did testify 
that he was acquainted with Alice Stapleton, Henry Thomas, and 
Thomas G. Sampler. 

Clarence Darrow Gurewitz (alias Casey), construction worker, 
testified before the committee on December 13, 1950. He declined 
to answer questions put to him regarding his Communist Party affilia- 
tions, including his alleged chairmanship of the northwest section of 
the Communist Party of the District of Columbia, on the ground of 
possible self-incrimination. He described his former Federal employ- 
ment to have included positions with the Veterans' Administration, 
Bureau of the Census, and the Park Service under the Department of 
the Interior. 

National Lawyers Guild 

The National Lawyers Guild is the foremost legal bulwark of the 
Communist Party, its front organizations, and controlled unions. 
Since its inception it has never failed to rally to the legal defense of 
the Communist Party and individual members thereof, including 
known espionage agents. It has consistently fought against National, 
State, and local legislation aimed at curbing the Communist con- 
spiracy. It has been most articulate in its attacks upon all agencies 
of the Government seeking to expose or prosecute the subversive 
activities of the Communist network, including National, State, and 
local investigative committees, the Department of Justice, the FBI, 
and law-enforcement agencies generally. Through its affiliation with 
the International Association of Democratic Lawyers, an international 
Communist-front organization, the National Lawyers Guild has con- 
stituted itself an agent of a foreign principal hostile to the interests of 
the United States. It has gone far afield to oppose the foreign policies 
of the L T nited States, in line with the current line of the Soviet Union. 

These aims — the real aims of the National Lawyers Guild, as 
demonstrated conclusively by its activities for the past 13 years of its 
existence — are not specified in its constitution or statement of avowed 
purpose. In order to attract non-Communists to serve as a cover for 
its actual purpose as an appendage to the Communist Party, the 



24 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

National Lawyers Guild poses benevolently as "a professional organi- 
zation which shall function as an effective social force in the service of 
the people to the end that human rights shall be regarded as more 
sacred than property rights." In the entire history of the guild there 
is no record of its ever having condemned such instances of the 
violation of human rights as found in Soviet slave labor camps and in 
the series of Moscow trials, which shocked the civilized world. 

The National Lawyers Guild was formally organized at a convention 
held in the Washington Hotel in Washington, D. C, on February 
19-22, 1937. National headquarters were established in the Nation's 
Capital, where they remain today. 

Communists publicly hailed the founding of the National Lawyers 
Guild. New Masses, a weekly publication of the Communist Party, 
featured an article entitled "Defense for the Counsel — The Need for 
the National Lawyers Guild" in its issue of June 14, 1938 (pp. 19-21). 
This article, written by Charles Recht, an attorney for the Soviet 
Government and a member of the guild, observed that —  

With the growth of the American Labor Party in New York, and kindred 
progressive movements throughout the United States, the lawyers, who in many 
of the smaller communities are the nerve centers of political activities, will be an 
invaluable aid in galvanizing the latent liberal elements of the country into a 
political force. The National Lawyers Guild can and will form one of the most 
important adjuncts to a progressive movement representing the interests of the 
workers and farmers. 

' The International Labor Defense, which was cited by former 
Attorney General Francis Biddle as "the legal arm of the Communist 
Party," also enthusiastically welcomed the new front, the National 
Lawyers Guild. The ILD stated in its 1936-37 yearbook that —  

The emergence of the National Lawyers Guild is regarded by the International 
Labor Defense as a heartening expression of the devotion of thousands of American 
attorneys to the American principle of democracy, and a concrete step on their 
part in the struggle to maintain and enlarge democratic rights (p. 64). 

Earl Browder, testifying before the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities on September 6, 1939, in his capacity as general 
secretary of the Communist Party, admitted that the National Law- 
yers Guild was a Communist transmission belt. 

This has been corroborated by Louis F. Budenz, former member of 
the National Committee of the Communist Party and one-time manag- 
ing editor of its official newspaper, the Daily Worker. Testifying 
before the House Committee on Un-American Activities on April 3, 
1946, Mr. Budenz described the National Lawyers Guild as a working 
ally of the Communist Party and stated that members of the guild 
would be under the influence of the party while "officers would be 
Communists or fellow travelers." Testifying again before the com- 
mittee on July 20, 1948, Mr. Budenz said: 

In the National Lawyers Guild there is a complete duplicate of the Communist 
Party's hopes and aspirations in that field, although there are a number of non- 
Communists in the National Lawyers Guild. In fact, some of their lawyers 
locally are not Communists, but they play the Communist game either wittingly 
or unwittingly. 

The National Lawyers Guild, as an organization, has intervened 
in the major court cases which have involved individual Communist 
leaders or officials of Communist-front organizations or unions. In 
every instance, the guild has interceded on the Communist side. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UNI- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 25 

r The guild submitted a brief amicus curiae in the case of Robert 
Wood, an Oklahoma Communist official who was convicted of criminal 
syndicalism in that State in 1940. When, in the same year, avowed 
Communist Ben Gold and other leaders of the Communist-controlled 
Fin and Leather Workers Union were convicted in court of using ter- 
rorism in the labor field, the National Lawyers Guild again appeared 
as a friend of the court in behalf of the defendants. 

A resolution opposing deportation proceedings against Communist 
Harry Bridges was adopted by the fifth convention of the National 
Lawyers Guild in 1941. The guild also submitted a brief amicus 
curiae in the case. 

In recent years, the National Lawyers Guild has intervened as 
amicus curiae on behalf of the following leading Communists: 

Gerhart Eisler, Communist international agent convicted in 
United States courts of passport fraud and contempt of Congress; 
Leon Josephson, Communist attorney exposed as an official pro- 
curer of false passports for Communist agents such as Gerhart Eisler; 
Josephson was convicted of contempt of Congress; j 

Carl Aldo Marzani, convicted of concealing Communist affilia- 
tions while employed by the United States Government; 

John Howard Lawson and Dalton Trumbo, Communist screen 
writers from Hollywood convicted of contempt of Congress; 

Eugene Dennis, secretary of the Communist Party, U. S. A., 
convicted of contempt of Congress. 

The National Lawyers Guild also intervened in behalf of — 
Richard Morford, who as head of the subversive National Coun- 
cil of American-Soviet Friendship was convicted of contempt of 
Congress ; 

George Marshall, head of the now-defunct Communist front, 
the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, also convicted 
of contempt of Congress; 

Edward K. Barsky and other officers of the subversive Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee convicted of contempt of Congress; 

Eleven top officials of the Communist Party, U. S. A., convicted of 
conspiracy to advocate the overthrow of the United States Govern- 
ment by force and violence. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities on September 17, 1950, 
issued a report on the National Lawyers Guild, exposing that organi- 
zation as a Communist front and recommending that the Attorney 
General of the United States place this organization on his list of 
Communist fronts. 

National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill 

The National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill, since its 
inception, has served as a registered lobbying organization which has 
carried out the objectives of the Communist Party in its fight against 
antisubversive legislation. 

During the progress of the investigation relating to the National 
Lawyers Guild, it was brought to the attention of the committee 
that there existed between this Communist-front organization and 
the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill a close organi- 
zational and financial relationship. 



26 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill first came into 
being in June of 1948 when Jerry J. O'Connell registered with the 
Clerk of the House of Representatives as a lobbyist for this organiza- 
tion. At that time O'Connell stated that he was on loan to the newly 
formed National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill from the 
Progressive Party of the State of Washington and that he was to 
receive from the Progressive Party a salary of $125 per week. Travel- 
ing expenses were to be borne by the National Committee To Defeat 
the Mundt Bill. 

The National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill, during the 
course of its campaigns, has engaged in an active working relationship 
with the Communist Party. Furthermore, the program of the 
National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill, just as in the case of 
its recent benefactor, the National Lawyers Guild, directly parallels 
the program of the Communist Party against any legislation which 
might tend to curb the influence of communism in America. These 
relationships are clear upon the examination of an official document 
of the Communist Party of the United States, which was made avail- 
able to the Committee on Un-American Activities as a result of a 
subpena served on Matthew Cvetic, former under-cover agent of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, and was entered into the official 
record at an executive hearing held on October 13, 1950, as Cvetic 
exhibit No. 96. * This document was originally obtained, along with 
many other documents, by virtue of a search and seizure warrant 
issued in Pittsburgh, Pa. These documents were taken from the 
headquarters of the Communist Party in Pittsburgh, Pa., located 
on the fourth floor of the Bakewell Building. This office serves as 
headquarters for the Communist Party of Western Pennsylvania and 
the Ohio Valley and is headed by the well-known Communist organi- 
zer, Steve Nelson. 

The official Communist Party designation of this document is " Dis- 
cussion Outline for the Fight Against the Mundt-Nixon Bill," issued 
by the national educational department, Communist Party. The 
document itself is not dated, but within the text of the document 
there is a reference to an editorial which appeared in the Daily Worker 
on March 7, 1950. It is apparent, therefore, that this document was 
compiled by the Communist Party subsequent to this date. The 
document instructs Communist organizers and club leaders how to 
propagandize most effectively against the Mundt-Nixon bill. In 
connection with these instructions, Communist Party leaders are 
directed to contact the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt 
Bill as a source for material and assistance. Specifically, they are 
directed to contact the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt 
Bill "for material for mass distribution, speakers, etc." The National 
Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill is listed, in company with the 
Daily Worker and the public affairs committee of the Communist 
Party, as a source of material and assistance in their campaign against 
anti-Communist legislation. 

Jerry O'Connell, in performing his duties as a registered lobbyist of 
the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill, solicited the help 
of the Communist Party. This is substantiated by the fact that on 
September 13, 1950, Jerry O'Connell sent to Henry Winston, 35 East 

1 Cvetic exhibit No. 96 is printed in its entirety in an official committee publication entitled "Expose 1 of 
the Communist Party of Western Pennsylvania, Part 3." 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 27 

Twelfth Street, New York City, a telegram from which the following 
is^quotcd: 

Also urgently request you wire and secure every possible message from your 
organization to President Truman to veto this bill after full 10 days' study, and 
to Senators and Congressmen to sustain veto. 

Henry Winston is a member of the national committee of the Com- 
munist 'Party, and is its organizational secretary. He was recently 
convicted, in company with 10 other national leaders of the Com- 
munist Party in New York City, for conspiracy to advocate the over- 
throw of the United States Government by force and violence. The 
address to which the telegram was sent, 35 East Twelfth Street, 
New York City, is the official address of the national headquarters, 
Communist Party, U. S. A. 

Communist " Peace Petition" Campaign 

The current "peace petition" campaign of the Communist Party is 
a direct outgrowth of the Stockholm "peace petition" adopted in 
March 1950 by the so-called World Peace Congress, as announced in 
the March 24, 1950, issue of For a Lasting Peace, for a People's Democ- 
rac}', official organ of the Information Bureau of the Communist and 
Workers Parties (Cominform) . In conformity with the directive con- 
tained in the issue of For a Lasting Peace, for a People's Democracy, 
the Communist Party, USA, formulated its own "peace plan," as re- 
ported in the June 11, 1950, issue of the Worker, official organ of the 
Communist Party, USA. This "peace plan" of the Communist Party 
called for a "Nation-wide drive for millions of signatures," and notified 
every Communist that he "has the duty to rise to this appeal." On 
June 20, 1950, the "peace petition" received the official stamp of ap- 
proval from the Supreme Soviet of the U. S. S. R. 

The petition being generally circulated in the United States is under 
the sponsorship of the peace information center, headed by Elizabeth 
Moos, the mother-in-law of William Walter Remington, now on trial 
for perjury relating to his Communist Party membership. In addi- 
tion to these petitions, other petitions identical to the Stockholm 
"peace pledge" are being circularized by the Labor League for Peace, 
the Maryland Committee for Peace, and other State bodies. The 
committee has advised the American people not to affix their signa- 
tures thoughtlessly to this appeal, being aware of the implications and 
seriousness of such acts. 

The committee has in preparation a detailed report dealing with the 
Communist world-wide "peace" offensive, with particular reference to 
its significance in the United States. This report will be issued soon 
after the convening of the Eighty-second Congress. 

Legislative Activity 

The need to control Communist activity in the United States can- 
not be questioned. Confronted as we were with a problem of such 
magnitude and importance as this, your committee drafted and 
presented to Congress legislation which it felt would check the machin- 
ations of a conspiracy inspired and directed by a foreign power, and 
involving many thousands of individuals, including some native- 
born Americans, without infringing upon the rights of every citizen 
guaranteed by the Constitution. 



28 REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

A careful analysis of the strategy and tactics of communism in the 
United States disclosed that legislation should be directed toward — 

(1) Making it unlawful for any officer or employee of the United 
States to communicate in any manner to any person who is an agent 
or representative of a foreign power or a member of a Communist 
organization any information which has been classified as affecting 
the security of the United States unless specifically authorized to do 
so by the head of a Govermnent department; 

(2) Making it unlawful for any agent or representative of a foreign 
government or member of a Communist organization to obtain or 
receive from any officer or employee of the United States any informa- 
tion which has been classified as affecting the security of the United 
States unless special authorization for such communication shall first 
have been obtained from the head of a department; 

(3) Making it unlawful for any member of a Communist organiza- 
tion, in seeking, accepting, or holding any nonelective office or em- 
ployment under the United States, to conceal the fact that he is a 
member of such organization, or to hold any nonelective office or 
employment under the United States; 

(4) Making it unlawful for any officer or employee of the United 
States to contribute funds or services to a Communist organization; 

(5) Making it unlawful for a member of any Communist organiza- 
tion, in seeking, accepting, or holding employment in any defense 
plant, to conceal the fact that he is a member of such organization, 
or to engage in any employment in a defense plant; 

(6) Making it unlawful for any individual employed in a defense 
plant to contribute funds or services to a Communist organization; 

(7) Making it unlawful for a member of a Communist organization 
to make application for a passport or the renewal of a passport, or to 
use or attempt to use any such passport; 

(8) Requiring the registration with the Attorney General of all 
Communist-front organizations ; 

(9) Requiring the registration of any individual who is or becomes 
a member of a Communist-action organization concerning which there 
is in effect a final order " f the Subversive Activities Control Board 
requiring such organization to register and such organization does not 
register ; 

(10) Requiring the registration of any individual who is or becomes 
a member of a Communist-action organization which has registered, 
but which has failed to u ±ude his name upon the list of members 
thereof filed with the Attorney General. 

Beginning in the Eightieth Congress and continuing in the Eighty- 
first Congress, your committee did much of the pioneer work in 
formulating legislation designed to combat the Communist conspiracy 
operating within the United States. In fact, the legislation enacted 
was largely based upon the findings contained in the committee's 
^p^port, Communist Party of the United States as an Agent of a 
Foreign Power, published in 1947. In furtherance of this work, it 
heard the views of many outstanding legislative authorities concerning 
a law to control subversive activities. During this past year, your 
committee again held hearings in which were presented the views not 
only of many learned individuals who favored the passage of legisla- 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 29 

tion similar to H. R. 9490 but also testimony of those who opposed 
any legislative action. 

Due consideration was given to all views and proposals voiced by 
witnesses before your committee. After the legislative proposals 
were received and the testimony evaluated, your committee unan- 
imously presented to the Congress H. R. 9490, which we felt 
combined the best features of all legislative proposals considered by 
the committee. 

H. R. 9490, which was passed on August 29, 1950, by a roll-call vote 
of 354 to 20, included not only the needed provisions outlined above, 
but many others which your committee felt were necessary to destroy 
the effectiveness of the Communist Party of the United States as an 
agent of a foreign power. This legislation became the core of the pres- 
ent Subversive Activities Control Act, which was passed over a 
Presidential veto on September 22, 1950, by a vote of 286 to 48. Some 
of the fundamental provisions proposed in H. R. 9490 and adopted in 
the Subversive Activities Control Act are as follows: 

(1) Making it unlawful for any person knowingly to combine, con- 
spire, or agree with any other person to perform any act which would 
substantially contribute to the establishment within the United States 
of a totalitarian dictatorship; 

(2) Requiring the registration of all members of a Communist- 
action as well as a Communist-front organization; 

(3) Creating a Subversive Activities Control Board, which shall 
have general supervision over determining what organization or organi- 
zations are subject to the provisions of this act; 

(4) Providing for penalties of 5 years' imprisonment or $10,000 fine, 
or both, for violation of any provisions of the act. 

Conclusions 

The year 1950 has marked a new stage in the struggle against com- 
munism in the United States. The attack up^n Korea makes it plain 
beyond all doubt that communism has passed beyond the use of sub- 
version to conquer the independent nations and will now use armed in- 
vasion and war. With the Armed Forces 1 .7 the United States actually 
pitted in conflict against the legions of international communism, the 
Communist Party of the United States can no longer be viewed pas- 
sively as a group of mere political and ideological dissidents, but must 
be looked upon with all seriousness as a ;l itary fifth column actively 
aiding our enemies. 

Yet, today we find many of these potential fifth columnists employed 
in our leading defense plants, making weapons to be used against the 
Communist armies which they are pledged to support. To remove 
these persons from positions where they could sabotage our defense 
production there was included in the Wood-McCarran Communist- 
control bill a section which prohibits employment of Communist Party 
members in defense plants designated as such by the Secretary of 
Defense. The committee recommends that the Congress adopt a 
resolution calling upon the Secretary of Defense to immediately place 
in effect the provisions of section 5 of Public Law 831, Eight}^-first 
Congress. 



30 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN 1 ACTIVITIES 

The operations of the Smith Act and the Subversive Activities 

Control Act of 1950, and the various Communist cases before the 

courts should be made the subject of continuing study during the 

coming year, with a view to determine their effectiveness and the 

\adoption of constantly improved methods of restricting the operations 

)f the Communist fifth column. We cannot afford to allow ourselves 

to become hopelessly enmeshed in outworn legal technicalities which 

(►ftentimes serve to give protection and encouragement to a most 

isidious internal foe. We must streamline our legal machinery to 

/meet the present emergency, which poses legal problems never en- 

'visaged by our founding fathers. 

Loopholes in the present laws and in procedure before congressional 
committees, which Communist lawyers are quick to exploit, should 
be plugged up. The committee recommends that the Congress seri- 
ously consider authorizing the use of technical evidence secured during 
the course of investigations involving espionage, treason, or other 
crimes involving the security of the United States to intercept and 
use as evidence in any criminal proceeding information obtained as 
the result of a technical surveillance. 

Both in the courts and in hearings before our committee, the inform- 
ative value of testimony by those who have actually been inside the 
Communist movement, either as undercover agents or as former 
party members, has been increasingly demonstrated. In the light 
of the present world situation and the possible aggravation of the 
Communist problem, it can be expected that legal prosecutions will 
increase, making the services of qualified witnesses more and more 
indispensable in building up evidence. Thought should be given to 
ways and means of stimulating defections from the Communist 
movement and of encouraging qualified informants. 

In connection with hearings dealing with local 74 of the AFL 
Laborers' Union, it was brought out that those operating under the 
discipline and direction of the Communist Party went through the 
process of formally resigning from the party and then signing the 
non-Communist affidavit, in order to comply with the provisions of 
the Taft-Hartley Act. A number of cases of this kind have been 
brought to the attention of the committee. The incoming Congress 
should study the advisability of amending the act in order to make 
such evasion illegal and impossible. 

Contempt Citations 

In 1950, your committee found it advisable to recommend that 56 
persons be cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to answer 
pertinent questions propounded at hearings conducted by the com- 
mittee in the course of its investigations into un-American activities. 
The House of Representatives has cited all of these recalcitrant 
witnesses, and all of them have been indicted for contempt of Congress 
by Federal grand juries. The 56 persons cited are: 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 31 



Name 



Julius Emspak 

Steve Nelson 

Philip Bart - 

James J. Matles 

Thomas Fitzpatrick 

Thomas Quinn 

Frank Panzino 

Ralph Tokunaga 

Charles Fujimoto.. . 

Dwight James Freeman-.. 

Esther Bristow 

Rachel Saiki 

John Reinecke 

Ernest Arena 

Koichi Imori. 

Denichi Kimoto 

Pearl Freeman 

Marshall McEuen 

Ruth Ozaki 

Stephen Murin 

Jack Hall 

Frank Silva 

Jack Kawano 

John Akana 

Yukio Abe 

Yasuki Arakaki 

Edward Hong 

Kameo Ichimuri 

Douglas Inouye 

Levi Kealoha 

Adele Kensinger 

Benjamin Kaahawinui 

Frank Kalua 

Yoshita Marumo 

Robert Murasaki 

Robert McElrath. 

Julian Napuunoa 

Tadashi (Castner) Ogawa 

Hideo Okada : 

Wilfred Oka 

Jeanette Nakama Rohrbough- ._ 

Mitsuo Shimizu-. 

Frank Takahashi. 

Shigeo Takemoto 

Ralph Vossbrink 

Thomas Yagi 

Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz 

David Joseph Bohm 

Irving David Fox 

Clarence Hiskey 

Frank Hashmall 

Talmadee Raley 

Esther Tice 

Marcel Scherer 

Mrs. Louise Berman 

Pasquale Leonard James Branca 



H. Res. No. 



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H. Rept. 
No. 



2847 
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Date passed 



Aug. 10,1950 

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Aug. 11,1950 

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Date indicted 
by Federal 
grand jury 



Nov. 20, 1950 
Dec. 4,1950 
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Do. 

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Oct. 11,1950 

Do. 

Do. 

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Dee. 4, 1950 

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Dec. 4, 1950 
Nov. 20, 1950 

Do. 



In Retrospect 

In 1950, the United States courts acted in a number of cases orig- 
inating before your committee during the 12-year course of its investi- 
gations. 

HARRY BRIDGES 

For instance, in its annual report of January 3, 1939, the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities urged that deportation pro- 
ceedings be "vigorously and promptly" prosecuted against Harry 
Bridges. It declared that Bridges — 

was a Communist alien, that he belonged to an organization which preaches the 
overthrow of the United States Government by force and violence; that he him- 
self advocated the overthrow of the Government by force and violence; and that 
he had likewise advocated sabotage. 



32 REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Harry Bridges was successful in obtaining American citizenship in 
1945. But on May 25, 1949, he was indicted by a Federal grand jury 
on charges of conspiracy and perjury 4n connection with his obtaining 
citizenship. The Immigration Service immediately filed a civil com- 
plaint seeking to revoke Bridges' citizenship, declaring that he was a 
Communist when he was naturalized and still is a member of the 
Communist Party. The Bridges trial began on November 14, 1949. 
Indicted and tried with him were his two aides in the International 
Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, James Robertson and 
Henry Schmidt. On April 4, 1950, a jury found Bridges guilty on two 
counts — that he committed perjury when at his naturalization hear- 
ing on September 17, 1945, he swore he had never been a Communist 
Party member, and that he conspired with his codefendants to deny 
party membership. Robertson and Schmidt were found guilty of 
conspiracy and on another count of abetting Bridges' perjury by swear- 
ing at naturalization proceedings that Bridges was not a Communist 
when they knew he was. Bridges was sentenced to 5 years in prison 
for perjury and 2 years for conspiracy, the sentences to run concur- 
rently. In response to the Government's appeal, Federal Judge 
George B. Harris revoked Bridges' citizenship on June 21, 1950. 
Bridges immediately appealed his conviction and is now free on bail 
pending the outcome of his case in the higher courts. 

EUGENE DENNIS 

Eugene Dennis, general secretary of the Communist Party, was 
summoned to appear before the committee on April 9, 1947. He 
willfully failed to appear in response to the subpena and was therefore 
cited, indicted and convicted for contempt of Congress and sentenced 
to 1 year in jail and a $1,000 fine. Dennis appealed his conviction, 
but it was subsequently upheld by the United States Court of Appeals. 

The Supreme Court then granted certiorari limited to a question 
raised by Dennis as to whether he had received a fair and impartial 
trial since Government employees served on the jury which tried and 
convicted him. Dennis contended that Government employees would 
feel that, in view of the President's loyalty order, if they did not 
return a verdict of guilty against a member of the Communist Party 
they would lose their jobs. The Supreme Court's decision said, in 
part : 

Vague conjecture does not convince that Government employees are so intimi- 
dated that they cringe before their Government in fear of investigation and loss of 
employment if they do their duty as jurors, which duty this same Government 
has imposed upon them. 

Therefore, on May 27, 1950, the Supreme Court affirmed the decision 
of the lower courts, and Eugene Dennis is now in jail. 

ALGER HISS 

On January 21, 1950, Alger Hiss, whose name was first brought to 
the attention of the American public by your committee, was con- 
victed of perjury for falsely swearing before a Federal grand jury 
that he had not seen David Whittaker Chambers, a self-confessed 
Soviet espionage agent, after the year 1937, and that he had never 
furnished confidential State Department documents to the same 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERTCAN ACTIVITIES 33 

David Whittaker Chambers. Hiss appealed his conviction to the 
United States Court of Appeals, which on December 7, 1950, handed 
down its decision unanimously upholding his conviction. Hiss is 
now free on $10,000 bail, pending further appeal. 

HOLLYWOOD TEN 

In 1947, the committee conducted an investigation of Communist 
influence in the motion-picture industry. Certain individuals were 
summoned to appear before the committee. These individuals — 
Alvah Bessie, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole, Edward Dmytryk, 
Ring Lardner, Jr., John Howard Lawson, Albert Maltz, Samuel 
Ornitz, Robert Adrian Scott, and Dalton Trumbo, who came to be 
known as the "Hollywood Ten" — were subpenaed and appeared before 
the committee, where each witness refused to affirm or deny member- 
ship in the Communist Party in response to the committee's ques- 
tions. Contempt proceedings were instituted against the 10, and 
John Howard Lawson and Dalton Trumbo were convicted of con- 
tempt of Congress and sentenced to 1 year in jail, together with 
$1,000 fines. Both appealed the verdicts. The remaining eight 
witnesses had in the meantime proposed a stipulation, which was 
agreed upon that the cases of Lawson and Trumbo would be con- 
sidered test cases, and their cases were continued for disposition pur- 
suant to this stipulation. 

The United States Court of Appeals upheld Lawson's and Trumbo's 
convictions, and on April 10, 1950, the Supreme Court refused to 
review the decisions. Lawson and Trumbo immediately petitioned 
the Supreme Court to reconsider its refusal to review their contempt 
of Congress convictions. On May 29, 1950, the Supreme Court 
refused to reconsider its decision. Lawson and Trumbo began serving 
their 1-year sentences on June 9, 1950. 

In the week of June 21-28, 1950, the remaining eight witnesses, 
having waived jury trials, went on trial in district courts before 
Judges Pine, Curran, and Keech in three groups. On June 29, 1950, 
decisions in all three trials were rendered, and all eight witnesses were 
convicted of contempt of Congress. 

JOINT ANTI-FASCIST REFUGEE COMMITTEE 

The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee was cited as a Com- 
munist-front organization by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities on March 29, 1944. On December 4, 1947, and September 
21, 1948, the Attorney General . cited the organization as subversive 
and Communist. The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee com- 
plained against this citation to the United States District Court in 
the District of Columbia which dismissed the plea. The district 
court's decision was subsequently upheld by the United States 
Circuit Court of Appeals. The organization then appealed to the 
Supreme Court, and on March 13, 1950, the Supreme Court, in a 
brief order, said it would review the appeal of the Joint Anti-Fascist 
Refugee Committee. The case was heard on October 12, 1950, but 
no decision has been rendered as yet. 

The chairman of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, Dr. 
Edward K. Barsky, and 17 other leaders of the organization were 



34 REPORT OF THE. COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN' ACTIVITIES 

cited for contempt of Congress in 1946 for refusing to produce books 
and records subpenaed by the Committee on Un-American Activities. 
They were tried and convicted of contempt of Congress in district 
court and these convictions were upheld in appellate court in all but 
two cases. The United States Court of Appeals for the District 
of Columbia reversed the convictions of Miss Helen R. Bryan, execu- 
tive secretary of the JAFRC, and Mrs. Ernestina G. Fleischman, 
executive committee member, on the ground that a quorum of the 
committee was not present at all times during the committee hearings. 
The Government petitioned the Supreme Court for a rehearing, and 
on May 8, 1950, the Supreme Court upheld the contempt of Congress 
citations against Miss Bryan and Mrs. Meischman, reversing the 
court of appeals. The court held that the quorum question made 
no difference because the offense was failure to produce records and 
that offense could have occurred by other means than personal 
appearance. The Court also held that it could not "condone" a 
"patent evasion" of the duty of a person who has been summoned 
before a congressional committee "a subpena is a sterile document if 
its orders may be flouted with impunity." Miss Bryan and Mrs. 
Fleischman were sentenced to 3 months in jail and fined $500. 

On May 29, 1950, the Supreme Court refused to review the convic- 
tions for contempt of Congress of 11 other members of the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee and on June 7, 1950, they went to jail. 
Chairman Edward K. Barsky was sentenced to 6 months and fined 
$500. The others, all members of the executive board, who were 
sentenced to 3 months and $500 fines each, were Howard Fast, Jacob 
Auslander, Lyman R. Bradley, Mrs. Marjorie Choclorov, Harry M. 
Justiz, Mrs. Ruth Leider, James Lustig, Louis Miller, Mrs. Charlotte 
Stern, and Manuel Magana. 

On October 23, 1950, the Supreme Court refused to review further 
legal steps taken against Miss Bryan and Mrs. Fleischman. After 
their convictions were affirmed by the Supreme Court "the case was 
returned to the lower courts to ascertain whether certain challenges 
by Mrs. Fleischman and Miss Bryan had been completely answered. 
The trial court found that all the questions had been settled by rulings 
on other cases, and the circuit court agreed" (New York Times, 
October 24, 1950, p. 1). 

GEORGE MARSHALL 

On April 10, 1950, the Supreme Court refused to consider the case of 
George Marshall, who as chairman of the Communist-front National 
Federation for Constitutional Liberties (now merged with the Civil 
Rights Congress, which is also a Communist front) refused to produce 
records, etc., in response to a subpena issued by your committee, and 
was therefore cited for contempt of Congress by the House of Repre- 
sentatives. Marshall was indicted by a Federal grand jury, tried, 
convicted, and sentenced to 3 months in jail and a fine of $500. His 
conviction was upheld by the United States Circuit Court of Appeals. 
After the Supreme Court refused to consider the case, Marshall began 
serving his sentence on June 1, 1950. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICANi ACTIVITIES 35 

RICHARD MORFORD 

Richard Morford, chairman of the National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, a Communist front, was cited for contempt of 
Congress by the House of Representatives on August 2, 1946, for 
refusal to testify and produce records as required by a subpena of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities. Morford was indicted by a 
Federal grand jury for contempt of Congress in 1947, and in 1948 was 
tried in district court and found guilty on two counts of contempt of 
Congress. He was sentenced to imprisonment for a period of 3 months 
and fined $250. In 1949, the United States Court of Appeals upheld 
his conviction. 

On April 10, 1950, the Supreme Court reversed Morford's con- 
viction, saying that the trial court was wrong in refusing to permit 
Morford's lawyers to interrogate prospective jurors with respect to 
possible influence of the President's loyalty order "on their ability 
to render a just and impartial verdict." 

When Morford was retried in district court on June 28, 1950, he 
waived a jury trial, and on June 30, 1950, was again convicted of 
contempt of Congress. On July 7, 1950, the court again sentenced 
Morford to 3 months in jail and fined him $250. 

Distribution of Publications 

According to the records of our Publications Section, close to half 
a million copies of pamphlets dealing with communism and subversive 
activities was distributed by that office during the year 1950. 

The publications released by the committee during the past year 
are as follows : 

Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Radiation Laboratory and Atomic 
Bomb Project at the University of California, Berkeley, Calif. — vol. II (identi- 
fication of Scientist X) August 26, 1949; July 1 and September 10, 1948; 
August 14, September 14 and 27, 1949. 

Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Labor Unions — Part 2 (security 
measures relating to officials of the UERMWA-CIO) December 5 and 6, 1949. 

Testimony of James Sterling Murray and Edward Tiers Manning (regarding 
Clarence Hiskey and Arthur Adams) August 14, 1949, and October 5, 1949. 

Hearings Regarding Shipment of Atomic Material to the Soviet Union During 
World War II December 5 and 7, 1949; January 23, 24, 25, and 26, and March 
2, 3, and 7, 1950. 

Expose of the Communist Party of Western Pennsylvania, based upon testimony 
of Matthew Cvetic (undercover agent) February 21, 22, and 23, and March 
13, 14, and 24, 1950. 

Hearings Regarding Communist Activities in the Territory of Hawaii — Part I 
April 10, 11, and 12, 1950. 

Hearings Regarding Communist Activities in the Territory of Hawaii — Part 2, 
April 13, 14, and 15, 1950. 

Hearings Regarding Communism in the United States Government — Part I, 
April 20, 21, 25, 29, May 4, 5, and 6, 1950; July 30, and August 7, 1948; and 
June 8, 1950. 

Hearings Regarding Communist Activities in the Territory of Hawaii — Part 3 
and appendix and index April 17, 18, and 19, 1950. 

Hearings on Legislation to Outlaw Certain Un-American and Subversive Activ- 
ities, March 21, 22, 23, and 28, 1950. 

Expose of the Communist Party of Western Pennsylvania — Part 2, based upon 
testimony of Matthew Cvetic (including appendix and index), March 24 and 
25, 1950. 



36 REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Testimony of Philip A. Bart (general manager of Freedom of the Press, publishers 

of the Daily Worker, official organ of the Communist Party) and Marcel 

Scherer (coordinator), New York Labor Conference for Peace and formerly 

district representative of district 4, UERMWA (CIO), June 21, 1950. 
Hearings Regarding Communist Activities in the Cincinnati, Ohio, Area — Part 1, 

July 12, 13, 14, and 15; August 8, 1950. 
Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Minority Groups — Part 3 (testi- 
mony of Josh White), September 1, 1950. 
Hearings Regarding Communism in the United States Government — Part 2, 

August 28 and 31, September 1 and 14, 1950. 
American and Mexican Aspects in Connection with the Assassination of Leon 

Trotsky, July 26, August 30, October 18 and 19 and December 4, 1950. 
Expose of the Communist Party in Western Pennsylvania, Part 3 — based upon 

testimony of Matthew Cvetic, including Communist Party documents of west- 
ern Pennsylvania, June 22, September 28, October 13 and 21, 1950. 
House Report No. 1950 — Annual Report of the Committee on Un-American 

Activities for the Year 1949, March 15, 1950. 
House Report No. 2986 — Report on Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee, a Com- 
munist Front, June 23, 1950. 
Index III to Publications of the Committee on Un-American Activities, June 28, 

1950. 
The Communist "Peace Petition" Campaign (interim statement), July 13, 1950. 
House Report No. 2980 — Protection of the United States Against Un-American 

and Subversive Activities (report to accompany H. R. 9490), August 22, 1950. 
House Report No. 2847 — Proceedings Against Julius Emspak — report (citing 

Julius Emspak), August 10, 1950. 
House Report No. 2848 — Proceedings Against Steve Nelson — report (citing Steve 

Nelson), August 10, 1950. 
House Report No. 2849 — Proceedings Against Philip Bart — report (citing Philip 

Bart), August 10, 1950. 
House Report No. 2855 — Proceedings Against James J. Matles — report (citing 

James J. Matles), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2856 — Proceedings Against Thomas J. Fitzpatrick — report 

(citing Thomas J. Fitzpatrick), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2857 — Proceedings Against Thomas Quinn — report (citing 

Thomas Quinn), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2858 — Proceedings Against Frank Panzino — report (citing 

Frank Panzino), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2859 — Proceedings Against Ralph Tokunaga — report (citing 

Ralph Tokunaga), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2860 — Proceedings Against Charles Fujimoto— report (citing 

Charles Fujimoto), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2861 — Proceedings Against D wight James Freeman — report 

(citing Dwight James Freeman), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2862 — Proceedings Against Esther Bristow — report (citing 

Esther Bristow), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2863 — Proceedings Against Rachel Saiki — report (citing Rachel 

Saiki), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2864 — Proceedings Against John Reinecke — report (citing 

John Reinecke), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2865 — Proceedings Against Ernest Arena — report (citing Ernest 

Arena), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2866 — Proceedings Against Koichi Imori — report (citing Koichi 

Imori), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2867 — Proceedings Against Denichi Kimoto— report (citing 
^Denichi Kimoto), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2868 — Proceedings Against Pearl Freeman — report (citing 

Pearl Freeman), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2869 — Proceedings Against Marshall McEuen — report (citing 

Marshall McEuen), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2870 — Proceedings Against Ruth Ozaki — report (citing Ruth 

Ozaki), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2871 — Proceedings Against Stephen Murin — report (citing 

Stephen Murin), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2872 — Proceedings Against Jack Hall — report (citing Jack 

Hall), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2873 — Proceedings Against Frank Silva — report (citing Frank 

Silva), August 11, 1950. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 37 

House Report No. 2874 — Proceedings Against Jack Kawano— report (citing Jack 

Kawano), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2875 — Proceedings Against John Akana — report (citing John 

Akana), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2876 — Proceedings Against Yukio Abe — report (citing Yukio 

Abe), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2877 — Proceedings Against Yasuki Arakaki — report (citing 

Yasuki Arakaki), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2878 — Proceedings Against Edward Hong— report (citing 

Edward Hong), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2879 — Proceedings Against Kameo Ichimuri — report (citing 

Kameo Ichimuri), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2880— Proceedings Against Douglas Inouye — report (citing 

Douglas Inouye), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2881 — Proceedings Against Levi Kealoha — report (citing Levi 

Kealoha), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2882 — Proceedings Against Adele Kensinger — report (citing 

Adele Kensinger), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2883 — Proceedings Against Benjamin Kaahawinui — report 

(citing Benjamin Kaahawinui), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2884 — Proceedings Against Frank Kalua — report (citing Frank 

Kalua), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2885 — Proceedings Against Yoshita Marumo — report (citing, 

Yoshita Marumo), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2886 — Proceedings Against Robert Murasaki — report (citing 

Robert Murasaki), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2887 — Proceedings Against Robert McElrath — report (citing 

Robert McElrath), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2888 — -Proceedings Against Julian Napuunoa — report (citing 

Julian Napuunoa), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2889 — Proceedings Against Tadashi (Castner) Ogawa — report 

(citing Tadashi (Castner) Ogawa), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2890 — Proceedings Against Hideo Okada — report (citing 

Hideo Okada), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2891 — Proceedings Against Wilfred Oka — report (citing 

Wilfred Oka), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2892 — Proceedings Against Jeanette Nakama Rohrbough — 

report (citing Jeanette Nakama Rohrbough), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2893 — Proceedings Against Mitsuo Shimizu — report (citing 

Mitsuo Shimizu), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2894 — Proceedings Against Frank Takahashi — report (citing 

Frank Takahasi), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2895 — Proceedings Against Shigeo Takemoto — report (citing 

Shigeo Takemoto), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2896 — Proceedings Against Ralph Vossbrink — report (citing 

Ralph Vossbrink), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2897 — Proceedings Against Thomas Yagi — report (citing 

Thomas Yagi), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2898 — Proceedings Against Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz — report 

(citing Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2899 — Proceedings Against David Joseph Bohm — report (citing 

David Joseph Bohm), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2900 — Proceedings Against Irving David Fox — report (citing 

Irving David Fox), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2901 — Proceedings Against Clarence Hiskey — report (citing 

Clarence Hiskey), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2902 — Proceedings Against Frank Hashmall — report (citing 

Frank Hashmall), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2903 — Proceedings Against Talmadge Raley — report (citing 

Talmadge Raley), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2904 — Proceedings Against Esther Tice — report (citing Esther 

Tice), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2905 — Proceedings Against Marcel Scherer — report (citing 

Marcel Scherer), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2906 — Proceedings Against Mrs. Louise Berman — report 

(citing Mrs. Louise Berman), August 11, 1950. 
House Report No. 2907 — Proceedings Against Pasquale Leonard James Branca — 

report (citing Pasquale Leonard James Branca), August 11, 1950. 



38 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

House Report No. 3123 — Report on The National Lawyers Guild — Legal Bulwark 
of the Communist Party, September 17, 1950. 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism — Series in the U. S. A. 

— and Religion — and Education — and Labor — and Government and Spot- 
light on Spies, December 1, 1950. 

Report on The National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill — A Communist 
Lobby, December 7, 1950. 

The committee, during the year 1950, has filled 184,570 requests 
for publications printed and released during the second session of the 
Eighty- first Congress. 

The publications listed below, originally released in 1949, were 
reprinted and 15,500 copies were allocated to the committee for 
distribution: 

House Report No. 1951 — Report on the American Slav Congress and associated 

organizations, April 26, 1950. 
House Report No. 1952 — -Report on Atomic Espionage (Nelson Weinberg and 

Hiskey- Adams cases), April 26, 1950. 
House Report No. 1953 — Report on the Congress of American Women, April 26, 

1950. 
House Report No. 1954— Review of the Scientific and Cultural Conference for 

World Peace arranged by the National Council of the Arts, Sciences and 

Professions, and held in New York City, March 25, 26, and 27, 1949, April 26, 

1950. 

Approximately 98,000 copies of these reprints and of other material 
released in previous years have been distributed by the committee 
during the past year. 

In addition, the committee received and distributed a large number 
of copies of the Conference Report (H. Rept. No. 3112 to accompany 
H. R. 9490) and of Public Law 831 — An act to protect the United 
States against certain un-American and subversive activities by 
requiring registration of Communist organizations, and for other 
purposes. Numerous requests from organizations and individuals are 
being received daily for copies of this new law and all reports con- 
nected with it. 

The demand for our publication, 100 Things You Should Know 
About Communism, is still very large. As mentioned in our 1949 
annual report, of the 250,000 copies of this series authorized to be 
reprinted through House Concurrent Resolution 52 of this Congress, 
one-half, or 125,000 copies were allocated to the Members of the 
House through the folding room. A request in the form of a letter 
was sent to each Member asking that any surplus copies of his allot- 
ment be turned over to us. Approximately 10,000 copies were received 
from this source but, through the year, requests from the various 
Members who had exhausted their quota, far exceeded this small 
supply. By September of this year, out* supply was completely 
exhausted. A revised edition was prepared and released for distribu- 
tion on December 1, 1950. However, the supply of this publication 
is at present far from sufficient to meet the large number of requests 
which are being received daily. 

The following letters from various sections of the country are typical 
of many thousands received by this office through the year 1950: 

OlHAMBER OF COMMERCE, HARLAN COUNTY, 

Harlan, Ky., December 6, 1950. 
I have just come from a conference and want to report to you that the Harlan 
County School System is using the pamphlet "100 Things You Should Know 
About Communism" as a text in sociology and other classes. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 39 

Dallas, Tex., November 14, 1950. 
You might be interested to know about the interest in your document One 
Hundred Things You Should Know About Communism. Some time ago I sent 
for a copy of this booklet, and after reading it sent for 50 more copies which I 
distributed among the young people (ages 20-30) of our church. One fellow 
became so interested that he showed the booklet to an executive of the Dallas 
Vocation School who in turn sent for more copies and held daily sessions using 
this booklet as a textbook. There was an attendance of some 600 men and every 
student was informed by the instructor, it was reported to me. 

Cleveland, Ohio, November 20, 1950. 

In our company, we are carrying on a series of employee educational programs 
designed to acquaint them with current economic problems in America. 

Your booklet One Hundred Things You Should Know About Communism is an 
excellent source of information on these subjects. 

Fort Wayne, Ind., December 4, 1950. 

May we have 100 copies of the following publication for class room use: One 
Hundred Things You Should Know About Communism in the United States of 
America. 

Seattle, Wash., December 11, 1950. 

A friend showed to me today a copy of the bulletin, One Hundred Things You 
Should Know About Communism. I wish that a copy of this could be placed in 
the hands of every member of our student body and faculty. We have 160 mem- 
bers of our student body, and 15 members on the faculty and office staff. That 
would be a total of 175. I do not know how many of that number you feel that 
you can spare. Please send to us as many copies of that bulletin as you can. 

Petersburg, Va. * November 13, 1950. 

The pastor of Memorial Methodist Church, Petersburg, Va., desires 100 copies 
of the leaflet, One Hundred Things You Should Know About Communism. 

TEAnECK, N. J., November 21, 1950. 

Please send me at your earliest convenience, 75 free copies of the pamphlet 
called One Hundred Things You Should Know About Communism. 

We are studying the unit on Communism in America in our eleventh and 
twelfth grade classes, and I would very much like to have my classes get some 
first-hand information of the work done in this field by your committee. 

November 10, 1950. 

This office not long ago acquired a copy of the booklet, One Hundred Things 
You Should Know About Communism, prepared and released by your com- 
mittee in 1949. This booklet has been an invaluable supplement to the Armed 
Forces talks on communism prepared for the Defense Department's information 
and education program. 

Due to the very large turn-over in military personnel caused by the United 
Nations activity in Korea and the expansion of the armed services, there are 
many soldiers at Fort Benning, mainly Reserves recalled to active duty, who have 
not been too well indoctrinated in the dangers, objectives, and activities of inter- 
national communism, or the present and future results of these activities. 

We desire to present to each unit at Fort Benning as much material as possible 
relating to the subject of communism, and we would like to include in this library 
on communism (we might more aptly say "library on anticommunism") at least 
one copy of the booklet, One Hundred Things You Should Know About Com- 
munism. 

Is the booklet still available for distribution, is it distributed free, or is there 
a price for it, and if so, how much? We would like to acquire 500 copies. 

United States Naval Ordnance Test Station, 

West Coast, December 12, 1950. 

Please forward to me the series of booklets entitled One Hundred Things You 
Should Know About Communism. I understand there are five of these booklets 
touching upon various aspects of communistic activities. 

These booklets to be used as part of the training of the security force at this 
installation. Any other literature suitable for this purpose would be appreciated. 



40 REPORT OF THE, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

We take this opportunity to thank the Members of the House, the 
Senate, and other congressional committees, for making available to 
us other documents on subversive activities. Several hundreds of 
these publications have been distributed through this office during 
the past year. 

Approximately 30,000 copies of publications released by this com- 
mittee have been sold through the Government Printing Office during 
the year 1950. 

Bequests for information on subversive activities has far exceeded 
our supply and requests by mail have continued to pile up in this office. 

The following publications: One Hundred Things You Should Know 
About Communism series; Citations, which deals with Communist 
fronts; Report No. 209, Eightieth Congress, which proves the Com- 
munist Party is an agent of a foreign power; and a report on commu- 
nism in labor unions, have been requested by various agencies of the 
Government, schools, colleges ; civic, religious, and patriotic organiza- 
tions in far greater numbers than our supply will allow us to fill. 

We recommend that these publications be printed in sufficient 
numbers to allow us to fill all requests to organizations or citizens who 
are seeking to familiarize themselves with the deadly menace of 
communism. 

To comply with the above recommendation it may become necessary 
to amend the Printing Act which deals with the printing of Govern- 
ment documents for free distribution. 

Files of the Committee 

The committee has continued to add to its vast storehouse of 
information concerning the programs and aims of subversive organi- 
zations and the activities of individuals connected with such groups. 
The files of the committee, which have been consulted by thousands 
of Government officials and agents, contain documentary evidence 
and original data collected by the committee during its 12 years of 
diligent investigation and inquiry into subversive activities in all 
spheres of American life. This voluminous reference collection con- 
stitutes an unexcelled and ever-growing source of information and 
irreplaceable documentary evidence. More than 300,000 pieces of 
valuable new material have been classified, indexed, and added to 
the collection during the year. 

The growth in the volume of information and source material 
throughout the 12 years of the committee's existence has been paral- 
leled by wider use of reference facilities. This use reached a new peak 
in 1950. Factors contributing to this peak were the scope of the 
committee's investigations throughout the year, the lengthened visits 
of accredited agents from investigative units of the armed services 
and various Government agencies in connection with the loyalty 
program for Federal employees and security checks, increased use of 
reference services by Members of Congress, and the grave concern of 
the American people and their leaders, now faced with the necessity 
of holding the line for the free world against the openly revealed 
Communist goal of world conquest. The 1950 peak is indicative of 
unprecedented use of the reference collections, files of exhibit material, 
and original data compiled by the committee as the Nation mobilizes 
for defense. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 41 

During the past 12 years, some 1,300 witnesses have testified in 
public and executive hearings held by the committee. A huge volume 
of evidence has been submitted in support of this testimony. The 
committee has acquired vast files of source material documenting 
the 7 1 reports and pamphlets which have been issued during the past 
12 years. 

The committee has made readily available, as a reference facility, 
a collection of lists of signers of Communist Party election petitions, 
obtained from original petitions or photostatic copies of original 
petitions which contain 363,119 signatures for various years in 
20 States. Its reference collection includes information and docu- 
mentary evidence collected by staff investigators, official records 
obtained from other agencies, and data supplied by law-enforcement 
agencies. A voluminous collection of propaganda organs and pam- 
phlets, issued by subversive groups, dating from 1923, has been 
acquired. 

The committee's continuing study of Communist activity since 
1938 has resulted in a voluminous collection of information concerning 
the leaders, programs, and aims of an entrenched potential fifth 
column made up of the 54,000 members of the Communist Party 
and its half million followers, and their increasing efforts in behalf of 
the forces of international communism. The committee has unearthed 
information concerning the activities and methods of foreign agents 
intent on missions of propaganda, espionage, and sabotage. This 
information will serve as a valuable tool in the protection of our country 
against espionage and sabotage from within in this period of national 
emergency. 

The increasing flow of information and source material and the 
growing use of reference facilities by both staff members and liaison 
agents from other groups have made the problem of space a pressing 
one. During the past 2 years, material has been consolidated, shifted, 
and rearranged so that maximum use has been made of the storage 
and working space available. The problem of space has made the 
overcrowding of irreplaceable material inevitable while each day brings 
new material of value to the collection. With the limitation of space, 
the filing of new material has become a time-consuming task rather 
than a quickly accomplished routine one, and it has been impossible 
to keep all material readily accessible. This, of necessity, has resulted 
in a slowing up of services in some instances. The preservation of 
irreplaceable documents and source material acquired by the commit- 
tee in readily accessible form is of utmost importance in view of the 
constant demand for examination of such exhibits. 

Staff members and visiting agents alike have been hampered by lack 
of working space. While the committee has always endeavored to 
render the utmost aid to other investigative agencies in their use of its 
reference facilities, the limitation of space has made it necessary to 
restrict one or more agencies as to the number of agents assigned to 
work in the reference section for the full day. Because of this limita- 
tion, the committee has been forced to close the section to outside 
agents for one afternoon each week in order that staff members might 
have room for filing new material and restoring to the files exhibits 
used during the week. Some representatives of other agencies have 
worked throughout the day in an adjacent hall as a result of the 
space problem. Additional room must be found for both storage space 



42 REPORT OF THEi COMMITTEE ON UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

and working space for staff members and visitors if the committee is 
to keep its valuable reference facilities readily available, meet the 
increasing requests for research work and information, and render 
efficient service to other mvestigative groups. 

Reference facilities have been in constant use throughout the year 
by staff members in connection with the widespread investigations 
of the committee. Dossiers and reports have been compiled from 
information on file for the use of committee members and staff investi- 
gators. An average of more than 300 exhibits have been charged out 
each month for the use of staff members and, in special cases, to 
representatives of other agencies engaged in investigative work. 
No count is kept of the number of exhibits, periodicals, and other 
material consulted in the reference division throughout each day 
where such material is in constant use. 

The consolidated card files of the committee now contain more than 
half a million card references which serve as an index to source material 
on file. Some 75,000 cards were added to the collection during 1950. 
A total of 234 pamphlets received during the year were cataloged and 
added to the collection of 5,300. This specialized collection includes 
hundreds of publications of the Communist Party and its front 
organizations, and has been widely used by staff members throughout 
the year. A number of old pamphlets have been recataloged. 

Staff members have compiled indexes to the 2,105 pages of testimony 
presented by the 147 witnesses who testified in public hearings held 
by the committee and the seven reports issued in 1950. These 
indexes contain 1,650 references to individuals and 1,150 references to 
organizations. Indexes to public hearings held by the committee 
during the past 12 years and the 71 reports issued during this same 
period contain a total of 54,528 references to individuals and 12,914 
references to organizations. 

Individual files have been maintained on some 4,000 leaders of the 
Communist Party and its front organizations and leaders of Fascist 
groups. Additions have been made to the reference collection of 
hearings held by other agencies investigating subversive activities 
and reports issued by these groups, and to other reference collections 
pertinent to the work of the committee. 

Staff members have continued to index and add to the files about 
1,000 issues of Communist publications and other periodicals and 
newspapers each month. Issues of more than 675 publications are 
now on file, with issues of more than 90 periodicals published by the 
Communist Party and its various front organizations included in the 
collection. 

The files of the committee have been open to accredited agents of 
the executive department and have been widely used for security 
checks. In the Executive order, signed by the President on March 
21, 1947, which prescribes procedures for administration of the loyalty 
program for Federal employees, the files of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities are listed as one of the pertinent sources of infor- 
mation to be checked in determining the loyalty of employees and 
applicants for employment. 

From January 1 through December 31, 1950, accredited represent- 
atives of Government agencies made 3,600 visits to the files section, 
checking reference sources for information concerning more than half 
a million persons. Visitors have made more requests to examine 



REPORT OF C]lE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 43 

source material than in previous years. Throughout the year, an 
average of eight liaison agents have been assigned to work in the 
reference section for the entire day. Visits of other agents have 
ranged from short periods to a full day. 

Every effort has been made to facilitate the work of accredited 
agents who make their own checks of the consolidated card-record 
files and committee publications. Staff members have been available 
at all times to furnish reference material requested and answer the 
numerous inquiries which arise in the course of such checks. 

During the year 1950, reference collections of the committee were 
consulted by representatives of various investigative units of the 
following agencies: 

Bureau of the Census 
Central Intelligence Agency 
Department of Agriculture 
Department of the Air Force 
Department of the Army- 
Department of Commerce 
Department of the Interior 
Department of Justice 
Department of Labor 
Department of the Navy 
Department of State 
Department of the Treasury 
Displaced Persons Commission 
Economic Cooperation Administration 
Federal Bureau of Investigation 
General Services Administration 
Metropolitan Police Department 
National Security and Resources Board 
Securities and Exchange Commission 
United States Civil Service Commission 
United States Coast' Guard 
United States Secret Service 

During 1950, staff members answered some 2,600 requests made by 
Members of Congress for information concerning 5,167 individuals 
and 1,917 organizations. Requests made by Members of Congress 
during 1950 for information concerning individuals were double those 
made in 1949, when 2,473 reports on individuals were compiled. 
Three times as many requests for information concerning organizations 
were made by Members of Congress in 1950 as in 1949, when 597 
reports were made on the activities of various groups. 

Reports prepared for Members of Congress included all information 
found in public records, files, and publications of the committee con- 
cerning individuals or organizations. The length of such reports 
ranged from 1 to 80 typewritten pages. These compilations require 
constant research by staff members and grow in length as more 
material becomes available each year. 

Staff members have endeavored to meet all of the increasing de- 
mands made upon reference facilities throughout the year despite 
handicaps imposed by limitations of both storage and working space. 

o