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Full text of "Annual report for the year ..."

Union Calendar No. 440 

!3d Congress, 2d Session House Report No. 1 192 



a^' 



I 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

rOMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN 

ACTIVITIES 

FOR THE YEAR 1953 





FEBRUARY 6, 1954 
(Original release date) 



February 8, 1954. — Committed to the Committee of the Whole House 
on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed 



Prepared and released by the 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES, U. S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

WASHINGTON, D.C 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword 1 

Communist methods of infiltration (Education) 8 

Investigation of Communist activilies in the Los Angeles area 23 

Communist methods of infiltration (Government-labor) 55 

Investigation of Communist activities in the New York City area 57 

Investigation of Communist activities in the Columbus, Ohio, area 76 

Investigation of Communist activities in the Albany, N, Y., area 80 

Soviet schedule for war — 1955 92 

Lt. Franciszek Jarecki 93 

Dr. Marek Stanislaw Korowicz 93 

Religion 95 

Jack Richard McJVIichael 97 

G. Bromley Oxnam 99 

Investigation '''' Communist activities in the Philadelphia, Pa., area 100 

Investigation Oi Communist activities in the San Francisco area 103 

Consumers' Union 127 

Rules of procedure 128- 

Files and reference service 132 

Publications 134 

Past recommendations 136 

Subsequent action taken by Congress or e.\ecutive agencies on past 

recommendations 144 

Recommendations based upon investigations and hearings in the year 1953. 157 

Appendix 159 

V 



Public Law 601, Y9th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repretentatives of the United Btateg 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
• **«*** 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWEKS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Ttie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a vphole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, character, 
and objects of im- American propaganda activities in the United States, (ii) the 
diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda 
that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the 
principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and (iii) 
all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such I'ecommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

vi 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5. January 3, 1953 
• *«•••• 

RtTLE X 
STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Oon- 
gress, the following standing committees : 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
Is authorized to malie from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR THE 

YEAR 1953 

FOREWORD 

The annual report for the calendar year 1953 has been prepared by 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities in accordance with 
the provisions of the law establishing the committee, which law states : 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

This foreword is prepared to furnish an outline for the report, and 
the matters referred to therein are more fully elaborated upon in other 
sections of the report. 

During 1953, the committee held hearings in Washington, D. C. ; 
Los Angeles, Calif. ; New York City ; Albany, N. Y. ; Cokimbus, Ohio ; 
Lansing, Mich.; Philadelphia, Pa.; and San Francisco, Calif. The 
committee held 154 sessions, which total excludes business meetings. 
A total of 280 witnesses were heard in open and executive sessions. A 
greater number of witnesses heard during 1953 cooperated with the 
committee in furnishing valuable information relative to their personal 
knowledge of subversive activities. However, as has been the case in 
former years, a majority of the witnesses subj^enaed refused to affirm 
or deny their alleged membership in the Communist Party or to answer 
any questions relative to their purported activities in or on behalf of the 
conspiracy. In almost all cases, noncooperative witnesses invoked 
the provision of the fifth amendment, claiming that answers to the 
questions might tend to incriminate them. In no instance of which 
the committee has knowledge has a witness appearing before and 
cooperating with the committee relative to his past membership or 
association with subversive organizations been subsequently prosecuted 
because of his testimony. 

A considerable amount of testimony was received by the committee 
from individuals in the field of education who were former members 
of the Communist Party. This testimony indicates beyond any ques- 
tion of a doubt that the Communist conspiracy made determined and, 
in many instances, successful infiltration efforts in that vital area. 
From witnesses testifying under oath before the committee, approxi- 
mately 100 names of teachers, past and present, who were members 
of the Communist Party, were received. In this connection, it should 
be pointed out that there was no instance in which the committee 
endeavored in any way to ascertain the curricula of any school or to 
in any manner examine classroom procedures or the teaching methods 
of an educator. The focal point of the investigation into the general 
area of education was to the individual who had been identified as a 
past or present member of the Communist Party. 

1 



2 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

It is apparent that in the field of education, as in other areas in which 
the Communists have exerted their efforts to infiltrate and dominate, 
the measure of Communist success is minor when related to the many 
thousands of loyal American teachers who have refused to become 
robots or mechanical rabbits at the beck and call of the conspirators. 
However, the danger inherent in the presence of even a few Communist 
Party members in teaching capacities in American educational insti- 
tutions has been made clearly apparent in the testimony received from 
educators who were formerly in the Communist Party. 

The committee conducted further hearings in Los Angeles, Calif., 
during the year, continuing earlier hearings held in 1951 and 1952. 
Information and identifications brought out at the earlier hearings in 
Los Angeles, as well as elsewhere, were developed and additional 
witnesses were called. Wliile the committee's hearings during 19o3 
dealt in large part with the nature, extent, and objectives of the 
Communist efforts to infiltrate the general areas of entertainment and 
education, the hearings disclosed considerable new information con- 
cerning infiltration of the vital defense industries. 

For the first time in many years, the committee held hearings in 
New York City. During the hearings which related to subversive 
infiltration into the field of entertainment, it was found that many of 
the persons named as having been members of the Communist Party 
either resided in or were employed in New York City. An an- 
nouncement was made well in advance that the hearings were to be 
held in New York in order that any individual who had been pre- 
viously named might contact the committee to clarify his present 
status. Several persons did so contact the committee, and the com- 
mittee gained additional information of subversive activities through 
the testimony of these witnesses. Also heard in New York City was 
Mrs. Dorothy K. Funn, who furnished information concerning Com- 
munist infiltration of New York public schools, the National Negro 
Congress, and of a Communist cell among legislative representatives 
of certain unions and other organizations in Washington, D. C. 

A subcommittee in New York City called several witnesses in the 
labor field who refused to affirm or deny Communist Party member- 
ship. The same subcommittee received testimony from two former 
members of the Communist Party which identified the Rev. Jack 
Richard McMichael, of Upper Lake, Calif., as a one-time member of 
the Communist Party. McMichael was subsequently subpenaed and 
appeared before the committee. He denied present or past member- 
ship in the Communist Party, and, in light of the conflict in testimony, 
the matter has been referred to the Department of Justice for con- 
sideration as to possible perjury. 

The subcommittee received considerable testimony relative to the 
efforts of the Communist Party to infiltrate religious groups. This 
testimony was furnished by witnesses who have been called by the 
Government to testify against Communist leaders charged with vio- 
lation of the Smith Act. The committee was criticized in some 
religious quarters for releasing the testimony having to do with the 
infiltration of church groups and institutions, but it must be under- 
stood that the committee cannot place itself in a position of coaching 
witnesses or attempting to add or detract from the voluntary testimony 
being given under oath, no matter how unpopular to any group such 
testimony might be. The only thing that can be done by the committee 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 3 

in such instances is to submit the testimony for consideration of 
perjury prosecution, if it is found to be false. The committee has 
found no basis for such consideration in the New York testimony. 

The subcommittee in New York City also received testimony relat- 
ing to the initial efforts and subsequent success of the Communist 
Party in infiltrating the Nation's waterfronts and shipping. 

In Albany, N. Y., a subcommittee heard testimony relating to Com- 
munist infiltration of that vital defense area. Testimony was re- 
ceived from a former Communist, who is a citizen of Canada, relative 
to Communist plans for sabotage of the Marshall plan and the At- 
lantic Pact. The testimony of this witness, Patrick Walsh, served to 
highlight the success of the Communist Party in its infiltration of 
waterfronts and shipping. 

Patrick Walsh was not the only witness of foreign nationality 
heard by the committee during the year. One of the duties with 
which the committee is charged is the investigation of "the diffusion 
within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda 
that is instigated from foreign countries or of domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our 
Constitution." Testimony was received from a former Slovakian 
Army officer who, for the purpose of personal security, used the 
assumed name of Colonel Bukar during the hearing. This witness 
disclosed that, on the pretext that Great Britain was gearing for war 
against the Soviet Union in 1955, the Soviets were preparing for an 
offensive prior to that time. 

Lt. Francizek Jarecki, a young Polish jet pilot, testified before the 
committee, following his escape from Poland to Denmark. He fur- 
nished the committee with information relating to the false propa- 
ganda that the Polish Communist Government was spreading concern- 
ing the United States attitude toward the Polish people. Through the 
testimony of Dr. Marek Stanislaw Korowicz, the committee received 
further testimony concerning the Communist Polish Government's 
relations with the international Communist conspiracy and its true 
feelings toward this country. Dr. Korowicz came to this country as 
the Polish alternate delegate to the United Nations. Wlien the first 
opportunity presented itself, he fled from the constant surveillance, 
amounting to near imprisonment, exercised within the Polish delega- 
tion. Dr. Korowicz confirmed what many people have suspected when 
he testified that the Polish delegation operated in complete accord with 
the Soviet delegation as a bloc against the United States within the 
United Nations. 

The House committee on Un-American Activities has remained vigi- 
lant to determine whether there are any individuals now employed by 
the United States Government who are present or past members of 
subversive organizations. In the hearings conducted by the subcom- 
mittee in Albany, N. Y., testimony was received from two former 
members of the Communist Party that the Commissioner of the Fed- 
eral Mediation and Conciliation Service in Cincinnati, Ohio, had been 
known to them as a member of the Communist Party. In the investi- 
gation of this matter it was determined that this Federal employee, 
James F. McNamara, had, on the basis of previous investigation by 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, been given three loyalty hear- 
ings to determine his suitability to continue in Government service. 
On all three occasions McNamara had denied that he had ever been a 



4 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

member of the Communist Party and, in the face of FBI information 
to the contrary, he was cleared. Shortly after he had been served with 
a subpena to appear before the committee, McNamara submitted his 
resignation to the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. When 
he did appear, McNamara admitted that he had been a member of the 
Communist Party and had broken with it some years ago. The com- 
mittee believes it to be a fact that James F. McNamara did break with 
the Communist Party as he stated under oath. However, his case 
serves as an example of the continuing necessity for the work being 
performed by the House Committee on Un-American Activities. The 
Federal Bureau of Investigation had conducted a thorough inquiry 
and had in due course reported the results of its investigation to the 
proper authorities. However, in the face of F. B. I. reports, no fur- 
ther steps were taken by the agency concerned, and it was not until in- 
vestigation by this committee that the true facts were determined and 
McNamara's employment terminated. 

In 1952, the committee held hearings in Philadelphia, Pa,, which 
hearings dealt prineipally with subversive infiltration into the vital 
defense industries in that area. During November 1953, a subcom- 
mittee conducted further hearings which dealt exclusively with the 
efforts of the Communist Party to infiltrate the field of education in the 
Philadelphia area. In the 3 days of hearings, the subcommittee 
called 19 witnesses who were either presently engaged in the teaching 
profession or had previously been teachers in Philadelphia. As in 
other instances in which the committee questions witnesses concerning 
Communist Party membership, the committee's investigation had dis- 
closed that each of the witnesses had been a member of the Communist 
Party at some previous date. Some of the witnesses who appeared in 
Philadelphia refused to affirm or deny present or past membership in 
the Communist Party, while the majority of them denied present 
membership or membership in the Communist Party since they had 
signed the loyalty oath required by the State of Pennsylvania in 1952. 

In December 1953, a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities held hearings in San Francisco, Calif., which hearings 
dealt in large part with the nature, scope and objectives of Communist 
infiltration in that vital defense area and center of west coast com- 
munications. The committee received valuable testimony from indi- 
viduals who had been members of the Communist Party and from 
others who had served as undercover agents for the Federal Govern- 
ment, reporting on the activities of the Communist Party in the Bay 
area. Of particular significance in the San Francisco hearings was the 
effort made by the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's 
Union to coerce the committee into calling off the hearings. This 
action by union officials of the ILWU in ordering mass-protest demon- 
strations in front of the Federal building demonstrated clearly the 
element of control exercised by a few individuals, and clearly indicated 
the necessity for further investigations in the San Francisco area. 
There is reason to believe that, in the event of a national emergency, 
such unquestioned authority and control vested in the hands of indi- 
viduals who have been identified under oath as past or present mem- 
bers of the Communist Party could be used to completely demoralize 
and hamper an American defense effort. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 5 

It has been noted by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties that during the year 1953 there was an expansion in a field of sub- 
versive activities within the United States tliat, notwithstanding the 
clear and present danger represented by the Communist threat, should 
not go unnoticed by the American people or unchecked by Federal 
investigative bodies and agencies. There are presently at work within 
the United States various and sundry "hate" groups, the leaders of 
which, while masking their activities under the guise of patriotism 
and devotion to the republican form of Government, are in fact spread- 
ing dissension, discord, bigotry, and intolerance. In many instances, 
these organizations select ultrapatriotic names and devices to conceal 
their true and dangerous purposes. The subjects of the "hate" attacks 
are individuals or groups of religious and racial minorities among 
American citizens. The committee is by no means unaware of these 
activities, and investigation and documentation will proceed to the 
end that the individuals concerned may be disclosed for what they 
are. In the opinion of the committee, there are no degrees to sub- 
version. It is not sufficient to be simply anti-Communist if one is 
anti-American at the same time. 

The first investigation conducted by the Special Committee on Un- 
American Activities had as its object the Nazi German-American 
Bund. The special committee, however, did not ignore the growing 
shadow of the Communist threat, nor is the present committee ignor- 
ing the rise of neofascism in the United States. Subversion cannot 
be corrected by subversion, no matter if the most patriotic of titles 
cloaks it. 

This annual report of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
will reflect the numerous hearings held during the year 1953. A mere 
review of these hearings, however, falls far short of reflecting the full 
picture of the work performed by the committee. 

The committee staff has been engaged in numerous investigations 
throughout the year, many of which are still miderway. One such 
investigation is that presently being conducted in the State of Michi- 
gan. The investigation of the efforts and success of subversive infil- 
tration in the vital Michigan area commenced prior to hearings held 
in Detroit in 1952, and has been carried on continuously since that 
time. The committee had planned to hold hearings in Michigan dur- 
ing October 1953, but these were postponed when it was learned that 
the Department of Justice intended to institute prosecution of certain 
leaders of the Communist Party in Michigan under the provisions of 
the Smith xict. In the spirit of cooperation, members of the com- 
mittee met with Government attorneys and Federal court judges, and 
it was deemed advisable to postpone this committee's hearings until the 
completion of the Federal court action or until such time that hearings 
would not affect the action. 

It is anticipated that the hearings in Michigan will proceed at an 
early date in 1954, since the Government has completed its presenta- 
tion, and the defense of the six Communist leaders is scheduled to 
commence on January 4, 1954. 

The investigation conducted in Michigan, as in the majority of the 
committee's investigations, has produced evidence and information of 
subversive activities reaching into many other areas of the Nation. 
Some of the investigative leads developed in Michigan have been 
used as a basis for disclosures and testimony in hearings elsewhere. 



6 AN]SrUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Therefore, a bare recitation of facts disclosed in public and executive 
hearings gives only a partial reflection of the committee's valuable 
work. Investigation is necessarily a continuing process. The results 
of such investigation by way of public hearings are frequently delayed 
for long periods, and this should be taken into consideration in a 
proper evaluation of the work of the committee. 

The committee's objectives in its investigations and hearings can 
best be defined by a statement made following the completion of the 
San Francisco, Calif., hearings, which is as follows : 

The nature of the testimony adduced during the week of hearings can lead the 
committee to one inescapable conclusion, and that is the existence of a wide- 
spread Communist infiltration into almost every activity in the bay area. The 
actual extent of that infiltration cannot accurately be determined by the facts 
presently in the record of the proceedings, but on the basis of similar hearings 
previously conducted by the committee in other great cities of the Nation it can 
be stated on considerable authority that the total membership of the Communist 
Party in this area probably numbered several thousands of persons. 

However — and the committee wishes to stress this point — the actual numerical 
strength of the Communist conspiracy is not the yardstick by which its power to 
inflict irreparable damage on our institutions and our defenses can or should be 
measured. A handful of determined Communists in a local labor union can and 
will destroy democracy in that union if unretarded by the vigilance of the majority 
of union members. 

One Communist faculty member in a school can and will poison the minds and 
wither the souls of young students if his activities both on and ofC the campus 
are not made the subject of constant scrutiny. 

The myth that the Communist conspiracy constitutes nothing more than the 
activities of individuals gathered together for the pursuit of legal political activi- 
ties has long since been exploded. Those who meet in secret under assumed 
names for the purpose of fomenting disorder, turmoil, and revolution deserve the 
name "conspirators." 

Arrogance, contempt for and vilification of constituted authority are the unmis- 
takable hallmarks of the conspiracy and of its agents. Under the guise of pro- 
tecting human rights, this conspiracy in fact seeks to destroy them. Against this 
organized effort to destroy constitutional government by unconstitutional means 
must be arrayed all of the forces and weapons available to a free people. 

This committee is established hy the Congress of the United States and has 
been cloaked by that body with wide power under Public Law 601. It is one of 
the weapons in the hands of the American people. Who dulls the edge of that 
weapon brings joy to the hearts of those whose dedicated task it is to destroy 
the Constitution of the United States and place human freedom behind barbed 
wire. 

The fifth amendment to the Constitution of the United States is a sacred 
privilege, oft abused as it has been during the course of these and other hear- 
ings. In answer to the many citizens of the Bay area who have written to 
the committee relative to the use of the amendment by uncooperative wit- 
nesses, the committee can only state again that there is presently no legislative 
device to meet that misuse; the need for clarifying legislation is cleaily apparent. 
Communist directives lay a charge upon Communists and Communist sym- 
pathizers to carry the class struggle into courts and hearing rooms, to remain 
always on the offensive, and to use whatever devices are necessary to prevent 
disclosures which might be harmful to the Communist conspiracy. 

The evidences of this technique were abundantly made clear during the Medina 
trial and in subsequent court action stemming from violations of the Smith 
Act and other antisubversion legislation. Turmoil in courts and hearings 
replaces decorum in the Communist scheme, and dignity becomes an early 
casualty to the premeditated tactics of the Communist conspiracy. 

Those familiar with the techniques of the Communist Party have had a 
firsthand opportunity to witness communism in action here in this room for the 
past .'') (lays. Committee members and the staff have been maligned and vilified 
in this very room and in paid advertisements inserted in the press. The motives 
and the purposes of the investigation have been misrepresented and sorely 
distorted. Charges involving the integrity of the Congress of the United States 
and the elected representatives of the American people have been hurled in- 



AjSTNTJAL report, committee on UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 7 

discriminately and venomously by witnesses using every tactic and evasion to 
cover tbeir alleged activities within the Commuuist conspiracy. 

The committee is confident that these efforts to undermine public confidence 
in the committee and its work will be as unavailing in the Bay area as they 
have proven to be in other cities throughout this country. 

To those witnesses who have given the American people of their own experi- 
ence in the Communist conspiracy the committee extends its thanks. Those 
who have lived through the lie of communism and have come forward to do 
an American duty as they see that duty should have not only the thanks of 
the Nation, but the sympathetic understanding of business associates, employers, 
and former friends and associates outside of the Communist Party. Scorned 
and vilified as they are by former associates within the party, these witnesses 
should find understanding among the vast body of loyal American citizens. 
They should receive every assistance toward economic, social, and political 
rehabilitation consistent with the quality of trustworthiness which marked 
their testimony. 

It should be remembered that without the testimony of the hundreds of for- 
mer Communists who have severed their ties with the conspiracy and who 
have testified fully as to the extent and nature of the activities of the party 
there would not today be an ever expanding volume of knowledge and informa- 
tion in the hands of the American Congress and available to the American people. 

Eternal vigilance is indeed the price of liberty. Vigilante action is neither 
needed nor desirable. The work of tracking down subversion of evei-y type and 
of insuring the passage of Federal remedial legislation designed to meet the 
threat against human freedom is a charge which must rest upon duly constituted 
authority at all levels of government. 

Intelligent and loyal citizens armed with facts of subversion and disloyalty 
can render a signal service to the American people by contacting the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation or other agencies, the duties of which include investi- 
gation and proper evaluation of information. 

The question has been asked as to what purpose is served by the disclosure 
of the names of individuals who may long ago have left the conspiracy and since 
devoted themselves to home and work in the manner of loyal American citizens. 
This is a reasonable question and one deserving of a reasonable answer. The 
testimony of a cooperative witness is not tampered with in any way by thia 
committee or by its staff. That testimony must stand the cruel test imposed 
by the subsequent appearance before the committee of those who are named. It 
would be an act of intellectual dishonesty for this committee to add or detract 
one name from the list of those whom the witness is prepared to identify under 
oath as having been within his own knowledge a member of the conspiracy dur- 
ing the period of the witness' own membership. The identity of an individual 
having been made in public or executive session, the committee has no alterna- 
tive but to place that individual in the witness chair at the earliest possible 
moment. 

The decision on the part of a witness as to the nature of his testimony, whether 
he will cooperate or not, is not within the authority of the committee to rule 
upon. Every member of the Communist Party, past or present, is or was a small 
section of a jigsaw puzzle, and each had his role to play. The fact of having 
left the conspiracy in no way eradicates or erases his knowledge of events that 
transpired during his membership nor of the role he played. The committee 
has no way of knowing the status of his membership at present until he is 
placed under oath and the information is sought to be elicited. 

Upon the front of a great public building in Washington, D. C, there are 
graven on stone the words "The past is prologue." If this is true, and if indi- 
viduals insure the future by reference to the past, then it is equally true that 
nations under unremitting attack must look to the past in the preparation of 
its future defenses. One missing piece of the vast and forbidding puzzle may 
well be in the possession of a former and disillusioned member of the con- 
spiracy. The risk attendant on failure to make adequate and comprehensive 
inquiry at every available source is too great to justify the theory that former 
Communists should be immune to interrogation. The bank robber, the embez- 
zler, or the murderer who leaves the pursuit of crime to take up a quiet existence 
in a rural community enjoys no immunity for his past activity, and the stake 
of society involved in the transgressions of those who steal physical properties 
or money is, while important, as nothing to the activities of those who would 
enslave the world. 



8 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Under the charge laid upon the committee by the House of Repre- 
sentatives, recommendations for remedial legislation are to be made 
from time to time. A number of such recommendations have been 
made in the past and have subsequently been incorporated into Fed- 
eral hxw. The committee notes with interest that the executive branch 
of the Government has proposed that witnesses appearing before duly 
authorized Government bodies be granted immunity in order that they 
may testify fully and freely relative to information in their possession. 
The House Committee on Un-American Activities first made this 
recommendation to the Congress in its annual report for 1951. 

The executive branch has also proposed that wiretap evidence be 
made admissible in the prosecution of crimes relating to the national 
defense of the United States. The House Committee on Un-American 
Activities first recommended such legislation in its annual report for 
the year 1950 and repeated it in its reports for 1951 and 1952. 

The committee recognizes that there are numerous additional safe- 
guards which should be enacted or strengthened before the American 
people may be secure with regard to internal security laws and 
espionage. 

To the end that the Congress and the American people may have a 
better understanding of the work performed by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities, there is set forth in this annual report 
the names of many of the witnesses who appeared, as well as the iden- 
tity of the individuals named as present or past participants in the 
conspiracy to destroy the free world during the course of testimony 
taken. As in the case of any testimony or report, if any individual 
so named desires to clarify or correct the report with reference to his 
own name, he should communicate immediately with the committee. 

COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION 

(Education) 

At the outset of the 83d Congress, in January 1953, the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities announced that it planned to 
hold hearings relating to individual members of the teaching pro- 
fession, who are present or former members of the Communist Party 
and who had been so identified in sworn testimony given by previous 
witnesses. It was clearly set forth at that time, and studiously ad- 
hered to subsequently, tliat the investigation and the hearings would 
deal solely with individuals so named and would in no way be an 
investigation of education or educational institutions. Critics of the 
committee, and in some instances, other persons who had not taken 
the trouble to get the true facts of the committee's intention, charged 
that the committee sought to abridge a fundamental American prin- 
ciple — academic freedom. 

The published testimony taken to this time relative to individual 
educators wlio had been named under oath as past or present mem- 
bers of the Communist Party will indicate to any honest and fair 
observer that there has been no effort or attempt on the part of the 
committee to examine into the text or content of the curriculum of 
any insitution, nor is such an investigation contemplated. The com- 
mittee has called as witnesses individuals who, either presently or in 
the past, have engaged in the teaching profession and who should, 



ANNUAL REPORT, COJVIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 9 

through past experience with subversive organizations, be in a posi- 
tion to furnisli the committee with vahiable information. Fortu- 
nately, many of tlie persons called did assist the committee by detail- 
ing facts within their own knowledge concerning Communist efforts 
to infiltrate and dominate the teaching profession within the United 
States. 

The field of education in the United States long ago became a prime 
target for the Communists. Perhaps no other area of American life 
offers so great an opportunity' for the trained and dedicated Com- 
munist agent. As the opportunities for higher education for the 
youth of America have expanded, the responsibility and influence 
of the teacher has become more and more important. From the day 
that a student commences his education, the teacher assumes a col- 
lateral responsibility with the parent for the proper training of the 
individual. It is regrettable that in many instances parents are 
inclined to place the major burden of responsibility on the teacher, 
thus relegating the home and parental influence to a place of second- 
ary importance. Obviously, in such cases, the molding of a young 
mind becomes the total responsibility of the teacher and, in the selec- 
tion of subject matter and by precept and example, the Communist 
teacher can and will distort the facts of American life into a hideous 
mockery of its true reality. That the Communists in the teaching 
profession have been so few is testimony to the fine work being per- 
formed by thousands of loyal and dedicated American citizens Vfho 
have chosen the teaching profession as their life's work. That a rela- 
tively small number of American students have chosen communism 
ill |)reference to the republican form of government is additional 
evidence of the basic and fundamental soundness of American 
education. 

Through the course of the committee's hearings and investigations, 
there has been developed but little evidence that Communist teachers 
endeavored to indoctrinate the students with the Communist philos- 
ophy in the classroom. Testimony indicates that such efforts were 
in large part confined to extracurricular associations, both on and 
off the campus. In some instances, these associations took the form 
of Marxist study groups, from which it was but a short step to more 
serious gatherings of a semiclandestine nature and subsequently into 
the secret maze of the Communist Party itself. 

The committee, in undertaking an investigation to determine the 
scope and measure of success attending Communist efforts to infiltrate 
the field of education, studied the activities of well-known Communist 
schools such as the Jefferson School of Social Science in New York 
and the Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago, as well as the activities 
of Communist groups, such as the Labor Youth League, among the 
students. 

The committee has in no way endeavored to dictate to any university 
employing a person identified as a member of the Communist Party as 
to his retention or dismissal. 

The first witness heard publicly by the committee was Prof. Kobert 
Gorham Davis, presently an instructor at Smith College. Dr. Davis 
testified that he had been a member of the Communist Party from 
January 1937 until the fall of 1939. Of particuhxr interest in the 
testimony of Dr. Davis was the reason why he had first joined the 
Communist Party and the reasons why he left it. 

47400 — 54 2 



10 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Dr. Davis stated : 

Well, I should say that ideologically there were 3 elements: First, the fact 
of the depression. To my generation it seemed intolerable that men should be 
unemployed ; that food and cotton should be destroyed while people vrere hungry 
in a country as advanced technologically as the United States, and with such 
tremendous natural resources. We sought to understand the reason for the 
depression, for the waste of natural resources, and were led because of the 
spirit of the thirties to concern ourselves with the Marxist explanation. 

One reason why Marxism appealed to my generation is because we were 
products of the twenties, educationally — a period of uncertainty and skepticism. 
Marxism seemed to offer a positive solution — an affirmative philosophy. We 
also had been taught that the First World War accomplished nothing despite 
the 4 years of suffering and slaughter. We were determined that another 
fruitless war of that kind should not occur. 

Finally, we were very much aware of the growing menace of Hitlerism, and 
it seemed that Hitlerism could be stopped internationally, and a developing 
Fascist movement, or what might turn into a Fascist movement in this counti^^, 
could be stopped only by organizing a very broad united front — and this the 
Communist Party purported to do. They did seem to be taking the lead against 
Hitlerism. 

As you remember, this was the period of the movement for collective security 
in the League of Nations. This was also the period of the Spanish Civil War, 
when the democracies seemed to be fighting against the armed forces of Hitler 
and Mussolini in Spain. 

All these influences converging made me feel before I went into the party that 
it was uiy idea to aline myself with this leadership. 

I discovered in the 2 years which followed that I had made a mistake, but my 
break did not come finally until after the Hitler-Molotov pact, which initiated the 
Second World War. 

I left then not only because of the shift of the line led me into a position which 
was politically and morally intolerable, but also because I had such experience 
of tlie intrigues and duplicity that are inseparable from Communist Party 
meml)ership with the requirement that one critically defend the Soviet Union, 
that as a person of morality and sincerity I could remain in that position no 
longer. 

I not only broke with the party, but increasingly in the years that have followed 
have I felt it necessary to fight the influence of the Communist Party in those 
areas where I could be most effective. 

Dr. Davis also shed considerable light on the subservience of the 
Communist Party in the United States to the Soviet Union, when he 
stated : 

The shift of policy after 1939 and the rapidity vrith which the Communist Party 
in this country fell in line with the Russian policy, even though they didn't under- 
stand it, made it quite clear that they were acting for the Soviet Union ; that they 
were in a certain sense Soviet nationalists and not working for the broader in- 
terests of the American people. 

One of the principal objectives of the Communist Party, during the 
period that Dr. Davis was a member, was the organization and control 
of the Teachers' Union. Dr. Davis said : 

We worked very hard to build up the Teachers' Union in Harvard and to build 
up teachers' unions generally, and we did tliis with a comparatively clear con- 
science, because our objectives, our immediate objectives, were to improve teach- 
ing conditions, raise salaries, and so on ; but also obviously we wished teachers 
to take the same position that we (the Communists) took on public questions. 

Dr. Davis furnished an excellent object lesson on how the Com- 
munists successfully gain control of groups and organizations in which 
they constitute a minority when he explained how the Communists 
were able to have their members chosen as delegates to national con- 
ventions of the Teachers' Union. He explained in this manner : 

One reason why Communists were successful was because in these organiza- 
tions all service was voluntary. The teachers were very busy ; trips were expen- 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 11 

sive, and very frequently those who offered to go were asked to go because no 
other persons were available, and if a member of the Communist Party offered 
to go, his offer was usually accepted, if he offered to go to the national convention. 

Although the membership of Dr. Davis in the Communist l^rrty 
had been comparatively brief and during a period some years ago, he 
made the observation that might be expected of a man of his educa- 
tional background and experience when he responded to a question as 
to whether a Communist should be allowed to teach in American 
universities : 

I do not think we should allow the language of liberalism and democracy to be 
used by those who would destroy liberalism and democracy. That is, 1 think the 
Communists necessarily in universities today are dishonest in what they say, 
whereas Aristotle and Plato were honest. 

The committee also had the benefit of the testimony of Daniel J. 
Boorstin, presently an instructor at the University of Chicago. Mr. 
Boorstin testified that he had been a member of the Communist Party 
for a period of about 1 year, terminating his membership in Septem- 
ber 1939. Prior to joining the Communist Party in the United States, 
Mr. Boorstin stated that he had been a member of a Marxist study 
group while a Khodes scholar at Oxford, England. He explained 
that out of a group of approximately 70 American students in 
England at the time, about 6 of them were members of the same 
Marxist study group. It was, therefore, with a Marxist background 
that he joined the Communist Party while a part-time teacher and 
graduate student at Harvard University in 1938. Mr. Boorstin 
also furnished the committee with his reasons for joining the Com- 
munist Party, and the process through which he learned of the decep- 
tion and distortion of the Communists' claims. He recalled: 

There were a number of circumstances that as I can recall now led me into 
the group. One was that those were the days of the so-called United Front 
during which the Communist Party was taking the position of supporting all lib- 
eral and progressive groups. Their motto was "Communism Is 20th Century 
Americanism" at that time. 

They had also succeeded in blurring the line between themselves and other 
groups. Also they were at that time taking a position against anti-Semitism 
and against the Nazis, and as a Jew that had a certain appeal to me, naturally. 

Also during that year Granville Hicks was a counselor in American studies, 
ami he was a well-known person who had written a book about American litera- 
ture. His presence lent a certain amount of glamor to the group. 

In addition to that there were some old friends of mine who had been inter- 
ested in Marxism at Oxford, who were at Harvard at that time, and as friends 
of mine they added to the interest of the group. 

It is hard to explain the thing any more clearly than that, sir. There were 
many different things. 

Mr. Boorstin's awakening came in much the same fashion as did that 
of Mr. Davis : 

It was a growing disgust with the way of thinking and the attitudes of people 
in the group. The most dramatic event which brought it out into the open was 
the Nazi-Soviet Pact, which revealed both the willingness of the Soviet Union 
to collaborate with nazism and the intellectual bankruptcy of the American 
Communists who switched their line around according to what the Daily Worker 
said. 

As I recall, the day after the Nazi-Soviet Pact, or just about then, the Com- 
munists denied everything they had been saying for years. 

Granville Hicks, referred to in the testimony of Mr. Boorstin, was 
also a witness before the committee and testified as to his member- 



12 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

ship in the Communist Party both before and after the time he was 
a counselor of American studies at Harvard University. Mr. Hicks 
was a prolific writer for Communist publications during the 1930's. 
He had been a member of the Communist Party for about 4 years 
and broke abruptly when the Nazi-Soviet Pact was signed. Mr. 
Hicks' testimony again pointed up the fact that has been established 
in so much of the testimony of former Communist writers — the control 
exercised over them by the Communist Party, 

One of the witnesses called early in the committee's hearings was 
Wendell H. Furry, a professor at Harvard University. Mr. Furry was 
called because the committee was aware that he possessed a wealth 
of information concerning Communist activities in the New England 
area. It was a disappointment to the committee that, rather than 
furnish this information, he chose to refuse to answer questions relat- 
ing to his Communist Party membership on the grounds that to do so 
might incriminate him. Mr, Furry was offered a second opportunity 
to appear before the committee, upon his request, and on that occasion 
he modified his testimony to the extent of denying membership for the 
past 2 years. He persisted, however, in his refusal to assist the com- 
mittee in its efforts to gain further information on the Communist 
conspiracy. 

On February 27, 1953, the committee heard the testimony of 
Barrows Dunham, a professor at Temple University, in executive ses- 
sion. Mr. Dunham refused to answer even the most fundamental 
questions, such as the record of his educational background. The com- 
mittee voted that the testimony of Mr. Dunham, such as it was, be 
released. 

In the 15 years of the committee's existence, its members have been 
subjected to unprecedented abuse from some witnesses who have ap- 
peared. One of the most abusive and contemptuous to appear was 
Abraham Glasser. 

Glasser became an employee of the United States Department of 
Justice in December 1935. The Federal Bureau of Investigation 
learned, through a Soviet espionage agent who had been arrested by 
Canadian authorities, that during a period in 1938-39 Glasser had 
furnished him with information from the files of the Justice Depart- 
ment, As a result of these findings Glasser was suspended from the 
Department of Justice in June 1'941. A resume of the information 
relating to Glasser's activities in behalf of the Soviet Government were 
set forth in a memorandum prepared by Alexander Holtzoff, who is 
presently a Federal judge in Washington, D. C. This memorandum, 
which was prepared in July 1941, set forth the obvious reasons why 
Glasser should at least be dismissed with prejudice from the Jus- 
tice Department. In the face of this memorandum, a board appointed 
to study Glasser's case found that there was not in their opinion suffi- 
cient cause for dismissal, although determining that he should not 
be retained in the service of the Justice Department. Glasser was 
requested to resign. He did submit his resignation, effective October 
31, 1941, and immediately was employed by the Office of Price Ad- 
ministration. No notification was sent to the OPA or the Civil Service 
Commission by the Department of Justice as to the serious charges or 
the fact that Glasser's resignation had been requested. 

It is little wonder then that, when he was hired by Rutgers Uni- 
versity, in July 1947, the officials of that institution were completely 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-A]\IERICAN ACTIVITIES 13 

unaware of Glasser's backo^"ound. When Glasser appeared before 
the committee in March 1953, he refused to affirm or deny the allega- 
tions that he had been engaged in espionage or whether he knew the 
Soviet agent when shown his picture. 

As this investigation progressed, the committee discovered the 
•existence of a Communist cell on the campus of Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn., during 1947. The committee's investigation disclosed 
that among the members of the cell were Byron Thorwell Darling, 
Paul Zilseh Daniel Fine, Theodore S. Polumbaum, Arthur L. Levy, 
Harold T. Woerner, Jr., and others who have not yet been called before 
the committee. The above-named appeared and, with the exception 
of Zilsel, all refused to affirm or deny allegations that they had been 
members of a Communist cell at Yale, or were Communists at the 
present time. Zilsel denied present membership but refused to furnish 
information on Communist activities at Yale. The committee also 
heard further testimony from Byron Thorwell Darling in Columbus, 
Ohio, which will be treated in the section of the report dealing with 
the Columbus hearings. 

The commitee also learned of the existence of a Communist cell 
among members of the faculty at Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy during the late 1930's, and until at least the middle 1940's. The 
first witness called in relation to this cell was William Ted ISIartin, 
chairman of the mathematics department at MIT. INIr. Martin testi- 
fied that he had been a member of the Communist Party from Janu- 
ary 1938 until the summer of 1946. He testified that during that 
period there was a Communist cell consisting of G or 7 professors at 
MIT, and that in turn this cell was part of a broader Communist sec- 
tion of teachers in the Boston and Cambridge area. Another member 
of this cell, who furnished the committee with valuable information 
concerning the Communist conspiracy, particularly in relation to the 
teaching profession, was Isadore Amdur, professor of physical chem- 
istry at^MIT. Mr. Amdur gave the committee his opinion as to why 
a scientist might be attracted to the Communist Party : 

I believe that a relatively lar^e number of scientists joined the Communist 
Party partly because their training and activity makes it natural for them to do so. 
A scientist,"by nature, is a radical person. He is inclined to question everything, 
to revolt against that which has gone before if, in his opinion, it does not jibe 
with what he thinks the present ff.cts are, and I believe quite sincerely but 
personally that scientists are more prone to go into an unpopular organization 
such as tiie Communist Party in an attempt to find out what it is all about, and 
it is my belief that the most radical o.'' the natural scientists are probably the 
mathematicians. I might allow room for the philosophers ; I don't know, but 
the mathematicians, I believe, would cone first in that category. I believe the 
physicists are a close second and the chemists and biologists and so forth would 
hring up the rear. 

Amdur stated that he had been a member of the Communist Party 
from 1938 until 1944 and after that ^as engaged in working on the 
Manhattan Engineer District. Even though the Manhattan project 
was one of the most vital and secretive ever undertaken by our Gov- 
ernment, and resulted in the development of the atom bomb, Mr. 
Amdur was never questioned by Manhattan Engineer District author- 
ities as to whether he had been a member of the Communist Party 
prior to or during his work on the project. 

One of the principal criticisms raised in connection with the investi- 
gations and hearings by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 



14 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

ties is that universities are themselves capable of detecting wliich 
teachers are Communists. The fallacy of this criticism is exemplified 
by the facts relating to John Henry Reynolds. Reynolds, as were 
other witnesses, was identified under oath as a one-time member of 
the Communist Party prior to the time that he was served with a 
subpena by an investigator for the committee. Wlien he was first 
contacted by the investigator, Reynolds arranged for an interview in 
the office of the dean of the University of Florida, and further 
arranged that the head of the department in which he was an in- 
structor be present. In the presence of these university officials, 
Reynolds flatly denied that he had ever been a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. In the intervening period between that conference and 
his appearance before the committee, Reynolds was publicly identified 
by three witnesses as a one-time member of the Communist Party. 
When he did appear before the committee, Reynolds refused to affirm 
or deny membership in the Communist Party on the grounds that to 
do so might incriminate him. 

Evidence on the record indicates that in no instance has a university 
or other educational institution knowingly employed the services of 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Probably the most succinct statement relative to the committee's 
investigations and hearings in this field has come from the universities 
themselves. On March 24, 1953, the Association of American Uni- 
versities adopted a statement entitled "The Rights and Responsibil- 
ities of Universities and Their Faculties." The committee believes 
that the statement in its entirety should be read by every American 
and, for that reason, it is reprinted as a portion of this report : 

The Rights and Responsibilities of Univeesities and Theib Faculties 
(Adopted by the Association of American Universities, March 24, 1953) 

I. HOLE OF THE UNIVERSITT IN AMERICAN LIFE 

For 300 years higher education has played a leading role in the advancement 
of American civilization. No country in history so early perceived the impor- 
tance of that role and none lias derived such widespread benefits from it. Colleges 
moved westward with the frontier and carried with them the seeds of learning. 
When the university idea was transplanted from Europe, it spread across the 
Nation with extraordinary speed. Today our universities are the standard 
bearers of our whole system of education. They are the mainstays of the pro- 
fessions. They are the prime source of our competence in science and the arts. 
The names of their graduates crowd the honor rolls of two World Wars and of the 
Nation's peacetime affairs. By every test of war and peace they have proved 
themselves indispensable instruments of cultural progress and national welfare. 

In the United States there is a greater degree of equality of opportunity in 
higher education than anywhere else in the world. A larger propoi'tion of 
Americans study in universities and colleges than any other people. These 
universities have shown and continue to show greater responsiveness to the 
needs of our society than their European counterparts. They have equipped 
our people with the varied skills and sciences essential to the development of 
a pioneer country. They have imparted the shape and coherence of the Ameri- 
can Nation to formless immigrant groups. American ideals have been strength- 
ened, the great cultural tradition of the West has been broadened, and enriched 
by their teaching and example. 

IModern knowledge of ourselves and of our universe has been nurtured in the 
universities. The scientific, technological, medical, and surgical advances of our 
time were born in them. They have supplied intellectual capital as essential 
to our society as financial capital is to our industrial enterprise. They have 
more than justified the faith of the public in our distinctive system of higher 
education. They have proved themselves dynamic forces of American progress. 



AJSTSnjAL REPORT, COAOIITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 15 

n. THE NATURE OF A UNrV^EBSITY 

A university is the institutional embodiment of an urge for knowledge that is 
basic in human nature and as old as the human race. It is inherent in every 
individual. The search that it inspires is an individual affair. Men vary in the 
intensity of their passion for the search for knowledge as well as in their com- 
petence to pursue it. History therefore presents us with a series of scholarly 
pioneers who advanced our knowledge from age to age and increased our ability 
to discover new knowledge. Great scholars and teachers drew students to them, 
and in the Middle Ages a few such groups organized themselves into the first 
universities. 

The modern university which evolved from these is a unique type of organiza- 
tion. For many reasons it must differ from a corporation created for the pur- 
pose of producing a salable article for profit. Its internal structure, procedures, 
and discipline are properly quite different from those of business organizations. 
It is not so closely integrated and there is no such hierarchy of authority as is 
appropriate to a business concern ; the permament members of a university are 
essentially equals. 

Like its medieval prototype, the modern American university is an associa- 
tion of individual scholars. Their effectiveness, both as scholars and as teach- 
ers, requires the capitalizing of their individual passion for knowledge and 
their individual competence to pursue it and communicate it to others. They 
are united in loyalty to the ideal of learning, to the moral code, to the country, 
and to its form of government. They represent diversified fields of knowledge, 
they express many points of view. Even within the same department of in- 
struction there are not only specialists in various phases of the subject, but 
men with widely differing interests and outlooks. 

Free enterprise is as essential to intellectual as to economic progress. A 
university must therefore be hospitable to an infinite variety of skills and 
viewpoints, relying upon open competition among them as the surest safeguard 
of truth. Its whole spirit requires investigation, criticism, and presentation 
of ideals in an atmosphere of freedom and mutual confidence. This is the i-eal 
meaning of "academic" freedom. It is essential to the achievement of its 
ends that the faculty of a university be guaranteed this freedom by its govern- 
ing board, and that the reasons for the guaranty be understood by the public. 
To enjoin uniformity of outlook upon a university faculty would put a stop 
to learning at the source. 

For these reasons a university does not take an official position of its own 
either on disputed questions of scholarship or on political questions or matters 
of public policy. It refrains from so doing not only in its own but in the public 
interest, to capitalize the search for knowledge for the benefit of society, to 
give the individuals pursuing that search the freest possible scope and the 
greatest possible encouragement in their efforts to preserve the learning of 
the past and advance learning in the present. The scholar who pursues the 
search on these terms does so at maximum advantage to society. So does 
the student. To the scholar, lie open new discoveries in the whole field of 
knowledge, to his student the opportunity of sharing in those discoveries and 
at the same time developing his powers of rational thought, intelligent judg- 
ment, and an understanding use of acquired knowledge. Thus essential quali- 
ties of learning are combined with essential qualities of citizenship in a free 
society. 

To fulfill their function the members of university faculties must continue 
to analyze, test, criticize, and reassess existing institutions and beliefs, ap- 
proving when the evidence supports them and disapproving when the weight 
of evidence is on the other side. Such investigations cannot be confined to 
the physical world. The acknowledged fact that moral, social, and political 
progress have not kept ijace with mastery of the physical world shows the 
need for more intensified research, fresh insights, vigorous criticism, and in- 
ventiveness. The scholar's mission requires the study and examination of un- 
popular ideas, of ideas considered abhorrent and even dangerous. For, just 
as in the case of deadly disease or the military potential of an enemy, it is 
only by intense study and research that the nature and extent of the danger 
can be understood and defenses against it perfected. 

Timidity must not lead the scholar to stand silent when he ought to speak, 
particularly in the field of his competence. In matters of conscience and when 
he has truth to proclaim the scholar has no obligation to be silent in the face 
of popular disapproval. Some of the great passages in the history of truth 



16 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

have involved the open challenge of popular prejudice in times of tension such 
as those in which we live. 

What applies to research applies equally to teaching. So long as an instructor's 
observations are scholarly and germane to his subject, his freedom of expression 
in his classroom should not be curbed. The university student should be exposed 
to competin.u: opinions and beliefs in every field, so that he may learn to weigh 
them and gain maturity of judgment. Honest and skillful exposition of such 
opinions and beliefs is the duty of every instructor; and it is equally his privilege 
to express his own critical opinion and the reasons for holding it. In teaching, 
as in research, he is limited by the requirements of citizenship, of professional 
competence and good taste. Having met those standards, he is entitled to all 
the protection the full resources of the university can provide. 

Whatever criticism is occasioned by these practices, the universities are com- 
mitted to them by their very nature. To curb them, in the hope of avoiding 
crit cism, would mean distorting the true process of learning and depriving society 
of its benefits. It would invite the fate of the German and Italian universities 
under fascism and the Russian universities under communiism. It would deny 
our society one of its most fruitful sources of strength and welfare and represent 
a sinister change in our ideal of government. 

We must recognize the fact that honest men hold differing opinions. This 
fundamental truth underlies the assertion and definition of individual rights and 
freedom in our Bill of Rights. How does it apply to universities? In the eyes 
of the law, the university scholar has no more and no less freedom than his 
fellow citizens outside a university. Nonetheless, because of the vital importance 
of the university to civilization, membership in its society of scholars enhances 
the prestige of persons admitted to its fellowship after probation and upon the 
basis of achievement in research and teaching. The university supplies a dis- 
tinctive forum and, in so doing, strengthens the scholar's voice. When his opin- 
ions challenge existing orthodox points of view, his freedom may be more in need 
of defense than that of men in otlier professions. The guaranty of tenure to 
professors of mature and proven scholarship is one such defense. As in the case 
of indg's, tenure protects the scholar against undue economic or political pres- 
sures and ensures the continuity of the scholarly process. 

There is a line at which '"freedom" or ''privilege" begins to be qualified by legal 
"duty" and "obligalion." The determination of the line is the function of the 
legislature and the courts. The ultimate interpretation and appiication of the 
first and fourteenth amendments are the function of the United States Supreme 
Court ; but every public official is bound by his oath of office to respect and pre- 
serve the liberties guaranteed therein. Thesf' are not to be determined arbi- 
trarily or by public outcry. The line thus drawn can be changed by legislative 
and Judicial action; it has varied in the pa.st because of prevailing anxieties as 
well as by reason of "clear and present" danger. Its location is .subject to, and 
should receive, criticism both popular and judicial. However much the location 
of the line may be criticized, it cannot be disregarded with impunity. Any 
member of a university who crosses the duly established line is not excused by 
the fact that he believes the line ill drawn. When the speech, writing, or other 
actions of a member of a faculty exceed lawful limits, he is subject to the same 
penalties as other persons. In addition, he may lo.se his university status. 

Historically the word "university" is a guaranty of standards. It implies 
endorsement not of its members' views but of their capability and integrity. 
Every scholar has an obligation to maintain this reputation. By ill-advised, 
though not illegal, public acts or utterances he may do serious harm to his pro- 
fession, his university, to education, and to the general welfare. He bears a 
heavy responsibility to weigh the validity of his opinions and the manner in which 
they are expressed. His effectiveness, both as a scholar and teacher, is not 
reduced, but enhanced, if he has the humility and the wisdom to recognize the 
fallibility of his own judgment. He should remember that he is as much a 
layman as anyone else in nil fields except those in which he has special compe- 
tence. Others, both within and without the university, are as free to criticize his 
opinions as he is free to express them. 

As in all acts of association, the professor accepts conventions which become 
morally binding. Aliove all, he owes his colleagues in the university complete 
candor and perfect integrity, precluding any kind of clandestine or conspiratorial 
activities. He owes equal cnndor to the public. If he is called upon to answer 
for his convictions it is his duty as a citizen to speak out. It is even more defi- 
nitely his duty as a professor. Refusal to do so, on whatever legal grounds, 
cannot fail to reflect upon a profession that claims for itself the fullest freedom 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 17 

to speak and the maximum protection of that freedom available in our society. 
In this respect, invocation of the fifth amendment places upon a professor a heavy 
burden of proof of his titness to hold a teaching position and lays upon his uni- 
versity an obligation to reexamine liis qualifications for membership in its 
society. 

In all universities faculties exercise wide authority in internal affairs. The 
greater their autonomy, the greater their share of responsibility to the public. 
They must maintain the highest standards and exercise the utmost wisdom in 
appointments and promotions. They must accept their share of responsibility 
for the discipline of those who fall short in the discharge of their academic 
trust. 

The universities owe their existence to legislative acts and public charters. A 
State university exists by constitutional and legislative acts, an endowed uni- 
versity enjoys its independence by franchise from the State and by custom. The 
State university is supported by public funds. The privately sustained university 
is benefited by tax exemptions. Such l)enettts are conferred upon the universities 
not as favors but in furtherance of the public interest. They carry with them 
public obligation of direct concern to the faculties of the universities as well as to 
the governing boards. 

Legislative bodies from time to time may scrutinize these benefits and privi- 
leges. It is clearly the duty of universities and their members to cooperate in 
oflicial inquiries directed to those ends. When the powers of legislative inquiry 
are abused, the remedy does not lie in noncooperation or defiance; it is to be 
sought through the normal channels of informed public opinion. 

IV. THE PRESENT DAXGER 

We have set forth the nature and function of the university. We have out- 
lined its rights and responsibilities and those of its faculties. What are the 
implications of current anxiety over Russian communism and the subversive 
activities connected with it? 

We condemn Russian connnunism as we condemn every form of totalitarianism. 
We share the profound concern of the American people at the existence of an 
international conspiracy whose goal is the destruction of our cherished insti- 
tutions. The police state would be the death of our universities, as of our 
Government. Three of its principles in particular are abhorrent to us: the 
fomenting of worldwide revolution as a step to seizing power ; the use of false- 
hood and deceit as normal means of persuasion; thought control — the dictation 
of doctrines which must be accepted and taught by all party members. Under 
the.se principles, no scholar could adequately disseminate knowledge or pursue 
investigations in the effort to make further progress toward truth. 

Appointment to a university position and retention after appointment require 
not only professional competence, but involve the aflirmative obligation of being 
diligent and loyal in citizenship. Above all, a scholar must have integrity and 
independence. This renders impossible adherence to such a regime as that of 
Russia and its satellites. No person who accepts or advocates such principles 
and methods has any place in a university. Since present membership in the 
Communist Party requires the acceptance of these principles and methods, such 
membership extinguishes the right to a university position. Moreover, if an 
instructor follows communistic practice by becoming a propagandist for one 
opinion, adopting a "party line," silencing criticism or impairing freedom of 
thought and expression in his classroom, he forfeits not only all university sup- 
port but his right to membership in the university. 

"Academic freedom" is not a shield for those who break the law. Universities 
must cooperate fully with law-enforcement ofiicers whose duty requires them 
to prosecute those charged with oft"enses. Under a well-established American 
principle their innocence is to be assumed until they have been convicted, under 
due process, in a court of proper jurisdiction. 

Unless a faculty member violates a law, however, his discipline or discharge 
is a university responsibility and should not be assumed by political authority. 
Discipline on the basis of irresponsible accusations or suspicion can never be 
condoned. It is as damaging to the public welfare as it is to academic integrity. 
The university is competent to establish a tribunal to determine the facts and 
fairly judge the nature and degree of any trespass upon academic integrity, as 
well as to determine the penalty such trespass merits. 

As the professor is entitled to no special privileges in law, so also he should be 
subject to no special discrimination. Universities are bound to deprecate 



18 ANTSrCTAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

special loyalty tests which are applied to their faculties but to which others are 
not subjected. Such discrimination does harm to the individual and even greater 
harm to his university and the whole cause of education by destroying faith in 
the ideals of university scholarship, 

V. CONCLUSION 

Finally, we assert that freedom of thought and sipeech is vital to the mainte- 
nance of the American system and is essential to the general welfare. Con- 
demnation of communism and its protagonists is not to be interpreted as readi- 
ness to curb social, political, or economic investigation and research. To insist 
upon conformity to current beliefs and practices would do infinite harm to the 
principle of freedom, which is the greatest, the central, American doctrine. 
Fidelity to that principle has made it possible for the universities of America 
to confer great benefits upon our society and our country. Adherence to that 
principle is the only guaranty that the Nation may continue to enjoy those 
benefits. 

The committee recognizes the area of its jurisdiction and its limi- 
tations in this vital field, and will be so governed in the continuation 
of this investigation. 

The results of the investigation and hearings, to date, serve to illus- 
trate beyond question that Communist infiltration into the teaching 
profession has been limited, but the committee views with concern 
the fraction of Communist influence which has succeeded in achiev- 
ing tenure. 

For the purpose of uniformity, those persons engaged in the teach- 
ing profession, who were identified as members of the Communist 
Party during hearings held by the committee in various cities other 
than Washington, will be referred to in those sections of the report. 

The following individuals provided the committee with compre- 
hensive testimony from their actual experience, the extent and 
machinations of the Communist conspiracy as directed toward the 
field of education, and for this, the committee extends its sincere 
appreciation : 

Date of appearance 

Amdur, Isadore Apr. 22, 1953. 

Blaisdell, Ballis Edwin May 15, 1953 (Mr. Blaisdell appeared 

in executive session and testified fully 
as to his former membership in the 
Communist Party. His testimony has 
not been made public). 

Boorstin, Daniel J Feb. 26, 1953. 

Davis. Robert Gorham Feb. 25, 1953. 

Hicks, Granville Feb. 26, 1953. 

Levinson, Norman Apr. 23, 1953. 

Marks, Harry J June 22, 1953. 

Martin, William T Apr. 22, 1953. 

Mayberry, George Beach July 1, 1953. 

Eobbins, Herbert Mar. 25, 1953 (Mr. Robbins appeared in 

executive session and testified fully 
as to his former membership in the 
Communist Party. A portion of his 
testimony has been made public). 

Schlatter, Richard Feb. 18, 1953 (Mr. Schlatter appeared 

in executive session and testified fully 
as to his former membership in the 
Communist Party. His testimony has 
not been made public). 

Sherr, Rubby Feb. 18, 1953 (Mr. Sherr appeared in 

executive session and testified fully as 
to his former Communist Party mem- 
bership. His testimony has not been 
made public). 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 19 



The following persons were identified as members of the Communist 
Party during the course of hearings held in Washington, D. C, on 
Communist methods of infiltration— education : 



Arguimbau, Lawrence 
Associate professor, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 

(Appeared in executive session, 
Apr. 21, 1953 ; admitted former 
Communist Party membership 
and refused to answer questions 
regarding other Party members, 
but not on constitutional 
grounds. ) 
Arnold, Kenneth 
Graduate student, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology. 
Bloomfield, Sidney 

Taught at Communist Party school in 
Boston, 
dark, Margot 

Communist Party functionary, 

Douglas, Dorothy W. 
Resident, Bryn Mawr ; former instruc- 
tor. Smith College. 

(Appeared Mar. 13, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Dunham, Barrows 

Professor, Temple University. 

(Appeared Feb. 27, 1953 ; refused 
to answer questions.) 
Fine, Daniel 

Resident in medicine, Peter Bent 
Brigham Hospital, Boston. 
(Appeared Apr. 14, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Flynn, Hulda Johnson Rees McGarvey 
Housewife ; former assistant profes- 
sor, Smith College. 

(Appeared JMar. 17, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Friedburg, Saul 

Student at Harvard Law School In 
1930's. 

Furry, Wendell H. 
Professor, Harvard 

(Appeared Feb. 26, 1953, and 
Apr. 16, 1953 ; denied present 
Commiinist Party membership 
but refused to affirm or deny past 
membership.) 
Gelbart, Abe 

Associate professor, Syracuse Uni- 
versity. 

(Appeared May 28, 1953; denied 
present Communist Party mem- 
bership but refused to affirm or 
deny past membership.) 



Identified by 
William T. Martin, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Isadore Amdur, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Norman Levinson, Apr. 23, 1953. 



Isadore Amdur, Apr. 22, 1953. 



Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 



Robert Gorhain Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Dunham 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 

Investigation identifying Dr. Fine as a 
member of the Communist Party haa 
not been made public. 



Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 
(Witness identified Mr. Friedburg as a 

member of the Young Communist 

League. ) 
Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 
Granville Hicks, Feb. 26, 1953. 
William T. Martin, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Isadore Amdur, Apr. 22, 1953. 
George Mayberry, July 1, 1953. 



William T. Martin, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Isadore Amdur, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Norman Levinson, Apr. 23, 1953. 



20 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Glasser, Abraham 

Associate professor, Rutgers Univer- 
sity; former attorney in Justice 
Department. 

(Appeared Mar. 18, 1953; denied 
present Communist 'Party mem- 
bership but refused to affirm or 
deny past membership and con- 
nections with Soviet agents.) 
Goldstein, Mrs. Theodora Mitzberg 
Secretary to Boston attorney. 

(Appeared Apr. 2.3, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Goodwin, Kicliard 

Former instructor. Harvard. 

(Robert Gorliam Davis testified 
he believed Mr. Goodwin left the 
Communist Party.) 
Gordon, Hy 

Communist Party functionary. 



Grant, Dave 

Communist Party functionary. 
Grossenbacher, Carl 

Member of nouteaching staff at Har- 
vard. 
Halperin, Israel 

Member of Communist Party profes- 
sional unit at Harvard ; later 
taught in Canada. 
Ha rap, Louis 

Managing editor of .lewish Life. 
(Appeared June 29, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Hendley, Charles 

Headed New York Local of American 
Federation of Teachers. 
Hurvich, Leo M. 

Experimental psychologist, Eastman 
Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

(Appeared Apr. 21, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Levy, Arthur L. 

On staff of chemistry department, 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 
(Appeared Apr. 23, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Levy, Larry 

Former leader of Young Communist 
League at Harvard. 
Libby, Mack 

Young Communist League organizer 
in district including Harvard. 
Markham, George F. 

Educational director in New England 
for International Fur and Leather 
Workers Union. 

(Appeared June 24, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
McGarvey, Hulda (see Hulda Johnson 
Rees McGarvey Flynn) 



Identified by 
Identified as contact and source of 
information for Soviet espionage 
agents, by investigation made public 
in the record of the hearing. 



Herbert Philbrick, July 23, 1951. 



Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 
Daniel J. Boorstin, Feb. 26, 1953. 



Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 

Robert Gladnick, May C, 1953 (testify- 
ing in New York City). Also iden- 
tified by a former Communist in 
1952. 

Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 

William T. Martin, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Isadore Amdur, Apr. 22, 1953. 

Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 
Granville Hicks, Feb. 26, 1953. 
Daniel J. Boorstin, Feb. 26, 1953. 
William T. Martin, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 
Granville Hicks, Feb. 26, 1953. 
George Mayberry, July 1, 1953. 
Herbert Robbins, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Robert Graham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Hurvich 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Levy as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 



Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Markham 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIVIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 21 



Parry, William T. 

Teacher, University of Buffalo. 

(Appeared May 19, 19r)3 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Philbrick, Alan 

Member of Young Communist League 
at Harvard in 1930's. 
Polumbaum, Theodore S. 

Writer, IJoston Bureau of United 
Press. 

(Appeared Apr. 21, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Putter, Norman 

Member of Communist Party in Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 
Rackliffe, Jack 

Member of Communist Party profes- 
fessional unit at Harvard. 



Reynolds, John Henry 

Teacher, University of Florida. 

(Appeared Apr. 27, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Rosen, Nathan 

Member, physics department, Massa- 
chusetts Institue of Technology ; 
now believed to be in State of 
Israel. 
Schirmer, Daniel Boone 

Communist Party organizer. 

Sillen, Samuel 

Editor, Masses and Mainstream. 



Singer, Marcus 

Professor, Cornell University. 

(Appeared May 26-27, 1953; ad- 
mitted former Communist Party 
membership but refused to 
answer questions regarding other 
party members on constitutional 
grounds.) 
Sparks, Ned (Nemmy). {See section 
of this report on hearings held in Los 
Angeles. ) 
Starr, Loretta 

Teacher at Communist Party school 
in Boston. 
Stern, Bernhard 

Professor, Columbia University. 
Struik, Dirk J. 

Professor, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

(Appeared July 24, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Weber, Johnny 

Communist Party functionary. 



Identified hy 
Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 
Also by a witness in executive testi- 
mony not made public. 



Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Polum- 
baum as a member of the Coramimist 
Party has not been made public. 



William T. Martin, Apr. 22, 1953. 



Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 1953. 
Granville Hicks, Feb. 26, 1953. 
Daniel J. Boorstln, Feb. 26, 1953. 
Norman Levinsou, Apr. 23, 1953. 
George Mayberry, July 1, 1953. 

Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25. 1953. 
William T. Martin, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Norman Levinson, Apr. 23, 1953. 



Isadora Amdur, Apr. 22, 1953. 



Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Robert Gorham Davis, Feb. 25, 19.53. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 and a former Communist in 

19.51. 
Isadore Amdur, Apr. 22, 1953. 



Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 



Granville Hicks, Feb. 26, 1953. 

William T. Martin, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Norman Levinson. Apr. 23, 1953. 
Isadore Amdur, Apr. 22, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953. 



22 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Weitzman, Max 

Public-school teacher, Boston, 

(Appeared Apr. 22, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Woerner, Harold T., Jr. 

Salesman, Hauck Manufacturing Co., 
Brooklyn. 

(Appeared Apr. 29, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Zllsel, Paul Rudolph 

Assistant professor. University of 
Connecticut. 

(Appeared Apr. 22, 1953; denied 
present Communist Party mem- 
bership but refused to affirm or 
deny past membership.) 



Identified by 
Herbert Philbrick, July 23, 1951. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Woerner 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Zilsel as 
a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 

LOS ANGELES AREA 

During the years 1951 and 1952, the House Committee on Un- 
iVmerican Activities held hearings in Los Angeles, Calif., relating 
principally to Communist efforts to infiltrate the motion-picture in- 
dustry. Because of the number of individuals who were named dur- 
ing these hearings as having once been members of the Communist 
Party, it was impossible to take testimony from each one before the 
committee during 1952. Because of this, and due to the fact that 
additional information was developed in other fields in the southern 
California area, the committee resimied its hearings there in March 
1953. 

The testimony given by persons associated with the motion-picture 
industry has been of particular value to the committee. As a com- 
paratively new industry, but a very important one in American life, 
the Communists early exerted a determined effort to infiltrate its 
various and diverse activities. Individuals in the motion-picture 
industry are, for the most part, better educated and generally have 
attained a higher level of living than is true with the usual rank-and- 
file member of the Communist Party. The committee's early efforts 
to investigate subversion, as related to the motion-picture industry, 
met with opposition and criticism from some picture people, a criti- 
cism which must now be assumed to have stemmed from an honest 
misunderstanding of the extent to which the industry had been infil- 
trated by the Communist Party. As the investigations, commenced 
in 1947, continued, it became apparent that some hundreds of actors, 
producers, writers, musicians, and back-lot workers had in fact joined 
the Communist conspiracy during the 1930's and 1940's. As the cold 
facts of the infiltration became known to the American public and 
those responsible for the operation of the motion-picture industry, a 
measure of izreater cooperation was afforded the committee in its work. 

During the past year the committee is pleased to report that the 
spirit of helpful cooperation evidenced by motion-picture-industry 
figures has been excellent. Further, it can be stated on considerable 
authority that perhaps no major industry in the world today employs 
fewer members of the Communist Party than does the motion-picture 
industry. The committee is aware that there may be instances where 
former 'Communists are still engaged in the work of the conspiracy 
within the industry, and every effort will be made to disclose the 
nature and the extent of their work. 

The change in attitude of the motion-picture industry toward the 
work of the committee was pointed up in the testimony of Silvia 
Richards, who appeared before the committee on March 25, 1953. 
Mrs. Richards, a writer with numerous screen credits, admitted that 
she was formerlv a member of the Communist Party and had this to 
say concerning the present attitude of the motion-picture industry 
toward the committee's investigations : 

I think that there has been a very distinct change in the motion-picture indus- 
try I can't talk abont the public. We live in a sort of little tracks out here. 

23 



24 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

We go to the studio and we go home ; that's about all. But at the beginning of 
this investigation there was a tremendous amount of confusion in Hollywood with 
relation to them. 

There is one thing that has cleared up in particular that I feel very good about. 
One of the things that deters people from making a public announcement of their 
change in relation to communism, even if they have left the party is that in 
addition to earning the hatred and contempt of their former friends and asso- 
ciates, they are shunned by a large number of other people who think that once 
a Communist always a Communist. 

Now, in the motion-picture industry, while it is very sensitive to public opinion, 
has in this regard done tliis — and it is a very courageous thing — and that is they 
have made it possible for people to announce this change of position without 
stigma or without being penalized. 

I think this is due to a niunber of factors. That the committee itself, the 
procedures of the committee, in that it has heard evidence and not wild hearsay 
and gossip, has been very reassuring to the Industry. 

It ]ias come to the attention of the committee that a valuable public 
service is being rendered in the motion-picture industry by organiza- 
tions, sucli as the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of 
American Ideals. This and similar organizations have been instru- 
mental in the success the committee has achieved in that area by the 
encouragement they have given individuals who were former members 
of the Communist Party to testify fully and freely. These organiza- 
tions have also been valuable in that "they have assisted the former 
Communists in rehabilitation, both sociallv and economically. 

During the committee's investigations and hearings, the Communists 
and fellow travelers, particularly those individuals who have been 
identified under oath before the committee as one-time members of the 
Communist Party and who, in turn, invoked the fifth amendnient in 
refusing to testify, have charged that the committee is compiling a 
"black list." The absurdity of this charge is obvious when it is con- 
sidered that these individuals, of their own accord and volition, joined 
the Communist conspiracy, and that it is on their own personal deter- 
mination that they have refused to affirm or deny sworn testimony 
placing them in the Communist Party. The fact is that in those rare 
instances in which the Communist Party was successful in gaining 
control of various phases of the motion-picture industry, it exercised 
a very thorough blacklisting of individuals who were not Commu- 
nists. This fact is particularly noted in the testimony of Harold 
A. Hecht on March 23, 1953, when h.e testified with regard to Com- 
munist infiltration of the Federal Theater ancl of the discrimination 
practiced in the selection or retention of individuals who were not 
members of the Communist Party : 

Well, if there was a tie or if there was a matter of doubt, we were expected 
to keep and continue the member who belonged to the Communist Party. As I 
said before, at that time appropriations were being cut and there were quite a 
number of firings. While it was recognized that there couldn't be discrimination, 
however, we were expected to favor the members of the Communist Tarty in 
retaining their jobs. There was one instance that I remember very well when 
^e were asked to drop a number of people from one of the groups, and there was 
a person reported to be a Trotskyite and we let that person go. However, that 
person was not necessarily inferior to a number of other people who were in line 
for that same position. 

Mr. Hecht, who is a Hollvwood agent, testified that he was a member 
of the Communist Party for approximately 3 or 4 years, from 1036 
until either the end of 1939 or the beginning of 1940. Mr. Hecht tes- 
tified fully and completely concerning his membership in the Com- 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 25 

munist Party and his association with Communist causes. His reason 
for so testifying is of particular interest, and might well serve as a 

fuide for other persons who have broken away from the Communist 
'arty. Mr. Hecht said : 

I think it has become clear that Communists and people associated with Com- 
munists are enemies of this country. We must be alined with the forces of 
democracy and against communism. We can no longer straddle the fence. Today 
I woudn't represent a Communist. I wouldn't hire one. Communism is a con- 
spir.Mcy and the Communist Party in this country is a tool of the Soviet Union. 
I didn't look forward to my appearance here today in the sense of enjoying it. 
I am not a public speaker, but I am gr;iteful for the opportunity of being allowed 
to testify. I think this committee renders a valuable service in providing the 
forum for an ex-Communist to state his present position clearly and firmly. 
There are many people in this country similar to me, people who are not neces- 
sarily Communists, but people who are left all the way to center, and these 
people, I believe, are gradually becoming more and more aware of the sinister 
ways of the Communist Party and the place where they belong. They need forces 
to work with and new friends. That is the important part of the anti-Communist 
program and I would like to be part of it. 

Another witness who appeared before the committee in Los Angeles 
during INIarch, and furnished it with valuable information concerning 
Communist infiltration of the motion-picture industry, was David 
A. Lang, a screenwriter. As indicated before in this report, the com- 
mittee is especially interested in determining why individuals, par- 
ticularly those of high intellectual standards, would ever be beguiled 
into Joining the Communist Party, and what process causes them to 
break away from the Communist Party. Mr. Lang's testimony in this 
respect is quite enlightening : 

It is an international organization, the Communist Party. If you, which I did 
many years too late, go back into the history of the war and how they changed 
their point of view so as to gain a foothold wherever they could and wherever 
they felt a foothold would be hard to gain — they knew it is difficult to arouse 
people in a country like the United States into revolutionary tactics, some man 
who has been born and raised here, to overthrow the Government that he has 
been given the opportunity to improve under. So they changed the face they had 
originally started out with. 

If you will read a man by the name of Dimitrov, he said that the Communist 
Party will always be a revolutionary party, the concept of the party, it came out 
of revolution and the end of it is to be only the overthrow of the capitalist and 
all that the cai)italist stands for. It must be the party of the proletariat, and 
we must gain the peasants and the workers. 

But this was not Russia. This is a country that is rich and powerful, and to 
come into this country and bring about an organization such as the Communist 
Party wasn't that easy, because there weren't that many people that were suffer- 
ing, and to get men like me and many like me they had to make it more palatable ; 
they had to make it more esoteric, more intellectual, and they did a darned 
good job. 

* * * * :^ * )>: 

I felt very strong in the party, that I would be in the position to understand a 
lot of things that happened, and to help these things happen within the elements 
of our law and our courts, but when I began to see that the party looked askance 
at our courts and make fun of everything we stood for and took advantage of 
our mistakes — and Lord knows we make plenty of them, and there is nothing 
wrong with making mistakes— to take advantage of a mistake, to set people 
against one another or set people against the country, that was a part of this I 
couldn't stand for, so any knowledge they could impart to me by becoming a 
member of the party would have been of no value. 

I was against it, and educationally I felt I could learn far more by getting out 
of it, without having the influence of these people about me. 

The committee also received very valuable testimony from other 
individuals who are or were at one time associated with the motion- 

47400—54 3 



26 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

picture industry and who were members of the Communist Party as 
well. 

The hearings in Los Angeles, during March, also added to the 
committee's knowledge of Communist efforts to infiltrate the teach- 
ing profession in that city. One of the witnesses was Leroy 
Travers Herndon, Jr., a professor at Glendale College, California, 
who testified that he had been a member of the Communist Party for 
3 years, from 1937 to 1940. Mr. Herndon, as have other teachers, testi- 
fied concerning Communist efforts to infiltrate and gain control of the 
Teachers' Union. He testified that the Communist Party operated 
completely as a unit within the Teachers' Union, acting in complete 
accord and unanimity which greatly increased its control over the 
non-Communists in union affairs. Mr. Herndon had a particularly 
interesting viewpoint on what constitutes academic freedom, especially 
as it would apply to a teacher who is a member of the Communist 
Party, which he set forth as follows : 

That brings up the question of academic freedom, and my concept of academic 
freedom is that a teacher should teach his subject, and good citizenship and good 
character along with it, to the best of his ability, that he should use his intelli- 
gence and teach tiie truth as far as he can see it, and that his teaching should 
be in accordance with his conscience. 

Now, a teacher who is in the Communist Party is not a free agent. No matter 
how intelligent he may be, when he enters the Communist Party he agrees to 
accept the direction of the Communist Party as to what he should think, when he 
should think it, without demur and without a why. He is not a free agent intel- 
lectually, and he is not a free agent morally. I don't see how really — I have come 
to the conclusion that with a practicing Communist I don't see how it can be a 
question of academic freedom at all. I think that a teacher who is at the present 
time, let us say, a practicing Communist is a person who is under the direction 
of the Communist Party to teach not the truth as he sees it, but the truth as the 
Communist Party sees it, as far as possible. 

An aspect of subversive activities which was developed by the com- 
mittee in the Los Angeles hearings concerned the existence of a type 
of school quite different from any that its investigations had developed 
to that time. The committee had as a witness on March 25, 1953, 
Joseph Springer, of Crestline, Calif. During the committee's investi- 
gation preparatory to the Los Angeles hearings it was learned that on 
the weekend of December 5-T, 1052, a secret Communist Party school 
was held at Camp Tenaya in Crestline. The camp, which is closed 
during the winter months, is under the operation of Joe and Preva 
Springer. The committee's investigation disclosed that the school, 
held in December 1952, was not an ordinary one, but rather one of 
great importance. The individuals in attendance at this school were 
Communist Party functionaries and it was held under the direction 
of high Communist Party officials. Among the individuals in attend- 
ance, in addition to the Springers, were Max Klansky and Walter 
Smith. What is a matter of particular concern to the committee is 
that the school was one in a series of new schools held by the Commu- 
nist Party for the purpose of issuing directives to infiltrate shops in 
key industries and, in particular, defense establishments. 

Mr. Springer, when he appeared before the committee, refused to 
answer questions relating to this school or its participants, as well as 
refusing to state whether he was a member of the Communist Party. 
He indignantly denied that he had ever used any name other than that 
of Joseph Springer. 



AKNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 27 

During the subsequent testimony of Robert Gladnick in New 
York City in May 1953, Mr. Gladnick testified that he not only had 
known Joseph Springer, but, further, that he had known him under 
the name of Joseph Saul. On the basis of this conflicting testimony, 
the matter has been referred by the committee to the Department of 
Justice for its consideration as to the possibility of securing a perjury 
prosecution. 

One of the most surprising witnesses who testified before the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities in Los Angeles, on March 28, 
1953, was Mrs. Edith Macia, a motherly appearing 69-year-old woman. 
It is an understatement to say that Mrs. Macia certainly did not give 
the appearance of a revolutionary, nor would she, on sight, be mistaken 
for a undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The 
facts are, however, that from August 1943 until January 1949, Mrs. 
Macia was an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion, reporting to that Bureau on the activities of the Communist 
Party in Los Angeles. The fact that she had successfully concealed 
her true identity and had gained the confidence of the Communist 
Party is attested to by the voluminous information she was able to 
supply to the committee. 

During 1953, the committee released testimony that had been taken 
from Larry Parks in executive session on March 21, 1951. In the 
course of his questioning, Mr. Parks was asked about numerous indi- 
viduals prominent in the motion-picture industry. This fact should 
not be construed as an identification of these individuals as members 
of the Communist Party, unless subsequent testimony has established 
such identification. 

As a result of tireless investigation on the part of the committee and 
the cooperation of the numerous witnesses who have afforded the com- 
mittee the knowledge they acquired as former members of the Com- 
munist Party, more individuals were named as members of the Com- 
munist Party in Los Angeles than in any other locality in wliich the 
committee has held hearings. 

The committee wishes to express its appreciation to the following 
persons who, through their cooperation and encouragement, have 
assisted the committee, the Congress, and the American people in tliis 
important work : 

Date of appearance 

Adams, Mrs. Charlotte Darling Mar. 26 and June 2, 195.3. 

Arnaz, Mrs. Lucille Ball Sept. 4, 1953 (Miss Ball appeared in 

executive session, denied membership 
in the Communist Party, and testified 
fully as to facts relating to Commu- 
nist association). 

Atlas, Leopold Lawrence Mar. 12, 1953. 

Ball, Mrs. Desired B Sept. 4, 1953 (Mrs. Ball appeared in 

executive session, denied membership 
in the Communist Party, and testified 
fully as to facts relating to Commu- 
nist association). 

Ball, Fred H Sept. 4, 1953 (Mr. Ball appeared in 

executive session, denied membership 
in the Communist Party, and testified 
fully as to facts relating to Commu- 
nist association). 

BenofE, Max , Mar. 24, 1953. 

Benoff, Mrs. Mildred Feb. 17, 1953. 



28 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Date of appearance 

Cobb, Lee J June 2, 1953. 

Dare, Danny Mar. 23, 11).")3. 

Erwin, Roy Mar. 31, 1953. 

Fleury, Beruyce Polifka Sept. 10, 1951 (Mrs. Fleury appeared in 

executive session and testified fully as 
to her former memhersliip in tlie Com- 
munist Party. Portions of her testi- 
mony have been made public). 

Gnrrigues, Charles H Mar. 27, 19r)3. 

Ilauser, Dwight IMar. 30, 19."'.3. 

Iltcht, Harold A Mar. 23, 19r.3. 

Herndon, LeRoy, Jr Mar. 27, 1953. 

Kibbee, Roland W June 2, 1953. 

Kinney, Anne Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 1953). 

Lang, Mrs. Babbette June 2, 1953. 

Lang, David IMar. 24, 1953. 

Lewis, Richard Bvrd Mar. 27, 19.53. 

Lvtt(m, Bart Mar. 25 and 20, 1953. 

Macia, Mrs. E<lith Mar. 28, 1953. 

Narcisenfeld, Harvey Nov. 12, 19.52 (Mr. Narcisenfeld ap- 
peared in executive session and testi- 
fied fully as to Ills former membership 
in tlie Communist Party. A portion 
of his testimony has been made 
public). 

I'arivs, Larry Mar. 21, 1951 (released in 1953). 

Pmcell, Gertrude Apr. 8, 19.53. 

R.Klin, Paul Benedict Mar. 12, 1953 (Mr. Radin while denying 

actual membership in tiie Couunuiiist 
Party, admitted attending meetings). 

Richards, IMrs. Silvia Mar. 25, 19.53. 

Rosser, Lou (see also section of this re- Jan. 15, 1952 (Mr. Rosser appeared and 
port regarding the bearings held in in a sworn statement testilieii fully as 
San Francisco). to Ids former membership in the Com- 

munist Pai'ty. I'ortious of his state- 
ment have been made public). 

Rubin, Stanley Mar. 12, 19.53 ( .Mr. Rubin while denying 

actual membership in the Conununist 
Party, adnutted attending meetings), 

Shor, Sol Mar. 12, 19-53. 

Silver, Max Jan. 24, 1952 (Mr. Silver appeared in 

executive session and testified fully 
as to his forujer membership in the 
Communist I'arty. A portion of Ills 
testimony has been made public). 

Townsend, Mrs. Pauline S Mar, 12, 1953. 

The following persons were identified as members of the Communist 
Party during the course of hearings held in the Los Angeles area : 

Identified by 
Abowitz, EUenore* (Mrs. Murray Abo- Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
witz; nee Ellenore Bogigiau ; party 19.53). 

name: aiargaret Petos). Also identified by a former Communist 

(Appeared Sept. 20, 1951; re- in 1952 ; and by one in 1951. 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Adams, Joe Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Adams, Mary Jane Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Albert, Sam Martin Berkeley, Sept. 19, 1951. 

Musician. 

(Appeai-ed Apr. 7, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



1 The first name incorrectly spelled Eleanor or Elinore in some instances. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COI^IMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 29 



Alexander, Hy (Harmon) 
Radio writer 

(Appeared Oct. 6, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membersliip.) 

Alexander, Mrs Hy 

{See Georgia Backus.) 
Allen (Allan), Louis (Lewis) 

Playwright. 

Allen (Allan), Mrs. Louis (Lewis) 
Aliiert, Hymie 

Clothier. 
Anhattzer, Arthur 
Anhattzer, Dorothy 
Anthony, Iva 
Anthony, Vern 
Arden, Betty 



Arnold, Lucy 

Member Hyde Park Branch, Commu- 
nist Party, Chicago. 
Bachelis, Selma ^ 

Attorney. 

Backus, Georgia (Mrs. Hy Alexander) 
Actress. 

(Appeared Sept. 19, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Bargeman, Bertha 

Bargeman) 
Bargeman, Marvin 
Baron, Bea 



(Mrs. Marvin 



Baron, Lou (see also section of this re- 
port regarding the hearings held in 
San I'^rancisco). 

Trade union director of Communist 
Party In Los Angeles County. 
Baroway, Leo (see also section of this 
report regarding the hearings held in 
San Francisco). 
Barzman, Ben 
Screen writer. 



Barzman, Norma (Mrs. Ben Barzman) 



Sol 



Barzman 

Writer. 
Beard, Cecil 

Cartoonist, 
Beck, Elena 



Identified hy 

Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Silvia Kiohards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953. 

Also identified by two former Commu- 
nists in 1952. 



Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12. 1953. 
Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953, 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 195.1. 
Also identihed by 5 former Communists 

in 1952; and by 1 in 1951. 
Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953 
Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953 
Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953), 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 
Also identified by 5 former Communists 

in 1952; and by 2 in 1951. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 
Also identified by a former Commimist 

in 1951 ; and by 1 in 1952. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 
Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953 

Mildred Benoff, Feb. 17, 1953 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 



' First name incorrectly spelled "Thelma" in printed hearings of June 2, 1952. 



30 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Becker, Catherine 
Becker, Zara 
English teacher. 



Bela, Nicholas (Nick) 
Writer. 



Bela, Mrs. Nicholas 
Bengal, Ben 
Writer. 

Bennett, Connie Lee 
Bennett, Seymour 

Writer. 
Benson, Sidney (also known as Ted 

Wellman). 

Bernstein, Sanford 

Bessie, Alvah 
Screenwriter. 

(Appeared Oct. 28, 1947, refused 
to afBrm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Bessie, INIrs. Alvah 
Bevins, John 

Former studio worker. 
Beye, Frank 

San Fernando Valley. 
Biberman, Edward 

Artist. 



Biberman, Herbert 
Director. 

(Appeared Oct. 29, 1947; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Bigelman, Leo (party name: Dennis 
Dane) 
Physician. 

(Appeared Sept. 18, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party memebership.) 

Bindley, Mary 

Birnkarnt, Arthur (or Birnkrant) 

Blankfort, Henry 
Writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 18, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 



Identified hy 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 
LeRov Herndou, Jr., Mar. 27, 10.53 
Richard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 1953 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 
Also identified by 3 former Communists 

in 1951 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified bv 2 former Communists 

in 19.52 ; and by 1 in 1951. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by 4 former Commu- 
nists in 1951 ; and by 1 in 1952. 
Leopold Atlas, IMar. 12, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Bernvce Fleury, Sept. 10, 1951 (released 

in 1953). 
Zachary Schwartz, May 7, 1953 (testi- 
fying in New York). 
Harold Hecht, I\Lar. 23, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Charlotte Darling Adams, Mar. 26, 

1953 ; also June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1951 ; and by 1 in 1952. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953. 
Dannv Dare, Mar. 23, 1953. 
Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 
Gertrude Purcell, Apr. 8, 1953. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by 7 former Communists 

in 1951 ; and by 4 in 1952. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified bv 5 former Communists 

in 1951 ; and by 1 in 1952. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Commu- 
nists in 1951 ; and by 1 in 1952. 



AIVIVTJAL REPORT, COIVIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 31 



Blankfort, Laurie (Lorry) 



Bogigian, Ellenore 

owitz.) 
Bogner, Max 

Social worker. 



(See Ellenore Ab- 



Bognoff, Sarah 
Bomser, Allan 
Bomser, Edith 
Bookc'hin, Nat 
Boretz, Allen 
Writer. 

Boyagian, Anita (also known as Anita 

Chatinover). 
Boyer, Richard O. 

Brand, Phoebe (Mrs. Morris Carnov- 
sky) 
Actress. 
Bright, John 
Writer. 

(Mr. Rossen testified that he be- 
lieved John Bright left the Com- 
munist Party.) 



Bromberg, Goldie (Mrs. J. Edward 
Bromberg) 

Brooks, Lawn 
Brooks, Miriam 
Head, musician's branch, Communist 
Party 
Brown, Carter 

Browne, Gus (Brown) 

Browne, Marsha (Mrs. Gus Browne 

(Brown) ) 
Buchman. Harold 
Screenwriter. 

(Appeared Apr. 17, 1951 ; refused 
to afhrm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Buchman, Mrs. Harold 
Burke, Bea 

Burke, Libby 
Dancer. 

( Appeared Mar. 30, 19.53 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Burns, Georgia 
Actress ; member. Federal theater 
unit of the Communist Party, New 
York. 
Burns, Jessie 
Studio reader. 

Burnstein, Clare (Mrs. Russell Wm. 
Burnstein). 



Identified by 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Charles H. Garrigues, Mar, 27, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953, 
Editli Macia, Mar. 28, 1953, 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 1 in 1951. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953, 
Also identified by 5 former Communists 

in 1951. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1951 ; and by 1 in 19-52. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 19.53). 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24. 1953 
Pauline S. Townsend. Mar. 12. 1953 
Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953 
Also identified by four former Commu- 
nists in 1951. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

19.53). 
(Investigation identifying Libby Burke 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public.) 



Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953 



Danny Dare, Mar. 23, 1953 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by 3 in 1951. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953 



32 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Bnrnstein, Russell William 

Studio enyiiieer. 
Burrows, Ruth 
Burton, Val 

Writer. 



Party underground 



Bush, Rose 
Communist 
worker. 

Butler, Hugo 
Screenwriter. 



Byler, Albert 

Euulueer, Los Angeles Board of Edu- 
cation. 
Byrne, Norman 

Plumber ; former teacher. 

(Appeared Apr. 7, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Callender, Jane 
Campbell, Harry 
Carey, Honor^ Moxley 
Teacher. 

(Anne Kinney testified that she 
believed Honort^ Carey dropped 
out of the Communist Party 
te:icber's unit. ) 
Carlyle, Harry (or Harry Carlisle) 
Communist Party functionary; orig- 
inally from Australia. 

Carnovsky, Morris 
Actor. 

(Appeared Apr. 24, 1951; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Carnovsky, Mrs. Morris. (See Phoebe 

Brand.) 
Caroway, J. 

President, Day branch, Communist 
Party in Los Angeles. 

Carr, Joe 
Carson, Jules 

Director, Communist Party training 
school, Los Angeles. 
Carufo, Jessie 
Casluier, Milton 
Social worker. 
Chamberlin, Howland 
Actor. 

(Appeared Sept. 18, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Chamberlin. Mrs. Howland. (SeeLeona 

McGiiity.) 
Chapman, Clarice (Mrs. Tom Chapman) 

Chapman, Tom 
Screen reader. 



Identified by 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953 
Also identified bv 2 former Communists 

in 1952; and by 2 in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953 
Richard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 1953 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22. 19.52 (released in 
1953) and by 1 in 1952. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.53 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953 
LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 19.53 
Richard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 1953 
Aime Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953) 



Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952; and by 3 in 1951. 
Larry Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released in 

1953) 
Lee J. Col)b. June 2, 1953 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 2 in 1951. 



Identified in Communist Party publica- 
tion introduced into the record during 
testimony of Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 
19.52 (released in 1953). 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953) 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953) 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953) 



Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



ANjSTUAL report, committee on UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 33 



Chassen, Jack 

Cliassen, Miriam (Mrs. Jack Chassen) 

Chatiiiover, Auita. (See Anita Boya- 

gian.) 
Chodorov, Edward (Ed) 

Writer ; producer. 



Clark, Maurice 
Writer. 



Cline, Paul (see also section of this re- 
port regarding the hearings held 
in San Francisco). 
Communist Party functionary. 
Cloner, Sam 

Craft worker. 
Cohen, Sue 
Member, Hyde Park branch, Com- 
munist Party, Chicago. 
Cohn, Bob (also known as Bob Cole) 
(see also section of this report re- 
garding the hearings held in San 
Francisco). 
Cole, Beatrice Lubitz 
Cole, Johnny 
Cole, Lester 
Writer. 

(Appeared Oct. 30, 1947; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Comingore, Dorothy 
Actress. 

(Appeared Oct. 6, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Cooper, Bert 

Member radio group, Communist 
Party. 
Corey, Jeff 
Actor. 

(Appeared Sept. 21, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Crutcher, Nerval (Norville) 

Organizer, Technicians local, lATSE. 

Curtis, Paul 

Writer. 
Davis, Herbert (C. P. name for Herbert 

Goldfrank). 
Dawson, Sadie (Mrs. Ernest Dawson) 
Dicho, John 
Dimsdale, Harold 
Dimsdale, Howard 

Writer. 



Identified by 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953 



Jerome Robbins, May 5, 1953 (testifying 
in New York) 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York) 

Bart Lytton, Mar. 26, 1953 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1958 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953 

Also identitied by three foi-mer Commu- 
nists in 1951. 

Charles H. Garrigues, Mar. 27, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952. (Released 
in 1953.) Also identified by 4 former 
Communists in 1952 ; and by 3 in 1951. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953.) Also identified by a form- 
er Communist in 1952. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. Also 

identified by 2 former Communists in 

1952 ; and by 9 in 1951. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. Also 

identified by a former Communist in 

1952. 



Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 



Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. Also identi- 
fied by a former Communist in 1952; 
and by 1 in 1951. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Commu- 
nist in 1951. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. Also 

identified by a former Communist in 

1951. 



34 ANlSrUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Dinam, Andreas 
Doberty, John 
Donath, Ludwig 

Actor. 
Dow, James 
Downs, Tommy 
Drdlik, Frank 

Set designer. 
Dreyfus, Rose 
D'Usseau, Arnaud. {See section on 

hearings held in New York City.) 
Eastman, Philip Dey 

Artist and writer. 

(Appeared Mar. 23, 1953, refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Edgley, Leslie (Les) 



Edgley, Mrs. Les 
Eliscu (Elisku), Edward 
Writer. 



Ellis, Charles. (See Charles Stone.) 
Emer, Fanny 
Emer, Frank 
Endfield, Cyril (Cy) 
Writer ; director. 



Endore, Guy 
Writer. 



Endore, Henriette (Mrs. Guy Endore) 
Englehardt, Jack 

Communist Party functionary. 
Faragoh, Francis Edward 
Former writer. 

(Appeared Mar. 24, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Com- 
munist Party membership.) 
Faragoh, Elizabeth (Mrs. Francis Far- 
agoh) 

Fargo, Evelyn 

Former officer. United Auto Workers 
local, Chicago. 
Fast, Howard 

Author, writer, 

Finn, Pauline Lauber (also known as 
Pauline Lauber) 



Identified by 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 

Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, Mar. 26, 

and June 2, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 



Bernyce Polifka Fleury, Sept. 10, 1951 
(released in 1953). 



Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by one in 1951. 
Babbette Lang. June 2, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Meta Reis Rosenberg, Apr. 13, 1951. 
Edward Dmytryk, Apr. 25, 1951. 
Martin Berkeley, Sept. 19, 1951. 



Fisher, Ed 

Formerly of San Francisco. 



Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Danny Dare, Mar. 23, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON TJN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 35 



Fisher, Mrs. Ed 

Formerly of San Francisco. 
Fisher, Eddie 

Salesman. 
Fisher, Mrs. Eddie. {See Anya Lieber- 

son.) 
Foreman, Carl 
Screenwriter 

(Appeared Sept. 24, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Foreman, Estelle (Mrs. Carl Foreman) 

Fox, Jack 

Member pharmacist branch, Commu- 
nist Party, in Los Angeles. 
Franchi (Franche, Franchia), Davida 

(Mrs. Fred Franchi) 



Frank, Michael 

Freed, Emil 

Communist Party functionary ; presi- 
dent, east branch, Communist 
Party. 

Freed, Tassia (Mrs. Emil Freed) 

Freeman, Sidney 
Freud, Rosalind 
Freund, Burton 
Friedman, Fanya 

Froelich, Anne 

Fuller, Gertrude (Mrs. Lester Fuller) 
Fuller, Lester 

Motion-picture director. 

Fuss, Oscar 

Gannett, Betty (see aUo section of this 
report on hearings held in San 
Francisco). 
Communist Party functionary. 



Garber, Dora 
Gardner, Helen 

Communist Party functionary. 
Gelfand, Sam 

Social worker for State relief ad- 
ministration. 
George, Harrison (see also section of 
this report on hearings held in San 
Francisco). 
On staff. Daily People's World. 
Gerber, Lillian (Mrs. Serrill Gerber) 
Gerber, Serrill (see also section of this 
report regarding the hearings held 
in San Francisco). 
Elementary schoolteacher. 

(Appeared Apr. 7, 195.3; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Identified by 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 



David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 1 in 1951. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 2, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 ; by 1 in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, I\Iar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 19.53. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 



Also identified by 3 former Commimists 

in 1952 and by 2 in 1951. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.53. 

Lou Rosser, Jan. 15, 1952 (identified as 

a member of the Young Communist 

League). 



36 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



(also known as Jack 



Geyer, Jacob 

Geyer) 
Geyer, Sara 
Gilbert, Ed 

Set designer. 



Gilbert, Jody 
Actress. 

(Appeared Mar. 26, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Gilder, Harry 
Ginsberg, Jack 

Ginsberg, Margaret (Mrs. Jack Gins- 
berg) 

Gladstone, Charles (also known as Joe 
Young) 

Glenn, Charles (Charley) 

Writer; correspondent for Daily 
People's World. 



Glickman, Kelly 
Gold, Lee 
Writer. 
Goldfrank, Herbert (Party name: 
Herbert Davis) 
On staff of "Soviet Russia Today." 
Goldstein, Mary 

Owner of a cleaning shop with Mr. 
Goldstein. 
Goodman, Becky 

Nursery-school teacher. 
Goodman, Benny (not to be confused 

with the baud leader). 
Gordon, Don 

Screen reader ; assistant editor, 
studio story department. 

(Appeared Sept. 24, 11)51 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Gordon, Emily (Mrs. Julian Gordon) 
(Louise Light Silver testified on Jan. 
21, 19.52, that she believed Emily 
Gordon had broken with the party.) 
Gordon, Julian 

Manufacturer of accessories for mo- 
tion-picture producer. 

(Appeared Mar. 24, 1953; ad- 
mitted former Communist Party 
membership but refused to an- 
swer questions regarding the 
group to which he belonged, but 
not on constitutional grounds.) 
Gorney, Jay. {8cc section on hearings 

held in New York City.) 
Gorney, Sondra (Mrs. Jay Gorney) 

Gough, Lloyd 
Actor. 

(Appeared May 17, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership). 



Identified hy 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Charlotte L^arling Adams, Mar. 26, and 
June 2, 1953. 

Also identilied by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Harvey Narcisenfeld, Nov. 12, 1952 (re- 
leased in 1953). 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

19.53 ) . 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying in 
New York). 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Com- 
munists in 1952; and by 3 in 1951. 

Danny Dare, Mar. 23, 1953. 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 



Edith Macia, Mar, 28, 1953. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 
Also identitied by a former Communist 

in 3951. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

19.53 ) . 
Max Silver, Jan. 24, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Louis Rosser, Jan. 15, 1952 (released in 

1953). 



Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by 1 in 1951. 
Larry Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released in 

1953). 
Jerome Robbins, May 5, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIVDVIITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 37 



Grant, Carl 

In theater branch of Communist 

Party. 
Grant. Elizabeth (Betty) 

Grant). 



Identified by 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 
in 1953). 



( released 



Grant, Morton 
Writer. 



Green, Anne (Mrs. Howard Koch) 
Grennard, Elliott 
Writer. 

Hancock, Stanley 

Conununist Party functionary, San 
Diego, 1937. 
Handle, Reva 
Member Studebaker branch. Commu- 
nist Party, in Chicago. 
Handman, Nina 
Harper, Annette 
Actress, radio. 

(Appeared Oct. 6, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Harris, Lou 
Publicity man. 



Hay, Marjorie 

Former teacher ; secretary of teach- 
er's union, Los Angeles, local 430. 

Healey (Healy), Donald (Don) 

Painters union ; attended Communist 
Party training school, San Fran- 
cisco. 
Healey (Healy), Dorothy 

Communist Party functionary. 

Hellgren, George 

Studio employee. 
Heltness, Al 

Henry, Milton 

President, Hollywood studio branch, 
Communist Party. 

Heron. Lillian 
Hershey, Edith 

Hignian, Neil {see also section of this 
report regarding the hearings held 
in San Francisco). 
Retired teacher. 
Hillierman. David (Dave) 
Screen cartoonist. 

Hilherman, Libby (Mrs. Dave Hilber- 
man) 



(Mrs. Morton Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 195L 



Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York City). 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Also identified by three former Com- 
munists in 1951. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 195,3. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 195.:. 

Charles H. Garrigues, Mar. 27, 1953. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953. 

Also identified by two former Commu- 
nists in 1952. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by four former Commu- 
nists in 1951. 

LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 

Richard Pyrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953 ) . 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (i-eleased in 
1953). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Charles H. Garrigues, Mar. 27, 1953. 

Also identified by five former Commu- 
nists in 1952. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Identified in Communist Party publi- 
cation introduced into the record dur- 
ing testimony of Anne Kinney, Dec. 
22, 19,52 (released in 1953). 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1953 (released 
in 1953). 



Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1951. 
Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 



38 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Hinman, Luke, Communist Party 

union organizer. 
Hirsch, B. 

Transferred from a Chicago Commu- 
nist Party group. 
Hobart, Rose 

Actress. 
Holmstock, Ethel 

Former secretary, China Aid Council. 
Holtz, Doreen 
Holtz, Miriam 

Stenographer. 
Hopkins, Pauline (former wife of Owen 
Vinson) 

Writer. 



Horn, Sam 

Hovey, Tamara (Tammie) 

Writer. 
Howard, Evelyn (Mrs. Maurice How- 
ard) 
Howard, Maurice 
Business agent, Screen Cartoonist 
Guild. 
Howe, Ann 
Former executive secretary of Con- 
temporary Theater. 
Hubley, John 
Cartoonist. 
Hudson, Henry 
Huebsch, Edward 
Writer. 

(Appeared Mar. 23, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Hunter, Alice (Mrs. Ian Hunter) 



Ingham, Bill (William) 
Communist Party functionary. 

Ingham, Nina (Mrs. Bill Ingham) 

Burbank. 
Isaacman, Morris 
Jacobson, Libby 

President, Wilshire branch, Com- 
munist Party. 
James, Dan 
Writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 19, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



James, Lilith (Mrs. Dan James) 
Writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 19, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Com- 
munist Party membership. ) 



Identified iy 
Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1958. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 



Lee J. Cobb. June 2, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 
Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 
Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying in 

New York). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 



Anne Kinney, Dee. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Also identified by 3 former Communists 
in 1952 ; and by 3 in 1951. 



Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Com- 
munist in 1951. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released Ib 
1953). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Edith INIacia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Bart Lytton, Mar. 26, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Also identified by two former Com- 
munists in 1951. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Bart Lytton, Mar. 26, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952 ; and by one in 1951. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AJVIERICAN ACTIVITIES 39 



Janis, Louise 

Jarrico, Paul 
Writer, 

(Appeared Apr. 13, 1951 ; refused 
to aflirm or deny Commuuist 
Party membership.) 



Jeffrey, John 

Social worker. 
Jerome, V. J. 

Communist Party functionary. 

(Appeared Mar. 8, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Johnson, Edith 
Jones, Lillian 

Secretary of worker's school, Los 
Angeles. 

Judis, Harry 

Judis, ilinnie (Mrs. Harry Judis) 
Kahn, Gordon 
Writer. 



Kalish, Sam 
Night-school teacher in Los Angeles. 



Kanter, Shirley 
Kaplan, Sol 

Musician and composer, Los Angeles. 
(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Karson, Bobbie 
Karson, Charles 
Karson, Ethel 
Karson, Morris (also known as "Red"' 

Karson) 
Kelleher, June (nickname: "Kay") 
Keller, Evelyn 

Clerk, United Office and Professional 
Workers of America, Chicago, 
Kelly, Jane Dawson 
Kibre, Jeff (also known as Barry Wood) 
Communist Party functionary. 



Killian, Victor, Sr. 
Actor. 

(Appeared Apr. 13, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Klein, Herbert 
Newspaperman. 

(Appeared Sept. 18, 1951; re- 
cused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 

Klein, Minna (Mrs. Herbert Klein) 



Identified hy 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

David A, Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Max Benoff, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Also identified by 3 former Communists 
in 1952 ; by 7 in 1951 ; and by a former 
Communist in 1951 as a member of 
the Young Communist League. 

Anne Kinney, Dec, 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 

Leonard Patterson, July 7, 1953 (testi- 
fying in New York). 

Also identified by 5 former Communists 
in 19.52 ; and by 6 in 1951. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Max Benoff. Mar. 24, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Also identified by four former Com- 
munists in 1952 ; and by seven in 1951. 

LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 

Richard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 19.53. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1953 (released 
in 1953). 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

(Investigation identifying Mr. Kaplan 
as a member of the Communist 
Party has not been made pubUc.) 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1953 (released 
in 1953). 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by three former Com- 
munists in 1951. 

Larry Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released in 
1953). 

Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Also identified by 4 former Communists 
in 1952 ; and by 3 in 1951. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Also identified by 4 former Communists 
in 1952 ; and by 2 in 1951. 



40 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Klein, Phil 

Member of cartoonist group, Com- 
munist Party. 
Kline, Joe 

Kliue, Rose (Mrs. Joe Kline) 
Klowden, Nina 

Kadio actress. 



Koch, Mrs. Howard. {See Anne Green.) 
Koeniu', Lester 

Writer; associate producer. 

(Appeared Sept. 24, lO.jl ; refused 
to aliirm or deny Communist 
I'arty iiieiubersliip.) 
Kromher.irer, Joe 

Studio electrician. 
Kusiiitz, Sara 

President, fi.'^d assembly district 
branch. Communist Party. 
Laserfin. Pauline 

Writer. 
LauibtMt. Rude. (Sec also section of 
tbis report regarding the hearings 
held in San Francisco.) 
Coiiiniun'st I'arty functionary. 
Laniliert, Walter 

Teacher, Conmmnist Party training 
scbdol, S;in Francisco, 1938. 
Lain pell, Millard 

Writer. 
Lanipell, Mrs. Millard 
Landall, Edith 
Lardiiei-, King, Jr. 
Writer. 

(Appeared Oct. 30. 1947; refused 
to afhrni or deny Communist 
Party membersliip.) 



Larkin, Catherine 

Lauber, Pauline. (See Pauline Lauber 

Finn.) 
Lawson, John Howard 
Writer. 

(Appeared Oct. 27, 1947; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Lawson, Kate (Mrs. John Lawson) 



Identified htj 
Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.53. 

Edith M.Mcia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953. 

Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 19.53. 

Cariu Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying in 
New York). 

Also identified by two former Commu- 
nists iu 1952. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identitied by a foi-mer Communist 
in 1951. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1!)53). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

19.53). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Anne Kiimey, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 19.5.3. 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Silvia Richards. Mar. 25. 19.53. 

Edith Macia. Mar. 28, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Mas Benoff, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Slior, Mar. 12, 195.3. 

I'auline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Roland W. Kibbee. June 2, 195.3. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Also identified by 2 former Communists 
in 1952: hj 4 in 1951 ; and as a mem- 
ber of the Young Communist League 
by a former Communist in 1951. 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 



Dannv Dare, Mar. 23, 1953. 

Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 19.5.3. 

David A. LauL', Mar. 24, 1953. 

Max Benoff, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Larrv Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released 
in 19.53). 

Roland W. Kibbee. June 2, 1953. 

Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 

Bart Lytton, Mar. 26, 19.53. 

Robert Ro.ssen, May 7, 19.53 (testifying 
in New York). 

Also identified by 4 former Commu- 
nists in 19.52; and by 11 in 1951. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 41 



Lazar, Jack 
Lazarus, Simon 1\I. 

Owner of Independent Productions 
Corp. 

(Appeared Mar. 26, 19.13 ; refused 
to afBrm or deny Coumiunist 
I'artj- menjbership.) 
Leech, Elizabeth (Mrs. Charles Glenn) 
Communist Party functionary. 



Leech, John 

Communist Party functionary. 



Lees, Jean 
Leonard, Charles 
AVritei . 



Leonard, Helen (Mrs. Charles Leonard) 



Levitt. Alfred (Al) 
AVriter. 

(Appeared Sept. IS, lO.jl ; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Com- 
munist Party membership.) 
Lewis. Al 
Teacher. 

Lewis, Matilda (Mrs. Al Lewis) 
Principal, Park Ave. School. 

(Appeared Apr. 13, 11)53; denied 
present membership in the 
Communist Party, but refused 
to testify concerning past mem- 
bership.) 

Lewitzky, Bella (Mrs. Newell Rey- 
nolds) 
Dancer. 

(Appeared Sept. 12, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Lieberson, Anya (Mrs. Eddie Fisher) 
President, 65th assembly district 
branch Communist Party, 
Lockett, Albert 

Burbank. 
Looschen, John 

Building contractor, Malibu, Los 
Angeles County ; former studio car- 
penter. 

(Appeared Apr. 7, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Losey, Louise (Mrs. Joseph Losey ; nee 
Louise Moss.) 

Lusher, Bernard 
Union organizer. 

(Appeared Mar. 28, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

47400 — 54 4 



Identified by 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

(Investigation identifying Mr. Lazarus 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public.) 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
19.-)3). 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Bart Lytton, INIar. 26, 19.53. 

Also identified by 2 former Commu- 
nists in 1952; and by 5 in 1951. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
19.53). 

Also identified by 4 former Commu- 
nists in 1951. 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 

Also identilied by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 19.53. 

I'auline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Also identilied by a former Communist 
in 1952; and by 1 in 1951. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
19.53). 

Richard Byrd Lewis, IVIar. 27, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 

Itichard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 1953. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

(Investigation identifying Mr. Looschen 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public.) 



Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
(Investigation identifying Mr. Lusher 

as a member of the Communist Party 

has not been made public.) 



42 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Lyon, Peter 

Radio writer, New York. 
McClosky, Joe 
McCombe, Daniel 
Barber. 

(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953: refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membersliip. ) 
McCormiek, LaRne 

Communist Party functionary. 
McDonald, Florence 
McGinty, Leona (Mrs. Howland Cham- 
berlin ) 
(See also section of this report re- 
garding the hearings held in San 
Francisco.) Communist Party 
functionary. 
McGrath, Thomas Matthew 
Assistant professor, Los Angeles 
State College. 

(Appeared Apr. 13, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
McLean, George 

Longshoreman, San Pedro. 
McVey, Paul 
Radio actor. 

(Mr. Dwight Hauser testified 
that he believed Paul McVey had 
left the Communist Party.) 
McVey, Mrs. Paul 

MacGregor, Marjorie (Mrs. Arnold 
Manoff) 

Maddow, Ben 
Screen writer. 

(Appeared Mar. 28, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 

Maise, Wilhelmina 

Mallof, Helen 

Malloy, Rose 

Malloy, Sophia 

Maltz, Albert 
Writer. 

(Appeared Oct. 28, 1947; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Maltz, Margaret (Mrs. Albert Maltz) 
Manoff, Arnold 
Writer. 



Manoff, Marjorie. (See Marjorie Mac- 
Gregor. ) 

March, Jane 

Member, Studebaker branch of Com- 
munist Party, Chicago. 

Martin, Betty. 



Identified hy 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

(Investigation identifying Mr. Mc- 
Combe as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party has not been made public.) 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 



(Investigation identifying Mr. Mc- 
Grath as a member of the Communist 
Party has not been made public.) 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953. 
Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 
Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 

Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by five former Commu- 
nists in 1951. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 

Max Benoff, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by 2 former Communists 
in 1952 ; and by 6 in 1951. 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by two former Commu- 
nists in 1951. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 43 



Martin, Henriette (Henrietta) 

Writer. 
Matlin, Zema 

Matsuto, John 

President, Japanese Branch, Com- 
munist Party, Los Angeles. 

Mayer, Jean 

Communist Party functionary. 
Maymadus, Abraham 

Worked for International Workers 
Order. 
Mazer, Herman 
Meyers, Henry 

Writer. 



Mindlin, Eunice 

Secretary ; member Communist Party 
writer's group, Hollywood. 
Mlnkus, Abraham (Abe) 
Teacher. 

(Appeared Mar. 27 and 30, 1953; 
refused to affirm or deny Com- 
munist Party membership.) 
Minkus, Libby (Mrs. Abe Minkus) 



Michel, Josef (Joseph) 
Writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 24, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Moore, Jack 

Communist Party functionary, Los 
Angeles County ; carpenter. 

Moore, Mrs. Patricia (Patsy) 
Moore, Sam 
Writer. 

(Appeared Apr. 17, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Morgan, Ann Roth (see Ann Roth 

Richards). 
Morley, Hank 

Laboratory technician. 
Morley, Karen 
Actress. 

(Appeared Nov. 13, 1952 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Morris, M. 

President, Hans Eisler branch of Com- 
munist Party, Los Angeles (musi- 
cians branch). 
Moskin, Frank 
Moss, Jay 



Identified hy 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24. 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

Identified in Communist Party publi- 
cation introduced into the record dur- 
ing testimonv of Anne Kinney, Dec. 
22, 1952 (released 1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28. 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Also identified by three former Com- 
munists in 1952: and by one in 1951. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 

LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 
Richard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
LeKoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 
Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953. 
Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 
Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by two former Commu- 
nists in 1952 ; and by one in 1951. 



Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 

Larry Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released in 
1953). 

Also identified by three former Com- 
munists in 1952 ; and by three in 1951. 

Identified in Communist Party publica- 
tion introduced into the record during 
testimony of Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 
1952 (released in 1953). 

Edith Macia, IMar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 



44 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Moss, Louise {see Louise Losey.) 
Most, Rose 
Social worker. 



Mullen, Mrs. Virginia 
Actress. 

(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Murphy, Maurice (see also section of 
this report regarding the hearings 
held iu San Francisco). 
Murray, Donald 

Actor. 
Myer, Irving 
Nadler, Morton 

Member Hyde Park branch of Com- 
munist Party, Chicago. 
Nidiss, Bernie 

Nolan, Mary (Mrs. Frank Nolan) 
Norman, Billie 
Norman, Harry 
North, .Joseph 

Communist Party functionary ; writ- 
er. 
Numovna, Barta 
Teacher. 



Oats, Frank 

President, Culver City studio branch, 
Communist Party, lt)39. 

O'Connor, Oleta (Oleta O'Connor 
Yates) 

Communist Party functionary (see 
iiUo section of this report regard- 
ing the hearings held in San 
Francisco). 
Offner, Mortimer. (See section on 

liearings held in New York City.) 
Oleksink, Steve 
OlelvSiuk, Tillie 
Oliver, William E. (Bill) 

Newspaperman; drama critic. 

(Appeared Apr. 7, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Olson, Ben 

Santa Monica. 
Olson, Dorothy 

Santa Monica. 
O'Neal, John 
O'Neal, Mrs. John 
Oppenheimer, Frank 
Professor, University of Minnesota 
(Appeared June 14, 1949; ad- 
mitted former membership in 
the Communist Party.) 
Ornitz, Sadie (Mrs. Sam Ornitz) 



Identified by 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
(Investigation identifying Mrs. Mullen 

as a Communist Party member has 

not been made public.) 



Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by two in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 

Richard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 1953. 

Identified in Communist Party publi- 
cation introduced into the record 
during testimony of Anne Kinney, 
Dec. 22, 1952 (released 1953). 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Alice Bennett, May 22, 1952. 
Urcel Daniel, July 8, 1952. 



Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith j\Laeia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 



Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communist 
in 1951. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 45 



Ornitz, Sam 
Writer 

(Appeared Oct. 29, 1947; refused 
to afBrra or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Orr, "Violet {see also section of this 
report regarding the hearings 
held in San Francisco). 

Oser, Ruth 

Oster, Morris (also known as Alzar) 

Oster, Nina 

Page, Charles Albert 

Former secretary Screen Writers 
Guild 

(Appeared Apr. 7, 1953; testified 
he was not a member of the Com- 
munist Party prior to 1934 and 
subsequent to 1941 ; invoked the 
fifth amendment in refusing to 
testify concerning the period 
1934 to 1941.) 

Palley, Henrietta 
Social worker. 



Pate, Bob 

Pate, Helen (Mrs. Bob Pate) 

Pearson, Rose 

Member, Federal Theater unit of 
Communist Party, New York. 
Peck, Trudy 

Member, Federal Theater unit of 
Communist Party, New York. 
Perlin, Paul 
Studio worker 

(Appeared Oct. 6. 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Perlman, Git (former Mrs. Maurice 

Perlman) 
Perlman, Holly 
Perlman, Maurice 
Perlman, Norman 
Perry, Pettis 

Communist Party functionary. 



Peterson, Henry 
Studio carpenter. 

Peterson, Hjalmar 
Studio carpenter. 

Pezman, Dorothy 
Social worker. 



Place, Joan 
Member, United OflSce and Profes- 
sional Workers of America ; Chicago. 
Pollin, Ben 

Member of radio group of Communist 
Party. 
Polonsky, Abraham Lincoln (Abe) 
Director-writer. 

(Appeared Apr. 25, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Identified by 
David A. Lang. Mar. 24, 1953. 
Roland W. Kibbee, June 2. 1953. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by 4 in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

Babbette Lang, June 2, 19r)3. 
Edith IMncia, Mar. 28. 19.53. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.T3. 
Morris Appelman, Jan. 10, 1952. 
Martin Berkeley, Sept. 19, 1951. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 195.3. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 



Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 



Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 19.53. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952. 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Also identified by 3 former Communists 

in 1952; and by 1 in 1951. 
Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 



Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Comnmnists 
in 1952; and by 4 in 1951. 



46 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Pomerance, Edwina 

Pomerance, William (Bill) 

Former executive secretary, Screen 
Writers' Guild. 

(Appeared Feb. 5, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Posell, Joseph J. 

Posell, Rose 
Elementary school teacher, Los An- 
geles. 

(Appeared Apr. 7, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Praeger, Stanley 

Pratt, Horace 

Pratt, Ida (Mrs. Horace Pratt) 

Putnam, Fred 

Tinsmith. 
Radin (Raden),Mary (Mrs. Joe Aidlin) 

Employed office of Los Angeles County 
Communist Party. 

Rapf, John 

Communist Party functionary. 
Rapf, Maurice 

Writer. 



Rapf, Mrs. Maurice 
Reddock, Arcus 
Arizona ; attended Communist Party 
training school in San Francisco in 
1938. 
Reichman, Charles 
Revere, Ann 
Actress. 

(Appeared Apr. 17, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Reynolds, Mrs. Bella Lewitzky. (See 

Bella Lewitzky.) 
Richards, Ann Roth Morgan (Mrs. Rob- 
ert Richards) 
Housewife. 

(Appeared Sept. 20, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Com- 
munist Party membership.) 



Richards, Robert 
Writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 20, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 



Identified hy 
Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953^ 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by 3 former Commimists 

in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
LeRoy Herndon, Mar. 27, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 



Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Bart Lytton, Mar. 26, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.53. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 19.53). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12. 1953. 

Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by 3 former Communists 

in 1951 ; and by 1 in 1951 as a member 

of the Young Communist League. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 19-53. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 19-52 (released 

in 1953). 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Larry Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released in 

1953). 
Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 



Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Bart Lytton, Mar. 26, 1953. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952; by one in 1951. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 



ANNUAL REi^ORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 47 



Richardson, Jean 

San Diego; attended Communist 
Party training school in San Fran- 
cisco, 1938. 
Rinaldo, Fred 
Writer. 



Rinaldo, Marie. 



Riskin, Alexander 
Physician. 



Riskin, Angelina 

River, W. L. 
Novelist. 



Robbins, Ed 
Newspaperman. 



Roberts, Bob 
Writer ; producer. 

Roberts, Holland {see also section of 
this report regarding the hearings 
held in San Francisco). 
Director, California Labor School, 
Roberts, Marguerite (Mrs. John San- 
ford) 
Writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 20, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 



Robeson, Naomi 
Former actress. 

(Appeared Mar. 30, 1953, refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Robinson, Bob 
Robinson, Jack 
Writer. 

Robinson, Jerome 

Photographer, Los Angeles. 

(Appeared Apr. 7, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Robinson, Marjorie 
Robinson, Mary (Mrs. Jack Robinson) 
Writer. 

Robison, David 
Writer ; teacher. 

(Appeared Mar. 30, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Rohr, Joe 



Identified hy 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 



Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by 4 former Communists 

in 1951. 
Mildred Benoff, Feb. 17, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by 1 in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
Also identified by 4 former Communists 

in 1952. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Anne Kinuey, Dee. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 



LeRoy Herndon, .Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas', Mar. 12, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Charlotte Darling Adams, June 2, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Roy Erwin. Mar. 31, 1953. 

Also identified by 2 former Communists 
in 1952. 

(Investigation identifying Jerome Rob- 
inson as a member of the Communist 
Party has not been made public.) 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.53. 

Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 19.53. 

Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 19.52. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 



48 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Rohr, Myrtle 
Rolfe, Ed 

Wiifer. 
Rosenfeld, Paul 

Attorney for Music Corp. of America. 
Rossen, Sam , 

Rossen, Sue (Mrs. Robert Rossen) 
Rotti, Ann (see Ann Roth Morgan 

Ri(har<!s) 
Rousseau, Louise 
Writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 21, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Rubin, aiary (Mrs. Sam Rubin) 
Kubin, Sam 

Rudimon (or Rudamon), Sara 
Raskin, Shimen 
Actor. 

(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Ruthven, Madelaine 

Communist Party functionary, Holly- 
wood. 



Ryan, Allen Lane (Al) 

Communist Party functionary. 



Ryan, Maureen (Maurine) 

Social worker. 
Ryan, Ruth Stoddard 

Nursery .school teacher. 
Salemson, Harold 

In charge of press department, Doug- 
las Fairbanks Productions, New 
York office. 
Salit, Fran 
Salit, Sophia 
Salt, Waldo 
Screen writer. 

(Appeared Apr. 13, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Samuels, Helen 
Sandy, George 

Communist Party functionary. 
Sanford, John 
Attorney. 

(Appeared Sept. 20, 1951; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Sanford, Mrs. John. (See Marguerite 

Roberts. ) 
Saul, Estelle (Mrs. Oscar Saul) 
Saul, Joe (party name for Joseph 
Spri nger ) . ( See J oseph Springer. ) 
Schlein, Gerry (Mrs. Charles Schlein) 



Identified by 
Edith Macia, RLar. 2S, 1953. 
Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Larry Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released 

in 1953). 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 



David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.53. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28. 1953. 
Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 



Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 19.53. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 19.53. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by 6 in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 19.52. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 19.53). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 



Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). Also identified by 7 
former Communists in 1951. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953.' 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Commu- 
nists in 1951. 



Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 



Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 49 



Schneiderman, William, {See also 
section of this report regarding the 
hearings held in San Francisco.) 
Communist Party functionary. 
Schwartz, Harry 
Schwartz, \ed 
Scott, Adrian 
Writer. 

(Appeared Oct. 29, 1947; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Scott, Lew 

Segure, Rose (party name, Alice Starr) 
Social worker. 

(See also section of this report re- 
garding hearings held in San Fran- 
cisco.) 
Seklen, Betty 
Social worker. 

(Appeared Oct. 7, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Selfrid, Leo 

Engineer or draftsman. 
Selig, Gertrude 

Former officer. United Auto Workers, 
Local 908, Chicago. 
Shaffer, George 

Shapiro, Victor 
Publicist. 



Sharf, Dave 

Sharf, Rose (also known as Rose 

Sherry; Mrs. Dave Sharf) 
Shaw, Mary (Mrs. Robert Shaw) 
Shaw, Robert 

Writer. 
Shelf, Sanders 

Engineer. Los Angeles. 
Shepro, Anna (Mrs. Harry Shepro) 

Shepro, Harry 
Teacher in Los Angeles high schools. 
(Appeared Apr. 7, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Ship, Reuben 
Radio and screen writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 14, 19.51; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Shire, Henry 

Truck driver. 
Shire, Marian (Mrs. Henry Shire) 
Former manager of a downtown 
bookstore. 
Shore, Viola Brothers 
Writer. 



J den titled hy 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

1953). AJso identilied by a former 

Communist in 1951. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28. 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.5.3. 
David A. Lang. Mar. 24. 19.53. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). Also identified by a 

former Communist in 195 L. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

19.53). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 19.52 (released 

1953). Also identified by a former 

Communist in 1952. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
1953). Also identified by a former 
Communist in 1952. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 19.53). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

David A. Lang. Mar. 24, 1953. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Robert Rossen. May 7, 1953 (testify- 
ing in New York). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952; and by 1 in 1951. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 
LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 19.53. 
Richard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 19.53. 
Leroy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 
Richard Byrd Lewis, Mar. 27, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying in 

New York). 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 19.52 (released in 

1953). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

1953). 

Babbette Lang. June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



50 ANlSrUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERTCAN ACTIVITIES 



Shore, Wilma (Mrs. Lou Solomon) 

Writer. 

Siegel, Sylvia 

New York. 
Silver, S;im 
Simousgard, Jens 
Member Hyde Park branch of the 
Communist Party, Chicago. 
Simonsgard, Sarah 

Member, Hyde Park branch of the 
Communist Party, Chicago. 
Skadron, Bernard 

Public accountant, Los Angeles. 

(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Skadron, Mrs. Lillian 

Housewife, Los Angeles. 
Sklar, George 
Writer. 

Sloan, Robert 
Member, Federal Theater unit of 
Communist Party, New York. 
Smolan, Morrie 



Solomon, Lou (Louis) 
Writer. 



Solotoy, Sonya (Mrs. Percy Solotoy) 



Sondergaard, Gale (Mrs. Herbert Biber- 
man) 
Actress. 

(Appeared Mar. 21, 1951 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Sparks, Nemmy (Ned) 

Communist Party functionary; for- 
merly in Boston, later in Los An- 
geles. 



Spears, John 

Spencer, Ray 

Writer. 
Spivak, Freda 

Springer, Joseph (Communist Party 
name: Joe Saul) 
Ladies' garment manufacturer and 
operator of a camp in Crestline, 
Calif. 

(Appeared Mar. 25, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Stanford, John 

Writer. 
Stapp, John 

Communist Party functionary. 



Identified hy 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Also identified bv a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by 1 in 1951. 
Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 



Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 1 in 1951. 
Harold Hecht, Mar. 23, 1953. 



Charles H. Garrigues, Mar. 27, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 19.53. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

19.53). 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1951 ; and by 1 in 1952. 
Larry Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released 

in 1953). 
Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952; and by 2 in 1951. 

Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 19.53. 

Harry J. Marks, June 22, 1953 (testify- 
ing in Washington). 

Also identified by 3 former Communists 
in 1951. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 
in 1953). 

Danny Dare, Mar. 23, 1953. 

Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953 (testify- 
ing in New York). 



David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by 5 former Communisti 
in 1952 ; and by 6 in 195L 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 51 

Identified hy 

Starr, Alice (Communist Party name 
for Rose Segure) (see Rose Segure) 

Steinmetz, Harry C. Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

Teacher, San Diego State College. in 1958). 
(Appeared Apr. 7, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Stevens Clara Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 

Stevenson, Janet (Mrs. Philip Steven- Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

son) Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952. 

Stevenson, Philip (Phil) Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Screen writer. Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

(Appeared Sept. 19, 1951; re- Also identified by a former Communist 

fused to affirm or deny Commu- in 1952. 
nist Party membership.) 

Stice, Cliff Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Stone, Bert (female) Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 

Stone, Charles (also known as Charles Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Ellis) 
Writer for People's World ; fought in 
Spain. 

Stone, Shirley (Mrs. Charles Stone; Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

also known as Shirley Ellis) 

Strawn, Arthur Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Writer. Also identified by a former Commimist 

(Appeared May 10, 1951 ; refused in 1951. 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Sullivan, Elliott (also known as Ely Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 

Sullivan) Jerome Robbins, May 5, 1953 (testifying 

Actor. in New York). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 

Swanson, Carl Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

Former officer. United Auto Workers, in 1953). 
Local 998, Chicago. 

Taffel, Bess David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Writer. Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 

(Appeared Sept. 18, 1951; re- Also identified by 2 former Communista 

fused to affirm or deny Commu- in 1951. 
nist Party membership.) 

Tanner, Harry Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 

Tarloff, Frank David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Writer. Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Commimist 
Party membership.) 

Tarnoff, Harry Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 

Tashjian, Vaughan A. K. Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

Doctor. 1953). 

Tourney, James (also known as James Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

or Jim Thorne or Thorme) 1953). 

Communist Party functionary. Also identified by 2 former Communista 

in 1951. 

Todd, Louise. {See also section of this Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 

report regarding the hearings held 1953). 

in San Francisco.) Also identified by 2 former Commimists 

Communist Party functionary. in 1951. 

Trabusis, Paul David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Writer. 

Trachgin, Frieda Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 



52 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Tree, Dorothy (Mrs. Michael Uris) 
Actress. 



I'rivers, Paul 
Writer. 



Trmiibo, Dalton 
Writer. 

(Appeared Oct. 28, 1947; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membersliip.) 



Tuttle, Tanya (Mrs. Frank Tuttle) 



Tyne. George (also known as Buddy 
Yarus) 

Actor. 
Uris, Dorothy Tree. (See Dorothy 

Tree. ) 
Uris, Michael 

Writer. 



Vandercar, Catherine 

Nursing-school director. 
Vidaver, Matt 

Santa Monica. 
Vinson, Pauline (the former Mrs. 
Owen Vinson). {See Pauline 
Hopkins.) 
Vorhaus, Bernard 
Director. 



Wachsman, Robert 
Publicist. 

(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Wagner, Esther Jerry 
Radio announcer. 

(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Wagner, Murry (or Murray) 
Walden, Clara (Mrs. Mischa WaMen) 
Waldreen, Herman (also known as 
Herman Waldman and David 
Wolfe) 
Radio actor. 
Wales, Beulah 

Teacher. 
Wallace, Jane (party name for Jane 
Wilson). (See Jane Wilson.) 



Identified hy 
Larry Parks, Mar. 21, 1951 (released in 

1953). 
Lee J. Cobb, .Tune 2, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 3 in 1951. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 3 in 1951. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Max Benoff, Mar. 24, 19.53. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Robert Rossen. May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by 3 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 3 in 1951. 
Dannv Dare, Mar. 23, 1953. 
Mildred BenolT, Feb. 17, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Also identified by 3 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 2 in 1951. 
Lee J. Cobb, June 2, 1953. 



David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 

Sol Shor. Mar. 12, 19.53. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New Yoik). 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and by 4 in 1951. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 



Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 



Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 

in New York). 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 1952 ; and bv 3 in 1951. 
Charles Daggett, Jan. 21, 1952. 



Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 



Dwight Hauser, Mar. 30, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952. (Released 
in 1953.) 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 53 



Warren, Lucy 
Wt^ber, John 
Agent. 

Weber, Ruth (Mrs. John Weber) 

Weil, Everett 
Weinbaum. Sidney 

Instructor at Cal-Tech. 
Wellnian, Ruth H. 

Welluian, Ted. (See Sidney Benson.) 
West, Lawrence 

President, lawyers branch of the 
Communist Party, Los Angeles. 

Wetherwax, Jack 

Wexley, Cookie (Mrs. John Wesley) 
Wexley, John 
Writer. 



White, Ann 
White, Irving 



Whitney, Lynn 

Actress. 

(Appeared Oct. 6, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Wiena, Lena 
Wilhy, Celia 

Santa Monica; employee Douglas 
plant. 
Wilenchick, Clement 
Artist and actor. 

(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953; refu.sed 
to aflirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Willner. George 
Writers' auent. 

(Api)eared Apr. 24, 1951 ; refused 
to aflirra or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Willner, Tiba (Mrs. George Willner) 



Wilson, Jane (party name: Jane 
Wallace) 
Communist Party functionary. 



Wilson, Margaret 
San Francisco. 
Wilson, Michael 
Writer. 

(Appeared Sept. 20, 1951 ; refused 
to afBim or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Identified by 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 19.-33. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12. 19.-)3. 
Also identified by 2 former Cumuiuuists 

in 1951. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 19r)3. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 19.53. 
LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Identified in Communist Party publica- 
tion introduced into the record during 
testimony of Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 
1952 (released in 1953). 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released in 
19.53). 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

David A. Lanir, Mar. 24. 1953. 

Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 

Bart Lytton, Mar. 26, 1953. 

Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953 (testifying 
in New York City). 

Also identified by 3 former Communists 
in 1951. 

Edith Macia, ]\Lar. 28, 19.53. 

Danny Dare, Mar. 23. 1953. 

So! Sbor. I\lar. 12, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952; and by 1 in 1951. 

Dwiirht Ilauser, Mar. 30. 1953. 

Roy Erwin, Mar. 31, 1953. 

Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 (testifying 
in New York). 

Also identified by 2 former "Com- 
munists in 19.52. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 



(Investigation identifying Mr. Wilen- 
chick as a member of tbe Communist 
Party has not been made public.) 



Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 
Leopold Atlas, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 

in 19.52 ; and by 2 in 1951. 
Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 195.3. 
Also identified l)y a former Communist 

in 1952 ; and by 1 in 1951, 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953. 
LeRoy Herndon, Jr., Mar. 27, 195.3. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Sol Shor, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Babbette Lang, June 2, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 



54 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Winebrenner, Dolph 
Newspaperman, 



Winter, Carl 
Communist Party functionary. 



Winter, Ella 
Communist Party functionary. 

Witkowski, Anne 
Witkowski, Bert 
Wixman, Sam 

Teacher. 
Wixman, Myrtle (Mrs. Sam Wixman) 

Wolf, Hilton 

Wolfe, David. (See Herman Wald- 

reen.) 
Wooley, Angus 
Wooley, Barbara (Mrs. Angus Wooley; 

nee Barbara Roberts) 
Tarus, Buddy (See George Tyne) 
Yates, Allen. (See also section of this 
report regarding the hearings held 
in San Francisco.) 

Seaman from San Francisco. 
Yates, Oleta O'Connor (See Oleta 

O'Connor) 
Young, Bill 

Santa Monica. 
Young, Joe (party name for Charles 

Gladstone). (See Charles Gladstone) 
Young, Ned (professional name: Ned- 
rick Young) 

Actor and writer. 

(Appeared Apr. 8, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Young, Molly (Mrs. Bill Young) 

Santa Monica. 
Young, Sandra 
Zadow, Dorothy 

Oakland. 
Zadow, Joseph 

Tailor. 
Zimet, Julian 

Writer. 



Identified by 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Also identified by 4 former Communists 

in 1952. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar 12, 1953. 
Also identified by 4 former Communists 

in 1952. 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953 (testify- 
ing in New York). 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

In 1953). 
Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 



Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953. 



Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 19.52 (released 
in 1953). 



Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 



( Investigation identifying Mr. Young as 
a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public.) 



Silvia Richards, Mar. 25, 1953. 

Edith Macia, Mar. 28, 1953. 

Anne Kinney, Dec. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
Anne Kinney, Dee. 22, 1952 (released 

in 1953). 
David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953. 
Pauline S. Townsend, Mar. 12, 1953- 



COMMUNIST METHODS OF INFILTRATION 

( Government — Labor ) 

During the year 1953 the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties continued its investigations to ascertain the extent of Communist 
infiltration into the fields of government and labor. 

In June 1953 the committee heard Russell Arthur Nixon, legis- 
lative representative of the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine 
Workers of America. The committee is aware that the extent of Com- 
munist infiltration into the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine 
Workers of America was sufficiently strong to have caused the Con- 
gress of Industrial Organizations to expel it, along with certain other 
unions, for Communist activities. Russell Arthur Nixon, who was 
identified this year by Mrs. Dorothy K. Funn as having been a member 
of an underground group of legislative representatives of various 
unions and other organizations, was earlier identified in 1952 in the 
course of hearings in Philadelphia, Pa. In calling Mr. Nixon before 
the committee, there was a twofold interest, both of government and 
labor, since the committee had developed information that Russell 
Nixon was attached to the American Military Government in Germany, 
along with other individuals who have been identified as members of 
the Communist Party. The operation in which Mr. Nixon was em- 
ployed in the American Military Government was under the direction 
of officials in the United States Treasury Department, including Harry 
Dexter White, William Ludwig Ullmann, and V. Frank Coe, all of 
whom were identified in 1948 by Elizabeth Bentley as having been 
individuals in a Communist operation within the Government who 
supplied her with information as a Soviet espionage courier. Mr. 
Nixon was questioned concerning this operation and the individuals 
with whom he had associated, but declined to answer, on constitutional 
grounds, whether he knew these individuals to be members of the 
Communist Partj^ or whether he himself was a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

One of the committee's investigations which led to a hearing in Sep- 
tember 1953 serves to further point up the continuing need for con- 
gressional investigations and hearings. On September 15, 1953, the 
committee heard the testimony of James F. McNamara, who was 
commissioner for the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. The committee, in the course of its hearings in 
Albany, N. Y., received testimony from Jack Davis and Nicholas 
Campas to the effect that a James McNamara, who was an officer of 
the Hotel and Restaurant Employees' and Bartenders' International 
Alliance in Washington, D. C, had been a member of the Communist 
Party during the late 1930's. The committee further ascertained that, 
on the basis of FBI reports, Mr. McNamara was given loyalty hearings 
in 1948, 1952, and as recently as February 16, 1953. Throughout these 

55 



56 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



loyalty hearings, Mr. McNamara denied having been a member of the 
Communist Party, and was retained in his position. Within a matter 
of days after he had been subpenaed to appear before this committee, 
Mr. McNamara submitted his resignation to the Federal Mediation and 
Conciliation Service and, during his appearance, admitted that he had 
been a member of the Communist Party from 1938 to 1940. The com- 
mittee believes that had the loyalty process, which permitted Mr. 
McNamara to be retained in Federal employment in the face of adverse 
FBI reports, been properly enforced, such a situation would not have 
existed. 

The following persons were identified as Communist Party members 
during the course of hearings held in Washington on the subject of 
"Government-Labor" : 



Greenstein, William 

Tmc'kdriver; secretary of Brewery 
Workers Joint Board, New York 
City. 

(Appeared July 20, 1953; refused 
to aflarm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Grier, Mary Catherine (Miss) 

Biblioyrapher and indexer, Geological 
Sjciety of America, Washington, 
D. C. 

(Appeared Apr. 17, 1953: denied 
present Communist Party mem- 
lieiship but refused to affirm or 
deny past membership.) 
Klare, Charles 

Office secretary, Brewery Workers 
Joint Board, New York City. 

(Appeared July 20, 1958; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party njemiiersliij).) 
Nixon, Russell Arthur 

Legislative representative in Wash- 
ington, D. C, for United Electrical, 
R.idio and Machine Workers of 
America. 

(Appeared June 9, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Sipser, I. Philip 
Attorney, New York City; general 
counsel of joint local executive 
board of Brewery Workers Union. 
(Appeared July 20, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Investigation identifying Mr. Green- 
stein as a member of the Communist 
Party has not been made public. 



Executive testimony identifying Miss 
Grier as a member of the Communist 
Pax'ty has not been made public. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Klare as 
a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953 (testify- 
ing in New York City). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Sipser as 
a member of the Comnmuist Party 
has not been made public. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 

NEW YOEK CITY AKEA 

During the year 1953, the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties held hearings in New York City on two separate occasions. The 
first of these were held during the first week of May. A subcommit- 
tee held further hearings in New York City during July. In the 
course of these hearings, the committee received information from a 
number of witnesses, who were formerly members of the Communist 
Party, concerning the Communists' efforts to infiltrate the fields of 
entertainment, education, labor, Government, and religion. 

One of the most valuable witnesses was Mrs. Dorothy K. Funn, who 
is presently a teacher in the New York City public school system. 
Mrs. Funn has been engaged in the teaching profession since 1923, 
except for a period of about 4 years from 1943 until 1947. Mrs. Funn 
stated that she had joined the Communist Party in May 1939 and had 
remained a member until about June 1946. 

Mrs. Funn, a Negress, explained her reasons for becoming a member 
of the Communist Party in the following manner : 

You know, the cause — I'll answer you, sir — the cause of the Negro Is a very 
touching one and one on which a lot needs to be done yet, and my feeling and 
conclusion is that the Communist Party took this great need that Negroes in 
America feel as a basis for exploiting their wants, desires, and the things that 
they were working for which were not for complete justice and equality for the 
Negro but it lends itself beautifully to an emotional tieup, and you can say, "Well, 
if this is the organization that's going to do this, therefore, this is the organiza- 
tion with which I want to affiliate myself." 

One of the highlights of Mrs. Funn's testimony was her recollec- 
tion of the training she had received after joining the Communist 
Partj\ She explained that she and others had been selected for a 6- 
week training course at Bergman's farm outside of Kingston, N. Y. 
Mrs. Funn further explained that the school she attended was exclu- 
sively for teachers from New York City and that some 25 miles away 
there was another school which was attended by persons who came 
from different sections of the United States, which school was known 
as the National School. 

When she was asked whether any instruction was given at this 
school as to what should be taught by teachers in the public schools, 
Mrs. Funn stated: 

I want to answer it this way, if I may: No one stood up there and 
said, "Now, this is what you are to teach in the classroom." But on the other 
hand you couldn't possibly be open to all this propaganda at the time, believing 
that they were doing something that was really for the good of all, as well as for 
any group, without slanting your work in the classroom ; and I'm sure that I 
did, as well as others. 

It colored your thinking completely, and I can look back now and think of 
some of my history classes. Although it was to 12- and 1.3-year-olds, I'm sure 
that I slanted it in line with Communist Party doctrine. 

During the period that she was not engaged in teaching, Mrs. Funn 
became associated with the National Negro Congress and, for a period 

47400—54 — —5 57 



58 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTJVITIES 

of time, was the legislative representative of that group in Wash- 
ington, D. C. The extent of the control exercised by the Communist 
Party over the National Negro Congress was explained by Mrs. Funn 
in these words : 

Well, the Negro commission fits in very definitely. I recall meeting; with the 
Negro Commission of the Communist Party while I was still a member of the 
staff of the National Negro Congress, and certain matters of policy for future 
action came up at the Negro commission. I mean matters of policy and action 
in connection with the National Negro Congress would come up for considera- 
tion and discussion at the Negro Commission of the Communist Party, which 
met on East 12th Street at the Communist Party headquarters. 

While she was in Washington, D. C, Mrs. Funn continued as a 
member of the Communist Party and was assigned to a Communist 
cell which was composed of the legislative representatives of other 
groups and unions. Mrs. Funn explained that this was an under- 
ground group and that only members were present at its meetings. In 
the course of her testimony, Mrs. Funn advised the committee that this 
cell or group functioned under the direct control of Albert Blumberg 
who was then the legislative representative of the Communist Party 
in Washington, D. C. She stated : 

Albert Blumberg, first of all, was the ideological head of the legislative group 
who were members of the Communist Party, and he met with us in the Com- 
munist Party meetings in Washington. Further than that, if he found it neces- 
sary, he would assign certain of the legislative representatives who were Com- 
munists to see certain Congressmen to whom he couldn't go because he wouldn't 
get an audience with the Congressmen or Senators, so that we would then do the 
job of lobbying in place of him. 

The effectiveness of tliis group in lobbying for the causes the Com- 
munist Party advocated was also explained lay Mrs. Funn : 

They had a terrific lobby in Washington and the iwssibility of reaching far 
more than the other organizations would. After all, if you have 10 or 12 people 
representing thousands, because legislative representatives there would go back 
to the parent groups, to the many locals, to the councils of the mass organizations 
in the communities, so that their influence was far greater than would be the 
influence of, say, one person outside of this Communist Party group — yes; far 
greater. 

Mrs. Funn explained for the committee her understanding of the 
purposes and the objectives of these legislative representatives who 
were members of the Communist Party. She said : 

Well, I might say in all Communist Party meetings the basic idea was to give 
full attention and study to Marxism, Leninism, and furthering the cause of the 
revolution. 

You see, "Come the revolution," some of them were going to be commissars of 
this, that, or the other thing. That's a quote. 

******* 

Well, I tell you, when I said that — I said, it was a quote because, although I 
think it's a basic thing, it was said ofttimes in fun — "Come the revolution, so 
forth, so on will happen" — but I think underneath that there was something 
more basic in that — that there was an idea there would be an overthrow of our 
American tenets and that the Marxist-Leninist doctrines would then be adopted 
and put into operation. 

Mrs. Funn explained that during her membership in the Com- 
munist Party she had been working for the betterment of the Negro 
people in the United States and had believed for a long period that 
the Communist Party had a similar interest. There came, however, to 
her a gradual enlightenment when she understood that this was not 
true and she explained this in giving her reason for having returned 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 59 

to New York, as well as her break from the Communist Party. She 
testified : 

I left Washington because — one thing — I was through with the whole setup 
of the Communist Party. I had found out that my original reason for joining 
the Communist party, which I thought was a good one, and become a leader 
in the mass organization that was an arm of the Communist Party — I got 
mixed up in my statement there, but, anyway, I had joined and thought I 
Was going on the right path for economic and social and political freedom 
for the Negro. Working in the organization, I found that we were really 
puppets of the Communist Party and that there was truly no interest in further- 
ing Negro rights. Therefore I was no longer interested or wanted to be any part 
of it. So I came back to New York and decided to try and get my old job back. 

The committee also called some of the individuals who had been 
named by Mrs. Funn as having been members of the same Communist 
Party cell to which she had belonged among teachers in the New 
York Cit}'^ public-school system. They, however, refused to affirm or 
deny the sworn testimony, and stood on constitutional grounds in re- 
fusing to furnish the committee with any knowledge they might pos- 
sess concerning Communist activities. 

During the committee's investigations and hearings to ascertain 
the scope and success of Communist efforts to infiltrate the entertain- 
ment field, it was found that a number of the persons named in testi- 
mony as individuals who could furnish the committee with valuable 
information resided or were employed in New York City. One such 
person named was Artie Shaw, who had been identified as having 
attended Marxist study classes and eventually taking out Communist 
Party membership. Shaw admitted that he had attended the study 
classes but could not recall that he had actually taken out Communist 
membership. He did recall that on one occasion he had registered for 
something and had used a name other than his own, but thought that 
this was a formality required to attend the. study groups. 

The testimony of Mr. Shaw reflected the need for vigilance of 
persons of prominence to prevent lending their names for use by 
organizations or groups which could possibly further Communist 
causes. He explained to the committee how on at least one occasion 
he had lent his name to be used by a group which he later found to be 
a Communist front because he respected some of the other sponsors 
who had given their names. Referring to the World Peace Congress, 
he stated : 

I was playing at a night club in New York, and I was busily engaged with a 
symphony, which was quite — something quite unexpected and something I wanted 
to try ; and during that period — it was a very hectic period. The press was 
very much for it and against it. There was a lot of controversy, and somebody 
came up to me at one of these rehearsals — and I was pretty harried at that time- 
somebody came up and said, "Would you please put your name on this, for the 
World Peace Congress?" I said, "Who else is on it in my field?" He gave me 
absolutely irreproachable names and showed them to me in print on their letter. 
***•**♦ 

I investigated only to the extent of seeing people's names on there that I 
thought were perfectly all right, and that I still do in most cases think they are 
perfectly all right — and on the basis of that put my name on it. 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities has tried for 
years, by every means of communication, to impress on all persons 
regarding whom any allegations of Communist or subversive activities 
have been made that they are welcome to contact the committee by 



60 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

addressing the committee office, Room 225-A Old House Office Build- 
ing, Washington 25, D. C, in order that any question concerning their 
alleged association with subversive groups might be clarified. The 
committee feels that to a degree it has been successful in making this 
known to the American public, but it also recognizes that this fact is 
not understood by a great many people. Mr. Shaw's testimony 
pointed up this when he stated : 

It seems to me something could be done — and I, as one citizen would be very 
appreciative of seeing it — I vrould like to see it done. We all have this — how shall 
I say it — haze of rumor. This haze of rumor started about me. It started out 
about 4 years ago, and about 3 years ago it began to affect me as a citizen very 
seriously. At that time I was ai^i^roached by various people in the radio and 
television — in the related fields, friends of mine who knew me very well, who 
wanted to get me jobs, who offered me things that could have been good for them, 
and they could have been good for me — and they would say : "Do you realize the 
cloud you are under? Do you realize you ought to clear yourself of all this 
suspicion?" 

And I would ask every one of them, "How do I clear myself? What way is 
there?" 

I had to wait 3 years to ask to appear before this committee so I can clear 
myself in this sense, and I thought there ought to be somewhere some group, some 
responsible, official party designated by the Congress of the United States, to 
which people like I could come and appeal, without having to wait to be sub- 
penaed, where I could go and say, "Could I come and testify as to my part in this 
so I can once and for all make it clear where I stand now, and where I stood at 
that time?" 

It would be a great step in the progress of the committee's work if 
all persons, who find themselves in circumstances similar to those of 
Artie Shaw, would realize that all they need do is communicate with 
the committee, the chairman, or its members in oi'der to clarify or 
elaborate on any information the committee possesses relative to 
themselves. 

During the past year there have been more contacts of this nature 
with the committee than ever before and, as a result, the committee 
is prepared to furnish a much more accurate picture relative to these 
individuals. 

In 1951, during the committee's hearings relating to Communist 
infiltration into the motion-picture industry, one of the witnesses 
called by the committee was Robert Rossen. Rossen had been identi- 
fied under oath as having been a member of the Communist Party, 
and it was the committee's hope that he would furnish the information 
he possessed. In 1951, however, Mr. Rossen refused to testify fully, 
and relied upon the fifth amendment of the Constitution. The com- 
mittee was quite certain that Rossen had made a complete break with 
the Communist Party some time prior to his appearance before tlie 
committee in 1951 and regretted, as in many similar instances, his 
refusal to supply information in his possession. 

During the preparations for the hearings in New York City, in 1953, 
it was learned that Mr. Rossen had altered his previous disposition 
against testifying fully, and the committee offered him the opportunity 
to again testify. Mr. Rossen proved to be a most informative witness 
on the subject of communism. In relating his personal^ experiences 
of 10 years' membership in the Communist Party, the witness added 
materially to the sum total of the knowledge of communism now 
possessed by the committee. 

One of the matters that the committee is most anxious to learn is 
the reason why people, especially those possessing the high intellect 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIVOIITTEE ON XJN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 61 

of Robert Rossen, ever joined the Communist Party. Mr. Rossen's 
reasons are best expressed in his own words : 

I've done a lot of thinking about this, and it seems to me in addition to the 
usual reasons which have been presented before this committee, instead of going 
back to the thirties, I sort of went back to the twenties, and I kept thinking 
of the intellectual atmosphere in which we lived at that time as yoiuig men — 
the fact that there was a period of great cynicism, disillusionment; it was a 
period in which I think most young men who were interested in ideas accepted 
the premise that the system of government or this government that we had 
grown up under had failed. There weren't any more horizons ; there weren't any 
more promises ; we had pretty much reached the apex of a pretty materialistic 
society. 

Then the thirties, of course, and the depression proved — at least to any man 
with ideas — that this was true; the system had, in a sense, broken down for 
us in terms of our own personal experience, and we felt that we were looking — 
I felt that I was looking — for new horizons, a new kind of society, something 
I could believe in and become a part of, something in — well, in a sense I felt I 
wanted to attach myself to history; I wanted to be a part of that historical 
movement, and it seemed to me at the time the Communist Party offered, as 
far as I was concerned, the only way that could be effective. 

Tou had the rise of fascism in the thirties. You had the struggle against 
the depression. You had the most vital movement in terms of writers, artists, 
et cetera, that existed. You felt that something new had to grow up, had to 
grow out of all of this, and you felt the Communist Party was the medium 
through which all this could be effected. 

This was, in a sense — it offered every possible kind of thing to you at a time 
which could fulfill your sense of idealism, and it was a kind of dedication. 
People in the Communist Party felt they were doing this not for any particular 
and immediate gain, but out of a real sense of self-sacrifice ; and it was a 
catchall in the sense for idealism, and you went into it completely. * * * 

Values had broken down. This is a real fact. There weren't any values and 
the Communist Party seemed to be the place that had the values. Its people were 
the most dedicated. It worked the hardest, and it was interested in cultural 
movements. It was interested in anything you were interested in. Therefore, 
you felt that this was the only place you could possibly go. 

I would say on the level that was the reason — in other words, the same reason 
that you joined the party, as I believed, ultimately is the same reason you get 
out. 

In the case of Robert Rossen, at least, it was not merely a process of 
signing a card and immediately becoming a member of the Communist 
Party. Rather, there was a period of time that he was assigned to a 
Marxist study class, following which he was assigned to a new mem- 
bers' class before gaining actual membership status. 

Rossen has for many years been successful as a producer, director, 
and writer of motion pictures, and he estimated that over the 10-year 
period he had been a member of the Communist Party he had con- 
tributed about $20,000 directly to the Communist Party and a like 
amount to Communist causes and front groups. This fact confirms 
the previous findings of the committee that the fields of entertainment 
and, in particular the motion-picture industry, were financial reser- 
voirs for the Communist Party and its fronts over a period of many 
years. 

Another witness who appeared during the May hearings held by 
the committee in New York was Robert Gladnick. Gladnick has 
been out of the Communist Party for many years, but he was able to 
give informative testimony on the general objectives of the Commu- 
nist Party in its efforts to infiltrate the Armed Forces^ of the United 
States and to gain control of the waterfront and martime operations 
of this country. Mr. Gladnick testified that the interest of the Com- 



62 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

munist Party in infiltration of the Armed Forces was a basic one and 
was a requirement of the Communist International. He stated : 

Well, you see, the 21 points of admission to the Communist International 
states specifically that the individual Communist Parties all over the world 
must carry on work within the armed forces of their respective — quote — coun- 
tries — in brackets — countries. That is my own quote. And since the Young 
Communist League is a youth branch of the Communist Party, most of the 
activity within the Armed Forces were carried on primarily at that time, as far 
as I knew, to the best of my knowledge, through the Young Communist League ; 
and they would plant people into the armed services, such as the Citizens' Mili- 
tary Training Corps, National Guard, such civilian military establishments as 
the Brooklyn Navy Yard * * * 

The object of getting Young Communists into the CMTC was twofold. No. 1 : 
It gave the Young Communists the experience of arms. 

It also gave the Young Communists a chance to find out if they liked military 
life; and, if they did, they were then put into the other Armed Forces, such 
as the National Guard or the Regular Army or Navy. 

The committee, over the past 15 years, has developed extensive 
information on the espionage operations of Soviet agents, particu- 
larly with regard to the widespread use of false and forged passports. 
The testimony of Mr. Gladnick pointed out one means by which these 
passports were secured : 

Well, it was common knowledge amongst the Communists at that time — when 
I say Communists, I mean those who were connected with the so-called Armed 
Forces group, as it was called the antidepartment of the party, that the New 
York Public Library had a book of vital statistics, and if somebody needed a 
false passport or false birth certificate he simply went down and looked through 
the book for the year in which that particular person was born, and a likely 
person, and he just picked out a name. On the basis of that name they would 
send away the information to the board of health and receive the birth 
certificate. 

Gladnick testified that he had been a member of the CMTC under 
an assumed name, together with some 30 or 40 other members of the 
Young Communist League. Later, he was to be assigned to the water- 
front faction of the Young Communist League. It was revealed in 
his testimony that the Communists' main objective in that field was to 
break up the International Seamen's Union, A. F. of L. He further 
explained to the committee the purpose the Communist Party hoped to 
achieve, if successful, in gaining control of the waterfront unions : 

The Communists had many reasons for getting in on the waterfront. First of 
all, it was a question of leading a segment of the American trade-union move- 
ment, but it was very important. It was a concentration area, because the mari- 
time industry is the Achilles' heel of American industry, because you could 
throttle the American war potential, American industrial potential, by calling a 
strike or sabotaging the waterfront. 

Another activity in which Gladnick was engaged while a member of 
the Communist Party was an effort to organize and propagandize the 
United States Fleet, which was then stationed at Long Beach, San 
Pedro, and San Diego, Calif. On this point Mr. Gladnick stated : 

Well, at that time Schneiderman (Lou Schneiderman) told me there were 
certain contacts within the fleet. He turned over to me, and I can't recall his 
name, but he was a second-class fireman and I think he came from Ogden, Utah, 
aboard the United States steamship tfew York, who was a member of the Young 
Communist League ; and it was my duty to keep in touch with him, to guide him, 
pass literature to him, and then he told me there was also an officer aboard the 
Pennsylvania, and that was his contact. I never got to meet the man. 

Now, at that time, at that particular period, there was a general 10-percent 
cut for all Federal employees in effect. It was our job to go aboard these various 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 63 

battleships to find out what the sentiment of the Navy men was in regards to the 
pay cuts and our job then was to issue a newspaper, which we did. 

We put out a newspaper called the Shipmates' Voice — the best that I could 
recall it. It may have been Sailor's Voice, but I think it was called the Ship- 
mates' Voice. Schneiderman and I had it printed. We wrote most of the articles 
for it. 

We had it printed. We made sure that we didn't have it printed anywhere in 
any of the Communist printing houses. We went to a Mexican place that put out 
newspapers for supermarkets and the reason we picked this Mexican place was 
because we decided the owner was not too well versed in the English language. 
He put out this newspaper. After it was finished, we destroyed the type, and 
we turned this newspaper to a legal — or open member of the Communist Party. 

In Los Angeles at that time the Young Communist League had a special mobili- 
zation on a Sunday, where all — primarily the young girls — they all showed up at 
a certain given spot. They were all handed this newspaper, and they went 
aboard the battleships and distributed it in the lockers and passageways, and in 
that way, in one swope, 5,000 copies of the Shipmates' Voice covered every ship 
in the fleet. 

On those ships where the Communists had contacts very few papers were given 
out. The intention was to create the impression that it is the other ship that 
has the Communists; and on the ships where we had these contacts — we gave 
out very few — not to let them look innocent, but at the same time not to point 
suspiciously to them. 

Now, after we put out this newspaper the fleet moved to the east coast, and 
Schneiderman went to Cuba — anyway, he told me he went to Cuba — and put out a 
second edition of this paper called the Shipmates' Voice, with the aid of the Young 
Communist League of Cuba, which was distributed with their aid — ^probably with 
their girls' aid at Guantanamo Bay. 

I came to New York, and I contacted Velson and a Dodo, whose name is 
Malken — he also worked in the Brooklyn Navy Yard — George GorchofE, and we put 
out a third edition of this paper, which was printed in the Finnish Federation 
Press on 50 East 13th Street. 

The reason I know where it was printed — ^we were there to make sure no spare 
copies were left around. 

There was also a mobilization of female members of the Young Communist 
League in New York and they also went aboard the various ships and distributed 
in New York City. 

Gladnick further advised the committee of the training that he and 
others had received in ciphers and secret communications designed to 
facilitate the transmission of information to Communist leaders. 

Having been one of those recruited in the United States for duty in 
Spain with the Communist Abraham Lincoln Brigade and it was 
while there that Gladnick, according to his testimony, became disillu- 
sioned with communism, finding that, contrary to Red claims, there 
was a more rigid caste system in communism than in other forms of 
Government. 

]VIr. Gladnick, who was intimately associated with the Communist 
Party, had this to say about the conspiratorial aspects of the Commu- 
nist Party in the United States. 

It's not an international conspiracy. It's a national conspiracy run by the 
Russian National Communist Party. In other words, the word "international" 
leaves impression that the American Communists might have something to say 
in the setup. 

Well, I wiU say this: That the American Communist doesn't even have the 
privilege of sneezing when orders came from Moscow. They just carry those 
orders out. If they say black is white, they say black is white. 

In other words, it's a national conspiracy, a foreign conspiracy against the 
United States, and those fellows are just Russian agents. They're not part of 
any international setup, except in the set point of view that they are American 
agents of a Russian setup. 

It is the desire of the committee to express great appreciation to 
the following persons whose full and informative testimony regard- 



64 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



ing the twists and turns of the subversive Communist conspiracy 
has been made avaihxble not only to the United States Congress, but 
also to the American public : 

Date of appearance 

ITunn, Dorothy K May 4, 1953 

Gitlow, Benjamin July 7, 1953 

Gladnick, Robert May 6, 1953 

Johnson, Manning July 8, 1953 

Kinzel, Carin (Mrs. Abe Burrows) May 5, 1953 

Kornfeder, Joseph Zack July 7, 1953 

Patterson, Leonard July 7, 1953 

Philbrick, Herbert A July 6, 1953 

Robbins, Jerome May 5, 1953 

Rossen, Robert May 7, 1953 

Schwartz, Zachary May 7, 1953 

In addition to the testimony of the above individuals, who had been 
actually members of the Communist Party, either from choice or to 
gain information for the FBI, the committee is pleased to have the 
benefit of the observations and knowledge on this subject given by 
Archibald Eoosevelt, on July 6, 1953. 

The following persons were identified as Communist Party members 
during the course of hearings held in New York City : 

Identified hy 
Akeson, Virgil Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Union legislative representative in 
Washington, D. C. 
Alexander, Hy. {See section on hear- 
ings held in Los Angeles.) 
Amarigio, David (Communist Party Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

name: David Leeds) 
Andren, Carl Investigation identifying Mr. Andren as 

Vice president, District 65, Distribu- a member of the Communist Party 
tive, Processing and Office Workers has not been made public. 
Union. 

(Appeared July 6, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Avnet, Marcella Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Teacher, girls' high school, New York 
City; later resided in Baltimore. 
Backus, Georgia (Mrs. Hy Alexander). 
(*Sfee section of this report on hear- 
ings held in Los Angeles.) 
Bard, Phil Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

Cartoonist for The Young Worker. 
Barzman, Ben. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 

Beitscher, Henry Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Legislative representative, Washing- 
ton Industrial Union Council. 
Belfrage, Cedric Henning Testimony identifying Mr. Belfrage as 

Editor, National Guardian a member of the Communist Party 

(Appeared, May 5, 1953; refused has not been made public, 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Belton, Lem Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Washington, D. C. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 65 



Berman, Lionel 

Member, Communist Party theatrical 
group, New York. 

Bessie, Alvah. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 

Biberman, Edward. {See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 

Biedenkapp, Fred 

Bigelman, Dr. Leo. (See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 

Blankfort, Henry. (See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles. ) 

Blumberg, Albert 
Communist Party legislative repre- 
sentative, Washington, D. C. 

Blumberg, Dorothy (Mrs. Al Blum- 
berg) 
Employee, Baltimore office of Com- 
munist Party. 

Bouslog, Harriet 
Legislative representative, ILWU ; 
lawyer. 

Branca, James 

Former organization secretary. Com- 
munist Party, Washington, D. C. 

Braverman, Maurice 
Attorney, Baltimore. 

Bright, John. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles. ) 

Brown, Archie. (See also section of 
this report regarding the hearings 
held in Sau Francisco.) 
Active in longshore organization, San 
Pedro, Calif. 

Buchman, Harold. (See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles. ) 

Butler, Hugo. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 

Campbell, Robert 

Organizer for Bedford-Stuyvesant 
section of Communist Party, 
Brooklyn. 

Campion, Martha 



Cayton, Revels. (See also section of 

this report regarding the hearings 

held in San FrancLsco. ) 

Former executive secretary, National 
Negro Congress. 
Chakin, George 

Served in Spain. 
Chancey, Martin 

Washington, D. C. 



Identified hy 
Jerome Bobbins, May 5, 1953. 



Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Commu- 
nist in 1951. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Commu- 
nist in 1951. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Commu- 
nist in 1951. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Commu- 
nist in 1951. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 
(Witness identified Martha Campion as 

a member of the Young Communist 

League.) 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



66 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Chapman, Stanley 

Member of teachers' group, Bedford- 
Stuyvesant area, Communist 
Party, Brooklyn. 
Chaunt, Peter 

Communist Party district organizer, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Chodorov, Edward. ( See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 
Chodorov, Jerome 
Writer. 

Claris, Maurice. {See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles. ) 
Clarke, Angela 

Radio group of Communist Party in 
Hollywood. 
Clinton, Rose 
Employed Ijy Cafeteria Workers ; then 
CIO. 
Clott, Herman 
Legislative representative, United 
Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, 
in Washington, D. C. 
Cohen, Robert 
Assistant to principal. Junior High 
School 227, Brooklyn. 

(Appeared, May 5, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Cohen, Robert 
American from New York who was in 
Servicio Informacion Militar of the 
Spanish Army. 
Cole, Lester. ( See section of this report 

on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Coleman, Edna Rosenberg (also known 
as Edna Rosenberg) 
Teacher, Girls' High School, New 
York City. 
Coleman, Mr. (husband of Edna Rosen- 
berg Coleman) 
Communist Party organizer. 
Cousins, Calvin 
Washington, D. C. 

Cowl, Margaret, {See Margaret Und- 

jus. ) 
Dalles, Ida 

Communist Party functionary. 
Dale, Thelma 
Former executive secretary, National 
Negro Congress. 
D'Avila, Sarah Hartman 

Washington, D. C. ; member, Anti- 
Poll-Tax Committee. 
DeCaux, Len 

Editor, CIO News. 
Drummond, Dave 

An American who fought in Spain. 
(Mr. Gladnick testified he un- 
derstood Mr. Drummond to be 
out of the party now.) 



Identified by 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1993. 



Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 



Jerome Robbins, May 5, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 67 



Dunn, Robert W. 

Headed Labor Research Association. 
D'Usseau, Arnaud 

Playwright, New York 

(Appeared May 5, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Elfenbein, Sylvia 

Teacher. 
Ellis, Bill 

An American who fought in Spain. 



Endore, Guy. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Evans, Gertrude 
A secretary for Industrial Union 
Council, Washington, D. C. 
Finkelstein, Jeannette 

Clerk in school system, Brooklyn. 
Finkelstein, Ruth 

Clerk, Board of Education, New York 
City. 
Finn, Pauline Lauber. (See section of 
this report on hearings held in Los 
Angeles. ) 
Flacks. David 

Teacher, Public School 174, Brooklyn. 
(Appeared May 5. 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Comunist Party 
membership.) 
Flacks, Mildred (Mrs. David Flacks) 
Former public school teacher, Brook- 
lyn. 

(Appeared May 5, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny CJommunist 
Party membership.) 
Fletcher, Martha (Mrs. Harold A. Flet- 
cher. Jr.) 
Former head of Unitarian youth 
movement in United States ; now in 
Paris. 
Forsyth, Margaret E. 
Fuller, Lester. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Gandall, Bill 

Ambulance driver in Spain. 
Gilbert. Margaret (Comrade Peg) 
Member, profession group of Commu- 
nist Party, Cambridge, Mass. 
Oilman, Sarah (also known as Sarah 
Gilman Rosenblatt) 

Clerk in Brooklyn schools. 
Glenn, Charles. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Gonda, Elaine 
Member, Communist Party 
group, Hollywood. 
Gorchoff, George 

Member, Communist Party 
Brooklyn Navy Yard, in 
1930's. 



Identified by 
Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 

David A. Lang, Mar. 24, 1953 (testify- 
ing in Los Angeles). 

Roland W. Kibbee, June 2, 1953 (testi- 
fying in Los Angeles). 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951 and by a former Communist 
in 1952. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

(Witness identified Mr. Ellis as a 
member of the Young Communist 
League.) 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953, 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



radio 



cell, 
early 



Herbert A. Philbrick, July 6, 1953. 



Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 

Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 
Herbert A. Philbrick, July 6, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Carlin Kinzel, May 5, 1953. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



68 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Gordon, Alice Wilson. {See Alice Wil- 
son.) 
Gordon, Hy. (See section on education 

hearings held in Washington, D. C.) 
Gorney, Jay 
Songwriter. 

(Appeared May 6, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Gough, Lloyd. {See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 

Grant, Morton. {See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 

Grossman, Mildred 

High-schol teacher, Bronx. 

Guarnaccia, Elizabeth 
Resident, Medford, Mass; former 
teacher. 

Gurewitz, Casey 
Washington, D. C. 

Haddock, Hoyt* 

Legislative representative for Na- 
tional Maritime Union, in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
Hall, Martin (also known as Herman 
Jacobs) 
Los Angeles ; lecturer ; former 
member German Communist Party. 
Hall, Otto 

Member, district committee, Commu- 
nist Party, Buffalo. 
Hall, Rob 

Former Daily Worker correspondent 
in Washington, D. C. 
Hardy, Jack 

Coauthor of Labor and Textiles. 
Harper, Annette. {See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 
Harris, Lou. {See section of this report 
on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Hartman, Sarah. {See Sarah Hartman 

D'Avila. ) 
Hathaway, Clarence 

Communist Party functionary. 

Heller, A. A. 

Exporter-importer, New York City. 
Henderson, Donald 

Unionist. 
Hirsch, Alfred 

Official of Sound View Foundation. 
Hoff, Sid  

Cartoonist ; New York. 



Identified iy 



Pauline S. Townsend, March 12, 1953 
(testifying in Los Angeles). 

Bart Lytton, IMarch 26, 1953 (testify- 
ing in Los Angeles). 

Also identified by 2 former Communists 
in 1952 and by 2 former Communists 
in 1951. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Herbert A. Philbrick, July 6, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Commimist 

in 1951. 
Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 

Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 

Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 

Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



er the testimony of Dorothy K. Funn, Hoyt Haddock submitted a statement which 
rlntPd under title, "Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York Area," 



lAfter 
was prii 
pt. 8, p. 22S0. 

2 Following the testimony of Mr. Gladnick, Sid Hoff communicated with the committee 
staff, stating his position as having been anti-Communist since 1930, and offering any 
assistance possible to the committee. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 69 



Hopkins, Pauline (formerly Mrs. 
Owen Vinson). (See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles. ) 
Hood, Otis Archer 

Chairman, Massachusetts Communist 
Party, 1949. 
Hudson, Roy. (See also section of this 
report regarding the hearings held 
in San Francisco.) 
Communist Party functionary. 
Hughes, Langston 
Hunter, Ian 
Writer. 

Hutchins, Grace 

Labor Research Association. 

(Appeared June 21, 1951, in ex- 
ecutive session not yet made 
public; refused to affirm or deny 
Communist Party membership.) 
Jacobs, Florence (Mrs. Julius Jacobs) 
Teacher, Franklin K. Lane High 
School, Brooklyn. 

(Appeared May 5, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Jacobs, Herman. (See Martin Hall.) 
Jacobs, Julius 

Teacher, Lafayette High School, 
Brooklyn. 

(Appeared May 5, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
James, Dan. {See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los An- 
geles. ) 
James, Lilith (Mrs. Dan James). (See 
section of this report on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Jarrico, Paul. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 
Jerome, V. J. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 
Johnson, William S. 

Business representative, AFL Local 
209, Washington, D. C. 
Jonas, Hallie 

Member, Communist Party radio 
group, HoUyvA'ood. 
Klowden, Nina (also known as Anna). 
(See section of this roport on hear- 
ings held in Los Angeles.) 
Kolowski, Walter 

From Buffalo, N. Y. ; served in Spain. 
Koppelman, Hyman 

Member, Communist Party teachers 
group, Bedford-Stuyvesant area, 
Brooklyn. 
Kraft, Hyman Solomon (Hy) 
Writer. 

(Appeared Mar. 20, 1952 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Identified by 



Herbert Philbrick, July 6, 1953. 



Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952. 

Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 
Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Commu- 
nist in 1951. 
Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Robert Rossen. May 7, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



70 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Lannon, Al 

Former head of Communist Party in 
Baltimore-Washington D. C. area. 
Lapin, Adam. (See also section of this 
report regarding the hearings held 
in San Francisco.) 
Daily Worker columnist. 
Lardner, Ring, Jr. 

(See section of this report on hear- 
ings held in Los Angeles.) 
Lash, Joe 



Lawrence, Bill 

Communist Party organizer; served 
as commissar in Spanish Civil War, 



Lavpson, John Hovpard 

(See section of this report on hear- 
ings held in Los Angeles.) 
Lee, Madeline 

Member, Communist Party theatrical 
group, New York. 
Leeds, David 

(See David Amarigio.) 
Lepowsky, Martha (last name now be- 
lieved to be Mrs. Kahn). 

Formerly in school system, New 
York. 
Lerner, James 

Daily Worker writer. 
Levine, Seth 

Union legislative representative in 
Washington, D. C. 
Lindeman, Mitchell 
Member, Communist Party radio 
group, Hollywood. 
Little, John 

Former head. New York District, 
Young Communist League. 
Livingston, David 

Secretary-treasurer, Distributive, 
Processing and Officer Workers of 
America. 

( Appeared July 6, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Lucia, Tony Santa (also known as Tony 
Sands ) . 
Member, longshoremen's fraction, 
Communist Party. 
Lumpkin, Grace 

Communist Party functionary. 
McMichael, Rev. Jack R. 
Methodist minister. 

(Appeared July 30-31, 1953, in 
Washington, D. O., and denied 
Communist Party membership ; 
matter has been referred to the 
Department of Justice.) 
McNutt, Waldo 

McVey, Paul. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles. ) 



Identified ty 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



Leonard Patterson, July 7, 1953. 

(Witness identified Mr. Lash as a mem- 
ber of the Young Communist League.) 

Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953 (testi- 
fying in Albany, N. Y. ) . 

Bella Dodd, Nov. 16, 1953 (testifying 
in Philadelphia). 



Jerome Robbins, May 5, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 8, 1953. 
Manning, Johnson, July 8, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953. 
Also identified by two former Commu- 
nists in 1952. 
Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Livingston 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 

Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 
Leonard Patterson, July 7, 1953. 
Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 71 



Malkin (or Malken), Dodo 

Member, Brooklyn Navy Yard cell of 
Communist Party in early 1930's. 
Meadows, Leon 

Member, Communist Party radio 
group, Hollywood. 
Meyers, Henry. ( See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Michelson, Clariua 

Communist Party functionary. 
Michelson, William 

Organizational director, District 65, 
Distributive, Processing, and Office 
Workers of America. 

(Appeared July 6. 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Mischel, Josef. ( See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Moore, Sam. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Moos, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Moreau, Alberto 
Communist Party educational director 
for New York City. 
Morse, Gene 

officer in Spanish Civil War. 
Nechemias, Ann 
Member, Communist Party teachers 
group, Bedford-Stuyvesant area, 
Brooklyn. 
Newman, Arthur 

Teacher, Bronx, N. Y. 
Nixon, Russell A. 

(See section of this report on labor 
hearings held in Washington, D. C.) 
Nolan, Edward 
Los Angeles. 
Oak Liston 

Edited "Soviet Russia Today". 
Ocko, Edna 
Member, Communist Party theatrical 
group, New York, 
Offner, Mortimer 

Theater and television director. 

(Appeared May 5, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Olson, Rose 

Substitute teacher in New York 
schools. 
Ornitz, Louis 

Bryant Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. 
Osman, Arthur 

President, Distributive, 

and Office Workers of America. 
(Appeared July 6, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Identified by 
Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953, 



Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953 (testi- 
fying in Albany, N. Y. ) . 



Processing 



Herbert A. Philbrick, July 6, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Zachary Schwartz, May 7, 1953, 
Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 
Jerome Robbins, May 5, 1953. 



David A. Lang, March 24, 1953 (testi- 
fying in Los Angeles). 

Sol Shor, March 12, 1953 (testifying in 
Los Angeles). 

Also identified by a former Commimist 
in 1952 and by 3 former Communists 
in 1951. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

Investigation identifying Mr. Osman as 
a member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 






AXXTAL REPORT. COMMITTEE OX rX-AMERIC.\X ACTRTTIES 



Vice prosidont. Pisrributive. Prooess- 
iixg and Oifioe Workei-* of America. 
(Appt^ared July 0. 1953: refused 
to affirm or deny Commimist 
Parry meml>ersJiip.) 
F.-.t'erson. Samuel C. 
1\ .ham. Beatriee Goldberg 
Member. Communist Party teachers 
srrouix Beiiford-Stuyre^^ant area. 

Brooklyn- 
Peters. .1. ( SiT section on hearingrs held 
in C^^lumbus. Ohio, and in San Fran- 
cisco. > 

Pomerance. William. iSee section of 
tliis report on hearings held in Los 
Angeles. ■> 

Purcell. Gertrude, (S'e^ section of this 
report cm hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 

Kapf . Maurice, ( St^f section of tliis re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles. ) 

Raven. Bob 
Arrist- 

Rieliards. Ann Roth Morgan. (Se^ sanc- 
tion of tiis report regarding the hear- 
ing? held in Los Angeles.) 

Rioh^irdson. Marie 
Exeourive secretary. Wasliington 
Council of National Xegro Cou- 



RicJiards<m. Thomas 

Was vice president of United Public 
Workers, Washington, D. C. 
Richter. Irvin 
Legislative representative in \N'ash- 
ington. D. C. for United Auto 
Workers, 
Riebej. Clara (now Mrs. Brahdy) 

Retired leaclier. 
Riedr.-an. Maurice 
Was ;: teacher in a boys' high school. 
Xew York. 
Rinaldo. Fred. iSfo .section of this re- 
port on hearing held in Los Angeles.) 
RoT'err^, Margnexite. (See section of 
this report on hearings held in Los 
Angeles, > 
Roberts, Stanley 
Writer. 

i. - : - "a 

Av.:l r. L./:or and Coal. 

Rosr-: r-. Ki-a. (.Sot? Edna Rosen- 
berg Coleman.) 

E:^f- r.aru Sarah Oilman, i See Sarah 
G.li-ian.) 

RutLvr^n. Madelaine. i See section of 
this rer-crt on hearings held in Los 
Ansrele*. i 



Iden tidied by 
Investigation identifying Mr. Paley as 
a member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Manning Johnson. July S. 1953. 
Dorotli\ K. Funn. May 4. 1953. 



Robert Gladnick. May 6, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Fiinu. May 4, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Fu-n. May 4. 1953. 



Robert Rossen. May 9. 1953. also iden- 
tified by a former Communist in 1952. 
Benjamin Gitlow, July 7. 1953. 
Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 19-53. 



DoTotbj K. Fram, May 4, 1&53. 



ANNUAL BEPOET, COMMITTEE ON rN-AMZEICAN AtTlVJTUfiS 73 

Identified by 2 f:rLitr Coi^iiL^iiiiste In 
Broadway j,r.I:'er. l^L 

Apr-iJirT. iray 7, 1&53 : denied 
J r t. . £. : - r - - onist Parry meoi- 

-j afBrm or 
. . .) 

Salt, Waldo. <ft'ee section of ttis re- 
port on hearings held in I>&5 Angeles. ) 
Salz. Morris Dorothy K. Fram, May 4, 1953. 

7 Brooklyiu 

Si;  - 
I^rgLsIatire re: iii Wasb- 

iiigu-n, D. C, - .: - . ^ ^iia Tobacco 
Workers. 

<A: - ' July 12, ir>i9, in 

W& . -. D. C. : refn-sed to 

Communist Party 

Schneiderman, LotL (See aUo section Eobert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 
of tr 7 - rt on hearings held in San 
Fr£ 
S^: e RoT>eTt G May 6, ISCS. 

■_ '_:_ - place"' on 5&th St. be- 
tween 2d and .3d Aves., New York. 
Scott, Adrian. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles, j _ 
.Searle. Elizabeth E- - - " ~ ' '/ " 

ComzQuiLisT Party functionary. Wash- A, . -i^anist 

ington, D. C. tsi 1^*51. 

Sharidr:'?. G^- ^ ' -  Gerry > Dorothy K. Fonn. May 4, 1&53. 

D^glslatlv^ -atative in Wash- 

ington, D. C, lor .American Com- 
mnnications A^?«dation. 
SL&X'l- • - Victor. (See section on hear- 
ings held in Los Angeles. j 
Shefiard. Henry Manning - :i, Jtily 8, 1&53. 

Or. ese<rutiTe c -e of American 

League Asal- z a::c Fascism. 

Shen-an. Bob" 1 ay K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Wa.sliL-.gt on. D. C. : believ-^. :.::: — : , 
to Washington Industriai Union 
ConnciL 
Shields. Art Dorrhy K. Fttttj, May 4, 1^3. 

ForT - ^'i'rker eorresponde' t 

in v. _.-_„^-.^ D. a 
Ship, Reuben. • *'e-e secticr- :. irir- 

inrs helc in Lc^s Angeles, j 
St' :r- R'oir: Carin KinzeL, May 5, 1S53. 

Z' 'ist Panv radio 

._ - 2i\ _ - :i 
Skolnik. Yale < Commiuiist Party n£ . bert GlsuSmdi, May 6, 1953. 

Yale Sroartj 
Organizer for Retail-Wi 
Wrrk«^r= Union. 
Smith. Ferdinand C. (See : i 1 hy K. Frmn, May 4. 1953. Also 

of This rei»'>rt regarding t; .. - y a former Conunnnist in 

hel'l In San Franciseo.j 1. 1_. 

S 1 :n r. L lis. > See section of this re- 



-J'lL'r. Is.r-l Wa ... 1 . ~. Jnly 7, 1953. 

j:rinier. Jcsepn. <See 5-::::i. of tiis 
re:-ort on hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 



4741 •!> 



74 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Stander, Lionel 
Actor. 

(Appeared May 6, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Stein, Peter 
Organizer, Distributive, Processing 
and Office Workers Union, New 
York City. 

(Appeared July 6, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Stember, Samuel 
Political commissar of Abraham Lin- 
coln Battalion in Spain. 
Stone, Eugene R. (Gene) 
Radio writer. 

(Appeared Oct. 6, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Strong, Anna Louise 

Writer ; Soviet agent. 
Strong, Edward 
Former executive secretary, National 
Negro Congress. 
Stever, Lettie 
Member, Communist Party theatrical 
group, New York. 
Stuart, Yale. {See Yale Skolnik.) 
Sullivan, Elliot. ( See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles. ) 
Sullivan, Glenda 

Hollywood. 
Taft, Anna 

Nurse ; served in Spain. 
Taylor, Shirley (Mrs. William Taylor) 

Washington, D. C. 
Taylor, William 
Former organization secretary, Com- 
munist Party, Washington, D. C. 
Thompson, Louise. (See also section of 
this report regarding the hearings 
held in San Francisco.) 
Communist Party functionary. 
Tippett, Tom 

Coauthor of Your Job and Your Pay. 
Trumbo, Dalton. (See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An^ 
geles.) 
Undjus, Margaret (alias Margaret 
Cowl) 
Communist Party functionary. 
Uris, Michael. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles. ) 
Velson, Irving (also known, as Charles 
Wilson and "Shavey") 
Resident, Brooklyn; employed, Steel 
Fabricators, Long Island. 

(Appeared May 6, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Vorhaus, Bernard. [See section of this 
report on hearings held in Los An- 
geles.) 



Identified by 
Identified by 4 former Communists in 
1951. 



Investigation identifying Mr. Stein as 
a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953. Also iden- 
tified by 2 former Communists in 1952. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Jorome Robbins, May 5, 1953. 



Robert Rossen, May 7, 1953. 

Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1951. 



AJSTNUAL REPORT, COIVEVIITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 75 



Wacker, Charlotte 

Teacher, Manhattan. 
Wagenknecht, Alfred 

Official of IlliDois Communist Party. 

Wald, Nat (Communist Party name; 

Nat Young) 
Ward, Harry F. 

Retired Methodist minister. 

Wexley, John. {See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
White, Charlie 



Whitney, Lynn. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Williams, Albert Rhys 

Former minister and director, Mav- 
erick Church and Forum of Boston ; 
lecturer ; contributing editor. 
Williams, Claude C. 

Director, People's Institute of Applied 
Religion. 
Wilson, Alice (Mrs. Hy Gordon) 
Wilson, Charles. (See Irving Velson.) 
Winter, Ella. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in Los Angeles.) 
Wofsy, Leon 

Chairman of National Organizing 
Conference for the Labor Youth 
League. 
Wolff, William 
Radio writer. 

(Appeared Oct. 6, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Workman, Naomi 

Telephone operator in Nevr York dis- 
trict office of Communist Party, 
1939. 
Young, Nat. (See Nat Wald.) 
Zucker, Jack S. 

Organizer, United Electrical, Radio 

and Machine Workers of America 

(Appeared Oct. 14, 1952; refused 

to affirm or deny Communist 

Party membership.) 



Identified by 
Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 

Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 

Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 
Leonard Patterson, July 7, 1953. 
Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953. 



Leonard Patterson, July 7, 1953. 
(Witness identified Mr. White as a 

member of the Young Communist 

League.) 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



Benjamin Gitlow, July 7, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952. 

Carin Kinzel, May 5, 1953. 
Also identified by 2 former Communists 
in 1952. 



Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953. 



Dorothy K. Funn, May 4, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1951. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 

COLUMBUS, OHIO, AREA 

In June 1953, a subcommittee was appointed and held hearings in 
Cokimbus, Ohio. As reflected earlier in this report in the section 
dealing with Communist methods of infiltration of education, the 
committee's investigation had previously determined that there had 
been in existence a Communist cell on the campus at Yale University, 
New Haven, Conn., and that one Byron Thornwell Darling had been a 
member of this cell. At the time of this investigation, Byron Thorwell 
Darling was a professor at Ohio State University and it was decided 
that the hearings should be held by a subcommittee in Columbus, Ohio. 

At the beginning of these hearings, the committee received 
the benefit of the testimony of Dr. Bella V. Dodd. Dr. Dodd was 
formerly legislative representative and a member of the New York 
State Committee of the Communist Party ; and, as a member of the 
National Committee of the Communist Party in the United States, 
held one of the highest positions a Communist Party member may 
occupy. 

With this background, Dr. Dodd was qualified to speak authorita- 
tively on the Communist menace and the various phases of its sub- 
versive activities. Dr. Dodd pointed out that she had first become 
associated with the Communist Party in about 1932 but, while she 
had worked closely with it, she had not been an actual member. She 
related that from her recollection she had become completely under 
Communist discipline in about 193G and later, in 1943, became 
a member of the Communist Party and its legislative representative. 

Dr. Dodd informed the committee that becoming a member of the 
Communist Party was not merely a process of receiving a card and 
becoming a Communist overnight. She stated that one becomes a 
Communist over a long period of time by working with the party and 
eventually becoming so enmeshed that he loses all other contacts and 
associations. Dr. Dodd confirmed the committee's continual warnings 
that the Communists, through the use of euphonious and appealing 
titles and slogans, entice many unwary individuals into its fronts and 
even into the organization itself before they become familiar with the 
true purposes of the Communist Party. She stated that, once a per- 
son becomes a Communist, he is under complete dictatorial control of 
the Communist Party. She said : 

If the party says that this person is good, he is good ; if the party says this 
person is bad, he is bad. regardless of your own intelligence. The thing which 
struck me was that, if the Communist movement can do that to human beings, 
that kind of movement is extremely dangerous. It is a movement which uses 
mass hysteria to control people's minds. It is a movement which we might well 
be worried about. 

Dr. Dodd was questioned by the committee concerning the Commu- 
nist intentions and efforts to infiltrate the field of education. She is 
particularly well informed in this matter, having been one of the 

76 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 77 

principal founders and organizers of the Teachers' Union in New 
York City. She stated that the Communist Party realizes that its 
membership is too old and ill-fitted to carry on the work to which the 
party is dedicated ; that it is necessary to indoctrinate the new genera- 
tion for the purpose of furthering the efforts of the Communist Party. 
Dr. Dodd stated : 

There is no doubt about the fact that the first enemy of the Communist is a 
belief in the fact that you are created by a Divine Creator. That they have to 
get rid of before anything else. If they can wipe that out, then it is easy, because 
if you don't believe in a God, all you believe in is better material advancement, 
and the Communists promise greater material advancement for all. 

She also described the manner in which the Communist is effective 
in his operations on the campuses of America, as follows : 

Where there was a unit of at least three or more members, they would meet 
regularly and function as a unit. They would get instructions from the person 
in charge of the covmty or city on which the campus was located. They would 
pay their dues to that person. At their meetings, they would discuss first the 
party line, get education on the Marxist-Leninist line and, second, they would 
discuss the question of how to penetrate other organizations. If there was no 
union on the campus, they would form a union. 

If it was too difficult to form a union, they would form a loose association in 
which the common problems might be discussed. They would attach themselves 
or form some connection with the youth, the young people, with the students on 
the campus. 

^ ***** * 

Well, as I said before, communism is a way of life, and it is almost like a 
religion. It becomes a part of you. It affects your entire thinking. It affects 
your attitu'de toward your students, toward your Government, affects your 
attitude toward things that are happening day by day. Most Communist col- 
lege professors begin by being very much interested in their students, and if 
they have a Communist philosophy, they pass it on. 

Many of them try to influence their students to become Communists. Any 
number of students have become Communists because they admired a professor 
who was going in that direction. Then he fimctions within all the other organi- 
zations on the campus in affecting their thinking, the question of choosing books 
for the library, the question of establishing curricula for the college. 

The question as to whether a Communist teacher endeavors to influ- 
ence or indoctrinate his pupils was answered by Dr. Dodd in this 
manner : 

There is no doubt in my mind that I influenced students. I was teaching 
economics ; I was teaching political science, history. These are subjects which 
are very easily influenced by a Marxist-Leninist approach. I was teaching dur- 
ing the period of the depression, and during that period the Communists said 
the reason for the depression was the breakdown in the capitalist system and 
the only thing which would obviate any future depressions would be elimina- 
tion of the system. Change the system, and you would have no more depres- 
sions. 

Unfortunately, there were no other answers being given at the time. The 
Communist answer was the easiest answer to give. It was easy to push the 
students in that direction. 

The danger and effectiveness of the Communist Party was explained 
by Dr. Dodd when she stated : 

The Communist movement is a highly centralized and highly organized move- 
ment. One of the reasons why they have had such astounding success in coun- 
tries even lil<e the United States — J. Edgar Hoover says there are 25,000. 
William Z. Foster, head of the party, says there are 70,000. Whether it is 
25,000 or 70,000, that is a small number in comparison with 160 million Ameri- 
cans. Twenty thousand Communists highly organized and placed in key posi- 
tions can create a tremendous amount of difficulty. 



78 ANNUAL REPORT, COAIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

In smearing a committee such as your committee, what is done is this : Firsts 
you have to get the Communist Party iu opposition. Then every trade union 
where there are Communists is immediately started to put out the line that if 
the attack is against the Communists, the next attack will be against labor. 
They get the trade unions to pass resolutions against anything that is against 
Communists. Then, they go into women's organizations and minority group 
organizations, the Negro people, the Jewish people, the foreign-born people, and 
stirring them up. They charge that these committees are intended to annihilate 
them, and, therefore, they had better pass the resolution against investigations. 

The Communists do have representation in practically every key area in 
America — in scientific societies, in intellectual circles, women's clubs, trade 
unions — and these organizations are all then made to adopt the resolutions 
against them. 

How do they promote this resolution? First, they will get someone to make 
a statement. They get a Communist not known as a Communist. Take a person, 
let us say a person who is outstanding in religious fields or educational fields, 

The committee is greatly indebted to Dr. Dodd for the valuable 
information she contributed to the committee's further understanding 
of the Communist Party as a conspiratorial force operating within 
the United States. 

Following the testimony of Dr. Dodd, the committee called Byron 
Thorwell Darling, who again refused to affirm or deny the allegation 
that he was a member of the Communist cell at Yale University. He 
further refused to comment on testimony received in executive session 
that he had been a moving force in a Young Communist cell which 
had been in operation at Michigan State University while he was an 
instructor there. These denials were made in spite of statements 
that Darling had made to university officials, denying that he was 
ever a member of the Communist Party. 

The committee also heard Mrs. Barbara Springer Darling, the wife 
of Byron Thorwell Darling; and Flora Webster, his sister-in-law, 
both of whom refused to affirm or deny sworn testimony that they 
had been members of the Communist Partj^ 

For the comprehensive and detailed testimony of the following 
witnesses, which plays its part in completing the picture of the Com- 
munist conspiracy which the committee is able to furnish to the Con- 
gress of the United States, the committee extends keen appreciation : 

Date of appearance 

Baldvpin, Bereniece June 18, 1953. 

Bush, Robert H May 25, 1953. (Dr. Bush appeared in 

executive session and testified fully 
as to his former membership in the 
Communist Party. Portions of his 
testimony have been made public.) 

Dodd, Bella V June 17, 1953. 

Gainor, Charles May 27, 1953. (Dr. Gainor appeared 

in executive session and testified 
fully as to his former membership in 
the Communist Party. Portions of 
his testimony have been made pub- 
lic.) 

Gewirts, Edward June 8, 1953. (Dr. Gewirts appeared 

in executive session and testified 
fully as to his former membership 
in the Communist Party. Portions 
of his testimony have been made 
public.) 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 79 



The following; persons were identified as members of the Communist 
Party during the coui-se of hearings held in Columbus, Ohio : 

Identified by 



Adamski/ Stanley 
Member, United Auto workers, CIO. 

Darling, Barbara Ann (Mrs. Byron T. 
Darling) 

(Appeared June 17, 19.53 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Darling, Byron Thorwell 
University professor. 

(Appeared June 17 and 18, 1953; 
refused to affirm or deny Com- 
munist Party membership.)' 
Finklestein, Moe 

History teacher. 
Frank, Richard 

Communist Party fimctionary. 
Gregurek, Frank 

Communist Party functionary. 

(Appeared June 8. 1953, in exec- 
utive session and refused to 
affirm or deny Communist Party 
membership.) 
Gregurek, Goldie (Mrs. Frank Gregu- 
rek) 

Official of Communist Party in 
Michigan. 

(Appeared June 8, 1953, in exec- 
utive session and refused to af- 
firm or deny Communist Party 
membership. ) 
Norman, Bill 
Secretarv of the Communist Party in 
New York, 1946. 
Peters, J. (alias Steve Miller). {See 
also section of this report regarding 
the hearings held in San Francisco.) 



Webster, Flora (Mrs. Willard Parker 
"Ben" Webster). 
Post office employee, Tucson, Ariz. 
(Appeared June IS, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Winter, Helen Allison (Mrs. Carl Win- 
ter). 

Communist Party functionary. 

Wright, Arthur Orville 

Detroit resident ; employee, Briggs 
Manufacturing Co. 

(Appeared June 8, 1953, in execu- 
tive session in Lansing, Mich., 
and refused to affirm ©r deny 
Communist Party membership, 
according to statement by com- 
mittee counsel at public session 
June 18, 1953.) 



Bereniece Baldwin, June 18, 1953. 

Also identified by the same witness in 

1952. 
Bereniece Baldwin, June 18, 1953. 



Robert Bush, May 25, 1953. 
Charles Gainor, May 27, 1953. 
Edward Gewirts, June 8, 1953. 



Bella V. Dodd, June 17, 1953. 

Bella V. Dodd, June 17, 1953. 

(Committee counsel, June 18, 1953, re- 
ferring to executive testimony not yet 
made public.) 



Committee counsel, June 18, 1953, re- 
ferring to executive testimony not yet 
made public. 



Bella V. Dodd, June 17, 1953. 



Bella V. Dodd, June 17, 1953. 

Robert Gladnick, May 6, 1953 (testify- 
ing in New York City). 

Manning Johnson, July 8, 1953 (testify- 
ing in New York City) . 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952. 

Bereniece Baldwin, June IS, 1953. 



Bereniece Baldwin, .June IS, 1953. 

Also identified by the same witness in 
1952 as well as by 3 other former Com- 
munists in 1952. 

Testimony identifying Mr. Wright as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



1 The last name Incorrectly spelled Dembski In the 1953 printed hearing. 
' Also appeared Mar. 1.3. 1953. in Washington, D. C, and refused to affirm or deny 
membership in the Communist Party. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 

ALBANY, N. Y., AKEA 

During the past few years the investigations by the House Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities have developed the fact that the Com- 
munists have exerted strong efforts to infiltrate the important area of 
Albany, N. Y. As a result of the information gathered by the investi- 
gative staff of the committee, a subcommittee was appointed to hold 
hearings in Albany during the month of July 1953. 

At this time the committee was fortunate in securing the coopera- 
tion of a citizen of Canada who, as a former member of the Com- 
munist Party, possessed information of a very vital character. Dur- 
ing the 1950 investigation in Hawaii, the committee obtained leads 
indicating that the near worldwide shipping strike of 1949 was insti- 
gated and executed by the Communists as part of a conspiratorial 
plan to promote certain unknown Communist objectives. It was not 
until the Canadian, Patrick Walsh, accepted the committee's invita- 
tion to appear as a witness in Albany that the committee learned the 
full inside story of this most significant incident which so clearly 
demonstrates the international character of the Communist conspiracy. 
Walsh's graphic description of what is generally referred to as the 
Canadian Seamen's Union strike of 1949 is the first time the story 
has been publicly told. 

Walsh's testimony demonstrates what a serious matter it is to per- 
mit individuals who are subject to the directives and discipline of the 
Communist Party to be placed in sensitive positions of leadership and 
responsibility. It suggests the necessity of congressional considera- 
tion of new means and methods of enlarging the provisions of the 
Internal Security Act, tightening its present provisions, and hastening 
its enforcement. 

Mr. Walsh, in describing his background, said that he had 
first become associated with communism at the age of 17 or 18, 
when he became a member of the Young Conmiunist League. He later 
received instructions in Marxism from Fred Rose, who in 1946 was 
tried and sentenced by Canadian courts for having conspired to pass 
secret documents to the Soviet Embassy in Canada. The fur- 
ther activities of Walsh during his early days in the Communist 
Party, while they relate strictly to Canada, are of interest because they 
so closely parallel the activities of the Communist Party in the United 
States and further establish the international conspiratorial aspects 
of communism. 

Mr. Walsh testified that in 1940, he was ordered by the Communist 
Party to enlist in the Canadian Army in order to carry on "revolu- 
tionary defeatism" because, since this was the period of the Hitler- 
Stalin Pact, the Communists were claiming that the war between 
Britain and Germany was an "imperialist" one. 

After the invasion of the Soviet Union, the line of the Communist 
Party changed to all-out mobilization. Walsh testified that while 

80 



ANlSrUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 81 

in England, France, and Belgium, he met with Communists of those 
countries and, further, that there were occasions when he met with 
members of the American Armed Forces who were also members of 
the Communist Part3^ During this period, on instruction of Com- 
munist officials, Walsh and other Communists in the Armed Forces of 
(jrreat Britain and the United States appeared at public gatherings 
to agitate for a second front. 

Following the war, Walsh was instructed by Communist leaders to 
become a member of the Canadian Seamen's Union, although he had 
no previous training as a seaman. This was during the period shortly 
after the formulation of the Marshall plan for aid by the United States 
to foreign countries. Mr. Walsh explained that Connnunist leaders 
made the claim that they had Communists aboard nearly every deep- 
sea ship. Mr. Walsh stated that after joining the Canadian Seamen's 
Union, he became a galley boy aboard a Canadian ship, the Mont 
RoUand as a cover for his Communist activities. His instructions 
were to contact the dockers in the various ports where the ship stopped 
and insure that there was complete solidarity in a forthcoming strike 
which the Communists were inspiring. In his testimony, Walsh left 
no doubt as to the true purpose of the strike. He said : 

Yes ; I will prove later on in my testimony that this strike was a political 
strike which had no bona fide trade-union principles involved whatsoever and 
that it was being ordered by the Cominform, which is the international section 
and which faithfully carries out the dictates of the Soviet Union, that this strike 
was being organized with the end in view of tying up shipping in ports all over 
the world so that Marshall plan shipments would not be delivered in time or the 
cargoes would rot and at the same time it was expected to deal a crippling blow 
to the Atlantic Pact which the Communists were vigorously opposing at that time 
all over Europe. 

The formation of the Communist conspiracy to tie up shipping in 
ports all over the world, thereby dealing a crippling blow to the 
Marshall plan and the Atlantic Pact, and the acts done in furtherance 
of the objectives of this conspiracy, were graphically outlined by the 
witness. Walsh testified that on the arrival of his ship, the Mont 
RoUand., in the port of Genoa, he received a notice to report to the 
office of the General Federation of Italian Labor. At this meeting he 
became acquainted with most of the top Communist agitators in the 
maritime section of the Cominform. There were about 40 people 
present ; among them were Andre Fressinet, general secretary of the 
Seamans' and Dockers' international section of the World Federa- 
tion of Trade Unions: Marino De Stefano, a leader at that time of 
the Italian Seamen's Union, a Communist-dominated and controlled 
organization ; Hoiting of the Dutch Seamen's Union ; Van Den Bran- 
den, of the Antwerp Dockers Action Committee; Otto Schmidt, an 
official of the Austrian Inland Transportation Workers, another 
Communist union affiliated with the World Federation of Trade 
Unions; Salvadore Gomez, of the underground Communist Party of 
Spain; Luigi Longo, a prominent leader of the Italian Communist 
Party and former political commissar of the International Brigades 
in Spain ; Jock Hastings, a well-known Communist agitator from the 
British Dock Workers Rank and File Committee ; Pontikos, claiming 
to represent the Greek Maritime Federation; and Lazaro Pina, an 
official or former official of the Cuban General Workers' Federation. 



82 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The main speaker was Andre Fressinet. The nature of the con- 
spiracy is best described by quoting the witness' statement of what 
occurred at this meeting : 

So, Fressinet's speech was to the effect that the Marshall plan to aid Europe 
or to aid the underfed populations of Europe would defeat the Communist 
Party plans in Italy and in France particularly, where the Communists were 
busy exploiting the discontent that was evident everywhere due to the postwar 
conditions in these countries. 

Now, Fressinet said that originally the plan had been to involve the National 
Maritime Union at the same time as the Canadian Seamen's Union, so that the 
strike would be more effective, but in the meantime Fressinet explained that 
the National Maritime Union had broken away — that is, the leadership had 
broken away — from the Communist Party and that nearly all the Communist 
leaders who had been there for a long time had been expelled. So that they could 
not count on the National Maritime Union either joining this strike of their own 
free will or of going on a solidarity strike ; but Fressinet pointed out that hap- 
pily the Canadian Seamen's Union was a union wliich was not a reactionary one 
and that it was in the hands of militant comrades and that the shipping tieup 
which would result in both Canada and the European countries would effectively 
paralyze all the ports of Europe and would deal a crippling blow to both the 
Marshall plan and to the Atlantic Pact, because the dockers had been, of course, 
briefed and approached and ordered to go on strike in all the ports and to tie 
up shipping, which meant that it was not only the case or the question of tying 
up Canadian ships. It was the question of— if the ports were paralyzed by these 
ships, that the strike would spread and that all other ships of other nations, or 
of Panamanian registry, would then be immobilized and the Marshall-plan 
cargoes would rot and that sailing schedules would be behind time, and so on 
and so forth, and that the Communist Party would actively exploit the result 
of this strike. 

Now, after Fressinet spoke, Longo gave an agitational speech in Italian, which 
I could see was along the same lines. Now, previous to this I had seen copies 
of For a Lasting Peace for a People's Democracy, which is the organ of the 
Cominform, and I could see the party line against the Marshall plan and the 
Atlantic Pact was merely being implemented in the speech given by Fressinet. 

Now, after Longo's speech, Fressinet asked me to give my opinion of what the 
strike would be from the CSU viewpoint, and I told him that the members of the 
CSU were being prepared for the coming strike and that we would certainly play 
our part and that we had a militant background and that we would certainly 
contribute our part in seeing to it that the strike was a success. 

Now, in referring to the strike, I was given by Fressinet at that meeting the 
assignment that I should be transferred to the Bcaverbrae, and that is when I 
found out * * * this ship was to be the key ship in the forthcoming strike. * * * 

Now, Fressinet told me that it would be very important if I should get on the 
Beaverbrae and that I should take part in the coming London dock strikes, that 
was from the question of experience and because also that I was held in high 
esteem by the section — by the maritime section of the Cominform. 

Now, I wish to stress the fact that this was not a trade-union meeting. This 
was a meeting of Communist Party agitators. 

In answer to the question of whether or not any matter concerning 
the welfare of seamen generally, or any resolution regarding a bona 
fide wage dispute in which the seamen would be interested was dis- 
cussed at this meeting, the witness replied : 

No ; and that is something that scandalized me at that time, because, although 
I knew Communist tactics, I didn't know they could be so blunt as that. There 
was absolutely no mention whatsoever, and when I suggested to Fressinet that 
we arrange the agenda before, he told me that it was not necessary, that the 
main thing was that it was going to be against the Marshall plan and in Europe 
that we didn't have to find excuses for these things, but that in Canada that it 
was very obvious we had to convince the rank and file that it was to be carried 
out for trade-union purposes, involving trade-union principles. 

In answer to a question as to whether the rank and file members 
of the labor union were told the truth as to the reasons for tying up the 
shipping, the witness replied : 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 83 

No. Well, as always in these things, what we said publicly and what we did 
secretly were two different things. We had to tell the rank and file that nego- 
tiations were being stalled by the shipowners, because the shipowners were not 
going to play ball with the union, and so on and so forth ; but in reality the 
preparations were going on all the time for this strilie. Whether the shipowners 
signed the contract or agreed to sign the contract or not, the preparations were 
going on and we didn't bother or care about the negotiations which officially 
were going on. 

With further reference to the occurrences at the Genoa meeting, 
Walsh testified : 

As Lazaro Pina was the only other person coming from the American Conti- 
nent, it was very important that he should stress the fact that arrangements 
had been made with Ferdinand Smith, who was the former national secretary 
of the National Maritime Union. * * * Pina had seen Smith on several occasions 
to map out plans by rank and file committees of dock workers' unions and the 
National Maritime Union would try and coordinate their work with the CSU 
strike. * * * The main point of Pina's speech was to assure everyone that the 
dockers on the east coast w'ould come out in sympathy strike with the CSU 
strikers and would paralyze the various American ports. * * * The next speaker 
was Jock Hastings, who represented the dockers rank and file committee of 
Great Britain. Hastings pointed out that Jack Poponich, alias Jack Popovich, 
alias Jack Pope, who, incidentally, is the brother of Harry Popovich mentioned 
previously — that Popovich was to take up residence in Great Britain and in 
coordination with the Communist Party, would see to it that all the rank and 
file Communists within the dockers' union would be ready to actively support 
the forthcoming strike. Hastings also remarked that if this strike could last 
a year, that not only would the London docks be tied up, but all the other British 
ports would be so paralyzed that it would effectively paralyze both the Marshall 
plan and deal a crippling blow to the Atlantic Pact. 

Upon being asked to describe the preparation made to put the 
Beaverhrae in a position which would permit of the execution of the 
plans, Walsh replied : 

As the Beaverhrae was the key ship — that is, the strategic ship which would 
give the signal for the strike — it was very important that aboard this ship 
the Communists should have oldtime members of the party, who would be 
reliable, and who would be ready to carry out their tasks, even in the face of 
imprisonment. 

With this end in view, the Communist Party apparatus in St. John, New 
Brunswick, where the Beaverhrae had its port of call, arranged to have non- 
Communist crew members replaced by trusted Communist Party members, so 
that when the Beaverhrae was ready for the strike, there would be oldtime, 
trusted Communist members on board the ship who would not hesitate to 
carry out to the full the orders to see that the port of London was effectively 
paralyzed when the Beaverhrae was tied up and the dockers went out under the 
prearranged plans. The Beaverhrae sailed with the choicest selection of Com- 
munist agitators that ever were found aboard one ship. * * * 

As I mentioned previously, Jack Pope had contacted the dockworkers' section 
of the party and everything was being prepared in London ; Communist members 
were replacing non-Communist members aboard the Beaverhrae, and also aboard 
the Mont Rolland, which was the ship I was sailing on. At least 4 or 5 persons 
who were found to be unreliable from the Communist Party viewpoint were put 
off the ship and replaced by trusted Communist organizers. 

Previous to that we had to have a meeting so that everything would be 
timed — that when the Beaverhrae finally left port — that the signal for the 
strike would be sent out to ships all over the world, because these Canadian 
ships were not only sailing on the Atlantic, they were also, some of them, sailing 
on the Pacific. 

And I think that the very important factor which should be stressed here 
is that the Communist plan was aimed primarily at the Atlantic Pact and the 
Marshall plan shipments, which is borne out by the fact that on the west coast 
the CSU immediately signed an agreement with the west-coast shipowners, 
because the west-coast shipowners were not involved at that time in carrying 
vital cargo to European countries, but were going to Japan and China ; and it is 
significant that when the CSU signed the separate agreement with the west- 
coast shipowners that there were no wage increases granted or no improvement 



84 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

of working or living conditions in the contract. It was the same contract as 
before. 

So, it could be plainly seen that the strike was directly aimed at crippling 
the Atlantic shipping, but to cover up — to cover up this duplicity and this double- 
face dealing, the west-coast union went through the pretext of saying they had 
formed another union, and that they disagreed with the policy of the east-coast 
section of the union and they formed the West Coast Seamen's Union and signed 
the separate contract. 

This was a camouflage tactic in case that the rank and file on the east coast 
would get wise to the fact that a political strike was in the offing and not a strike 
involving basic trade-union principles. 

The West Coast Seamen's Union still continues on today as a Communist- 
dominated outfit and has helped Harry Bridges' union 2 months ago in effecting 
the complete control of the Vancouver and Victoria dockworkers, who have 
been taken over by Harry Bridges' union ; and the same Communist officials who 
were on the west coast are the same Communist officials who today are in the 
West Coast Seamen's Union, and they have been following the party line on the 
question of peace and on various other questions. They have appealed for mercy 
for the Rosenbergs and they are all known on the west coast as reliable Com- 
munists. 

In describing the action which was taken on the appointed day, 
Walsh testified : 

Well, the whole strike hinged on the Beaverhrae coming into the Royal docks 
in London and the crew immediately going out on strike and appealing to the 
dockworkers not to load or unload this ship because it was on strike. This would 
immediately paralyze the whole London dock area because it was well known 
that the British dockers, irrespective of whether they were Communists or non- 
Communists, had a tradition of union solidarity, and that everything had been 
arranged — that they would be hoodwinked into believing that this was a bona 
fide strike involving trade-imion principles. 

So the strike signal would be also the signal for dockworkers in all the other 
British ports — Southampton, Liverpool, Leith, Swansea, Cardiff, and the other 
ports — to also go out on strike and refuse to load and unload Canadian ships 
on strike, which effiectively meant that all other ships coming into port or wait- 
ing to come into port would he paralyzed until the strike was ended. * * * 

After the Beaverhrae left port, the last-minute preparations were made to 
assure that we had reliable Communist members on all other ships which were 
sailing, and then the strike signal was given by Harry Davis, and appeals were 
also automatically sent out to all the dockers' unions all over the world to pledge 
their support and their solidarity with the strike of the Canadian seamen. * * * 

The original plan was thar I was supposed to sail on the Beaverhrae, but then 
it was decided that it was very important that we could tie up all the Italian 
ports because all the Italian unions were Communist unions, and we wanted to 
effectively paralyze shipping in Italy, too, because Italy was getting a lot of 
Marshall-plan shipments, and it was important that we should see to it that thei 
ships would all be tied up. So I left on the Mont Rolland instead of on the 
Beaverhrae. * * * 

While on our way to the port of Naples, where we were originally scheduled 
to sail and to land, the captain got a telegram or a cablegram from the owners 
of the ship, Dreyfus Bros. — they had a subsidiary company called the Montreal 
Shipping and these ships belonged to this company. The Dreyfus company 
ordered the captain to proceed to a non-Italian port, and more precisely to the 
port of Beirut in Lelianon, where it was known that the Communists had no 
power or control whatsoever over the dockworkers' union. 

This, of course, changed our plans because in this strike we couldn't very well 
mutiny at sea because we would have left ourselves open to a very serious 
charge. Not only that, the main question was to tie up the ships so that we 
would paralyze the ports and a mutiny at sea did not constitute a tying up of 
a ship. What we wanted to do was to create chaos and havoc in the ports. 

In describing what occurred upon the arrival of the Beaverhrae 
according to plan at the London dock, and subsequently, Mr. Walsh 
gave this account : 

It created quite a crisis, not only in London but in the whole British Empire, 
because London is a vital seaport and the London docks are supposed to be the 



AI>mUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 85 

greatest docks in the world. Hundreds of ships were tied up and rendered 
useless when these two ships, the Bearerbrae and the Argomont, reached their 
ports and their crews walked out. Immediately, by a prearranged plan, all the 
dock workers of the port of London refused to work — that is, to load or unload 
cargoes, not only from these two ships, but from all the other ships in port, which 
meant that every day there were possibly hundreds of other ships that wanted 
to come into poi't and were held off : and this went on for months and months, 
with the result that hundreds of millions of dollars were lost, shipping sched- 
ules were retarded, and that the Marshall plan certainly received a serious 
blow. * * * 

Nearly all the other ports were affected where Canadian ships were tied up, 
but principally Southampton, Liverpool. Leith, Swansea, and Cardiff. The 
dockers there walked out in solidarity with the Canadian Seamen's Union strike, 
and this also contributed to creating chaos in the shipping industry. * * * 

On the continent of Europe where, with the exception of Italy, the shipowners 
decided to cancel the shipping to Italy ; but in France, for example, in various 
ports like Marseilles, Cherbourg, and LeHavre, the French dockworkers, com- 
pletely controlled by the General Confederation of Labor, which is a Communist- 
run organization, immediately went out on strike in support of the Canadian 
Seamen's Union strike and tied up all these docks, which resulted in all the 
shipping facilities being paralyzed. In some places the dockworkers even went 
further and they threw some cargo overboard. Other cargo was watered, as we 
say in seagoing language, and various attempts were made to sabotage ma- 
chinery, not only ship machinery, but port machinery. * * * 

The results were very far reaching, insofar as 77 ships were successfully tied 
up, immobilized. And when I say 77 ships, I wish to stress the fact, something 
which I forgot, that Fressinet at the Genoa meeting prophesied that 78 ships 
would be tied up, and this was months before the actual stril<e took place. So 
it just goes to show you with what precautions and with what detailed plans 
that these top Communist agitators had when they knew beforehand how many 
ships would be tied up, when even the shipowners could not have guessed whether 
they would have had 5 or 85 ships tied up. 

This showed that Fressinet was sure of the cooperation of the Communist 
dockworkers' unions from New Zealand to Vancouver and from San Francisco 
to London. 

Now, there were over 200 CSU seamen who were arrested in ports all over 
the world. There were at least 5 seamen killed, including 2 in San Francisco, 
and there were also in Halifax and St. John probably 15 or 20 who were 
wounded as Communists tried to intimidate and tried to brutalize strikers or, 
rather, nonstrikers who did not want to participate in the strike. 

Now, for example, in Cuba the crews of the Canadian Victor and the Federal 
Pioneer mutinied when the captain refused to sail into the port of Habana. 
There in the port of Habana, Lazaro Pina had arranged for the Cuban dock- 
workers to go out on strike and to effectively paralyze the Habana dock facili- 
ties. When the captain did not want to sail into the port, the crew attempted 
to intimidate the captain by openly creating mutiny on ship, and it got to such 
serious proportion that the Cuban Government had to send a gunboat to subdue 
the mutineers. 

On the west coast of the United States, Harry Bridges' longshoremen's union 
cooperated in Seattle and in San Francisco entirely with the Canadian Seamen's 
Union. Crew members of ships who happened to be at that time in Seattle and 
San Francisco were fed by Harry Bridges' union and donations were being 
raised every day by the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's 
Union. It is a historical fact that the Marine Cooks and Stewards also openly 
cooperated and donated financial assistance to the Communist-led crews in these 
two ports. 

The witness testified that cooperation with the Canadian Seamen's 
Union strike on the east coast of the United States was a complete 
fiasco, as the National Maritime Union had succeeded in cleaning house 
and getting rid of Ferdinand Smith and the International Long- 
shoremen's Association. It will be recalled that deportation proceed- 
ings were pending at this time against Ferdinand Smith. How the 
strike was ultimately settled, after the vital shipping of the world had 
been tied up for many months, is described by the witness as follows : 

The strike was settled due to the energetic intervention of the Seafarers' 
International Union, which was also a very anti-Communist union ; and when 



86 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

the shipowners saw that the Canadian Seamen's Union was not acting In good 
faith and did not care to negotiate, but was carrying on this strike which threat- 
ened the very existence of the Canadian merchant marine, it called upon the 
Seafarers' International Union to take over and to man the ships. The Sea- 
farers' International Union succeeded, despite Communist violence and intimida- 
tion, in getting Canadian crews to man the strikebound ships. 

Now this was not done in a day or a week, or in a month. This was done in a 
period of 6 months, because it was a very difficult thing for the Seafarers' Interna- 
tional Union to man the strike bound ships because they had to go through picket 
lines of strong-arm men, who were sometimes armed with clubs, and the Canadian 
Government was so alarmed at the violence which was being displayed by the 
Communist strong-arm squads that they had to ask the Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police to step in and to prevent seamen who wanted to sail the ships from being 
murdered, because there were about 300 people who were injured by these CSU 
strong-arm men who used to rove around the streets at this new union. So finally, 
when the Seafarers' International Union was able to supply crews, for example, 
to Australia and New Zealand and South Africa, and to France and Great Britain 
and other countries, they were able to man the ships and the strike finally 
petered out because the Canadian Seamen's Union did not have any more con- 
tracts. In the meantime there were many of the seamen who had been dis- 
gusted with this political strike and rallied to the Seafarers' International 
Union — and that's how the strike was ended. 

Upon beino; asked whether the use of Seafarers* International Union 
to break the strike was a contingency which the Communist Party had 
not prepared for, the witness replied : 

That is the one thing that they did not anticipate. At the Genoa meeting or at 
another meeting in Marseilles, which I will speak about later on, and which was 
attended by Mr. Goldblatt, of the Longshoremen's Union from San Francisco, at 
no time was it ever discussed that there was a possibility that another union 
would be able to intervene and man the strike-bound ships. This was not dis- 
cussed because the (Communists were so confident that their methods of violence 
would eventually triumph that they did not take that into consideration, because 
in previous strikes on the Great Lakes the Canadian Seamen's Union had always 
been able to win the strikes because of the superiority of their gangster tactics, 
and they thought that they had completely intimidated any other union from 
even thinking of trying to compete with them. 

******* 
The Canadian Government realized this strike was a sabotage attempt, not 
only against the Merchant Marine of Canada but that it was a strike which had 
nothing to do with wage increases and that it could not be called a bona fide 
strike ; and so, the Canadian Government was happy at the intervention of 
another bona fide trade union. 

Mr. Walsh, like others who have broken with the Communist Party, 
had very definite reasons for his break. Of this, he said: 

I should have stated this at the start of my testimony, but the questions were 
about the great strike — the CSU strike — for a number of years I have had no 
illusions on what communism is. I was led to believe that it was something 
which I found subsequently was very contrary to the idealism that I had attached 
to the idea ; and when I woke up, so to speak, and when I finally realized to what 
extent that such a thing as treason and sabotage and murder and assassination 
were part and parcel of the Communist doctrine and practice, I decided to break 
away from the Communists ; but I met some people who were undercover agents 
within the Communist Party and who convinced me that I should continue in 
order to gather as much information as possible, so that I would be able to testify 
later on as to the extent and to the seriousness of the menace of communism 
which, unfortunately, the people of Canada at that time did not take very seri- 
ously, and I was able to cooperate with various anti-Communist groups in giving 
them advance information and to put the brakes on many violent outbreaks and 
to even prevent the scuttling of a ship. The Mont Rolland was scheduled to be 
scuttled and I prevented the scuttling of that ship. 

The committee is greatly indebted to this citizen of a neighboring 
country who took the time and trouble to come to this country and add 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 87 



SO much to the knowledge of the committee on the subversive activities 
of the Communist Party. 

The committee was also furnished valuable testimony by John 
Mills Davis, Nicholas Campas, Jack Davis, and Samuel Evens, all 
of whom testified concerning not only Communist activities in the 
Albany area but elsewhere as well. Some 15 other persons, identified 
as members of the Communist Party, appeared before the committee. 
These individuals refused to answer committee questions, claiming 
the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

The following persons were identified as Communist Party members 
during the course of hearings held in Albany, N. Y. : 



Albertson, William 
Former officer, Waiters Union Local 
16, New York City. 
iJexiou, Costas 

Former officer, Washington, D. C, 
Hotel and Restaurant Employees' 
Union. 
Arnold, Robert 

Former employee, United States 
Weather Bureau, Albany. 
Barry, Arthur 
Member of Young Communist League 
branch in New York City, 1935. 
Bartlett, Jim 
Young Communist League organizer. 

Belinky, Harriet (Mrs. Sidney Belinky) 

Albany. 
Belinky, Sidney 

Laundry worker, Albany. 

(Appeared July 16, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Bender, William 
Local 2. Retail-Wholesale and Depart- 
ment Store Workers. 
Blake, George 

Organization director for Communist 
Party, Borough of Manhattan, 
1946. 
Bottcher, William 

New York State employee, Albany. 
Brickman, Anna 

Housewife, Albany. 
Brodsky, Carl 

Insurance business. 
Carr, Clarence 

Officer of Leather Workers Union, 
Gloversville, N. Y. 
Cohen, Flo (Mrs. Ralph Cohen) 

Albany. 
Cohen, Ralph 

Albany. 
Crago, Amalia Pesko (also known as 
Cucchiara or Cook) 
Albany. 

Crago, Joe (also known as Cucchiara or 
Cook) 
Albany. 



Identified by: 
Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 

(Witness identified Mr. Barry as a mem- 
ber of the Young Communist League.) 

Nicholas Campas. July 14, 1953. (Wit- 
ness identified Mr. Bartlett as a men>- 
ber of the Young Communist League.) 

John Mills Davis. July 15, 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15. 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15. 1953. 
Samuel Ehens, July 16, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15. 1953. 
Samuel Evens. .July 16, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 1-5, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15. 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16. 1953. 
John Mills Davis, .July 15. 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 
Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15. 1953. 
Samuel Evens. July 16, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



88 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Dakchoylous, Kostas 

Business agent, Hotel and Restau- 
rant Workers local in Albany. 
Davis, Clara (Mrs. John Davis) 
Dodd, Rena 

Former employee. New York State 
Health Department. 

(Appeared July 15, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Doran, Sadie 

Schenectady, N. T. 
Dorenz, Arnold 

Member of Young Communist League 
in Albany, 1937. 
Dorenz, Charles 

Member of Painters Union ; Albany. 

Douglas, Kelly (Bud) 

Albany. 
Dworkin, Jeauette (Mrs. Michael 

Dworkin) 
Dworkin, Michael 

New York State employee ; Albany. 
Edelsteiu, Sam 

Clerk and kitchen worker ; Albany. 
Feay, Herbert 

New York State employee. 
Fialkoff, Si 

Communist Party organizer in Troy, 
N. Y., area. 
Fields, Shirley 

Member of Young Communist League 
in New York City, 1935. 



Flory, Ishmael 

With Dining Car Employees. 
Geller, Hilda (Mrs. Louis Geller) 

Geller, Louis 

Electrician, Albany. 

(Appeared July 14, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 

Gentilli, Salvatore 

Officer in a waiters union in New 
York City. 
Gerstinheim, Leo 

Member of Young Communist League 
in New York City, 1935. 

Gold, Irving 

Former associate personnel techni- 
cian in New York State Civil Serv- 
ice Department, Albany. 

(Appeared July 15, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Gold, Mike 
Writer. 



Identified by 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 



Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. (Wit- 
ness identified Mr. Dorenz as a mem- 
ber of the Young Communist League.) 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 

Jack Davis, Julv 14, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Sanuiel Evens, July 16, 1953. 
Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 
Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. (Wit- 
ness identified Shirley Fields as a 
member of the Young Communist 
League. ) 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 

Jack Davis, July 14. 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. (Mr. 
Campas identified Mr. Geller as a 
member of the Young Communist 
League.) 

Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. (Wit- 
ness identified Mr. Gerstinheim as a 
member of the Young Communist 
League. ) 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Also identifieed by a former Commu- 
nist in 1952. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 89 



Gold, Stella (Mrs. Irving Gold) 

Housewife, Albany. 
Goldistein, Evelyn (Mrs. Nathan Gold- 
stein ; nee Miusky) 
Former bookkeeper. 

(Appeared July 15, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Goldstein, Nathan 

Upholstery worker, Albany. 
Gordon, Frances "Mike" (Mrs. Harry 
Gordon ; also known as Mrs. Harry 
Gordon Itskowitz. ) 
Gordon, Harry (legal name: Harry 
Gordon Itskowitz.) 
Salesman. 

(Appeared July 15, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Gordon, Max 

Communist party functionary. 
Hacker, Carl 

International organizer for Hotel and 
Restaurant Employees' Union. 
Hatcliigan, Donald 

Employee of cleaning and dyeing 
plant, Troy, N. Y. 
Herman. David 

President of Hotel and Club Workers, 
Local 6, New York City. 

(Jack Davis testified he believed 
David Herman had left the Com- 
munist Party.) 
Itskowitz. Frances "Mike" Gordon. 

(See Frances Gordon.) 
Itskowitz, Harry Gordon. (See Harry 

Gordon.) 
Jacobson, Helen 

Local 2, Retail-Wholesale and De- 
partment Store Workers, New 
York City. 
Jennings, Ruth 

Member of Young Communist League 
in Schenectady, 1937. 

Kaufman, IVIrs. Sarah, 
(nee Schwartzman) 
Housewife, Albany. 

(Appeared July 14, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
King. James 

Officer of State, County, and Munici- 
pal Workers Union. 
Klein, Dorothy. (See Dorothy Loeb.) 
Klein, Harold 

Communist Party functionary. 



Identified hy 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 
Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. (Wit- 
ness identitied Ruth Jennings as 
a member of the Young Communist 
League. ) 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Klein, Joseph. (Also known as Joseph Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 

Stone) 

Communist Party functionary, Sche- 
nectady. 
Kolker, Alexander John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Railroad worker. Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



47400 — 54- 



90 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON XJN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Kotick, Mary 

Local 2, Retail-Wholesale and Depart- 
ment Store Workers, New York 
City. 
Kramberg, Sam 

Former Officer of Cafeteria Workers 
Union, local 302, New York City. 
LaFortune, George 
Troy, N. Y. 

Lahne, Selma 

Waitress. 
Lane, Gertrude 

Officer in Hotel and Club Employees' 
Union, local 6, New York City. 
( Jack Davis testified he believed 
Gertrude Lane had left the Com- 
munist Party.) 
Laros, Betty 

Employee of the State of New York. 
(Appeared July 15, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Lawrence, Bill. (See section of this re- 
port on hearings held in New York 
City.) 
Lazari, Nick 

Officer of Hotel and Restaurant 
Union, Pittsburgh. 
Loeb, Dorothy (also known as Dorothy 
Klein ; alleged wife of Joseph Klein, 
also known as Joseph Stone) 
Communist Party fuctionary. 
Lubin, Louis J. 
Dentist 

(Appeared July 16, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Michelson, William. (See section of 
this report on hearings held in New 
York City.) 
Oberkirch, Charles 
Officer of Hotel and Restaurant 
Workers Union, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Obermier, Mike 

Former officer of Hotel and Club Em- 
ployees Union. 
O'Connor, Paul 

UE organizer. New England. 
Parker, Herbert 

Communist Party organizer in Young 
Communist League. 
Pesko, Amalia. (See Amalia Pesko 

Crago. ) 
Poziomek, John (also spelled John 
Piziomek) 
Barber. 
Rappaport, David (legal name: Arpad 
David Rappaport) 
Former employee, New York State 
Department of Social Welfare. 
(Appeared July 15, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Rich, Harry 

Former officer of Cooks Union, Local 
89, New York City. 



Identified iy 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1958. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 

Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 



.Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 



AISTSrUAL REPORT, COIVLMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 91 



Riibiu, Jay 
Officer of Hotel and Club Employees 
Union, Local 6, New York City. 
(Jack Davis testified he believed 
Jay Rubin has left the Commu- 
nist Party.) 
Schulz, Willie 

Former officer of Waiter's Union, 
Local 219, New York City. 
Schwarzbart, Elias "EU" 
Attorney. 

(Appeared July 15, 1953; denied 
present membership in the Com- 
munist Party, but refused to 
affirm or deny past membership. ) 
Schweukmyer, Frieda 
Former organizer for Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers Union, Troy, 
N. Y. 
Scott, Janet 
Newspaperwoman 

( Appeared July 14, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Shapiro, Hannah (Mrs. Leon Shapiro) 
Teacher 

(Appeared July 15, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Shapiro, Leon 

Communist Party fimctionary. 
Short, Irene 
Leader of Youns Communist League, 
New York City, 1935. 

Sidman, I. Nathan 
Attorney ; vice chairman of Rens- 
selaer County Committee of Ameri- 
can Labor Party. 
Stathis, George 

Waiter. 
Stone, Joseph. {See Joseph Klein.) 
Weinstein, Evelyn 

(Witness testified he understood 
Evelyn Weinstein did not remain 
in the party.) 
Winston, William 
Communist Party functionary, New 
York City. 
Wright, Arthur 
New York State employee. 

(Witness testified Mr. Wright 
told him he was leaving the 
party.) 
Wright, John 

Former employee of Division of 
Parole, State of New York. 

(Appeared July 15, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Yarman, Mike 

Restaurant employee. 
Zuckman, Morris 
Attorney. 

(Appeared July 14, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 



Identified by 
Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 



John Mills Dayis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. (Wit- 
ness identified Irene Short as a mem- 
ber of the Young Communist League.) 

Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 



Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 
Jack Davis, July 14, 1953. 
John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



Nicholas Campas, July 14, 1953. 

John Mills Davis, July 15, 1953. 
Samuel Evens, July 16, 1953. 



SOVIET SCHEDULE FOR WAR— 1955 
Testimony of Col. Jan Bukar 

An important part of the duties and responsibilities which have been 
imposed by the Congress upon the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities is the ascertainment of the nature, extent, and objectives of 
subversive propaganda emanating from foreign sources. 

In May 1953, the committee received the testimony of a former 
Slovakian Army officer who, for reasons of security, in appearing 
before tlie committee, used an assumed name, CoL Jan Bukar. 

Colonel Bukar testified that in tlie fall of 1939, as an officer in 
the Czechoslovakian Army, which was then joined with Hitler's army, 
he had fought against Poland until the fall of that country. He 
had also engaged in battles against the Soviet Union. It w^as dur- 
ing that period that Colonel Bukar began to assist Russian partisans 
in their fight against Germany. He related that in one instance, while 
he was supposed to be assisting the Germans, he had arranged circum- 
stances in such a manner that while it appeared he had made a tactical 
error, he had actually allowed Russian forces to escape through Ger- 
man lines. As a result of this act, Bukar became a hero of the Russian 
underground and because of the services he had rendered the Russian 
Government, he was approached by certain Russian officials who urged 
him to form a Soviet-Slovak Republic. 

One of the highlights of Colonel Bukar's testimony was the infor- 
mation he gave concerning a Soviet military school which he attended 
from 1945 to 1947. The school, which was known as the Frunze Mili- 
tary School, was located in Moscow, and attended by approximately 
3,000 students composed largely of officers who had participated in 
World War II. He described the instructors of the school as high Com- 
munist generals and officials of the Soviet Foreign Office. A part of 
the curriculum of this school was a course in firearms and other instru- 
ments of war. He related how the students engaged in hypothetical 
warfare against forces representing America, England, Turkey, 
Japan, and Germany. The students at the Frunze School were also 
tau<Tht methods of strategy to be employed in communizing capitalistic 
nations, and he explained that the key positions that were the objec- 
tives of the Communist Party for seizure in all instances were the 
Ministries of the Interior, Army, and Industries. 

The instructors at this military school informed the students that 
the Soviet Union recognized the United Nations as exercising no 
authority over it, but that the United Nations served as a vantage point 
for the Communists from which events transpiring in the Western 
World could be kept under close surveillance. 

The portion of Colonel Bukar's testimony from which the title for 
his testimony is derived was that upon the excuse that Great Britain 
was preparing for an attack to destroy the Soviet Union in 1955, the 
Soviet Union would undertake an offensive before that time. 

92 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 93 

Lieutenant Franciszek Jarecki 

Lt. Franciszek Jarecki is the first young Polish jet pilot who es- 
caped with a Polish jet plane, to the island of Bornholm, Denmark. 
Lieutenant Jarecki appeared before the committee and furnished it 
with information concerning the anti-American propaganda that is 
bemg disseminated by the Communist rulers of Poland. He stated 
that, in one sense, false propaganda furnished by the Communists is 
what led to his successful flight from Poland. Lieutenant Jarecki 
stated that tlie Communists told their jet fliers that Denmark was 
American-controlled and that there was an American airbase on the 
island of Bornholm. While Lieutenant Jarecki believed this to be 
the case, he did not believe the propaganda that the American Govern- 
ment was the enemy of the Polish people. At the first opportunity, 
he set the course of his plane for Bornholm where he landed in an 
open field and later asked for and was granted asylum in Denmark. 
Subsequently he made his way to the United States. 

Lieutenant Jarecki expressed the belief that the large majority^ of 
Polish people are against communism, but that he believed time 
was working for the Kussians, due to the fact that they have been in 
control of the country for such a long period of time. 

He stated that he believed the Polish people were still loyal to 
democratic principles and commented that the Polish people "are 
like a radish — it is red outside, but white inside." 

Dr. Marek Stanislaw Korowicz 

In addition to the testimony furnished the committee by Lt. Fran- 
ciszek Jarecki concerning the anti-American propaganda and activi- 
ties being engaged in by Soviet puppets in Poland, the committee also 
received the testimony of Dr. Marek Stanislaw Korowicz. 

Dr. Korowicz, until a few days before his appearance, was the 
alternate Polish delegate to the United Nations. Dr. Korowicz testi- 
fied that he had never succumbed to Communist ideology, nor had 
he ever been a member of the Communist Party. He has a lengthy 
background of legal training and experience, and, on the basis of this, 
was selected by the Polish Government to be an alternate delegate 
to the United Nations as chairman of the Sixth Commission of 
Jurists. 

Dr. Korowicz, in the course of his testimony, stated that the Polish 
delegation to the United Nations and its members were instructed 
on all occasions to cooperate closely with the delegation from the 
Soviet Union and to receive their orders from the Russian delegation. 
He said that the Polish delegation was nothing but an extension of the 
Russian delegation. Dr. Korowicz furnished the committee with testi- 
mony as to the true conditions of a Sovietized country, when he 
stated : 

The Soviet gauleiters have turned Poland into one immense totalitarian prison 
camp. The Bolshevist regime has succeeded in making of Poland, which is po- 
tentially one of the richest countries in Europe, a land of misery, oppression, 
and exploitation of the working classes. The so-called brotherly help that the 
U. S. S. R. boasts of giving to Poland is a gigantic lie. It is, in fact, the most 
cruel system of colonial administration operating for the sole benefit of Soviet 
Russia. 



94 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The Communists have proclaimed that in Poland there are 2 million members 
registered in the party, to which they add 2 million members of the Young Com- 
munist Movement. Now, these young people of approximately 14 years of age 
are not members of any political party. They are being indoctrinated. But the 
importance given to the number of Communists in Poland must be considered 
also as a lie. At the maximum the Communist Party only includes 6 to 7 percent 
of the population. 

In the case of a free election, unhappily impossible under present circum- 
stances, I do not believe that the Communist votes would represent more than 2 
percent of the total. 

' I am absolutely confident that I am speaking not only for myself but for millions 
of my countrymen in giving to you the following thoughts : We Poles see in recent 
events in Russia only some tactical changes, but certainly no change in the Soviet 
master strategy. We Poles who live close to Russia believe that the Soviet has 
not made drastic and fundamental changes in its policy. They know in Moscow 
that under present circumstances war is not the be.st and the safest way to 
achieve their aims. As seen in Poland, the Soviet aim remains that of world 
conquest. The Soviet master plan or grand strategy looks to achieve this final 
aim in 1970 or 1980, and this plan is based on the progressive destruction of 
the cultural, economic, and political foundations of the free world. 

First the Soviet Union is making a tremendous effort to achieve the integration 
of the numerous and diverse elements among its empire of 800 million i)eople. 

The committee wishes to express its appreciation to these individuals 
who have fled the Communist terror which is in control of their native 
countries, and wishes to extend an invitation to any other individual 
who finds himself in a similar plight to avail himself of this committee 
and furnish whatever information he may possess which will be of 
help to the Congress and to the American people in perfecting the 
defense of human freedom and human dignity. 



KELIGION 

The world Communist conspiracy started with a basic fundamental 
premise that communism, as a political and social force, could never 
succeed in its goal of world domination so long as the fires of faith 
in God and a belief in the immortality of the soul remained in the 
hearts, the souls, and the minds of men. Every Communist leader 
since Marx and Engels has stressed the necessity for the destruction of 
religious faith as a cardinal point in the Communist attack. While 
the leaders of the conspiracy have, from time to time, deviated, de- 
toured, or retraced their courses in political, economic, and military 
matters as the demands of expediency and opportunism dictated, on 
no occasion has there been a deviation from the theme as enunciated by 
Nikolai Lenin that religion must, at all costs, be destroyed if commu- 
nism were ever to achieve a final and complete victory over the persons 
of free men. 

Lenin stated : 

'■'■Down with religion! Long live atheism! The spread of atheistic 
vieivs is our chief task.'''' 

The crass materialism of communism replaces Bethlehem with the 
shrine of Lenin, and the symbols of Christianity and Judaism with the 
mummified remains of the patron saint "Discord." 

All Americans, including the individual members of the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, draw strength and inspiration from 
the great religious codes of history. All realize that the church, irre- 
spective of denomination or creed, represents the greatest and most 
effective bulwark against communism and its agents. 

Communists recognize the advantage in, and the necessity for, 
organization, and the one force they fear is the force represented by 
great and dedicated bodies of men and women banded together in com- 
mon cause. Today, throughout the world, in dank prison cells and 
behind the barbed wire of concentration camps, the Communist mas- 
ters of enslaved peoples hold as hostages hundreds of men and women 
of the cloth. Unspeakable torture and mental agony have been im- 
posed upon these servants of God in an effort to bring about recanta- 
tions of faith and a denial of spiritual values. In this effort, the 
Communists have met with one of their greatest defeats. However, 
and history records the tragic fact again and again, those who would 
rule the world go around and under obstacles when it is no longer 
possible to pass through them. Wliere threats and tortures have 
proved equally unavailing, the Communists have called upon guile 
and subterfuge to recruit to their causes, if not to their organization, 
a number of individuals within the area of religion, individuals who, 
in many cases, have been and are completely unaware of the purposes 
for which they have been used and the ends to which the prestige of 
their names has been lent. A minute number of case-hardened Com- 
munists and Communist sympathizers have actually infiltrated them- 

95 



96 ANNUAL KEPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

selves into tlw ranks of the loyal clergy, and sworn testimony relative 
to this fact is in the possession of the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities. 

An examination of the record reflects that only a very small number 
of clergymen in the United States have been consistent fellow trav- 
elers with the Communist Party. These individuals have consistently 
followed the Communist Party line and Soviet foreign policy through 
frequent reversals and flip-flops of official party doctrine. 

For these the committee can ofi^er no explanation other than that 
they are true fellow travelers with communism. 

What, then, is the reason why any of the remaining great body of 
loyal and patriotic members of the clergy have been associated in name 
at least with one or more Communist groups ? For the most part, it 
appears to stem from humanitarian desire and possibly a lack of 
careful study. 

The classic Communist trap for the unwily and the unwitting is 
the ^ommunist-front group in the United States. The fronts, like 
pilot fish, attach themselves to any and all worthwhile causes, par- 
ticularly those having to do with minority groups in the United 
States or with social and economic problems peculiar to or partici- 
ptvted in by large bodies of citizens. In an effort to lend respectability 
and achieve widespread acceptance of such front organizations, the 
Communists have long sought to obtain the use of the names of well- 
known Americans of unquestioned loyalty. It is unfortunate to re- 
late that in this effort the Communists have achieved a considerable 
measure of success. 

Of necessity, a clergyman's life is a busy one, and it is understand- 
able that there might be instances when a telephone call is received 
or a person stops by and asks that the name of the clergyman be 
given for some cause, and, upon learning that it is for peace or civil 
rights, such permission is granted. It might even follow that the 
additional step of inquiry is made to determine other sponsors of the 
organization. In such instances, the organizers of these organizations 
are adroit at selecting the names of the more prominent, irreproach- 
able individuals. 

The committee feels that all of these might be contributing factors 
where names of members of the clergy, who themselves are unalter- 
ably opposed to communism, are found in connection with Communist- 
front groups. Tlie committee recognizes them, but still does not feel 
that such association should be taken lightly or passed off without cor- 
rection. The clergymen is respected because of the life to which he 
has dedicated himself. He is naturally looked upon as above the 
ordinary man and, as a result, his responsibility is greater than that 
of the ordinary man. The fact that an organization has the apparent 
support of numerous members of the clergy would certainly give 
encouragement to other indiyyifjals to become associated with or to 
contribute funds to such an orjr , ' 'lation. 

Some members of the clergy . -el  as other persons in professions 
have been particularly lax in ;;, . ^f^^ a,^JJycYoi\gh investigation of the 
causes and groups to which thepres* geiir their names has been lent. 
The names of too many men of the cloth appear as sponsors, directors, 
or contributors to organizations which were established by the Com- 
munist Party to serve the Communist ends, even though the number 
is very small in comparison to loyal clergy. Failure to properly 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 97 

comprehend the purposes of such groups and organizations has re- 
sulted in the appearance, on official forms, documents, and publica- 
tions of the front groups, of the names of a number of American 
clergymen. The committee is confident that the great majority of 
those who lent the prestige of their names to such Communist-inspired 
and Communist-dominated movements as the Scientific and Cultural 
Conference for World Peace held at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in 
New York City on March 25, 26, and 27, 1949, \yere completely unaware 
of the true nature and extent of Communist direction. 

The connnittee realizes that the temper of the times has changed 
considerably over the past 10 or 15 years, and that there is a keener 
awareness of subversive activities than there was in the late 1930's 
and early 1940's. The committee is aware that there was scant notifi- 
cation to individuals of the true nature of many organizations over 
this period. The fact is that from 1939, until the enactment of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950, for which this committee is chiefly 
responsible, the only official congressional body designating orga nza- 
tions as subversive was this committee. 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities has conducted 
no investigation of subversive infiltration of the clergy or religion and 
no such investigation is contemplated. " 

The committee has proceeded in its investigations on the premise 
that a member of the Communist Party enjoys no immunity from in- 
vestigation, regardless of his rank or calling. In the instances where 
the committee has determined that an individual member of the clergy 
is or had been a member of the Communist Party, the committee has 
proceeded exactly as it would in the case of any other person so 
identified. 

The official record establishes that, as in other fields, the few mem- 
bers of the clergy who have associated with Communist causes is a 
minute percentage of the hundreds of thousands of loyal, patriotic 
men of the cloth. 

Jack Richard McMichael- 

As has been reflected in other parts of this report, the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities is charged by the Congress with the 
investigation of subversive activities wherever they may be found. 

In the hearings held in New York City in July 1953, the committee 
heard the testimony of Manning Johnson and Leonard Patterson, both 
of whom had been members of the Communist Party in the United 
States. Both Johnson and Patterson had testified for the Govern- 
ment in the prosecution of Communist leaders in the Smith Act cases, 
as well as before the Subversive Activities Control Board. The efforts 
of defense counsel in these cases to shake the testimony of these wit- 
nesses failed and their testimony has ^ n unimpeached. 

In the course of his testimony, ding Johnson, on July 8, 1953, 

testified as follows : i • 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Johnson, dK-y i kfi ^'ny otber person who was an officer 

of the Methodist Federation [for Hod'h Action] at any time who was a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes; the Reverend Jack McMichael was a member of the 
Methodist Federation. 



98 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Mr. ScHEREE. What was his connection with the Metliodist Federation? 
Mr. Johnson. He was executive secretary of the Methodist Federation for 
Social Action up until 1953. 

******* 

Mr. SCHEBEB. How did you know that Reverend McMichael \vas a Communist? 

Mr. .Johnson. Well, during the period that I was member of the Communist 
Party, during the thirties, Jack McMichael was a member of the national com- 
mittee of the Young Communist League, and he was also a member of the Com- 
munist Party, and from time to time he met with the now fugitive Communist, 
Gilbert Green, who was head of the Young Communist League at that time, and 
he attended occasionally meetings of the national committee of the Communist 
Party with Gilbert Green. 

]\Ir. ScHEREK. Was Reverend McMichael still a member of the Communist 
Party when you left the party? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes ; he was. 

During the same jS[ew York hearings, Leonard Patterson furnished 
the committee with the following testimony : 

Mr. KuNziG. When you were in the Young Commvanist League, did you ever 
know one Jack McMichael? 

Mr. Patterson. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What position did he hold in the Young Communist League? 

]Mr. Patterson. He was a member of the New York District of the Young 
Communist League and was a member of the top faction of the Young Commu- 
nist League and the Communist Party in the American League Against War and 
Fascism. Also he was a member of the top faction of the American Youth 
Congress that was organized around 1934. 

IMr. KuNziG. You knew him then as one of the leading members of the Young 
Communist League? 

Mv. Patterson. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziQ. I hand you a document marked "Patterson Exhibit No. 1" for 
identitication. I am very carefully holding my hand over any names mentioned 
and in passing you this document marked "Exhibit No. 1" for identification 
I show you a picture and ask you if you recognize that person? 

Mr. Patterson. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who is that? 

Mr. PATTERSON. That is the McMichael as I recognized in the Young Commu- 
nist League together with me from 1931 until I went out in 1935. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Let the record show, Mr. Chairman, that the witness has iden- 
tified a document which is a photostatic copy of an article from the New York 
World Telegram, September 15, 1951, headlined "Controversial Federation Re- 
tains Methodist in Name." 

"Body Reelects Reverend McMichael," and then there is a picture under which 
appears the name of Reverend McMichael. 

On the basis of this testimony, the committee called the Reverend 
Jack Richard McMichael, who is presently pastor of the Methodist 
Church at Ui^per Lake, Calif. The Reverend McMichael denied that 
he had ever been a member of the Communist Party. During the 
course of the hearing, the witness was confronted by Manning John- 
son and the witness denied knowledge of him. 

The committee also received the testimony of John and Martha 
Edmiston who stated that they had met with the Reverend McMichael 
during May or June 1940 at the Southern Hotel in Columbus, Ohio, 
the occasion being a meeting of the Ohio Youth Congress. 

The Reverend McMichael contended that his diary indicated that 
he was not in Columbus, Ohio, during the period of May or June 
1940, and he denied that he knew Martha or John Edmiston. 

In view of the conflict in testimony, the committee voted that the 
testimony of Manning Johnson, Leonard Patterson, Martha and John 
Edmiston, and the Reverend Jack R. McMichael be transmitted to 
the Department of Justice for consideration of possible perjury 
prosecution. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 99 

G. Bromley Oxnam 

The Reverend G. Bromley Oxnam is Bishop of the Methodist 
Church for the Washington, D. C, area. On July 21, 1953, Bishop 
Oxnam appeared before the committee as a result of a request by him, 
that he be heard. Bishop Oxnam informed the committee that certain 
information in the committee's tiles relating to him was in error. 

As in every instance of this kind, where a person feels that there 
is erroneous information, or information that might require clarifica- 
tion, the committee is pleased to take every reasonable step to insure 
that the information is corrected or clarified. In fact Bishop Oxnam 
had been extended an invitation to appear before the committee as 
early as October 1"951. 

The committee believes that the full record of the hearing afforded 
Bishop Oxnam, will now serve to correct and clarify any erroneous 
infonnation that might have been contained in the files relating to 
him. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA, PA., AREA 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities commenced 
hearings in Philadelphia in 1952, which dealt principally with Com- 
munist infiltration of vital defense industries in that area. On No- 
vember 16 through November 18, 1953, a subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities resumed hearings in Philadelphia, 
dealing exclusively with individuals who are either currently or had 
been engaged as school teachers in Philadelphia. As in the case of 
other witnesses so called before the committee these teachers had been 
identified through investigation as having been members of the Com- 
munist Party at one time and possibly having continued their member- 
ship until the present time. 

In all there were 19 witnesses who appeared before the committee, 
some refused to affirm or deny present or past Communist Party mem- 
bership, however, the majority denied present membership while 
refusing to answer any questions regarding Communist activities 
prior to their signing a loyalty oath as required by Pennsylvania law 
in the early months of 1952. 

The committee wishes to point out the obvious fact that the 19 
teachers who appeared before the committee is a very small fraction 
of the loyal American teachers in Philadelphia, Pa. 

At this point, the appreciation of the committee is extended to both 
Dr. Bella V. Dodd and to Dorothy K. Funn for their further testimony, 
given in the hearings held in Philadelphia. 

Witnesses heard by the committee in Philadelphia who refused to 
affirm or deny allegations of Communist Party membership, or of 
participation in activities promoted by the Communist conspiracy : 

Identified hy 
Anton, Benjamin David Testimony identifying Mr. Anton as a 

Principal, Baldwin Public School. member of the Communist Party has 

(Appeared Nov. 17 and 18, 1953; not been made public, 
refused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 
Atkinson, Mrs. Sadie T. Testimony identifying Mrs. Atkinson 

Teuf'lier, Clara Barton Elementary as a member of the Communist Party 
School. has not been made public. 

(Appeared Nov. 17, 1953 ; refused 
to aflBrm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Beilan, Herman Testimony identifying Mr. Beilan as a 

Teacher, Grant High School. member of the Communist Party has 

(Appeared Nov. 18, 1953; testi- not been made public, 
tied he is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership.) 

100 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 101 



Deaoon. Thomas 

Counselor, Sulzberger Junior High 
School. 

(Appeared Nov. 18, 1953; testi- 
fied he is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but refused 
to affirm or deny past member- 
ship.) 
Elfont, Sophia 

English Department, Stetson Junior 
High School. 

(Appeared Nov. 17, lOoS ; testi- 
fied she is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership.) 
Fruit, Harry 

Mathematics teacher, Gerniantown 
Hish School. 

(Appeared Nov. 16, 1053: testi- 
fied he is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership.) 
Haas, Solomon 

Teacher, Hunter Elementary School. 
(Appeared Nov. 18, 1953; testi- 
fied he is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership.) 
Ivens. Louis 

Teacher, Stetson Junior Hisrh School. 
(Appeared Nov. 16, 1853; testi- 
fied be is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership.) 
Kaplan, Samuel Meyer 
Teacher. John Bartram Hish School. 
(Appeared Nov. 16, 1953; testi- 
fied he is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership). (Mr. Delaney testified 
that Mr. Kaplan and his wife 
Ruth were expelled from the 
Communist Party late 1950.) 
Lawrence, Bill. (See section of this re- 
port regarding hearings held in 
New Torli City.) 
Lowenfels, Lillian (Mrs. Walter Low- 
eufels) 
Former teacher. 

(Appeared Nov. 16, 1953; testi- 
fied she is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership. ) 
Margolis, Adele (Mrs. Nathan Mar- 
golis) 
Former teacher. 

(Appeared Nov. 17, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 



Identified by 
Testimony identifying Mr. Deacon as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Miss Ell'out as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mr. Fruit as a 
member of the (Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mr. Haas as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mr. Ivens as a 
member of the (jommunist Party has 
not been made public. 



Thomas Delaney, Oct. 13, 1952. Other 
testimony identifying Mr. Kaplan as 
a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mrs. Lowenfeb 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mrs. Margolis 
as a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public 



102 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Margolis, Nathan Walter 
Teacher, John Bartram High School. 
(Appeared Nov. 17, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 

Perloff, Caroline (Mrs. David PerlofE) 
Counselor, Ferguson School. 

(Appeared Nov. 17, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 

Perloff, David 

Teacher, Abraham Lincoln High 
School. 

(Appeared Nov. 17, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 

Reivich. Isadore 
Teacher, West Philadelphia High 
School. 

(Appeared Nov. 17, 1953; testi- 
fied he is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership.) 

Rutman, Robert J. 

Employed, Jefferson Medical College. 
(Appeared Nov. 18, 1953; testi- 
fied he is not nov? a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past 
membership.) 

Soler, Esther (Mrs. William Soler) 
Teacher, William B. Mann School. 
(Appeared Nov. 17, 1953; testi- 
fied she is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership.) 

Soler, William Gordon 

Teacher, Central High SchooL 

(Appeared Nov. 17, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 

Thomas, Estelle Naomi 
Teacher, Bache School. 

( Appeared Nov. 16, 1953 ; testi- 
fied she is not now a member of 
the Communist Party, but re- 
fused to affirm or deny past mem- 
bership.) 

Wepman, Mrs. Sarah Walsh 
Former teacher. 

(Appeared Nov. 16, 1953; re- 
fused to affirm or deny Commu- 
nist Party membership.) 



Identified by 
Testimony identifying Mr. Margolis as 
a member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mrs. Perloff as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mr. Perloff as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mr. Reivich as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mr. Rutman as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mrs. Soler as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mr. Soler as a 
member of the Communist Party has 
not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Miss Thomas as 
a member of the Communist Party 
has not been made public. 



Testimony identifying Mrs. Wepman as 
a member of the Communist Party 
lias not been made public. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 

SAN FKANCISCO AREA 

The investigations conducted by the House Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities in California during the past few years have revealed 
a strong concentration of Communist efforts to infiltrate the northern 
California area, particularly that of the San Francisco and Oakland 
Bay region. With these facts in mind, the committee held hearings in 
San Francisco, Calif., during the first week in December 1953. 

The first witness to appear before the committee w^as Louis Rosser, 
who had been a member of the Communist Party or the Young Com- 
munist League from 1932 until December 1944. Mr. Rosser, as is 
Mrs. Dorothy K. Funn, who previously testified in New York City, 
is a Negro who had joined the Communist Party for much the same 
reasons as had Mrs. Funn. During the early 1930's, he became con- 
vinced that the Communist Party was working actively and sincerely 
for the betterment of social and economic conditions for the Ameri- 
can Negro. He testified that he subsequently realized that the Com- 
munist Party was using the Negro issue in the United States for its 
selfish aims. He related how, during the period of the 1930's when 
it seemed likely that there would be a war between the democracies 
and Germany or possibly a war which would be directed against the 
Soviet Union, the Communist Party in the United States fomented 
discontent and agitated for open rebellion by the Negro people in the 
United States. He stated that, however, when it appeared that the 
Soviet Union was endangered by the attack of Hitler's forces, this 
propaganda was altered and the Negro people encouraged to cooperate 
fully with other races and nationalities in an all-out effort to give 
support and comfort to the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Rosser described to the committee the instructions which he 
liacl received concerning the world situation in the 1930's, stating that 
the Communist Party line then was that if there was a war between 
the "capitalistic" countries, it would be an "imperialist" war, and 
the Communist Party must have the American people prepared to 
turn such a war into a civil war. However, if there was to be a war 
against the "workers' fatherland," the Soviet Union, the American 
Communist Party must have the leadership of the American people 
and must lead them to turn their guns against their own Government 
and thwart any attempt by the American Government to destroy the 
Soviet Union. Rosser's disillusionment came gradually over a long 
period of time when he realized that the Communist Party had no 
sincere interest in the American Negro other than to exploit him, and 
in 1944 made a public break with the Communist Party. Rosser's 
experience following his break with the Communist Party once again 
serves to strengthen the committee's knowledge concerning the black- 
listing methods used by the Communist Party against anyone who 
is not a Communist, or particularly against anyone who has had the 

103 



104 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

courage to break away from the Communist Party. Rosser explained 
how, following his break with the Communist Party, he had returned 
to the normal pursuits which he had cast away out of necessity by 
being a member of the Communist Party, and had obtained employ- 
ment as a porter in a bowling alley. Rosser stated that when the 
Communist Party learned of this it sent a delegation to the proprietor 
of the bowling alley and exerted sufficient pressure on his employer 
to cause him to lose even this minor position. Subsequently, when he 
was able to obtain a position as labor secretary of the National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Colored People, a Communist faction 
within that group which had been unsuccessful in having him fired or 
removed went to the extent of having the funds with which he was 
being paid blocked. 

The committee is indeed indebted to Mr. Rosser for the volume of 
valuable information he made available to it. 

During testimony given the committee in 1948, Miss Elizabeth T. 
Bentley testified that a person who had been a member of a Commu- 
nist unit within the United States Government, and had furnished 
her material which she relayed as a Soviet courier to higher Soviet 
agents, was one Donald Niven Wheeler. Mr. Wheeler, who presently 
resides in Oregon, was called before the subcommittee in San Fran- 
cisco on December 1, 1953, in order that he might furnish the com- 
mittee with the information he possessed or deny the testimony previ- 
ously given regarding his espionage activities. Mr. Wheeler, as have 
the majority of the other members of this Communist cell, refused to 
affirm or deny Communist Party membership or the activities previ- 
ously alleged, on the basis that to do so miglit tend to incriminate him. 

The committee also called two persons w^ho, had they desired, could 
have furnished the committee with some of the most valuable informa- 
tion yet available concerning Communist Party activities, because of 
the position of prominence they had attained in the Communist Party. 
One was Roy Hudson, who had been a member of the national com- 
mittee, as well as a member of the political bureau of the Communist 
Party. In 1944, Hudson was the vice president of the Communist 
Political Association. The other person was Harrison George, who 
in 1933 was a member of the central committee, and in 1939 a member 
of the national committee of the Communist Party. In addition to 
being a speaker at the 10th National Convention of the Communist 
Party, he was a member of the staff of the Daily W^orker in 1937, 
editor of the People's World from 1938 through 1944, and a former 
brother-in-law of Earl Browder. 

Roy Hudson was presented a photostatic copy of a typewritten letter 
over the signature of "Hudson" bearing date the 8th day of February 
1934, and addressed to H. Jackson, who had been identified by Lou 
Rosser as having been a member of the Communist Party and west- 
coast organizer of the Marine Workers Industrial Union, of which 
latter organization Roy Hudson was national secretary at the time. 
Hudson refused to identify the signature as his on the ground that to 
do so might tend to incriminate him. The letter severely upbraided 
Jackson for his objection to the action of the Politbureau of the Com- 
munist Party in giving George Mink a temporary leave of absence 
from his duties on the west coast and his assignment to a special 
mission. The letter referred to the fact that a person by the name of 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIVIMITTEE ON QN-AJVIERICAN ACTIVITIES 105 

"Ray" had insisted upon giving the assignment to Mink. Thomas 
Kay was secretary of the Marine Workers Industrial Union at that 
time. This letter, referring to the mission of Mink, was written a 
short time prior to the shipping strike on the west coast in 1934. 

As reported in the press, that subsequently, in July 1935, George 
Mink was sent to prison by a court in Copenhagen, Denmark, for 
Soviet espionage. Roy Hudson refused to testify as to whether or 
not George Mink was given a temporary leave from his activities in 
connection with the seamen's strike on the west coast and was sent 
to the continent of Europe on a mission for the Communist Party in 
connection with that strike on the rounds that his answer might tend 
to incriminate him. Thus the effort of the committee to ascertain 
whether George Mink played the same role as that played by Patrick 
Walsh of the Canadian Seamen's Union in seeking support of Com- 
munist dock workers in European ports, was temporarily thwarted. 

In order to obtain further light on the international aspect of 
Communist Party activities in the United States, the witness Harrison 
George was questioned regarding certain propaganda activities which 
he directed, and in which he participated on the west coast from 1933 
to 1935. 

Anne Kinney, a former member-at-large of the Communist Party, 
testified in executive session on December 22, 1952, that she was given 
a special party assignment to work for Harrison George, who was 
engaged in publishing a trade-union paper designed for circulation 
in Japan. Her function was limited to that of a "mail drop". She 
possessed no knowledge of the character or purpose of the propaganda 
activities aimed at Japan. 

During the hearing in San Francisco, the testimony of Joe Koide, 
a Japanese national and a former member of the Communist Party 
of the United States was taken. This witness testified that when 
Earl Browder came back from the Orient, he was interested in meeting 
orientals. This resulted in an offer from Earl Browder to send the 
witness to Moscow for a 3-month training course. He accepted the 
offer and remained in Moscow for about 1 year. As the witness was a 
Japanese national, a question arose as to whether he should be re- 
turned to the United States from Moscow, and the witness proposed 
to those in charge in Moscow that there was a job that should be done 
and could be done in the United States in connection with propa- 
ganda aimed toward Japan. He was returned to the United States 
to engage in that enterprise. 

Joe Koide testified that for a period of 18 months, beginning in the 
fall of 1933, he and Harrison George engaged on the west coast in 
the editing, publishing, and printing of a magazine in the Japanese 
language, the title of which was Pacific Worker. This magazine, he 
testified, bore the notation "Organ of the Pan-Pacific Trade Union 
Secretariat.'' The witness assumed that the funds for the publishing 
of the official organ of the Pan-Pacific Secretariat came from 
"RILU — Red International of Labor Unions, otherwise known as 
Pruliiiteiii." The magazine, he testified, was mainly concerned with 
an analysis of the economic conditions in Japan under military rule, 
and articles dealing with how to improve conditions in the shops, 
factories, and farms. In addition to Harrison George's share in the 
division of labor in and about the editing, publishing, and printing 

47400—54 S 



106 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

of this magazine, Harrison George contributed between 2 and 3 dozen 
articles to it. 

In answer to the question as to whether the witness' work was cen- 
sored or edited in any way by Communist Party members on a higher 
level, the witness answered that it was and gave as one example an 
instance in which Tanaka, a Japanese representative of the Profintern, 
had severely criticized an article which had been published in the 
magazine, and gave peremptory directions that a manuscript prepared 
by him, Tanaka, should be printed in the magazine in toto, without any 
editing or abridging, which was done. 

In establishing this link in the international conspiracy, it would 
be well to recall the testimony given by Maj. Gen. Charles E. 
Willoughby before this committee on August 22 and 23, 1951, relating 
to the Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat, which is usually referred 
to as the PPTUS. General Willoughby, Chief Intelligence Officer of 
the United States Army operating directly under General Douglas 
MacArthur, testified as follows : 

The Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat and its parent organization the 
Shanghai branch of the far eastern Bureau, were the most important and highly 
organized apparatus for Comintern labor activities in the Far East during the 
late 1920's and the early 1930's. The PPTUS set up in 1927 a conference in 
Hankow which was attended by several prominent Comintern leaders, including 
Lozovsky, a Comintern agent who rose from secretary of the Profintern in 1928 
to a transient position as leader of the Soviet labor movement. Another member 
of the Hankow conference who later became first head of the PPTUS was the 
American Communist, Earl Browder, who was assisted in his work in Shanghai 
by an American woman, Katherine Harrison. Other Americans, including a 
journalist, James H. Dolsen ; one Albert Edward Stewart, and Margaret Undjus, 
were prominent in the affairs of the PPTUS, as was the German woman, Irene 
Weidemeyer. 

Harrison George, had he chosen, could have furnished the committee 
with first-hand information regarding this aspect of the international 
conspiracy of the Communist Party in the United States. He chose, 
however, to refuse to furnish the committee any information on the 
ground that to do so might tend to incriminate him. 

The committee did receive valuable testimony from Dickson P. Hill 
who had operated as an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation in the Communist Party from April 1945 until the fall 
of 1949. Mr. Hill furnished the committee with the information he 
had acquired in this position which was particularly valuable since 
he was for a period of time membership director of a Communist 
Party branch in Oakland, Calif. 

Another witness to testify before the subcommittee in San Fran- 
cisco, who had also been an undercover operator for the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation, in its investigation of the Communist Party was 
William Donald Ames. Mr. Ames testified that he had joined the 
Communist Party after first having offered his services to the FBI 
in 1946 and had continued to report information to that agency until 
1950. Mr. Ames also had been a membership director of the Commu- 
nist Party group to which he was assigned and, as a result, was in a 
position to furnish the committee with very valuable testimony con- 
cerning the individuals whom he knew to be members of the Commu- 
nist Party in the San Francisco-Oakland area. 

As has been indicated in other sections of this report, the committee 
is particularly concerned with the success of efforts which the Com- 



AISTNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 107 

muiiist Party has exerted to gain a foothold in the waterfront and 
maritime industries of the United States. The committee received 
testimony from James Kendall concerning these efforts and the de- 
gree of success which had been achieved hj the Communist Party. 
Mr. Kendall testified that he had been a member of the Communist 
Party from April 1942 until about 1948, although he considered that 
he had broken away from the Communist Party as early as 1946. 
Mr. Kendall, who was a seaman by trade, testified that after he had first 
become a member of the Communist Party he gained employment as 
a seaman aboard a troopship, the steamship Arthur Middleton, which 
was under charter to the United States Navy, and that, out of the 
crew of possibly 125 to 200 individuals, 25 on that particular trip were 
members of the Communist Party. Mr. Kendall also related to the 
committee other instances in which he was assigned to vessels upon 
which there were Communist Party members, in addition to himself. 
Mr. Kendall also furnished detailed information relating to the in- 
fluence exercised by tlie Communist Party on the various maritime 
and waterfront unions. 

The subcommittee also received the testimony of Charles David 
Blodgett who, on the basis of his experiences in the Communist Party 
and the Young Communist League and the excellence of the presenta- 
tion of his testimony, proved to be one of the most informative wit- 
nesses the committee had the opportunity of hearing during 1953. Of 
particular interest in Mr. Blodgett's testimony was the fact that he 
had been a member of the Young Communist League from approxi- 
mately August 1941 until July 1943. Mr. Blodgett testified that he 
had not only become a member of the Young Communist League while 
a student at Carleton College in Minnesota, but had been active in 
organizing a Young Communist League cell on the campus of that 
college. Mr. Blodgett's summary of his experiences is deemed to be 
of sufficient importance in the study of subversive activities that the 
committee is setting forth herewith the statement furnished by Mr. 
Blodgett : 

Statement op Charles David Blodgett 

Mr. Blodgett. I decided to leave the Communist Party in the late summer of 

1949. I actually left the Communist Party when I left California in January of 

1950. The reasons for my disaffection from the Communist Party are many. 
There was no single flash of disaffection. It was a cumulative thing over the 
3% years, approximately, that I became acquainted with the Communist Party 
in action. 

When I first joined the Communist Party in 1943, I was a Communist by 
intellectual conviction. I was convinced that the Communist Party was the last 
and best hope for the world ; it was the answer to all of the problems confronting 
society ; that it was the vanguard party of history ; that its philosophy was with- 
out a loophole; that its methodology and historical perspective raised it above 
anything that had previously been developed by the mind of man. 

I had a very romantic notion about the coming of this great millenium, the 
paradise on earth, heaven on earth — that is the promise of communism to 
the potential recruit — end of all war and poverty — end of man's inhumanity 
to man. 

This is the promise that was held out to the recruit, and as I say, I was a Com- 
munist because I read books and studied, and I was convinced intellectually. 
However, I was not a Communist by practice until after the war, until I joined 
the party in California. Then I found out that the practice of the party was 
antithetical to the promise that it held out to the future ; it could not indeed 
achieve that, that it was in practice the opposite. 



108 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

I related briefly in previous testimony some of the problems that were con- 
fronting me as a reporter for the Daily Peoples World, problems that went deep 
into the question of personal integrity and honesty. It did not talie long for 
this disillusionment to set in. It did take me a while to get out because the party 
does have a very strong hold on its people. The party will tell members, espe- 
cially someone who has been an open member, that they cannot escape from the 
party, that society will not accept them again as a respectable member of 
society. 

I have put down some of my thoughts on paper on this whole general subject, 
Mr. Counsel. I know that it is not the policy of the committee to allow state- 
ments to be read, but that statement in writing that I have prepared pretty well 
covers the whole story of my leaving the party and my feeling about the party 
today. 

The question of loyalty^ — this doesn't bother a Communist because loyalty 
is equated in class ; class structure is based on Marxism. You are loyal to 
the working class, which becomes the group assigning the Communist theory. 
He cannot be loyal to an entity such as America or the United States and its 
Government and still be a good Communist. The two are mutually exclusive 
under the setup which the Communist himself will acknowledge, based on their 
theory that governments are instituted for domination of one class over another. 

In the Soviet Union the working class, according to the Communist, has a 
power. "My loyalty is to the working class first, and then my loyalty must 
be to the Soviet Union — this is the worker's motherland." 

The Communists do not face this question squarely. They refuse to. They 
rationalize it. They say. "We are loyal to the best interests of the American 
people," although the American people seem to have a rather basic disagree- 
ment with that. But ultimately that is the only truth that the Communists 
themselves have ; they must acknowledge it ; loyalty is loyalty to class. The 
working class has taken power in the Soviet Union ; loyalty is first to the 
Soviet Union. America is under the control of the capitalist class, and it 
follows from their own theory that they cannot be a Communist and also be 
loyal Americans. 

Atheism — I think this waS the starting point as far as I was concerned, my 
own personal experience, that had to do with the commission of the main sin 
that any of us commit, those of Christian faith — sin of pride, the feeling that 
man can be sufBcieut unto himself, that he can do without a Supreme Being, 
that in fact a Supreme Being does not exist. This is not only the road to 
communism; this is the road to all secularisms, of denying the existence of 
God and the subsequent desecration, moral debasement, that must ensue. 

This is our hope and our salvation. I mean this very strongly. I once re- 
jected a God that I did not know, and I rejected a church that I knew nothing 
about because I had only immature understanding of God and the church. I 
have corrected this. And secularism, no matter what its form, will lead to 
communism. Atheism is one of the things, the stumbling blocks, that helped 
propel me out of the party. 

There are many, many other reasons that I could go on and spend hours 
and hours and point by point, example by example, on why it became so 
apparent that I could not stay in the Communist Party, no matter what the 
consequence would be; I would have to get out. I could not live, I could not 
raise my family. I certainly could not maintain a family. 

Actually I was told by the Communists when they had an indication that 
I was leaving — my first step was to resign from the Daily People's World in 
October of 1949. I was told I was not open-faced, that it was not completely 
honest with the Communists. I did not tell them the reason I was leaving, 
and I was leaving California to lu-eak all my ties with communism. They 
blamed it on my wife and told me I should divorce my wife, that the party 
comes first, and that is another ba'sic principle of communism, that the party 
is first; the party is worshiped. They don't have gods — a God; they don't 
believe in God. They are atheists, but they do make a substitute god of the 
party, make a substitute parent of the party, a slavish insubordination to this 
concept of the partyist worship. 

Although they do not believe in the Great Man theory of history, they do 
worship Joseph Stalin and worship Lenin; its aihilation is something that is 
completely foreign to the basic spiritual foundation of our country. 

I don't know if that begins to answer. I left the party, as I say, when I 
left California. I actually took a transfer with me in the form of a $1 bill 
with a serial number on it. That was the method of transferring at the time. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 109 

I never used that transfer, and I reestablished my life in Chicago and am 
trying to start over again, and I found that the main hold that the party has 
on people is absolutely groundless. This is more true day after day, that 
employers are not vindictive. They are not punishing people because they have 
left the party and renounced their former beliefs and associates. I found that 
this committee, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation are not what the party 
pictures them to be, and I hope, I hope from the very depths of my being that 
others can see their way clear to recognize that they cannot build a life in the 
Communist Party, the kind of life that means anything but sordidness and chil- 
dren who are distorted, who are abused, children who are destined to lead un- 
happy lives, and I plead with those of my former associates whom I have abso- 
lutely no hatred for — 1 have no antipathy at all, except for what they stand for 
and what they are doing. 

They can follow, and they can get out, and there is no reason why they shouldn't, 
absolutely none whatsoever, and there are so many reasons why they should, so 
many reasons. 

I don't know if there are other — there are many, many things that could be 
said on this subject, and I don't want to bore the committee. I would very 
strongly urge that the committee recognize something — I don't want to be pre- 
sumptuous about this ; I don't want you to think that I am being a smart aleck 
to tell the committee what it should or shouldn't do, but this is not just a 
criminal conspiracy of people ; these are people who are committed ; they are 
people who have a religion, a belief that they are doing things on the basis of 
those beliefs, and ideas and beliefs are the well springs of movements historically. 
You can't defeat them before a congressional committee. You can't defeat 
them in courts of law. You can't defeat them in jails. The hard core Com- 
munists who feed on a diet of underground activities and jails and courts become 
hardened persons. You will find reading Marxist theory and reading Lenin, that 
he says you cannot have a successful prorevolutionary leader unless they have 
gone through this sort of thing, being steeled by struggle. 

Being anti-Communist is not enough. We have to be for something, and we 
cannot fall into the trap of secularism because this, to me, is the basis of the 
whole problem, and its start in childhood. The point of greatest importance 
in the development of a person is the high school and college level. I don't 
have statistics, but I am sure that most recruiting is done at the college level, 
and who is recruited? That young person who has developed a social conscience ; 
the Communists are looking for people like that. That youag person who is 
serious minded, who is interested in the problems of the world and doing some- 
thing about them — they are the material that the Communists take and develop. 
The skillful Communist recruiter can make such a picture for this person of this 
glittering future, he can show them, after he has gotten them receptive, that 
the people of the Soviet Union and China are marching toward this glorious 
future. He can do all these things with those receptive minds, and if those young 
people do not have a firm foundation of belief in God and their church, the 
Communists will succeed with those people. 

There are none of my acquaintances at Carleton College — and the story of 
Carleton College is a very interesting one- — there are none of my acquaintances 
who evidenced the same type of social conscience and perplexity about life and 
the meaning of life and a wish to do something about it to create this better 
world — but there were none of those people who had a sure belief in God and 
tied themselves to the church who were recruited by us. We could not recruit 
them. 

We have to make that first step, and the committee can't do this. They can 
provide the material, case studies; they can synthesize it and analyze it and 
summarize it in such a form that could be really useful to college presidents, ad- 
ministrators, and high school principals. Give them the kind of material that 
will make them realize that this natural radicalism of youth, these natural 
yearnings and urges, must be channeled properly or the Communists will take 
those young people, and we will never defeat them by being anti-Communist 
because young people, as you know, are rejecting an adult world, are not af- 
fected by prohibitions. Prohibition did not stop alcoholism ; prohibitions will 
not stop young people from entertaining these ideas that are the opposite of the 
adult world. The committee can do this ; they can do it with other organizations. 
I know they have been ; I know they have been doing it with labor. They can 
tell them how to spot these people, to stop them from their recruiting activities. 
The Communists will have to renew their membership; they have to get new 



110 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AIMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

recruits. This is a necessity, and that is where to cut theru off ; that is where to 
cut them off. 

As you can tell, I think, from my testimony, I feel very strongly on this, and 
I want to enlist myself when and wherever 1 can in this fight. 

The complete and revealing testimony of the following individuals 
who contributed their knowledge to the hearings of the committee 
in the San Francisco area was a great factor in the success of these 
hearings. For their having given this testimony, the committee 
wishes to express its utmost appreciation. 

Date of appearance 

Ames, William Donald Dec. 4, 1953. 

Berkeley, Martin Apr. 29, 1953. (Mr. Berkeley appeared 

in executive session, and this testi- 
mony has not been made public.) 

Blodgett, Charles David Dec. 3, 1953. 

Bradsher, Mary Elizabeth Parrott Nov. 2, 1953. (Mary Bradsher fur- 
nished the committee with a sworn 
deposition in which she testified fully 
as to her former membership in the 
Communist Party. A portion of this 
deposition has been made public.) 

Grover, Bertha Nov. 18, 1953. (Bertha Grover ap- 
peared in executive session and testi- 
fied fully as to her activities as an 
FBI undercover agent in the Com- 
munist Party. A portion of this testi- 
mony has been made public.) 

Hill, Dickson P Dec. 2, 1953. 

Kendall, James Dec. 5, 1953. 

Koide, Joe Dec. 3, 1953. (Mr. Koide appeared in 

executive session and testified fully 
as to his former membership in the 
Communist Party. A portion of this 
testimony has been made public.) 

Rosser, Lou Dec. 1, 19.53. 

Seymour, Ernest Leroy Nov. 6 and 22, 1953. (Mr. Seymour 

appeared in executive session and 
testified fully as to his former mem- 
bership in the Communist Party. A 
portion of his testimony of November 
22 has been made public. ) 

The following persons were identified as members of the Communist 
Party during the course of hearings held in San Francisco, Calif. : 

Identified hy 
Alexander, Herschel Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

East Bay director of Civil Rights Con- Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
gress (Oakland, Calif.). William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Anderson, Bruce Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 

Sacramento. 
Attarian, Aram Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Resident of Hayward, Calif. ; em- 
ployed in Oakland. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Attarian, Sally (Mrs. Aram Attarian) Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Augustine, Elizabeth. (See Elizabeth 

McMuUen.) 
Austin, Kenneth Craig Identified in Federal court testimony in 

Longshoreman ; San Francisco. California, Apr. 1, 1952. 

(Appeared Dec. 2, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party niembership.) 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 1 1 1 



Ayeroff, Joe 

Unemployed ; west coast coordinator 
of Communist Party waterfront 
branches, 1946. 

(Appeared Dec. 5, 1953 : refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Bailey, William J. 
Baker, Rudy 
Baker, Donald 
Member, Communist Party fraction, 
Longshoreman's Union. 
Active in Japanese language publica- 
tion "International Correspond- 
ence," 1935. 
Barlow, Edward 
San Francisco. 
Barlow, Elizabetb (Mrs. Edward Bar- 
low) 
San Francisco. 
Barnes, Carroll 

Oakland ; secretary of Alameda Coun- 
ty Communist Party. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Baron, Lou 

Communist Party functionary. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Baroway, Leo 

Circulation manager, Daily People's 
World. 

{See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Batiste, Calvin 

Member, Southwest Berkeley group of 
Communist Party. 
Benet, James Walker, II 
Employee of San Francisco Chron- 
icle. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1953; denied 
present Communist Party mem- 
bership but refused to affirm or 
deny past membership.) 
Bick, Barbara 

Berkeley ; librarian for Daily Peo- 
ple's World. 
Bittman, John 

Oakland ; international representative 
for United Electrical, Radio & Ma- 
chine Workers of America. 
Black, Elaine 

Instructor, San Francisco Workers 
School. 
Black, Gladys (Mrs. Robert Black), 
Oakland. 

Black, Robert 

Printer; Oakland. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Blacklock, Charles 
Electrician ; city of Alameda. 



Identified by 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 
Joe Koide, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill. Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. i, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3. 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 



Martin Berkeley, Apr. 29, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dee. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



112 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Bodkin, Wesley 

Warehouseman ; functionary of Ala- 
meda County Communist Party. 
Bowen, Mildred 
Oakland. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Boykin, Ernest 
Bethlehem Shipyards employee; resi- 
dent, city of Alameda. 
Brandt, Carl 

Communist Party organizer within 
electrical workers union. 
Bratoff, George 

Proprietor of store in Oakland. 
Bridges, Harry 
ILWU president. 



Brown. Al 

Resident of city of Alameda ; em- 
ployee, Bethlehem Shipyards. 

(Witness testified that Mr. Brown 
withdrew from the Communist 
Party.) 
Brown, Archie 

Member of longshoremen's union; 
California State official of Commu- 
nist Party. 

(.^■'■e also Section on hearings 
held in New York City.) 
Brown, Bimbo 
Berkeley ; believed to be a warehouse- 
man. 
Brown, Cleophas 

Official of Contra Costa Communist 
Party. 
Brown, Tom 

Longshoreman ; Los Angeles. 
Brudney, Goodman 

Formerly with CIO public workers; 
Alameda County. 
Bryson, Hugh 

Marine cooks and stewards union. 
Burford, .Jim 
Burris, Jack 

Hayward. Calif. 
Busk, Charlie 

Oakland. 
Calloway, Marie 

Member, Southwest Berkeley group of 
Communist Party. 
Calloway, Warner 

Member, Southwest Berkeley group 
of Communist Party. 
Cameron, Don 

Seaman 
Campbell, Will 

Member, Encinal Club of Communist 
Party, city of Alameda. 



Identified by 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. (Identi- 
fied by witness as attending a closed 
meeting of Communist Party leaders 
within waterfront unions along the 
Pacific coast.) 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952 and a former Communist in 
1951. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 19.53. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 

William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 

Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 



Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 

Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 113 



Canrlght, Marjorie (Mrs. Norman Can- 
right) 
A librarian for Daily People's World. 
Canright, Norman 

Feature editor, Daily People's World. 
Capelle, Frauces (Mrs. Roger Capeile) 
Membership director, Bast Oakland 
section of Communist Party. 
Capelle, Roger 

Oakland. 
Carson. Jules 
Teacher, California Labor School, 
1946. 
Cayton, Revels 

Marine cooks and stewards union. 
(See also Section on hearings held 
in New York City.) 
Charles, Andy 
Active in Los Angeles area in 1930's. 

Chasson, Bob 
Active in Los Angeles area in 1930's. 

Chown, Miriam (Mrs. Paul Chown) 

Housewife; Oakland. 
Chown, Paul 

Field organizer for United Electrical, 
Radio and Machine Workers of 
America. 

(Appeared Dec. 5, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Claibourne, Ethel (Mrs. Sidney Clai- 
bourne) 
Former member, Encinal Club of 
Communist Party, city of Alameda ; 
believed now to be in British Co- 
lumbia. 
Claibourne, Sidney 
Former member, Encinal Club of 
Communist Party, city of Alameda ; 
believed now to be in British Co- 
lumbia. 
Cline, Paul 

Communist Party organizer 

{See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Clifford, Bill 

Plasterer ; San Lorenzo. 
Coe, Lee 

Labor editor, Daily People's World. 
Cohn, Bob (also known as Bob Cole) 
Communist Party functionary 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Cook, Ernest 
Member, Encinal Club of Communist 
Party, city of Alameda. 
Corngold, Libby 

In trade union work in textile In- 
dustry. 



Identified by 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. (Witness 
identified Mr. Charles as a member 
of the Young Communist League.) 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. (Witness 
identified Mr. Chasson as a member 
of the Young Communist League.) 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec 1, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



114 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Identified hy 
Corona, Bert Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Member of Communist group within 
warehousemen's union. 
Crawford, Matthew (Matt) Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

California State official of Commu- 
nist Party. 
Creque, Rosalie (Mrs. William Creque) Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Housewife ; Oakland. 
Creque, William Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Oakland. 
Criley, Dick Lou Rosser. Dec. 1, 1953. 

Communist Party functionary. Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Crockett, Bill William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Landscape gardener ; Oakland. 
Crockett, Rosalie William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Oakland. 
Crowe, Neil Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 

Agent or patrolman for National James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 
Maritime Union, San Pedro, Calif. 
Danzig, Bill Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 19.53. 

Oakland. 
Darcy, Sam Lou Rosser, Dec. 1. 1953. 

Communist Party organizer. Joe Koide, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Also identified by a former Communist 
in 1952 and by two former Commu- 
nists in 1951. 
Davis, Clarence Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Laborer ; city of Alameda. 
Davis, Shelly (Mrs. Clarence Davis) Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 19.53. 

City of Alameda. 
Delgado. John Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Truckdriver; Oakland. 

(Appeared Dec. 3, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Dickerson, Mrs. Kathleen William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Housewife ; Oakland. 
Dobbs, Ben Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Communist Party functionary. 
Doyle, Bernadette Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 19,53. 

Communist Party functionary. 
Drake, James James Kendall, Dec. 5, 19.53. 

Former San Pedro port agent for Na- 
tional Maritime Union. 
Duarte, Charles Alfred "Chili" Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

President of Local 6, ILWU ; resident, 
Oakland. 

( Appeared, Dec. 4, 19.53 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Dwinnell, Robert Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Member, Encinal Club of Communist 
Party, city of Alameda. 
Eagle, Eugene Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Optometrist, San Francisco. 

(Ai)peared Dec. 2, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Eagle, Godine (Mrs. Eugene Eagle) Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Housewife. 
Edwards, George Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 19.53. 

Chairman, West Oakland section of Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Communist Party. William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Edises, Bertram Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953- 

Attorney. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMIMITTEE ON UN-AJVIERICAN ACTIVITIES 115 



Edises, Pele 

Artist, Daily People's World. 
Eidenoff, Josephine Woods 

Oakland. 
Eisler, Joe 
Oakland. 
Eisler. Marjorie (Mrs. Joe Eisler) 

Oakland. 
Englehart, Mrs. A. 

Garment worker, San Francisco. 
Fagerhaugh, Ole 
Warehouseman, Oakland. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Fogarty, Doris (Mrs. Pat Fogarty) 

Oakland. 
Fox, Ernest 

Merchant seaman. 
Franks, Frank 

Member, Encinal Club of Communist 
Party, city of Alameda. 
Frederick, George Van 
Draftsman ; resident of Sausalito, 
Calif. 

(Appeared Dec. 2, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Frederick, Jean (Mrs. George Van Fred- 
erick) 
Gannett, Betty 

Communist Party functionary. 

{See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Garrison, A. 
Instructor, San Francisco Workers 
School. 
George, Harrison 
Clerical worker, Los Angeles ; former 
editor. People's World. 

(Appeared, Dec. 5, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) (See also 
Section on hearings held in Los 
Anueles.) 
Gerber, Serrill 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Gilbert, Miss Jane 

Reporter, Daily People's World. 
Gilliam, James 

Smelter worker ; Oakland. 
Gilliam, Louise 

Oakland. 
Goldblatt, Louis 

name: Lewis Miller) 
Secretai'y-treasurer, ILWU. 
Gonzales, Ella 

Berkeley. 
Gonzales, Jack 
Goodman, Esther 
Secretary, San 
School. 
Goodwin, Sam 
Instructor, San 
School. 



Identified by 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Bertha Grover. Nov. IS, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 



Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Joe Koide, Dec. 3, 1953. 



(Communist Party 



Francisco Workers 



Francisco Workers 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. (Witness 
identified Mr. Gerber as a member of 
the Young Communist League.) 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 

Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



116 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Green, Louis 

Slot man on copy desk of Daily Peo- 
ple's World. 
Green, Walter "Buddy" 

Communist Party functionary, Ala- 
meda County. 
Griffitli. Kathleen. (See Mrs. Kathleen 

Griffith Hee.) 
Grossman, Aubrey 

Attorney. 



Halliug, Bjorne 

Longshoreman, San Francisco. 

(Appeared Dec. 5, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Halpern, Ray 

Member, Southwest Berkeley group, 
Communist Party. 
Hames, Lynn 

Associated with CIO utility workers; 
Alameda County. 
Hammond, Gene 
Hammond, Marian. (See Marian Red- 

ner.) 
Hanson, Carl 

Chairman, Anita Whitney Club of 
Communist Party, Oakland, 1948. 
Hanson, Mrs. Evelyn 

Housewife ; member of Anita Whit- 
ney Club of Communist Party, 
Oakland. 
Haywood, Harry 

Trained in Lenin School, Moscow. 
Hearn, Cleveland 

Chairman of Estuary Club of Com- 
munist Party, cit.v of Alameda. 
Hearn, Inez (Mrs. Cleveland Hearn) 
Hedley, Dave 

In charge of Communist political 
action work in San Francisco. 
Hedley, Jean 

Housewife : San Francisco. 
Hee, Mrs. Kathleen Griffith 
Waitress : Berkeley, Calif. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Heide, Paul 

Former vice president, local 6 of 
warehousemen's union. 
Heide, Ruby (Mrs. Paul Heide) 

Hesse, Sig (Sigfried) 

Attorney. 
Higman, Nell 

Retired school teacher ; Los Angeles. 
(See also section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Hill, Newton 

Plasterer ; member, Encinal Club of 
Communist Party, city of Alameda. 
Hill. Pearl (Mrs. Newton'Hill) 
Hill, Preston 

Member, Communist fraction in long- 
shoremen's union, Los Angeles. 



Identified by 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dee. 2, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. (Witness 
identified Mr. Grossman as a member 
of the Young Communist League.) 

Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 



Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill. Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 117 



Himinelstein, Dave 

Member, executive committee of Com- 
munist Party section in 14tli Con- 
gressional District, California. 
Hood, Dean 

Member, Communist fraction in long- 
shoremen's union, Los Angeles. 
Hudson, Roy 

Unemployed; resident of San Fran- 
cisco. 

(Appeared Dec. 2, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) (See also 
Section on hearings held in New 
York City.) 
Hultgren. Ruth (Mrs. Wayne Hultgren) 

Housewife ; Oakland. 
Hultgren, Wayne 

Carpenter; Communist Party func- 
tionary in Alameda County. 
Hutchinson, Florence 
Izzard, Ralph 

Staff writer. Daily People's World. 
Jacobson, Nathan 

Officer, marine cooks and stewards 
union. 
Jackson, Harry 

West coast organizer of marine work- 
ers' industrial union. 
Jenkins, David 

Member, watei'frout section of Com- 
munist Party, San Francisco ; later 
leader of California Labor SchooL 
Johnson, Allen 

With the AFL carpenters union. 
Johnson, Ralph 

Head of petition campaign for Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party, Berke- 
ley. 
Kalman, Bernice 

Member, Anita Whitney Club of 
Communist Party, Oakland. 
Kalman, li^igene 

Member, Anita Whitney Club of Com- 
munist Party, Oakland. 
Kalman, Herb 

Memljer, Southwest Berkeley group 
of Communist party. 
Kalman, Ted 

Member, Anita Whitney Club of Com- 
munist Party, Oakland. 
Kalman, Teresa 

Member, southwest Berkeley group of 
Communist Party. 
Kaplan, Al 

Member of Communist group within 
warehousemen's union. 
Kaplan, Leon 

Communist Party county committee. 
Keir, Duncan Jr. 

(Witness testified that Mr. Keir 
was expelled from the Commu- 
nist Party.) 
Keivetz, Jules 
Keller, Morris 
Oakland. 



Identtfled ty 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Charles D. 
William D. 
Dickson P. 
Charles I). 
William D. 
Dickson P. 
Charles D. 



Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 
James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 
James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



118 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Kelly, Ora 

Meinbe~r, Encinal Club of Communist 
Party, city of Alameda. 
Kelly, Mrs. Ora 
Kelly, Robert 
Believed chairman of Minnesota Com- 
munist Party in 1943. 
Kinkead, David 

Berkeley. 
Kirkon, Walter 

Carpenter ; city of Alameda. 
Kramer, Harry 
Business manager, Daily People's 
World. 
Kyer, Charlotte 

Secretarial worker, Oakland. 
Lafferty, Mrs. Nori 
Membership director, Alameda Coun- 
ty Communist Party. 
Lambert, Rude 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Lannon, Al (also known as Al Vettari) 
National coordinator of Communist 
Party waterfront section. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in New York City.) 
Lapin, Adam 

Associate editor. Daily People's 
World. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in New York City.) 
Lapin, Mrs. Eva 

Reporter, Daily People's World. 
Laughery, Wilhelmina "Willie" 
Orinda, Calif. 
Manager of a book store in Berkeley. 

Legard, Albert 

City of Alameda. 
Lehman, Fanny (Mrs. Lloyd Lehman) 

Lehman, Lloyd 

San Francisco, carpenter ; former 
chairman, Alameda County Com- 
munist Party. 

( Appeared Dec. 3, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
LeSeuer, Meridel 

Writer. 
Lewis, .Tames 

Resident of Webster housing project, 
city of Alameda. 
Lewis, Veda (Mrs. James Lewis) 
Lien, Gene 
Resident, Berkeley ; employed in Oak- 
land. 
Lien, Jean (Mrs. Gene Lien) 

Lima, Mrs. Helen 

Clerical worker in business office of 
Daily People's World. 



Identified hy 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dee. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 119 



Lindesmith, Rosalind (Mrs. Johnny 
Lindesmith) 
Los Angeles. Former public-health 
nurse, Oakland. 
Lowe, Bill 

Communist Party functionary affili- 
ated with Communist group in 
Berkeley. 
Lynch, Joe 

National Maritime Union, Portland, 
Oreg., 194G. 
Lynden, Richard (Dick) 

Secretary-treasurer, Local 6, ILWU ; 
San Francisco. 

(Appeared Dec. 5, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership. ) 
Mackie, Martin 

Secretary, Minnesota 
Communist Party, 1943. 
Mah, Dan 

San Francisco. 

(Appeared Dec. 2, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Manley, Jack 

Oakland. Calif. 
Manley, Katrina (Mrs. Jack Manley) 
Alameda County official of the Com- 
munist Party. 
Marrow, Ozzo 

Member of Southwest Berkeley group 
of the Communist Party. 
Martin, Sandra 
Oakland. Business agent of CIO 
United Electrical Workers Union. 
Mass, John W. 
Resident, Walnut Creek, Calif. ; 
teacher. City College of San Fran- 
cisco. 

(Appeared Dec. 2, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Matanami, Pete 

Auto worker, Oakland. 
May, Ruth McGovney (formerly Mrs. 
' Kenneth O. May) 

Member Southwest Berkeley group of 
the Communist Party. 
Mayhew, Arthur 

Oakland. 
Mayhew, Elizabeth. {See Elizabeth Mc- 

Mullen.) 
Mays, Andrew 

Member Southwest Berkeley group of 
tlie Communist Party. 
McFadden, James (Jim) 
Plumber ; Oakland. 

McGinty, Leona (Mrs. Howland Cham- 
berlin) 
Communist Party functionary, 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
McGovney, Ruth. (See Ruth McGov- 
ney May.) 



Identified by 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1943. 



Identified in Federal court testimony in 
California, Apr. 1, 1952. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Bertha G rover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 

Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Self-admitted membership in Commu- 
nist Party from 1947 to 1949 accord- 
ing to oath of allegiance signed by 
witness on Oct. 19, 1950, for San Fran- 
cisco Unified School District. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 

Dickson, P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 



Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Dickson P. HiU, Dec. 2, 1953. 



120 ANNUAL REPORT, CORIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



McHarg, Janet 

San Francisco. 
Mcintosh, Anna 

Organizer of the Ben Davis Club of 
the Communist Party in bay area. 
McLeod, Don 

Chairman of the Austin Club of the 
Communist Party in the Alameda 
area. 
McMullen, Elizabeth (nee Augustine; 
formerly Mrs. Arthur Mayhew) 
Oakland. Legal secretary. 
McMullen, Louis 

Employed in auto industry, Oak- 
land. 
McMullen, Martha (formerly Mrs. 
Louis McMullen) 
Former clerical worker. Veterans' 
Administration, Oakland. 
Melia, Mrs. Carmen 

Memher of the Encinal Club of the 
Communist Party in city of Ala- 
meda. 
Melia, Joseph 
Resident of Berkeley, Calif. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1952; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Meyers, Blackie (Frederick N.) 

Official of the National Maritime 
Union. 
Mindel, Jacob ("Pop") 
Teacher at Communist Party national 
training school. 
Miller, Lewis. (See Louis Goldblatt.) 
Monjar, Elsie (Miss) 
Los Angeles. 

Montgomery, Jack 
Auto worker ; bay area and southern 
California. 
Morgan, John 

Formerly business agent of CIO 
Steelworkers Union local in east 
bay area. 
Morris, George / 

Editor of Western Worker. 
Morris, Luther 
Oakland. Employed at Bethlehem 
Shipyards. 
Murdock, Steve 
Feature editor of Daily People's 
World. 
Murphy, Maurice 
Actor ; Hollywood. 

((See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Naboisek, Herbert 

Research worker. University of Cali- 
fornia Department of Psychology. 
(Appeared Dec. 5, 1953; denied 
present Communist Party mem- 
bership but refused to aflSrm or 
deny past membership.) 
Naboisek, June 
Berkeley. 



Identified hy 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3. 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. (Witness 
identified Miss Monjar as a member 
of the Young Communist League.) 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. (Witness 
identified Mr. Maurice Murphy as a 
member of the Young Communist 
League. ) 

Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 



Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2. 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-.\MERICAN ACTIVITIES 121 



Nelson. Margaret (Mrs. Steve Nelson) 
Coiiiiuuiii.st Party functionary. 

Neville. Robert 
Berkeley. Warehouseman. 

Newman, Mort (Morton Horace) 

Active in youth movements in late 
l'j;JO's. 

Oakerly. Harold 

Waterfront section of Communist 
Pnrty in San Francisco. 
Olsen, Jack (also known as Jack 01- 
shausky ) 
OtJicial of Local G ILWU ; Commu- 
nist Party functionary. 
Orr. Violet 

Instructor, San Francisco Workers 
Sciiool. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Parker, Eugene 
City of Alameda. Employed at Beth- 
lehem Shipyards. 
Parsons, Frank 



Partridge, Sid 

Circulation Department, 
Daily People's World. 
Pedrick. Jessie 

Oakland. 
Pell man, Matt (also known as Mike 
Pell, Max Appleman, or Apple- 
baum) 
Comnuuiist Party functionary. 
Peters. J. (also known as Alexander 
Stevens) 
Communist Party functionary. 

(.See a/60 Section on hearings 
held in Columbus) 
i'eters, Hazel 
Member of the Anita Whitney Club 
of the Communist Party in Oak- 
land. 
Pfeiffer, Charles (Charlie) 

Member uf the Communist Party 
group in warehousemen's union. 
Phillips, Earl 

Mechanic, Shell Development Co., 
Eujeryville, Calif. 
Phillips. Marie (Mrs. Earl Phillips) 

Oakland 
Pieper, Mrs. Mary 
Housewife, Berkeley. 

( Appeared Dec. 3, 1953 ; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Polki, John 
Member, Communist Party fraction, 
lonushoremeu's union. 
Posey, Max 
Member, warehousemen's union, San 
Francisco. 

47400 — 54 9 



Identified hy 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. (Witness 
identified Mr. Mort Newman as a 
nieml)er of the Young Communist 
League. ) 

James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 19.53. 

Also identified by a former Conmiunist 

in 1952 and iiy a former Communist 

in 1951. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Bertha Grover, Nov. IS, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



122 ANNUAL REPORT, CORIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Identified by 
Price, Jake William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

General laborer; member of Elm- 
hurst Clnb of Communist Party, 
East Oakland. 
Price, Marge William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Member of Elmhurst Club of the 
Communist I'arty, East Oakland. 
Proctor, Lyle I-ou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Member of Communist Party group 
in longshoremen's union, Los An- 
geles. 
Rasland, Bob Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 

Berkeley. 
Rairland, Clara Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 

Berkeley. 
Rand, Jean Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. (Witness 

Instructor, San Francisco Workers identified Jean Rand as a member of 
School. the Young Communist League.) 

Redner, Bill Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 

Berkeley. 
Redner, Marian (also known as Marian Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Hammond) 
Berkeley. 
Reich, William Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Member of the Anita Whitney Club of 
the Communist Party, Oakland; 
editor of farm publication. 
Richm(»nd, Al Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Executive editor of the Daily People's 
World. 
Roberson, Mrs. Doris Briu Walker Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
(Dobie) 
Attorney, San Francisco. (Appeared 
Dec. 4, 195.'i; refused to alfirm or 
deny Communist Party member- 
ship.) 
Roberson, Mason Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Writer for Daily People's World. 
Roberts, Holland " Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Teacher and administrator of Cali- 
fornia Labor Scliool. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Roberts, Kenneth Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Member of the Encinal Club of the 
Conmiunist Party in city of Ala- 
meda. 
Roberts, Vera (Mrs. Kenneth Roberts) Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Berkeley. 
Robertson, J. R. (Bob) James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. (Witness 

ideutilied Mr. Robertson as attending 
a closetl meeting of Communist Party 
leaders within waterfront unions 
along the Pacific coast, held in Sau 
Francisco, August 1946.) 
Rosser, Mary Lou (formerly Mrs. Lou Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Rosser. ) 
Rossman, Leo James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 

Hollywood. Merchant seaman. 
Rothstein, Ida Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Instiuctor, San Francisco Workers 
School ; charter member of Com- 
munist Party. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 123 



Rutter, Bill 

Hailroad worker; member of North 
Oakhind branch of the Communist 
Party. 
Sanduw, Dildar 
Student. 

Saunders, David 

Chief officer on board the S. S. Alice 
H. Rice. 
Saxton, Al 
Member of the Communist Party in 
the American Communications As- 
sociation group in San Francisco, 
1944-46. 
Schachter, Harold 
Young Comnmnist League organizer 
from Brooklyn sent to Carlton Col- 
lege, Minn. 
Schlipf, Paul 
Auto worker, Oakland. 

(Appeared Dec. 4. 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Schneiderman, Lou. (See Lou Sher- 
man.) 
Schneidernian, William 
Communist Party functionary. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Seeliger, Lloyd 
Member ot Communist Party group 
within warehousemen's union. 
Segure, Rose 
Social worker. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Sharpe, Edith 
Member of Anita Whitney Club of the 
Communist Party in Oakland. 
Sherman, Lou (also known as Lou 
Schneiderman) 
Member of Communist Party group in 
warehousemen s union. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in New York City.) 
Sherman, Roi)ert 

Member of Communist Party group in 
American Coirmumicatious Associ- 
ation in San Francisco. 
Sherwood, Mary 
Berkeley. 

Former Alameda County membership 
director of the Communist Party, 
Siskin, George 
Teacher, Communist Party National 
Training School. 
Smith, Mrs. Eleanor 

Housewife, Oakland. 
Smith. Ferdinand 

Former national secretary of the Na- 
tional Maritime Union. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in New York City.) 



Identified by 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. (Witness 
identified Dildar Sandow as a mem- 
ber of the Young Communist League.) 

James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. (Wit- 
ness identified Mr. Schachter as an 
organizer for the Young Communist 
League. ) 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Bertha Grover, Nov. 18. 19.53. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 19.^3. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 19.53. 

Also identified by a former Communist 

in 1952. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



124 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Smith, Jack 
Agent of National Maritime Union in 
Senttle. 
Smith, John 

Meinl)er of Encinal Club of Com- 
munist Party in city of Alameda. 
Stack, Walter 
Member of executive committee, 
waterfront section of Communist 
Party, San Francisco — 1940 ; in 
marine, firemen, oilers and water- 
tenders union, San Francisco. 
Standish, Jack 
Meml)er of Encinal Club of Communist 
Party in city of Alameda. 
Standish, Ruth (Mrs. Jack Standish) 
Stanley, Al 
Agent of hearing aid company, Kerke- 
ley. 
Stanley, Emma (Mrs. Al Stanley) 
Communist Party functionary, 
Alameda County. 
Starvus, Loretta 

State otlicial of Communist Party, 
California. 
Stiller, George 

Promoter. 
Stone, Martha 

New Jersey; attended Communist 
I'arty National Training School in 
New York. 
Strack, Celeste 

State official of Communist Party in 
California. 



Tandy, Frances 

Oakland. 
Teague, Emmett 

Sign painter, Oakland. 
Teitelbaum, Dave 

Purser on S. S. Alice E. Rice. 
Telford, Sam 

Kesideut, San Francisco. 

lioatswain's mate on the S. S. Alice 
H. Rice. 
Terry, Joe 

Member of Encinal Club of the Com- 
munist Party in city of Alameda. 
Terry, Opal (Mrs. Joe Terry) 
Thompson, Leila 

Oakland ; Communist Party function- 
ary. 

Thompson, Louise 

Official of the International Worker's 
Order. 

(See also section on hearings 
held in New York City.) 
Thonii)S()n, Ray 
Resident, Berkeley. 
CouHuunist Party functionary, 
Alameda County. 
Thorner, Molly 

Housewife, Oakland. 



Identified by 
James Kendall, Dec, 5, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 19."».'{. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Also identified by a former Commu- 
nist in 1952. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 
James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
Bertha Orover, Nov. IS, 1953. 
Dick.son P. Hill, D'c. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, D.-c. 4, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Bertha Grover. Nov. IS, 1953. 
Marv E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 195,3. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1053. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4. 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 125 



TobeT, Clarence 

Former Alameda County chairman of 
the Connminlst Party. 

(Witnesses testified that Mr. 

Tobey was expelled from the 

Communist Party.) 

Tobey, Florence (Mr. Clarence Tobey) 

East Oakland; Communist Party 

functionary. 

(Witnesses testified that Mrs. 
Tobey was expelled from the 
Communists Party. ) 
Tobin. I'at 
Todd. Louise 

Instructor, San Francisco Workers 
School ; Communist Party func- 
tionary, California. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Toopeekoff, Eugene Alexander 
Draftsman. Oakhind 

(Appeared Dec 2. 1058: denied 
present membership in Com- 
munist Party but refused to 
affirm or deny past member- 
ship.) 
Treskiu, Alex 

Wateriront section organizer for 
Conununist Party in San Francisco. 
Treuhaft. Decca (Mrs. Robert Treu- 
haft) 
Oakland. 

Communist Party functionary in 
Alameda County. 
Treuhaft, Robert 
Oakland : attorney 

(Appeared Dec. 3, ]9.")3; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Utrich, Harry 

Member, Communist Party fraction, 
longslioremen's union. 
Vettari. A\. (See Al Lannon.) 
Wachter, Billie 

Wachter, Saul 

Berkeley. 
Walker. Freddie 

Member, southwest Berkeley group of 
Communist Party. 
Ward. Douglas Whitney 
Resident of Sparks. Nev. 

(Appeared Dec. 4. 19.53; denied 
present Communist Party mem- 
bership but refused to affirm or 
deny past membership.) 
Warwick, Mrs. Gertrude 

Memlter. Anita Whitney Club of Com- 
nuuiist Party, Oakland. 
Wheeler. Donald Niven 

Ivpsident of Sequim, Wash. ; formerly 
with Office of Strategic Services. 
(Appeared Dec. 1, 19.53; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membersbip or connections 
with espionage Groups in U. S 
Government.) 



Identified by 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1053. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2,1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1053. 



Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



James Kendall, Dec. 5, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953* 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Bertha Grover, Nov. IS, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 19.53. 

Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 

William D. Ames, Dec. 4. 1953. 

Elizabeth Bentley, July 31, 1948. (Wit- 
ness identified Mr. Wheeler as a mem- 
ber of an espionage group within the 
U. S. ('ivernment.) 



126 ANNUAL REPORT, COMIVIITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



Wheeler, Helen 

Active in building the California 
Yonth Legislature. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Juanita 

Clerical worker in business office of 
Daily People's World. 
White, Al 

Richmond, Calif. 
White, Xaorai 

Richmond, Calif. 
Whitney, Anita 

California State official of Communist 
Party. 
Williams, Bill 

Auto mechanic, Oakland. 
Williams, Carl 

San Fi'ancisco ; member Marine Cooks 
and Stewards Union. 
Williams, Fred 

Member, southwest Berkeley group of 
Communist Party. 
Williams, Gordon 

Resident of Oakland; East Bay di- 
I'ector of California Labor School. 
Williams, Harry 
Active in bay area ; was student in 
Los Anseles in 1932. 
Williams, Joy (Mrs. Gordon Williams) 
Oakland. 

(Appeared Dec. 4, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Wolstenholme, Art 

Operator of cleaning shop, Oakland. 

Wolstenholme, Beckie (Mrs. Art Wol- 
stenholme) 
Wood, Ida 

Paid office worker in Alameda 
County office of Communist Party. 
Wood, James Feuton 

Draftsman, San Francisco. 

(Appeared Dec. 2, 1953; refused 
to affirm or deny Communist 
Party membership.) 
Woods, Dorothy (sister of Josephine 

Woods Eidenoif). 

Berkeley. 
Woods, Harrie 

Carpenter, Oakland. 
Woods, Hilda (Mrs. Harrie Woods) 

Housewife. 
Woods, Josephine. (See Josephine 

Woods Eideuoff.) 
Yanish, Ann (Mrs. Nat Tanish) 

Housewife, Oakland. 



Yanish, Nat 

Former advertising manager of the 
Daily People's World. 

Yates, Al (Allen) 

Seaman, San Francisco. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 



Identified ty 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1. 19.53. (Witness 
identified Helen Wheeler as a mem- 
ber of the Young Comnmnist League. ) 

Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Mary E. P. Bradsher, Nov. 2, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Ernest L. Seymour, Nov. 22, 1953. 

Bertha Grover, Nov. IS, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett. Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 



Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 19.5.3. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 

Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 



Dickson P. Hill, Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Dickson P. Hill. Dec. 2, 1953. 
Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 19.53. 
William D. Ames, Dec. 4, 1953. 
Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 127 

Identified J)y 
Yates. Oleta O'Connor (also known as Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 
Oleta O'Connor) 
State otficial of the Communist Party 
in California. 

(See also Section on hearings 
held in Los Angeles.) 
Younce, Richard Charles D. Blodgett, Dee. 3, 1953. 

Treasurer of the Anita Whitney Club Bertha Grover, Nov. 18, 1953. 
of Communist Party, Oakland. 
Young, Adele Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Comnninist Party functionary in Cali- 
fornia. 
Young, Beniard Charles D. Blodgett, Dec. 3, 1953. 

Political alTairs committee of Com- 
munist Party of Alameda County. 
YouuK, Cone C. Lou Rosser, Dec. 1, 1953. 

Otticial of ILWU in San Pedro. 

CONSUMERS' UNION 

It will be noted in other sections of this report that the committee 
has made every effort to alert individuals and organizations who feel 
that their names are unjustly reflected in the committee's records or 
testimony to communicate with the committee to rectify or clarify 
their position. 

A very tangible example of the success that the committee has 
gained in these efforts relates to Consumers' Union, which is the pub- 
lisher of Consumer Reports. This organization, on the basis of in- 
formation in the committee records, had been cited by the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities in 1944. Steps were initiated 
by Consumers' Union through its officers and legal counsel to clarify 
this situation. After hearings and thoroun;h study the committee 
finds there is no present justification for continuing this organization 
as one that is cited, and future reports and publications will reflect that 
this organization has been deleted from the list of subversive organiza- 
tions and publications. 

It cannot be pointed out too frequently that the fact that an organ- 
ization has been cited as subversive or as a Communist front does not 
mean that such citation is irrevocable. Steps such as those taken by 
Consumers' Union, can lead to a proper clarification by the committee. 



RULES OF PEOCEDURE 

In the first organizational meeting of the House Committee on Un- 
Ajnerican Activities in January 1953, the members decided that there 
was a need for the codification of the committee's rules of procedure. 
As the result of careful study the committee released these rules on 
July 15, 1953. 

This codification of the rules did not substantially change the pro- 
cedures that the committee had followed in the past. There were, 
however, certain additional obligations which the committee imposed 
upon itself. 

The principal addition was the requirement that persons named 
for the first time in public hearing before the committee or subcom- 
mittee as subversive, Fascist, Communist, or alliliated with one or 
more subversive-front organizations, shall where practicable and with- 
in a reasonable time thereafter, be notified of this fact by registered 
letter to the last-lmown address for the individual. 

In many instances it is virtually impossible for the committee to 
ascertain the location of an individual named in testimony. However, 
if a person learns that his name has been so reflected in public testi- 
mony, the same rule will apply. 

Because of the importance of the action taken by the committee in 
codifying its rules and in order that the Congress may be fully ap- 
praised of its procedures, the rules are being set forth here in their 
entirety : 

Rules of Procedure 

i. initiation of investigations 

No major investigation sliall be initiated wtihont approval of a majority of 
the committee. I'reliminary inquiries, however, may be initiated by the com- 
mittee's staff with the approval of the chairman of the committee. 

II. SUBJECTS OF INVESTIGATION 

The subject of any investigation in connection with which witnesses are sum- 
moned or shall otherwise appear shall be announced in an opening statement 
to the committee before the commencement of any hearings; and the information 
sought to be elicited at the hearings shall be relevant and germane to the subject 
as so stated. 

in. SUBPENAING OP WITNESSES 

A. Subpenas shall be signed and issued by the chairman of the committee, or 
any member of the committee designated by said chairman. 

R. Witnesses shall be subpenaed at a reasonably sufficient time In advance of 
any hearing, said time to be determined by the committee, in order to give the 
witness an opportunity to prepare for the hearing and to employ counsel, should 
he so desire. 

IV. EXECUTIVE AND PUBLIC HEARINOS 

A. Executive 

(1) If a majority of the committee or subcommittee, duly appointed as pro- 
vided hy the rules of the House of Representatives, believes that the interroga- 
tion of a witness in a public hearing might endanger national security or unjustly 

128 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 129 

injure his reputation, or the reputation of other individuals, the committee shall 
Interrogate such witness in an executive session for the purpose of determining 
the necessity or advisability of conducting such interrogation thereafter in a 
public hearing. 

(2) Attendance at executive sessions shall be limited to members of the com- 
mittee, its staff, and other persons whose presence is requested, or consented to 
by the committee. 

(3) All testimony taken in executive sessions shall be kept secret and shall 
not be released or used in public sessions without the approval of a majority of 
the committee. 

B. Public hearings 

(1) All other hearings shall be public. 

v. TESTIMONY UNDER OATH 

All witnesses at public or executive hearings who testify as to matters of fact 
shall give all testimony under oath or affirmation. Only the chairman or a 
member of the committee shall be empowered to administer said oatli or 
affirmation. 

VI. TRANSCRIPT OF TESTIMONY 

A complete and accurate record shall be kept of all testimony and proceedings 
at hearings, both in public and in executive session. 

Any witness or his counsel, at the expense of the witness, may obtain a tran- 
script of any public testimony of the witness from the clerk of the committee. 

Any witness or his counsel may also obtain a transcript of any executive 
testimony of the witness : 

(1) When a special release of said testimony prior to public release is 
authorized by the chairman of the committee or the chairman of any 
sui)com'mittee ; or 

(2) After said testimony has been made public by the committee. 

Vn. ADVICE OF COUNSEL 

A. At every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall be accorded the 
privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

B. The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and while 
the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness as to his legal 
rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral argument with the 
committee, but shall confine his activity to the area of legal advice to his client. 

VHI. CONDUCT OF COUNSEL 

Counsel for a witness shall conduct himself in a professional, ethical, and 
proper manner. His failure to do so shall, upon a finding to that effect by a 
majority of the committee or subcommittee before which the witness is appear- 
ing, subject such counsel to disciplinary action which may include warning, 
censure, removing from the hearing room of counsel, or a recommendation of 
contempt proceedings.' 

In case of such removal of counsel, the witness shall have a reasonable time 
to obtain other counsel, said time to be determined by the committee. Should 
the witness deliberately or capricioiisly fail or refuse to obtain the services of 
other counsel within such reasonable time, the hearing shall continue and the 
testimony of such witness shall be heard without benefit of counsel. 

IX. STATEMENT BY WITNESS 

A. Any witness desiring to make a prepared or written statement ' for the 
record of the proceedings in executive or public sessions shall file a copy of such 
statement with the counsel of the committee within a reasonable period of time 
In advance of the hearing at which the statement is to be presented. 



i 



* The committee seeks factual testimony within the personal knowledge of the witness and 
each testimony and answers must be given by the witness himself and not suggested to 
witness by counspl. 

' Stateriirnts which take the form of personal attacks by the witness upon the motives of 
the committee, thf> personal characters of any Members of the Congress or of the com- 
mittee staff, and statements clearly in the nature of accusation are not deemed to be cither 
relevant or germane. 



130 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

B. All such statements so received which are relevant and germane to the 
subject of the investigation may, upon approval, at the conclusion of the testi- 
mony of the vpitness, by a majority vote of the committee or subcommittee mem- 
bers present, be inserted in the official transcript of the proceedings. 

X. EIGHTS OF PERSONS AFFECTED BY A HEARING 

A. Where practicable, any person named in a public hearing before the com- 
mittee or any suhcommittee as subversive, Fascist, Communist, or affiliated with 
one or more subversive-front organizations, who has not been previously so 
named, shall, within a reasonable time thereafter, be notified by registered 
letter, to the address last known to the committee, of such fact, including: 

(1) A statement that he has been so named, 

(2) The date and place of said hearing, 

(3) The name of the person who so testified, 

(4) The name of the subversive. Fascist, Communist, or front organiza- 
tion with which he has been identified, and 

(5) A copy of the printed Rules of Procedure of the committee. 

B. Any person, so notified, who believes that his character or reputation has 
been adversely affected or to whom has been imputed subversive activity, may 
within 15 days after receipt of said notice: 

(1) Commvmicate with the counsel of the committee,' and/or 

(2) Request to appear at his own expense in person before the committee 
or any suhcommittee thereof in public session and give testimony, in denial 
or affirmation, relevant and germane to the subject of the investigation. 

O. Any such person testifying under the provisions of B (2) above shall be 
accorded the same privileges as any other witness appearing before the commit- 
tee, and may be questioned concerning any matter relevant and germane to the 
subject of the investigation. 

XI. ADMISSIBILITY OF TESTIMONY 

A witness shall be limited to giving information relevant and germane to the 
subject under investigation. The committee shall rule upon the admissibility 
of all testimony or information presented by the witness.* 

XII. RELATIONSHIP OF HUSBAND AND WIFE 

The confidential relationship between husband and wife shall be respected, 
and for reasons of public policy, one spouse shall not be questioned concerning 
the activities of the other, except when a majority of the committee or sub- 
committee shall determine otherwise. 

xm. TELEVISED HEARINGS 

A. If a hearing be televised : 

(1) Television facilities in the hearing room shall be restricted to two 
cameras, the minimum lighting facilities practicable, and the television pro- 
duction shall be available on a pool basis to all established television com- 
panies desiring participation. 

(2) Telecasts of committee hearings shall be on the basis of a public 
service only, and this fact shall be publicly announced on television in 
the beginning and at the close of each telecast. No commercial announce- 
ments shall be permitted from the hearing room or in connection therewith, 
and no actual or intimated sponsorship of the hearings shall be permitted in 
any instance. 



8 All witnessps are invited at any time to confer with committee counsel or investigators 
for tlip committee prior to hearinss. 

* Tlie House Committee on Un-American Activities is a congressional committee, not a 
conrt (SCO pp. IV and V). Moreover, the committee has neither the authority nor the vast 
powers of a court of law. 

A concrressional committee conducts a search for information, not a trial. 

The requirements of time, the nature of the factfindins hearing, the complications of 
travel, the realities of expense, and the voluminous duties of Members of Congress all add 
tosrether to make it impractical for courtroom procedure to bo followed. 

The committee has given frequent and diligent consideration to this pro.iect, and has 
determined that in order to carry out its responsibilities imposed by law, the rules of 
evidence, including cross-examination, are not applicable. 



AKNTTAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 131 

B. Upon the request of a witness that no telecast be made of him during the 
course of his testimony, the chairman shall direct that television cameras 
refrain from photographing the witness during the taking of his testimony. 

XIV. COMMITTEE REPORTS 

A. No committee reports or publications shall be made or released to the 
public without the approval of the majority of the committee. 

B. No summary of any committee report or publication and no statement of 
the contents of such report or publication shall be released by any member of 
the committee or its staff, prior to the official issuance of the report. 

XV. WITNESS FEES AND TRAVEL ALLOWANCE 

Each witness who has been subpenaed, upon the completion of his testimony 
before the committee, may report to the office of the clerli of the committee, room 
227, Old House Office Building, Washington, D. C, and there sign appropriate 
vouchers for travel allowances and attendance fees upon the committee. If 
hearings are held in cities other than Washington, D. C, the witness may 
contact the clerk of the committee, or his representative, prior to leaving the 
hearing room. 

XVI. CONTEMPT OF CONGRESS 

No recommendation that a witness be cited for contempt of Congress shall be 
forwarded to the House of Representatives unless and until the committee has, 
upon notice to all its members, met and considered the alleged contempt, and by 
a majority of those present voted that such recommendation be made. 

XVII. DISTRIBUTION OF ETJLES 

All witnesses appearing before the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
shall be furnished a printed copy of the Rules of Procedure of the committee. 



( 



FILES AND REFERENCE SERVICE 

For a number of years this committee has maintained a specialized 
reference service in the field of subversive activities insofar as fur- 
nishing any information that may appear on a given subject in the 
committee's own public records, files, and publications. This service 
is available at present only to Members of Congress, the representa- 
tives of the executive branch of the Government, and, of course, to 
all staff members of this committee, varying somewhat according to 
type and amount of material found and the needs of the person seek- 
ing the information. 

Due to the confusion that has arisen as to the nature of the com- 
mittee's files, it should be stated that the material from which reports 
are prepared for Members of Congress and other authorized com- 
mittees and agencies is compiled from public sources such as news- 
papers, magazines, authenticated letterheads, and other documents 
available from public sources, and could be compiled by personal re- 
search on the part of any individual. These files are distinguished 
from the investigative files, which material is not available to anyone 
except the committee investigators themselves. 

It should be noted that no information which is voluntarily given 
by individuals or groups is incorporated into these files unless the 
source and nature of the material has been adequately checked to in- 
sure its accuracy and validity. 

Each report that is furnished from the committee's files contains 
the following disclaimer : 

The public records, files, and publications of this committee contain the follow- 
ing information conceriiiiijE; (organization/individual). This report should not 
be construed as representing the results of an investigation by, or findings of, 
this committee. It should be noted that the individuals and/or organization 
referred to above are not necessarily Communist, Communist sympathizers, or 
fellow travelers, unless otherwise indicated. 

The Members of Congress make constant use of this service with 
queries ranging all the way from a request for the prompt verification 
of a single point or a brief summary of available material to the sub- 
mission of a list of both individual and organization names for a 
complete check and full report on each item. In every case, a complete 
check of the pertinent indexes and source material must be made be- 
fore an answer is supplied, but the answer may be given in either 
verbal or written form, verbal answers being employed only when so 
requested and the material may be summarized briefiy and easily or 
when a check has shown that we have no information to report on 
the subject. The more usual type of request, however, is for a com- 
plete written report setting forth not only what has been found but 
also where each reference appears. 

Much the same conditions prevail in regard to supplying informa- 
tion to the committee's staff members, who, although they often wish 
to examine or borrow the source material itself, also need that in- 

132 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 133 

formation assembled for them into readily accessible written form 
to use in connection with the extensive investigations being con- 
ducted under direction of the committee. 

On the other hand, the executive departments and agencies, which 
are required by Executive order to make a check of the committee's 
files, send their own representatives to make the check of the indexes 
to the material contained in the files and publications. The staff of 
this section is required to furnish these agents only such reference 
service as is involved in the pointing out of reference sources, expla- 
nation of how the material iifdexed is recorded on the index cards, and 
the withdrawal of exhibit material from files for their examination 
when specifically authorized to do so. 

Neither the extent of subject matter contained in the reference 
questions nor the time and work involved in furnishing the answers 
can be reduced to figures. The following statistics, however, do indi- 
cate something of the steady overall growth in demand for the service. 

A count has shown that a total of about 3,800 requests for informa- 
tion on 10,095 individuals and 2,459 organizations were received and 
answered by this section during the past year. This resulted in the 
furnishing of written reports covering 7,687 individuals and 882 or- 
ganizations, and, as compared to the 1952 count, represents an in- 
crease of 200 in the total number of requests received, with 1,195 more 
individual and 459 more organization names included in the requests. 
A further comparison of figures for the 2 years has shown 2,338 re- 
quests received from and 1,285 written reports supplied to the Mem- 
bers of Congress as against 2,400 requests received and 1,440 written 
replies to them in 1952, a small decrease which may have been caused 
by a change in the office procedure of handling requests. 

The total number of visits made to the files by the designated repre- 
sentatives of the executive departments and agencies has shown a 
decline from 6,260 in 1952 to 4,880 in 1953. This does not indicate 
any lessening of interest in or use of the committee's reference mate- 
rial as it may seem to appear on the surface, for the average length 
of each visit has increased appreciably with more persons than ever 
before assigned full time to the checking of our records. 

Equally important, though not always remembered, is the fact that 
such reference service, to be reliable, requires the proper care and 
handling of old material as well as the constant acquisition and proper 
classification, cross referencing and indexing of new material. The 
age and volume of the committee's valuable collection of pamphlets, 
periodicals, books, newspapers, leaflets, letterheads, and other source 
material both primary and secondary has presented problems of hous- 
ing, handling, and processing which continue to increase in difficulty 
in direct proportion to those factors. Pressure of work has not af- 
forded time for keeping an accurate running count of the amount of 
file material acquired, the number of index cards added, or the number 
of pieces classified and processed for files. However, it seems fair 
to estimate that the acquisition, classification, and indexing of the 
Communist press source material has kept apace of other years and 
that approximately 4,000 pages of the printed hearings and reports of 
this committee, already indexed, have been added as compared to the 
2,827 pages of publications received and indexed by this section in 
1952. 



t 



PUBLICATIONS 

The printed copies of the hearings conducted by the committee, 
available not only to Members of Congress, but also to the general 
public, so long as the supply of them lasts, make it possible for thou- 
sands of persons all over the country to become acquainted with what 
actually happened at each session. The reports, either in summarizing 
the work of the committee in various fields, or in giving detailed 
information on certain phases of subversive activities in connection 
with particular organizations, furnish to the Congress and to the 
country the results of highly intensified research, replete with docu- 
mentary material from the files of the committee. 

A study of these hearings and reports reveals a graphic pattern of 
the methods and practices of subversive elements in this country 
which would destroy not only the Constitution and Government of 
the United States, but our very way of life, substituting in their places 
foreign ideologies which would terminate all freedom of expression, 
individual rights as guaranteed by our Constitution, and all else that 
is held sacred in this country today. 

Due to the fact that the number of copies of each hearing and report 
printed by the committee is limited, it is possible to comply with only 
a part of the requests which are received daily for them. These re- 
quests, from congressional offices, individuals. Government agencies, 
organizations comprised of religious, patriotic, veteran, labor, and 
educational groups, as well as those of the legal and medical profes- 
sions, are filled as quickly as possible. Thus, the work of the com- 
mittee is made clear to each person who reads these hearings and 
reports. In filling these many requests, approximately 225,000 copies 
of committee publications were distributee! during 1953. 

Reflecting the extensive and diversified scope of the work of the 
committee for the year 1953, the committee has either put into print 
already or sufficient work of this type is in progress to complete 
approximately 4,000 pages of hearings and reports. This number is 
ever twice that of any complete Congress covering periods of 2 years. 

Organized Communism in the United States 

The report issued by the committee on August 19, 1953, under title, 
"Organized Communism in the United States," a highly documented 
historical review of the many twists and turns of Communist Party 
line, its varied constitutional aspects, changes of name, and shifts of 
hierarchy from its beginning to the present time, has met with instant 
acclaim as being invaluable to persons who wish to have detailed 
knowledge of this subject. 

The supply of copies obtained by the committee which was com- 
pletely exhausted in a matter of days after its original printing will be 
augmented by a large new printing early in 1954. It will then be 

134 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 135 

possible to fulfill the many requests for them that are being held until 
that time. 

Committee Publications for the 1st Session op the 83d Congress, 1953 

Communist Methods of Infiltration (Education) 
Communist Methods of Infiltration (Education — Part 2) 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles Area — Part 1 
Investi.i,'ation of Communist Activities in the Los Anjieles Area — Part 2 
Investi.uation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles Area — Part 3 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles Area — Part 4 
Investigation of Comnuinist Activities in the Los Angeles Area — Part 5 
Communist Methods of Infiltration (Education — Part 3) 
Communist Methods of Infiltration (Education — Part 4) 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York City Area — Part 1 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York City Area — Part 2 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York City Area — Part 3 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York City Area — Part 4 
Communist Methods of Infiltration (Education — Part 5) 
Communist Methods of Infiltration (Government-Labor) 
Franciszek Jarecki — Flight to Freedom 
Soviet Schedule for War — 1955 

Investigation of Communist Activities in the Columbus, Ohio, Area 
Communist Methods of Infiltration (Education — Part 6) 
Testimony of Stephen H. Fritchman 

Communist Methods of Infiltration (Government-Labor, Part 2) 
Investigation of Comnuinist Activities in the New York City Area — Part 5 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York City Area — Part 6 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York City Area — Part 7 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the New York City Area — Part 8 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles Area — Part 6 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Albany, N. Y., Area — Part 1 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Albany, N. Y., Area — Part 2 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles Area — Part 7 
Testimony of Dr. Marek Stanislaw Korowicz 
Hearings Regarding Jack R. McMichael 

Investigation of Communist Activities In the Philadelphia, Pa., Area — Part 1 
Investigation of Communist Activities In the Philadelphia, Pa., Area — Part 2 
Methods of Communist Infiltration (Government-Labor, Part 3, based on testi- 
mony of James McNamara)^ 
Testimony of G. Bromley Oxnam ' 

Investigation of Communist Activities In the San Francisco Area (Parts 1^) ' 
Organized Communism in the United States 
Annual Report of the Committee on Un-American Activities for the Year 1953 

1 In process of being printed at date of this report. 



( 



PAST RECOMMENDATIONS 

In the past years the House Committee on Un-American Activities, 
after exhaustive study of its investigations and hearings, has, from 
time to time, made recommendations to the Congress for the enactment 
of legishition necessary to combat subversion. 

The Internal Security Act of 1950 resulted directly from hearings 
conducted before this committee and many of the recommendations 
dealing with security against subversive aliens have been incorporated 
in the McCarran-Walter immigration act. Certain other of the rec- 
ommendations have been enacted by resolutions of various Members 
of Congress and other recommendations have been acted upon by the 
executive branch of the Government. It is regrettable, however, that 
in numerous instances recommendations that the committee has made 
which would serve as a security safeguard against subversive activities 
in the United States have not yet been enacted into law. 

In order that the Congress and the American people might have an 
understanding of the recommendations that have been made by the 
committee in the past, there follows a complete list of all recommenda- 
tions made by this committee since the first session of the Seventy- 
sixth Congress. 

Recommendations contained in House Report No. 2, 76th Con- 
gress, 1st session, dated January 3, 1939: 

Although this committee has worked continuously since the adjournment of 
Congress and has done everything within its i)ower to get as many facts as 
possible to the people, we have only skimmed the surface. We were able only 
to hold brief hearings in Xew York and Detroit. We were urged to conduct hear- 
ings in many other cities, such as Chicago, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Minneapolis, 
Milwaukee, Birmingham, Atlanta, New Orleans, San Antonio, Los Angeles, San 
Fiancisco, Seattle, and Portland, but due to limited time and funds we were 
unable to comply with these requests. We had hoped and planned to conduct 
extensive hearings on the west coast because the evidence before the committee 
indicates that this area ranks first in the extent of un-American activities and 
propaganda. We received numerous letters from citizens and public officials in 
the west-coast area urging us to hold hearings there. We have approximately 
350 witnesses on the west coast that should have been heard. However, due 
to a lack of funds, we wei'e unable to devote any extensive consideration to 
west coast activities of Communist, Nazi, and Fascist groups. The situation is 
so serious on the west coast that it would recjuire G months of preparatory in- 
vestigation before a committee would be ready to conduct hearings, and it is 
probable that hearings would last 3 or 4 months. 

Not only weie we unable to investigate un-American activities and propaganda 
in many important sections of the country; but. as a matter of fact, we found it 
impossible to investigate many of the important phases of un-American activi- 
ties. Even as to those that we did investigate, we only scratched the surface. 

In view of the foregoing, we do not think that the investigation has proceeded 
far enough to .iustify us in recommending legislation to Congress. We need and 
can secure much more information not only from sections of the country that 
we have investigated hut also from the larger areas that we have not even 
touched before recommending legislation to Congress. Even after we are sup- 
plied with full and complete information and facts, several months of considera- 
tion must be devoted to the question of legislation. This will require expert 
assistance and thorough research. 

'36 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON TJN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 137 

Legislative recommendations contained in Report No. 1, 77th 
Congress, 1st session, dated January 3, 1941: 

The committee realizes the difficulty of reaching and curbing certain phases of 
un-American and subversive propaganda and activities through legislative action. 
In vievp of our findings and the origin of these activities, we submit the following 
recommendations as a partial legislative program : 

The enactment of legislation to bring about the immediate mandatory deporta- 
tion of alien spies and saboteurs. 

The mandatory deportation of aliens who advocate any basic change in the 
form of our Government. 

The enactment of legislation requiring that all employees and officials of our 
Federal Government be Americjin citizens. 

Withhold all Federal financial support from any educational institution which 
permits members of its faculty to advocate communism, fascism, or nazisni as 
a substitute for our form of Government to the student body of these educa- 
tional institutions. (This particular recommendation is not concurred in by Mr. 
Voorhis, not because of disagreement with the principle involved but on the uround 
that the administration of such an act is impossible without risking grave in- 
justice being done to people seeking merely to explain the jirinciples involved 
in totalitarian philosophy.) 

The enactment of legislation to outlaw every political organization which is 
shown to be under the control of a foreign government. As long as these organi- 
zations have a le.iral status in the United States, it will be difficult for any agency 
of the Government to deal with them. We now kmnv that tliey furnish the legal 
apparatus for the operations of saboteurs, and the window dressing for espionage. 
The committee believes that legislation can be worked out to outlaw such organi- 
zations, and that this will in no sen.se constitute a violation of the Bill of Rights, 
since such legislation would only affect organizations controlled or directed by 
foreign countries. 

The enactment of legislation to sto]) all ininiigrntion from foi-eian countries 
that refuse to accept the return of their nationals found under American law 
to be deportable from tliis country. This legislation is made necessary by the 
fact that some foreign governments have refused to accept their own citizens 
who have been deported by the United States Go\ernment. 

As previously stated in the body of the rei»ort, the committee recommends 
the pas.sage of added legislation to place restrictions on the distribution of totali- 
tarian propaganda, when that distribution involves any cost to the American tax- 
pa.vers, and when such propaganda emanates and is shipped from foreign 
soiu'ces 

We recommend that the statutory poriod during which citizenship papers can 
be revoked under existing law he extended to at least 30 years. 

Due to the fact that tlie committee has discovered that many members of 
foreign-controlled organizations have traveled on American jiassports which 
have been frauilulently obtained, the committee feels that the statute of limita- 
tions should be extended from 8 to 7 years. This is made necessary because of 
the unusual difficulty in apjirehonding those who resort to the use of fraudulent 
I)assports within the period of 3 years. 

4- * * • 4> * * 

The committee recommends as a policy that employment in national-defense 
industries or the Goverinneiit service he denied to any jierson who has been and 
is now active in any political organization which is found to be under the control 
and guidance of a foreign government. 

Recommendations contained in House Report No. 2742, 79th 
Congress, 2d session, dated January 2, 1947 : 

That the Congress create an independent commission with authority to invc^iti- 
gate and to order the discharge of any employee or official of the l'\Hleral 
Government whose loyalty to the T'nited States is found to be in doubt. 

That the Depavtment of State and the Department of .Justice be required by 
law to publicize every 6 months the names and identity of all agents of any 
foreign governments who are in the T'nited States for either diplomatic, com- 
mercial, or other purposes. 

That the Dei)artment of Justice be required b.v law to establish within the 
Deiiartment a special division devoted to the prosecution of subversive elements 
now o»'f^vr.)-nTiT in the T'nited States. 

47400 — 54 10 



138 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

That the Attorney General be instructed by a proper resolution of the House 
to report to the House the number of prosecutions instituted under the Voorhis 
Act and the McCormack Alien Registration Act, and to advise the Congress if 
new legislation is necessary to insure the security of this country. 

That legislation should be enacted that would restrict Federal employment 
to citizens of the United States and that only citizens be permitted to hold 
office in any labor union subject to Federal laws. 

That legislation be enacted requiring that all alien Communists and other 
subversive aliens be promptly deported and that the Immigration Service main- 
tain a stringent screening process to restrain the present influx of aliens into 
the United States and to determine whether their political background is inimi- 
cal to the best interests of the United States Government. 

Legislation should be enacted to restrict the benefits of certain tax-exemption 
privileges now extended to a number of Communist fronts posing as educational, 
charitable, and relief organizations. , 

The following is a quotation from committee Report No. 1996, Union Calendar 
No. 588, 79th Congress, 2d session, submitted by Chairman John S. Wood, May 
10, 1946 : 

"The investigative staff of your committee has conducted an extensive investi- 
gation into the various sources of financial aid to organizations engaged in the 
dissemination of propaganda in the United States. The heart of propaganda 
activities is, by necessity, sustained with money. Reasonable regulation of 
tax exemptions and proper enforcement of such regulations would immediately 
restrain to u large extent the vicious attacks now being made upon our constitu- 
tional form of government." 

That the House request, by proper resolution, a report from the Postmaster 
General of the United States, setting forth the number of embassies or foreign 
agencies now enjoying second-class mailing privileges and also specifically iden- 
tifying such agencies where the respective foreign governments do not accord 
to our embassies, ministers, and other United States officials equal mailing 
l^rivileges in those countries, and that proper legislation be enacted by Congress 
limiting the use of second-class mailing privileges to such embassies and agencies 
of those foreign governments which extend reciprocal privileges to officials of 
the United States Government. 

That legislation be enacted forbidding the use of the United States mails 
under set-oud-class mailing privileges to any and all newspapers and periodicals 
printed in any language other than English, which do not carry a full English 
translation, in parallel columns, next to the foreign-language context. 

That legislation oe enacted denying the use of second-class mailing privileges 
to any groups of persons or organizations engaged in the publication, distribution, 
or promotion of subversive or un-American propaganda. 

For many years, various organizations in the United States have permitted 
membership under an alias or an assumed name, and have even gone so far as 
to permit concealed or secret membership. It is recommended that the Congress 
enact legislation designed to prohibit memliership in any organization using 
the United States mails or subject to Federal laws, by persons using an alias 
or assumed name. Such legislation should also include a provision which would 
clearly ban concealed or secret memberships in any such organizations as de- 
scribed above. An exemption should be made for properly authorized law- 
enforcement officers in the conduct of their investigations. 

Recommendations contained in the annual report of the com- 
mittee to the House of Representatives, 80th Congress, 2d session, 
dated December 31, 1948: 

In its annual report of January 3, 1940, the Special Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities characterized the Communist Party of the United States not as a 
true political party but as a conspiracy in behalf of the Soviet Union. Our in- 
vestigations and hearings during the past 2 years have borne out this conclusion 
in the most startling fashion. The evidence now before us establishes beyond a 
doul)t that espionage and treasonable activity against these United States is, 
in fact, the primary purpose of the organization. We are convinced that all other 
outward activity and propaganda of the Conununist I'arty, its front organiza- 
tions, and controlled unions, serve merely to — 

Enlist new recruits for the primary underground espionage apparatus. 

Lend an idealistic camouflage to this sinister conspiratorial apparatus. 

Act as its protective defense mechanism. 

Provide it witli funds and other resources. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 139 

The enacting of legislation to cope with this problem is a task confronting the 
incomini;" Congress. 

We reconiniend the early passage of legislation modeled substantially after 
the so-called Muudt-Nixon bill, which passed the House last year by a roUcall 
vote of 319 to 5G. 

In addition, we recommend that the espionage laws of the United States be 
substantially strengthened by early laws of the new Congress, with special atten- 
tion to means for returning aliens to other countries upon conviction for crimes 
against the United States. We also recommend that the penalties for those 
properly cited for contempt of Congress be increased to a minimum of 5 years in 
prison and a $5,000 fine. 

We further suggest that our immigration laws and passport-visa regulations 
be carefully studied to determine what changes are necessary to prevent disloyal 
elements from entering this country and remaining here. 

Recommendations contained in the annual report of the com- 
mittee to the House of Representatives, 81st Congress, 1st ses- 
sion, for the year 1949, dated March 15, 1950: 

Looliing bacli upon 4 years' experience as a standing committee of the House 
of Representatives and almost 7 years as a special committee, we feel more than 
ever impressed with the insidiousness and vastness of the ramifications of the 
Communist movement and the urgent necessity for unflagging efforts to expose 
and curb its machinations. To further the effectiveness of these investigations 
and to curb the subversive activities of the Communist Party, United States of 
America, its agents and its dupes, the committee recommends the following 
action by the incoming House of Representatives : 

The statute of limitations in espionage cases must be amended. Under our 
present laws we have found that a long list of Communist operatives who have 
committed acts of espionage and treachery in the interest of a foreign power 
have remained immune to punishment due to the present form of the statute of 
limitations. 

The nature of modern war — the fact that nations find themselves confronted 
nowadays with undeclared but actual warfare — makes it necessary that the legal 
definition of treason and tlie penalties attached thereto be broadened to cover 
a period like the present cold war. 

Experience during the past 5 years has demonstrated that the embassies of 
Communist-dominated countries constitute a focal point of Communist espionage 
and propaganda. Such activity should be limited by proper safeguards sternly 
enforced. 

H. R. 3903, providing safeguards against the employment of subversive indi- 
viduals in defense plants, should be adopted. 

H. R. 10, providing for the supervision and detention of undeportable aliens, 
should be enacted into law in order to deal with thousands of alien Communists 
refused acceptance by the country of their birth. 

It would be advantageous to enact legislation creating a presumption of law 
that a committee quorum, once established, continues to exist. 

Effective action against tlie well-coordinated, interlocking Communist network 
requires the utmost teamwork among branches of the Government. Petty rivalry 
or separatism can only work to the advantage of the Communists. A small bit 
of information in the hands of one agency may well be the missing link of an 
entire chain of evidence in the hands of another agency. Hence, the committee 
recommends the fullest cooperation between legislative and executive arms of the 
Government in the matter of dealing with subversive activities. Alodiiication of 
the Executive order in loyalty and investigative cases is recommended for 
consideration. 

In a laumber of cases we have found that subversive elements will submit in- 
formation to one arm of the Government when it suits their purpose and will 
withhold it from another. Communist trade-unionists will deny their aililiations 
before the National Labor Relations Board and refuse to affirm or denv them be- 
fore a congressional committee. They will deny them in filling out form 57 in 
applying for Federal employment and refuse to allirm or deny such affiliations 
before this committee. It is highly necessary that the Department of .In.stice 
take effective action against those who would make a tragic joke of law enforce- 
ment. Here, again, there is room for maximum cooperation between the legisla- 
tive and executive arms of Government. 



140 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

In connection with national-defense contracts involving secret and classified 
work for the Atomic Energy Commission, the Army, Navy, and Air Force legis- 
lation should lie enacted which subjects officers of national labor unions having 
bargaining contracts to the same security standards as members who have access 
to secret or classilied material. 

Recommendations contained in the annual report of the com- 
mittee for the year 1950 to the House of Representatives, 81st 
Congress, 2d session, dated January 2, 1951 : 

The year 1950 has marked a new stage in the struggle against communism in 
the United States. The attack upon Korea makes it plain beyond all doubt that 
communism has passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer the independent 
nations and will now use armed invasion and war. With the Armed Forces of tlie 
United States actually pitted in conflict against the legions of international com- 
munism, the Communist Party of the United States can no longer be viewed pas- 
sively as a group of mere political and ideological dissidents, but must be looked 
upon with all seriousness as a military tiftli column actively aiding our enemies. 

Yet, today we tind many of these potential fifth columnists employed in our 
leading defense plants, making weaiions to be used against the Communist 
armies which they are pledged to support. To remove these peisons from posi- 
tions whei'e they could sabotage our defense production, there was included in 
the Wood-McCarran Communist-control bill a section which prohibits employ- 
ment of Communist Party members in defense plants designated as such by the 
Secretary of Defense. The committee recommends that the Congress adopt a 
resolution calling upon the Secretary of Defense to innnediately place in effect 
the provisions of section 5 of Public Law 831, <Slst Congress. 

The operations of the Smith Act and the Subversive Activities Control Act 
of lOriO, and the various Communist cases before the courts should be made 
the subject of continuing study during the coming year, with a view to deter- 
mine their effectiveness and the adoption of constantly improved methods of 
restricting the operations of the Communist fifth column. We caiuiot afford 
to allow ourselves to become hopelessly enmeshed in outworn legal technicalities 
wliich oftentimes serve to give protection and encouragement to a ni(jst insidious 
internal foe. We must streamline our legal maciiinery to meet the present 
eioergency, which poses legal problems never envisaged by our Founding Fathers. 

Loopholes in the pi'esent laws and in pritceduie before congressional com- 
mittees, which Communist lawyers are quick to exploit, should be plugged up. 
The committee recommends that the Congress seriously consider authorizing 
the use of technical evidence secured during the course of investigations in- 
volving espionage, treason, or other crimes involving the security of the United 
States, to intercept and use as evidence in any criminal proceeding information 
obtained as the result of a technical surveillance. 

Loth in the courts and in hearings before imv committee, the informative 
value of testimony by those who have actually been inside the Communist move- 
ment, either as undercover agents or as former party mtniibers. has liecn in- 
creasingly demonstrated. In the light of the present world situation and tlie 
possible aggravation of the Communist problem, it can be expected that leual 
prosecutions will increase, making the services of qualified witnesses more and 
more indispensable in i>uiiding up evidence. Thought should be given to ways 
and means of stimulating defections from the Communist movement and of 
encouraging qualified infoimants. 

In connection with hearings dealing with local 74 of the AFL Lai)orers' 
Union, it was brought out that those fiperating under the discipline and dis'ec- 
tion of the Ccmimunist Party went through the (irocess of formally resigning 
from the party and then signing the non-Conmiunist ;iffidavit, in order to comply 
with the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act. A number of cases of this kind 
have been brought to the attention of the committee. Tlie incoming Congress 
shcmld study the advisability of amending the act in order to make such evasion 
illegal and impossible. 

Recommendations contained in the annual report of the com- 
mittee for the year 1951 to the House of Representatives, 82d 
Congress, 1st session, dated February 17, 1952: 

The committee feels that, in line with the findings on Soviet espionage in the 
United States as reflected in the committee report. The Shameful Years, it is 
necessary that positive steps be taken to stem Soviet espionage. It is felt that 
Congress must take the initial steps to ascertain what legislation is necessary 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 141 

to afford adequate protection against espionage. In the course of such congres- 
sional study, it would be necessary to ascertain whether the existing laws relat- 
ing to esjiionage have been properly enforced ; and, if not, proper responsibility 
should be afhxed. 

The counuittee suggests that among the phases Congress should consider in 
titrenutheiiing espionage legislation are: 

A single comprehensive espionage statute applicable to both peacetime and 
wartime. — This should incorporate the present provisions of wartime espionage 
statutes, carrying a capital-punishment sentence. The statute of limitations 
would not then apply in espionage any more than it applies to other crimes 
carrying a capital punishment, 'i'he provisions of legislation dealing with the 
iinauihori/.ed taking of classified Government papers and documents should be 
broadened to include the transportation of such papers and documents in inter- 
state or foreign commerce. 

The broadening of the rules of a<lmissibility of evidence. — The committee is 
fjlso aware that the executive branch of the Government is seriously being 
hampered in the prosecution of persons engaged in espionage because of the 
present limitations on evidence that may be presented in the courts. The com- 
mittee realizes that the restrictions against the admissibility of evidence secured 
from wire tapping has been imposed to protect the rights of the individual. The 
committee, while desiring to maintain all of the rights of the individual, feels 
that the rights of the individual can be preserved only if the national security 
remains. It is the committee's opinion that, if Soviet espionage continues un- 
checked, the rights of American citi/.ens are being placed in graver danger than 
would he the case with legalized wire tapping. The committee suggests, there- 
fore, that Congress consider legislation to permit as evidence the results of wire 
tapping in matters affecting the national security as well as in such crimes as 
kidnaping and extortion. In order that a proper control might be exercised, it 
is felt that, as in the matter of arrests, searches, and .seizures, tlie judicial branch 
of the Government should be empowered to authorize the use of such techniques. 

ImmuJiity for icitnesses appearing before congressional, executive, or judicial 
Jiearings. — The committee also feels that, since it is essential to any investiga- 
tion, whether it be congressional, executive, or judicial, to have the testimony 
of competent and informed witnesses, legislation should be enacted to eft"ect a 
greater latitude in gi-anting immunity from prosecution to these witnesses. 

The committee has frequently experienced instances where witnesses while 
liaving information of undoubted value to the work of the committee, have 
refused to answer questions on the basis that to do so might tend to incriminate 
them. If such legislation as suggested by the committee were enacted, it would, 
while maintaining the rights of the individual, permit the proper investigative 
bodies to gather a true and compi-ehensive picture of the information they .seelj. 

Reciprocal restrictions on travel by Soviet and satellite diplomats. — The com- 
mittee's investigations have also disclosed that iSoviet espionag  has been assisted 
by the fact that Soviet nationals have been given unlimited freedom to travel 
throughout the United States and to and from Canada and Mexico. The com- 
mittees reports dealing with Soviet espionage show that Soviet officials have 
abused this freedom to actively engage in espionage operations. This situation 
exists even though United States diplomats in Russia and her satellites are 
virtually under h(mse arrest and under constant surveillance by the Russian 
secret police. There have been instances in which United States officials have 
lieen prohibited from contact with American nationals who were being held by 
authorities in Soviet countries. 

For these reasons, the committee feels that there should be reciprocal restric- 
tions enforced by this country with the Soviet and satellite countries. 

The committee also feels that, in order to afford a greater national security, 
foreign nationals entering the United States should be required to surrender 
their pas.sports and/or visas at the point of entry and that these papers should 
not be returned until the departure of the individual from the United States 

Issuance of passports. — The committee reconuiiends that all persons securing 
passports must, at the time the iiassport application is executed, state under 
oath whether they will or will not visit any of the presently so-called Iron Cur- 
tain countries. 

The c<nnmittee also recommends that if, in the course of travel abroad, any 
person holding a passport finds it necessary to visit an Iron Curtain country, 
and did not indicate that he intended to visit an Iron Curtain country on his 
original application, he must obtain authority to make such a visit from either 
a consular oflScer of the United States, the proper Ambassador, or a specified 
member of the consular or ambassadorial staffs. 



142 ANNUAL REPORT, COIVIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

A similar provision, such as that set forth in paragraph 2 of this section, 
should also be ma<le applicable to all persons holding passports who desire to 
visit any other country exclusive of Iron Curtain countries and who have not 
indicated their intention to visit these other countries on the original passport 
application. 

It is hoped that these provisions will prevent American Communists from 
receiving instructions from abroad. It is a well-know^n fact that American 
Communists often travel abroad for the purpose of receiving instructions from 
Communist functionaries, not only in the Iron Curtain countries but in other 
European countries as well. 

Cancellation of pa sspo'ts.— The committee in the past has experienced several 
instances in which persons for whom subpenas have been issued are found to 
be outside the United States and the subpenas cannot be served upon them. 
The committee recognizes the fact that a person might endeavor to use a pro- 
longed absence from the country as a means to evade appearance before this, 
as well as other congressional committees. 

It is believed that in order to cope with such situations legislation should be 
enacted to provide for the cancellation of the passports in the possession of 
any United States citizen in a foreign country for whom a subpena is out- 
standing within 6 months of the date upon which he receives personal notifica- 
tion that such subpena is outstanding, ^iotice would be made by an accredited 
official designated by the United States Department of State. 

Revocations of covinii^sions in the armed services. — The connnittee, during its 
hearings, has had the unfortunate experience of having had before it witnesses 
who, while holding commissions in the armed services of the United States, 
have refused to affirm or deny allegations of membership in the Communist Party 
or Communist-front organizations. The committee is aware that a commission 
in the armed services of the United States is a privilege accorded to citizens 
of the United States of unquestioned loyalty and not an inherent right provided 
for in the Constitution. This being the case, the committee reconmiends that 
in any instance where a person holding a commission in the armed services 
chooses to refuse to answer questions concerning his present or pasl membership 
in the Communist Party, such commission shall be immediately revoked. 

Recommendations contained in the annoa! report of the com- 
mittee for the year 1952 to the House of Representatives, 82d 
Congress, 2d session, dated December 28, 1952 : ^ 

It will be recognized that many of these recommendations have been enacted 
into law. Among those which have not been enacted are some that should 
be given early attention by Congress so that our country might have the legal 
channels necessary for our own protection in these critical times. Legislation 
must be enacted that will cover the present serious situation in wliich, through 
our repre.sentation in the United Nations, our Armed Forces are combating 
an enemy, although technically we ai"e not in a state of war. 

Since our espionage and internal security legislation is now gaged upon times 
of war and peace, these distinctions should be removed in order that war 
measures may be enforced during this and similar critical times. 

In matters dealing with internal security, it is believed necessary that emer- 
gency powers of the executive branch of the Government be placed on a wartime 
basis in periods such as now exist. 

As a result of the connnittee's findings regarding the extent of Communist 
infiltration into vital defense areas, the committee is of the opinion that it 
must again, and more forcibly, recommend, as it did on January 2, 1951, that 
the Congress adopt a resolution calling upon the Secretary of Defense to im- 
mediately place into effect the provisions of section 5 of Public Law 831 of 
the 81st Congress, which states in part : 

"Sec. 5. (a) When a Communist organization, as defined in paragraph (5) of 
section 3 of this title, is registered or there is in effect a final order of the Board 
requiring such organization to register, it shall be unlawful — 

"(1) For any member of such organization, with knowledge or notice that 
such organizati(m is so registered or that such order has become final: 

" ( A) In seeking, accepting, or holding any nonelective office or employment 
under the United States, to conceal or fail to disclose the fact that he is a 
member of such organization ; or 



' In the annual report for the year 1952. the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
also reprinted the recommendations of the committee in previous sessions of Congress In 
order to bring the entire matter clearly before the American people and Congress. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AJSIERICAN ACTIVITIES 143 

"(B) To hold any nonelective offlce or employment under the United 
States; or 

"(C) In seeking, accepting, or holding employment in any defense facility, 
to conceal or fail to disclose the fact that he is a member of such organ- 
izaticm ; or 

"(D) If such organization is a Communist-action organization, to engage 
in anv employment in any defense facility. 

"(2) For any officer or employee of the United States or of any defense 
facility, with knowledge or notice that such organization is so registered or 
that such order has become final : 

"(A) To contribute funds or services to such organization; or 

"(B) To advise, counsel, or urge any person, with knowledge or notice that 

such person is a member of such organization to perform, or to omit to 

perform, any act if such act or omission would constitute a violation of 

any provision of subparagraph (1) of this subsection. 

"(b) The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to designate and 

proclaim, and from time to time revise, a list of facilities, as defined in paragraph 

(7) of section 3 of this title, with respect to the operation of which he finds and 

determines that the security of the United States requires the application of the 

provisions of subsection (a) of this section. The Secretary shall cause such 

list as designated and proclaimed, or any revision thereof, to be promptly 

published in the Federal Register, and shall promptly notify the management 

of any facility so listed ; whereupon such management shall immediately post 

conspicuously^ and thereafter while so listed keep posted, notice of such 

designation in such form and in such place or places as to give reasonable notice 

thereof to all employees of, and to all applicants for employment in, such 

facility." 

Paragraph 5 of section 3, referred to above, reads as follows : 
"(5) The term 'Communist organization' means a Communist-action organ- 
ization or a Communist-front organization." 
Paragraph 7 of section 3 referred to above reads as follows : 
"(7) The term 'facility' means any plant, factory, or other manufacturing pro- 
ducing or service establishment, airport, airport facility, ves.sel, pier, water-front 
facility, mine, railroad, mblie utility, laboratory, station, or other establishment 
or facility, or any part, aivision, or department of any of the foregoing. The 
term 'defense facility' means any facility designated and proclaimed by the 
Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 5 (b) of this title and included on the 
list published and currently in effect under such subsection, and which is in com- 
pliance with the provisions of such subsection respecting the posting of notice 
of such designation." 

The committee finds it again necessary to recommend legislation which would 
broaden the rules of admissibility of evidence. The security agencies are being 
seriously hampered in successful prosecution of violations of our espionage 
and internal-security statutes by their inability to place into testimony evi- 
dence that has been secured through use of wiretapping and similar investi- 
gative techniques. 

One of the most important recommendations, in a matter which has been 
sadly lacking in the past few years, was made by the committee on March 15, 
1950. calling for the fullest cooperation between the legislative and executive 
arms of the Government in the matter of dealing with subversive activities. 
It is a tragedy that during the past few years this cooperation has been for 
the most [)art one-sided in that it was only congressional committees which 
were furnishing information to agencies of the executive branch. The strongest 
demonstration of the benefits of such cooperation is the case of William Walter 
Remington in which, through the sole and tireless efforts of this committee, 
sufficient information was secured to enable the executive branch to obtain 
an indictment against Remington. 

The committee further recommends that it be made a crime for any person 
or persons to unauthorizedly transport in interstate commerce any Government 
document falling within a secret, confidential, restricted, or top-secret 
classification. 

It is also recommended that the Civil Service Act be amended to provide that 
Government employees under the Civil Service Act who are employed in the 
United States or Territories must be citizens of the United States or owe alle- 
giance to the United States. 



SUBSEQUENT ACTION TAKEN BY CONGRESS OR EXECU- 
TIVE AGENCIES ON PAST RECOMMENDATIONS 

RECOMMENDATIONS CONTAINED IN ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE, 7 7TH 
CONGRESS, 1ST SESSION, DATED JANUARY 3, 1941 

Deportation 

1. Cominittee recommendation. — The enactment of legislation to 
bring about the immediate mandatory deportation of alien spies and 
saboteurs (Januarys, 1941). 

Action. — Section 22 "Sec. 4" of the Internal Security Act of 1950 
(64 Stat. 1008) as repealed (66 Stat. 279 § 403 (a) (16)) and super- 
seded by section 241 (a) (6) (F) (G) (H), (17) of the McCarran- 
W alter Immigration Act of June 27, 1952 (66 Stat. 204-208) , provides 
for tlie mandatory deportation of aliens who advocate or who are 
affiliated with any organization which advocates sabotage, and aliens 
who are convicted of violating or of conspiring to violate certain 
specified espionage acts. For text of this section see appendix, 
page 177. 

2. Committee recommendation. — The mandatory deportation of 
aliens who advocate any basic change in the form of our Government 
(January 3, 1941). 

Action. — Section 22 "Sec. 4" of the Internal Security Act of 1950 
(64 Stat. 1008) as repealed (66 Stat. 279 §403 (a) (16)) and super- 
seded by section 241 (a) (6) (D) (F) (G) (PI) of the McCarran- 
W alter Immigration Act of June 27, 1952 (66 Stat. 204-207) , provides 
for the mandatory deportation of aliens who advocate or who are 
affiliated with any organization which advocates the economic, inter- 
national, and governmental doctrines of world communism, the estab- 
lishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in the United States, or the 
overthrow of the Government by unconstitutional means. For text 
of this section see appendix, page 177. 

Citizenship of Federal employees 

3. Committee recomnnendation. — The enactment of legislation re- 
quiring that all employees and officials of our Federal Government be 
American citizens (January 3, 1941) . 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted to alter the citi- 
zenship provisions which are carried in the various appropriation acts 
(e. g., § 1302 of Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1954, Public Law 
207, 83d Cong., 67 Stat. 435), a bill ^ (S. 84, dated January 6, 1941) 
was introduced in the 77th Congress, and again (S. 521, dated Janu- 
ary 21, 1943) in the 78th Congress, providing that only citizens shall 
be eligible to hold civil positions under the United States within the 
continental United States, and that appointment of an alien to, or 
acceptance by an alien of, such a position shall be punished by a fine 
of from $50 to $5,000. For text of § 1302 of Supplemental Appropria- 
tion Act, 1954, see appendix, page 183. 

Federal aid to educational institutions 

4. Committee recommendation. — Withhold all Federal financial 
support from any educational institution which permits members of its 

1 Mention of any bill pending before Congress In this section of the annual report does 
not constitute endorsement or recommendation of the bill by this committee. 

144 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-A]VIERICAN ACTIVITIES 145 

faculty to advocate communism, fascism, or nazism as a substitute for 
our form of government to the student body of these educational in- 
stitutions (January 3, 1941). 

Action. — Section 228 of the Veterans^ Readjustment Assistance Act 
of 1952 (06 Stat. G67) prohibits the payment of an education and 
training allowance to any eligible veteran who enrolls for any course 
in an educational institution which is listed by the Attorney General 
as totalitarian, Fascist, Communist, or subversive. For text of this 
section, see appendix, page 181. 

Outlawing political organizations under foreign control 

5. Coniniittee recommendation. — The enactment of legislation to 
outlaw every political organization which is shown to be under the 
control of a foreign government (January 3, 1941). 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted, there are 3 bills 
now pending in the 83d Congress on this subject: 

6. 200, dated January 7, 1953, and H. R. 59U, dated June 25, 1953, 
outlaw the Communist Party (under its present name or under any 
name it may use in the future) or any other organization whose pur- 
pose is to overthrow the Government of the United States. A fine of 
not more than $10,000, imprisonment of not more than 10 years, or 
both, plus forfeiture of citizenship, are imposed upon members of such 
party. 

n. R. 1576, dated January 13, 1953, prohibits the printing of the 
name of a member of the Communist Party or any un-American party 
on any ballot for an office in the Government of the United States. 
Provides a penalty for violation thereof, of a fine up to $25,000 and 
up to 10 years imprisonment. 

Refusal of foreign countries to accept deportees 

6. Cowmittee recommendation. — The enactment of legislation to 
stop all immigration from foreign countries that refuse to accept the 
return of their nationals found under American law to be deportable 
from this country (January 3, 1941). 

Action.—SQcWow 22 "Sec. 7" of the Internal Security Act of 1950 
(64 Stat. 1009) as repealed (66 Stat. 279, §403 (a) (16) and super- 
seded by section 243 (g) of the McCarran-W alter Immigration Act 
of June 27, 1952 (66 Stat. 214), provides that when any country re- 
fuses to accept the return of an alien who is a national or resident 
thereof, the consular officers in such country shall discontinue the is- 
suance of immigrant visas to the nationals or residents of such country 
until such country accepts such alien. For text of this section see 
appendix, page 180. 

Distribution of totalitarian propaganda 

7. Committee recommendation. — The passage of added legislation to 
place restrictions on the distribution of totalitarian propaganda, when 
that distribution involves any cost to the American taxpayers, and 
when such propaganda emanates and is shipped from foreign sources 
(January 3, 1941). 

Action. — Section 10 of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (64 Stat. 
996) makes it unlawful for a Communist organization, which is regis- 
tered with the Attorney General, to transmit publications through the 
mail unless such publication and its wrapper have printed on them: 
"Disseminated by , a Communist organization," with the name 



146 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

of the organization appearing in lieu of the blank. This section also 
makes it unlawful for such an organization to broadcast over any 
radio or television station in the United States unless the program is 
preceded by an announcement that it is sponsored by a Communist 
organization, giving the name of such organization. For text of this 
section, see appendix, page 162. 

Revocation of naturalization — Statutory period 

8. Committee recommendation. — That the statutory period during 
which citizenship papers can be revoked under existing law be ex- 
tended to at least 10 years (January 3, 1941) , 

Action.— I. Act of June 30, 1951 (65 Stat. 107, c. 194) set the limita- 
tion for prosecution of actions for knowingly procuring naturalization 
in violation of law (18 U. S. C. § 1425) at io years. For text of this 
act and of 18 U. S. C. § 1425, see appendix, pages 168 and 184, respec- 
tively. 

II. Section 340 (a) of the McCarran-W alter Immigration Act of 
June 27, 1952 (66 Stat. 260), provides that conviction of a person for 
contempt of Congress for refusal to testify, within a period of 10 years 
following his naturalization, concerning his subversive activities, shall 
be ground for revocation of his naturalization. For text of this 
section see appendix, page 180. 

Passport fraud — Limitation of prosecution 

9. Committee recommendation. — That the statute of limitations with 
regard to passports fraudulently obtained be extended from 3 to 7 
years (January 3, 1941). 

Action— Act of June 30, 1951 (65 Stat. 107, c. 194) sets the limita- 
tion for prosecution of actions regarding passport offenses (18 
U. S. C. §§ 1423-1428, 1541-1544) at 10 years. For text of this act and 
of these code sections, see appendix, pages 168 and 184-186, respec- 
tively. 

Employment in defense facilities or in Gvernment service 

10. Committee recommendation. — A policy that employment in na- 
tional-defense industries or the Government service be denied to any 
person who has been and is now active in any political organization 
which is found to be under the control and guidance of a foreign gov- 
ernment (January 3, 1941). 

Action. — Section 5 of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (64 Stat. 
992) provides that members of Communist organizations registered 
with the Attorney General shall not hold employment in the Federal 
Government; that members of a Communist-action organization shall 
not hold employment in a defense facility; and that members of a 
Communist-front organization must disclose such membership when 
seeking or holding employment in a defense facility. For text of this 
section see appendix, page 159. 

RECOMMENDATIONS CONTAINED IN ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE, 7 9TH 

CONGRESS, 2D SESSION, DATED JANUARY 2, 194 7 

Independent commission on Federal loyalty 

11. Committee recommendation. — That Congress create an inde- 
pendent commission with authority to investigate and to order the dis- 
charge of any employee or official of the Federal Government whose 
loyalty to the United States is found to be in doubt (January 2, 1947), 



ANTSrUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 147 

Action. — Although no legishition was enacted, several steps in that 
•direction have been made under Executive Order lOlibO ( 18 F. R. 2489) , 
issued on April -27, 1953. which establishes a security program for the 
Federal departments and agencies. Sections 1 and 6 of this order pro- 
vide for summary suspension by agency heads, of employees con- 
sidered to be poor security risks, followed by termination of their em- 
ployment if found to be advisable in the interest of national security 
upon the results of proper investigation. Section 9 of this order pro- 
vides for a central clearance by means of a security-investigation in- 
dex to be maintained in the Civil Service Commission, covering all 
persons as to whom security investigations have been conducted by 
any agency, and to contain all identifying information which the 
heads of agencies shall immediately furnish to the Civil Service Com- 
mission. For text of sections 1, 6, and 9 of this order see appendix, 
pages 187-189. 

There is a bill now pending in the 83d Congress {8. 78, dated Janu- 
ary 7, 1953) which creates a bipartisan Loyalty Review Board as an 
independent executive agency, whose certification that reasonable 
doubts exist as to the loyalty of a Federal employee shall constitute 
authority for the dismissal of the employee. 

Publication of names of foreign agents 

12. Committee recommendation. — That the Department of State 
and the Department of Justice be required to publicize every 6 months 
the names and identity of all agents of any foreign governments who 
are in the United States for either diplomatic, commercial, or other 
purposes (January 2, 1947). 

Action. — Althoujzh no legislation has been enacted, the Senate 
passed S. 2611 on March 24, 1952. A similar bill (S. 37, dated Janu- 
ary 6. 1953) is now pending in the 83d Congress. It provides that no 
person who is engaged as a public-relations counsel, publicity agent, 
or information-service employee, or who is engaged in the preparation 
or dissemination of political propaganda, shall be recognized as a duly 
accredited diplomatic or consular officer of a foreign govermnent, 
and shall therefore not be exempt from registration under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act, as amended (22 U. S. C. 013), which act 
makes such registration a public record (22 U. S. C. 616). 

Subversive Matters Division in Department of Justice 

13. Committee recom^mendation. — That the Department of Justice 
be required by law to establish within the Department a special 
division devoted to the prosecution of subversive elements now operat- 
ing in the United States (January 2, 1947). 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted, there is a bill 
{S. 2600, dated August 3, 1953) now pending in the 83d Congress, 
which provides for the appointment of an additional Assistant At- 
torney General who shall perform all duties imposed upon the At- 
torney General with respect to all statutes pertaining to espionage, 
sabotage, treason, sedition, and subversive activities. 

Foreign agents' registration 

14. Committee recommendation. — That the Attorney General be 
instructed by a proper resolution of the House, to report to the House 
the number of prosecutions instituted under the Voorhis Act and the 
McCormack Foreign Agents Registration Act (January 2, 1947). 



148 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Action. — Although no legislation was enacted, a bill {H. R. 6554, 
dated May 13, 1948) was introduced in the 80th Congress, which di- 
rected the Attorney General to submit to Congress a detailed report of 
the efforts by the Department of Justice to enforce, among other acts, 
the Voorhis Act and the McCormack Act. A similar act was intro- 
duced in the 81st Congress (//. R. 188, dated January 3, 1949), and on 
August 25, 1950, the Attorney General submitted a report to Congress, 
on the administration of the Foreign Agents Registration Act (the 
McCormack Act) for the 5-year period from January 1, 1945, to Decem- 
ber 31, 1949 (96 Congressional Record 13528, 13802). 

Federal employment and office in labor unions limited to citizens 

15. Committee recoTnmendations. — That legislation should be en- 
acted that would restrict Federal employment to citizens of the United 
States and that only citizens be permitted to hold office in any labor 
union subject to Federal laws (January 2, 1947) . 

Action. — None. See item 3, above. 

Deportation and exclusion of alien subversives 

16. Committee recommendation. — That legislation be enacted re- 
quiring that all alien Communists and other subversive aliens be 
promptly deported and that the Immigration Service maintain a 
stringent screening process to restrain the present influx of aliens into 
the United States and to determine whether tlieir political background 
is inimical to the best interests of the United States (January 2, 1947). 

Action. — I. Section 22 "Sec. 4" of the Internal Security Act of 
1950 (64 Stat. 1008) as repealed (66 Stat. 279, § 403 (a) (16)) and 
superseded by section 241 (a) (6) of the M cC arran-W alter Immigra- 
tion Act of June 27, 1952 (66 Stat. 205), provides for deportation of 
aliens affiliated with the Communist Party and other subversive aliens. 
For text of this section, see appendix, page 177. 

II. Section 22 of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (64 Stat. 1006) 
as repealed (66 Stat. 279, § 403 (a) (16)) and superseded by sec- 
tion 212 (a) (28) of the M cC arran-W alter Immigration Act of June 
27, 1952 (66 Stat. 184), provides for the exclusion of aliens with 
political backgrounds which are inimical to the welfare of the United 
States. For text of this section, see aj^pendix, page 168. 

III. Chapter 4 of the McC arran-W alter Imtnigration Act of June 
27, 1952 (66 Stat. 195-204), provides for a stringent screening process. 
For text of this provision, see appendix, page 170. 

Restriction of tax-exemption privileges of Communist educa- 
tional and charitable organizations 

17. C 07nmittee recommendation. — Legislation should be enacted to 
restrict the benefits of certain tax-exem])tion pi-ivileges now extended 
to a number of Communiist fronts posing as educational, charitable, 
and relief organizations (January 2, 1947) . 

.4c^;o/?.— Section 11 (b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (64 
Stat. 997) denies income-tax exemptions under § 101 of the Internal 
Revenue Code, to Communist organizations required to register under 
§ 7 of the Internal Security Act. For text of these sections, see a]> 
pendix, pages 162 and 186. 

Second-class mailing privileges of foreign embassies 

18. Committee recommendation. — That the House request, by 
proper resolution, a report from the Postmaster General of the United 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 149 

States, setting forth the number of embassies or foreign agencies 
now enjoying second-class mailing privileges and also specifically 
identifying such agencies where the respective foreign governments 
do not accord to our embassies, ministers, and other United States 
officials equal mailing privileges in those countries, and that proper 
legislation be enacted by Congress limiting the use of second-class 
nuxiling privileges to such embassies and agencies of those foreign 
governments which extend reciprocal privileges to the United States 
Government (January 2, 1947). 

Action. — No legislation, but reciprocity is being enforced by the 
State Department. An illustration appears in Department of State 
Press Release No. 680, issued December 31, 1953, containing the text 
of a note delivered to the Rumanian Legation, in which the Secretary 
of State notified the Legation to cease the publication in the United 
States of the Rumanian News and other similar pamphlets published 
at the expense of the Rumanian Government. This step was taken 
because the Rumanian Government had on December 29, 1953, banned 
the distribution in Rumania of a publication issued by our Legation 
in Bucharest entitled "News From America." For text of press re- 
lease, see appendix, page 195. 

There are now pending in the 83d Congress, two bills {11. J. Res. 73, 
dated January 3, 1953, and H. J. Res. HO, dated January 9, 1953) 
which declare that the policy of the United States is to withhold from 
representatives of any foreign nation any privilege withheld from 
representatives of the United States in such nation. 

English translation of foreign-language newspapers 

19. Committee recoinmendafion. — That legislation be enacted for- 
bidding the use of the United States mails under second-class mailing 
privileges to any and all newspapers and periodicals printed in any 
langnage other than English, which do not carry a full English 
translation, in parallel columns, next to the foreign-language context 
(January 2, 1947). 

Action. — No legislation. 

Denial of second-class mailing privileges to subversive organiza- 
tions 

20. Committee recominemlation. — That legislation be enacted deny- 
ing the use of second-class mailing privileges to any groups of persons 
or organizations engaged in the publication, distribution, or pro- 
motion of subversive or un-American propaganda (January 2, 1947). 

Action. — No legislation, but a bill was introduced in the 82d Con- 
gress (S. 3174 dated May 14, 1952) which directed the Postmaster 
General to deny second-class and bulk-rate third-class mailing priv- 
ileges to agents of Communist controlled or dominated governments. 

Secret membership in organizations 

21. Committee recommendation. — Legislation designed to prohibit 
membersliip in any organization using the LTnited States mails or 
subject to Federal laws, by persons using an alias or assumed name. 
Such legislation should also include a provision which would clearly 
ban concealed or secret memberships in any such organizations (Janu- 
ary 2, 1947). 

Action. — Section 8 of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (G4 Stat. 
D95) provides for registration with the Attorney General of indi- 
Tiduals who are members of Communist-action organizations, and 



150 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

section 15 (b) of same act (64 Stat. 1003) imposes a penalty of 
$10,000 fine or 5-year imprisonment or both, for false statement on 
such registration form. For text of these sections, see appendix, pages 
161 and 167, respectively. 

RECOMMENDx\TIONS CONTAINED IN ANNUAL RErORT OF COMMITTEE, 80TH 
CONGRESS, 2D SESSION, DATED DECEMBER 31, 194 8 

Mundt-Nixon bill 

22. Committee recommendation. — Legislation modeled substantially 
after the so-called Mundt-Nixon bill (December 31, 1948). 

Action.— TliQ provisions of the Mundt-Nixon bill (H. R. 5852, 80th 
Cong.) have been incorporated in the Internal Security Act of 1950 
in the following sections, given in the order in which a similar pro- 
vision appeared in the Mundt-Nixon bill: Sections 7-10 (64 Stat. 
993-996), section 5 (64 Stat. 992), section 6 (64 Stat. 993), sections 
12-13 (64 Stat. 997-1001), section 14 (64 Stat. 1001), section 11 (64 
Stat. 996-997). For text of these sections, see appendix, pages 
159-167. 

Deportation of aliens upon conviction of crimes against United 
States 

23. Committee recommendation. — That the espionage law^s of the 
United States be substantially strengthened with special attention 
to means for returning aliens to other countries upon conviction for 
crimes against the United States (December 31, 1948). 

Action. — Section 241 (a) (17) of the M cC arran-W alter Immigra- 
tion Act of June 27, 1952 (66 Stat. 207), substantially strengthens the 
laws concerning depoi'tation of aliens on conviction for crimes against 
the United States by listing specific acts, the violation of wdiich shall 
be grounds for deportation. Among these acts are: The Espionage 
Act of 1917 (40 Stat. 217) as amended (40 Stat. 553), the espionage 
provisions of the Criminal Code ( 18 U. S. C. §§ 791, 792, 793, 794, 2388, 
3241), the sabotage provisions of the Criminal Code (18 U. S. C. 
§§2151-2156), the Selective Service Act of 1948 (62 Stat. 604), the 
Universal Military Training and Service Act (65 Stat. 75), and 
several others. For text of tins section, see appendix, page 178. 

Penalty for Contempt of Congress 

24. Committee recommendation. — That the penalties for those prop- 
erly cited for contempt of Congress be increased to a minimum of 5 
years in prison and a $5,000 fine (December 31, 1948). 

Action. — No legislation enacted. 

Study of immigration laws 

25. Committee recommendation. — That our immigration laws and 
passport visa regulations be carefully studied to determine what 
changes are necessary to prevent disloyal elements from entering this - 
country and remaining here (December 31, 1948.) 

Actioii. — Section 401 (a) of the McCarran-W alter Im,migration 
Act of June 27. 1952 (66 Stat. 274), provides for the Joint Committee 
on Immigration and Nationality Policy, which is to conduct a con- 
tinuing study of the administration of the act and its effect on the 
national security, etc., of the United States. The Secretary of State 
and the Attorney General are required to submit all regulations, etc., 
requested by the commitee pertaining to administration of the act, and , 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 151 

the Secretary of State sliall consult with the committee from time to 
time. For text of this section, see appendix, pages 18U-181. 

RECOMMENDATIONS CONTAINED IN ANNUAE REEORT OF COMMITTEE, 8 1ST 
CONGRESS, 1ST SESSION, DATED MARCH 15, 195 

Statute of Limitations in espionage cases 

26. Cominittee recommendation. — That the statute of limitations 
in espionage cases be amended (March 15, 1950). 

Action. — Sections 4 (e) and 19 of the Internal Security Act (64 
Stat. 992, 1005) provide for a 10-year statute of limitations for a viola- 
tion of certain provisions of law concerning espionage, other than 
violations constituting a capital offense. This replaces the 3-year 
statute of limitations (18 U. S. C. 3282) which would otherwise pre- 
vail. For text of these sections, see appendix, pages 159 and 167. 

Legal definition of treason 

27. Committee recomme^idation. — That legal definition of treason 
and the penalties attached thereto be broadened to cover a period like 
the present cold war (March 15, 1950). 

Action. — No legislation enacted, but two bills are now pending in 
the 83d Congress (H. J. Res. 8, H. J. Res. 45, both dated January 3, 
1953) which propose a constitutional amendment to broaden the clefi- 
nition of "treason" to include adhering to any group which advocates 
the overthrow^ by force or violence of the Government of the United 
States, or collaborating with any agent of a foreign nation in working 
for the overthrow or weakening of the Government of the United 
States, whether or not by force or violence. 

Activities of Communist country embassies 

28. Committee recommendation. — That activities of embassies of 
Comnumist-dominated countries be limited by proper safeguards 
sternly enforced (March 15, 1950). 

Action. — This now being enforced bj^ the State Department and re- 
strictions on diplomatic personnel are generally a matter of reciprocity 
with the various foreign countries. On March 10, 1952, the State 
Department issued a press release (No. 181) which contains the text 
of a note from the Secretary of State to the Ambassador of the 
U. S. S. R., restricting the travel of Soviet officials in the United States 
to a 25-mile radius from their base office, without prior permission 
from the State Department. This action was retaliatory for restric- 
tions placed upon travel of American diplomatic and consular officials 
in the Soviet Union. For text of Press Release No. 181. see appendix, 
page 193. 

Employment of subversives in defense plants — safeguards 

29. Committee recommendation. — xVdoption of H. R. 3903 (81st 
Cong.) providing for safeguards against employment of subversive 
individuals in defense plants (March 15, 1950). 

Action. — Section 5 of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (64 Stat. 
992) provides that members of a Communist-action organization shall 
not hold employment in a defense facility, and that members of a 
Communist-front organization must disclose such membership when 



152 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

seeking or holding employment in a defense facility. For text of this 
section, see appendix, page 159. 

Detention of undeportahle alien Communists 

30. CoTnmittee recomTnendation. — H. R. 10 (81st Cong.), providing 
for the supervision and detention of undeportahle aliens, should be 
enacted into law in order to deal with thousands of alien Communists 
refused acceptance by the country of their birth (March 15, 1950). 

Action. — Section 23 "Sec. 20 (b)" of the Internal Security Act of 
1950 (64 Stat. 1011) and the Act of June 18, 1952 (66 Stat. 138 c. 442), 
as (both) repealed and superseded by section 242 (c)-(h) of the 
M cC arran-W alter Imrrvigration Act (66 Stat. 210-212) provides for 
detention and supervision of such aliens. For text of this section, see 
appendix, pages 178-180. 

Committee Quorum 

31, Committee recommendation. — Enactment of legislation creating 
a presumption of law that a committee quorum, once established, con- 
tinues to exist. 

Action. — No legislation enacted. 

Subversive activities — Cooperation between branches of Govern- 
ment 

32, Committee recommendation. — Modification of the Executive 
order in loyalty and investigation cases, to assure the fullest coopera- 
tion between legislative and executive arms of the Government in the 
matter of dealing with subversive activities (March 15, 1950), 

Action.— ThQ Presidential directive of March 13, 1948 (13 F. R. 
1359), which provides a confidential status for Federal employee 
loyalty records, has not been modified. However, Executive Order 
10491, dated October 13, 1953 (18 F. R. 6583), directs that a Govern- 
ment employee's refusal to testify before a congressional committee 
regarding charges of his alleged disloyalty or other misconduct, be 
taken into consideration when determining whether or not such em- 
ployee is a security risk. There is a bill now pending in the S-'kl 
Congress (S. 524) directing the release of personnel files of Federal 
officers and employees to any congressional committee at the request 
of such officers and employees. For text of directive and Executive 
order, see appendix, pages 186, 187, and 191. 

Officers of labor unions under contract with Atomic Energy 
Commission and armed services 

33. Com,7nittee recommendation. — In connection with national de- 
fense contracts involving secret and classified work for the Atomic 
Energy Commission, the Army, Navy, and Air Force, legislation 
should be enacted wdiich subjects officers of national labor unions 
having bargaining contracts to the same security standards as members 
who have access to secret or classified material (March 15, 1950), 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted, there are two 
bills now pending in the 83d Congress (S. 1254, dated March 9, 1953, 
and H. R, 3993, dated March 16, 1953) which provide for elimination 
of Communists from positions of influence and control in laboi- unions, 
with priority to be given to cases involving unions representing em- 
ployees engaged in production for the United States Government. 
_ H. R. 7187., introduced January 25, 1954, provides for disqualifica- 
tion of a union to act as exclusive bargaining agent if it is dominated 
by an officer or individual who was ever affiliated with a Communist- 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 153 

action oi'<ranization. An intermediary suspension order shall be issued 
during the hearings, to continue in effect pending judicial disposition 
of an appeal by a labor union against an adverse ruling by the Sub- 
versive Activities Control Board. 

RECOMMENDATIONS CONTAINED IN ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE, 8 1ST 
CONGRESS, 2D SESSION, DATED JANUARY 2, 19 51 

Secretary of Defense to put into effect section 5 of Internal 
Security Act 

34. Committee recommendation. — That Congress adopt a resolution 
calling upon the Secretary of Defense to immediately place in effect 
the provisions of section 5 of Public Law 831, 81st Congress (Internal 
Security Act of 1950, 64 Stat. 992) (January 2, 1951). 

Note. — This section provides that members of Communist organi- 
zations 'which are registered or with reference to whom there is in 
effect a final order requiring registration with the Attorney General 
under the act, shall not conceal their membership in such organization 
when seeking or holding employment in a defense facility, and, if 
such organizations are Communist-action organizations, such mem- 
bers shall not engage in any employment in a defense facility. The 
Secretary of Defense shall designate and proclaim a list of facilities, 
to which he thinks these provisions should apply in the interests of 
our national securit}' . For text of this section, see appendix, page 159. 

Action. — In compliance with the subject statute, the Secretary of 
Defense maintains a current and up-to-date list of defense facilities. 
This list has not as yet, however, been published in the Federal Regis- 
ter because publication would have no present legal consequences. 

Under the statute, when an organization has voluntarily registered 
or when the Subversive Activities Control Board has determined it 
to be either a Communist-action or a Communist-front organization, 
certain consequences follow. Since no organizations have voluntarily 
registered and no final order of the Subversive Activities Control 
Board is in effect the Department of Defense has not deemed it prudent 
to publish a list of vital defense facilities when no immediate purpose 
would be served. At such time as there are organizations coming 
within the statutory definitions, the Department will be in a position 
to publish promptly the required list. 

Continuous study of Smith Act and Subversive Activities Control 
Act 

35. Co?nmittee recommendation. — That the operation of the Smith 
Act and the Subversive Activities Control Act be made the subject 
of continuous study with a view to their effectiveness and improve- 
ment (January 2, 1951). 

Action. — These acts are under continuous stud}^ by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities. 

Technical surveillance 

36. Committee recommendation. — That Congress authorize the use 
of technical evidence secured during the course of investigations in- 
volving espionage, treason, or other crimes involving the security of 
the United States, to intercept and use as evidence in any criminal pro- 
ceeding information obtained as the result of technical surveillance 
(January 2, 1951). 

47400 — 54 11 



154 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted, there are five 
bills now pending in the 83d Congress on this subject : 

S. 832 (dated February 6, 1953) , H. R. J+08 (dated January 3, 1953) , 
27. R. 477 (dated January 3, 1953), and H. R. 3552 (dated February 
26, 1953) provide that information obtained by wiretaj^ping in the 
conduct of national security be admissible in evidence only when of- 
fered in criminal or civil proceedings involving treason, espionage, etc. 

H. R. 5149 (dated May 12, 1953) provides that information inter- 
cepted in national security investigations shall be admissible in evi- 
dence in criminal proceedings in any court established by act of 
Congress. 

Encouragement of qualified informants against Communist 
movement 

37. C otnmittee recormnendation. — ^Ways and means of stimulating 
defections from the Communist movement and of encouraging quali- 
fied informants (January 2, 1951). 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted, a bill was intro- 
duced in the 82d Congress (H. R. 5331, dated September 13, 1951) 
which authorized the Attorney General to pay awards to any persons 
for any information leading to the arrest and conviction of any Com- 
munist who has violated any of the internal security laws of the United 
States. 

Amendment of Taft-Hartley Act — non-Communist Affidavits 

38. Committee recovimendation. — Amendment of Taft-Hartley Act 
to make impossible a situation where a union official formally resigns 
from the Communist Party and then signs a non-Communist affidavit 
(January 2, 1951). 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted, a bill was intro- 
duced in the 82d Congress (H. E. 4807, dated July 13, 1951) which 
provided that the non-Communist affidavit which a union official is now 
required to file shall state not only that he is not a Communist now but 
also that he has not been affiliated with the Communist Party for the 
past 36-month period. 

RECOMMENDATIONS CONTAINED IN ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE, 8 2D 
CONGRESS, 2D SESSION, DATED FEBRUARY 17, 1952 

Single espionage statute for peace and war 

39. C OTYimAttee reconrimendation. — A single comprehensive espion- 
age statute applicable to both peacetime and wartime, carrying a capi- 
tal-punishment sentence (February 17, 1952). 

Action. — No legislation enacted. 

Technical surveillance 

40. Committee recomm^endation. — Broadening of the rules of admis- 
sibility of evidence to permit as evidence the results of wiretapping in 
matters affecting the national security as well as in such crimes as 
kidnaping and extortion, and that the judicial branch of the Govern- 
ment should be empowered to authorize the use of such techniques 
(February 17, 1952). 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted, there are five 
bills now pending in the 83d Congi-ess on this subject. Four of these 
{S. 832, H. R. 408, H. R. 477, and H. R. 3552) provide for the intercep- 



ANISTTJAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AAIERICAN ACTIVITIES 155 

tion of such evidence during security investigations, and for the au- 
thorization of such interception by a Federal court order, but the use of 
such evidence is limited to proceedings involving treason, espionage, 
and other subversive acts. //. R. 5U9, the fifth bill, provides for the 
use of the evidence in any criminal proceedings but omits the neces- 
sity of a court order for the interception of the information. 

Immunity for congressional witnesses 

41. Committee recommendation. — Legislation to effect a greater 
latitude in granting immunity from prosecution to witnesses appear- 
ing before congressional, executive, or judicial hearings (February 
17,1952). 

Action. — Although no legislation has been enacted, there is a bill 
now pending in the 83d Congress, which has already been passed by 
the Senate (S. 16), which provides immunity for such a witness who 
has claimed the privilege against self-incrimination. Makes testi- 
mony compulsory under certain circumstances. For text of S. 16, see 
appendix, page 183. 

Restrictions on travel by Soviet and satellite diplomats 

42. Committee recommendation. — That reciprocal restrictions be 
enforced bv this country on the travel of Soviet and satellite diplomats 
(February 17, 1952). 

Action. — Such restrictions are now being enforced by the State De- 
partment, an example being the note of March 10, 1952, from the Sec- 
retary of State to the Soviet Ambassador, restricting the travel of 
Soviet officials in the United States to a 25-mile raclius from their 
base office, without prior permission from the State Department. 
This was in retaliation for similar restrictions placed upon the travel 
of American diplomatic and consular officials in the Soviet Union. 
For text of State Department Press Release No. 181, which contains 
the text of this note, see appendix, page 193. 

Restriction of American travel in Iron Curtain countries 

43. Committee recommendation. — That at the time of securing a 
passport, an individual be required to state whether or not he intends 
to visit a so-called Iron Curtain country, and that if his statement is 
in the negative, he be prohibited from later visiting such country 
without American consular permission (February 17, 1952) . 

Action. — On May 1, 1952, the State Department issued Press Re- 
lease No. 341 in which it announced that all new passports would be 
stamped not valid for travel in Iron Curtain countries unless specifi- 
cally endorsed by the State Department as valid for such travel. For 
text of press release, see appendix, page 195. 

On September 4, 1952, the State Department issued Departmental 
Regulation 108.162 (17 F. R. 8013) which forbids issuance of a pass- 
port except one limited for direct and immediate return to the United 
States, to a person, among others, as to whom, regardless of the formal 
state of his affiliation with the Communist Party, there is reason 
to believe that he is going abroad to engage in activities which will 
advance the Communist movement. For text of this regulation, see 
appendix, page 191. 



156 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Cancellation of passport of person under subpena 

44. Committee recommendation. — Legislation to provide for the 
cancellation of the passport in the possession of any United States 
citizen in a foreign country for whom a subpena has been outstanding 
for 6 months (February 17, 1952). 

Action. — No legislation enacted. 

Revocation of commission in Armed Forces 

45. Convmittee recommendation. — That in any instance where a 
person holding a commission in the armed services chooses to refuse 
to answer questions concerning his present or past membership in the 
Communist Party, such commission shall be immediately revoked 
(February 17, 1952). 

Action. — No action. 

NEW RECOMMENDATIONS CONTAINED IN ANNUAL REPORT OF COMMITTEE, 
8 2D CONGRESS, 2D SESSION, DATED DECEMBER 2 8, 19 52 

Emergency powers of executive branch in present period 

46. Committee recommendation. — In matters dealing with internal 
security, that emergency powers of the executive branch of the Gov- 
ernment be placed on a wartime basis in periods such as now exist 
(December 2S, 1952). 

Action.— Act of June 30, 1953 (67 Stat. 133 ch. 175) , extends until 6 
months after the termination of the national emergency declared by 
the President on December 16, 1950, certain wartime provisions re- 
lating to sabotage of war materials, espionage, and subversive activi- 
ties affecting the Armed Forces. For text of this act, see appendix, 
page 182. 
Transportation of restricted document in interstate commerce 

47. Committee recommendation. — That it be made a crime for any 
person to unauthorizedly transport in interstate commerce any Gov- 
ernment document falling within a secret, confidential, restricted, or 
top-secret classification (December 28, 1952). 

Action. — No legislation enacted. 



RECOMMENDATIONS BASED UPON INVESTIGATIONS 
AND HEARINGS IN THE YEAR 1953 

During the year 1953 the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities has received more abundant and detailed testimony to 
establish that the Communist Party in the United States is in fact 
a part of an international conspiracy, which has as its purpose 
the overthrow of our Government by force and violence. There is 
ever-increasing evidence of the clear and present danger in this 
conspiracy, and serious consideration must be given to determine 
whether the ultimate solution is the outlawing of the Communist 
Party. 

Under existing law, enacted largely through the work of the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities, the Subversive 
Activities Control Board, after nearly 3 years of public hearings, 
ruled that the Communist Party is a subversive organization. As 
provided by law, these findings are now subject to review by the 
judicial branch of the Government. Further recommendation on 
legislation to outlav/ the Communist Party will await the final 
decision of the United States Supreme Court. 

^ H* ^ 

The Smith Act, passed by the Congress in 1940, contains provi- 
sions which prohibit any person from knowingly and willfully 
participating either individually or with a group in activities 
which have for their purpose the overthrow or destruction of "any 
government in the United States by force or violence." 

Since the Subversive Activities Control Board has found that 
the Communist Party is a subversive organization and the testi- 
mony before this committee has also definitely established the 
conspiratorial nature of the Communist Party, the committee 
recommends that the Smith Act be amended. This amendment, 
in the field of the law of evidence, should provide that proof of 
membership in the Communist Party shall constitute prima facie 
evidence of violation of the Smith Act. 

^ ^ ^ 

The committee further recommends that legislation be enacted 
to permit as evidence the results of technical surveillance in 
matters affecting the national security; provided that adequate 
safeguards are adopted to protect the civil liberties of all citizens. 

Since there has been a widespread abuse and improper use of 
the fifth amendment by many witnesses who appeared before con- 
gressional investigating committees, thereby deliberately thwart- 
ing the uncovering of subversive activities — and since evidence 
has been adduced proving that the Communist Party actually 
instructs its members to hide behind the fifth amendment — it is 
recommended that adequate legislation be enacted to provide 

157 



158 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

against this misuse of the fifth amendment and the Bill of Rights, 
which misuse prevents the committee from obtaining facts and 
information necessary to the proper function of the committee. 

* * * 

The committee further recommends a study of the anti-Com- 
munist oath provision of the Taft-Hartley Act, with the view of 
strengthening the provision of said act to prevent Communist 

infiltration into unions. 

* * * 

The committee further recommends that legislation be enacted 
to make it a crime for any person or persons unauthorizedly to 
transport in interstate commerce any Government document fall- 
ing within a top secret, secret, or confidential classification. 

The committee further recommends that legislation be enacted 
forbidding the use of the United States mails under second-class 
mailing privileges to subversive publications emanating either 
from foreign sources or from sources within the borders of the 
United States. It is also recommended that the Internal Security 
Act of 1950 be amended to permit the citing of said publications as 
subversive. 

^ ^ ^ 

The committee further recommends that the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act of 1938 be reexamined to determine its effective- 
ness in controlling and exposing subversive activities. 

* * * 

The committee further recommends that in any instance where 
a person holding a commission in the armed services chooses to 
refuse to answer questions by a duly authorized authority con- 
cerning his present or past membership in the Communist Party, 
such commission should be immediately revoked. 



APPENDIX 



INTERNAL SECURITY ACT OF 1%0 (64 STAT. 987-1019) 

Statute of Limitations in Espionage Cases 

Sec. 4. (e) Any person may be prosecuted, tried, and punished for any violation 
of this section at any time within ten years after the commission of such offense, 
notwithstanding the provisions of any other statute of limitations : Provided, That 
if at the time of the commission of the offense such person is an officer or employee 
of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, or of any corpora- 
tion the stock of which is owned in whole or in major part by the United States or 
any department or agency thereof, such person may be prosecuted, tried, and pun- 
ished for any violation of this section at any time within ten years after such 
person has ceased to be employed as such officer or employee. 

EMPLOYMENT OF MEMBERS OF COMMUNIST ORGANIZATIONS 

Sec. 5. (a) When a Communist organization, as defined in paragraph (5) of 
section 3 of this title, is registered or there is in effect a final order of the Board 
requiring such organization to register, it shall be unlawful — 

(1) For any member of such organization, with knowledge or notice that 
such organization is so registered or that such order has become final — 

(A) in seeking, accepting, or holding any nonelective office or employ- 
ment under the United States, to conceal or fail to disclose the fact that 
he is a member of such organization ; or 

(B) to hold any nonelective office or employment under the United 
States; or 

(C) in seeking, accepting, or holding employment in any defense facil- 
ity, to conceal or fail to disclose the fact that he is a member of such 
organization : or 

(D) if such organization is a Communist-action organization, to 
engage in any employment in any defense facility. 

(2) For any officer or employee of the United States or of any defense 
facility, with knowledge or notice that such organization is so registered or 
that such order has become final — 

(A) to contribute funds or services to such organizations; or 

(B) to advise, counsel or urge any person, with knowledge or notice 
that such person is a member of such organization, to perform, or to omit 
to perform, any act if such act or omission would constitute a violation 
of any provision of subparagraph (1) of this subsection. 

(b) The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to designate and pro- 
claim, and from time to time revise, a list of facilities, as defined in paragraph (7) 
of section 3 of this title, with respect to the opera-tion of which he finds and 
determines that the security of the United States require* the application of the 
provisions of subsection (a) of this section. The Secretary shall cause such list 
as designated and proclaimed, or any revision thereof, to be promptly published 
in the Federal Register, and shall promptly notify the management of any 
facility so listed ; whereupon such management shall immediately post conspicu- 
ously, and thereafter while so listed keep posted, notice of such designation in 
such form and in such place or places as to give reasonable notice thereof to 
all employees of, and to all applicants for employment in, such facility. 

(c) As used in this section, the term "member" shall not include any indi- 
vidual whose name has not been made public because of the prohibition contained 
in section 9 (b) of this title. 



159 



160 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
DENIAL OF PASSPORTS TO MEMBERS OF COMMUNIST ORGANIZATIONS 

Sec. 6. (a) AVhen a Communist organization as defined in paragraph (5) of 
section 3 of tliis title is registered, or there is in effect a final order of the Board 
requiring such organization to register, it shall be unlawful for any member 
of such organization, with knowledge or notice that such organization is so 
registered or that such order has become final — 

(1) to make application for a passport, or the renewal of a passport, to 
be issued or renewed by or under the authority of the United States ; or 

(2) to use or attempt to use any such passport. 

(b) When an oranization is registered, or there is in effect a final order of 
the Board requiring an organization to register, as a Communist-action organ- 
ization, it shall be unlawful for any ofl3cer or employee of the United States 
to issue a passport to, or renew the passport of, any individual knowing or hav- 
ing reason to believe that such individual is a member of such organization. 

(c) As used in this section, the term "member" shall not include any indi- 
vidual whose name lias not been made public because of the prohibition contained 
in section 9 (b) of this title. 

REGISTRATION AND ANNUAL REPORTS OF COMMUNIST ORGANIZATIONS 

Sec. 7. (a) Each Communist-action organization (including any organization 
required, by a final order of the Board, to register as a Communist-action organi- 
zation) shall, within the time specified in subsection (c) of this section, register 
with the Attorney General, on a form prescribed by him by regulations, as a 
Communist-action organization. 

(b) Each Communist-front organization (including any organization required, 
by a final order of the Board, to register as a Communist-front organization) 
shall, within the time specified in subsection (c) of this section, register with 
the Attorney General, on a form prescribed by him by regulations, as a Com- 
munist-front organization. 

(c) The registration required by subsection (a) or (b) shall be made — 

(1) in the case of an organization which is a Communist-action organiza- 
tion or a Communist-front organization on the date of the enactment of this 
title, within thirty days after such date ; 

(2) in the case of an organization becoming a Communist-action organiza- 
tion or a Comnuinist-front organization after the date of the enactment of 
this title, within thirty days after such organization becomes a Communist- 
action organization or a Communist-front organization, as the case may be ; 
and 

(3) in the case of an organization which by a final order of the Board is 
required to register, within thirty days after such order becomes final. 

(d) Tlie registration made under subsection (a) or (b) shall be accompanied 
by a registration statement, to be prepared and filed in such manner and form 
as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, containing the following 
information : 

(1) The name of the organization and the address of its principal office. 

(2) The name and last-known address of each individual who is at the 
time of filing of such registration statement, and of each individual who was 
at any time during the period of twelve full calendar months next preceding 
the filing of such statement, an officer of the organization, with the desig- 
nation or title of the office so held, and with a brief statement of the duties 
and functions of such individual as such officer. 

(3) An accounting, in such form and detail as the Attorney General shall 
by regulations prescribe, of all moneys received and expended (including 
the sources from which received and the purposes for which expended) by 
the organization during the period of twelve full calendar months next pre- 
ceding the filing of such statement. 

(4) In the case of a Communist-action organization, the name and last- 
known address of each individual who was a member of the organization 
at any time during the period of twelve full calendar months preceding 
the filing of such statement. 

(.5) In the ca.se of any ofl^cer or member whose name is required to be 
shown in such statement, and who uses or has used or who is or has been 
known by more than one name, each name which such officer or member uses 
or has used or by which he is known or has been known. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 161 

(e) It shall be the duty of each organization registered under this section to 
file with the Attorney General on or before February 1 of the year following 
the year in which it registers, and on or before February 1 of each succeeding 
year, an annual report, prepared and filed in such manner and form as the 
Attoru(>y General shall by regulations prescribe, containing the same informa- 
tion which by subsection (d) is required to be included in a registration statement, 
except that the information required with respect to the twelve-month period 
referred to in paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of such subsection shall, in such 
annual report, be given with respect to the calendar year preceding the Febru- 
ary 1 on or before which such annual report must be filed. 

(f) (1) It shall be the duty of each organization registered under this sec- 
tion to keep, in such manner and form as the Attorney Gene)-al shall by regula- 
tions prescribe, accurate records and accounts of moneys received and expended 
(including the sources from which received and purposes for which expended) by 
such organization. 

(2) It sliall be the duty of each Communist-action organization registered 
under this section to keep, in such manner and form as the Attorney General 
shall by regulations prescribe, accurate records of the names and addresses of 
the members of such organization and of persons who actively particiiiate in the 
activities of such organization. 

(g) It shall be the duty of the Attorney General to send to each individual 
listed in any registration statement or annual report, filed under thjs section, 
as an oflScer'or member of the organization in respect of which such registration 
statement or annual report was filed, a notification in writing that such indi- 
vidual is so listed; and such notification shall be sent at the earliest practicable 
time after the filing of such registration statement or annual report. Upon 
written request of any individual so notified who denies that he holds any office 
or membership (as the case may be) in such organization, the Attorney General 
shall forthwith initiate and conclude at the earliest practicable time an appro- 
piate investigation to determine the truth or falsity of such denial, and, if the 
Attorney General shall be satisfied that such denial is correct, he shall thereupon 
strike from such registration statement or annual report the name of such indi- 
vidual. If the Attorney General shall decline or fail to strike the name of such 
individual from such registration statement or annual report within five months 
after receipt of such written request, such individual may file with the Board 
a petition for relief pursuant to section 13 (b) of this title. 

(h) In the ca.se of failure on the part of any organization to register or to 
file any registration statement or annual report as required by this section, 
it shallbe the duty of the executive officer (or individual performing the ordinary 
and usual duties of an executive officer) and of the secretary (or individual per- 
forming the ordinary and usual duties of a secretary) of such organization, and 
of such officer or officers of such organization as the Attorney General shall by 
regulations prescribe, to register for such organization, to file such registra- 
tion statement, or to file such anual report, as the case may be. 

REGISTRATION OF MEMBERS OF COMMUNIST-ACTION ORGANIZATIONS 

Sec. 8. (a) Any individual who is or becomes a member of any organization 
concerning which (1) there is in effect a final order of the Board requiring 
such organization to register under section 7 (a) of this title as a Communist- 
action organization, (2) more than thirty days have elapsed since such order 
has become final, and (3) such organization is not registered under section 7 of 
this title as a Communist-action organization, shall within sixty days after said 
order has become final, or within thirty days after becoming a member of such 
organization, whichever is later, register with the Attorney General as a member 
of such organization. 

(b) Each individual who is or becomes a member of any organization which 
he knows to be registered as a Communist-action organization under section 7 
(a) of this title, but to have failed to include his name upon the list of members 
thereof filed with the Attorney General, pursuant to the provisions of subsections 
(d) and (e) of section 7 of this title, shall, within sixty days after he shall have 
obtained such knowledge, register with the Attorney General as a member of 
such organization. 

(c) The registration made by any individual under subsection (a) or (b) of 
this section shall be accompanied by a registration statement to be prepared and 
filed in such manner and form, and containing such information, as the Attorney 
General shall by regulations prescribe. 



162 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
KEEPING OF BEGI8TEES ; PUBLIC INSPECTION ; KEPORTS TO PRESIDENT AND CONGKES& 

Sec. 9. (a) The Attorney General shall keep and maintain separately in the 
Department of Justice — 

(1) a "Register of Communist- Action Organizations", which shall include 
(A) the names and addresses of all Commmunist-action organizations 
registered under section 7, (B) the registration statements and annual 
reports filed by such oi-ganizations thereunder, and (C) the registration 
statements filed by individuals under section S ; and 

(2) a "Register of Communist-Front Organizations", which shall include 
(A) the names and addresses of all Communist-front organizations reg- 
istered under section 7, and (B) the registration statements and annual 
reports filed by such organizations thereunder. 

(b) Such registers shall be kept and maintained in such manner as to be open 
for public inspection : Provided, That the Attorney General shall not make 
public the name of any individual listed in either such register as an officer or 
member of any Communist organization until sixty days shall have elapsed after 
the transmittal of the notification required by section 7 (g) to be sent to such 
individual, and if prior to the end of such period such individual shall make 
written request to the Attorney General for the removal of his name from any 
such list, the Attorney General shall not make public the name of such individual 
until six iponths shall have elapsed after receipt of such request by the Attorney 
General, or until thirty days shall have elapsed after the Attorney General shall 
have denied such request and shall have transmitted to such individual notice 
of such denial, whichever is earlier. 

(c) The Attorney General shall submit to the President and to the Congress 
on or before June 1 of each year (and at any other time when requested by either 
House by resolution) a report with respect to the carrying out of the provisions 
of this title, including the names and addresses of the organizations listed in such 
registers and (except to the extent prohibited by subsection (b) of this section) 
the names and addresses of the individuals listed as members of such 
organizations. 

(d) Upon the registration of each Communist organization under the provisions 
of this title, the Attorney General shall publish in the Federal Register the fact 
that such organization has registered as a Communist-action organization, or 
as a Communist-front organization, as the case may be, and the publication 
thereof shall constitute notice to all members of such organization that such 
organization has so registered. 

USE OF THE MAILS AND INSTRUMENTALITIES OF INTERSTATE OR FOREIGN COMMERCE 

Sec. 10. It shall be unlawful for any organization which is registered under 
section 7, or for any organization with respect to which there is in effect a final 
order of the Board requiring it to register under section 7, or for any person 
acting for or on behalf of any such organization — 

(1) to transmit or cause to be transmitted, through the United States 
mails or by any means or instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce, 
any publication which is intended to be, or which it is reasonable to believe 
is intended to be, circulated or disseminated among two or more persons, 
unless such publication, and any envelope, wrapper, or other container in 
which it is mailed or otherwise circulated or transmitted, bears the following, 
printed in such manner as may be provided in regulations prescribed by 
the Attorney General, with the name of the organization appearing in lieu 
of the blank : "Disseminated by , a Communist organization" ; or 

(2) to broadcast or cause to be broadcast any matter over any radio or 
television station in the United States, unless such matter is preceded by 
the following statement, with the name of the organization being stated in 

place of the blank : "The following program is sponsored by , 

a Communist organization". 

DENIAL OF TAX DEDUCTIONS AND EXEMPTIONS 

Sec 11. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, no deduction for 
Federal income-tax purposes shall be allowed in the case of a contribution to or 
for the use of any organization if at the time of the making of such contribution 
(1) such organization is registered under section 7, or (2) there is in effect a 
final order of the Board requiring such organization to register under section 7. 

(b) No organization shall be entitled to exemption from Federal income tax, 
under section 101 of the Internal Revenue Code, for any taxable year if at any 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 163 

time duriiifi such taxable year (1) such organization is registered under section 
7, or (2) there is in effect a linal order of the Board requiring such organization 
to register under section 7. 

SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES CONTROL BOARD 

Sec. 12. (a) There is hereby established a board, to be known as the Sub- 
versive Activities Control Board, which shall be composed of tive members, who 
shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate. Not more than three members of the Board shall be members of the 
same political party. Two of the original members shall be appointed for a 
term of one year, two for a term of two years, and one for a term of three years, 
but their successors shall be appointed for terms of three years each, except 
that any individual chosen to fill a vacancy shall be appointed only for the un- 
expired term of the member whom he shall succeed. The President shall desig- 
nate one member to serve as Chairman of the Board. Any member of the Board 
may be removed by the President, upon notice and hearing, for neglect of duty 
or malfeasance in oflBce, but for no other cause. 

(b) A vacancy in the Board shall not impair the right of the remaining mem- 
bers to exercise all the powers of the Board, and three members of the Board 
shall, at all times, constitute a quorum. The Board shall have an official seal 
which shall be judicially noticed. 

(c) The Board shall at the close of each fiscal year make a report in writing 
to the Congress and to the Pre.sident stating in detail the cases it has heard, 
the decisions it has rendered, the names, salaries, and duties of all employees of 
the Board, and an account of all moneys it has disbur.sed. 

(d) Each member of the Board shall receive a salary of $12,500 a year, shall 
be eligible for reappointment, and shall not engage in any other business, voca- 
tion, or employment. 

(e) It shall be the duty of the Board — 

(1) upon application made by the Attorney General under section 13 (a) 
of this title, or by any organization under section 13 (b) of this title, to 
determine whether any organization is a "Communist-action organization" 
within the meaning of paragraph (3) of section 3 of this title, or a "Com- 
munist-front organization" within the meaning of paragraph (4) of section 
3 of this title; and 

(2) upon application made by the Attorney General under section 13 
(a) of this title, or by any individual under section 13 (b) of this title, to 
determine whether any individual is a member of any Communist-action 
organization registered, or by final order of the Board required to be regis- 
tered, under section 7 (a) of this title. 

(f ) Subject to the civil-service laws and Classification Act of 1949, the Board 
may appoint and fix the compensation of a chief clerk and such examiners and 
other personnel as may be necessary for the performance of its functions. 

(g) The Board may make such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with 
the provisions of this title, as may be necessary for the performance of its duties. 

(h) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Board such sums as 
may be necessary to carry out its functions. 

PROCEEDINGS BEFORE BOARD 

Sec. 13. (a) Whenever the Attorney General shall have reason to believe 
that any organization which has not registered under subsection (a) or sub- 
section (b) of section 7 of this title is in fact an organization of a kind required 
to be registered under such subsection, or that any individual who has not 
registered under section 8 of this title is in fact required to register under such 
section, he shall file with the Board and serve upon such organization or indi- 
vidual a petition for an order requii-ing such organization or individual to register 
pursuant to such subsection or section, as the case may be. Each such petition 
shall be verified under oath, and shall contain a statement of the facts upon 
which the Attorney General relies in support of his prayer for the issuance of 
such order. 

(b) Any organization registered under subsection (a) or subsection (b) of 
section 7 of this title, and any individual registered under .section 8 of this title, 
may, not oftener than once in each calendar year, make application to the At- 
torney General for the cancellation of such registration and (in the case of such 
oi'ganization) for relief from obligation to make further annual reports. Within 
sixty days after the denial of any such application by the Attorney General, the 



164 ANjSTUAL report, committee on UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

organization or individual concerned may file with the Board and serve upon the 
Attorney General a petition for an order requiring the cancellation of such regis- 
tration and (in the case of such organization) relieving such organization of 
obligation to make further annual reports. Any individual authorized by section 
7 (g) of this title to file a petition for relief may file with the Board and serve 
upon the Attorney General a petition for an order requiring the Attorney General 
to strike his name from the registration statement or annual report upon which it 
appears. 

(c) Upon the filing of any petition pursuant to subsection (a) or subsection (b) 
of this section, the Board (or any member thereof or any examiner designated 
thereby) may hold hearings, administer oatlis and affirmations, may examine 
witnesses and receive evidence at any place in the United States, and may require 
by subpena the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, 
papers, correspondence, memoranda, and other records deemed relevant, to the 
matter under inquiry. Subpenas may be signed and is.sued by any member of the 
Board or any duly authorized examiner. Subpenas shall be issued on behalf of 
the organization or the individual who is a party to the proceeding upon request 
and upon a statement or showing of general relevance and reasonable scope of the 
evidence sought. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of such docu- 
mentary evidence may be requii-ed from any place in the United States at any 
designated place of bearing. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees 
and mileage paid witnesses in the district courts of the United States. In case 
of disobedience to a subpena, tlie Board may invoice the aid of any court of the 
United States in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the 
production of documentary evidence. Any of the district courts of the United 
States within the jurisdiction of which such inquiry is carried on may, in case of 
contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena issued to any person, issue an order re- 
quiring such person to appear (and to produce documentary evidence if so 
ordered) and give evidence relating to the matter in question; and any failure 
to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt 
thereof. All process in any such case may be served in the judicial district 
whereof such person is an inhabitant or wherever he may be found. No person 
shall be held liable in any action in any court, State or Federal, for any damages 
resulting from (1 ) his production of any documentary evidence in any proceeding 
before the Board if he is required, by a subpena issued iinder this subsection, to 
produce the evidence; or (2) any statement under oath he makes in answer to a 
question he is asked while testifying before the Board in response to a subpena 
issued under this subsection, if the statement is pertinent to the question. 

(d) (1) All hearings conducted under this section shall be public. Each party 
to such proceeding shall have the right to present its case with the assistance of 
counsel, to offer oral or documentary evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and 
to conduct such cross-examination as may be required for a full and true dis- 
closure of the facts. An accurate stenographic record shall be taken of the tes- 
timony of each witness, and a transcript of such testimony shall be filed in the 
office of the Board. 

(2) Where an organization or individual declines or fails to appear at a 
hearing accorded to such organization or individual by the Board pursuant to this 
section, the Board may, without further proceedings and without the introduc- 
tion of any evidence, enter an order requiring such organization or individual to 
register or denying the application of such organization or individual, as the 
case may be. Where in the course of any hearing before the Board or any exam- 
iner thereof a party or counsel is guilty of misbehaving which obstructs the hear- 
ing, such party or counsel may be excluded from further participation in the 
hearing. 

(e) In determining whether any organization is a "Communist-action organ- 
ization", the Boai'd shall take into consideration — 

(1) the extent to which its policies ai'e formulated and carried out and its 
activities performed, pursuant to directives or to effectuate the policies of the 
foreign government or foreign organizatioil in which is vested, or under the 
domination or control of which is exercised, the direction and control of the 
world Communist movement referred to in section 2 of this title ; and 

(2) the extent to which its views and policies do not deviate from those 
of such foreign government or foreign organization ; and 

(3) the extent to which it receives financial or other aid, directly or in- 
directly, from or at the direction of such foreign government or foreign 
organization ; and 



ANNTJAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AIVIERICAN ACTIVITIES 165 

(4) the extent to which it sends members or representatives to any foreign 
country for instruction or training in the principles, policies, strategy, or 
tactics of such world Communist movement ; and 

(5) the extent to which it reports to such foreign government or foreign 
organization or to its representatives ; and 

(6) the extent to which its principal leaders or a substantial number of its 
members are subject to or recognize the disciplinary power of such foreign 
government or foreign organization or its representatives ; and 

(7) the extent to which, for the purpose of concealing foreign direction, 
domination, or control, or of expediting or promoting its objectives, (i) it 
fails to disclose, or resists efforts to obtain information ns to, its membership 
(by keeping membership lists in code, by instructing meriibers to refuse to ac- 
knowledge membership, or by any other method) ; (ii) its members refuse to 
acknowledge membership therein; (iii) it fails to disclose, or resists efforts 
to obtain information as to, records other than membership lists; (iv) its 
meetings are secret: and (v) it otherwise operates on a secret basis; and 

(8) the extent to which its principal leaders or a substantial number of 
its members consider the allegiance they owe to the United States as sub- 
ordinate to their obligations to such foreign government or foreign 
organization. 

(f) In determining whether any organization is a "Communist-front organi- 
zation", the Board shall take into consideration — 

(1) the extent to which persons who are active in its management, direc- 
tion, or supervision, whether or not holding office therein, are active in the 
management, direction, or supervision of, or as representatives of, any Com- 
munist-action organization, Communist foreign government, or the world 
Communist movement referred to in section 2 ; and 

(2) the extent to which its support, financial or otherwise, is derived 
from any Communist-action organization. Communist foreign government, 
or the world Communist movement referred to in section 2; and 

(3) the extent to which its funds, resources, or personnel are used to 
further or promote the objectives of any Communist-action organization, 
Communist foreign government, or the world Communist movement referred 
to in section 2 ; and 

(4) the extent to which the positions taken or advanced by it from time 
to time on matters of policy do not deviate from those of any Communist- 
action organization, Communist foreign government, or the world Com- 
munist movement referred to in section 2. 

(g) If, after hearing upon a petition filed under subsection (a) of this section, 
the Board determines — 

(1) that an organization is a Communist-action organization or a Com- 
munist-front organization, as the case may be, it shall make a report in 
writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts and shall issue and 
cause to be served on such organization an order requiring such organiza- 
tion to register as such under section 7 of this title ; or 

(2) that an individual is a memlier of a Communist-action organization 
(including an organization required by final order of the Board to register 
under section 7 (a)), it shall make a report in writing in which it shall 
state its findings as to the facts and shall issue and cause to be served on 
such individual an order requiring him to register as such under section 8 
of this title. 

(h) If. after hearing upon a i)etition filed under subsection (a) of this section, 
the Board determines — 

(1) that an organization is not a Communist-action organization or a 
Communist-front organization, as the case may be, it shall make a report 
in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts; issue and cause 
to be served upon the Attorney General an order denying his petition for 
an order requiring such organization to register as such under section 7 
of this title ; and send a copy of such order to such organization ; or 

(2) that an individual is not a member of any Communist-action organi- 
zation, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings 
as to the facts ; issue and cause to be served upon the Attorney General an 
order denying his petition for an order requiring such individual to register 
as such member under section 8 of this title ; and send a copy of such order 
to such individual. 

(i) If, after hearing upon a petition filed under subsection (b) of this section, 
the Board determines— 

47400 — 54 12 



166 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

(1) that an organization is not a Communist-action organization or a 
Communist-front organization, as the case may be, it shall make a report 
in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts; issue and cause 
to be served upon the Attorney General an order requiring him to cancel 
the registration of such organization and relieve it from the requirement of 
further annual reports ; and send a copy of such order to such organization ; 
or 

(2) that an individual is not a member of any Communist-action organiza- 
tion, or (in the case of an individual listed as an officer of a Communist- 
front organization) that an individual is not an officer of a Communist- 
front organization, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state 
its findings as to the facts ; issue and cause to be served upon the Attorney 
General and order requiring him to (A) strike the name of such individual 
from the registration statement or annual report upon which it appears 
or (B) cancel the registration of such individual under section 8, as may 
be appropriate ; and send a copy of such order to such individual. 

(j) If, after hearing upon a petition filed under subsection (b) of this section, 
the Board determines — 

(1) that an organization is a Communist-action organization or a Com- 
munist-front organization, as the case may be, it shall make a report in 
writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts and shall issue and 
cause to be served on such organization an order denying its petition for 
the cancellation of its registration and for relief from the requirement of 
further annual reports ; or 

(2) that an individual is a member of a Communist-action organization, or 
(in the case of an individual listed as an officer of a Communist-front organ- 
ization) that an individual is an officer of a Communist-front organization, 
it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the 
facts and shall issue and cause to be served on such individual an order 
denying his petition for an order requiring the Attorney General (A) to 
strike his name from any registration statement or annual report on which 
it appears or (B) to cancel the registration of such individual under section 
8, as the case may be. 

(k) When any order of the Board requiring registration of a Communist 
organization becomes final under the provisions of section 14 (b) of this title, 
the Board shall publish in the Federal Register the fact that such order has be- 
come final, and publication thereof shall constitute notice to all members of 
such organization that such order has become final. 

JUDICIAL REVIEW 

Sec. 14. (a) The party aggrieved by any order entered by the Board under 
subsection (g), (h), (i), or (j) of section 13 may obtain a review of such order 
by filing in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, 
within sixty days from the date of service upon it of such order, a written 
petition praying that the order of the Board be set aside. A copy of such petition 
shall be forthwith served upon the Board, and thereupon the Board shall certify 
and file in the court a transcript of the entire record in the proceeding, including 
all evidence taken and the report and order of the Board. Thereupon the court 
shall have jurisdiction of the proceeding and shall have power to affirm or set 
aside the order of the Board ; but the court may in its discretion and upon its 
own motion transfer any action so commenced to the United States Court of 
Appeals for the circuit wherein the petitioner resides. The findings of the Board 
as to the facts, if supported by the preponderance of the evidence, shall be con- 
clusive. If either party shall apply to the court for leave to adduce additional 
evidence, and shall show to the satisfaction of the court that such additional 
evidence is material, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken 
before the Board and to be adduced upon the proceeding in such manner and 
upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The Board 
may modify its findings as to the facts, by reason of the additional evidence so 
taken, and it shall file such modified or new findings, which, if supported by 
the preponderance of the evidence shall be conclusive, and its recommendations, 
if any, with respect to action in the matter under consideration. If the court 
shall set aside an order issued under subsection (j) of section 13 it may, in the 
case of an organization, enter a judgment canceling the registration of such 
organization and relieving it from the requirement of further annual reports, 
or in the case of an individual, enter a judgment requiring the Attorney General 
(A) to strike the name of such individual from the registration statement or 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON XW- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 167 

annual report on which it appears, or (B) cancel the registration of such individ- 
ual under section 8, as may be appropriate. The judgment and decree of the 
court shall be final, except that the same shall be subject to review by the Supreme 
Court upon certiorari, as provided in title 28, United States Code, section 1254. 
(b) Any order of the Board issued under section 13 shall become final — 

(1) upon the expiration of the time allowed for filing a petition for re- 
view, if no such petition has been duly filed within such time ; or 

(2) upon the expiration of the time allowed for filing a petition for certi- 
orari, if the order of the Board has been aflSrmed or the petition for review 
dismissed by a United States Court of Appeals, and no petition for certiorari 
has been duly filed ; or 

(3) upon the denial of a petition for certiorari, if the order of the Board 
has been affirmed or the petition for review dismissed by a United States 
Court of Appeals ; or 

(4) upon the expiration of ten days from the date of issuance of the man- 
date of the Supreme Court, if such Court directs that the order of the Board 
be affirmed or the petition for review dismissed. 

PENALTIES 

Sec. 15. (a) If there is in effect with respect to any organization or individual 
a final order of the Board requiring registration under section 7 or section 8 
of this title — 

(1) such organization shall, upon conviction of failure to register, to file 
any registration statement or annual report, or to keep records as required 
by section 7, be punished for each such offense by a fine of not more than 
$10,000, and 

(2) each individual having a duty under subsection (h) of section 7 to 
register or to file any registration statement or annual report on behalf 
of such organization, and each individual having a duty to register under 
section 8, shall, upon conviction of failure to so register or to file any such 
registration statement or annual report, be punished for each such offense 
by a fine of not more than $10,000, or imprisonment for not more than five 
years, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

For the purposes of this subsection, each day of failure to register, whether 
on the part of the organization or any individual, shall constitute a separate 
offense. 

(b) Any individual who, in a registration statement or annual report filed 
under section 7 or section 8, willfully makes any false statement or willfully 
omits to state any fact which is requii-ed to be stated, or which is necessary 
to make the statements made or information given not misleading, shall upon 
conviction thereof be punished for each such offense by a fine of not more than 
$10,000, or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or by both such fine 
and imprisonment. For the purposes of this subsection — 

(1) each false statement willfully made, and each willful omission to 
state any fact which is required to be stated, or which is necessary to make 
the statements made or infoi'mation given not misleading, shall constitute a 
separate offense ; and 

(2) each listing of the name or address of any one individual shall be 
deemed to be a separate statement. 

(c) Any organization which violates any provision of section 10 of this title 
shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished for each such violation by a fine of 
not more than $10,000. Any individual who violates any provision of section 
5, 6, or 10 of this title shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished for each such 
violation by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more 
than five years, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 



Espionage Cases 



PEBIOD OF limitations 



Sec. 19. An indictment for any violation of title 18, United States Code, sec- 
tion 792, 793, or 794, other than a violation constituting a capital offense, may 
be found at any time within ten years next after such violation shall have been 
committed. This section shall not authorize prosecution, trial, or punishment 
for any offense now barred by the provisions of existing law. 



168 ANISTLTAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

REVOCATION OF NATURALIZATION— STATUTORY PERIOD— ACT OF 

JUNE 30, 1951 (65 STAT. 107) 

[Public Law 65 (83d Cong.), Ch. 194] 

AN ACT To amend chapter 213 of title 1-8 of the United States Code. 

Be it enacted bij the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, That chapter 213 of title 18 of the United 
States Code be amended by adding a new section to be known as section 3291, 
as follows: 

■"§ 3291. Nationality, citizenship and passports. 

"No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for violation of any provision 
of sections 1423 to 1428, inclusive, of chapter 69 and sections 1541 to 1544, in- 
clusive, of chapter 75 of title IS of the United States Code, or for conspiracy to 
violate any of the afore-mentioned sections, unless the indictment is found or 
the information is instituted within ten years after the commission of the 
offense." 

Sec. 2. The chapter analysis of chapter 213, immediately preceding section 
3281 of title 18 United States Code is amended by adding the following item at 
the end thereof : "3291. Nationality, citizenship and passports." 

Approved June 30, 1951. 

THE McCARRAN- WALTER IMMIGRATION ACT OF JUNE 27, 1952 (66 STAT. 

163-282) 

GENERAL CLASSES OF ALIENS INELIGIBLE TO RECEIVE VISAS AND EXCLUDED 

FROM ADMISSION 

Sec. 212. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the following classes 
of aliens shall be ineligible to receive visas and shall be excluded from admission 
into the United States : 

(28) Aliens who are, or at any time have been, members of any of the following 
classes : 

(A) Aliens who are anarchists ; 

(B) Aliens who advocate or teach, or who are members of or affiliated 
with any organization that advocates or teaches, opposition to all organized 
government ; 

(C) Aliens who are members of or affiliated with (i) the Communist 
Party of the United States, (ii) any other totalitarian party of the United 
States, (iii) the Communist Political Association, (iv) the Communist or 
any other totalitarian party of any State of the United States, of any foreign 
state, or of any political or geographical subdivision of any foi-eign state, 
(v) any section, subsidiary, branch, affiliate, or subdivision of any such 
association or party, or (vi) the direct predecessors or successors of any 
such association or party, regardless of what name such group or organiza- 
tion may have used, may now bear, or may hereafter adopt : Provided, 
That nothing in this paragraph, or in any other provision of this Act, shall 
be construed as declaring that the Communist Party does not advocate the 
overthrow of the Government of the United States by force, violence, or 
other unconstitutional means ; 

(D) Aliens not within any of the other provisions of this paragraph who 
advocate the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world 
communism or the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dic- 
tatorship, or who are members of or affiliated with any organization that 
advocates the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world 
communism or the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dic- 
tatorship, either through its own utterances or through any written or 
printed publications issued or published by or with the permission or con- 
sent of or under the authority of such organization or paid for by the 
funds of, or funds furnished by, such organization ; 

(E) Aliens not within any of the other provisions of this paragraph, 
who are members of or affiliated with any organization during the time it is 
registered or required to be registered under section 7 of the Subversive 
Activities Control Act of 1950, unless such aliens establish that they did not 
have knowledge or reason to believe at the time they became members of 
or affiliated with such an organization (and did not thereafter and prior 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 169 

to the date upon which such organization was so registered or so required 
to be registered have such knowledge or reason to believe) that such or- 
ganization was a Communist organization ; 

(F) Aliens who advocate or teach or who are members of or aflBliated 
with any organization that advocates or teaches (i) the overthrow by force, 
violence, or other unconstitutional means of the Government of the United 
States or of all forms of law; or (ii) the duty, necessity, or propriety of 
the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers (either of specific 
individuals or of officers generally) of the Government of the United States 
or of any other organized government, because of his or their official char- 
acter; or (iii) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property; 
or (iv) sabotoge ; 

(G) Aliens who write or publish, or cause to be written or published, 
or who knowingly circulate, distribute, print, or display, or knowingly 
cause to be circulated, distributed, printed, pulilished, or displayed, or 
who knowingly have in their possession for the purpose of circulation, 
publication, distribution, or display, any written or printed matter, advo- 
cating or teaching opposition to all organized government, or advocating 
or teaching (i) the overthrow by force, violence, or other unconstitu- 
tional means of the Government of the United States or of all forms of 
law; or (ii) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or 
killing of any officer or officers (either of specific individuals or of officers 
generally) of the Government of the United States or of any other organized 
government, because of his or their official character; or (iii) the unlawful 
damage, injury, or destruction of property; or (iv) sabotage: or (v) the 
economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism 
or the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship ; 

(H) Aliens who are members of or affiliated with any organization that 
writes, circulates, distributes, prints, publishes, or displays, or causes to 
be written, circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or that 
has in its possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, 
issue, or display, any written or printed matter of the character described in 
paragraph (G) ; 

(I) Any alien who is within any of the classes described in subparagraphs, 
(B), (C), (D), (E), (F), (G), and (H) of this paragraph because of 
membership in or affiliation with a party or organization or a section, 
subsidiary, branch, affiliate, or subdivision thereof, may, if not otherwise 
ineligible, be issued a visa if such alien establishes to the satisfaction of 
the consular officer when applying for a visa and the consular officer finds 
that (i) such membership or affiliation is or was involuntary, or is or was 
solely when under sixteen years of age, by operation of law, or for purposes 
of obtaining employment, food rations, or other essentials of living and 
where necessary for such purposes, or (ii) (a) since the termination of 
such membership or affiliation, such alien is and has been, for at least five 
years prior to the date of the application for a visa, actively opposed to the 
doctrine, program, principles, and Ideology of such party or organization or 
the section, subsidiary, branch, or affiliate or subdivision thereof, and (b) 
the admission of such alien into the United States would be in the public 
interest. Any such alien to whom a visa has been issued under the pro- 
visions of this subparagraph may, if not otherwise inadmissible, be admitted 
into the United States if he shall establish to the satisfaction of the Attorney 
General when applying for admission to the United States and the Attorney 
General finds that (i) such membership or affiliation is or was involuntary, 
or is or was solely when under sixteen years of age, by operation of law, 
or for purposes of obtaining employment, food rations, or other essentials 
of living and when necessary for such purposes, or (ii) (a) since the 
termination of such membership or affiliation, such alien is and has been, 
for at least five years prior to the date of the application for admission 
actively opposed to the doctrine, program, principles, and ideology of such 
party or organization or the section, subsidiary, branch, or affiliate or sub- 
division thereof, and (b) the admission of such alien into the United States 
would be in the public interest. The Attorney General shall promptly make 
a detailed report to the Congress in the case of each alien who is or .shall be 
admitted into the United States under (ii) of this subparagraph: 
(29) Aliens with respect to whom the consular officer or the Attorney General 
knows or has reasonable ground to believe probably would, after entry. (A) 
engage in activities which would be prohibited by the laws of the United States 
relating to espionage, sabotage, public disorder, or in other activity subversive to 



170 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

the national security, (B) engage in any activity a purpose of whicli is the 
opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United 
States, by force, violence, or other unconstitutional means, or (C) join, affiliate 
with, or participate in the activities of any organization which is registered or 
required to be registered under section 7 of the Subversive Activities Control 
Act of 1950. 



SCREENING PROCESS OF IMMIGRANTS 
Chapter 4 — Provisions Relating to Entry and Exclusion 

LISTS of alien and CITIZEN PASSENGERS ARRIVING OR DEPARTING ; RECORD OF RESIDENT 
ALIENS AND CITIZENS LEAVING PERMANENTLY FOR FOREIGN COUNTRY 

Sec. 231. (a) Upon the arrival of any person by water or by air at any port 
within the United States from any place outside the United States, it shall be the 
duty of the master or commanding officer, or authorized agent, owner, or con- 
signee of the vessel or aircraft, having any such person on board to deliver to the 
immigration officers at the port of arrival typewritten or printed lists or manifests 
of the persons on board such vessel or aircraft. Such lists or manifests shall be 
prepared at such time, be in such form and shall contain such information as the 
Attorney General shall prescribe by regulation as being necessary for the identifi- 
cation of the persons transported and for the enforcement of the immigration laws. 
This subsection shall not require the master or commanding officer, or authorized 
agent, owner, or consignee of a vessel or aircraft to furnish a list or manifest 
relating (1) to an alien crewman or (2) to any other person arriving by air on a 
trip originating in foreign contiguous territory, except (with respect to such 
arrivals by air) as may be required by regulations issued pursuant to section 239. 

(b) It shall be the duty of the master or commanding officer or authorized 
agent of every vessel or aircraft taking passengers on board at any port of the 
United States, who are destined to any place outside the United States, to file 
with the immigration officers before departure from such port a list of all such 
persons taken on board. Such list shall be in such form, contain such informa- 
tion, and be accompanied by such documents, as the Attorney General shall 
prescribe by regulation as necessary for the identification of the persons so 
transported and for the enforcement of the immigration laws. No master or 
commanding officer of any such vessel or aircraft shall be granted clearance papers 
for his vessel or aircraft until he or the authorized agent has deposited such list 
or lists and accompanying documents with the immigration officer at such port 
and made oath that they are full and complete as to the information required 
to be contained therein, except that in the case of vessels or aircraft which the 
Attorney General determines are making regular trips to ports of the United 
States, the Attorney General may, when expedient, arrange for the delivery of 
lists of outgoing persons at a later date. This subsection shall not require the 
master or commanding officer, or authorized agent, owner, or consignee of a vessel 
or aircraft to furnish a list or manifest relating (1) to an alien crewman or 
(2) to any other person departing by air on a trip originating in the United States 
who is destined to foreign contiguous territory, except (with respect to such 
departure by air) as may be required by regulations issued pursuant to section 239. 

(c) The Attorney General may authorize immigration officers to record the 
following information regarding every resident person leaving the United States 
by way of the Canadian or Mexican borders for permanent residence in a for- 
eign country : Names, age, and sex ; whether married or single ; calling or oc- 
cupation ; whether able to read or write ; nationality ; country of birth ; country 
of which citizen or subject ; race ; last permanent residence in the United States; 
intended future permanent residence ; and time and port of last arrival in the 
United States ; and if a United 'States citizen or national, the facts on which 
claim to that status is based. 

(d) If it shall appear to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the 
master or commanding officer, owner, or consignee of any vessel or aircraft, 
or the agent of any transportation line, as th6 case may be, has refused or 
failed to deliver any list or manifest required by subsections (a) or (b), or that 
the list or manifest delivered is not accurate and full, such master or com- 
manding officer, owner, or consignee, or agent, as the case may be, shall pay 
to the collector of customs at the port of arrival or departure the sum of $10 
for each person concerning whom such accurate and full list or manifest is 
not furnished, or concerning whom the manifest or list is not prepared and 



AXNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 171 

sworn to as prescribed by this section or by regulations issued pursuant thereto. 
No vessel or aircraft shall be granted clearance pending determination of the 
question of the liability to the payment of such penalty, or while it remains 
unpaid, and no such penalty shall be remitted or refunded, except tliat clear- 
ance may be granted prior to the determination of such question upon the de- 
posit with the collector of customs of a bond or undertaking approved by the 
Attorney General or a sum sufHcient to cover such ptenalty. 

(e) The Attorney General is authorized to prescribe the circumstances and 
conditions under which the list or manifest requirements of subsections (a) 
and (b) may be waived. 

DETENTION OF ALIENS FOB OBSEKVATION AND EXAMINATION 

Sec. 232. For the purpose of determining whether aliens (including alien 
crewman) arriving at ports of the United States belong to any of the classes ex- 
cluded by this Act, by reason of being afflicted with any of the diseases or mental 
or physical defects or disabilities set forth in section 212 (a), or whenever the 
Attorney General has received information showing that any aliens are coming 
from a country or have embarked at a place where any of such diseases are 
prevalent or epidemic, such aliens shall be detained ou board the vessel or at 
the airport of arrival of the aircraft bringing them, unless the Attorney General 
directs their detention in a United States immigration station or other place 
specified by him at the expense of such vessel or aircraft except as otherwise 
provided in this Act, as circimistances may require or justify, for a sufficient 
time to enable the immigration officers and medical officers to subject such aliens 
to observation and an examination sufficient to determine whether or not 
they belong to the excluded classes. 

TEMPORARY REMOVAL FOB EXAMINATION TTPON ABElVAL 

Sec. 233. (a) Upon the arrival at a port of the United States of any vessel or 
aircraft bringing aliens (including alien crewmen) the immigration officers may 
order a temporary removal of such aliens for examination and inspection at a 
designated time and place, but such temporary removal shall not be considered 
a landing, nor shall it relieve vessels or aircraft, the transportation lines, or the 
masters, commanding officers, agents, owners, or consignees of the vessel or 
aircraft upon which such aliens are brought to any port of the United States from 
any of the obligations which, in case such aliens remain on board, would, under 
the provisions of this Act bind such vessels or aircraft, transportation lines, 
masters, commanding officers, agents, owners, or consignees. A temporary re- 
moval of aliens from such vessels or aircraft ordered pursuant to this subsection 
shall be made by an immigration officer at the expense of the vessels or aircraft or 
transportation lines, or the masters, commanding officers, agents, owners, or con- 
signees of such vessels, aircraft or transportation lines, as provided in subsection 
(b) and such vessels, aircraft, transportation lines, masters, commanding officers, 
agents, owners or consignees, shall, so long as such removal lasts, be relieved of 
responsibility for the safekeeping of such aliens : Provided, That such vessels, 
aircraft, transportation lines, masters, commanding officers, agents, owners, or 
consignees may with the approval of the Attorney General assume responsibility 
for the safekeeping of such aliens during their removal to a designated place for 
examination and inspection, in which event, such removal need not be made by 
an immigration officer. 

(b) Whenever a temporary removal of aliens is made under this section, the 
vessels or aircraft or transportation lines which brought them, and the masters, 
commanding officers, owners, agents, and consignees of the vessel, aircraft, or 
transportation line upon which they arrived shall pay all expenses of such re- 
moval to a designated place for examination and inspection or other place of 
detention and all expenses arising during subsequent detention, pending a decision 
on the aliens' eligibility to enter the United States and until they are either 
allowed to land or returned to the care of the transportation line or to the vessel or 
aircraft which brought them. Such expenses shall include maintenance, medical 
treatment in hospital or elsewhere, burial in the event of death, and transfer to the 
vessel, aircraft, or transportation line in the event of deportation, except where 
such expenses arise under section 237 (d) or in such cases as the Attorney Gen- 
eral may prescribe in the case of aliens paroled into the United States temporarily 
under the provisions of section 212 (d) (5). 

(c) Any detention expenses and expenses incident to detention incurred (but 
not including expenses of removal to the place of detention) pursuant to sections 



172 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

323 and 233 shall not be assessed under this Act against the vessel or aircraft 
or transportation line or the master, commanding officer, owner, agent, or consig- 
nee of the vessel, aircraft, or transportation line in the case of (1) any alien 
who arrived in possession of a valid unexpired immigrant visa, or (2) any alien 
who was finally admitted to the United States pursuant to this Act after such 
detention, or (3) any alien other than an alien crewman, who arrived in posses- 
session of a valid unexpired nonimmigrant visa or other document authorizing 
such alien to apply for temporary admission to the United States or an unexpired 
reentry permit issued to him, and (A) application for admission was made within 
one hundred and twenty days of the date of issuance of the visa or other docu- 
ment, or in the case of an alien in possession of a reentry permit, within one 
hundred and twenty days of the date on which the alien was last examined and 
admitted by the Service, or (B) in the event application for admission was made 
later than one hundred and twenty days of the date of issuance of the visa 
or other document or such examination and admission, if the vessel, aircraft, or 
transportation line or the master, commanding officer, owner, agent, or consignee 
of the vessel, aircraft, or transportation line establishes to the satisfaction of the 
Attorney General that the ground of exclusion could not have been ascertained 
by the exercise of due diligence prior to the alien's embarkation, or (4) any 
person claiming United States nationality or citizenship and in possession of an 
unexpired United States passport issued to him by competent authority, or (5) 
any person claiming United States nationality or citizenship and in possession of 
a certificate of identity issued pursuant to section 3G0 (b) of this Act, or any 
other document of identity issued or verified by a consular officer which shows on 
its face tliat it is currently valid for travel to the United States and who was 
allowed to land in the United States after such detention. 

(d) Any refusal or failure to comply with the provisions of this section shall 
be punished in the manner specified in section 237 (b) of this Act. 

PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION 

Sec. 234. The physical and mental examination of arriving aliens (including 
alien crewmen) shall be made by medical officers of the United States Public 
Health Service, who shall conduct all medical examinations and shall certify, 
for the information of the immigration officers and the special inquiry officers, 
any physical and mental defect or disease observed by such medical officers in 
any such alien. If medical officers of the United States Public Health Service 
are not available, civil surgeons of not less than four years' professional ex- 
perience may be employed for such service upon such terms as may be prescribed 
by the Attorney General. Aliens (including alien crewmen) arriving at ports 
of the United States shall be examined by at least one such medical officer or 
civil surgeon under such administrative regulations as the Attorney General 
may prescribe, and under medical regulations prepared by the Surgeon General 
of the United States I'ublic Health Service. Medical officers of the United States 
Public Health Service who have had special training in the diagnosis of insanity 
and mental defects shall be detailed for duty or employed at such ports of entry 
as the Attorney General may designate, and such medical officers shall be pro- 
vided with suitable facilities for the detention and examination of all arriving 
aliens who it is suspected may be excludable under paragraphs (1), (2), (3), 
(4), or (5) of section 212 (a), and the services of interpreters shall be provided 
for such examination. Any alien certified under paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), 
or (5) of section 212 (a) may appeal to a board of medical officers of the United 
States Public Health Service, which shall be convened by the Surgeon General 
of the United States Public Health Service, and any such alien may introduce 
before such board one expert medical witness at his own cost and expense. 

INSPECTION BY IMMIGRATIOIT OFFICERS 

Sec. 235. (a) The inspection, other than the physical and mental examination, 
of aliens (including alien crewmen) seeking admission or readmission to, or the 
privilege of passing through the United States shall be conducted by immigration 
officers, except as otherwise provided in regard to special inquiry officers. All 
aliens arriving at ports of the United States shall be examined by one or more 
immigration officers at the discretion of the Attorney General and under such 
regulations as he may prescribe. Immigration officers are hereby authorized and 
empowered to board and search any vessel, aircraft, railway car, or other con- 
ve.vance, or vehicle in which they believe aliens are lieing brought into the Ignited 
States. The Attorney General and any immigration officer, including special 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 173 

inquiry officers, shall have power to administer oaths and to take and consider 
evidence of or from any person touching the privilege of any alien or person he 
believes or suspects to be an alien to enter, reenter, pass through, or reside in the 
United States or concerning any matter which is material and relevant to the 
enforcement of this Act and the administration of the Service, and, where such 
action may be necessary, to make a written record of such evidence. Any person 
coming into the United States may be required to state under oath the purpose or 
purposes for which he comes, the length of time he intends to remain in the 
United States, whether or not he intends to remain in the United States perma- 
nently and, if an alien, whether he intends to become a citizen thereof, and such 
other items of information as will aid the immigration officer in determining 
whether he is a national of the United States or an alien and, if the latter, 
whether he belongs to any of the excluded classes enumerated in section 212. The 
Attorney General and any immigration officer, including special inquiry officers, 
shall have power to require by subpena the attendance and testimony of witnesses 
before immigration officers and special inquiry officers and the production of 
books, papers, and documents relating to the privilege of any person to enter, 
reenter, reside in, or pass through the United States or concerning any matter 
which is material and relevant to the enforcement of this Act and the admin- 
istration of the Service, and to that end may invoke the aid of any court of the 
United States. Any United States district court within the jurisdiction of which 
investigations or inquiries are being conducted by an immigration officer or 
special inquiry officer may, in the event of neglect or refusal to respond to a 
subpena issued under this subsection or refusal to testify before an immigration 
officer or special inquiry officer, issue an order requiring such persons to appear 
before an immigration officer or special inquiry officer, produce books, papers, 
and documents if demanded, and testify, and any failure to obey such order of 
the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. 

(b) Every alien (other than an alien crewman), and except as otherwise 
provided in subsection (c) of this section and in section 273 (d), who may not 
appear to the examining immigration officer at the port of arrival to be clearly 
and beyond a doubt entitled to land shall be detained for further inquiry to be 
conducted by a special inquiry officer. The decision of the examining immigra- 
tion officer, if favorable to the admission of any alien, shall be subject to chal- 
lenge by any other immigration officer and such challenge shall operate to take 
the alien, whose privilege to land is so challenged, before a special inquiry officer 
for further inquiry. 

(c) Any alien (including an alien crewman) who may appear to the examin- 
ing immigration officer or to the special inquiry officer during the examination 
before either of such officers to be excludable under paragraph (27), (28), or 
(29) of section 212 (a) shall be temporarily excluded, and no further inquiry 
by a special inquiry officer shall be conducted until after the case is reported 
to the Attorney General together with any such written statement and accom- 
panying information, if any, as the alien or his representative may desire to 
submit in connection therewith and such an inquiry or further inquiry is directed 
by the Attorney General. If the Attorney General is satisfied that the alien is 
excludable under any of such paragraphs on the basis of information of a con- 
fidential nature, the disclosure of which the Attorney General, in the exercise 
of his discretion, and after consultation with the appropriate security agencies 
of the Government, concludes would be prejudicial to the public interest, safety, 
or security, he may in his discretion order such alien to be excluded and deported 
without any inquiry or further inquiry by a special inquiry officer. Nothing in 
this sub.section shall be regarded as requiring an inquiry before a special inquiry 
officer in the case of an alien crewman. 

EXCLUSIONS OF ALIENS 

Sec. 236. (a) A special inquiry officer shall conduct proceedings under this 
section, administer oaths, present and receive evidence, and interrogate, examine, 
and cross-examine the alien or witnesses. He shall have the authority in any 
case to determine whether an arriving alien who has been detained for further 
inquiry under section 235 shall be allowed to enter or shall be excluded and 
deported. The determination of such special inquiry officer shall be based only 
on the evidence produced at the inquiry. No special inqiiiry officer shall conduct 
a proceeding in any case under this section in which he shall have participated 
in investigative functions or in which he shall have participated (except as 
provided in this subsection) in prosecuting functions. Proceedings before a 
special inquiry officer under this section shall be conducted in accordance with 



174 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

this section, the applicable provisions of sections 235 and 287 (b), and such regu- 
lations as the Attorney General shall prescribe, and shall be the sole and exclu- 
sive procedure for determining admissiblity of a person to the United States 
under the provisions of this section. At such inquiry, which shall be kept sepa- 
rate and apart from the public, the alien may have one friend or relative present, 
under such conditions as may be prescribed by the Attorney General. A com- 
plete record of the proceedings and of all testimony and evidence produced at 
such inquiry, shall be kept. 

(b) From a decision of a special inquiry officer excluding an alien, such alien 
may take a timely appeal to the Attorney General, and any such alien shall be 
advised of his right to take such appeal. No appeal may be taken from a tempo- 
rary exclusion under section 235 (c). From a decision of the special inquiry 
officer to admit an alien, the immigration officer in charge at the port where the 
inquiry is held may take a timely appeal to the Attorney General. An appeal 
by the alien, or such officer in charge, shall operate to stay any final action with 
respect to any alien whose case is so appealed until the final decision of the 
Attorney General is made. Except as provided in section 235 (c) such decision 
shall be rendered solely upon the evidence adduced before the special inquiry 
officer. 

(c) Except as provided in subsections (b) or (d), in every case where an 
alien is excluded from admission into the United States, under this Act or any 
other law or treaty now existing or hereafter made, the decision of a special 
inquiry officer shall be final unless reversed on appeal to the Attorney General. 

(d) If a medical officer or civil surgeon or board of medical officers has certi- 
fied under section 234 that an alien is afflicted with a disease specified in section 

212 (a) (6), or with any mental disease, defect, or disability which would bring 
such alien within any of the classes excluded from admission to the United 
States under paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 212 (a), the 
decision of the special inquiry officer shall be based solely upon such certification. 
No alien shall have a right to appeal from such an excluding decision of a special 
inquiry officer. If an alien is excluded by a special inquiry officer because of 
the existence of a physical disease, defect, or disability, other than one specified 
in section 212 (a) (6), the alien may appeal from the excluding decision in 
accordance with subsection (b) of this section, and the provisions' of section 

213 may be invoked. 

IMMEDIATE DEPORTATION OF ALIENS EXCLUDED FROM ADMISSION OR ENTE25ING 

IN VIOLATION OF LAW 

Seo. 237. (a) Any alien (other than an alien crewman) arriving in the 
United States who is excluded under this Act, shall be immediately deported to 
the country whence he came, in accommodations of the same class in which he 
arrived, on the vessel or aircraft bringing him, unless the Attorney General, in 
an individual case, in his discretion, concludes that immediate deportation is not 
practicable or proper. The cost of the maintenance including detention expenses 
and expenses incident to detention of any such alien while he is being detained, 
as well as the transportation expense of his deportation from the United States, 
shall be borne by the owner or owners of the vessel or aircraft on which he 
arrived, except that the cost of maintenance (including detention expenses and 
expenses incident to detention while the alien is being detained prior to the time 
he is oifered for deportation to the transportation line which brought him to the 
United States) shall not be assessed against the owner or owners of such vessel 
or aircraft if (1) the alien was in possession of a valid, unexpired immigrant 
visa, or (2) if the alien (other than an alien crewman) was in possession of a 
valid, unexpired nonimmigrant visa or other document authorizing such alien 
to apply for temporary admission to the United States or an unexpired reentr.v 
permit issued to him, and (A) such application was made within one hundred 
and twenty days of the date of issuance of the visa or other document, or in the 
ease of an alien in possession of a reentry permit, within one hundred and twenty 
days of the date on which the alien was last examined and admitted by the 
Service, or (B) in tlie event the application was made later than one hundred 
and twenty days of the date of issuance of the visa or other document or such 
examination and admission, if the owner or owners of such vessel or aircraft 
established to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that the ground of exclu- 
sion could not have been ascertained by the exercise of due diligence prior to 
the alien's embarkation, or (3) the person claimed United States nationality or 
citizenship and was in possession of an unexpired United States passport issued 
to him by competent authority. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 175 

(b) It shall be unlawful for any master, commanding officer, purser, person in 
charge, agent, owner, or consignee of any vessel or aircraft (1) to refuse to 
receive any alien (other than an alien crewman), ordered deported under this 
section back on board such vessel or aircraft or another vessel or aircraft owned 
or operated by the same interests ; (2) to fail to detain any alien (other than an 
alien crewman) on board any such vessel or at the airport of arrival of the 
aircraft when required by this Act or if so ordered by an immigration officer, or 
to fail or refuse to deliver him for medical or other inspection, or for further 
medical or other inspection, as and when so ordered by such officer ; (3) to refuse 
or fail to remove him from the United States to the country whence he came ; 
(4) to fail to pay the cost of his maintenance while being detained as required 
by this section or section 233 of this title; (5) to take any fee, deposit, or con- 
sideration on a contingent basis to be kept or returned in case the alien is 
landed or excluded; or (6) knowingly to bring to the United States any alien 
(other than an alien crewman) excluded or arrested and deported under any 
provision of law until such alien may be lawfully entitled to reapply for admis- 
sion to the United States. If it shall appear to the satisfaction of the Attorney 
General that any such master, commanding officer, purser, person in charge, 
agent, owner, or consignee of any vessel or aircraft has violated any of the pro- 
visions of this section or of section 233 of this title, such master, commanding 
officer, purser, person in charge, agent, owner, or consignee shall pay to the 
collector of customs of the district in which port of arrival is situated or in 
which any vessel or aircraft of the line may be found, the sum of $300 for each 
violation. No such vessel or aircraft shall have clearance from any port of the 
United States while any such fine is unpaid or while the question of liability to 
pay any such fine is being determined, nor shall any such fine be remitted or 
refunded, except that clearance may be granted prior to the determination of 
such question upon the deposit with the collector of customs of a bond or under- 
taking approved by the Attorney General or a sum sufficient to cover such fine. 

(c) If the vessel or aircraft, by which any alien who has been ordered deported 
under this section arrived, has left the United States and it is impracticable to 
deport the alien within a reasonable time by another vessel or airci'aft owned by 
the same person, the cost of deportation may be paid from the appropriation for 
the enforcement of this Act and recovered by civil suit from any owner, agent, 
or consignee of the vessel or aircraft. 

(d) The Attorney General, under such conditions as are by regulations pre- 
scribed, may stay the deportation of any alien deportable under this section, if 
in his judgment the testimony of such alien is necessary on behalf of the United 
States in the prosecution of offenders against any provision of this Act or other 
laws of the United States. The cost of maintenance of any person so detained 
resulting from a stay of deportation under this subsection and a witness fee in 
the sum of $1 per day for each day such person is so detained may be paid from 
the appropriation for the enforcement of this title. Such alien may be released 
under bond in the penalty of not less than $500 with security approved by the 
Attorney General on condition that such alien shall be produced when required as 
a witness and for deportation, and on such other conditions as the Attorney 
General may prescribe. 

(e) Upon the certificate of an examining medical officer to the effect that an 
alien ordered to be excluded and deported under this section is helpless from sick- 
ness or mental and physical disability, or infancy, if such alien is accompanied 
by another alien whose protection or guardianship is required by the alien ordered 
excluded and deported, such accompanying alien may also be excluded and de- 
ported, and the master, commanding officer, agent, owner, or consignee of the 
vessel or aircraft in which such alien and accompanying alien arrived in the 
United States shall be required to return the accompanying alien in the same 
manner as other aliens denied admission and ordered deported under this section. 

ENTRY THROUGH OR FROM FOREIGN CONTIGUOUS TERRITORY AND AD.J AGENT ISLANDS ; 

LANDING STATIONS 

Sec. 238. (a) The Attorney General shall have power to enter into contracts 
with transportation lines for the entry and inspection of aliens coming to the 
United States through foreign contiguous territory or through adjacent islands. 
In prescribing rules and regulations and making contracts for the entry and 
inspection of aliens applying for admission through foreign continguous territory 
or through adjacent islands, due care shall be exercised to avoid any discrimina- 
tory action in favor of tran.sportation companies transporting to such territory 
or islands aliens destined to the United States, and all such transportation com- 



176 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

panies shall be required, as a condition precedent to the inspection or examination 
under such rules and contracts at the ports of such contiguous territory or such 
adjacent islands of aliens brought thereto by them, to enter into a contract which 
will require them to submit to and comply with all the requirements of this Act 
which would apply were they bringing such aliens directly to ports of the United 
States. 

(b) The Attorney General shall have power to enter into contracts with trans- 
portation lines for the entry and inspection of aliens coming to the United States 
from foreign contigiious territory or from adjacent islands. No such transporta- 
tion line shall be allowed to land any such alien in the United States until and 
unless it lias entered into any such contracts which may be required by the At- 
torney General. 

(c) Every transportation line engaged in carrying alien passengers for hire to 
the United States from foreign contiguous territory or from adjacent islands shall 
provide and maintain at its expense suitable landing stations, approved by the 
Attorney General, conveniently located at the point or points of entry. No such 
transportation line shall be allowed to land any alien passengers in the United 
States until such landing stations are provided, and unless such stations are there- 
after maintained to the satisfaction of the Attorney General. 

(d) The Attorney General shall have power to enter into contracts including 
bonding agreements with transportation lines to guarantee the passage through 
the United States in immediate and continuous transit of aliens destined to 
foreign countries. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, such aliens 
may not have their classification changed under section 248. 

(e) As used in this section the terms "transportation line" and "transporta- 
tion company" include, but are not limited to, the owner, charterer, consignee, 
or authorized agent operating any vessel or aircraft bringing aliens to the United 
States, to foreign contiguous territory, or to adjacent islands. 

DESIGNATION OF POETS OF ENTRY FOB ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT 

Sec. 239. The Attorney General is authorized (1) by regulation to designate 
as ports of entry for aliens arriving by aircraft any of the ports of entry for 
civil aircraft designated as such in accordance with law; (2) by regulation to 
provide such reasonable requirements for aircraft in civil air navigation with 
respect to giving notice of intention to land in advance of landing or notice of 
landing, as shall be deemed necessary for purposes of administration and en- 
forcement of this Act; and (3) by regulation to provide for the application to 
civil air navigation of the provisions of this Act where not expressly so provided 
in this Act to such extent and upon such conditions as he deems necessary. 
Any person who violates any regulation made under this section shall be subject 
to a civil penalty of $500 which may be remitted or mitigated by the Attorney 
General in accordance with such proceedings as the Attorney General shall by 
regulation prescribe. In case the violation is by the owner or person in com- 
mand of the aircraft, the penalty shall be a lien upon the aircraft, and such air- 
craft may be libeled therefor in the appropriate United States court. The deter- 
mination liy the Attorney General and remission or mitigation of the civil penalty 
shall be final. In case the violation is by the owner or person in command of the 
aircraft, the penalty shall be a lien upon the aircraft and may be collected by 
proceedings in rem which shall conform as nearly as may be to civil suits in 
admiralty. The Supreme Court of the United States, and under its direction 
other courts of the United States, are authorized to prescribe rules regulating 
such proceedings against aircraft in any particular not otherwise provided by 
law. Any aircraft made subject to a lien by this section may be summarily seized 
by, and placed in the custody of such persons as the Attorney General may by 
regulation prescribe. The aircraft may be released from such custody upon de- 
posit of such amount not exceeding $.500 as the Attorney General may" prescribe, 
or of a bond in such sum and with such sureties as the Attorney General may 
prescribe, conditioned upon the payment of the penalty which may be finally 
determined by the Attorney General. 

RECORDS OF ADMISSION 

Sec. 240. (a) The Attorney General shall cause to be filed, as a record of ad- 
mission of each immigrant, the immigrant visa required by section 221 (e) to be 
surrendered at the port of entry by the arriving alien to an immigration officer. 

(b) The Attorney General shall cause to be filed such record of the entry into 
the United States of each immigrant admitted under section 211 (b) and of each 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIVIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 177 

nonimiuigrant as the Attorney General deems necessary for the enforcement of 
the immigration laws. 

Chapteb 5 — Deportation ; Adjustmb:nt of Status 
general classes of deportable aliens 

Sec. 241. (a) Any alien in the United States (including an alien crewman) 
shall, upon the order of the Attorney General, be deported who — 

(6) is or at any time has been, after entry, a member of any of the following 
classes of aliens : 

(A) Aliens who are anarchists; 

(B) Aliens who advocate or teach, or who are members of or affiliated 
with any organization that advocates or teaches, opposition to all organized 
government ; 

(C) Aliens who are members of or affiliated with (i) the Communist 
Party of the United States; (ii) any other totalitarian party of the United 
States; (iii) the Communist Political Association; (iv) the Communist or 
any other totalitarian party of any State of the United States, of any foreign 
state, or of any political or geographical subdivision of any fox'eign state ; 
(v) any section, subsidiary, branch, affiliate, or subdivision of any such 
association or party; or (vi) the direct predecessors or successors of any 
such association or party, regardless of what name such group or organi- 
zation may have used, may now bear, or may hereafter adopt : Provided, 
That nothing in this paragraph, or in any other provision of this Act, shall 
be construed as declaring that the Communist Party does not advocate the 
overthrow of the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other 
unconstitutional means ; 

(D) Aliens not within any of the other provisions of this paragraph who 
advocate the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world 
communism or the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dic- 
tatorship, or who are members of or affiliated with any organization that 
advocates the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world 
communism or the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dic- 
tatorship, either through its own utterances or through any written or 
printed publications issued or published by or with the permission or consent 
of or under the authority of such organization or paid for by the funds of, 
or funds furnished by, such organization ; 

(E) Aliens not within any of the other provisions of this paragraph who 
are members of or affiliated with any organization during the time it is 
registered or required to be registered under section 7 of the Subversive 
Activities Control Act of 1950, unless such aliens establish that they did not 
have knowledge or reason to believe at the time they became members of 
or affiliated with such an organization (and did not thereafter and prior 
to the date upon which such organization was so registered oi; so required 
to be registered have such knowledge or reason to believe) that such organi- 
zation was a Communist organization : 

(F) Aliens who advocate or teach or who are members of or affiliated with 
any organization that advocates or teaches (i) the overthrow by force, vio- 
lence, or other unconstitutional means of the Government of the United 
States or of all forms of law; or (ii) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the 
unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers (either of specific 
individuals or of officers generally) of the Government of the United States 
or of any other organized government, because of his or their official char- 
acter; or (iii) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property; or 
(iv) sabotage : 

(G) Aliens who write or publish, or cause to be written or published, or 
who knowingly circulate, distribute, print, or display, or knowingly cause 
to be circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or who know- 
ingly have in their possession for the purpose of circulation, publication, 
distribution, or display, any written or printed matter, advocating or teach- 
ing opposition to all organized government, or advocating or teaching (i) 
the overthrow by force, violence, or other imconstitutional means of the 
Government of the United States or of all forms of law; or (ii) the duty, 
necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer 
or officers (either of specific individuals or of officers generally) of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States or of any other organized government, because 
of his or their official character; or (iii) the unlawful damage, injury, or 



178 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

destruction of property ; or (iv) sabotage ; or (v) the economic, international, 
and governmental doctrines of world communism or the establishment in 
the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship ; 

(H) Aliens who are members of or affiliated with any organization that 
writes, circulates, distributes, prints, publishes, or displays, or causes to be 
written, circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or that has 
in its possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, issue, 
or display, any written or printed matter of the character described in para- 
graph (G) ; 
(7) is engaged, or at any time after entry has engaged, or at any time after 
entry has had a purpose to engage, in any of the activities described in paragraph 
(27) or (29) of section 212 (a), unless the Attorney General is satisfied, in the 
case of any alien within category (C) of paragraph (29) of such section, that 
such alien did not have knowledge or reason to believe at the time such alien 
became a member of, affiliated with, or participated in the activities of the organi- 
zation (and did not thereafter and prior to the date upon which such organization 
was registered or required to be registered under section 7 of the Subversive 
Activities Control Act of 1950 have such knowledge or reason to believe) that 
such organization was a Communist organization : 



DEPOETATION OF ALIENS tJPON CONVICTION OF CRIMES AGAINST THE UNITED STATES 

(17) the Attorney General finds to be an undesirable resident of the United 
States by reason of any of the following, to wit : has been or may hereafter be 
convicted of any violation or conspiracy to violate any of the following Acts or 
parts of Acts or any amendment thereto, the judgment on such conviction having 
become final, namely : an Act entitled "An Act to punish acts of interference with 
the foreign relations, the neutrality, and the foreign commerce of the United 
States, to punish espionage, and better to enforce the criminal laws of the 
United States, and for other purposes", approved June 15, 1917, or the amend- 
ment thereof approved May 16, 1918 ; sections 791, 792, 793, 794, 2388, and 3241, 
title 18, United States Code ; an Act entitled "An Act to prohibit the manufacture, 
distribution, storage, use, and possession in time of war of explosives, providing 
regulations for the safe manufacture, distribution, storage, use, and possession of 
the same, and for other purposes", approved October 6, 1917 ; an Act entitled 
"An Act to prevent in time of war departure from and entry into the United 
States contrary to the public safety", approved May 22, 1918 ; section 215 of this 
Act ; an Act entitled "An Act to punish the willful injury or destruction of war 
material or of war premises or utilities used in connection with war material, 
and for other purposes", approved April 20, 1918 ; sections 2151, 2153, 2154, 2155, 
and 2156 of title 18, United States Code ; an Act entitled "An Act to authorize 
the President to increase temporarily the Military establishment of the United 
States", approved May 18, 1917, or any amendment thereof or supplement thereto ; 
the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 ; the Selective Service Act of 1948 ; 
the Universal Military Training and Service Act ; an Act entitled "An Act to 
punish persons who make threats against the President of the United States", 
approved February 14, 1917 ; section 871 of title 18, United States Code ; an Act 
entitled "An Act to define, regulate, and punish trading with the enemy, and for 
other purposes", approved October 6, 1917, or any amendment thereof ; the Trad- 
ing With the Enemy Act ; section 6 of the Penal Code of the United States ; 
section 2384 of title 18, United States Code; has been convicted of any offense 
against section 13 of the Penal Code of the United States committed during the 
period of August 1, 1914, to April 6, 1917, or of a conspiracy occurring within 
said period to commit an offense under said section 13 or of any offense com- 
mitted during said period against the Act entitled "An Act to protect trade and 
commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies", approved July 2, 1890, 
in aid of a belligerent in the European war ; section 960 of title 18, United States 
Code ; or 

DETENTION OF UNDEPOBTABLE ALIENS 

Sec. 242. (c) When a final order of deportation under administrative processes 
is made against any alien, the Attorney General shall have a period of six months 
from the date of such order, or, if judicial review is had, then from the date of 
the final order of the court, within which to effect the alien's departure from the 
United States, during which period, at the Attorney General's discretion, the alien 
may be detained, released on bond in an amount and containing such conditions 
as the Attorney General may prescribe, or released on such other condition 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 179 

as the Attorney General may prescribe. Any court of competent jurisdiction 
shall have authority to review or revise any determination of the Attorney 
General concerning detention, release on bond, or other release during such 
six-month period upon a conclusive showing in habeas corpus proceedings that 
the Attorney General is not proceeding with such reasonable dispatch as may be 
warranted by the particular facts and circumstances in the case of any alien 
to effect such alien's departure from the United States within such six-month 
period. If deportation has not been practicable, advisable, or possible, or 
departure of the alien from the United States under the order of deportation has 
not been effected, within such six-month period, the alien shall become subject 
to such further supervision and detention pending eventual deportation as is 
authorized in this section. The Attorney General is hereby authorized and 
directed to arrange for appropriate places of detention for those aliens whom he 
shall take into custody and detain under this section. Where no Federal 
buildings are available or buildings adapted or suitably located for the purpose 
are available for rental, the Attorney General is hereby authorized, notwith- 
standing section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U. S. C. 5), or 
section 322 of the Act of June 30, 1932, as amended (40 U. S. C. 278a), to expend, 
from the appropriation provided for the administration and enforcement of the 
immigration laws, such amounts as may be necessary for the acquisition of land 
and the erection, acquisition, maintenance, operation, remodeling, or repair of 
buildings, sheds, and office quarters (including living quarters for officers where 
none are otherwise available), and adjunct facilities, necessary for the detention 
of aliens. For the purposes of this section an order of deportation heretofore 
or hereafter entered against an alien in legal detention or confinement, other than 
under an immigration process, shall be considered as being made as of the moment 
he is relea^d from such detention or confinement, and not Drior thereto. 

(d) Any alien, acainst whom a final order of deportation as defined in sub- 
section (c) heretofore or hereafter issued has been outstanding for more than 
six months, shall, pending eventual deportation, be subject to supervision under 
regulations prescribed by the Attorney General. Such regulations shall include 
provisions which will require any alien subject to supervision (1) to appear from 
time to time before an immigration officer for identification; (2) to submit, if 
necessary, to medical and psychiatric examination at the expense of the United 
States; (3) to give information under oath as to his nationality, circumstances, 
habits, associations, and activities, and such other information, whether or not 
related to the foregoing, as the Attorney General may deem fit and proper ; and 
(4) to conform to such reasonable written restrictions on his conduct or activities 
as are prescriJjed by the Attorney General in his case. Any alien who shall will- 
fully fail to comply with such regulations, or willfully fail to appear or to give 
information or submit to medical or psychiatric examination if required, or 
knowingly give false information in relation to the requirements of such regu- 
lations, or knowingly violate a reasonable restriction imposed upon his conduct 
or activity, shall upon conviction be guilty of a felony, and shall be fined not 
more than $1,000 or shall be imprisoned not more than one year, or both. 

(e) Any alien against whom a final order of deportation is outstanding by 
reason of being a member of any of the classes described in paragraphs (4), (5), 
(6), (7), (11), (12), (14), (15), (16). (17), or (IS) of section 241 (a), who 
shall wilfully fail or refuse to depart from the United States within a period of 
six months from the date of the final order of deportation under administrative 
processes, or, if judicial review is had, then from the date of the final order of the 
court, or from the date of the enactment of the Subversive Activities Control 
Act of 1950, whichever is the later, or shall willfully fail or refuse to make timely 
application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to his depar- 
ture, or who shall connive or conspire, or take any other action, designed to pre- 
vent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering his departure 
pursuant to such order of deportation, or who shall willfully fail or refuse to 
present himself for deportation at the time and place required by the Attorney 
General pursuant to such order of deportation, shall upon conviction be quilty 
of a felony, and shall be imprisoned not more than ten years : Provided, That 
this subsection shall not make it illegal for any alien to take any proper steps 
for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of 
deportation or for the purpose of securing his release from incarceration or 
custody: Provided further, That the court may for good cause suspend the 
sentence of such alien and order his release under such conditions as the court 
may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify 
releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as (1) the 
age, health, and period of detention of the alien; (2) the effect of the alien's 



180 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

release upon the national security and public peace or safety ; (3) the likelihood 
of the alien's resuming or following a course of conduct which made or would 
make him deportable; (4) the character of the efforts made by such alien him- 
self and by representatives of the country or countries to which his deportation 
is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States; (5) the 
reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure pass- 
ports, other travel documents, or deportation facilities from the country or 
countries to which the alien has been ordered deported; and (6) the eligibility 
of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws. 

(f ) Should the Attorney General find that any alien has unlawfully reentered 
the United States after having previously departed or been deported pursuant 
to an order of deportation, whether before or after the date of enactment of this 
Act, on any ground described in any of the paragraphs enumerated in subsection 
(e), the previous order of deportation shall be deemed to be reinstated from its 
original date and such alien shall be deported under such previous order at any 
time subsequent to such reentry. For the purposes of sulDsection (e) the date 
on which the finding is made that such reinstatement is appropriate shall be 
deemed tlie date of the final order of deportation. 

(g) If any alien, subject to supervision or detention under subsections (c) 
or (d) of this section, is able to depart from the United States under the order 
of deportation, except that he is financially unable to pay his passage, the 
Attorney General may in his di-scretion permit such alien to depart voluntarily, 
and the expense of such passage to the country to which he is destined may be 
paid from the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act, unless such pay- 
ment is otherwise provided for under this Act. 

(h) An alien sentenced to imprisonment shall not be deported until such im- 
prisonment has been terminated by the release of the alien from confinement. 
Parole, probation, or possibility of rearrest or further confinement in respect 
of the same olfense shall not be a ground for deferral of deportation. 

REFUSAL OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES TO ACCEPT DEPORTEES 

Sec. 243. (g) Upon the notification by the Attorney General that any country 
upon request denies or unduly delays acceptance of the return of any alien 
who is a national, citizen, subject, or resident thereof, the Secretary of State 
shall instruct consular oflScers performing their duties in the territory of such 
country to discontinue the issuance of immigrant visas to nationals, citizens, 
subjects, or residents of such country, until such time as the Attorney General 
shall inform the Secretary of States that such country has accepted such alien. 

(h) The Attorney General is authorized to witlihold deportation of any alien 
within the United States to any country in which in his opinion the alien would 
be subject to physical persecution and for such period of time as he deems to be 
necessary for such reason. 

REVOCATION OF NATURALIZATION 

Sec. 340. (a) * * * Prot-frfe^Z, That refusal on the part of a naturalized citizen 
within a period of ten years following his naturalization to testify as a witness in 
any proceeding before a congressional committee concerning his subversive activ- 
ities, in a case where such person has been convicted of contempt for such refusal,, 
shall be held to constitute a ground for revocation of such person's naturaliza- 
tion under this subsection as having been procured by concealment of a material 
fact or by willful misrepresentation. 

:): ij: :;: 4< 4: 4s 4l 

Sec. 340. (g) When a person shall be convicted under section 1425 of title 18 
of the United States Code of knowingly procuring naturalization in violation 
of law, the court in which such conviction is had shall thereupon revoke, set 
aside, and declare void the final order admitting such person to citizenship, and 
shall declare the certificate of naturalization of such person to be canceled. 
Jurisdiction is hereby conferred on the courts having jurisdiction of the trial 
of such offense to make such adjudication. 

study of immigration laws 

Joint Congressional Committee 

Sec. 401. (a) There is hereby established a joint congressional committee to 
be known as the Joint Committee on Immigration and Nationality Policy (here- 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-.\:MERICAN ACTIVITIES 181 

inafter referred to as the "Committee") to be composed of ten members as fol- 
lows: (1) five members who are members of the Committee on the Judiciary of 
the Senate, three from the majority and two from the minority party to be 
appointed by the President of the Senate ; and (2) five members who are members 
of the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, three from 
the majority and two from the minority party to be appointed by the Speaker 
of the House of Representatives. 

(b) No person shall continue to serve as a member of the Committee after 
he has ceased to be a member of the Committee on the Judiciary of either the 
Senate or the House of Representatives. 

(c) A vacancy in the meml)ership of the Committee shall be filled in the same 
manner as the original selection and the Committee shall elect a Chairman from 
among its members. 

(d) It shall be the function of the Committee to make a continuous study of 
(1) the administration of this Act, and its effect on the national security, the 
economy, and the social welfare of the United States, and (2) such conditions 
within or without the United States which in the opinion of the Committee might 
have any bearing on the immigration and nationality policy of the United States. 

(e) The Committee shall make from time to time a report to the Senate and 
the House of Representatives concerning the results of its studies together with 
such recommendations as it may deem desirable. 

(f) The Secretary of State and the Attorney General shall without delay 
submit to the Committee all regulations, instructions, and all other information 
as requested by the Committee relative to the administration of this Act ; and the 
Secretary of State and the Attorney General shall consult wih the Committee 
from time to time with respect to their activities under this Act. 

(g) The Committee or any duly authorized Subcommittee thereof Is authorized 
to hold such hearings ; to sit and act at such times and places ; to require by 
subpena or otherwise the attendance of such witnesses and the production uf 
such books, papers, and documents ; to administer such oaths ; to take such 
testimony ; to procure such printing and binding as it deems advisable. The pro- 
visions of sections 102 and 104. inclusive, of the Revised Statutes shall apply in 
case of any failure of any witnesses to comply with any subpeua or to testify 
when summoned under the authority of this Act. 

(h) The members of the Committee shall serve without compensation in addi- 
tion to that received for their services as Members of Congress but they shall 
be reimbursed for travel, subsistence, and other expenses incurred by them in 
the performance of the duties vested in the Committee other than expenses in 
connection with meetings of the Committee held in the District of Columbia 
during such times as the Congress is in session. 



FEDERAL AID TO EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952 (66 Stat. 667) 
institutions listed by attorney general 

Sec. 228. The Administrator shall not approve the enrollment of, or payment 
of an education and training allowance to, any eligible veteran in any course in an 
educational institution or training establishment while it is listed by the Attorney 
General under section 3 of part III of Executive Order 983.5, as amended. 

Executive Order 9835, part III, section 3 (12 F. R. 1935, issued March 21, 1947), 
read : 

"The Loyalty Review Board shall currently be furnished by the Department of 
Justice the name of each foreign or domestic organization, association, movement, 
group, or combination of persons which the Attorney General, after appropriate 
investigation and determination, designates as totalitarian. Fascist, Communist, 
or subversive, or as having adopted a policy of advocating or approving the 
commission of acts of force or violence to deny others their rights under the 
Constitution of the United States, or as seeking to alter the form of government 
of the United States by unconstitutional means. 

"a. The Loyalty Review Board shall disseminate such information to all 
departments and agencies." 



4740€ — 54 13 



182 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

EMERGENCY POWERS OF EXECUTIVE BRANCH IN PRESENT PERIOD 

Act of June 30, 1953 (67 Stat. 133) 

[Public Law 99, Chapter 175] 

AN ACT To amend title 18. United States Code, entitled "Crimes and Criminal Procedure", 
.with respect to continuing the effectiveness of certain statutory provisions until six 
(months after the termination of the national emergency proclaimed by the President 
on December 16, 1950. 

Be it enacted iy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, That chapter 105 of title 18, United States 
Code, is hereby amended by inserting at the end of the chapter analysis preced- 
ing section 2151 of such title the following new item : 

"2157. Temporary extension of sections 2153 and 2154." 

Sec. 2. Title 18, United States Code, is hereby amended by inserting in chapter 
105 thereof, immediately after section 2156, a new section, to be designated as 
section 2157, as follows : 

"§ 2157. Temporary extension of sections 2153 and 2154 

"(a) The provisions of sections 2153 and 2154 of this title, as amended and 
extended by section 1 (a) (29) of the Emergency Powers Continuation Act 
(66 Stat. 333), as further amended by Public Law 12, Eighty-third Congress, in 
addition to coming into full force and effect in time of war shall remain in full 
force and effect until six months after the termination of the national emergency 
proclaimed by the President on December 16, 1950 (Proc. 2912, 3 C, F. R., 1950 
Supp., p. 71 ) , or such earlier date as may be prescribed by concurrent resolution 
of the Congress, and acts which would give rise to legal consequences and penal- 
ties under any of these provisions when performed during a state of war sliall 
give rise to the same legal consequences and penalties when they are performed 
during the period above provided for. 

"(b) Effective in each case for the period above provided for, title 18, United 
States Code, section 2151, is amended by inserting the words 'or defense 
activities' immediately before the period at the end of the definition of 'war 
material', and said sections 2153 and 2154 are amended by inserting the w'ords 
'or defense activities' immediately after the words 'carrying on the war' wher- 
ever they appear therein." 

Sec. 3. Chapter 37 of title 18, United States Code, is hereby amended by insert- 
ing at the end of the chapter analysis preceding section 791 of such title the 
following new item : 

"798. Temporary extension of section 794.'' 

Sec. 4. Title 18, United States Code, is hereby amended by inserting in chapter 
37 thereof immediately after section 797 a new section, to be designated as section 
798, as follows : 

"§ 798. Temporary extension of section 794 

"The provisions of section 794 of this title, as amended and extended by section 
1 (a) (29) of the Emergency Powers Continuation Act (66 Stat. 333), as further 
amended by Public Law 12, Eighty-third Congress, in addition to coming into 
full force and effect in time of war shall remain in full force and effect until 
six months after the termination of the national emergency proclaimed by the 
President on December 16, 1950 (Proc. 2912, 3 C. F. R., 1950 Supp., p. 71), or 
such earlier date as may be prescribed by concurrent resolution of the Congress, 
and acts w^hich would give rise to legal consequences and penalties under section 
794 when performed during a state of war shall give rise to the same legal 
consequences and penalties when they are performed during the period above 
provided for." 

Sec. 5. Chapter 115 of title 18, United States Code, is hereby amended by 
inserting at the end of the chapter analysis preceding section 2391 of such title 
the following new item : 
"2391 Temporary extension of section 2388." 

Sec. 6. Title 18, United States Code, is hereby amended by inserting in chapter 
115 thereof, immediately after section 2390, a new section, to be designated as 
section 2391, as follows : 
"§ 2391. Temporary extension of section 2388." 

"The provisions of section 2388 of this title, as amended and extended by 
section 1 (a) (29) of the Emergency Powers Continuation Act (66 Stat. 333), 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 183 

as further amended by Public Law 12, Eighty-third Congress, in addition to 
coming into full force and effect in time of war shall remain in full force and 
effect until six months after the termination of the national emergency pro- 
claimed by the President on December 16, 1950 (Proc. 2912, 3 C. F. R., 1950 
Supp., p. 71), or such earlier date as may be prescribed by concurrent resolution 
of the Congress, and acts which would give rise to legal consequences and pen- 
alties under section 23SS when performed during a state of war shall give rise 
to the same legal consequences and penalties when they are performed during 
the period above provided for." 

Sec. 7. Section 1 (a) (29) of the Emergency War Powers Continuation Act 
(66 Stat. 333), is hereby repealed. 
Approved June 30, 1953. 

CITIZENSHIP OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES 

Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1954 (67 Stat. 435) 

Sec. 1302. Unless otherwise specified and during the current fiscal year, no 
part of any appropriation contained in this or any other Act shall be used to 
pay the compensation of any officer or employee of the Government of the United 
States (including any agency the majority of the stock of which is owned by the 
Government of the United States) whose post of duty is in continental United 
States unless such person (1) is a citizen of the United States, (2) is a person 
in the service of the United States on the date of enactment of this Act, who, 
being eligible for citizenship, had filed a declaration of intention to become a 
citizen of the United States prior to such date, (3) is a person who owes alle- 
giance to the United States or (4) is an alien from the Baltic countries lawfully 
admitted to the United States for permanent residence : Provided, That for the 
purpose of this section, an affidavit signed by any such person shall be considered 
prima facie evidence that the requirements of this section with respect to his 
status have been complied with : Provided further, That any person making 
a false affidavit shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be fined 
not more than $4,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both : Pro- 
vided further, That the above penal clause shall be in addition to. and not in 
substitution for, any other provisions of existing law : Provided further. That 
any payment made to any officer or employee contrary to the provisions of this 
section shall be recoverable in action by the Federal Government. This sec- 
tion shall not apply to citizens of the Republic of the Philippines or to na- 
tionals of those countries allied with the United States in the current defense 
effort. 



IMMUNITY FOR CONGRESSIONAL WITNESSES 

S. 16 (83d Cong.) as It Passed the Senate on July 9, 1953 (Daily Congressional 

Record, vol. 99, p. 8663) 

On a division, the bill (S. 16) was passed as follows : 

"Be it e7i acted, etc., That title 18, United States Code, section 8486, is amended 
to read as follows : 

" '§ 3486. Testimony before Congress ; immunity 

" 'No witness shall be excused from testifying or from producing books, papers, 
and other records and documents before either House, or before any committee 
of either House, or before any joint committee of the two Houses of Congress on 
the ground, or for the reason, that the testimony or evidence, documentary or 
otherwise, required of him many tend to incriminate him or subject him to a 
penalty or forfeiture, when the record shows — 

"'(1) in the case of proceedings before one of the Houses of Congress, 
that a majority of the Members present of that House, or 

"'(2) in the case of proceedings before a committee, that two-thirds of 
the members of the full committee, including at least two members of each 
of the two political parties having the largest representation on such 
committee 
shall by affirmative vote have authorized that such person be granted immunity 
under this section with respect to the transactions, matters, or things concerning 
which, after he has claimed his privilege against self-incrimination, he is never- 
theless compelled by direction of the presiding officer or the chair to testify. 
-But no such witness shall be prosecuted or subjected to any penalty or forfeiture 



184 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

for or on account of any transaction, matter or thing concerning which after he 
has claimed his privilege against self-incrimination he is nevertheless so com- 
pelled to testify, or produce evidence, documentary or otherwise. 

" 'No official paper or record required to be produced hereunder is within the 
said privilege. 

" 'No person shall be exempt from prosecution or punishment for perjury or 
contempt committed in so testifying. 

" 'At least 1 week in advance of voting on the question of granting immunity 
to any witness under this act the Attorney General shall be informed of the 
intention to consider such question, and shall have assented to the granting of 
such immunity : Provided, That if the Attorney General does not assent to 
immunity within 1 week after requested by the committee, immunity can never- 
theless be granted by the committee if by resolution of the particular House of 
the Congress having jurisdiction over the committee, said House by a majority 
year-and-nay vote authorizes the granting of immunity.' " 



OFFENSES IN CONNECTION WITH NATURALIZATION 
18 U. S. Code (Criminal Code) 

§ 1423. Misuse of evidence of citizenship or naturalization. 

Whoever knowingly uses for any purpose any order, certificate, certificate of 
naturalization, certificate of citizenship, judgment, decree, or exemplification, un- 
lawfully issued or made, or copies or duplicates thereof, showing any person to 
be naturalized or admitted to be a citizen, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or 
imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645 §1, 62 
Stat. 766, eff. Sept. 1, 1948.) 

§ 1424. Personation or misuse of papers in naturalization proceedings. 

Whoever, whether as applicant, declarant, petitioner, witness or otherwise, in 
any naturalization or citizenship proceeding, knowingly personates another or 
appears falsely in the name of a deceased person or in an assumed or fictitious 
name ; or 

Whoever knowingly and unlawfully uses or attempts to use, as showing na- 
turalization or citizensliip of any person, any order, certificate, certificate of na- 
turalization, certificate of citizenship, judgment, decree, or exemplification, or 
copies or duplicates thereof, issued to another person, or in a fictitious name or 
in the name of a deceased person — 

Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, 
or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 766, eflf. Sept. 1, 1948.) 

§ 1425. Procurement of citizenship or naturalization unlawfully. 

(a) Whoever knowingly procures or attempts to procure, contrary to law, the 
naturalization of any person, or documentary or other evidence of naturaliza- 
tion or of citizenship ; or 

(b) Whoever, whether for himself or another person not entitled thereto, know- 
ingly issues, procures or obtains or applies for or otherwise attempts to procure 
or obtain naturalization, or citizenship, or a declaration of intention to become a 
citizen, or a certificate of arrival or any certificate or evidence of nationalization 
or citizenship, documentary or otherwise, or duplicates or copies of any of the 
foregoing — 

Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or 
both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 766, eft. Sept. 1, 1948.) 

§ 1426. Reproduction of naturalization or citizenship papers. 

(a) Whoever falsely makes, forges, alters or counterfeits any oath, notice, 
affidavit, certificate of arrival, declaration of intention, certificate or documen- 
tary evidence of naturalization or citizenship or any order, record, signature, 
paper or proceeding or any copy thereof, required or authorized by any law relating 
to naturalization or citizenship or registry of aliens ; or 

(b) Whoever utters, sells, disposes of or xises as true or genuine, any false, 
forged, altered, antedated or counterfeited oath, notice, affidavit, certificate of 
arrival, declaration of intention to become a citizen, certificate or documentary 
evidence of naturalization or citizenship, or any order, record, signature, or 
other instrument, paper or proceeding required or authorized by any law relating 
to naturalization or citizenship or registry of aliens, or any copy thereof, know- 
ing the same to be false, forged, altered, antedated or counterfeited ; or 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 185 

(c) Whoever, with intent unlawfully to use the same, possesses any false, 
forged, altered, antedated or counterfeited certificate of arrival, declaration 
of intention to become a citizen, certificate or documentary evidence of natural- 
ization or citizenship purportius to have been issued under any law of the 
United States, or copy thereof, knowing the same to be false, forged, altered, 
antedated or counterfeited ; or 

(d) Whoever, without lawful authority, engraves or possesses, sells or brings 
into the United States any plate in the likeness or similitude of any plate de- 
signed, for the printing of a declaration of intention, or certificate or documen- 
tary evidence of naturalization or citizenship ; or 

(e) Whoever, without lawful authority, brings into the United States any 
document printed therefrom ; or 

(f) Whoever, without lawful authority, possesses any blank certificate of 
arrival, blank declaration of intention or blank certificate of naturalization or 
citizenship provided by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, with Intent 
unlawfully to use the same; or 

(g) Whoever, with intent unlawfully to use the same, possesses a distinctive 
paper adopted by the proper officer or agency of the United States for the print- 
ing or engraving of a declaration of intention to become a citizen, or certificate 
of naturalization or certificate of citizenship ; or 

(h) Whoever, without lawful authority, prints, photographs, makes or exe- 
cutes any print or impression in the likeness of a certificate of arrival, declara- 
tion of intention to become a citizen, or certificate of naturalization or citizen- 
ship, or any part thereof — 

Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or 
both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 767, eff. Sept. 1, 1948.) 

§ 1427. Sale of naturalization or citizenship papers. 

Whoever unlawfully sells or disposes of a declaration of intention to become a 
citizen, certificate of naturalization, certificate of citizenship or copies or du- 
plicates or other documentary evidence of naturalization or citizenship, shall be 
fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 
25, 1948, ch. G45, § 1, 62 Stat. 767, eff. Sept. 1, 1948. ) 

§ 1428. Surrender of canceled naturalization certificate. 

Whoever, having in his possession or control a certificate of naturalization or 
citizenship or a copy thereof which has been canceled as provided by law, fails 
to surrender the same after at least sixty days' notice by the appropriate court 
or the Commissioner or Deputy Commissioner of Immigration, shall be fined not 
more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 
1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 767, eff. Sept. 1, 1948. ) 

PASSPORTS AND VISA OFFENSES 
Chapter 75.— PASSPORTS AND VISAS 

Sec. 

1541. Issuance ■without authority. 

1542. False statement in application and use of passport. 

1543. Forgery or false use of passport. 

1544. Misuse of passport. 

1545. Safe conduct violation. 

1546. Fraud and misuse of visas and permits. 

§1541. Issuance without authority. 

Whoever, acting or claiming to act in any oflice or capacity under the United 
States, or a State or possession, without lawful authority grants, issues, or ver- 
ifies any passport or other instrument in the nature of a passport to or for any 
person whomsoever ; or 

Whoever, being a consular officer authorized to grant, issue, or certify passports, 
knowingly and willfully grants, issues, or verifies any such passport to or for 
any person not owing allegiance, to the United States, whether a citizen or not — 

Shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than one year, or 
both. (.Tune 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 771, eff. Sept. 1, 1948.) 

§ 1542. False statement in application and use of passport. 

Whoever willfully and knowingly makes any false statement in an appli- 
cation for passport with intent to induce or secure the issuance of a passport 
under the authority of the United States, either for his own use or the use of an- 
other, contrary to the laws regulating the issuance of passports or the rules pre- 
scribed pursuant to such laws ; or 



186 ANNUAL REPORT, COAIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Whoever willfully and knowingly uses or attempts to use, or furnishes to 
another for use any passport the issue of which was secured in any way by reason 
of any false statement — 

Shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or 
both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 771, eft. Sept. 1, 1948.) 

§ 1543. Forgery or false use of passport. 

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, mutilates, or alters any passport 
or instrument purporting to be a passport, with intent that the same may be used ; 
or 

Whoever willfully and knowingly uses, or attempts to use, or furnishes to an- 
other for use any such false, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered passport 
or instrument purporting to be a passport, or any passport validly issued which 
has become void by the occurrence of any condition therein prescribed invalidating 
the same — 

Shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or 
both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 771, eff. Sept. 1, 1948.) 

§ 1544. Misuse of passport. 

Whoever willfully and knowingly uses, or attempts to use, any passport issued 
or designed for the use of another ; or 

Whoever willfully and knowingly uses or attempts to use any passport in vio- 
lation of the conditions or restrictions therein contained, or of the rules pre- 
scribed pursuant to the laws regulating the issuance of passports ; or 

Whoever willfully and knowingly furnishes, disposes of, or delivers a passport 
to any person, for use by another than the person for whose use it was originally 
Issued and designed — 

Shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or 
both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, § 1, 62 Stat. 771, eff. Sept. 1, 1948.) 



INTERNAL REVENUE CODE 
(26 U. S. C. 101) 

§ 101. Exemptions from tax on corporations 

The following organizations shall be exempt from taxation under this chapter — 

(1) Labor, agricultural, or horticultural organizations; 

(2) Mutual savings banJjs not having a capital stock represented by shares; 

(3) Fraternal beneficiary societies * * * 

(4) Domestic building and loan associations substantially all the business of 
which is confined to making loans to members ; * * * 

(5) Cemetery companies owned and operated exclusively for the benefit of 
their members * * * 

(6) Corporations * * * organized and operated exclusively for religious, chari- 
table, scientific, literary, or educational pui-poses * * * no part of the net earn- 
ings of which inures to the benefit of any private * * * individual * * * 



COOPERATION BETWEEN BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT IN DEALING 

WITH SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES 

Presidential Directive (13 F. R. 1359) 

DIRECTIVE OF MARCH 13, 1948 

[Confidential Status of Employee Loyalty Records] 

memorandtim to all officers and employees in the executive branch of the 

government 

The eflBcient and just administration of the Employee Loyalty Program, under 
Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, requires that reports, records, and 
files relative to the program be preserved in strict confidence. This is necessary 
in the interest of our national security and welfare, to preserve the confidential 
character and sources of information furnished, and to protect Government per- 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 187 

sonnel against the dissemination of unfounded or disproved allegations. It is 
necessary also in order to insure the fair and Just disposition of loyalty cases. 

For these reasons, and in accordance with the long-established policy that re- 
ports rendered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other investigative 
agencies of the executive branch are to be regarded as confidential, all reports, 
records, and files relative to the loyalty of employees or prospective employees 
(including reports of such investigative agencies), shall be maintained in con- 
fidence, and shall not be transmitted or disclosed except as required in the efll- 
cient conduct of business. 

Any subpena or demand or request for information, reports, or files of the na- 
ture described, received from sources other than those persons in the executive 
branch of the Government who are entitled thereto by reason of their official 
duties, shall be respectfully declined, on the basis of this directive, and the sub- 
pena or demand or other request shall be referred to the Office of the President 
for such response as the President may determine to be in the public interest in 
the particular case. There shall be no relaxation of the provisions of this direc- 
tive except with my express authority. 

This directive shall be published in the Fedebal Register. 

Harry S. Truman 

The White House, 

March 13, 1948. 

[F. R. Doc. 48-2337 ; Filed, Mar. 15, 1948 ; 1 : 12 p. m.] 



FEDERAL LOYALTY PROGRAM 
(18 F. R. 2489) 

EXECUTIVE ORDER 10450 
Secubitt Requirements for Government Employment 

Whereas the interests of the national security require that all persons privi- 
leged to be employed in the departments and agencies of the Government, shall be 
reliable, trustworthy, of good conduct and character, and of complete and un- 
swerving loyalty to the United States ; and 

Whereas the American tradition that all persons should receive fair, impartial, 
and equitable treatment at the hands of the Government requires that all persons 
seeking the privilege of employment or privileged to be employed in the depart- 
ments and agencies of the Government be adjudged by mutually consistent and no 
less than minimum standards and procedures among the departments and agen- 
cies governing the employment and retention in employment of persons in the 
Federal service: 

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and 
statutes of the United States, including section 1753 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States (5 U. S. C. 631) ; the Civil Service Act of 1883 (22 Stat.' 403; 5 
U. S. C. 632, et seq.) ; section 9A of the act of August 2, 1939, 53 Stat. 1148 (5 U. 
S. C. 118 j) ; and the act of August 26, 1950, 64 Stat. 476 (5 U. S. C. 22-1, et seq.), 
and as President of the United States, and deeming such action necessary in the 
best interests of the national security, it is hereby ordered as follows : 

Section 1. In addition to the departments and agencies specified in the said act 
of August 26, 1950, and Executive Order No. 10237 of April 26, 1951, the provisions 
of that act shall apply to all other departments and agencies of the Government. 

Sec. 2. The head of each department and agency of the Government shall be 
responsible for establishing and maintaining within his department or agency an 
effective program to insure that the employment and retention in employment of 
any civilian officer or employee within the department or agency is clearly con- 
sistent with the interests of the national security. 

Sec. 3. (a) The appointment of each civilian officer or employee in any de- 
partment or agency of the Government shall be made subject to investigation. 
The scope of the investigation shall be determined in the first instance accord- 
ing to the degree of adverse effect the occupant of the position sought to be filled 
could bring about, by virtue of the nature of the position, on the national 
security, but in no event shall the investigation include less than a national 
agency check (including a check of the fingerprint files of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation), and written inquiries to appropriate local law-enforcement 



188 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

agencies, former employers and supervisors, references, and schools attended 
by the person under investigation : Provided, That upon request of the head of 
the department or agency concerned, the Civil Service Commission may, in its 
discretion, authorize such less investigation as may meet the requirements of 
the national security with respect to per diem, intermittent, temporary, or sea- 
sonal employees, or aliens employed outside the United States. Should there de- 
velop at any stage of investigation information indicating that the employment 
of any such person may not be clearly consistent with the interests of the na- 
tional security, there shall be conducted with respect to such person a full field 
investigation, or such less investigation as shall be sufficient to enable the head 
of the department or agency concerned to determine whether retention of such 
person is clearly consistent with the interests of the national security. 

(b) The head of any department or agency shall designate, or cause to be 
designated, any position within his department or agency the occupant of 
which could bring about, by virtue of the nature of the position, a material ad- 
verse effect on the national security as a sensitive position. Any position so 
designated shall be filled or occupied only by a person with respect to whom a 
full field investigation has been conducted : Provided, That a person occupy- 
ing a sensitive position at the time it is designated as such may continue to 
occupy such position pending the completion of a full field investigation, sub- 
ject to the other provisions of this order : And provided further. That in case 
of emergency a sensitive position may be filled for a limited period by a person 
with respect to whom a full field preappointment investigation has not been 
completed if the head of the department or agency concerned finds that such 
action is necessary in the national interest, which finding shall be made a part 
of the records of such department or agency. 

Sec. 4. The head of each department and agency shall review, or cause to be 
reviewed, the cases of all civilian officers and employees with respect to whom 
there has been conducted a full field investigation under Executive Order No. 
9835 of March 21, 1947, and, after such further investigation as may be appro- 
priate, shall re-adjudicate, or cause to be re-adjudicated, in accordance with the 
said act of August 26, 1950, such of those cases as have not been adjudicated 
under a security standard commensurate with that established under this order. 

Sec. 5. Whenever there is developed or received by any department or agency 
information indicating that the retention in employment of any officer or employee 
of the Government may not be clearly consistent with the interests of the na- 
tional security, such information shall he forwarded to the head of the employ- 
ing department or agency or his representative, who, after such investigation 
as may be appropriate, shall review, or cause to be reviewed, and, where neces- 
sary, I'e-adjudicate, or cause to be re-adjudicated, in accordance with the said 
act of August 26, 1950, the case of such officer or employee. 

Sec. 6. Should there develop at any stage of investigation information indi- 
cating that the employment of any officer or employee of the Government may 
not be clearly consistent with the interests of the national security, the head 
of the department or agency concerned or his representative shall immediately 
suspend the employment of the person involved if he deems such suspension 
necessary in the interests of the national security and, following such investiga- 
tion and review as he deems necessary, the head of the department or agency 
concerned shall terminate the employment of such suspended officer or employee 
whenever he shall determine such termination necessary or advisable in the 
interests of the national security. In accordance with the said act of August 26, 
1950. 

Sec. 7. "A.ny person whose employment is suspended or terminated under the 
authority granted to heads of departments and agencies by or in accordance 
with the said act of August 26, 19.">0, or pursuant to the said Executive Order 
No. 9835 or any other security or loyalty program relating to officers or em- 
ployees of the Government, shall not be reinstated or restored to duty or reem- 
ployed in the same department or agency and shall not be reemployed in any 
other department or agency, unless the head of the department or agency con- 
cerned finds that such reinstatement, restoration, or reemployment is clearly 
consistent with the interests of the national security, which finding shall be 
made a part of the records of such department or agency: Provided, that no 
person whose employment has been terminated under such authority thereafter 
may be employed by any other department or agency except after a determination 
by the Civil Service Commission that suf^h person is eligible for such employment. 

Sec. 8. (a) The investigations conducted pursuant to this order shall be 
designed to develop information as to whether the employment or retention in 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 189 

employment in the Federal service of the person being investigated is clearly 
consistent with the interests of the national security. Such information shall 
relate, but shall not be limited, to the following : 

(1) Depending on the relation of the Government employment to the national 
security : 

(i) Any behavior, activities, or associations which tend to show that the 
individual is not reliable or trustworthy. 

(ii) Any deliberate misrepresentations, falsifications, or omissions of material 
facts. 

(iii) Any criminal, infamous, dishonest, immoral, or notoriously disgraceful 
conduct, habitual use of intoxicants to excess, drug addiction, or sexual 
perversion. 

(iv) An adjudication of insanity, or treatment for serious mental or neurologi- 
cal disorder without satisfactory evidence of cure. 

(v) Any facts which furnish reason to believe that the individual may be sub- 
jected to coercion, influence, or pressure which may cause him to act contrary to 
the best interests of the national security. 

(2) Commission of any act of sabotage, espionage, treason, or sedition, or 
attempts thereat or preparation therefor, or conspiring with, or aiding or abetting, 
another to commit or attempt to commit any act of sabotage, espionage, treason, 
or sedition. 

(.3) Establishing or continuing a sympathetic association with a saboteur, spy, 
traitor, seditionist, anarchist, or revolutionist, or with an espionage or other 
secret agent or representative of a foreign nation, or any representative of a 
foreign nation whose interests may be inimical to the interests of the United 
States, or with any person who advocates the use of force or violence to over- 
throw the government of the United States or the alteration of the form of 
government of the United States by unconstitutional means. 

(4) Advocacy of use of force or violence to overthrow the government of the 
United States, or of the alteration of the form of government of the United States 
by unconstitutional means. 

(5) Membership in, or affiliation or sympathetic association with, any foreign 
or domestic organization, association, movement, group, or combination of per- 
sons which is totalitarian. Fascist, Communist, or subversive, or which has 
adopted, or shows, a policy of advocating or approving the commission of the acts 
of force or violence to deny other persons their rights under the Constitution of 
the United States, or which seeks to alter the form of government of the United 
States by unconstitutional means. 

(6) Intentional, unauthorized disclosure to any person of security informa- 
tion, or of other information disclosure of which is prohibited by law, or willful 
violation or disregard of security regulations. 

(7) Performing or attempting' to perform his duties, or otherwise acting, so 
as to serve the interests of another government in preference to the interests 
of the United States. 

(b) The investigation of persons entering or employed in the comijetitive serv- 
ice shall primarily be the responsibility of the Civil Service Commission, except 
in cases in which the head of a department or agency assumes that responsibility 
pursuant to law or by agreement with the Commission. The Commission shall 
furnish a full investigative report to the department or agency concerned. 

(c) The investigation of persons (including consultants, however employed), 
entering employment of, or employed by, the Government other than in the com- 
petitive service shall primarily be the responsibility of the employing department 
or agency. Departments and agencies without investigative facilities may use 
the investigative facilities of the Civil Service Commission, and other depart- 
ments and agencies may use such facilities under agreement with the Com- 
mission. 

(d) There shall be referred promptly to the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
all investigations being conducted by any other agencies which develop informa- 
tion indicating that an individual may have been subjected to coercion, influence, 
or pressure to act contrary to the interests of the national security, or informa- 
tion relating to any of the matters described in subdivisions (2) through (7) of 
subsection (a) of this section. In cases so referred to it, the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation shall make a full field investigation. 

Sec. 9. (a) There shall be established and maintained in the Civil Service 
Commission a secui'ity-investigations index covering all persons as to whom 
security investigations have been conducted by any department or agency of the 
Government under this order. The central index established and maintained 



190 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIYITIES 

by the Commission under Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, shall be 
made a part of the security-investigations index. The security-investigations 
index shall contain the name of each person investigated, adequate identifying 
information concerning each such person, and a reference to each department 
and agency which has conducted an investigation concerning the person involved 
or has suspended or terminated the employment of such person under the author- 
ity granted to heads of departments and agencies by or in accordance vs^ith the 
said act of August 26, 1950. 

(b) The heads of all departments and agencies shall furnish promptly to the 
Civil Service Commission information appropriate for the establishment and 
maintenance of the security-investigation index. 

(c) The reports and other investigative material and information developed 
by investigations conducted pursuant to any statute, order, or program de- 
scribed in section 7 of this order shall remain the property of the investigative 
agencies conducting the investigations, but may, subject to considerations of the 
national security, be retained by the department or agency concerned. Such 
reports and other investigative material and information shall be maintained in 
confidence, and no access shall be given thereto except, vpith the consent of the 
investigative agency concerned, to other departments and agencies conducting 
security programs under the authority granted by or in accordance with the said 
act of August 26, 1950, as may be required for the efficient conduct of Govern- 
ment business. 

Sec. 10. Nothing in this order shall be construed as eliminating or modifying 
in any way the requirement for any investigation or any determination as to 
security which may be required by law. 

Sec. 11. On and after the effective date of this order the Loyalty Review 
Board established by Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, shall not ac- 
cept agency findings for review, upon ap]ieal or otherwise. Appeals pending 
before the Loyalty Review Board on such date shall be heard to final determina- 
tion in accordance with the provisions of the said Executive Order No. 9835, 
as amended. Agency determination favorable to the officer or employee con- 
cerned pending before the Loyalty Review Board on such date shall be acted 
upon by such Board, and whenever the Board is not in agreement with such 
favorable determination the case shall be remanded to the department or agency 
concerned for determination in accordance with the standards and procedures 
established pursuant to this order. Cases pending before the regional loyalty 
boards of the Civil Service Commission on which hearings have not been initiated 
on such date shall be referred to the department or agency concerned. Cases 
being heard by regional loyalty boards on such date shall be heard to conclusion, 
and the determination of the board shall be forwarded to the head of the depart- 
ment or agency concerned : Provided, that if no specific department or agency 
is involved, the case shall be dismissed without prejudice to the applicant. In- 
vestigations pending in the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Civil Service 
Commission on such date shall be completed, and the reports thereon shall be 
made to the appropriate department or agency. 

Sec. 12. Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, as amended, is hereby 
revoked. For the purposes described in section 11 hereof the Loyalty Review 
Board and the regional loyalty boards of the Civil Service Commission shall 
continue to exist and function for a period of one hundred and twenty days from 
*he effective date of this order, and the Department of Justice shall continue 
to furnish the information described in paragraph 3 of Part III of the said 
Executive Order No. 9835, but directly to the head of each department and agency. 

Sec. 13. The Attorney General is requested to render to the heads of depart 
ments and agencies such advice as may be requisite to enable them to establish 
and maintain an appropriate employee-security program. 

Sec. 14. (a) The Civil Service Commission, with the continuing advice and 
collaboration of representatives of such departments and agencies as the National 
Security Council may designate, shall make a continuing study of the manner 
in which this order is being implemented by the departments and agencies of the 
Government for the purpose of determining : 

(1) Deficiencies in the department and agency security programs established 
under this order which are inconsistent with the interests of, or directly or 
indirectly weaken, the national security. 

(2) Tendencies in such programs to deny to individual employees fair, im- 
partial, and equitable treatment at the hands of the Government, or rights under 
the Constitution and laws of the United States or this order. 

Information affecting any department or agency developed or received during 
the course of such continuing study shall be furnished immediately to the head 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 191 

of the department or agency concerned. The Civil Service Commission shall 
report to tlie National Security Council, at least semiannually, on the results of 
such study, and shall recommend means to correct any such deficiencies or 
tendencies. 

(b) All departments and agencies of the Government are directed to cooperate 
with the Civil Service Commission to facilitate the accomplishment of the 
responsibilities assigned to it by subsection (a) of this section. 

Sec. 15. This order shall become effective thirty days after the date hereof. 

DwiGHT D. Eisenhower 

The White House, 

April 27, 1953. 

[F. R. Doc. 53-3794 ; Filed, Apr. 27, 1953; 4 : 04 p. m.] 



COOPERATION BETWEEN BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT IN DEALING 

WITH SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES 

(18 F. R. 6583) 

EXECUTIVE ORDER 10491 

Amendment of ExECUTrvE Order No. 10450 of April 27. 1953, Relating to Se- 
curity Requirements for Goveknment Employment 

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the 
United States, including section 1753 of the Revised Statutes of the United States 
(5 U. S. C. 631) ; the Civil Service Act of 1883 (22 Stat. 403; 5 U. S. C. 632, et 
seq.) ; section 9A of the act of August 2, 1939, 53 Stat. 1148 (5 U. S. C. 118 j) ; 
and the act of August 26, 1950, 64 Stat. 476 (5 U. S. C. 22-1, et seq.), and as 
President of the United States, and finding such action necessary in the best in- 
terests of the national security, it is hereby ordered as follows : 

Subsection (a) of section 8 of Executive Order No. 10450 of April 27, 1953, 
relating to security requirements for Government employment, is hereby amended 
by adding thereto at the end thereof paragraph (8) as follows : 

"(8) Refusal by the individual, upon the ground of constitutional privilege 
against self-incrimination, to testify before a congressional committee regarding 
charges of his alleged disloyalty or other misconduct." 

Dwight D. Eisenhower 

The White House, 

October 13, 1953 

[F. R. Doc. 53-&890 ; Filed, Oct. 15, 1953 ; 10 : 51 a. m.] 



RESTRICTION OF AMERICAN TRAVEL IN IRON CURTAIN COUNTRIES 

State Department Regulation 108.162 (17 F. R. 8013), filed September 1952 
CHAPTER I— DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

[Dept. Reg. 108.162] 

Pakt 51 — Passports 

Subpart B — Regulations of the Secretaby of State 

limitations of issuance of passports ; notification and appeal 

Pursuant to the authoritv vested in me by paragraph 126 of Executive Order 
No. 7S56, i.ssued on March 31, 1938 (3 F. R. 681; 22 CFR 51.77), under authority 
of section 1 of the act of Congress approved July 3, 1926 (44 Stat. 887 ; 22 U. S. C. 
211 (a) ), the regulations issued on March 31, 1938 (Departmental Order 749) as 
amended (22 CFR 51.101 to 51.134) are hereby further amended by the addition 
of new §§ 51.135 to 51.143 as follows : 

Sec. 

51.135 Limitations on Issuance of passports to persons supporting Communist movement. 

51.136 Limitations on Issuance of passports to persons likely to violate laws of the 

United States. 
51.1.S7 Notification to person whose passport application is tentatively disapproved. 

51.138 Appeal by passport applicant. 

51.139 Creation and functions of Board of Passport Appeals. 



192 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

51.140 Duty of Board to advise Secretary of State on action for disposition of appealed 

cases. 

51.141 Bases for findings of fact by Board. 

51.142 Oath or afiirmation by applicant as to membership in Communist Party. 

51.143 Applicability of §§ 51.135 to 51.142. 

Authority: §§ 51.135 to 51.143 issued under sec. 1, 44 Stat. 887; 22 TJ. S. C. 211a. 

§ 51.135 Limitations on issuance of passports to persons supporting Com- 
munist movement. In order to promote the national interest by assuring that 
persons who support the world Communist movement of which the Communist 
Party is an integral unit may not, through use of United States passports, 
further the purposes of that movement, no passport, except one limited for direct 
and immediate return to the United States, shall be issued to : 

(a) Persons who are members of the Communist Party or who have recently 
terminated such membership under such circumstances as to warrant the conclu- 
sion — not otherwise rebutted by the evidence— that they continue to act in fur- 
therance of the interests and under the discipline of the Communist Party ; 

(b) Persons, regardless of the formal state of their affiliation with the Com- 
munist Party, who engage in activities which support the Communist movement 
under such circumstances as to warrant the conclusion — not otherwise rebutted 
by the evidence — that they have engaged in such activities as a result of direction, 
domination, or control exercised over them by the Communist movement. 

(c) Persons, regardless of the formal state of their affiliation with the Com- 
munist Party, as to whom there is reason to believe, on the balance of all the 
evidence, that they are going abroad to engage in activities which will advance 
the Communist movement for the purpose, knowingly and wilfully of advancing 
that movement. 

§ 51.136 Limitations on issuance of passports to persons likely to violate laws 
of the United States. In order to promote the national interest by assuring that 
the conduct of foreign relations shall be free from unlawful interference, no 
passport, except one limited for direct and immediate return to the United 
States, shall be issued to persons as to whom there is reason to believe, on the 
balance of all the evidence, that they are going abroad to engage in activities 
while abroad wliich would violate the laws of the United States, or which if 
carried on in the United States would violate such laws designed to protect the 
security of the United States. 

§ 51.137 Notification to person whose passport application is tentatively dis- 
approved. A person whose passport application is tentatively disapproved under 
the provisions of § 51.135 or § 51.136 will be notified in writing of the tentative 
refusal, and of the reasons on which it is based, as specifically as in the judgment 
of the Department of State security considerations permit. He shall be entitled, 
upon request, and before such refusal becomes final, to present his case and all 
relevant information informally to the Passport Division. He shall be entitled 
to appear in person before a hearing officer of the Passport Division, and to be 
represented by counsel. He will, upon request, confirm his oral statements in an 
affidavit for the record. After the applicant has presented his case, the Passport 
Division will review the record, and after consultation with other interested 
offices, advise the applicant of the decision. If the decision is adverse, such 
advice will be in writing and shall state the reasons on which the decision is 
based as specifically as within the judgment of the Department of State security 
limitations permit. Such advice shall also inform the applicant of his right to 
appeal under § 51.138. 

§ 51.138. Appeal by passport applicant. In the event of a decision adverse to 
the applicant, he shall be entitled to appeal his case to the Board of Passport 
Appeals provided for in § 51.189. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 193 

RESTRICTIONS ON TRAVEL BY SOVIET AND SATELLITE DIPLOMATS 

Department of State 

For the press March 10, 1952, No. 181 

For release at 12: 00 noon, E. 8. T., Tuesday, March 11, 1952. Not to be previously 
published, quoted from or used in any loay 

REGULATION OF TRAVEL OF SOVIET OFFICIALS IN THE UNITED STATES 

The United States Government has instituted travel regulations for Soviet 
officials stationed in the United States. 

For some time the Soviet Government has sharply restricted the travel of 
foreign officials including United States representatives stationed in the U. S. S. R. 
A short time ago the Soviet Government further increased these travel restric- 
tions. The United States Government has therefore instituted regulations gov- 
erning the travel of Soviet officials in the United States. This step has been 
taken reluctantly, because the American people and their Government believe 
that such treatment of foreign representatives by a receiving state is not neces- 
sary, customary or correct nor is it conducive to the proper conduct of relations 
between nations. Unfortunately, the Soviet Government does not appear to share 
this view, but rather it has tended constantly toward the imposition of greater 
restrictions on the legitimate activities of foreign officials. 

The present regulations are outlined in a note sent March 10 to the Soviet 
Embassy in Washington. A copy of this note is appended. 

As is"^made clear in the note to the Soviet Embassy, the United States is pre- 
pared at any time to reexamine the question of travel regulations in the light 
of the treatment accorded United States official representatives in the Soviet 
Union. 



TEXT OF NOTE FROM SECRETAEY OF STATE DEAN ACHESON TO THE AMBASSADOR OF THE 
UNION OF S0\T:ET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, ALEXANDER S. PANYUSHKIN 

The Secretary of State presents his compliments to His Excellency the Am- 
bassador of the Union of Soviet Socialist llepublics and has the honor to invite 
the Ambassador's attention to note No. 46/PR of January 15, 1952, note No. 
1130/PR of September 30, 1948, and the note verbale dated May 16, 1941, ad- 
dressed to the United States Embassy at Moscow by the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, the effect of which has been to restrict the travel in the Soviet Union 
of American diplomatic and consular officers, as well as of the other members of 
the staff of the American Embassy at Moscow. 

In view of the restrictions which have been placed upon the travel of American 
diplomatic and consular representatives and the employees in the Soviet Union, 
the Government of the United States is constrained to regulate the travel of 
Soviet personnel assigned to the Emba.ssy in Washington, Soviet representatives 
of the official Soviet news agency, Tass, and Soviet representatives of other pub- 
licity media who are assigned for duty in Washington, and Soviet official person- 
nel assigned to Amtorg in New York. Effective immediately Soviet official per- 
sonnel of the Embassy in Wa.shington, Tass representatives, and others who are 
Soviet citizens assigned for newspaper work in Washington are required not to 
travel to any point more than 25 miles distant from the center of Washington 
without previous official notification at least 48 hours in advance. Soviet official 
personnel assigned to Amtorg shall not travel to any point more than 25 miles 
distant from the center of New York City without previous official notification at 
least 48 hours in advance. 



194 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

In the case of Soviet civilian ofl5cials, the notification should be addressed to 
the Department of State ; and in the case of Soviet military personnel to the ap- 
propriate Army, Navy or Air Force foreign liaison office. Notification should 
contain the name of each traveler, complete and detailed information concerning 
his projected travel, including itinerary, points of stopover, and duration of 
journey. 

The United States Government observes that by reason of the action of the 
Soviet Government in restricting the travel of United States official personnel 
in the U. S. S. R. it is compelled similarly to regulate Soviet official personnel. At 
the same time the United States Government states it is prepared to re-examine 
the question of travel regulations in the light of the treatment accorded United 
States official representatives in the Soviet Union. 

Travel Resteictions Placed By the Soviet Govenbment on American Officials 

IN the U. S. S. R. 

Travel restrictions were first placed upon American officials as well as other 
foreign representatives in the U. S. S. R. by a circular note from the Soviet For- 
eign Office to foreign missions in Moscow dated May 16, 1941. The Soviet note 
declared travel to certain points and localities prohibited and established a pro- 
cedure under which travel on the territory of the U. S. S. R. by members of foreign 
embassies, legations, and consulates may take place "only on condition that such 
persons previously inform appropriate organs of the Peoples Commissariat for 
Foreign Affairs, Peoples Commissariat for Defense, and Peoples Commissariat for 
Navy with regard to trips planned, indicating itinerary, points of stopover, and 
length of travel so that such trips may be registered by above-mentioned organs." 
On June 7, 1941 the United States imposed retaliatory restrictions which 
required Soviet officials in this country to secure permits for travel more than 100 
miles outside of Washington (and 50 miles outside of New York and San 
Francisco). These retaliatory restrictions were withdrawn shortly after the 
German attack on the U. S. S. R. 

The Soviet regulations were not officially withdrawn although application of 
the provisions was relaxed for a short time at the end of the war. By 1947 it 
had become evident that the Soviet authorities were actively hindering the 
movements of official American personnel outside of Moscow. In the summer of 
1948 the hindrances were extended to automobile travel only a short distance 
from Moscow. 

On September 30, 1948, the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs notified the 
American Embassy and other foreign missions at Moscow that the 1941 restric- 
tions were still in effect and added a new and greatly expanded list of localities 
closed to travel by members of the staffs of foreign missions. Under the 1948 
procedure, however, foreign officials were required to give the Soviet Foreign 
Office (military personnel — the Foreign Liaison Section of the Ministry of Armed 
Forces) 48 hours advance notice of their intention to travel more than 50 kilo- 
meters outside of Moscow. Beyond this 50 kilometer zone travel was permitted 
only by public carrier except to three points of historic interest near the city. 
Even within this 50 kilometer perimeter certain areas were forbidden for travel, 
with the result that automobile travel to the 50 kilometer limit was possible on 
only four highways. 

In general, the border areas, the Central Asian Republics, the Caucasus region 
with the exception of Tiflis, the Baltic States, and the Western areas of the 
Ukraine and Byelorussia, including the capital cities of Kiev and Minsk were 
placed within the zones prohibited to foreign officials. Although most of the 
Siberian area was left technically "free," in practice it was greatly restricted 
owing to the fact that the important cities were forbidden areas and therefore 
no facilities were available for foreign visitors. 

On January 15, 1952, the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs prohibited 22 addi- 
tional cities of the U. S. S. R. to foreigners and reduced the zone around Moscow 
from 50 to 40 kilometers from the center of the city. In addition, several more 
districts within the 40 kilometer limit were placed on the prohibited list, thus 
reducing to a great extent the number of places to which foreign officials may 
travel in the U. S. S. R. or in the Moscow area. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 195 

RESTRICTION OF AMERICAN TRAVEL IN IRON CURTAIN COUNTRIES 

Department of State for the Press May 1, 1952, No. 341 

The Department of State announced today that it was taking additional steps 
to warn American citizens of the risks of travel in Iron Curtain countries by 
stamping all passports not valid for travel in those countries unless specifically 
endorsed by the Department of State for such travel. 

In making this announcement, the Department emphasized that this pro- 
cedure in no way forbids American travel to those areas. It contemplates that 
American citizens will consult the Department or the Consulates abroad to as- 
certain the dangers of traveling in countries where acceptable standards of 
protection do not prevail and that, if no objection is perceived, the travel may 
be authorized. 

All new passports will be stamped as follows : 

This passport is not valid for travel to Albania, Bulgaria, China, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
unless specifically endorsed under authority of the Department of State as 
being valid for such travel. 

All outstanding passports, which are equally subject to the restriction, will 
be so endorsed as occasion permits. 



MAILING PRIVILEGES OF FOREIGN EMBASSIES 

Department of State for the Press December 31, 1953, No. 680 
Ban on Rumanian Publications In United States 

In a note delivered to the Rumanian legation today, the Department of State 
notified the legation to cease forthwith the publication and distribution within 
the United States of "The Romanian News", a periodical issued by the Legation. 
At the same time, the Department directed the Legation to stop the distribution 
of other similar pamphlets published at the expense of the Rumanian Govern- 
ment or its organs. 

This step was taken as a result of the action of the Rumanian Government 
in banning the further distribution in Rumania of a publication issued by our 
Legation in Bucharest entitled "Stir din America" (News from America). On 
December 29, our Minister to Rumania, Mr. Harold Shantz, was notified by the 
Foreign Oflice that our Legation must cease the distribution of the American 
publication. This publication was a small monthly bulletin which sought to 
give its readers an accurate picture of American life and thought. The first 
issue appeared in October of this year ; its circulation was approximately 1,600 
copies. 

The text of the United Staets note is as follows : 

"The Secretary of State presents his compliments to the Honorable the Min- 
ister of Rumania and has the honor to refer to the dissemination of publications 
within the United States at the instance of the Rumanian Legation. Special 
reference is made to the periodical bulletin entitled. The Romanian News. 

"As the Legation is doubtless aware, the Rumanian Government has requested 
the American Legation at Bucharest to cease further distribution in Rumania 
of a periodical issued by that Legation entitled Neivs From America. 

"Accordingly, the Department of State requests the Rumanian Legation to 
cease forthwith the publication and distribution in the United States of The 
Romanian News. The distribution in the United States by the Rumanian Lega- 
tion of other similar pamphlets published at the expense of the Rumanian Gov- 
ernment or its organs should also be terminated." 

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