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Full text of "Annual report for the year ..."



86th Congress, 2d Session 



Union Calendar No, 541 

House Report No. 1251 



COMMITTEE ON 
UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 



ANNUAL REPORT 
FOR THE YEAR 1959 




February 8, 1960 
(Original Release Date) 



February 8, 1960. — Committed to the Committee of the Whole House 
on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed 



51117 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1960 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword 1 

Chapter I. Where Does the Communist Party Stand Today? 5 

Chapter II. Hearings: 

The Kremlin's Espionage and Terror Organizations 20 

Testimony of Petr S. Deriabin 

California 22 

Pittsburgh, Pa 26 

Communist Infiltration of Vital Industries, Chicago, 111 37 

Passport Security 43 

American National Exhibition in Moscow 53 

Communist Training Operations 56 

Testimony of Clinton Edward Jencks 64 

Arnold Johnson, Legislative Director of the Communist Party, U.S. A__ 66 

Communist Activities Among Puerto Ricans 67 

Chapter III. Reports: 

Legal Subversion 73 

Southern California District of the Communist Party 76 

Who Are They? (Karl Marx) 79 

Communist Lobbying Activities in the Nation's Capital 80 

The Communist Parcel Operation 84 

Facts on Communism 86 

Chapter IV. Consultations: 

Language as a Communist Weapon 90 

Dr. Stefan T. Possony 
Communist Persecution of Churches in Red China and Northern 

Korea 93 

Rev. Peter Chu Pong 
Rev. Shih-ping Wang 
Rev. Tsin-tsai Liu 
Rev. Samuel W. S. Cheng 
Mr. Kyung Rai Kim 

Control of the Arts in the Communist Empire 98 

Ivan P. Bahriany 

The Crimes of Khrushchev (Part 1) 101 

Eugene Lyons 

The Crimes of Khrushchev (Part 2) 106 

Dr. Lev E. Dobriansky Mr. Constantin Kononenko 

Mr. Petro Pavlovych * Mr. Mykola Lebed 

Prof. Dr. Ivan M. Malinin Dr. Gregory Kostiuk 
Mr. Nicholas Prychodko Prof. Ivan Wowchuk 

Mr. Jurij Lawrynenko 

The Crimes of Khrushchev (Part 3) 110 

General Bela Kiraly 
Mr. Joseph Kovago 

The Crimes of Khrushchev (Part 4) 114 

Dr. Vilis Masens 

Mr. Vaclovas Sidzikauskas 

Chapter V. Publications 117 

Chapter VI. Reference Service 121 

Chapter VII. Contempt Proceedings 122 

Chapter VIII. Legislative Recommendations 129 

Index J 

v 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

yz 5fC 3fi 3J» *J> *f» ^ 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(hi) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

JjC 3p 5jC !ji 3jC 3J» *J» 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

VII 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

*j» *i* ^* ^* *$* *^ ^^ 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

lis * * * * * * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members 

* * 4 s * * * * 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

5JC ?(C 5fl 5fS 3fC 3|C 5JC 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the_agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

vin 



FOREWORD 

It is only necessary to thumb through a major newspaper for a 
few days to perceive the grim realities of the enormous threat this 
Nation faces today — the global, many-faceted menace of communism. 

We read of Red-fomented riots in one country, of Soviet espionage 
in another — and of a "friendly" Communist trade delegation visiting- 
still another nation, while a Soviet ballet group entertains in a neigh- 
boring state; of a Soviet disruptive move in the United Nations, a 
Red-initiated and directed civil war in one area of the world, a Com- 
munist invasion of a newly independent state — and of a top Soviet 
official visiting some capital and talking "peace and friendship." 
We read of Communist persecution of religion one day — and of ex- 
changes of moving pictures and other "cultural" media to encourage 
"better understanding" the next. We learn of international meetings 
of representatives of free nations called to discuss means of meeting 
the Soviet challenge — and of gatherings of Communist representa- 
tives plotting how to render these efforts null and void and bring 
about the destruction of still more free governments. 

We learn that in this struggle with the forces of communism the 
United States is the major target of the enemy and also the major sup- 
port of those nations which are still free and fighting to preserve their 
liberty. We learn not only that communism is a matter of grave con- 
cern, but that it is a tremendous financial burden to the American 
people. We are spending over $40 billion this year for military de- 
fense. Hundreds of thousands of young men are postponing the 
completion of their education or their engagement in productive work 
to take military training. Each year the Government spends many 
hundreds of millions of dollars for information and intelligence opera- 
tions in all quarters of the globe. 

For over a decade — and for the first time in our history — American 
troops in large numbers have been stationed more or less permanently 
in numerous foreign countries. Our most powerful bombers are con- 
stantly in the air on a kind of perpetual defense assignment, Though 
technically there is no war, the United States is shipping millions 
of dollars worth of arms each year to other nations which have asked 
for them, lest they find themselves incapable of resisting Communist 
aggression and thus lose their freedom. 

Under such conditions, simple logic tells us that never before has 
there been such urgent need for the widest possible understanding of 
communism — the enemy — in the Congress and at the crossroads of 
America. 

During the past summer a 2-week National Strategy Seminar for 
200 carefully selected reserve officers from all over the Nation was held 
at the National War College in Washington with the endorsement of 
the Department of Defense and with the assistance of the Reserve 
Officers Association, the Foreign Policy Research Institute of the 
University of Pennsylvania, and the Institute for American Strategy. 



2 ANNUAL REPORT ON- UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

The officers who attended this seminar did not study military 
science. They did not listen to lectures on military strategy, tactics, 
weapons development, and other subjects usually associated with the 
Armed Forces. Rather, the major theme of this seminar, at which 
a score of the country's top authorities on communism lectured, 
was "fourth dimensional warfare" or, as it is sometimes called, "politi- 
cal warfare" — combat aimed at destroying an enemy by nonmilitary 
means. This is a combat science which has been developed by the Com- 
munists to its highest degree in the history of civilization. 

An implication of this seminar — and a point previously made by 
many experts — is that this country could be conquered by Commun- 
ists without a shot being fired ; that the military know-how and capa- 
bilities of our Armed Forces, our tremendous array of weapons, and 
the huge sums spent to develop them might never be used in a final 
defense effort to prevent the enslavement of the American people. 

Fantastic ? But communism has taken over more than one nation 
"peacefully," without war or revolution in the usual sense of these 
words. It has accomplished this by a combination of internal sub- 
version, political and propaganda warfare, economic warfare, and 
other techniques of "fourth dimensional warfare" which the leaders 
of world communism have devised for undermining and destroying 
the governments of free men. 

Without in any way underrating the vital importance of massive 
military strength in being, it can be said that thorough understanding 
of communism, its doctrines, designs, strategy, and techniques is today 
the most urgent need of the free world. 

In this struggle between freedom and the forces of slavery, the 
Congress of the United States has charged the Committee on Un- 
American Activities with the responsibility for maintaining continuing 
surveillance over the agitational and propaganda activities, within 
this Nation, of the international Communist conspiracy. It has also 
charged it with continually reviewing the administration and operation 
of our security laws for the purpose of recommending such revisions as 
are necessary to cope with the ever-changing Communist threat. 

During the past year the committee has held 11 major hearings, 
encompassing the testimony of 166 witnesses and covering such diverse 
subjects as Communist training operations; U.S. passport security; 
the organization, tactics, and leadership of the Communist Party in 
California ; communism in Puerto Rico ; and Soviet espionage opera- 
tions. In addition, the committee has published, after careful re- 
search and study, six reports on various facets of Communist activi- 
ties — ranging from Communist lobbying in the Nation's Capital and 
the role of the lawyer in the Communist conspiracy to the gift parcel 
operations of the Soviet bloc in the United States, and the first volume 
of a series entitled "Facts on Communism" which will give a complete 
survey of communism in both its theoretical and practical aspects. 

The committee has also published seven consultations with outstand- 
ing authorities on various facets of communism. These consultations 
have dealt with such topics as Communist use of language as a 
weapon, the control of arts in the Communist empire, the crimes of 
Khrushchev, and Communist persecution of religion in Red China 
and North Korea. In discharge of its legislative functions, the com- 
mittee has recommended legislation relating to nine different subjects. 






ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 3 

Defense weapons cost huge sums today — a nuclear submarine $49 
million, an attack carrier $280 million, a guided-missile destroyer 
$34 million. The B-52 bomber at one stage in its development was con- 
sidered an $8 million plane. A single Titan missile costs $2 million. 
The Air Force recently deactivated four squadrons of F-104 Star- 
fighter interceptors because that model is now outmoded. Each one of 
these planes had cost $1.4 million. 

The committee operated last year — and made its contribution to our 
defense effort in the vital field of information and legislation — on a 
budget of $327,000, a small fraction of the cost of any major weapon in 
our military arsenal. 

Eealizing how vital knowledge of communism is today to all free 
men — and how important factual information on this suoject will be 
to the final outcome of the struggle in which we are now engaged — 
it is with pleasure that there is presented to the Congress and the 
people of this country the Annual Report of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities for 1959. 

Francis E. Walter, Chairman. 



ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1959 

CHAPTER I 
WHERE DOES THE COMMUNIST PARTY STAND TODAY? 

The U.S. Communist Party is today convinced that it stands on the 
threshold of a new era, an era of growth, of increased membership and 
influence in the United States. It believes that it has successfully 
fought its way through a period of great hardship and that its most 
difficult days are a thing of the past. 

The Communist Party celebrated its fortieth anniversary in Septem- 
ber 1959. Speaking at a rally in Chicago in honor of this occa- 
sion, Gus Hall, who was later elected leader of the party at its Sev- 
enteenth National Convention in December 1959, made the following 
exultant statement : 

Comrades, in this exciting era, it's great to be alive — but to 
be alive and a Communist is just tremendous — it is the most. 1 

In preparation for the party convention in December, a draft politi- 
cal resolution was drawn up earlier in the year. This document, pre- 
pared according to the party's constitution at least 90 days prior to the 
convention for study by party officials, committees, and members, is 
an analysis, from the Marxist-Leninist viewpoint, of the situation in 
which the party finds itself and a statement on the strategy, tactics, 
and the propaganda line it is to use in the immediate future to accom- 
plish its goals. 

The last paragraph of this resolution emphasized the conspiracy's 
optimism concerning its fortunes in the years immediately ahead : 

The decade of the sixties is a period in which the American 
people will take great strides forward. And it is a period in 
which our Party and its influence can grow many times over, 
in which it can become a mass party of the American work- 
ing class * * *. 

Gus Hall delivered the keynote speech at the 1959 convention of the 
Communist Party. He pointed out the difficult times through which 
the party had passed, but his major note was one of confidence : 

This is a convention which ends all holding operations and 
sets our sights to the future. It is a convention of advance, 
of progress * * *. 

And it is being held at a time when the decline in our own 
ranks has been halted, when the morale and fighting spirit 
of our membership is on the upgrade * * *. 

Our Party has traveled a difficult path — and this not only 
since the 16th Convention. The enemy has thrown wave 
after wave, both internally and externally, against us now 
for 10 years. We can say with just pride that the Commu- 

1 The Worker, Oct. 4, 1©59, p. 4. 



6 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

nist Party of the U.S.A. has come through the fires battered 
but intact. We have suffered defeats but in an overall sense 
we have matured, become steeled and tempered * * *. 

Possibly it was unavoidable, but the fact is that we have 
now gone through a period that could be called a "holding 
operation," an operation to stop the decline and deterioration 
of our Party. I think it is realistic to say that we can now 
end all such concepts. We are no longer a holding operation 
but a live, growing organization. Many districts have al- 
ready demonstrated their ability to move and grow, but this 
must now become a general rule for the whole Party. In 
short, both the objective and subjective conditions are now 
ripe for our Party to move into a position of becoming a seri- 
ous factor in the life of our nation, in the work of the trade 
unions, the Negro people, the youth, the farmers and other 
sections of the population * * *. 

He concluded his speech with the following words : 

This is a convention of a united party — of a party that is 
going places. 

The present membership of the Communist Party is relatively small 
compared to what it has been in the past, as this committee has previ- 
ously pointed out — and as the party's leaders now admit. In addi- 
tion, the party has been torn b}^ internal strife in recent years — as it 
also admits today. Why, then, should it be so optimistic about the 
future ? 

There are two major reasons. 

Soviet Power 

The first is the increased power of the Soviet Union — the power 
being in this case both its military might and its alleged tremendous 
economic progress. 

In an article celebrating the party's fortieth anniversary, which was 
published in Political Affairs for October 1959 and entitled "The Life 
of the Party Begins at Forty," Hall repeatedly referred to the Soviet 
Union's growing strength : 

Through a government apparatus at its service, U.S. im- 
perialism reached the position of top dog in the capitalist 
world, a point where it owned and controlled one- half of the 
world's industrial production, a point where no serious chal- 
lenge was forthcoming from any quarter. In large measure 
it sets its own terms on a take-or- leave-it basis * * *. 

Now, with this fortieth anniversary, the curtain is slowly 
descending on this era. As after an extended orgy — a 
forty-year binge — the lights are beginning to dim. The era 
of no serious challenge, of unrestrained and unending expan- 
sion, is coming to an end. The top dog is being replaced by 
a new set of actors * * *. 

During these same forty-some years a new economic and 
social system has made its appearance — the system of Social- 
ism * * "'. 

Now, after some forty years, it stands as one of the world's 
two great economic, political, and military powers. * * * 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 



* * 



From now on, more than anything else, develop- 
ments in the world will be shaped by the process and the 
result of the competition between these two world systems — 
socialism and capitalism. 

The party's draft resolution for its 1950 convention made the fol- 
lowing statements on this same theme : 

On a world scale, the leading position of the United States, 
long uncontested, is now being increasingly challenged on all 
sides by * * * the socialist [Communist] world, which now 
bids to surpass the achievements of American capitalism in 
every respect. * * * 

Above all, the relationship of forces on a world scale has 
changed irrevocably in favor of the camp of peace, freedom 
and social progress. Socialism [communism] has emerged 
as an invincible world system. 

Hall, in his convention speech, said : 

* * * This is the first convention to take place in the era 
when the socialist forces of the world have attained domi- 
nance, and when the world peace forces, for the first time in 
history, are the most powerful voice and movement on the 
world scene. * * * 

The outstanding world phenomenon of today is the fact 
that the balance of strength is tipping decidedly in the direc- 
tion of the socialist world. This is a development of profound 
importance to every capitalist country, but its impact on the 
leading capitalist stronghold, the bastion of world capitalism, 
is a virtually explosive one. 

At first glance, the might of the Soviet Union, real or alleged, does 
not seem to have great relevance to the opportunities of the Commu- 
nist Party to increase its membership ancl influence in this country. 
Power in another, however, affects people in different ways. In some 
it begets fear and then appeasement or fawning cooperation. In others 
it evokes admiration, even if the power happens to be evil and dan- 
gerous. Many people tend to climb on the bandwagon of a successful 
cause. They will do this for selfish interests, even if they know the 
cause is evil. Power also begets respect in some persons who, for a 
variety of reasons, refuse to see the danger and evil in the entity which 
wields it. 

The Communist Party is convinced that Soviet power is already 
affecting the foreign policy of the United States — in the direction of 
a softening. It believes that as this power grows, it can also affect the 
attitude of the United States Government toward the party itself — 
that there may be a lessening of opposition, exposure, and prosecution 
of Communists, based on fear of offending Moscow. 

The party also attaches great importance to the reputed economic 
gains the Soviet Union has made in recent years and the even greater 
advances that it claims will result from its current 7-year plan. These 
gains, the Communists believe, will impress many Americans and give 
communism a prestige as an economic system and ideology that it has 
not succeeded in winning in the past. 



8 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Khrushchev's Visit to the United States 

The second major reason for the Communist Party's optimism is 
Khrushchev's recent visit to the United States. Not only U.S. Com- 
munist Party publications, but Communist organs in all parts of 
the world, have hailed this as a tremendous victory. The Communists 
see Khrushchev's visit as a major break in U.S. foreign policy, dic- 
tated largely by the growth of Soviet power. They also believe, how- 
ever, that his visit, on its own, has had a powerful impact on the 
American public. 

Gus Hall, in his convention speech, referred to the Soviet premier's 
visit to the United States as an "historic" event, which had "momen- 
tous consequences." The party's draft political resolution for its 1959 
convention referred to it as "a truly momentous advance in the fight 
for peaceful coexistence." 

The first draft of this resolution was prepared by the National 
Executive Committee and submitted to, and approved by, the National 
Committee of the Communist Party at a meeting in New York City 
on July 25 and 26, 1959 — before Premier Khrushchev's visit to the 
United States in September. It was then published for study and 
debate by all party members in the September issue of Political 
Affairs. 

Normally, the Communist Party's draft political resolution receives 
no more than routine discussion in the Communist press from the time 
of its publication until it is adopted at the convention, either as pub- 
lished or with some revisions. But an unusual development took 
place in regard to the draft resolution for the 1959 convention. 

On November 1, the National Executive Committee of the Commu- 
nist Party addressed an open letter to the party membership, stating 
that since the draft resolution had been prepared "many important 
events have occurred" which have made clearer "certain highly sig- 
nificant developments which were not so clearly discernible" when the 
resolution was drafted. These developments, the National Executive 
Committee said, made it "necessary to add to the draft and to modify 
some points in it." 2 

What were the significant developments that had taken place? 

"The most striking of these developments," the National Executive 
Committee said in its letter to all party members, "is the Khrushchev 
visit and it consequences." His visit and the scheduled return visit 
of President Eisenhower, the letter went on, were the outgrowth of a 
"growing world trend toward peaceful co-existence" and of tendencies 
toward a change in U.S. foreign policy produced by "a change in 
the relationship of forces on a world scale, with a mounting challenge 
to the dominant position of American capitalism * * *." 

The letter continued : 

The Khrushchev visit has produced certain immediate 
effects of great import to the American people * * *. It not 
only opens the door to certain immediate gains * * * but 
creates new opportunities for the peace forces [the Commu- 
nists] to impose further shifts in foreign policy * * *. 

* * * the forces of peace now fight from a greatly im- 
proved vantage point * * * tremendous new opportunities 
now exist to advance the cause of peace — if they are grasped. 



The Worker, Nov. 1, 1959, p. 5. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 9 

In particular, attention must be focused on the issue of dis- 
armament * * *. 

The letter went on to explain how huge sums of money would be 
available for various welfare measures if the United States had a 
peace-time economy. It said that the Communist Party must take 
the lead in this fight and in the "fight for an end to the cold war." 
It was clear, the statement continued, that in the 1960 elections "peace 
will be the dominant issue." This important fact and a growing anti- 
labor trend "must be taken more adequately into account in the draft 
resolution." 

The following paragraphs in the letter indicate the tremendous 
significance attached to Khrushchev's visit to the United States by 
the Communist Party : 

It is our responsibility, too, to bring forward the fight for 
socialism in the light of the new situation which exists. For 
the American people are changing their attitude toward 
socialism. The Sputniks and Luniks, the economic advance 
and challenge of the Soviet Union, its impressive educational 
achievements — these and other developments have produced 
more than mere curiosity in this country. 

Americans are examining and weighing the relative merits 
of the two systems. And they are coming more and more to 
realize that the socialist achievements offer no threat to them. 
Hence the lucid descriptions of the Soviet society presented 
by Khrushchev fell on interested ears. 

To these responsibilities, our Party has already begun to 
respond. In a number of places, we already witness signifi- 
cant new signs of breaking our isolation and becoming in- 
volved as a significant factor in the mass movements^ And 
the present objective conditions offer real possibilities for 
expanding this trend. 

Of paramount importance in our work is the elevation of 
the cause of peace and disarmament to the place of first rank 
which it deserves. In this, we must not underestimate the 
changes which have taken place. * * * 

The initiative taken by President Eisenhower for the 
exchange of visits, the extraordinary tour of Premier Khru- 
shchev in our country, the memorable talks at Camp David, 
Khrushchev's historic bid before the United Nations to join 
in a four-year plan to effect total disarmament — such events 
have inspired the people of our country and the whole world 
with the highest hopes for peace and with the vision of a 
world of good-neighborly relations in which countries with 
different social systems coexist in peaceful and productive 
competition for the enrichment of the life of all mankind. 

Exchange visits of heads of state are quite common today. It is, 
therefore, rather difficult to see why the Commimist Party should 
believe that Khrushchev's visit to the United States should have such 
tremendous importance — other than as the previously mentioned indi- 
cation of a change in U.S. foreign policy. Won't his visit be largely 
forgotten in a relatively short time, just as the visits of other heads of 
state have been ? 

51117—60 2 



10 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Analysis of the above-quoted Communist documents and statements 
indicates that the party believes Khrushchev's visit will have lasting- 
impact because he succeeded in influencing a significant number of 
Americans to believe that he can be trusted when he speaks of his 
desire for peaceful coexistence with this country ; that he was telling 
the truth, for example, when he explained that by his threat to "bury 
the United States he merely meant that communism would succeed 
capitalism — as capitalism succeeded feudalism — through superior 
economic and social performance in fulfilling the needs and desires of 
the people. 

Moreover, Khrushchev — unlike other heads of state — has a huge 
international propaganda machine and also an agency in this country 
(the Communist Party) winch will see that the impact of his visit is 
not lost. These agencies will continue to bombard the American peo- 
ple with the same slogans, words, and thoughts that he used and, by 
the process of repetition alone, will succeed in obtaining a certain 
acceptance of them. 

Thus the Communist Party's belief that it has today an opportunity 
to "grow many times over" and to become "a mass party of the Amer- 
ican working class." The Communists are basing their conviction 
largely on the trusting nature of the American people, on their strong 
tendency to take a man — even a Communist — at his word. This, they 
believe, will enable them and also the leaders of the world Communist 
conspiracy to mislead the American people as to the true nature and 
aims of Moscow and of the U.S. Communist Party. 

The committee believes, therefore, that the security of this Nation 
depends in large measure upon the degree to which the American pub- 
lic, its elected officials, and policymakers know how to interpret Com- 
munist statements. If they take the words of Communists at face 
value, the results could be disastrous. But if they know how to in- 
terpret them correctly, neither Khrushchev nor the Communist Party 
will be able to deceive them. They will understand the Communists* 
true designs and take the steps required to defeat them. 

What Do Communists' Words Mean? 

After completing his U.S. tour, Soviet Premier Khrushchev visited 
Red China. On October 4, 1959, he wound up his 5-day visit to that 
country with a speech in Peking, in the course of which he said : 

* * * we Communists of the Soviet Union consider it as 
our sacred duty, our primary task * * * to liquidate the 
cold war, and guarantee the triumph of the cause of peace on 
earth. 

On several occasions after Khrushchev left Red China and before 
he delivered a major address to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. 
on October 31, 1959, Red China reiterated its intention of taking 
Formosa — and driving American forces out of the area — by force. 

In his October 31, 1959, speech to the Supreme Soviet, Khrushchev 
said : 

We support the [Red] Chinese policy on Formosa. 

Khrushchev's two statements appear contradictory. How could he 
support Peking's intention to take Formosa by force, after proclaim- 
ing that it was the "sacred duty 7 " of Communists to end the cold war 
and guarantee peace on earth ? 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 11 

But the two statements are not contradictory — if you know how to 
interpret the trick language of Communists, in which words have 
meanings entirely different from those they have when used by non- 
Communists. 

Communist Aesopian Language 

In the preface to the Russian edition of his work "Imperialism," 
Lenin said that this pamphlet had been written "with an eye to the 
tsarist censorship" and that, for this reason, he was forced to make 
his observations on political matters "with extreme caution, by hints, 
in that Aesopian language— in that cursed Aesopian language — to 
which tsarism compelled all revolutionaries to have recourse, whenever 
they took up their pens to write a 'legal' work." Later in the preface, 
Lenin wrote that "the careful reader will easily substitute" the correct 
words for the cover words or Aesopian language he had used in the 
pamphlet to conceal his real meaning from the tsarist censors. 3 

"What is Aesopian language? It is a code by which Communists 
convey to one another, in words that sound innocent to non-Commu- 
nists, revolutionary or illegal doctrines, messages, and exhortations. 
Lenin used it to trick the tsarist censors. Communists use it today to 
trick the non-Communist world at large. The name of this code is 
taken from that of Aesop, the ancient Greek writer of fables. The 
meaning given words in this code is based largely on Marxist-Leninist 
doctrine. 

In the Smith Act trials of the first- and second-string Communist 
Party leaders, Louis Budenz, former managing editor of the Daily 
Worker and former member of the National Committee of the Com- 
munist Party, testified extensively on Communist use of Aesopian 
language. He said that the Communists had devised this as a means 
of cloaking their true intentions while conveying revolutionary mean- 
ings to initiated party members. He testified, for example, that the 
term "Marxism-Leninism," which occurs so frequently in Communist 
statements even today, is a code expression for unlawful activity. He 
also admitted that he himself had used Aesopian language in a public 
statement issued at the time he joined the Communist Party in 1935. 
This statement read in part as follows : 

For him who proposes to advance the workers' revolution, 
there is but one road to follow : the path of the Comintern. 

In Communist Aesopian language, Budenz explained, the words 
"workers' revolution" and "Comintern" were actually a call for the 
overthrow of the United States Government by force and violence. 
He also testified that the Communists used this Aesopian language in 
official documents which are designed for public (non- Communist) 
consumption. 

Early in 1959, the committee held a consultation with Dr. Stefan T. 
Possony, one of the country's leading authorities on the Communist 
use of Aesopian or code language. 4 In addition to giving an account 
of the manner in which Communists manipulate language so that 
words have a special meaning for them, based on their ideology, Dr. 
Possony outlined the six fundamentals in Communist use of semantics. 

3 "Selected Works," vol. V. pp. 5 and 6, International Publishers, New York. 1943. 

4 "Language as a Communist Weapon," Consultation with Dr. Stefan T. Possony, Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, Mar. 2, 1959. 



12 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Two of these fundamentals have special reference to Aesopian lan- 
guage: 

Every Communist communication must convey an ortho- 
dox, that is, revolutionary activating message to the party 
and its followers. 

This same communication must convey a different, i.e., 
soothing, pacifying, and paralyzing message to the opponent 
of communism. 

These two principles, combined with Lenin's and Budenz' descrip- 
tion of Aesopian language, are the key to understanding Khru- 
shchev's statement about it being the sacred duty of Communists 
to insure peace and his statement supporting Eed China's policy of 
force against Formosa. 

Did Khrushchev use Aesopian or code language in either or both 
of these statements ? The answer is that he did in one of them — the 
one concerning the sacred duty of Communists to insure "the triumph 
of the cause of peace on earth." In the other, he merely made a blunt 
statement about Soviet-Communist policy. 

Communist "Peace" 5 

To the mind of the free peoples of the world, the term "peace" 
means the absence of conflict. In Communist jargon, however, it is 
basic that there is an inevitable conflict in being at all times between 
Communist societies and non-Communist societies, and that "peace" 
can be attained only by the complete subjugation of the world by 
communism. When the Communists speak of their dedication to the 
cause of peace, they refer not to the elimination of conflict with non- 
Communist societies, but to the attainment of the ultimate domination 
of the world by communism. 

Therefore, in Communist thinking, when the Eussian tanks were 
slaughtering the freedom fighters in Hungary and when the North 
Korean Communist hordes attacked the South Koreans, the "cause of 
peace" was truly being promoted because it was all in furtherance 
of the designs of international communism for world domination. 

Khrushchev, in emphasizing the "sacred duty of Communists" to 
"guarantee the triumph of the cause of peace on earth," was, in 
Aesopian language, issuing a call to initiated Communists in all parts 
of the world to step up their subversion of all non- Communist socie- 
ties by all means possible, including the use of force and violence. 

Read in this light, there is no contradiction between the words 
Khrushchev uttered in Peking and in his address to the Supreme 
Soviet in Moscow. In the Communist view, the ousting of the Chi- 
nese Nationalists and the United States from Formosa is a step 
toward peace (Communist domination of the world) . 

What is the "Cold War"? 

But, one may ask, why did Khrushchev call on the Communists to 
end the cold war if he was really urging them, in Communist Aesopian 
language, to step up their efforts to undermine and destroy the re- 
maining free nations? Wasn't this contradictory ? Shouldn't he 

5 For detailed treatment of this subject matter, the reader is referred to "Facts on 
Communism, Vol. I, The Communist Ideology," Committee on Un-American Activities, 86th 
Congress, 1st Session, December, 1959. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 13 

have called on them to step up the cold war, instead of "liquidating" 
it? 

Again, the answer is found in Communist Aesopian language. To 
the average non-Communist, the cold war is the nonmilitary or non- 
violent aspects of the struggle which has been going on between the 
Communist and the free nations since the end of World War II, when 
the Soviet Union made clear its intention of subjugating free nations 
by any and all means and they, in turn, determined to resist this Com- 
munist design. It involves all steps, outside the military sphere, 
taken by either side in this struggle. 

But this is not the way Communists define the cold war. The 
January 1956 issue of the U.S. Communist Party theoretical organ, 
Political Affairs, published an article by Max Weiss, a party func- 
tionary. Entitled "Geneva and '56," it was based on a report made 
to the December 1955 National Conference of the U.S. Communist 
Party. In this article, Weiss denned what U.S. Communists mean 
by the cold war (italics added) : 

What is the cold war? Is it just a synonym for the so- 
cial, economic and political struggle of the capitalist world 
against the Socialist world? No, that struggle began in 
November 1917 and will continue until capitalism disap- 
pears from the face of the earth. If the cold war were mere- 
ly a synonym for this struggle there could be no prospect 
for ending the cold war until the world victory of Socialism. 

When we talk of the cold war we refer to the form of the 

struggle by the capitalist world against the Socialist 
world * * *. 

The cold war is a form of this struggle which is neither 
a shooting war nor a peaceful relationship. To be more 
precise, the cold war is a special form of this struggle which 
has been developed in the period since World War II. Its 
main features are: Massive armaments including A- and 
H-bomb stockpiles, threat of atomic war, A- and H-bomb 
diplomacy, regional anti-Soviet military alliances, foreign 
military bases, military intervention against national libera- 
tion movements, trade embargo, prohibition of normal cul- 
tural and scientific interchange. 

It can be seen from this that, to the U.S. Communists^ the cold icar 
does not include anything done by Moscoio to undermine or destroy 
the United States or any other government. It is strictly limited to 
those actions taken by the United States to protect itself and others 
from Communist aggression. 

Moscow sees eye to eye with the U.S. Communist Party on this 
subject, as can be readily determined from the following definition 
of "cold war" found in a volume of the Large Soviet Encyclopedia 
published since Khrushchev's ascendancy to the Number One posi- 
tion in the Soviet Unio™ and the world Communist movement : 

"Cold ivar". — An aggressive political policy, adopted after 
the end of World War II toivards the USSR and the people's 
democracies by the reactionary circles of the imperialistic 
powers headed by the United States and Great Britain. 
* * * The "cold war" is directed towards preventing the 
peaceful coexistence of states with differing social systems, 



14 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

increasing tensions in international relations, and preparing 
the conditions for m\ leashing a new world war. (Italics 
added.) 6 

Thus, when Khrushchev said in his speech that it was the "sacred 
duty" of Communists "to liquidate the cold war," he did not mean 
that the Communists or the Soviet Union had any intention of ceas- 
ing their efforts to undermine and destroy free nations. What he 
\vas saying was that it was the sacred duty of Communists to put an 
end to all policies and practices of the United States and its allies 
designed to protect this and other countries from Communist enslave- 
ment. They were to induce or force the United States to disarm, to 
surrender its A- and H-bomb stockpiles, to break up NATO, SEATO, 
and other defense alliances, to give up its defense bases abroad and 
pull its troops out of all foreign countries, to forego intervention 
on the side of freedom in any nation where the Communists are taking 
over through civil war, to end its ban on the shipment of strategic 
goods to the Communist bloc, to recognize Red China — in short, to 
give up all resistance to communism! 

Khrushchev's Peking speech was front-paged in newspapers all over 
the United States and in practically every nation of the world. Mil- 
lions of Americans read it and were encouraged to think — just as the 
people of other free nations were — that it meant that chances for 
ending the cold war and bringing peace to the world were greatly 
improved by what Khrushchev had said. 

But millions of Communists all over the world also read his words — 
and knew that it was not a call for real peace or for ending the cold 
war, but merely a Communist semantic trick to lull the West into a 
false sense of security and, at the same time, convey to Communist 
conspirators everywhere an Aesopian order for a continuing, intensi- 
fied struggle to destroy free governments. 

Khrushchev's statement fulfilled two of the basic principles of 
Aesopian language as described by Dr. Possony. To the initiated 
Communists who understand this language, his words were an ex- 
hortation for them to continue their subversion of the United States 
and all non- Communist nations. At the same time, through use of the 
word "peace" and the phrase "liquidate the cold war," Khrushchev 
was conveying a different, a "soothing, pacifying, and paralyzing 
message to the opponent of communism." 

The U.S. Communist Party believes it can grow and recover in the 
60's its membership losses of the 50's because it believes that the 
majority of Americans and other free-world peoples and their lead- 
ers do not know how to interpret the Communist Party's and Khru- 
shchev's statements ; and it is convinced that it, echoing Khrushchev, 
can now hoodwink substantial portions of the U.S. population with 
pious-sounding phrases. 

It is for this reason that the meaning of a now frequently used, de- 
ceptive Communist slogan will be discussed briefly here. 

a Bol'shaia sovetskaia entsiklopediia (Large Soviet Encyclopedia), 2d ed., vol. 46 (1957), 
p. 297. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 19 59 15 

What is "Peaceful Coexistence"? 

A major theme of U.S. Communist Party propaganda today is an 
echo of the "peaceful coexistence" line of Moscow. Communist Party 
publications make repeated references to it. The party's leaders talk 
of it constantly. The draft political resolution for the recent Com- 
munist Party convention stated that Premier Khrushchev's visit to 
the United States and President Eisenhower's scheduled return visit 
to the U.S.S.R. constituted "a truly momentous advance in the fight 
for peaceful coexistence." 

What do the U.S. Communists — and other Communists — mean when 
they talk of peaceful coexistence? Do they really believe that the 
United States and the Soviet Union can coexist permanently in a 
peaceful, nonwar relationship — as they would have us believe? 

The concept of peaceful coexistence is old in Communist ranks. 
Lenin enunciated it. Stalin and his lieutenants pushed it — as did 
Malenkov. Today Khrushchev is stressing it more than any of his 
predecessors ever did. Communist leaders have always referred to 
it as a "Leninist" concept, but neither they nor Lenin have ever spoken 
of anything like permanent peaceful coexistence. The most they have 
ever said was that "prolonged" peaceful coexistence was possible. 

In Lenin's view, peaceful coexistence during the period of "capital- 
ist encirclement" was no more than a breathing spell for Communists, 
providing them with an opportunity to catch their breath after a con- 
quest. As he used it originally, it was the breathing spell which fol- 
lowed the conquest of Russia by the Communists in the Bolshevik 
Revolution. But even while he propounded this idea, Lenin stated 
(1920) : 

* * * as soon as we are strong enough to defeat capitalism 
as a whole, we shall immediately take it by the scruff of the 
neck. 

Since Lenin's time, the Communists have used the peaceful coex- 
istence theme to provide a breathing spell following their conquests 
of Eastern Europe, Mainland China, and other areas. 

The concept of peaceful coexistence means no more than that Com- 
munists are realists. They face the fact today, as they have in the 
past, that a complete, immediate world Communist revolution is not 
possible because of the power of the non-Communist bloc. The ful- 
fillment of the revolution must, therefore, be postponed for a time. 
The Communists, at times, must become partners in a strategic truce 
with capitalist powers which will pave the way for future advances 
for them once they have accumulated greater strength. Meanwhile, 
the time of the completion of the revolution will be continually ad- 
vanced by internal subversion and all other means short of general 
war. 

Stalin repeatedly pointed out that the idea of peaceful coexistence 
was based on the relative power of the two opposing camps. In a 
May 9, 1925, speech, he said it was based on the fact that "a certain 
temporary equilibrium" had been reached between the capitalist and 
Communist forces, with capitalism having a slight advantage. 7 Some- 
what later, on December 2, 1927, he said that peaceful relations with 
foreign countries were "an obligatory task for us" because, as Lenin 
had pointed out, the success of communism depended on delaying the 

7 Soviet Documents on Foreign Policy. 1925-32. Oxford University Press, London, 1952, 
edited by Jane Degras, vol. II, p. 26. 



16 ANNUAL REPORT ON' UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

inevitable war with the capitalist nations until conditions were more 
favorable for the Communists. 8 

Khrushchev is sometimes completely honest when he speaks of 
"peaceful coexistence." At the Twentieth Congress of the Soviet 
Communist Party in February 1956, for example, he spoke very care- 
fully on the subject of peaceful coexistence in an obvious attempt to 
inform all Communists just what was meant by it : 

The Leninist principle of peaceful co-existence of states or 
differing social systems was, and remains, the general line of 
our country's foreign policy. 

It is important to note that in this statement he said nothing about 
permanent peaceful coexistence and was careful to point out that 
peaceful coexistence was no more than the "general line" of Soviet 
foreign policy. This is a clear indication that he was not repudiating 
the classic Communist doctrines of permanent class conflict, of con- 
stant clashes between the capitalist and Communist powers, and of a 
final showdown between the two. 

More important, Khrushchev took note in his speech of the fact 
that his incessant harping on "peaceful coexistence" had evidently 
affected — in the wrong way — some Communists and was endangering 
the purity of their ideology. He warned them against misinterpret- 
ing the phrase and told them specifically how it was not to be inter- 
preted : 

* * * concerning the possibility of peaceful co- existence 
of states with differing social-political systems, some party 
workers are trying to transfer this thesis into the ideological 
sphere. This is a dangerous fallacy. 

These words were a clear warning to all Communists that the idea 
of peaceful coexistence as a fundamental or lasting Communist doc- 
trine or as an ideological belief was wrong and evil, "a dangerous 
fallacy." 

In a speech delivered in Leningrad on July 6, 1957, Khrushchev 
was explicit in spelling out the reason why the Soviet Union is now 
pushing the peaceful coexistence line. He described peaceful coex- 
istence as "a policy directed to the strengthening of our mighty So- 
cialist camp." (Italics added.) 

He also revealed the purpose behind this policy in his address to 
the Twenty-first Congress of the Soviet Communist Party in January 
1959, when he said while discussing the "principal tasks" of the Com- 
munists in the years ahead in the field of foreign policy : 

The fundamental problem of the coming seven years is to 
make the most of the time factor in socialism's peaceful eco- 
nomic competition with capitalism (italics added) . 

This is a clear statement on Khrushchev's part that he does not ex- 
pect peaceful coexistence to last too long, that he considers it no more 
than a policy line he is using temporarily because he believes it is to 
the advantage of the Communists to do so. 

Allen Dulles, director of the Central Intelligence Agency, pointed 
out a fact which clarifies what the Communists mean by peaceful co- 
existence, in an address on December 15, 1959. In discussing the tac- 

8 Stalin's Collected Works, vol. X, pp. 288-289. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 17 

tics the Kremlin had been using in the recent past and will probably 
continue to use in the years immediately ahead, he said that it had 
placed special emphasis on the idea of "coexistence" in the messages 
it sent to the West. He then added : 

* * * However to avoid any confusion among the Com- 
munist Party "faithful" the latter have recently received 
clarifying directives which point out that: "In the ideo- 
logical field there never was peaceful coexistence between So- 
cialism and Capitalism and there never can be." 

As Dr. Possony said in his consultation with the committee : 

Coexistence is a temporary situation, and it is a descrip- 
tion of fact. It also is a slogan to lull non-Communists to 
sleep and to induce economic and political support for the 
Soviet Union. 

It specifically does not mean that any Communists ought 
to be prepared to coexist with the capitalist system till the 
end of the world. Essentially, the term is a deception to con- 
vey the impression that the world revolution has been called 
off. 

The Conspiracy in the Days Ahead 

The proceedings of the Seventeenth Communist Party Convention 
held in December 1959 indicate that, for the most part, the party will 
follow the same basic strategy and tactics it has been pursuing for the 
last few years. "Peace" will be the central theme of the Communist 
Party propaganda and agitation. The party has found that this word 
serves well to mislead many non-Communists about the Communists' 
true aims. This theme, however, will not be used only in a general 
way. Party leader Gus Hall told the delegates at the convention 
that they must tie the peace theme to specific secondary ideas to give 
it greater effectiveness. 

The party can be expected to make a stronger pitch to big business 
representatives. This decision is apparently based, to a great extent, 
on the fact that appearances before business organizations served as a 
valuable sounding board for Khrushchev during his visit to the United 
States and also on the activities in recent years of prominent business 
men, such as Cyrus Eaton, who have done so much to promote the 
Communist propaganda line. 

Hall urged the delegates at the Communist Party convention to show 
industrialists how "peace" could increase their profits. As far as the 
people at large were concerned, they were to be told how peace and 
total disarmament (another major propaganda line) will bring great 
benefits to them — that it will make possible the spending of billions 
of dollars for schools, roads, hospitals, parks, and housing instead of 
for defense. 

Because the party's concentrated efforts over a period of many years 
have failed to convert a significant number of Negro followers to its 
cause, it made a complete break at the convention with what has been 
the major doctrine of the party on the Negro question since its earliest 
days in this country. It formally rejected the idea of a separate "black 
belt" nation for Negroes within the present borders of the United 



18 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

States. This, the party hopes, will lessen Negro resistance to its propa- 
ganda and teachings. 

As far as the theme of "peace" is concerned, Negroes will be told 
that they will have much better opportunity to break down discrimina- 
tion of all kinds in a peace-time, rather than a war-time, economy. 

On selling disarmament to the American people, Hall again stressed 
the fact that the approaches must vary. One group should be appealed 
to on the ground of the alleged benefits they will receive from trade 
with the Soviet bloc. In convincing others of the desirability for total 
disarmament, the party should play on the fear of nuclear fall-out. 

United-Front Strategy 

The committee has previously pointed out that the Communist Party 
tactics in recent years have called for infiltration of mass non-Com- 
munist organizations by individual party members who conceal their 
affiliation with the conspiracy and pose as "liberals" to promote the 
party line. Witnesses who have served as undercover agents for the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation and have appeared before the com- 
mittee in the last year have confirmed this statement. There is every 
indication that the Communist Party will continue to use this device 
in the immediate future. The draft political resolution for the 1959 
convention stated that — 

the Party's influence, mass contacts and relationships are 
increasing in a number of areas and fields of work. 



r te 



Hall, in his keynote address at the convention, stated : 

In a nation like ours, where almost everyone belongs to 
one or more mass organizations, this is a firm and certainly 
a broad base. Here is where we should be working to help 
build and elevate the peace movement. 

The National Executive Committee letter of November 1, 1959, 
bringing to the attention of party members the "significant develop- 
ments" that had taken place since the draft political resolution was 
written, gloatingly told the conspiracy's members : 

* * * we already witness significant new signs of breaking 
our isolation and becoming involved as a significant factor 
in the mass movements. And the present objective condi- 
tions offer real possibilities for expanding this trend. 

One of the fall issues of the Soviet magazine Partiynaya Zhizn 
(Party Life) featured an article in celebration of the fortieth anni- 
versary of the U.S. Communist Party. It was written by Herbert 
Aptheker, who was elected a member of the U.S. party's National 
Committee at the recent convention. Describing what had taken place 
after the February 1957 Sixteenth Communist Party Convention, 
Aptheker wrote : 

Organizational activities revived, the loss in the number of 
the party members was made up, and a certain number of new 
members, particularly among youth, were acquired. The 
party tackled educational work and the dissemination of 
Marxist literature. The most important thing was that the 
party resumed participation in work with the masses. This 
refers to the intra trade-union struggle, to demonstrations of 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 19 

the unemployed held recently, and to certain aspects of the 
struggle of the Negroes, particularly to the movement for 
integrated classes in schools. 

The party plays an important role in the struggle against 
preparations for war and the foreign policy of the "cold 
war." It extends assistance to various mass antiwar organi- 
zations and has begun developing a struggle for peace di- 
rectly among the masses. Recently, it has organized street 
meetings and demonstrations in some of the largest cities. 

Along with the tactics of infiltrating mass non-Communist organi- 
zations, the party can be expected to step up its united- front strategy 
by attempting to win the open cooperation of non- Communist organi- 
zations in various campaigns and in agitational activity. 

After urging party members to work in mass organizations, Gus 
Hall, in his convention speech, said : 

While doing so, we should also have our sights on more 
concerted and united movements, conferences and actions of 
various kinds on local, state and national levels. If the cen- 
tral issue of peace is to give rise to the greatest, most per- 
sistent crusade of our times, what is needed is not one but a 
number of national centers to guide, prod and organize it. 
Not only is this necessary with respect to specific issues but 
in addition, it seems to me, the youth ; women, farmers, vet- 
erans and other groups need such special centers of direction. 

At a later point in his speech, he summarized the objectives of the 
united-front strategy as follows : 

We want to participate in, organize and lead the broadest of 
united front movements — on every level — in a thousand ways, 
in 10,000 places, on 100,000 issues— if possible, with 180,000,- 
000 people. Obviously, we cannot make an understanding 
of the anti-monopoly character of these struggles on the part 
of others a condition for a united front. But we ourselves 
must at all times understand that this is their basic nature. 

This statement highlights another key aspect of Communist Party 
propaganda and agitation in the months ahead. While the party 
will center its work on the themes of peace and disarmament in the 
field of international affairs, it will, on the home front, center its 
work around a drive against the big business "monopolies." 

Communist documents and convention proceedings indicate that 
while the Communist Party is pleased in general with the attitude 
of big business on foreign policy matters (and Khrushchev), it is not 
happy with its internal policies. 

Gus Hall charged in his convention speech that big business is "de- 
veloping a most far-reaching, concentrated drive against labor, whose 
aim is to deprive the unions of all economic and political power, and 
to place them under complete government domination and control." 

The Communists will use this line in a renewed effort to ingratiate 
themselves with the working man and regain the influence they once 
wielded in the U.S. trade union movement. 

In this chapter the committee has been able to touch only briefly on 
a few aspects of Communist activity and propaganda. It would again 
emphasize the fact that the total threat of communism to this country 



20 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

is not limited to the activities of the entity known formally as the Com- 
munist Party. Communist diplomatic establishments, the Kremlin's 
espionage apparatus, and the many thousands of Communists who are 
not formally enrolled in the party are some of the other elements in the 
total Communist operation which are playing important roles in the 
international conspiracy's plan for subverting our freedom. The con- 
tinuing activity of these groups, coupled with the renewed vitality and 
activity manifested by the party itself since the recent visit of Premier 
Khrushchev, are grounds for sober concern and increased watchfulness 
on the part of all Americans. 



CHAPTER II 

HEARINGS 

THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

Testimony of Petr S. Deriabin 

The operations of the Soviet secret police were portrayed by Petr 
S. Deriabin in testimony released by the committee on March 17, 1959. 1 
Until his defection to the West in 1954, Mr. Deriabin was an officer 
in various Soviet secret police organizations which, in addition to being 
responsible for protecting the U.S.S.R.'s internal security, were also 
charged with carrying out foreign espionage for the Soviet Union. 

The fact that Deriabin had broken from the dreaded Soviet intelli- 
gence apparatus on February 15, 1954, was kept a secret for 5 years 
because of the extremely sensitive nature of the information he pos- 
sessed and to protect him from possible reprisal. 

Mr. Deriabin, now only 38 years of age, spent nearly 10 years as an 
officer in Soviet state security work. At the time of his break he was 
stationed at the Soviet Embassy in Vienna as an intelligence officer 
in the foreign espionage branch of the MGB. The MGB, then a sec- 
tion of the MVD (Ministry of Internal Affairs), has since become a 
powerful separate organization engaging in intelligence, espionage, 
and internal security work under the name KGB (Committee of 
State Security). 

After serving 5 years in the Soviet Army, Deriabin in 1944 had 
entered the Counter-intelligence School in Moscow. His first assign- 
ment after spending a year in training was as an officer in the head- 
quarters of the counter-intelligence in Moscow. 

SOVIET INTERNAL SECURITY 

From March 1947 until April 1952, Deriabin was an officer of the 
Guard Directorate (also known as the Okhrana), a branch of the 
MVD responsible for guarding Soviet leaders. Deriabin's particular 
task was to check the officers and people who worked in the Guard Di- 
rectorate. He estimated that 16,000 officers were assigned to the Guard. 

The Okhrana, Mr. Deriabin said, kept a round-the-clock guard on 
the Communist hierarchy, guarding them in their homes, in their 
offices, on their travels, and during their public appearances. A se- 
curity check was also made of all individuals who came in contact with 
the Communist leaders. 

1 See "The Kremlin's Espionage and Terror Organizations — Testimony of Petr S. Deria- 
bin," Mar. 17, 1959, Hearing before Committee on Un-American Activities. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 21 

In contrast to the average Russian, who is barely able to meet his 
day-to-day needs, top Communist leaders live in absolute luxury, 
Deriabin stated. They have large homes owned by the government 
and their own collective farms, wnich provide them with fruits, vege- 
tables, dairy products, and meats. They also have cars, chauffeurs, and 
even their own barbers, and have access to rest homes and private 
hospitals. 

Because Communist leaders distrust each other, there is a constant 
surveillance of their activities and private lives, Mr. Deriabin testi- 
fied. He explained that the Guard Directorate reported directly to 
the boss of the Kremlin, who today is Khrushchev. 

Citizens in all walks of life are subjected to secret police supervi- 
sion, Deriabin stated. The main headquarters of the secret police is 
in Moscow, but each Soviet Republic has its own secret police head- 
quarters. In fact, he said, there are directorates of the Soviet secret 
police to watch over economic, cultural, and political life inside the 
Soviet Union. 

He identified as two important branches under the secret police, the 
political directorate, which covers the cultural life of Russia and 
government employees, and the economical directorate, which watches 
over Soviet industry, machinery, and agriculture. Mr. Deriabin 
added that there also exists a directorate over the military. The 
secret police cover every phase of Soviet life, and its representatives 
are found everywhere — in every factory, every collective farm, every 
office, every apartment building. 

ESPIONAGE ABROAD 

From April 1952 until he defected in 1954, Mr. Deriabin was an 
officer in the Austrian- German section of MGB [now KGB and re- 
ferred to as such hereafter] . He served for a period of time in Mos- 
cow, but was later transferred to Vienna where he worked until he 
sought asylum in the United States. The espionage apparatus, Mr. 
Deriabin stated, had 3,000 officers at its Moscow headquarters and 
some 15,000 agents operating around the world. These operatives 
conducted espionage and counterespionage abroad, carried on sur- 
veillance of Soviet and satellite citizens traveling abroad, and even 
resorted to assassination, kidnaping, and blackmail. 

The United States is considered by the Kremlin to be the major 
enemy of the Soviet Union and is one of the main targets of its 
intelligence operation in the West, Deriabin stated. Other important 
targets are the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
he said. 

Mr. Deriabin explained the methods by which agents gain access to 
countries in order to obtain economic, political, and military infor- 
mation. Soviet and satellite embassies and consulates have on their 
staffs one or more KGB officers who carry on espionage for the Krem- 
lin. Agents also work through Amtorg (Soviet trade organization), 
In tourist, and the Tass News Agency, 60 to 70% of whose repre- 
sentatives are KGB members. Soviet and Iron Curtain agents are 
in other foreign missions, as well as in professional delegations and 
in cultural and other exchange groups, he stated. 

When a religious group from the Soviet Union visited the United 
States in 1956, it was headed by Archbishop Nikolai, who, though not 
an actual member of the KGB, has nevertheless served as its agent 



22 ANNUAL REPORT ON' UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

since World War II by passing on information to the apparatus, 
Mr. Deriabin testified. When the Moiseyev dancers toured this coun- 
try, Lieutenant Colonel Kudriavtsev, a member of the troupe, also 
worked for the Soviet intelligence. 

Recruiting individuals for espionage work in free nations, Mr. 
Deriabin stated, is accomplished through blackmail and bribery of 
residents of the free nations and sometimes through brainwashing 
prisoners of war before their return to free countries. The Soviet 
espionage apparatus sends agents to other countries as immigrants, for 
the purpose of setting up espionage networks. Others are ordered 
to go to the West, ostensibly to seek political asylum, but actually to 
become agents. 

The KGB is only one of the Soviet intelligence organizations en- 
gaged in espionage, Mr. Deriabin said. Another major apparatus is 
called the GRU, under the General Staff of the Soviet Army, which 
carries on espionage through the Soviet military appartus. 

CALIFORNIA 

A reorganized and reinvigorated Communist operation in southern 
California was searchingly scrutinized by the committee in a series of 
hearings in that State during 1959. 

SPRING 1959 

The committee received testimony from 20 witnesses in executive 
session in Los Angeles on February 24 and 25, 1959. This was a con- 
tinuation of executive hearings which were initiated in Los Angeles 
in September 1958 and in the course of which 44 witnesses had been 
heard. 

The testimony of these 64 witnesses was made public and printed 
by the committee in April 1959. 2 It was accompanied by a special 
"Report on the Southern California District of the Communist Party," 
in which the committee analyzed the results of the two hearings and its 
independent staff investigations. 

Far-reaching reorganizational measures aimed at increasing the 
effectiveness of Communist activities in the California community 
were revealed in these hearings, which also spotlighted many of the 
current leaders of the Communist operation in the State. 3 

AUTUMN 195 9 

The committee held a second series of public hearings in Los 
Angeles, California, on October 20, 21, and 22, 1959, 4 at which time 27 
witnesses were heard. 

In its previous inquiry into the "rejuvenated" Communist move- 
ment in California, the committee had stripped the cloak of secrecy 
from party operational procedures and leadership in the party's top 
echelons in southern California — the so-called "district" level. The 
Southern California District of the Communist Party, however, is 

2 See "The Southern California District of the Communist Party," Parts 1-3. Hearings 
before Committee on Un-American Activities, Sept. 2-5, 1958, and Feb. 24 and 25, 1959. 

8 For more complete details of this operation see pp. 76—79 in which the committee sum- 
marizes the special report issued as a result of the hearings. 

4 See "Western Section of the Southern California District of the Communist Party," 
Parts 1-3. Hearings before Committee on Un-American Activities, Oct. 20-22, 1959. 
which will be printed during 1960. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 23 

actually subdivided into 28 party "sections'' which are further sub- 
divided into local party "clubs." It is principally on these lower 
party levels, encompassing the bulk of the party's membership, that 
party policies, channeled down from national headquarters through 
district leaders, are given practical effect. 

The October hearings of the committee, therefore, sought to ascer- 
tain the concrete, day-to-day efforts of rank-and-file Communists to 
carry out specific strategies aimed at expanding Communist power 
and influence in southern California. The committee had informa- 
tion that all of the 27 witnesses whom it subpenaed for the hearings 
were currently or recently engaged in Communist activities in what 
is now the Western Section of the Southern California. District of 
the Communist Party. The Western Section roughly covers the 
western portion of Los Angeles County — a large geographical area 
which extends as far south as Redondo Beach, as far north as Malibu 
Beach, and includes the area known as West Los Angeles, as well as 
part of Beverly Hills. 

As a result of the October hearings, the committee obtained a wealth 
of information on contemporary Communist tactics. Particularly 
valuable testimony was presented by Mrs. Moiselle J. Clinger, Mrs. 
Marion Miller, and Mrs. Adele Kronick Silva, all of whom had served 
as undercover operatives for the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
within Communist Party units in western Los Angeles County. Mrs. 
Clinger, of Santa Monica, had served in the Communist Party from 
1942 until 1956 ; Mrs. Miller, of West Los Angeles, was in party activi- 
ties from 1952 until late 1955, while Mrs. Silva, now living in Oak- 
land, had worked with Communists in West Los Angeles in 1950. 
The committee also heard testimony on recent internal problems of 
the Communist Party from Harper Poulson, of Los Angeles, who 
left the party in January 1957 in disagreement with certain of its 
policies. Mr. Poulson invoked the privilege of the fifth amendment 
against self-incrimination, however, when questioned regarding other 
individuals active in the Communist conspiracy. 

Startling illustrations of Communist efforts to enter and influence 
non-Communist organizations and institutions were presented in the 
course of the hearings, which also included testimony on the me- 
chanics by which Communists have set up their own "front" organi- 
zations to lure support from non-Communist Californians. The 
testimony furthermore revealed various tactics by which the party 
protected its conspirators from possible legal consequences of mem- 
bership. A multitude of Communist techniques for raising funds for 
the party's work were also described in striking detail. 

The committee obtained such important and extensive evidence on 
Communist conspiratorial techniques as a result of these hearings 
that it is preparing a separate report on the subject, The report will 
be published in 1960. 

Evasion of Communist-Control Laws 

Committee investigations in the Los Angeles area, as well as in 
other areas of the Nation, have shown that in order to avoid detection 
of its members, the Communist Party membership lists, Communist 
Party cards, and other indicia of membership have been abandoned. 



24 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Witnesses who appeared before the committee in Los Angeles in 
October 1959 offered significant additional information on the strategy 
of the Communist Party regarding "membership." Mrs. Moiselle 
dinger, a former FBI undercover agent who testified on October 20, 
stated that the party wanted her to continue her activities in its behalf 
and support it financially even after she had withdrawn from the 
organization in 1956 : 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, it appears then that although you 
were severing your connection as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party, they were asking you to continue in your activity 
in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Clinger. That is correct. I mean, that I would at 
least support them financially and, possibly later when I felt 
better, to do other things. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were expected to be affiliated with the 
Communist Party although not actually a member in the legal 
sense ? 

Mrs. Clinger. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, that is one problem this committee 
is studying. Section 5 of the Communist Control Act of 1954 
enumerates about fourteen different matters which the courts 
and juries should take into consideration in determining 
whether or not a person is a member of the Communist 
Party. It seems now that because of the device which has 
been used in your case to attempt to get you to remain affili- 
ated, although actually not a member, this has to be dealt with 
in some manner by Congress. 

Mrs. Marion Miller testified on the subject of Communists within 
and out of the party : 

Mrs. Miller. * * * Many people are Communists who 
actually are not members of the party. We should differen- 
tiate, because I know that within the last forty years we have 
had a half million people that have been brought to our at- 
tention by statistics who have joined the Communist Party 
and dropped out, while there has been relatively a smaller 
number who have been willing to testify in behalf of their 
Government, and who really have had a change of heart and 
have become good loyal dedicated American citizens for the 
most part. 

I have found from my experience that at least, and this is 
a conservative number, at least fifty percent, fifty percent of 
this half a million people — did I say a quarter of a million 
before, or half a million ? Half a million is correct, fifty per- 
cent of this half a million people, if it came to a showdown 
whether their loyalties lie with the Soviet Union or with the 
United States in case of emergency, still are sympathetic 
with what they call the "Father of Scientific Socialism," that 
is Russia, they are still sympathetic because they feel that 
this is a country that will lead the way, and will show them 
the proper way. So there we have to reckon with, you see, a 
quarter of a million former Communists who are not actu- 
ally party members, that is, they do not pay dues. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 25 

I would like to explain, it is not easy to stay in the Com- 
munist Party, because to be a good loyal dedicated Com- 
munist, it takes all of your time, your money, and energy, 
and Communists can be selfish, too many of them say, I can 
be a good Communist and not go to meetings, just like a 
good iot of people can say I can be a good Christian and not 
go to church on Sunday. They follow out the party line. 
They subscribe to the Communist publications. They give 
their donations. They attend these front organizations, and 
these other groups, and when they are within their own 
legitimate organizations they are promoting communism. 

This is the point. You see, so that is what many people 
who dropped out are still promoting communism, certainly 
they haven't become Communists per se. 

Mr. Jackson. You say all Communists are not in the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Miller. Right. 

As a former official in one of the party's most ambitious "front"' 
organizations in the area, the Los Angeles Committee for Protection 
of Foreign Born, Mrs. Miller also testified on how front organizations 
have sought to evade provisions of the Subversive Activities Control 
Act: 

Mr. Tavenner. Earlier in your testimony you mentioned 
the fact that the Los Angeles Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born had no membership as such; what did you 
mean by that ? 

Mrs. Miller. Well, I meant that the people who attended 
all the affairs, who came to the conferences and the testi- 
monial dinners were not members per se, because under the 
Internal Security Act of 1950, the members of Communist- 
front organizations, if they were discovered or proven to be 
Communist-front organizations would have to register. So 
these front organizations were extremely cautious in calling 
themselves membership organizations. They resisted the 
idea that it was a membership organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, that is a device to get 
around the provisions of the present act ? 

Mrs. Miller. That is correct, but we have to certainly 
consider these people who spend their time, or much of their, 
let's say, free time, when they are not actually working for a 
living, with this Committee for Protection of Foreign Bom, 
certainly as participants, or if you want to call them affiliates, 
if you don't want to call them members ; perhaps this is one 
way you might get around it. The people who are chairmen 
of trade-union committees, or nationality or deportee com- 
mittees, or area defense committees, and the components, the 
members of these individual committees, who compose not 
only the executive board, but come to these quarterly meet- 
ings that were held four times a year, the Committee for Pro- 
tection of Foreign Born, to my way of thinking, ought cer- 
tainly to be held responsible for their actions. If this is 
considered subversive, as it has been designated by the Sub- 

51117—60 3 



26 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

versive Activities Control Board, these are the people who 
should be held accountable because they know what they are 
doing, and they are giving their time freely, and their money, 
too. 

Mr. Tavenner. And actually if you lay all fine points 
aside, there is actually no difference between being affiliated 
with that organization and being a member other than the 
name "member," isn't that right? 

Mrs. Miller. Not to an intelligent person, I don't see how 
there could be a difference at all. 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 

On March 10, 11, and 12, 1959, the committee held a series of 
hearings in Pittsburgh, Pa., encompassing three phases of Communist 
activity in the Greater Pittsburgh area: the current strategy and 
tactics of the Communist Party; problems of security in industrial 
establishments holding defense contracts; and problems arising in 
cases of denaturalization and deportation of Communists, of which 
cases a substantial number have occurred in the Pittsburgh district. 

CURRENT STRATEGY AND TACTICS 

Mary and Hamp Golden, who, through great personal sacrifice, 
were members of the Communist Party for more than a decade at 
the request of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, were the first of 
12 witnesses heard on March 10. 5 The Goldens were members of the 
Communist Party from 1946 until they appeared before the committee 
and revealed for the first time that they were undercover agents for 
the Government. 

Mr. Golden related that a Communist Party member is taught the 
principles of Marxism as it pertains to both economic and political 
situations, how to meet and work in political groups, and how to 
control and lead front organizations along the party line. He testified 
that the Communist operation is currently more dangerous than in 
the past, even though the visible members of the Communist Party 
are fewer. Characterizing the Communist Party as a revolutionary 
group, Mr. and Mrs. Golden described the arduous discipline of the 
Communist Party over the comrades. In portraying the dedication 
and zeal of Communists, Mr. Golden stated : 

They never sleep. You work 24 hours a day. You attend 
maybe two meetings in an evening and at midnight or early 
in the morning you pass out leaflets and literature at plant 
gates. You never have a minute of your own, no social life 
whatsoever of your own. 

During his 12-year tenure in the party, Mr. Golden held a number 
of responsible positions within the Communist operation, including 
membership on the executive board of the North Side Club of the 
Communist Party in Pittsburgh. He was made chairman of a cell 
when, for "security reasons," the party instituted its "cutout system," 
whereby the large groups were broken down into cells of five members. 

5 Sec "Current Strategy and Tactics of Communists in the United States (Greater Pittsburgh Area,— 
Pt. 1)," Hearings before Committee on Un-American Activities, March 10, 1959. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 27 

The witness recalled that after Matthew Cvetic testified before this 
committee in 1950 regarding the Communist operations in the area, 
many individual Communists were frightened and shortly thereafter 
discontinued formal membership in the party. Nevertheless, he de- 
clared, they were still Communists and could be counted on to donate 
money and distribute leaflets in organizations to which they belonged. 

Presently the party's routine activities are almost completely under- 
ground, with the open activity effected through the party's creation 
and control of front organizations. Mr. Golden explained that the 
party's principal target is the labor organizations; that although the 
comrades are taught to infiltrate all unions, the particular emphasis 
is in the steel, electrical, and food industries holding Government 
contracts. This, Mr. Golden asserted, was to place the Communists 
where they would be in a position to help create chaos in the event it 
was necessary. 

Tin 4 Communist Party instructs each member to work hard in his 
individual union to align himself with the union leadership, carry 
out union assignments, and become known as a "good, loyal union 
man," Mr. Golden stated. In this way the Communists would be 
in a position to obtain leadership positions where they could control 
union policies. Mr. Golden also testified that despite the fact that 
under the Taft-Hartley Act, union officers have been required to file 
non-Communist affidavits, the Communist Party encourages its mem- 
bers to run for union office. In the] event they are elected, they are 
instructed by the party to sign the non-Communist affidavit and put 
"the burden of proof on the Government" to prove they were party 
members. 

One of the highlights of the Goldens' testimony was their revelation 
of the concentrated efforts on the part of the Communist Party to 
exert influence on Members of Congress and other Government 
officials. In addition to calling on their local Congressmen, the 
party attempted to pressure the Congress by having its members 
deluge Government officials with letters and telegrams urging them 
to support or oppose particular legislation of concern to the party. 
The Members of Congress would have no way of knowing that the 
senders were acting under orders of the Communist conspiracy. 

Revealing the tactics employed by the Communist Party in regard 
to a congressional investigation, the Goldens told of a meeting at- 
tended by 13 Communist Party members who were scheduled to 
appear as witnesses before the committee. The meeting convened 
in the office of Hymen Schlesinger, an attorn ey whom the Goldens 
knew to be a Communist and who subsequently served as counsel for 
most of the witnesses at the committee's hearings. The purpose of 
the gathering, according to the Goldens, was to discuss how the wit- 
nesses should evade answering committee questions and, at the same 
time, vilify the committee while on the witness stand. Also discussed 
at the meeting, the witnesses explained, were plans which had been 
made by the party to arouse the citizenry of Pittsburgh against the 
committee and its hearings. In this endeavor they were instructed 
to contact numerous non-Communist groups, political leaders, and 
newspapers without, of course, disclosing the fact that they were 
members of the Communist Party. Also present at the attorney's 
office was Clark Foreman, whom the Goldens said appeared as a 
representative of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, a cited 



ANNUAL REPORT ON* UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Communist-front organization. Mr. Foreman advised those present 
that the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee was arranging for 
advertisements in the local press — advertisements designed to provoke 
sentiment in favor of abolishing the committee. 

COMMUNIST FRONTS IN THE PITTSBURGH AREA 

The party's organized protest against the hearings was spearheaded 
by the Independent Voters League, a Communist-controlled organi- 
zation. The Goldens testified that one of its purposes is to fight any 
committee or any law that tends to curb the Communist Party in its 
activities. The League's president and secretan^, Joseph Rudiak and 
Alexander Staber, respectively, were identified as members of the Com- 
munist Party by the Goldens. Both men were called as witnesses 
during the hearings and invoked the fifth-amendment privilege against 
self-incrimination when asked to confirm or deny the testimony of the 
Goldens respecting their Communist Party membership and activities. 
As a result of the evidence presented at the hearings, the committee 
alerted the citizenry of Pittsburgh to the true nature of the Communist 
Party's newest front organization in the'area. 

Another Communist front about which Mrs. Golden testified was 
the Housewives Protest Committee. This organization, originally 
known as the Housewives Price Protest Committee, was created and 
controlled by the Communist Party. Its original purpose was to op- 
pose the lifting of price controls, but it was later used to raise money, 
distribute petitions, and conduct letterwriting campaigns. Among 
the Communist Party members Mrs/Golden identified as also having 
been active in the Housewives Protest Committee were Miriam 
Schultz and Anna Devunich, both of whom appeared as witnesses 
during the hearings and invoked the fifth-amendment privilege against 
self-incrimination in refusing to answer questions relating to their 
Communist Party membership or activities. 

The evidence obtained at the hearings also revealed that the North 
Side Peace Club is another Communist-front organization operating 
in the Pittsburgh area. It was created by Communists in response 
to Communist Party instructions to organize peace clubs in various 
sections of the city in order to galvanize opposition to universal mili- 
tary training, atom bomb testing, and the Korean War. 

Esther Steinberg and Viola Schmidt, identified by Mrs. Golden as 
members of the Communist Party who were active in the Peace Club, 
were called as witnesses, but declined to give the committee any infor- 
mation and invoked the fifth-amendment privilege against self-in- 
crimination. 

The Nationality Committee of Western Pennsylvania, another local 
front for the Communist Party, worked concurrently with the Ameri- 
can Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, according to Mrs. 
Golden. She explained that the party felt that many people who 
would not work with the ACPFB, since it was cited as subversive, 6 
would work with the Nationality Committee in the fight to repeal the 
Immigration and Nationality Act. It is clear from the testimony that 

« American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born has been cited in numerous reports by HUA O 
since as early as 1942. The Nationality Committee of Western Pennsylvania was first cited in 1957 in the 
committee report on Communist Political Subversion. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 29 

this Communist front was designed to carry on the work of the Ameri- 
can Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 

In addition to supplying the committee with much valuable infor- 
mation concerning the operations of the Communist Party in the 
Pittsburgh area, the Goldcns identified over 100 individuals they 
knew to be members of the Communist Party. They identified Alex 
Steinberg as one of the leaders of the Communist movement in Pitts- 
burgh, and their information concerning him was corroborated by the 
testimony of Mr. R. J. Hardin, who also had served as an undercover 
agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Following the Goldens' testimony, the committee called eight per- 
sons who had been identified by the Goldens and confirmed by staff 
investigation to be current, active leaders of the Communist Party in 
the Pittsburgh area. They declined to give the committee any in- 
formation concerning their role in the Communist conspiracy in 
Pittsburgh, and invoked the fifth-amendment privilege against self- 
incrimination when asked to confirm or deny the testimony of the 
Goldens respecting their Communist Party membership and activities. 

PROBLEMS OF SECURITY IN DEFENSE ESTABLISHMENTS 

The second phase of the hearings was held on March ll. 7 The com- 
mittee heard eight witnesses in its effort to determine if additional 
security legislation is necessary in order to guard strategic defense 
facilities against acts of sabotage, espionage, or other subversion. 

Previous investigations by the committee disclosed that the Com- 
munist movement has consistently sought to penetrate not only 
defense industries where classified work is being performed, but also 
basic industries which, while not engaged in classified work, may be in 
support of industries which manufacture modern weapons. 

Representing the Department of Defense, Messrs. A. Tyler Port, 
Robert Applegate, and Robert T. Andrews testified that under exist- 
ing law and procedures, the Department of Defense, through its 
contracts, does not have the authority to preclude employment of 
Communists in a defense facility if the individual concerned does not 
have access to classified information. 

Additional testimony revealed that the Defense Department does 
not have the authority to exclude Communists from working in a 
defense facility even though he may be working on what may become 
a part of a highly classified piece of material, so long as the particular 
piece he is working on has not itself been classified. 

Mr. Port testified that under existing law and procedures, the De- 
fense Department is not empowered to preclude Communists from 
facilities which operate in support of defense plants, for example, 
power plants and communications facilities. The Department, he 
said, was fully aware that the potential for bringing defense production 
to a halt by sabotage of power facilities is enormous and that if the 
defense plants were unable to produce the weapons which are essential 
to our national defense effort because of a power cut-off, the reper- 
cussions would be disastrous. 

It was also brought out in testimony that, under the existing law, 
there is nothing to prohibit the Government from entering into a con- 

7 See "Problems of Security in Industrial Establishments Holding Defense Contracts (Greater Pittsburgh 
Area— Part 2)," Hearings before Committee on Un-American Activities, March 11, 1959 



30 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

tract with a facility where the certified bargaining agent has been found 
to be under Communist domination as, for example, the United Elec- 
trical, Radio and Machine Workers of America or the American 
Communications Association. 

Mr. Port stated that there are five plants in the Pittsburgh area 
which have contracts with the Department of Defense and in which 
the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America has 
bargaining rights. He asserted that a Communist-dominated labor 
organization holding bargaining rights for workers within defense 
facilities could serve the cause of international communism by calling 
strikes, by collecting dues from members of the union to provide 
financial help to the Communist operation, and by engaging in propa- 
ganda activities. 

He further testified that the North Atlantic cable, in addition to 
tie lines and lease lines of the Pentagon itself, was still being serviced 
by the American Communications Association and that, through a 
monitoring system, employees who are members of the American 
Communications Association servicing the tie lines and lease lines 
could have access to confidential messages emanating from the 
Pentagon. 

The witnesses declared that, since at least 1952, the Department of 
Defense has been asking for legislation which would preclude access 
of Communists to defense facilities, as well as legislation to eliminate 
the problem of individuals who, there is reason to believe, would 
engage in sabotage, espionage, or other acts of subversion. 

Mr. Port stated that in 1952 Jack Small, then chairman of the 
Munitions Board, testified before the Congress on the necessity of 
such legislation. Secretary of the Army Brucker appeared before 
Congress in 1955 and discussed the same problem. In 1957, Mr. Port 
and Mr. Applegate testified before the Committee on Un-American 
Activities concerning the interest of the Department of Defense in 
legislation which would close the gap between the exclusion of security 
risks from classified work and their exclusion from defense facilities 
generally. 

On January 29, 1959, Mr. Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio, a member of 
this committee, introduced a bill in the House of Representatives 
which bears the number H.R. 3693. Although the bill has not been 
referred to this committee for consideration, it was largely prompted 
by factual material which the Committee on Un-American Activities 
has developed over the course of many months on the subject of the 
problems of security in industrial establishments holding defense 
contracts. 

In his testimony on March 11, 1959, Mr. Port indicated that the 
Scherer bill, which would authorize the Federal Government to take 
certain measures in order to guard strategic defense facilities against 
individuals believed to be disposed to commit acts of sabotage, 
espionage, or other subversion, is the same type of legislation which 
the Department of Defense and the military have been advocating 
for many j^ears in order to preclude access of Communists to defense 
plants. 

The chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities sub- 
sec niently introduced H.R. 8121 on July 7, 1959, on the subject of 
industrial security. The bill was referred to this committee and 
reported out on September 2, 1959, with the recommendation that 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 31 

the legislative proposal be enacted into law. For details of this bill, 
see page 133 of this report dealing with the committee's legislative 
recommendations. 

Following the testimony of the representatives of the Department 
of Defense, the committee called as witnesses four officials of the 
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers Union and its general 
counsel, Frank Donner. 

Thomas J. Quinn, UE field organizer, was the first union official to 
testify. Mr. Quinn had previously been identified as a Communist 
Party member in the UE by Matthew Cvetic in testimony before the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities in 1950 and before the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in 1953. He was also iden- 
tified as a member of the Communist Party by Hamp Golden during 
the instant hearings. 

Mr. Quinn has been a member of the United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers Union since 1940. In an official capacity he has 
served in the union as a shop steward; legislative chairman of a 
local; UE representative of District 6, covering western Pennsyl- 
vania; and field organizer for the international. In 1953 Mr. Quinn 
was elected president of Local 601 in Pittsburgh but, following his 
appearance as a witness before the Senate Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee, when he invoked his constitutional privilege against self- 
incrimination in refusing to testify about his Communist Party mem- 
bership or activities, Mr. Quinn was discharged from Westinghouse 
Electric Corporation. He was then engaged by the international 
union in the capacity of UE field organizer. 

In testimony before the Committee on Un-American Activities on 
March 11, Mr. Quinn denied that he was now, or had ever been, a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Thomas B. Wright, managing editor of the UE News, was identified 
as a member of the Communist Party by Louis Budenz in testimony 
before the Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Educa- 
tion and Labor investigating Communist infiltration of the UERMWA 
in 1948. 

Mr. Wright, who has been UE News managing editor since the 
inception of the publication approximately 20 years ago, estimated 
the circulation of the UE News to be about 100,000. It is issued 
every other week and sent to all dues-paying members of the union. 
He also testified that Julius Emspak and James J. Matles (whose 
roles as leaders in both the Communist Party and the UE have been 
described by several former members of the Communist Part}' in 
testimony before the Committee on Un-American Activities) partici- 
pate in the operation of the UE News. 

Mr. Wright invoked his constitutional privilege against self-incrimi- 
nation to a number of questions in regard to the Trade Union Service, 
Inc., a printing firm which prints several Communist-controlled publi- 
cations and previously printed the UE News. 

He denied that he is now a member of the Communist Party, but 
invoked the first and fifth amendments in refusing to answer questions 
regarding past party membership. 

John W. Nelson has been president of UE Local 506 for the past 
15 years. This UE local is the certified bargaining agent for the pro- 
duction and maintenance workers at t lie Erie plant of the General 
Electric Company. 



32 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

On August 11, 1949, during hearings held by the Committee on 
Un-American Activities regarding the Communist infiltration of labor 
unions, a sworn affidavit of Richard W. McClellan was introduced 
into the record in which Mr. McClellan, a former UE official, stated: 

John Nelson, the present president of local 506, who was then 
also a shop steward at the General Electric, was present at 
that meeting [a Communist cell meeting], took part in the 
discussion, bought Communist literature and paid party 
dues. I saw him pay the dues to a woman who was in charge 
of the meeting and acted as chairman. 

In 1953, when testifying before the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee, Mr. Nelson invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to 
answer questions pertaining to his Communist Party membership 
and activities. Although he was subsequently discharged by General 
Electric, Mr. Nelson retained the presidency of UE Local 506. 

In his testimony during the hearings, John Nelson denied present 
Communist Party membership. He stated that for the past 10 years 
he had signed non-Communist affidavits and that if they were false 
affidavits he was sure the Justice Department would have taken 
appropriate action. The witness refused to testify to Communist 
Party membership prior to 1949, declaring that the questions were 
irrelevant; he did not invoke either the first or fifth amendment. 

Robert C. Kirkwood, of Greensburg, Pa., has been business agent 
for UE Local 610 for the past 10 years and was previously em- 
ployed by the international union in the capacity of representative. 

Mr. Kirkwood denied under oath that he had been a member of the 
Communist Party since the enactment of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1949, 
when union officers were obliged, under the act, to sign non-Com- 
munist oaths annually. His behavior as a witness followed the same 
pattern as that of the previous witness. He too refused to answer 
questions regarding Communist Party membership or activities prior 
to 1949. He based his refusal on the assumption that the questions 
were not relevant and did not invoke his constitutional privileges. 

The final witness before the committee on March 11 was the general 
counsel of the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers Union, 
Frank Donner. 

Several former Communists in testimony before the Committee on 
Un-American Activities have identified Frank Donner as a member of 
the Communist Party. Mr. Donner had previously appeared as a 
witness before the committee on June 28, 1956, and invoked the first 
and fifth amendments to questions regarding his membership and 
activities in the Communist Party. 

At the hearings in Pittsburgh, Mr. Donner testified that he had 
been general counsel for the union for approximately 18 months. He 
also testified under oath that he had not been a member of the Com- 
munist Party since he appeared before the committee in 1956, but 
invoked his constitutional privileges and refused to answer questions 
regarding his party membership or activities prior to that date. 

In reply to a question as to whether or not he had resigned technical 
membership in the party, Mr. Donner declared: "I never resigned and 
you have no evidence I joined, so there you are." 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 33 

PROBLEMS ARISING IN CASES OF DENATURALIZATION AND 
DEPORTATION OF COMMUNISTS 

On March 12, 8 in pointing up the issues of the hearings in which the 
committee explored the problems arising in cases of denaturalization 
and deportation of Communists, the chairman of the subcommittee, 
Honorable Edwin E. Willis, reviewed the efforts of the international 
Communist conspiracy toward undermining our immigration and nat- 
uralization system. He also stated: 

The Committee on Un-American Activities has maintained 
a continuing interest in the administration and enforcement 
of our immigration and naturalization laws because they are 
a first line of defense against Communist penetration of our 
society. Since the enactment of the Immigration and Na- 
tionality Act in 1952, there have been a number of serious 
problems develop as the result of certain judicial opinions 
interpreting the act. 

It is not my purpose here to criticize the opinions or the 
Court which rendered them. However in order that we 
may attempt to cope with the problems which do now exist 
in the enforcement of those provisions of the Immigration 
and Nationality Act designed to denaturalize and deport 
Communists, I shall now recite for the record the essence of 
some of these judicial opinions; and we shall then undertake 
to explore factual situations in actual cases in which there 
have been either deportation or denaturalization proceedings 
arising in, or having bearing on, cases in the Pittsburgh area. 

On December 9, 1957, the Supreme Court rendered a 
decision in the case of Rowaldt v. Perfetto, 355 U.S. 115. In 
this case the Court held that where the Department of 
Justice was attempting to deport a Communist alien, proof 
of the alien's membership in the Communist Party was 
not sufficient to sustain the order of deportation; that the 
Department of Justice had to prove that the alien had 
"a meaningful association" with the Communist Party. 

In the case of the United States v. Witkooich, 353 U.S. 194, 
decided on April 29, 1957, the Supreme Court interpreted 
that part of the Immigration and Nationality Act which 
requires that an alien against whom a deportation order 
has been outstanding for more than 6 months "give infor- 
mation under oath as to his nationality, circumstances, 
habits, associations and activities, and such other infor- 
mation, whether or not related to the foregoing, as the 
Attorney General may deem fit and proper." In this case, 
by a 6 to 2 decision, the Court held that an alien against 
whom a deportation order had been outstanding for more 
than 6 months could not be required to answer questions 
respecting his present Communist relationships or activities, 
and that he could only be required to answer questions 
regarding his availability for deportation. 

May I say in connection with the problem which is pre- 
sented b} r the Witkovich case that it is the information of the 

8 See "Problems Arising in Cases of Denaturalization and Deportation of Communists (Greater Pitts- 
burgh Area — Part 3)," Hearings before Committee on Un-American Activities, March 12, 1959. 



34 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

committee that it is becoming increasingly difficult to effect 
the deportation of alien Communists because the Iron Cur- 
tain countries from which such alien Communists have come 
to the United States almost uniformly refuse to issue nec- 
essary travel documents pursuant to which they can be ad- 
mitted into the countries from which they came. 

Turning to the problems of denaturalizing Communists, 
I should like to refer to two judicial opinions. Here again I 
want to emphasize that I am not criticizing the opinions or 
the Court, but I am merely pointing out the issues and prob- 
lems which exist as a result of the opinions, and I am doing so 
for the purposes of clarifying our record here today as we 
enter this third phase of our hearings in an attempt to explore 
factual situations for our legislative purposes. 

In the cases of Nowak v. United States, 356 U.S. 660, 
and Maisenberg v. United States, 356 U.S. 670, both decided 
on May 26, 1958, the Court ruled that for the purposes of de- 
naturalizing a Communist who had obtained citizenship 
while a member of the Communist Party, the Government 
must not only show that the person against whom the de- 
naturalization procedures were brought was a member of the 
Communist Party and that the Communist Party advocates 
the violent overthrow of the Government, but that, in addi- 
tion, the Government must prove that the defendant knew 
that the Communist Party actually engaged in such illegal 
advocacy. The decision in the Nowak case was another split 
decision of which the Maisenberg case was a companion. 

The subcommittee sought to determine what legislation ought to 
be and could be enacted to strengthen our deportation and denaturali- 
zation proceedings in the light of these decisions; to find out if the 
persons against whom these proceedings have been brought are now a 
menace to the security of this country; and what type of factual 
material may be developed in deportation cases to overcome the impact 
of these opinions. 

Seven witnesses who had been involved in deportation or denaturali- 
zation proceedings in the Pittsburgh area were heard by the commit- 
tee in order to develop information on these questions. 

Their cases are typical of individuals who have been repeatedly 
found to be members of the Communist Party but against whom this 
Government appears to be powerless, at the present time under the 
present law, to proceed in causing their removal from the United 
States or causing them to be deprived of citizenship. 

Testimony during the hearings was given by Hamp and Mary 
Golden respecting the current Communist Party membership and 
activity of all seven witnesses. 

Vincent Kemenovich, of Trafford, Pa., invoked the first and fifth 
amendments, refusing to answer questions concerning his Communist 
Party membership and activities. 

According to the records of the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service, a warrant was issued in September 1949 for the arrest and 
deportation of Vincent Kemenovich as an alien Communist who, 
after entry, was a member of a group advocating overthrow of the 
Government by force and violence. A hearing was granted, and on 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 35 

January 9, 1951, he was ordered deported. At that time the Immi- 
gration Service produced testimony from five competent witnesses 
respecting his Communist Party affiliations and activity. An appeal 
was taken on July 6, 1951, and on January 14, 1952, a warrant of 
deportation was issued. 

It is the information of the committee that Mr. Kemenovich's 
deportation as an alien Communist has not been effected because of 
difficulty in procuring travel documents for his admission into the 
Iron Curtain country from which he came. 

Mrs. Katherine Kemenovich, Trafford, Pa., the wife of Vincent 
Kemenovich, testified that she was born in Austria-Hungary (now 
Yugoslavia) ; that she came to the United States for permanent resi- 
dence in 1921; and that she was naturalized in Steubenville, Ohio, 
in 1941. Although she was identified as a member of the Communist 
Party and testimony was received during the hearings respecting her 
current party activities, Mrs. Kemenovich invoked constitutional 
privileges in response to questions concerning her Communist Party 
membership and activities and whether, at the time of her naturaliza- 
tion, she was cognizant of the fact that the Communist Party advo- 
cated the overthrow of the Government by force and violence. 

In 1954, the Immigration and Naturalization Service instituted pro- 
ceedings to revoke Mrs. Kemenovich's citizenship, alleging that it was 
procured illegally, in that she concealed at the time of her naturaliza- 
tion the fact that she was then a member of the Communist Party. 

The Supreme Court of the United States, having held that Section 
340(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 makes the 
filing of an "affidavit showing good cause" a prerequisite to mainte- 
nance of a denaturalization case, United States v. Zucca, 1956, 351 
U.S. 91, the Katherine Kemenovich case was dismissed without 
prejudice, there having been a failure to file such an affidavit. Before 
the proceeding could be reinstituted, the decisions of the Supreme 
Court of the United States came down in the Nowak and Maisenberg 
cases. Due to the problem of proving knowledge on the part of Mrs. 
Kemenovich that the Communist Party advocated the overthrow of 
the Government by force and violence at the time of her naturali- 
zation, as required by the decisions in those cases, the proceeding was 
not reinstituted. 

Alex Roth Rakosi, Irwin, Pa., came to the United States from his 
native Hungary in 1923 and received his United States citizenship in 
1940. In testimony before the committee, Mr. Rakosi invoked his 
constitutional privileges, refusing to answer questions pertaining to 
his Communist Party membership and activities either before or since 
denaturalization proceedings against him were dismissed in April 1958. 

The committee's information shows that on May 5, 1954, a com- 
plaint was filed in the United States District Court in Pittsburgh, 
alleging that Mr. Rakosi had procured citizenship illegally, in that he 
concealed from the Government that he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the time of his naturalization. 

The Immigration and Naturalization Service had witnesses of 
proven integrity who were prepared to testifv under oath that they 
knew Rakosi as a member of the Communist Party at the time he took 
the oath. However, because of certain judicial decisions which had 
in the meantime been handed down, it was virtually impossible for 
the Government to proceed with the case. 



36 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

James Allan Donald McNeil was excused after very brief testimony 
because a hearing pertaining to his deportation as an alien Communist 
was scheduled for April 20, before the Immigration Service. 

Anna Devunich, Pittsburgh, Pa., was born in Austria-Hungary, 
came to the United States in 1927, and became a naturalized citizen 
in 1944. On May 5, 1954, a complaint was filed in the United States 
District Court in* Pittsburgh to revoke her citizenship on the ground 
that she was a member of the Communist Party when she filed a peti- 
tion for citizenship in 1943 and had been a party member since approx- 
imately 1930. 

Mary Golden testified to Anna Devunich's current Communist 
Party activities and identified her as the one who had recruited Mrs. 
Golden into the party. 

When Mrs. Devunich appeared as a witness, she was confronted 
with numerous exhibits of Communist-front activities, but she invoked 
the privilege of the fifth amendment against self-incrimination in 
response to all questions respecting her Communist Party membership 
and activities. 

Stephen Devunich, husband of Anna Devunich, is also a naturalized 
citizen. He, too, was born in Austria-Hungary and came to the 
United States in 1927. 

According to the information of the committee, Mr. Devunich filed 
a petition for naturalization in the United States District Court, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., on March 25, 1940. He was admitted to citizenship 
on March 23, 1943, at which time he took an oath to defend the Con- 
stitution of the United States against all enemies foreign and domestic 
and swore that he was not then, and never had been, a member of 
an organization dedicated to overthrow the Government of the United 
States by force and violence. 

On May 5, 1954, proceedings were instituted to revoke Mr. Devu- 
nich's citizenship on the grounds that he was at the time of filing the 
petition, and had been since approximately 1930, a member of the 
Communist Party. 

In testimony before the committee, Mr. Devunich invoked the 
privilege of the fifth amendment against self-incrimination with respect 
to all questions in regard to his Communist Party membership and 
activities. 

Steve Nelson, whose record of Communist activity in the United 
States is notorious, is a naturalized citizen against whom denaturaliza- 
tion proceedings have been unsuccessful. He invoked the privilege of 
the fifth amendment against self-incrimination with respect to his 
knowledge of the nature of the Communist Party at the time of his 
naturalization. Although both Hamp and Mary Golden testified 
respecting current Communist Party membership and activities of 
Steve Nelson, he invoked the privilege of the fifth amendment against 
self-incrimination when interrogated respecting such membership and 
activities. 

The denaturalization proceedings which were instituted against 
Alex Roth Rakosi, Anna Devunich, Stephen Devunich, and Steve 
Nelson were all dismissed without prejudice for the same reason that 
the Katherine Kemenovich case was dismissed, and the proceedings 
were not reinstituted [for the same reason that this case was not re- 
instituted. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 37 

Their cases are typical of those of numerous persons who have been 
identified as being Communists at the time of their naturalization by 
competent witnesses testifying under oath. Furthermore, such indi- 
viduals have also been known to engage in Communist Party activities 
both before and after they were granted citizenship. However, be- 
cause of the legal difficulties stemming from certain judicial opinions, 
their cases have been dismissed. 

COMMUNIST INFILTRATION OF VITAL INDUSTRIES 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

* * * In trade unions it is necessary to form Communist nuclei which, by means 
of long and persistent work, must win the trade unions for the cause of communism. 
* * * These Communist nuclei must be entirely subordinated to the party as a 
ivhole. — Lenin 

That the above Leninist policy is still in operation was borne out by 
the testimony which the Committee on Un-American Activities 
received in public hearings held in Chicago, Illinois, on May 5, 6, and 
7, 1959. 9 

The committee, continuing its investigation of Communist tech- 
niques and tactics of infiltration and the extent, character, and objects 
of Communist Party propaganda activities in industry, obtained sig- 
nificant information from a number of witnesses, the first being Carl 
Nelson, of Chicago. 

Mr. Nelson testified that from 1934 through 1949 he was a member 
of the Communist Party and was in ideological sympathy with it; that 
after his severance from the formal Communist Party, he continued to 
serve the Communist operation until approximately 1954 or 1955, 
principally in front groups. 

In his testimony, Carl Nelson emphasized that the formal entity 
known as the Communist Party is only one segment of the total 
Communist operation in the United States and that, in order to avoid 
the impact of certain laws, Communists often resign technical mem- 
bership in the formal Communist Party but continue in the Com- 
munist operation. With respect to this Communist policy, Mr. 
Nelson testified as follows: 

Mr. Arexs. During the period in 1948 of the passage in 
the 80th Congress of amendments to the National Labor 
Relations Act, requiring certain officials to sign non-Com- 
munist affidavits, to your certain knowledge, did certain 
people resign from the formal entity known as the Communist 
Party and maintain themselves in the Communist operation? 

Mr. Nelsox. They did. 

Mr. Arexs. Did they do that so that they could take a 
non-Communist affidavit in order to avoid the impact of the 
then existing law? 

Mr. Nelsox. That is right. 

Based upon his experience in various Communist units in the meat- 
packing industry in the Greater Chicago area, Mr. Nelson stated the 
Communist Party deliberately sought to infiltrate its members into the 

• See "Communist Infiltration of Vital Industries and Current Communist Techniques in the Chicago, 
111., Area," Hearings before Committee on Un-American Activities, May 5-7, 1959. 



38 ANNUAL REPORT ON* UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195S 

meatpacking industry. The witness explained the motive of the 
Communist Party as follows : 

Well, if this country was ever to go to war, an army has to 
travel on its stomach, and they would be in an excellent posi- 
tion to cut off food for the Armed Forces. 

In the course of his testimony, Mr. Nelson detailed Communist 
strategy and tactics in penetrating the meatpacking industry. He 
identified a number of persons in this industry who, to his certain 
knowledge, were members of the Communist Party. 

Leslie Orear, of Chicago, who had been identified by Carl Nelson as 
a member of the Communist Party, appeared in response to a subpena 
and testified that lie was the editor of The Packinghouse Worker, 
official organ of the United Packinghouse Workers of America; that 
he was not currently a member of the Communist Party; and that he 
had not been a member of the Communist Party since approximately 
1953. 

However, Mr. Orear invoked the fifth amendment and refused to 
answer whether he held membership in the Communist Party prior 
to 1953. He asserted that he had, at the time of the hearing, a strong 
antipathy to the Communist Party; but he declined to answer whether 
he knew the names of persons in the Chicago area who were members 
of the Communist Party in 1952, basing his declination on the ground 
that his answer might tend to incriminate him. 

Leon Beverly, who had been identified by Carl Nelson as a member 
of the Communist Party, appeared in response to a subpena and 
testified that he was field representative for the United Packinghouse 
Workers. He denied current membership in the Communist Party 
but invoked his constitutional privileges and declined to answer if he 
had resigned technical membership in the Communist Party so that 
he could deny membership and yet maintain himself in the Com- 
munist operation. 

Samuel J. Parks, Jr., who had been identified by Carl Nelson as a 
member of the Communist Party, appeared in response to a subpena 
and testified that for 3 years prior to April 1957 he was director of a 
department of the United Packinghouse Workers. He denied current 
membership in the Communist Party but refused to answer whether 
he resigned technical membership in the Communist Party so that 
he could deny, under oath, current membership while remaining in 
the Communist operation, basing his refusal on the ground that his 
answer might tend to incriminate him. 

Jack Souther, of Chicago, who had been identified by Carl Nelson 
as a member of the Communist Party, appeared in response to a sub- 
pena and testified that he was secretary-treasurer of District 1, United 
Packinghouse Workers of America. Although he denied current 
membership in the Communist Party, he refused to state whether 
he had ever been a member of the Communist Party and refused 
to answer whether he had resigned technical membership in the Com- 
munist Party but maintained himself in the Communist operation, 
basing his refusal on the ground that his answer might tend to in- 
criminate him. 

Mrs. Gloria Wailes, of Chicago, who had been identified by Carl 
Nelson as a member of the Communist Party, appeared in response 
to a subpena and testified that she was employed as a secretary in the 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 39 

international office of the United Packinghouse Workers of America. 
She denied current membership in the Communist Party but refused 
to answer whether she had ever been a member of the Communist 
Party and whether she had resigned technical membership in the 
Communist Party but maintained herself in the Communist opera- 
tion, basing her refusal on the ground that her ariswers might tend 
to incriminate her. 

Joseph Zabritski, of Chicago, who had been identified by Carl Nel- 
son as a member of the Communist Party, appeared in response to 
a subpena and testified that he had been one-time president of Local 
25, United Packinghouse Workers of America. Mr. Zabritski denied 
current membership in the Communist Party, but refused to answer 
whether he had resigned technical membership in the Communist 
Party but maintained himself in the Communist operation, basing his 
refusal on the ground that his answer might tend to incriminate him. 

John R. Hackney, an international representative for the Amalga- 
mated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, 
testified that he had been a member of the Communist Party from 
approximately 1942 to 1948. He said that, being a member of the 
Negro race, he joined the Communist Party because he believed the 
party was the spearhead of the rights of the Negro people. Mr. 
Hackney broke with the Communist Party, however, upon realizing 
the insincerity of the Communists. 

The motive for Communist penetration of the meat industry, Mr. 
Hackney stated, was: 

Because the party felt that the meat industry was essential 
to the national economy and it was important that they 
build the party within the meat industry in the event that 
we had war with other nations, that we could control the 
meat industry and its various outlets. 

He continued: 

From my most current information and my experience in 
my activity in the party I would say that the party is stronger 
now in the meat industry than it ever has been. 

Mr. Hackney corroborated the testimony of Carl Nelson to the 
effect that Communists frequently employed the technique of resigning 
technical membership in the formal Communist Party in order to 
avoid the impact of certain laws but continue in the Communist 
operation. With respect to this Communist technique, Mr. Hackney 
testified: 

Mr. Arens. Now, yesterday, and I am using this only 
from the standpoint of a simple illustration for the record 
which we are making today, yesterday we heard witnesses, 
some of whom had been identified as members of the Com- 
munist Party. When they appeared before this committee 
they said in effect that they were not then members of the 
Communist Party. When I asked them if they resigned 
technical membership in the formal entity {known as the 
Communist Party in order to maintain themselves in the 
Communist operation, they refused to give us responses. 



40 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Do you have any recommendations, based upon your 
background and information, which could establish a criterion 
or test that can be applied to determine whether or not a 
person who has resigned from technical membership in the 
formal entity known as the Communist Party is, in truth 
and in fact, out of the conspiracy? 

Mr. Hackney. In my opinion if a person has resigned 
completely from the Communist Party he would come before 
this committee and he would say so and he would testify, 
the same as I am, and as far as experience I have had with 
members of the Communist Party resigning for technical 
reasons, I can cite you one particular case that comes in my 
mind and that was in the 1948 convention here in the city 
of Chicago. 

There was a caucus meeting held of top party officials and 
for the purpose of deciding who was to resign from the party 
because of the refusal to sign the Taft-Hartley oath and in 
one particular case there was Meyer Stern, the district direc- 
tor of District 6 in New York, whom I knew to be a member 
of the party, and to my surprise I learned that he had re- 
signed from the party the night before the election of officers 
took place and that he was now eligible to run for office and 
be reelected a district director of District 6 because he was 
now not a member of the party and free to sign a non- 
Communist affidavit. 

Mr. Arens. Did he maintain himself for all intents and 
purposes as an active member of the conspiracy? 

Mr. Hackney. Yes. 

In the course of his testimony Mr. Hackney, who had served as a 
Communist in a number of Communist units within the meatpacking 
industry, detailed party strategy and tactics in penetrating the meat- 
packing industry and identified a number of persons in the meatpack- 
ing industry who, to his certain knowledge, were members of the 
Communist Party. 

Charles A. Hayes, of Chicago, who had been identified by John 
Hackney, appeared in response to a subpena and testified that he 
was director of District 1 of the United Packinghouse Workers, which 
includes the Chicago area. Mr. Hayes denied current membership 
in the Communist Party but declined to answer whether he had been 
a member of the Communist Party since the passage of the Taft- 
Hartley law requiring a non-Communist affidavit of certain labor 
officials, or whether he resigned technical membership in the Com- 
munist Party so that he could avoid the impact of that law. He 
based his declination on the ground that his answer might tend to 
incriminate him. Charles A. Hayes was also identified as a member 
of the Communist Party by Carl Nelson, who stated that he had 
attended many Communist Party meetings with Mr. Hayes. 

Rachael Carter Ellis, of Chicago, secretary to Charles A. Hayes, 
director of District 1 of the United Packinghouse Workers, appeared 
in response to a subpena. She had previously been identified in these 
hearings by Carl Nelson and John R. Hackney as a member of the 
Communist Party. She denied current membership in the Com- 
munist Party but refused to answer whether she had been a member 
of the Communist Party during the preceding 2 years and whether 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 41 

she resigned technical membership in the Communist Party but 
maintained herself in the Communist operation, basing her refusals 
on the ground that her answers might tend to incriminate her. 

Leo Turner, of Chicago, who had been identified by Carl Nelson as 
a member of the Communist Party, appeared in response to a sub- 
pena and testified that he was a field representative of the United 
Packinghouse Workers of America. He denied current membership 
in the Communist Party but refused to answer whether he resigned 
technical membership in the Communist Party but maintained him- 
self in the Communist operation, basing his refusal on the ground that 
his answer might tend to incriminate him. 

On May 7, 1959, Joseph A. Poskonka, of Chicago, testified that he 
was currently in the Communist operation. From 1943 to 1948 he 
was a member of that part of the Communist operation known as the 
Communist Party. At no time had he ever been in sympathy with 
the Communist Party or Communist principles; his service in the 
Communist operation was solely at the behest, and with the coopera- 
tion, of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of supply- 
ing information to the Government. With respect to the current 
seriousness of the Communist operation in the United States, Mr. 
Poskonka testified: 

Mr. Arens. I expect to interrogate you on several items 
in the course of } r our testimony this morning, but I should 
like at the outset to ask you first of all, based upon your 
background and experience since 1943 until this instant in the 
Communist operation and your participation in the Com- 
munist Party as a formal entity, to tell this committee now, 
while you are under oath, how serious is the Communist 
movement, the Communist operation in the United States 
this instant. 

Mr. Poskonka. It is very, very serious. 

Mr. Poskonka, who served for several years in the packinghouse 
segment of the Communist Party, testified respecting Communist 
penetration of the packinghouse industry in the Greater Chicago 
area. In the course of his testimony Mr. Poskonka detailed Commun- 
ist strategy in penetrating the meatpacking industry and identified a 
number of persons in the meatpacking industry who, to his certain 
knowledge, were members of the Communist Party. 

John Lewis, of Chicago, who was identified by Carl Nelson, John 
Hackney, and Joseph Poskonka during these hearings as a person 
known by them to be a member of the Communist Party, appeared in 
response to a subpena and testified that he was employed in the Swift 
packing plant in Chicago and that he held a number of offices in Local 
28 of the United Packinghouse Workers of America. 

Mr. Lewis denied current membership in the Communist Party but 
refused to answer if he had ever been a member of the Communist 
Party and if he had resigned technical membership in the Communist 
Party so that he could deny current membership in the Communist 
Party, if and when interrogated under oath. He based his refusal on 
the ground that his answer might tend to incriminate him. 

Charles Proctor, of Covert, Michigan, who had been identified as a 
member of the Communist Party during the instant hearings by Carl 
Nelson, John Hackney, and Joseph Poskonka, appeared in response 

51117—60 4 



42 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 

to a subpena and testified that he was manager of the Packinghouse 
Labor and Community Center and that he was one-time chairman of 
the grievance committee for Local 28 of the United Packinghouse 
Workers in Chicago. When a number of documents were exhibited 
to Mr. Proctor respecting his participation in certain Communist- 
front enterprises, he refused to comment, basing his refusal on the 
ground that his answers might tend to incriminate him. Mr. Proctor 
denied that he had been a member of the Communist Party any time 
in the course of the preceding 5 years, but he refused to answer whether 
he had ever been a member of the Communist Party on the ground 
that his answer might tend to incriminate him. 

Donald H. Smith, of Chicago, who had been identified in these hear- 
ings by Carl Nelson and John Hackney as a person known to them as 
a member of the Communist Party, appeared in response to a subpena 
and testified that he was employed as international representative, 
United Packinghouse Workers of America. Mr. Smith denied current 
membership in the Communist Party but declined to answer if he 
had been a member of the Communist Party in the course of the last 
5 years, basing his declination on the ground that his answer might 
tend to incriminate him. 

Another witness heard during the course of the Chicago hearings 
was Jesse E. Prosten, who was identified during the hearings as a 
member of the Communist Party by Carl Nelson, John Hackney, and 
Joseph A. Poskonka. Mr. Prosten testified that he was an inter- 
national representative for the United Packinghouse Workers of 
America. He denied current membership in the Communist Party 
but refused to answer whether he had been a member of the Com- 
munist Party at any time within the course of the preceding 5 years, 
basing his refusal on the ground that his answer might tend to in- 
criminate him. 

The committee also heard as witnesses two other Chicago residents 
who were identified during the hearings by Carl Nelson as members of 
the Communist Party. 

Leon Katzen, whom Mr. Nelson had known as section organizer of 
the Communist Party in Chicago's northwest side, invoked the first 
and fifth amendments in refusing to answer committee questions, 
not only pertaining to Communist activities but also pertaining to 
his occupation. Richard Criley, whom Mr. Nelson said he knew as 
a member of the section committee of the Communist Party in the 
packinghouse industry, also invoked constitutional privileges in 
response to all pertinent questions posed by the committee. Accord- 
ing to committee information, Mr. Katzen has served as chairman of 
the Chicago Committee to Defend Democratic Rights, and Mr. Criley 
has served as executive secretary of the same organization. 

The committee also subpenaed four witnesses currently or recently 
employed in the machinists trade in the Chicago area. 

Albert P. Dency, a tool and die maker in Chicago, appeared in 
response to a subpena. Although Mr. Dency was confronted with 
the information of the committee that he had been a member of the 
Communist Party in Waukegan, 111., in 1949, 1950, and 1951, he 
denied that he had ever been a member of the Communist Party or 
that he had been knowingly under the discipline of the Communist 
Party. In denying Communist Party membership and associations, 
Mr. Dency did not invoke constitutional privileges. During June 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 43 

1959 the committee referred Air. Dency's testimony to the Depart- 
ment of Justice for such investigation as it may deem pertinent in 
determining whether or not perjury was committed. 

The next witness, Francis William McBain, of Chicago, appeared 
in response to a subpena and testified that he was a model maker. 
Mr. McBain refused to answer whether he was currently a member 
of the Communist Party, basing his refusal on a number of grounds, 
including the ground that his answer might tend to incriminate him. 

Edwin A. Alexander, of Chicago, appeared in response to a subpena 
and detailed his career in the Communist Part}', which, with inter- 
ruptions, extended from 1934 until 1956. Mr. Alexander said he was 
a paid official of the Young Communist League, operating in Califor- 
nia, Washington State, Oregon, and New York in the 1930's and that 
he graduated to full-time functionary work for the Communist Part v 
in Seattle in the 1940's. From 1951 until 1956, he said, he engaged 
in Communist Party activities in Chicago, where he was employed 
as a machinist and tool and die maker. Mr. Alexander's testimony 
included a narrative of his activities in various Communist enterprises. 
He refused, however, to disclose the identity of persons who, as of 1956, 
were known by him to be members of the Communist Party. In 
refusing to answer questions regarding such persons, Mr. Alexander 
invoked all his constitutional privileges "except that portion of the fifth 
amendment which speaks of protection against self-incrimination." 
On June 3, 1959, the committee voted to recommend to the House of 
"Representatives that Edwin A. Alexander be cited for contempt. The 
committee recommendation was adopted by the House of Repre- 
sentatives on September 3, 1959. 

Bernard Anger t, of Evanston, 111., appeared in response to a subpena 
and testified that he was a moldmaker in the machinists trade, 
although he had 4 or 5 years of college education. Mr. Angert refused 
to answer whether he was currently a member of the Communist 
Party and whether he was currently engaged in Communist Party 
work in the International Association of Machinists as a colonizer, 
basing his refusal on the ground, among others, that his answers might 
tend to incriminate him. 

The term "colonizer," in Communist Party jargon, designates a 
Communist agent, frequently highly educated, who conceals his back- 
ground and takes a menial job m a specific industry for the purpose 
of building a party unit in that industry. 

PASSPORT SECURITY 

111 opening the hearings on passport security 10 which were held in 
Washington beginning on April 21, 1959, the chairman of the com- 
mittee stated : 

Since the last hearings on this subject matter by this com- 
mittee, the Supreme Court of the United States on June 16, 
1958, in the case of Rockivell Kent and Walter Briehl v. 
The Secretary of State, has rendered a decision the effect of 
which is to completely nullify any control on a security basis 
in the issuance of passports. 



10 See "Passport Security," Parts 1 and 2, Hearings before Committee on Un-American 
Activities, April 21 and April 22-24 — June 5, 1959, respectively. 



44 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Today, now, the bars are down. Communist agents, propa- 
gandists, and Communist sympathizers have a blanket in- 
vitation to come and go as they will. I hardly need add a 
statement, which is obvious, namely, that this situation is of 
direct benefit to the international Communist movement, and 
of direct detriment to security interests of our Nation. 

The first witness, Mr. Harry Bridges, appeared in response to a 
subpena and identified himself as president of the International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union. 11 At the outset of the interro- 
gation, Mr. Bridges invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to 
answer a question as to whether or not he had ever used the name 
Harry Dorgan which, according to Agnes Bridges, former wife of 
Harry Bridges, was the name inscribed in Bridges' Communist Party 
membership book. 

Mr. Bridges testified that on July 16, 1958, he had filed an ap- 
plication for a passport ; that in filling out the application he omitted 
answers to two questions: "Are you now a member of the Com- 
munist Party?" and "Have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party?" because of recent decisions of the Supreme Court. 
In response to the query as to whether on the date of filing his applica- 
tion he was "a person who had ever been a member of the Communist 
Party," Mr. Bridges replied: "I must decline to answer, and I seek 
the protection of the fifth amendment." 

The testimony discloses that Mr. Bridges, accompanied by William 
Glazier, executive assistant to the officers of the International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, at the expense of ILWU, later 
traveled to Europe for the purpose of "travel, recreation, and study 
of longshoring methods and collective bargaining." Although the 
passport application listed the countries to be visited as England, 
France, Italy, Holland, Israel, Egypt, U.S.S.E., and India, the itiner- 
ary included certain Iron Curtain countries not listed on the applica- 
tion. During his trip abroad, Mr. Bridges participated in a number 
of conferences with leading European Communists and gave inter- 
views and issued statements to various Communist publications, com- 
mending the Communist controlled labor organizations in the Iron 
Curtain countries. He also sent to the United States a series of arti- 
cles in similar vein which were published in The Dispatcher, official 
publication of the ILWU. 

Mr. Bridges testified that shortly after the hearings he expected to 
go to Tokyo, Japan, on a United States passport to participate in the 
First All-Pacific and Asian Dockworkers' Trade Union Conference. 
This was a Communist-initiated and promoted gathering identified as 
such by the Japanese Government and denounced and boycotted as 
such by free trade unions in all parts of the world. Because of Bridges' 
subsequent participation as a leader in this conference at which a per- 
manent organization of Communist and pro-Communist dockworkers' 
unions in the Asian-Pacific area was formed, the following excerpt 
from his testimony before the committee is significant. 

Mr. Arens. In the event of war in Asia would you ad- 
vocate a strike for the purpose of impeding the shipment of 
arms to our allies in Asia ? 

u Expelled from the CIO in 1950 on the ground of "Communist domination." 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 45 

Mr. Bridges. Now, this is all mixed up here. We start off 
by talking about a fight between Chiang Kai-shek, who I 
think is a bum, and the mainland of China. That is some- 
thing between the Chinese, and you asked me my position on 
that, 

Mr. Arens. Would you advocate a strike in order to cur- 
tail the shipment of supplies in the event the U.S. Govern- 
ment would ship arms to Formosa? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. Are you still talking about a war between 
Formosa and mainland China and you asked me what my 
position was? 

Air. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Bridges. I would object in every possible way I could. 
You are asking me. Then you asked me 

Mr. Arens. No, let's just stay with the question, Mr. 
Bridges. Would you, as president of ILWU, advocate a 
strike in order to impede the shipments of supplies to For- 
mosa if the U.S. Government were shipping supplies to For- 
mosa and Formosa and Red China were at war ? 

Air. Bridges. I don't know what this has got to do with 
passports. But I want to relate to you the position 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Bridges. I will answer it in my way, Mr. Counsel, if 
you want an answer and if you will give me a chance. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Air. Bridges. All right. We are still dealing with a pos- 
sible attempt, as I understand it, of Chiang Kai-shek to in- 
vade the mainland of China. I am trying to tell you that 
my attitude toward that, I would strenuously object and do 
what I could to oppose the United States engaging in such a 
suicide enterprise. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question? 
Would you exercise your prerogatives as president of ILWU 
in the direction of using a strike of longshoremen so as to im- 
pede the shipments of these armaments which we have been 
discussing ? 

Mr. Bridges. I have no such prerogative. You are all 
mixed up. 

Mr. Arens. Would you advocate a strike ? 

Mr. Bridges. I would prefer to wait and see what would 
happen at that time. I don't know. At this stage of the 
game I don't know what I might do. 

If I felt doing that would keep the United States from 
going into such a suicidal enterprise and meaning the loss of 
life in the United States my position at the moment would be, 
I think I would. 

Finally, attention is drawn to the following testimony : 

Mr. Arens. You have a U.S. passport, however ? 
Mr. Bridges. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Had you ever applied for a U.S. passport 
prior to the Kent-Briehl decision ? 



46 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Mr. Bridges. No, Mr. Arens. There was too many people 
in this country trying to get me out without a pass- 
port — * * * 

William L. Patterson, general manager of the official Communist 
Party newspaper, The Worker, appeared in response to a subpena. 

Mr. Patterson recounted his education and his principal employ- 
ments prior to becoming general manager of The Worker in 1958. 
Although Mr. Patterson in a letter addressed to the chairman of the 
committee respecting the hearings had identified himself as a Com- 
munist, he refused to respond when asked if he was currently a Com- 
munist. 

Mr. Patterson testified that in 1927 he procured a United States 
passport with which he traveled to a number of foreign countries, 
including Soviet Russia, where he spent considerable time. He de- 
clined, however, to answer questions respecting Communist activities 
on the trip. Thereafter, in 1934 and again in 1948, Mr. Patterson 
procured a United States passport with which he traveled abroad. 
Passport applications at the time did not request information as to 
whether or not the applicant was a member of the Communist Party. 

Although Mr. Patterson did not reveal in his passport application 
in 1948 that he proposed to visit Hungary, he, nevertheless, visited that 
country and, while there, issued statements attacking the Government 
of the United States. 

Thereafter, Mr. Patterson's passport was taken up by the State De- 
partment because he had violated the ban on travel to Hungary. 

In July 1958, Mr. Patterson filed another passport application. At 
the time, the passport application contained a question inquiring if 
the applicant had ever been a member of the Communist Party. Mr. 
Patterson did not answer the question. 

Mr. Patterson testified as follows : 

Mr. Patterson. I didn't answer that question because the 
State Department correctly, under the decision of the Su- 
preme Court, held that it was not — that the question could 
be evaded and, therefore, under the State Department's posi- 
tion and the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Kent 
and Briehl, the cases of Rockwell Kent and Briehl, I am of 
the political opinion of others that whether you are a Repub- 
lican, Democrat, Socialist, or what have you, it was not neces- 
sary nor within the province of the State Department to 
inquire. 

***** 

Mr. Arens. Was a passport issued to you pursuant to this 
application which you filed several months ago ? 

Mr. Patterson. It was. 

Mr. Arens. And you now have in your possession a United 
States passport issued to you pursuant to this application 
made in July of 1958 ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Patterson. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I ask you, as of the instant that 
you affixed your signature to this passport application in 
July of 1958, were you then a member of the Communist 
Party? 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 47 

(Witness confers with his counsel.) 

* * * * * •!: :!: 

Mr. Patterson. * * *. Mr. Staff Director, it is not within 

your province to ask that question any more than it was the 
province of the State Department, as held by the Supreme 
Court. Therefore, with authority of the Supreme Court, 1 
decline, and, of course, under the Constitution, 1 decline to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Scheker. I ask that he be directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question, 
Mr. Patterson. 

Mr. Patterson. I decline. 

Mr. Arens. Where do you intend to go on your passport 
and when? 

Air. Patterson. It would be impossible for me to answer 
such a question, because I don't know. 

Casimir T. Xowacki, of Xew York City, appeared in response to a 
subpena, He refused to give his occupation, basing his refusal on the 
ground, among others, that his answer might tend to incriminate 
him. 

The evidence reveals that in 1949 Mr. Xowacki procured a United 
States passport with which he traveled to Poland and that the applica- 
tion he filed for it did not ask the applicant whether or not he was a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Xowacki refused to respond to questions as to whether his ex- 
penses to Poland in 1949 were paid by the Communist Party and 
whether he had attended a special training course for Communists in 
Warsaw during his stay there. Mr. Xowacki testified that in 1956 he 
filed another application for a United States passport which was 
issued to him. Shortly thereafter he received a letter from the De- 
partment of State requesting him to submit, under oath or affirmation, 
a statement with respect to present or past membership in the Com- 
munist Party and notifying him that, pending receipt of the statement, 
his passport was withdrawn. 

The testimony reveals that, notwithstanding his receipt of this 
letter, Mr. Xowacki attempted to depart from the United States with 
the passport in his possession. His passport was seized on the ship's 
gangplank by Department of State officials. 

Mr. Xowacki refused to state whether he was a member of the 
Communist Party at the time he procured his passport in 1956. He 
likewise refused to reveal the source of his expenses for his proposed 
trip and the objective and purpose of it. 

In Xovember 1958, Mr. Xowacki filed another passport application 
which contained a question as to whether the applicant was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. Air. Xowacki did not answer the ques- 
tion. The passport was issued to him shortly thereafter. Mr. Xowacki 
was confronted hi the course of the hearings with committee informa- 
tion and exhibits respecting his membership in the Communist Party 
and his varied Communist activities. He refused to respond to these 
questions. He likewise declined to say whether he was at the time of 
the hearings a member of the Communist Party. 



48 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Dorothy Ray Friedman, of Providence, R.I., the next witness, also 
appeared in response to a snbpena. 

In earlier hearings of the committee held in Boston, Mass., in March 
1958, Armando Penha, who for a number of years had been an FBI 
undercover agent in the Communist Party, had identified Mrs. Fried- 
man as a person known by him to be a Communist. Subpenaed to 
testify in the Boston hearings, Mrs. Friedman refused to answer any 
questions respecting her Communist Party membership or activities. 

Thereafter, in July 1958, Mrs. Friedman filed an application with 
the Department of State for a United States passport. She refused 
to answer the question on the application as to whether she was a 
member of the Communist Party, but a passport was issued to her. 

In the instant hearings Mrs. Friedman refused to answer any ques- 
tions, except to give her name, residence, and occupation, basing her 
refusal on the ground, among others, that her answers might incrimi- 
nate her. 

Fred Paul Muller, of Hoboken, X.J., appeared in response to a sub- 
pena but refused to answer any questions except to give his name and 
place of residence, basing his refusal on the ground, among others, 
that his answers might incriminate him. There were displayed to Mr. 
Muller photostatic reproductions of passport applications filed by 
him with the Department of State in August 1950, September 1954, 
and July 1958, respectively, and Mr. Muller was confronted with in- 
formation of the committee that in 1956 he had been cited by the inter- 
national Communist apparatus for doing "fine international work for 
the party." Mr. Muller persisted in his refusal to answer all 
questions relating to Commmunist activities. 

Bocho Mircheff, of Detroit, Mich., appeared in response to a snb- 
pena. He refused to state his occupation on the ground, among others, 
that to do so would be to supply information that might be used 
against him in a criminal proceeding. Mr. Mircheff testified that he 
was born in Bulgaria and became a naturalized citizen in Detroit in 
1938. 

Mr. Mircheff was shown a photostatic reproduction of a passport ap- 
plication filed by him with the Department of State in 1946 and was 
interrogated respecting the trip he made to Bulgaria at that time. He 
refused to answer any questions respecting the trip on the ground, 
among others, that to do so would give information which could be 
used against him in a criminal proceeding. There was also displayed 
to Mr. Mircheff a photostatic reproduction of a passport application 
filed by him with the Department of State in June 1958, in which ap- 
plication he omitted filling out questions respecting membership in 
the Communist Party. He refused to state whether he was a member 
of the Communist Party at the time he filed the application for a pass- 
port in June 1958, and whether he was a member of the Communist 
Party at the instant of his testimony. 

Mr. Mircheff was scheduled to go abroad shortly after the hearings. 
He refused to say whether his expenses would be paid by persons 
known by him to be members of the Communist Party, whether his 
mission abroad was under the direction of the Communist Party, and 
whether he expected to engage in Communist Party activities after 
he arrived in Bulgaria. 

Leonore Haimowitz, of Plainfield, K.J., appeared in response to a 
subpena. She was shown a photostatic reproduction of an applica- 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 49 

tion filed by her with the Department of State in 1949 for a passport 
to go to Europe. She refused to answer any questions respecting the 
passport application on the ground that to do so might tend to incrim- 
inate her. Mrs. Haimowitz was confronted with committee informa- 
tion to the elYect that in 1954, as a then member of the Communist 
Party, she had engaged in Communist Party activities in Mexico. 
She refused to answer questions respecting the subject matter on the 
ground that to do so might tend to incriminate her. 

Mrs. Haimowitz was next shown a copy of the passport application 
for travel to Europe filed by her with the Department of State in 
July 1958. She refused to answer all questions respecting the pass- 
port application and to say whether or not a passport was issued pur- 
suant to the application, although the application showed that a pass- 
port was issued on September 10, 1958. She based her refusal on the 
ground that if she answered the question she would be giving informa- 
tion which could be used against her in a criminal proceeding. Mrs. 
Haimowitz likewise refused on the same ground to answer whether 
she was a member of the Communist Partv at the very moment of 
her testimony. 

Stanley Xowak, of Detroit, Mich., appeared in response to a sub- 
pena. He stated that his occupation was "journalism" but, in re- 
house to a question as to where he was employed, declined to answer. 
He gave as a reason, among others, " I also want to claim at this time 
the privilege of the fifth amendment." 

In an opinion of the Supreme Court on May 26, 1958, in the case of 
the United States v. Stanley Nowdk (the witness) the Court stated 
that the Government had proved that Xowak was a member of the 
Communist Partv. Mr. Xowak testified that thereafter in July 1958. 
he filed a passport application with the Department of State but that 
he did not fill out the questions on the application form respecting 
Communist Party membership ''because it was not necessary according 
to the decision of the Supreme Court." 

Mr. Xowak declined to state whether, at the instant he had affixed 
his signature to the application form, he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party. He likewise declined to state who paid his expenses 
on a trip to Poland he had made on a United States passport in Sep- 
tember 1958, basing his declination on the ground, among others, that 
his answer might incriminate him. 

Arthur David Kahn, of Brooklyn, X.Y., appeared in response to a 
subpena but refused to answer any questions of the committee "on 
the basis of the fifth amendment," except to give his name and address. 

There were displayed to Mr. Kahn a series of passport applications 
and applications for renewal filed by him witli the Department of 
State beginning in 1944. pursuant to which he had obtained passports 
or renewals for travel abroad, including a passport application filed 
under date of July 23, 1958, pursuant to which a passport was issued 
on August 25, 1958. 

Mr. Kahn was confronted with committee information to the effect 
that, over the course of many years' time as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party, he had participated in a number of Communist activities 
and that," while serving with the OSS of the United States Govern- 
ment in Germany, he was in contact with German Communists for the 
purpose of conducting Communist Party operations. 



5Q ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

The record reveals that Mr. Kahn had been refused United States 
passports on numerous occasions on security grounds but that, after 
the decision of the Supreme Court in the Kent-Briehl case, a passport 
was issued to him. 

Victor Perlo, of New York City, appeared in response to a subpena 
and stated that he was an economist. He was shown a passport appli- 
cation filed by him with the Department of State in 1947 in which he 
had stated that he sought a passport to go to London. The passport 
application was denied. Thereafter, in 1950, Mr. Perlo filed another 
passport application with the Department of State seeking a passport 
to go to France, Belgium, Italy, and England for "research and travel." 
This passport application, likewise, was denied. 

Mr. Perlo had been identified before this committee in 1948 as the 
leader of a Communist cell in the United States Government which 
had been collecting information for the benefit of the Soviet Union. 
When Mr. Perlo filed another passport application in July of 1958, he 
received from the Department of State a letter stating that the 
Department "has received information indicating that you have been 
a member and a leader of an espionage group and that you have 
actively engaged in espionage activities on behalf of a foreign gov- 
ernment." The letter requested him to answer a series of questions 
respecting his activities. Subsequent to receipt of the letter from 
the Department of State, Mr. Perlo sent a letter to the Department 
respecting his proposed trip, but did not answer the questions of the 
Department as to whether he had engaged in espionage. 

Mr. Perlo, in his appearance before the committee, refused to state 
"on the grounds of the fifth amendment" whether he had ever en- 
gaged in espionage activities against the Government and the people 
of the United States. He likewise refused to state whether he was a 
member of the Communist Party the instant he had affixed his signa- 
ture to the passport application in 1958, and whether he was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party during his appearance before the 
committee. The record further reveals that in December 1958 Mr. 
Perlo addressed a letter to the Chief of the Passport Office, as follows : 

Dear Mrs. Knight: I have your letter of November 24. 
Since you are apparently determined to violate the law by 
denying me a passport, and since it is obvious from Mr. 
O'Connor's reference to me in his speech of November 8 that 
my application has been prejudged, please return my appli- 
cation and fee.* 

Martin Popper, of New York City, appeared in response to a sub- 
pena. He identified a photostatic copy of his application for a pass- 
port which he had obtained on August 26, 1958, in which application 
Mr. Popper had omitted answers to questions respecting membership 
in the Communist Party. 

When asked whether he was a member of the Communist Party 
at the time he executed the application for a passport, Mr. Popper 
declined to answer. 

Mr. Popper also identified a photostatic copy of a passport applica- 
tion executed by him on March 11, 1946, pursuant to which Mr. Popper 
received a passport to travel to Germany to observe the Nuremberg 
trials. He declined to state whether he was a member of the Com- 



*In December 1959 Perlo sued for, and was granted, a passport. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 51 

munist Party at the time he made the application for the passport, 
and whether he conferred with Communist Party leaders in any for- 
eign country during his trip abroad. 

Mr. Popper further identified an application he had filed for a 
passport on Sept ember 20, 1946, pursuant to which he procured a 
passport to attend a meeting of the International Congress of Lawyers 
in Paris. Mr. Popper was then secretary of the National Lawyers 
Guild. 

Mr. Popper refused to answer whether he was a member of the 
Communist Party at the time of his attendance at the International 
Congress of Lawyers in Paris. He identified a photostatic copy of 
an application for a passport filed by him in 1954 and, in connection 
therewith, a copy of a letter addressed to him from the Director of 
the Passport Office in which it was stated that "In your case it has 
been alleged that you were a Communist" and that "* * * the evidence 
indicates on your part a consistent and prolonged adherence to the 
Communist Party line * * *." The letter stated that Mr. Popper 
would be "required to submit a sworn statement whether you are now 
or ever have been a Communist." 

Mr. Popper refused to state whether he was at the time of the hear- 
ing a member of the Communist Party and whether previous testi- 
mony of Mr. Mortimer Riemer before this committee was correct. 
Mr. Riemer had testified that Mr. Popper was a member of a Com- 
munist group composed exclusively of lawyers. He gave a number of 
reasons for his refusal but specifically did not claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Popper was subsequently cited for contempt of Congress by the 
House of Representatives and indicted by a Federal grand jury on 
November 24, 1959. 

Victor Michael Berman, of New York City, appeared in response to 
a subpena but refused to answer any questions of the committee, except 
to give his name and address, and to say that he was presently un- 
employed. He based his refusal on the ground, among others, "of my 
constitutional privilege under the fifth amendment." 

Mr. Berman was interrogated respecting a trip made by him 
to the World Youth Festival in Budapest in August 1949, his 
chairmanship of the Student Branch of the Communist Party at the 
University of Colorado in 1949, and his membership in the New York 
section of the Communist Party in 1954. 

He persisted in his refusal to answer all questions including the 
question of whether he was at the time of the hearing a member of 
the Communist Party, basing his refusal on the ground, among others, 
"of my constitutional privilege under the fifth amendment." 
Mr. Berman had filed a passport application under date of Sep- 
tember 8, 1958, in which he had failed to answer questions respecting 
membership in the Communist Party. A passport was subsequently 
issued to him. 

Sidney T. Efross, of Silver Spring, Maryland, appeared in response 
to a subpena. When asked to state his occupational background, he 
declined to do so on the ground, among others, that his answer would 
incriminate him. Mr. Efross was confronted with the testimony of 
Mr. Frank Peoples, of Lorain, Ohio, who testified that, while he was 
serving in the Communist Party as an undercover agent of the Federal 



52 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Bureau of Investigation, he knew Sidney Efross as a member of the 
Communist Party and the captain of a party group in the steel 
industry in Lorain in 1950. Mr. Efross declined to answer any ques- 
tions respecting this testimony, basing his declination "on the same 
grounds." 

Mr. Efross was shown a copy of an application for a passport 
filed by him on January 13, 1953, for travel to Europe, and a 
letter of March 25, 1953, from the Director of the Passport Office 
disapproving the application on security grounds. He refused to say 
if he was a member of the Communist Party at the time of his passport 
application. 

Elizabeth Boynton Millard, of New York City, appeared in re- 
sponse to a subpena. She declined to answer questions respecting her 
educational background or occupational record, basing her declina- 
tion on various grounds including the "protection of the first and fifth 
amendments." 

There was displayed to Miss Millard a copy of the Daily Worker 
of April 17, 1950, containing an article by Betty Millard respecting 
a trip she had made to Eed China, but she declined "on the same 
grounds" to answer any questions respecting the article or the trip. 

There was likewise displayed to Miss Millard a photograph clipped 
from an East German publication of February 4, 1951, bearing a 
caption identifying Betty Millard as a participant in a Communist 
rally in East Germany. She declined to answer any questions respect- 
ing the subject matter "on the same grounds." 

Miss Millard was shown a photostatic copy of an application for 
a passport made by her in July 1958, bearing a stamp "passport issued 
November 4, 1958" in which application Miss Millard failed to answer 
questions respecting membership in the Communist Party. Miss 
Millard declined to answer when asked if she was a member of the 
Communist Party at the time she appeared before the committee. 

John W. Hanes, Jr., Administrator, Bureau of Security and Con- 
sular Affairs of the Department of State, accompanied by John W. 
Sipes, Security Counsel, Department of State, testified respecting 
passport security legislation. Characterizing existing passport con- 
trol as a "particularly dangerous hole in our defenses against the 
operations of the international Communist conspiracy," Mr. Hanes 
stated that at the present time the Department of State has no alter- 
native but to issue passports upon demand to hard-core, active Com- 
munist Party members and supporters. 

Continuing, Mr. Hanes testified : 

I don't know exactly how many members the Communist 
Party of the United States now has — perhaps fifteen or 
twenty thousand. But, however many there are, each and 
every party member as of today can get a passport from the 
Department of State, except in the rare instance that he hap- 
pens to be ineligible for some other reason, such as being a 
fugitive from justice. This is a breach in our defenses which 
our enemies have been quick to take advantage of. Many 
persons with known Communist affiliations have applied for 
passports since the decision of the Supreme Court, some of 
them even though they have no present intention of going 
abroad. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 19 59 53 

Mr. Hanes discussed the history and background of passport secu- 
rity and recommended certain legislation to block existing loopholes. 
Among the significant comments bj Mr. Hanes on proposed legisla- 
tion was the following : 

I can say bluntly that any legislation concerning denial of 
passports to Communist supporters would be meaningless 
and would not achieve any purpose if it prohibited the gov- 
ernment from utilizing confidential information. Almost 
without exception, dangerous cases in the Communist area 
involve confidential information and investigative sources. 
Indeed, the more recent and meaningful our information is, 
the more likely it is that it has come from current confidential 
investigative sources within the Communist movement. 

For the committee legislative recommendation on passport security 
see pages 129 and 130 of this report. 

AMERICAN NATIONAL EXHIBITION IN MOSCOW 

On June 3, 1959, the committee chairman addressed the House on 
the subject of the 72 paintings and works of sculpture by 69 American 
artists selected for the art display in the American National Exhibition 
which opened in Moscow on July 25, 1959. 12 

The chairman revealed in his speech that approximately one-half of 
these artists had records of affiliation with Communist fronts and 
causes and that 22, or roughly one-third of them, had significant 
records of this type. These 22, according to a check of committee 
files, had a total of at least 465 separate connections with Communist 
organizations or Communist-sponsored causes. One of these men, 
he pointed out, had been publicly identified as a Communist Party 
member, and the affiliations of some of the other artists were "so 
extensive and of such a nature that they raised serious questions as to 
where then loyalty actually lies." 

Some of these artists, the chairman stated, had taught at Communist 
Party schools, written for Communist Part}' publications, endorsed 
open Communist Party members for public office, contributed art 
work to Communist Party magazines, and had urged participation in 
the party's May Day parades. He detailed the manner in which 
several of the artists had aided the Communist Party. 

On Jul}' 1, 1959, the committee held hearings on the subject. The 
principal witness was Wheeler Williams, who has held many important 
positions in the art world and is currently president of the American 
Artists Professional League, the largest organization of professional 
artists in the United States. 

Mr. Williams testified that the American Artists Professional 
League had been disturbed when, early in March 1959, it learned the 
names of the judges selected to choose the paintings and sculptures 
for the exhibition, and that he, as president of the league, had written 
to President Eisenhower to inform him the league was "gravely con- 
cerned" about this matter. Government-arranged American art 
exhibitions shown abroad in the past had reflected little honor on this 

» See "The American National Exhibition, Moscow, July 1959," Hearings before Committee on Un 
American Activities, July 1, 1959. 



54 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

country, he told the President, and urged that steps be taken to insure 
that any art sent to the Soviet Union would be of a high quality so 
that it could not be used as proof of U.S. cultural decadence. 

Mr. Williams said in his appearance before the committee that the 
exhibition of American art sent to Moscow was a "discredit" to the 
United States and that it should be shipped home. 

Mr. Williams described the purpose of the Communists in in- 
filtrating the art world in the following words: 

They want to destroy all phases of our culture; and if they 
can destroy our faith in God and our faith in the beauty and 
wonders of our cultural heritage, including the arts and lit- 
erature and music and so forth, they can take us over with- 
out a hydrogen bomb. They can take us over with popguns. 

In extensive, detailed testimony on communism in art, Mr. Williams 
pointed out that Communist doctrine demands " Socialist Realism" in 
art produced in the Soviet Union and all Communist nations. This 
means that art must be generally traditional or classicist in form so 
that it can be readily understood by all people and that it must con- 
tain a message or propaganda. The message may be positive or 
negative. A positive one would glorify communism and the Soviet 
Union in some way. A negative one, on the other hand, would depict 
a non-Communist or capitalist nation or persons unfavorably. 

" Modernist" art forms are barred in Communist countries today, 
Mr. Williams said, because, being unintelligible to many people, they 
are not good propaganda media. He pointed out, however, that this 
does not mean that Communists oppose modern art everywhere and 
at all times. He stated that extreme practitioners of modern art 
forms dominated art in the Soviet Union for a number of years after 
the Bolshevik Revolution with the official endorsement of the Com- 
munist government. The purpose in this, Mr. Williams said, was to 
promote the destruction of the roots and all vestiges of pre-Communist 
culture, to make a complete cultural, as well as political, break with 
the past. 

Immediately after the Bolshevik Revolution, the Com- 
munists in Russia wanted to tear down, so far as they were 
able and in all fields, all so-called " bourgeois" ideas — politi- 
cal, economic, religious, and artistic. 

The so-called modern art forms were, as the authorities 
I have quoted point out, a revolt against the established 
order. 

After the modern art forms had served this purpose, Mr. Williams 
testified, they were thrown out and " Socialist Realism" was intro- 
duced in the Soviet Union. Artists were denied the freedom to paint 
what they chose and, to a great extent, turned into political hacks. 

Mr. Williams, in describing the Communist view of modern art 
forms, quoted Jack Chen, former Daily Worker correspondent, who 
had written: 

At the point where typically bourgeois art descends step 
by step from the truest vision of reality that it attained, and 
disintegrates in the realms of fantasy, in cubism, construc- 
tivism, expressionism, and surrealism, it is there that Social- 
ist ideology and its art bound up with the great progressive 



- - 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 19 59 o5 

labor movement carries human vision forward again to real- 
ism, reintegrates it, and advances to social realism, to a truer 
vision of the world and to greater heights of art and humanist 
aspiration. 

Translating Chen's words into everyday English, Mr. Williams said: 

In other words, from the Kremlin or Stalinist viewpoint, 
the modern art forms represent a decline in what Communists 
call "bourgeois art," which is really the classic tradition in 
Western art. It is here in this period of decline, in the Com- 
munist view, that they step in and weld propaganda to 
traditional art to make it "Socialist Realism" which, in their 
opinion, is a higher stage of artistic achievement than 
anything which existed in the past. 

Mr. Williams then gave detailed testimony — with concrete examples 
taken from Communist Party documents — on how Communists in 
this country have used, and are still using, art and artists — both mod- 
ern and traditional — to promote their objectives. He told how they 
exploit the prestige of artists through Communist fronts; how they 
arrange exhibitions through Communist-controlled groups which dis- 
play pro-Communist art; and revealed that the party even has an art 
arallerv of its own in New York City. 

Mr. Williams concluded his testimony by expressing the hope that 
the American public would become alerted to the inroads Communists 
have made in the art field in this country. 

The second witness in the hearing was Mr. Frank Wright, an artist 
and also a member of the board of directors of the American Artists 
Professional League. Mr. Wright had formerly been economic adviser 
to the Bipartite Control Office for Germany and, as an outgrowth of 
his experience with economic warfare in that position, had become 
interested in the subject of propaganda or psjxhological warfare 
which he characterized as "communications warfare." 

In this warfare, he said, Moscow attempts to subvert free nations 
through words, symbols, and images. On the other hand, with the 
Iron Curtain as a barrier to communication, it attempts to prevent its 
slaves from learning what the outside world is really like, and those 
outside the Iron Curtain from learning what the true conditions are 
behind it. 

Two fundamental objectives of the Communists in their communi- 
cations warfare, Mr. Wright testified, were to produce "organized 
confusion of the mind" and corrosion of values among non-Communist 
peoples. Art, he said, is "a prime weapon" in this type of warfare. 

Two artists whose works had been selected for the American Na- 
tional Exhibition in Moscow testified under subpena in the course of 
the hearings. 

Ben Shahn, of Roosevelt, New Jersey, invoked the fifth amendment 
when asked if he had ever been a member of the Communist Party; 
if he had ever contributed his art work to raise funds for Communist 
enterprises; if he knew that persons to whom he had submitted work 
for the Communist magazine, New Masses, were members of the 
Communist Party. 

He admitted having taught at the John Reed Club School of Art, 
but invoked the fifth amendment when asked if he knew at the time 
that it was a Communist enterprise. l\v also invoked the fifth amend- 



56 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

ment when asked if it was true that the school was an institution for 
the "development of young revolutionary artists"; when asked about 
his affiliation with various Communist fronts and about his endorse- 
ment of a statement on October 16, 1958, which called, in effect, 
for the United States to surrender to the Soviet Union on several vital 
policy matters. 

Mr. Shahn was employed by the Resettlement Administration from 
1935 to 1937; had painted murals for the Social Security Building in 
Washington in 1941, and, in 1942, worked for the Office of War In- 
formation. He denied that he had been a Communist Party member 
at any time while employed by the Government. 

Philip Evergood, of Oxford, Connecticut, invoked the fifth amend- 
ment on nearly all questions asked him. These included whether he 
was presently a member of the Communist Party; whether he had 
ever been a member of the party; whether he was the author of several 
articles published in the Daily Worker, official Communist Party 
newspaper; whether he had taught in Communist Party schools; had 
been editor of the Communist magazine Masses and Mainstream; had 
been affiliated with numerous Communist fronts in the art and other 
fields; and whether he had ever "knowingly and consciously" used his 
art "for the purpose of furthering the objectives of the Communist 
Party of the United States." 

Subsequent to the committee hearings, the U.S. Information 
Agency, at the direction of President Eisenhower, added about 25 
additional paintings — covering earlier periods in American art his- 
tory — to the U.S. exhibition in Moscow. 

COMMUNIST TRAINING OPERATIONS 

On July 21 and 22, 1959, the first in a series of hearings on Com- 
munist training operations was held in Washington, D.C. 13 In out- 
lining the scope of the hearings, the chairman of the committee 
stated : 

Many people wonder what makes a dedicated Communist. 
How are intelligent American citizens molded into such 
thoroughly committed revolutionaries that they will, as 
Lenin said, devote "the whole of their lives" to the Com- 
munist conspiracy ? 

The experience of this committee compels the conclusion 
that this process is not accomplished overnight. A first step 
is often the subtle indoctrination of students by individual 
Communists who are employed as teachers in non-Commu- 
nist educational institutions. Beyond this, the Communist 
conspiracy has two principal organized training operations. 

The first consists of schools, forums, and courses designed 
to soften up and condition the students — whether they are 
actually members of the party or not — and to act as a screen- 
ing or selection program in which likely material is chosen 
for development in the second type of Communist training 
operation, which is for hard-core, disciplined conspirators. 

In these hearings which are beginning tocla}^ we will sam- 
ple activities of individual Communists engaged in teaching 



13 "Communist Training Operations.*' Part 3, Hearings before Committee on Un- American 
Activities, July 21 and 22, 1959. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 57 

in non-Communist institutions, as well as each of the two 
types of organized Communist training operations. 

The Jefferson School of Social Science, through the years, 
was of the lirst type of Communist training operation, 
where there were taught to Communists and non-Communists 
alike courses which were designed to soften up and condition 
the students and to develop prospective material for train- 
ing as hard-core Communists. 

In proceedings under the Internal Security Act of 1950, 
the Subversive Activities Control Board on June 30, 1955, 
found the Jefferson School of Social Science to be a Com- 
munist-front organization and that it, therefore, should 
register under the provisions of the Act. 

Shortly, thereafter, the Communist operation devised what 
looked like a very simple evasive tactic, namely, to dissolve 
the Jefferson School of Social Science, which they did; but 
it was not long before there was created with substantially 
the same faculty and courses a new school known as the 
Faculty of Social Science. 

We expect in these hearings to explore this Faculty of 
Social Science to determine if our present investigative leads 
appear to be correct, namely, that for all intents and purposes 
the Faculty of Social Science is merely a successor to the Jef- 
ferson School of Social Science. 

Now, with reference to the second type of Communist op- 
eration, namely, the training program of the hard-core cadre, 
in May of this year James E. Jackson, Jr., who is one of the 
top Communist conspirators operating in the United States, 
returned here from Moscow, to which he had traveled on a 
United States passport which was issued to him shortly after 
the Supreme Court struck down the power of the Secretary 
of State to deny passports to Communists. 

Jackson's orders from the Kremlin, which have now been 
transmitted to the comrades in the United States, are to in- 
tensify the training of key revolutionaries in sabotage, sub- 
version, and penetration. 

We have under subpena the educational director of the 
Communist Party, Hyman Lumer, who, we have learned 
from our field investigations, is now supervising the secret 
training programs in key centers of the Nation in which 
select comrades are given specialized training in conspira- 
torial strategies and tactics. 

At the outset of the hearings, a number of exhibits were inserted 
into the record demonstrating the similarities between the Communist 
front, the Jefferson School of Social Science, and the Faculty of Social 
Science. The exhibits, chiefly from Communist sources, also revealed 
that Communist training operations were temporarily continued 
through the media of so-called "Marxist Forums" after the dissolution 
of the Jefferson School in 1956. Initiated in New York in 1957, these 
forums w T ere held weekly and utilized speakers previously on the fac- 
ulty of the Jefferson School. When the Faculty of Social Science 
opened in New York City in September 1958, organized Marxist study 
courses were concentrated there. 

51117—60 5 



58 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Frank S. Meyer, Woodstock, N. Y., was a member of the Communist 
Party from 1931 until 1945. Since he broke with the party in 1945, 
Mr. Meyer has rendered valuable service to the Government in reveal- 
ing the true nature and inner workings of the Communist apparatus. 
His background in Communist educational and organizational work 
is extensive. In the early 1930's he was secretary of the Student Bu- 
reau of the British Communist Party and a member of its Central 
Committee. In 1934 he was transferred to the Communist Party of 
the United States ; was educational director of its Chicago South Side 
Section Committee from 1935 to 1937; education director of the 
party's Illinois-Indiana district and director of the Chicago Work- 
ers School, which functioned in conjunction with the party's educa- 
tional commission, from 1938 to 1941 ; and district membership direc- 
tor and organizational secretary in Illinois from 1941 to 1942. Mr. 
Meyer served at various times as chairman and secretary of the educa- 
tional commissions of the Communist Party's national conventions 
and taught at the Jefferson School of Social Science from 1944 to 1945. 

In testimony before the committee on July 21, Mr. Meyer identified 
many individuals on the staff of the Faculty of Social Science as per- 
sons he had known as Communist Party members and instructors at 
the Jefferson School. He testified that the courses of instruction at 
the Faculty of Social Science, as displayed in committeee exhibits, 
follow the same pattern as the courses taught in past years at such 
Communist Party schools as the Workers School and the Jefferson 
School. 

Appraising the brochures and teaching staff at the Faculty of Social 
Science, Mr. Meyer declared: 

* * * It looks exactly like similar Communist operations 
have always looked, and seems to be a lineal descendant of a 
long line of ancestors, all Communist operated and con- 
trolled. 

Mr. Meyer also provided the committee with a broad picture of 
Communist training operations which he said could be divided into 
three phases ; namely, public agitation and propaganda, the molding 
of hard-core Communists, and inner party training schools — "for the 
purpose of putting a final hardness, understanding from the party's 
point of view, toughness, on the Communist who is already approach- 
ing top leadership positions." 

Mr. Meyer explained : 

Of the three I mentioned, examples would be first, in the 
category of the drawing of people toward the party. I think 
any issue of the Daily Worker that you open you will find 
advertised forums, clubs, lectures, places which are current 
and popular issues of one sort or another, which will bring 
people who might be interested in that issue forward. 

Also, a Communist Party member will hold in his home a 
class or discussion group, which gets a number of neighbors 
or friends he has met, or people he has worked with in activi- 
ties of various kinds. Also, such schools as the Jefferson 
School itself have as one part of their activity a whole group 
of courses devoted toward bringing in peripherally interested 
people. That is the first type. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 59 

The second type, the beginning of the training of Com- 
munists, new Communists, is conducted in a number of ways. 
First, every Communist Party meeting has an educational 
section, a portion of its agenda devoted to educational dis- 
cussion. Then, a widespread series of classes is held within 
the party in a section or a district for newer party members. 
Thirdly, in schools of the Jefferson School type, one of the 
functions of those schools is to conduct classes that can be 
utilized for this purpose, for the first stage of training of the 
party members. 

The third type of training consists of a network of schools, 
full-time party schools, from the local level — section schools — 
through district schools, to national schools, and finally to the 
international schools that have been run over the years under 
various names by the international Communist movement. 

The Communist Party of the United States, Mr. Meyer warned, 
"is strong, lithe, and determined." Its education is not merely a mat- 
ter of spreading to the members and people a set of principles. Its 
major purpose, he declared is "to mold, train, transform the whole 
man." 

He expressed the opinion that the success of the Communist move- 
ment throughout the world was due largely to our apparent loss of 
faith in the ancient Western heritage and to the teaching in our 
schools and society of a relativism which eats away the great traditions 
of the West and of American freedom. Mr. Meyer declared that the 
Communists, in contrast, are determined, deeply convinced, and fired 
with a zeal which we have not been able to match. 

Harold Collins, of Brooklyn, N.Y., secretary of the Faculty of 
Social Science, was then questioned extensively by the committee. 

Mr. Collins was identified by Mr. Meyer as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. A veteran Marxist educator, Mr. Collins has worked 
in party training schools since at least 1944, when he was secretary of 
the Jefferson School of Social Science. In addition to his duties as 
secretary and instructor at the Jefferson School, Mr. Meyer testified, 
Mr. Collins was chairman of the committee for the Marxist-Leninist 
Institute, an inner-core school within Jefferson, whose purpose it was 
to develop Communist Party functionaries. In 1948 he was in charge 
of the school's public relations. 

Harold Collins was one of the group of former Jefferson School of 
Social Science instructors who comprised the original staff of the 
Faculty of Social Science when that organization was established in 
September 1958. 

Prior to the opening of the Winter 1959 semester, the Daily Worker 
published an article "Education Roundup"' written by Harold Col- 
lins, in which he claimed that several hundred people "attended the 
classes given at Adelphi Hall during the last school year by members 
of what has now become The Faculty [of Social Science]." Declaring 
that it is "essential that we all keep our eyes on the educational achieve- 
ments of theU.S.S.Iw. and the People's Republic of China," Mr. Collins 
asserted that "not one of us can afford to do without the kind of 
education that the Faculty of Social Science is now offering." 






GO ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

In addition to his work in adult education courses, Mr. Collins is 
one of the instructors in the "new program of classes" designed espe- 
cially for youth by the Faculty of Social Science. 

In his appearance before the committee, Mr. Collins refused to 
answer questions regarding his connection with the Faculty of Social 
Science; his Communist Party membership; or his past Communist 
Party activities, basing his refusal on the ground that his answers 
mio;ht incriminate him. 

The committee was unable to serve a subpena upon Dr. Herbert 
Aptheker, director of the Faculty of Social Science, because he was 
traveling in Europe. 

Dr. Aptheker, however, is an admitted Communist. In 1949, and 
again in 1954, when he appeared as a witness for the defense of the 
Communist leaders being tried for Smith Act violations, Dr. Aptheker 
admitted that he had been an active member of the Communist Party 
since he joined it in 1939. 

According to his past testimony, Dr. Aptheker has been teaching 
at schools conducted by the Communist Party since 1940, when he was 
an instructor at the School for Democracy. This school was estab- 
lished by Communist teachers ousted from the public school system 
in New York City. 

At the Jefferson School of Social Science, established in 1944 
through a merger of the old Communist Party Workers School and 
the School for Democracy, Dr. Aptheker was a member of the faculty 
from approximately 1945 until the school closed in December 1956. 
In the early 1950's he was made a member of its board of trustees, a 
position he retained for the duration of the school's existence. 

Concurrently with his work at Jefferson, Herbert Aptheker was a 
functionary in the Communist Party and managing editor of Political 
Affairs, a monthly publication which calls itself a "Theoretical and 
Political Magazine of Scientific Socialism," but is in reality the Com- 
munist Party's theoretical organ. 

The reestablishment of organized Marxist study was announced in 
September 1958. The new training school, established under the 
name "Faculty of Social Science" was headed by Dr. Herbert Ap- 
theker. In addition to serving as director of the school, Dr. Aptheker, 
together with Harold Collins, heads its teaching staff and conducts 
courses in several subjects, including "Marxist Theory Today" which 
is described as the study of "relations among Socialist nations ; paths 
to socialism." 

The committee interrogated other witnesses who serve as instructors 
at the Faculty of Social Science. They uniformly invoked the fifth 
amendment in response to committee questioning. 

Myer Weise, of Flushing, N.Y., an instructor who appeared in re- 
sponse to a subpena but refused to reply to questions, has been teach- 
ing in Communist training schools since at least 1937 and, according 
to the Communist press, is an authority on Marxism-Leninism. Mr. 
Weise emigrated from the Ukraine to the United States in 1929 and 
became a naturalized citizen in 1937. The same year he was granted 
citizenship, Mr. Weise was an instructor at the Communist Workers 
School. According to the school catalog, his subject, "Marxism-Len- 
inism II," would ''give the student an understanding of the theory 
and tactics of the proletarian revolution, hammered out and tested in 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 61 

the years of struggle throughout the world * * * . The course will 
include * * * the application of these basic Leninist principles to 
the strategic and tactical question facing the revolutionary movement 
today." 

Mr. Weise was also an instructor at the Jefferson School of Social 
Science. He has been a member of the teaching staff of the Faculty 
of Social Science since the school's inception. 

Irving Potash, who also invoked the constitutional privilege against 
self-incrimination and refused to answer all committee questions per- 
taining to Communist Party membership and activities, joined the 
staff of the Faculty of Social Science in the spring of 1959, according 
to announcements in the Communist press. 

Mr. Potash was one of the eleven top Communist leaders con- 
victed in 1949 of conspiracy to teach and advocate the violent over- 
throw of the United States Government. 

After serving 3 years and 5 months of his sentence, Potash 
was released from prison. He was immediately rearrested on an 
untried second count of the Smith Act, making it illegal to knowingly 
belong to a party which advocates violent overthrow of the Govern- 
ment. 

Rather than face another 5 years in prison, if convicted, Potash, 
who came to this country in 1913, agreed to voluntary deportation to 
Poland and sailed for Europe in 1955. 

According to the Daily Worker, August 23, 1956, Potash was tour- 
ing Communist China as an observer and correspondent. The Worker 
noted that, on the completion of his trip in late September, Potash 
would write a series of articles on his observations in Red China. 

In January 1957, the Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested 
Potash in New York on charges of illegal re-entry. He was given a 
2-year prison sentence and released in August 1958. According to 
the Daily Worker, Potash has been denied readmission to Poland and 
is currently under supervisory parole. There is outstanding against 
him a permanent order for deportation. 

Another instructor at the Faculty of Social Science who invoked 
the fifth amendment in response to committee questions was Hyman 
Lumer, who is also educational director for the Communist Party. 

The committee ascertained from its field investigations that im- 
mediately prior to his appearance before the committee, Lumer was 
supervising secret training programs in key centers of the Nation, in 
which selected comrades receive specialized training in conspiratorial 
strategies and tactics. 

Leon Josephson, a teacher at the Faculty of Social Science, who has 
publicly proclaimed his allegiance to the Communist movement, in- 
voked the privilege against self-incrimination and refused to answer 
all questions pertaining to Communist Party membership or activi- 
ties when he appeared before the committee in the course of these 
hearings. His efforts in behalf of the Communist conspiracy date 
back to the 1920's. According to the testimony of former Communist 
Fred Beal, Josephson served as an agent for Soviet Russia in that 
period. He was an instructor at the Jefferson School of Social Science 
and joined the teaching staff of the Faculty of Social Science as soon 
as the latter was formed. He has publicly declared : "If I attempted 
to undermine or overthrow the Soviet State, I would deserve the 



62 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

merited fate of all enemies of the people." He is teaching "Soviet 
Democracy" and "Background : From the 20th to the 21st Soviet Party 
Congress" at the Faculty of Social Science. 

Henry Klein, an identified Communist, instructs youth classes at 
the Faculty of Social Science. Although Mr. Klein refused to answer 
pertinent committee questions, the committee introduced exhibits 
demonstrating that his work in Communist training operations dates 
back to at least 1941. In that year he was appointed educational di- 
rector for New York City by the International Workers Order, cited 
as "one of the most effective" Communist-front organizations. Mr. 
Klein was an instructor at the Jefferson School of Social Science and 
taught at the Marxist Forums in 1957 and 1958. In October 1958, the 
Faculty of Social Science launched a new program of classes designed 
especially for youth and announced that Henry Klein would be one 
of the instructors. He has continued at the Faculty of Social Science 
through 1959, teaching such subjects as "Marxist Theory of the State." 

Esther Cantor, another instructor at the Faculty of Social Science, 
has been a publicly known Communist Party leader in New York State 
since at least 1940, when she was organizational secretary of the In- 
dustrial Section of the party. She has also served as Manhattan leg- 
islative director ; as a member of the New York County Committee ; 
New York State legislative director, and at the time of the hearing was 
a member of the New York State Committee of the Communist Party. 
When she appeared as a witness before the committee, Mrs. Cantor 
refused to answer questions pertaining to her Communist Party mem- 
bership or activities on the ground that her answers might incriminate 
her. 

Another witness, Sidney Finkelstein, has been connected with Com- 
munist training schools since at least 1947. He was an instructor and 
lecturer at the Jefferson School of Social Science from that date until 
the school closed in 1956. In addition to his work at the Jefferson 
School, Mr. Finkelstein was a member of the board of directors of the 
Communist-controlled Metropolitan Music School in 1955 and 1956. 
Mr. Finkelstein was an instructor at the Marxist Forums in 1957 and 
1958, and he has been teaching at the Faculty of Social Science ever 
since the school was opened. He invoked the privilege against self- 
incrimination when interrogated by the committee respecting the Fac- 
ulty of Social Science and his connections with the Communist Party. 

Susan Warren's membership in the Communist Party is a matter of 
public record. In addition to the publicity given by the Daily Worker 
to her work for the party, the 1948 catalog for the Jefferson School of 
Social Science records that Miss Warren, one of the teachers at the 
school, was a former "Educational Director, N.Y. County Commit- 
tee, Communist Party." As an instructor at the Jefferson School in 
the late 1940's and early 1950 ? s, Miss Warren taught such subjects as 
"Capitalism and the Class Struggle," and "The New China." In 1955 
and 1956 her subjects included China, India and Africa : New Role 
in World Politics." At the Marxist Forums held in Adelphi Hall in 
early 1958, China was again the subject of her lecture. In December 
of that year Miss Warren was scheduled to teach "On the Correct 
Handling of Contradictions Among the People" at the Faculty of 
Social Science. As a member of the teaching staff of the Faculty in 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 63 

1959, Sue Warren, The Worker noted, would teach "The Chinese 
Communes." When questioned by the committee, however, Miss War- 
ren refused to answer on the ground that her answers might incrimi- 
nate her. 

Louis Weinstock, another instructor at the Faculty of Social Sci- 
ence, who refused to respond to committee questioning, was one of the 
national Communist Party leaders convicted in 1953 of wilfully and 
knowingly conspiring to teach and advocate the overthrow and de- 
struction of the Government by force and violence. He has been 
teaching in Communist training schools since the early 1940's, when 
he was an instructor at the New York Workers School. lie taught at 
the Jefferson School and in 1957 lectured at the Marxist Forums. He 
is currently an instructor on labor problems at the Faculty of Social 
Science. 

During the hearings on Communist training operations, the com- 
mittee also heard testimony from Richard Wilson Reicharcl, of Arling- 
ton, Va. He was summoned in connection with the committee's con- 
cern over the indoctrination of students by individual Communists 
who are employed as teachers in non-Communist educational institu- 
tions. Mr. Eeichard was confronted with committee information 
that he had been a member of the Young Communist League while a 
student at Harvard LTniversity ; that from 194G through 1949, he had 
been a leader of the student unit of the Communist Party at Harvard 
University ; that he had been branch organizer for the Second Har- 
vard College Undergraduate Branch of the Communist Party from 
1948 to 1949 : and that he was later transferred from the Communist 
operation in Harvard to the Communist Party in Palo Alto, 
California. 

The witness was reminded of his privilege of counsel, but he stated 
he had contacted counsel but chose to proceed without legal repre- 
sentation. Invoking the privilege against self-incrimination, Mr. 
Reichard refused to answer questions pertaining to the information 
in the possession of the committee or to say whether he is currently a 
member of the Communist Party. 

The committee believes that the evidence presented as a result of 
these hearings clearly establishes that the Faculty of Social Science is, 
for all intents and purposes, a successor to the Jefferson School of 
Social Science and that, like the Jefferson School of Social Science, 
it is an adjunct of the Communist Party for the purpose of indoctrinat- 
ing Communists and Communist sympathizers in the theory and 
practice of communism and in promoting Communist objectives. 

It is apparent that the Jefferson School of Social Science was dis- 
solved and the successor organization created principally for the 
purpose of evading provisions of the Internal Security Act of 1950. 
The Jefferson School disbanded only after the Subversive Activities 
Control Board, proceeding under the Act, had issued an order to the 
Jefferson School to register as a Communist-front organization. 

In view of the evasive tactics which have been adopted by Commu- 
nist-front organizations to avoid compliance with existing legislation, 
the committee is recommending certain amendments to the Internal 
Security Act of 1950 (see p. 134) . 



04 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

TESTIMONY OF CLINTON EDWARD JENCKS 

Clinton Edward Jencks appeared as a witness before the Committee 
on Un-American Activities on July 22, 1959, in response to a subpena. 14 
The witness testified that he was born in 1918; was a resident of 
Albany, California; and was employed as a machinist. He further 
stated that he was educated in the public school system of Colorado 
Springs and was awarded a bachelor of arts degree in 1939 by the 
University of Colorado. 

Subsequently, Mr. Jencks stated, he held various jobs and served in 
the Armed Forces during World War II. Following his release in 
1945, his work in a plant in Denver brought him into the International 
Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers. 15 In 1947 he was made 
business representative for a group of IUMMSW unions in south- 
western New Mexico. In 1950 he was appointed international repre- 
sentative for District 2 (IUMMSW), comprising the southwestern 
area of the country, a post he held until he resigned in 1956. 

Mr. Jencks was identified as a member of the Communist Party by 
Kenneth Eckert during the latter's testimony before another congres- 
sional committee in October 1952. When the Committee on Un- 
American Activities asked Mr. Jencks whether Mr. Eckert had been in 
error in identifying him as a Communist, he refused to answer on the 
ground that his answer might tend to incriminate him. He denied 
present membership in the Communist Party, but refused to state 
whether he ever had been a member. He also invoked the privilege 
of the fifth amendment against self-incrimination in refusing to state 
whether he had any information respecting Communists or Communist 
activities during the period he served as international representative 
of the IUMMSW. 

Mr. Jencks related that in the fall of 1958 he applied to the 
Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation of Princeton, New 
Jersey, for a graduate fellowship for study at the University of Cali- 
fornia. The fellowship was subsequently awarded to him. Accord- 
ing to his testimony, however, at no time did he reveal to representa- 
tives of the Foundation whether he had ever been a member of 
the Communist Party. In his application for the fellowship, Mr. 
Jencks included the following statement : 

After serving as president of the amalgamated local unions 
for five years I found myself charged with having falsely 
signed the Taft-Hartley non-Communist affidavit, and in 
1954 in El Paso, Tex., I was convicted. This came in an 
atmosphere of great press hysteria following a long and bit- 
ter strike against a major mining company. In June, 1957, 
I won vindication and reversal of the conviction from the 
United States Supreme Court, with the Department of 
Justice subsequently asking dismissal of the case. 

The following testimony in connection with his statement is signifi- 
cant and revealing : 

Mr. Arens. Did you mean to convey the impression to the 
people who were passing upon your application for this fel- 



11 See "Testimony of Clinton Edward Jencks," Hearing before Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities, July 22, 1959. 

15 The CIO expelled the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers as a 
Communist-dominated union In 1950. 






ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 65 

lowship that you had not falsely signed the non- Communist 
affidavit ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jencks. I understand. You mean did I give him the 
impression that I had not f alsety signed the affidavit ? 

Mr. Arens. That is right, sir ; that is the question. 

Mr. Jencks. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. That is the impression you meant to convey ? 

Mr. Jencks. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that a truthful impression ? 

In other words, were you telling the truth when you con- 
veyed the impression by this application that you had not 
falsely signed a non-Communist affidavit? 

Mr. Jencks. Well, I would dearly love to answer that 
question if it did not mean that I would have to fear opening 
up this whole thing, but under the circumstances 

Mr. Arens. All we are asking you to do, Mr. Jencks, is to 
tell the truth now. 

Did you tell the truth when you conveyed the impression — 
you said you conveyed the impression — did you tell the truth 
to these professors when you conveyed the impression to them 
that you had not signed the non-Communist affidavit falsely ? 

Mr. Jencks. I certainly told the professors the truth. 
There is no question about that. 

With regard to that, the other part of the question, where 
you try to drag this whole case in by the tail, I refuse to 
answer it. 

Mr. Arens. We are not trying to drag the whole case in 

by the tail. 

Mr. Jencks. I beg your pardon ; you are. 

Mr. Arens. We are trying to get the facts and the truth. 

Mr. Jencks. No, you are not. 

Mr. Arens. You told us a moment ago, did you not, sir, 
that you meant to convey the impression to these professors 
that you had not falsely signed the non-Communist affidavit? 
Is that not the impression you meant to convey ? 

Mr. Jencks. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the truth ? 

Mr. Jencks. Well, there, again, you are enough of an 
attorney to understand that I must object and refuse to 
answer that question on the grounds previously stated, all 
of the grounds. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, if you now told this Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities whether or not you had told 
the truth when you filed this application with the professors, 
you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ; is that correct ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jencks. Yes, in addition to waiving what I conceive 
to be the statute of limitations to open up this whole deal 
to exploration, litigation again ; yes, sir. 



66 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

ARNOLD JOHNSON, LEGISLATIVE DIRECTOR OF THE COMMUNIST 

PARTY, U.S.A. 

Prior to Nikita Khrushchev's visit to this country in September of 
this year, the Committee on Un-American Activities learned that one 
Arnold Johnson, legislative director of the Communist Party, U.S.A., 
had made a secret cross-country trip to several key cities which were 
expected to be included in Khrushchev's itinerary. The tour, which 
began immediately following the announcement of the impending 
visit by the Kremlin leader, was made for the purpose of collecting 
derogatory information on unemployment, racial troubles, juvenile 
delinquency, and labor troubles to provide Khrushchev with anti-U.S. 
propaganda ammunition. In order to contact the proper agencies 
and secure the desired information in such cities as New York, 
Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, Mr. Johnson posed as a 
free-lance writer on a special assignment. His copious notes were 
thereupon forwarded to Russia. 

In the course of its investigation into this activity on the part of 
the Communist Party, the committee subpenaed Mr. Johnson to 
appear before it on September 22, 1959, in executive session. This 
testimony was later released to the public. 16 

When the committee questioned Mr. Johnson concerning his tour, 
as well as other activities in which he has recently been engaged, he 
refused to furnish anything but his name and address. Mr. Johnson 
not only invoked the privilege of the fifth amendment against self- 
incrimination, but challenged the constitutionality of the committee. 
As in the case of many other Communists subpenaed before the 
committee, Mr. Johnson echoed the Communist Party line in such 
statements as: 

In the first place, it seems to me that your very statement 
of the themes which you are pursuing only confirm in my 
mind my view that the whole role of this committee violates 
the fundamentals of the Constitution and of the Bill of 
Rights. 

I have no intention at any time of cooperating or aiding any 
committee where I think that committee, in the performance 
of its work, is actual^ destroying the Bill of Rights * * *. 

Although publicly known as the national legislative director of the 
Communist Partv, U.S.A., Mr. Johnson refused to confirm the fact 
when asked to state his occupation. The record shows that as recently 
as May 15, 1959, Arnold Johnson testified before a subcommittee of 
the Senate Judiciary Committee, during which he stated that he was 
a member of the Communist Party and its national legislative director. 

One of the techniques utilized by the Communist Party in promoting 
its line is the medium of lobbying activities. The party seeks through 
individuals, as well as through pressure groups, to influence Members 
of the Congress in their consideration of certain bills in which the 
party is particularly interested. It was called to the attention of the 
committee that Arnold Johnson, as national legislative director of the 
CPUSA, had engaged in direct lobbying activity despite the fact that 
neither he nor the Communist Party had registered under the Lobby- 

18 See "Testimony of Arnold Johnson, Legislative Director of the Communist Party, U.S.A.," Hearing 
before Committee on Un-American Activities, September 22, 1959. 






ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 67 

ing Act. Confronted with this fact, Mr. Johnson again invoked the 
privilege of the fifth amendment against self-incrimination. 

During the month of July, the committee held investigations and 
hearings on training operations conducted by the Communist Party 
primarily at a center called the Faculty of Social Science in New York 
City. It was found that it operated for the purpose of indoctrinating 
Communists and Communist s}Tnpathizers in the theory and practice 
of communism and in promoting Communist objectives. At that 
time, Arnold Johnson was identified as a member of the teaching staff 
of the school. When interrogated respecting his connection and ac- 
tivities with the Faculty of Social Science, Johnson stated, "you are 
just way off base when you start intimidating the field of education." 
Committee records indicate that he not only was on the teaching staff 
of the Faculty, but had been an instructor at its predecessor school, 
the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Arnold Johnson has been a dedicated member of the Communist 
Party since 1936. A member of the National Committee of the Com- 
munist Party since 1942, he was elected national legislative director 
of the party in 1947. While serving as temporary chairman in western 
Pennsylvania in 1951, he was indicted with other party leaders on 
Smith Act charges. Sentenced to a 3-year prison term in 1953, he 
was released from prison in May 1957, and subsequently resumed his 
post as national legislative director of the Communist Part}'. During 
the years 1940 to 1947 he was district organizer in Ohio and also 
served as state secretary and as chairman of the state Communist 
Party organization. Air. Johnson has also been a prolific contributor 
to such Communist publications as The Worker, Political Affairs, 
New Masses, and The Communist. 

COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG PUERTO RICANS 

A $100 million Communist propaganda campaign to penetrate the 
Spanish-speaking countries of the Western Hemisphere, with Puerto 
Rico as a "nerve center," was revealed in hearings in New York City 
and San Juan, Puerto Rico, concerning Communist activities among 
Puerto Rican nationality groups. 17 

Minutes of a Communist hierarchy meeting in Moscow earlier this 
year seized by customs officials in Puerto Rico from an international 
courier for the Communists further revealed the establishment of a 
new Communist- front organization — The Soviet Association of 
Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With the Countries of Latin 
America — designed to facilitate the Communist campaign in Latin 
America. 

In New York City, Sergei Buteneff, a supervisor in the New York 
office of the United States Customs Service, displayed to the subcom- 
mittee numerous Communist propaganda publications in Spanish 
which are being sent to Puerto Rican groups in New York City. 
Donald F. Barnes, a senior interpreter of the United States Depart- 
ment of State, translated and analyzed a number of the articles con- 
tained in the publications displayed by Mr. Buteneff — revealing the 
violent anti-United States nature of the propaganda. 

Detective Mildred Blauvelt, of the Bureau of Special Services of 
the New York City Police Department, for 8 years an undercover 

lT These hearings will be printed in 1960. 



68 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

agent in the Communist Party, identified 13 persons known by her to 
have been active in the Communist Party and in Communist penetra- 
tion of Puerto Rican groups in New York City. 

Detective Blauvelt described the purpose of Communist interest in 
Puerto Rican nationality groups as follows : 

It is a party tactic to foster resentment on the part of any 
minority group for the purpose of causing further dissension 
among the people in this country. In many cases, where no 
resentment exists, the party will strive to create it. For ex- 
ample, a routine arrest of some lawbreaker will be labeled 
persecution, police brutality, violation of civil rights^ and it 
will be seized upon by the party as an excuse to initiate an 
intensive petition or leaflet campaign or to initiate the forma- 
tion of a peoples civil rights or defense committee. 

Jesus Colon, who had been identified by Detective Blauvelt as a 
member of the Communist Party active in Puerto Rican work, testified 
that he was a writer for The Worker. He refused to answer all ques- 
tions regarding his writings and other activities on the ground that 
his answers might tend to incriminate him. 

Three other witnesses appeared before the subcommittee in response 
to subpenas and invoked the fifth amendment against possible self- 
incrimination in refusing to answer questions regarding their Com- 
munist Party membership and operations of the Communist con- 
spiracy among Puerto Rican nationality groups. They were : 

William Norman, also known as Wee Willie Marron, whose real 
name is William Norman Marron. Norman has held many important 
posts in the Communist Party, including that of membership on its 
National Review (disciplinary) Commission. Indicted with other 
party leaders under the Smith Act in June 1951, Norman went into 
hiding for over 4 years and then surrendered himself in December 
1955. Convicted under the Smith Act and sentenced to 5 years in 
prison in July 1956, he was freed on appeal in August 1958, on the 
basis of the Supreme Court ruling in the Yates case. Before becom- 
ing a fugitive from justice, Norman had served in 1951 as one of two 
delegates from the U.S. Communist Party to the Third National 
Assembly of the Puerto Rican Communist Party ; 

Stanley L. Weiss, who, according to information of the committee, 
was a Communist contact agent between party Puerto Rican groups 
in New York City and Puerto Rico ; and 

Michael Crenovich, who taught a course entitled "The United 
States and Latin America," at the Communist Party's Faculty of 
Social Science in New York City in 1959. 

Also subpenaed to testify in the hearings were William Lorenzo 
Patterson and Richard Levins. 

Patterson, a frequently identified Communist Party member and 
leader, had made two trips to Puerto Rico in November 1956 to confer 
with Puerto Rican party leaders as a representative of the U.S. Com- 
munist Party. Patterson refused to answer questions, alleging a lack 
of jurisdiction of the subcommittee. 

Levins, according to committee information, moved from New York 
to Puerto Rico in 1951 and, at the time, transferred his membership 
from the U.S. to the Puerto Rican Communist Party. After being 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 69 

active in the party in Puerto Rico, he returned to New York City in 
late 1956. He refused to testify at the hearing because a quorum of 
the subcommittee was not present. 

NEW COMMUNIST SPLINTER GROUP 

On November 16, the opening date of the Puerto Rican hearings in 
New York, the committee faced for the first time in public session 
several leaders of a new Communist splinter group, the Provisional 
Organizing Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, also 
known as the POC. 

Previous committee investigation reveals that this group was formed 
in August 1958 by a number of Communist Party members who were 
dissatisfied with the trends and policies of the party and, while within 
it, had referred to themselves as the Marxist-Leninist Caucus. 

On the weekend of August 16-17, 1958 ; 83 national delegates assem- 
bled in New York City for a "Communist Conference" called by the 
leaders of these dissidents. Their official newspaper, Vanguard, re- 
ported as follows on the major developments at this meeting: 

The Conference was opened by Harry Haywood, inter- 
nationally known authority on the Negro question. * * * 

The main political report was delivered by Armando 
Roman, party veteran, leader of the Puerto Rican Section, 
and a member of the New York State Committee [of the 
Communist Party]. * * * 

* * * The report, entitled "Immediate Organizational 
Tasks of the Marxist-Leninist caucus in the CPUSA", was 
delivered by A. Marino [real name Angel Rene Torres], 
Waterfront Section organizer and member of the N.Y. State 
Committee [of the Communist Party] . It dealt with the lat- 
est developments in the Party crisis, traced the history of the 
Marxist-Leninist Caucus, and called for the formation of a 
Provisional Organizing Committee for the Reconstitution 
of a Marxist-Leninist Party. The report summed up the 
purpose of the Conference in a nutshell when it said : "Our 
expulsion from the CPUSA places on us an inescapable duty. 
That is to find the way to carry on the fight for a real 
Marxist-Leninist party under any and all conditions." 18 

The leaders and participants in the Provisional Organizing Com- 
mittee group had been expelled from the Communist Party on the 
technical charge of "disruptive, factional, anti-party activities." 19 

The POC group is composed largely of extreme left-wing elements 
from the Communist Party. Throughout the party's history, there 
have been contending right- and left-wing factions which, in periods 
of turmoil such as the party has gone through in the recent past, have 
fought for control. The POC elements lost out in this recent struggle 
within the U.S. party — just as the soft, "right-wing" group led by 
John Gates did. When they refused to knuckle under completely to 
the controlling group, they were expelled. 

Only time will tell with certainty the future role the group will play 
in the U.S. Communist movement. Though there is no sign of one 

18 Vanguard, September 1958, pp. 1, 3. 

19 The Worker, Sunday, October 12, 1958, p. 15. 



70 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

now, a rapprochement between the POC and the party may take place, 
leading to the dissolution of the POC and the formal return of its 
members to the Communist Party itself. On the other hand, they 
may continue for years as a splinter group, formally divorced from 
the party. 

The one fact that is completely clear today is that the POC group 
is made up of hard-core, dedicated, and extremist Communists who, 
despite their present differences with the Communist Party leader- 
ship, are intent upon doing all within their power to speed the achieve- 
ment of the goals of international communism. 

Members of the Provisional Organizing Committee who appeared 
before the subcommittee in New York in response to subpenas and 
invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to answer questions were : 

Felix Ojeda Ruiz, former editor of the Pueblo, official newspaper 
of the Puerto Rican Communist Party, published in San Juan; 

Jorge W. Maysonet-Hernandez, former secretary of labor of the 
Municipal Committee of the Communist Party in San Juan, Puerto 
Rico ; 

Victor Agosto, who, according to information of the committee, 
was active at the Sixteenth (February 1957) National Convention of 
the U.S. Communist Party; 

Angel Rene Torres, also known as A. Marino, editor of the Van- 
guard; 

Armando Roman, identified in the party press as a former Puerto 
Rican Communist Party leader in New York City ; and 

Jose Santiago, who has taught at the Communist Party's Jefferson 
School of Social Science. 

Another witness, Ramon Acevedo, did not invoke constitutional 
privileges, but evaded giving direct answers to questions asked him by 
the subcommittee. Acevedo has made trips to Puerto Rico to visit 
party members and has, in turn, been visited at his New York home 
by Puerto Rican Communist Party leaders. 

PUERTO RICO 

In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Irving Fishman, deputy collector of 
customs at the Port of New York, revealed in his testimony the de- 
tails of the $100 million Communist campaign to penetrate the Span- 
ish-speaking countries of the Western Hemisphere. Mr. Fishman 
stated that the Soviet propaganda apparatus is directing a concen- 
trated attempt to subvert South American governments and secure 
Communist victories in these areas. The main theme of the material 
issued is anti-United States. This stepped-up drive is reported to 
involve a cost of over $100 million. 

Mr. Fishman further characterized Puerto Rico as "a nerve cen- 
ter for the transshipment or dissemination of Communist propaganda 
in the Spanish language to South American countries." 

Communist plans to facilitate this current propaganda campaign 
were revealed to the subcommittee in documents seized by Puerto 
Rican customs officials from an international courier for the Commu- 
nists, Jose Enamorado Cuesta. One of the documents was the min- 
utes of a 1959 Moscow meeting, at which was established a new inter- 
national Communist-front organization designed to penetrate Latin 
America — The Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Cooper- 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 71 

ation With the Countries of Latin America. The minutes of the 
meeting showed that the president and 15 of the vice-presidents of the 
newly formed front organization were residents of Iron Curtain 
countries. 

The second document was Cuesta's personal diary, in which he dis- 
cussed in detail his contacts and operations for the Communist Party 
during 1959. It revealed that he visited Moscow in May of that year. 
As he described it, "It seems like a dream. * * * I will be the first 
Puerto Eican ever sent on any mission." 

Detective Mildred Blauvelt, testifying in Puerto Rico — again on 
the basis of her experiences while acting as an undercover agent in the 
Communist Party — explained the function and objectives and the pat- 
tern of operation which could be expected to be followed by the new 
Latin American Communist-front organization. She warned that 
The Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With 
the Countries of Latin America "is meant to be a party front propa- 
ganda organization dominated by Moscow and is meant to be a link 
between the party and the people of Latin America." 

In discussing its pattern of operation, she added : 

For instance, such an organization would have to be broad 
enough in scope to appeal to the masses, to meet with any 
degree of success, and the party apparatus would be put into 
motion to achieve that success. National organizations would 
have to be established in each country to be involved, and 
branches would have to be established in various sections of 
these countries, particularly in large cities. 

Individuals other than party members would be invited to 
head this organization at its various levels for the purpose 
of giving this organization the aura of legitimacy and respect- 
ability, and well-meaning individuals who are well known to 
the public at large would be solicited to lend their endorse- 
ment, their support and sponsorship, to such an organization 
to add to the prestige of the organization. 

However, in all of this, the party would see that its party 
members who are well versed in party organizational work 
would be placed in the executive positions in this organiza- 
tion, so that the organization would have the proper guid- 
ance to follow the party line and thus guarantee that party 
policies were being carried out within the organization and 
that its activities reflected party propaganda. 

Thirteen witnesses appeared before the subcommittee in response 
to subpenas and refused to answer all questions regarding their Com- 
munist Party membership and operations of the Communist con- 
spiracy in Puerto Rico on the ground that the subcommittee lacked 
jurisdiction to conduct hearings on the island of Puerto Rico. Among 
these were : 

Jose Enamorado Cuesta, identified in his own diary as an agent 
of the international Communist conspiracy, who publicly joined the 
Communist Party in San Juan in October, 1959 ; 

Manuel Arroyo Zeppenfeldt, who, according to information of the 
subcommittee, was the printer of the official Puerto Rican Communist 
Party publication, Pueblo ; 



72 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Juan Saez Corales, the possessor of a Post Office box in San Juan 
through which Communist publications and directives enter Puerto 

Rico ; 

Juan Emmanuelli Morales, who, just 6 days prior to his testimony 
during an informal session in the offices of the committee in Washing- 
ton, D.C., had volunteered information to the subcommittee staff re- 
garding his prior Communist Party membership and the names of 
other members known to him ; 

Gertrudis Melendez Perez, one of the persons identified by Em- 
manuelli in his conversation with committee staff members in Wash- 
ington, D.C. ; 

Consuelo Burgos De Pagan, identified in Communist publications 
as the educational director of the Puerto Rican Communist Party; 

Pablo M. Garcia Rodriguez, identified in the Communist Daily 
Worker as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party of Puerto Rico ; 

Cesar Andreu Iglesias, former chairman of the Puerto Rican Com- 
munist Party convicted on Smith Act charges, but later released as a 
result of the Yates decision of the Supreme Court ; 

Ramon Diaz Cruz, identified in an article in the Pueblo as the direc- 
tor of a publication entitled "La Paz" ; 

John Peter Hawes, now a Puerto Rican resident, identified in prior 
committee hearings as a member of the Communist Party of Boston, 
Mass., by F.B.I, undercover agent Herbert Philbrick; 

Frank Ruiz (Eusebio Ruiz Martinez) who, according to informa- 
tion of the subcommittee, had been a member of the Communist 
Party of Puerto Rico ; 

Juan Santos Rivera, identified in Communist publications as a one- 
time delegate from Puerto Rico to the Communist International in the 
Soviet Union and further identified as the current president of the 
Central Committee of the Puerto Rican Communist Party ; and 

Cristino Perez Mendez, who, according to information of the sub- 
committee, was president of the Municipal Committee of the Commu- 
nist Party of Puerto Rico in 1956. 

Diego L. Martin, a deputy United States marshal in Puerto Rico, 
testified that there were transmitted to him by the committee a number 
of subpenas commanding the appearance of Eugenio Arbona Cuevas, 
Ramon Mirabal Carrion, and Juan A. Corretjer in the instant hear- 
ings. Arbona and Mirabal have held leadership positions in the 
Puerto Rican Communist Party. Although Corretjer was expelled 
from the party in Puerto Rico in 1948, party leaders have since met 
in his home. 

Deputy Marshal Martin added that, from confidential sources of 
information, he learned that Juan Antonio Corretjer had gone first to 
Venezuela and later to Cuba and that Eugenio Arbona Cuevas aud 
Ramon Mirabal Carrion had also gone to Cuba. 



CHAPTER III 
REPORTS 

LEGAL SUBVERSION 

On February 16, 1959, the committee issued a 75-page report x on 
the activities of Communists admitted to the practice of law. The 
committee expressed the view that these Communist lawyers posed 
a serious problem demanding immediate consideration, not only by 
the overwhelming majority of patriotic lawyers in our country, but 
by the Congress and the citizenry at large. 

The committee declared that the activities engaged in by certain 
members of the conspiratorial Communist operation who have been 
masquerading as respected members of the legal profession clearly 
demonstrate that Communists seek to pervert our democratic proc- 
esses, not only by their campaign of political subversion, 2 but by a 
parallel operation which may be designated as "legal subversion." 
This operation involves subversion by Communists trained in the law. 

The report pointed out that : 

1. A Communist cannot in good faith take the lawyer's oath 
to uphold and defend the Constitution of the United States since 
he is an agent of a conspiratorial apparatus designed to destroy 
the Constitution. 

2. A Communist lawyer cannot be counted upon to carry out 
his duty to serve the interests of a client since he is under Com- 
munist discipline, which subordinates professional loyalties to 
the interests of the Communist Party. 

3. A Communist lawyer violates the high standard of ethics and 
conduct, historically required of members of the bar, when he 
exploits the know-how and prestige of his profession in behalf 
of Communist propaganda, subversion, and espionage. 

In the decade from 1947 through 1957, the report showed, more 
than 100 of the individuals identified before the committee as mem- 
bers of the Communist Party were also members of the bar. 

Most of these lawyers have appeared as witnesses before this com- 
mittee or other congressional committees. Approximately a dozen of 
them informed this committee that they were no longer part of the 
conspiracy and presented valuable testimony regarding their past 
activities as lawyers in the party. However, no less than 67 other 
lawyers have refused to answer questions of this committee or other 
congressional committees regarding their membership or activities in 
the Communist Party, despite the existence of sworn testimony re- 
garding their affiliation with the conspiracy. All but four of these 

1 See "Communist Legal Subversion, The Role of the Communist Lawyer." Report by 
the Committee on Un-American Activities, H. Rent. 41, Feb. 16, 1959. 

3 See "Communist Political Subversion. The Campaign to Destroy the Security Pro- 
grams of the United States Government." Report by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, H. Rept. No. 1182, Aug. 16, 1957. 

73 

51117—60 6 



74 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

lawyers invoked the protection of the fifth amendment against self- 
incrimination in refusing to respond to questioning. 

The report focused attention upon only a very small minority within 
the legal profession whose activities, the committee warned, should 
not be permitted to cast discredit upon the overwhelming majority 
of patriotic attorneys whose work is vital to the very functioning of 
our democratic processes. The committee also pointed out, however, 
that the paucity of lawyers who have been publicly identified as Com- 
munists must not be interpreted as meaning that their influence is in- 
significant and without danger, since in the legal field, as well as in 
other fields, the Communist Party emphasizes discipline and efficiency 
of members over mere numbers. 

The committee explained that the principals in this operation enjoy 
a far disproportionate influence in the American community as a result 
of a combination of legal training, schooling in Communist subver- 
sive techniques, and the fact that they have behind them the entire 
Communist apparatus and are made the subjects of favorable pub- 
licity build-ups on the part of the Communist Party, its fronts, and 
fellow travelers in all walks of life. 

Under the mantle of the legal profession, the Communist can operate 
as an ostensibly respectable and influential member of the community, 
despite his dedication and subservience to Communist doctrines and 
directives. 

The mechanics of legal subversion, it was explained, extend far 
beyond any legitimate process of legal representation. They embrace 
the efforts of a conspiratorial minority, trained in the use of the legal 
instruments of our society, to turn those instruments into weapons for 
the destruction of our free society. 

The scope and nature of their activities are such that Communist 
lawyers rank as part of an elite corps within the Communist fifth 
column on American soil, the report declared. 

To illustrate the Communist lawyers' role in the promotion of the 
plans and purposes of the Communist Party, the report said : 

In an effort to obtain a picture of some of the special services 
which can be performed for the Communist Party by members 
operating from the vantage point of the legal profession, the 
committee has reviewed the public record of a number of 
lawyers who have been identified as party members in sworn 
testimony. This record, which represents only publicly avail- 
able information contained in the files of the committee, 
shows that such lawyers have : 

1. Capitalized on their membership in the legal profession 
to recruit fellow lawyers into the Communist Party. 

2. Misapplied their legal training by assisting Communist 
operatives in circumventing the law in order to carry out 
party objectives. 

3. Served in secret Communist cells aimed at espionage and 
influencing United States policy toward Communist objec- 
tives, while holding responsible legal positions in the United 
States Government. 

4. Carried out important duties as a functionary of the 
Communist Party organization itself. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 75 

5. Served as attorneys for both Communist-dominated 
trade unions and those not under Communist control. 

6. Acted as legal advisers to, and accepted leadership roles 
in, organizations which posed as legitimate non-Communist 
enterprises although they were, in fact, operated under Com- 
munist control for party purposes — for example, the party 
front organizations built around "civil rights" and other pop- 
ular themes. 

7. Exploited the prestige of their profession in the course 
of running for public office. 

The Communist Party has reaped inestimable benefits as 
a result of these extralegal activities of identified Communist 
lawyers. While the activities involve the promotion of Com- 
munist objectives in fields far removed from the atmosphere 
of courts or administrative and congressional hearing rooms, 
nevertheless, a basic element in all of them is a deliberate Com- 
munist exploitation of the lawyer's special status as a mem- 
ber of the bar. 

Specific illustrations of each of these activities were selected from 
numerous examples available in the public records of identified Com- 
munist lawyers. 

One of the methods by which Communist attorneys recruit fellow 
non-Communist lawyers into the party is through the means of so- 
called informal legal discussions. This was demonstrated in the testi- 
mony of a former Communist lawyer who had been led into formal 
party membership through regular attendance at such sessions, which 
were actually Marxist discussions aimed at the gradual indoctrination 
of non- Communist lawyers with Communist views. 

Pointing up instances in which identified Communist lawyers have 
misapplied their legal training by helping Communist agents evade 
our laws, the committee recalled the case of Gerhart Eisler, an inter- 
national Communist agent whose false passport application for travels 
in the service of the Communist conspiracy had been prepared by Leon 
Josephson, an openly admitted Communist and a member of the bar 
in New Jersey. 

Among the cases used to illustrate Communist espionage and sub- 
version by individuals who obtained positions of trust within the 
United States Government due to their legal training, were New 
York lawyers John J. Abt and Nathan Witt. These individuals, it 
was noted, held legal posts with the Department of Agriculture and 
the National Labor Relations Board, respectively, while serving as 
leaders of secret Communist cells composed of Government employees. 

Members of the bar who have, at the same time, held important 
functionary posts within the Communist Party organization were 
exemplified in a resume of the activities of San Francisco lawyer 
Aubrey W. Grossman and New York lawyer Abraham Unger. The re- 
port contains a detailed description of the services which these men 
have rendered to the Communist Party. 

Noting that since the late 1920's the Communist Party has made 
concerted efforts to infiltrate the organized labor movement in this 
country, the committee described the contributions to this party ob- 
jective made by six identified Communist lawyers. The success of the 



76 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

operation was shown in the party's actual control of a number of the 
Nation's labor unions. 

The behind-the-scenes operations of Communist- front organizations 
and. the efforts to conceal the real Communist purpose behind their 
campaigns were also described in detail. The report demonstrated 
how identified Communist lawyers who assmne prominent roles in the 
party's front organizations and special propaganda campaigns fur- 
nish extra legal service to the Communist Party. As candidates for 
public office and propagandists for Communist causes, Communist 
lawyers are particularly valuable to the conspiracy because lawyers 
are widely accepted by the public as especially qualified for public 
office and as authorities on legislation and constitutional law, the 
report said. 

The committee expressed the belief that the Communist Party gains 
tremendously by having its members admitted to the bar, and stated : 

* * * ^ ne p ar ty has obviously long been aware that a law- 
yer's special training and prestige can lead to positions of 
prominence in our society where he can wield substantial in- 
fluence extending far beyond the limits of his routine profes- 
sional activities. The Communist Party has also taken full 
advantage of the fact that non-Communists are not generally 
ready to suspect that anyone with the attainments and unique 
privileges of a lawyer would also serve as an agent of the 
Communist conspiracy. 

Following the general description of the means by which a Com- 
munist lawyer can aid the conspiracy, the report presented a more 
detailed description of the publicly recorded activities of 39 lawyers 
who have been identified as members of the Communist Party. 

Although the lawyers referred to represented only a small per- 
centage of the identified Communists within the legal profession, they 
were selected for inclusion in the report because they exemplified 
patterns of activity which have aroused the concern of this committee. 
The factual material upon which this report was based did not in- 
clude information on Communist lawyers who have not been publicly 
identified, nor on lawyers who are not actual party members for 
"security" or other reasons, but who nevertheless unswervingly sup- 
port the Communist Party and its program. Nor did the report at- 
tempt to exhaust information on the subject which may be available 
as a result of hearings by other committees of the United States 
Congress, various State investigating committees, and governmental 
agencies, such as the Subversive Activities Control Board, or informa- 
tion obtained as a result of testimony in the numerous Smith Act 
trials. 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY 

A major reorganization of the Communist apparatus in California 
has sounded the gun for an invigorated campaign of subversion in that 
State. 

This warning was issued by the committee in April 1959 in a special 
report 3 summarizing the results of extensive staff investigations and 

3 See "Report on the Southern California District of the Communist Party," H. Kept. 
259, Committee on Un-American Activities, Apr. 3, 1959. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 // 

hearings in the area. The hearings, which embrace the testimony of 64 
witnesses appearing in executive sessions in Los Angeles September 
2-5, 1958, and February 24-25, 1959, were released concurrently with 
the special report. 

Certain changes in Communist strategy accompanied the reorgan- 
ization of the party's structure in California, the report disclosed. 
The committee noted that the reorganization was aimed at increas- 
ing the ability of the party to infiltrate and exert influence on impor- 
tant segments of the California community. 

In ascribing motives for the revitalized Communist offensive in the 
State of California, the committee declared : 

* * * Obviously, the Communist Party is alert to the 
potentials of the booming State. California's constantly in- 
creasing population, its burgeoning industries ranging from 
strategic aircraft and missile production to the building 
trades, its unique multi-million dollar entertainment center, 
and its mounting influence in the national political scene un- 
fortunately have not only attracted the average loyal Amer- 
can but also the Nation's predatory Communist minority. 

The committee report described in detail how the Communist Party 
structure in California has been reorganized since local party con- 
ventions were called to initiate the changes early in 1957. 

The Communist Party in the United States is structurally divided 
into national, district, state, section, and club levels, with a hierarchy of 
officials on each level to channel orders from the top down to the mass 
of party members organized into local clubs. Previously the State 
of California had been combined with the States of Arizona, Nevada, 
and Hawaii in Communist Party District 13. The party's national 
organization has now paid tribute to the size and importance of the 
California Communist operation by creating two major party districts 
within California alone. 

California has been divided into a Northern California District 
and a Southern California District of the Communist Party, USA. 
In view of the complexity of the new Communist structure, the com- 
mittee confined the scope of its hearings and report to the new South- 
ern California District, which is the second largest district, in terms 
of party membership, in the entire Communist Party organization in 
the United States. 

The committee report noted that the reorganization created many 
new official party positions on the important district level. It iden- 
tified many of the individuals who had been elevated to these new 
positions in the Southern California District of the party and, in bio- 
graphical sketches, compared their present assignments with their 
previous local party activities. The new Southern California District, 
the report revealed, is supervised by a 62-member district council and 
a 10-man executive board selected from the council. Top district of- 
ficers are Dorothy Healey, chairman, and Ben Dobbs, administrative 
secretary. In addition to identifying the members of the district 
executive board, the report presented biographies of 76 other prom- 
inent members of the Communist Party in southern California, many 
of whom had been elevated to new posts as a result of the party re- 
organization. 



78 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

The activities and objectives of the Communists in southern Cali- 
fornia were also revealed in considerable detail. The report declared 
that the present Communist plan of operation — 

calls for a massive Communist effort to penetrate every 
segment of the California community — industries, unions, 
major political parties, community and fraternal organiza- 
tions, churches, and nationality groups — and then to spread 
Communist influence in those areas, recruit new Communists 
and put the party people into actual control wherever pos- 
sible. 

To substantiate this finding, the committee quoted extensively from 
statements made by officials of the Southern California District of the 
Communist Party. These statements came in part from documents 
prepared by the Communists for their first Southern California Dis- 
trict convention, held in Los Angeles in April 1957. The documents 
were introduced by the committee as exhibits in its hearings and repro- 
duced in its report on the southern California party apparatus. The 
committee quoted from subsequent discussions and decisions of the 
Southern California District Council, which holds monthly meetings 
in connection with its task of supervising Communist efforts in 
southern California. 

In view of the all-out Communist effort to infiltrate and subvert 
existing respectable institutions and organizations, the report said, 
there has been less emphasis on the "front" organizations. The com- 
mittee said only four major "front" organizations created or completely 
controlled by the Communist Party continue to operate in the southern 
California area. These are the Los Angeles Committee for Protec- 
tion of Foreign Born, the American Russian Institute of Southern 
California, the Citizens Committee to Preserve American Freedoms, 
and the Downtown Club (an ostensibly non-partison community bet- 
terment organization in downtown Los Angeles). 

The committee called attention to a number of recent decisions 
by the national leadership of the Communist Party which had a 
significant impact on the local party. The decisions dealt with Com- 
munist efforts to win support among youth, the Negro, and the labor 
movement. 

In response to repeated appeals from national party officials for 
increased local efforts to attract youth into the conspiracy, a Youth 
Commission was created by the Southern California District of the 
Communist Party in 1958 and a paid party functionary was assigned 
to youth recruitment on a full-time basis. The redoubled efforts of 
southern California Communists in this field led to the formation 
in Los Angeles of three youth clubs. The purpose of these clubs 
formed by the local party is to spur their non- Communist members 
into an acceptance of communism. 

The committee report noted that an important change in the 
Communist Party line regarding the Negro had unusual repercussions 
in the Southern California District of the party. In 1958, the Na- 
tional Committee of the Communist Party decided to abandon a 30- 
year-old doctrine that American Negroes constituted a disenfran- 
chised "national grouping" which, with Communist help, could some 
day become a Negro "nation." This line, imposed on American Com- 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 79 

munists in the late 1920's by Moscow, has impeded the party in its 
efforts to obtain influence among the Negro population of this coun- 
try. A resolution adopted by the party's National Committee in 
1958 flatly declared that "the Negro people of the United States are 
not constituted as a separately developed nation." 

The committee's inquiry in southern California disclosed, however, 
that the new policy has created dissension between Negro and white 
party officials of the Southern California District. Negro party lead- 
ers have opposed the new policy, while white party leaders have 
hailed it as an aid to their efforts to enter and Avork within non- 
Communist organizations. 

Southern California Communists, the committee report stated, have 
also been assisted by a National Committee statement of policy in 
regard to the labor movement. The policy statement, adopted in 
June of 1958, falsely attempts to persuade the non-Communist Ameri- 
can labor movement that Communists should be welcomed because 
they will fight stanchly for legitimate labor interests. To further in- 
crease the effectiveness of party efforts to obtain influence in the labor 
field, the Southern California District of the Communist Party sub- 
sequently shifted all of its party members active in the labor move- 
ment into special occupational clubs. Previously, many trade union 
members of the party had met in local community clubs for Com- 
munists of diverse occupations within a common geographical area. 

The connnittee report dealt at length with local aspects of the 
Communist Party's internal disputes which erupted after the death 
of Stalin and the public revelation of his "crimes." In 1957, the re- 
port stated, the party in southern California was "in a turmoil" as a 
certain group of dissenters within the party became "loud and argu- 
mentative." Many dissenters felt that the party must cast off sub- 
servience to the Soviet Union. In December 1957, 22 members of the 
southern California party signed a letter of grievance to the party's 
National Committee and on March 26, 1958, 16 members from southern 
California officially resigned. 

The correspondence of the dissenters and the identity of many of 
them are described in the committee report. Although District Chair- 
man Dorothy Healey acted as a conciliator in these conflicts in an 
effort to preserve the unity and existence of the party organization in 
southern California, the report- declared that she herself was accused 
of being a dissenter when she attended sessions of the National Com- 
mittee, of which she is also a member. 

WHO ARE THEY? 

KARL MARX 

Today Communist Party officials boast that there are over 3.3 
million Communist Party members in the world and that over 900 
million people live under Communist rule or are governed by political 
and economic systems based on some specific form or general synthesis 
of the doctrines of Karl Marx. 

Inasmuch as the Communist officials insist that they are following 
the principles of Marxism-Leninism, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities published, as Part 10 of its biographical series of Communist 
leaders, a brief biography of Karl Marx. 4 

* See "Who Are They? Part 10— Karl Marx," Committee on Un-American Activities, Aug. 28, 1959. 



80 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

In previous years the committee has published biographies on the 
following: Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Bulganin, Mao Tse-tung, Chou 
En-lai, Marshals Zhukov and Konev, Walter Ulbricht, Janos Kadar, 
Marshal Tito, Wladyslaw Gomulka, Kim II Sung, Ho Chi Minh, 
Maurice Thorez, Palmiro Togliatti, Vicente Lombardo Toledano, 
Luis Carlos Prestes, Enver Hoxha, and Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. 

To properly analyze the roots of communism, it must be viewed 
through the prism which is the life of Karl Marx himself. The 
biography of Karl Marx, which was prepared for the Committee on 
Un-American Activities by the Legislative Reference Service of the 
Library of Congress, is not intended as a thoroughgoing treatment of 
the life and works of Marx. Rather, it is a glimpse at the mysterious 
processes of a life which produced the ideological base for the most 
devilish and menacing force mankind has ever experienced. 

COMMUNIST LOBBYING ACTIVITIES IN THE NATION'S CAPITAL 

In a report issued on September 3, 1959, the committee revealed that 
the Communist conspiracy is engaged in an accelerated lobbying 
operation in the Nation's Capital. 5 

On the surface, the report declared, this lobbying operation cannot 
be easily distinguished from that of thousands of legitimate organiza- 
tions which retain Washington representatives to lobby for or against 
pending national legislation. 

Lobbyists for Communist-controlled organizations even comply to a 
large extent with technical requirements of the Federal Regulation of 
Lobbying Act by registering and filing fairly regular reports with the 
proper officers of the House and the Senate regarding the amount 
and source of funds they expend in their attempt to influence the 
actions of individual Members of the Congress. 

Although these lobbyists for Red-dominated organizations appear 
to operate within the technicalities of the law, their lobbying efforts, 
in effect, defeat the basic congressional purpose behind passage of the 
Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act in 1946. 

LOBBYING AS A DEMOCRATIC PROCESS 

Congress shall make no law * * * abridging the freedom 
of speech * * * or the right of the people * * * to petition 
the Government for a redress of grievances. 

The first amendment to the United States Constitution thus pro- 
vides that, in a representative government responsive to the will of 
the people, all citizens have the right to express their needs and desires 
to the legislators they have elected. 

Lobbying, therefore, in the general sense that citizens address or 
solicit Members of the Congress in an effort to influence the passage 
of legislation that accords with their own particular interests, is a 
legitimate ingredient of the legislative process. As a practical matter, 
this expression of diverse and inevitably conflicting interests by vari- 
ous segments of the American population can be extremely helpful 
to Members of the Congress in their attempt to legislate for the 
public good. 

5 See "Communist Lobbying Activities in the Nation's Capital," Report of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Aclivities, Sept. 3, 1959. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 81 

The committee declared, however, that the increasing number of 
professional lobbyists — who are hired by an organization or individual 
to promote certain legislative interests in Washington — created spe- 
cial problems for the Congress. Some paid lobbyists (presently esti- 
mated to total no less than 5,000) concealed their real purposes from 
Members of Congress in seeking to influence their actions with respect 
to pending legislation. 6 

Asserting its right to know the exact nature of the representations 
made by professional lobbyists, the Congress in 1946 adopted the 
Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act. Thereafter, persons who solic- 
ited, collected, or received money for the principal purpose of in- 
fluencing legislation, were to register with authorities of the House and 
Senate and file regular reports under oath regarding their exact legisla- 
tive purpose, their employing organizations, and the receipt and 
expenditure of funds in connection with their lobbying activities. 

In the 13 years since the Congress devised the Lobbying Act for 
determining the source of certain pressures upon it, congressional 
committees have accumulated extensive evidence on the strategy and 
tactics of the unique "special interest" group — the Communist 
conspiracy. 

As a result of such evidence, the Congress itself declared the Com- 
munist Party to be a foreign-directed instrument for forceful over- 
throw of our constitutional Government and enacted a great deal of 
legislation designed to curb the effectiveness of the American tentacles 
of an increasingly aggressive and powerful world movement. 

Hearings and reports of the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities reveal that operations of the American tools of Soviet im- 
perialism continue unabated. The cunning of the Communist con- 
spirators is perhaps best demonstrated by their proven efforts to per- 
vert many of our democratic processes of government for their own 
unholy objectives. 

The committee's report on "Communist Political Subversion," is- 
sued in August 1957, disclosed a Communist campaign to wipe out 
our Nation's security measures against Communists by means of a 
simulated "grass roots" pressure on Federal and local governments. 

The committee released a report entitled "Communist Legal Subver- 
sion," 7 which revealed that identified Communists had gained entry 
into the legal profession, where they were in a unique position to 
serve as instruments to destroy the very democratic processes a lawyer 
is sworn to defend. 

Consistent with such Communist tactics is the exploitation of the 
lobbying process, this subsequent committee report said. The com- 
mittee asserted that its investigations showed that Communist- 
dominated organizations have increasingly engaged lobbyists in 
order to establish continuous direct contact with Members of the 
Congress on Capitol Hill. Thousands of dollars are being spent each 
month by such organizations in their bold attempt to influence the 
Nation's legislators. 

The lobbying operation, the committee warned, constitutes only one 
small fraction of the total Communist effort designed to make an 
impact on the Government. The committee report also did not pur- 

8 See p. 27, S. Kept. 1400, to accompany S. 2177, May 31, 194G. 

7 See "Communist Legal Subversion : The Role of the Communist Lawyer," H. Rept. No. 
41, February 16, 1959. 



82 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

port to embrace the lobbying activities in Washington of Communists, 
or other persons connected with Communist organizations, who are 
not required to register under the Lobbying Act because they are not 
engaged in lobbying for pay. 

EMERGENCY CIVIL, LIBERTIES COMMITTEE LOBBY 

After extended investigation and hearings, the Committee on Un- 
American Activities formally advised the Congress in its annual re- 
port for 1958 that "* * * * the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, 
established in 1951, although representing itself as a non-Communist 
group, actually operates as a front for the Communist Party." 8 

One of the chief activities of the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee, which has headquarters in New York City, involves the 
dissemination of Communist propaganda material, although it also 
supplies funds and legal aid to Communists being prosecuted under 
the Smith Act or other legislation. In 1957, the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee became the spearhead of a propaganda campaign 
aimed at extinguishing the investigative powers of the Congress in 
the field of subversive activities, restricting functions of the FBI in 
the same field, and generally fostering a climate of opinion against the 
exposure and punishment of subversion. Through the media of 
printed literature and public meetings, the organization sought to 
stimulate citizens into writing and visiting their elected representatives 
in furtherance of this campaign. 9 

On January 4, 1959, this same Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee boldly opened a Washington office near the United States 
Capitol, the committee report observed. On January 21, 1959, the 
organization's director, Clark Foreman, executed forms registering 
himself as lobbying agent for the ECLC. 

From congressional lobbying records, it might appear that a new 
and legitimate organization in the civil liberties field had initiated 
direct congressional contacts for the purpose of influencing the course 
of legislation. Scrutinized in the light of information available in 
the Committee on Un-American Activities, the action signalized a 
new effort by the Communist conspiracy to obtain its objectives by 
clever exploitation of the lobbying process, the committee declared. 

The appearance of Clark Foreman as registered lobbying agent of 
the ECLC was described as not unexpected in view of his previous 
experience in other cited front organizations for the Communist Party. 
He was president of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, 
registering as a lobbyist for the organization in 1946. He later served 
as director of the National Cou r.cil of the Arts, Sciences, and Profes- 
sions. Foreman divides his time between Washington and the New 
York headquarters <~>f the front organization he now serves as director. 
The Washington office of the ECLC also produces a weekly bulletin 
titled "Congress and Your Rights" which, Foreman reported, has been 
mailed to some 500 persons since January 1959. His lobbyist reports 
list the expenditure of some $1,500 in the first quarter of 1959 for the 
purpose of influencing legislation in the Nation's Capital. 

8 See H. Rept. 187, Annual Report for the year 1958, released Mar. 8, 1959, pp. 34, 35 ; 
the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee was also characterized as a Communist front 
by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in its Handbook for Americans, issued in 
1956. 

9 See "Operation Abolition," report by the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
Nov. 8, 1957, for further details of this campaign by the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee and various affiliated organizations. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 83 

The entry of the ECLC into the professioned lobbying arena 
augments pressures which have long been exerted by a number of 
unions found to be under the domination of the Communist Party, the 
report stated. Such Red-led unions as the United Electrical, Radio 
and Machine Workers of America, the International Longshoremen's 
and Warehousemen's Union, and the International Union of Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers — all have paid lobbyists operating in the 
Nation's Capital. 

The committee report discusses in detail the background and activi- 
ties of the lobbyists representing each of these Red-led organizations 
in the Nation's Capital. 

In concluding this report, the committee called attention to the 
statement by Lenin : 

As long as you are unable to disperse the bourgeois par- 
liament and every other type of reactionary institution, you 
must work inside them. * * * 10 

Lenin issued this commandment to the disciples of communism in 
non-Communist nations many years ago. And he clearly specified 
that Communists must use parliamentary bodies "for revolutionary 
purposes" — that is, to prepare the "backward masses" for the even- 
tual imposition of a "Soviet system" of government. 

Once communism is achieved in a country, however, the very con- 
cept of "parliamentarism" will be "obsolete," Lenin said. 11 Or as 
the Communist International declared more bluntly : 

* * * Communism repudiates parliamentarism as the form 
of the future * * * its aim is to destroy parliamentarism. 
Therefore it is only possible to speak of utilizing the bourgeois 
State organizations with the object of destroying them. 12 

The history of nations which have succumbed to Red dictatorships 
offers tragic evidence that parliamentarianism is indeed doomed when 
in the hands of Communists. The vestiges of parliamentarianism 
that remain in the rubber stamp "legislatures" of Soviet and satellite 
nations are obviously only attempts to make communism more 
palatable to the dwindling portion of the world that remains free. 

In view of the Communists attitude toward parliamentary institu- 
tions, the committee expressed the belief that Members of Congress 
have every right to question the motives of legislative representatives 
who deal with them on legislative matters while in the hire of organi- 
zations found dominated by the Communist Party. 

The committee report recommended enactment of an amendment 
to the Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act so that the registered 
lobbyist in the future would have the duty to inform the Congress 
of any Communist connections of his own or c* the organizations 
which he represents. The chairman of the committee subsequently 
introduced H.R. 9054 in keeping with the committee's recommenda- 
tions. The provisions of the bill are described on page 134 of this 
report where the committee's legislative recommendations are 
discussed. 

10 Lenin, "'Left-Wing' Communism — An Infantile Disorder" (1920), Selected Works 
(New York : International Publishers, 1943) , vol. X, p. 95. 

11 Ibid., pp. 100, 106. 

u "Theses and Statutes of the Communist International," adopted at 2nd World Con- 
gress, Moscow, July 17-August 7, 1920. 



84 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

THE COMMUNIST PARCEL OPERATION 

A parcel operation in the United States, under the direction and 
control of the Communist regimes of Poland, Hungary, Czecho- 
slovakia, and the Soviet Union, is netting the international Commu- 
nist movement millions of dollars every year as a tribute levied 
against the friends and relatives of the subjects of the Kremlin, the 
committee stated in a report entitled, "The Communist Parcel 
Operation." 13 

Characterizing the parcel operation as blackmail, the committee 
pointed out that the Communist regimes do not permit CARE to 
operate within the Soviet Union or the satellite countries, except, 
recently, Poland; that, instead, the Communist governments maintain 
agents in the United States who collect exorbitant duties and fees 
ranging up to 250% of the value of the relief items sent behind 
the Iron Curtain by American citizens. 

The report, which was based on several months' committee investi- 
gation followed by executive hearings, stated that the millions of 
dollars thus collected on exorbitant duties and fees from American 
citizens for the privilege of sending relief parcels to friends and 
relatives behind the Iron Curtain are used to finance Communist 
activities within the free world. 

A similar Communist operation is conducted in Canada, the report 
continued, where the sum of $20 to $30 million yearly is collected 
by Soviet agents as customs duties on food and clothing parcels 
sent by Canadian citizens to the Soviet Union, and that this sum is 
used to finance the activities of Communists in Canada. 

In a foreword to the report, the chairman of the committee stated : 

In determining whether or not to publish the accompany- 
ing report on the Communist parcel operation, the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities was faced with the possi- 
bility that the resulting adverse public opinion in the free 
world might cause the Kremlin to ban the admission of relief 
parcels to its subjects. The committee is of the opinion, 
however, that the millions of dollars in blackmail which the 
Communist regimes are annually extracting in their parcel 
operation would weigh heavier in the minds of the masters 
of the Kremlin than adverse public opinion in the free world. 

According to a careful study of the available financial records of 
the numerous gift parcel companies licensed by four Communist states 
to operate in the United States as their agents, these countries were 
enriched by the following sums collected as import duties and fees in 
the United States during the period 1950-1958 alone: 

U.S.S.R $15, 000, 000 

Hungary 10, 000, 000 

Czechoslovakia 4, 800, 000 

Poland * 18, 000, 000 

$47, 800, 000 

* The $18,000,000 listed as income of the Polish Government covers the years 1954-1958 only, figures for 
previous years not being available. 

13 See "The Communist Parcel Operation," Report of the Committee on Un-American Activities, Sep- 
tember 25, 1959. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 85 

The Soviet Union has been operating a gift-parcel business in the 
United States for nearly 30 3 r ears. Originally, it maintained a chain 
of stores in the principal cities of the Soviet Union which were stocked 
with items produced in the United States and other Western coun- 
tries — items of the type that were rationed or unavailable to Soviet 
citizens. Rubles were nonnegotiable in these stores. Only hard 
foreign currencies were accepted. The Soviet Union advertised these 
stores abroad and encouraged the sending of foreign currencies to the 
residents of the Soviet Union so they could make purchases in them. 

Later, the Soviet Government licensed travel companies in this 
country to serve as dollar collecting agencies, and also to accept parcels 
for shipment to the U.S.S.R. — after collecting exorbitant import 
duties and other fees for them. In the 1930's, one of these companies, 
World Tourists, Inc., served as a cover for Soviet espionage operations. 

The primary purpose of the Communist parcel operation in the 
United States is to collect as many U.S. dollars as it possibly can for 
the international Communist conspiracy "to finance Communist 
activities within the free world where the money was originally col- 
lected, " the committee report stated. For this reason, among others, 
the Soviet Union has never permitted within its borders any relief 
activity which would impair the flow of American dollars into its 
treasury. CARE, a private relief organization which shipped millions 
of dollars to the needy in Europe immediately after World War II, 
was never allowed to operate in the Soviet Union. In recent years 
there has been criticism of the exorbitant fees charged by the Soviet 
Government for gift parcels. Largely because of this the government 
announced early last year that there would be a big price reduction 
on the cost of sending gift parcels. The actual effect of this so-called 
reduction, however, was to increase the sum of money collected by 
the Soviet Union on each parcel. A president of one of the gift parcel 
companies, while testifying before the committee, explained how this 
was possible: 

They [Intourist officials] came here to attend the conven- 
tion of the American Society of Travel Agents which took 
place in New York which I attended and of which I am an 
officer. They advised us that they were somewhat perturbed 
by some unfavorable publicity that Russia got in connection 
with this parcel business and the Russians are very sensitive 
about public relations, or at least they have been lately. 
They suggested that we reduce our charges. We protested 
vigorously. * * * At last I told them that the dissatisfac- 
tion arises not from the little fees we get but from the duties 
that they charge and they said: "We have decided to reduce 
our duties." Then they brought us a draft, I don't remember 
whether it was written or oral, of the new system. Up until 
January 1, the duty on most of the items was computed ad 
valorem at 50 percent, 75 percent and 100 percent, plus 10 
percent. 

The new system called for set or stated duties on certain 
items in accordance with the list I just turned in to you for 
the record. * * * 



86 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Under this new system of set duties on items such as men's suits, the 
Soviet Union is collecting more money than it did under the old system. 
This is because the parcel companies, in order to encourage business, 
formerly appraised suits far below their actual value. The duty col- 
lected for the Soviet Union on them was, therefore, much less than it 
should have been according to the old rates. 

THE SATELLITE OPERATION 

At the end of World War II, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Poland, 
the three Communist nations which now have parcel operations in the 
United States, were free countries. CARE operated within their 
borders, and Americans sent millions of dollars of relief to citizens of 
these countries duty free. As the Communists took over each of these 
countries, they forced CARE out and set up relief parcel operations of 
their own designed to alleviate somewhat the suffering of their own 
citizens and to enrich to a great extent their own coffers. 

The satellite parcel operation differs from that of the Soviet Union 
in that relief items are not actually transported from the United States. 
Each of these governments has established a special department which 
runs a chain of stores which stock a wide selection of merchandise, 
including not only food and clothing, but items such as electrical 
appliances and even building materials. U.S. companies licensed to 
represent these Communist government agencies take orders for items 
stocked by these stores, either singly or in a variety of prepackaged 
parcels. There is also a free-choice arrangement whereby the recipient 
is permitted to purchase any item he wants to up to the value of the 
sum in dollars given to the U.S. company by his benefactor. The 
recipient is then notified of the gift and goes to the government store 
to pick up his material. 

The Polish Government has gone to greater lengths than any of 
the others to attract transmittals of stable currency and has collected 
more American dollars in the last 8 years than any of the other coun- 
tries. Residents of Poland are not only permitted to possess U.S. 
dollars today, but are also given favorable rates for exchanging them 
for Polish currency or for goods sold at the government warehouses. 
In this way the flow of dollars to Poland — and to the Polish treasury — 
is greatly enhanced. 

FACTS ON COMMUNISM " 

The Committee on Un-American Activities this year published the 
first volume of a series entitled, "Facts on Communism." The series, 
when completed, will be an encyclopedia on communism designed to 
give a comprehensive, authoritative, and fully documented survey of 
communism in both its theoretical and practical aspects. 

This volume and succeeding volumes to be published are the fruit 
of collaboration between the committee's research staff and a number 
of eminent scholars with specialized knowledge of certain aspects of 
communism. 

14 See "Facts on Communism," vol. I, "The Communist Ideology," Committee on Un-American 
Activities, December 1959. The supply of this publication for distribution by the committee is limited 
but copies may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C., for 45 cents per copy. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 87 

With the release of Volume I of "Facts on Communism," the 
chairman of the committee stated : 

Ignorance of communism is our greatest weakness in to- 
day s total struggle with the Communist conspiracy. Com- 
munism is a cancer which attacks the body politic and brings 
about the downfall of entire governments, just as cancer itself 
attacks and destroys human bodies. Without a thorough 
knowledge of communism, we can no more hope to survive 
and conquer it than we can hope to defeat cancer without 
authoritative and reliable knowledge of its nature. 

I hope that this monumental work in its completed form 
will be the object of serious study, not only by the Members of 
the Congress for whom it is initially intended, but by all who 
are concerned with the Communist menace. 

Volume I presents a survey of the body of ideas that make up the 
Communist ideology. The survey is in the form of an interpreta- 
tion of the Communist "classical" authorities and also includes crit- 
icism of at least the fundamental ideas. The system and the inter- 
connection of the various parts of Communist ideology have been 
analyzed and interpreted by Dr. Gerhart Niemeyer. Extensive quo- 
tations from Communist classics document his analysis. A professor 
of political science at the University of Notre Dame, Dr. Niemeyers 
competence in this field is attested by the fact that he teaches gradu- 
ate courses on Communist ideology and, with Dr. John S. Reshetar, 
Jr., is coauthor of the book, "An Inquiry Into Soviet Mentality." 
Dr. Niemeyer was born in Germany but left that country on the ad- 
vent of Hitler to power. Educated in England and Germany, he 
has taught in the United States at Princeton, Oglethorpe, Yale, and 
Columbia Universities. He has served a planning adviser in the De- 
partment of State, research analyst in the Council on Foreign Rela- 
tions, and as a member of the resident faculty of the National War 
College. He is coeditor of the Handbook on Communism, published 
in a German edition in 1958 and about to appear in its English edition. 

The committee declared in an introduction to the first volume of 
Facts on Communism that communism is called, by its own follow- 
ers, a "philosophy in action." As a philosophy, it is characterized by 
a basic attitude of uncompromising hostility to all non- Communist 
societies and the ideas held in them. Beyond this, however, it is a 
philosophy armed with means of power. 

At present, the committee warned, communism has concentrated its 
hostility on the United States as the most powerful among the na- 
tions not yet under its sway. The United States thus finds itself 
under attack by an enemy whose motive for hostility is not any prac- 
tical grievance or limited aspiration but rather the basic will to de- 
stroy the order of life in the United States in order to make room 
for a Communist rule. 

The enemy has engaged us on many fronts at once, the introduction 
continued. In the field of international power relations, he has pur- 
sued an aggressive policy seeking to isolate the United States in order 
to destroy our power, an objective toward which he has pressed, with 
or without war, by means of diplomacy, propaganda, trade, and sub- 



88 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

version. In the framework of internal political and social order, the 
enemy has sought to influence, paralyze, or disintegrate the processes 
of our common life, operating under the facade of ostensibly respon- 
sible citizenship. In the realm of ideas, finally, the enemy has at- 
tempted to use many kinds of intellectual and cultural activities 
(education, science, literature, art) in order to destroy all loyalties 
other than those to Communist leadership. ^ 

This multifarious attack, unprecedented in history, differs so much 
from the normal pattern of relations between nations or political 
groups within nations that many people fail to grasp the full extent 
of the threat, the committee said. Some tend to mistake communism 
for a mere part of what it is and does. Others are not informed about 
the concealed aspects of communism. Still others find the Communist 
philosophy strange and incomprehensible. 

Volume I of Facts on Communism analyzes and explains Commu- 
nist doctrine under five general headings: the Communist view of 
history ; the Communist view of present society ; the revolution ; dogma 
on the organization and strategy of the Communist Party ; and com- 
munism as a philosophy. 

In discussing the Communist view of history, it is pointed out that 
"the very core of communism" is a "complete theory about how history 
moves, why it moves, and the direction in which it moves." The cen- 
terpiece of this theory of history is the doctrine of the class struggle 
which "serves as a guiding criterion to all Communist thinking about 
society and politics." The concept of class struggle is then discussed, 
in particular its role in providing the Communists with an explana- 
tion of history. Historical materialism and dialectical materialism 
are explained in this section of the work, which concludes that : 

It is a mistake to say that communism is a blueprint for 
future society. It is rather the pretense of a foreknowledge 
of history, a trust in a beneficent outcome of a ruthless strug- 
gle for revolutionary power. 

Another major section of the volume, dealing with "The Commu- 
nist View of the Present Society," discusses Marx's and Lenin's ideas 
of what Communists must think of present society and how they must 
act in it, in view of the orientation of their ideology toward the future. 
Here are found comprehensive descriptions of Marx's and Lenin's 
views on capitalism, with an extremely illuminating account of how 
Lenin drastically reinterpreted Marx on the subject. In Communist 
ideology from Marx to the present day, however, the document states, 
the revolutionary has consistently been required to look upon "present- 
day society" as — 

something that is utterly corrupt as well as utterly doomed, 
so that one need take no interest in its problems other than 
to the end of hastening its collapse and of detaching the 
masses from its authorities. 

The third section of Volume I, Facts on Communism, deals with the 
"Socialist Eevolution" which, together with the philosophy of history, 
is described as the "core of Communist ideology." The Communist 
concept of "revolution" is different from other concepts of popular 
uprisings, because it is a doctrine of revolution as a "necessary" event 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 89 

in the process of history, rather than in terms of relief of human suf- 
fering or realization of people's hopes. The vast changes made by 
Lenin in Marx's concept of the revolution are discussed at length, par- 
ticularly Lenin's insistence on viewing the revolution as "protracted 
struggle" rather than the one great convulsive crisis predicted by 
Marx. 

A major section of the volume outlines Communist doctrine relating 
to the organization and strategy of the Communist Party. These 
ideas were developed by Lenin as he sought to build the Communist 
Party into a kind of "ideological-military army designed to destroy, 
conquer, and hold positions of power with means ranging from terror 
to trickery." Among the ideological concepts which arose on the sub- 
ject of the Communist Party were the party's alleged advanced insight 
into historical truth and, therefore, its presumed infallibility; and 
party relations with the masses of non-Communists. In this section 
is also discussed the "most confused, inherently contradictory and 
hypocritical" part of Communist doctrine — the Communist teach- 
ing about the state. The role played by the Soviet Union in Com- 
munist ideology is also shown. By becoming an instrument of the 
Communist revolution, the Soviet Union's objectives of expansion have 
become intertwined with, and indistinguishable from, Communist 
ideological aims. 

A final chapter demonstrates that philosophy is the "real basis of 
Communist ideology" from the beginning to the present day : 

In its present form it has, however, gone far beyond the 
scope of Marx's ideas and has expanded into a comprehensive 
system which pretends to have answers for all questions and 
guiding principles for all fields of human action. 

This chapter describes the philosophical impulse for Marxism, stem- 
ming from the 19th century philosophers Hegel and Feuerbach, and 
shows how Communist ideology has combined materialism and dia- 
lectics into one philosophy — dialectical materialism. The Communist 
view of religion and ethics is also presented. The volume notes that : 

By its combination of a program of action with a phi- 
losophy the Marxist world view became a substitute for reli- 
gion to many who reject religion and still want a system 
explaining fully the meaning of life. 



51117—60- 



CHAPTER IV 
CONSULTATIONS 

LANGUAGE AS A COMMUNIST WEAPON 

Dr. Stefan T. Possony 
March 2, 1959 ' 

Manipulation of language constitutes one of the Communists' most 
potent weapons in their drive for world domination, Dr. Stefan T. 
Possony, 1 political scientist of Georgetown [University and authority 
on psychological warfare and revolution, stated in a • consultation. 
"To the Communists," he said, "words are tools to achieve effects, 
not means to communicate in the search for truth." 

Dr. Possony explained that, in their early years, the Communists 
developed a "revolutionary" language of their own which they used 
not only in their doctrinal works, but also in their propaganda. 
Because the language included terms such as "class warfare," "ter- 
rorism," "labor armies," and "revolution," it revealed the real nature 
of the Communist movement and "hurt the Communists a great 
deal," repelling, rather than attracting, most people. 

At the Seventh World Congress of the Comintern inTl935, it was 
decided that Communists would no longer use this "sectarian lan- 
guage." This meant — • 

that the Communist message should be couched in terms 
which have a positive ring in the ears of the audience. Com- 
munism must be dressed up as something like democratic 
liberalism or patriotic nationalism. Offensive and locally 
unfamiliar terms must be avoided * * * any good 
Communist would now be able to use language which is not 
to be found in the classical writings of Marx and Lenin but 
occurs in Jefferson, Mill — or Jane Addams. 

"The Communists did not change their basic texts," Dr. Possony 
continued, "but cleaned up the language which they addressed to the 
noninitiated" — 

Of course, Communist terminology could not be cleaned 
up entirely, but, briefly, "revolution" became "liberation," 

1 See " Language As A Communist Weapon," Consultation with Dr. Stefan T. Possony, Committee 
on Un-American Activities, March 2, 1959. 

Dr. Possony is the author of "A Century of Conflict," "Tomorrow's War," "Strategic Air Power," 
and "International Relations" (with Dr. Robert Strausz-Hupe). He has been on the faculty of Georgetown 
University since 1946. He was born in Austria, educated there and in Germany, and holds a Ph.D. degree 
from the University of Vienna. After the Anschluss, he made his way to Paris and worked for the French 
Foreign and Air Ministries. He came to the United States in 1941 and joined the Institute for Advance 
Study at Princeton on a Carnegie fellowship. 

He later served with the Psychological Warfare Branch, Office of Naval Intelligence, where he headed the 
German Section. In 1952 he served on the faculty of the National War College in Washington, D.C, and 
in 1955 became an associate of the Foreign Policy Research Institute at the University of Pennsylvania. 
He has taught courses on communism, psychological warfare, geopolitics, political philosophy, and on 
strategy and revolution in the 20th Century. He is currently a trustee of the American Military Institute 
and a member of the editorial boards of Air Power Historian and of Orbis, a quarterly on world affairs 
published by the Foreign Policy Research Institute of the University of Pennsylvania. 

90 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 91 

and the physical extermination of entire groups of people, 
"classes," and nations became the " laying of the founda- 
tions of socialism." Occasionally, even the word "com- 
munism" disappeared from the vocabulary and was replaced 
by " an tifascism" or, more recently, "anti-imperialism" * * *. 
Lenin, who invented, among Communists, those tactics of 
language, occasionally even abandoned the use of his favorite 
word, "revolution"; instead, he talked about the reform, 
which he contrasted to rejorms. 

Dr. Possony anatyzed, in his consultation, what Communists ac- 
tually mean by the high-sounding terms they most frequently use 
today to mislead people concerning their true intentions — "national 
self-determination," "people's democracies," "coexistence," "libera- 
tion," "democracy," "scientific materialism," and also what they 
mean by smear words such as "reactionary" and "war monger." 

When asked, for example, what Communists mean by the word 
"peace," Dr. Possony said: 

Oh, that is simple: The non-Communist state does not 
defend itself while it is taken over or destroyed. To them 
"peace" means lack of resistance, or Communist operations 
without the admixture of violent and, specifically, military, 
means. It specifically does not mean the cessation of attempts 
at conquest nor the end of the "class war." In another 
context, "peace," for the Communists, signifies preparation 
for battle and war. 

He emphasized that Communists used the word "peace" as both a 
tactical term and as a long-term objective: 

Peace as a tactical term means, from their point of view, 
the temporarily exclusive utilization of nonviolent means of 
conflict; that is, propaganda, infiltration, political warfare, 
economic warfare, and "revolutions from within," methods 
suitable for conquest without risk * * *. 

As an ultimate objective, "peace" simply means Com- 
munist world control. In their Communist world, there 
would be a proletarian world dictator. Societies no longer 
would be cleaved by classes and, in the "ultimate ultimate," 
nations and languages would be merged. There would be no 
socio-economic basis for conflict. This would be the 
society of eternal peace, * * *. 

Dr. Possony pointed out that there is no peace in the world today 
and there will be none, according to the Communist interpretation of 
that word, until they have conquered the world: 

The point is * * * that the Communists operate under 
the concept of class struggle, * * * and this struggle, con- 
flict, or warfare never ceases irrespective of whether people 
are being killed in military battle. 

War in the sense of firepower exchanges is one band in a 
whole spectrum of conflict techniques * * *. 

* * * w ith varying intensities, conflict is incessant. It 
never stops before the final destruction of all enemies of the 
party * * *. 



92 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Propaganda does not stop. Political warfare does not stop. 
Infiltration does not stop. The class war, the class struggle, 
or as it is styled in modern Communist semantics, the struggle 
between the peace-loving and the imperialist, war-mongering 
forces, never stops. All these things go on. * * * as 
preparations for a later military phase of the conflict * * *. 

Dr. Possony described the Communist concept of coexistence in 
these words: 

The bone "coexists" with the dog; the rope "coexists" 
with the man who is hanged; bacilli "coexist" with your 
body. Coexistence is a transitory matter of fact. The 
Soviet Union is there; the United States is in existence; and 
as of today, the 2nd of March 1959, both states live, and 
various social systems exist, side by side. For the time 
being, the Soviets cannot stop coexisting with non-Com- 
munist nations * * *. 

Coexistence is a temporary situation, and it is a description 
of fact. It also is a slogan to lull non-Communists to sleep 
and to induce economic and political support for the Soviet 
Union. 

It specifically does not mean that any Communists ought 
to be prepared to coexist with the capitalist system till the 
end of the world. Essentially, the term is a deception to 
convey the impression that the world revolution has been 
called off. 

Two of the roots of Communist semantics or language manipulation, 
Dr. Possony said, are: 

Every Communist communication must convey an 
orthodox, that is, revolutionarily activating message to the 
party and its followers. 

This same communication must convey a different, i.e., 
soothing, pacifying, and paralyzing message to the opponent 
of communism. 

The West's difficulty in countering the Communist semantic 
weapon, he continued, is due to the following: 

"Massive" Communist propaganda is poured into the West through 
statements, books, and broadcasts. It is knowingly spread by some 
people and sometimes unknowingly by others who are tr}ing, ineffec- 
tively, to refute it. 

Only a "trickle" of corrections come from Western governments, 
many of which "have essentially decided not to correct Communist 
* * * distortions." 

The 100-year record of communism and 40-year record of the 
U.S.S.R. is not presented to the free peoples of the world. Many 
university texts on communism and the Soviet Union "are distorted, 
often are false, and usually lack depth of perception." 

Many Western statesmen are unaware of the "brute facts" about 
communism when they negotiate with Soviet leaders. Moreover, 
they aren't interested, in some cases, in understanding the Communist 
"grand design." In addition, unfortunately, domestic politics tend 
to frame foreign policy in the West. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 93 

Also: 

The Western World simply does not recognize the fact 
that political warfare, subversion, infiltration, and prepara- 
tions for war are routine operations for any political system 
which has any aggressive designs. 

Two points made by Dr. Possony in his consultation emphasize the 
great danger this country faces in communism. One was the follow- 
ing statement made by Mao Tse-tung to the Central Committee of 
the Chinese Communist Party in 1938: 

Every communist must grasp the truth: "Political power 
grows out of the barrel of a gun" * * * we can even say 
that the whole world can be remoulded only with the gun 
* * * war can only be abolished through war — in order to 
get rid of the gun, we must first grasp it in our hand * * * 
the central task and the supreme form of a revolution is the 
seizure of political power by force of arms and the solution 
of problems by war. 

The second point made by Dr. Possony was that the Communists 
proclaim their power to punish for anti-Soviet activity, not only the 
citizens of Communist nations, but the citizens of any nation in the 
world — and that they have exercised this power on more than one 
occasion. 

The (Soviet) Ukrainian Criminal Code, for example, provided that — 

those in foreign countries whose occupation or the institution 
to which they belong may expose the Soviet Union to war or 
may in any other way endanger the structure of the Soviet 
State will be punished by death or imprisonment. 

COMMUNIST PERSECUTION OF CHURCHES IN RED CHINA AND 

NORTHERN KOREA 

Rev. Peter Chu Pong 
Rev. Shih-pixg Wang 
Rev. Tsin-tsai Liu 
Rev. Samuel W. S. Cheng 
Mr. Kyung Rai Kim 

March 26, 1959 

Five Protestant leaders from Formosa, Hong Kong, and Southern 
Korea described the persecution and horrible atrocities visited on 
Christians in Communist China and Northern Korea by the Com- 
munist governments. 2 Their testimony reveals that these govern- 
ments, like that of the Soviet Union, are engaged in an intense cam- 
paign to wipe out all vestiges of Christianity in areas under their 
control. 

Rev. Peter Chu Pong, general secretary of the Hong Kong Inter- 
national Christian Leadership, told how the Communists, after taking 
over China in 1949, began to persecute the churches there. They 
came to him and to other ministers, demanding complete information 

' See "Communist Persecution of Churches in Red China and Northern Korea, Consultation with Five 
Church Leaders," Committee on Un-American Activities, March 26, 1959. 



94 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

on his church's income, the earnings of its members, a detailed ac- 
counting of daily expenditures, and information on contacts with 
foreign missionaries. They "borrowed" from him his religious 
books — and then never returned them. They set up indoctrination 
classes in his church to brainwash his congregation. These classes 
stressed three points: 

1. Denial of a living God; the teaching of creation through 
evolution. 

2. Denial of Christ as God. They said He was simply a 
common carpenter who had been crucified by the people 
because he wanted to lead a counterrevolution. 

3. Christianity is a "religious instrument of foreign im- 
perialists' ' to poison the Chinese people and "sell them into 
slavery." 

The Communists held accusation meetings to charge Rev. Pong, 
his wife, and the elders and deacons of his church with being im- 
perialists. They were forced to kneel on the platform of the church 
assembly hall with their hands tied and a sign which said "Guilty 
Crime" hanging from their necks: 

They slapped our faces, kicked our bodies, and poured cold 
water on our heads. They made my children stand and 
watch. If they cried, the Communists beat them. 

Rev. Pong and his wife were imprisoned after the accusation meet- 
ing. Each day for 46 days they were given only one meal. He was 
then suddenly released and told that "the people" of the Communist 
government had granted him "real mercy." He eventually escaped 
from Nanking to Shanghai, Canton, and finally Hong Kong. His 
wife escaped to Hong Kong in 1951. 

There are no longer any truly Christian churches operating in Red 
China, Rev. Pong continued. The only ones in existence are propa- 
ganda churches operated by the Communists with Communist min- 
isters "picked by the government to fill the pulpits and indoctrinate 
the people in communism." 

Describing the incentive the Communists offer to the young people 
of Red China to join the Communist Party, Rev. Pong said in part: 

In fifteen years, they are told, Red China will surpass the 
United States. They are told they will be the masters of the 
whole world; that by 1965 Red China will be celebrating their 
victories in San Francisco. 

Despite such inducements, the young people of Red China make 
up the greatest proportion of escapees from the mainland. There is 
general unrest among the population and "the people on the main- 
land will never be satisfied until another revolution sweeps the pres- 
ent regime away." 

Rev. Shih-ping Wang, East Asia director of the Baptist Evangeli- 
zation Society International, described at some length the commune 
system recently instituted in Red China. This system has hurt the 
churches, he said, because it has given the government much more 
complete control of the people and all worship has been forbidden in 
the communes. The system works in the following manner: 

The family unit is broken up. Husbands and wives are 
separated into different barracks. The children are taken 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 19 59 95 

away from the parents and placed in government-run nurs- 
eries. * * * The parents may see their children once a week 
and when they see them they cannot show affection toward 
their children. The idea is to have the children and the fam- 
ily sever their affection and direct it toward the state. Names 
are taken away from the children, and they are given num- 
bers. There is no individual identity. The basic unit of 
social life in the commune is the commune itself. 

The people have resisted the communes. One step they took was 
to kill their livestock when the system was being instituted. A short- 
age of pork in Hong Kong, which relics largely on mainland China 
for that meat, resulted from this. The farmers also burned their crops. 
At the present time active, open opposition to the Communist gov- 
ernment is confined to groups of guerrillas who have fled to the 
mountains. 

Visitors to the mainland, Rev. Wang said, are unaware of the true 
facts about life under the commune system because what they see — 

is just a guided tour. They take them where they want 
to take them and let them see and hear only what they want 
them to hear. 

The most revolting aspect of the commune system in China is 
revealed by the treatment now given to the older people: 

All the elderly people 60 years of age and above who 
cannot work are put in the old people's "Happy Home." 
After the} 7- are placed in the homes they are given shots. 
Thev are told these shots are for their health. But after 
the shots are taken, they die within two weeks. After thev 
die, the corpses are placed in vats. When the bodies decay 
and maggots set in, the maggots are used to feed chickens. 
The remainder of the body is used for fertilizer. Old graves 
are also dug up and the bones used for fertilizer. 

Soldiers of the Red Army, according to Rev. Wang, are not satis- 
fied. They do not like the breakdown of the family unit, have a 
tendency to look the other way when refugees try to escape and, when 
their officers' eyes are not on them, do not force the people to work 
hard— even standing by and doing nothing when others sabotage the 
system. Rev. Wang continued: 

During the bombardment of Quemoy, many of the shells 
that came over were duds and on the shells were carved 
"Return back to the mainland," or "Go back to the main- 
land" for the Chinese on Formosa. The symbol used on the 
shells is in common use in China. 

Rev. Tsin-tsai Liu, pastor of the Gospel Baptish Church in Taipei, 
said that the Communists were friendly when they first took over 
China in 1949, but began wholesale persecutions of Protestant 
churches in 1950. Christian leaders were placed under house arrest. 
Christians were blacklisted and could not hold government jobs. In 
addition, thev had to be "reeducated" and attend confession classes 
to reveal their past associations and beliefs. 

After the Christian ministers and leaders were arrested, they were 
replaced with Communists. The government now uses Chin Ling 



9G ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Theological Seminary in Nanking and the Shanghai China Theological 
Seminary in Shanghai to train their own "preachers." Prior to the 
Communist takeover, there were over twenty-five Protestant semi- 
naries in China. Today there are only five, all of which are controlled 
by the Communists. 

The Communists confiscated the churches and then rented them 
back to the people at "fantastic" rentals. When the people could not 
pay these rentals, the churches were closed: 

The only churches that were allowed to remain open 
were Communist-run churches that serve as show cases for 
visitors. 

Rev. Liu does not believe that these churches will ever be closed 
by the Communists because "they are a good means of spreading 
propaganda and reeducating the people. Also the churches give 
them an appearance of a dignified civilization." 

Rev. Liu revealed that after the Communist takeover, a consid- 
erable number of teachers in the seminaries who had been considered 
leftists and had called themselves "progressives" revealed their true 
colors and emerged as full-fledged collaborators with the Com- 
munists. 

Rev. Samuel W. S. Cheng, who received theological training at 
Princeton Theological Seminary and is superintendent of the Gospel- 
aires Friends Mission in Taipei, stated that since 1949 the Communist 
government of China had confiscated over 20 million U.S. dollars in 
church property; about 140,000 mainland Christians have been killed 
by the Communists; 5 million Chinese have fled as refugees to Hong 
Kong, Formosa, and other parts of the world; and over 30 million 
Chinese have been killed or persecuted. 

The Communist government, he said, confiscates all relief goods sent 
to the mainland. None of it gets to the people. The only effective 
relief is air drop, such as that done by the Chinese Nationalists at 
night so the relief goods can be picked up secretly. All other relief is 
wasted. 

Rev. Cheng described what had happened to the family of a member 
of the Chinese Nationalist House of Representatives on Formosa. 
Because he was intensely anti-Communist, 180 members of his family — 
including brothers, cousins, etc. — had been killed. He told what 
had happened to the man's sister-in-law, "a very good woman," in 
the following words: 

The Communists thought she had a whole lot of money and 
asked a lot of her, and she said she had lent it. So it made 
the Communists very mad at her. They used five horses. 
One horse was tied to her neck and the other horses were 
tied to her arms and legs and they went in all directions. 
The biggest horse ran and it just tore her body into pieces. 
The blood streamed all over the public square, and the people 
shut their eyes and cried. They could not stand to see it. 

Kyung Rai Kim, Christian leader in Southern Korea and chief of 
the religious section of the Kook Do Daily News in Seoul, told of 
Northern Korean Communist persecution of religion. As in China, 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 97 

he said, all denominations have been eliminated in Northern Korea. 
There is only one so-called church, the " Northern Church Associa- 
tion" and it, too, is not a true Christian church but merely a propa- 
ganda tool of the government. 

Over 95 percent of the Christians of Northern Korea, he said, have 
fled to Southern Korea. Before 1945, there were 1,500 Protestant 
churches in Northern Korea. Today there are only 116 church build- 
ings and most of them are used as public halls. Prior to 1945, there 
were 3 Protestant theological seminaries, 20 Bible schools, and 12 mis- 
sion schools in Northern Korea. Today there are none. During the 
Korean War, the Northern Korean Communists killed 1,650 ministers 
and shot 1,600,000 Northern Korean people, including 125,000 Chris- 
tians. 

Mr. Kim also disclosed how the Northern Korean Communist gov- 
ernment went about destroying the church in that country. 

An "educational" ministry was set up in P\T>ngyang in 1946 to 
eliminate the Christian churches. This ministry sent secret police 
agents to the churches to listen to the ministers' sermons. Those who 
preached the Christian gospel were accused of being opposed to the 
government and were, therefore, arrested. Initially, the government 
tried to force them to confess their guilt. Later, they were shot or 
otherwise killed: 

The government made public examples of the ministers by 
torturing them. An evangelist friend of mine, Lee Chang 
Whan, was killed. He was 26 years old, a real intellectual, 
a graduate of a Lutheran seminary, and could speak six- 
languages fluently. In the winter of 1948, he was killed by 
the Communists, because he was going to print the Bible. 
He was trying to publish the Bible in secret because there 
was no freedom for Bible publishing under the puppet 
regime. The Red police stripped him naked, bound him, 
and put him into an empty water pool. It was 17 degrees 
below zero that day. They filled the pool solid. My friend 
froze to death in 30 minutes. Then the police exhibited his 
body to the people. 

In January 1951, 250 pastors were killed by the Commu- 
nists on the same day in the same place in Hong Jai Dong, 
Seoul, Korea. The Red police made holes through the 
pastors' hands with an ax and bound them hand to hand 
with an iron thread, and they shot them. In February 1951, 
at Won Dang Church, Chen Ra Nam Do Province, Red 
soldiers burned 83 Christians with gasoline. 

Mr. Kim further testified that the people of Southern Korea be- 
lieve there is danger of another attack from the north because the 
Communist regime is sending so many spies to Southern Korea. 
A former Communist spy who had defected, he said, revealed that the 
Northern Korean government was sending 200 spies per month to 
Southern Korea. Mr. Kim also said that since 1945 the Southern 
Korean national police had arrested over 47,000 Northern agents and 
spies and confiscated 1,500,000 American dollars from them. 



98 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 
CONTROL OF THE ARTS IN THE COMMUNIST EMPIRE 

Ivan P. Bahriany 
June 3, 1959 

Khrushchev's control over all cultural activity in the Communist 
empire is as rigid as was Stalin's, but Khrushchev is more subtle, Ivan 
Bahriany stated. 3 

Mr. Bahriany's own life illustrates how Stalin controlled the arts 
in his Red domain and, indirectly, how Khrushchev exercises similar 
influence today. 

After completing his studies at the Kiev Art Institute in 1929, 
Bahriany was denied a degree because his father was of the wrong 
class and considered an enemy of the state. Bahriany joined a group 
of writers known as MARS, the " Workshop of the Revolutionary 
Word." He was critical of the Soviet regime in his writings, which 
were published in Soviet-Ukrainian magazines. For this reason, he 
was attacked by official Communist publications. The October 1931 
issue of Krytyka, for example, denounced him as a traitor and enemy 
of the state. He was arrested by the GPU in 1932 and, after being 
held in solitary confinement for 11 months, was tried secretly and 
sentenced to 5 years at hard labor as a counterrevolutionary and 
enemy of the regime. His 5-year sentence was the minimum term — 
granted because of his youth. 

He was sent to a camp of the Bamalag system on the Baikal-Amur 
railroad line where he worked as a common laborer, cutting lumber 
and laying track. Approximately four million prisoners were working 
on this railroad line at the time. The majority of them were political 
prisoners, rather than ordinary criminals. There were many writers, 
professors, lawyers, and teachers among them, as well as peasants 
and workers. Because of the extreme rigor of the Soviet prison 
system at the time, several thousand prisoners were dying daily when 
Bahriany was in a camp in Komsomolsk. 

Political prisoners received rougher treatment than ordinary 
criminals. Bahriany gave the reasons for this: 

The Soviet regime considers that ordinary criminals, when 
they commit a crime, damage or do harm to a single person 
or an individual, whereas poets, writers, literary figures, 
when they are anti-Soviet, naturally damage the entire Soviet 
system, the foundation on which it stands, because through 
the literature thev spread different kinds of ideology, dif- 
ferent kinds of beliefs, than those in which the Communists 
believe. 

3 See "Control of the Arts in the Communist Empire," Consultation with Ivan P. Bahriany, Committee 
on Un-American Activities, June 3, 1959. 

Mr. Bahriany, novelist, poet and painter, and currently a resident of Ulm, West Germany, is president of 
the Ukrainian National Rada, a coalition of Ukrainian democratic parties in exile, with headquarters in 
Munich. 

Born in Poltava province in the Ukraine in 1907, Mr. Bahriany attended an art and ceramic school and 
then completed a course at the Kiev Art Institute in 1929. As a writer, he was critical of the Communist 
regime and was, therefore, arrested by the GPU in 1932 and sentenced to a slave labor camp. During 
World War II, he fought with the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) against b^th the Nazis and the Com- 
munists. Escaping to the West when war ended, he became chairman of the Ukrainian Relief Committee 
in Innsbruck and, at the height of the Soviet repatriation drive, wrote a pamphlet entitled "Why I Don't 
Want to Go Home," which was translated into English, German. Italian, and Spanish. 

Mr. Bahriany is presently editor of the Ukrainian paper "We Will Return Again" (to a free Ukraine). 
His book " The Hunters and the Hunted," based on his experiences in hunting wild animals in Siberia after 
his escape from a slave labor camp there, has been translated and published in the United States. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 99 

Criminals or murderers are punished very severely for 
their crimes when their crimes are directed against Com- 
munist Party officials, but not if they are directed against 
ordinary citizens. 

Bahriany escaped from the slave labor camp at the end of 1936 
and lived in the Soviet Far East between Vladivostok and Khabarovsk 
among common people who sympathized with, and were willing to 
help, labor camp escapees. 

In 1938, using fictitious documents which he had bought, he 
returned to the Ukraine to visit his mother and was caught by the 
NKVD. He was again accused of treason and fomenting rebellion 
and tortured for refusing to confess. He spent 83 days in a death cell, 
but was returned to an ordinary prison in 1939 when Stalin, in an 
effort to gain popularity with the people, commuted death sentences, 
saying that enemies of the state had penetrated the NKVD and 
many innocent people had, therefore, been arrested. Six months 
later — and 2 years and 7 months after his second arrest — Bahriany 
was released under police surveillance in his native town of Kuzmin. 

During the German occupation, he worked in the Ukrainian 
theater. In 1944, he joined and fought with the Ukrainian Insurgent 
Army and, at the time of the German retreat, made his way to West 
Germany through Austria and Yugoslavia with thousands of other 
Ukrainian refugees. 

Immediately after World War II, when the Soviet Union was at- 
tempting to forcibly repatriate many thousands of people who had 
escaped from its borders, an attempt was made to arrest him in 
Austria. He, therefore, went to Bavaria. It was during this period 
that he served as chairman of the Ukrainian Relief Committee in 
Innsbruck, tried to persuade allied officials not to turn Ukrainian 
escapees over to the Soviets, and wrote his pamphlet "Why I Don't 
Want to Go Home." 

Prior to his arrest in 1932, Bahriany knew 250 top Ukrainian in- 
tellectuals — poets, writers, professors. In 1938, when he returned to 
the Ukraine, only 33 of them were left. All the others had been de- 
ported, imprisoned, or executed because they were considered danger- 
ous, or had committed suicide. This is one example of how the Soviet 
state controlled the arts under Stalin. In the 1920's, according to 
Bahriany, few of the top intellectuals and prominent writers in the 
Ukraine were Communist Party members. It was not until Stalin 
introduced his campaign of terror to eliminate all those in the cultural 
field who refused to toe the party line that many became party 
members to save their lives. 

There has been no change in conditions for intellectuals under 
Khrushchev's rule. Bahriany can no more return to the Ukraine and 
write freely today than he could prior to Stalin's death. As recently 
as March 1959, he was attacked in The Literary Gazette, the official 
organ of the Union of Writers of Ukraine, and branded as a traitor. 
He had received letters from Soviet officials promising him a pardon if 
he would return. When he said he would not, he then received 
threats. 

Under Khrushchev's rule, Bahriany 's son, who was 6 years old 
when he last saw him and is now 23 years of age, has been used to 
make radio appeals for him to return to the Ukraine. Because 



100 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Bahriany has not done so, his son has called him a traitor to his 
country and a man who has sold out to the "imperialists." 

Khrushchev's "rehabilitation" of writers in the Communist empire, 
which was publicized at the time of the Congress of the Union of 
Soviet Writers in Moscow last May, is, according to Mr. Bahriany, 
actually a technique Khrushchev is using to compel present-day 
writers to conform strictly to the Communist Party line — just as they 
had to in Stalin's day. There are two phases to this rehabilitation 
campaign, Mr. Bahriany pointed out. On the one hand, writers who 
were liquidated by Stalin years ago are now receiving the official 
endorsement of the Khrushchev regime. This is being done to still the 
questioning of the young people in the Communist empire as to why 
the Communists have liquidated so many literary figures. Khru- 
shchev says that these men were actually not guilty as was charged in 
the past; that their works were misrepresented and they were wrongly 
executed. For this reason, their writings are being republished. 

Mr. Bahriany pointed out, however, that the republished works of 
the "rehabilitated" writers have been carefully edited and changed 
so that they conform completely to the Communist line and all 
criticism of communism and the Soviet state has been eliminated from 
them. 

Mr. Bahriany cited the case of Boris Pasternak, author of "Doctor 
Zhivago," to illustrate that the so-called "rehabilitation" of living 
writers is no more than a device for controlling them. A number of 
writers who have been expelled from the Soviet Writers Union in the 
past for deviating from the party line and for criticizing the regime 
were taken back into the fold at the meeting of the Congress in Ma} r , 
1959. Pasternak was not, however — because he is the only true 
an ti -Communist among the dissidents and because he has refused to 
confess error. For this reason, he is still an outcast, denied any 
official standing in the Soviet Union and any outlet for his works. 
The treatment given Pasternak, Bahriany stated, is designed to serve 
as an example to all Soviet writers — they must conform or they will 
be denied any opportunity to write. 4 

There is a simple explanation, Bahriany said, for the Soviet Union's 
refusal to let Pasternak accept the Nobel Prize, even though it per- 
mitted three Soviet scientists to accept one. The Soviet Union gained 
by the awarding of the prize to the scientists. It had important 
prestige values and helped to create the impression throughout the 
world that the Soviet Government is a sponsor, protector, and pro- 
ducer of great scientific achievement (despite its anti-scientific atti- 
tude, as exemplified in the Lysenko case). 

Pasternak's book, "Doctor Zhivago," however, was anti-Commu- 
nist and an indictment of the regime. For this reason, the Soviet 
Union could not permit him to accept the prize. To do so would be 
to honor an enemy and to imply acceptance of the evils Pasternak 
pointed out in communism. 

On the subject of cultural exchanges, Mr. Bahriany said that these 
had "many dangerous features" which the United States and the 
West do not realize. Through these exchanges, the Soviet Union 
succeeds in portraying in the United States things which do not exist 
in the U.S.S.K. By presenting false pictures of the Communist sys- 

* Events have confirmed Bahrlany's prediction. As of the end of this year, Pasternak was still ostracized 
and the subject of vicious attacks in the Soviet press. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 101 

tem in the Soviet Union, the exchanges mislead and misinform, rather 
than promote true knowledge of communism. There is no cultural 
freedom in the Soviet Union — but they create the impression that 
there is. The exchanges also serve as a camouflage for Soviet sup- 
pression of the national cultures of the peoples forcibly incorporated 
in the Red empire, such as the Armenians, Byelorussians, and the 
Baits. 

Through the Russification program being carried out among these 
people, Bahriany said, the Soviet Union is actually engaged in a kind 
of "spiritual genocide." Because the exchanges help to conceal this 
and the oppression, persecutions, and brutality so widespread in the 
Communist empire, they "enhance the spread of Communist tend- 
encies" and are "very detrimental" to the United States. 

Mr. Bahriany was asked what he thought of the inclusion of the 
works of identified Communists and fellow travelers in the art section 
of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, a matter which was 
later the subject of a hearing by this committee. He classified it as 
"a great disservice" to the American people and to the cause of peace. 
The Soviet mentality, he pointed out, is different from the American. 
After more than 40 years of Communist rule, they do not appreciate 
the freedom to criticize, and the inclusion of "social protest" art in an 
American exhibition would tend to give the impression that the elite 
of this country is against the Government and that the Communist 
Party and the Communist elite in the United States are very strong. 

Propagandawise, he said, Moscow would exploit the idea that many 
of America's top artists are Communist and Soviet sympathizers and 
that their works confirm various Communist charges concerning the 
United States. After what had happened in Hungary, Poland, and 
Tibet, Mr. Bahriany said, it is "criminal" to add to Soviet prestige in 
this fashion. 

THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Part 1 

Eugene Lyons 

September 4, 1959 

Khrushchev rose to the Number One post in the Soviet empire on a 
mountain of human corpses. The peaceful intentions he professes 
toward the West are no more worthy of belief than those of Stalin or 
Hitler, Eugene Lyons told the committee in the first of a series of 
consultations on the criminal career of the Soviet Premier. 5 

Nikita Khrushchev was born of a peasant-worker family in Kali- 
novka, in Kursk province, Mr. Lyons said. He had practically no 
schooling and, as a youth, worked as a shepherd and in mines and 

8 See "The Crimes of Khrushchev" Part 1, Consultation with Mr. Eugene Lyons, Committee on Un- 
American Activities, September 4, 1959. 

Mr. Lyons, a senior editor of The Reader's Digest, has long been recognized as an authority on com- 
munism and the Soviet Union. He is the author of "Moscow Carrousel." "Assignment in Utopia," "Stalin: 
Czar of All the Russias," "The Red Decade," and "Our Secret Allies: The Peoples of Russia," and of 
hundreds of articles inoluding two biographical features on Khrushchev published in The Reader's Digest 
during the last 2 years. After attending the City College of New York and Columbia University 
Eugene Lyons was for a time caught up in the radical movement and, though he never joined the Com- 
munist Party, in his own words, "got pretty close to it." In the mid-20's, he worked for the New York 
bureau of Tass, the Soviet news agency. He subsequently spent 6 years in Moscow as United Press corre* 
spondent there. This cured him of any pro-Soviet or Communist sentiments. During World War II, he 
edited the American Mercury magazine and subsequently launched and edited Pageant. He has been 
associated with The Reader's Digest since 1946. 



102 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

factories. In his early days, he was completely nonpolitical. It was 
not until 1918, when he was 24, that he joined the Communist Party 
and took part in the Russian civil war. His conversion to communism 
was not ideological or the result of careful thought and study; rather, 
it was a quick, emotional decision. According to Mr. Lyons: "His 
communism has remained primitive and unsophisticated ever since." 

When the civil war ended in Russia, Khrushchev obtained a job in a 
factory and enrolled in a workers' school, from which he graduated 
with the equivalent of an elementary education. He served as party 
secretary in the school, held the same post in several districts, and 
finally in Kiev, capital of the Ukraine. There he became a protege of 
Lazar Kaganovich, the Kremlin boss of the Ukraine, and began to 
move ahead rapidly in the party. 

Khrushchev in 1929 went to Moscow where he attended a tech- 
nical school for 3 years. In 1932 he became chief assistant to 
Kaganovich, then secretary of the Moscow province. In 1934, he 
succeeded Kaganovich as Moscow city and Moscow province secre- 
tary. Kaganovich became commissar of railroads. During the same 
year, Khrushchev became a member of the Soviet Communist Party 
Central Committee. 

He was sent to the Ukraine again in January 1938, as Stalin's killer. 
The first thing he did upon arriving there was to call a "social" 
gathering of the entire Ukrainian Government. In the midst of the 
affair, he had the secret police surround the building and arrest 
everyone in it. Most of them were liquidated: 

When his two-year Ukrainian purge was over, an estimated 
400,000 had been killed and terror gripped the whole popula- 
tion. Khrushchev had been made secretary of the Ukrainian 
Communist Party, but in the popular mind he won a more 
enduring title, the Hangman of the Ukraine. 

Khrushchev continued to climb the party ladder. In 1938, he 
became an alternate member of the Politburo, and in 1939 a full 
member. 

Khrushchev was a strong and outspoken supporter of Stalin's 
purges. After one of the major trials had ended, he said of its victims : 

By lifting their hand against Comrade Stalin, they lifted 
it against the best humanity possesses. For Stalin is our 
hope. He is the beacon which guides all progressive man- 
kind. Stalin is our banner! Stalin is our will! Stalin is 
our victory! 

During World War II, the Ukraine was occupied by the Germans. 
Khrushchev left to serve on other Soviet fronts in 1941-42 and re- 
turned to the Ukraine in 1943, when the Germans retreated. Khru- 
shchev immediately proceeded to punish the Ukrainian people for 
having welcomed the Germans as liberators. He instituted new 
purges : 

* * * This second or post-war purge, again under Khru- 
shchev's command, was if anything more bloody and more 
horrifying than the first. Those liquidated, by exile or 
death, ran into hundreds of thousands. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 19 59 103 

In 1949, Khrushchev returned to Moscow and again assumed the 
post of secretary of the province. When Stalin died in 1953, Khru- 
shchev became a member of the so-called "collective leadership" 
which succeeded him. After Beria, who headed the secret police, was 
liquidated, Khrushchev assumed Stalin's post as first secretary of 
the party. 

Khrushchev, as the Number One man in the Soviet Communist 
Party, had complete responsibility, and must take full blame, for the 
1956 blood bath in Hungary, Mr. Lyons stated. When the U.S. 
Ambassador asked Khrushchev what he would do to stop the flow of 
blood in that land, Khrushchev replied: 

We will put in more troops and more troops and more- 
troops until we have finished them. 

It was an order of Khrushchev that entrapped General Maleter, the 
leader of the Hungarian freedom fighters, into a phony conference — 
and then had him killed. Then it was an order of Khrushchev that 
lured Imre Xagy out of asylum in the Yugoslav Embassy — to his 
eventual death. 

During the following year, Khrushchev eliminated the threat to his 
supremacy in the Kremlin posed by the old-time, top-ranking Com- 
munist leaders. He put Malenkov, Molotov, and his old friend, 
Kaganovich, out of the running with General Zhukov's help. A year 
later, he saw to it that Zhukov was eliminated from the picture. 

Although Khrushchev is externally different from Stalin — an extro- 
vert rather than an introvert — he is as great a menace. Mr. Lyons 
said : 

* * * Under the ebullient surface he is every bit as blood- 
thirsty and dictatorial as his dead master. Stalin, too, didn't 
begin to kill his closest associates until he had been in absolute 
power for seven or eight years. Should the need to kill arise, 
Khrushchev's hand, to use his own phrase in the matter, 
"will not tremble." 

* * * Khrushchev has a genius for intrigue, betrayal, and 
mass homicide as large as Stalin's. He is a fanatic Com- 
munist, with a tightly closed mind on anything affecting 
Communist doctrine. 

Khrushchev is onlv half-educated, an anti-intellectual and not a 
thinker, but he has — 

a peasant-like shrewdness, a quick and sharp wit and is, in 
my opinion, more than a match for our Western statesmen 
in the give-and-take of argument or negotiation. 

He is a dedicated, know-nothing, fanatic Communist. He 
has no doubt that he and his cause are riding the wave of the 
future, that capitalism and all other non-Soviet ways of life 
are doomed to defeat and extinction. 

On the question of peaceful coexistence, Mr. Lyons said : 

* * * no more cynical phrase has ever been coined. To 
us it means a true cessation of hostilities. To them it means 
a convenient method of disarming us psychologically * * *. 



104 ANNUAL REPORT ON* UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Mr. Lyons emphasized the duality of Khrushchev's position — a 
fact which many people do not stop to think about and which makes 
it easier for him to hoodwink the non-Communist world. Khru- 
shchev, he said, is the leader of both a conventional government and 
a world revolutionary movement. What he or any other Kremlin 
leader does as the head of this government is not binding on the world 
Communist movement. For this reason, every agreement with him 
is "a snare and a delusion," even if it is kept in a technical sense by 
the Soviet Government itself. 

Mr. Lyons also pointed out that even if he wished to do so, Khru- 
shchev could not call off the activities of the world Communist organ- 
ization: 

World communism, with its open and underground Com- 
munist Parties, its network of false-front organizations, its 
infiltrated unions and governments, its para-military for- 
mations in many countries — the whole colossal machine of 
power — is too vast and too dynamic to be stopped in mid- 
course. 

Even though Khrushchev's talk of peaceful coexistence is not sin- 
cere, Mr. Lyons said, this does not mean that he wants a nuclear 
showdown with the United States: 

He's not mad. He is supremely confident of achieving his 
purposes by other means. But he continually rattles his 
missiles, exploiting our pacifism, our fears, our loss of nerve. 
The Kremlin, let us never forget, won its greatest victories 
without war, at a time when the free nations had over- 
whelming military superiority and a monopoly of nuclear 
power. Their real advantages are not military but political 
and psychological. 

On the subject of Khrushchev's visit to the United States, Mr. 
Lyons said: 

The mere invitation amounts to a terrific victory for com- 
munism. It amounts to an acknowledgment by the world's 
leading democracy of the Kremlin's power and permanence. 
Therefore it adds dimensions of prestige to every Communist 
group in every country. 

Being master propagandists, the Communists understand 
the value of symbols. That invitation will be taken by 
Communists, their fellow-travelers, their victims, as a sym- 
bol of our weakness. More, of our capitulation to Moscow 
threats. 

For years Khrushchev has maneuvered for just such an 
invitation. There were times when he would have paid a 
high price for it. Now we have given it to him gratis, 
because he has an ultimatum-gun pointed at our heads in 
Berlin. Even for that 1955 summit meeting, Moscow paid 
a price: the withdrawal from Austria. This time it is so 
cocky that, far from restraining its hordes, it allowed them 
to undertake aggressions even while the invitation was being- 
negotiated and before Khrushchev came to our country. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 105 

Mr. Lyons added that the effect of Khrushchev's visit on the en- 
slaved peoples behind the Iron Curtain would be a "body blow" to 
their morale and that it would go far toward undermining their faith 
in the United States because it was so clearly contradictory of many 
of our statements about communism and the captive nations: 

A future historian will face a strange paradox when he 
comes to the year 1959: in July, he will note, our Congress 
and President called upon the American people to pray for the 
captive nations; in September those people were called upon 
to do honor to the head of the mob that holds those nations 
in captivity! 

Despite their claims to the contrary, the Communists do not want 
to reduce tensions, Mr. Lyons asserted. They have actually created 
the tensions which now exist — and need them. What the United 
States actually needs, he added, is a greater awareness of these ten- 
sions and their true significance so that it will deal with them coura- 
geously. The idea of reduced tensions could be a fatal illusion for the 
free world. 

Most people do not realize how late it is in the Communist timetable 
for world domination, Mr. Lyons said. He pointed out that the 
Kremlin does not have to take over the world physically in order to 
control and exploit it. It must merely isolate the United States, its 
main opponent, to the point where it must take orders from Moscow 
"or else." The Communists prefer to take over our industrial com- 
plex intact rather than as a "heap of nuclear rubble." 

Mr. L3*ons made the following suggestion for changing the course 
of the cold war: 

There must be a complete revision of American thinking on this 
subject and a readiness for "sacrifice and risk." It is only when we 
grasp the important truth that the struggle with communism is not 
subject to compromise that we will begin to develop a strategy of our 
own for victory. 

Mr. Lyons struck an optimistic note when he pointed out as one 
of the encouraging elements in the general picture, his belief that the 
American people themselves do recognize the nature of the Commu- 
nist threat. They seem to understand the Communist challenge more 
clearly, with less self-delusion, than those in positions of power in our 
own country and other free nations. 

He expressed the conviction that the people will follow leaders with 
the courage and clearheadedness needed to deal with the Communist 
challenge if such leaders are found. 

Expressing his viewpoint about the reports on conditions in Russia 
brought back by American tourists, Mr. Lyons said: 

Skepticism is a mild word for how I feel about it. Now 
and then, of course, the tourist does bring back some frag- 
ments of truth, especially in relation to his own field of com- 
petence. But these morsels are few and far between. 
Besides, the home folks can hardly be expected to separate 
the rare grains of truth from the mountain of chaff, 



51117— 60- 



106 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 195 9 

THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Part 2 

Dr. Lev E. Dobriansky Mr. Constantin Kononenko 

Mr. Petro Pavlovych Mr. Mykola Lebed 

Prof. Dr. Ivan M. Malinin Dr. Gregory Kostiuk 
Mr. Nicholas Prychodko Prof. Ivan Wowchuk 

Mr. Jurij Lawrynenko 

September 9-11, 1959 

Cold-blooded murders committed by Khrushchev, principally 
during his tenure as the Communist political executioner in the 
Ukraine, were detailed by nine witnesses. 6 

Dr. Lev Dobriansky, professor of Soviet economics at Georgetown 
University and national chairman of the Ukrainian Congress Com- 
mittee of America, stated that "the record of Khrushchev's crimes is 
really the basis for his whole political growth and ascension in the 
Soviet Union," and that the Soviet premier is "the greatest and most 
infamous genocidist alive today." 

Dr. Dobriansky summarized the wholesale killings and atrocities 
carried out by Khrushchev which earned for him the title "Hangman 
of the Ukraine." 

During the late 1930's some 400,000 people were murdered while he 
ruled that area for Moscow; 9,500 people, as one example, were 
massacred in the town of Vinnitsa. 

During World War II, Khrushchev used his Communist partisans in 
the Ukraine to provoke the Nazis into persecuting the civilian 
population. 

In 1944-46, Khrushchev was responsible for the liquidation of the 
Ukrainian Catholic Church and the suppression of the Ukrainian 
Orthodox Autocephalic Church. 

After World War II, Khrushchev proceeded to do everything in his 
power to liquidate the Ukrainian Insurgent Army which had fought 
against both the Nazis and the Communists. He sought to under- 
mine this group by crimes committed against its members' families. 

In 1954-55, through his "virgin land" policy, he forcibly resettled 
many thousands of Ukrainian youth in Kazakhstan. 

During the same year, he barbarously suppressed striking Ukrainian 
political prisoners at Vorkuta, Mordovia, and Karaganda. 

In 1954, he decimated 500 Ukrainian women who were protesting 
conditions in the Kingir slave labor camp. 

The distinction between Stalin and Khrushchev, Dr. Dobriansky 
said, is that Khrushchev's "is a more or less silk-glove terrorism 
whereas Stalin's was a raw-knuckle terrorism." Substantially, 
however, "the tyrannical rule has not changed" in the Soviet empire 
under Khrushchev, just as the long-range objectives of communism 
have not changed. 

Dr. Dobriansky said that Khrushchev's visit to the United States 
was "a cold-war victory for Moscow" and outlined some of the 
dangers that it posed to this country. 

a See "The Crimes of Khrushchev," Part 2, Consultations with Dr. Lev E. Dobriansky, Mr. Petro 
Pavlovych, Prof. Dr. Ivan M. Malinin, Mr. Nicholas Prychodko, Mr. Constantin Kononerko,*Mr. 
Mykola Lebed, Dr. Gregorv Kostiuk, Prof. Ivan Wowchuk, and Mr. Jurij Lawrynenko, September 9-11, 
1959. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 107 

He declared that some statements made by prominent Americans 
who had visited the Soviet Union, to the effect that slave labor camps 
had been abolished there, are completely false. 

Apollon Trembow, whose nom de plume is Petro Pavlovych, gave 
a first-hand account of the Vinnitsa massacre. He had been a member 
of the Ukrainian Commission To Investigate the Vinnitsa Killings. 
On May 24, 1943, he and ten other members of the Commission — 
doctors, professors, editors, and bishops — opened the first graves of the 
1937-38 massacre that had taken place in that town. He stated 
that in the course of the next 4 months a total of 39 graves were 
opened on Pidlisna Street and 5,644 bodies found in them. In the 
Orthodox Cemetery 42 graves were opened and 2,405 bodies uncovered. 
In the Park of Culture and Recreation, built over the old Roman 
Catholic cemetery, 14 mass graves were opened and found to contain 
1,390 bodies. In all 9,439 bodies were discovered in 95 mass graves. 

Mr. Trembow submitted photographs of the bodies and mass graves 
found by the Commission. Some of these he had taken himself. He 
appeared in others. The photographs were made a part of the record. 

At the time these mass killings were carried out in Vinnitsa, Khru- 
shchev was first secretary to the Ukrainian Communist Party. The 
NKVD, which carried out the atrocities, was under his command. 

Khrushchev's culpability for these massacres was verified by the 
testimony of Professor Dr. Ivan M. Malinin, a Ukrainian pathologist 
who arrived in Vinnitsa in 1943 after having escaped from a Soviet 
prison and who was made a member of the medical commission which 
examined the bodies uncovered in the mass graves. He personally 
performed autopsies on some 1,000 of these bodies and testified that 
medical findings revealed that the bodies had been buried from 3 to 5 
years; that, in other words, the killings had taken place during 
Khrushchev's rule in the Ukraine. Most of the victims, he said, had 
been killed by a pistol shot in the base of the brain. Some had been 
buried alive. Not only Ukrainians, but Russians, Poles, and Jews, 
were among the liquidated. 

He, too, introduced photographs of the killings and made this state- 
ment : 

* * * these photographs cannot begin to portray the 
screams, the stench in the air, and the emotion which per- 
meated the air as the relatives of these innocent victims 
went from bod}' to body undertaking to identify their loved 
ones. 

* * * the events that occured at Vinnitsa stagger the 
imagination with their revolting inhumanity. The Vinnitsa 
massacres occurred only in one area at one time. But they 
were repeated ad nauseum throughout Ukraine during 
Ivhrushchev's regime. 

Nicholas Prychodko, an engineer, who lived in the Ukraine until 
1944, described what happened in January 1938, when Khrushchev 
arrived to take over command of that area: 

At that time, I remember being in Kiev and Khrushchev 
arrived with a very big score of NKVD men from Moscow. 
The}' called a special meeting of the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party. At that meeting they were sur- 



108 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

rounded by the people Khrushchev brought from Moscow 
and there was an interruption of that meeting at noontime. 
For example, the head of the Ukrainian People's Commis- 
sariat asked to go home; he shot his wife, himself, and tried 
to shoot his son. 

There was a tremendous purge all over Ukraine which 
followed the arrival of Khrushchev. 

Mr. Prychodko was himself arrested and imprisoned by the NKVD. 
During his imprisonment, secret police "investigators" spit in his 
mouth, beat him with the leg of a chair and with a plank from which 
about 20 small blunted nails protruded. There were about 3,000 
slave laborers, he said, in the camp where he was held in Ivdel, about 
600 miles northeast of Sverdlov. Conditions were so harsh that ap- 
proximately 15 of these people died each da}^. He, himself, was on 
the verge of death when released from the camp. 

Mykola Lebed, who fought in the Ukraine underground movement 
from 1927 until he escaped from his native land in 1944, testified on 
the manner in which Khrushchev tried to eliminate the Ukraine In- 
surgent Army when he returned to the Ukraine in 1943 after the Ger- 
man retreat. When he failed in this undertaking, he took reprisals 
on the civilian population. 

Mr. Lebed listed some of the things Khrushchev did in the hope of 
so terrorizing the members of the resistance movement and their 
families that they would give up their fight against Communist rule 
of their homeland. He named the seven districts in which these 
methods were used, not only within the prisons but also in public 
places, with the people forced to witness what went on : 

With hot irons they tortured those prisoners who were 
caught. 

They cut into the skin and tore the skin off from the living 
body. 

They also nailed people on the cross. 

They cut off the sexual organs, and breasts of women. 

They cut out eyes, broke bones in legs and arms and ex- 
tracted nails. 

The NKVD under Lt. Gen. Riasnyv, a subordinate of Khrushchev, 
carried out these atrocities and also adopted other techniques to 
terrorize the population and depress their will to resist. They 
poisoned medical capsules, public water supplies, cigarettes, and 
chocolates. 

Mr. Lebed also told of the manner in which Khrushchev persecuted 
religion in the Ukraine. On April 4, 1945, he had 600 NKVD troops 
surround the residence of Metropolitan Josef Slipyi of the Ukrainian 
Catholic Church. All of the church's eight bishops were arrested at 
the same time. Seven of them have since died in concentration camps. 
Only one is alive today. Metropolitan Slipyi was sentenced to 8 years 
in a concentration camp in 1945 and, in 1959, to another 7 years. 
He is now 67 years old. 

There were previously 4,400 Catholic churches and 127 monasteries 
in the Ukraine. Today there is none. The Ukrainian Orthodox 
Church has also been eliminated. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 109 

Mr. Lebed named places where concentration camps are presently 
located in the Soviet empire. Khrushchev, he said, had fooled some 
people in the free world by transferring political prisoners from places 
where it was known that slave labor camps existed to new areas about 
which the West was not informed. 

Dr. Gregory Kostiuk, a professor who lived in the Ukraine until the 
early 1940's, testified that Khrushchev, himself, was responsible for the 
murder of many of the former Ukrainian writers and officials that he 
is now rehabilitating. Khrushchev, he pointed out, had publicly sup- 
ported the purges in which these men were eliminated. He quoted 
from Pravda, issue of June 7, 1937, a statement made by Khrushchev 
when he was secretary of the Moscow district: 

to annihilate all Trotskyites, Zinovicvites, enemies of the 
people, to the last kin, so that there will remain not even a 
memory behind them and to scatter them to the winds. 

Dr. Kostiuk also stated that because the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party of the Ukraine had opposed the candidacy of 
Khrushchev for general secretary, there was, in the beginning of 1938 
when Khrushchev assumed that post, "not even one member of the 
Central Committee of the Ukrainian Communist Party who was not 
annihilated or arrested.' ' 

Out of the 62 persons who were members of the Central Committee 
and the 40 who were candidates to the party, only three were unaffected 
by Khrushchev's purge, and not one of the 17 members of the prior 
Lubchenko government was left. Premier Lubchenko committed 
suicide and also killed his wife. As a result, at the time Khrushchev 
became general secretary of the Central Committee of the Ukrainian 
Communist Party on January 29, 1938, the Central Committee was 
nonexistent — all its members had been eliminated or imprisoned. 

Professor Ivan Wowchuk, a resident of the Ukraine until 1943, pre- 
sented information he had obtained on Khrushchev's criminal ac- 
tivities affecting the Ukraine during and since World War II. 

As the Red Armv retreated in 1941 , he said, Khrushchev demolished 



the treasures of Kharkov, Kiev, and other cities. The general policy 
he has followed since then has been to exterminate Ukrainian nation- 
alism and culture. 

In 1945-46, he organized a small man-made famine in the Ukraine. 

In 1950, he centralized the collective farms, cutting their number 
from 240,000 to 96,000 in 1952 so that the Kremlin would be better 
able to control the people. 

In 1953, he promulgated a law making whole families responsible 
for the father's agricultural production. 

In 1954, through his virgin lands development, he deported thou- 
sands of Ukrainian rebels and built up a Soviet agricultural base with 
their labor. 

In 1959, he has held public trials of Ukrainian freedom fighters, 
forcing public attendance at them. 

He also promulgated a law to eliminate the teaching of the Ukrain- 
ian language in the schools. 

Jurij Lawrynenko, another former Ukrainian citizen who was three 
times arrested while living in the Ukraine, stated that "under the 



110 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

mask of de-Stalinization Khrushchev is actually continuing Stalin's 
genocide, both political and cultural." 

The Russian language, he said, is being forced on the Ukrainian 
people. Although Ukrainians make up 21 percent of the population 
of the U.S.S.R.. only 3 percent of the journals are in the Ukrainian 
language. On the other hand, although the Russian population makes 
up only 50 percent of the U.S.S.R. total, 92 percent of all the journals 
are published in the Russian language. Full, objective history of the 
Ukraine cannot be taught. 80 percent of the Ukraine's intellectuals 
were purged in the 1930's. 

Khrushchev has utter contempt for intellectuals, Mr. Lawrynenko 
stated, and, on one occasion, said they should be killed off like flies. 

He stated that through the cultural exchange programs, Khrushchev 
is palming off on the West the cultural achievements of the Ukraine 
and other enslaved areas as "Communist" and "Russian" accom- 
plishments. He cited this incident as an example: 

A U.S. official was impressed when he saw the Ukrainian national 
dance ensemble in Kiev and tried to arrange a visit to the United 
States. Moscow refused and instead added some of the Ukrainian 
group's numbers to the repertoire of the Soviet Moiseyev dance group 
which later came to this country. 

He also cited the case of Dovzhenko, an internationally known 
theatrical and film figure — and a Ukrainian — to demonstrate how 
Khrushchev suppresses the national cultures of his enslaved peoples. 
Stalin called Dovzhenko to Moscow in 1933 and said that he would 
not be liquidated if he would work for Russia. For 20 years, 
Dovzhenko was barred from returning to the Ukraine and doing any 
work there. After Stalin's death in 1953, he was allowed to go back 
to the Ukraine, where he left his notes. They included the following 
statements: 

Who separated me for 20 years from my people, my 
Ukraine? It is impossible to create something, being sepa- 
rated from life, your people. And now I am back. I hope 
I will create my best moving picture. It will be the greatest 
picture, I hope * * * and nobody will again be able to 
separate me from my people. 

But Dovzhenko was forcibly sent back to Moscow in 1956 and 
shortly thereafter died of a "heart attack." 

THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Part 3 

General Bela Kiraly 
Mr. Joseph Kovago 

September 10, 1959 

Eyewitness accounts of Khrushchev's bloody and brutal suppression 
of the Hungarian patriots, his diplomatic treachery during the 
Hungarian revolution, and Hungary's present status as a nationwide 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 19 59 111 

prison controlled by Khrushchev's army units were recounted by 
General Bela Kiraly and Joseph Kovago. 7 

General Bela Kiraly described the purposes of the Hungarian 
revolution as follows: 

The first basic aim of it was to abolish the Communist 
one-party dictatorship, the Communist social and economic 
order, and to establish a new democratic and economic 
system, parliamentary government, based on a general 
secret election. 

The second basic aim of the Hungarian revolution was to 
get rid of the Soviet colonial rule and to establish the nation's 
independence. 

General Kiraly stated that following World War II, the Communist 
Party in Hungary "consisted of a handful of people who came back 
from the Soviet Union as Soviet citizens." By 1956, however, the 
number had increased to nearly one million, or ten percent of the 
population. 

General Kiraly accounted for this growth in membership by stating 
that it was due partially to opportunism — the need for Communist 
support to get good jobs. A second factor was that the Communist 
Party needed large numbers to show itself as the strongest party. 
It, therefore, not only gave concessions to its members (even accepting 
Fascists) but pressed people to join solely for this purpose. 

The third reason, the General added, was that many people joined 
the Communist Party because of fear, "because to be a party member 
did mean, in some respects, a defense against the atrocities of the 
secret police and other terror organizations." 

The 1956 Hungarian revolution began as a spontaneous nationwide 
reform movement, developing finally, on October 23, 1956, into a huge 
demonstration in Budapest, the people announcing their strong will to 
repel, through peaceful means, the Communist dictatorship. General 
Kiraly stated : 

On that day the Communist Party leadership in Budapest 
found out that the Communist Party had only two alterna- 
tives: Either to let this reform movement progress further 
* * * or * * * t use i\ ie forces which were at the disposal 
of the Communist Party to suppress this reform movement 

7 See " The Crimes of Khrushchev" Part 3, Consultations with Gen. Bela Kiraly and Mr. Joseph Kovago, 
Committee on Un-American Activities, September 10, 1959. 

General Kiralv, at present a member of the Hungarian Committee and the executive co-president of 
Hungarian Freedom Fighters Federation, Inc., is perhaps the greatest expert on military aspects ofthe 
Hungarian revolution in the free world. Born in Kaposvar, Hungary, General Kiraly graduated from the 
Hungarian Military Academv and was a general staff officer of the Hungarian Army. He participated in 
World War II and served in the new democratic army following the war. Post-war conditions demanded 
that he join the Communist Party of Hungary, serving as a general and commander of the Hungarian 
General Staff College; but in 1951 he was arrested and condemned to death. After serving 5 years in prison. 
General Kiraly was released on parole in 1956, a month before the revolution broke out. He was elected 
commander-in-chief of the National Guard of Hungary and Budapest military garrison. 

In late November 1956 he was forced to flee Hungary— through Vienna to the United States. 

Joseph Kovago, the former mayor of Budapest, Hungary, is currently the vice-chairman of the Assembly 
of Captive European Nations and vice-chairman of the Hungarian Committee in New York. 

Born in Csomoder, Hungary, Mr. Kovago graduated from the Military Academy of Budapest and was 
an anti-Nazi resistance movement organizer in the last years of World War II. As a candidate of the anti- 
Communist Smallholders' Party, he was elected the mayor of Budapest in November 1945, and served m 
that capacity until June 1947, when he was forced to resign. 

Following this, Mr. Kovago was arrested and tortured by Communist secret police and spent 6H years 
in prison. Released just prior to the revolution, he was again elected as mayor of Budapest on November 2, 
1956, but, on November 30th, was forced to flee the country— through several European countries to the 
United States. 



112 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

and reestablish the former one-party dictatorship and the 
authority of the Communist Party. 

The Muscovite party leadership decided upon the second. 

General Kiraly added that "a peaceful demonstration was trans- 
formed into a bloody revolution by the opening of fire of the secret 
police." 

The freedom fighters soon returned the fire and began to make rapid 
military strides forward. The Communist government ordered an 
entire regiment to the scene of the revolution to assist the secret police, 
but the Hungarian soldiers refused to fire upon their countrymen: 

* * * this regiment refused to carry out the orders of the 
Kremlin-led Communist dictators of Hungary, and some of 
the soldiers joined the freedom fighters; some of the soldiers 
offered their weapons to the freedom fighters and dispersed 
and went home. 

Some dispersed with their own weapons, but none of the 
soldiers were willing to carry out the Muscovite order to shoot 
against their own compatriots. 

The thud major step in the revolution was the intervention of Soviet 
troops. According to General Kiraly: 

These interfering Soviet armed forces did not carry out even 
a regular street fight, fighting only freedom-fighter groups. 
They carried out a terror attack against Budapest with 
artillery and tanks. They would shoot against a single mov- 
ing person on the street, against homes, against churches, 
against apartment houses, without any discrimination. 

After 5 days of battle, the Hungarian troops were victorious, and 
the Soviet leadership found out that they had lost the battle. General 
Kiraly stated that, to avoid the annihilation of the Soviet units, 
"Khrushchev himself carried out one of his most sinister actions." 

Khrushchev's first deputy, Mikoyan, and Suslov, from the party 
leadership, were sent to Budapest to sit down with the revolutionar} 
government: 

After talking with Khrushchev by means of the tele- 
phone — and by the approval of Khrushchev — they concluded 
an armistice with the Hungarian Government on the 29th of 
October * * *. 

After this valid and legal armistice, concluded by the duly 
credentialed Soviet delegates and the Hungarian Govern- 
ment, the Hungarian Government let the Soviet troops with- 
draw from Budapest. The order was reestablished in Buda- 
pest. Freedom fighters patrolled the streets; the population 
was jubilant. 

General Kiraly added that for the ceremonial signing of the armis- 
tice, the Hungarian delegation was told to go to the Soviet head- 
quarters in Tokol, a village south of Budapest, during the night of 
November 4, and entered the Soviet building with good faith: 

About midnight General Serov entered the room and, no 
doubt on the order of Khrushchev, arrested the Hungarian 
delegation. * * * 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 113 

I believe that one of the most dramatic and most impor- 
tant crimes that ever has been committed in modern times 
was that diplomatic treachery in Budapest and it was hour 
to hour carried out by Khrushchev himself. November 4, 
1956, the beginning of the second Soviet aggression and the 
arrest of General Pal Maleter and the Hungarian diplomatic 
delegation, is the second "day of infamy" of modern history. 

In concluding, General Kiraly described the terror attack by Soviet 
1 anks on Hungary and the death of the Hungarian revolution. Today, 
Hungary is a nationwide prison, "imprisoned by Khrushchev's army 
units." 

In discussing "peaceful coexistence" with the Kremlin, the former 
Hungarian general stated that it "is as great a fraud as the whole 
diplomatic action was in Budapest in November, 1956"— 

Khrushchev's peaceful coexistence means that the status 
quo is recognized. The peaceful coexistence of Khrushchev 
does not intend peacefully to coexist, but does intend to 
have a direct or indirect recognition of the suppression of 
one hundred million westernized people from the Baltic- 
down to Bulgaria and Albania. 

Joseph Kovago, former mayor of Budapest, testified in great detail 
about the atrocities of the Soviet rule in Hungary — 

From the time that Khrushchev came into power, he is the 
man responsible for all the mass murders and tortures of the 
Hungarian men, women, and children. 

Mr. Kovago stated that he had been an e}'ewitness to the mass 
slaughters by the Soviet tanks as they turned into the streets of 
Budapest and fired on apartment houses, killing innocent children, 
women, young and old men without distinction. He counted ap- 
proximately 30,000 Hungarians slain by the armed forces of Khru- 
shchev and an additional 12,000 deported to the Soviet Union. Count- 
ing victims of the secret police, approximately 2,500 persons or more 
were executed. Hundreds of thousands were imprisoned, and 15,000 
were confined to forced labor camps. 

Mr. Kovago added that "finally Khrushchev ordered the re-estab- 
lishment of concentration camps which were abolished before the 
revolution of 1956." Commenting about the present situation in 
Hungary, Mr. Kovago testified: 

The Hungarian people are in an apathy of despair. The 
new wave of terror which took place in Hungary after the 
revolution is increasing, and the complete control by the 
Soviet Union of the country is so striking and so clear to 
every Hungarian that the people are gradually losing their 
hope of regaining freedom. 

The prison camps are again full. The conditions are 
terrible. The secret police are again in action even if they 
are not so conspicuous today. 

Mr. Kovago further testified that more than 200,000 Hungarians 
managed to escape the country after the revolution and, if they were 
permitted to do so, "the overwhelming majority of the Hungarian 
people would not remain." 



114 ANNUAL REPORT ON* UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Concluding his testimony, the former mayor of Budapest com- 
mented on the many "faces" of Khrushchev: 

1 think that Khrushchev is the best disciple of Machiavelli 
because if his own interest dictates it, he will kill; while he 
finds it useful, he will smile, will kiss children, will shake 
hands and show a good face. 

THE CRIMES OF KHRUSHCHEV 

Part 4 

Dr. Vilis Masens 
Mr. Vaclovas Sidzikauskas 

September 21, 1959 

Accounts of Communist terror in the Baltic States with bayonets 
and tanks under Khrushchev's personal control, were related by two 
former high-ranking Baltic officials, Dr. Vilis Masens and Mr. 
Vaclovas Sidzikauskas. 8 

Dr. Masens testified: 

* * * The aggressive aims and designs, as well as methods 
of fraud and violence, of international communism basically 
have not changed under Khrushchev and are, in fact, as cruel 
as they were under Stalin. 

He stated that in Latvia today, there is no such thing as political, 
religious, or even personal freedom. Under the force of Soviet rule 
and by the personal direction of Khrushchev, Latvians are deprived of 
the rights to elect a free government of their choice, to speak freely, 
to freedom of the press, to freely associate with friends and relatives, 
or even to move about freely within the country. 

"People cannot change their residence without the permission of the 
police," Dr. Masens testified. 

Under the current regime of fear, the number of those who have 
been able to escape the country has been insignificant, he added: 

* * * people dare not go to church for fear that this may 
harm their position as far as their jobs, educational oppor- 
tunities, and even their living facilities are concerned. People 

s See "The Crimes of Khrushchev," Part 4, Consultations with Dr. Vilis Masens and Mr. Vaclovas 
Sidzikauskas, Committee on Un-American Activities, September 21, 1959. 

Dr. Masens, currently a member of the General Committee and chairman of the Latvian Delegation of 
the Assembly of Captive European Nations, is acknowledged as one of the best informed experts on Com- 
munist activities in Latvia in the free world today. A native Latvian and a graduate of the Law School of 
the University of Latvia, Dr. Masens served many years as a distinguished member of the Latvian Foreign 
Service. In recognition of his services, he was awarded nine Latvian and foreign decorations. 

During the Soviet and Nazi occupation, Dr. Masens took part in the activities of national resistance 
groups. He left Latvia in the fall of 1944, on the eve of the second invasion of Latvia by the Communists. 
Nevertheless, he has continued actively his study of Communist operations in his Latvian homeland, while 
participating in Latvian exile political organizations. 

Mr. Sidzikauskas, at present chairman of the Committee for a Free Lithuania and chairman of the Lith- 
uanian Delegation to the Assembly of Captive European Nations, is recognized as one of the free world's 
outstanding authorities on Communist operations in Lithuania. 

He was a student of law at the University of Moscow during the First World War, and subsequently 
spent many years in the Lithuanian diplomatic service. Mr. Sidzikauskas witnessed the taking over of 
Lithuania by the Soviet military forces in June 1940; and in December of that year, he, himself, was appre- 
hended by the NKVD. He escaped to Germany, but was arrested by the Gestapo for being "anti-Nazi" 
and was placed in the concentration camp of Auschwitz, where he spent 20 months. Following his release 
he was forced to live in Berlin. When the Russian troops approached the German capital in 1945, he escaped 
to Bavaria, where he was liberated by the Americans. 

Mr. Sidzikauskas, in the post-war years, has been active in the Lithuanian liberation movement and has 
maintained close contact with Lithuanian affairs. 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 115 

dare not correspond freely for fear of censorship and 
persecution. 

Instead of the mass deportations of former years, thousands of 
young Latvians have been compelled to go to "Khrushchev's virgin 
lands in Kazakhstan," and not for a few years, but, as the Communist 
publications in Latvia openly state, "for good, to spend all their lives 
there." 

Dr. Masens testified that under General N. S. Zakharov, deputy 
chief of the NKVD in Latvia in 1949, almost 200,000 persons were 
deported from Latvia. Many of these "died in Siberian concentration 
camps' ' and many "are still in Siberia." 

This was the same General Zakharov who accompanied Khrushchev 
to the recent formal dinner at the White House, Dr. Masens added. 

He went on to point out the false assertions by Khrushchev that 
Soviet Russia has liquidated its military bases on territory of other 
states. Military and naval bases in Latvia and other Baltic States, 
according to Dr. Masens, were established by force in 1939. Since 
that time they have been further expanded, particularly by installing 
large submarine bases, shelters, and coastal fortifications. 

Dr. Masens testified: "These bases constitute a threat to the free 
nations, particularly to the Scandinavian countries." 

He gave accounts of heavy underwater explosions by Soviet naval 
testing units in the Baltic Sea, many of which have been registered by 
Swedish seismographic stations. 

He pointed out that — 

A few years ago in the vicinity of the Latvian coast, near 
Liepaja, an American plane was shot down by the Soviets, 
another American plane was later attacked near Ventspils, 
Latvia. 

Vaclovas Sidzikauskas testified: 

Khrushchev continues the policy of the Kremlin 
inaugurated in the time of Stalin, which consists in the 
continuous suppression of political liberty, of independence 
and freedom of Lithuania and other Baltic States. 

He stated that Khrushchev's intervention into Lithuanian affairs 
constitutes a breach of the peace treaty, the non-aggression pact, and 
other legal and political commitments of the U.S.S.R. 

Mr. Sidzikauskas added that Khrushchev, at the Twentieth 
Congress of the Communist Party, had implicitly endorsed the crimes 
of Stalin with regard to Lithuania. 

"While denouncing some of Stalin's crimes, among them the anni- 
hilation of some ethnic groups in Crimea and the Caucasus, he was 
silent about the crimes committed by Stalin against the Baltic States," 
Mr. Sidzikauskas continued. 

Khrushchev, he said, is co-responsible for such crimes as "military 
invasion and occupation, suppression of the independence and free- 
dom, mass murders, mass deportations of large portions of the popu- 
lation to Siberia, the forced Sovietization of the country, and economic 
exploitation of the resources and manpower of Lithuania." 

Mr. Sidzikauskas stated that Khrushchev today continues to apply 
measures aimed at destroying the national identity of the Lithuanian 
people, not only by physical deportations, but also by new methods 
of "educating" Lithuanian youth. 



116 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

When asked: "What will be the reaction in your native land 
[Lithuania] when the Communist publications feature these pictures 
of Khrushchev in the White House and Khrushchev[meeting the top 
officials in this country?" Mr. Sidzikauskas replied: "The impact 
will be disastrous." 

In regard to Khrushchev's repeated protestations of peaceful intent, 
Mr. Sidzikauskas stated: 

The protestations of peace by Khrushchev remind me of 
the similar protestations of Hitler before the outbreak of 
World War II. At each rally he always protested his desire 
for peace. Remember "Peace in Our Time" — paper brought 
to London by Neville Chamberlain and what happened then? 

Protestations of peace are proper to all totalitarians. It 
is the same method that is now used by Khrushchev. 

Russian armed forces stay in the heart of Europe. What 
are their present aims? Peace? 

But what does "peace" mean in Russian terms? It means 
Western acquiescence and acceptance of Soviet conquests. 
Therefore, they oppose the raising of the question of Central 
Eastern Europe, be it in the United Nations or summit con- 
ference or other international negotiations. If this standing 
is accepted by the West, Khrushchev is willing to coexist 
with the West. 

And what does "coexist" mean in Russian terms? 

As Khrushchev interprets it, the present Soviet grip over 
Lithuania and other captive European countries is an in- 
escapable fact of his "history"; therefore, the West has no 
right to touch his colonial empire. As to the free part of 
the world, Khrushchev is against the status quo and is for 
something he calls "ideological competition," meaning free- 
dom for communism to make new conquests by subversion. 9 



9 Additional consultations on "The Crimes of Khrushchev," are being prepared for release in 1960. 



CHAPTER V 

PUBLICATIONS 

During the year 1959, the committee printed and distributed 450,000 
copies of its hearings, consultations, and reports. In addition, in 
response to requests, it distributed approximately 200,000 copies of 
committee publications of previous years. 

Following is a list of committee hearings, consultations, and reports 
for the 1st session of the 86th Congress : 

HEARINGS 

The Kremlin's Espionage and Terror Organizations. Testimony on 
March 17, 1959, of Petr S. Deriabin (Former Officer of the 
U.S.S.R.'s Committee of State Security (KGB) ) . 

The Southern California District of the Communist Party, Struc- 
ture — Objectives — Leadership. Part 1, September 2 and 3, 1958 
(released in 1959). 

The Southern California District of the Communist Party — Struc- 
ture — Objectives — Leadership, Part 2, September 4 and 5, 1958 
(released in 1959). 

The Southern California District of the Communist Party, Struc- 
ture — Objectives — Leadership. Part 3, February 24 and 25, 1959. 

Current Strategy and Tactics of Communists in the United States, 
(Greater Pittsburgh Area) . Part 1, March 10, 1959. 

Problems of Security in Industrial Establishments Holding Defense 
Contracts (Greater Pittsburgh Area) . Part 2, March 11, 1959. 

Problems Arising in Cases of Denaturalization and Deportation of 
Communists (Greater Pittsburgh Area). Part 3, March 12, 1959. 

Communist Infiltration of Vital Industries and Current Communist 
Techniques in the Chicago, 111., Area. May 5, 6, and 7, 1959. 

Passport Security (Testimony of Harry R. Bridges). Part 1, April 
21, 1959. 

Passport Security. Part 2, April 22, 23, 24, and June 5, 1959. 

The American National Exhibition, Moscow, July 1, 1959. 

Communist Training Operations. Part 1, July 21 and 22, 1959. 

Testimony of Clinton Edward Jencks, July 22, 1959. 

Testimony of Arnold Johnson, Legislative Director of the Commu- 
nist Party, U.S.A. September 22, 1959. 

"Western Section of the Southern California District of the Commu- 
nist Party. Part 1, October 20, 1959 (will be printed during 1960). 

Western Section of the Southern California District of the Commu- 
nist Party. Part 2, October 21, 1959 (will be printed during 1960). 

Western Section of the Southern California District of the Commu- 
nist Party. Part 3, October 22, 1959 (will be printed during 1960) . 

Communist Activities Among Puerto Ricans in New York City and in 
Puerto Rico (New York City — Part 1), November 16 and 17; (San 
Juan, Puerto Rico — Part 2), November 18, 19, and 20, 1959 (will be 
printed during 1960) . 

117 



118 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

CONSULTATIONS 

Language as a Communist Weapon. Dr. Stefan T. Possony, March 

2, 1959. 

Communist Persecution of Churches in Red China and Northern 

Korea. Five Church Leaders: Rev. Peter Chu Pong, Rev. Shih- 

ping Wang, Rev. Tsin-tsai Liu, Rev. Samuel W. S. Cheng, Mr. 

Kyung Rai Kim, March 26, 1959. 
Control of the Arts in the Communist Empire. Ivan P. Bahriany, 

June 3, 1959. 
The Crimes of Khrushchev, Part 1. Mr. Eugene Lyons, September 

4, 1959. 
The Crimes of Khrushchev, Part 2. Dr. Lev E. Dobriansky, Mr. 

Petro Pavlovych, Prof. Dr. Ivan M. Malinin, Mr. Nicholas 

Prychodko, Mr. Constantin Kononenko, Mr. Mykola Lebed, Dr. 

Gregory Kostiuk, Prof. Ivan Wowchuk, Mr. Jurij Lawrynenko, 

September 9-11, 1959. 
The Crimes of Khrushchev, Part 3. Gen. Bela Kiraly and Mr. Joseph 

Kovago, September 10, 1959. 
The Crimes of Khrushchev, Part 4. Dr. Vilis Masens and Mr. 

Vaclovas Sidzikauskas, September 21, 1959. 

REPORTS 

Communist Legal Subversion, The Role of the Communist Lawyer. 

H. Rept. No. 41, February 16, 1959. 
Report on the Southern California District of the Communist Party, 

Structure — Objectives — Leadership, H. Rept. No. 259, April 3, 1959. 
Who Are They ?— Karl Marx. Part 10, August 28, 1959. 
Communist Lobbying Activities in the Nation's Capital. September 

3, 1959. 

The Communist Parcel Operation. September 25, 1959. 

Facts on Communism — Volume I — Communist Ideology. December 

1959. 
Annual Report for 1959. 

PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FROM GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

Following is a select list of publications of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities which are available from the Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. : 

Asterisks indicate publications which are presently available without charge 
from the Committee on Un-American Activities. 

REPORTS 

♦Communist conspiracy, strategy and tactics of world communism ; pt. 1, 
Communism outside United States: Price 

Sec. A, Marxist classics. Catalog No. 84-2 :H.rp. 2240 $0.60 

Sec. B, The U.S.S.R. Catalog No. 84-2 :H.rp.2241 1.50 

Sec. C, The World Congresses of the Communist International. Cat- 
alog No. 84-2 :H.rp.2242 1. 00 

Sec. D, Communist activities around the world. Catalog No. 84-2:- 

H.rp.2243 1. 50 

Sec. E, The Comintern and the CPUS A (Communist Party of the 

United States of America) > Catalog No. 84-2 :H.rp.2244_-.-^., — 1.00 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 119 

keports — continued 

Great pretense symposium on anti-Stalinism and 20th Congress of Soviet 

Communist Party; report from Committee on Un-American Activities, Price 

84th Cong., May 21, 1956. Catalog No. 84-2 :H.rp.2189 $0.45 

Trial by treason, National Committee to Secure Justice for Rosenbergs 

and Morton Sobell. Catalog No. 85-1 :Il.doc.200 .45 

Soviet total war, historic mission of violence and deceit : 

Vol. 1, Sept. 23, 1956. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :So 8/3/v.l 1.25 

Vol. 2, Sept. 30, 1956. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :So 8/3/V.2 1.50 

Communist political subversion — the campaign to destroy security pro- 
grams of the United States Government. Catalog No. 85-1 :H.rp.ll82__ .45 
♦Guide to subversive organizations and publications (and appendix), re- 
vised as of Jan. 2, 1957. Catalog No. 85-1 :H. Doc. 226 .45 

Operation abolition, campaign against House Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Government security pro- 
gram, by Emergency Civil Liberties Committee and its affiliates, Nov. 

8, 1957. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :Op 2 . 15 

Organized communism in the United States, Aug. 19, 1953. (Revised May 

1958). Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2:0 73/35/958 .45 

Chronicle of treason, Committee on Un-American Activities, 85th Cong., 
2d sess. (Reprint of series of articles by Francis E. Walter, appearing 
in Philadelphia Inquirer May 3-9, 1958.) Catalog No. Y 4Un 1/2 :T 

71/3 .15 

♦House Committee on Un-American Activities, what it is, what it does, July 

1958. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :Un 1/12/958 . 15 

Patterns of Communist espionage, report by Committee on Un-American 
Activities, 85th Cong., 2d sess., Jan. 1959. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :C 

73/101 .25 

Who are they? prepared at request of Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties by Legislative Reference Service of Library of Congress: 
Catalog No. Y4.Un 1/2 :W 62/ (pt.) 

Pt. 1, Khrushchev and Bulganin (U.S.S.R.) .10 

Pt. 2, Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai (Communist China) .10 

Pt. 3, Georgi Zhukov and Ivan Konev (U.S.S.R.) .10 

Pt. 4, Walter Ulbricht and Janos Kadar (East Germany and Hun- 
gary) . 10 

Pt. 5, Josip Broz Tito and Wladyslaw Gomulka (Yugoslavia-Poland)- .10 
Pt. 6, Kim II Sung and Ho Chi Minh (North Korea-North Viet-Nam)__ . 10 

Pt. 7, Maurice Thorez and Palmiro Togliatti (France-Italy) .10 

Pt. 8, Vicente Lombardo Toledano and Luis Carlos Prestes (Mexico- 
Brazil) .10 

Pt. 9, Enver Hoxha (Albania) and Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej 

(Rumania) . 15 

Pt. 10, Karl Marx .10 

Communist Legal Subversion (The Role of the Communist Lawyer), S6th 

Cong., 1st sess., Feb. 16, 1959. Catalog No. 86/1 :H. Rpt. 41 . 25 

♦The Kremlin's Espionage and Terror Organizations, testimony of Petr 
S. Deriabin, Former Officer of the U.S.S.R.'s Committee of State Secu- 
rity (KGB), 86th Cong., 1st sess., Released Mar. 17, 1959. Catalog No. 

Y 4.Un 1/2 :K88 . 15 

♦Report on the Southern California District of the Communist Party 
(Structure-Objectives-Leadership), 86th Cong., 1st sess., Apr. 3, 1959. 

Catalog No. 86/1 :H. Rpt. 259 . 35 

♦Communist Lobbying Activities in the Nation's Capital, Committee on 
Un-American Activities, 86th Cong., 1st sess., Catalog No. Y 4.Un 

1/2 :C73/105 . 10 

♦The Communist Parcel Operation, Committee on Un-American Activities, 

86th Cong., 1st sess., Catalog No. Y4.Un 1/2:C73/106 .15 

Facts On Communism, Volume I, The Communist Ideology — Committee 
on Un-American Activities, 86th Cong., 1st sess., Catalog No. Y 4.Un 
1/2 :C73/108/Vol. 1 . 45 

CONSULTATIONS 

International communism (revolt in the Satellites), staff consultations 
with Dr. Jan Karski, Mihail Farcasanu, Joseph Lipski, Monsignor Bela 
Varga, Bela Fabian, Stevan Barankovics, Stanislaw Mikolajezyk, 
Ferenc Nagy, Committee on Un-American Activities, 84th Cong., 2d sess., 
Oct. 29-Nov. 20, 1956. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 : C 73/72 . 25 



120 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

con stilt ation s — continued 

International communism (communist control of Estonia), staff consulta- 
tion with August Rei, Committee on Un-American Activities, House, 85th Price 

Cong., 1st sess., May 10, 1957. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :C 73/78 $0. 15 

International communism (the communist mind), staff consultation with 
Frederick Charles Schwarz, Committee on Un-American Activities, 
House, 85th Cong., 1st sess., May 29, 1957. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 : C 

73/76 . 15 

International communism (communist penetration of Malaya and Singa- 
pore), staff consultation with Kuo-Shuen Chang, Committee on Un- 
American Activities, House, 85th Cong., 1st sess., May 29, 1957. Catalog 

No. Y 4.Un 1/2 : C 73/79 . 15 

International communism (communist trade offensive), staff consulta- 
tions with Joseph Anthony Marcus, Christopher Emmet, Nicolas de 
Rochefort, Committee on Un-American Activities, House, 85th Cong., 

1st sess., June 26, 1957. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 : C 73/82 . 15 

♦International communism (present posture of the free world), staff con- 
sultation with Constantine Brown, Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities, House, 85th Cong., 1st sess., Oct. 21, 1957. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 

1/2 : C 73/86 . 15 

Ideological fallacies of communism, staff consultations with S. Andhil 
Fineberg, Fulton J. Sheen, Daniel A. Poling, Committee on Un-American 
Activities, House, 85th Cong., 1st sess., Sept. 4-Oct. 18, 1957. Catalog 

No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :C 73/84 .15 

International communism (communist designs on Indonesia and Pacific 
frontier), staff consultation with Charles A. Willoughby, former Chief 
of Intelligence, Far Eastern Command, under Douglas MacArthur, 
Committee on Un-American Activities, House, Dec. 16, 1957. Catalog 

No. Y 4.Un 1/2 : C 73/87 . 30 

Communist psychological warfare (brainwashing), consultation with Ed- 
ward Hunter. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 : C 73/90 . 15 

International communism (communist propaganda activities in Canada), 
consultation with Milan Jakubec, President of the Executive Council of 
Mutual Co-operation League of Canada, Apr. 3, 1958. Catalog No. 

Y 4.Un 1/2 :C 73/92 .15 

International communism (communist encroachment in the Far East), 
consultation with Major General Claire Lee Chennault, Committee on 
Un-American Activities, 85th Cong., 2d sess., Apr. 23, 1958. Catalog 

No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :C 73/94 .15 

Communist strategy of protracted conflict, consultation with Robert 
Strausz-Hupe, Alvin J. Cottrell, James E. Dougherty, Committee on 
Un-American Activities, 85th Cong., 2d sess., May 20, 1958. Catalog 

No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :C 73/97 .15 

♦Ideology of freedom vs. ideology of communism, consultation with Charles 
Wesley Lowry, chairman and executive director of Foundation for Re- 
ligious Action in Social and Civil Order, Committee on Un-American 
Activities, 85th Cong., 2d sess., June 5, 1958. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 

1/2 :F 87 • 15 

Irrationality of communism, consultation with Gerhart Niemeyer, Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, 85th Cong., 2d sess., Aug. 8, 1958. 

Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :C 73/99 . 15 

♦International communism in Yugoslavia, myth of "Titoism", consulta- 
tion with Dr. Alex N. Dragnich, Committee on Un-American Activities, 
85th Cong., 2d sess., Sept. 15, 1958. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :C 73/100— . 15 
♦Language as a communist weapon, consultation with Dr. Stefan T. 

Possony. Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :L 26 . 20 

The Crimes of Khrushchev — Committee on Un-American Activities, 86th 
Cong., 1st sess., Catalog No. Y 4.Un 1/2 :K52 : 

Part 1, Sept. 4, 1959 • 15 

Part 2, Sept. 9-11, 1959 -25 

Part 3, Sept. 10, 1959 • 15 

Part 4, Sept. 21, 1959 • 15 

♦Communist Persecution of Churches in Red China and Northern Korea, 
Consultation with Rev. Peter Chu Pong, Rev. Shih-ping Wang, Rev. 
Tsin-tsai Liu, Rev. Samuel W. S. Cheng, Mr. Kyung Rai Kim, Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, 86th Cong., 1st sess., March 26, 1959. 
Catalog No. Y 4. Un 1/2 :C 47 • 15 



CHAPTER VI 
REFERENCE SERVICE 

Thank you for the very informative and factual re- 
port * * *. I am extremely impressed with the impartial 
approach which your committee has used in preparing this 
report, and I should like to state for the record that this 
is the sort of information and approach that I can understand 
and appreciate. 

The foregoing excerpt of a letter from a Member of the Congress 
exemplifies the appraisal by the members of the reports which the 
committee furnishes to executive agencies of the Government and to 
Members of the Congress. These reports are based on a vast and 
ever increasing amount of public source material which the committee 
integrates into a single, well-classified and indexed collection. In 
1959, there were received from the Members of the Congress 1,733 
separate requests for information from committee public source 
material involving one or more individuals or organizations. This 
represented a 25% increase over similar requests made by members 
of the Congress during 1958. In response to these requests the 
reference staff of the committee ran checks of the committee public 
source material on 2,984 individuals and on 1,239 organizations and 
general subjects. These checks revealed information in 1,765 cases, 
and written reports were supplied by the committee to the ^members 
requesting the information. 

Twenty-four agencies of the executive department of the Govern- 
ment used the reference service of the committee during 1959. 
Several of these agencies have representatives who are regularly 
assigned to the committee offices for the purpose of procuring infor- 
mation from the committee's public source material. 

In servicing the investigative and research units of the committee's 
staff, the reference section, during 1959, processed 1,351 staff requests 
involving checks for information on 2,802 individuals, 800 organiza- 
tions, and on a number of specific subjects. This processing involved 
the preparation of 2,395 exhibits and the preparation of 1,301 written 
reports. 

121 



51117—60- 



CHAPTER VII 

CONTEMPT PROCEEDINGS 

The House of Representatives in 1959 voted contempt citations 
against Edwin A. Alexander and Martin Popper, who, as witnesses 
before the Committee on Un-American Activities, refused to answer 
pertinent questions on constitutional grounds which specifically 
omitted the self-incrimination privilege of the fifth amendment. 
House contempt resolutions have been certified by the Speaker to the 
proper United States Attorneys for prosecutive action. The case of 
Edwin A. Alexander has not as yet been presented to a Grand Jury. 
Martin Popper was indicted November 24, 1959, and his case has been 
set for trial March 7, 1960. 

Edtvin A. Alexander, a resident of Chicago, was a witness before 
the committee on May 6, 1959, in Chicago, at which time the commit- 
tee was investigating Communist penetration of vital industries and 
current techniques of the Communist Party in the Chicago area. He 
refused to testify regarding the identification of members of the Com- 
munist Party who were active in 1956. 

Martin Popper, former secretary of the National Lawyers Guild and 
presently engaged in the practice of law in the city of New York, was 
a witness before the committee in Washington, D.C., on June 5, 1959, 
at which time the committee was studying methods of filling the 
"gap'' in Federal law created by the passport decision of the Supreme 
Court in the case of Rockwell Kent and Walter Briehl v. John Foster 
Dulles. Mr. Popper refused to answer three questions relating to 
Communist Party activities or affiliation which he had left unan- 
swered in his 1958 application for issuance of a passport. 

SUPREME COURT DECISIONS IN 1959 

The Supreme Court of the United States had occasion to review 
during 1959 two cases of contempt of the House of Representatives, 
which had their origin before the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties. One was the case of Lloyd Barenblatt whose conviction was 
affirmed on June 8, 1959, by a divided court. The other was the case 
of Horace Chandler Davis, whose application for a writ of certiorari 
was denied on December 8, 1959. A sentence of 6 months in jail and 
a fine of $250 was imposed in both cases. A recent motion to reduce 
the Barenblatt sentence was denied. 

The Barenblatt case is a landmark in the field of contempt law. 
Barenblatt was identified as a member of the Communist Party and 
was cited for contempt arising from his refusal to answer pertinent 
questions before the Committee on Un-American Activities on June 
28, 1954. His conviction in the District Court was affirmed by a di- 
vided court in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of 
Columbia. An order was entered in the Supreme Court of the United 

122 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 123 

States on June 24, 1957, granting certiorari and remanding the case 
for consideration under the decision in the Watkins case. On January 
16, 1958, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Colum- 
bia for the second time affirmed the conviction by a divided court. It 
was on an appeal from this latter decision that the Supreme Court 
of the United States reversed its trend in contempt cases and sustained 
the conviction. 

The major issue involved in the Supreme Court decision was the 
construction of the language of the Supreme Court contained in the 
Watkins ease relative to the validity of the resolution creating the 
standing Committee on Un-American Activities. In holding that 
the decision in the Watkins case cannot be read as standing for 
the proposition that the enabling resolution creating the commit- 
tee is invalid because of vagueness, Justice Harlan, in rendering 
the opinion of the Court, stated that "in pursuance of its legisla- 
tive concerns in the domain of 'national security' the House has 
clothed the Un-American Activities Committee with pervasive 
authority to investigate Communist activities in this country." 

The Davis case is second in importance only to the Barenblatt case. 
Davis pursued graduate studies at Harvard University in 1950, and 
subsequently was employed in the teaching profession at the Univer- 
sity of Michigan. When appearing as a witness before the committee 
in Lansing, Michigan, on May 10, 1954, he refused to answer pertinent 
questions relating to Communist Party activities and purposes within 
the teaching profession. The case was tried on November 19, 1956. 
A judgment of guilty was entered on June 27, 1957, ten days after the 
Watkins case was decided. Conviction was affirmed by the Circuit 
Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit on August 21, li)59, 269 Fed. 
2d 357. 

This case arose prior to the Watkins case, but the District Court 
judgment was not handed down until subsequently. The case is 
particularly noteworthy for the reason that Judge Kent of the Dis- 
trict Court for the Western District of Michigan was the first member 
of the judiciary to disagree with the sweeping statements made by 
way of obiter dicta by Chief Justice Warren in the Watkins case rela- 
tive to investigatory power of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, a conclusion reached much later in the Barenblatt case and 
followed by the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in 
affirming the Davis case. 

CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS DECISIONS IN 1959 

In addition to the decision of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the 
Sixth Circuit affirming the Davis case, the convictions of Carl Braden 
and Frank Wilkinson were affirmed by the United States Court of 
Appeals for the Fifth Circuit on the 10th day of December, 1959, and 
the 14th day of December, 1959, respectively. 

Carl Braden, formerly a newspaper copy editor, appeared as a wit- 
ness before the committee in Atlanta, Georgia, on July 29, 1958. He 
was convicted on January 30, 1959, and sentenced to 1 year in jail for 
refusal to answer pertinent questions relating to membership in the 
Communist Party and his participation in Communist propaganda 
activities focused on the South. He assigned as reasons for his refusal 



124 ANNUAL REPORT ON' UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

to answer questions, the first amendment to the United States Consti- 
tution, invalidity of the committee, and lack of pertinency of the 
questions to the subject under inquiry ; and these were the issues in the 
case. The conviction was affirmed on the basis of the decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States in the Barenblatt case. 

Frank Wilkinson, a resident of Los Angeles, California, was sub- 
penaed as a witness before the Committee on Un-American Activities 
at its hearings conducted in Atlanta, Georgia, on July 29, 1958. Wil- 
kinson, at the time, was engaged in Atlanta in the activities of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, of which he was an official. 
He refused to ansAver pertinent questions relating to the activities and 
purposes of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee in the Atlanta 
area and based his refusal to answer on the claim that the Committee 
on Un-American Activities was illegally established and on what he 
termed "a matter of conscience and personal responsibility." His 
conviction was likewise sustained on the basis of the decision in the 
Barenblatt case. 

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DECISIONS IN 1959 

In addition to the convictions of Carl Bidden and Frank Wilkinson 
on January 30, 1959, Louis Earl Hartman was convicted in San Fran- 
cisco, California, on July 23, 1959, and sentenced to 6 months in jail 
and fined $100. Donald Wheeldin was convicted in Los Angeles on 
December 11, 1959, sentencing being postponed to February 8, 1960. 
Sidney Turo.ff was convicted in Buffalo, New York, on the 14th day of 
December, 1959, and sentenced to 90 days in jail and a fine of $100. 
The indictment against Herbert Ingerman was dismissed by the Court 
on December 14, 1959, at Buffalo, New York, and the indictment 
against William E. Davis, obtained in St. Louis in November 1950, 
was dismissed in August 1959. 

CASES PENDING 

Convictions in the cases of John T. Gojaek, Goldie Watson, Norton 
Anthony Russell and Bernhard Deutch are pending on appeal in the 
United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. The 
following cases are awaiting trial in district courts: Peter Seeger, 
Elliott Sullivan, George Tyne, Frank Grumman, Bernard Silber, 
Robert Lehrer, Victor Malis, Alfred James Samter, Edward Yellin, 
and Harvey O'Connor, in addition to Edwin A. Alexander and Martin 
Popper, mentioned at the beginning of this section. 

IS THE PENDULUM SLOWLY SWINGING BACK TO THE PRE-1950 
RECORD OF SUSTAINED CONVICTIONS IN CONTEMPT OF CONGRESS 
CASES? 

If the foregoing question is to be answered in the affirmative, the 
Congress will be encouraged to anticipate greater success in the future 
in obtaining information vital to the defense of the Nation and essen- 
tial for self-preservation of the Government. If the question is to be 
answered in the negative, neAv means of approach must be devised to 
prevent the Congress from becoming impotent in this vital area. 

The committee is indebted to William Hitz, Assistant United States 
Attorney for the District of Columbia, one of the country's foremost 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 125 

authorities in this Held, for the following statistical information re- 
lating to contempt cases in the District of Columbia, where approxi- 
mately two-thirds of all contempt cases originate and are tried. 

Title 2, Section 192, of the United States Code, commonly referred 
to as the Contempt Statute, was enacted into law on January 24, 1857, 
more than 100 years ago. From that date to and including the convic- 
tions of the Hollywood Ten in 1950, there were 64 congressional con- 
tempt citations in the District of Columbia resulting in 62 indict- 
ments. Of these citations, 39 originated with the Committee on Un- 
American Activities. 

Out of the 53 1 cases tried between 1857 and 1950, there were 42 con- 
victions and 11 acquittals. Not one of the 4-2 convictions was reversed 
on appeal. Jail sentences were imposed in 32 of the cases. Townsend, 
one of those sentenced, was pardoned, and Eisler, another, absconded. 
Therefore, 30 defendants served jail sentences under congressional 
contempt prosecutions in the District of Columbia prior to 1950. 

The foregoing record of unreversed convictions prior to 1950 stands 
out in vivid contrast with the record since that date. The first re- 
versal ordered by the United States Supreme Court of any statutory 
congressional contempt conviction from any jurisdiction was one in 
which the Court approved the reversal by the Court of Appeals in 
the conviction of Edioard A. Rumely in the District of Columbia. 2 
Rumely, secretary of an organization known as the Committee for 
Constitutional Government, refused in June 1950 to disclose to the 
Select Committee on Lobbying Activities of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, the names of those who made purchases of a certain book 
for distribution. Avoiding constitutional questions relating to the 
first amendment, the Supreme Court of the United States held that 
Rumely was not required to furnish this information on the ground 
that the committee had no authority under its enabling resolution to 
compel its production. This was followed by reversals of convictions 
by the Supreme Court in the Emspak, Quinn, Bart, Watkins, Sacher, 
and Flaxer cases and by the United States Court of Appeals for the 
District of Columbia in the Bowers, Keeney, Grossman, O' 'Connor, 
Singer, Brewster* LaPoma, and Miller cases. 

From 1950 to December 31, 1959, there have been 102 congressional 
contempt citations in the District of Columbia, three withdrawn cita- 
tions not being included. Of this number, 83 were indicted, 17 were 
ignored by grand juries, 1 died before indictment, and the record of 
disposition of 1 cannot be located. Out of the 83 indicted, 30 were 
convicted, and 47 were either acquitted or dismissed at the instance of 
the Government. 3 Seven cases are awaiting trial. Fifteen of the 30 
convictions were reversed on appeal and 9 cases are pending in the 
Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. Only one of 
the 16 convictions reviewed by the appellate courts in the District of 
Columbia since 1950 has been finally sustained and that was the 
Barenblatt case decided June 8, 1959. 

1 Included are pleas of guilty (2) and nolo contendere (2). 

2 Available records show that prior to this first reversal by the Supreme Court of a 
contempt conviction, circuit courts of appeals had reversed convictions of Marcello and 
Poretto (Louisiana, 1952), Aiuppa (Ohio, 1952), and Bowers (District of Columbia, 1953). 
None of these cases reached the Supreme Court. 

3 The conviction of Mary Jane Keeney was reversed in the Circuit Court of Appeals 
and on retrial she was acquitted. Her case is included both in the number of convictions 
and the number of acquittals. 



126 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

Henry Grunewald, one of those convicted of contempt of Congress, 
was placed on probation. Subsequently, he violated the provisions 
of his probation and was required to serve his sentence. Timothy 
CMara was likewise convicted and was given a jail sentence to run 
concurrently with a sentence which he was then serving. It can there- 
fore be said that the only jail sentence required to be served in the 
District of Columbia in congressional contempt cases subsequent to 
1950, other than the violation of probation case and the concurrent 
sentence case, is that imposed upon Barenblatt. 

The disposition of the congressional contempt cases in the District 
of Columbia from 1857 to the present time, is reflected by the follow- 
ing chart : 



Number of citations 

Citations withdrawn and not included 

Died before indictment 

Citations ignored by grand juries 

Indicted 

Died before trial 

Convicted 

Acquitted or dismissed by Government 

Jail sentences imposed 

Placed on probation 

Jail sentences served (not including Grunewald) 

Convictions reversed 

Convictions sustained on final review 

Convictions pending on appeal (6 are jail sentences) 



1857-1949 


1950-60 


64 


102 





3 





1 


1 


17 


62 


83 


1 





142 


30 


19 


147 


32 


16 


10 


14 


30 


2 





15 


13 


U 





9 



Total 



166 
3 
1 

18 

145 

1 

72 

66 

48 

24 

32 

15 

14 

9 



i The conviction of Mary Jane Keeney was reversed in the Circuit Court of Appeals and on retrial she 
was acquitted. Her case is included both in the number of convictions and the number of acquittals. 
2 In addition, there were five convictions not reviewed on appeal. 

The above chart depicts the disposition of all District of Columbia 
cases of contempt of Congress. The following chart is limited to 
those dealing with subversives : 



Number of citations - _ 

Indicted 

Convicted 

Jail sentences imposed 

Probation 

Reversed 

Pending on appeal 

Jail sentences served. . 



1857-1949 



39 

38 

35 

27 

8 





26 



1950-57 



51 

48 

23 

14 

9 

11 

9 

1 



Total 



90 
86 
58 
41 
17 
11 
9 
27 



Clarence Hiskey, an atomic scientist alleged to have engaged in So- 
viet espionage, was the first witness to be cited for contempt of Con- 
gress after claiming the fifth-amendment privilege against self-incrim- 
ination. Hiskey refused to answer many questions concerning his 
activities when he appeared before the committee on May 24, 1949. He 
was cited for contempt, not because he refused to answer questions 
based upon this privilege, but because it was considered that he had 
waived the privilege or had claimed it prematurely, without right, or in 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 127 

bad faith. There were earlier instances of reliance upon the fifth 
amendment by witnesses who were not cited for contempt. 

Yukio Abe and Ralph Tohunaga were similarly cited as a result of 
refusing to answer questions of this committee in Honolulu, Hawaii, 
in April 1950. Abe and Tokwnaga were indicted and brought to 
trial m Honolulu on January 15, 1951, and on the same day were 
acquitted, the Court sustaining their reliance on the fifth amend- 
ment before the committee, This is believed to be the first occasion 
in which a court applied to a witness before a congressional committee 
the fifth-amendment provision that no person "shall be compelled in 
any criminal case to be a witness against himself." Clarence Hiskey 
was acquitted in the District of Columbia on April 13, 1951. 

Then followed efforts by Federal prosecutors in Washington and in 
other parts of the country to determine in the courts the limits or avail- 
ability of this asserted reason for refusing to answer questions of the 
legislative branch. Not only did all of the prosecutions of fifth- 
amendment witnesses result in acquittals, but no limitations appear 
to have been established in the courts to the use of this privilege as 
an excuse, and later a defense, for refusals to answer. Not a single 
sustained conviction was had where this privilege was actually 
claimed and was not waived by other answers of the witness. Unlike 
the individual's first-amendment rights of silence and freedom of 
speech, his freedom from self-incrimination, when claimed, is held to 
prevail over Congress' right to inform itself in its legislative func- 
tions, and that even where the national security is involved. 4 

Frequent inquiry is made as to the maximum penalty for con- 
tempt of Congress, and the range of sentences imposed. Title 2, Sec- 
tion 192, provides that a person who refuses to answer any question 
pertinent to the inquiry shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, 
punishable by a fine of not more than $1,000 nor less than $100 and 
imprisonment in a common jail for not less than 1 month, nor more 
than 12 months. The record of jail sentences imposed in the District 
of Columbia from 1857 to 1959, inclusive, together with the name of 
the Judge imposing the sentence and the date of imposition, is given 
below : 

SENTENCES OF 3 DAYS 

Chapman (Cole, J., 1896) 

Sinclair (Hitz, J., 1929) 

Townsend (Gordon, J. Apr. 11, 1938; pardoned Apr. 18, 1938) 

Russell (Christianson, J., 1956) 

SENTENCE OF 2 MONTHS 

Flaxer (Matthews, J., 1953) 

SENTENCES OF 9 DAYS 

Fields (Holtzoff, J., 1947) O'Mara (Holtzoff, J., 1954) 

Deutch (Holtzoff, J., 1956) 

4 Hitz on Summary of Contempt Proceedings, XIV The Federal Bar Journal 165. 



128 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

SENTENCES OF 3 MONTHS 

Auslander (Keech, J., 1947) Fast (Keech, J., 1947) 

Chodorov (Keech, J., 1947) Leider (Keech, J., 1947) 

Justiz (Keech, J., 1947) Magana (Keech, J., 1947) 

Lustig (Keech, J., 1947) Stern (Keech, J., 1947) 

Miller (Keech, J., 1947) Fleischman (Keech, J., 1948) 

Bryan (Keech, J., 1948) Morford (Morris, J., 1950) 

Marshall (Keech, J., 1948) Liveright (Keech, J., 1957) 

Bart (Matthews, J., 1951) Price (Keech, J., 1957) 
Bradley (Keech, J., 1947) 

SENTENCES OF 4 MONTHS 

Kamp (Moore, J., 1948) Knowles (Kizley, J., 1957) 

SENTENCES OF G MONTHS 

Barsky (Keech, J., 1947) Biberman (Keech, J., 1950) 

Dmytryk (Keech, J., 1950) Emspak (Letts, J., 1951) 

Quinn (Kirkland, J., 1951) Barenblatt (Holtzoff, J., 1956) 

Sacher (Holtzoff, J., 1956) Shelton (Rizley, J., 1957) 

SENTENCE OF 9 MONTHS 

Gojack (Pine, J., 1956) 

SENTENCES OF 12 MONTHS 

Dennis (Pine, J., 1947) Eisler (Holtzoff, J., 1947) 

Lawson (Curran, J., 1948) Trnmbo (Pine, J., 1948) 

Maltz (Pine, J., 1950) Bessie (Pine, J., 1950) 

Ornitz (Pine, J., 1950) Scott (Curran, J., 1950) 

Larclner (Curran, J., 1950) Cole (Curran, J., 1950) 

Grossman (Holtzoff, J., 1954) Brewster (Sirica, J., 1958) 

The committee has viewed with alarm the trend of decisions by the 
Supreme Court of the United States and the lower courts of appeal in 
contempt cases reviewed since 1950, but it is encouraged in the belief 
that the recent decision in the Barenblatt case, and even more recent 
decision in the Michigan case of Horace Chandler Davis, indicates a 
trend in the direction of a better understanding and appreciation of 
the vital investigatory problems of Congress. 



CHAPTER VIII 

LEGISLATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS 

In its Annual Report for 1958, this committee made a number of 
legislative recommendations for the purpose of lessening the impact 
of court decisions on the enforcement of laws and regulations relating 
to subversives. These recommendations were in the fields of : 

1. Passport legislation; 

2. State sedition laws; 

3. The "organization" clause of the Smith Act; 

4. The "advocacy" clause of the Smith Act; and 

5. The Federal Loyalty Program. 

The committee, as the result of continued investigations, is of the 
opinion that there is still urgent need for the adoption of remedial 
legislation in each of these fields. 

1. PASSPORTS 

The committee believes that the most critical problem in the pass- 
port field is the lack of legislative authority in the Secretary of State 
to deny passports to dangerous participants in the international Com- 
munist conspiracy. 

In its Annual Report for 1956, this committee emphasized the im- 
portance of statutory recognition of the basic regulations then govern- 
ing passport matters and the giving of specific statutory authority to 
the Secretary of State to issue substantive regulations in the passport 
field. 

In June 1958, by a 5-4 majority, the Supreme Court decided in the 
Kent-Briehl and the Dayton cases that the Secretary of State's regu- 
lations embodying the executive policy of denying passports to sup- 
porters of the world Communist movement, were invalid because of 
a lack of specific legislative authority. This "gap" found in the law 
is pointed out in this committee's Annual Report for the year 1958, 
with an urgent appeal for the adoption of strong legislation in keep- 
ing with the committee's 1956 recommendations. 

Extensive passport hearings were held from April to June 1959, 
with the appearance of John W. Hanes, Jr., Administrator of the 
Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs of the Department of State, 
as a witness. This testimony pointed up the immediate necessity of 
remedial legislation in this field. 

Eighteen bills, including H.R. 2232 by the chairman, were intro- 
duced during the 1st session of the Congress dealing with the prob- 
lem of issuance of passports. H.R. 9069, introduced on September 3, 
1959, represents a compromise approach to the subject and was passed 
by the House of Representatives September 8, 1959. There has been 
no Senate action. This bill provides for the denial or revocation of a 
passport of any person who is, or has been since January 1, 1951, a 
51117—60 10 129 



130 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

member of, or affiliated with, the Communist Party, or knowingly 
engages, or has knowingly engaged since January 1, 1951, in activities 
intended to further the international Communist movement. 

The committee recognizes the difficulty in reaching all the problems 
in the field of passport law at one time in one bill and, therefore, 
urges the adoption of H.R. 9069 as a beginning, and suggests further 
study of the previous recommendations of this committee and the 
provisions of the other bills presented in this field. The committee 
deems it appropriate to suggest to the State Department that, pend- 
ing the adoption of effective legislation authorizing the denial of pass- 
ports to supporters of international communism, security investiga- 
tions of applicants for passports be made in order that the Government 
may be fully informed of the subversive character and dangerous 
potentialities of passport applicants and holders as a matter of nor- 
mal precaution against the sudden creation of a national emergency. 

2. STATE SEDITION LAWS 

As pointed out in the committee's Annual Report for 1958, the 
sedition laws of 42 States of the Union fell with the decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Pennsylvania v. 
Nelson, 350 U.S. 497 (1956), which held that the Smith Act pre- 
empted the field of sedition and subversion in favor of the Federal 
Government. This decision, it was asserted, reads into the statute the 
legislative intent of Congress to occupy the whole field of the law of 
sedition or subversion to the exclusion of State and local governments. 

By a divided court, in the case of Uphaus v. Wyman, 360 U.S. 
72 (1959), the Supreme Court appears to have limited to some extent 
its holding in the Nelson case by stating that it was the precise hold- 
ing of the court in the Nelson case that "the Smith Act, which pro- 
hibits the knowing advocacy of the overthrow of the Government of 
the United States by force and violence, supersedes the enforceability 
of the Pennsylvania Sedition Act which proscribed the same conduct." 
Notwithstanding this effort to lessen the impact of the Nelson deci- 
sion upon State sedition laws, the great uncertainty that exists in the 
state of law relating to this vital subject should be clarified once and 
for all by congressional action. 

Among numerous bills offered on this subject in both the House 
and Senate during the 85th Congress, H.R. 3, providing that no act 
of Congress should be construed as indicating a congressional intent 
to occupy the field in which such act operates to the exclusion of all 
State laws on the subject matter, unless such act contains^ an express 
provision to that effect, was passed by the House, but failed by one 
vote of adoption by the Senate. An identical bill was offered as H.R. 
3 in the 1st session of the 86th Congress which passed the House on 
June 24, 1959, but has not yet reached the floor of the Senate. 

This committee strongly recommends that the indicated remedial 
legislation be enacted into law. 

3. THE "ORGANIZATION" CLAUSE OF THE SMITH ACT 

Congressional intent was likewise involved in the Yates case, in 
which *the Supreme Court of the United States dealt a lethal blow 
to the Smith Act. The Court held that the statute of limitations 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 131 

barred conviction, since the term "organize" as used in the Smith Act 
refers only to the initial formation of the Communist Party in 19-15, 
as distinguished from continuing acts of organizing and recruiting. 

The chairman of this committee offered a bill during the 85th 
Congress for the purpose of clarifying the meaning: of the term 
"organize" as it is used in the Smith Act, Title 18, U.S.C., 2385, 
making the term applicable to the recruiting of new members, the 
forming of new units, and the regrouping or expansion of existing 
groups, classes, and other units of such society, group, or assembly 
of persons. This bill was passed by the House in the 85th Congress, 
but did not come to a vote in the Senate. It was reoffered during 
the 1st session of the 86th Congress as H.R. 2369, and passed the 
House on March 2, 1959. It has not come to a vote in the Senate. 

The committee is of the opinion that if the Smith Act is to remain 
one of our most effective weapons against the Communist conspiracy, 
it is vital that H.R. 2369 be enacted into law, and it urgently recom- 
mends its passage. 

4. THE "ADVOCACY" CLAUSE OF THE SMITH ACT 

The need for clarification of congressional intent with respect to 
the terms "advocate" and "teach" as used in the Smith Act is indicated 
by the decision of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the 
Second Circuit in reversing the conviction of six second-rank Com- 
munist leaders for violation of the Smith Act, United States v. James 
E. Jackson, et al., CCA. 2d, 1958, 257 Fed. 2d 830. This decision 
was based upon the "call to action" test laid down by the Supreme 
Court of the United States in the Yates case. In commenting upon 
the holding in the Yates case, the Court stated : 

In distinguishing this extremely narrow difference between 
advocacy or teaching which constitutes a violation from that 
which does not, the Supreme Court said : "The essential dis- 
tinction is that those to whom the advocacy is addressed must 
be urged to do something now or in the future, rather than 
merely believe in something." 

The committee is of the opinion that the Supreme Court of the 
United States in the Yates case, in attempting to construe the terms 
"advocate" and "teach" as terms of art, failed to ascertain the obvious 
intent of Congress as disclosed by the customary meaning of those 
terms when used in conjunction with the terms "duty" and "neces- 
sity." The question of whether advocacy and teaching of the duty 
and necessity of overthrowing the Government by use of force and 
violence constitutes mere advocacy and teaching of an abstract doctrine 
or whether it is advocacy or teaching directed at promoting of un- 
lawful action, was neither considered nor decided by the Court in the 
Yates case. To construe the terms "advocate" and "teach" out of the 
context in which they were used could only result in doing violence to 
the plain intent of Congress in the use of those terms. 

The chairman, during the 85th Congress, offered an amendment to 
Title 18, United States Code, Section 2385, which sought to clarify 
the congressional intent by defining the terms "advocate," "teach," 
"necessity," "force," and "violence," as used in that section. The bill 
was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, which took no action. 



132 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

An identical bill was offered by the chairman on January 9, 1959, and 
no action has as yet been taken. 

The committee considers it essential that the Smith Act be strength- 
ened and buttressed by the adoption of the suggested legislation and 
the consideration of any other legislative proposal which would renew 
the effectiveness of the Smith Act as a weapon in the national defense 
and the internal security of the country. 

5. FEDERAL LOYALTY PROGRAM 

The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the 
case of Cole v. Young, 351 U.S. 536 (1956), has limited greatly the 
effectiveness of the Summary Suspension Act of 1950 and Executive 
Order 10450 issued thereunder. The Act involved provides that the 
heads of certain Government agencies may suspend a civilian officer 
or employee whenever he shall determine such termination necessary 
or advisable in the interest of the national security of the United 
States. In holding that dismissal of an employee was not authorized 
by the 1950 Act, the Court held that the term "National Security" is 
used in the Act in a definite and limited sense and relates only to those 
activities which are directly concerned with the Nation's safety. 

The committee views with alarm the fact that 76 civilian employees 
suspended by the heads of Government agencies under the Federal 
Loyalty Program have been reemployed since the decision in the Cole 
case. Congress should be reminded of the statement in the dissenting 
opinion by Mr. Justice Clark that — 

It is not realistic to say that the Government can be pro- 
tected merely by applying the act to sensitive jobs. One never 
knows just which job is sensitive. The janitor might prove 
to be in as important a spot securitywise as the top employee 
in the building. The Congress decided that the most effective 
way to protect the Government was through the procedures 
laid down in the act. 

H.R. 1989, introduced by the chairman on January 9, 1959, amends 
the Summary Suspension Act of August 26, 1950, by denning the term 
"National Security" to mean all United States Government activities 
involving the national safety and security, including, but not limited 
to, activities concerned with the protection of the United States from 
internal subversion or foreign aggression. The bill also provides that 
all employees of any department or agency of the United States Gov- 
ernment are deemed to be employed in an activity of the Government 
involving national security. 

The committee is of the opinion that stopgap legislation is vital to the 
success of the Federal Loyalty Program and recommends the passage 
of H.E. 1989. 

OTHER LEGISLATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. THE PROBLEM OF FORMAL COMMUNIST PARTY MEMBERSHIP 

The committee has learned, as the result of extensive investigation, 
that a plan is in operation by which members of the Communist Party 
go through the form of terminating technical membership, but remain 
adherents to the Communist Party and continue their Communist 



ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 133 

Party activities. This is a Communist Party technique designed to 
evade Communist-control laws and to gain adherence among those who 
seek to operate with anonymity. 

The committee is not ready to recommend specific legislation de- 
signed to solve this troublesome problem. It will continue its study 
of means by which Sections 4 and 5 of the Communist Control Act of 
1954 may be amended to enlarge the definition of "membership" to in- 
clude "affiliation." 

2. INDUSTRIAL SECURITY 

An important phase of over-all security in the United States is the 
right of a private corporation engaged in developing and producing 
for the Armed Forces goods involving secrets, to exclude from its 
premises persons not having security clearances. In the case of Greene 
v. McElroy, 360 U.S. 474 (1959), the Supreme Court held that regu- 
lations promulgated by the Secretary of Defense relating to this 
subject were without explicit authorization by either the President or 
Congress and, therefore, an employee lacking in such security clear- 
ance cannot be discharged as a security risk without according him 
the right of cross-examination and confrontation. It is vital to the 
national defense that legislation be enacted meeting all constitutional 
tests which will permit the Government to protect industry engaged in 
national defense without destroying its intelligence system in accom- 
plishing that result. 

Evidence has been received in committee hearings showing the 
purposeful planting of Communist Party members in private industry- 
engaged hi the production of highly important defense material. 
The lack of congressional or Presidential authority to establish an 
effective industrial security program constitutes a serious gap in the 
law pertaining to the national defense, and the committee recom- 
mends that immediate attention be given to this vital matter. 

H.R. 3693 is illustrative of a number of bills introduced during 
1959 relating to this subject. It authorizes the Federal Government 
to guard strategic defense facilities against individuals believed to be 
disposed to commit acts of espionage, sabotage, or other subversion. 

The chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities in- 
troduced H.R. 8121 on July 7, 1959, specifically to overcome the de- 
cision in the Greene case. It was reported out by this committee on 
September 2, 1959, with the recommendation that the bill do pass, 
accompanied by Report No. 1122. 

3. VESSELS AND PORT SECURITY 

The Magnuson Act, 50 U.S.C. 191, 192, and 194, was enacted in 
1950 during the Korean crisis. This Act authorized the President to 
promulgate rules and regulations to safeguard against destruction, 
loss, or injury from sabotage or other subversive acts, vessels, harbors, 
ports, and waterfront facilities. Pursuant to its provisions, there was 
established a system whereby persons who are security risks may be 
denied employment upon merchant ships. 

The Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in the case 
of Parker v. Lester, 227 F. 2d 708 (1955), although recognizing that 
merchant seamen are in a sensitive position, in that the opportunities 
for serious sabotage are numerous, struck down the legislation on con- 
stitutional grounds. Granting that the Government may adopt ap- 
propriate means for excluding security risks from employment on 



134 ANNUAL REPORT ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES FOR 1959 

merchant vessels, it was held that this cannot be done by adopting a 
screening system which denies certain procedural requirements. 

The committee believes that Congress can enact valid legislation 
protecting the public interest in this field and that the necessity for 
such legislation is clearly apparent. It recommends the enactment 
of legislation adopting a screening system which will meet constitu- 
tional tests without destroying the security program. 

4. COMMUNIST LOBBYING ACTIVITIES 

A special report issued by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties in 1959 revealed that identified Communists and persons fronting 
for Communist-controlled organizations are engaged in accelerated 
operations as paid lobbyists in the Nation's Capital. 

In keeping with the committee's views and recommendations, the 
chairman introduced H.E. 9054 on Sept. 3, 1959, to amend the Sub- 
versive Activities Control Act of 1950 so as to require certain addi- 
tional information from persons required to register as lobbyists, 
including disclosure of Communist Party membership at any time 
since January 1, 1918. 

The purpose of this bill is to require lobbyists for Red-dominated 
organizations to disclose this fact so that Members of the Congress 
can distinguish them from the representatives of legitimate organi- 
zations which retain lobbyists in Washington. The bill was referred 
to this committee late in the first session, and it is anticipated will be 
reported out during the second session. 

5. ORDERS BY SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES CONTROL BOARD FOR REGIS- 
TRATION MADE APPLICABLE TO SUCCESSOR ORGANIZATIONS 

Investigations and hearings by the committee, as demonstrated in 
the section of this report dealing with Communist Training Opera- 
tions, reveal Communist techniques of reorganizing under another 
name organizations required to register under the provisions of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950. To guard against this practice, the 
chairman of this committee introduced H.R. 8429 on July 28, 1959. 

This bill, referred to the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
amends the Internal Security Act of 1950 to provide for a procedure 
under which certain final orders of the Subversive Activities Control 
Board with respect to Communist organizations may be made appli- 
cable to successor organizations. It was amended in committee, voted 
out as amended with the recommendation that it do pass, and was 
passed by the House on September 7, 1959. There has been no action 
by the Senate. Its approval is recommended. 

6. LABELING OF FOREIGN COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

The chairman included in H.R. 2232, introduced by him on January 
12, 1959, a section dealing with "Amendments of Foreign Agents Reg- 
istration Act." The purpose of the amendments is to counteract more 
effectively Communist schemes and devices being used to avoid those 
prohibitions of the Act requiring labeling of Communist propaganda. 

Investigations and hearings have continued through the 1st ses- 
sion of the 86th Congress in order that the committee may give fur- 
ther study and consideration to the involved problems relating to 
this subject. 



INDEX 



Individuals 

A Page 

Abe, Yukio 127 

Abt, John J 75 

Ace vedo, Ramon 70 

Agosto, Victor 70 

Aiuppa (Joseph) 125 

Alexander, Edwin A 43, 122, 124 

Andreu Iglesias, Cesar 72 

Andrews, Robert T 29 

Angert, Bernard 43 

Applegate, Robert 29, 30 

Aptheker, Herbert 18, 60 

Arbona Cue vas, Eugenio 72 

Arroyo Zeppenfeldt, Manuel 71 

Auslander (Jacob) 128 

B 

Bahrianv, Ivan P 98-101, US 

Barenblatt, Lloyd 122-126, 128 

Barnes, Donald F 67 

Barskv (Edward K.) 128 

Bart (Philip) 125, 128- 

Beal, Fred 61 

Beria (La vrenti) 103 

Berman, Victor Michael 51 

Bessie ( Al vah) 128 

Beverly, Leon 38 

Biberman (Herbert) 128 

Blauvelt, Mildred 67, 68, 71 

Bowers (George L.) 125 

Braden, Carl 123, 124 

Bradley (Lvman R.) 128 

Brewster (Frank W.) 125, 128 

Bridges, Agnes (formerly Mrs. Harry Bridges) 44 

Bridges, Harry (also known as Harrv Dorgan) 44-46, 117 

Briehl, Walter . 122, 129 

Brucker, Wilber M 30 

Bryan (Helen R.) 128 

Budenz, Louis 11, 12, 31 

Bulganin, Nikolai 80 

Burgos De Pagan, Consuelo 72 

Buteneff , Sergei 67 

C 

Cantor, Esther 62 

Carrion, Ramon Mirabal. (See Mirabal Carrion, Ramon.) 

Chamberlain, Neville 116 

Chapman (Elverton R.) 127 

Chen, Jack 54, 55 

Cheng, Samuel W. S 96, 118 

Chiang, Kai-shek 45 

Chodorov ( Mar j orie) 128 

Chou En-lai 80 

Christianson (Judge) 127 

Clark (Tom C.) 132 

i 



U INDEX 

Page 

dinger, Moiselle J 23, 24 

Cole (Kendrick M.) 132 

Cole (Judge) 127 

Cole (Lester) 128 

Collins, Harold 59, 60 

Colon, Jesus 68 

Corales, Juan Saez. (See Saez Corales, Juan.) 

Corretjer, Juan Antonio 72 

Crenovich, Michael 68 

Criley, Richard 42 

Cruz, Ramon Diaz. (See Diaz Cruz, Ramon.) 

Cuesta, Jose Enamorado. {See Enamorado Cuesta, Jose.) 

Cuevas, Eugenio Arbona. (See Arbona Cuevas, Eugenic) 

Curran (Edward M.) 128 

Cvetic, Matthew 27, 31 

D 

Davis, Horace Chandler 122, 123, 128 

Davis, William E 124 

Dayton (Weldon Bruce) 129 

Degras, Jane 15 

Dency, Albert P 42, 43 

Dennis (Eugene) 128 

De Pagan, Consuelo Burgos. (See Burgos De Pagan, Consuelo.) 

Deriabin, Petr S 20-22, 117 

Deutch, Bernhard 124, 127 

Devunich, Anna (Mrs. Stephen Devunich) 28, 36 

De vunich, Stephen 36 

Diaz Cruz, Ramon 72 

Dmvtryk (Edward) 128 

Dobbs, Ben . 77 

Dobriansky, Lev 106, 1 18 

Donner, Frank 31, 32 

Dorgan, Harry. (See Bridges, Harry ) 

Dovzhenko, Oleksander P 110 

Dulles, Allen 16 

Dulles, John Foster 122 

E 

Eaton, Cyrus 17 

Eckert, Kenneth 64 

Efross, Sidney T 51, 52 

Eisenhower, Dwight D 8, 9, 15, 53, 56 

Eisler, Gerhart 75, 125, 128 

Ellis, Rachael Carter 40 

Emmanuelli Morales, Juan 72 

Emspak, Julius 31, 125, 128 

Enamorado Cuesta, Jose 70, 71 

E vergood, Philip 56 

F 

Fast (Howard) 128 

Feuerbach, Ludwig 89 

Fields (Benjamin) 127 

Finkelstein, Sidney 62 

Fishman, Irving 70 

Flaxer(Abram) 125, 127 

Fleischman (Ernestina G.) 128 

Foreman, Clark 27, 28, 82 

Friedman, Dorothy Ray 48 

G 

Garcia Rodriguez, Pablo Manuel 72 

Gates, John 69 

Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe 80 

Glazier, William 44 

Gojack, John T 124, 128 

Golden, Hamp 26-29, 31, 34, 36 



INDEX 111 

Page 

Golden, Marv (Mrs. Ilamp Golden) 26-29, 34, 36 

Gomulka, Wladyslaw 80 

Gordon (Judge) 127 

Greene (William L.) 133 

Grossman, Aubrey W 75 

Grossman (Saul) 1 25, 1 28 

Grumman, Frank 124 

Grunewald, Henry 126 

H 

Hackney, John R 39-42 

Haimowitz, Leonore 48, 49 

Hall, Gus 5-8, 17-19 

Hanes, John W., Jr 52, 53, 129 

Hardin, R. J 29 

Harlan (John M.)- 123 

Hartman, Louis Earl 124 

Hawes, John Peter 72 

Hayes, Charles A 40 

Havwood, Harrv 69 

Healey, Dorothy (Ray) 77,79 

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 89 

Hiskey, Clarence 126, 127 

Hitler, Adolph 87, 101, 116 

Hitz, William, Jr 124 

Hitz, William, Sr 127 

Ho Chi Minh 80 

Holtzoff (Alexander) 127, 128 

Hoxha, Enver 80 

I 
Iglesias, Cesar Andreu. (See Andreu Iglesias, Cesar.) 
Ingerman, Herbert 124 

J 

Jackson, James E., Jr 57, 131 

Jencks, Clinton Edward 64, 65, 117 

Johnson, Arnold 66,67, 117 

Josephson, Leon 61, 75 

Justiz (Harry M.) - - 128 

K 

Kadar, Janos 80 

Kaganovich, Lazar 102, 103 

Kahn, Arthur David 49, 50 

Kamp (Joseph) 128 

Katzen, Leon 42 

Keech (Richmond B.) ^ 128 

Keeney, Mary Jane 125, 126 

Kemenovich, Katherine (Mrs. Vincent Kemenovich) 35, 36 

Kemenovich, Vincent 34, 35 

Kent, Rockwell 122, 129 

Kent (W. Wallace) 123 

Khrushchev, Nikita 2, 8-10, 12-17, 19-21, 66, 80, 98-116 

Kim II Sung 80 

Kiraly, Bela 110-113, 118 

Kirkland (James R.) 128 

Kirkwood, Robert C 32 

Klein, Henrv 62 

Knight (Frances G.) 50 

Knowles ( Mary) 128 

Konev (Ivan) 80 

Kononenko, Constantin 118 

Kostiuk, Gregorv 109, 118 

Kovago, Joseph 110, 111, 113, 118 

Kudriavtsev, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich 22 

Kyung Rai Kim 96, 97, 118 



IV INDEX 

L Page 

LaPoma (Nugent) 125 

Lardner (Ring, Jr.) 128 

Lawrynenko, Jurij 109, 110, 118 

Lawson (John Howard) 128 

Lebed, Mykola 108, 109, 118 

Lee Chang Whan 97 

Lehrer, Robert 124 

Leider (Ruth) 1 28 

Lenin, V. I 11, 12, 15, 37, 56, 83, 88-91 

Lester (J. A.) 133 

Letts (F. Dickinson) 128 

Levins, Richard (J.) 68 

Lewis, John 41 

Liu, Tsin-tsai 95, 96, 118 

Liveright (Herman) 128 

Lombardo Toledano, Vicente 80 

Lubchenko (Panas) 109 

Lumer, Hyman 57, 61 

Lustig (James) 128 

Lyons, Eugene 101-105, 118 

M 

Magana ( Manuel) 128 

Malenkov, Georgi 15, 103 

Maleter, Pal 103, 113 

Malinin, Ivan M 107, 118 

Mails, Victor 124 

Maltz (Albert) 128 

Mao Tse-tung 80, 93 

Marcello (Carlos) 125 

Marino, Armando. (See Torres, Angel Rene.) 
Marron, Wee Willie. (See Norman, William.) 
Marron, William Norman. (See Norman, William.) 

Marshall (George) 128 

Martin, Diego L 72 

Martinez, Eusebio Ruiz. (See Ruiz, Frank.) 

Marx, Karl 79, 80, 88-90, 118 

Masens, Vilis 114, 115, 118 

Matles, James J 31 

Matthews (Burnita Shelton) 127, 128 

Maysonet-Hernandez, Jorge W 70 

Melendez Perez, Gertrudis 72 

Mendez, Cristino Perez. (See Perez Mendez, Cristino.) 

Meyer, Frank S 58, 59 

Mikoyan (Anastas I.) 112 

Millard, Elizabeth Boynton 52 

Miller (Arthur) 125 

Miller (Louis) 128 

Miller, Marion 23-26 

Mirabal Carrion, Ramon 72 

Mircheff, Bocho 48 

Molotov (V. M.) 103 

Moore (George H.) 128 

Morales, Juan Emmanuelli. (See Emmanuelli Morales, Juan.) 

Morford (Richard) 128 

Morris (James Ward) 128 

Muller, Fred Paul 48 

Mc 

McBain, Francis William 43 

McClellan, Richard W 32 

McElroy (Neil H.) 133 

McNeil, James Allan Donald 36 

N 

Nagy, Imre 103 

Nelson, Carl 37-42 

Nelson, John W 31, 32 



INDEX V 

Page 

Nelson, Steve 36, 130 

Niemeyer, Gerhart 87 

Nikolai, Archbishop Porofeyevich Yarushevich 21 

Norman, William (also known as Wee Willie Marron; born William Norman 

Marron) 68 

Nowacki, Casimir T 47 

Nowak, Stanley 49 

O 

O'Connor, Harvey 124, 125 

O'Connor, Roderic 50 

Ojeda Ruiz, Felix 70 

O'Mara, Timothy 126, 127 

Orear, Leslie 38 

Ornitz (Samuel) 128 

P 

Parker (Lawrence E.) 133 

Parks, Samuel J., Jr 38 

Pasternak, Boris 100 

Patterson, William Lorenzo 46, 47, 68 

Pavlovych, Petro (born Apollon Trembow) 107, 118 

Penha, Armando 48 

Peoples, Frank 51 

Perez, Gertrudis Melendez. (See Melendez Perez, Gertrudis.) 

Perez Mendez, Cristino 72 

Perlo, Victor 50 

Philbrick, Herbert 72 

Pine (David A.) 128 

Pong, Peter Chu 93, 94, 118 

Popper, Martin 50, 51, 122, 124 

Poretto (Joseph) 125 

Port, A. Tyler 29, 30 

Poskonka, Joseph A 41, 42 

Possony, Stefan T 11, 14, 17, 90-93, 118 

Potash, Irving 61 

Poulson, Harper 23 

Prestes, Luis Carlos 80 

Price (William A.) 128 

Proctor, Charles 41, 42 

Prosten, Jesse E 42 

Prychodko, Nicholas - 107, 108, 118 

Q 

Quinn, Thomas J 31, 125. 128 

R 

Rakosi, Alex Roth 35, 36 

Reichard, Richard Wilson 63 

Reshetar, John S., Jr 87 

Riasny v 108 

Riemer, Mortimer 51 

Rivera, Juan Santos. (See Santos Rivera, Juan.) 

Rizley (Ross) 128 

Rodriguez, Pablo M. Garcia. (See Garcia Rodriguez, Pablo Manuel.) 

Roman, Armando 69, 70 

Rudiak, Joseph 28 

Ruiz, Felix Ojeda. (See Ojeda Ruiz, Felix.) 

Ruiz, Frank (also known as Eusebio Ruiz Martinez) 72 

Ruiz Martinez, Eusebio. (See Ruiz, Frank.) 

Rumelv, Edward A 125 

Russell (Harry) 127 

Russell, Norton Anthony 124 



Yl INDEX 

S Page 

Sacher (Harry) 125, 128 

Saez Corales, Juan 72 

Samter, Alfred James 124 

Santiago, Jose 70 

Santos Rivera, Juan 72 

Scherer, Gordon H 30 

Schlesinger, Hymen 27 

Schmidt, Viola 28 

Schultz, Miriam 28 

Scott (Adrian) 128 

Seeger, Peter 124 

Serov (Ivan A.) 112 

Shahn, Ben 55, 56 

Shelton (Robert) 128 

Sidzikauskas, Vaclovas 114-116, 118 

Silber, Bernard 124 

Silva, Adele Kronick 23 

Sinclair (Harrv E.) 127 

Singer (Marcus) 125 

Sipes, John W 52 

Sirica (John J.) 128 

Slipyi, Metropolitan Josef 108 

Small, Jack 30 

Smith, Donald H 42 

Souther, Jack 38 

Staber, Alexander 28 

Stalin, Josef 15, 79, 98-103, 106, 110, 114, 115 

Steinberg, Alex 29 

Steinberg, Esther (Mrs. Alex Steinberg) 28 

Stern (Charlotte) 128 

Stern, Meyer 40 

Sullivan, Elliott 124 

Suslov (Mikhail Andreevich) 112 

T 

Thorez, Maurice... 80 

Tito (Josip Broz) 80 

Togliatti, Palmiro 80 

Tokunaga, Ralph 127 

Torres, Angel Rene (also known as Armando Marino) 69, 70 

Townsend (Francis E.) 125, 127 

Trembow, Apollon. (See Pavlovych, Petro.) 

Trumbo (Dalton) 128 

Turner, Leo 41 

Turoff, Sidney 124 

Tyne, George 124 

U 

Ulbricht, Walter 80 

TJnger, Abraham 75 

Uphaus (Willard) 130 

W 

Wailes, Gloria 38 

Wang, Shin-ping 94, 95, 118 

Warren (Earl) 123 

Warren, Susan 62, 63 

Watkins (John T.) 123, 125 

Watson, Goldie 124 

Weinstock, Louis 63 

Weise, Myer 60, 61 

Weiss, Max 13 

Weiss, Stanley L 68 

Wheeldin, Donald 124 

Wilkinson, Frank 123, 124 

Williams, Wheeler 53-55 

Witt, Nathan 75 



INDEX Vll 

Page 

Wowchuk, Ivan 109, 118 

W right , Frank 55 

Wright, Thomas B 31 

Wyman (Louis C.) 130 

Y 

Yates (Oleta O'Connor) 130, 131 

Yellin, Edward 124 

Young (Philip) 132 

Z 

Zabritski, Joseph 39 

Zakharov, N. S 115 

Zeppenfeldt, Manuel Arroyo. (See Arroyo Zeppenfeldt, Manuel.) 

Zhukov (Georgi) _~ 80, 103 

Organizations 

A 

Adclphi Hall 59, 62 

All-Pacific and Asian Dockworkers' Trade Union Conference, First, May 

11-13, 1959, Tokyo, Japan 44 

All-Union Soviet Writers Congress, Third; May 18-23, 1959, Moscow 100 

American Artists Professional League 53, 55 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 28, 29 

American Communications Association 30 

American National Exhibition (July 25-September 5, 1959, Moscow) 53, 101 

American Russian Institute of Southern California 78 

American-Russian Trading Corp. (Amtorg) 21 

American Society of Travel Agents 85 

Amtorg. (See American-Russian Trading Corp.) 

Assembly of Captive European Nations 111 

Latvian delegation to 114 

Lithuanian delegation to 114 

C 
CARE 84-86 

Chicago Committee to Defend Democratic Rights 42 

Chin Ling Theological Seminary 95, 96 

Citizens Committee to Preserve American Freedoms 78 

Committee for a Free Lithuania 114 

Committee for Constitutional Government 125 

Communist International. (See International, III.) 
Communist Part3 T , Great Britian: 

Central Committee 58 

Student Bureau 58 

Communist Party, Hungary 111 

Communist Party, Puerto Rico 70, 72 

Central Committee 72 

San Juan, Municipal Committee 70, 72 

Third National Assembly 68 

Communist Party, Soviet Union: 

Central Committee 102 

Politburo 102 

Twentieth Congress, February 1956 16, 115 

Twenty-first Congress, January 1959 16 

Communist Partv, Ukraine 102, 107 

Central Committee 109 

Communist Party, U.S.A 5-10, 13-15, 19, 66 

National structure: 

National Committee 11, 18, 67, 78, 79 

National Executive Committee 8, 18 

National Conference, December 1955 13 

National Review Commission 6S 

Seventeenth National Convention, December 1959 5-8, 17, 18 

Sixteenth National Convention, February 1957, New York City__ 70 



V111 INDEX 

Communist Party, U.S. A — Continued 

District organization: Page 

District 8 (Illinois and Indiana) 58 

District 13 77 

N orthern California District 77 

Southern California District 22, 77-79 

Convention, April 13-14, 1957, Los Angeles 78 

District Council 77, 78 

Executive Board 77 

Western Section 23 

Youth Commission 78 

State organization: 
Colorado: 

Boulder, University of Colorado, Student Branch 51 

Illinois: 

Chicago: 

Packinghouse Section, Section Committee 42 

South Side Section Committee 58 

Massachusetts, Boston 72 

Harvard University student unit 63 

Second Harvard College Undergraduate Branch 63 

New York State: 

Industrial Section 62 

New York County Committee 62 

State Committee 62, 69 

Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh: 

North Side Club 26 

D 

Dockworkers' Trade Union Conference, First All-Pacific and Asian. (See 

All-Pacific and Asian Dockworkers' Trade Union Conference.) 
Downtown Club 78 

E 

Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, United 30, 31, 83 

District 6 31 

Local 506 31, 32 

Local 601 31 

Local 610 32 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 27, 28, 82, 83, 124 

F 

Faculty of Social Science 57-63, 67, 68 

First All-Pacific and Asian Dockworkers' Trade Union Conference. (See 
All-Pacific and Asian Dockworkers' Trade Union Conference.) 

G 

General Electric Co 32 

Erie, Pa., plant 31 

H 

Harvard University 63, 123 

Housewives Price Protest Committee 28 

Housewives Protest Committee 28 

Hungarian Committee 111 

H ungarian Freedom Fighters Federation, Inc 111 

I 

Independent Voters League 28 

Institute for American Strategy 1 

International, III 83 

Seventh World Congress, July 25 to August 20, 1935, Moscow 90 

International Congress of Lawyers (1946, Paris, France) 51 

International Workers Order 62 

Intourist, Inc 21, 85 

J 

Jefferson School of Social Science 57-63, 67, 70 

Marxist- Leninist Institute Committee 59 

John Reed Club, School of Art 55 



INDEX IX 

L 

Page 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International 44, 83 

Los Angeles Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 25, 78 

M 

Machinists, International Association of 43 

MARS (Workshop of the Revolutionary Word) 98 

Marxist Forums 57, 62, 63 

Marxist-Leninist Caucus 69 

Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, Amalgamated 39 

Metropolitan Music School, Inc 62 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of 64, 83 

District 2 64 

N 

National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 82 

National Lawyers Guild 51, 122 

National War College 1 

Nationality Committee of Western Pennsylvania 28 

North Side Peace Club (Pittsburgh) 28 

P 

Packinghouse Labor and Community Center 42 

Packinghouse Workers of America, United 38, 41, 42 

District 1 38, 40 

District 6 40 

Local 25 39 

Local 28 41, 42 

Provisional Organizing Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Communist 

Party (also known as POC) 69, 70 

R 
Reserve Officers Association 1 

S 
School for Democracy 60 

Shanghai China Theological Seminary 96 

Southern Conference for Human Welfare 82 

Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Cooperation With the Coun- 
tries of Latin America 67, 70, 71 

T 

Tass News Agency 21 

Trade Union Service, Inc 31 

U 

Ukrainian Catholic Church 106 

Ukrainian Commission To Investigate the Vinnitsa Killings 107 

Ukrainian Congress Committee of America 106 

Ukrainian Insurgent Army 106, 108 

Ukrainian National Rada 98 

Ukrainian Orthodox Autocephalic Church 106, 108 

Ukrainian Relief Committee (Innsbruck, Austria) 99 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of: 
Ministry of War (Armv): 

GRU (military intelligence) 22 

Secret Police: 

Guard Directorate (also known as Okhrana) 20, 21 

KGB 20-22 

MGB 20, 21 

MVD 20 

NKVD 107, 108, 115 

Union of Writers of Ukraine 99 



X INDEX 

United States Government: Page 

Department of Agriculture 75 

Department of Defense 29, 30 

Department of State 52 

National Labor Relations Board 75 

Office of Strategic Services (OSS) 49 

Office of War Information 56 

Resettlement Administration 56 

Supreme Court 123-125, 128-133 

U.S. Information Agency 56 

University of California 64 

University of Michigan 123 

University of Pennsylvania, Foreign Policy Research Institute 1 

W 

Westinghouse Electric Corp 31 

Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation 64 

Workers Schools: 

Chicago 58 

New York 60, 63 

World Tourists, Inc 85 

World Youth Festival, Second; August 1949, Budapest 51 

Y 
Young Communist League 43, 63 

Publications 

Congress and Your Rights (bulletin) 82 

Daily W'orker 11 

Dispatcher, The 44 

Doctor Zhivago (book) 100 

La Paz 72 

Literary Gazette, The (Literaturna Hazeta) 99 

Masses and Mainstream 56 

Packinghouse Worker, The 38 

Political Affairs 13, 60 

Pueblo 70-72 

U.E. News 31 

Vanguard 69-72 

Worker, The 46 

O