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u, 






nion Calendar No. 763 



82d Congress, 2d Session 



House Report No. 2431 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN 

ACTIVITIES 



FOR THE YEAR 1951 




FEBRUARY 17, 1952 

(Date of original release) 

JULY 2, 1952. — Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State 
of the Union and ordered to be printed 



Prepared and released by the 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES, U. S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

WASHINGTON. D. C. 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

JOHN S. WOOD, Georgia, Chairman 
FRANCIS B. WALTER, Pennsylvania HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee CHARLES E. POTTER, Michigan 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 
Louis J. Russell, Senior Investigator 
John W. Carrixgton, Clerk of Committee 
Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 
II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword 1 

Communist efforts to infiltrate farm groups 6 

Communist tactics among veterans groups 7 

Hollywood motion-picture industry 7 

Communist activities in vital defense areas in the United States: 

Baltimore 9 

Massachusetts 13 

American Committee To Survey Trade Union Conditions in Europe 17 

Jack Kawano 18 

Oliver Edmund Clubb 19 

Complicitv of American Communists in the destruction of freedom in the 

Far East _• 22 

Files and reference service 24 

Publications 26 

Recommendations 28 

in 



Union Calendar No. 763 

82d Congress ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES J Report 
M Session S t No. 2431 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERI- 
CAN ACTIVITIES FOR THE YEAR 1951 



July 2, 1952. — Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State 

of the Union and ordered to be printed 



Mr, Wood of Georgia, from the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

submitted the following 

REPORT 

[Pursuant to Public Law 601, 79th Cong.] 

IV 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON UN- 
AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR THE YEAR 1951 



Foreword 



The following report for the year 1951 is submitted to the House 
of Representatives in pursuance of Public Law G01 (sec. 121, subsec. q 
(2) ) adopted August 2, 1946, which made the Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities a standing committee of the House of Representatives, 
and House Resolution 7, of the Eighty-second Congress. 

The duties of the Committee on Un-American Activities as de- 
scribed in Public Law 601 enacted by the Seventy-ninth Congress are 
in part as follows : 

The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States; 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution ; 
and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The committee is aware more than ever before of the importance 
and magnitude of the duty entrusted it by the Congress. 

During 1951 the committee held more than 100 public hearings and 
nearly as many executive meetings. The members on several instances 
commenced hearings as early as 8 o'clock in the morning and frequent- 
ly the hearings would extend into the late evening hours. 

The committee has continued its established policy of permitting 
every witness to appear accompanied by legal counsel. The witness 
has had the opportunity to confer with counsel on every occasion he 
so desired. AVhile it is true that a considerable amount of the com- 
mittee's time has been taken by such conferences, the committee, in 
the interest of fairness, will continue to pursue this policy. 

The committee on every available occasion has publicly invited in- 
dividuals, especially former Communists, to cooperate with the com- 
mittee by appearing before the committee and making such statements 
of facts as will assist the committee in its assigned duty to investigate 
the extent and character of subversive and un-American activities. 

The committee has also frequently invited any person named in testi- 
mony before the committee as being a member of the Communist Party 
or Communist-front organization, to come before the committee to 
either affirm or deny the statements made concerning him. 

The committee has been careful to maintain its established policy 
to avoid that noncooperative witnesses are not heard before a sub- 
committee of one member and has insured that in hearing such wit- 
nesses there be present at least one member from each of the majority 
and minority representation. 

1 



2 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The committee during 1951 conducted hearings to ascertain the 
extent and success of Communist efforts to influence the American 
farmers' and veterans' groups. The committee was pleased to find 
that by and large these inherently loyal groups repulsed all efforts 
of the Communists to gain strength within their ranks. 

It was necessary in 1951 for the committee to again conduct hear- 
ings concerning Communist infiltration into the motion-picture in- 
dustry. Hearings conducted in 1947 resulted in the identification 
of 10 persons associated with the motion-picture industry as members 
of the Communist Party. Later, these 10 persons were given the op- 
portunity of denying or affirming their membership in the Communist 
Party. As a result of their refusal to answer pertinent questions 
asked by the committee, these individuals were cited by Congress for 
contempt, and, subsequently, all 10 received and served jail sentences. 
There were many critics of the committee who claimed at that time 
that the refusal of these individuals to answer questions did not estab- 
lish the proof of their membership in the Communist Party, and voiced 
doubt that these persons were Communists. During the hearings in 
1951 all 10 of these persons were again identified as members of the 
Communist Party. 

It was the hope of the committee, after having conducted the 1947 
hearings, that the motion-picture industry would accept the initiative 
and take positive and determined steps to check communism within 
the industry. Unfortunately, however, the spokesmen for the indus- 
try persisted at that time in painting an unrealistic picture of com- 
munism in Hollywood and some, at least, would have had the Amer- 
ican public believe that there was no such thing as organized com- 
munism in the motion-picture industry. 

The committee pursued its established policy that whenever it is 
obvious that a responsible group, whether in industry, labor, or inde- 
pendent organization, does not perform its duty in guarding itself 
against Communist influence,- then the committee must expose this 
defect. So it was with the motion-picture industry. The commit- 
tee's hearings in 1951 resulted in the identification of more than 300 
persons associated with the industry as members of the Communist 
Party. There were varying opinions given by witnesses as to the 
success of the Communists in influencing the content of motion pic- 
tures. The fact was evident that such efforts were made. 

An opinion given the committee, by a former official of the Com- 
munist Party, concerning the success with which the motion pictures 
were influenced by the Communists, disclosed that Earl Browder, 
while he was head of the Communist Party, made the statement : 

We are less interested in a film that lias Communist context, wheve a few 
hundred people will come and see it. We are more interested in an ordinary 
John-and-Mary picture where there is only a drop of progressive thought in it. 
So therefore the approach must be not that the party wanted to take Holly- 
wood by the throat and change the content. The party understood that Holly- 
wood is a cultural center and has very prominent people there, people who write, 
who go to Washington, who go to New York. They are creative people. And 
where you have creative people, if you influence their thinking, their product 
will be somewhat different. We are going to have a different product. 

This individual in explaining the manner in which the Communist 
Party might exert influence over the content of a motion picture stated 
that he believed that there had been created in Hollywood an atmos- 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 3 

phere for "progressive pictures" and no atmosphere for "reactionary 
pictures." 

Looking at it in this light, this former official stated that he believed 
that the Communist Party had succeeded fairly well in the Holly- 
wood community. 

Of importance was the disclosure of Hollywood as a reservoir for 
financing Communist objectives, without which the Communist Party 
and its fronts in the United States would have had difficulty operating. 
The committee has scheduled certain additional hearings concerning 
the motion-picture industry as a result of the 1951 investigation. 

During 1951 the committee conducted an investigaiton toward ascer- 
taining the nature and scope of Communist infiltration into areas of 
vital defense industry in the United States. 

Hearings were conducted concerning this type of Communist activ- 
ity in Maryland and Massachusetts. Through the testimony given by 
Mrs. Mary Stalcup Markward and Mr. Herbert A. Philbrick, both of 
whom had operated as undercover agents in the Communist Party 
for the FBI, it was disclosed that as early as 1945 Communist Party 
members were given instructions to take employment in industries 
considered vital to the defense efforts of the United States. It was 
also disclosed that surveys were conducted by the Communist Party 
which would enable it to learn the exact extent of our national defense 
efforts. A representative number from the more than 100 persons in 
the labor field identified as Communists were called before the com- 
mittee and, without exception, they refused to answer questions con- 
cerning Communist membership and association. 

The committee also commenced hearings during 1951 to ascertain 
the American aspects of the Soviet espionage ring disclosed by the 
arrest of Richard Sorge in Japan. The original information concern- 
ing the Sorge ring was discovered by American occupation forces in 
Japan. 

The committee was indeed fortunate in being able to hear Gen. 
Charles A. Willoughby, who had been in charge of the military intel- 
ligence branch of the United States occupation forces in Japan. Gen- 
eral Willoughby introduced voluminous evidence relating to the Sorge 
matter. The committee also heard testimony from Mitsusada Yoshi- 
kawa, who was one of the Japanese procurators who investigated the 
members of the Sorge ring for the Japanese Government. 

From this testimony and evidence, the committee learned that there 
were a number of Americans involved in the Sorge espionage ap- 
paratus, and it is the committee's intention that these individuals and 
the extent of their involvement be completely exposed. 

In 1950 the committee conducted extensive investigation which re- 
sulted in hearings in the Territory of Hawaii. During those hearings, 
the committee called Jack Kawano, who had been a prominent labor 
leader. Kawano, while denying that he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the time of his appearance, refused to answer ques- 
tions concerning former membership in or association with members 
of the Communist Party. 

During 1951 Kawano again appeared before the committee and on 
this occasion answered all questions propounded to him concerning his 
membership in and association with the Communist Party. Kawano's 
testimony definitely established that the strongest labor union in the 
Territory of Hawaii, the International Longshoremen's and Ware- 



4 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

housemen's Union, was under complete Communist domination. The 
committee is naturally alarmed at these revelations because of the 
strategic importance of the Territory of Hawaii to the national secu- 
rity or this country. 

Since Whittaker Chambers first appeared before this committee, 
with the eventual result that Alger Hiss went to jail, the committee 
has determined that Chambers' disclosures be carefully pursued. 

Chambers, whose memory for individuals and events has been 
amazing, advised the committee of an incident which, according to 
his recollection, occurred in 1932. He recalled that while he was 
editor of the Communist publication New Masses, the offices of the 
publication were visited by a man who was employed by the United 
States Department of State in China, and who requested to see a 
former editor of New Masses. Chambers recalled that this State 
Department employee had a letter of introduction from Agnes Smed- 
ley, a left-wing writer, who was named by Richard Sorge as having 
been an espionage contact. Chambers recalled this person's name as 
"Chubb." 

The committee called Oliver Edmund Clubb, a Foreign Service 
officer of the State Department, who, at first questioning, could recall 
none of the facts related by Chambers. Subsequently, through the 
use of old diaries, Clubb did recall the incident and verified in almost 
every aspect the circumstances as related by Whittaker Chambers. 
The committee has learned that Mr. Clubb's suitability for continued 
employment is presently under consideration by the State Department. 

This committee, over the past years, has received an alarming 
volume of information reflecting the existence and operation of Soviet 
espionage in the United States. In order that the American people 
and their representatives might have an understanding of this treach- 
ery, an extensive survey was conducted by the committee to expose 
this operation. The result of the committee's work was compiled in 
a report entitled "The Shameful Years." 

The committee learned that shortly after communism first became 
personified in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United 
States of America became the objective of one of the most intense 
and concerted espionage operations. The committee report shows 
that over a period of more than 30 years the Soviet Union has abused 
every principle of ethics and international law in order to acquire 
all information concerning the industrial might and defense measures 
of this country. 

Many of the committee's recommendations are based on the findings 
that are contained in the report, The Shameful Years. On the basis 
of this record, the committee feels that its recommendations are the 
minimum to afford protection to this country. 

In the course of hearings during 1951 and particularly in those 
dealing with the motion-picture industry, the committee became alarm- 
ingly aware that many persons have a misunderstanding of the true 
purpose of subpenas issued for witnesses to appear before the com- 
mittee. The committee regrets the tendency on the part of some in- 
dividuals to consider a committee subpena as the equivalent of a 
statement of charges or a warrant of arrest for the person served. 

The committee is gravely cognizant that such a misunderstanding 
may seriously hamper the proper procedure of the committee in its 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 5 

functions. There are numerous instances, where, in the pursuit of 
logical investigative leads, individuals innocent of any stigma of 
subversion or wrongdoing are subpenaed to furnish valuable informa- 
tion to the committee. It has been brought to the attention of the 
committee that many of the persons so subpenaed, especially those of 
public prominence, have been subjected to ridicule and discrimina- 
tion as a result of having received such subpenas. 

The Congress will recognize, as does this committee, that such an 
attitude is imprudent and harmful to innocent individuals as well 
as to the work of the committee. For this reason, it is necessary to 
reiterate that the American people should be guided by the public 
record of the committee before judging individuals who appear before 
the committee, rather than to make any premature evaluation on the 
mere service of subpena on a given individual. 

During the past year, this committee has been subject, as have many 
congressional committees in the past, to the efforts of various pressure 
groups. The committee recognizes that for the most part all of the 
American public is interested in the proper identification of Com- 
munists and Communist endeavors. The committee, however, cannot 
lend itself to any selfish aims to discredit or defame any persons or 
groups. To this end, the committee must affirm its directed aims to 
investigate subversive and un-American activities, and takes this 
opportunity to invite any person having definite information con- 
cerning the identities of any Communist or knowledge of subversive 
endeavors to furnish such information to the committee. 

The committee feels that in the present troubled times there is a 
tendency to loosely identify persons as members of the Communist 
Party. This tendency in many ways works adversely to the efforts 
of this and other committees and agencies to properly identify mem- 
bers of the Communist Party for the American public. In order to 
avoid that, through public misunderstanding, the term "Communist" 
might become nothing more than a descriptive adjective or a low 
epithet, the committee will continue to pursue the practice of furnish- 
ing positive proof of the Communist membership of any person or 
group so described. 

The committee, in its exploration of the extent and tactics of the 
Communist Party in the United States, has met with many obstacles 
and difficulties. Not the least of these has been the reluctance of 
former Communists to give testimony before the committee which 
might bring upon them public censure and economic retaliation. 

The principal source of committee information during 1951 was 
the former Communist. The knowledge now possessed by the Con- 
gress and by the American people is the total of the sums of informa- 
tion disclosed by men and women who were formerly in the ranks 
of the Communist Party. To deny to these cooperative witnesses a 
full opportunity for social, economic, and political rehabilitation fol- 
lowing their testimony before committees of the Congress will not 
only render more difficult the obtaining of authentic and necessary 
information about the Communist conspiracy and the operations of 
Communist branches and sections, but, what is equally important, 
may serve to drive the former Communist into other associations 
which prey upon the disillusioned and outcast. Without exception 
cooperative witnesses profess to have broken completely their philo- 

H. Rept. 2431, 82-2 2 



6 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

sophical and physical ties with the Communist Party. All have been 
made the object of vilification and abuse by their former comrades. 
Finding a welcome neither among loyal Americans nor Communists, 
the friendly witness becomes in truth and in fact a social problem and 
an embittered piece of human flotsam. The former Communist who 
has left the ranks of the conspiracy and desires to place his knowledge 
of the party at the disposal of his Government should be given every 
opportunity to do so, and it is the belief of the committee that he should 
be permitted, insofar as his subsequent conduct and qualifications per- 
mit, to rehabilitate himself in the eyes of and in the ranks of loyal 
American citizens. 

Today there are thousands of former Communists in the United 
States; men and women who look upon their life in the Communist 
conspiracy as a tragic mistake which they sincerely regret having 
made. They prefer to speak, and they will speak, given the sympa- 
thetic understanding of their fellowmen. The committee recom- 
mends that cooperative witnesses before the committee be accorded a 
fuller measure of understanding by employers and associates, to the 
end that they can take their places in the ranks of those who are 
engaged in the mortal struggle against world domination. 

During 1951 the committee's hearings disclosed the positive identi- 
fication of more individuals as members of the Communist Party than 
during any preceding year in the history of the committee. 

In line with the established policy of the committee, no schedule for 
proposed hearings is being announced but the Congress may be assured 
that this committee will continue to pursue every aspect of subversive 
and un-American activities. 

Communist Efforts to Infiltrate Farm Groups 

The committee is aware that in the Communist formula for world 
conquest, one of the prime objectives in any country is control in the 
agricultural field. In Soviet Russia, the first endeavors were made to 
place the farming population under Communist subservience. The 
much publicized and often repeated "5-year plans" of the Soviets have 
dealt largely with the collective farms, which in reality are nothing 
more than slave-labor camps. The committee has learned that in the 
Soviet plan for the conquest of China the principal target was the 
capturing of the great mass of peasants. In this the Soviet efforts 
were so successful that it was sometime before the Western World 
realized that the turmoil in China was a Communist revolution rather 
than an "agrarian reformation" which some persons would have us 
believe. 

Possessing this information, the committee determined to ascertain 
what inroads, if any, had been made by the Communists among the 
American farmer. In furtherance of this determination the com- 
mittee called Lenient U. Harris, who was secretary of the farmers 
national committee of the Communist Party in the United States. Mr. 
Harris, while refusing to answer any questions dealing with Com- 
munist membership or association, did admit an interest in various 
farm groups in the United States. 

The committee is pleased to report that with but few exceptions the 
farmers' groups within the United States have been impervious to the 
Communist efforts to infiltrate into their ranks. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES i 

Communist Tactics Among Veterans Groups 

Communism, having gained power through national discord, has 
always preyed upon the misfortune of its enemies, the free countries 
of the world. 

In the United States during the year 1932 there was a group of well- 
meaning men, who, having served their country loyally during World 
War I, and finding little or no employment, were ready to exhibit 
dissatisfaction with their Government. The Communists, miscalcu- 
lating the caliber of these men, endeavored to gain advantages through 
using the veterans to accomplish their selfish aims. 

The committee heard the testimony of John T. Pace, who, as a 
Communist during that period, was assigned to effect control of the 
veterans for the Communists. Mr. Pace testified that it was the 
desire of the Communists to accomplish an armed revolution which 
could be converted to a Communist victory. 

The committee hopes that, if the Communists again choose to accom- 
plish a revolution in the United States, it endeavors to influence a group 
of veterans because if they do so the country will have no worries 
from that quarter. 

The testimony of Mr. Pace only reiterated what the committee 
already knew concerning veterans' groups; that with but few excep- 
tions there is no more loyal group within the United States than those 
men and women who have sacrificed so much that this country may 
be free of such tyrannies as communism. 

Hollywood Motion Picture Industry 

During the year 1951, the committee devoted a great deal of atten- 
tion and investigative effort to Communist infiltration in the Holly- 
wood motion-picture industry. The motion-picture business repre- 
sents an investment of billions of dollars. It is not the committee's 
purpose to destroy this investment. It must be remembered, however, 
that the American public also has an investment in Hollywood for, 
prior to the advent of television, the American public relied almost 
solely upon Hollywood motion pictures for visual, dramatic presenta- 
tion. It must be realized that moving pictures have a tremendous 
emotional effect upon the audience which views them. The same is 
true of television shows. Because of the vast new potentialities of 
television it seems logical that Hollywood motion pictures will some 
time in the future be presented on a large scale to television audiences. 

The committee hopes that its investigation of Hollywood will have 
a far-reaching effect and prevent a large-scale future Communist 
infiltration of the television industry. It is logical to assume that the 
Communists will endeavor to infiltrate television on a large scale 
because it is rapidly becoming an important entertainment medium 
in the United States. The committee realizes that the vast majority 
of entertainers and workers in the entertainment field are patriotic 
and loyal Americans, but the flow of money to Communist coffers 
which comes from those who are disloyal must be stopped. 

The need for remedial action was amply demonstrated when it 
was found that four Communist-front organizations, which had oper- 
ated in the State of California, had received approximately $1,000,000 
from members of the Hollywood motion-picture industry. It had 



8 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

long been known that Hollywood was one of the principal sources of 
funds for the Communist Party of the United States. 

During the course of the hearings, certain persons who would not 
cooperate with the committee tried to minimize the value of the com- 
mittee's investigation by stating that the Communists in Hollywood 
were not a bad lot ; that they were all good Communists who had never 
attempted to overthrow the Government; that they had not carried 
on espionage; and that no Communist propaganda had been inserted 
in motion pictures. These persons purposely overlooked the principal 
reason for the committee's investigation. They did not want to bring 
out the fact that the money which flowed into the Communist Party 
from Hollywood helped to make it possible for those who have sought 
and those who still seek to overthrow the United States by force and 
violence and to betray its defense secrets to an enemy to lay the ground- 
work for future catastrophies which would result in death to American 
sons on world battlefields and severely damage the economic status 
of every citizen of the United States. 

It has been noted in press reports that the same persons who said 
there were no Communists in Hollywood in 1945, which was the date 
of the committee's first investigation of the industry, are now saying 
that communism in Hollywood is mythical. If communism in Hol- 
lywood is now mythical, it is only because this committee conducted 
three investigations to bring it about. The industry itself certainly 
did not accomplish this. It should be recalled that during the 1947 
hearings the motion-picture industry adopted a hostile attitude toward 
the committee's hearings. In deference to the industry, however, it 
might be said that there was substantial cooperation during the 1951 
hearings as compared with those of 1947. The committee holds no 
brief for those still connected with the industry who try to minimize 
the extent of Communist infiltration in Hollywood and the prime 
danger it represents. 

The committee was astounded when the true extent of Communist 
infiltration and manipulation in the Hollywood motion-picture indus- 
try was disclosed. The committee had assumed that its 1947 hearings 
had served to minimize the power of the Communist Party among the 
devotees of the silver screen. However, it was found during the 
course of the 1951 hearings that actually the 1947 hearings had not 
lessened the extent of Communist infiltration in Hollywood and had 
not prevented the flow of money from Communists and fellow travel- 
ers employed in the industry to the Communist Party. The influence 
of the party in the Screen Writers' Guild, however, was severely cur- 
tailed as a result of the hearings held by the committee during the 
year 1947. 

It must be stated, however, that, if the same number of Communists 
existed in every segment of American life as in the case of Hollywood 
motion-picture writers during past years, the United States would be 
in a precarious position. 

The committee's investigation of the motion-picture industry was 
concerned almost entirely with the problem of exposure of the actual 
members of the Communist Party and did not deal, except in a few 
instances, with the problem of those who held or had held the status 
of fellow travelers. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 9 

It must be realized that investigations of industries, such as the 
Hollywood motion-picture industry, are costly at least insofar as the 
funds allotted to a congressional committee are concerned. It would 
be an impossibility for the committee to call before it all of the fellow 
travelers in Hollywood, or in any other industry for that matter. On 
the question of fellow travelers, suffice it to say, for the present at least, 
that Edward Dmytryk best demonstrated the damage done by fellow 
travelers when he said, in a story which appeared in the Saturday 
Evening Post, on May 19, 1951, entitled "What Makes a Hollywood 
Communist?": 

The time has come now when even the fellow traveler must get out. They're 
like the waxy capsule that protects the tubercle — dissolve that waxy covering 
and you could kill tuberculosis in no time. 

Further regarding the fellow traveler, Dymtryk, according to the 
Saturday Evening Post story, said : 

I know now that you can't aid a Communist front in any way without hurting 
your own country. The Hiss conviction, the Judith Coplon trial, they all show 
that no matter how small a fraction of the party is guilty of espionage, the 
responsibility is on the whole party, and anyone who supports it. 

During the 1951 hearings of the committee dealing with the Holly- 
wood motion-picture industry, there were more than 300 persons con- 
nected with the industry who were definitely identified as members of 
the Communist Party either past or present. The committee in these 
hearings alone heard more than 90 witnesses. 

Communist Activities in Vital Defense Areas in the United States 

baltimore 

The committee during the past year has been devoting a large share 
of its efforts to the investigation of the exposure of Communist activ- 
ities in vital defense centers in the United States. It adopted the 
procedure of conducting its investigations by defense production areas, 
because previous investigations of Communist-dominated unions have 
left untouched Communist-front activities in the areas where the 
Communist unions were located — untouched, even though the fronts 
were designed to aid the Communist Party in its infiltration of our 
basic industries. The old procedure also left untouched members of 
the Communist Party who had infiltrated non-Communist unions, 
under instructions of the Communist Party, for the purpose of divid- 
ing the leadership of these unions, if not successful in obtaining abso- 
lute control. 

The role the Communist Party has laid out for the labor movement 
in the United States is expressed in the report of the CIO Executive 
Board Committee, which was appointed "to investigate charges that 
the United Office and Professional Workers of America" were follow- 
ing policies consistently directed toward the achievement of the pro- 
gram for purposes of the Communist Party. In this respect, the CIO 
committee found : 

The Communist movement, from its inception, purported to be a movement 
of working people. Its basic thesis was that a new order of society must be 
created by revolution of the working classes and that the "dictatorship of the 
proletariat" must be established. Because of this basic thesis, Communist 
philosophy has always been predicated upon the use of trade-unions as an instru- 
ment of Communist policy and as a weapon by which the party could organize 



10 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

the working classes and bring nearer the revolution from which the dictatorship 
of the party would emerge. As Lenin said : 

"It is necessary to agree to any and every sacrifice * * * to resort to all 
sorts of devices, maneuvers, and illegal methods, to evasion and subterfuge, in 
order to penetrate the trade-unions, to remain in them and to carry on Commu- 
nist work in them at all costs." 

The Communist movement has thus always sought to operate through trade- 
unions, to speak in the language of labor and as a spokesman and leader of 
labor, and thus, by trickery and stratagem, to direct labor toward the goals of 
communism. 

The use of the trade-unions as an instrument of the Communist 
policy has been demonstrated by both intent and action. Communist 
strategy to destroy this country's industrial might is the same today 
as it was during the days prior to World War II when Hitler and 
Stalin were allies. 

Compare the actions of the Communist labor leaders of today in 
support of the Communist "Labor Committee for Peace" with the 
actions of these same Communist labor leaders in support of the 
"American Peace Mobilization" which flourished prior to World War 
II. Like the Labor Committee for Peace, the American Peace 
Mobilization was violently protesting the efforts of the United States 
to assist free countries of the world repulse aggression. This aggres- 
sion of the 1939-41 period, which was led by Hitler, was fully sup- 
ported by Stalin. Thus, these American Communists who decry 
fascism were wholeheartedly supporting it, while at the same 
time denouncing the United States as an imperialistic warmongering 
nation because of our aid to nations who were fighting fascism. Their 
cries of today are identical. The United States is again an imperial- 
istic warmongering nation because it opposes Communist aggression 
in Korea. 

The first of the defense-area investigations, wmich resulted in pub- 
lic hearings, was that of Baltimore. In this area, in addition to vital 
electronic, aircraft, maritime, and shipbuilding industries, there is 
located the vital steel-processing plant of the Bethlehem Steel Corp. 
known as Sparrows Point. This plant is the largest steel-processing 
plant in the United States and the second largest such plant in the 
world. The importance of this plant to the Communist Party can 
best be understood by reviewing the testimony of Mr. Mary Stalcup 
Markward. 

Mrs. Markward, a Virginia housewife, acted as an undercover in- 
formant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1943 until 
she was expelled by the Communist Party in February 1951 as an 
enemy of the Communist Party. Mrs. Markward, who rose within 
the Communist ranks to the position of treasurer of the Communist 
Party for the District of Columbia, and was a ranking functionary of 
District 4 of the Communist Party which included Maryland, testi- 
fied at length on the Communist activities in this area. Interrogated 
with respect to the importance of local industries to the Communist 
Party, Mrs. Markward stated : 

In District 4, and particularly in Baltimore, the decision of the district com- 
mittee was that the steel industry should be the primary concentration point; 
and the maritime industry should be the secondary concentration point, the 
maritime industry including seamen, longshoremen, and other related things. 

Also, electrical workers were to be organized. In Washington, D. C, building 
trades were the primary concentration point. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 11 

As disclosed in Mrs. Markward's testimony, these decisions were not 
reached by the local Communist organization but were decisions which 
were handed down by the national committee of the Communist 
Party. 

The importance which the Communists placed upon the steel in- 
dustry in Baltimore can also be seen through the fact that George 
Meyers, the labor secretary of the Communist Party of Maryland 
(presently under indictment for violating provisions of the Smith 
Act), was assigned to devote his full efforts to Communist infiltration 
of the steel industry. The Communists were successful in establish- 
ing a cell at the Sparrows Point plant of the Bethlehem Steel Corp., 
even though the anti-Communist United Steel Workers of America 
is the employees' bargaining agent. 

The committee subpenaed eight of the leading Communist em- 
ployees at the Sparrows Point plant, all of whom refused to answer 
all questions relating to their Communist Party activities on the 
grounds of self-incrimination. One employee, Robert W. Lee, even 
refused to name his present and previous employers, or to supply the 
committee with the name of his wife. He took this latter stand be- 
cause at the time of his testimony, his wife, Eugenie Greer Lee, was 
a school teacher in the public-school system of Baltimore. Howard 
Bernard Silverberg was an employee at Sparrows Point and, together 
with his wife, founded the Communist "Baltimore County Committee 
for Peace." Silverberg also refused to answer pertinent questions 
on the grounds of self-incrimination. 

The hearings on Baltimore developed that the Communist Party 
of this district did not establish a Maryland or District of Columbia 
branch of the Labor Committee for Peace, but rather organized a 
new Communist peace organization, the Maryland Committee for 
Peace. To attract scores of unsuspecting members of the clergy, to- 
gether with a large group of industrial and white-collar workers, 
the Maryland Committee for Peace drafted its own peace petition, 
which was designed to seek the same advantages to the Communists 
as the Stockholm Peace Pledge. Through circulating their own peti- 
tion, the Communists in Baltimore were enabled to present a front 
not officially tied in with the Labor League for Peace or the Stock- 
holm appeal. To give their organization a respectable appearance, 
Phil Frankfeld (presently under indictment for violating provisions 
of the Smith Act), then chairman of the Communist Party of Mary- 
land and the District of Columbia, selected Ruth H. Bleier, a medical 
intern at the Sinai Hospital; Gunther Wertheimer, a graduate stu- 
dent at Johns Hopkins University ; and Louis Shub, a concert pianist, 
to create the new organization. These individuals perfectly suited 
the Communist needs because they had never been publicly identified 
as members of the Communist Party, nor had they been overly iden- 
tified with predecessor Communist -front groups. Yet the fact of 
their affiliation, as disclosed by the Baltimore hearings, was that these 
individuals had been disciplined members of the Communist Party 
for some time. The irony of this situation was that Wertheimer, the 
organizer and real leader of the Maryland Committee for Peace, was 
able to devote his full time to its activities because he was receiving a 
veteran's subsistence allowance as a student studying under the provi- 
sions of the GI bill. Dr. Bleier was at the same time supported 



] 2 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

through the income of her husband, a captain in the Army Medical 
Corps on active duty at Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D. C. 

The investigation conducted by your committee in Baltimore pro- 
duced evidence of the one-time Communist Party membership of 
over 500 Baltimore residents. Over 300 of these individuals were 
employed in defense industries in the Baltimore area during World 
War II. The difficulty presented by the small staff of your commit- 
tee made it impossible to conduct full background investigations on 
all those identified as having been members of the Communist Party. 
Therefore, only a small percentage of those currently employed in 
vital industries were subpenaed. Continuing investigation indicates 
that many of the Communists who left vital industry employment 
after World War II are now returning to defense industries due to 
the defense build-up caused by Soviet aggression. This is, of course, 
a direct threat to the security of the United States. 

The Government and industry must take cognizance of the danger 
faced through the employment of Communists. On the other hand, 
so must the workers, who have the right by ballot to rid themselves 
of Communists, their sworn enemy. Milton Seif, an employee in 
the Key Highway yard of Bethlehem Ship Building, was a candidate 
for the office of business agent of the Key Highway local of the anti- 
Communist International Union of Marine Shipbuilding Workers 
of America. He was rejected by the workers for this office, only to 
be elected by them to the powerful position of chairman of the local's 
negotiating committee, after he had refused on the grounds of self- 
incrimination to state whether he was a member of the Communist 
Party. 

The employees of the American Smelting & Refining Co. continue 
to have as their bargaining agent the Communist-dominated Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers of America, even though Pete Forrest, a 
leader of the local, and Walter McMannamon, a former international 
representative and organizer of the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, 
refused to deny their membership in the Communist Party on the 
grounds of self-incrimination. This, on top of the fact that the Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers have been expelled from the CIO for their 
subservience to the Communist Party. 

The employees of _ Westinghouse Electric and the employees of 
Loche Insulator continue to have as their bargaining agent the Com- 
munist-dominated United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers 
of America. Testimony before this committee has disclosed that 
nearly every top leader of the UE has been identified as an active 
member of the Communist Party. The CIO has expelled the UE 
because of that union's subservience to the Communist Party. The 
UE international representative in Baltimore at the time of the com- 
mittee's hearings, Herb Nichols, admitted to signing a Communist 
Party nominating petition in 1940. Charged with being a leader of 
the Communist Party in Philadelphia and Delaware, as well as being 
a member of the Communist Party at the time he testified, Nichols 
refused to answer on the grounds of self-incrimination. Not only is 
Nichols a member of the Communist Party, but the UE international 
representatives who preceded him, such as Herbert Hirschberg, Jack 
Myers, and Jack Zucker were active members of the Communist Party 
during the time they were in Baltimore. William W. Hill, a one- 
time president of Westinghouse local, whose legal counsel is 'a mem- 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 13 

ber of the Communist Party, also refused to answer questions relating 
to his Communist activities on the ground of self-incrimination. 

The committee is continuing to follow the activities of the Com- 
munst Party in Baltimore because of the area's importance to national 
defense. As Communist Party members move into defense employ- 
ment or establish new front organizations to solicit aid to Communist 
endeavors, the committee will hold additional hearings. 

Since the committee hearings, the Communists have already estab- 
lished two new fronts whose activities are being watched. These 
organizations are known as the Committee To Defend American 
Freedoms, which was formed by the wives of the Communists sub- 
penaed before the committee during its hearings, and the Committee 
To Uphold the Bill of Rights, which has been created to defend the 
Communist leaders who were indicted for violating the provisions 
of the Smith Act. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

In the testimony relative to the defense area of Baltimore, Mrs. 
Mary Stalcup Markward discussed the Communist strategy of infil- 
trating vital defense plants in that area. On July 23, 1951, the com- 
mittee took testimony from Herbert A. Philbrick, a resident of Mel- 
rose Highlands, a suburb of Boston. Philbrick, like Mrs. Markward, 
served for over 7 years as an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation. His activity differed from that of Mrs. Markward 
in that she was a publicly identified official of the Communist Party 
while he was an underground member and functionary. Philbrick, 
who was active in the affairs of Communist-front organizations such 
as the Massachusetts Youth Council, the Cambridge Youth Council, 
Sweethearts of Servicemen, and the American Youth for Democracy, 
became an executive of the Communist Party in 1946 and 1947. As 
an executive of the Communist Party, Philbrick was a member of the 
district executive committee and, as such, attended Communist Party 
district executive conferences which were held in Boston. 

Testifying with respect to the district executive conferences and 
their purposes, Philbrick stated: 

I believe these were titled "party building conferences," and each of them, 
I found, was for the purpose of infiltrating heavy industries or key industries, 
in our area [Massachusetts] and in the United States. 

I remember specifically at one of the party building conferences the com- 
rades were instructed to take positions as colonizers ; that is, to take upon 
themselves the duty of being colonizers in the key industries. 

That meant if you had a job in a small business or nonessential industry, 
you should leave it and take a job in one of the key industries. These key 
industries were listed by the party leaders. We were told they were industries 
important to the war effort. 

We were instructed that the imperialist aims of the United States, the war- 
promoting purposes of the United States, were to carry on a war against the 
Soviet Union, and a war against the free peoples of the world, that is, peoples 
under the jurisdiction of the Soviet Union. 

We were told that the chief means at the disposal of the American imperial- 
ists was the production capacity of this country, which they said was owned 
directly by the capitalists of the United States. 

We were taught that since this was the key weapon, it was the weapon we 
had to attack and destroy as Communists. 

We were told in New England one of the key industries consisted of the 
General Electric plant in Lynn. We were told one reason why colonizer* 

H. Kept. 2431, 82-2 3 



14 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

were needed there was because it was involved in the development of defense 
materials including jet airplane engines. I might point out that at that 
time no one outside of the party had any knowledge that jet airplane engines 
were being developed at the General Electric plant in Lynn, but they knew 

that. 

Another key industry was the communications industry ; another was the 
leather industry, boots and shoes; and another was the clothes industry, serv- 
ice clothes, and so forth. 

We were told that the steel industry and lines of transportation were very 
important centers for Communist Party infiltration and colonization, so various 
comrades were ordered at this time to take up jobs at these spots. 

Testifying as to the distinction drawn between the key industries 
in New England and nationally, Philbrick further stated : 

We were told in certain sections of the country the steel industry would be 
the main point of concentration ' whereas in New England the steel industry 
was not as important. We had seven or eight comrades assigned to the Gen- 
eral Electric plant in Lynn, and only one assigned to the steel industry, to my 
knowledge, to set up the colonization program. 

Philbrick's testimony with respect to colonizing key industries by 
the Communist Party details what we as Americans have to fear from 
the employment of Communists in industry. Philbrick testified that 
Daniel Boone Schirmer, a functionary of the Communist Party in 
Massachusetts, relating to trade-union and industrial activities, pre- 
pared a mimeographed industrial survey form which was distributed 
to Communist Party workers or functionaries connected with local 
industries. This form, when executed, supplied the Communist Party 
with information regarding the following: {a) What the plants were 
producing, (b) the quantity of items produced, (c) the identity of the 
union bargaining agents, (d) the number of employees, (e) number 
of Communist Party members employed in the particular plants, (/) 
training and qualifications of Communist employees, and (g) the exact 
influence the Communists had in the particular unions covering the 
particular industries. While this form did not call for blueprints 
of the plant, Philbrick testified that Schirmer was obtaining blue- 
prints of the industries in the Massachusetts area. 

With the Communists teaching that they must control or destroy 
America's key industries, the committee wonders whether a member 
of the Communist Party has to be caught in an act of sabotage or 
espionage before he forfeits his right to work on America's vital 
defense contracts. Philbrick further testified, as has been previously 
noted, that the Communist Party knew that the General Electric plant 
at Lynn, Mass., was producing jet engines long before it became public- 
knowledge. 

Departing from the Massachusetts area and the testimony of Phil • 
brick for a moment, your committee desires at this point to call atten- 
tion to evidence obtained during an investigation in another defense 
production area. In this area, a vital defense plant has a contract to 
produce restricted defense items for the Navy. The Navy made pre- 
liminary security investigations of the employees working on the re- 
stricted contracts and found that several employees were members 
of the Communist Party. The Navy notified the contractor, advising 
him that the employees were disqualified to work on restricted contract 
items, and asked the contractor to remove these employees from their 

1 Mrs. Markward testified that steel was the main point of concentration in the defense 
area of Baltimore. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 15 

employment on the restricted items. The contractor notified the 
employees that they had been denied access to classified employment. 
This took place in 1949 and you would assume that the employees were 
removed, but, no, the Communist-dominated union of which these 
employees are members is so strong that it threatened to strike the 
plant if the employees were removed, or, to use the union's exact 
language: "Any move to take — — off his present job will con- 
stitute a contract violation which will not be tolerated by this union," 
with the result that today these employees are still working on re- 
stricted contracts and, as Communists, allegedly advising their Com- 
munist superiors of the details of the defense items upon which they 
work. This is a situation which has to be corrected through remedial 
and enforceable legislation. 

Philbrick identified Nat Mills, Don Bollen, Don Tormey, and Robert 
Goodwin as individuals assigned to colonize the General Electric plant 
at Lynn, Mass., a plant which we have previously noted is manufac- 
turing, among other items, jet-propulsion motors. Mills, Bollen, and 
Goodwin were subpenaed to appear before the committee, and refused 
to answer all questions relative to their Communist Party membership 
on the grounds of self-incrimination. Don Tormey, while denying 
present membership in the Communist Party, refused to answer any 
questions on the grounds of self-incrimination with respect to the 
years that Philbrick identified him as being a Communist Party mem- 
ber. Tormey, attempting to use his appearance before your commit- 
tee as a soap box, claimed that Philbrick's testimony was false when 
he was not answering questions relating to Philbrick's testimony. 
When questioned specifically as to any particular point related by 
Philbrick, however, he refused to deny the testimony on the grounds 
of self-incrimination. Bollen also refused, on the grounds of self- 
incrimination, to answer questions as to whether he gave directions to 
any person to furnish him with information regarding defense-plant 
lav-outs. 

In addition to his testimony relating to key industries in the Massa- 
chusetts area, Philbrick testified at length with reference to the under- 
ground apparatus of the Communist Party to which he was assigned. 
Philbrick was assigned to the professional section of the Communist 
Party, which section included many of the intellectual leaders of the 
community such as doctors, lawyers, and teachers. Philbrick further 
testified that there were between TO and 80 members of the profes- 
sional section, divided, for security reasons, into 13 groups or cells. 
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University 
had a group composed of professors, while doctors, lawyers, and Gov- 
ernment employees were assigned to their own professional groups. 
Even a group influential in the field of religious activities was a part 
of the professional section of the Communist Party. Individuals 
from these groups are to be found as the leaders of the front organiza- 
tions created by the Communist Party. 

It is these individuals, especially the college professors, who lead 
unsuspecting citizens, including our youth, first down the road of so- 
cialism and then onto the road of communism, from which many are 
unable to return. 

Among those Philbrick identified as being members of the profes- 
sional section of the Communist Party was Dr. Dirk J. Struik, a pro- 



16 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

fessor of mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
According to Philbrick's testimony, both before your committee and 
during his appearance as a Government witness in the trial of the 11 
Communist leaders, Dr. Struik taught courses at the Communist 
Samuel Adams School in Boston, in addition to teaching violent over- 
throw of the capitalist state to members of the professional section of 
the Communist Party. During this same time, Dr. Struik was teach- 
ing his students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Arguments are often advanced that the employment of Communist 
Party personnel to teach in our schools and universities does not sub- 
ject the student to the teacher's ideology, especially when the teacher 
teaches a nonpolitical subject such as mathematics. Dr. Struik is a 
mathematics professor, and, as an example of the fallacy of the fore- 
going argument, it is interesting to examine a statement by the Rev. 
Alexander St.-Ivanyi. pastor of the First Unitarian Church of 
Jamaica Plain, Mass. In reading this statement, it should be borne in 
mind that the Rev. Alexander St.-Ivanyi is the former head of the 
Unitarian Church of Hungary and a former member of the Hungarian 
Parliament who was forced into exile by the present Communist gov- 
ernment in Hungary : 

It so happens that I taught "The Growth of Democratic Thought" for "> years 
(1947-51) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where Dr. Struik was 
professor of mathematics at that time. In the curriculum of this course I had 
to teach Marxism, and its present-day varieties, namely Leninism and Stalinism, 
also. According to the plan of instruction, my group of students was changed 
every term, so that in the 5 years I met 10 different groups of sophomores. In 
practically every group one or two students usually questioned and contra- 
dicted hoth my own eye-witness account, and the accounts found in current rele- 
vant literature, of the purges, "corrective lahor-camps," stakhanovism, and other 
practices of the Communist regimes in the iron-curtain countries. 

This was to be expected, it was part of the plan that discussion should de- 
velop in class. It was more surprising, however, that as often as not these 
contradictors quoted Professor Struik as their source and authority. As far 
as I knew. Professor Struik was employed to teach mathematics, not political 
sicence or any interpretation of current events. Nevertheless, in the much 
ahused name of "academic freedom," I accepted the challenge and did my best 
to elucidate the problems in the minds of my students, which often were in- 
fluenced in a contrary direction. * * * 

History alone will show how many of Professor Struik's students 
were led by him down the road to communism, from which they were 
unable to return until they had performed acts against their country 
and fellow citizens. The administrators of the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology share equally, if not more so, the responsibility 
for leading these young people away from American ideals and demo- 
cratic principles. 

Dr. Struik was identified as a Communist teacher of violent over- 
throw of government in the testimony of Philbrick in 1949 during the 
Foley Square trial of the 11 top Communist leaders. Nevertheless, 
he was permitted to teach at the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy until this year when he was indicted by a Massachusetts grand 
jury for advocating the violent overthrow of the Government of 
Massachusetts. 

Following the indictment of Professor Struik by a Massachusetts 
grand jury, we find Prof. Kirtley F. Mather, who exerts an influence 
over thousands of students at Harvard University, addressing the 
following letter to 30 ministers of the gospel in eastern Massachusetts : 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 17 

155 Homer Street, Newton Center, Mass., 

November 9, 1951. 
Dear Friend : I know that you, like all other lovers of freedom and true dem- 
ocracy, must be very much interested in the forthcoming trial of our fellow 
citizens here in Middlesex County who have been indicted under the Massachu- 
setts Anti-Anarchy Act. It has come to my attention that Professor Struik is 
willing to give some time to the very desirable effort of getting better acquainted 
with the people of our State and having people discover just what sort of person 
he really is. 

I therefore, am wondering whether there might not be some opportunity in 
your church or personal activities for him to meet you and your friends in an 
entirely informal way. Perhaps he could be invited to attend some gathering 
at which you will be present and where he could meet some of the people of 
your community and chat with them. Please communicate with Mrs. Janet 
Faxon, 4S0 Center Street, Jamaica Plain, Telephone JAmaica 2-3416. 

This is not a suggestion that he be invited to speak at a meeting of any or- 
ganization, although I am sure he would be glad to do that, were he so requested. 
It is rather my thought that there might be an opportunity for your community 
to make his acquaintance in an informal, shall we say, social manner. 
Faithfully yours, 

(Signed) Kirtley F. Mather. 

MML 

With individuals like Professors Struik and Mather teaching in 
our leading universities, your committee wonders who the Professor 
Struiks were at Harvard who led Alger Hiss along the road of com- 
munism until he committed espionage against his country. Who were 
the Professor Struiks at Columbia who led Elizabeth Bentley into 
her eventual role as a courier in the Soviet espionage apparatus? 
Who were the Professor Struiks responsibe for leading the Rosen- 
bergs, Hiskey, Gold, and others into their espionage roles? 

The committee has read newspaper accounts of the concern voiced 
by leading universities over football and their plans to deemphasize 
the sport. When will our colleges display the same concern over the 
activities of Professor Struik and his kind and deemphasize 
Marxism ? 

American Committee To Survey Trade Union Conditions in Europe 

Your committee, during the past session of Congress, in connection 
with its defense area investigations, came upon the activities of the 
American Committee to Survey Trade Union Conditions in Europe. 
This organization was created by the Communist Party for the pur- 
pose of supplying Communists or Communist-disciplined trade- 
unionists transportation into the Soviet Union and its satellite coun- 
tries to propagandize against the United States and in behalf of the 
Soviet Union. During the investigation, the identity of over 30 
American trade-unionists from our leading industrial areas was 
learned. In all of these cases, according to your committee's investi- 
gation, the individuals failed, in applying for their passports, to state 
the true nature of their travel or to identify the countries to which 
they were destined. 

The Passport Division of the State Department, under its able 
director, Mrs. Ruth B. Shipley, and its assistant director, Ashley 
J. Nicholas, offered the committee its full and complete 
cooperation. However, in supplying the committee with all infor- 
mation in its possession, the Passport Division requested that no action 
be taken in this matter for the reason that the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation had information that the American Committee to Sur- 



18 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

vey Trade Union Conditions in Europe was preparing to send another 
delegation behind the iron curtain. It was the feeling of the Govern- 
ment agencies that public exposure of the organization would elim- 
inate any chance for Government prosecution. Your committee, even 
though it had devoted considerable time to this matter, strongly felt 
that it would be contrary to public interest to hold hearings and 
thereby interfere with a possible prosecution. As pointed out by the 
State Department, no prosecution of the original passport applicants 
was possible because the Government could not prove that the appli- 
cants intended to travel behind the iron curtain prior to the time they 
applied for passports. 

Your committee has determined in this matter, as in the case of 
the American youth who attended the Communist-sponsored World 
Youth Festival which was held in the Soviet zone of Berlin in August 
1951, that Congress should give immediate attention to amending 
our passport laws to eliminate the loopholes through which the Com- 
munists jump to obtain passports for their purposes and, by so doing, 
violate the intentions of Congress without fear of prosecution. The 
Congress attempted to plug the loopholes by providing in the Wood- 
McCarran Act, Public Law 831, of the Eighty-first Congress, a pro- 
hibition against the issuance of passports- to members of a Commu- 
nist-action organization. The Board, however, created by the law, 
has yet to find any organization, even the Communist Party itself, to 
be a Communist-action organization and, therefore, the passport pro- 
vision is not in operation at this time. With the Passport Division 
issuing over 300,000 new passports or passport renewals yearly, it is 
impossible to obtain security clearance on the applicants prior to the 
issuance of the passports. 

Jack Kawano 

During the year 1951 the committee was fortunate in being able to 
hear the testimony of Jack Kawano of Honolulu, Hawaii. Mr. 
Kawano had been one of the first members of the Communist Party 
in the Territory of Hawaii. He was also one of the foremost labor 
organizers in the Territory of Hawaii. Jack Kawano commanded 
quite a following among workers in the Territory of Hawaii as a result 
of his long fight for the recognition of their rights. He testified that 
he had joined the Communist Party in 1938 in the Territory of Hawaii. 
He remained in the Communist Party until early in 1950. During his 
membership in the Communist Party, Kawano testified that he was 
also a high-ranking official in the International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union in Hawaii. Kawano testified that the major- 
ity of the ILWU down through the years has been Communist- 
dominated. 

Kawano was a witness before a subcommittee of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities during its hearings in Honolulu in April of 
1950. He stated he was not a Communist at that time, but declined to 
answer any other questions with respect to Communist Party member- 
ship or activities. Mr. Kawano was subsequently indicted for con- 
tempt of Congress, along with 38 other defendants. These defend- 
ants were subsequently found not guilty by the Federal court in 
Honolulu. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 19 

Kawano's testimony in 1951 was predicated, according to Mr. 
Kawano, on a sincere desire after long deliberation to tell his story 
about communism in Hawaii and in the ILWU as he had lived and 
known it. 

Mr. Kawano's testimony corroborated information already dis- 
closed by the committee in its hearings of 1950 and added much 
weight to this information because of the prominent position Mr. 
Kawano had occupied in Honolulu with respect to the ILWU for so 
many years. 

In addition to the corroborative aspect of Mr. Kawano's testimony, 
he provided the committee and the Congress with additional infor- 
mation regarding communism in Hawaii heretofore undisclosed. Mr. 
Kawano has performed a great service, not only to his community, 
but to the Nation as well, in so authoritatively revealing manip- 
ulations of the Communist Party in Honolulu, particularly with ref- 
erence to their control of the largest labor union in that Territory. 

Oliver Edmund Clubb 

Oliver Edmund Clubb, State Department Foreign Service officer, 
was summoned to testify before your committee on three occasions 
in 1951. His appearances before the committee were an outgrowth 
of a continuing investigation conducted by the committee staff on the 
basis of information supplied by Whittaker Chambers, confessed 
former Soviet espionage agent. 

Mr. Chambers had advised the committee that a member of the 
State Department's consular service in China had called at the office 
of the Communist magazine, New Masses, in the summer of 1932. 
Mr. Chambers said the individual had asked to see Walt Cannon, 
whom Mr. Chambers had just succeeded as editor of the publication. 
In Mr. Cannon's absence, the individual saw Mr. Chambers. Mr. 
Chambers recalled the name of the State Department officer as being 
"Chubb." 

The committee first subpenaed Oliver Edmund Clubb to appear 
before an executive session of the committee on March 14, 1951. Mr. 
Clubb had been a Foreign Service officer for the State Department for 
23 years, approximately 18 of which involved assignments in China. 
He was recalled from China in 1950 and appointed director of the 
Office of Chinese Affairs, State Department, Washington — a post 
which he held at the time of his executive testimony. 

In the course of this testimony, Mr. Clubb stated that he had been 
vice consul at Hankow, China, in 1932 and in the same year had re- 
turned to the United States on vacation leave. He could not recall 
Whittaker Chambers, however, or having any association whatever 
with the magazine, New Masses. 

On July 12, 1951, the State Department announced that Oliver 
Edmund Clubb had been suspended pending a loyalty investigation 
and hearing. 

Five days later, Mr. Clubb addressed a letter to the committee advis- 
ing that he had obtained from Peiping, China, his personal diaries 
for the year 1932 and that an entry of July 9, 1932, recorded a meeting 
between himself and Whittaker Chambers in the New Masses office 
in New York. The committee subpenaed Mr. Clubb and his diaries 
for a public hearing on August 20, 1951. 



20 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The following extract from Mr. Clubb's diaries was read into the 
record of the hearing : 

The most interesting meeting thus far was that with the New Masses. Their 
so-called revolutionary organ is a horrible rag, but Agnes had given me a 
letter of introduction to Walt Carmon and so I went to see. It was a ramshackle 
place to which one went by a rambling, rickety staircase. There were many 
Masses cartoons on the walls. A charming Jewess, typing, who acted as secre- 
tary. She introduced me to Michael Gold as "Comrade Clubb," and I talked 
to him a while while waiting. He spoke of revolution but had no "hopes" of it 
for the United States at the present, bemoaning the lack of organizers when the 
field is prepared and the crops so ripe for the harvest. He asked of China, 
and then the successor to AValt Carmon, one Whittaker Chambers, a shifty- 
eyed, unkempt creature, who nevertheless showed considerable force and direc- 
tion, asked me about the Red movement in China. In turn I asked him of 
conditions in the United States, but we didn't talk smoothly. I was, after all, 
out of my bailiwick, masquerading almost under false pretenses, so that I felt 
too much like a stranger to show the proper "revolutionary enthusiasm." 

Despite the aid of the diaries, Mr. Clubb maintained at this second 
hearing that he still had no independent recollection of the New 
Masses visit. He denied that he deserved the appellation "Comrade 
Club." He surmised he had visited New Masses out of a desire to learn 
about conditions in the United States during his infrequent "home 
leaves." Yet, he admitted he had known New Masses to be a Com- 
munist magazine since his college days. 

The Foreign Service officer named the late Agnes Smedley as the 
author of his letter of introduction to Walt Carmon of New Masses. 
Agnes Smedley has been identified before the committee as an inter- 
national Communist agent who, at the very time she furnished Mr. 
Clubb with letters of introduction, was actively working with the 
notorious Sorge espionage ring in China. 

Mr. Clubb's diaries noted that he had twice sought out Miss Smed- 
ley in Shanghai in May 1932, prior to leaving for the United States, 
and "got from her [Smedley] letters of introduction to many inter- 
esting people in New York." Mr. Clubb, under questioning, explained 
he had received five such letters from Miss Smedley. He admitted also 
that he had had a number of other contacts with Miss Smedley, which 
he said were either social in nature or for the purpose of obtaining 
information on the Chinese Communist revolutionary movement. He 
also admitted that he knew at the time that Miss Smedley was "very 
sympathetic" to the Chinese Communists. 

At the time of his New Masses visit, Mr. Clubb deliveied other let- 
ters of introduction in New York. His diaries, however, labeled his 
New York trip "singularly unsuccessful" because "the chief of those 
I wanted to see have been out of town — Villard, Lovett, Chappell, 
Sanger." Letters to Oswald Garrison Villard and Eobert Morss 
Lovett were among those supplied to Mr. Clubb by Agnes Smedley. 
A letter to Winifred Chappell had been furnished by a missionary 
friend of Mr. Clubb's in China, one Joseph Bailey. Committee files 
reflect that Mr. Villard and Miss Chappell each have a record of ap- 
proximately 20 Communist-front affiliations, while Eobert Morss 
Lovett's Communist-front associations total more than 70. 

The diaries further disclosed that Mr. Clubb sought out Lawrence 
Todd of Tass News Agency in the city of Washington during his 
1932 vacation. Mr. Todd was brother to Oliver J. Todd, hydraulic 
engineer in China and close friend of Mr. Clubb. Lawrence Todd 
dined with Mr. Clubb on July 5, 1932, and on the following day took 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 21 

Mr. Clubb to see one Skvirsky, head of the Soviet Information Bureau 
in Washington, who questioned him about sovietized sections of China, 
and discussed recognition of the U. S. S. R. by the United States. 
Mr. Todd also conducted the State Department officer to the press 
room of the State Department, where Mr. Clubb met columnist Drew 
Pearson. Mr. Clubb subsequently dined at the hitter's home, in the 
company of Lawrence Duggan and Frank P. Lockhart, both since 
deceased. Mr. Clubb again professed to have no recollection of these 
associations. 

In this connection, it should be noted that Whittaker Chambers 
identified Mr. Duggan as having been a member of the pro-Soviet 
bloc in the State Department. Drew Pearson, avowedly an intimate 
friend of Mr. Duggan, has stated publi ly that he knew Mr. Duggan 
to have attended Communist meetings in Alexandria, Va., in the year 
1932, while employed by the State Department. In the late 1930's, 
however, Mr. Duggan rejected efforts of Soviet agents Hede Massing 
and Boris Bykov to draw him into an espionage apparatus within 
the United States Government, according to a report he made 10 
years afterward to the FBI. 

The committee hearing on August 20, 1951, brought to light con- 
tacts in China between Mr. Clubb and Frank Glass and Harold Isaacs. 
Committee hearings on the operations of the Sorge espionage ring in 
China in the early 1930's had disclosed that Frank Glass and Harold 
Isaacs were associates of the Comintern agent Agnes Smedley during 
that period. Mr. Glass was identified as a British Communist, and 
Harold Isaacs as editor of the China Forum, an English-language 
Communist periodical. 

Mr. Clubb admitted under questioning that he had shared his apart- 
ment in Hankow, China, with Mr. Glass and Mr. Isaacs when the 
two men arrived in that town in 1931 during a period of flood. Mr. 
Clubb also said .that, following their departure, he had continued 
to correspond with both men until approximately 1934. 

One of Mr. Clubb's colleagues in Chungking, China, according 
to his testimony, was Solomon Adler, a Treasury Department attache. 
Mr. Adler was a member of the "Silvermaster" espionage group which 
operated within United States Government agencies during World 
War II, according to the testimony of Elizabeth T. Bentley, con- 
fessed former courier for the spy group. Mr. Clubb also knew Philip 
Jaffe in China. Mr. Jaffe, as an editor of the pro-Communist maga- 
zine Amerasia in 1945, was fined $2,500 in a case involving the chan- 
neling of classified Government information to the magazine. 

Mr. Clubb admitted associations with millionaire Communist Fred- 
erick Vanderbilt Field, but insisted he could not remember the circum- 
stances. At a third hearing before the committee on August 23, 1951, 
Mr. Clubb was shown photostatic copies of what appeared to be a 
letter introducing him to Frederick Field, and another letter ad- 
dressed to Field by Clubb himself. The letter of introduction, dated 
January 22, 1937, was signed by Karl August Wittfogel, who has 
admitted membership in the Communist Party of Germany from 
1920 to 1933. Mr. Clubb's letter to Mr. Field, dated March 24, 1937, 
promised that the Foreign Service officer would visit Mr. Field shortly 
and '"should very much enjoy seeing and talking with you again." 
The letters failed to stir any recollection on the part of Mr. Clubb. 



22 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Clubb's diaries, previously referred to in this section, have not 
as yet been fully reviewed by the committee although they were 
subpenaed at the time of Clubb's appearance before the committee in 
open session. They have not been so reveiwed for the reason that, 
at the time of Clubb's appearance, the diaries were in the possession 
of the Loyalty Board of the Department of State which was consid- 
ering charges relating to acts of indiscretion and questions of loyalty 
on the part of Mr. Clubb. With the full consent of Mr. Clubb, the 
State Department has agreed to produce these diaries as soon as the 
Department's Loyalty Board has completed its deliberation in the 
Clubb matter. 

The committee, irrespective of the decision which the Department 
of State's Loyalty Board reaches in this matter, will recall Mr. Clubb 
before it in open session after it has had an opportunity to study and 
analyze the diary entries. 

Complicity of American Communists in the Destruction or 

Freedom in the Far East 

At various times during the years of 1949 and 1950, the Committee 
on Un-American Activities was engaged in the investigation of certain 
facts in its possession which indicated that several American citizens 
were involved in the Richard Sorge spy case. During the past year, 
the Committee on Un-American Activities was able to reveal through 
public testimony some of the results of its lengthy investigation deal- 
ing primarily with the Richard Sorge case, but which led to a far- 
reaching and quite revealing story of international communism, with 
particular reference to China. 

These revelations were made possible through the testimony of 
Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby and Mitsusada Yoshikawa, in con- 
junction with the investigations that had been conducted by the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities. Prior to this testimony, the com- 
mittee had had in its possession for many months numerous files deal- 
ing with the Richard Sorge case and communism in the Far East. 
The files had been written in Japanese but had been translated into 
English. These files revealed the entire picture of the arrest, interro- 
gation, statements, and trial of Richard Sorge, and other members of 
his ring whom the Japanese police had arrested during the months of 
October and November 1941. Richard Sorge and his fellow conspira- 
tors were tried, convicted, and sentenced to death or long prison terms 
by the Japanese Government during the years of 1942 and 1943. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities was fortunate in being 
able to subpena Mitsusada Yoshikawa for appearance before it on 
August 9, 1951. He is presently Chief of the Special Investigations 
Bureau of the Attorney General's office in Tokyo. The files, which 
the committee had in its possession, had indicated that Mr. Yoshi- 
kawa was one of the Japanese procurators assigned to the investiga- 
tion of the Richard Sorge case and one of his specific assignments had 
been to conduct the lengthy interrogations of Richard Sorge. Mr. 
Yoshikawa testified this was one of his assignments during the investi- 
gation and that he had as late as 1949 executed affidavits attesting the 
authenticity of the documents now in the possession of the committee, 
and which relate to the investigation of Sorge and his companions. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 23 

These affidavits were placed into the committee record during the 
testimony of Mr. Yoshikawa. 

The testimony of Mr. Yoshikawa provided an excellent means for 
the authentication of many of the files and documents relating to 
Richard Sorge, which were in the possession of the committee at the 
time of the public hearings. 

Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby, who served from 1939 to 1951 
as Gen. Douglas MacArthurs Chief of Intelligence in the Far East, 
testified before the Committee on Un-American Activities on August 
22 and 23. General Willoughby's testimony was documented in part 
by some of the files which the committee already had in its possession, 
and further by files which were obtained after the occupation of Japan. 
Much of the information contained in these files had been verified 
through the further investigation by General Willoughby and his 
staff in the Far East Command. General Willoughby's testimony 
revealed a fascinating example of international communism, cover- 
ing a period of 22 years, culminating in the seizure of power by the 
Chinese Communists in Peking, China, on September 21, 1949. Also, 
there was revealed during the course of General Willoughby's testi- 
mony the identification of many "old wheel horses'' of the American 
Communist Party, who had played a nefarious part in the ultimate 
Communist conquest of China. These Communist Party work horses 
were identified as Earl Browder, Eugene Dennis, Sam Darcy, Harry 
Berger, Gerhart Eisler, and James H. Dolsen. It is interesting to 
note that most of these same "old wheel horses'' are still engaged 
in the furtherance of international communism in the United States, 
and are dedicated to the violent overthrow of our democracy. With 
respect to the internationally known Communist, Gerhart Eisler, it 
will be remembered that after working for years in the United States 
as a top Communist agent he unlawfully fled our country while under 
$20,000 bond furnished by the Civil Rights Congress. Shortly after 
his arrival in East Germany, he was appointed by Moscow to be 
Propaganda Minister in the Communist-controlled government of 
East Germany. 

Even more interesting was the identification of American citizens 
who had contributed greatly to the cause of world communism and 
until this time had gone undisclosed. This list of traitors to the 
United States and the rest of the free world reads as follows : Agnes 
Smedley, Miyagi Yotoku, Willie Lehman, Albert Edward Stewart, 
Margaret Undjus, Katherine Harrison (first wife of Earl Browder), 

Reh Bennett, Lilliestrom, Leon Minster, Juclea Codkincl, Lang- 

ston Hughes, Walt Carmon, Fred Ellis, and others who for the time 
being must remain undisclosed. The list set forth above is not by any 
means complete. 

In many cases, these Americans were actually involved in one or 
more espionage groups, whereas in other cases they were involved in 
Communist-propaganda programs stemming from either publications 
or organizations which were created and fostered by the Comintern in 
Moscow. In addition, there were revealed in the testimony of Gen- 
eral Willoughby several Christian names of individuals with no fur- 
ther identification— such as "Paul," "Jacob," "Jim," "Alex," "John," 
and "Charlie." Though lending an air of mystery to this already 
mysterious story, it is indeed regretful that the true identity of these 



24 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

individuals who were actively engaged in Soviet espionage has never 
been established even after extensive investigation by Japanese and 
American authorities. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities is currently engaged in 
investigations of individuals and organizations that the committee 
has reason to believe may have been alined with international com- 
munism in this country as well as abroad. There are many such 
leads contained in the files which were turned over to the Committee 
on Un-American Activities by General Willoughby, in response to a 
subpena served upon him when it was learned that he was to return to 
the United States. 

There will be forthcoming within the next year additional hearings 
which will have been developed from the information contained in 
these files, but which has not as yet been made public. 

It is a sad commentary when American citizens abuse the privilege 
of travel that is afforded them, to work actively for the furtherance 
of a foreign ideology dedicated to the overthrow of the Government 
that affords them such privileges. Likewise, it is extremely regret- 
table that employees of our Government will misuse the trust placed 
in them, as was the case in two instances developed through the testi- 
mony of General Willoughby ; that is, the use of the American con- 
sulate in Harbin, China, for the transmission of Soviet espionage re- 
ports, and the instance of an American consulate employee in Shang- 
hai in supplying Richard Sorge with confidential and secret 
information. 

For a revealing and interesting example of international commu- 
nism, and the patience and effort it displays, every American is urged 
to read the full text of the testimony of Mr. Yoshikawa and General 
Willoughby. Contained in this testimony is a prime example of the 
true composition of the Russian Communists. At a time when Russia 
was reaping huge benefits from our lend-lease program, which was 
responsible for stemming the tide of Nazi aggression within her bor- 
ders, Russia saw fit to withhold information from the United States 
which might have prevented the loss of thousands -of American lives, 
as well as millions of dollars worth of military equipment. To be 
specific, the hearing developed that Richard Sorge advised Moscow, 
as early as August of 1941, and again in October of 1941, that there 
would be no war with Russia on the part of Japan, but that Japan 
would move to the south and challenge America and England in the 
Philippines, Singapore, the Malay States, and Sumatra. 

The hearing also shows conclusively the bridge between what some 
people might call water over the dam and current Communist 
treachery. Here is presented an example of international Communist 
treachery conceived in 1928 and maturing in 1949, with many of the 
individuals who helped bring about such an event actively engaged in 
the same pursuits today, only more frightening because it is within the 
boundaries of our own United States. 

Files and Reference Service 

The committee's files contain a wealth of specialized material, 
maintained to aid the members of the committee and its staff in the 
investigation of un-American activities and the making of recom- 
mendations for the control of such activities in this country. These 
files also serve as a basis for furnishing information on the subject to 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 25 

the Members of Congress. This invaluable collection of source mate- 
rial has been assembled since 1938 and covers an even longer period 
of time. Its size and scope was set forth in some detail in the 1950 
annual report of the Committee on Un-Ameriean Activities so no 
recapitulation will be made here. However, the collection has con- 
tinued to grow during 1951 by the careful selection and incorporation 
of material both new and old. 

In 1951 we added 225 books and pamphlets, many of which were 
written and published to further the Communist cause in the United 
States; 684 issues of newspapers and other periodicals issued by the 
Communist Party, its front organizations and others; an uncounted 
number of the letterheads, programs, leaflets, and other literature of 
organizations whose true purpose cannot be called American; clip- 
pings by the thousands; the 2,023 pages of testimony given by wit- 
nesses in public hearings before the committee; and the 530 pages 
of reports published by the committee during the year. 

The maintenance of such a collection requires special care. Not 
only must the very old material be carefully preserved but it must 
be kept as readily available as the more recent for constant consul- 
tation. Each piece of new material must be properly classified and 
cross-referenced, indexed, or cataloged so that it may be located easily 
for use in connection with any person, group, or subject on which it 
may furnish information. 

From 50,000 to 60,000 index-card references to the above-named 
sources have been made and added to file in 1951. Moreover, consoli- 
dation of the three published individual-name indexes to public hear- 
ings and reports of the committee for the years 1938-41, 1942-47, and 
1948-49, respectively, has been almost completed and brought up to 
date. It is planned that this consolidated index to all the public doc- 
uments issued by the committee from 1938 through 1950 will be 
published soon and will be revised periodically to provide a true 
cumulative index. 

The general interest in this country in the work of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities and the need for more authoritative in- 
formation on the subject have been reflected in the number and types 
of inquiries received by the committee from the Members of Congress 
for information from the files. Although the number of inquiries 
has increased during this year, and the committee has found it nec- 
essary to prohibit employees of Congress from coming in to make 
their own checks for information, the files' staff has been able to 
meet the demands and furnish answers within a reasonable amount 
of time. 

In cases where the type of information requested or material avail- 
able did not require a written report, a verbal answer was made to 
the inquiries, but the greater number of replies were in the form of 
written reports from the files of the committee. 

These reports were compiled by the file section of the committee 
staff, setting forth whatever information was found to appear on a- 
given individual or organization in the committee's public hearings, 
published reports and files of source material. They also showed 
source of the information reported, and included the official citation 
by the Committee on Un-American Activities and/or the Attorney 
Generals of the United States on each organization referred to in 
the report. 



26 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Eequests from the staff members of the committee were similarly 
answered, and in many cases were accompanied by the actual loan of 
the material upon which the report was based. The total number of 
inquiries received from these sources in 1951 amounted to about 3,300 
and involved a check and answer on approximately 7,600 individuals 
and 2,000 organizations. 

The loyalty and security programs of the Federal Government have 
resulted in ever-increasing demands being made upon the files of the 
committee by the executive as well as the legislative branch. In the 
President's Executive Order 9835, of March 21, 1947, the files of this 
committee were listed as one of the sources of information which must 
be checked in determining the loyalty of Government employees and 
applicants for Government employment. Properly accredited agents 
and record searches of almost every executive department and inde- 
pendent agency, as listed in the United States Government Organiza- 
tion Manual for 1950-51, have visited the file section of the committee 
at some time during the year. They have consulted all indexes to the 
publications and files and have requested the withdrawal from files of 
all material found pertinent to cases under consideration. It has 
become necessary to assign one full-time clerk to assist in answering 
their questions and to withdraw and return the material to files. Over 
6,300 visits by Government agents in 1951, as compared with 3,600 in 
1950, have been recorded. The length of visits varied, but, since a 
small amount of additional space was obtained during the year to aid 
in accommodating these agents, a greater number of them have been 
assigned to spend full time at this office. 

It is estimated that they have checked three-quarters of a million 
names through our indexes this year and have consulted an average of 
well over a hundred pieces of file material daily. 

Statistics alone cannot show the total value of service provided. So, 
in conclusion, it should be emphasized that during the year 1951 valu- 
able source material was acquired and incorporated in the files, and 
a larger volume of reference service than in any previous year was 
provided by the files' staff to Members of Congress, the various agen- 
cies of the executive branch of the Government, and other members 
of the committee staff. 

Publications 

According to testimony of many witnesses who have appeared be- 
fore the Committee on Un-American Activities, one of the most 
effective ways to combat the growth of communism in our country is 
by educating the public as to the aims and methods of the Communist 
Party and the results of Communist ideology where it has gained 
control. 

Since the hearing room of the committee, located on the second 
floor of the Old House Office Building, is quite small, comparatively 
few people are able to get the benefit of personally attending com- 
mittee hearings. After completion of a series or phase of these hear- 
ings, the actual verbatim records of proceedings are printed and 
are available for distribution upon request as long as the supply 
lasts. Thus, several thousand persons have the opportunity of know- 
ing exactly what took place during the extensive hearings of the 
committee without having to be present. 

In many cases, letters requesting printed copies of these hearings 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 27 

indicate that they are to be used by church, labor, veteran, civic, 
patriotic, educational, and other groups who are intelligently fighting 
communism and subversive activities. Distribution of committee 
pamphlets to organizations adds greatly to their actual circulation, 
since they are read by many individuals. 

Other than the printed copies of hearings, reports are issued from 
time to time by the committee. These reports are compiled from 
facts obtained in sworn testimony of witnesses and from long and 
careful research into the publications and public statements of officers 
of organizations which have been found to be either in the Communist 
orbit or under Communist influence. 

Organizations described as Communist fronts in reports of the 
committee are those which the committee has found to have been 
created or captured by the Communists to do the party's work in 
special fields. The Communist front is the greatest weapon of com- 
munism in the country today because subterfuge often makes it diffi- 
cult to recognize its true Communist nature. The Communist front 
does not hesitate to camouflage its true purposes behind such moral 
and human appeals as "peace" and "civil rights" when it serves the 
Communist purpose and the aims of the Soviet Union. Neither does 
the Communist front deviate from the "line" of the Communist 
Party. 

During the year 1951, the committee printed approximately 703,840 
copies of its hearings and reports. Of this number, the limited staff 
of the committee has filled requests for over 415,000 copies. 1 

The following are examples of the many thousands of letters 
received weekly by the committee : 

St. Marys Seminary, 
Baltimore, Md., January 24, 1952. 
Dear Mr. Carrington 2 : Thank you very much for sending me the Shameful 
Years which arrived today. And for that very generous shipment earlier of 
those hundreds of copies of 100 Things You Should Know * * *. These 
latter have been liberally spread among our students here and serve as an 
excellent easy introduction to the work your committee has been doing through 
the years. 

How do I go about getting more copies of the Shameful Years? It is a fine 
compendium of what must literally be hundreds of pages of testimony and hours 
of examination. Whatever you are able to do with regard to this latest com- 
mittee publication, I shall greatly appreciate. 

******* 

Torrington, Conn., December 14, 1951. 
Dear Sirs : * * * I have been requested by members of the local to secure 
enough copies of the pamphlet 100 Things You Should Know About Communism, 
to distribute amongst the 130 men in our bargaining unit. If there are any 
other publications that you feel will help us combat this subversive organization 
we would be happy to have them. Thank you. 

******* 

Trenton, N. J., January 16, 1952. 

Gentlemen : * * * We are interested in obtaining information on quantity 
copies of 100 Things You Should Know About Communism * * *. 

We intend to offer this material in conjunction with an anticommunistic 
television program broadcast each week over station WATV, Newark, N. J. 
The pamphlets will be displayed on the program and copies offered free to any 
viewer sending in a request. 



* In addition to these, the committee has also distributed thousands of copies of publica- 
tions printed in previous years, as well as documents released by other congressional 
committees and Government agencies. 

2 Clerk of the committee. 



28 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Publications of the Committee on Un-American Activities for the Year 1951 

Statement on the March of Treason 

Report on the Communist Peace Offensive (House Report 378), April 28, 1951 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism Series, including Spotlight on 

Spies (House Document 136, May 14, 1951) 
Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications (Committee Prini, March 

3, 1951) (House Document 137, May 14, 1951) 
Hearings Regarding Communist Activities in the Territory of Hawaii, Part 4 

(Testimony of Jack Kawano) 
Communist Infiltration of Hollywood Motion-Picture Industry, Part 1, March 8 

and 21 ; April 10, 11, 12, and 13, 1951 
Communist Infiltration of Hollywood Motion-Picture Industry, Part 2, April 17, 

23, 24, 25 ; May 16, 17, and 18, 1951 
Communist Infiltration of Hollywood Motion-Picture Industry, Part 3, May 22, 

23, 24, 25 ; June 25 and 26, 1951 
Hearings Relating to Communist Activities in the Defense Area of Baltimore, 

Part 1 (based on testimony of Mary Stalcup Markward), June 19, 20, 21, 26, 

27, 28 ; July 11 and 13, 1951 
Hearings Relating to Communist Activities in the Defense Area of Baltimore, 

Part 2, (Maryland Committee for Peace and Baltimore County Committee for 

Peace), June 28; July 10 and 21, 1951 
Hearings Relating to Communist Activities in the Defense Area of Baltimore, 

Part 3, June 19, 20, 26, 27, 28 ; July 10, 12, and 13, 1951 
Expose of Communist Activities in the State of Massachusetts (based on the 

Testimony of Herbert A. Philbrick) , July 23 and 24 ; October 10 and 11, 1951 
Communist Infiltration of Hollywood Motion-Picture Industry, Part 4, Septem- 
ber 17, 18, and 19, 1951 
Communist Infiltration of Hollywood Motion-Picture Industry, Part 5, September 

20, 21, 24, and 25, 1951 
Hearings on American Aspects of the Richard Sorge Spy Case (based on testi- 
mony of Mitsusada Yoshikawa and Maj. Gen. Charles A. Willoughby) August 

9, 22, and 23, 1951 
Communist Tactics Among Veterans' Groups (testimony of John T. Pace), July 

13, 1951 
Hearings Regarding Communist Activities Anions; Farm Groups, February 28 and 

March 9, 1951 
The Shamefnl Years, Thirty Years of Soviet Espionage in the United States 

(released as Committee Print December 30, 1951; House Report No. 1229, 

January 8, 1952) 

Recommendations 

The committee feels that, in line with the findings on Soviet espi- 
onage in the United States as reflected in the committee report, "The 
Shameful Years," it is necessary that positive steps be taken to stem 
Soviet espionage. It is felt that Congress must take the initial steps 
to ascertain what legislation is necessary to afford adequate protection 
against espionage. In the course of such congressional study, it would 
be necessary to ascertain whether the existing laws relating to espi- 
onage have been properly enforced ; and, if not, proper responsibility 
should be affixed. 

The committee suggests that among the phases Congress should con- 
sider in strengthening espionage legislation are : 

(a) A single comprehensive espionage statute applicable to hoth 
peacetime and wartime. — This should incorporate the present provi- 
sions of wartime espionage statutes, carrying a capital-punishment 
sentence. The statute of limitations would not then apply in espi- 
onage any more than it applies to other crimes carrying a capital 
punishment. The provisions of legislation dealing with the unauthor- 
ized taking of classified Government papers and documents should be 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 29 

broadened to include the transportation of such papers and documents 
in interstate or foreign commerce. 

(b) The broadening of the rules of admissibility of evidence. — The 
committee is also aware that the executive branch of the Government 
is seriously being hampered in the prosecution of persons engaged in 
espionage because of the present limitations on evidence that may be 
presented in the courts. The committee realizes that the restrictions 
against the admissibility of evidence secured from wire tapping has 
been imposed to protect the rights of the individual. The committee, 
while desiring to maintain all of the rights of the individual, feels 
that the rights of the individual can be preserved only if the national 
security remains. It is the committee's opinion that, if Soviet espion- 
age continues unchecked, the rights of American citizens are being 
placed in graver danger than would be the case with legalized wire 
tapping. The committee suggests, therefore, that Congress consider 
legislation to permit as evidence the results of wire tapping in matters 
affecting the national security as well as in such crimes as kidnaping 
and extortion. In order that a proper control might be exercised, it is 
felt that, as in the matter of arrests, searches, and seizures, the judicial 
branch of the Government should be empowered to authorize the use 
of such techniques. 

(c) Immunity for witnesses appearing before congressional, execu- 
tive, or judicial hearings. — The committee also feels that, since it is 
essential to any investigation, whether it be congressional, executive, 
or judicial, to have the testimony of competent and informed wit- 
nesses, legislation should be enacted to effect a greater latitude in 
granting immunity from prosecution to these witnesses. 

The committee has frequently experienced instances where wit- 
nesses while having information of undoubted value to the work of 
the committee, have refused to answer questions on the basis that to do 
so might tend to incriminate them. If such legislation as suggested 
by the committee were enacted, it would, while maintaining the rights 
of the individual, permit the proper investigative bodies to gather a 
true and comprehensive picture of the information they seek. 

(d) Reciprocal restrictions on travel by Soviet and satellite 
diplomats. — The committee's investigations have also disclosed that 
Soviet espionage has been assisted by the fact that Soviet nationals 
have been given unlimited freedom to travel throughout the United 
States and to and from Canada and Mexico. The committee's reports 
dealing with Soviet espionage clearly show that Soviet officials have 
abused this freedom to actively engage in espionage operations. This 
situation exists even though United States diplomats in Russia and 
her satellites are virtually under house arrest and under constant 
surveillance by the Russian secret police. There have been instances 
in which United States officials have been prohibited from contact 
with American nationals who were being held by authorities in Soviet 
countries. 

For these reasons, the committee feels that there should be reciprocal 
restrictions enforced by this country with the Soviet and satellite 
countries. 

The committee also feels that, in order to afford a greater national 
security, foreign nationals entering the United States should be re- 
quired to surrender their passports and/or visas at the point of entry 



30 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

and that these papers should not be returned until the departure of the 
individual from the United States. 

(e) Issuance of passports. — The committee recommends that all 
persons securing passports must, at the time the passport application 
is executed, state under oath whether they will or will not visit any of 
the presently so-called iron-curtain countries. 

The committee also recommends that if, in the course of travel 
abroad, any person holding a passport finds it necessary to visit an 
iron-curtain country, and did not indicate that he intended to visit an 
iron-curtain country on his original application, he must obtain au- 
thority to make such a visit from either a consular officer of the United 
States, the proper Ambassador, or a specified member of the consular 
or ambassadorial staffs. 

A similar provision, such as that set forth in paragraph 2 of this 
section, should also be made applicable to all persons holding pass- 
ports who desire to visit any other country exclusive of iron-curtain 
countries and who have not indicated their intention to visit these 
other countries on the original passport application. 

It is hoped that these provisions will prevent American Communists 
from receiving instructions from abroad. It is a well-known fact that 
American Communists often travel abroad for the purpose of re- 
ceiving instructions from Communist functionaries, not only in the 
iron-curtain countries but in other European countries as well. 

(/) Cancellation of passports. — The committee in the past has ex- 
perienced several instances in which persons for whom subpenas have 
been issued are found to be outside the United States and the subpenas 
cannot be served upon them. The committee recognizes the fact that 
a person might endeavor to use a prolonged absence from the country 
as a means to evade appearance before this, as well as other congres- 
sional committees. 

It is believed that in order to cope with such situations legislation 
should be enacted to provide for the cancellation of the passports in 
the possession of any United States citizen in a foreign country for 
whom a subpena is outstanding within 6 months of the date upon 
which he receives personal notification that such subpena is out- 
standing. Notice would be made by an accredited official designated 
by the United States Department of State. 

(g) Revocations of commissions in the armed services. — The com- 
mittee, during its hearings, has had the unfortunate experience of hav- 
ing had before it witnesses, who, while holding commissions in the 
armed services of the United States, have refused to affirm or deny al- 
legations of membership in the Communist Party or Communist-front 
organizations. The committee is aware that a commission in the 
armed services of the United States is a privilege accorded to citizens 
of the United States of unquestioned loyalty and not an inherent right 
provided for in the Constitution. This being the case, the committee 
recommends that in any instance where a person holding a commission 
in the armed services chooses to refuse to answer questions concerning 
his present or past membership in the Communist Party, such com- 
mission shall be immediately revoked. 

o