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Full text of "Annual report for the year ..."

85th Congress, 1st Session 



Union Calendar No. 14 

House Report No. 53 



COMMITTEE ON 
UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

1 



ANNUAL REPORT 
FOR THE YEAR 1956 



)< 







JANUARY 2, 1957 

(Original Release Date) 



\ 



■- r- 



February 11, 1957. — Committed to the Committee'of the Whole House 
on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed 



Prepared and released by the 



(^ / 



Committee on Un-American Activities, U. S. House of Representatives 

Washington. D. t. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword vii 

Communist political subversion 1 

Communist propaganda 5 

The Communist passport conspiracy 11 

Communist infiltration of ^Government 16 

International 'communism 19 

Fund for the Republic, Inc 24 

Communist propaganda among prisoners of war in Korea (Save Our Sons 

' Committee) 26 

Soviet attempts at subversion and espionage by diplomatic personnel 30 

North Carolina area 31 

Los Angeles area 33 

Testimony of Nikolai Khokhlov 35 

Rocky Mountain area 37 

St. Louis area 41 

New Haven area 46 

Youngstown area 49 

Executive meetings 52 

Contempt proceedings 52 

Reference service 54 

Legislative recommendations 55 

Publications 61 

Appendixes: 

I. List of committee hearings and publications for 1956 64 

IL Letter from Chairman Francis E. Walter to Attorney General 

Herbert Brownell, Jr 66 

in. Excerpts from minutes of executive meetings held during 1956 

and other years relating to contempt matters 67 

V 



FOREWORD 



From the work of the Committee on Un-American Activities during 
the past year one set of facts emerges with irresistible clarity: The 
danger of communism is increasing, not receding; the United States 
remains the major target of Soviet aggression; indifference to the 
Kremlin's avowed program of global conquest can lead only to the 
inevitable destruction of om* free institutions, and ourselves as a free 
nation. 

It is not a pleasant task to state these conclusions. The Committee 
on Un-American Activities would prefer to report to the Congress 
and to the American people that the tide has turned against inter- 
national communism and that the day of its dissolution is in sight. 
The committee cannot do so. There are many, nevertheless, who 
feel that communism has become enfeebled and exultantly hail each 
new sound from the Soviet sphere as the death knell of the vast 
Communist totalitarian empire. It is a grave delusion which they 
embrace. 

Events in Hungary are still fresh enough for us to remember the 
jubilation which reigned at the rising of the courageous men and 
women of that nation against the despots who had enslaved them. 
We can remember too our profound shock as Soviet tanks and troops 
marched back to crush the rebels and demonstrate that the power of 
the Kremlin had not diminished. 

Numerically, the membership of the Communist Party of the United 
States has declined considerably during the past few years as many 
dilettantes left the fringes from which they had long gazed with starry- 
eyed credulity. But those remaining in the Communist apparatus 
comprise a hard core of revolutionaries who have consecrated them- 
selves to accomplish the anniliilation of our form of government. 

Anyone who thinks that communism in the United States no longer 
constitutes a serious menace should consider that at this moment on 
American soil are the equivalent of 20 combat divisions of enemy 
troops engaging in propaganda, espionage, subversion, and loyal only 
to the Soviet Union. 

A prominent American jiu-ist once observed that if the American 
people saw this horde wearing the uniform of a foreign power and 
moving freely in their midst, they would immediately voice great 
alarm. The alarm should not be less if the uniform clothes the mind 
instead of the body. 

The past year has been an exceptionally fruitful one for the work of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities. A total of 398 witnesses 
testified before the committee. The investigations and public hear- 
ings that we have conducted across the country have disclosed: 

1. A mammoth nationwide campaign of political subversion 
designed to paralyze the security programs of the executive and 
legislative branches of the United States Government; 

H. Kept. 53, 85-1 2 *^ 



X FOREWORD 

2. The curious posture of a major United States "educational" 
foundation, the Fund for the Repubhc, Inc., some of whose practices 
have provided great aid and comfort to the Communist apparatus, par- 
ticularly in the vital area of mass communications and entertainment; 

3. The extensive use of American passports by the Communist 
conspu'acy as a basic means of moving subversive agents in and out of 
the United States and other comi tries of the free world ; 

4. The identity of four other agencies of the Federal Government 
in which Communist Partv underground cells operated diu"ing the 
1940's; 

5. The treasonable activities of American citizens in a Save Our 
Sons Committee established to disseminate Communist propaganda 
am.ong American prisoners of war in Korea and their families in the 
United States; 

6. The efforts of the Communist Party to expand its operations in 
Connecticut, North Carolina, and the west coast through colonization 
of basic industries in those areas, proselytization of youth and students, 
and organization of large numbers of non-Communists for political 
action of benefit only to the Communist Party; 

7. A concerted international propaganda operation to lure refugees 
and defectors back to the slave-camp homelands from which the}^ had 
fled. 

The past year saw the publication of several valuable reports on 
various phases of domestic and international communism. Trial by 
Treason, a study of the national Rosenberg and Sobel committees, 
laid bare the exploitation of the atom spies by the Communist Party 
here and abroad to defame the United States Government. The 
Great Pretense brought together a number of authorities on inter- 
national communism who analyzed the so-called anti-Stalinist cam- 
paign initiated by the new rulers of the Soviet Union who themselves 
are giving new luster to the mantle they inherited from Stalin. In 
Soviet Total War, other experts detailed the techniques used by the 
Soviet Union in the international Communist apparatus to accomplish 
its historic mission of global conquest. 

Through the testimony of witnesses who have been engaged in a 
constant battle against the Iron Curtain police states, the committee 
obtained a wealth of information about the policies and strategy of the 
Communist Party in key areas outside the United States. Together 
these witnesses exposed the chicanery of the current Soviet avowals 
of "peaceful coexistence." Their warning, a sober and comfortless one, 
should be taken to heart by the people of the United States. 

While the ultimate objectives of communism have not changed, its 
methodology has become more cunning and raises new barriers to 
effective counter action. One example of this was an amicus curiae 
brief filed with the United States Supreme Court last July by a "group 
of prominent non-Communists." In reality, as the letter contained 
in appendix II discloses, more than 26 of the signers have been identi- 
fied in sworn testimony as members of the Communist Party and many 
of the others have records of extensive Communist-front affiliation. 
Currently the Communist Party of the United States is developing a 
new strategy designed to make detection and prosecution more diffi- 
cult by ostensibly severing the connections between the Communist 
Party of the United States and the international Communist appa- 



FOREWORD XI 

rat US, disavowing force and violence, and altering the names of the 
Communist Party and its more important adjuncts. 

We can be certain, however, that despite any pronouncement the 
Communist Party may make publicly, its real program remains 
unchanged. With one-half the world alreadj^ prostrate beneath the 
truncheons of Soviet communism, we must increase our vigilance, not 
lessen ^t. "On the clock of survival," Ernst Tillich declared in his 
appearance before this com.mittee a few months ago, "the time is now 
5 minutes before midnight." It is but a brief interval that still 
remains for us to elect survival — or extinction. 

Francis E. Walter, Chairman. 



ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1956 



COMMUNIST POLITICAL SUBVERSION 

Committee investigations and hearings in Washington, Chicago, 
Youngstown, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle have brought 
into focus the current Communist program of political subversion 
designed by the Kremlin to destroy the security programs of the 
legislative and executive branches of the United States Government. 
Over 180 front organizations have been created by the Communist 
Party to crush the security provisions of the Immigration and Na- 
tionahty Act, and a substantial number of others have been arrayed 
against other anti-Communist measures. 

Three principal organizations were dealt with in the committee's 
hearings: The American Committee for Protection of Foreign Bom, 
a Conference on Legislation in the National Interest, and the Com- 
mittee to End Sedition Laws. All 3 have 2 things in common— a com- 
plete domination by the Communist Party and their goal of using the 
pohtical freedom of the United States for the sole purpose of destroying 
that freedom. 

The most successful of the three is the American Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born, the oldest creation of the Communist 
Party still active in the United States. The American Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born, while dealt with here as a single organiza- 
tion, is in fact a complex of organizations at times numbering more 
than 300. 

Started in 1933 as an adjunct of the International Labor Defense 
(characterized by several Attorneys General of the United States as 
the "legal arm of the Communist Party"), the ACPFB became a 
separate organization in 1934. 

Since its inception, the American Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born has operated among nationality gi'oups within the 
United States. While its name implies protection of the foreign 
born, the hearings conclusively proved that it has used certain foreign 
groups in the United States solely for the protection of the Com- 
munist Party, Documents introduced dm-ing these hearings estab- 
lished that dming the Hitler-Stalin Pact the ACPFB attempted to 
lead the foreign groups, many of them the victims of Nazi persecution, 
into opposition to American military and economic assistance to 
England and France. 

It charged that the aid being given to stem the tide of fascism w^as 
designed to destroy the trade-union movement in the United States. 
At the same time, it began its attack upon the enactment of legislation 
such as the Alien Registration Act. To implement this program, 
branch committees for the protection of foreign born were created in 
Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, and other major cities. 

1 



2 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

With the attack upon Russia by Germany, the American Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born and its branches, as well as all 
Communist organizations, including the Communist Party itself, 
pledged support of America's defense program. However, when an 
indictment was brought against Stanley Nowak, of Detroit, seeking 
his denaturalization, the American Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born attacked the President of the United States, charging 
that the indictment was another effort to destroy the trade-union 
movements. At the time of his indictment, Nowak was a vice 
president of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 
In spite of the indictment, he was later elected chairman of the 
organization and held that position for several years. 

To learn the importance of the nationality groups of the Communist 
Party, the committee subpenaed John Lautner, a member of the 
Communist Party from 1929 until January 1950, membership secretary 
of the Hungarian Bureau of the Communist Party, and a member of 
the Communist Party Nationality Groups Commission. Lautner 
testified that during his membership on the Nationality Groups 
Commission of the Communist Party: 

It was always emphasized how important it was for the 
party to do work, a Communist activity, in the nationality 
groups. The main reason projected at all times was the fact 
that in the basic industries of the country, such as mnning, 
steel and metal, auto, rubber, textile, the largest segments 
of the nationality^ groups were occupied. In order to 
successfully build the party influence in the basic industries, 
it was necessary to expand the work of the Communist 
Party in these nationality groups. The Nationality Groups 
Commission of the Communist Party was that subcommittee 
which gave direction, guidance, and supervision for party 
policies and party activities * * * in the nationality 
groups. * * * 

With the end of World War II, an increasing number of Americans 
began to perceive the real character of international communism. 
The espionage activities of Communist agents in America, together 
with the enslavement of free peoples abroad, brought a demand for 
legislation and prosecution of the Communist Party and its agents. 

Investigations by agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion, and hearings conducted by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities and other congressional committees, disclosed the identity 
of various Communist agents. 

Deportation and denaturalization proceedings were instituted 
against many of these Communist agents. Legislation was enacted 
to strengthen the laws dealing with Communist activities. As a 
consequence, the Communist Party of the United States has adopted 
as its first objective the destruction of the legislative and executive 
programs designed to thwart the Communist apparatus. To accom- 
plish this, the Communist Party created a "united-front" offensive, 
which John Lautner described as follows: 

A united front is a coalition around specific issues of various 
* * * groups that do not think basically alike, but on 
specific issues they will agree to coalesce and work together 
in order to achieve certain objectives laid down on the basis 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIVIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 3 

of specific objectives. This is what is known as a united- 
front approach, or a united-front activity. It does not neces- 
sarily rrean that if the Communist Party succeeds in drawing 
into united-front activities certain groups that these groups 
will agree with the fundamental aims or objectives or prin- 
ciples of the Communist Party. It only means that on a 
certain line of action these groups get together, whether they 
know the sponsorship of this line of action or not. 

The principal organizations used by the Communist Party in its 
united-lront effort were the Civil Rights Congress, the American 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, and the Communist 
dominated and controlled trade unions. 

As a member of the Nationality Groups Comir.ission of the Com- 
munist Party, John Lantner knev/ personally as members of the 
Communist Party the administrative leaders of the American Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born and the leaders of many of its 
branches. 

Lautner testified: 

As far as the protection of the foreign born as an organiza- 
tion is concerned, it was completely dominated and controlled 
b}' the Communist Party as one of its so-called transmission 
belts or bridge organizations. "N^lien the [-American Com- 
mittee for] Protection of the Foreign Born projects any line of 
action, united-front activities involving other groups around 
specific issues, that means the party initiates the particular 
action, and the [American Committee for] Protection of the 
Foreign Born was designated as an organization to carry out 
that activity- for the Commiunist Party. It may be that 
some of these groups that coalesce with the [American Com- 
mittee for] Protection of Foreign Born on specific issues do 
not know the source and the driving initiative that brought 
this coalition about or is attempting to bring this coalition 
about. It may be a valid action. IVevertheless, it is being 
led and directed by the Communist Part3^ 

To defeat proposed legislation, or to demand repeal of existing 
legislation, as well as to campaign against legal action taken against 
the Communist Party, the American Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born created additional organizations within itself. These 
organizations dem.anded defeat of anti-Communist legislation at the 
time of its consideration by the Congress and its repeal following en- 
actment. Principally, the ^American Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born has been active against the Smith Act, the Internal 
Security Act, and is currently devoting its major efforts to attacking 
the security provisions of the Tm.migration and Nationality Act. 

In Chicago, Steve Schemanske, who operated within the Communist 
Party for over 15 years until he was used as an undercover agent in 
the Smith Act trial in Detroit in 1953, testified about the Communist 
control exercised over the Michigan Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born. He said the Michigan Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born operated in partnership with the Michigan Civil Rights 
Congress. He identified Saul Grossman, executive secretary'' of the 
Michigan Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, as a member 
of the nationality committee of the Communist Party of Michigan, 



4 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

and quoted Grossman as advising the Communist Party that a 
portion of the funds raised by the Michigan Committee for Protec- 
tion of Foreign Born would be turned over to the Communist Party 
for the defense of Smith Act defendants. 

Schemanske also produced a report, delivered at the 1953 national 
conference of the Communist Party, which points up the united-front 
activity of the Communist Party. The directives set forth in this 
report to the 1953 conference of the Communist Party have been 
followed by the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 
and its branch organizations, as documented by evidence received 
during these hearings. 

The report states: 

While they concentrate primarily on the discriminatory 
immigration features of the act, and as yet accept the rigorous 
provisions directed against "subversives," against Com- 
munists, the struggle tends more and more to become a 
struggle aimed at the repeal of the Walter-McCarran Act and 
for the adoption of new legislation. This must be borne in 
mind. 

^ It is hard to understand why the progressive-led organiza- 
tions — the unions, national groups, and other organizations, 
including our party— have not thi'own themselves with full 
force into this struggle, giving support to the various move- 
ments that have arisen, helping them to more vigorously 
unfold the fight for the repeal of this Fascisthke legislation. 
This is an important phase of the fight against McCarthyism 
and McCarranism, and cannot be relegated to a second-rate 
position. 

It is our understanding that new legislation is being pre- 
pared to be introduced in Congi-ess to replace the Walter- 
McCarran Act. We should be on the alert for this, and 
actively engage in the discussion to support such legislation 
if it meets the requirements of the day, to introduce amend- 
ments, and to activate in this process the various broad 
movements that now exist. 

The Internal Security Act of 1950 and the Comm.unist Control Act 
of 1954 seek to control or regulate the activities of Communist-action 
and Communist-front organizations and empower the Attorney 
General of the United States to proceed against such groups. 

In order to circumvent the provisions of these acts, the legal com- 
mission of the Communist Party devised two measures: (1) The organ- 
izations changed their constitutions to eliminate so-called members 
(which was the term applied by the acts to describe participants in the 
organizations), and referred to them as "sponsors"; (2) the constitu- 
tions were also changed so as to grant ostensible autonomy to former 
State or local chapters of the parent organization. The local groups 
thereafter became known as cooperative bodies. The second of these 
changes was by far the most im.portant, because any action taken by 
the Attorney General of the United States would only affect a small 
section of the entire propaganda organization. 

Considerable evidence was presented to the committee showing the 
financial success of "protection of foreign born" and similar inter- 
locking organizations. This evidence indicates that since World War 
II millions of dollars have been raised to carry on this Communist 



ANNUAL REPORT, CO^IMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 5 

directed and controlled attack upon legislation intended to protect 
the security of the United States. 

The evidence during these hearings disclosed the control exercised 
over these organizations by the Communist Party. In California, 
there was created the Los Angeles Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Born. Its executive secretary is Rose Chernin Kusnitz, who was 
convicted under the Smith Act. When she appeared before the com- 
mittee on December 8, 1956, she was still executive secretary of the 
Los Angeles Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, and received 
her total income through this organization, even though more than 
2 years had elapsed since her conviction for advocating the overthrow 
of the United States Government by force and violence. 

Ruth Heit, executive secretary of the Midwest Committee for Pro- 
tection of Foreign Born, moved to Chicago from New York toward 
the end of 1955, where she had been employed by the International 
Workers Order, the Civil Rights Congress, and as administrative 
secretary of the New York Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 
As soon as she arrived in Chicago, she became administrative secretary 
of the midwest committee. When the then executive secretary, 
Nathan Caldwell (who also appeared before the committee and 
refused to answer questions relating to Communist activity), was 
publicly exposed 'as a Communist Party member, Ruth Heit suc- 
ceeded him without any action, or at least without knowledge of the 
then chairman of the committee. 

Thousands of documents establish the interlocking relationship 
of State and local protection of foreign born organizations and the 
American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born and the Com- 
munist Party. 

COAIMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Public hearings in Washington, D. C, Philadelphia, and San 
Francisco brought to light various aspects of a mammoth international 
Communist propaganda operation flooding the United States with 
tons of literature from behind the Iron Curtain. The hearings cen- 
tered on the testimony of Irving Fishman, of the United States Bureau 
of Customs and director of a special project on the control of political 
propaganda. The publications come from Russia, Poland, East 
Germany, Hungar\', Czechoslovakia, and Red China. 

One part of this operation is a concerted campaign to lure refugees 
and defectors back to the slave-camp homelands from which they 
fled. 

Mr. Fishman declared that this campaign apparently originated in 
Czechoslovakia and East Germany, and then "spread so that [the 
material] is now sent here in almost all languages * * *" — 

It attempts to induce former nationals of the satelUte 
countries, as well as displaced persons and immigrants from 
other Slavic nations, to return to their homeland. This pro- 
gram has been on the increase. Current weekly and month- 
ly publications contain editorials, articles, and letters from 
individuals in the Soviet Union and other bloc countries 
directed to people residing in the United States suggesting 
that they return to their native land * * * 

We have considered such material as political propaganda, 
as that term is defined in section 1 (j ) of the Foreign" Agents 

H. Eept. 53, 85-1 3 



6 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AAIERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Registration Act, and that the sending thereof, unsoUcited, 
into the United States for dissemination was in violation of 
that act. To point up the growth of this program we might 
mention that our records show that we detained approxi- 
mately 18,000 individually addressed items in April and 
early May of this year in New York City alone, and that 
we now have under examination about 10,000 articles re- 
ceived in late May and early June. 

Mr. Fishman reported further that^ — 

In 1955, through the port of^New York we had for exam- 
ination, 1,917,000 packages of mail suspected of containing 
poHtical propaganda. At the port of San Francisco we 
examined approximately 406,000, and in Chicago, about 
238,000. That is a combination, all told, of about 2.5 million 
parcels containing printed materials suspected of containing 
political propaganda. * * * 

We would say about 2 million packages, and possibly, judg- 
ing by our figures here, somewhere around 5 million pieces of 
printed matter. 

Most of the refugees who receive this literature are indignant 
because they have already repudiated the terror governments of the 
countries from which they have fled. Beyond this, many of them are 
acutely disturbed to find that the Communist apparatus has been able 
to learn of their new address and in some cases their new identity in 
the United States. They have registered protests with postal and 
customs officials in an attempt to cut off any fm'ther receipt of such 
material. It is important that refugees who contemplate returning 
to their homelands even on a visit realize that, once in the Iron 
Curtain countries, they no longer enjoy the protection of the American 
law and have no recourse against any fate which may await them there. 
The State Department recently warned, for example, that Poland does 
not recognize the American citizenship of any Polish nationals who 
have become naturalized United States citizens. 

Supplementing Mr. Fishman's testimony in Washington, United 
States postal ofiicials Leo G. Knoll and Said J. Mindel reported that 
the Post Office Department has seized more than 7,500 "return to the 
homeland" publications addressed to people throughout the United 
States. The propaganda campaign has two primary purposes. 
First, to create dissension and dissatisfaction among the refugees 
about conditions in the United States and develop in them a sympathy 
for the Communist program. Second, to lure these refugees back to 
their native lands where they can be indoctrinated for espionage and 
subversive purposes. The uniform nature of the propaganda publi- 
cations proves that the campaign is being conducted in a highly 
integrated fashion by the international Communist apparatus. It 
was learned that the Committee for the Return to the Homeland is 
responsible for much of the propaganda of this type which reaches 
these shores from abroad. In an attempt to escape detection, material 
sent here from various foreign sources often arrives as ordinary cor- 
respondence under first-class mail. Many who receive such propa- 
ganda object to its receipt and send it with their protests to the Post 
Ofiice Department. Publications intercepted by the Post Office 
Department bear such titles as "For Return to the Homeland," 



AKmjAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 7 

"Your Relatives Are Looking for You," "Your Countr^^'s Calling 
You," and "The Voice of Homeland," and are printed in various 
foreign languages. The committee made a part of its record the 
translation of a number of articles which promised free transportation, 
food, clothing, good living quarters, and fine jobs to those who will 
return to their native countries. Mr. Knoll testified further that the 
propaganda even promised — • 

that amnesty Avill be granted repatriated citizens of the Soviet- 
bloc countries who, in the past, allegedly committed crimes 
against their countries by serving in the intelligence, police 
force, or similar organizations during the Nazi regime, pro- 
vided that they are genuinely sorry for such actions and 
desire to redeem themselves through honest work for their 
homeland. 

Describing the recipients of this propaganda, Mr. Fishnian stated: 

A good portion of this is addressed to registered agents, or 
agents registered with the Department of Justice, who may 
legally import this information for dissemination. Much of 
it, however, is addressed unsolicited as is most of this home- 
land material to people whose names were picked out of tele- 
phone directories, and organization directories, and so on. 

In the second phase of these hearings, in Philadelphia on July 17, 
1956, Mr. Fishman took up the question of the general legislation 
applicable to this type of material: 

Actually we recognized a number of years ago when the 
flow of this political propaganda, Communist propaganda, 
commenced to assume some real shape, that there was no 
Federal legislation, no statutes which directly prohibited the 
miportation of this t^^pe of material. So after a study of the 
entire problem with the Post OflBce and Justice Departments, 
we found that it was possible to ban most of this material or 
a good part of this material by using the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act. 

Committee counsel addressed the following question to Mr. 
Fishman : 

Mr. Fishman, under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, 
is there any limitation on the quantity of Communist pro- 
paganda from abroad which may be shipped into the United 
States provided it is destined to a registered agent of a 
foreign power? 

Mr. Fishman replied : 

There is no limit. They can bring in tons of it. There 
is cnly one requirement, and that is that when this regis- 
tered agent in turn disseminates the information, that he 
label it so that recipients be made aware of its source. 

In discussing the amount of Communist political propaganda 
coming into the State of Pennsylvania, Mr. Fishman declared: 

We maintain our statistics on the basis of port arrival. 
In other words, we know what we get at New York, Chicago, 



8 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

and San Francisco, and we can tell you what we have, for 
example, for the month of May in these areas. So far as 
Pennsylvania is concerned, with the cooperation of the Post 
Office Department some time ago we selected a 4-week arrival 
consisting of 830 sacks of mail at the port of New York and 
broke it down statewide. We were interested at that time 
in determining how many control units to establish through- 
out the country. We found that the State of Pennsylvania 
ranked fourth in the receipt of this type of material, New 
York ranked first. The State of Pennsylvania had the 
fourth largest amount of political propaganda addressed to 
recipients in the State. * * * 

Using the figm-es at New York, there were 16,000 packages 
of mail of this type of propaganda material destined for 
Pennsylvania through New York. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time? One month? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Dming the 4-week period. I think we 
could double that or a little higher, possibly somewhere 
around 32,000 parcels of mail. 

Mr. Arens. How many individual items would be in a 
parcel? 

Mr. FisHMAN. From maintaining statistics we consider the 
average package contains between 4 to 6. We get higher 
runs. Some of them contain a dozen individual publications. 

Mr. Arens. That would mean, would it not, Mr. Fishman, 
over 100,000 items of foreign Communist political propa- 
ganda are hitting Pennsylvania every month? 

Mr. Fishman. Every month. 

Mr. Velde. May I ask, since New York was first and 
Pennsylvania was fom-th, are California and Illinois second 
and third? 

Mr. Fishman. Illinois is second and, surprisingly, New 
Jersey is third. This was during this test run. Of course, 
the situation has changed somewhat. Additional countries 
have been added to the Communist bloc. I think California 
runs very high because of the Chinese material which hits 
our San Francisco control unit. 

The committee summoned two individuals who it learned were 
receiving considerable foreign propaganda under second-class priv- 
ilege, and who it was believed were acting as redistribution points 
for this material in the Philadelphia area. The first witness, Werner 
Marx, a naturalized citizen born in Frankfurt, Germany, invoked the 
fifth amendment in response to questions concerning Communist 
Party membership and activities. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm 
or deny the fact, that since you have been a resident of 
Philadelphia, without being registered as a foreign agent 

Eursuant to the Foreign Agents Registration Act, you have 
een receiving foreign Comxmunist political propaganda and 
been a nerve center for the dissemination of that political 
propaganda in this community. If that isn't so, you deny 
it under oath. Have you received Communist foreign po- 
litical propaganda? 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 9 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that on the grounds formerly 
stated. 

The second witness, Max Lowenfels, convicted under the Smith 
Act in June 1955 for conspiring to teach and advocate the violent 
overthrow of the United States Government, invoked the fifth amend- 
ment and refused to say whether he had been engaged in disseminat- 
ing Communist propaganda in the Philadelphia area. He also refused 
to identify his own signature on two applications for a post-office box 
for the Pennsylvania Worker and the Daily Worker. 

In San Francisco on December 10 ancl 11, 1956, the committee 
heard additional testimony as to the amount and variety of foreign 
Communist political propaganda coming into that area. The com- 
mittee had previously been advised that San Francisco was 1 of the 
3 ports of entr}^ designated by the United States Customs as reviewing 
points for material of this type coming into the United States. 

Commenting on the class and type of material entering the port of 
San Francisco, Mr. Fishman stated: 

The unit in this port is a ver}^ active one and concerns itself 
pretty much with material which is intended for dissemina- 
tion here in, this area. Dming the past 3 months, for ex- 
ample, August, September, and October, rather, there was a 
total of 156,575 packages of (mail) * * * 490,330 pieces of 
individual printed matter were contained in these packages. 

In regard to the total volume of propaganda coming into the United 
States, Mr. Fishman told the committee: 

We attempt to control it all by diverting it through the ex- 
change post offices at the three places I mentioned. But 
much of this material will get into the mails, the city mails, 
and be distributed vnthout our control. We don't know 
exactly how much of it there is, but observations are that 
there are quantities of it which do get into channels of com- 
merce, 

Dm-ing the committee's investigation in the San Francisco Bay 
area, four examples of this propaganda were purchased by the staff at 
a local bookstore. None of this material bore the label as required 
under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. One of the owners of the 
bookstore was subpenaed to appear at the hearings. She was ques- 
tioned about the dissemination of this type of Communist propaganda 
in the area and invoked the fifth amendment on this subject and on her 
alleged long ancl active association with the Communist Party itself. 

Another witness in San Francisco was John C. Caldwell, an expert 
on China and southeast Asia. Mr. Caldwell, who had just returned 
from an extensive tour of the Far East, told the committee: 

During the past year particularly there has been a tremen- 
dously increased Communist propaganda campaign directed 
toward specific groups and specific nations. And the general 
tenor of this campaign is a desire to create a spirit of neu- 
trality among the countries of southeast Asia to stop criticism 
of China and to gain acceptance for Red China's hope for 
U. N. membership. 



10 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

One of the most significant illustrations of these methods, Mr. 
Caldwell said, can be found in the case of Cambodia — 

Cambodia is a small nation of 4^ million people. That will 
serve to illustrate, I think, the methods used and the inten- 
sity of the campaign. 

There are 250,000 Chinese in Cambodia, and, even though 
that is less than 10 percent of the population, those Chinese 
control business, they control banks and the best newspapers. 
Those Chinese have a total of 160 schools. They have within 
the last year become heavily infiltrated with Communist 
teachers. So that it is the estimate today that over two- 
thirds of the teaching staffs of those schools are either actual 
party members or are sent by the party. 

An illustration of the success is the fact that this past year 
300 Chinese students went from Cambodia to study in Red 
China while only 34 went to free China on Formosa, a ratio of 
about 10 to 1. 

Within the past j^ear — and most of these things I speak of 
have happened in 12 months or less — 4 or 5 Chinese news- 
papers have become either neutralist or actually pro-Red. 
They have been bought either by outright bribes to the 
editors or with gifts of newsprint, which is another common 
form of bribery the Reds are using. 

In publications, within the past year and mostly within the 
past 3 months, 40 new bookstores have been opened in 
Cambodia. Now, of these 40, 39 are Communist bookstores, 
and 1 is anti-Communist * * *. 

Finally, in Cambodia the Reds have offered a $22 million 
economic aid program that is very sunilar to what we do 
through ICA. 

So you see there the four methods: Education, newspapers, 
publications, and economic penetration. 

Mr. Caldwell concluded his survey with a number of recom^ro.enda- 
tions on ways of combating the increase of Communist mfluence in 
the Far East: 

During this past year, particularly the past few months 
while attention of our country and most of the world has 
largely been focused on the Middle East, the Communists are 
making tremendous headways in southeast Asia, and that 
we are doing relatively little to combat it. 

Now it is a very rich area: 160 million people; 90 percent 
of the world's rubber production, natural rubber; a third of 
the world's tin; and particularly important to Chma is the 
rice surplus of southeast Asia. 

Most of the progress that they have made actually you 
can pinpoint it to within the last 6 months. 

I would just like to tell you in conclusion what they have 
been able to do in Hong Kong, which is a British city with 
a large British garrison, a place visited by many Americans. 

There are in that city 10 major newspapers. A year ago 2 
of those newspapers were Communist; 2 or 3 you could con- 
sider neutralist. In other words, they neither criticized Red 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 11 

China nor America. And the rest were stanchly anti- 
Communist 

Now, as of the middle of November, the newspaper lineup 
in less than a year actually of that city runs like this: Com- 
munist now, 4 papers with a total circulation of 148,000; 
neutralist, 4 papers with a total circulation of 145,000; and 
only 3 papers out of 10 remain anti-Communist with a total 
circulation of 50,000 

Now that means, as I pointed out before, that the people 
are beginning to live in a vacuum. The}" cannot know the 
truth of what happens, for instance in Hungary. They 
cannot know the truth of what is happening in this country. 

I think there are things we can do to counteract it. We 
must do more in publications. Not in English but in native 
languages. 

We certain!}" can produce documentar}* motion pictm-es. 

We must make the Chinese of the area realize there is 
another China that they can look to, the China that is our 
ally, and that, of course, is Free China. 

A number of uncooperative witnesses appeared before the com- 
mittee. Most important of these was Dr. Holland DeWitte Roberts, 
president of the American Russian Institute in San Francisco, and 
the director of the California Labor School. Although identified in 
public session by sworn testimony as a Communist and although con- 
fronted with documentary evidence of his Communist Party propa- 
ganda activities, Dr. Roberts refused to answer questions dealing with 
his identification with the American Russian Institute and the Cali- 
fornia Labor School and with his activities on behalf of the Communist 
Party in the San Francisco Bay area. 

THE COMMUNIST PASSPORT CONSPIRACY 

From the time the Communist Party in the United States was 
organized nearly four decades ago, American passports have been used 
by the Communist conspiracy as a key means of moving subversive 
agents and spies in and out of the United States and other countries 
of the free world. 

Over the years, the commmittee examined hundreds of fraudulent 
American passport applications. These applications showed use of 
false natiu-alization and false birth certificates for the purpose of 
obtaining LTnited States passports. A number of Communist func- 
tionaries, including Earl Browder, were successfully prosecuted for 
having used false documents to obtain passports. 

Cmrent investigations by the committee have aided in determining 
the methods emplo3"ed by Communists and then- sympathizers in 
obtaining American passports and in revealing the necessity for 
remedial legislation. 

While the issuance of passports to members of the Communist Party 
is prohibited by the Internal Security Act of 1950, the committee 
realizes that the situation has been complicated by recent seciu-ity 
precautions of the Communist Party. The party, for example, has 
discontinued the issuance of membership cards, and in instances has 
discom-aged actual membership for certain strategically placed 
followers. 



12 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The committee is aware that a considerable number of American 
citizens have used passports in recent years to participate in the 
activities of international Communist propaganda organizations. 
These organizations, through international conferences and other 
propaganda activities, have sought to discredit the United States 
abroad and to disarm the free world in its struggle against Soviet 
imperialism. Among the most blatant of these international Com- 
munist organizations are the World Peace Council and the World 
Federation of Democratic Youth, which have local affiliates in the 
major countries of the world and which regularly hold highly publi- 
cized conferences or festivals for the purpose of denouncing the United 
States and building up support for the Soviet Union. American 
Communists and Americans under Communist discipline attending 
these sessions endorse the infamous propaganda issued by these 
organizations. The uses to which these people are willing to lend 
themselves were strikingly illustrated at the Peace Conference of the 
Asian and Pacific Regions held in Communist China in 1952. There, 
Americans appeared before Communist representatives from every 
country of the world and accused American forces in Korea of waging 
bacteriological warfare and committing other crimes against humanity. 

Committee hearings which opened in May of 1956 were designed to 
discover (1) how American citizens, participating in conferences of 
the nature described above, obtained their United States passports, 
(2) whether or not the administrative authority under which the Secre- 
tary of State issued or denied passports was adequate, and (3) to what 
extent individuals about whom the committee possessed derogatory 
security information, were obtaining passports through concealment 
of Communist affiliation. 

During the hearings it was made clear that, both by regulations of 
the Department of State and as defined by international law, an 
American passport is a document of identity and nationahty issued 
to persons owing allegiance to the United States and intending to 
travel or sojourn in foreign countries. The document, on its face, 
assures the bearer of the protection and good offices of American 
diplomatic and consular officers abroad. Furthermore, officials of 
foreign governments are requested to permit the passport bearer to 
travel or sojourn in their territory and, in case of need, to give the 
holder of a United States passport all lawful aid and protection. 

Determining that a passport is a political document and recognizing 
its importance in the conduct of relations with other governments. 
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, on March 31, 1938, issued an 
Executive order which read as follows: 

The Secretary of State is authorized, in his discretion, to 
refuse to issue a passport, to restrict a passport for use only in 
certain countries, to restrict it against use in certain countries, 
to withdraw or cancel a passport already issued, and to with- 
draw a passport for the purpose of restricting its validity for 
use in certain countries. 

On August 28, 1952, the then Secretary of State Dean Acheson 
issued a supplement to this regulation which authorized the denial 
of a United States passport to persons affiliated with the Communist 
Party and, in addition thereto — 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 13 

persons, regardless of the formal state of their affiliations 
with the Communist Party, as to whom there is reason lo 
believe, on the balance of all evidence, that they are going 
abroad to engage in activities which will advance the Com- 
munist movement for the purpose, knowingly and willfully, of 
advancing that movement. 

Since the issuance of these executive regulations, the Secretary of 
State has exercised his authority to deny passports on the basis of 
evidence available to hmi. To offset these restrictions, the Com- 
munist Party instituted a broad campaign aimed at forcing the 
Secretary of State to repeal, or at least modify, the regulations. It 
created an organization wliich it named American Committee to 
Survey Trade Union Conditions in Europe. This organization 
served the dual purpose of (1) arranging travel into Irori Cm'tain 
countries, including Russia, of Communist propagandists, and 
(2) attackmg the passport regulations of the Secretary of State. 

William A. Wallace, a former Communist, who had fiirnished 
information to the Federal Bureau of Investigation during his mem- 
bership in the Communist Party, testified about his travel to Russia 
and the attack upon the passport regulations by the American Com- 
mittee to Sm-ve}^ Trade Union Conditions in Em-ope. After identify- 
ing the Communist Party leadership of this organization, he told of a 
meeting which it had called in Chicago in May 1952: 

Well, at Chicago, we met at the Midland Hotel, some 
time the first part of May in 1952, and we discussed the 
denial of passports to individuals in this country, what 
steps to take, to take guaranties that this denial wouldn't 
continue, that people would receive their passports; also 
spoke about how much money had been spent on sending 
delegations to Europe. I think it was something Uke I 
think about 20,000 bucks, somewhere around there, that 
Charhe Velson mentioned that we had spent, that this com- 
mittee had spent in sending delegations to Europe. 

We were going to continue doing this if we could get 
passports. Therefore, we had to raise a huUabaloo about 
this passport situation by publicizing it in leaflets, by 
publicizmg it in whatever press we could, by bringing it 
before the communities; also said that in order to continue 
this work we would have to set up a committee to carry on 
this work, out of the Chicago area, that we should send a 
delegation to the State Department, protesting the fact 
that passports were being denied certain individuals and that 
we do everything in our power to raise such a hullabaloo 
that the Passport Office of the State Department would be 
so embarrassed that they would then stop denial of passports 
to certain individuals. 

During hearings held in May and June, 1956, the committee called 
before it some 20 witnesses, all of whom had traveled abroad since 
World War II. Many had participated in conferences called by 
international Communist-controUed organizations in the roles of 
ofiicials, delegates, or observers. Witnesses were directed to pro- 
duce the United States passports under which they traveled abroad. 

H. Kept. 53, 85-1 i 



14 ANNUAL RPJPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Some passports which had been reclaimed by the Department of State 
were subpenaed for analysis by the committee. 

A review of the passports showed clearly that when an American 
servitor of international communism traveled into an Iron Curtain 
country on a mission to promote international communism, the Com- 
munist countries did not affix entry and exit visas. Instead, these 
agents were given a slip of paper which was stamped with the entrance 
or exit permit. When these individuals left the Iron Curtain country, 
the separate slip was removed from their possession and proof of their 
travels within that country disappeared. A review of the passports 
obtained by the committee through subpena showed that in 1 or 2 
instances, the visa stamp of an Iron Curtain country had been affixed 
to the passport through some error, and was subsequently eradicated. 
The deceit was subject to discovery, however, because the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation recreated the visa stamp by means of a tech- 
nical chemical process. 

This deceit was not initiated abroad. It started in the United States 
when the individual applied for his United States passport. For 
example, Henry Willcox, a prosperous builder and president of the 
Willcox Construction Co. of Long Island City, N. Y., applied for a 
passport in 1952, advising the Secretary of State that he intended to 
visit France and Turkey for the purpose of negotiating a building 
contract. Before the committee, Mr. Willcox testified that he never 
went to Turkey because upon arrival in France he found out that the 
Turkish Government was not interested in the contract. He said he 
went to Peking, China, instead, for the purpose of attending the 
Asian and Pacific Peace Conference. Asked why he had not stated 
in his passport application that he proposed to attend the Peking 
conference, Mr, Willcox replied: "I am sure that if I put that down, 
the passport would have been refused." In the official report of pro- 
ceedings, WiUcox was named as an official of the conference. As such, 
he approved and supported the condemnations of America voiced by 
his fellow delegates. 

Louis Wheaton was identified by the conference proceedings as 
deputy secretary general of the Peace Liaison Committee of the 
Asian and Pacific Regions. Following is a portion of a speech made 
by Louis Wheaton, as reported in an English-language broadcast from 
Peking, China, on October 31, 1952: 

It is time that a few things be said to us, the people of the 
United States. The firsthand accounts of the conduct of 
our troops abroad are shocking. American troop's vicious | 

and cruninal behavior is absolutely horrible. These accounts 
were given by newspaper correspondents of many lands as 
well as by the Korean peace delegation to the conference. 
The people of Asia and the Pacific region are convinced that 
these accounts are true. 

Just one of these instances is enough to show the ruthless 
and inhuman behavior of our forces. In one village in Korea 
more than 300 children were put into one warehouse and 
theh mothers into another neai'by. Gasoline was poured 
around the warehouse where the children were and set fire. 
The mothers, hearing the screams of their childi"en, broke 
down the door and windows. As they were trying to save 



ANNUAL REPORT, CORIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 15 

theii- cliildrcn, these mothers were machine-gunned by oiir 
troops. * * * 

Henry WiUcox not only endorsed these statements while they were 
being made before the Communist-called Peace Conference of the 
Asian and Pacific Regions; but upon his return to the United States, 
he also released to the press a statement by another American delegate, 
Hugh Hardyman, of California, charging that American forces in 
Korea had engaged in bacteriological warfare against the women and 
children of North Korea and China. 

This same Henry Willcox and his wife, Anita, are cm-rently appli- 
cants for United States passports. The Secretar}^ of State refused 
them new United States passports, and they have instituted judicial 
proceedings to compel the issuance of passports. 

Hugh Hardyman, who appeared before the committee m California, 
had also deceived the State Department in applying for a passport 
to attend the Asian and Pacific Peace Conference. He advised the 
State Department merely that he desired to go to Australia. Actually, 
he traveled from California to Red China via New York and France — 
tlu'ee-quarters of tlie way around the world. Wliile Hard3mian had 
enough mone^'" to finance his own trip, other Californians attending 
the Asian and Pacific Peace Conference, and a subsequent conference 
held in Vienna, Austria, had their transportation paid by Communist- 
front peace organizations in California. All of the California delegates 
traveled to Red China via New York and Paris. 

Dm-ing the hearings, the committee also heard testimony b}^ 
youths who had attended a World Youth Festival held in Warsaw, 
Poland, in 1955. From a witness, Joseph Scislowicz of Minneapolis, 
Minn., the committee learned that the American delegates to this 
festival were known in Poland imder aliases. 

Several of those named by Scislowicz as participants in the festival 
were subpenaed before the committee dm-ing these hearings. All had 
concealed the pm-pose of their travel in theu* passport applications; 
all were discovered b}'' investigations conducted by the committee to 
have been affiliated with the Commimist Party; and all refused to 
answer committee questions relative to their applications for pass- 
ports, their travel abroad, and their conduct at the festival. 

These hearings provide proof that the individuals who took part 
in the so-called conferences for peace or for youth, were knowingly or 
unknowingly, an integi-al part of the international Communist move- 
ment. The youth festivals were promoted by the international or- 
ganization known as the World Federation of Democratic Youth, 
The Asian and Pacific Peace Conference and other conferences along 
alleged peace lines, which were the subject of these hearings, were 
under the control of the World Peace Council. The World Peace 
Council and the World Federation of Democratic Youth are com- 
prised of delegates from all countries of the world but they are domi- 
nated by the delegates from Soviet-bloc countries, with the support 
of Communist delegates from non-Communist countries. The pur- 
pose of the organizations is to propagandize in behalf of the foreign 
policy of the Soviet Union and against the foreign policy of every free 
country in the world. Without exception, delegates to the peace con- 
ferences unanimously supported all resolutions proposed by the Com- 
munist leaders at the conferences. A review of the proceedings of 



16 ANNUAL REPORT, COJMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

these conferences shows that Communist delegates from non-Com- 
munist countries attacked their governments and the governments of 
the other free countries of the world, but never once have delegates 
from Soviet-bloc countries condemned their own governments; nor, 
significantly, did the free-world delegates ever condemn the long 
record of Soviet aggrandizement and inhumanity. 

COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF GOVERNMENT 

Further ramifications of Communist infiltration of the United States 
Government were uncovered in a significant series of hearings in 
Washington early in 1956. 

The committee learned of the identity of four more agencies of the 
Federal Government which harbored Communist Party cells — the 
Railroad Retirement and the Social Security Boards, the Rural 
Electrification Administration, and the Department of Labor. The 
new information received by the committee corroborated the testi- 
mony of Herbert Fuchs who in previous appearances had bared 
the existence of at least 10 heretofore undisclosed Communist 
Party cells organized within various Government agencies during the 
1940's. Much of the corroboration was obtained from James E. 
Gorham, who had been employed by the Federal Government from 
1934 until 1955, with the exception of 5-month periods in 1938 and 
1947. 

Mr. Gorham afforded the committee invaluable information 
dealing with the extent and success of Communist Party infiltration 
of Government service at a time when it was a major target of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Gorham testified that he first joined the Communist Party in 
1934 in New York City while employed by the Office of the Federal 
Coordinator of Transportation of the Federal Emergency Rehef 
Administration. Before he was transferred to Washington, the 
committee learned three important Communist Party functionaries 
from Washington, D. C. — Henry Rhine, Albert Blumberg, and Eleanor 
Nelson^ — visited him in New York. They informed Gorham and 
other Communists in New York who were about to be transferred to 
Government jobs in Washington, about the organizational structure 
and operation of the party element in the Federal service. He was 
told that under no circumstances would he be known as a Communist 
to anyone other than to his fellow Communist Party members and 
that he would hold no party membership card as long as he was a 
Communist and employed by the United States Government. 

Gorham testified that during the period from 1934 to 1942 he was a 
member of a Communist Party unit in several Government agencies. 
The first group to which he belonged was a fraction within the Federal 
Emergency Relief Administration in New York. He was recruited, 
he stated, by one Louis Lehrman. Upon his transfer to Washington, 
he was assigned to the Communist group comprised for the most part 
of employees of the National Recovery Administration. This assign- 
ment was arranged by Henry Rhine, who was then employed at NRA. 

Gorham was next assigned to a party group composed of employees 
of the Works Progress Administration. This transfer was effected by 
Edna Richter, then an employee of the WPA. The next Communist 
Party unit to which Gorham belonged was a new one composed of 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON XJN-AJMERICAN ACTIVITIES ] 7 

Gorham, Fiiclis, and Samuel Koenigsberg, all staff employees of the 
Senate Subcommittee to Investigate Railroads, Holding Companies, 
and Related Matters, the so-called Wheeler committee. Gorham 
related that the Communist group within the V^T^ieeler committee 
later added to its membership employees from the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission and, at another time, "2 men and 1 or 2 women" 
in a merger of a Library of Congress Communist cell with the Wheeler 
committee cell. 

Air. Gorham finally was assigned to a cell composed of employees of 
the Securities and Exchange Commission, headed at that time by one 
"Mike" Naigles, an emploj^ee of the SEC. Gorham related that in 
1935 he was suspended by the Communist Party for several months 
for too strenuous opposition to the totalitarian tactics of the party. 
He was later reinstated. 

Regarding his final break with the Communist Party in 1942, 
Gorham stated: 

Now, I found, however, as I think anj^ thinking man must 
have found, it very hard to understand the gjrations of the 
Communist Party from 1939 through 1942 unless the party 
could be regarded as simply a form of front organization for 
the Russian party, which was in a sense what it really oper- 
ated as. In other words, it was perfectly obvious in the 
rather clumsy attempts to change and to rationalize the 
change in position as the world situation changed, that the 
American Communist Party did not have a policy of its 
own. I personally became disappointed and quite dis- 
gusted vnth the explanations given me, and made up my 
mind to leave when the opportunity came to leave and I 
did so * * *. 

The committee subpenaed for appearance in Washington 31 indi- 
viduals who had been identified by Mr. Fuchs and Mr. Gorham as 
active Communist Party members during the time the}^ were employed 
by the Federal Government. Of these 31 individuals, 11 were still in 
Government service at the time the first Government employees' 
loyalty program was inaugurated in 1947. Five of these individuals 
retained their jobs even after 1950. When called upon by the com- 
mittee to answer questions regarding their participation in the Com- 
munist conspu-acy, 30 of the 31 claimed the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

One of the witnesses heard during these hearings was one Helen 
Roark Hill, formerly Helen Roark Him^melfarb, who was emplo3^ed 
by the National Labor Relations Board in Washington, D. C. until 
April 27, 1954. Prior to this date, Mrs. Hill received two loyalty 
hearings during which she had continuously and emphatically denied, 
under oath, that she was, or had ever been, a member of the Communist 
Party. The committee ascertained that Mrs. Hill resigned her 
Government position before a final determination was made of her 
loyalty investigation which was reopened in 1953. 

After her case came to the attention of the committee, Mrs. Hill was 
subpenaed to appear in an executive session on May 14, 1954. At 
that time, she again denied under oath that she was, or ever had been, 
a member of the Communist Party. In addition she gave the com- 
mittee a complete transcript of her hearings before the loyalty boards, 



18 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

replete with her denials of Communist Party activity or membership. 
There the matter rested until Herbert Fuchs began to cooperate with 
the committee and stated that he had known Mrs. Hill as a member 
of the Communist Party while they were both employed at the 
National Labor Relations Board in Washington, D. C. 

On July 28, 1955, Mrs. Hill was recalled before the committee in 
executive session. Again she was asked about Communist Party 
membership and activities at which time she claimed her privilege 
under the fifth amendment, refusing to answer any and all questions 
dealing with this subject. 

Mrs. Hill was then called for a public hearing on February 28, 1956, 
at which time she claimed her privilege under the fifth amendment in 
response to practically all questions put to her by the committee, even 
including her previous appearances before the committee and whether 
or not she had ever held various jobs within the Federal Government. 
As in the precodmg executive hearing, she refused to answer any 
questions dealing with Communist Part}^ membership or activity. 

In 1955, the committee reported that for the first time a witness 
had agreed to answer any and all questions if the committee secured 
for him a grant of immunit}'- from prosecution under provisions of 
Public Law 600, 83d Congress. (Briefly, this law provides that in 
the event the committee authorizes that a witness be granted immunity 
and the court enters an order requiring the witness to testify, nothing 
that the person is compelled to state while so testifying may be used 
in any criminal proceeding against him.) The witness referred to 
above was Ellis Olim. Upon being recalled before the committee on 
June 20, 1956, Mr. Olmi stated that he had misunderstood the com- 
mittee's offer of immunity. He refused to cooperate with the com- 
mittee and invoked the fifth amendment when questioned about 
Communist Party membership and activities. 

Three of the witnesses heard during the course of the 1956 hearings 
refused to tell the committee whether or not, while employed by the 
Federal Government, they had transmitted any information or 
material which came into their possession as a result of their Gov- 
ernment position, to any persons or entities not authorized by law 
to receive it. 

The existence of at least two Communist Party cells in the regional 
office of the National War Labor Board in Denver, Colo., during the 
years 194.3-45 was reported by the committee in 1955 as a result of 
testimony of Mr. Fuchs. On May 15, 1956, in Denver, Colo., the 
committee received testimony of one Norman Pixler. Mr. Pixler tes- 
tified that he had been an employee of the War Labor Board in Denver 
during the years 1943-45, and that he had been solicited for member- 
ship in a Communist Party cell witliin that agency. He informed the 
committee that the individual most persistent in the attempt to recruit 
him into the party was Philip Reno. Reno has been identified to the 
committee by at least two witnesses as having been a member of the 
Communist Party while employed by the Federal Government in 
Washington, D. C., and Denver, Colo. Mr. Pixler testified further 
that Philip Reno was the person responsible for securing employment 
at the War Labor Board in Denver for at least five individuals known 
by Reno to have been members of the Communist Party 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 19 

Reno appeared before the committee in Denver. He refused to 
answer questions regarding the employment of persons named by Mr. 
PLxler. Committee counsel then declared: 

I put it to 3^ou as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact, that part of 3'our responsibilitj^ in the Communist con- 
spiracy" was to introduce into the Federal Government per- 
sons known by you to be members of that conspiracy. 
"I decline to answer that on the grounds given," Reno replied. 

During the hearings conducted in Washington and Denver, four 
of the individuals identified as Communists denied under oath that 
they had been members of the Communist Party or that they had 
participated in Communist activities. These four cases, together 
with all testimony and evidence in the possession of the committee 
bearing thereon, have been forwarded to the Department of Justice 
for consideration in connection with possible perjury proceedings. 

INTERNATIONAL COALMUNISM 

To obtain an acciu-ate view of tlie cmTent developments of inter- 
national Communist strategy and tactics, the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, during the summer of 1956, inaugurated a series 
of projects, comprising hearings and statements by a number of 
experts, on the Soviet program of conquest as it operates today in the 
various nations of Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

Chairman Francis E. Walter declared at the opening of the committee 
hearings — 

It is abundantly clear from the evidence received bj^ this 
committee and other organs of the United States Govern- 
ment — that the Commmiist conspiracy in the United States 
is but one [aspect of the global conspiracy directed by the 
Ki'emlin. 

Bej^ond this, it is equally clear that the activities and the 
objectives of the Communist Part}'' of the United States are 
almost invariabh'" foreshadowed by prior developments in 
Russia and various key countries abroad. One of the most 
compelling examples of this was the famous letter b}^ the 
French Communist leader, Duclos, which resulted in the ex- 
pulsion of Earl Browder as head of the American Communist 
Party. 

In order to determine the nature of communism in the 
United States, it is essential, therefore, that we keep fully 
acquainted with the strateg}'' and tactics of International 
Communism, 

The first witness to appear before the committee, on September 10 
and 11, 1956, was Ernst Tillich, leader of the Fighting Group Against 
Inhumanity, one of the most effective resistance organizations func- 
tioning behind the Iron Ciu-tain. From, its headquarters in West 
Berlin, Mr. Tillich and the Fighting Group conduct a ceaseless war 
against the Soviet police state whose borders begin only a few blocks 
away and stretch all the way to the Pacific Ocean. 



20 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The information which Mr. Tillich provided on the motives and 
purposes of current Soviet policy takes on particular significance in 
the following summary statement: "A half million combat-ready 
Soviet and East German Communist and Red army troops, poised 
on the border of Western Germany," he declared, "give the lie today 
to Soviet avowals of 'peaceful coexistence.' " 

He continued — 

Indeed, in the current strategy of the Kremlin, "peaceful 
coexistence" emerges only as another instrument for Com- 
munist expansion and uitim^ate global conquest. 

In Germany today, the world has a compelling illustration 
of Communist coexistence in practice. In Eastern Germany 
the Soviets have some 250,000 Red army troops stationed at 
key points ready to surge across the Rhine up to the English 
Channel at a moment's notice. They have also established 
an East German Communist military apparatus of another 
250,000 officers and men. These forces are supplemented 
by a veritable army of underground spies and saboteurs in 
Western Germany whose function it would be, in the event 
of war, to disrupt American and allied forces stationed there. 

At the moment, however, the Soviets are hoping to achieve 
their program without resorting to another war. Their 
efforts are directed toward the winning of new allies or, at 
the least, toward inducing a neutralist posture among the 
nations of the free world which are now joined with the 
United States in an anti-Soviet coalition. 

For the moment, the Soviets have laid aside their tactics of 
direct offensive. They are proceeding now in ways more 
subtle, but at the same time more dangerous for the very 
reason that they are more difficult to identify and deal with. 

Since the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party 
last spring, the Kremlin has modified some of its mternal 
policies in order to lessen the hostility of the people of Russia 
and the Iron Curtain countries. 

But while more freedom has been established in certain 
areas of life, this does not mean — as the Soviets wish us to 
believe — that the nature of the Soviet system itself was 
changed. Any benefits given to the peoples of the Iron 
Curtain countries are prompted not by humanitarian con- 
siderations. They have been extended simply as a means to 
an end: The Soviets are beginning to realize that a productive 
slave is better than a dead one. 

Despite the variety of methods they have employed, the 
Soviets have not succeeded in developing any widespread 
enthusiasm for communism behind the Iron Curtain in the 
satellite countries. The people have been forced to adapt 
themselves to the regime in order to live. But this does 
not mean that they accept it. 

In East Germany, for example, 85 percent of the 
population are opposed to the Soviet-German police govern- 
ment. In the event of war or insurrection, these 85 percent 
would at the least engage in passive resistance and as many 
as possible would participate in active resistance. Similarly, 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 21 

the East. German army does not constitute a secure force 
for the Soviets. On the basis of accurate information avail- 
able to us, we can estimate that, in the event of civil war or 
a third world war, at least 80 percent of the Communist 
police troops would desert at the first crisis. 

The people behmd the Iron Curtain represent the best 
allies that America has. It is essential that America con- 
tinue to encourage and support them. There are various 
ways in which this can be done. 

1. We must provide them with individual economic help, 
food packages, and the lil\e. 

2. We must insure that refugees who flee to the West are 
integrated politically and socially, as well as economically, 
into their new Environment. 

.3 . We must maintain as much contact as possible with the 
people of the Iron Curtain countries We must emphasize 
that we consider them our friends and allies and that our 
opposition is directed only against the illegal governments 
which oppress them. 

4. We must conduct a coordinated propaganda offensive 
which takes into account the psychology and aspirations of 
the people behind the Iron Curtain and of the Communist 
functionaries who can be persuaded to defect from the 
regime. 

5. We must utilize a consistent propaganda of protest in 
which we denounce the excesses of the Soviets and the Com- 
munist satellite governments. 

6. We must provide the peoples behind the Iron Curtain 
with specific political leadership by providing them with 
slogans and suggestions which they can use as a basis for 
criticizing and opposing the government. 

The Soviets have converted Germany into a giant labora- 
tory in which they are testing their procedures of aggression. 
At the same time, Germany provides the free world with one 
of the most effective areas in which to strike back at the 
Kremlin. It is essential that we utilize these opportunities 
effectively. 

"On the clock of survival," Mr. Tillich warned, "the time is now 
5 minutes before midnight." 

The predictions of Mr. Tillich were borne out strikingly only a few 
short weeks later by the dramatic events first in Poland and then in 
Hungary where thousands died in an unquenchable battle for freedom 
against the Soviet juggernaut. A group of witnesses provided a 
valuable insight into the background of these developments. On 
Poland, the staff of the committee heard statements by Dr. Jan 
Karski, a member of the last free Polish government; Joseph Lipski; 
and Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, who served as Vice Premier, after World 
War II, together with the present Communist ruler, Gomulka. 

While the free world hoped that the schism in Poland might augur 
a, Polish break from the Communist orbit, Mr. Mikolajczyk found 
httle to encourage such a view. 

"Gomulka," he warned, "is a 'fanatical' Communist dedicated to 
the completion of the program of sovietizing Poland." 

H. Bept. 53, 85-1 5 



22 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

"Despite the dismissal of Rokossovsky as Defense Minister and 
head of the Polish Armed Forces," Mr. Mikolajczyk pointed out, 
"the Soviets nevertheless retain complete control over the Polish 
military forces, the secret police, and the economic planning division." 

Mr. Mikolajczyk urged that any American aid to Poland be given 
only upon the conditions that free elections are permitted in Poland 
and that the Gomulka government demonstrate that it has genuinely 
disassociated itself from the program of Soviet imperialism with which 
it is still allied. 

Spokesmen for free Hungary included former Premier Ferenc Nagy, 
now Vice President of the International Peasant Union; the Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. Bela Varga, former Speaker of the Hungarian Parliament; 
Stevan Barankovics, former chairman of the Hungarian Christian 
Democratic Party; and the Rt. Rev. Bela Fabian, former president of 
the Hungarian Independent Democratic Party. 

Mr. Nagy expressed disappointment with the West for not giving 
adequate aid to the people of Hungary in their struggle for freedom. 

Since the outbreak of the Hungarian struggle for free- 
dom, he said — 

I have heard numerous individuals ask the question: "What 
can the Western World do to assist courageous Hungary in 
its battle for liberty?" There have been, of course, several 
different answers to that question. When the first Soviet 
guns opened fire on the unarmed and helpless populace of 
Budapest, from the overflowing hearts of 10 million Hun- 
garians came a fervent prayer that the Western World would 
address a strong demand — not just a suggestion — that the 
Kremlin withdraw all Soviet forces from Hungary at once, 
and evidence the sincerity of that demand, if necessary, with 
a show of Western force. In my judgment, the Soviet army 
would have immediately withdrawn from Hungary, had such 
a demand been made — and moreover, the chances for freedom 
in all captive nations would have instantly brightened. This 
could well have been the beginning of the end of the world 
Communist movement. 

Another concrete measure would have been the prompt 
dispatch of a United Nations police force to battle-reddened 
Hungary, and this would only have been the discharge of an 
important U. N. responsibility in its cause to promote world 
peace and halt aggression. In an interview in Paris several 
weeks ago, I pointed out that, so far as we know, the Budapest 
revolt marks the first time that Soviet troops have fired on 
the populace of a satellite since 1945, and was in fact the 
first time that Soviet troops have been in combat outside of 
Soviet borders since the end of World War II. Therefore, 
the ruthless and reprehensible Soviet conduct in Hungary 
constituted a positive act of aggression that should have been 
dealt with immediately through proper channels of the 
United Nations. 

He urged that the United''States and the other free nations of the 
world refuse to recognize the new puppet regime recognized by the 
Soviet Union after quashing the rebellion. 



AimiTAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTrVTTIES 23 

As the situation stands at this moment, in my judgment the 
people of Hungary could salvage at least a moral victory if 
the Western Powers, particularly the United States, would 
steadfastly refuse to recognize the now-existing puppet 
regime of Jonas Kadar. In the meantime, it is my hope that 
the United Nations, dedicated as it is to promote the prin- 
ciple of national self-determination for all people, will 
sponsor free elections in Hungary under the supervision of 
a U. N. inspection team so that my people may have a gov- 
ernment of their choosing. This is precisely one of the very 
privileges that an estimated 50,000 Hungarians have died 
for during the past 3 weeks. 

Mr. Nagy, together with his compatriots who conferred with the 
staff of the committee, joined in a plea for effective humanitarian aid 
to the people of Hungary from the people of the free world but coupled 
this with urging caution that food and medical supphes be channeled 
to the Hungarian people and not to the regime which opposes them. 
The Committee on Un-American Activities expects to hear experts 
from other strategic areas of the world in coming months to provide 
the Congress and the people of the United States with cm-rent infor- 
mation about Soviet policy. 

In another aspect of its study of international communism, the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, during 1956, published two 
symposiums contaming analyses by a number of authorities on the 
current strategy and tactics of the Soviet Union. The first of these 
was The Great Pretense — a Symposium on Anti-Stalinism and the 
20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party; in it, 39 experts 
contributed appraisals of the anti-Stalinist program which was 
thrust upon the world by the new leadership of the Soviet Communist 
Party in the spring of 1956. The experts stood together on these 
three major conclusions: 

(1) The current policy and tactics of the Soviet Union 
present the greatest danger ever to confront the West ; 

(2) The current developments in the Soviet Union are a 
reflection of growing strength and confidence rather than 
weakness ; 

(3) The policy of anti-Stalinism proclaimed by 
Khrushchev does not denote any abandonment of the 
messianic Soviet program of universal conquest. 

It is the hope of the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties — 

Chairman Walter stated in a foreword — 

that these analyses may aid in creating an effective program 
with which to countervail the dangers of anti-Stalinism — 
and in maintaining reason and vigilance in that diminishing 
part of the world that is still free. 

The second symposium, a two-volume work entitled "Soviet Total 
War — 'Historic Mission' of Violence and Deceit," presented state- 
ments by 123 eminent United States Government officials, military 
leaders, educators, journalists, and labor and business experts in a 
comprehensive examination of the origin and current direction of 
Soviet policy developments in Europe, Asia, and Africa. FBI Director 



24 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

John Edgar Hoover, who also contributed to The Great Pretense, 
declared that "we are not entering an 'era of peace.' Contrary to the % 
opinion of wishful thinkers, the threat of Communist tyranny has not 
been lessened." The Ki'emlin's current "return to Leninism," Mr. 
Hoover warned, marks the emergence of a new Communist militance 
and the beginning of "war on a new plane." 

Quick confirmation of Mr. Hoover's prediction cam.e with the brutal 
suppression of the Hungarian freedom revolt and the intrusion of 
the Soviet Union into the turbulent Middle East. Both of these 
developments stripped the last threads from the mask of Soviet 
"peace," and shattered even the vainest hope that the campaign of 
de-Stalinization augured a change in the way^s of the Kremlin. On 
the final day of 1956 these developments began to com.e full chcle as 
Khrushchev, the originator of "anti-Stalinism," proclaimed that "in 
the fight against the imperialists, we are all Stalinists." 

FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC. 

The chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
Francis E. Walter, on June 7, 1956, in announcing that the committee 
will hold public hearings on activities of the Fund for the Republic, 
stated : 

The Fund for the Republic, Inc., is financing a number of 
activities which have aroused criticism and doubt on the 
part of Members of Congress, prominent patriotic organiza- 
tions, and individuals, including Henry Ford II himself, who 
has publicly described some of the actions of the Fund as 
"dubious in character." 

Is this foundation, with its vast reservoirs of funds and 
power, a friend or a foe in our Nation's death struggle 
against the Communist conspiracy? Are its extensive and 
diverse activities strengthening or weakening our security 
structure in the Communist cold war? Are the leaders of 
this force, which enjoys the benefits of tax immunity, serving 
an interest inimical to our basic American traditions? 

The Congress and the American people are entitled to 
know the answers to these questions. I wish to make it 
clear that the Committee on Un-American Activities is not 
at this time passin^judgment on the Fund for the Republic 
or its activities. The committee is seeking the objective 
facts, so that they can be available to the American people. 

In the embattled position in which the United States 
finds itself today, no organization is above appraisal of its 
position on matters vital to this country's welfare. In the 
words of Henry Ford II on the Fund itself, "No pubhc trust 
can expect to fulfill its responsibilities if it does not respond 
to intelligent and constructive public criticism." The Con- 
gress has a right and a duty to inform itself on issues pertinent 
to prospective legislative action. 

Staff investigations have not yet been completed, and the general 
public hearings on the Fund for the Republic have not as yet been 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 25 

scheduled. In the interim, however, the committee has held hearings 
on two phases of the activities of the Fund for the Republic: 

1 . So-called blacklisting report 

On June 25, 1956, the Fund for the Republic released a two-volume 
report on "blacklisting." The theme of the report is that there is in 
vogue in the entertainment industry a blacklist, which deprives 
people of employment because of political afiiliations or beliefs. 

The evidence adduced at the hearings established that there is not, 
and never has been, in the entertainment industry, any practice of 
depriving people of emplo}Tnent because of "political affiliations or 
beliefs," but that a number of people who have been identified as 
Communists or active on behalf of communism have been refused 
access to mass mediums of communications. This fact was estab- 
lished, not only by the examination in public session of Mr. John 
Cogley, who directed the investigation on behalf of the Fund for the 
Repubhc, but also by the testimony of the ablest leaders of nationwide 
anti-Communist organizations, including the American Legion and 
the Veterans of Foreign Wars. These leaders roundly condemned 
the Fund for the Republic report as a "fraud" and a "tool" of the 
Communists in preventing the exclusion of Communists from the 
entertainment circles of this Nation. 

2. The award to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting 

On July 17 and 18, 1956, the committee held hearings in Phila- 
delphia, ]Pa., respecting the award made by the Fund for the Republic 
to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting. The evidence adduced at the 
hearings established the following: 

On June 23, 1956, the Fund for the Republic announced that it had 
awarded $5,000 to the Plymouth Monthly Meeting (Religious Society 
of Friends) at Plymouth Meeting, Pa., for "courageous and effective 
defense of democratic principles" in refusing to dismiss a librarian 
who did not take the Pennsylvania loyalty oath. The librarian 
had been identified as a Comimunist before a Senate committee. 
She refused to testify respecting her Communist affiliations when 
called before the Senate committee, and has been convicted of con- 
tempt of Congress. She was not at any time employed by the Plym- 
outh Monthly Meeting, but had been employed by a library group 
of Plymouth ^Meeting, Pa., which had on its board certain Quakers 
some of whom resigned in protest when the librarian was employed. 

It was further established that the employment of the librarian has 
met, and continues to meet, overwhelming opposition, not only from 
the members of the Plymouth Monthly Meeting but also from the vast 
majority of the residents of the community. This opposition has 
been evidenced by a number of petitions, and by the fact that the 
township, the school board, and the Community Chest all Nvithdrew 
their support of the librarv because of its employment of the librarian. 

The Ph-mouth Monthly Meeting, to which the Fund for the Repub- 
hc made the $5,000 award"^ for its alleged retention of the librarian, at no 
time evidenced a sympathy for the employment of the librarian, and 
has not accepted the award which was tendered to it by the Fund for 
the Republic. 



26 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG PRISONERS OF WAR 

IN KOREA 

(Save Our Sons Committee) 

Investigation of the dissemination of Communist propaganda 
among prisoners of war in Korea resulted in public hearings on June 
18 and 19 in Washington which held up to view the treasonable 
activities of the Save Our Sons Committee. 

Created by the Communist Party, the SOS Committee provided 
a vehicle through which the party exploited the plight of American 
prisoners of war in Korea, and the natural concern of their families 
for the welfare of their loved ones. 

Organized October 25, 1952, in Springfield, 111., it professed the 
high-sounding purpose of promoting a cease-fire in Korea and the re- 
patriation of prisoners of war. Under this banner, the Save Our Sons 
Committee intended to draw into its orbit non-Communists motivated 
by a genuine deshe for peace. Its supposed program was set forth in 
the following quote from the "Call" to the founding meeting: 

A caU to all patriotic Americans who have loved ones in 
Korea, in uniform, or about to be drafted: 

Mothers, fathers of Americans in Korea, in the frontlines, 
in prison camps, and in hospitals. * * * All organizations 
whose members have sons in the armed services or in Korea 
come to an emergency Midwest assembly Saturday, October 
25, 11a. m., in Springfield, 111., to save the lives of our sons 
and loved ones; to stir the conscience of America; to tell 
all public officials and all candidates for office that we want 
an inunediate end of the senseless slaughter. 

1. For a cease-fire in Korea on both sides NOW! 

2. Continue negotiations to settle remaining question of 
repatriation of prisoners. 

Actually, the organization was conceived by the Communists as an 
instrument for removing United States troops from the scene so that 
South Korea would be at the mercy of the Communist forces. 

The organization, it was ascertained, concealed the fact that Florence 
Gowgiel, its chairman and one of its founders, M^as a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Anzelm A. Czamowski, of Argo, 111., an FBI undercover agent 
within the Communist Party from 1944 to 1955, testified that he had 
known Florence Gowgiel as a Communist since 1946 and that she was 
a member of the Argo branch of the Communist Party to which he 
had been assigned. 

The following excerpt from the testimony of Mr. Czarnowski indi- 
cates the close alliance that existed between the Save Our Sons Com- 
mittee and the Communist Party: 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall when it was that the organ- 
ization known as Save Our Sons Committee was formed? 

Mr. Czarnowski. At meetings of the Argo branch when 
her [Mrs. Gowgiel's] son-in-law returned, who was paralyzed 
during the Korean campaign, she had mentioned several 
times about this war. It was in August or September of 
1952 that press releases were distributed announcing the 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 27 

establislimeiit of an organization which was supposed to take 
place on October 25, 1952. She announced then that she 
was going to Springfield and help organize this organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a minute. You say she announced. 

Mr, CzARNOWSKi. She told that to the branch members; 
yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was at a meeting of the Communist 
Party, a branch meeting? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. And that she needed the 
Communist Party to furnish or pay her expenses. The Argo 
branch of the Communist Party gave her $20 to cover the 
expense to Springfield. 

Mr. Tavenner. For the trip to Springfield for the found- 
ing convention of Save Our Sons? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir. 

* * * * * 

Mr. Tavenner. As time went on after the formation of 
Save Our Sons Committee, did Mrs. Florence Govvgiel ap- 
pear at your Communist Party meetings and discuss the 
progress that was being made by Save Our Sons? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. She made reports to the Argo 
branch of all the activities that were going on in the Save Our 
Sons, and if there was any work to be done that she wanted 
the Communist Party members to do, naturally she reported 
that and asked us to do that. * * * 

From testimony received at the hearings, it appears that Mrs. 
Gowgiel's principal activity consisted of writing letters to parents and 
wives of American boys fighting in Korea and to boys in Communist 
prison camps. These letters urged support for the treasonous program 
and efforts of the Save Our Sons Committee. It is evident that at 
least some names of prisoners of war were secured from newspaper lists 
which also published their home addresses. 

Called as a witness, Mrs. Gowgiel refused to answer any questions 
concerning her activities and association with the Save Our Sons 
Committee on the grounds of self-incrimination. Questioned as to 
the source of funds with which she carried on her extensive correspond- 
ence with relatives of fighting men and with prisoners of war, Mrs. 
Gowgiel refused to answer on the same grounds. She also refused 
to affirm or deny the testimony of Mr. Czarnowski regarding her 
Communist Party membership. 

The investigation and hearings disclosed that the Save Our Sons 
Committee periodically released a bulletin entitled "Save Our Sons" 
which it mailed to relatives of prisoners of war. The issues usually 
included reprints of letters purportedly written by Korean POW's, 
and some were addressed to the Save Our Sons Committee praising 
its work. The letters appeared to be authentic since they were 
written over the name of actual POW's. What the unsuspecting 
families did not know was that the contents of most of the letters were 
forged or written under duress. 

Prisoners who received letters from Mrs. Gowgiel as chairman of 
the Save Our Sons Committee were forced to read them to other 
POW's over the loudspeaker. The Shanghai News, a Chinese pubh- 
cation which was circulated in the camps, announced the formation 



28 ANNUAL REPORT, COJVIMJTTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

of the Save Our Sons Committee and often carried news of its progress 
and activities. 

The testimony of two former prisoners of war, Dale E. Jones and 
Erdis Spencer revealed the lengths to which this infamous Communist- 
front organization went to exploit the unfortunate plight of these 
prisoners. A letter lauding the Save Our Sons Conmaittee and pur- 
portedly written by Jones was circulated by the organization in 1953. 
The letter which provides a perfect example of the type of propaganda 
broadcast by this organization is reprinted below: 

"Dear Mrs. Gowgiel: I am taking the great pleasure to 
write you that even we, who are over 5,000 miles away from 
home, know about the great work you have started in the 
United States. It is my belief that the Save Our Sons Com- 
mittee will be a great help to us POW's, and to the frontline 
troops who are fighting over here in Korea. It will also help 
bring about an early conclusion to the Korean question. I, 
for one, and I know the other POW's here with me, whole- 
heartedly support and encourage you to carry on your great 
work in the future. 

"You see, Mrs. Gowgiel, I am also from the State of Illinois 
and it makes me feel 100 percent better to know people like you 
are working for peace in my State, as well as m the rest of the 
States and countries over the world. I am also doing what I 
can, along with the other POW's, to bring about an early 
conclusion to this Korean war. Although I know it is such a 
smaU amount right at the present time, but we all know the 
peace movements in the States are growing stronger every 
day. So, therefore, we are hoping for the same thing over 
here in the POW camps. Once that all the people united 
together, then we can have everlasting world peace. 

'T have read in the papers many times about the Save Our 
Sons Committee and also about your son-in-law's terrible 
incident. I deeply sympathize with him, for I know the 
horrible experience he must have gone thi'ough. 

"It is up to you, Mrs. Gowgiel, to me and the other peace- 
loving people of the world to put a stop to this awful blood- 
shed over here in Korea. I am certain that the majority of 
the American people know that this war over here in Korea 
is useless and inhuman. Thousands of people are dying just 
because there are a few individuals who want a little more 
for themselves. They even kill their own people in order to 
make it that way. That is why the American people must 
urge President Eisenhower to keep his promise and put an 
end to the Korean war, peacefully. If the people of America 
don't join together and force him to do so, it might be ex- 
tended into a third world war. You and I and millions of 
other people of the world must prevent this. 

"The war over here in Korea could have been settled long 
ago if the American side would show some sincerity in the 
peace talks. But they always put in some unreasonable 
proposals, such as voluntary repatriation. You know, Mrs. 
Gowgiel, no one wants to stay away from his own home and 
loved ones and not never return to be with them again. That 
is what the American side keep sajdng about the Korean and 



i 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 29 

Chinese POW's. They are always talking about them in- 
stead of about the American POW's and front-line troops. 
^Ye want to return to our loved ones very bad, even though 
we have always been treated with the best of care. We never 
have a dull minute here in this camp, but we want to come 
home. 

"The Chinese volunteers are ready to have a cease fire 
right now and then talk about repatriation of all POW's in 
order to save lives, but the other side says 'no' — the fighting 
must go on. That can plainly show who wants peace and 
who doesn't. The Chinese people don't want to kill and 
cripple the American boys, but they have no other choice. 
They are here to protect their own country from being in- 
vaded. 

"So, Mrs. Gowgiel, it is up to all the peace-loving people 
of the world to make more and more people see how they 
are being fooled b}^ these handful of * * * until the great 
day comes when war will be done away with and everlasting 
peace the world over" 

Mr. Tavenner, Just a moment. The word that is not 
plainly A^Titten there is "profiteers." May I see your copy a 
moment? 

No, it is "profit makers" — profit makers. The stencil 
was not very clear. 

Mr. Jones (continuing reading): 
"are being fooled by these handful of profit makers until the 
great day comes when war will be done away with and 
everlasting peace the world over. 

"So, once again we encourage you to carry on your great 
work in the future. It will be a hard, bitter struggle, but 
peace will be ours in the end. 

"I woidd be more than glad to receive a letter from you 
letting me know how you are coming along with your work. 
In the meantime I always will look for the news about the 
SOS Committee in the papers. I also would appreciate very 
much if you would contact my mother and teU her to join in 
mth us. I am sure she would be glad to help us. 

"I wish you all the best luck and wishes in your great work. 
Remember, peace will be our victory. 
"Sincerely yoiu's, 

"Pfc. Dale E. Jones, 
"POW Camp, NoHh Korea." 

Mr. Jones testified that he had never written to Mrs. Gowgiel, nor 
had he ever seen the letter which supposedly carried his signature. 
Mr. Spencer was shown a letter allegedly written over his signature 
and circulated by the Save Our Sons Committee. He admitted wait- 
ing part of the letter after constant badgering by his Chinese captors, 
and related he had to write several letters before one was acceptable 
to the Chinese. Mr. Spencer further testified that the letter used by 
the organization had been "doctored." 

The committee also called before it two other witnesses, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Mitterer, secretary and treasurer of the Save Our Sons 
Committee and Mrs. Mary PhiUips Buckner, who, according to Mr. 

H. Kept. 53, 85-1 6 



30 ANNUAL REPORT, COJVIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Czarnowski, was the "financial angel" of the organization. Both 
invoked the protection of the fifth amendment in response to ques- 
tions concerning the SOS and Communist Party membership. 

The organization was still active at the time of the hearings. This 
was evidenced by a statement circulated among the press and signed 
by Mrs. Gowgiel as chairman and also by the issue of its publication 
entitled, "Save Our Sons," dated April-May 1956. 

SOVIET ATTEMPTS AT SUBVERSION AND ESPIONAGE BY 

DIPLOMATIC PERSONNEL 

(Testimony of Sidney Hatkin) 

The Committee on Un-American Activities has realized for some 
time that it is a common practice of Soviet Russia and its satellites 
to engage in espionage, intelligence operations, and other forms of 
clandestine activities under the protective cloak of diplomatic im- 
munity afforded embassies, delegations, and missions in the United 
States. 

Previous testimony before the committee has revealed that in most 
instances important and sensitive intelligence assignments are given 
to a few trusted and highly trained individuals. While concentrating 
on espionage, subversion, and the amassing of military and economic 
information pertaining to this country, they perform some legitimate 
diplomatic functions as a facade for theb true purpose. 

Further information on these practices was obtained on May 10, 
1956, from Sidney Hatkin, a Department of Air Force statistician 
who had been suspended on security grounds. (He was later ordered 
reinstated.) His testimony concerned his experience with one 
Vladimir P. Mikheev, then an employee in the office of the military 
attach^ at the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Hatkin related that in February 1956, while seeking employ- 
ment following his suspension from the Air Force, he advertised for a 
position and emphasized his qualifications as an economist with re- 
search background. Shortly afterward he was contacted by Mikheev 
who stated he would like to have a resum6 of Hatkin's background 
and experience and advised him that if he was interested in his services, 
he would contact him in the near future. Mikheev offered no further 
identification of himself beyond his name. Later, during the month 
of April, Mikheev called Hatkin and asked that he meet him at a 
Washington restaurant. 

At this meeting, Mr. Hatkin related, Mikheev displayed extreme 
interest in his Government service background, particularly that re- 
lating to the aircraft industry. Mikheev thereupon offered Mr. 
Hatkin $25 a day for preparation of a paper on the aircraft industry, 
and gave Hatkin $25 at that meeting. The Russian explicitly re- 
quested that the paper include information on the following subjects 
pertinent to the aircraft industry: (1) "tendency of the industry"; 
(2) "major companies and their industrial capacity"; and (3) "aircraft 
production." Hatkin testified that he remembered these points 
specifically because he made notes at the time. 

Throughout the meeting at the restaurant. Mikheev did not tell 
Hatkin where he might be reached, but merely stated that he would 
contact Hatkin. After considerable questioning by Hatkin, Mikheev 



ANNUAL REPORT, CORIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 31 

offered the explanation that he was planninoj to write a book while 
prcparinji; for his doctor of philosoph}^ at the University of Maryland, 
Mr. Hatkin's suspicions became aroused, and he then infoiined the 
Federal Bui-eau of Investigation of all that had taken place in regard 
to Mikheev. It was then that he learned for the first time that the 
"student" with whom he had been meeting was actuall}^ a clerk in the 
office of the military attach^ at the Soviet Embassy. 

When Mikheev called Hatkin again and proposed another meeting 
at the restaurant, Hatkin requested instead that Mikheev come to his 
home. When Mikheev arrived, Hatkin returned the $25 advance 
payment to him and told the Russian that he wanted nothing further 
to do with him. 

Immediatelj^ after Mr. Hatkin testified, Vladimu- P. Mikheev was 
reheved of his duties at the Soviet Embassy and returned to the 
Soviet Union. 

NORTH CAROLINA AREA 

During 1956 the committee held hearings in certain areas in which 
Communist activities had not yet been publicly explored. The overall 
results confirmed again that there is no section or community in this 
country immune from Communist Party intrigue, ideology, and 
propaganda. 

It was apparent to the committee from hearings held March 12-14 
in Charlotte, N. C, on the extent of party infiltration in that area, 
that the Communist Party has followed the same pattern and strategy 
there as elsewhere in its program of subversion. One witness summed 
it up: 

The strategy of the Communist Party never changes. The 
tactics may, but the strategy calling for the overthrow of the 
Government has not changed since Karl Marx, and the party 
says it never will. 

As in other hearings, valuable information was obtained from Govern- 
ment undercover agents who posed as genuine party members for a 
period of years. These courageous individuals who have thus served 
our country under great personal sacrifice, deserve the commendation 
of aU loyal Americans. 

Charles Benson Childs, an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation from October 1950 to April 1955 in the North Caro- 
lina area, testified that his induction into the Communist Party was 
preceded by a period of activity in the Progressive Party and in the 
Marxist Labor Youth League. 

Childs' first association with the Labor Youth League occurred in 
Greensboro, N. C, but, he testified, other groups met at Winston- 
Salem, High Point, and Durham. This was confirmed by Federal 
Bureau of Investigation undercover agent Odis Reavis who testified 
that he had been literature director of the Labor Youth League and 
as such had distributed, among other propaganda, a pamphlet which 
accused the United States of being the aggressor in the Korean war 
and which called for "bringing the boys home" from Korea. This 
was the Communist Party line adopted by such other Communist 
front organizations as the American Peace Crusade and the Save Our 
Sons Committee. 



32 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Mr. Childs also described a training school for party members 
of outstanding: ability held in 1952 at the Walnut Grove farmhouse 
of William Binkley. Those who attended went under assumed 
names and were told that "there was to be no maU to or from school, 
and no telephone calls, and no one would be permitted to leave the 
school before it was over." Mr. Binkley, when confronted with a 
photograph of his farm home refused to identify it and invoked his 
constitutional privilege against self-incrimination. He also refused 
to answer questions propounded by the committee as to whether he 
was a Communist at the time he was organizer for the building 
trades union or if he was elected to serve on the national committee 
of the Communist Party at its 10th convention. 

The Communist apparatus in the North Carolina area also pro- 
ceeded with the party's national "colonization" program aimed at 
placing party members in key industries. The committee subpenaed 
three men with university degrees who, in compliance with party 
directives, were then workmg as a fishscaler, a sheetmetal worker, 
and meat clerk, respectively. Resumes of their employment records 
revealed that they made frequent job changes into various fields. 
All were identified as Communist Party members by earlier witnesses, 
but when confronted with the allegations, they invoked the fifth 
amendment and refused to answer, 

Mr. Reavis, who spent some 6 years in undercover activities, 
testified that the several Commimist Party groups to which he 
belonged were particidarly active in circulating the Stockholm Peace 
Petition in certain Negro mass organizations and in organizing 
furniture workers. 

From Ralph C. Clontz, Jr., an FBI undercover agent within the 
North Carolina Communist apparatus during the years 1950 to 1954, 
the committee learned of the operations of a Communist front known 
as the Daniels Defense Committee. Following excerpts are from Mr. 
Clontz' testimony dealmg with this organization: 

Mr. Clontz. The Daniels Defense Committee was a Com- 
munist-front organization set up by the party with Commu- 
nist Party domination, control, and complete direction. I 
attended the founding meeting and attended most of the 
meetings whUe I was here in North Carolina, and Mr. Bond 
was an officer of that alleged committee. My recollection 
is that he was the treasurer at one time. It was one of those 
typical Communist plots. They take a supposed trial at 
which a Negro has been unjustly convicted, they claim, and 
blow it up for the benefit of the party. 

In this particular case the Daniels Defense Committee held 
meetings all over North Carolina in churches and various 
other places in North Carolina and even, as I recall, went 
north. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now see in this courtroom the person 
known by you as Nathaniel Bond, whom you have described 
in connection with these various activities? 

Mr. Clontz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly confront him, stand up, 
look him in the eye, and point him out to the committee? 

(Witness stands and points.) 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 33 

Mr. Clontz. That is Nathaniel Bond * * *, 

***** 

In the Daniels Defense Committee my experience there was 
that the Communist Party staj'ed in the background, so far 
as known Communists were concerned. For example, at the 
meetings Junius Scales and Henry Farash, who was the party 
organizer from New York, would not be seen inside the 
church. People like Bond, who could hide behind his sup- 
posed connection with the NAACP, and other people of his 
ilk, would actually run the show, while Scales, Farash, and 
other people like that would control the show from the 
outside. 

Many people were misled by what appeared to be an injus- 
tice that had taken place in Greenville, N. C. Many of our 
Negro churches let these people come into this building and 
hold meetings and in some cases take up collections thi'ough 
the misapprehension that they were helping the cause of jus- 
tice, whereas actually they were helping the cause of the 
Communist Party. 

The committee has ample evidence that Nathaniel Bond was 
treasurer of the Daniels Defense Committee which was founded in 
1949. Both Mr. Childs and Mr. Clontz identified Bond as a Com- 
munist Part}' member. However, when confronted b}^ these two 
witnesses, Bond refused to confirm or deny their identification of him 
and invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to answer any questions 
concerning his association with the Daniels Defense Committee. 

Mr. Clontz testified further that he was able to identify the monthly 
Negro magazine Freedom as a Communist publication. The first issue 
of this publication was released in November 1950, and its editorial 
board is headed by Paul Robeson. Others on the board include 
Revels Cayton, Shirley Graham, Alphaeus Hunton, and Modjeska 
Simlvins; its general manager is George B. Murphy, Jr. Robeson, 
Cayton and 5kliirphy were identified as Communists in sworn testi- 
mony before the committee in past years; all have extensive Com- 
munist-front records. 

LOS ANGELES AREA 

Through a continuing series of hearings during the past 8 years, 
the Committee on Un-American Activities has been successful in 
bringing to light the professional section of the Communist con- 
spiracy in Los Angeles, Calif. 

The professional section known as the Hollywood section and 
officially in Communist parlance as the Northwest section was com- 
posed of active Communist conspiratorial cells broken down into 
lawyer units, doctor units, motion picture actor units, motion picture 
writer units, motion picture directors unit, radio writer units, radio 
actor units and a musicians unit. 

The professional section of the Los Angeles County Communist 
Party proved to be the backbone of "intellectual" communism in Los 
Angeles. Its sphere of influence spread throughout California and 
neighboring States. The Northwest section of the Communist Party 
ground out tons of propaganda parroting every twist and turn of 



34 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVmES 

Soviet Union foreign policy, created fronts which were to raise over a 
milHon dollars for the coffers of the Communist Party and lent talent 
for entertainment for Communist fund-raising causes. The com- 
mittee hearings have effectively reduced the influence of the profes- 
sional section. Although the Northwest section was recently 
reorganized and boasts of 200 members, most have been publicly 
identified. 

The Communist cell in the professional section, known as the 
musicians unit or branch O, was the subject of public hearings in 
Los Angeles, April 16 through 21, 1956. Sworn|testimony by former 
Communist members of the musicians unit disclosed 75 musicians to 
have been members of the unit. 

The committee's interest in the musicians unit was twofold: First, 
to conclusively establish the existence of the cell; expose the secret 
conspiratorial membership; document its participation in the local 
Communist movement and its adherence to the international Com- 
munist conspiracy. In the testimony received during the hearing 
evidence was obtained that established all of these points. 

Second, the committee in prior California hearings had heard con- 
siderable testimony to the effect that the Independent Progressive 
Party (the California section of the national [Progressive Party) was a 
creation of the Communist Party. The committee was particularly 
interested in the part played by a Communist cell qualifying the 
Independent Progressive Party as a legal party on the ballot in 1948, 
and in the subsequent efforts to infiltrate and dominate the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party by Communist Party members. 

Of the 75 musicians identified as Communist Party members, 9 had 
either left the Communist Party or moved from California prior to the 
inception of the Independent Progressive Party. It was found that 
of the balance of the 66 active in the Communist Party or under dis- 
cipline of the Communist Party, 31 members of the unit circulated 
Independent Progressive Party petitions, 25 registered as Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party voters, and 44 signed Independent Pro- 
gressive Party qualifying petitions. Thu-teen of these members had 
no affiliation with the Independent Progressive Party. 

If the same pattern prevails throughout the Communist organiza- 
tion as was evident in the musicians unit, it seems that any success 
claimed b}^ the Independent Progressive Party was due to the efforts 
of the Communist Party in quahfying the Independent Progressive 
Party on the ballot. 

Henry Wallace, candidate for President on the Progressive Party 
ticket, received over 10 million votes in the 1948 national election. 
The Progressive Party, including its California branch, certainly ranks 
as one of the largest and most successful fronts ever created by the 
Communists. 

The following excerpt of testimony by William Don Waddilove, an 
undercover agent in the Communist Party from 1947 to 1948, illus- 
trates the methods of the Communists in establishing the IPP: 

Mr. ScHERER. WTiat did you understand to be the purpose 
of the Communist Party in infiltratmg the [Independent] 
Progressive Party? Why was it done? 

Mr. Waddilove. I would say, rather than infiltrate, I 
think it was spearheaded by the Communist Party. I don't 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 35 

think the [Independent] Progressive Party would have reached 
a place on the ballot had it not been for the organization of the 
Communist Party behind it. 

At the conclusion of the hearing, the committee stated: 

The fact of the existence of the so-called musicians branch 
or branch O of the Communist Party has been clearly estab- 
lished as has the fact that members of that branch, together 
with other members of the Communist Party, made a deter- 
mined, concealed, and deceitful effort to qualify the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party on the California ballot. 

The testimony received this week here in Los Angeles by 
the subcommittee bears out and confirms other and abundant 
testimony taken by the committee in other cities throughout 
the United States that the Progressive Party movement was, 
in its inception, a creature of the Communist conspiracy, and 
that its actions were, in major part, secretly controlled and 
directed by the Communist Party of the United States. 

In Los Angeles the committee also continued its investigation into 
Communist controlled labor unions and heard testimony from four 
officials of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's 
Union, Local 26, Los Angeles, Calif.: Al Kaplan, president; Louis 
Sherman (alias Louis Schneiderman), secretary and treasurer; and two 
lesser oflBcials, Thomas Chapman and Sidney London. All invoked 
the protection of the fifth amendment when asked questions relating to 
activity and membership in the Communist Party. 

The committee also examined Carter Darnell, Sylvia Lardner 
Darnell, and Samuel Berland, ofl[icials of the Hale Construction Co., 
Garden Grove, Calif. All three, identified as Communist Party 
members, refused to cooperate with the committee and plead the 
fifth amendment when questioned regarding their Communist Party 
membership. 

The Los Angeles regional office of the Veterans' Administration 
informed the committee that from September 1953 until December 
1955 a total of $16,324,685 certificates of reasonable value, covering 
1,193 units, had been issued by the Veterans' Administration to the 
Hale Construction Co. Certificates of reasonable value enable the 
buUder to borrow a much higher percent of the total construction 
costs. The certificates guarantee the purchaser of the home a loan 
should the purchaser quahfy and thus the Government greatly assists 
the builder. 

TESTIMONY OF NIKOLAI KHOKHLOV 

During the hearings in Los Angeles in April 1956, the committee 
received an astute analysis of current conditions in the Soviet Union. 
The witness was Nikolai Khokhlov, a former Soviet intelligence officer 
assigned to the German-Austrian desk of Soviet intelligence. Mr. 
Khokhlov defected to the West, in January 1954, after refusing to 
carry out the assassination of Georgi Okolovich, an anti-Communist 
resistance leader living in West Germany. 

Mr. Khokhlov dealt at length on two phases of life in the Soviet 
Union: the suppression and control of creative art, literature, and 



36 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

music in the Soviet Union, and the true feeling of the great masses of 
Russian people toward the Soviet police state. 

Mr. Khokhlov was able to draw upon personal experience in his 
description of the perversion of the arts. He had been an actor and 
director in the Soviet theater and motion pictures, and later, as an 
oflficer of Soviet intelligence, he maintained his contacts in these fields 
for propaganda purposes. 

Mr. Khokhlov told of the many twists and contradictions in the 
Soviet Government's definition of what it considers "good" art, 
music, or literature. The Kremlin, he stated, was able to implement 
its policies by maintaining control over certain writers, artists, or 
composers. 

Mr. Khokhlov explained in some detail how the Soviet Govern- 
ment, before World War II, tried to prevent the creation of art which 
encouraged nationalism and then later, after the Nazi invasion, com- 
pletely reversed itself and launched a campaign to inflame the patri- 
otic passion of the Soviet masses. When the war was over, they again 
enforced the rule that, in regard to the creative arts — • 

no citizen would have the right to regard himself as an indi- 
vidual, but must regard himself solely as a citizen of a new 
kind of state — the Soviet state. 

Mr. Khokhlov added that in the Soviet Union the market for 
creative artists is controlled by the state. Not only is the artist's 
production considered, but the entu'e background of the artist him- 
self is evaluated before he, or his work, may be judged worthy of 
official acclamation. 

Mr. Khokhlov stated that onl}^ about 3 percent of the eiith'e 
Russian population are members of the Communist Partj^. Mr. 
Khokhlov contends that the great majority of the Russian people 
detest communism even more than the people of non-Commimist 
nations because they have actually lived under its domination. The 
conflict between the Soviet people and the Soviet Government, he 
declared, results primarily not from the depressed standard of living 
but, rather, from complete deprivation and the annihilation of all 
individual rights and lack of personal decency. 

Because of this extreme hatred of the present Soviet system by the 
Russian masses, Mr. Khokhlov asserted, the system will be destroyed 
from within by these very people who desire as much as any himian 
their individual rights and personal freedom. 

Mr. Khokhlov concluded his testimony with a strong appeal that 
the free world truly understand that communism is an "immoral, 
indecent system designed to exploit drastically the individual in 
order to achieve its own ends." Further, he urged the West to bring 
to the great masses in Russia a "faith and trust in them, and the belief 
that they will, through their own faculties and capabilities, shed the 
odious yoke of communism." 

"I know now," he declared, "that it is impossible todaj^ to be a 
decent person and a Communist at the same time." 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 37 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA 

Hearings in Denver, May 15-18, pinpointed Communist Party 
activities among Mexican-Americans, youth and labor unions in the 
Rock}' Mountain area. 

Among the first witnesses was Bellarmino Duran, one of the many 
patriotic Americans who have devoted years of their lives as under- 
cover agents for the Federal Biu-eau of Investigation. Of Spanish 
descent, Mr. Dm'an received his preparty indoctrination in a Marxist- 
Leninist youth group which met in Denver. After this he entered 
the Communist Part}^ and was assigned to work among Mexican- 
Americans in the Denver area. As a leader of the West Side Mexican 
Branch of the party, he represented the Colorado Mexican Commission 
of the Communist Party at meetings held by the National Mexican 
Commission. Chief of the national organization was Art Barj^, con- 
victed in 1955 for violation of the Smith Act. 

Mr. Duran told the committee that — 

When I first entered the Communist Party on the Mexican 
West Side Branch one of the basic understandings which was 
given to us there was that religion and communism did not go 
together. We had to have a basic understanding and willing- 
ness and determination that there would come a time where 
we had to give our lives for the party and we had to be ready 
for that. The activity that developed from that was merely 
to bring about the two requirements of a revolution. The 
activities in the Communist front were directed to create the 
two requirements which were: One, economic crisis and, 
two, political crisis. The activity of the Communist Party 
working within the Mexican community was to agitate the 
aspirations of the Mexican people in this spontaneous stam- 
pede to show the Government was not willing to accept them 
and it was because capitalism had entered a decadent stage 
and was now entering a Fascist stage and there was no place 
for the Mexican people in the capitalist society. Therefore, 
the answer, for the Mexican people's problems would be a new 
society, the overthrow of capitalism, and the establishment 
of the dictatorship of the proletariat. 

The Communist Party's immediate objective became the establish- 
ment of an organization which would enfold Mexican- Americans 
throughout the Nation. The West Side Mexican Branch, as well as 
other Mexican branches throughout Denver, established the National 
Association of Mexican- Americans (ANMA). Founded in Los 
Angeles, its headquarters were moved to Denver in 1952. Here 
again, as in other front organizations, it only required 10 to 20 dedi- 
cated Communists, out of a total membership of 7,500, to gain com- 
plete control of the organization. Alfredo C. Montoya, its national 
president, also a member of the National Mexican Commission of the 
Communist Party, appeared before the committee on May 17. 
Montoya, who now resides in El Paso, Tex., was identified by Mr, 
Dui-an as a member of the Communist Party, He invoked the fifth 
amendment in refusing to answer questions concerning his position 
with the ANMA, and his alleged Communist Party membership. 



38 ANNUAL REPORT, C0]VOlITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

From his vantage point within the party, Mr. Duran was in a posi- 
tion to identify more than 70 individuals who to his knowledge were 
Communist Party members. The committee summoned 18 of these 
and gave them an opportunity to affii-m or deny the testimony of 
Mr. Duran. All invoked the fifth amendment and refused to state 
whether they were members of the Communist Party or had 
engaged in party activities. 

Duran also described a number of schools conducted by the party for 
Communist Party members. One of these operated in 1949 at the 
Ute Ranch, near Idaho Springs, Colo. Here, members were trained 
in the techniques of creating and spreading distrust in the American 
system of government. At another school, party leaders were kept 
apprized of the Communist Party line on the Korean conflict. Other 
schools were held at Estes Park and Evergreen, Colo., in 1951 and 
1952. 

Mr. Duran related some of the methods employed by the party in 
its obsession with secrecy. Some of the security measiu'es instituted 
by the party are depicted in the following excerpt: 

In 1948 when I entered the Mexican West Side Branch of 
the Communist Party we were told that no longer would the 
Communist Party issue membership cards, and that was for 
security reasons. At all times if we were arrested or ques- 
tioned we were to deny that we were Communist and at no 
time were we at liberty to admit Communist membership. 

In 1951, prior to the National Mexican Commission meet- 
ing of the Communist Party, Anna Bary also stressed again 
that no Communist can admit at any time that he is a 
Communist. 

In general, the security that the Communists took was to 
investigate all the membership whether or not they had any 
relatives in the Federal Government or local government or 
newspapers or radio. 

Approximately in 1951 when the top leadership went 
underground the system was established to where any 
messages they wanted delivered to the top leadership 
would be taken to the house of Richard Demming, and 
Richard Demming in turn would take it to Arnold Berkens, 
and Arnold Berkens would take it to another carrier outside 
the city, and that carrier would carry it to where the in- 
dividuals were at. 

In going to meetings we were to make absolutely sure we 
were not followed by any FBI or newspaper man or any 
unauthorized person or anybody who did not belong to the 
group. The members of one group were not to walk together. 
The meetings that were held were to be organized only in 
certain houses where not too many meetings were held 
before. 

A complete inspection would be made of the house and, 
if necessary, names were changed to code names. In our 
section the membership at first took on numbers, Nos. 1 to 15. 
When you paid your dues and got literature you gave a 
number, no name. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTTVITIES 39 

The committee is concerned by the increasing emphasis of the 
Communist Party on recruiting new members from the Nation's j^outh. 
Harold Page Martin, who testified in Denver, was able to describe 
this phase of Communist activity. The party's objective with respect 
to youth in the Colorado area was identical to that in other sections 
of the country. Mr, Martin testified that party members were in- 
structed to infiltrate mass youth organizations already in existence, 
or to create others centered around youth interests. Outlining the 
steps which led him to communism, Mr. Martin stated that he became 
interested in the subject of socialism during his senior year at high 
school. This interest was heightened by association with others of the 
same orientation ; ultimately it led to his joining the Young Communist 
League at the University of Colorado in 1942. Following his release 
from the Army, Mr. Martin joined the Communist Party and was 
eventually assigned to the student branch of Boulder, Colo., where he 
remained until he left the part}' in 1949. During this period, he served 
on the Youth Commission of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Martin further testified that at a State Communist Party con- 
vention held in Denver in 1948, specific plans were formulated direct- 
ing Communists to infiltrate basic industries. In order to implement 
this plan, party members were directed to forsake college training, 
minimize their native aptitudes, and, above all, disregard their per- 
sonal feelings. Young students were especially affected by these 
party directives. Mr. Martin testified further — 

Mr. Martin. The party at that time was developing the 
line of what was known as the concentration policy; that is, 
concentrating party members in areas in certain basic 
industries. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Martin. There was a feeling that by concentrating 
the party forces and party members and party energies in a 
certain few large industries where the larger nimiber of work- 
ers would be present, that party propaganda would be more 
successful and the recruiting and general building of the 
party would be carried on more effectively. 

Mr. Arens. What did the party do from the standpoint 
of causing the students to find themselves in basic industries 
or to locate themselves in basic industry? 

Mr. Martin. The party leadership locally felt at that 
time, following out the line of concentrating party members 
in industry, that all students who could be persuaded to do 
so and who were considered sufficiently poHtically developed 
and able to do so, should leave school and go into industry 
of some kind or other. 

Mr. Arens. Were they required to do so? 

Mr. Martin. They were not exactly required, but those 
students, who the party felt had the capability and had 
sufficient training and indoctrination really to be effective 
as party organizers in industry, were very strongly urged to 
do so, so strongly that it was practically a requirement. 

Mr. Martin displayed great courage in his willingness to cooperate 
with the committee and disclose his association with the Communist 
Party. The committee feels that his testimony, showing how individ- 



40 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITl'EE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

uals become involved with the party and what causes them to break 
from the movement, is an important contribution. The following is an 
excerpt from his testimony on this point: 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Martin, you were ideologically identified 
Avith the party; were you not? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Arens. You were a true Communist, were you not; 
that is, a conscientious member of the party, were you not? 

Mr. Martin. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. You eventually broke with the party; did you 
not? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us first of all what makes a Communist? 
ViHiy did you join the Communist Party? 

Air. Martin. That is a difficult question. People join 
the party for many reasons. One certainly was a Idnd of 
intellectual curiosity and a genuine desire to do something 
about the many things that are troubling us in the world 
today. Partly it was a social contact. The way I was 
recruited into the party was the way almost everyone else 
was recruited, following a regular policy of every party 
member getting to know other people personally, working 
with them, talking with them, discussirg t-hings with them, 
convincing them through personal contact. 

Mr, Arens. Is communism a disease of the heart or of the 
head in your judgment? 

Mr. Martin. I believe it is a disease of the head. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Martin. I think that the heart is in the right place; 
there is a desire to do something about the ills of the world. 
It is a mistaken path, a kind of intellectual egotism, I believe. 
The idea that a small group can hold the key to the answer 
to the whole thing within a small formula. 

Mr. Arens. It is based on a materialistic philosophy of 
life? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; it is, 

Mr. Arens. To what extent does the Communist Party 
use as a facade for its operations the great humanitarian 
issues, such as peace, brotherhood, and that sort of thing? 

Mr, Martin. The Communist Party uses every issue 
imaginable, large or small, that they feel will appeal to people 
at a particular time, that will draw people forward. The 
party always desires to have people in groups — ^the larger 
the groups the better — because in these groups they can 
reach them, influence them, work with them, recruit them, 
or at least mold them to their own ends. 

Mr, Arens. What caused you to break with the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Martin. More than anvthing else the concept the 
party calls and refers to as democratic centralism. The 
concept of strict, absolute authoritarianism. It is some- 
thing that the beginning recruit in the part}- does not see very 
clearly. It does not manifest itself so clearly within the 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVrnES 41 

branches tliroiighout the membership of the party as a 
whole. 

As one climbs higher in the party into higher and higher 
levels of activity, it becomes more and more pronounced 
until it becomes clear that, as you get up to the highest levels, 
the dedicated Communist, the genuine Bolshevik, regards 
himself, and is regarded by the party, simply as an instru- 
ment for carrying out .party decisions and party activities, 
with any other considerations, personal or otherwise, entirely 
subjected. 

That the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers is 
still controlled by a Communist element within its ranks became 
evident from testimony presented at the hearings when several current 
officers were identified as members of the Communist Party. "When 
called upon to testify conceraing alleged Communist Party activities, 
all invoked their constitutional privilege against self-incrimination. 
The individuals referred to include the follo^ving: 

Harold C. Sanderson, comptroller, national oflfice, Denver. 

Morris Wright, business agent, local 890, Bayard, N. Mex. 

Alfredo Montoya, business agent, locals 501, 509, and 903, El 
Paso, Tex. 

Rudolph B. Cook, supply department, headquarters, Denver. 

Virgil Akeson, secretar}' since 1941 in the legislative office as 
well as the national office. 

Anthony Morton, employed by the monthly organ of the ^line, 
Mill and Smelter Workers. 

Graham Dolan, on the staff of the publication. 

Bernard W. Stern, research director (identified by a witness in 
1955). 
The committee also heard testimony of R. C. Moorehead, an under- 
cover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, who served his 
country well by keeping the FBI informed of Communist Party activi- 
ties in the Phoenix, Ariz. , area for a period of 3 years — from 1947 to 1950. 
His first act in this role was to join the Communist Party branch com- 
posed of some 50 to 75 migratory workers witliin local 78 of the Food, 
Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers Union of America. Mr. 
Moorehead testified, however, that the local succeeded in ousting the 
Communists who were in control. Throughout his membership he 
kept the FBI informed as to the activities of the Communist Party 
in Arizona, and aided the Government in convicting seven Smith 
Act defendants in Denver in 1955. 

ST. LOUIS AREA 

Witnesses appearing before a subcommittee of the Committee on 
Un-American Acti\'ities in St. Louis June 2-8 disclosed that the Com- 
munist Party had succeeded in infiltrating various labor unions in 
vital industries and mass organizations in that area. 

Wilfiam W. Cortor, a member of the Communist Party from 1938 
to 1947, and again from 1951 to 1954, when he served as an under- 
cover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, named over 60 
persons he had known as members of the party in the St. Louis area. 
He testified about the breakdown of the membership into small tightly 
knit groups which became the general pattern in 1950, following the 



42 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTXVITIES 

first convictions of top Communist Party leaders under the Smith 
Act. This was done in order to conceal membership and activities 
and thus minimize exposure. Mr. Cortor continued as follows: 

Mr. Tavenner. * * * What security provisions did the 
Communist Party have at the time you again became a 
member of it in 1951? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, the group memberships were, in the 
vast majority of cases, limited to not over 4 in any 1 group. 
And there would be only one person in that group w^ho would 
be in contact with the next higher body, which would be the 
section. And then the section leaders, people in the sec- 
tion — there would be one person in that group who would 
be in contact with the next higher body, and so on up. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliat was the reason for that. Witness? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, they were afraid of being exposed. 

The committee has in the past heard considerable testimony con- 
cerning Communist infiltration and control of the United Electrical, 
Radio and Machine Workers of America and the National Maritime 
Union. Mr. Cortor corroborated previous testimony and added 
information as to tactics and methods utilized by Communists in their 
attempt to subvert and control labor unions. Typical of this was 
the situation within the River Section of the National Maritime 
Union in St. Louis. Here, Mr. Cortor related, some 11 individuals, 
all Communists, were able to completely dominate the union which 
consisted of about 2,000 members. It should be pointed out that the 
National Maritime Union, after numerous and persistent attempts, 
succeeded in purging itself of its subversive leadership in 1949. The 
UE, on the other hand, was expelled by the CIO in 1949 due to its 
complete domination by Communists. During the years 1953 to 
1954, the witness, through his employment at the Fisher Body plant 
of General Motors and his subsequent assignment to the automotive 
section of the Communist Party, also learned of another Communist 
Party group in that plant. 

From Mr. Cortor's testimony, the committee learned of several 
incidents involving "colonization" at a General Motors plant, as well 
as at other defense plants in the St. Louis area. "Colonization" is the 
Communist Party's own term for a particular tactic employed to 
infiltrate basic industries. In carrying out this objective, party 
members are urged, and often ordered, to obtain employment in basic 
industries. Many secure jobs under false pretenses by concealing 
their educational and professional training. Even college graduates, 
who would ordinarily qualify for much better positions, accept em- 
ployment as unskilled workers in order to carry on Communist 
propaganda and recruit workers. 

Typical cases of colonization were uncovered during the hearings: 
James Sage, after receiving his master's degree in educational admin- 
istration at Washington LTniversity, secured employment on the 
assembly line at General Motors. Henry Holland, also employed at 
General Motors, had received his bachelor's degree in physics from 
the same university. Their job applications failed to disclose the 
fact that they even had attended college. In the course of the 
hearings, both were identified as Communist Party members, but, 
when given an opportunity to deny the allegation, invoked their 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIMMITTEE ON UN-AJMERICAN ACTIYITIES 43 

constitutional privilege against self-incrimination and refused to 
answer questions propounded by the committee concerning Com- 
munist Party membership and activities. 

Mr. Cortor also testified about Communist activities within mass 
organizations in the St. Louis area. He himself had been assigned 
to work within the St. Louis branch of the National Negro Labor 
Council and the St. Louis Emergency Defense Committee, organized 
under the guise of obtaining ''justice" for defendants involved in the 
St. Louis Smith Act trial. The defense committee which published 
a periodical entitled the "St. Louis Defender," served almost ex- 
clusively as a loudspeaker for Communist propaganda in the area. 
Like many other "defense committees," the St. Louis organization 
solicited contributions ostensibly for the aid of Smith Act cases but 
actually for the Communist Party itself. 

Another witness was Thomas A. Younglove, an undercover operative 
for the FBI ^N-ithin the Communist Party from 1945 to 1949. His 
party membership ended ^^^th his appearance as a Government wdtness 
in the New York Smith Act trials. 

Younglove named more than 50 other individuals who to his 
knowledge -were Communist Party members, and also corroborated 
Mr. Cortor's identification of a number of others. Mr. Younglove 
was able to learn the identity of some of them when he served as dues 
secretary of the Southside Club of the Communist Party in St, Louis. 

Of inestimable value was his graphic description of schools con- 
ducted by the Communist Party, two of w^hich he attended. The 
following excerpt from the testimony by Mr. Younglove serves to 
point up the revolutionary aspect of the party's plan as taught in 
these schools: 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of this type of 
training that you have just spoken of? 

Mr. Younglove. Indoctrinate the members' minds, sabo- 
tage the minds, and unite those sabotaged minds into one, 
and order them back into the jobs and professions they came 
from, fixing iU wdll and distrust between the rich and the 
poor, between management and labor, between the student 
and his teacher. And our training was to support and create 
any and all kinds of revolution against the social and political 
order of things. 

Mr. ScHERER. When you say any and all kinds of revolu- 
tion, was this one of the schools where they actually taught 
the mechanics of sabotage? 

Mr. Younglove. That is correct. 

One of my instructors, by the name of Marcella Oser, stated 
in class that a condition for a successful revolution was a 
condition that must exist, when organized labor was organ- 
ized and led by the vanguard of the working people, and the 
masses were politically trained to follow. And, with a 
complete unification between the standing Army of our 
country and the Communist Party, it would never be neces- 
sary for them to take a defensive stand, for the defensive 
stand is the death of all armed uprisings, and w^e should 
strike at the most vulnerable spots when enemies least 
expect us to seize power, when its forces are scattered. 



44 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

To further illustrate the aims of the Communist Party, Mr. Younglove 
testified that in 1946, while employed by a St. Louis utility company, 
he took precautions to prevent his party membership from becoming 
known. That he was strategically placed for sabotage purposes is 
evident by his testimony : 

Mr. Younglove. I was told by one of the State officers 
of the Communist Party that my name would never be 
revealed as a party member. I was urged to keep my mem- 
bership secret in the Communist Party for I was in a vital 
industry. 

And I was further told, on the same occasion, that the 
membership list of the Communist Party was not kept at 
headquarters, but it was kept at a safe distance. 

At a later date I was assigned to drive a man whom I had 
never met before in my life. He was from New York City. 
He carried a press card in his pocket from the Daily Worker. 
He operated under the name of Whhlwind Larson. And on 
the second day of driving this man through many, many parts 
of the city, and visiting many addresses, of which he had the 
list, he told me I was the most valuable comrade in this part 
of the country. 

With the knowledge that I had of the explosives that I 
would use in the com"se of my work, and that at that time 
being in the natural-gas distribution system, employed by the 
Laclede Gas Light Co., the industry and the distribution 
system that supplied all of the heavy industry and most all 
of the light industry here, that I could blow it, blow it up out 
of the ground and keep it blown out. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wasn't it said often that in a city the size 
of St. Louis that all you need were about 15 trained com- 
rades in espionage to make ineffective a city such as St. 
Louis, that is, comrades properly placed in communications 
and utilities? 

Mr. Younglove. That was not said by Whirlwind. 
That was said — almost the exact words, only the number 
was less — by the State chairman, Ralph Shaw. 

Mr. Scherer. He said that you didn't need that many? 

Mr. Younglove. Not that many. 

Mr. Scherer. To disrupt a city the size of St. Louis? 

Mr. Younglove. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. How many did he say you would need? 

Mr. Younglove. About 5 or 6 weU, highly trained, highly 
disciplined core party personnel. 

Mr. Scherer. Placed where? Utilities? 

Mr. Younglove. Utilities, transportation, distribution, 
and waterworks. 

Two other witnesses, Joseph Schoemehl and the Reverend Obadiah 
Jones, both of whom served as informants for the FBI within the 
Communist Party, testified in executive session on June 2, 1956. 
Mr. Schoemehl, in addition to verifying revelations of other witnesses 
concerning schools conducted by the Communist Party, also corrobor- 
ated the identity of more than 30 active Communists in the St. Louis 
area. Particularly revealing was his description of the incident in 






ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITIEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 45 

1950 when he was called before a review commission for questioning 
to determine his fitness for continued membership in the Communist 
Party. This "trial," conducted by James Forest, Romey Hudson, 
and Helen Musiel, was cloaked in secrecy, and the defendant was not 
given benefit of counsel, nor was there a jury. However, as a result 
of the "trial," Mr. SchoemehPs party activities, for all intents and 
purposes, were terminated. 

The testimony of Reverend Obadiah Jones, a Negro, helped to cast 
further light on the attempt being made by the Communist Party to 
exploit the Negro race. The committee is deeply appreciative of the 
contnbution made by the Reverend Jones which amply corroborated 
testimony of other individuals who also were in a position to speak 
with authority on the subject. All agree that the Communist Party 
is not truly interested in the welfare of the Negro race, but only in 
using them to sow seeds of discontent and to further the avowed 
purpose of the party to create turmoil, dissension, and rebellion among 
the American people. 

Dr. John F. Rutledge, a former Communist and member of a 
professional group of the Communist Party in St. Louis, related to the 
committee how a person of intellectual curiosity can so easily become 
enmeshed in the insidious Communist web. Dr. Rutledge, a practicing 
physician, in recalling the circumstances which led to his succumbing 
to communism, stated he first became concerned with local social 
problems. Later, his interest in socialized medicine prompted his 
study of the Russian system as well as other European versions. 
Dm-ing the war years, a growing interest in Russia developed, which 
led to a study of Marxism, and eventual membership in the Com- 
munist Party. 

The party determined that Dr. Rutledge could best serve its purpose 
by becoming a concealed Conomunist. He was therefore assigned to 
work within various political mass organizations, which included in 
fairly rapid succession the National Citizens Political Action Com- 
mittee, the Progressive Citizens of America, the Missouri Citizens 
for Wallace, and the Progressive Party. 

The committee has maintained an interest in securing testimony 
relating to professional groups of the Communist Party. Such groups 
usually include doctors, lawyers, accountants, businessmen, and other 
professional people who naturally are of great importance to the party, 
due to their influence and affluence. 

While in St. Louis, the committee summoned Douglas MacLeod, an 
attorney, and Dr. Sol Londe, a physician, both of whom had been 
identified during the course of the hearings as members of the Com- 
munist Party. However, Mr. MacLeod and Dr. Londe invoked the 
fifth amendment when asked about their Communist Party member- 
ship. 

Testimony, as weU as committee investigation, has produced 
voluminous information on the Communist Party control and domi- 
nation of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. 

Seeking to enlarge upon its store of information, the conmiittee 
called before it, in St. Louis, Linus Wampler, an international repre- 
sentative in the Missouri area of the Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. 
According to Wampler's own testimony, the district which he repre- 
sents has bargaining contracts in such vital defense plants as the 
National Lead Co. at Fredericktown, Mo., the Valley Dolomite 



46 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Corporation of Bonne Terre, Mo., the National Lead Co. at Baxter 
Springs, Kans., and the Humboldt Brick & Tile Co., at Humboldt, 
Kans. However, when the committee attempted to elicit information 
from Mr. Wampler as to the extent of Communist control of the 
Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers in his district or questioned him 
concerning his own Communist Party membership, he invoked the 
fifth amendment and refused to answer. 

The committee also called George Kimmel, a former president of 
the Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers' local at Ste. Genevieve, Mo., 
which was in Wampler's district until it lost its bargaining rights in 
a recent election. It was hoped that he would supply information 
on the extent of Communist infiltration of that local. He invoked 
the fifth amendment when questioned concerning his local and his 
Communist Party membership. 

NEW HAVEN AREA 

Efforts of the Communist Party to expand its apparatus in the Bridge- 
port-New Haven area of Connecticut were examined by the committee 
in hearings held in New Haven, September 24-26. Four former 
FBI undercover agents testified that the objectives of the party were 
to win control of legitimate labor unions; "colonize" basic industries; 
proselytize youth and students; and generally organize large numbers 
of non-Cormnunists for political action on behalf of the Communist 
Party. 

Harold Kent, an employee of the General Electric Co. since 1943, 
described Communist activities in the industrial center of Bridgeport. 
Kent was an FBI undercover agent within the Communist Party from 
1952 until early 1956, when he appeared as a Government witness at 
the Connecticut Smith Act trial. 

The other former FBI undercover agents were Miss Rowena 
Paumi, a Bridgeport hairdresser; Worden C. Mosher of New Haven, 
who held key posts in various Communist Party branches in New 
Haven during the years 1939 to 1950; and Mosher's son, Harold W. 
Mosher, of Hamden, Conn., who had participated in Communist 
Party work among youth. 

Mr. Kent achieved a high rank in the Connecticut Communist 
Party apparatus. He served on the city committee of the party and 
the State Negro commission and, most important, was a member of 
the five-man "concealed" State board. This top body of the Com- 
munist Party met twice monthly in New York to formulate long-range 
activities for the State as a whole. These directives were passed on to 
local Communist clubs and to individuals for execution. Members 
of this top policy board, besides Mr. Kent, were Sid Taylor, chairman 
of the Connecticut Communist Party, Robert Ekins, Jacob Goldring, 
and Irving Dichter. Taylor, Ekins, and Goldring were recently con- 
victed under the Smith Act for conspiring to advocate the overthrow 
of the Government by force and violence. 

Identified as members of the Communist Party during the hearings 
were Oliver R. Arsenault, former member of the Bridgeport Board of 
Education, and Frank Fazekas, who were founders and the first 
president and treasurer, respectively, of Local 203 of the United Elec- 
trical, Radio and Machine Workers of America. They remained in 
office for a period of 7 years from the time the local was founded in 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 47 

the mid thirties, and were among those expelled at a later date by the 
union. This local represented the workers at the General Electric 
Co. plant for more than 10 years until it lost its bargaining rights in 
an election. When called to testify before the subcommittee sitting 
at the New Haven hearings, Arsenault and Fazekas invoked the fifth 
amendment and refused to answer questions regarding party member- 
ship or activities in behalf of the party. By their own testimony, 
they were still employed at the General Electric plant at the time of 
the hearing. Also identified as a Communist was Irving Dichter, 
now a member of the executive board of the International Union of 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers of America and who has represented 
the international in an oflBcial capacity in various sections of the 
country since 1941. He too invoked the fifth amendment when 
questioned concerning Communist affiliations and activities. 

A case of "colonization" came to light when a witness identified as 
a Communist Party member withheld the fact that he had completed 
the scholastic requirements for a degree when appljang for his present 
job as a bench hand with the Singer Manufacturing Co. This is the 
usual pattern engaged in by those educated individuals who, under the 
direction of the Communist Party, conceal their background in order 
to be in a better position to spread the Communist doctrine among 
workers. 

The People's Party, an affihate of the Progressive Party, served as 
another vehicle for Communist activities in Connecticut. It was ap- 
parent from testimony that the Communist Party succeeded in placing 
Communists on the People's Party ticket. 

Mr. Arens. Now during the course of your experience in 
the Communist Party were you active at any time in the 
People's Party? 

Mr. Kent. Back during the days of 1949 and 1950 I was. 

Mr. Arens. Can you identify the People's Party? What 
was it? 

Mr. Kent. It was a political party which in my area, in my 
knowledge, was controlled by the Conmaunist Party. Most 
of the leaders in the organization were members of the 
Communist Party to my loiowledge * * *. 

Mr. Arens. In what area was that? 

Mr. Kent. Bridgeport. 

Miss Paumi was able to supply information on recent Communist 
activities in the Bridgeport area. Functioning as a dues collector 
and as a worker on membership committees in several Communist 
Party branches, she was able to learn the identity of some 25 indi- 
viduals under Communist Party discipline. In the following excerpt, 
Miss Paumi describes some of the party's policies and security 
procedures: 

Mr. Arens. Do j'ou have information respecting the 
activities and techniques of the Communist Party under- 
ground in Connecticut? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a brief description of the functions 
and activities of the underground operations of the Com- 
munist Party in Connecticut. 



48 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Miss Paumi. Well, I believe they started in 1950, around 
the time of the first arrest of the 10—11, it was. When they 
were first arrested, we started to take security measures. 
We were told not to use the phones for contact because they 
were always afraid somebody would tap the phones, and we 
were contacted. At any closed meetings, we were contacted 
personally. We weren't using the mail as much as we had 
used it previously. If it was an open meeting, we would 
send fliers out, or letters, at that time, and also, if it was a 
closed meeting, they would call us up and say to be at 
somebody's house at a certain time. We would be picked 
up and then we would go to the meetmg, wherever it was. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting 
change of identity, appearance of any of the comrades? 

Miss Paumi. I have known of mstances where some tried. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a few illustrations of that? 

Miss Paumi. I do know of one instance where I was asked 
to change the appearance of one of the leaders of the Com- 
munist Party in Connecticut. 

***** 

Mr. Arens. What is the objective of the Communist 

Party? 

Miss Paumi. Well, the objective of the Communist Party 
is to — their main concentration was in the industrial plants 
to get as many Communist Party members in industrial 
plants so that we could recruit more members into the 
Communist Party, and also the Communist Party feels 
that sociahsm will be here very soon. 

Mr. Arens. By socialism, they mean communism, do 
they not? 

Miss Paumi. Communism. We were taught at a recent 
class, I would say in 1953, that war was inevitable between 
communism and capitalism. 

Mr. Arens. How serious is the Communist conspiracy, 
particularly in the Connecticut area of which you have 
Imowledge? 

Miss Paumi. To my knowledge, I would say it is a serious 
threat to the industrial part of Connecticut and to the 
United States. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi, you at one time actually were 
ideologically identified with the Communist Party, were 
you not? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell this committee in a casual 
way, informal way, what makes a Communist? 

Miss Paumi. Well, I would say that if they were the 
intellectual type of person, I would say that it is a change 
for them; that they want to see a change, and that is their 
way out. Also, I would say it is a person who has had some 
disappointment in life or has some sort of complex or has 
something in their background that they want to hide, and 
where they are not welcome in society. 

Mr. Arens. Are they dedicated? 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIYITIES 49 

Miss Paumi. I would say 90 percent are dedicated, but 
some are not. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any doubt in their minds but that 
they are going to overthrow the Government of the United 
States and eventually control the world? 

Miss Paumi. I wouldn't say that there is any doubt in 
then- minds about that. I think they believe that. 

Miss Paumi also testified that the Connecticut Peace Council and 
the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights were controlled by the 
Communist Party. 

The committee learned from the testimony of Worden C. Mosher, 
that at the time he operated as an undercover agent within the Com- 
munist Party there were 800 to 900 members in the State of Connecti- 
cut, approximately 200 of whom were in the New Haven area. Among 
branches of the Communist Party Mr. Mosher identified the Howe 
Street Club ; Dixwell Club ; Grand Avenue Club ; Branford Club ; Youth 
Club; Industrial Club; Railroad Club; and the Professional Club. 
Party work among youth in universities was facilitated by the forma- 
tion of Communist clubs at Yale University and the University of 
Connecticut. 

Mosher further stated that 1 or 2 dedicated Communists in any 
industrial plant was all the party needed to spearhead its work among 
labor. By becoming stewards or organizers in the local union, these 
Communists were in a strategic position to influence other union mem- 
bers, and thereby attempt to gain control of the union. 

Harold Mosher informed the subcommittee that he had devoted 
more than 3 years to Communist Party youth work in New Haven in 
order to expose this phase of the Communist conspiracy. He first 
became recruiting director for the youth branch of the party; later he 
was dues secretary of the Labor Youth League which replaced the 
Yoimg Communist League as the top Marxist youth organization. 
He also testified that in the period from 1949 to 1950 there were some 
25 members in the Labor Youth League organization in the New 
Haven area. 

YOUNGSTOWN AREA 

The committee held hearings in Youngstown, Ohio, on November 
26, 27, and 28, 1956. The first 2 days of these hearings dealt pri- 
marily with the operation of the Communist Party undergi'ound 
apparatus in northern Ohio, attempts by the Communists to infiltrate 
vital industrial centers in the area, and the general Communist Party 
organizational structure in the Youngstown area. The third day 
comprised a continuation of the committee's hearings on Communist 
political subversion. 

Twenty witnesses were heard dm'ing the first 2 days. Among these 
was David W. Garfield, who had been the leader of the Communist 
Party underground appai'atus in northern Ohio from 1950 to 1952. 
Garfield, who originally joined the party in 1941, was active in the 
party in Youngstown until 1948. During this period he served as 
chairman of the Youth Club of the party, and was also a member of 
the Youngstown Section Committee of the Communist Party. In 
1948, he was assigned by the party as section organizer in the Canton, 
Ohio, area. 



50 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIYITIES 

Garfield provided a wealth of details concerning the party organi- 
zation in Youngstown and Canton, and its plans for infiltrating these 
two vital industrial areas. He identified several persons as members 
of the Communist Party, who are currently employed in basic industry 
in the area. 

Frank Peoples, a former FBI undercover operative from Lorain, 
Ohio, who was chairman of a steel gi*oup in Lorain, also testified and 
corroborated Garfield's testimony concerning the importance to the 
party of infiltrating the steel industry. The following is a significant 
excerpt from his testimony on this point: 

Mr. Arens. * * * What importance does the Communist 
Party attach to infiltration in the steel industry and in heavy 
industry? 

Mr, Peoples. Infiltrating, we were taught in the party, is 
very important in all basic industries. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Peoples. It is important for the building of the Com- 
munist Party, and we were taught to strengthen the Com- 
munist Party in this country whereby the forces would be 
strong enough so that when the proper time arrived, as they 
called it, they could take over the Government. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive any instruction in the Com- 
munist Party while you were an undercover agent for the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, in devices, modes of 
sabotage to stop production in a plant in the event the 
whistle is blown by the hierarchy of the conspiracy? 

Mr. Peoples. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us just a word about that, sir? 

Mr. Peoples. One specific incident that I remember very 
clearly is in the plant where I work. We had one Reuel 
Stanfield, who, at that time was a member of our branch. 
At that time he was employed in the fuel and power depart- 
ment of the National Tube Co. At one of our Communist 
meetings, the importance was being stressed among the vari- 
ous members of the group on members of the party holding 
strategic positions in industry. This Stanfield at that time 
expressed the importance of his position. He said that in 
the department where he worked, which was the fuel and 
power, he could stop production within this plant, the entire 
plant, within just a few minutes. In fact, he could shut 
down the entire plant within 10 minutes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that taught to the specialized comrades 
as to how to do all of this, to stop production? 

Mr. Peoples. Yes; indeed. 

In connection with the underground operation of the Communist 
Party in Ohio, David Garfield testified that in 1950, when he was 
directed by the party to assume leadership in the underground appa- 
ratus, he disassociated himself from the open party and moved from 
Canton to Cleveland, Ohio. According to Garfield, the purpose of 
establishing the underground was to assure a reserve force of dedi- 
cated Communists in the event of a major crackdown on the party 
by the Federal Government. He provided the committee with valu- 
able information on the machinations of the underground movement. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIVIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACnVITIES 51 

Garfield described the extreme security precautions taken by the 
members of the underground to avoid detection. As a precaution, 
assumed names were used, attempts were made to disguise physical 
appearances, coded messages sent by selected couriers were used for 
correspondence, rendezvous and meetings were highly secretive, and 
only a few of the more highly placed, trusted party members were 
aware of the members' true identity or location. Garfield, as the 
No. 1 man, was furnished a telephone number in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
by which he could be put -in touch with the national underground 
operation. 

Garfield also testified that a reserve fund of $20,000 to $30,000 was 
established for use of the Communist Party underground in Ohio. 
This fund was to be used only in case of an emergency. 

In an endeavor to obtain additional information on the underground 
operation in northern Ohio, the committee subpenaed several other 
witnesses who it believed possessed the desired information. One 
such witness was Edward Chaka, whom Garfield had described as 
being active in the imderground and also as one of the persons in 
charge of the underground fund. The committee produced Chaka's 
employment record ^vith a company in Cleveland, which indicated his 
employment had been continuous from May 1946 until September 
1951. In April 1956, Chaka returned to the same company and 
informed his employer that during the period from 1951 to 1956, he 
had been "self-employed (odd jobs)." However, the committee 
produced an employment record of his wife, Betty, which revealed 
that in 1954, she was employed in Aki'on, Ohio, under the name of 
Jean Horner, listing her husband as John. Both Betty and Edward 
Chaka refused, on the basis of the fifth amendment, to state whether 
or not they had ever resided in Alo-on, had used assumed names or had 
participated in the Communist Party underground movement. 

Another witness who the committee believed possessed important 
information concerning the underground operations was Hyman 
Lumer. His identification as a Communist Party member has been 
well established by several witnesses who testified previously before 
the committee. The committee possesses information that Lumer 
only recently returned to the open apparatus of the party and is 
cm-rently district organizer for the Ohio Communist Party. The 
committee was able to produce copies of a driver's license and a social- 
secm'ity card which had been issued to Lumer under the name of 
Robert Harold Meyers. Lumer refused, on the basis of the fifth 
amendment, to identify these documents or to state whether or not 
they were used by him in connection with his activities in the under- 
ground apparatus. 

Another important phase of the Youngstown hearings dealt with an 
organization in Yoimgstown known as the United Cultural Association. 
This organization, which owns a lai^e home in Youngstown, was 
organized in 1947 and is currently operating. Garfield testified that 
while he was in Youngstown, he had attended numerous Communist 
Party functions held at the home of the United Cultural Association. 
The committee produced bank records on the organization which 
indicated that the current officers are Spiridon Comanita, president; 
and Eh Nadrich, secretary and treasurer. Garfield identified both 
these individuals as Communist Party members, and both invoked 
the fifth amendment when^questioned_conceming^the^Communist 



52 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Party and the United Cultural Association. From the evidence 
before the committee, it is clear that the United Cultural Association 
is a facade for the Communist conspiracy. 

Kepresentative Edwin E, Willis, chairman of the subcommittee 
which met in Youngstown, summarized the results of the hearings in 
a concluding statement: 

* * * We have learned, for example, of one more part of 
the widespread Communist underground apparatus directed 
by dedicated hard-core men and women. We have received 
evidence of the Communist techniques of infiltration, con- 
spiracy and potential sabotage and espionage. We have been 
able to determine that despite the Ohio Smith Act trials of 
several years ago, which, it was hoped, would decapitate the 
leadership of the Communist Party in tliis area, the Com- 
munist organization has been able to maintain and even 
extend itself, and stands today as a grave and continuing 
threat. 

This is proof, again, that no single blow is sufficient to 
dissolve and immobilize the Communist conspiracy, and that 
continuing and relentless efforts by agencies of this Govern- 
ment, such as this committee, are essential. 

Communist propaganda continues to flood this area, 
through concealed Communists and through front organi- 
zations. The purpose of these Communist activities is to 
confuse and weaken the will to resist the Communist 
advances, and to destroy the executive and legislative pro- 
gram which has been designed to obstruct the operation of a 
Communist apparatus in this area and throughout the entire 
United States * * *. 

EXECUTIVE MEETINGS 

Numerous executive committee meetings were held during 1956 
at which the committee discussed at length the subjects under investi- 
gation and proposals for remedial legislation. Excerpts from minutes 
of such executive committee meetings held by the committee during 
the current and other years relating to certain contempt matters, are 
set forth in appendix III. "* 

CONTEMPT PROCEEDINGS 

Challenges made by witnesses to the pertinency of committee 
questions and the existence of a legislative purpose were almost 
universally unsuccessful in contempt cases which came to trial in 1956. 
Nine committee witnesses who had refused to answer material ques- 
tions were tried on contempt charges during the year. All but one of 
them were convicted. 

The House of Representatives, in 1956, voted contempt citations 
against eight other witnesses who refused to answer committee ques- 
tions. Their cases have not yet come to trial, however. 

Important decisions were rendered by the courts during 1956 in 
the following contempt cases: 

I- Marcus Singer, associate professor of zoology at Cornell University, 
and a witness before a subcommittee on May 26, 1953, in the field of 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 53 

education, was convicted on a contempt charge for refusal to answer 
material questions. He was given a 3-month suspended sentence and 
a fine of $100. His case is pending in the circuit court of appeals. 

Goldie E. Watson, an elementary teacher in the Martha Washington 
Public School of Philadelphia, Pa., was a witness in the field of educa- 
tion before the committee on February 17, 1954. She was convicted 
under the contempt statute for refusing to answer material questions. 
A sentence of 3 months' confinement and a fine of $1,000 was imposed. 
The jail sentence was suspended. 

Bernhard Deutch was questioned on April 12, 1954, regarding his 
knowledge of Communist Party activities while a graduate student at 
Cornell University. Although admitting his former Communist 
Party membership, he refused to answer material questions relating 
to his party activities. The indictment was dismissed on motion of 
the court. This action was reversed by the circuit court of appeals. 
There was a conviction on trial, the sentence imposed being 90 days 
in jail and $100 fine. The fine was remitted. An appeal was taken. 

John T. Watkins was questioned by the committee on April 29, 
1954, regarding his knowledge of Communist Party activities. He 
was indicted under the contempt statute for his refusal to answer 
material questions and was convicted and sentenced to 12 months 
in prison and a fine of $500. The jail sentence was suspended. On 
appeal the case was reversed by the United States circuit court of 
appeals. However, at a rehearing en banc, ordered on petition of the 
Government, the original conviction was affirmed. The case is 
reported in 233 F. 2d. 681. Certiorari was granted to the Supreme 
Court where the case is now pending. 

Lloyd Barenblatt was interrogated on June 28, 1954, regardmg his 
knowledge of Communist Party activities while a student at the 
University of Michigan. He was convicted under the contempt 
statute and sentenced to imprisonment of 6 months and a fine of 
$250. The case is pending in the circuit court of appeals. 

Norton Anthony Russell, an employee of Vernay Laboratories, an 
affiliate of Antioch College, Dayton, Ohio, was questioned regarding 
his knowledge of Communist Party activities. On refusal to answer 
material questions, he was indicted, tried, and convicted under the 
contempt statute. A sentence was imposed of 30 days in jail and a 
fine of $500. An appeal has been taken to the United States circuit 
court of appeals. 

John T. Gojack, general vice president of United Electrical, Radio, 
and Machine Workers of America, and president of district No. 9, 
was indicted, tried, and convicted under the contempt statute for re- 
fusing to answer material questions when a witness before the com- 
mittee on February 28, 1955. He was given a sentence of 9 months' 
confinement and a fine of $500. An appeal was taken. 

A subpena duces tecum was issued requiring Arthur McPhaul, execu- 
tive secretary of the Civil Rights Congress of Michigan, to produce 
certain records of that organization before a subcommittee sitting in 
Detroit, Mich., on February 27, 1952. He was indicted, tried, and 
convicted under the contempt statute for his refusal to produce such 
records and to answer material questions. Sentence has not yet been 
imposed. 

In addition to the convictions in the above cases, there are two cases 
of contempt which have been tried in the State of Michigan, but the 



54 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

decisions of the courts have not been handed down. One is the case 
of Bolza Baxter, Jr., upon whom a subpena duces tecum had been 
served requiring the production of certain books and records of the 
Labor Youth League of Micliigan before a subcommittee sitting in 
Detroit, on May 5, 1954. The other involves a contempt charge 
against Dr. Horace Chandler Davis for refusal to answer material 
questions propounded to him in a hearing conducted in Lansing, Mich., 
on the 10th day of May 1954. 

The onl}^ district court decision adverse to the committee during 
the year 1956 is the case of Millie Markison, who was called as a 
witness before the committee on July 14, 1954. Although there was 
a finding of guilty in this case, a motion for judgment of acquittal, 
notwithstanding the verdict, was granted. 

The committee is appreciative of the diligence and skill exhibited 
by Government attorne^^s in the presentation of these cases. 

At the recommendation of the committee, the House of Representa- 
tives voted contempt citations against the following individuals during 
the past year: George Tyne, Elliott Sullivan, Peter Seeger, John W. 
Simpson, William E. Davis, Anne Yasgur Kling, Otto Nathan, and 
Arthur Miller. 

George Tyne, Elliott Sullivan, and Peter Seeger were witnesses at a 
hearing conducted in New York Cit}^ on the 15th day of August 1955. 
John W. Simpson, William E. Davis, and Anne Yasgur Kling were 
witnesses at St. Louis, Mo., at hearings beginning June 4, 1956. Otto 
Nathan and Arthur Miller were witnesses heard in Washington, 
D. C, on June 12 and 21, 1956. All were cited for contempt by reso- 
lutions of the House of Representatives and their cases were referred 
to the proper Federal court districts for indictment and trial. None 
of these cases has come to trial. 

REFERENCE SERVICE 

The reference service furnished to Members of Congress, to com- 
mittee staff members, and to the various agencies of the executive 
branch of the Government during the past year has kept pace with 
the growth of the activities of the committee. 

This service is based upon a unique collection of material on the 
subject of subversive activities. It has been maintained by the com- 
mittee over many years and has gi-own appreciably during the past 
year. The collection is distinguished by the fact that it contains a 
large amount of original or primary source material. Consequently, 
the information which is reported in answer to reference requests is 
based for the most part upon actual documents in committee files, 
testimony given under oath before the committee, or the results of 
investigations as described in reports published by the committee. 

According to committee rules, this specialized reference service is 
supplied to Members of Congress only, and in the interest of accuracy, 
regulations require that the requests and answers be made in writing. 

During 1956, over 1,350 requests were received from Members of 
the Senate and the House of Representatives for information on 5,309 
individuals and 966 organizations or publications. In each instance, 
a separate check was made of each individual and organization. A 
total of 3,562 individuals and 408 organizations were reported to have 
a record of Communist or pro-Communist activity. There were 
nearly 800 more reports written in 1956 than in the preceding year. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 55 

In order to increase efficiency, a number of reports on recurring 
subjects were mimeographed and a revised method of reporting was 
devised to shorten answers without omitting any essential information. 

Although facilities of the reference section are open to all staff 
members for their use in making checks, this section supplied other 
members of the committee's staff with additional service which varied 
widely, according to need, from a simple clicck with verbal answer, or 
the assembling and loan of material, to written reports in either tabu- 
lar or narrative form. In 1956, staff requests necessitated a check for 
information on 5,339 individuals and 614 organizations, publications, 
or broader subjects and resulted in a total of 2,512 Nvritten reports — 
almost 1,200 more than in 1955. Moreover, approximately 1,100 
documents, newspapers, and periodicals were withdrawn from files and 
photostatic copies of them obtained for use as exhibits in the prepara- 
tion for, and actual conduct of, the committee's hearings. 

Both card and printed indexes, committee publications, and some 
files are made available to properly designated representatives of the 
various departments of the executive branch of our Government. 
Since space and facilities are entirely inadequate to meet the great 
demand for this privilege, the number of persons from any one agency 
who are permitted to check has been limited. Even under these con- 
ditions, almost 3,200 visits were made by designated representatives 
of the executive agencies during 1956. Almost one-half of these visits 
extended over the period of a full working day. 

The reference collection has been greatly enriched during the past 
year not only by an increased flow of material acquired through regular 
procedures, but also by special material numbering thousands of pieces 
secured through the cooperation of various sources. 

LEGISLATIVE RECO.MjNIENDATIONS 

The Committee on Un-American Activities, in the discharge of the 
duties imposed upon it by rule XI (17) and (26), conducted extensive 
nationwide investigations and hearings during the year 1956. These 
are the basis of the follo^^'ing recommendations to Congress for the 
enactment of legislation which the committee feels is necessary for 
the strengthening and clarification of legislation in the field of 
un-American activities: 

1 . The long-continuing investigation of the misuse of passports by 
subversives and concealment of facts relating to Communist connec- 
tions and associations in passport matters, culminated in the holding 
of extensive public hearings on this subject in 1956. In carrying out 
the purpose of the committee to ascertain the procedures b}^ which the 
Communist Party has been able to obtain passports, and make pos- 
sible illegal travel for Communist Party members and sympathizers, 
the committee undertook to review and study the procedures of the 
State Department in the issuance of passports and the functioning of 
the State Department in the execution of the laws and regulations 
relating thereto. 

These hearings and studies impel the committee to make the follow- 
ing specific and general recommendations: 

(a) The committee is of the opmion that the use of passports 
by the Communist conspu-acy constitutes a threat to national 
security and an interference with the orderly conduct of foreign 



56 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

relations. The committee is further of the opinion that conceal- 
ment by passport applicants of their true destination in foreign 
travel and their full purpose in visiting foreign countries, as well 
as concealment of their former connections and associations with 
the Communist Party or its functionaries, has operated against 
the best interest of this country. The testimony amply justifies 
the conclusion that an organized effort, spearheaded by the Com- 
munist Party, is being made to disrupt and break down the 
hitherto reasonably satisfactory administrative enforcement of 
the laws and regulations relating to the issuance of passports. 

Although recognizing the historic discretion of the Secretary 
of State to issue, withhold or limit passports under regulations 
adopted pursuant to Executive orders, the committee believes 
that the hand of the Secretary should be strengthened by 
the enactment of legislation expressing the will and intent of the 
legislative branch of the Government spelled out in direct and 
positive form. It is believed to be highly important that this 
historic discretion of the Secretary of State specifically be made 
applicable, by statutory definition, to international travel of 
adherents to the Communist Partj^; that statutory recognition 
be given to basic regulations now governing passport matters; 
that specific statutory authority be given to the Secretary of 
State to issue substantive regulations in the passport field; and 
that specific statutory sanction be given to the review procedure 
in denial cases to insure freedom from arbitrary and capricious 
action, and protection of constitutional rights. 

In view of the importance of these matters in the field of foreign 
- relations and national security, a tight control of the issuance of 
passports should be observed. To assure accomplishment of this 
objective, penal sanctions should be provided for the issuance by 
Government officials of passports in violation of the express will 
and intent of Congress and of the regulations promulgated by 
the Secretary of State pursuant to statutory authority. 

It is believed that H. R. 11582 introduced on June 4, 1956, if 
enacted into law, would satisfactorily achieve most of the basic 
recommendations made by the committee on this subject, pro- 
vided that penal sanctions omitted in the bill are added. 

{b) Glaring instances have come to the attention of the com- 
mittee of certain foreign travel by nationals of this country, 
neither Communist nor subversive, at times, in areas, and under 
circumstances rendering such foreign travel against the best in- 
terest of this country. In the opinion of the committee, serious 
consideration should be given to the extension of legislation 
governing the issuance of passports, to cases coming within this 
category. 

(c) It has come to the attention of the committee during the 
com-se of its studies, that there is justification for confusion in 
the administration of the passport laws. These laws, basically 
contained in the act of 1927 and its numerous amendments, 
have been weakened and vitiated in instances by court decisions 
and modified and superseded in others by the Immigration and 
Nationality Act, known also as the Walter-McCarran Act. The 
extended period over which applicable statutes were enacted and 
their heterogeneous character make a satisfactory determination 



ANNUAL REPORT, COIVIMITTEE ON UN-ALIERICAN ACTIVITIES 57 

of legislative intent extremely difficult. In the opinion of the 

committee, the enth-e problem of regulatory statutes governing 

issuance of passports, their limitations and extensions, in terms of 

time and geographical area, should come under review for the 

purpose of enacting a comprehensive codified statute covering 

the entire subject. 

2. The experience of the committee with recalcitrant witnesses 

during the year 1956 has brought into focus the urgent need for 

remedial legislation in this field. A study of this problem involves 

consideration of: 

(a) The Immunity Act"; 

(b) A more expeditious method of dealing with contempt; and 

(c) A method by which committee hearings may be protected 
against interference by misconduct of witnesses, counsel, and 
others. 

(a) The Immunity Act provides for a procedure by which a witness 
appearing before a grand jury or a congressional committee may under 
certain circumstances be granted immunitjr from prosecution. The 
constitutionality of this act was sustained in the case of Ullman v. 
United States, 350 U. S. 422, which involved testimony before a 
grand jury. However, no congressional committee has resorted to the 
provisions of the act. The committee is of the opinion that further 
observation of the functioning of the act is needed before making 
any specific recommendations relating thereto. 

(6) The importance of streamlining procedures by which con- 
gressional committees may seek legal redress against contemptuous 
witnesses was pointed out in the committee's annual report for 1955. 
H. R. 780 approved by the House but not acted upon by the Senate 
is a step forward in the solution of this problem and its adoption is 
recommended. This proposal permits congressional committees by 
majorit}' vote to refer a defiant witness directly to the court. If the 
court determines that the witness has been in contempt and he so 
continues, the witness mo^y then be adjudged in contempt of the court 
itself, thus avoiding extensive delaj^s under the present cumbersome 
process requiring House resolution, transmittal to the United States 
attorney, presentation to a grand jury, and trial. This would serve 
as an alternate remedy to be resorted to in extreme cases. 

(c) A witness by the name of George Tony Starkovich was guilty of 
gross misconduct before the committee in a hearing conducted in 
Seattle in 1953 The witness carefully avoided being placed in the 
position of refusing to answer questions propounded to him, but in his 
answers he was guilty of such gross insolence, contempt, and derision 
of the members of the committee that the hearings were disrupted and 
a Communist scheme to prevent the orderly completion of the hearings 
was on the verge of success. The public was astounded that there 
appeared to be no remedy for such an intolerable situation. The 
committee endeavored to make a test case, and Starkovich was indicted 
on the theory that his misconduct constituted a violation of his sub- 
pena and that he was in contempt of the House of Representatives 
within the meaning of title 2, United States Code, section 192. The 
court, in adversely disposing of the committee's contention, stated: 

* * * as far as this particular judge is concerned, there 
isn't any question about it but what additional legislation is 
needed in this field to clarify the situation. * * * The only 
thing that you can prosecute under section 192 is * * * 



58 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

either a failure to show up after proper summoning, and so 
on, or a refusal to answer specific questions. And the mis- 
conduct of the witness, however outrageous, however shock- 
ing it may be to the sense of propriety or whatever, is not a 
violation of 192 in my judgment, and accordingly if the 
Congress feels that that kind of conduct should be made 
punishable — and I daresay they wouldn't get much objection 
from anybody on that — they had better legislate on it. 

The outrageous conduct of Starkovich was repeated by a num- 
ber of witnesses dm'iug 1956. One instance is the case of Paul 
Robeson, whose conduct when appearing as a witness before the 
committee was so disruptive that it was necessary to adjourn the 
hearings. As a result of the continued study that the committee has 
given to this problem, it is recommended that title 8, United States 
Code, sections 192 and 194, be amended so as to provide that every 
person who misbehaves in the presence of either House or any joint 
committee established by a joint or concurrent resolution of the two 
Houses, or any committee or subcommittee of either House of Con- 
gress, or so near thereto as to obstruct such House or committee in 
the performance of its duties, shall be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor and punishable in the manner now prescribed for the refusal of 
a witness to answer any question pertment to the matter under inquiry. 
It is suggested that the language of such a proposed amendment should 
follow, as nearly as possible, the language of the Federal statute relat- 
ing to punishment by a court for contempt committed in its presence, 
since the language in that statute has been the subject of litigation and 
th€ scope of that act has been legally defined. By such an amendment, 
the committee and the House of Representatives may proceed against 
the offender for contempt when guilty of such misbehavior in the same 
manner as they now proceed when a witness refuses to answer. 

3. Testimony received in hearings conducted in widely separated 
areas of the country clearly demonstrates that provisions of the 
Lobbying Act are being violated by numerous organizations and 
associations, in many instances under Communist influence and 
direction, which are trying to influence Congress in the repeal of 
legislation enacted in the field of subversion and security. Their 
activity, in the judgment of the committee, comes within the three 
prerequisites for coverage under the Lobbjdng Act as defined in the 
opinion of Chief Justice Warren, in the case of the United States v. 
Harrws, 347 U. S. 612. Beyond this, it would be wefl to clarify the 
provisions of the act so as to remove any doubt regarding its appli- 
cability. The act should clearly make it an offense for all officers, 
members, and employees of such organizations and associations to 
engage in such activities without complying with the provisions of 
the Lobbying Act. 

4. As indicated in this annual report, testimony taken before the 
committee reflects the difficulties encountered by the Post Office De- 
partment in attempting to intercept the tremendous flow of political 
propaganda entering this country in violation of section 1 (j) of the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act and the extremely harmful effect of 
such propaganda upon the morale of a fine stratum of newly made 
citizens. It is urged that Government departments concerned give 
consideration to the facts brought to light during the course of these 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 59 

hearings, with a view to strengthening the wealaiesses in the act and 
to adoptmg more effective means of counteracting the schemes and 
devices used in avoiding the prohibitions of the statute. Committee 
plans envision continued study of this problem. 

5. The investigations and hearings of the committee dm-ing 1956 
and prior years have disclosed fraudulent use by functionaries of the 
Communist Party of social-security cards. Instances have been 
disclosed in which Communist Party functionaries have secured social- 
secm'ity cards made out in fictitious names and used them to facilitate 
employment in defense industry. This device is an effective means of 
concealing saboteurs and subversives in industries vital to the national 
defense. The committee is doubtful that such conduct comes fully 
within the prohibition of any Federal statute. Due to the serious 
threat to national security that this type of misconduct entails, the 
committee recommends the immetliate adoption of legislation making 
such conduct an offense and providing for substantial fine or imprison- 
ment, or both, for violation thereof. As the very nature of the offense 
makes it difficult of discoveiy, it is recommended that the period 
within which a prosecution may be instituted should be 10 years from 
the date of commission of both the substantive offense and conspiracy 
to commit the offense. 

6. The National Security Act of August 26, 1950, gave to the 
heads of certain departments and agencies of the Government sum- 
mary suspension and unreviewable dismissal powers over their civilian 
employees when dismissed "in the interest of national security." Its 
provisions were extended to all other departments and agencies of the 
Government by Executive Order No. 10450. The Supreme Court 
of the United States construing this act in the case of Cole v. Young, 
351 U. S. 536, gave a narrow and limited meaning to "national 
security." The Court held that the term w^as intended to comprehend 
only those activities of the Government that are directly concerned 
w^ith the protection of the Nation from internal subversion or foreign 
aggression and not those which contribute to the strength of the 
Nation only through their impact on the general welfare. 

The committee is of the opinion that the National Security Act, 
thus weakened by judicial interpretation, should be strengthened by 
the enactment of legislation providing that all employees of any 
department or agency of the United States Government shall be 
deemed to be employed in an activity of the Government involving 
national security. The proposed legislation should also contain 
adequate provision for administrative review of any determination 
to dismiss an employee. H. R. 11721 introduced in the 84th Congress 
on June 12, 1956, was designed to accomplish these purposes, and in 
the opinion of the committee should be reintroduced and adopted. 

7. Testimony adduced before the committee at hearings conducted 
in the latter part of 1955 and the early part of 1956, reflects there existed 
at one time at least 10 Communist Part}' cells within various gov- 
ernmental agencies m the city of Washington. These hearings point 
up the necessity for alertness to discover efforts of Communist in- 
filtration in government. 

The committee has learned anew from these hearings the great im- 
portance of performing the duties imposed upon it under the "watch- 
dog" pro\asion of the" House Rules, rule XI, section 26. The com- 
mittee will continue to exercise ^^•atchfulness of the execution by ad- 



60 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

ministrative departments and agencies of laws, the subject matter 
of which is within the jurisdiction of this committee. 

The vast majority of the recommendations made by the Committee 
on Un-American Activities has been adopted. However, there are 
certain recommendations previously made by the committee and not 
as yet enacted into law, which it is deemed are important enough to 
resubmit with the urgent request that consideration be given to their 
adoption during the present session of Congress: 

1. Information obtained through surveillance by technical devices 
should be permitted as evidence in matters affecting the national 
security provided that adequate safeguards are adopted to prevent any 
abuse of civil liberties. 

2. The unauthorized transportation in interstate commerce of 
Government documents falling within a top secret, secret, or confi- 
dential classification should be made a criminal action. 

3. Any person bidding for a Government contract should be required 
to file an affidavit stating he is not at the time and has not been within 
the preceding 10 years a member of any organization advocating 
overthrow of the Government by force and violence. 

4. The 5-year statute of hmitation for prosecution of the offenses 
of treason, espionage, sabotage, and other subversive activities should 
be amended so as to permit prosecutions for a period not to exceed 
15 years from the time of commission of the offense. 

5. The present 3-year statute of limitations for prosecution of 
offenses committed in violation of title 18, United States Code, 
sections 1001 or 1621, deahng with false statements and perjury, 
should be extended to 10 years when involving subversive activities 
and connections, and in instances where a person becomes an officer 
or employee of the United States or of any department or agency 
thereof, or of any corporation, the stock of which is owned in whole 
or in part by the United States, or any department or agency thereof, 
such person should be prosecuted, tried, and punished for such offense 
at any time within 10 years after such person has ceased to be em- 
ployed as such officer or employee. 

6. The committee is of the opinion that a more realistic punish- 
ment for crimes of such gravity as those involving seditious con- 
spiracy, advocating overtlu-ow of the Government, and conspiracy to 
advocate overthrow of the Government, should be provided. Title 
18, United States Code, section 2384, involving seditious conspiracy 
should provide a maximum penalty of a fine of not more than $20,000 
or imprisonment of not more than 10 years, or both, the maximum 
penalty now being a fine of $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than 
6 years, or both. Title 18, United States Code, section 2385 involving 
advocating overthrow of the Government should provide a maximum 
penalty of a fine of $20,000 or imprisonment of not more than 20 
years, or both, the maximum penalty now being a fine of $10,000 or 
imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both. 

7. The committee desires to restate its opinion that willfully contra- 
dictory statements made under oath by a witness before Federal grand 
juries. Federal courts, or congressional bodies, should be punishable as 
perjury without the present requirement that the Government prove 
which of the statements is false. When two contradictory statements 



ANNUAL REPORT, CORIMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 61 

aro made, one of which is obviously false, the Goverument must now 
prove the falsity by testimony of two independent witnesses or by 
the testimony of one 'udtness and corroborative evidence. Bills intro- 
duced in the House and the Senate during the 84th Congress have the 
effect of remedying this situation by requiring the Government to 
prove only that the statements of a witness are themselves contra- 
dictory — provided that they are willful, concern material matters, 
and are made within 3 years of one another. 

8. The Committee on Un-American Activities has heretofore ex- 
pressed the opinion that it is inadvisable for the Congress to under- 
take any broad, new legislative action against the functioning of the 
Communist Party pending the final determination of the constitution- 
ality of the Internal Security Act of 1950. Since that opinion was 
expressed, the case of the Communist Party v. Subversive Activities 
Control Board, 351 U. S. 115, has been remanded by the Supreme 
Court of the United States, to the Board for further proceedings. 
This mandate of the Supreme Court has been complied with by the 
making of a modified report, and it is expected that the case will soon 
be before the Supreme Court for a decision on the merits. Until 
final disposition is made by the Supreme Court of the issues raised, 
the committee remains of the opinion that legislative recommendations 
in this specific field should be withheld. 

PUBLICATIONS 

One of the most effective ways to combat the growth of communism 
in our country is by educating the pubhc as to the aims and methods 
of the Communist Party and the results of Communist ideology 
where it has gained control. The work that has been done in the past 
by the committee in the dissemination of literature exposing the 
workings of the Communist Party is reflected in the increase of 
requests for committee publications during the year 1956. 

After completion of a series or a phase of hearings, the actual 
verbatim record of the proceedings is printed and becomes available 
for public distribution upon request as long as the supply lasts. 

In many cases, letters requesting printed copies of these hearings 
indicated that thej^ were to be used by church, labor, veteran, civic, 
patriotic, educational, and other groups which are intelligently fight- 
ing communism and subversive activities. Distribution of committee 
publications to organizations adds greatly to their actual circulation. 

In addition to the printed copies of hearings, reports are issued 
from time to time by the committee. These reports, either in sum- 
marizing the work of the committee in various fields or in giving 
detailed information on subversive activities, furnish to the Congress 
and to the public the results of highly intensified investigation and 
research by the committee. 

During the year 1956, the committee printed and filled requests for 
approximately 351,500 copies of its hearings and reports. Requests 
for thousands of copies of publications printed in previous years have 
been filled. The Government Prmting Office has also distributed 
several thousand copies of committee hearings and reports. 



62 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

THE GREAT PRETENSE 

(A S^'^mposium on Anti-Stalinism and the 20th Congress of the Soviet 

Communist Party) 

This report endeavors to provide an adequate explanation of, and 
an indication of, what the world may expect from the Soviet Union's 
new course since the death of Stalin. The 39 contributors are all 
specialists in some aspect of the Soviet Union and the global conspiracy 
which it directs. Some of them are former officials of the Soviet 
Government and have seen both Stalin and his successors at close 
range. Others have been important figures in the Communist appa- 
ratus in America. Those who themselves have not participated in 
the Soviet program of conquest are qualified to speak authoritatively 
on it by reason of direct personal experience or by long research and 
study. It is instructive that, while these specialists vary in approach 
and emphasis, they agree, without exception, that the ultimate im- 
portance of anti-Stalinism will derive not from the disposition made 
of Josef Stalin, but from the reaction b}'- the West. 

THE COMMUNIST CONSPIRACY 

The material included in this five section report consists of the 
early basic Communist pronouncements which have assumed new 
importance in the current revival of Leninism. It deals with all the 
aspects of the politics, the economy, the social, educational, and cul- 
tural structure of the Soviet Union; the principal resolutions and pro- 
grams adopted by the various world congresses of the Communist 
International and the actuation of these resolutions and programs into 
revolutions in various countries throughout the world. Perhaps the 
most important part of the report is the evidence of how the Com- 
munist Party of the United States, like the Communist parties in all 
other countries, acts under the rigid discipline of the Kremlin. 

TRIAL BY TREASON 

The Committee on Un-American Activities has prepared this report 
on the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg case 
not only because the facts of the Rosenberg campaign deserve study, 
but also because these facts, taken together, provide a singularly 
instructive example of a Communist front; how it is created, directed, 
and financed. In particular, they provide an example of the means 
by which the Communists today attempt to prepare the way for 
the fruition of their conspiracy. Essential for their success is the 
disintegration of the Nation's social fabric; it was to promote this 
disintegi'ation that the Rosenberg campaign was conceived. 

The supplj^ of this report was exhausted in a matter of days after 
its original printing and will be augmented by a reprint early m 1957. 
It will then be possible to fill the many requests for this report. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 63 

SOVIET TOTAL WAR 

The Cotnmittoo on Un-American Activities has compiled this two- 
volume sj-mposium of the "Historic Mission" of Violence and Deceit 
to which 120 noted specialists have contributed their views. In the 
Communist threat, they clearly see the greatest danger that the free 
world has ever had to face. They unmask its deceits and subter- 
fuges — its relentless psychological, political, economic, sociological, and 
military strategies. Like all reasonable people, these contributors do 
not desu-e war, but only a lasting peace. On the other hand, they are 
fully aware that, in hoping for peace, we cannot permit ourselves to 
be frozen into extinction as free men. . They point out that unless 
we meet the total challenge of Conmmnist unconventional war, we 
shall assuredly condemn ourselves to the Arctic hell of Siberian slave- 
labor camps. There is no third way: Either we prevent the achieve- 
ment of communism's "historic mission" — or we perish. 

The supp]}'' of this publication was exhausted in a matter of days 
after its original printing and will be augmented by a reprint early in 
1957. It will then be possible to fill the many requests for this report. 



APPENDIX I 

Following is a complete list of committee hearings and publications 
for the second session of the 84th Congress: 

Investigation of Communist Infiltration of Government — Part 3. 
Investigation of Communist Infiltration of Government — Part 4. 
Investigation of Communist Infiltration of Government— Part 5. 
Investigation of Communist Infiltration in Government — Part 6. 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the North Carolina Area. 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles, CaUf' 

Area — Part 7, 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles, Calif., 

Area — Part 8 (Testimony of Nikolai Khokhlov) . 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles, Calif., 

Area — Part 9. 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles, Calif., 

Area — Part 10. 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Los Angeles, Calif., 

Area — Part IL 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Rocky Mountain Area — 

Part L 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Rocky Mountain Area — 

Part 2. 
Investigation of the Unauthorized Use of United States Passports — 

Part 1. 
Investigation of the Unauthorized Use of United States Passports — 

Part 2. 
Investigation of the Unauthorized Use of United States Passports — 

Part 3. 
Investigation of the Unauthorized Use of United States Passports — 

Part 4. 
Investigation of Communist Propaganda in the United States^ — -Part 1 
Investigation of Communist Propaganda in the United States — Part 2 
Investigation of Communist Propaganda in the United States — 

Part 3 \ 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the St. Louis, Mo., Ai'ea — 

Part 1 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the St. Louis, Mo., Area — 

Part 2 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the St. Louis, Mo., Area — 

Part 3 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the St. Louis, Mo., Area — 

Part 4 
Investigation of Commimist Propaganda Among Prisoners of War in 

Korea (Save Our Sons Committee) 

1 These hearings were not in print at the time this report went to press. They will be released, 
however, at a later date. 

64 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 65 

Investigation of So-Called Blacklisting in Entertainment Industry — 

Report of the Fund for the Republic, Inc. — Part 1 
Investigation of So-Called Blacklisting in Entertainment Industry — 

Report of the Fund for the Republic, Inc.— Part 2 
Investigation of So-Called Blacklisting in Entertainment Industry — 

Report of the Fund for the Republic, Inc. — Part 3 
Investigation of the Award by the Fund for the Republic, Inc. (Ply- 
mouth Meeting, Pa.) 
International Communism (Testimony of Ernst Tillich) 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the New Haven, Conn., 

Area — Part 1 
Investigation of Communist Activitie's in the New Haven, Conn., 

Area — Part 2 
Hearings on Attempts at Subversion and Espionage By Diplomatic 

Persoimel 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the Youngstown and North- 
ern Ohio Areas ^ 
Communist Political Subversion — ^Washington, D. C, Youngstown, 

Ohio, Chicago, 111., Los Angeles and San Francisco, Calif., Seattle, 

Wash.i 
The Great Pretense — A Symposium on Anti-Stalinism and the 20th 

Congress of the Soviet Communist Party — House Report 2189 
The Communist Conspiracy — Part 1 (Communism Outside the United 

States), Section A: Marxist Classics, House Report 2240. 
The Communist Conspiracy — Part 1 (Communism Outside the United 

States) , Section B : The U. S. S. R., House Report 2241 
The Communist Conspiracy — Part 1 (Communism Outside the United 

States), Sect'on C: The World Congi'esses of the Communist Inter- 
national, House Report 2242 
The Communist Conspiracy — Part 1 (Communism Outside the United 

States), Section D: Communist Activities Ai'ound the World, 

House Report 2243 
The Communist Conspiracy — Part 1 (Communism Outside the United 

States), Section E: The Comintern and the CPUSA, House Report 

2244 
Trial By Treason (The National Committee to Secure Justice for 

The Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell) 
Soviet Total War, "Historic Mission" of Violence and Deceit — 

Volume I 
Soviet Total War, "Historic Mission" of Violence and Deceit — 

Volume II 
Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications — Revised 
Annual Report of the Committee on Un-American Activities for the 

Year 1956 

> These hearings were not in print at the time this report went to press. They will be released, however, 
at a later date. 



APPENDIX n 

June 5, 1956. 
Hon. Herbert Brownell, Jr., 

Attorney General oj the United States, 

Department of Justice, Washington 25, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Brownell: I recently had occasion to study the amici 
curiae brief filed with the Supreme Court of the United States in the 
case of The Communist Party oJ the United States v. The Subversive 
Activities Control Board. In a letter to Solicitor General SobelofT 
requesting consent to the filing of the brief, Royal W. France, attorney 
for the amici curiae, states baldly that the petitioners comprise a 
"group of prominent American citizens, none of whom are Com- 
munists." This statement can be regarded only as a deliberate 
attempt to deceive the Court. 

The files of this committee show that, apart from the extensive 
Communist front affiliations of most of the amici curiae, 26 of them 
have been identified hi sworn testimony as members of the Communist 
Part.y. These are: 

Elmer A. Benson Arnold Keene 

Lloyd L. Brown Albert E. Kahn 

Edwin Berry Burgum Rockwell Kent 

Isobel Cerney John A. Kingsbury 

Hugh DeLacy John Howard Lawson 

Doroth}'- W. Douglas Carey McWilhams 

Howard Fast Scott Nearing 

James W. Ford Wm. L, Patterson 

Daniel Fine Holland Roberts 

Sid Gluck Rose Russell 

Ralph Gundlach Mary Vaa Kleeck 

William Harrison John Weatherwax 

W. A. Hunton Eliot White 

I earnestly suggest that these facts be brought to the attention of 
the Supreme Court and that the Department of Justice do everything 
within its power to make certain that these petitioners (friends of the 
Communist Party, rather than of the Court) receive no status what- 
soever in these proceedings. 
Sincerely yours, 

Francis E. Walter, Chairman. 

66 



APPENDIX III 

Excerpts from minutes of executive meetings held dui-ing 1956 and 
other years, relating to contempt matters, are set forth as follows: 

1. The Committee on Un-American Activities met in executive ses- 
sion Thursda}^, January 20, 1955, in room 225, House Office Building, 
at 2 p. m., the following memhers being present: 

Francis E. Walter, chairman James B. Frazier, Jr. 

Morgan M. Moulder Harbld H. Velde 

Clyde Do3'le Bernard W. Kearney 

Edwin E. AVillis (entered 2:45 Donald L. Jackson 
p. m.) 

The following staff members were present : 

Thomas W. Beale, clerk Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel 

******* 

The following resolution was read by the clerk and inianimously 
adopted: 

Be it resolved, That the chau'man be authorized and empowered 
from time to time to appoint subcommittees composed of 3 or more 
members of the Committee on Un-American Activities, at least 1 of 
whom shall be of the minority political party, and a majority of whom 
shall constitute a quorum, for the purpose of performing an}' and all 
acts which the committee as a whole is authorized to perform. 

2. The Committee on Un-American Activities met in executive 
session on March 6, 1956, at 10:40 a. m., in room 225, Old House Office 

i Building. The foUo\nng members were present: 

Francis E. Walter, chairman Donald L. Jackson 

; Morgan M. Moulder Gordon H. Scherer (entered at 

Clyde Doyle 11:05) 

James B. Frazier, Jr. (entered at 

10:55) 

Mrs. Juliette P. Joray, acting clerk, was also present. 

* ***** * 

Without objection, the committee authorized a preliminary investi- 
gation and preparation for a hearing to be held in St. Louis, Mo., 
sometime in June. 

3. The Committee on Un-American Activities, pursuant to notice, 
met in executive session on May 9, 1956, at 11 a. m., in room 225 
Old House Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

The following members were present: 

Francis E. Walter, chairman Bernard W. Kearney 

Morgan M. Moulder Gordon H. Scherer 

Clyde Doyle 
James B. Frazier, Jr. 

Also present were Richard Arens, director, and Frank S. Tavenner, 
Jr., counsel. 

* * * * * • * 

67 



68 ANNUAL REPORT, COiVIMlTTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES . 

Mr. Arens also advised the committee that hearings had been set 
for St. Louis on June 4. Whereupon the chairman appointed the 
following members as a subcommittee to conduct these hearings: 
Mr. Morgan M. Moulder, chairman; Messrs. James B. Frazier, Jr., 
and Bernard W. Kearney, as associate members. 

4. The following order was made by Francis E. Walter, chairman, 
on May 31, 1956: 

To Mr. Richard Arens, Director, Committee on Un-American Actimiies: 
Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, 
I appointed a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities consisting of Congressman Morgan M. Moulder, chairman, 
and Congressmen James P. Frazier, Jr., and Bernard W. Kearney as 
associate members, to hold hearings in St. Louis, Mo., on the subjects 
under investigation b}' this committee. I have been advised by Mr. 
Kearney that he will be unable to attend the hearings, and for that 
reason has resigned from the subcommittee. 

You are hereby notified that I do appoint Congressman Gordon H. 
Scherer as a member of the said subcommittee to act in the place and 
stead of Mr. Kearney. The said subcommittee as reconstituted, is 
authorized to receive testimony in executive session on the 2d day 
of June, 1956, in St. Louis, Mo., and to begin public hearings on the 
4th day of June, and to continue in session at such times and places 
as it may deem necessary, until its work is completed. 
Please make this action a matter of committee record, 

(Signed) Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

5. The Committee on Un-American Activities met in executive 
session on June 27, 1956, in room 225, Old House Office Building, at 
10:15 a. m. 

The following members were present: 

Francis E. Walter, chairman Donald L. Jackson 

Morgan AL Moulder (entered at 10:45 a. m.) 

Clyde Doyle Gordon H. Scherer 

James B. Frazier, Jr. (entered at 11 :15 a. m.) 
Bernard W. Kearney 

Also present were Richard Arens, director; Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., 
counsel; Juhette P. Joray, clerk; and Richard S, Weil, a member of 
the staff. 

Mr. Moulder reported to the committee that he was chairman of a 
subcommittee appointed by the chairman, composed of Messrs. James 
B. Frazier, Jr., Gordon H!^ Scherer, and himself, to conduct hearings 
in St. Louis beginning June 4, 1956; that the subcommittee had 
unanimousl}^ agreed that a report of the facts relating to the refusal 
of John W. Shnpson, William E. Davis, and Anne Yasgur Kling to 
answer questions before the said subcommittee at hearings conducted 
in the New Federal Building in St. Louis, Mo., beginning June 4, 
1956, be referred and submitted to the Committee on Un-American 
Activities as a whole, mth the recommendation that each of said 
witnesses be cited for contempt of the House of Representatives in 
the manner and form provided by law, for their refusal to answer 
certain material questions. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AIMERICAN ACTIVITIES 69 

The report of the facts relating to the refusal of John W. Simpson 
to answer questions was submitted to the committee, upon which a 
motion was made by Mr. James B. Frazier, Jr., and seconded by Mr. 
Morgan M. Moulder, and unanimously carried, that the subcommit- 
tee's report of the facts relating to the refusal of John W. Simpson 
to answer questions before said subcommittee at the hearings con- 
ducted before it in the Federal Budding on June 4 and 5, 1956, be 
and the same is hereby approved and adopted, and that the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities report and refer the refusal of 
John W. Simpson to answer questions before the said subcommittee, 
together with all the facts in connection therewith, to the House of 
Representatives, with the recommendation that the witness be cited 
for contempt by the House of Representatives for his refusal to answer 
questions to the end that he may be proceeded against in the manner 
and form provided by law. 

The report of the facts relating to the refusal of William E. Davis 
to answer questions, was submitted to the committee, upon which 
amotion was made by Mr. James B. Frazier, Jr., and seconded by Mr. 
Morgan M. Moulder, and unanimously carried, that the subcom- 
mittee's report of the facts relating to the refusal of William E. Davis 
to answer questions before said subcommittee at the hearings con- 
ducted before it in the Federal Building on June 6, 1956, be and the 
same is hereby approved and adopted, and that the Committee on 
Un-American Activities report and refer the refusal of William E. 
Davis to answer questions before the said committee, together with all 
the facts in connection therewith, to the House of Representatives, 
with the recommendation that the witness be cited for contempt by 
the House of Representatives for his refusal to answer questions, to 
the end that he may be proceeded against in the manner and form 
provided by law. 

The report of the facts relating to the refusal of Anne Yasgur 
Kling to answer questions was submitted to the committee, upon which 
a motion was made by Mr. James B. Frazier, Jr., seconded by Mr. 
Morgan M. Moulder and unanimously carried, that the subcommit- 
tee's report of the facts relating to the refusal of Anne Yasgur Kling 
to answer questions before said subcommittee at the hearings con- 
ducted before it in the Federal Building on June 6, 1956, be and the 
same is hereby approved and adopted, and that the Committee on 
Un-American Activities report and refer the refusal of Anne Yasgur 
Kling to answer questions before the said committee, together with 
all the facts in connection therewith, to the House of Representatives, 
with the recommendation that the witness be cited for contempt by 
the House of Representatives for her refusal to answer questions, to 
the end that she may be proceeded against in the manner and form 
provided by law. 

Mr. Francis E. Walter reported to the committee that he was 
chairman of a subcommittee appointed by himself, composed of 
Messrs. Edwin E. Willis and himself, to conduct hearmgs beginning 
on the 15tli day of August 1955, at the United States Courthouse, 
Foley Square, New York City; that the subcommittee had unani- 
mously agreed that a report of the facts relating to the refusal of 
George Tyne, Elliott Sullivan, and Peter Seeger to answer questions 
before the said subcommittee at the hearing conducted in the United 
States Courthouse, Foley Square, New York City, beginning on the 
15th day of August 1955, be referred and submitted to the Com- 



70 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

mittee on Un-American Activities as a whole, with the recommenda- 
tion that each witness be cited for contempt of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the manner and form provided by law for their refusal 
to answer certain material questions. 

The report of the facts relating to the refusal of George Tyne to 
answer questions was submitted to the committee, upon which amo- 
tion was made by Mr. James B. Frazier, Jr., seconded by Mr. Mor- 
gan M. Moulder, and unanimously carried, that the subcommittee's 
I'cport of the facts relating to the refusal of George Tyne to answer 
questions before said subcommittee at the hearing conducted before 
it in the United States Courthouse, Foley Square, New York City, 
on August 15, 1955, be and the same is hereby approved and adopted, 
and that the Committee on Un-American Activities report and refer 
the refusal of George Tyne to answer questions before the said sub- 
committee, together with all the facts in connection therewith, to the 
House of Representatives, with the recommendation that the witness 
be cited for contempt by the House of Representatives, for his re- 
fusal to answer questions, to the end that he may be proceeded against 
in the maimer and form provided by law. 

The report of the facts relating to the refusal of Elliott Sullivan 
to answer questions was submitted to the committee, upon which a 
motion was made by Mr. James B. Frazier, Jr., seconded by Mr. 
Morgan M. Moulder, and unanimously carried, that the subcom- 
mittee's report of the facts relating to the refusal of Elliott Sullivan to 
answer questions before said subcommittee at the hearing conducted 
before it in the United States Courthouse, Foley Square, New York 
City, on August 16, 1955, be and the same is hereby approved and 
adopted, and that the Committee on Un-American Activities report 
and refer the refusal of EJliott Sullivan to answer questions before the 
said subcommittee, together with all the facts in connection therewith, 
to the House of Representatives, with the recommendation that the 
witness be cited for contempt by the House of Representatives, for 
his refusal to answer questions, to the end that he may be proceeded 
against in the manner and form provided by law. 

The report of the facts relating to Peter Seeger to answer questions 
was submitted to the committee, upon which a motion was made by 
Mr. James B. Frazier, Jr., seconded by Mr. Morgan M. Moulder, and 
unanimously carried, that the subcommittee's report of the facts 
relating to the refusal of Peter Seeger to answer questions before said 
subcommittee at the hearing conducted before it in the United States 
Courthouse, Foley Square, New York City, on August 18, 1955, be 
and the same is hereby approved and adopted, and that the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities report and refer the refusal of Peter 
Seeger to answer questions before the said subcommittee, together 
with all the facts in connection therewith, to the House of Represen- 
tatives, with the recommendation that the witness be cited for con- 
tempt b}^ the House of Representatives, for his refusal to answer 
questions, to the end that he may be proceeded against in the manner 
and form provided by law. 

Mr. Walter reported to the committee that he was chairman of a 
subcommittee appointed by himself, composed of Messrs. Clyde Doyle, 
Bernard W. Kearney, Gordon H. Scherer, and himself, to conduct 
hearings in the caucus room. Old House Office Building, Washington, 
D. C, on the 12th day of June 1956; that the subcommittee had 
unanimously agreed that a report of the facts relating to the refusal of 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 71 

Otto Nathan to answer questions before the said subcommittee at the 
hearing conducted in the caucus room, Old House Office Building, on 
June 12, 1956, be referred and submitted to tlie Committee on Un- 
American Activities as a whole, with the recommendation that the 
witness be cited for contempt of the House of Representatives in the 
manner and form provided by law, for his refusal to answer certain 
material questions. 

The report of the facts relating to the^'refusal of Otto Nathan to 
answer questions was submitted to the committee upon which a motion 
was made by Mr. Gordon H. Scherer, seconded by Mr. Bernard W. 
Kearney, and unanimously carried, that the subcommittee's report of 
the facts relatmg to the refusal of Otto Na^than to answer questions 
before said subcommittee at the hearing conducted before it in the 
caucus room, Old House Office Budding, Washington, D. C, on the 
12th day of June 1956, be and the same hereby is approved and 
adopted and that the Committee on Un-American Activities report 
and refer the refusal of Otto Nathan to answer questions before the 
said subcommittee, together with all the facts in connection there- 
with, to the House of Representatives with the recommendation that 
the witness be cited for contempt by the House of Representatives 
for his refusal to answer questions, to the end that he may be proceeded 
against in the manner and^form provided by law. 

6. The Committee on Un-American Activities met in executive 
session on Tuesday, July 10, 1956, in room 225, Old House Office 
Building, at 3:30 p. m. 

The following members were present: 

Francis E. Walter, chairman Edwin E. Willis 

Morgan M. Moulder Donald L. Jackson 

Clyde Doyle 

Also present were Richard Arens, director, and Juliette P. Joray, 
clerk. 

The chairman called the committee's attention to the action taken 
at the previous meeting of the committee that the director for the 
committee advise counsel for Arthur Miller that Arthur Aliller would 
be given 10 days to appear before the committee and purge himself 
of contempt resulting from his refusal to testify regarding certain 
matters, at the end of which time further consideration would be given 
to the question of contempt proceedings. The chairman reported that 
he had received a letter from counsel for Miller enclosing a statement 
of Arthur Miller in which he reiterated his refusal to testify regarding 
certain matters; certain affidavits; and a memorandum regardiug 
policies and precedents on contempt. The chau-man stated that the 
communication constituted a refusal of the witness to purge himself of 
contempt and advised the committee that the subcommittee appomted 
to hear the testimony of Arthur MUler on the 21st day of June 1956, 
consisting of himself, as chairman, Messrs. Cl3^de Doyle, Bernard W. 
Kearne}^, and Gordon H. Scherer, had agreed that the facts relating 
to the refusal of Arthur Miller to answer pertinent questions before the 
said subcommittee be referred and submitted to the Committee on 
Un-American Activities as a w^hole, with a recommendation that the 
witness be cited for contempt of the House of Representatives in the 
manner and form provided by law. 

i 



72 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The report of the facts relating to the refusal of Arthur'' Miller to 
answer pertinent questions was submitted to the committee, upon 
which a motion was made and duly seconded, that the subcommittee's 
report of the facts relating to the refusal of Arthur Miller to answer 
questions before the said subcommittee at the hearing conducted 
before it on June 21, 1956, in the Old House Office Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C, be and the same is hereby approved and adopted, and 
that the Committee on Un-American Activities report and refer the 
refusal of Arthur Miller to answer questions before the said subcom- 
mittee, together with all the facts in connection therewith, to the 
House of Representatives, with the recommendation that the witness 
be cited for contempt by the House of Representatives for his refusal 
to answer questions, to the end that he may be proceeded against in 
the manner and form provided by law. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

7. The Committee on Un-American Activities met in executive 
session on June 8, 1955, at 10 a. m., in room 225, Old House Office 
Building. The following members were present: 

Francis E. Walter, chairman Harold H. Velde 

Clyde Doyle Gordon H. Scherer 

James B. Frazier, Jr. 

'^ Also present were Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk, and Frank S. 

Tavenner, Jr., counsel. 

* « * 4e « * * 

The clerk was directed to proceed with the investigation of Coni- 
munist infiltration in the field of entertainment in New York, prelimi- 
nary investigation having been authorized earlier in the year. 
******* 

8. Mmutes of executive meeting of the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities, January 22, 1953, room 226, Old House 
Office Building, Hon. Harold H. Velde, chairman, presiding. 

The chairman called the meetmg to order at 2:05 p. m. Committee 
members present were Representatives Harold H. Velde, Bernard W- 
Kearney, Donald L. Jackson, Kit Clardy, Gordon H. Scherer, Francis 
E. Walter, Morgan M. Moulder, Clyde Doyle, and James B. 
Frazier, Jr. 

******* 

The following resolution was offered and unanimously adopted: 
Be it resolved, That the choirman shall have authority from time to 
time to appoint subcommittees composed of one or more members of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities, for the purpose of per- 
forming any and all acts which the committee as a whole is authorized 
to do. 

******* 

9. The Committee on Un-American Activities met in executive 
session on Wednesday, March 3, 1954, at 10:10 a. m. in room 225 Old 
House Office Building. 

The following members were present: 

Harold H. Velde, chairman Francis E. Walter 

Donald L. Jackson Clyde Doyle 

Gordon H. Scherer James B. Frazier, Jr. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COJMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 73 

Mr, Walter offered the following resolution which was unanimously 
adopted: 

Be it resolved, That subcommittees of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities will consist of not less than three members, 
with at least a majority of the subcommittee present at the hearings 
for which they were appointed. 

10. The Committee on Un-American Activities mot in executive 
session on Alonday, August 9, 1954, at 4 p. m., in room 225 Old House 
Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

The following members were present: 

Harold H. Velde, Chairman Francis E. Walter 

Bernard W. Kearney Morgan M. Moulder 

Donald L. Jackson (entered^at 4:05 p. m.) 
Gordon H. Scherer 

« * « 4! 4e 4! 4i 

!Mr. Scherer moved that the committee conduct hearings at Dayton, 
Ohio, at some time between the present and 6 weeks before the elec- 
tions. Seconded by Mr. Jackson and carried unanimously. The 
chair man appointed the following subcommittee to conduct the hear- 
ings: Mr. Scherer, chau'man, ]Mr. Walter, and Mr. Clardy. 

******* 

11. The Committee on Un-American Activities met in executive 
session in room 225, Old House Office Building, on Wednesday, Nov- 
ember 17, 1954, at^9:30 a. m. The following members were present: 

Harold H. Velde, Chairman Francis E. Walter 

Kit Clardy Morgan M. Moulder 

Gordon H. Scherer 

Also present were Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas W. 
Beale, Sr,, chief clerk; Comlney E. Owens, chief investigator, and 
Donald T. Appell, investigator. 

***** * 4c 

Mr. Walter reported that he was 1 of a subcommittee composed of 
3 members appointed by the chairman to conduct hearings in Dayton, 
Ohio, on September 13, 14, and 15, 1954, consisting of himself, Mr. 
Scherer, and Mr. Clardy, and after consideration of the testimony 
given b}^ Lee Lorch and Robert M. Metcalf on the 15th day of Sep- 
tember 1954, he moved that the report of the facts relating to the 
refusal of the aforementioned witnesses to answer questions before the 
said subcommittee at the hearings aforesaid be referred and sub- 
mitted to the Committee on Un-American Activities as a whole with 
the recommendation that the reports of the facts relating to the refusal 
of said witnesses to answer questions before the said subcommittee, 
together with all the facts in connection therewith, be reported to, and 
filed with, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the House 
now being adjourned, in order that the said Speaker may certify the 
same under Seal of the House to the appropriate United States attor- 
ney to the end that the said Lee Lorch and Robert M. Metcalf may be 
proceeded against for contempt of the House of Representatives in 
the manner and form provided by law. The motion was seconded by 
Mr. Clardy and carried unanimously by the entire subcommittee 
consisting of Messrs. Walter, Clardy and Scherer. 



74 ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

The chairman directed the clerk to notify all the members of the 
committee that there would be an executive meeting of the committee 
to be held Thursday morning, November 18, 1954, at 10 a. m., in room 
225, Old House Office Building, for the purpose of considering contempt 
citations against Norton Anthony Russell, Robert M. Metcalf, and Lee 
Lorch. 

12. The Committee on Un-American Activities met in executive 
session on Thursday, November 18, 1954, at 10 a. m., 225 Old House 
Office Building. The following members were present: 

Harold H. Velde, chairman Francis E. Walter 

Kit Clardy Morgan M. Moulder 

Gordon H. Scherer 

Also present were the following staff members: Robert L. Kunzig, 
counsel: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas W. Beale, chief 
clerk; Raphael I. Nixon, director of research; and Courtney E. Owens, 
chief investigator. 

Mr. Scherer reported to the committee that he was chairman of the 
subcommittee appointed by the chairman, composed of himself, Mr. 
Clardy, and Mr. Walter to conduct hearmgs begmning on the 13th 
day of September, 1954, at Dayton, Ohio; that the subcommittee met 
in executive session on November 17, 1954, attended by all the 
members of said subcommittee, at which time a motion was made 
and unanimously adopted that a report of the facts relating to the 
refusal of Lee Lorch and Robert M. Metcalf to answer questions 
before said subcommittee at the hearings conducted at Dayton, 
Ohio, beginning on the 13th day of September, 1954, he referred and 
submitted to the Committee on Un-American Activities as a whole, 
with a recommendation that the report and statement of facts with 
reference to the refusal of said witnesses to answer questions be made 
to and filed with the Speaker of the House, the House now being 
adjourned, in order that the said Speaker may certify the same under 
Seal of the House, to the appropriate United States attorney, to the 
end that the said witnesses may be proceeded against for contempt 
of the House in the manner and form provided by law. 

A motion was made by Mr. Scherer, seconded by Mr. Walter, and 
unanimously carried, that the subcommittee's repojrt of facts relating 
to the refusal of Lee Lorch to answer questions before the said sub- 
committee at the hearing conducted by it m Dayton, Ohio, beginning 
on the 13th day of September, 1954, be, and the same is 
hereby approved and adopted, and Mr. Velde, chairman of the Corn- 
mittee on Un-American Activities of the House of Representatives, is 
hereby authorized and directed, upon his signature, to transmit the 
report and statement of facts relating to the refusal of Lee Lorch to 
answer questions before the said subcommittee to the Hon. Joseph 
W. Martin, Speaker of the House of Representatives, the House of 
Representatives now being adiourned, in order that the said Speaker 
may certify the same to the United States attorney for the southern 
district of Ohio, to the end that the said Lee Lorch may be proceeded 
against for contempt of the House of Representatives, in the manner 
and form provided by law. 



ANNUAL REPORT, COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 75 

A motion was made by Mr. Scherer, seconded by Mr. Walter, and 
unanimously carried, that the subcommittee's report of facts relating 
to the refusal of Robert M. Metcalf to answer questions before the 
said subcommittee at the hearing conducted by it in Dayton, Ohio, 
beginning on the 13th day of September 1954, be, and the same is 
hereby approved and adopted, and Mr. Velde, chairman of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities of the House of Representa- 
tives, is hereby authorized and directed, upon his signature, to trans- 
mit the report and statement of facts relating to the refusal of Robert 
M. Metcalf to answer questions before the said subcommittee to the 
Honorable Joseph W. Martin, Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, the House of Representatives now being adjourned, in order 
that the said Speaker may certify the same to the United States 
attorney for the southern district of Ohio, to the end that the said 
Robert M. Metcalf may be proceeded against for contempt of the 
House of Representatives in the manner and form provided by law. 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Acheson, Dean 12 

Akeson, Virgil 41 

Arsenault, Oliver R 46, 47 

Barankoviss, Stevan 22 

Barcnblatt, Lloyd 53 

Bary, Anna 38 

Bary, Art ^- 37 

Baxter, Bolza, Jr 54 

Benson, Elmer A 66 

Berkens, Arnold 38 

Berland, Samuel 35 

Binkley, William 32 

Blumberg, Albert 16 

Bond, Nathaniel 32, 33 

Bro wder, Earl 11 

Brown, Lloyd L 66 

Bnckner, Mrs. Mary Phillips 29 

Burgum, Edwin Berry 66 

Caldwell, John C 9, 10 

Caldwell, Nathan 5 

Cayton, Revels 33 

Cerney, Isobel 66 

Chaka, Betty (Mrs. Edward Chaka; alias Jean Horner) 51 

Chaka, Edward (alias John Horner) 51 

Chapman, Thomas 35 

Childs, Charles Benson 31-33 

Clontz, Ralph C, Jr 32,33 

Cogley, John 25 

Comanita, Spiridon 51 

Cook, Rudolph B 41 

Cortor, William W 41-43 

Czarnowski, Anzelm A 26, 27, 29 

Darnell, Carter 35 

Darnell, Sylvia Lardner (Mrs. Carter Darnell) 35 

Davis, Horace Chandler 54 

Davis, William E 54, 68, 69 

DeLacy, Hugh 66 

Demming, Richard 38 

Deutch, Bernhard 53 

Dichter, Irving 46, 47 

Dolan, Gra ham 41 

Douglas, Dorothy W 66 

Duran, Bellarmiuo 37, 38 

Ekins, Robert 46 

Fabian, Bela 22 

Farash, Henry 33 

Fast, Howard 66 

Fazekas, Frank 46, 47 

Fine, Daniel 66 

Fishman, Irving 5-9 

Ford, Henry, II_ 24 

Ford, James W 66 

Forest, James 45 

France, Royal W.. 66 

Fuchs, Herbert 16-18 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Garfield, David W 49-51 

Gluck, Sid 66 

Gojack, JohnT Jr 

Goldring, Jacob *^ 

Gomulka fl 

Gorham, James E otLkk 

Gowgiel, Florence ^"^oo 

Graham, Shirley J^d 

Grossman, Saul --- ^' * 

Gundlach, Ralph - "o 

Hardyman, Hugh 1^ 

Harrison William ^b 

Hatkin, Sidney ^^. -^l 

Heit, Ruth :;-;.- ----,;--,\ it io 

Hill, Helen Roark (formerly Helen Roark Himmelfarb) 17, IS 

Holland, Henry ^2 

Hoover, John Edgar ^^ 

Horner, Jean. (-See Chaka, Betty.) 
Horner, John. {See Chaka, Edward.) 

Hudson, Romey ^^ 

Hunton, Alphaeus --- - - ^c 

Hunton, W. A --- 66 

Jones, Dale E 28, 29 

Jones, Obadiah 44, 45 

Kadar, Jonas i^ 

Kahn, Albert E --- oo 

Kaplan, Al ^^ 

Karski, Jan ^^ 

Keene, Arnold ^^ 

Kent, Harold 4b 

Kent, Rockwell „_ ob 

Khokhlov, Nikolai g^. gj 

Khrushchev ^^' jl 

Kimmel, George 4b 

Kingsbury, John A oo 

Kling, Anne Yasgur o4, t^o, oy 

Knoll, Leo G 6, 7 

Koenigsberg, Samuel ^^ 

Kusnitz, Rose Chernin ^ 

Larson, Whirlwind -- 44 

Lautner, John ■^' ^ 

Lawson, John Howard t>b 

Lehrman, Louis ^y 

Lipski, Joseph *^ 

Londe, Sol 45 

London, Sidney ^^ 

Lorch, Lee_. '^' ^4 

Lowenf els. Max Y 

Lumer, Hyman (alias Robert Harold Meyers) oi 

MacLeod, Douglas 45 

Markison, Millie °4 

Martin, Harold Page ^y> 4" 

Marx , Werner ° 

McPhaul, Arthur 2« 

McWilliams, Carey ^„ "o 

Metcalf, Robert M ■''^-'^ 

Meyers, Robert Harold. {See Lumer, Hyman.) 

Mikheev, Vladimir P ^Y' gj 

Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw -- ^\> *;* 

Miller, Arthur... o4, 71, 7^ 

Mindel, Saul J ^ 

Mitterer, Elizabeth - j^ 

Montoya, Alfredo C -^7, 41 

Moorehead, R. C_ -- 41 

Morton, Anthony -- 4^ 



INDEX iii 

Page 

iMoshcr, Harold W _ 46, 49 

Mosher, Worden C 46, 49 

Murphy, George B., Jr.. 33 

Musiel, Helen . 45 

Nadrich, Eli 51 

Nagy, Ferenc 22. 23 

Naigles, "Mike" 17 

Nathan, Otto 54, 71 

Nearing, Scott 66 

Xelson, Eleanor 16 

Xowak, Stanley 2 

Okolovich, Georgi 35 

Olim, Ellis 18 

Oser, !\Iarcella 43 

Patterson, William L 66 

Paumi, Rowena 46-49 

Peoples, Frank 50 

Pixler, Xorman 18, 19 

Reavis, Odis I 31, 32 

Reno, Philip 18, 19 

Rhine, Henrv 16 

Richter, Edna 16 

Roberts, Holland De Witte 11, 66 

Robeson, Paul 33, 58 

Rokossovsky 22 

Russell, Xorton Anthony 53, 73 

Russell, Rose 66 

Rutledge, John F 45 

Sage, James 42 

Sanderson, Harold C 41 

Scales, Junius 33 

Sehemanske, Steve 3, 4 

Schoemehl, Joseph 44, 45 

Scislowicz, Joseph 15 

Seeger, Peter 54, 60, 70 

Shaw, Ralph 44 

Sherman, Louis (alias Louis Schneiderman) 35 

' imkins, Modjeska 33 

Simpson, John W 54, 68, 69 

S inger, Marcus 52 

pencer, Erdis 28, 29 

Stanfield, Reuel 50 

Starkovich, George Tony 57, 58 

Stern, Bernard W 41 

Sullivan. Elliott 64, 69, 70 

Tavlor, Sid 46 

Tillich, Ernst 19-21 

Tyne, George 54, 69, 70 

Van Kleeck, Mary G6 

Varga, Bela 22 

\'elson, Charlie 13 

Waddilove William Don 34 

Wallace, Henry 34 

Wallace, William A 13 

Wampler, Linus 45, 46 

Watkins, John T 53 

Watson, Goldie E 53 

Weatherwax, John 66 

Wheaton, Louis 14 

White, Eliot 66 

Willcox, Anita (Mrs. Henry Willcox) 15 

Willcox, Henry 14, 15 

Wright, Morris 41 

Younglove, Thomas A 43, 44 



s 



s 



ir INDEX 

Organizations 

Page 

American Committee for Protection of For eign Born 1-5 

American Committee To Survey Trade Union Conditions in Europe 13 

American Legion 25 

American Peace Crusade 31 

American Russian Institute (San Francisco) 11 

California Labor School 11 

Civil Rights Congress 3, 5 

Michigan 3, 53 

Committee for the Return to the Homeland 6 

Committee To End Sedition Laws 1 

Communist Party, U. S. A: 

National Mexican Commission 37, 38 

NationaUty Groups Commission 2 

California, Hollywood: 

Professional Section or the Northwest Section 33 

Los Angeles City: 

Musicians Unit or Branch O 34, 35 

Los Angeles County 33 

Colorado: 

Mexican Commission 37 

Youth Commission 39 

Denver: 

National War Labor Board cell 18 

West Side Mexican Branch 37, 38 

Connecticut 46, 48, 49 

Bridgeport 46 

New. Haven 46 

Branford Club 49 

Dixweil Club 49 

Grand Avenue Club 49 

Howe Street Club 49 

Industrial Club 49 

Professional Club 49 

Railroad Club 49 

Youth Club 49 

State Board 46 

District of Columbia: 

Cell within the Interstate Commerce Commission 17 

Cell within the Labor Department 16 

Cell within the Library of Congress 17 

Cell within the National Labor Relations Board 17, 18 

Cell within the National Recovery Administration 16 

Cell within the Railroad Retirement Board 16 

Cell within the Rural Electrification Administration 16 

Cell within the Securities and Exchange Commission 17 

Cell within the Social Security Board 16 

Cell within the Wheeler Committee (Subcommittee To Investigate 

Railroads, Holding Companies, and Related Matters) 17 

Cell within the Works Progress Administration 16 

Missouri 1 44, 45 

St. Louis 41-46 

Southside Club 43 

New York: Federal Emergency Relief Administration cell 16 

North Carolina 31 

Ohio 49-52 

Canton 49, 50 

Youngstown 49, 50 

Conference on Legislation in the National Interest 1 

Connecticut Peace Council 49 

Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights 49 

Daniels Defense Committee 32, 33 

Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, United 42, 53 

District 9 53 

Local 203 46 

Fighting Group Against Inhumanity 19 

Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers Union of America Local 

78..- 41 



INDEX V 

Paga 

Fund for the Republic, Inc viii, 24, 25 

General Electric Co 47 

General Motors Corp 42 

Fisher Body Division (St. Louis) 42 

Hale Construction Co. (Garden Grove, Calif.) 35 

Humboldt Brick & Tile Co. (Humboldt, Kans.) 46 

Independent Progressive Party 34, 35 

International Labor Defense 1 

International Workers Order 5 

Labor Youth League 31 

Connecticut, Now Haven 49 

Laclede Gas Light Co. (St. Louis) 44 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International Local 26 

(Los Angeles, Calif.) 35 

Los Angeles Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 5 

Michigan Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 3 

Midwest Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 5 

Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, International Union of 41, 45-47 

Local 501 (El Paso, Tex.) 41 

Local 509 (El Paso, Tex.) 41 

Local 890 (Bavard, N. Mex.) 41 

Local 903 (El Paso, Tex.) 41 

Missouri Citizens for Wallace 45 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 33 

National Association of Mexican-Americans (ANMA) 37 

National Citizens Political Action Committee 45 

National Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 62 

National Lead Co. (Baxter Springs, Kans.) 46 

Fredericktown, Mo 45 

National Maritime Union (St. Louis) 42 

River Section 42 

National Negro Labor Council, St. Louis Branch 43 

National Tube Co 50 

New York Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 5 

Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Regions (Peking, China, 1952). 12, 

14, 15 

Peace Liaison Committee of the Asian and Pacific Regions 14 

People's Party 47 

Plymouth Monthly Meeting 25 

Progressive Citizens of America 45 

Progressive Party 31, 34, 35, 45, 47 

St. Louis Emergency Defense Committee 43 

Save Our Sons Committee viii 26-31 

Singer IVIanuf acturing Co 47 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 

Soviet Embassy (Washington, D. C.) 30, 31 

Soviet Intelligence 35 

United Cultural Association (Youngstown, Ohio) 51, 52 

United States Government: 

Federal Emergency Relief Administration, New York 16 

Office of the Federal Coordinator of Transportation 16 

Interstate Commerce Commission 17 

Labor Department 16 

Library of Congress 17 

National Labor Relations Board 17, 18 

National Recovery Administration 16 

National War Labor Board 18 

Post Office Department 6 

Railroad Retirement Board 16 

Rural Electrification Administration 16 

Securities and Exchange Commission 17 

Senate (Wheeler committee — Subcommittee To Investigate Rail- 
roads, Holding Companies, and Related Matters) 17 

Social Security Board 16 

Treasury Department: 

Bureau of Customs 5 

Veterans' Administration (Los Angeles) 35 

Works Progress Administration 16 



Vi INDEX 

Page 

University of Connecticut 49 

Ute Ranch (Idaho Springs, Colo.) 38 

Valley Dolomite Corp. (Boone Terre, Mo.) 45 

Veterans of Foreign Wars _ 25 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 12, 15 

World Peace Council 12, 15 

World Youth Festival (Warsaw, Poland, 1955) 15 

Yale University 49 

Publications 

For Return to the Homeland 6 

Freedom 33 

St. Louis Defender 43 

Save Our Sons 27,30 

Shanghai News 27 

Voice of Homeland, The 7 

Your Country's Calling You 7 

Your Relatives Are Looking for You 7 

o