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Full text of "Annual report of the American Dairymen's Association"

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ELEVENTH ANNUAL 






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AMERICAN 



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DAlliYMEFS ASSOOiATlOS, 



TRANSACTIONS AND ADDRESSES, 



FOK THE YEAR 1875. 



ROCFIESTEn, N. T.; 

riEMOCKAT AND UilKOSU'l.E BlXlK AM> -H'll I'KIMINn HiUSK, 
1870. 






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INDEX 

TO THE 

ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

AMERICAN DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION. 



List of Officers '> 

List of Members !> 

Transactions 1 ^ 

llovieAV of the Year — L. B. Arnold 1~ 

Ninevah — Artenias Ward l-'j 

Hints in Cheese Making— C. L. Sheldon 21 

Whole Milk Cheese— J. G. Cuhoe S.-i 

Sketches of English Cheese Making and Personal T^xpi'rienecs— Seth Bonfoy, 29 

Dairy Stock— Prof. L. Wetherell HI 

Dairy Farming — Eastburn Reeder 43 

Modification of Swedish Deep-Setting — L. S. Hardin 48 

A Farmer's Experience in Making Bntter from Short Horns — Hon. Harris 

• Lewis OG 

Heating Milk for Bntter and Skim CUieese — T. T. Ellsworth 59 

Factory Butter Making— L. D. Paddock 62 

Color in Butter Globules fi7 

Experimental Dairy Station— Prof. E. W. Stewart 69 

Centennial — Horace J. Smith 73 

Dairy Connnerce — J. M. Peters 75 

Centennial Resolutions 83 

Causes Affecting the Cheese Inter(>st — J. H. Reall 83 

Plain Prece])ts for Patrons and Cheese Makers — Robert McAdani 93 

(Complimentary Resolution 98 

Centennial Discus.sion 99 

Dairy Manufacturing, Quality vs. Qnantit.y — W. Jeffreys 100 

Preservation of iVIilk- Prof. (^. C. Caldwell 104 



OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

F-OR 1876. 



PRESIDENT : 

Hox. HOEATIO SEYMOUR, of Oxeida. 

VICE PRESIDENTS : 

X. A. WILLAED, of Herkimer. 

T. D. CUETIS, OF Onondaga. 

0. S. BLISS, of Vermont. 

DAVID W. LEWIS, of New York City. 

M. FOLSOM, OF New York City. 

STEPLEN FAVILLE. of Wisconsin. 

CHAS. HOUSE, OF Lewis. 

G. B. WEEKS, OF Onondaga. 

WM. BLANDING, of Broome. 

C. E. CHADWICK, of Canada. 

J. LEWIS, OF Cattabaugus. 

Dr. GEORGE F. COLE, of St. Lawrence. 

A. M. FULLEE, of Pennsylvania. 

L. W. MILLEE, of Chautauqua 

E. A. AYEES, OF Jefferson. 

F. KEELEE, of Cattaraugus. 

G. E. MOEEOW, of Illinois. 

C. F. WHITTIEE, of Minnesota. 
JOHN T. ELLSWOETH, of Massachusetts. 
Hon. WM. A. JOHNSON, of Erie. 
Dr. L. L. WIGHT, of Oneida. 
S. STEAIGHT, of Ohio. 
CHESTEE HAZEN, of Wisconsin. 
Prof. L. WETHEEELL, of Massachusi^tts 
A. B. LAMONT, of Tompkins. 
EDWAED NOETON, of Connecticut. 
•■P. H. BUECHAED, of Illinois. 
C. H. AVILDEE. of Wisconsin. 
0. 0. BLODGETT, of Chautauqua. 
DAVID H. BUEEILL, of Herkimer. 
J. M. PETEES, of New York City 
S. A. FAEEINGTON, of Pennsylvania. 

SECRETARY : 

L. B. AENOLD, Eochester, New York. 

TREASURER: 

Hon. HAEEIS LEWIS, Frankfort, Herkimer Co.. N. Y. 



pri:faratory remarks. 



The addresses and discussions which make up the 11th annual 
report of the American Dairymen's Association — 13th since the or- 
ganization began — will be found interesting alike to the practical 
man and the student of Dairy Husbandry. 

Fewer novelties than usual were presented this year, but those 
which were brought forward promise to be useful. 

The new system of butter making, introduced by L. S. Hardin, of 
Kentucky, presents some novel and valuable features. The ncAv 
method of making butter and cheese from heated milk, introduced 
by John T. Ellsworth, of Massachusetts, promises to be of great value 
in utilizing skim-milk. It is the most important advance lately 
made in cheese making, as it enables the manufacturer to so perfectly 
cure skim cheese, as to make of it a palatable, nutritious and whole- 
some food, thus sohing the problem of the economical use of skim- 
milk, which lias so long baffled the skill of the best experts. 

The papers and discussions on the manufacture uf butter and 
cheese are all sound and practical, and the address on Dairy Stock is 
a clear, comprehensive and reliable paper which will, for many a 
year, be preserved for reference. These papers together with those 
of a commercial character, and the interest developed by the paper on 
an Experimental Dairy Station, and the action in regard to the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition, made the proceedings of the convention, as 
thoy do the report, interesting and valuable. 



Rochester, N. Y., March Ist, 187G. 



h. K ARNOLD, 

Secretary. 



ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION. 

_ — —•-♦-« — — — 

WHBEBAS, It is deemed e^.pf eut to mer^e the New York State 
Cheese Manufactnvevs' Association «hi<^hwao^gam7e ^^.^^^ 

di'seminated to the dairymg community ; therefore, 
\..ol..r. That we, the -cler.giied do here,^ ^ 

t?r;e':«ciS5^«o':;r;rtin^^ 

""':': I. The name of the organisation shall he The American 
°"irnTr:«::::o.theAssociationsha,lconsistofaPresideut, 

shaU^itethe Executive Board of the Association 

APT IV The Officers of the Association shall ",«= 'j^^^-^J^?' J,! 
regifteannual meeting, and shall .retain their offices until then 
celsors are chosen. second 

'rn~clirslX.titl^ir!othe Annual Seport for the cur- 

" AMri;M™.r.-The Secretaiy ^'^^ ^^^i^cS^^Z 
Assistant Secretai7 ^ .-^f'-J' f."f ^f „*t, b aSgned to him, and, in 
and discharge such other duties ^^ '"^Z !";^ jg ^.et, to temporardy 
Siai^'th^'aX-^f'that oLi; 'i^b^i:;g dislnetly un^^ 
fio compensation is attached thereto. ,„.,, Conven- 

j-^i"7ii!:'^sjiy r ::^1»^^- -^- 

Annual Eeport.J 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION. 

FOR THE YEAR 1876. 



Arnold, L. B., Rochester, N. Y. 

Abbot, E., Camden, Oneida co., N. Y. 

Andrews. J. P., Attiea, Wyoming Co., N. Y. 

Armstrong, A. B., Dorset, Vt. 

Ashley, Harford. Bellville, Ont. Canada. 

Adams, James C., Springfield Centre, OtBego 

CO., N. Y. 
Ayers, E. A., Watertowu, N. Y. 

Blanding, Wm., Hawleytown, Broome co,, N,Y- 
Bonfoy."Geo. A., West Winfleld, Herkimer co., 

N. Y. 
Bonfoy. Seth, West Winfield, Herkimer co., 

N. Y. 
Blandiug, F., Brookfleld, Madison co., N. Y. 
Brooks. M. C., Bowen's Corners, Oswego co., 

N. Y. 
Beech. E. C. Fish Creek Station. 
Broadbent, Frank, Trov, 86 North M. street, 

N. Y. 
Bradley, E. P.. 35 Elizabeth street, Utica, N. Y. 
Browne. O. L. F., SjTacuse, N. Y. 
Baker, J. C, Corry. Erie co., Penna. 
Burleigh, J. P., Verona, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Brockway. H. C. 

Burgess, A. F., Erieville, Madison co., N. Y. 
Bussey, A. P.. Westernville. Oneida co., N. Y. 
Briggs, C. W., Sennet, N. Y. 
Briggs, David. Durhamville. Oneida co., N. Y. 
Bleuis, J. W., Salisbury Centre, Herk. co., N.Y. 
Bartlet, J. W., Ava, Queida co.. N. Y. 
Baird. J., Van, Hornesville, Herkimer co.. N.Y. 
Ball. S.. Unadilla Forks, Otsego co., N. Y. 
Bacon. Hiram. 
Bliss, O. S., Georgia, Vt. 
Bigger. J. M., Cambridgeboro, Pa. 
Blogett, O. C. Fredonia, Chautau(iua Co.. N. Y. 
Blanchard, Flint, Jamestown, Chautaucjua co., 
Boise, W. B., Marengo, 111. 
Brown, James P., Utica, N. Y. 

Clark, n. T.. Vernon, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Cheesebro, Dennison S., Geddes, Onondaga co.. 

N. Y. 
Cory, Norman., Tj'aburg, Qnedia co , N. Y. 
C^d , O., FreevUle, Tompkins co., N. Y. 
Clark, J, H., South Albion, Oswego co., N. Y. 
(Jaswell, E,. Ingersoi, Canada. 
Chadwick, C. E., Ingersoi, Canada. 
Converse, Edward, Sterlingvillc, Jefferson co., 

N.Y. 
Carter, A. B. 

Curtis, F. H.. Brier Hill, St. Lawrence co., N.Y. 
Crill, Geo. W,, North Western. Oneida co., N.Y. 
(-Carroll, John. Salisburv. Herkimer co., N. Y. 
Creaser, W. L..Hecla Works, Oneida CO., N. Y. 
Chandler, A.. Berne. N. Y. 
Chapman. L. P., Randolph, Wis. 
Cahoe. J. (i., Fredonia. N. Y. 
Caldwell, Prof. G. C, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Curtis, T. D.. Syracuse, N. Y. 
Cooper, Madison, Evans Mills. Jeflfersou co., 

N. Y. 
Craft, Dr. E. G., Biughamton, N, Y. 
Crocker, Col. O. C, BinEcharngton, N. Y. 
Cole, Dr. G. F., Canton, St. Lawrence co., N.Y. 
Cnrtis, D. W., Fort Atkinson, Wis. 
Chapman, John R., Oneida Lake, N. Y. 

Dibble, A. J., Franklin, Delaware Co., N. Y. 

Deye, Thomas. 

Dennis, J. 2d, Berue, N. Y. 



Davison, J. W., Frankfort, Herkimer co., N. Y. 

Ellis, E. G., Utica, N. Y. 

Ehle, M. P., Edwardsville, St. Lawrence co., 

N. Y. 
Ellison, Jacob, Middleville. Herkimer co„ N.Y. 
Edwards. J. J., Canajoharie, Montgomery co., 

N. Y. 
Eaton, Aaron, Hannibal, N. Y. 
Ellsworth, John T., Barre. Mass. 
Freeman, H. O.. Sherburne Chenango co., N Y. 
Farrington, Harvey, Norwich, Oxford, Ont., 

Canada. 
Fairchild, E. B., Fairfield, Herkimer co., N. Y. 
Folsom. M.. 70 Warren street, N. York City, 

N. Y. 
Franklin, F., Hammond, St. Lawrence co., N.Y. 
Fox. Geo. A., Loraine, Jefferson co., N. Y. 
Eraser, R. L., Westernville, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Fobes, Lindenville, Ohio. 
Fogarty. Jerry, Springfield Centre, Otsego co., 

N.Y. 
Fuller, J. E., Floyd, N. Y. 
Frisbie, C. P. 
Fuller, W, H. 

Fuller. A. M., Meadville, Pa. 
Faville, Stephen, Lake Mills, Wis. 
Farrington, S. A., Cambridgeboro, Pa. 
(irierson. J. H., Herkimer, Herkimer co., N. Y. 
Gates, Wm. M.. Whitesboro. Oneida co., N. Y. 
Golden, R., Little Falls. Herkimer co., N. Y. 
Guthrie. T. G., Shelbyville, Shelby co., Ky. 
GuUer, J. M., Edwardsville, St. Lawrence co., 

N.Y, 
Guller, James, Oswegatchie, N. Y. 
Gray, Alex., Rome, N. Y. 
Gregg, .John. 

Gifford, C, O., Eayetteville, Onondaga co., N.Y. 
Greggorans, William, Lee. N. Y. 
Gardiner, Capt. H. D., McLean, Tompkins co., 

N.Y. 
Gold, T. S., M'est Cornwall, Conn. 
Green, H. Cooley, Meadville. Pa. 
(duller. Gilbert, Forestel, St. Charles co.. Mo. 
Gleason. Hon. G. M.. Governeur. N. Y. 
Gillett, Harris, Sidney Plains, .Jefferson co.,N.T. 
Humphreys, Robert, Jr. , Prospect, Oneida co., 

N. Y. 
Huffman, H. C, Horseheads, Chemung Co., 

NY. 
Hardin, L. S., Louisville. Ky. 
Huntington, Edward, Rome, N. Y. 
Hannum, H. A., Cazenovia. Madison c«., N. Y. 
Harris, Thomas E., Weal Winfield, Herkimer 

CO.. N. Y. 
Hutchinson, Geo. W., Port Bvron, Cayufira co., 

N.Y. - . J « 

Higgins, John, Spefdsville, Tompkins co., N.Y. 
Hughes, Stone Mills, Jefferson co., N. Y. 
Hays, D. A.. Cedarville. Herkimer ce.. N. Y. 
Holmes. C. H., M'e!>t Winfield. Herkimer co., 

N. Y. 
Hnnt, Olin, Lairdsville, N. Y. 
Harris B., J., Antwerp, Jetterson co., N. Y. 
Hul>bel!, J. G., Groton. Tompkins co., N. Y. 
Hawkins, H, T., Fort Plain, Montgomery co., 

Hollis, D. D.. Woodville, Jefferson to., N. Y. 

Hill, C. A., Oneida Castle, N. Y. 

Holland. A. II., Barn-. Mass. 

Hough, Dr. F. B., Lowville, Lewis co,, N. Y. 

Ilegler, J. C. Ingersoi, Ont., Canada. 

Ilawley, L. T.. Syracuse, N. Y. 



10 



Harris, Col. S. D., Hudson, O. 

Hayward, M., Weston, Mich. 

House, Charles, Houseville, Lewis co., N. Y. 

Hazen, Chester, Ladoga, Wis. 

Hawkins, Edward, Stanwix, Oneida co., N. Y. 

Hills, Edgar, Vernon, Oneida co., N. Y. 

Ingersoll, F. D., Albion, Orleans CO., N. Y. 

Ingham, A. W^., Adams, N. Y. 

Johnson, Hon. Wm. A., Collins Centre, Erie 

co.,N.Y. 
Johnson, A., Lee Centre, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Jones, Jonathan, Utica, N. Y. 
Jordan, Henry, Burke, Franklin co.. N. Y. 
James, Chas. A., North Gage, Oneida co., N, Y. 
Jemisou, Lewis, Binghamton. N. Y. 
Jeffreys, W., New York City, N. Y. 
Jenkins, W. A., Streetsboro, Ohio. 
Judson, E. E.. Farmington, Minn. 
Kilborne, Nathan. 
Kinyon, B. Benj., Rome, N. Y. 
Keeler. G. W., Malone, Franklin Co., N. Y. 
Kinsley, M. H., Oneida Community. Oneida co., 

N. Y. 
Kane, H. H., Rural New Yorker, N. York City, 

N. Y. 
Kingsbury, Eugene H.. Lee, N. Y. 
Keeler, Frank, Otto, Cattaraugus co., N. Y. 
Loucks, Geo. W., Potsdam, St. Lawrence co., 

N. Y. 
Lozenbe, W. R. , Ithaca, N. Y. 
Littlewood, G. H., New Berlin, Chenango co., 

N. Y. 
Lockart, W. G., Oneida, Madison co., N. Y. 
Lynk, A. M., Westmoreland, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Locke. W. P., Waterville, N. Y. 
Laird, P. D., Woodville, -Jefferson co., N. Y. 
Liudsley, L. S., Pratt's Hollow, Madison co., 

N. Y. 
Lewis, Hon. Harris, Frankfort, Herkimer co., 

N, Y. 
Lewis, J,, Fredonia, Chautauqua co., N. Y. 
Lewis, David W., New York City, N. Y. 
Lamont, A. B., McLean, Tompkins Co., N. Y. 
Larama, Fred, Fort Plain, Montgomery co., 

N. Y. 
Lewis, J. B., Sandusky, Cattaraugus co., N. Y. 
Mott, T. C, Edwards, St. Lawrence co., N. Y. 
Mac Adams, Wm., Rome, N. Y. 
MacGuflie, A., Herkimer, Herkimer co., N. Y. 
MacAdams, John, Rome, N. Y. 

More, F. W., Erieville, Madison co., N. Y. 

Mather, Luther P., Nelson, Madison co., N. Y. 

NacGarm, Verona, Oneida co., N. Y. 

MacAdams, Geo. G., Rome, N. Y. 

McAdams, Alexander, Rome, N. Y. 

Miller, Levi G.. Bear Hill, St. Lawrence co., 

Meigs, J. H., Verona, Oneida co., N. Y. 

McWaiu, H. G., Boonville, N. Y. 

McGaw, Wm., Buel, Montgomery co., N. Y. 

Martyn, A. T., Canton, St. Lawrence co., N. Y. 

Moreley, F. W., Poultney, Vt. 

Mason, Hon. E. D., Richmond, Vt. 

Meddaugh, AMu, Friendship, Allegany co., 
N.Y. 

McAdam, Robert, Lee Centre, N. Y. 

Morrow, G. E., Chicago, 111. 

Munson, E. S,, Franklin, Delaware co., N. Y. 

Miller, L. W., Stockton, Chautauqua co., N.Y. 

McLean, J. R., Elgin, 111. 

Merri, F. T., Verona, Oneida co , N. Y, 

Norton, Edward, Farmington, Ct. 

Niles, Ed^ar, Verona, Oneida co., N. Y. 

Nichols, Henry C, Norway, Herkimer co., N.Y. 

Nicholson, N. D,, Oriskany, N. Y. 

Osborn, S., Orange Co., N. Y. 

Olds, Otis, Schuyler. Herkimer co., N. Y. 

Peters, J. M.. New York City, N. Y. 

Peck, W. P., Westchester, Pa. 

Prescott, Thomas, Walesville, Oneida co., N.Y. 

Paddock, S. D., Malone, Franklin co., N. Y. 

Powers, C J., Hammond, St. Lawrence co., 
N.Y. 

Phillip, John M., Rome. Oneida co., N. Y. 

Peckham, W. N., Verona, Oneida co., N. Y. 

Peckham, D. J. 



Pierce, Jona'n, Shelbyville, Shelby co., Ky. 
Rankin. J., Rome, N. Y. 
Readey, Geo. W., Sennett, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Richardson, C. W., Herkimer co., N. Y. 
Ritter, John W., Rose, Wayne co., N. Y. 
Rockwell, Herbert, Westmoreland, Oneida co , 

N. Y. 
Reckel, Frank, Sherburne, Oneida Co., N, Y. 
Robbins, R. H. 

Reese, G. W., Oneida, Madison co., N. Y. 
Reall, J. H., 37 So. Water street,lPhiladelphia, 

Pa. 
Reeder, Eastburn, New Hope, Bucks co.. Pa. 
Smith. B. P.. Black River. Jefferson co., N. Y. 
Smith, C. W., Black River, Jefferson co., N. Y. 
Stiles, B., Oneida co., N. Y. 
Sheldon, C. L., Lowville, Lewis co., N. Y. 
Stephens, Fred, Rome. Box 196, N. Y. 
Spinning, E. C, Taburg, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Saramo, Fred, Fort P/ain, Montgomery co., 

N.Y. 
Spear, A. E. 

Stephens, Alfred, Rome, N. Y. 
Smith, James B. 
Saunders, A. C, Leonardsville, Madison co., 

N. Y. 
Smith, P. P., Cazenovia, Madison co., N. Y. 
Smith, L. C, Cedarville, Herkimer co,, N, Y. 
Slosah, W. H., Oneida, Madison co., N. Y, 
Slosah, Richard, Ridge Mills, N. Y. 
Smith, C. H., North Hebron, N. Y. 
Schermerhorn. J. M., North Gage, Oneida co., 

N. Y. 
Schermmerhorn, C, North Gage, Oneida co., 

N.Y. 
Shufelt, S. J., North Gage, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Sterling & Bingham. Watertown, N. Y. 
Shull, Hon. Josiah. Ilion, Herkimer co., N. Y. 
Smith, Horace J., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Seymour, Hon. Horatio, Utica, N. Y. 
Stewart, Prof. E. W., Lake View, N. Y. 
Scoville, J. V. H., Paris, Oneida co., N. Y. 
Straight, W. B., Hudson, C, 
Straight, S., Hudson, O. 
Sterling, E. B., Watertown, N. Y. 
Tucker, C, E., Herkimer, N. Y. 
Tucker, E. B., Hannibal, Oswego co., N. Y. 
Tremain, Chas., Manlius, N, Y. 
Talcott, Geo. S., Salisbury Centre, Herkimer 

CO., N. Y. 
Trumbull, S. R., Pulaski, N. Y. 
Taylor, W. S., Burlington, New Jersey. 
Thompson, H.M., Elgin, HI. 
Vrooman, Jacob, Rochester, Olmstead co., 

Minn. 
Wetherell, Leander. Boston, Mass. 
Willard, X. A.. Fairfield, Herkimer eo., N. Y, 
Whitney, W. M., Philadelphia, Jefferson co. 

N.Y. 
Wilgus, M. G., Pike, Wyoming co., N. Y. 
Williams, David, Rome, N. Y. 
Wait, Geo. R., Hartford, Washington co., N.Y. 
Williams, Roger, Brier Hill, St. Lawrence co., 

N.Y. 
Whitman and Burrell, Little Falls, Herkimer 

CO., N. Y. 
White, Limth & Co., Sherburne, Chenango co., 

N.Y. 
Williams, George, Whitestown, Oneida co., 

N. Y. 
Washburn, D. C. 
Woodworth, Geo. H. 

Waller, G. W., Newport, Herkimer co., N. Y. 
Ward, Artemas, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Wilkinson, Prof. J., Baltimore, Md. 
Wickson, Prof. E. J., San Francisco, Cal. 
Wight, Dr. L. L., Whitesboro, N. Y. 
Weeks, G. B., Syracuse, N. Y. 
Wheeler, M. H., Bridgewater, Oneida co., N.Y. 
Wright, Geo. R., Harford, Washington co., 

N.Y, 
Young, D. G., Cedarville, Herkimer co., N. Y. 
Yourdon, O., North Western, Oneida co., N. Y. 



TPL^isrs^OTioisrs 

OK THE 

ELEVENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION 

OK THE 

AMERICAN DAIRYMEN'S ASSOClATIOx\, 

HELD IN ROME, N. Y., 

TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY, 

January 11 th. 12th and 13th, 1876. 



The Eleventh Annual Convention of the American Dairymen's 
Association opened its labors at half-past 11 A. M., at Eome, N. Y., on 
January 11th, 1876, Vice-President T. D. Curtis, of Syracuse, in the 
chair. 

The appointment of the usual committees was called for, and the 
Committee on Order of Business was announced, as follows : 

Hon. Josiah Shull, of Herkimer ; L. D. Hardin, of Kentucky, and 
William Blanding, of Broome. 

The Secretary then took occasion to say that, during the year past, 
the Association had, by several different parties, been blamed ibr foster- 
ing the interests of patent-right men and the adulterers of human 
food. There was evidently something in the conduct of the Associa- 
tion Avhich suggested this, or the intimations Avould not have been 
made, as they have, for the most part, come from parties not unfavor- 
ably disposed toward this Association. It has been the policy of the 
Association from the first to invite here all parties having novelties of 
any kind relating to the dairy interest, to present them for inspection 
and approval or criticism, as an investigation might show them to be 
worthy or unworthy. An unusual number of patents came forward 
last year, mostly by my own invitation, prominent among which Avere 
the new patent process of cheese-making, and it was their presence, 
probably, which led to the unfavorable remarks. But neither this 
Association nor, as far as I know, any of its Executive Board, has even 
a leaning toward any of the novelties presented, nor any intention of 
endorsing them, any further than they appear consistent and adA^an- 
tageous to the public. I Avish it to be distinctly understood that this 



Association does not endorse every, nor any, novelty brought before it, 
unless by resolution or special action on its part. It is believed to be 
for the best interests of the Association, as well as the dairy public, 
that all that is new in the line of dairy apparatus or in processes of 
manufacture — all, at least, which bear evidence of being worthy — 
should be brought before its Conventions, to the end that they may be 
the more readily made available if valuable, and rejected at the outset 
if wortliless. We cannot afford to ignore a good thing because it is 
patented, for fear of benefiting the patentee. It would be much more 
consistent for us to encourage, by our approval, those inventors Avho 
bring out new implements to work with, and those investigators who 
bring ojt new modes of working, by which products are increased or 
improved, because it is through the agency of such men that our labors 
are facilita^ted or abridged, and our products enlarged and enhanced in 
value. The more we encourage such men, the more will they be stim- 
ulated to put forth further eiforts to bring out new conveniences and 
new practices and truths. With this explanation, it is hoped that here- 
after no one will assume, when novelties are invited or permitted to 
come before the Conventions of this Association, that it is done with 
any other motive or intention than the welfare of its members and, 
through' them, the dairy public. 

As there was nothing special before the Convention for the Morning 
Session, the Secretary further filled out the time by giving a brief 
review of the year just passed. He said : 

As the year closes over the labors of the dairyman it may be well 
to take a survey of the situation, and the circumstances of the past 
year. A glance at the present and the past may throw some light on 
the probabilities of the future. 

The yield of dairy products has been bountiful, and the quality has, 
for the most part, compared favorably with that of former years. 
Prices have been some fifteen per cent, lower than last year, but, from 
an increased yield in many places, the aggregate returns to producers 
will not vary much from what they have been in former years. A part 
of the low price of the year will be ofl'set by a reduced price for wages 
and for many things the dairyman has to buy, so that the ends of the 
year will meet about as well as usual. He may also console himself 
with the reflection that, while he has seen the prices of other commod- 
ities run up or down, the prices of his own products have swayed but 
little either way for years, demonstrating the stable character of his 
goods, as compared with the other products of the farm. The stabil- 
ity of the past is a guarantee of the future. 

As the year has rolled along, our peculiar system of dairying has, 
on the whole, been e;spanding. In New England the quality .f butter 
and cheese may have been improving, but the quantity of either has 
not been materially increased during the year, except in the State of 
Maine. The progress of dairying in Maine has been successful and 
interesting. Wherever the factory system has been introduced it has 
required several years of experience to develop an average quality of 
factory cheese. But in Maine the products have been excellent from 
the start, and have steadily sold at an advance. This may be attrib- 
uted in part to the excellence of the grass and the abundance of fresh, 
running water, but I think chiefly to the large amount of Jersey blood 



13 

in the cows furnishing the milk. So far as I have learned, the Jerseys 
take the lead in the thoroughbred stock of that State, and the extra- 
ordinary richness of their milk has seemed to prove quite as success- 
ful in cheese, as in butter-making. It has been supposed that the large 
size of the butter-globules in Jersey milk would operate against work- 
ing them into cheese, but, practically, this opinion has not been veri- 
fied. I procured some cheese from the Winthrop factory, in Maine, 
said to be made of about half Jersey milk, and sent a sample to the 
Cornell University for analysis, which yielded 39.24 per cent, fat, 
making over 56 per cent, of the dry, solid substance of the cheese 
pure fat. It was rich as Stilton, and fine-flavored. This was the 
make of 1874. I have just been determining the fat in a cheese from 
the same factory, of the make of 1875, in which I find over 40 per 
cent, of fat, the milk being nearly all Jersey from which it was made. 
In meatiness, flavor and texture, it was all any cheese could be desired, 
and would command the top figure in any market. I mention this 
fact of the extraordinary richness and excellence of the samples of 
cheese from Jersey milk I have met with, as an item of interest to 
dairymen generally, the impression being quite general that the milk 
of that breed of cows was not good for cheese. The experience of 
dairymen in Maine with Jersey milk must enhance the reputation of 
the Channel Island cattle for dairy purposes, especially as it has proved 
to require less than other milk for a pound of cheese. The products 
of the factories of that State, over sixty in number, have been just 
about sufficient for the consumption of the State, and to that extent 
the outlet for the surplus of other States has been cut oft'. 

No marked changes have appeared in the products of New York or 
Ohio. In Pennsylvania there has been a large increase, and the fac- 
tory-make of cheese in that and other States has been creeping further 
South. In the West and NorthAvest the expansion has been consider- 
able, especially in cheese, with a steady advance in quality. The pro- 
gress of dairying in the great West is not remarkably rapid, but it is 
constant. Its established mode of farming is emphatically grain- 
growing, and it is not easily changed. It takes time to change the 
habits of a whole people, and it can only be done gradually. While 
this change is going on, and farmers are dividing their attention 
between grain and milk, dairying suffers, and, from this cause, poor 
butter and cheese must continue to flow from the West for many years 
But wherever attention has been exclusively given to the production 
of milk and the manufacture of butter and cheese, the products have 
been highly satisfactory. In the exclusive dairy districts, as in North- 
ern Illinois and Southern Wisconsin, the jield of the year has been 
large, and so fine in ([uality as to demonstrate their capacity for first- 
class goods. 

The increased product of cheese west of Ohio has probably, for the 
year, amounted to about 5,000,000 pounds. Notwithstanding the 
large increase, very little cheese from this region has reached the 
Atlantic coast. It has been consumed West and South. What little 
has found its way abroad had better been retained, as the v>inter sup- 
ply is short, and wc hear of shipments from the East back to the 
West again. Canada has also been prospered in the cheese interest 
during the year. Every returning season enhances the quality of her 



14 

cheese and swells her aggregate product. Last year her exports of 
cheese were put at 23,000,000 pounds. This year they are estimated 
at 30,000,000. 

I have not the figures for the last month, but the receipts at New 
York up to December 1st, for both butter and cheese, were a little in 
excess of last year, and the exports of both for the year a little less. 
Our exports for the complete year have probably varied but little from 
the preceding year. If they have fallen off a little, the home consump- 
tion has been a little greater. 

Choice butter, through all the year, has been in demand and sold 
"well, but second and third quality of table-butter has dragged contin- 
ually. The makers of such butter, from a blind conceit, always prize 
it higher than consumers do, and this difference of opinion spoils 
trade and makes it accumulate in the markets. The same is true of 
cheese. Good cheese is always called for, and gives satisfaction alike 
to consumer and producer. But second and third-class goods move 
slow and satisfy nobody, and must always wait the last chance. From 
such information as I have been able to gather, it appears that there is 
an unusual proportion of such cheese this year lying back and wait- 
ing for a dubious market. The general stagnation of business has, 
no doubt, done much toward depressing the price of cheese, but it can 
hardly be doubted that the never-ending supply of this kind of goods, 
always crowding itself in where better goods are wanted, has told more 
effectually upon the depression of prices the past year than any other 
cause. An evidence of this is found in the fact that Canadian cheese 
is fast crowding ours out of a common market. There has been no 
difficulty in getting her 30,000,000 in, and crowding 30,000,000 of ours 
out of the British market. Canada cheese finds favor because it can 
be relied on for being full cream cheese. Skimming is scarcely known 
in the factories of the Dominion ; while in the great cheese-producing 
States of New .York and Ohio, from which the most of our shipping 
cheese comes, more than half (some estimate three-fourths) of the 
factories skim more or less, and some of them hard. The extent of 
our skimming being known, throws a distrust over our transactions, 
which must have its legitimate effect. The prominent lesson of the 
year is a demand for more quality and less skimming. Will it be 
heeded ? 

Prof. L. Wetherell, of Boston, spoke, indorsing the remarks of Prof. 
Arnold with particular reference to skim cheese. He believed that 
skim cheese, sold for whole milk cheese, was the chief element of de- 
pression in our markets. He strongly urged the association to con- 
demn the making of oleomargarine and skim cheese. 

Mr. Chadwick, of Ingersoll, Canada, admitted the indebtedness of 
Canadian makers to the American system, and he thanked the secre- 
tary for his flattering allusions to Canadian clieese. 

Mr. J. M. Peters, of Nevv^ York, believed too much emphasis had 
been placed upon the alleged efiect of skim cheese upon the American 
market. They had not interfered with the sale of a fine article. It 
had, however, interfered with home consumption. 

Mr. Harvey Farrington, of Canada, did not believe the improve- 
ment in Canadian cheese was so great as the deterioration of Ameri- 
can cheese. This made the difference ori'eater. 



15 

L. B. Arnold believed dairymen ought to use less renn-et afad acidity 
and take more time in tlie curing of cheese. 

Mr. Peters, of Xew York, stated that there had been much more 
ill-cured cheese than usual, which had arrived out in bad order. 
Cheese had been sold before it was cured. This discussion closed 
with the expression of emphatic opinions against skim cheese on the 
part of several members. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The afternoon session was called to order at 3 p. m. by Ex-Gov. Horatio 
Seymour, President of the association. There was a largely increased 
attendance. The first paper of the afternoon was read by Artemas 
Ward, of Philadelphia, Pa., upon the subject of " Nineveh.*' 

Mr. Ward's address was as follows : 

My theme has been announced to you as Nineveh, and I might as 
well confess at the outset that the most that I know about that old 
but foolish city is that it contained '' more than six score thousand 
souls who could not discern between their right hand and their left 
hand, and also much cattle." What a record to leave for future cities 
to point at regardless of their shortcomings and unmindful of the 
Jonahs who set in their midst, proclaiming, as Oarlyle does of 
England, that its population is 20,000,000 souls, mostly fools. 

We Americans are apt to compare our country with other lands 
which seem less favored than our own. We are not slow as a nation 
to think that we are unequalled on the globe, and we have lost in our 
worship of progress all veneration for antiquity. But it is now many 
thousands of years since the original Jonah went down so reluctantly 
to the original Nineveh, and we of to-day who reap the fruits of all 
earth's past generations, should be beyond their follies and safe from 
their mistakes. We believe, however, in no state of society but our 
own, (and we sometimes grow disgusted with that) and we think that 
all those things which are acceptable in the present stage of the 
world's progress, must be necessary elements of civilization. How 
often is tea called civilizing ? And I have seen it advanced that the 
general use of wheaten bread and fine batter indicates a nation rising 
in intellectual culture, and that " pease porridge hot or pease porridge 
cold " (which, by the way, Daniel eat to his great edification) is not food 
for the brain. Shades of Shadrach, Meshach and Abeduego, is not 
this slander hotter than tliat furnace. Oysters Avere lately very gener- 
ally consumed by young bloods who thought their brains needed a 
stimulus, until some wit suggested that although they nourished 
brains they would not create them. But how was butter used of old ? 
The Greeks and Romans only used it as an ointment for the bath, 
while the wild Scythians, Iberians, Phyrgians and Germans used it 
freely as a food. To this day it is used very sparingly in Southern 
Europe, and in Italy, Spain, Portugal and Southern Prance, it is still 
sold by the apothecaries as a medicinal agent for outward application. 
Cheese is not freely used by the ('eltic races, but by Germans and Sax- 
ons it is consumed in large quantities, but the race difference never 
seems to strike the minds of tliose theorizers wlio are forever press- 
ing their proposals to increase the home consumption of cheese by 
talk. You cannot talk the race characteristics out of a man, vou can 



16 

seldom kick them out. It is known, for instance, that the Chinese are 
not easily disturbed, and take the most unexpected things with per- 
fect coolness. But an incredulous Californian, finding one Ah Lee 
trying to steal his garden rake, kicked the heathen down the road 
about one quarter of a mile as an experiment, when, out of breath, he 
stopped to recover his own equanimity, the undisturbed Chinaman 
turned and asked calmly, " You no likee lendum, eh ?" Now if the 
race characteristic could not be kicked out of him, how far do you 
think talk would go towards weaning him from rice and chopsticks ? 
No, if you want to increase the consumption of cheese, you had best 
import Germans ; or, like Swift, eat up the Irish babies to thin down 
that element of the population. The folly of undertaking a business 
without giving due consideration to race characteristics is aptly illus- 
trated by the shipment of forty English dairy-maids to La Plata to 
milk the cows on the Pampas and make delicious butter for the La 
Platians. Alas ! on arriving among those heathen people it was dis- 
covered that they preferred their butter a little rancid. 

I hear many theories about the price and consumption of butter ; 
the market reports float away into a cloudland of words and say that 
butter is very sensitive, is influenced by this, that, and the other. 
The ruling price, they say at times, is too high and limits consump- 
tion. But without aviy deep study I have come to the conclusion that 
while judicious efibrts might open up new outlets for our surplus 
stock, especially of inferior makes, no concessions in price, and no 
amount of hammering in of opinions will materially increase the 
home demand. Educate the public taste up to that point tliat men 
will eat none but the choicest butter, and it will become so necessary 
to them that prices will not stand between them and their desires. 
They will get hungry for it, as the little boy did for the peanuts. He 
snatched tliem from a stand as he passed, and a gentleman who saw 
the theft stopped him and said, " Little boy, don't you know that it is 
very wrong to steal peanuts ?" " I 'spose so, sir." " Don't you know 
tliat little boys who steal peanuts Avon't go to heaven ?" " I 'spect so, 
sir, but when I gets hungry for peanuts sir, they've got to come if 
they're spiked down." And so when once accustomed to clioice but- 
ter, people will have it regardless of price. 

The staff of life has been thought too dry by all the nations of the 
earth. . The reapers told Euth to dip her bread in the vinegar, (a 
habit which continues to this day). The Spartan boys probably 
learned their first lessons in effeminacy when their mothers poured 
warm gravy over their bread. In the East they cook their meals in 
rancid butter and season them with asafoetida ; the German school- 
boy takes the rough edge ofl* his crusts with a liberal coating of 
ganse-fet, or goose grease, and the Russian soldier and tlie Arctic ex- 
plorer feeling the need of something bracing, iielp theirs down with 
tallow candles. 

Poor Ninevites, would it not be well to send some Jonah down to 
teach them greater wisdom and introduce the creamery system ? 

I did not come here, however, to speak of butter — I was to tell you 
of Nineveh, and my slight knowledge of the subject has led me astray. 
But if all that I know of ancient Nineveh is that it contained more 
than six score thousand persons who could not discern between their 



17 

right hands and their left liauds, not forgetting their cattle, why 
should I go back so many thousands of years to the city which was 
48 miles in circumference, whose walls were 100 feet high, broad 
enough to drive three chariots abreast along the tops, and furnished with 
1,500 towers, each two hundred feet high, whose fields were once extra- 
ordinarily fertile and provided with the finest system of irrigation 
ever known, where the people who knew so little have been supplanted 
by a people who know still less, and where mucli cattle no longer 
herd. Why need I go back, I say, over so many ages when the whole 
world still draws after Nineveh, and affords abundant parallels, not to 
its size alone but to its iniquity. 

Let lis glance over the world's progress. In the beginning, each 
man was his own purveyor, and wild fruits and game formed his entire 
subsistence. Then there were no markets and no middlemen, but all 
men were hunters until Nimrod, weary of the chase, laid aside his 
spear and began to build cities. Then the work of those who dwelt 
outside was doubled, for they had to provide food sufficient for the 
city as well as for themselves, and when game was scarce they had to 
provide more fruits until at last they were forced to till the fields to 
produce enough for all. Now the people of Nineveh acted towards 
them as travellers do with savage tribes ; they gave them curiously 
fashioned trinkets, and beads, and all sorts of things that pleased the 
eye, but which were seldom of absolute use, and for these they 
induced them to give in exchange the essential food. Soon the busi- 
ness grew until markets were established in' which the hunters and 
the husbandmen sold their goods — soon the hunters disappeared, and 
presently middlemen uadertookto supplant the farmers. Thus trade 
and agriculture were developed. 

The Poets say that Art (that is the trinkets) and Nature (that is the 
food) began to barter together, and the question sometimes occurs to 
unpoetical minds " who got the best of it." Into the city of Nineveli 
the surrounding country poured long lines of camels and asses bearing 
grain and wine, oil and honey, and dates and figs — and those asses 
went out of Nineveh lighter than they went in — and the same stream 
flows on to-day, the city gives many useful things, in exchange for its 
food, but still distributes no small amount of brass jewelry to credu- 
lous strangers. 

From the days of Nineveh down the tendency has ever been from 
the country to the town. Little city boys are told strange stories of 
the Will'o-the-Wisps that make the country dangerous, but little 
country boys turn willing ears to foolish mothers who tell of bright 
lamps, and stores, and streets which lure men into the city — and the 
boys go down to Nineveh to get polished up but too often, alas, in its 
brightest rooms — which are bar-rooms — and its finest houses — which 
are gambling hells — they get enough mud on their garments to make 
them unfit to return to the clean corn-fields. 

Be ye content to dwell in the country, for God maketh peace within 
thy borders and filleth thee with the choicest of the wheat. Tlie city 
is full of life, but it is tumultuous, and its food is uncertain, better by 
far is the simpler thrift, and the slower but surer gains of husbandry. 
There has never been a surplus of farmers since time began, but the 
city could well spare politicians or clerks, produce men or lawyers, 



18 

pickpockets or merchants — there is a surplus in every line — and that 
surplus either starves or steals. 

No ; turn your thoughts away from Nineveh but try to arrange 
your own affairs as shrewdly as they do theirs. Wake up, and see 
whether it does not often need a blast of yourjhorn to recall your 
sheep from the meadow, or your cows from the corn, remember that 
on the side of the city are many witty inventions, and that'by^^means 
of some of them they are almost enabled to do without the foods 
which you produce. Since those wes^erw?Jdairymen began to skim 
their cheese, and to send in so much low grade butter, certain men of 
Balial (who dwell in Nineveh and are ever ready ^to take advantage 'lof 
the short comings- of others) have devised strange processes by which 
they make butter out of soap fat, and i,by which they will soon make 
cheese out of saw dust if they do not even saw,4t'i out of the"* solid 
plank. I need not dwell upon these things, however, for you know 
how to provide against them. 

A higher state of culture, while it is not brought about by eating 
pure bread, does nevertheless call for finer makes of everything. The 
ladies of the days of Queen Bess, who used straw instead of carpets 
might not object to old-tasted butter, or tough cheese, to-day the city 
markets clamor for fine grades of butter and full cream cheese, but 
the country too often seems determined to encourage the manufacture 
of that Ninevitish trash know6 as Oleomargarine, which is inferior 
to good butter, but which is unquestionably a superior grease. | 

Strange stories are sometimes told of the butter that is sold in the 
city. Jones bought a lot of firkins from Brown, who assured him 
that he saw it packed at the dairy. " Straight lot," he said, " two 
hundred cows, two milkings, one churning." But Jones opened a few 
of the packages, and great was the variation. " Why, how is this, 
Brown, I thought you said it was a straight,, lot, two milkings, one 
churning?" "So it was," said Brown, scratching his^^ head, "but 
Jones, you should have seen those cows, they were the ringstreakedest, 
spottedest critters you ever saw, and I reckon that is what is the mat- 
ter with the butter." But I should not allow myself to drift into 
subjects that I do not understand and butter is one of them. I am a 
total stranger in these parts. Two men reeled up the street on a clear 
morning when the moon gave a very brilliant light, and one of them 
said "How bri'it the moon is," the other disputed the assertion and 
declared that it was the sun which was shining on their tangled path. 
At last they agreed to leave it to the next man whom they, met. 
" Stranger," said they, " would you be 'kind enough to settle a little 
question for us, and tell us whether that^ is the sun or^the moon?" 
But he too had been out to see a man, and he bowed towards all points 
of the compass, as he replied, " sorry I can't inform you, gen'l'men, 
but I'm a total stranger in these parts myself." And that is just the 
way I feel about butter, I am a total stranger to it, except on bread. 

But it is not hard to get onto familiar ground when talking about 
Nineveh — it contains some things which none of us are strangers to — 
cheats for instance. The merchant cheats his clerk, the clerk^cheats 
his tailor, the tailor cheats the market man, the market man cheats 



19 

the commission man and then he cheats you. It is the old rhyme of 
the naturalist oyer again ; 

The common fleas, have other fleas 

Upon their backs, to bite 'em, 
And these small fleas, have smaller fleas 

And so ad infinitum. 

And it is useless to put the candle out, as the foolish fellow did, so 
that they may not find you. You must meet them if you go out of 
doors, and even if yon didn't, you could not avoid them indoors. Go 
out without hesitation but don't go bareheaded or without your wits — 
remember that half the baits in this world which are held so close to 
our noses that we have but to open our mouths to secure them, have 
barbed hooks underneath their attractions. Wiien you judge of a 
business man from a distance remember that worth is always modest, 
that co7iservative views are safest, that extreme quotations are frequently 
ofiered but seldom realized, and in short, when you read letters that 
tell of unusual facilities, limitless capital, highest prices, remember 
that liaper cannot refuse ink. Yes, the people of Nineveh leave no 
power of words unused, no influence of high sounding references 
unemployed, to lead men of smaller experience into their snares. 
Words, Words, Words, how mysteriously they are flung over trifles in 
tricks of trade, and how often is human ignorance misled by an 
empty sound. 

I stated at the outset that we Americans are apt to compare ourselves 
with other nations, and we so stock the cards that they appear to a 
disadvantage. Let us look for a moment at China, tho most eastern of 
Asiatic powers. Its people are accounted to be nearly as devoid of 
improvement as they were 3,000 years ago. A fable says that they never 
knew how to roast pig until one of their best houses burned down with 
one in it, and that as their simplicity suggested no other way of pre- 
paring the palatable dish, they put another pig in another house and 
burnt that down also. Yes, men sneer at China and our wise men 
say that it is a country where the roses have no fragrance, and the 
women no petticoats, where the laborer has no Sabbath and the mag- 
istrates no sense of honor, where the roads have no vehicles, and the 
ships have no keels, where old men fly kites, where the needle points 
to the South, and the sign of being puzzled is to scratch the soles of 
the feet, where the place of honor is on the left hand, and the seat of 
intellect is in the stomach, where to take ofi" your hat is an insolent 
question, and to wear white clothes is to put on mourning, where there 
is a language without an alphabet, and a literature without a grammar, 
in short, where one need be surprised at nothing. That is certainly a 
topsey turvey country, but before wo enter it let us look at our ov/n 
country and our own capitol, and sec what legislators we are blessed 
with. 

Their confidence at least is sublime. For instance, the one who 
wronged old Bion and gave unnecessary credit to the good book when 
he said so grandly on the floor of Congress, " Search the scriptures 
and find these Avords, 'know thyself.' " The effect was electric, the 
quotation went unchallenged, his biblical lore was much admired. 
Puffed with success he boasted that he could recite the Lord's prayer. 



20 

The bet was instantly accepted by a fellow Congressman, the money 
deposited and the prayer called for. With the same confident man- 
ner he promptly responded with ''^ Now I lay me down to sleep," and 
his nonplussed companion passed over the stakes and acknowledged 
the correctness of his rendition. Election day came round; the can- 
vass was said to be devoid of interest — the respectable citizens staid at 
home, and for the forty-eleventh time he was returned to his seat in 
the house. So he voted a duty on tea and coffee, on condition that 
one of his opponents would vote for a pet appropriation of his, and 
did other things customary with American lawmakers and statesmen. 
Why, beside the indifference which permits such characters to repre- 
sent and tax our interests, the Chinaman is wise when he beats his 
drum to drive away the dragon which he says is eclipsing the sun 
with his great jaws ; and Pekin is pure compared with that capital 
which is so corrupt that the man in the moon is said to hold his nose 
as he goes over it. For in that poor foolish land of China a credita- 
ble examination is the key to advancement, and to be ignorant is to 
be without office and without influence. 

In no country in the world is agriculture held in such esteem as in 
China. On the 1st of each year a grand state ceremony is performed 
in its honor, so that about two weeks ago the bulletins of Pekin must 
have announced the 3242d centennial of that industry ; and what a 
noise there must have been in that land of snap-crackers. On that 
occasion the Emperor traces a furrow with a plow and all his minis- 
ters follow his example. And why should not agriculture be treated 
with the highest regard ; and why shoula not young men bend their 
energies toward it, and not toward the town ? We have seen that the 
city's necessities gave birth to extended husbandry — how it still de- 
pends upon it. Yes, the city works, but it does not produce, and the 
agricultural classes are in fact the great insurers of the world's busi- 
ness. Every financial panic which convulses the centre of the city 
must shake each class of society until it dies away in a ripple over the 
broad and cultivated fields which yield bread and meat and clothing ; 
and these after all are the only things life gives us that we really de- 
pend- upon. They are the only indispensables. Gold is useful as a 
medium of currency, but paper can substitute it. Iron is useful also, 
but only to dig the soil, to spin the cloth, or otherwise to perfect what 
the field produces. 

In the distant future the world's work may yet be established on 
such trade principles as will bring the basis of the world's business 
into closer connection with the world's actual production. No step 
toward this basis has been as well taken, or as well established as your 
cheese factory and creamery system. The world is taking extended 
notice of it ; other agricultural industries are endeavoring to imitate 
it, Farmers' Fruit Packing Associations being already on the increase. 
Now the world is coming here within four months to ask of America 
what use she has made of her first 100 years. Shall your industry go 
unrepresented ? Shall boot and shoe men show forth their progress, 
and whisky men hold high carnival in a temple to their god, and the 
clean divinities of the dairy go unnoticed. Wives and daughters of 
dairymen, divinities of the dairy, I adjure you to point at the men if 
they neglect to represent you. Dairymen of the American Associa- 



21 

tion, I adjure you to lose no time in coining forward with your sub- 
scriptions, no matter how small, for every little helps. Others more 
eloquent than I am will represent the matter more fully to you, but 
let each man bear in mind that if he gives nothing he need not ex- 
pect others to do more, and moreover his name will be among the 
missing when the committee publishes its roll of honor. 

HIXTS IN CHEESE-MAKIXG, BY C. L. SHELDOX, OF LEWIS. 

The past season has been peculiar in several particulars. Among 
those we first notice is the milk production as compared with the season 
of 1874. In 1874 we received at the factory the milk of 042 cows, all 
told, and for 1875 the milk of 050 cows. The aggregate 3'ield of milk 
for the season of 1875, as compared with the previous season, is 5 6-10 
per cent, poorer, and for the same period of the season it is 9-100 
per cent, poorer. Taking June of 1874, as the basis of comparison 
for the different months, we find the yield of June, 1875, to be 2 07-100 
per cent. less. July, 1875, shrinks 12 40-100 per cent., or 13 93-100 per 
cent more than August, 1874. September, 1875, shrinks 43 15-100 
per cent, or 10 32-100 per cent, more than its corresponding month. 
October, 1875, shrinks 52 82-100 per cent., or a difference of 3 83-100 
per cent, compared with its corresponding month of 1874. It will be 
noticed that no month of 1875 has quite equaled its corresponding 
month of 1874, and that the percentage of shrinkage is greatest in' 
August; that July also lost heavily. About the time of the greatest 
shrinkage it was common for dairymen to remark, " I don't know what 
makes my cows shrink so, they have plenty to eat and come up to the 
milking-barn well filled and are in excellent condition as to flesh." 
This condition of things, to our own mind, suggests the following ex- 
planation : The feed grew faster than it Avas consumed ; the tender, 
succulent grass became dry hay, losing the chief quality of milk pro- 
duction. If this be the correct explanation of the case, it su^o-ests 
the need of some remedy. If tha dairyman increases the number of 
his cows, so as to consume the grass as fast ,as it grows through the 
flush of tlie season, he will have too many for the after part; and if 
tlie dairy is too small, the difficulties already mentioned obtain, so that, 
ill either case, some supplementary ration must be provided for the 
cows. Of the quality or amount of this ration it is not our purpose 
now to speak. But of the value of fodder-corn, as fed by one of our 
patrons, we are furnished with data from which we figure" out the fol- 
lowing result: This patron's June milk was 3 0-100 per. cent, better 
than the average yield of the factory for the same time. His July 
yield is 90-100 of oue per cent, better than his June, and 10 85-100 per 
cent, better than the factory average. His August loses 20 37-100 per 
cent., but 9 34-100 per cent, less than the average shrinkage. His Sep- 
tember loses 33 8-100 per cent., but 7 5-10 per cent, less than the aver- 
age loss of the factory for the time. These comparisons are based upon 
this patron's yield for June. For the four months mentioned, this 
patron gains 11 12-100 per cent, over the factory average for the same 
time, and after deducting his increased yield for June we find the ratio 
of his shrinkage is 8 5-100 per cent, less than that sustained by the 
factory. This showing, though not remarkable in itself, points clearly 



to one of the ways in which losses are sustained by dairymen, and 
though fodder-corn may not be the best remedy, still it seems to prove 
itself 8 per cent, better than no remedy at all, and this during a sea- 
son when the grass product was abundant. Our dairymen need to 
provide against this tendency to shrinkage. A little forethought in 
this direction may make all the difference between keeping cows at a 
loss or at a profit. 

Another subject that has claimed our attention is the curing of 
cheese. The curing-houses that were constructed in the early days of 
factory cheese-making were so poorly calculated to regulate the tem- 
perature that the curing process was almost entirely at the command 
of the weather. If the weather was just right, the cheese cured finely 
and were considered fine. If too hot or too cold for any length of 
time, the effect that poor cheese has upon the market was quite sure 
to follow, so that the cheese market was like a volume of weather 
reports, from which the initiated could read the past as the geologist 
reads the past history of the earth. To remedy this defect of con- 
struction, we ceiled up our curing-room with matched spruce, made 
double doors and close window-shutters, which could be opened or shut 
from one end of the room. To prevent ventilation under the house, 
we nailed boards to the sills and banked with earth the end that came 
to the ground. In this waj^, at little expense, we made a comparatively 
tight foundation. Our heating apparatus consisted of a coal stove 
with a galvanized iron jacket over it, raised about six inches from the 
lloor at the bottom and having a top with a door to open for conven- 
ience in filling the stove with coal. This top was raised about six 
inches from the cylinder or outer sides of the jacket. There was a 
door in the sides for convenience in taking out ashes and an aperture 
for regulating draft. This heating apparatus was placed near the cen- 
tre of the curing-room. The heated air from the top of the jacket 
diffused itself quite uniformly over the room, except what little radia- 
tion came from twelve feet of horizontal smoke-pipe, the cheese seemed 
to be warmed uniformly. A thermometer kept in the room was closely 
watched from May till the middle of October ; we seldom had a tem- 
perature less than sixty or over seventy degrees. During the hottest 
weather of the season, by keeping the room closed during the hottest 
part of the day, we were enabled to go through the season without 
starting the oil from the cheese. Most of our July cheese was kept 
until the 2od of September before they were sold, and from numerous 
tests made I cannot recall an instance where the flavor .seemed to be 
impaired through defects in curing; that tendency to sharpness so 
common to early cheese was scarcely perceptible in these cheese. 

A July cheese, cut at three months' age, was so solid that we sup- 
posed we had, through mistake, cut a late August, and so certain were 
we of this supposed fact that we exaihined, at considerable trouble, the 
stock of cheese saved for our own use, but did not find the cheese 
sought until we examined the brand of the cut cheese. We mention 
this simple incident to show that the July cheese had a quality so 
marked tuid different from what we had been accustomed to as to cause 
the belief that we had made a mistake. Another co2idition resulting, 
we think, from the close room during the hot days was the increased 
tendency to mould ; this tendency, though not affecting the real value 



of the cheese, was not so desirable ; it required more labor to care for 
them, and, in spite of our efforts, Avould soon become dingy and unat- 
tractive in appearance. In a room averaging 500 cheese, evaporation 
from them would be equal to about one gallon of M'ater every four 
hours, and if, instead of having the room entirely closed, we had 
opened ventilators above tlie cheese, and been careful to prevent cur- 
rents of air in the room, we would, perhaps, have succeeded better. As 
our aim was to carry the cheese through these hot spells at as low a 
temperature as possible, we kejitthe room closely shut during the heat 
of the day, airing it in the late evening or early morning, or both. 
Being our first season's experience in managing such a room, and en- 
tirely successful as far as the quality of the cured cheese was con- 
cerned, it remains for us to discover whether the lesser difficulties 
affecting the appearance of the cheese can be overcome. 

The advantage of such a curing-room commends itself to us from 
another point of view. During the hot season of the year, when the 
markets become clogged Avith early-matured cheese, and the prices fall 
with startling rapidity, the cheese at the factories can be judiciously 
held and put upon the market as required, and not deteriorate by hold- 
ing, or, at least, in a less degree than when subjected to the boiling 
heat of a smgle-boarded curing-room, and, perhaps, just under the 
roof at that. We would not record ourself as opposed to the early 
maturing and marketing of cheese, but we would enter our protest 
against a general system of making and curing which requires that the 
cheese must be sold and be speedily consumed, be the prices satisfac- 
tory or not. Whatever error the cheese-maker may commit, let him 
commit the error of making his cheese with too slow maturing prop- 
erties, rather than an error in the opposite direction. 

In the market reporta we see distinctions made in favor of the Sep- 
tember make as compared with the October. This deterioration, wc 
believe, is oftener due to the curing, or, more properly, want of cur- 
ing, than to any or all otlier causes combined. We have observed this 
tendency in the cheese of our own manufacture in years past, and in 
seeking the cause, we are persuaded that we did not credit imi)erfect 
curing with a sufficient share of the defect. The October milk with 
us is richer than the September, requires less to make a pound of 
cheese, and that it should not make richer and better cheese when 
properly made and cured, would seem to argue that milk rich in oil 
is thereby rendered unfit to produce a first quality of cheese. 

We want more light upon the curing process — more particular and 
detailed results than any which I am able to give. There is a sad 
need throughout our dairy region of proper curing-rooms, and it is to 
be hoped that factory-owners Avill meet this demand. The storing for 
purposes of curing from ten to twenty thousand dollars wortli of cheese 
by individual factories, from year to year, in rooms so poorly adapted 
for the purpose as to cause various losses whenever certain conditions 
of temperature prevail, without any eftbrt put forth for improvement, 
is, to say the least, showing but little concern for the valuable property 
entrusted to our hands. "The demand on the part of those that fur- 
nish milk, that we make for tlie lowest possible price, may, in some 
instances, prevent these needed reforms. Better to ])ay well for work 
well performed and hold to a strict accountability tho^se who handle 



24 

your property. The demand for improvement rests both upon patron 
and manufacturer. See to it that your cows have food and drink in 
kind and quantity and at such times as shall produce the greatest flow 
of pure and Avholesome milk. See that it is delivered at the factory 
in the best possible condition, pay the manufacturer well for its man- 
ufacture, and, if he fails to keep up to the demands of the times and 
shows little interest in the property you have entrusted him with, then 
withdraw your j^atronage. 

The reading of this paper was followed by discussion. 

Mr. Armstrong, a resident of Eastern Vermont, said the complaint 
of milk not being as rich as last season was general. It required more 
milk to make a pound of cheese. 

Mr. Babcock, of Herkimer, inquired on what basis the comparison 
had been made. 

Mr. Hawley, of Onoiidaga, said where grass grew so rapidly as to 
turn into hay, the quality of the milk would not be as rich. 

Mr. Bliss thought the wet season made the grass more succulent and 
not as nutritious. He thought this was the cause rather than the 
grass turning to hay. 

Mr. McAcTam, of Oneida, said his average in 1873 was 9.76 
pounds of milk to a pound of cheese ; in 1875 it Avas 9.G8. They 
were making upwards of 340,000 pounds of cheese annually. His 
experience Avas that milk had not deteriorated. 

Professor L. Wetherell, of Massachusetts, said he had a friend who 
began feeding his cows with fodder-corn. The result was even better 
than stated by Mr. Sheldon. When the grass became dry or too 
scanty, then was the time for fodder-corn. He considered it the best 
substitute that could be given to dairy cows in July and August. If it 
Avas objected that it was too succulent, the same might be said of the 
blue grass of June, which made the richest butter. 

Mr. Lewis thought grass was better than fodder-corn. June grass 
never had over 60 to 66 per cent, of Avater, Avhile fodder-corn had over 
90 per cent. The good results obtained from fodder-corn in Massa- 
chusetts Avere from corn partially dried. 

Professor Wetherell said the experiment he had related was made 
Avith fodder-corn just cut, and not dried. Water in grass Avas less 
than in corn ; but in July and August the grass Avas gone and could 
not be had. Then Avas the time Avhen corn gave an increased per 
cent, of butter and cheese. A friend of his had obtained better results 
with one acre of corn than with two acres of grass. 

In answer to Mr. Farrington, of Canada, Mr. Sheldon said the season 
in LeAvis county had been a medium one, Avith considerable ram in 
August and September. Mr. McAdam said the season in his locality 
had been a Avet one. Mr. Sheldon said the corn he had referred to Avas 
soAvn in drills. 

Mr. L. S. Hardin, of Kentucky, said coavs fed exclusively upon corn- 
fodder shrunk rapidly in milk. It, however, did very Avell to feed with 
dry grass. 

Mr. S. D. Talcott, of Rome, said the past season he had half an acre 
of sweet corn. He picked and sold a large quantity of corn in the 
ear, in Rome,, feeding the balance to the coavs. He Avas so Avell pleased 



25 

with the experiment that he would plant five acres of sweet corn next 
season. 

Mr. Farrington, of Canada, said he understood that a factoryman in 
Oswego had prohibited the use of sowed corn by his patrons, on the 
ground that it injured the cheese. He would like more light on the 
subjeet. 

Jacob Ellison, of Herkimer, said A. L. Fish, one of the noted dairy- 
men of the State, had some cheese to sell at one time at a high 
price. They were the finest cheese he ever had in his factory. These 
had been made by feeding the cows ears of corn fit for boiling, salted. 
He bought the cheese for 8 cents, when the highest market price was 
6. He sold them in Philadelphia for 11 cents. The subject of 
curing cheese was one of vital importance, in which the English ex- 
celled the Americans. Mr. Sheldon's suggestions on this subject were 
very valuable. 

L. B. Arnold said he had taken the milk of three patrons in Octo- 
ber, who were feeding nothing but grass, and the milk of three other 
patrons who fed nothing but corn, sowed broadcast. The experiment 
was to take an equal quantity of the milk of each, curdling it with the 
same amount of rennet, at the same temperature. The curd was then 
dried. The milk of the corn-fed cows gave 8i per cent, of cui'd; that 
of the grass-fed only G| per cent, of curd. This showed forcibly the 
value of corn. At Marengo, Illinois, cows were fed with grain all 
summer. The butter in these was superior to tliat made from the 
pure blue grass. He had been in the habit of thinking that the best 
results were had with June grass alone, but this grain-feeding circum- 
stance showed otherwise. 

AVHOLE MTLK CHEESE. 

xVPaper read hefore the American Dairymen's Association, at Rome, 
N. Y., January 11, by J. G. CoJioe, of Frednma, N. Y. 

At this day, when the general mind seems to be turned toward the 
profit arising from making a double use of milk, it seems somewhat 
uncalled for to ask your attention to whole milk cheese, but when your 
Secretary assigned me my subject, I have no doubt he kncAV that he 
assigued me one that would suit me, and one that I felt interested in 
defending and advancing. While I have notliing new to advance, nor 
am disposed in the least to set up my notions for others to practice, I 
feel that if by advancing some of my blunders and erroneous ideas, I 
can draw the truth from some one else, I shall have accoMiplished some 
good and shall lie entirely satisfied, for I think we have much to learn 
yet, and it is in tliis direction that I am looking for advancement and 
increased profit, and not from the plan of selling the consumer one 
thing and furnishing him another, or fron\ trying to see how much we 
can steal from the consumer without his knowing that we have stolen 
anything. 

After getting the milk into the vats, there is not much troul)le if it 
is all right and everything is favorable. I heat it from 80" to 85° and 
add enough rennet to cause coagulation to commence in tAventy min- 
utes, and cut it lengthwise when it will break smooth across the fin srer. 
3 



m 

Theu let it stand until it settles a little, and cut it crosswise. I do all 
the cutting with the ordinary perpendicular knife, and cut but once 
each way. After the curd settles a Jittle, I commence stirring and stir 
once round the vat before I apply any heat. I then apply the heat 
very gently at first, and increase the application of the heat and motion 
of the curd as the curd hardens. This process should occupy from 
one hour to one hour and a quarter and the heat be increased to 100". 
It is very important that the curd should be stirred just enough to 
keep from matting and no more. I now hold it at 98° to 100'^, stirring 
the curd just enough to keep from matting and no more until the right 
degree of acid has developed — which 1 determine by the hot iron test — 
then drain off the whey and dip the curd into the sink and let it 
stand there one hour, stirring just enough to keep from matting, then 
add 2f lbs. of salt to one thousand lbs. of milk, and put to press in 
Eraser's gang press which does the pressing better than any other I 
know of now, but which I think will do it much better when he adds 
some attachments that will keep it tightened up all the time so that 
the cheese will not be relieved from pressure when they settle 
together. 

Now although the above is true and correct, I cannot work half of 
my vats strictly after this plan, and why? Because the dairymen do 
not deliver us milk that is all right. Altfiough I am glad to know 
there are many worthy exceptions, it is certainly a plain stubborn fact 
that it is easy to find plenty of those avaricious beings whose only 
ambition in this direction is to get good weight for their dairy liquids 
and get credit for it and get out of sight, no matter if a cow stepped 
into the milk pail, or if the can was not washed, or if the strainer — if 
he ever uses one— fell into the can, dirt and all, or if the can stood 
where the water from the eaves of the barn run into it all night, or if 
a large portion of this dairy liquid is sour whey, filtered through an 
old toothless cow with a perverted appetite, that will drink anywhere 
from 1 to 10 gallons of the putrid stuff and deliver it to the milk-pail 
in but little better condition to be made into cheese than when she 
took it into her mouth. Here, in my opinion, is the most productive 
cause of failure to produce good results, and these are the men who 
most need educating, but how shall we educate them? We seldom 
see them at our conventions and they are not at all likely to be readers. 
Whatever other virtues a cheese-maker may possess, if he lacks that 
one virtue — patience — he has mistaken his calling, for to get along 
smoothly in' this business he must be nearly all patience, and I know of 
no other way for us than to continue patiently presenting before the 
minds of our patrons the fact that it is impossible for us to make a 
good article of cheese out of a poor article of milk, and that if they 
deliver a poor article of milk they will surely get poor returns and no 
profits. But there is another side to this question. Manufacturers 
have their faults as well as their responsibilities to look after. J do 
not by any means denounce wholesome competition between factories, 
but too many manufacturers and factory proprietors work up a petty 
jealousy and an unwholesome strife, and step down and out of their 
sphere, and go to the farmers and banter in all ways to get their milk, 
and thus place themselves where they feel under too much obligation 
to take everything that comes to them from those dairies in milk cans. 



27 

It is absolutely necessary for a manufacturer to liave some independ- 
ence with his great store of patience, for he certainly has no right to 
take a can of bad milk and mix it Avith the good, as he must do some 
of his patrons, if not all, a very great injury by so doing. 

But far worse than all this, the crime that must work its own rum, 
and that is to-day jeopardizing the whole dairy business, and that, in 
my opinion, has already done a work of mischief that will require 
years of good management to overcome, is the miserable, degrading 
practice of stealing the cream out of the cheese. I have taken a great 
deal of interest in watching this business from the first I learned of 
the practice. I watched the manufacture and have followed the cheese 
to the place of consumption, and have formed the following conclu- 
sions Avith regard to their mode of operations, most of which I know 
to be correct : After stealing the cream from the milk they make the 
cheese to resemble whole-milk cheese as nearly as possible, and then 
watch the curing process very closely, for there is a time, although it 
is very short, when this cheese resembles whole-milk cheese very 
closely, and when this time comes they rush their cheese into market 
Avith every box branded, " Oakville factory cheese," or " Chautauqua 
Co. factory," or "New York State factory cheese,"' or something else 
that will imply that it is the regular, genuine factory cheese. What 
is this but fraud? What is the cheese but counterfeit, and why not 
punish the man that makes counterfeit cheese as well as the one that 
makes counterfeit money ? This cheese being sent to market at just 
the right time of its life appears quite like the genuine, and a dealer 
finds that he can buy it at perhaps a cent below the regular price for 
the prime article, and that he can sell it to the retailer as the prime 
article, and of course he does so. Now comes Mr. Smith, who is a 
customer, and Avho, like other customers, is not an expert, and takes a 
piece home, and perhaps takes more pieces, but after a time he is heard 
to say, "I don't know what is the matter with our folks ; Ave used to 
eat lots of cheese, but lately when aat get any Ave eat a little the first 
day, and like it pretty well, but it does not quite fill the bill, and the 
next day it seems very dry, and about the third day it is throAvn out, 
and somehoAV we don't seem to care for it, and have quit using it 
altogether." This may seem of little account, but it is a complaint 
that I heard myself, and it struck me as containing a lesson that we 
might study Avith profit, for Ave know that the great majority of the 
cheese consumers are not expert judges and in fact know but 
very little about hoAV cheese is made at all, and it is certainly 
asking too much of them to say that they ought to know the differ- 
ence between a half-skim and Avhole-milk cheese, Avhen we know some 
very good judges among tlie dealers ai'e being deceived Avith the half- 
skims every day. 

It seems clear to me that the time has come when it is absolutely 
necessary for tlie consumers, as Avell as the honest producers, to have 
some protection, and I think it the imperative duty of this convention 
to take some steps toAvard liaving a law passed to compel all manu- 
facturers to In-and their goods Avhat they are and call them by their 
right names. 

When I have sour milk to handle I keep it as cool as possible until 
1 have it about all in the vat, and then heat it (piickly to 7S^ to 80'-, 



^8 

and add rennet enough to have it ready to cut in from 10 to 20 min- 
utes ; cut it once each way and apply the heat as rapidly as possible ; 
turn it over and re-cut once each way ; as soon as the curd settles a 
little turn hot water into the mass to accellerate the heating. I let 
the degree of acid govern the degree of heat ; if it shows acid enough 
by the hot iron I heat but very little, but if I have time before the acid 
developes in the cui-d, I heat to about 85*^. During the heating pro- 
cess I test the curd often with the hot iron, and the moment I find 
the right degree of acid I start it toward the cooler, no matter what 
the other conditions are, and if I have overtaken the acid I treat it 
the same as sweet milk curd, but if not I give it less time to drain 
and put in the usual amount of salt, not that it requires so much, but 
the extra amount of whey it contains will wash out the extra amount 
of salt. Of course these cheese require more time to cure and should 
therefore have the warmest place in the curing room. 

When I have a vat of tainted milk I add to it some sour whey if I 
have it, and proceed about as with good milk, except that I use less 
rennet, untill it is ready to dip. Of course the curd is rebellious and 
refuses to remain in the vat and comes to the top of the whey, but I 
pay no regard to that until it becomes ready to dip. I then run off 
the whey and either heap up the curd in the vat or cooler — no matter 
which — until it becomes thoroughly matted together, and then cut it 
up and grind it, and the longer time occupied in the grinding process 
the better, as the curd should be well exposed in the open air. Salt 
about as usual, ana if possible let it stand from one to four hours 
before putting to press. 

DISCUSSION" FOLLOWING ME. CAHOE's TAPER. 

Mr. Armstrong, of Vermont, was in favor of the Chedder process. 
It made the most cheese and the best quality. It also required less 
skill as it Avas not so very material when the whey was drawn, as it 
was when the curd was fully ripened in the whey. 

He gave his experience with tainted milk. It diminishes the yield 
of cheese. A 100 lbs. of bad milk would shrink the yield of a vat of 
good milk more than the cheese from the tainted milk would add to it. 
He related a case in which he got less cheese from a vat of milk by 
mixing a 100 lbs. of tainted milk with it, than he would have got from 
the good milk alone. He had better thrown the tainted milk away, as 
it injured the quality as well as diminished the product. He estimates 
that milk .much tainted makes 10 per cent, less cheese than sound 
milk. 

Mr. Chapman, of Madison, confirmed Mr. Armstrong's remarks, 
about tainted milk. He had found it took more for a pound of cheese 
than milk not tainted. Mr. 0. thought patrons ought to take more 
pains to guard against taints in milk by a more watchful attention in 
respect to allowing carrion about the premises, in more carefiilly 
cleansing vessels in which milk is handled, and in every way securing 
good air, water, and food for the cows, and by shielding milk from the sun 
while going to the factory. Defect creeps into the milk in such ways 
which the manufacturer can't detect, and for which he should not be 
held responsible. It was easier to detect watering milk than the insin- 



29 

uatiug effect of taint. He could, with the aid of the lactometer, detect 
a very small dilution Avith water, but he had no gauge for taints Avhich 
was infallible. Tainting milk by the addition of bad water was worst 
of all, especially when added at night, as it lay in the milk all night to 
develop evil and that only. 

Alvin Meddaugh, of Allegany, said taints come from other causes 
than bad air and bad water. Hot sunshine uj^on the cows would pro- 
duce it, and any other cause which will make the cows feverish. He 
thought removing all cause of feverishness in the cows, would remove 
nearly all causes of tainted milk. 

SKETCHES OF ENGLISH CHEESE MAKIXG AND PERSOXAL EXPERIENCES, 
BY SETH BOXEOY, OF HERKIMER. 

About the year 1835 the Eoyal Agricultural Society of England 
appointed a commissioner to visit all the principal dairies of England, 
and to make a very minute report of the entire management from the 
rearing of the calves to the marketing of the dairy products. The 
report was lengthy, able, very simple and minute in its descriptive 
features. Although their conveniences and manner of manipulation 
wei-e somewhat crude, there were a few facts to be gathered that were 
and are still of absolute necessity to secure success in the manufac- 
ture of cheese. It was evident that the best dairies were managed 
with scrupulous neatness, that with rather a uniform humid climate 
(for which England is noted) gave them a good material. The process 
of manufacture was slow and on a slow scale of heat. The curd was 
largely ripened after it was taken from the whey; in many cases it 
Avas not put to press till* the next day, in that case it wis kept warm 
near a fire in a solid or compact state, and was what the English called 
skewed occasionally with sharp sticks to let the whey more thoroughly 
drain off. 

But the process no doubt assisted very much in ripening the curd 
for the press. Some of the best results of the writer has been when 
the whey has been a little prematurely drawn off, and the curd left on 
the bottom of the vat in a compact state to ripen, the vat being kept a 
little warm. This can be done only when the material is good and 
the curd is to be ground. It would not be saying too much to say 
that many of the changes in the manufacture of American cheese 
within the last twenty years, could be traced to the above report. In 
coming to the early introduction of American dairying we find a very 
different system of manipulation. The curd was broken very fine, 
rapidly worked and scalded, and was very properly called the whirl 
system. Although the process was very uniformly adopted, the results 
were very varied. Some dairies turned out dry and hard, others soft, 
puffy, and porous, and seemed to puzzle the wisest heads. For no 
better reason for these varied results the cause was attributed to the 
action of rennet, and rennet became the scape goat for everything 
that turned up wrong, especially with dealers and consumers, that as 
a hobby had its day. Finally it came to be understood that the varied 
condition of the milk more than any other agency Avas the cause of 
the varied results. Then the acidulating process stepped in and Avas 
and is still more or less a hobby. The result has been the production 



30 

of cheese that would endure the rough experience of the export trade 
with comparative safety, yet it has been at the expense of rot and 
character. 

How premium cheese is made may begin the enquiry. Nega- 
tively it is not made the day following a hot, sultry atmosphere when 
the milk was secreted and produced under its influence. There was 
a paper read before this Association at one of its conventions in Utica, 
upon animal heat, its influence and remedies. The premises taken were 
that animal heat was always the same or alike, and whatever the remedy 
it would produce the same result. This, at the time, was the reverse 
of the writer's views, and from further , observation the conclusion 
is that animal heat is no two days alike, unless the atmosphere is the 
same. 

This is a very important subject and should be thoroughly studied. 

It is not made when one or more patrons deliver milk at the factory 
that Avill sour in two or three hours, and require 11 lbs. of 
milk to make a pound of cheese, that is 25 per cent. ofiP in value. 
Such patrons are not aware the amount of damage they inflict. In 
short, it is not from sour milk with hand hay rakes, nor sour curds. 

Affirmatively, it is made when the milk has been manufactured or 
secreted by the herds in a pure atmosphere, and been well cared for, 
Avhen everything about the factory is in order, when 9^ or 9^ lbs. of 
milk will make a pound of cured cheese. The milk set at 82° with 
milk perfectly sweet rennet that has been prepared if possible, with 
pure soft water, that is pungent yet lias no more odor than water from 
the spring, sufficient to coagulate the milk in 30 min., of a consistency 
not too firm and clammy, but of a brittle texture that will require care- 
ful cutting and handling. And if properly handled with the hands, 
and carefully warmed, the whey will be of a clear bright straw color. 
The curd should be largely matured in a temperature about 92^^, and 
the finishing at 95° to 98°, should be short, not to exceed from 30 
to 60 min. The heating should be slow and quiet, and as far as prac- 
ticable, from the sides of the vat. The curd should be handled with 
the hands in. a light and rather lively manner, yet very carefully while 
warming, and the result of every move closely watched. The indica- 
tions of the condition of the milk and the result of right or wrong 
handling are sure and unmistakable, but are not easily explained unac- 
companied by practical illustration. There is a number of qualifi- 
cations that are requisite to make a good cheese-maker. They should 
be good judges of cheese. This can be acquired with very little of the 
right kind of instruction. It is an immutable law in agriculture as 
well as in the mechanic arts, that a producer will not advance 
much beyond the scope of their conceptioa of the merits of their own 
products. The once prevalent idea that it was not necessary for any 
one to be an expert judge of cheese is pining away. 

These few hints have been gotten from twenty years' close observa- 
tion, and there is room for them to be very much enlarged. 

At the close of Mr. Bonfoy's address, Mr. Farrington of Canada, 
remarked that the improvement in the quality of American cheese for 
the past five years had not been enough to be perceptible. The doc- 
trines advanced by this and other associations are, indeed sound and 
right, but they do not fall where they are most needed, because the 



31 

men who should hear them neither attend dairy meetings nor read 
agricultural papers. Factoryraen have learned to do their duty well, but 
they cannot make much further advance without reform on the side 
of the patrons of factories. They must be disabused of the idea that 
any milk which they can crowd a manufacturer to accept is good 
enough to make cheese ot. The vital question now is, how can we 
reach the'patrons ? His view of the solution of this question was, the 
formation of county and town associations. Dairymen who do not 
feel able to endure the expense of two or three days' absence in a dis- 
tant town or city, might be induced to attend a meeting so near home 
that they can go and return in a day. It seems the only feasible way in 
which this class of men can be reached. 

In answer to questions,, Mr. Bonfoy said, he works in the cream by 
skimming the night's milk and washing the cream through the strainer 
with milk at about 100*^ of temperature. He did this just before put- 
ting in the rennet, so that in stirring in the rennet the cream was kept 
mixed with the milk till the time it was about to coagulate. When 
the curd is well formed cut two ways with Young's curd knife. Keeps 
them one hour at 82, then raises to 88, then to 92, then to 1)8. 
Thinks the method of heating has much effect upon the resulting 
cheese. Heats from the sides of the vat only. Keeps heat going 30 
or JO minutes and then rests awhile. Works slow and thinks by so 
doing prevents loss of cream. Works by hand. Salts, 24^ to 3 lbs. to 
1000 lbs of milk. Receives milk twice a day. 

Mr. Hawley, of Onondaga, spoke in favor of Mr. Farrington's views, 
and their suggestions evidently met the approval of the convention, 
.and the experience of all county and local organizations corroborated 
them. 

The chair announced the following committees: 

On Nominations — Madison Cooper, of Jeiferson ; A. B. Armstrong, 
of Vermont; 0. L. Sheldon, of Lewis. 

On Finance — L. T. Hawley, of Onondaga; J. G. Cahoe, of Chau- 
tauqua ; Robert McAdams, of Oneida. 

On Dairy Apparatus — J. Ellison, of Herkimer ; E. Caswell, of 
Canada ; 0. S. Bliss, of A^ermont. 

To nieet delegates from other Associations on the subject of Centen- 
nial Display — John T. Ellsworth, of Barre, Mass.; Hon. Wm. A. 
Johnson, of Erie, N. Y. 



DAIRY STOCK. 



ADDRESS BY PKOF. L. AVETHERELL, OE THE BOSTON (MASS.) CULTIVATOR. 

Mr. President: Memlyers of the American Dairymen's Association: 
Ladies ajid Gentlemen : These occasions of meeting and greeting 
are among the pleasantest of the year. None of our rural anniversa- 
ries during the circling seasons, numerous and varied as they are, is of 
equal importance to this, as it seems to me. Does every recurring- 
anniversary advance the known into the realms of the hitherto un- 
known ? If so, then we meet not in vain, but shall return to our 
homes wiser than when we left them. The growtii of knowledge is 



32 

slow, and its advancement the fruit of the most careful and thorough 
study and investigation. What we have to shun and guard against 
here as everywhere, is, the formalistic or fossilific state — an organic 
form of an inorganic substance or entity. What this and all like asso- 
ciations need and must have for their perpetuity is vitality, vigor and 
growth. Society, socialogy, civilization, must be more than tradition, 
more than form, else they will become dead, fossiliferous petrefactions. 
It will not do on this Centennial year to recline as a people, as a nation, 
on what we have accomplished, but Ave are rather to consider the brief 
epoch, called a century, but a germ as it were, just bursting into life, 
vigor, growth. Our country is America as our name implies ; and our 
motto is Excelsior I 

But to my theme, as the time allotted me is short. 

Dairy stock and how to breed it — is the subject assigned to me for 
discussion, a more trite theme than which, could hardly have been 
named — yet, of the importance of which to dairymen, none of greater 
interest could have been selected; for, upon dairy stock depends dairy 
husbandry — for the promotion of which the American Dairymen's 
Association was organized some ten years ago, and during this decade 
of years it has met annually for the discussion of such topics by such 
intelligent, practical men as shall tend to advance and promote this 
special department of rural industry, than which there is none of 
greater importance to farmers in portions of your own .State, as of 
New England, the West, and the Canadas. This association has 
seemed to be governed by the sentiment inculcated by the motto of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, which is — '•' Practice with 
Science." Practice signifies frequent actions of the same or similar 
kind, custom or habit, use or usage, method or art of doing anything, 
exercise of any vocation or profession. Science is knowledge ; scien- 
tia — science from scio, to know ; practical science is knowledge de- 
rived from experiment and the classification of particular facts, learned 
or gained from and by experience and observation. 

" Science," says Dr. Porter, President of Yale College, " is rooted in 
common sense and ought never to separate itself from intimate rela- 
tions with common life. Science is no more a foe to, than hostile to 
common sense ; for when its methods are closely studied they are 
found to be nothing more than a trained application of the methods 
of common sensi to a limited class of objects. The rules of inference 
and methods of induction are as truly applied in the occasions of every 
day life by the humblest of men as by the most profound scientist. 
Science neither increaases nor transcends the precision of common 
knowledge. In brief, science is an extension of the perception of the 
means of reasoning. Science in its earlier phases attains to certainty 
of foreknowledge; in its later phases it attains to completeness. We 
begin by discovering a relation, and end by discovering the relation. 
The first achievement of the scientist is to fortell the kind of phe- 
nomenon that will occur under specific conditions ; his test is not only 
to know the kind but the amount. In other words, undeveloped 
science is qualitative prevision ; developed science is quantitative pre- 
vision. Whether given phenomena be measurable, or determinable, is 
the test to be applied. Space being measurable, hence geometry : force 
and space being measurable, hence statics ; time, force and space being 



33 

measiiriible, hence dynamics/' Thus reasons Herbert Spencer ; and 
such is good common sense. 

As we pass from qualitative to quantitative prevision we pass from 
inductive science to deductive science. Science while inductive, 
purely, is qualitative ; when inaccurately quantitative, it is partly in- 
ductive and partly deductive: when accurately quantitative it is de- 
ductive. In tine, science and the knowledge of the uncultured are 
alike in the nature of their previsions, though differing widely in their 
range, the cultured or learned man having a much wider range than 
the uncultured man. 

Dairy stock is such, as all will agree, as is bred and kept for the 
production of milk for the manufacture of butter and cheese, either 
or both. That breed of cows that from a given amount of feed, will 
produce the largest mess of milk, suitable for the purposes in view — 
butter or cheese — is the breed that dairymen desire. All agreed thus 
far you will all heartily respond. But Avhat breed is that ? All at once 
inquire: Ay, there's the rub. True indeed: Herein is involved a 
whole chapter of equations; the soil is to be considered; the quality 
of the cattle ; the food or feed adopted ; the buying-in price ; the feed- 
er's or dairyman's skill ; the shelter ; the season, etc., etc. 

Of the breeds, which are. numerous — but few will be mentioned : 
Shorthorns, Holsteins and Swiss, among the large breeds ; among the 
smaller are the Devons, Ayrshires, Jerseys and Guernseys ; and what 
are popularly called " Natives," nondescripts, animals without pedi- 
gree — abnormal, such as cannot be classified. Among these are some 
good nJlch cows — as the Oakes cow, once so famous in Essex Co., 
Mass. 

"The various breeds among domesticated animals," says Prof. Agas- 
siz, " are the Avork of man ; species were created by God." Bos tcmrus, 
from which species came the upwards of forty varieties now enumer- 
ated and described, may be traced back, some of them, to man's earliest 
existence — these varieties being tlie results of domesticity, where the 
mind of man has been at work changing or influencing the organiza- 
tion to some degree or extent in order the better to tit them for special 
purposes or given ends. •• Varieties," says Prichards, the former Pres- 
ident of the Ethnological Society in London, and the author of the 
Natural History of Man, •' in natural history are such diversities in 
individuals and their progeny as are olxscrvnl to take place within the 
limits ot species." He continues : 

•' Permanent varieties are those which, having once taken place, 
continue to be propagated in the breed in perpetuity. The/c/c/ of 
their origination must he knoion by observation or iivfiueiice, since, the 
proof of this fact being defective, it is more philosophical to consider 
characters which are perpetually inherited specific or original. The 
term permanent variety would otherwise express the meaniny which 
properly belongs to species. The properties of species are two, namely, 
original difference of characters and Vae perpetuity of their transmis- 
sion, of which only the latter can belong to permanent varieties. Tiie 
instances are so many in which it is doubtful whether a particular 
tribe is to be eonsidered as a distinct species or only a variety of some 
other tribe, that it has been found, by naturalists, convenient to have 
a designation applicable to either." 



34 

SHORTHORNS. 

If the dairyman have a farm suited to the keeping of large cattle, 
then one of the first three breeds or races will he selected. Of the" 
Shorthorns, Thomas Bates, of Kirklevington, said in a letter, to the 
editor of the New Farmer^,' Jourrial, in 1842. "I named this bull," 
(the one he was describing,) " Duke of Northumberland," to perpet- 
uate the commemoration, that it is to the judgment and attention of 
the present Duke of Northumberland that this country and the world 
are indebted for a tribe of cattle which Charles Colling repeatedly as- 
sured me loas the best he ever had or ever saw, and that his first cow of 
this tribe was better than any he could produce from her, though he 
put her to his best bulls, which improved all other cattle ; and this 
tribe of Shorthorns was in the possession of the ancestors of the pres- 
ent Duke, for 200 years ; and Sir Hugh Smythson, the grandfather of 
the present Duke, ikept up the celebrity of this tribe, by paying the 
best attention to their breeding. A century ago, he used regularly to 
weigh his cattle and the food they eat, so as to ascertain the improve- 
ment made i7i proportion to the food consumed. This system I adopted 
above fifty years ago, not knowing then that it had been previously 
done, and it was from the knowledge thus acquired, by weighing the 
food consumed, and ascertaining the improvement made, tliat I became 
enabled to judge of the real 'merits of animals by their external char- 
acters, and in my experience as a breeder, I have never found it to fail. 
Fr.m that knowledge thus acquired, I ^QlecteA this tribe of Shorthorns 
as superior to all other cattle, not only as small consumers, but as 
great growers and quick graziers with the finest quality of beef. Find- 
ing this tribe of cattle extraordinary as great milkers induced me to 
purchase my first Duchess. She calved at Halton Castle in Northum- 
berland, on June 7, 1807 ; she was kept on grass only, in a pasture 
with nineteen other cows, and made in butter and milk for some 
months, above tivo guineas per week, or forty-two shillings, English 
money, (110 in gold in our coin). As proof that this tribe of Short- 
horns improved under my care, I may say, that '' Duke of Northum- 
berland's dam consumed one-third less food than my first DuchesF, 
purchased in 1804, and her milk yielded one-third more butter for 
.every quart of milk, while the consumption of food was one-third less, 
and there was, also, a greater growth of carcass and an increased apti- 
tude to fatten." 

Mr. Bates concludes : '' In 1782, I became impressed with the im- 
portance of selecting the very best animals to breed from, and for 
twenty-five years afterwards lost no opportunity of ascertaining the 
merits of the various tribes of shorthorns. I havo never used any 
bull that had not Duchess blood since I became possessed of this tribe 
without perceiving immediately, error — except Fielvidere, whose blood 
in the Princess cow went direct from Hubback to Favorite, as in the 
Duchess tribe." 

In 1844, Thos. Bates in another letter to the editor of the Farmers' 
Journal, said : " When I began breeding in early life, I acted on sure 
])rinciples and from data that can never deceive ; and success has been 
the certain result, and my breed of ^^horthorned cattle may be yet fur- 
ther improved from my own herd, and they can be from no other ; 
wherever tliey go they carry their good qualities with them." 



35 

The renowned American Statesman, Mr. Webster, at the Oxford 
meeting of the Koyal Agricultural Society in 1839, declared in his 
speech after dinner, that " he had seen the four successful Shorthorns 
exhibited on that day, and he did assure the breeder of them that he 
had seen his cattle on the banks of the Ohio, and they were there held, 
and justly so, in as great estimation in the tJnited States of America 
us they were in Oxford." Wherever they are fairly tried, their merits 
shine forth in producing greater returns for the food consumed than 
any other breed of cattle that Avas ever known in the world. There 
are a hundred men fit for a Prime Minister where is one competent to 
act as a proper judge of Shorthorns, or to be such a breeder as Thomas 
Sates was, 1 will add : 

An important item connected with Bates' success as a breeder should 
not be omitted: Instead of leaving his stock to the exclusive care of 
his herdsmen, as is the practice of too many breeders, he looked care- 
fully after them himself — personally saw to all their wants, and knew 
every particular relating to them. He so loved his cattle that he 
almost made companions out of them: they would follow him about 
the fields and yards, and he would lovingly fondle them, caress them, 
while they in turn would rub against him, lick his hands, etc. So in- 
tractable did they become in his presence to the herdsmen that they 
could scarcely drive them when Bates was present. 

It is remarked in passing that what are called the '' Holderness 
breed " of cattle is the same as the '' Yorkshire," " Teeswater," old 
'• unimproved Shorthorns " — famous milkers, giving in olden times, 
according to Youatt, from 30 to 3G (juarts of milk per cow a day in 
the early part of the Summer, averaging through the season from 22 
to 24 quarts per cow. This was a cross, it is said with the Holsteins 
or Dutch from the Continent, goou milkers but bad feeders for fatten- 
ing. There are, probably, none but crossed specimens of the Yorkshire 
or Holderness breeds in this country at present. 

HOLSTEIXS. 

Of the produce of Holstein Cows : Gerritt Smith Miller of Peter- 
boro, N. Y., reports an average yield of milk per cow, per annum, 0,597 
lbs. "Dowager" in 365 days gave ] 2,081 lbs. of milk; "Crown 
Princess,'" in one day gave 74^ lbs.; in one month, 2,U81 lbs.; her 
average per day for months, was 5,041 lbs. " Fraulein " gave 70 lbs. 
in one day. '' Topsey," (two-years old) before she Avas two, gave 40^ 
lbs. one day. The cows in milk fed daily, G quarts of grain in Spring 
and 4 ([uarts in Pall and Winter. In June, July and August, nothing 
but glass in tlie pasture. Weight when in good condition, " Crown 
Princess," 1,572 lbs.; " Azoo," three years old, 1,530 lbs.; " Hebe," two 
years old, 1,250 ; "Snowfiake. " one year old, 1,020 lbs.; " Eip \'an Win- 
kle," tlir -e years old, 1,802 lbs. 

In addition to tiie foregoing, •• Dowager " dropped her calf on 
March 15, 1870, and in the first month gave 1,100 lbs. of milk, and 
during her seventh month gave 1.238 lbs.; she was milked 305 days 
and gave 12,081^ lbs. After being dry six weeks and having calved in 
June, 1871, she gave in the year following, 11,588 lbs. of milk. She 
calved in 1872 and 1873, but "was not dry again till 1874: her largest 
yield fur one day was 02 lbs. At the Central New York Fair of 1874, 



36 

in Utica, " Dowager " was awarded the first prize for milch cow of 
any breed, competing with a large class, comprising Ayrshires, 
thoroughbred Shorthorns and crossbreds of a variety of breeds and 
races. Cream averaged 16 per cent, on Holstein milk, and 13 per cent, 
on the milk of crossbreds. At the Peterboro factory the milk of 
'' Crown Princess " was pronounced the best the cheese-maker had 
ever tested. The milk of the Holstein is pronounced good by Mr, 
Miller, for the milkman, the cheese maker and for the butter maker, 
he having sold butter in Boston market a few cents above the highest 
quotations, a fact of special interest when it is known that some Her- 
kimer dairymen have decried the quality of Holstein milk. 

Mr. Miller milked 11 good native cows kept in the stable with his 
Holsteins, for two years; the average yield per cow per annum was 
4,500 lbs. of milk, the highest average obtained by any dairy sending 
milk to the Peterboro factory during two years. The three imported 
Holsteins averaged per cow per year, for three years, 9,507 lbs. of milk. 
The latter had two quarts more grain per day than the former during 
the graining season: Ten dollars per head could cover the cost of ex- 
tra grain consumed by Holsteins ; all the cows had Avhat hay they 
would eat ; the hay was often weighed, and fed to animals of each class, 
and natives weighing 1,000 to 1.100 lbs. Eating as much or more 
than the Holsteins, averaging 1,300 lbs. and upwards. For experiment 
the food of my best native and best Holstein cow, were weighed, says 
G. S. Miller, for one week, and it was found that the native cow con- 
sumed 25 per cent, more food for every pound of milk produced than 
did the Holstein. Cheese during the time of these records was worth 
13 cents a pound allowing 10 lbs. of milk for 1 lb. of cheese — the 
average yield of the natives, 450 lbs. of cheese at 13c. a lb., $58.50; 
The average yield of the Holsteins 9.507/o lbs. at 13c. a lb. 1124.76, 
leaving a handsome return for the extra food. 

In 1874, Mr. Miller's heifers, " Topsey," "Juno," and "Aster,"' 
(average age two years) gave 1 6,222 lbs. of milk ; average per head 
5,407Ti lbs.; " Crown Princess" calved on April 18, 1875, and pro- 
duced on June 11, 76 lbs. of milk. " Princess " yields from 12 to 15 
lbs. of butter a week. 

Col. H. C. Hoffman of Horseheads, N. Y., says : I have given the 
Holsteins a thorough and practical test, since 1872. With six selected 
cows I tried my Holsteins — two years ending in the fall 1874 — an ex- 
act record being kept. The Holsteins gave from 25 to 30 per cent, 
more than the others, yielding from 10,000 to 11,000 lbs., while the 
crossbreds gave 7,000 to 8,000 lbs per year. Frequent tests witli the 
cream gauge, demonstrated that the Holsteins ran a little ahead of the 
average mixed dairies. 

John H. Comer of Goshen, N. Y., milked from an imported cow, 
" Anna," weight 1,500 lbs., in eight months, 10,840 lbs. of milk. The 
cow " Eva," gave 30 quarts of milk a day as reported by Judge Ful- 
lerton. 

W. W. Chenery's cow, imported, "Texelaar," gave in 63 days, 4,018 
lbs. 14 ozs. of milk, her record for one day being 76 lbs. 5 ozs., (35^ 
(quarts) an average for ten days of 74-47 lbs. per day; her production 
that year Avas set at 15,600 lbs., or 7,200 quarts of milk — yielding, said- 
Dr. Hays, 22-72 per cent, of cream — the cream of six days making 17 



37 

lbs. 14 ozs. of butter. Her udder when full of milk measuriug GO 
inches in circumference. 

Cows of such possibilities should [he considered by dairymen on 
farms where large cattle can be kept. 

SWISS CATTLE. 

Messrs. Aldrick and Hall of Worcester, own a herd of Swiss cattle 
imported originally by H. M. Clark of Belmont, Mass., and bought of 
Clark by the present proprietors, that are attracting much attention 
because" of the superior quality of butter made from tlieir milk. Bulls 
and lieifers of this race, when two years old, weigh from 1,000 lbs. to 
1,400 lbs. per head. A record was kept of the cows '•' Geneva ''' and 
" Christina ;'* the former in seven successive days gave 196 quarts of 
milk, and the latter 175 quarts, and it took from seven to eight quarts 
of milk on an average to make a pound of butter. Other cows in the 
herd have given larger messes. The cows are fed two quarts of meal 
a day except the months of June and July. 

The quality of butter made from this race of cows is not second to 
that of Jerseys or Guernseys, as I had an opportunity of comparing 
them last June, having some butter sent me by T. Motley of Jamaica 
Plain, from his Guernsey herd, and by D. Aldrich, from his Swiss herd 
of cows kept in Auburn, Mass. At the Eastern N. Y. Fair last Fall, 
this herd of Swiss cattle was on exhibition as was the butter made 
therefrom, and the latter, as informed by the Secretary, C. I. Hayes, 
won the first prize over the Jersey and Guernsey on exhibition. On 
the dining table of the committees at this fair, the Swiss butter bore 
off the pahii as reported, as being superior to any other butter on the 
table for testing. Such is a brief sketch of this large, hardy race of 
cattle, lately imported from Europe into this country for trial as dairy 
stock. 

AYRSHIRES. 

The origin of this breed is still a matter of dispute among breeders. 
They do not date back hardly more than a century, as claimed by 
some. They were introduced into dairies for supplying London with 
milk, and failed when tried with the long established Metropolitan 
dairy cows, the old Shorthorns — Yorkshire breed, not yielding as much 
milk in proportion to the room they occupied and feed consumed, as 
did the Shorthorns. Ayrshires may be desirable on poor laud — resem- 
bling that where they were originally bred. On good keejiing thev 
tend to take on fat rather than to yield milk in an increased quantity, 
say Some who have ti-ied them. 

.TERSEYS. 

As a proposition, the sole office of the Jersey cow is to produce the 
largest possible amount of rich and highly colored cream from a given 
amount of food. All else with the breeding of this race is or should 
be incidental. Beauty of form, color, etc., are secondary matters. 

CM. Beach experimented carefully with three Jerseys, three cross- 
breds and three native cows, for one week — essentially in the same 
condition, and kept on the same food — averaging about the same time 



3g 

4 

of calving, to make 1 lb. of butter, the following quantity of milk 
was required from each sort : 

For 1 lb. of Butter. Quarts per Day. 

Three Pure Jerseys, 6^ quarts. 12^ quarts. 

Three Cross-breds, 8^ " 16| 

Three Natives, 11 " 23 

Thos. Motley's Jersey cow " Flora," imported, her milk being kept 
apart fifty successive weeks, made 511 lbs. 2 ozs. of butter, an average 
of 10| lbs. per week. The cow had ouly ordinary feed Summer and 
Winter. A race that furnishes such possibilities should not be lost 
sight of by the dairymen. Think of a herd of cows that would aver- 
age 500 lbs. per head a year I 

GUERNSEYS. 

The Guernsey is larger than the Jersey, muzzle broader, eye less 
prominent, nose a rich yellow or buff, the eye banded with the same 
color, and larger, smoother and of more rotund form. They are famous 
butter cows, being superior to the Jerseys, said Thomas Motley, who 
had imported and tried both on the Bussey Farm at Jamaica Plain, 
Mass. 

CROSS-BREEDING. 

No careful observer needs proof that nature works by rules. Hence, 
the old and oft quoted maxim — "like produces like."' But suppose 
the parents possess opposite qualities — the preponderance, must favor 
that of the greatest hereditary tendency. How to increase tlie one 
and diminish the other becomes important, if controllable. 

Breeding from a bull and cow of similar type — the progeny will be 
like, and of a higher degree : qualities are thus perpetuated and inten- 
sified in the off'spring. Take a Shorthorn bull and represent his here- 
ditary power by 100 : put this bull to a cow of totally diflFerent here- 
ditary power, say equal to 60 : the offspring would be reduced to 100 
minus 60, equal to 40 : suppose the offspring to be a bull, both sire and 
offspring may appear equally perfect in form and general character — 
the hereditary transmission being as much greater in the former sire, 
as the proportion of 100 to 40; hence, the former would be and is 
much more valuable for breeding purposes than the latter. By breed- 
ing animals of similar type, the offspring will be likely to possess the 
same charactertistics, with a greater power of hereditary transmission 
of this character or these characteristics. On the other hand, animals 
of opposite characters, mutually weaken each other's influence, and 
the offspring possesses the power of a hereditary transmission in a 
reduced degree. 

There are three special objects the breeder of dairy stock has in 
view — each of which requires a special mode of procedure. They are 
these : 

1. A liberal production of good milk. 

2. An economical formation of meat. 

3. The promotion of purity of blood. 

The first is the one that primarily concerns us at this meeting — the 
others more or less indirectly. 



39 

The milking character of various kinds of stock takes a wide range — 
even so among females of the same class, as the cow, etc. Apart from 
the influence of food, the quantity of milk secreted depends upon the 
supply of blood which the mammary glands receive as well as upon 
their activity, while its quality is mainly dependent upon the animal's 
internal organization. 

In breeding for milk, reference must be had to the milking family 
ol the bull as well as of the cow. The quality of milk usually bears 
an important relation to the quantity produced — the richness depend- 
ing upon the amount of cream. For the production of rich milk two 
qualifications are necessary in the animal: First, to separate and pre- 
pare tbe fatty and nutritious elements of food, so as to introduce them 
into the circulation with as little loss as possible ; second, to separate 
a large proportion of these elements in the form of rich milk. Thus 
is milk rich or poor, according to the breed and feed of the animal. 
Animals that give rich milk are well adapted to fatten. 

The formation of milk depends upon the activity of the mammary 
glands, excited by breeding. These glands when healthy and active 
take off freely from the blood what otherwise would be deposited as 
fat ; if torpid, then fat is made rather than milk. It is the good milch 
cow that makes milk of her feed rather than fat. These qualities are 
subject to hereditary transmission and influences ; hence the import- 
ance of care and skill in breeding. A liberal supply of milk and an 
aptitude to fatten are sometimes found in the same animal — ^just what 
the dairyman desires. 

The accumulation of hereditary tendencies, necessary to the making 
of good milch cows are measurably under the control of the breeder. 
Valuable as a good pedigree may be when the conditions are health and 
vigor, it is more than questionable when these are wanting, for pre- 
potency will be wanting also. Breed from none but animals of an 
ascertained and fixed type, carefully bred in a line for years, regard 
having been had to the development of characteristic, hereditary 
points — such as are wanted. So that you have no " misfits" — but real 
thoroughbreds, in the true significancy of that much abused word. 
Then it is, that " like produces like, in the dairymen's herd as in 
Bates's herd. The Arabs have a proverb — " The value of a horse is 
in his breeding." So I say of the cow, her value is in her breeding. 

Having referred to the Arabs, I will quote again : 

First, (and best,) Both sire and dam of noble race. 

Second, (faulty,) Sire noble, dam not. 

Third, (slightly inferior again,) Sire ordinary, dam noble. 

Disraeli, in his eloquent -biography of Lord Geo. Bentinck, remarks 
in his chapter on the Jews, '•' that it is vain for man to attempt to 
baffle the inexorable law of nature, which has decreed that a superior 
race shall never be destroyed, nor absorbed by an inferior." This ap- 
plies to races of cattle as well as races of men. 

To those about to begin breeding crosses, I would say, whatever be 
the race or breed to whicli the cow may belong as selected, observation 
and experience incline me to recommend Shortiiorn bulls as preferable 
to any other breed or race unless it lie the Holstein. 

Says a writer in the English Journal of Agriculture — '•' At our an- 
nual sale of fat stock, every Christmas, I find, if I have a crossed ox, 



40 

it invariably makes £2 or £3 sterling more than pure bred ones ; and 
the reason is that the bntchers tell me they weigh better, are more 
fleshy, and give their customers greater satisfaction from the fact of 
the fat and lean being better mixed, I have had cross-bred steers three 
years old returning from £30 to £40 each, their dams being small Ayr- 
shire cows, and the sire a fine Hereford bull. He would not go beyond 
a first cross between distinct breeds — all half-blood heifers being 
spayed. I am in favor of cross-breeding when a farmer is unable to 
purchase and keep a high bred stock. The breeder by pj-oper 
selections, and by joining like excellencies and properties in sire aud 
dam, cannot fail to improve the quality of»his stock. Therefore, to 
improve stock, good blood should be secured on both sides. A young 
farmer, or others, beginning de novo, in selecting animals from which 
to breed, should have reference to the kind of land he is to stock, in 
determining the breed he is to select, always remembering that his 
ideal, or standard of perfection can never be fully realized. He must 
decide what are desirable qualities for him, and cross with the view of 
establishing them. His proceeding must be of the " give and take 
kind," the highest excellence being his aim ever and always. Excel- 
sior, higher — more elevated, must be his motto. 

CROSS-BRED SHORTHORX COWS. 

Having been called to serve as Chairman on a Committee on milcli 
cows, at an Agricultural Fair in Southboro, Mass., last October, some 
very fine cross-bred Shortliorn cows Avere exhibited by Joseph Story 
Pay, residiug on a fine milk farm, formerly famous for the Peters 
Ayrshire herd' These cross-breds were raised in Barre, Mass., a well- 
known dairy town, widely celebrated for its fine milch cows. Mr. Fay 
stated to the Committee, and pointed out the cows, that gave from 
350 to 500, 8i quart cans of milk per year ; he had cows also that 
averaged over two cans a day from June 1st until October 1st. Seven 
of these superior milkers were of the Bates herd in Barre ; he has one 
cow that gives one and a half can a day that dropped her calf fourteen 
months ago. He has cows that give him 4,000 quarts per cow per an- 
num, and six cows that gave an average of fifty pounds of milk a day 
per cow for sixty days in succession. 

1 know another dairyman in the jieighborhood of Barre, in Worces- 
ter County, Mass., who has bred his cows, grade Shorthorns, for half a 
century, with special reference to producing milk — using a grade bull, 
fearing to use a thoroughbred lest he should impair the milk yield of 
his cows, he remarking that he knows cases where this has been done. 
He has a fine lot of cows as I can testify, as I have seen them. 

I know another dairyman, B. F. Hamilton, New Braintree, Worces- 
ter County, Mass., who keeps thirty cows, high grade Shorthorus of 
superior quality. He raises heifers to replenish his herd, as he claims, 
like the former gentleman referred to, that every dairyman should do, 
and said in reply to the following question I put to him, to-wit : 
" What would you give Avhen you raise a heifer to have her warranted 
in coming in to be a good milker ?'' " Nothing," was the reply, for I 
am as sure of that as she is to breed. 

I might multiply facts of the kind related, from my observation, in 
the States of Vermont, Connecticut and Central New York. But 



41 

these will suffice to confirm the practicability of the views I have pre- 
sented, relative to cross-breeding under the conditions I specified. 

I therefore, Mr. President, and friends, thanking you for your atten- 
tion, leave the subject 1 have discussed, to wit : " Dairy Stock and 
HoAV to Breed it,'' with you for your consideration and discussion. If 
my contribution shall serve to awaken a deeper interest on this im- 
portant subject among dairymen, and shall serve to aid in the improve- 
ment of dairy stock, then shall I feel satisfied, and it will not prove in 
vain that I have occupied a part of your valuable time. 

A short discussion followed the reading of Mr. Wetherell's paper. 

Mr. Hardin, of Kentucky, thought short horns did not make good 
cows in his State. 

Mr. Lewis explained, that in Kentucky the milking qualities of 
Shorthorns had been bred out for the sake of producing beef and for 
fancy stock. Cows are made to go dry m quick as possible after com- 
ing in, and the young heifers are alloAved to become fat before breeding, 
which inclines them to the production of fat instead of milk. They 
are not bred till they are three years old, when the tendency to fatten 
has become well established. They could not afford to keep cows in 
milk when a calf a few davs old would, as had been the case, sell for 
$27,000. 

Mr. Lewis advocated the Princess strain of short horn blood as* pro- 
ducing the most profitable animals for the dairy. 

Prof. Wetherell favored the Duchess, and Mr. Ellison the Holderness. 

PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND DAY. 

Wednesday morning, the session opened at 9 o'clock, Ex-Go v. Seymour 
presiding. The attendance was large and a goodly number of ladies 
were present. 

A letter of inquiry was presented by Eastburn Reeder, from T. M. 
Harvey, of West Grove, Pa., relating to the cause of color in butter, 
and was read to the Convention. 

Mr, Reeder thought the color of butter was produced by light and 
heat. Cream raised in a cold dark room was paler than when raised 
in a light and warm one. Feed also affects the color of butter. The 
same cow fed with different feeds will produce butter varying in color. 

Upon the close of this discussion, President Seymour remarked, in 
substance, as follows : 

Ihave been much impressed in my intercourse with farmers Avith 
their skill, and also with their negligence of some common things. I 
have frequently asked simple questions which they were unable to 
answer. For the past fifteen years the farmer has had to contend Avith 
insects which have destroyed his crops. We have in the insect world 
hosts of enemies and hosts of friends. Without them we Avould be in 
danger of starvation. The farmer should find out which are his ene- 
mies and which his friends. If a farmer was to suffer one-tenth of the 
injury from one of his neighbors that he does from the wire worm, he 
Avould seek a lawyer and get redress. If the farmer would go to law 
with the insects as he does Avith his neighbor, we w(»uld have a more 
peaceful community. No farmer has been able to tell me anything 



42 

about the wire worm, the shape it assumeg, and the laws which govern 
it. I was speaking, Avhile at Waslnngton, with tlie State entomologist, 
and asked him to make out a list of insects for me. He told me that 
very little was known in regard to it. There is something to indicate 
that farmers in the East have more to fear from insects than the far- 
mers of the West. In inquiring in regard to the ^Tass-hopper, there 
is a hope of their being destroyed by a parasite. The same may be 
said in regard to the currant worm and cabbage worm. The lady-bugs 
lay their eggs on the cotton plant ; they carry the eggs of the cotton 
louse, and are therefore destructive to the cotton plant. We should 
induce those who are engaged in making school l«ooks, to give this sub- 
ject a proper place in them, so that our children may know something 
ill regard to it, and be led to observe at least. The tendency of our 
people is to the country for the city. Tiie reason is that men don't 
know enough to live in the country. A man has got to know more 
to live in the country than in' the city. A man should be content to 
live in God's own museum of nature, and study its wonders. I am 
glad to say that our State has continued its appropriations to raicro- 
scopists, and that these things will be properly brought out I. firmly 
believe that a man who will carry a microscope which costs only one 
dollar in his vest pocket during a life time, will get a better education 
than Jie can get at any institution, and be more happy when the wear- 
ing of life comes on. His capacity for enjoyment will be greater than 
if he had not done so. 

During his remarks Mr. Seymour made a plea for a higher and bet- 
ter education. 



DAJEY FAEMING, BY EASTBUEN EEEDEE. 

INTKODUCTORY. 

The subject of Dairy Farming may be very properly divided into 
four different heads : 

First, Dairy Farms. 

Second, Dairy Stock. 

Third, Dairy Buildings. 

Fourth, Dairy Products. 

I have been invited here to open the discussion on butter ma'king, 
and butter is the most important of our dairy products. If I correctly 
understand the language of the invitation, dairymen from ail parts of 
the country are invited here "to explain their practices." These 
meetings are designed to be experience meetings, that each one of us 
may learn from the success and the failure of others. I claim that 
the errors we make, if properly set forth, do very nearly as much good 
as the discoveries we may make. Our failures may serve as land marks 
for others to avoid. If, therefore, I shall advocate any false theories 
or maintain any erroneous practices, and others shall dispel my false 
theories, or prove the error of my practice, I shall still be entitled to a 
small share in the general credit. The honest enquirer after the truth, 
shares in the general good its discovery bestows, whether he Jirst finds 
it or not. 



43 



HISTORY. 



It is perhaps impossible to ascertain when the art of butter making 
was first discovered, or when it was first used as an article of food. 

The ancient Patriarch, Abraham, who lived in the land of Canaan, 
nearly 1,900 years before the birth of Chirist, when he was visited by 
the three angels, who came to inform him that his wife Sarah should 
bear him a son in his old age, was so overjoyed at the news, that he 
jn'ovided hutUr as one of the articles of the entertainment. 

" And he took butter and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, 
and set it before them ; and he stood bv under a tree ; aud they did 
eat." (Genesis 18 : 8.) 

The great and wise King, Solomon, who began his reign 1,014 years 
before Christ, must have been familiar with the process of churning, 
for it is recorded as one of his wise sayings — " Surely, the churning of 
milk bringeth forth butter, and the wringing of the nose bringeth 
forth blood ; so the forcing of Avrath bringeth forth strife.'" (Proverbs 
30: 33.) 

Biblical scliolars say that in the Hebrew language the same word is 
used for churning and wringing. At the present day the inhabitants 
of Palestine wring their milk in goat skins to produce butter, and as 
the practices of the people of that country have undergone no change 
for centuries, it is highly probable that in Solomon's time butter was 
made in the manner mentioned, by churning or wringing the milk. 

Evans mentions in his manual that '' There is a tradition among 
the Arabs, that butter was first made by the agitation of milk carried 
in skins upon the backs of their camels during their long journeys 
across the deserts of the East." 

Herodotus, the father of historv, born -484 years B. C, says of but- 
ter, that the Thracians ate it, while the Grreeks regarded it as a wonder- 
ful kind of food. 

The early Eomans and most European nations used butter as an 
ointment, or as medicine, — never as food. 

Di-os-cor-i-des describes the process of making butter, by agitating 
the milk of only the fattest animals. 

Galen was the first to treat of the comparative qualities of butter 
made from the milk of different animals, and he ranked cows milk 
first, or best ; but none of these early writers make any mention of its 
being used except as an ointment in the bath, or as a medicine, by any 
other people than the Thracians, and the ancient Germans. 

It is related by Plutarch, Avho wrote in the first centur}', that a cer- 
tain Spartan lady visiting Bere-ni-ce, the Avife of De-jot-a-rus, the for- 
mer smelt so strongly of sweet ointment and the latter of butter, that 
neither could endure" the presence of the other. 

MY PRACTICE. 

Before saying anything of the theories and practices of others, in 
butter making, 1 will give a brief statement of my own ; and in so 
doing I have no reference to butter factories, or to very large dairies, 
the factory system of butter-making being the subject for considera- 
tion at a future sitting of this convention. I sliall only claim that 



44 

my practice is best suited to ordinary farm dairies of ten to twenty 
cows each, and where perhaps nine-tenths of all the butter of the 
country is made. 

1st. I would have the milk strained and set away for creaming as 
quickly as possible after being drawn from the cows. 

2d. I would set it in tin pans three to four inches deep, in a room 
where a temperature ranging from 55° to 60*^ can at all times be main- 
tained. 

3d. I would have entirs cleanliness in all the operations of milking 
and handling the milk; and 2i, ^mre atmosphere in which the milk and 
cream is exposed. 

4th. I w^ould skim off the cream after standing 48 hours, not 
earlier — not later. 

5th. I would churn the cream, in Summer, at a temperature of 54 
to 56 degrees ; in Winter, at a temperature of GO to 63 degrees. 

6th. I would salt according to taste of customers, at the rate of 
one-half ounce to one ounce per pound, and work the butter thoroughly. 

7th. I would sell in the nearest and best market as fast as manu- 
factured. 

STEAINING AND SETTING. ' 

It is one of the principles governing the separation of the cream 
from the milk, that when milk is carried a considerable distance, and 
is much agitated, and partly cooled before straining into the pans for 
creaming, — it never throws up so much, or so rich cream, as when the 
same miik is put into the pans directly after it is milked. It is for this 
reason I would have the milk set away as quickly as possible after it 
comes from the cow. 

I have frequently noticed in my own dairy that on the milk from 
cows first milked, standing while the others were finished/ that quite a 
perceptible cream had risen. It should therefore be the business of 
one person in a large dairy to strain and set away the milk as fast as 
ready. Should any dirt by accident get into the milk while milking, 
the longer it stands before straining, the more injury will it do. While 
the process of separation of the cream from the milk is naturally a 
slow one, and cannot be successfully hurried, or retarded, by any arti- 
ficial means with which I am acquainted, nevertheless the act of separa- 
ting commmences at once. New milk carried long distances and much 
agitated in the journey, will be churned and butter produced, but the 
percentage of butter obtained will be less. Hence the importance of 
having the Dairy House located convenient to the milking yard, or 
stables, and the disadvantage of carrying milk several miles to butter 
factories. 

New milk when it first comes from the cow is at a temperature of 
about 98 degrees or blood heat, and if there is any advantage in sub- 
jecting it to a falling temperature for cream rising, this practice most 
easily and best secures it. 

MILK. 

The composition of cows' milk of average good quality, according 
to Dr. Voelcker (Fel.ker) is stated to be, in" 100 parts : water, 87.40 ; 
butter, 3.43; ca-seiue, 3.12; sugar, 5.12, and mineral matter, .93. 
Total, 100 parts. 



45 

The composition of cream according to the same anthority is stated 
to be, water, 56.50; butter, 31.57; ca-seine and sugar, 8.44; mineral 
matter, 3.49. Total, 100 parts. 

The specific gravity of cows' milk is stated also to range from 1,034 
to 1,033, averaging 1,030, water being the standard at 1,000. 

The specific gravity of cream is stated to range from 1,013 to 1,019, 
the milk having been skimmed after standing 15 and 48 hours. 

Dr. Sturtevant found the specific gravity of cream to be 983, or 
lighter than water, while other authorities range it from 1,005 to 1,034. 

Last winter I tried the experiment of weighing, respectively, one 
quart each of water, milk, and cream. 

1 quart of water, temp. 60', weighed 33t|^ oz., representing 1,000. 

1 " milk, " " " 34l " " 1,030. 

1 " cream, « " " 33 •'•' " 985. 

The quart of cream being half an ounce lighter than the water and 
14- oz. lighter than the milk, while the quart of milk was 1 oz. heavier 
than the water. Thus in my rude way I found the specific gravity of 
milk to be 1,030, and of cream to be 985. 

I present these tables to show the small difference between the weights 
of milk and cream, and that the conditions for cream rising should be 
rendered as favorable as possible. 

DEEP AND SHALLOW SETTING. 

What is the best method of separating the cream from the milk ? 
Dairymen give widely difierent answers to this question. The depth 
at which milk is set, ranges all the way from 2 to 34 inches ; and the 
temperature of the water or air in which it staVds, ranges from 34 to 
70 degrees ; and some advocate heating milk to the scalding point or 
150", With such extreme and widely different opinions and practices, 
the inexperienced dairyman of to-day is at a loss what to do. The 
more he reads the more undecided he becomes. The only manner by 
which I can hope to ascertain the true way is to try tlie different meth- 
ods and to liold fast to that which is proven to be the best. As I have 
just stated, new milk when it comes from the cow, is at a temperature 
of about 98°. Should it be cooled ; if so, how ; rapidly or sioWly ? 
Should it be heated ; if so, to what degree ? The first trial I ever made 
in deep setting of milk was in August 1st, 1874. I will briefly state 
the conditions and the result of this trial. 

100 pounds of milk were set in 3 cans, 16 inches deep, and 100 
pounds of milk were set in 12 pans 4 inches deep. Temperature of 
the air in the dairy room, from 58 to 60 . The milk all skimmed after 
standing 48 hours. From the deep cans 9| pounds of cream were 
taken off, and from the shallow pans, 12 pounds of cream. The per- 
centage of butter from the deep cans Avas d-( per cent; percentage of 
butter from the shallow pans, 44- per cent. In this trial deeps cans re- 
quired 30 pounds of milk to make 1 pound of butter, and the shallow 
pans, 33 pounds of milk to make one pound of butter. As not quite 
ten pounds of cream were taken from the three deep cans, or a little 
over 3 pounds from each can, they were not skimmed much over an 
inch and a half deep. It has been objected to this trial. Ist. That the 
pans were not skimmed deep enough. 3d. That the temperature at 



46 

which they stood was too high. 3d. That they did not stand long 
enough before skimming. 

In May, 1875, I made a second trial in deep and shallow setting, this 
tune setting as before. The temperature of air in the room where the 
deep cans were set was 49° ; the temperature of air in the room where 
shallow pans were set was 60°. The milk was all skimmed after stand- 
ing 48 hours. In order, this time if possible, to get all the cream from 
the deep cans, three inches of surface were taken from each can weigh- 
ing 6 pounds, and making from the deep cans 18 pounds of cream, and 
from the shallow pans 13 pounds of cream were obtained. The 18 
pounds of cream from deep cans made 3 pounds 8 ounces of butter ; 
the 13 pounds of cream from shallow pans made 5 pounds 2 ounces of 
butter. The percentage of cream from deep cans was 18, and of but- 
ter 3w ; the percentage of cream from shallow pans was 14, and of but- 
ter 5^. The deep cans required 28 pounds of milk to make 1 pound 
of butter, and the shallow pans required 20 pounds of milk to make 1 
pound of butter. By comparing the result of this second trial of deep 
setting with the first, we find by skimming 1^ inches deep, 10 per cent, 
cream and 3:^ per cent, butter was obtained, and by skimming 3 inches 
deep, 18 per cent, cream and 3} per cent, butter was obtained. The 
temperature of the first trial being 00° ; of the second trial 49°. From 
the results of these trials we conclude that the gain in butter of one- 
quarter of one per cent, was due either to skimming 3 inches deep in- 
stead of 1^ inches, or to the lower temperature of 49° insted,d of 60°, 
or both causes. 

In October and November, 1875, I commenced a series of trial in 
order, if possible, to get at the bottom of this question, or, at least, to 
settle it to my own satisfaction. I nex1: tried what is called the 
Swedish system of butter-making, setting as before. 

The deep cans were set in a pool of ice water ; temperature 34" to 
38° ; skimmed after standing 48 hours, taking olf 4 inches of surface 
as cream from each can, making 25 pounds, or 25 per cent, of cream. 
The churning was done when the cream had slightly soured, making 5 
pounds 12 ounces of butter, or 3f per cent, of butter, and requiring 
17.4 pounds of milk to make a pound of butter. The skimmed milk 
was reset in pans 3 inches deep, and placed in a room where the tem- 
perature was 58°. After standing 48 hours longer it was again 
skimmed, yielding 4 pounds more cream, sufiicient to make another 
pound of butter. 

I next tried setting one hundred pounds of milk sixteen inches deep 
in three cans, in a pool of water (without ice) at a temperature of 49°, 
skimmed after standing four days, or ninety-six hours, taking off a 
little over four inches of surface as cream, making 27 pounds, or 27 
per cent, cream, and 6 pounds, 12 ounces of butter, or 6f per cent, 
butter. Now was the increased per centage of butter from 3^ to 3^ 
per cent, in the first, second, third and fourth trials of deep setting- 
due to skimming deeper, standing longer, or difference in temperature? 
I think to none of these causes, as the following trials in shallow set- 
ting will show. 

SHALLOW SETTING. 

At the same time of making the last trials of deep setting, I set one 
hundred pounds of milk in fifteen pans, three inches deep, (not in 



47 

water) but upon a table in a room without fire, wliere the tempera- 
ture was 50. Sour milk was added to each pan to facilitate the sour- 
ing, but the milk was not ready to skim after standing forty-eight 
hours, and was taken to a room where thei-e was a fire, and the tem- 
perature G0% and after standing twelve hours longer was skimmed, 
yielding 17 pounds of cream, making 6 pounds 10 ounces of butter; or 
a loss of 2 ounces for the shallow pans when compared with the last 
trial of deep setting, when the milk stood 96 hours at 49\ before 
skimming, but a gain of 14 ounces over the third trial, or the Swedish 
system, when the milk stood in ice water 48 hours, at a temperature of 
34" to 38. In December last I repeated this exj^eriment, setting 200 
pounds of milk in pans three inclies deep in a room with fire, where 
the temperature ranged from 50 to 00', skimming after standing 48 
hours, and obtaining 35 pounds of cream, churning 14 pounds of but- 
ter, being 17^ per cent, of cream and 7 per cent, butter, the highest 
percentages of pure cream and butter I have ever obtained. The in- 
creased percentage of butter from 4t^- to 5^ per cent, in the first and 
second trials of shallow setting, to Oij- and 7 per cent, in the third and 
fourth trials of shallow setting, where the temperature was all very 
nearly the same, shows that it was due to the increased richness of the 
milk (the cows being nearly dry) more than to the other causes named, 
as it corresponds so well with the gains on percentage obtained from 
deep setting of 3f and S^V per cent, in the first and second trials, and 
5f to Of per cent, in the third and fourth trials of deep setting. 

What then is the proper depth and temperature for setting milk in 
order to get the best results in butter ? I give it unhesitatingly as my 
opinion, that a depth of three or four inches and a temperature of 55' 
to 60' is the best. Cream rises best in a temperate atmosphere, neither 
too hot nor too cold. If it takes 48 hours for all the cream to rise 
when milk is set four inches deep, at a temperature of 60'^, does it not 
follow that, if milk be set at a greater depth, or a lower temperature, 
there will be a loss, either in quantity, or the quality will be injured — 
a loss in quantity if skimmed at 48 hours ; or an injury to the quality 
if sutfered to stand a much longer time. I learned, years ago, that 
milk set and kept in a cold room, where the temperature was 40 , will 
remain sweet for nearly a week, while the cream will become bitter, 
before it is fit to skim, und not make good butter. The cause of this 
bitterness of cream in winter, or when the temperature is low, vinous 
fermentation is prevented, and the slow decay of the ca-seine causes 
putridity; and hence the bitter taste of butter made from cream of 
this kind. I have also learned that milk set and kept in a room where 
the temperature is 70 to 75' during the summer, will become sour and 
thick in from 12 to 24 hours, or before the cream has had time to rise. 
Milk turns sour in hot weather, or at high temperatures, sooner than 
cold weather, or low temperatures, because the heat greatly accelerates 
the process of fermentation, during which lactic acid is formed and 
the milk turns sour. I therefore conclude that if 40 is too cold and 
70 too warm, a medium is best^ Milk should not stand much longer 
than 48 hours before skimming : if it does, the decay of the caseine 
causes bitterness; if the temperature be much above 60, acidity will 
take place too soon, and the cream will not all get to the surface. My 
objections to deep setting, and low temperature, are that the cream 



48 

will not rise soon enough. It is claimed by the advocates of deep set- 
ting at low temperatures, that the cream rises very rapidly, that it will 
rise in a few hours. I have never found that perfect separation of 
the cream from the milk when trying deep setting at a low tempera- 
ture, as I have when the milk is set shallow at a higher temperature. 

Tlie general effect of heat is to expand all bodies. If heat expands 
cream more than milk, making it relatively lighter and increasing the 
difference in specific gravity, then there would be an advantage in heat- 
ing milk to help the cream to rise. On the other hand, if the abstrac- 
tion of heat contracts the cream less than the milk, rendering it rela- 
tively lighter, then there would seem to be an advantage m cooling the 
milk to enable the cream to rise. Milk set soon after it is drawn, say 
at a temperature of 96 to 98°, will be cooled down to the standard of 
the room (60°) in five hours time. But if the same milk be set in 
water it will be cooled in a much shorter time, or in about an hour. If 
milk be heated to 208°, at which point it will boil, it will cool down 
the first hour to 136°, in two hours to 106°, in three hours to 96°, and 
in eight hours to 60°. This I have observed by actual trial. Heating, 
therefore, gives it two or three hours longer time to cool, and the ad- 
vantage of a falling temperature is not greatly prolonged by once 
heating. The boiling point of milk 1 found to be 208°. Milk boils 
at a lower temperature tlian water, because less steam is carried off 
from the thicker liquid (milk), than from the thinner liquid (water), 
in consequence of which the heat of the whole mass rises more 
quickly. The greater expansion, or boiling over of milk is caused by 
the greater tenacity of the particles. Water expands in bulk 1-9 in 
raising the temperature from 32° to 212°, the boiling point of water is 
at its greatest density at 39°, expands again below 39° down to 32°. 
Three pans of new milk, warm from a fresh cow, were subject to the 
following different modes of treatment : Thirty pounds of milk were 
divided equally in 3 pans, or 10 pounds in each pan. One pan was 
placed in ice Avater, of a temperature 34° ; the second pan was heated 
to 208°. The third pan Avas set away where the temperature was 60°. 
After standing 48 hours, they were skimmed, the pan in the ice water 
yielding 14 ounces of cream, the boiled milk 12 ounces, and the third 
pan the same, or 12 ounces. There was a great difference, however, in 
the quality of the cream — that from the pans yielding 12 ounces each 
would have churned 50 per cent., or 6 ounces of butter, while that 
from the first pan Avould not have churned over 25 per cent., or 3^ 
ounces of butter. Heating and cooling cannot both be advantageous. 
I therefore conclude that neither artificial cooling nor heating are ad- 
visable. Their effect in increasing the difference in specific gravity be- 
tween cream and milk is so small as not to be perceptible in practice. 
I cannot better describe the appearance of the cream raised by the dif- 
ferent methods, tlian by saying that the cream raised by ice water 
metliod looked like good, rich milk, while the cream raised from the 
lieated milk from the pan, treated in the ordinary way, looked more 
like butter. My experience with deep setting at low temperatures is 
that you get a great bulk of cream, but it is thin and will not churn 
over 20 to 25 per cent, of butter, while the cream obtained by shallow 
setting, at higher temperature is thick, and will churn from 45 to 50 
per cent, of butter. 



49 

The paper of Mr, Reeder was immediately followed with one on 
A MODIFICATION OF THE SWEDISH DEEP SETTING 

BY L. S. HARDIX, OF KENTUCKY. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : About four years ago I 
started a butter factory, near the city of Louisville, Kentucky, in a 
climate hot and humid : where animal substances decayed rapidly, and 
where insect and parasitic life developed spontaneously and without 
limit. To spread my milk out in the usual manner was to invite the 
enemy I was most anxious to avoid. 

To overcome my difficulties I began a series of experiments, begin- 
ning with shallow pans in the open air, and step by step I lowered the 
temperature and increased the depth of my milk, until I reached what 
is now called the Swedish plan of setting milk in water at forty degrees 
with cans twenty inches deep. 

I found I had passed the profitable point, and had to retrace my 
steps, until I decided upon AU° as the best temperature for raising the 
cream, perfectly, and made my cans 8 inches in diameter and 12 and 
20 inches deep. My butter was now all I desired, but the use of ice in 
cooling water that was in immediate contact with the hot air, was too 
expensive. I soon discovered it took less ice, to cool a given cube of 
air, than it did to cool the same cube of water. It was equally evident 
that it was a useless waste of ice to cool off a whole room full of air ; 
and reasoning from these premises I concluded to confine my milk and 
air, to the smallest possible space, in order to economize the use of ice. 
I then built me a box with double sides and close fitting double door, 
putting a hood or trap over the waste water pipe so as to entirely ex- 
clude the surrounding atmosphere. A space of one inch is left open 
on each edge of the shelf to allow the air to pass around the ice. The 
drippings from the ice are utilized to the extent of four inches in the 
bottom of the box. The cans are made with a perforated rim on the 
bottom to allow the water or air to pass under them. The covers of 
the caus fit outside so as to shed the water and prevent any of the ' 
drippings getting in the milk. 

It is only after three years satisfactory experience and trial tests witli 
the best butter makers in this country, that I have concluded to intro- 
duce this, as an improved method of butter making. 

In order to criticise my method Avith intelligence, it is necessary to 
have before your minds, all the points of excellence that are desirable 
in any system of butter making. As a friend remarks, " Of course it 
is the true way to repair this old milk setting question, to take it to 
pieces as you would an old clock, get correct information as to wliat is 
the matter, tlien set it up and go aiiead." 

To accomplish this I will submit to you a high and thorougii stand- 
ard, by which I am willing to have my method tested. 

POIIS'TS. 

First, the taste of the butter produced; '2d, the aroma; 3d, the 
uniformity in quality ; 4th, the color ; 5th, the grain or texture ; 6th, 
the quantity produced ; 7th, the keeping ([uality ; 8th, cost of making ; 



50 

9tli, labor in making; 10th, cost of utensils ; 11th, cost of buildings; 
12th, protection of the milk from accidents; 13th, amount of skill 
required to make a fine article of butter ; 14th, the practicability of 
my method. 

Acknowledging that there are many modifications and improvements 
of the old style of setting milk, yet to speak only of that with which 
you are all familiar, I will compare my method, with the old fashioned 
small pan open air setting. 

TASTE, 

We will first consider the question of taste of the butter. 

In different countries, there are different standards of taste. In 
most of the countries of Continental Europe, butter is used fresh and 
without salt. This character of butter is made best from sweet cream. 
For this purpose my method is admirably adapted, as the cream is al- 
ways skimmed while sweet. A Russian gentleman, Alexis Elishelf and 
myself, made some experiments in churning sweet and sour cream. 
We both pronounced the butter from the sweet cream the best. I have 
since made two careful experiments in churning sweet and sour cream. 
As both experiments turned out exactly alike, one description will an- 
swer for both. I took fifty pounds of cream that was sweet and liquid, 
perfectly free from skins or lumps ; stirred it thoroughly together, und 
while in motion, dipped out one-half by weight and churned it imme- 
diately. Put sour milk in the other half and let it stand until 
thoroughly and sharply soured. Both batches churned at G3'-'. Each 
of the four churnings came in 20 minutes. In each experiment the 
sweet cream produced five ounces the most butter. 

Every person who tasted the samples while fresh, pronounced the 
sweet cream butter the better. After keeping the samples several 
months, I am of the opinion that the sample from the sweet cream 
keeps the better. Until some one throws more light upon this subject 
I will remain of the opinion, that sweet cream makes most butter, better 
butter and longest keeping butter. Too much ripening or souring 
certainly destroys both the quantity and quality of the cream. 

When the milk is spread out thin, acd the cream and milk allowed 
to sour together, this ripening process must be watched with great care, 
or the sour milk will injure the tender qualities of the cream. After 
skimming, the cream is usually still further ripened before churning, 
and again great card is necessary, to prevent the whey from injuring 
the finer qualities of the cream. 

Milk exposed as in the shallow pan system, to all the conditions most 
favorable to active decomposition is ot course highly sensitive to their 
influences ; and in order to make a fine article under such adverse 
circumstances, the butter maker must use the finest skill and the most 
unremitting care. 

Milk as it comes from the cow, is a pure and perfect food. 

With my method, I take it while in this pure condition, and place it 
in an atmostphere so cold that decomposition is practically arrested, 
and hold it at this temperature until the cream has all risen, about 3G 
hours. When 1 skim the cream, it is liquid and sweet. As to the 
taste of butter made by my process, I have always received the top 
price of my market, 50 cents tlie year round. Mr. Willard, in liis 



51 

Practical Butter Book, in treating of the Swedish system of butter 
making from milk set deep and cold, says : " The fact that Swedish 
butter under this process, has risen to that superior excellence, that it 
equals and not unfrequently outsells, all the choice brands brought in- 
to the London market, whether of home or foreign make, will be to 
most minds sufficient proof, that the Swedish process is not without 
merit." 

Again he says : " Swedish butter has been quoted in the London 
market during the past year (1874), from IGO to ITO shillings sterling 
and upward, per cwt., while the best American and Canadian in that 
market has brought only from 90 to 110 shillings." 

AROMA. 

We will now consider the aroma or odor of the butter. 

Nine-tenths of the butter bought in market, is judged by the sense 
of smell. If in the course of manufacture, the light flavoring oils are 
exposed for a long time to the action of the atmosphere, they must in 
a measure disappear. 

By my process, evaporation is arrested, and if the milk has come 
from the cow in a pure and wholesome condition the butter is certain 
to possess an exquisite aroma. 

UKIFOKMITY IN QUALITY. 

We will now consider the uniformity in the quality of the butter 
produced. 

When a fancy . article of print butter is made, to supply 
regular customers, it is imperative, that there should be great uni- 
formity in the goods produced. When milk is spread out in a thin 
sheet, and entirely exposed to the surrounding atmosphere, it is of 
course affected by every change of the air, and life is apt to become a 
burden to the man, who has to cater to the tastes, of fastidious and 
high priced purchasers, under these trying circumstances. 

That such a system, in the hands of the average butter maker is 
practically a failure, is evidenced by the quality of butter to be found 
in any corner grocery. By my method, the milk is held at a low and 
uniform temperature, and as everything is done by routine, the result 
is always the same. 

COLOR. 

We will now consider the color. 

Setting milk in the dark, does not seem to affect the color of the 
butter one way or another. Li making experiments, setting one-half 
the milk in the dark and one-half in the light, after twenty-four hours, 
there was no difference in the color of the butter. Prof. L. B. Arnold 
has said of the butter made by me in Chautauqua, it " gave evidence 
of having been very high flavored and high colored butter, when it 
was new." 

TEXTURE. 

AVe will now consider the question of grain or texture. 

Too much heat is fatal to the grain of butter, and it requires a mas- 
ter spirit to preserve its fine waxy texture, with milk set in the open 
air, and the thermometer indicating a tropical range from 80° to 100% 



52 

With my method, the milk is placed beyond the influence of the 
exterior air, and it is an easy matter to jDreserve the texture. 

QUALITY. 

We will next consider the quality of butter produced. 

The amount of butter produced from shallow pans, depends greatly 
upon the amount of skill brought to the task. Mr. Eastburn Reeder 
of Philadelphia, and myself, have made comparative tests with the full 
milk from our herds of Jerseys. In Mid-Summer he required a frac- 
tion over 19 pounds of milk, to make a pound of butter with shallow 
pans, while I have required but a fraction over 17 ponnds. 

This called forth the following admission from Mr. Reeder : 

" Mr. Hardin, in his last trial of deep getting, reported in the Country 
Gentlema7i, * * ^' obtained from 100 pounds of milk 25 per cent, of 
cream and churned nearly six per cent, of butter. This is better than 
anything I have yet been able to accomplish by shallow pans, while 
using the mixed milk from the entire dairy," In the Country Gentle- 
nian for Dec. 2d, Mr. Reeder reports the following experiments : With 
the Swedish system, at the temperature of 39°, he made a pound of but- 
ter from a fraction; over Yl pounds of milk. With shallow pans, at SO'' 
he made a pound of butter from a fraction over 15 pounds of milk. 
With the Hardin method he made a pound of butter from a fraction 
over 14 pounds of milk. 

■ It will be remembered Mr. Reeder started out my first and most 
strenuous opponent, claiming that I lost 25 per cent, of my butter. 
That admission is the evidence of a fair minded and generous nature. 

The Western New York Dairymen's Association, appointed a com- 
mittee to investigate the comparative merits of deep and shallow set- 
ting. They sent for me to look after the interest of the deep setters. 
0. C. Blodgett and Martin Bailey, two of the most finished butter 
makers in Chautauqua, were chosen as my opponents to make an ex- 
periment. I did not have one of my boxes with me, and had to use 
the Swedish plan of ice water, which Mr. Bailey kept at 38 ^. We 
divided the night's milk from Bailey's cows. They required 21-53 
pounds of milk to the pound of butter with shallow pans, while I 
required 21-51 pounds with the Swedish method. The combined skill 
of Messrs. Blodgett & Bailey left me but little to boast of. 

My next experiment was with Mr. D. Douglass of Peveley, Mis- 
souri. He wrote in Colmans Rural World, " that he was prepared to 
prove to anybody that shallow setting was best." He has a milk house 
costing $2,000 and milks 2G cows, mostly Jerseys. He sells his butter 
at top prices in St. Louis. I made five ounces more butter than he, 
we dividing the milk equally. Taking that as an average milking he 
loses 1102 worth of butter "per year, and which could be saved by my 
process. He has since experimented with my method with better re- 
sults to his shallow pans, but leaving my method still ahead, thus 
bringing evidence to support my statement, that with greater skill, he 
can improve the results with shallow pans. 

Thus far I have met only the most finished butter makers and de- 
feated them. Of course I have no trouble in beating people who require 
over 23 pounds of milk to make a pound of butter, and I fear the 



53 

world is full of them. I would guarantee that a child ten years old, 
with my method, Avould beat the average butter maker with his shallow 
pans, over two pounds of milk to the pound of butter. 

KEEPI2SG QUALITY. 

We will now consider the keeping quality of the butter. 

When the milk and cream are allowed to sour together, as in shal- 
low setting, and the souring process is still continued Avith the cream 
after it is taken off, there is great danger of a slight degree of decom- 
position taking place, which greatly injures the keeping quality of the 
butter. 

With my method the cream is taken off sweet and pure, and if 
churned while in this pure condition, the keeping (juality of the but- 
ter is insured. 

I again quote from Mr. Willard's Practical Butter Book on the sub- 
ject of the keeping quality of the Swedish butter, made on the princi- 
ple of my method. "During the summer butter was placed for some 
time in a dry cool cellar, and after two months, it brought the same 
price in London as fresh butter sent at the same time." 

We have already seen that the price obtained, was almost one hun- 
dred per cent, in advance of American goods. 

At my suggestion, Mr. Bailey put the butter made by us in his cel- 
lar, to test its keeping quality. Mr. Blodgett writes me, Bailey has 
kept your butter in open air all the time and it is yet very sweet and 
nice. He is coming of opinio7i that yourioay will make longest keeping 
hutter." Mr. Bailey writes me : "I have some of the butter Ave made, 
standing exposed to the air, and I must say, I am happily disappointed 
in it." 

These statements come unsolicited, and are not the mere opinions 
of partial friends, but the admissions of of my opponents, Avhich con- 
stitutes the highest character of e\'idence. 

COST OF MAKING. 

We Avill noAv consider the cost of making. 

In open air milk setting, the cost consists principally in maintaining 
a fire in the milk room in cold weather night and day. This cost Avill 
depend much upon the amount of Avinter dairying that is carried on. 
As an average, I should judge it Avould take not less than four cords of 
Avood to supply a stove through the cold Aveather of a northern winter. 
Charging this Avood at 84 a cord, Avould be %\^. A man's time to cut 
and split it, and kee^) up the fire night and day, would be worth not 
less than 825. In all 841. 

If there are thirty days of freezing Aveather during the Aviuter, an 
ice house twelve feet cube, can be filled for less than 820. Straw or 
saAvdust to cover it, 84, Time of one man taking out ice once a day in 
summer, 810. In all, 834. We have thus 87 to the credit of my 
method. 

LABOK. 

We will now consider the Uibor in making the butter. 
In shalloAV setting, the labor consists in filling a large number of 
pans, lifting them first on to racks and then oft" again. Skimming a 



54 

large surface while standing, and at all times of day and night when 
the best results are obtained, washing a large number of tins, keeping 
up a fire in the milk room, fall, spring and winter, night and day, but 
principally in the great amount of scrubbing to be done, that a large 
room and all of its surroundings should be kept immaculately clean. 

With my method, the labor consists in getting ice once a day, lift- 
ing the cans of milk in the box and out again. 

The skimmer sets on a chair and uses a dipper. If men handle the 
milk, the long cans are used. There is about one-fourth as much sur- 
face of tin to wash. There is no practical form, in which tin can be 
worked, that it will hold so much milk as that of the cylinder. This 
is a settled principle in the science of mechanics, and accounts for the 
fact, that with my method, I can provide the tin for ten cows, for $10, 
while tins for the same number of cows, with the shallow pan system 
will cost 145. 

A reasonable amount of neatness is necessary, but the milk is safe 
in the cellar, or in almost any room in winter, where a fire is kept. 

There is no milk room to scrub at forever, until every Avomaii in 
the business should be furnished '' a cast iron back with a hinge in it." 

COST OF UTENSILS. 

We will now consider the cost of utensils. With the shallowypan 
system, it is necessary to have twelve pans to the cow. A dairy of ten 
cows, would require 120 pans, which at 14.50 a dozen, would be $45. 
A stove with its appurtenances, would cost $18, and the racks on 
tables to set the pans on, $10 more, making a total of $73 to equip a 
room for shallow setting. 

With my method, the tins, box and everything complete, for a dairy 
often cows, can be furnished for $35, which is less than one-half the 
cost for shallow setting. Martin Bailey writes me — '•' If the cream can 
be brought in a shape to churn easily," (he believes in sour cream,) 
" and the butter will keep equally well, (and I have no doubt myself 
about the keeping), it is the cheapest way milk can be made into 
butter." This is the statement ol a practical butter maker, who has 
bought his farm with his cows, and makes over 260 pounds of butter a 
year from each cow with shallow pans. The American Dairymen's 
Convention adopted without a dissenting voice, the following resolu- 
tion reported by the committee on Dairy Utensils : '•' We have exam- 
ined the refrigerator used in Hardin's Improved Method cf Butter 
Making, and believe it to be a simple and cheap method of making 
butter, and feel warranted in giving it the highest recommendii!:ion." 

COST OF BUILDINGS. 

We will now consider the cost of buildings. 

In shallow setting, it is necessary to have a spring house or milk 
room to set the pans in. With my method no such room is necessary 
but an ice house is indispensable, and much of the cost of it should be 
charged to the general comfort of the family. Where print butter is 
made, the use of ice cannot be dispensed with, whether the milk is set 
deep or shallow. Two of my neighbors, Mr. Armstrong and Mr. Herr, 
have fine stone spring houses, of course each one is at the foot of a 



55 

liill. Their wives carried crocks of milk up and down those^slippery 
hills, unil Mrs. Armstrong refused to go any further. Mr. A.- adopted 
my plan about two years ago, aud his wife is now serene and happy 
wfth a uniform article of good butter. Mr. Herr's Avife concluded she 
t JO had enough of their hill, and so he dug and blasted out rock within 
ten feet of his house, making a kind of cellar at a cost of $300. His 
wife was pleased with this until she discovered the refrigerator plan, 
and that remarkable cellar has been abandoned to apples and potatoes. 
Her butter now sells at top prices in our market. 

ACCIDENTS. 

We will now consider the protection of the milk from accidents. 

AVhen shallow setting is practiced in spring houses, there is the 
accident of floods to contend with. If a dry room is used, the lire 
sometimes goes out, allowing the milk to freeze. While in summer the 
milk is often prematurely soured, by the effects of thunder storms. 
With my method there is no trouble from floods or thunder storms, 
aud by putting the box in a dry cellar in cold weather, there is no need 
of any heating apparatus. 

SKILL. 

We will now consider the amount of skill, necessary to jiccomplish 
the best result, from each system. 

The milk is set shallow and subjected to all the variations of the 
atmosijhere, in order to get the largest possible yield of butter from 
the milk, it requires excellent judgment, to tell just when to skim, 
and I have had persons, who Avere jn'oud of their butter yield, tell me, 
they often in hot weather, get up at one or two o'clock at night to 
skim the milk, fearing it would be too sour by morning. AVitli my 
method the atmosphere in Avhich the milk is set, is so pure aud cold, 
the skimming can be done Avhenever it is convenient, between 36 and 
7() hours. A negro boy has exclusive charge of the milk of my dairy. 
He makes about 3,000 pounds of butter a year. There is a wonderful 
uniformity in the butter he makes, receiving top prices, and the cus- 
tomers have never yet made a complaint, and yet 1 do not believe this 
boy could make a pound of good butter, with the milk set shallow in 
the open air of summer. 

ITS PRACTICABILITY. 

We will now consider the practicability of my method. 

There is a class of men, who imagine themselves progressive, Avho 
yet never hear of an innovation upon their settled ideas, but that they 
rack their brains, to produce a fatal objection to the jn'occss, and not 
finding it at last shout out, Eureka! it is impracticable I To those 
men 1 say — the dairy belt proper of America, lies between the 40th 
and 4oth parallels of latitude, Avhere a failure of the ice crop was never 
known. 1 live many miles below the southern boundary of this dairy 
belt, and have never failed to fill my ice house, which' is but 12 feet 
cube, a mere hole in the ground with shed over it, atul it has supplied 
an abundance of ice for the milk of 15 to to 20 pounds. With an or- 
dinary protection to the box, it takes about one pound of ice an hour 
to the 100 pounds of milk. The work of two of my neighbors and 



56 

myself who use this process, is done by negroes, and whatever maybe 
thought of the colored man's intellect, his habits are certainly not con- 
ducive to a fine article of butter. This is the vital point of excellence 
in my method. We all know, that when a large amount of scrubbing 
is to be done, there is a vast deal of human nature in the average 
butter maker. He does not like it, and he will not do it, at least with 
that nervous anxiety, which alone insures a uniform quality of fine 
butter. 

With my method the milk is protected from contact with tlie sur- 
rounding air, and kept at such a low temperature, it is next to impos- 
sible to spoil it. 

This system, in a more expensive manner, has been practically and 
successfully applied in Sweden for years. Indeed, is it modest or fair, 
to call that impracticable which is practiced in a more extravagant 
manner by a whole nation of people, and they producing butter with 
it that sells in the best market of the world for nearly double the 
price of our finest goods ? 

Professor L. B. Arnold, one of the acknowledged authorities in this 
country upon the subject of bntter making, writes me — "I have 
taken the liberty to-day to recommend your plan to a Shelby county 
man as the best thing known to me for butter making in Kentucky." 

I therefore state it as a fact, against which I challenge successful 
contradiction, that with my method, we can make more butter, better 
and longer keeping butter without any skill, and with perfect uni- 
formity, Avith much less labor, and with just about one-half the cost 
of the shallow pan system. 

These are strong words, and all that is claimed to give them cur- 
rency, is that they bear upon their faces, the stamp of truth. 

I have thus attempted to present you this question, fairly and intel- 
ligently, and while it is possible I may be in error, as to my estimates 
or conclusions under some particular point, yet^ when- all are taken 
together, are you not irresistibly driven to the conclusion, that this 
new method of butter making, has merits, worthy of your most serious 
and patient investigation. 

The butter of our commerce needs improvement, and only a tithe 
of it is made by the cunning hands of the master AV'^orkman. 

It is the proud privilege of the strong, to assist the weak, and it 
will be the crowning glory of my method, if by it, I can taki' a single 
straw from the burden, and add but one more to the blessings of the 
farmer's life. 

A summer's EXPEKIEKGE in MAKIKCt butter from SHORTHt)RNS. 

Hon. Harris Lewis was next introduced by Vice President T. D. 
Curtis with the remark "Mr. Lewis will now blow his shorthorn." 
As Mr. Lewis is well known as an advocate of shorthorns, and was to 
speak of butter making from shorthorns, and is withal a short man 
himself, the pun had a treble significance, and brought out a strong 
burst of applause. After thanking Mr. Curtis for the joke, Mr. Lewis 
spoke extemporaneously in substance as follows : 

Although my experience as a butter maker dates back to the sum- 
mer of 1833, yet I never entered it as a business until the past year. 



57 

I have not the tact and skill to present the flowery side out, as did my 
Kentucky friend, I will give you the butter side. It was somewhat 
late last spring when I got my butter factory working, and the first 
average was a bad one, because we worked under unfavorable circum- 
stances. My average for the months of May and June, was 25 pounds 
of milk to a pound of butter ; in July and August it averaged 31 
pounds ; for the month of September a fraction less than 174^ pounds ; 
October and November, 15| pounds. The entire average has been 
something like 19| pounds of milk to a pound of butter. I want it 
understood that my herd has not had a mouthful of grain to eat. The 
last three cows coming in. have had a little grain, but their milk has 
not been used. My herd has not even had cornstalks to eat. For the 
first 185 days my entire herd averaged about one pound of butter a day, 
with a very small fraction variation. For the next sixty days I struck 
an average of half a pound per day per cow. For the remaining 1;20 
days I think I can safely estimate it at one-quarter of a pound per day, 
because this includes the months of April and March, when the cows 
are fresh. This average will give a yield per cow of 245 pounds. This 
I regard a good average for a whole dairy that does not have grain to 
eat. Part of my herd are grade shorthorns and part natives. I set 
tlie milk in large pans. Through hot weather I set the milk at 58", 
with the temperature of the room 8 to 10" higher. Four pans con- 
stitute a set, and we usually have the cream all up so that the fourth 
pan may be skimmed to use it. I desire the large pan system m 
j)reference to the small pan system, because it requires less washing. 
Mr. Hardin goes back 100 years, to the day of the first tinker and the 
day his ladle was invented. I desire to skim the cream when it shows 
the first acidity. If the cream is soured on milk at a temperature of 
58", it may be churned in hot weather at that. It should be churned 
at this temperature at all events. The colder the temperature of the 
milk when the cream is rising, the higher it may be raised when churn- 
ing. Our ancestors got the witches out of milk by throwing a hot 
horseshoe into it. We get them out by warm water. With this and 
a thermometer, you can get every witch out, head, neck and heels. 
With all our search for a better churn than the old dasher churn, Ave 
have found nothing. It is remarkable that the first churn made should 
have been made on the correct principle, and all the others on an erro- 
neous principle. When my butter shows the first indication of gran- 
ulating, I stop churning and bring the temperature up to 58', I then 
continue the churning until it comes in grains like that (exhibiting a 
bottle of butter). Wlien the butter obtains that appearance, the but- 
termilk is drawn off, and then it is rinsed in pure water. Then I bring 
this out with a wooden ladle, and the oscillating churn, as far as getting 
out and washing is concerned, is the most convenient churn I have 
found. I wash Avitli cold water, uutil the water is entirely clear. I 
then put the butter on a V shaped table, allowing the water to drain 
off, adding one and a half ounces of salt to the pound of butter. The 
secret of using so much salt is that in the butter there remains a little 
Avater, which is carried off by the salt. In the Utica market, where all 
my butter is sold, I calculate to have an ounce of salt to the pound of 
butter. In the seaboard cities, not more than three-fourths of an 
ounce to the pound is necessary. You can't get- more than this down 
5 



58 

a Bostonian. The salt is sifted on when the butter is on the washer. 
I never touch anything but the ladles to the butter. I have accom- 
plished tv/o things by this method. First, I have the buttermilk all 
o-at. Second, I have the salt evenly mixed into the butter. I have no 
working necessary to mix in the salt. I shovel the butter into a large 
bowl, and let it stand for 24 hours exposed to the atmosphere. This 
additional salt gives it a bright, beautiful color. The butter I am 
about to show you is not a fair sample, having been made from coarser 
feed than usual. I have been in pursuit of some package, for the 
last year, which should be cheap, good and clean. Some small package 
which would not cost over a penny to the pouad of butter it contained, 
and which could be used for some other purpose afterward, or thrown 
away. I do not fancy returning a butter package. I have examined a 
number of packages, and fiud the Adams' butter case, which I received 
from ISTorwalk, 0., the best.^ It is made of tin and holds forty- five 
cakes of butter put up in this way (exhibiting a pound of butter in 
cube form enclosed in an envelope made of thin scale board soaked in 
brine). This is the most convenient form in which butter can be put 
up for the consumer. After you get your forty-five cakes of butter in 
the case, you can fill it up with brine, and I don't see why it shouldn't 
keep any leugtli of time. I have packed two cases in this form to go 
to the centennial, to be opened a year after it was put up. The fancy 
prices paid for butter generally, are paid for the manner in which it is 
put up. Butter in tubs is just as good, but if the consumer will pay 
an extra price for small packages, then let us put it up in this way. 

In reply to Mr. Bonfoy — After the butter has stood 24 hours, I work 
it with a tapering lever sixteen square, with a downward and side mo- 
tion, which is better than the downward motion simply. I would say 
by way of encouragement that I intend to make my butter better ; I 
intend to grain my cows next season, and bring my average up to 300 
pounds per cow. It is a fact that the better you feed cows, the more 
quiet you keep them, the less traveling you compel them to do, the 
more you consult the comfort, convenience and happiness of eows, the 
more and the better butter they will produce. A brutal man has no 
business to be a farmer, or to live in a civilized community. First, 
you must have a good cow ; then good food and water; then good care 
and treatment. In regard to shorthorns for butter making, I will say 
that if I was to make butter making my sole occupation for life, I 
should get the Jersey cow in preference to the shorthorn. But if I, 
like other men, was subject to sickness or other accidents, so that I 
would be at times unable to make butter, and be compelled to sell my 
milk, I should say the Jersey was the least valuable. I should say 
that for all purposes — for milk, butter, cheese and beef, the shorthorn 
stands first, second, third, and everywhere. Select heavy animals for 
level, rich lands, and light, active animals for steep hills. Vast sums 
of money have been expended to bring the different breeds up to their 
present high condition, but I prefer the shorthorn. 

DISCUSSION. 

The reading of this series of papers upon butter making was fol- 
lowed by a discussion. L. T. Hawley and T. D. Curtis, of Syracuse, 
spoke, indorsing the method of Mr. Lewis. 



59 

Mr. Middaugh, of Allegany — My practice is to ascertain the true 
time of skimming by applying the fingers to the surface of the cream. 
If it adheres to them it is ready to skim ; if not, the oil denoting 
its readiness- has not risen. This method is safe if the atmosphere 
is dry. 

Mr. Hawley — I doubt the propriety of straining immediately and 
setting away. The amount of animal heat in milk differs with differ- 
ent cows, and the cream will not rise uniformly as to time or quality. 
The remedy is to pour all the milk into a single vessel and to stir it. 
Uniformity is thus secured in the quality of cream, and it will all appear 
at the same time. 

The problem of making good cheese out oi skim milk is one whose 
solution would be one of the most important discoveries in the inter- 
ests of the dairy. Experiments have frequently been made to accom- 
plish this object. Last year Prof. L. B. Arnold, of Rochester, proposed 
to scald milk before making the butter, heating it 130°. He believed 
cheese made from the skim inilk resulting would be an improvement 
upon ordinary skim cheese. Mr. John T. Ellsworth, of Barry, Mass., 
tested the theory of Prof. Arnold, and on Tuesday evening he presented 
a very interesting paper describing his experiment and its results. It 
was as follows : 

SCALDING MILK FOR BUTTER AND SKIM CHEESE. 

One year ago last November I commenced to heat my milk to raise 
cream for butter, and watching the whole matter carefully from the 
milk directly from the cow, the quantity and quality of the butter, and 
the taste of the consumer, I became satisfied that I was making a bet- 
ter article by heating the milk than 1 ever made before at the same 
season of the year. 

At your meeting last winter, held at Utica, I asked if there was any 
gentleman present who had practiced heating milk through the sum- 
mer, for making buttter, and no one replied. I asked the same ques- 
tion at the Vermont Dairymen's Association with the same result. 
Now, not being able to find any one who had tried it and feiled, I de- 
cided I would keep heating my milk until I found good reason for stop- 
ping. 

The more I considered the matter the more resolved I became to 
make cheese of the skim milk. It seemed a hazardous undertaking, 
because I could not learn as milk was ever handled in this way by any 
one. 

Now for heating the milk of forty cows there must be some con- 
veniences for doing it. I had a set of Empire State pans for 25 cows, 
arranged for setting and cooling milk, and knowing that hot water 
was forced by heat through a coil, in a stove, into cold water to heat it, 
and as I Avished to arrange as economically as possible, I ordered a 
cheese vat and a stove with a copper coil, and a plumber to arrange the 
pipes, &c. We made some mistakes which were discouraging — there 
was not fall enough and the pipes and faucets were too small, and I 
was told that I was beaten. I said no, not till I can not make good 
butter and cheese from heated milk. The next movement was to raise 
the pans in the room, put tlie stove outside on a flat stone, put in 
larger pipes and stopcocks, then fired up, and it was a success. 



60 

Doubtless yon wish to know how I have succeeded ; I will tell you 
as briefly as possible. I commenced to make cheese May 27, and have 
heated my milk and made butter and cheese since that date up to the 
present time. As I knew something about making cheese by the fac- 
tory system, and could not afford to make many mistakes, I trusted 
to no one, but took the whole charge and responsibility myself. I 
found the milk worked differently from the milk of different dairies at 
the factories, consequently had to feel my way along, make some 
changes, but after a time I succeeded in making a very good cheese, 
which sold readily at a little 'less price than whole milk cheese. I set 
my milk up to September 2, twelve and twenty-four hours for butter 
then made cheese without the butter-milk ; had not learned the value 
of butter-milk at that time, and believed the butter better, made from 
ripe cream. If the butter-milk is added to the cheese, it must be done 
when sweet. During this time, out of curiosity, I made a butter-milk 
cheese ; it was very soft and rich, and I came to the conclusion that it 
would be of the greatest value if added to the milk, and made into 
cheese. My butter was firm and sweet, never made any that would 
stand handling and transporting in warm weather so well before. It 
ran even each week, always giving satisfaction. On September 3, I 
commenced to set the milk 24, 36 and 48 hours, churn sweet and add 
the butter-milk to the milk. In this way I made more butter and bet- 
ter cheese, which was very gratifying ; followed this course awhile ; as 
the season advanced the milk grew less ; with good demand for butter. 
I proposed that we let the milk stand 24, 30, 48 and 60 hours, and did 
so, the milk keeping sweet and working as well through the cheesing 
process as when I set it 12 and 24 hours, and made a cheese that 
sold well and gave good satisfaction. 

The number of pounds of milk which it took for a pound of butter 
and cheese varied each month. The most it took at any season was 
the first four days I commenced setting 12 and 24 hours — 38 pounds 
of milk for a pound of butter, and a little less than 12 pounds for a 
pound of cheese fron the press. 

The smallest amount was in November, when it took 25 pounds of milk 
for 1 pound of butter and 8f for a pound of cheese. The average from 
six trials made during the season, was 34^ pounds of milk for 1 pound 
of butter, and 10^ pounds for 1 pound of cheese. At each trial the butter 
was worked dry and lumped, and the cheese was weighed from the press. 
The cheese was all sold in Worcester, Mass., to retail grocers, except 
what I have on hand, for from 10 to 12^ cents per pound ; average 
sales about 11:^ cents. The butter is sold in Worcester, all at one 
house, for 45 cents per pound. 

A word about the whey. I always supposed whey from skim milk 
must be pretty poor food for anything, but to my surprise my hogs did 
first rate fed with it without grain of any kind. I fed it new and 
sweet, and think the sugar must all be left in it. My attention was 
called to a trial out West, stating that less butter was made from heated 
milk tlian from milk that was not heated. I resolved to make a trial 
for my own satisfaction, and did so October 18. Set 258 pounds milk 
without heating, but cooled to 65 \ and 252 pounds by heating it to 130°, 
then cooled to 65 ; each amount of milk stood forty-eight hours. The 
result was, the heated milk produced one-half pound the most butter. 



61 

1 wish to call the attention of just one class of dairymen to this pro- 
cess of haudling'their milk, I mean those whose farms are so far away 
from any factory, that it is Avorth a large part of their milk to deliver 
it there, and w^io are obliged to make it up at home, in the old com- 
mon way of farm dairy cheese. 

In closing, I will say, that I could not be induced to make milk into 
butter and cheese without first heating it, as there is everything in 
favor of it and nothing against it in my judgment. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Ellsworth, in response to a query, said that by his process, he 
had never been troubled with floating curds or sour milk, and that he 
used much milk besides his own. He heated the milk directly after 
milking. He had never had to contend with tainted milk. 

Professor Arnold — Heating to 130° will diive out all animal odors, 
but it will not save milk under all circumstances. 

Mr. Ba])Cock, of New York — It has been suggested that by freezing 
milk all the cream can be brought out to the best advantage. The 
cream will immediately come to the top and freeze slightly. It may 
then be taken from the surface. 

Mr. Lewis — Mr. French, of Otsego county, makes his winter butter 
by this method with the best results. 

Professor Arnold — This method is undoubtedly efficient ; but I have 
found that the cream is thus injured. 

On motion, a committee to report upon dairy products exhibited, was 
yppoiuted. The committee was composed of visitors from Canada. 
Harvey Farrington, C. E. Chad wick and E. Caswell. 

AFTERlS^OON SESSlOI?". 

The attendance was large, about 555 persons, including nearly 100 
ladies, who were present. 

The proceedings of the convention opened with a discussi(.>n of the 
subject of farm butter-making. Allusion was made to the fact that 
good butter is made under the most diverse circumstances, as illus- 
trated by the different oj)inions respecting temperature. Some makers 
recommend a temperature as high as 120 degrees, and others as Ioav as 
the freezing point for setting. This, said Mr. Lewis, is owing to the 
fact that different makers attempt to develop different essentials. 

T. D. Curtis, of Syracuse, spoke recommending the use of churils 
and other utensils which are not composed of wood. He recommended 
tin churns, or wooden churns with a tin lining. 

Mr. Lewis responded that the butter so adheres to the tin tliat it is 
extremely diilicult to manipulate the butter. 

Pemarks were also made by Professor L. Wetlierell, of Boston, in 
which lie took occasion to question the accuracy of the lactometer. 
The dilference in the flavor of butter made from different breeds of 
cattle is not perceptible. 

FACTORY BUTTEK. 

L. D. Paddock, of Malone, Franklin country, read apaper explaining 
the method of factory butter making in that country. 



6^) 

ADDRESS OF L. D. PADDOCK. 

I am here to-day by invitation from your Secretary, Prof. Arnold, 
to explain — as has been announced — Factory Butter Making, as prac- 
ticed in Franklin County, N. Y. I shall not undertake to instruct you, 
dairymen of Central New York, in the art of butter making, but I 
will try to tell you something about butter factories, how they are 
operated, and how we handle our milk, cream, and butter, and some of 
the benefits we receive from this, with us, new system of butter 
making. And to introduce the subject, I will tell you what has been 
done in our county of Franklin in this direction. Until within a few 
years dairying in our county was of but small importance. Farmers 
kept but few cows, made their butter at home in the old way, and did 
not consider the business very remunerative. In fact, our butter 
would not bring as much per pound in market, as that of our neigh- 
boring county of St. Lawrence, into several cents per pound. Not but 
what our farmers' wives and daughters could make just as good butter, 
with same conveniences, as those of any other county, but the business 
with us was carried on, on a small scale, and you are all well aware 
that when it takes from three to half a dozen churnings to fill a single 
tub, though each churning may be good, fair butter, yet, such a tub 
of butter will not sell in market for anything like a fair price, for a 
first rate article. Then there was another thing that injured our rep- 
utation for butter making, or that gave us a reputation for making 
poor butter, and that was, that a considerable amount of foreign butter 
found its Tray into our county for a market, or for shipment to other 
markets, and was sold in market as Franklin county butter. But 
since the introduction of the factory system, all is changed. The 
dairying interest is fast becoming ou«e of the great interests of our 
county, and our farmers are anxious to get and keep all the cows that 
their farms will carry, and our butter has a reputation for excellence, 
wherever it has been introduced, equal to that of any county in the 
State, or any other State. I will venture to say, that as a general rule, 
there is no butter made in the country, in private dairies, that will 
compare at all favorably with our factory butter, unless they have 
equal facilities, and then it is not uniformly as good, for the reason 
that in a private dairy the business does not receive that prompt atten- 
tion, at the proper time, that it does in the factory. Now, our butter 
brings the highest market price, and in fact, a large portion of it is 
sold at home above the highest market quotations. Formerly, there 
were about as many different samples of butter as there were dairies. 
Now we have one sample for a whole neighborhood. Formerly, if a 
farmer kept six or seven, or ten cows, and had in the fall one sixty 
pound tub of butter to sell for each cow that he kept, it was about as 
well as they would average. Now, if they do not get two tubs per cow, 
it is because they are either very poor cows, or they do not get enough 
to eat, and I certainly know from my own experience, that I realize 
more than double the amount net cash per year for the use of my 
cows, that I did when we made our butter at home in the old way, 
and I had about as good common conveniences for making butter as 
any one ; and we thought we knew how to make good butter, and get 
about all there was of it. Some of the benefits that we derive from 



63 

the factory system of making butter, are, first, tlie drudgery of making 
butter in the summer season, that generally falls heaviest upon the 
women folks on the farm, is removed. Then we make a great deal 
better butter, and more of it, and it brings from five to seven cents 
per pound more than any common farm dairy l)utter. 

The present state of things in dairying was brought about princi- 
imlly, by the introduction of a large milk })an constructed with a 
double ijottom, leaving a space for the circulation of water to cool the 
milk. This was what is called the Jewett pan, and was invented by a 
dairyman residing in our county by that name. These pans were at 
first intended for, and were used in private dairies, having the 'pans 
made large enough to hold the milk of a single dairy of cows at a 
milking. The pans proved a success. But this way of using them 
did not seem to meet the wants of dairymen generall}^ from the fact 
that there was only occasionally one that had good water to use under 
his pans. Then it was rather too expensive for a small dairyman to 
adopt this plan. But in almost every iieigborhood, a spring of water 
could be found that could be made available for this purpose. Then 
the idea occurred to some of our dairymen that we might have butter 
factories as well as cheese factories, and use these pans, aud have them 
large enough to hold the milk of 100 cows or more at a milking. This 
idea met with pretty general approval, provided it could be made to 
Avork. In the spring of 1870 a small fiictory was started as an experi- 
ment, by Mr. Lytle, using four of the 100 cow pans f he first year, 
"beginning with fifty-eight cows, and ending witli ninety-four, one 
pound of butter was obtained from 23J pounds of milk the season 
through, although a severe drouth prevailed, which was considered 
detrimental to the quality of the milk. The first sales of butter from 
this factory were three cents a pound more than good dairies in that 
vicinity; the last part of the season eight cents." He charged four 
cents per pound for making the butter, including salt, packages, &c. 
This venture succeeded beyond the most sanguine expectations. The 
next year another set of pans were added to this factory, aud three 
others v/ere built. Now there are in operation in our county 28 fac- 
tories, receiving in the aggregate, daily, the milk of about 7,000 to 
8,000 cows. There might have been butter factories in other parts of 
the country previous to this time, however that may be, we in our 
county had no knowledge of any, and consequently had no one to 
pattern after, so that as far as we were concerned the factory plan of 
making butter, was, perhaps I might say, nearly, or quite original with 
us. It is true we had heard of creameries, in which, as we generally 
supposed, butter was made from sweet cream, and cheese made from 
the milk. Then again, the idea of cooling milk for making butter, by 
setting it in cold water, was not a new one. At the time the first 
butter factory was built, there were in the county, I think, five cheese 
factories — four of them, I understand, have since been converted into 
butter fiictories, which have this advantage over cheese factories, if no 
other, we have the sour milk to feed instead of the whey. This milk 
is generally estimated with us to be worth about ten dollars per cow. 
Some seasons this estimate would perhaps be high, as that depends of 
course, some on whether your cows are good "milkers, or poor ones, 
and also on the price of pork, and the value of young stock. 



64 

I am aware that I have made my introductory a great deal too long, 
and I will now proceed to speak more directly of butter factories. The 
first thing to be considered in building a butter factory, is location, 
and in selecting a location there are two things in particular to be 
taken into consideration. The first is water. You must set your 
factory where you can obtain a good supply of <?(??(Z, spring water ; 
brook or rain water will not do, excepting as power for cliurning, 
which when it can be had, is the best and cheapest, otherwise you 
must use an engine or horse power. Small engines suitable for churn- 
ing, can be obtained for about $250. There are several such in use 
Avitii us. In the second place, you should locate where you can obtain 
milk from the greatest number of cows, for it will cost about as much 
to build and run a factory for 200 cows, as it wiJJ for one with 300 to 
400. The labor, which is the largest item, will be just about the same 
in the one case as in the other — as a general thing. It requires the 
services of a man and woman to run one of these factories, and you 
cannot get good help, those that understand the business, short of 
about three dollars per day, for seven days in a week. Your extra 
expense in running a factory with 350 or more cows, over one with 
200, is principally in tubs and salt. Now, as an investment, a butter 
factory which receives the milk of only 200 cows, will not pay. I 
presume the same is true of a cheese factory. For instance, if we 
make 20,000 lbs. of butter in a factory in a season, and charge 4 cents 
for making, tl^it gives us $800 with which to pay our running expenses, 
and interest on our capital invested. Now it will take every dollar of 
that 1800 to pay the running expenses saying nothing about interest on 
your investment. Now suppose that instead of that amount, we make 
40,000 lbs. of butter ; that at 4 cents per pound, gives us $1600. Now 
the extra expense will not be over about 1200, leaving us $600 for the 
use of our money. The cost of a butter factory when fully equipped, 
is from $3,000 to $3,500, or more if you choose. Some have built for 
considerable less than that sum. In building a butter factory you 
want a good, well ventilated milk room, a work room, and a churning 
room, and a good, cool, dry cellar, and a good ice house, and it is 
most convenient, where you can get a bank to build against, to have 
your cellar at the end of your building, and on a level with, and off 
from your milk room. This will save a great deal of hard labor, car- 
rying cream and butter down and up stairs. You can have just as 
cool a cellar there, if well made, and it will be dryer and lighter. 

The walls of your building should be constructed with particular 
reference to the exclusion of extreme heat or cold from your milk 
room, so that you will be able to keep it at an even temperature. The 
most convenient size for a 300 cow factory is 30 by 50, with the walls 
10 feet in height, that will give a milk room 30 by 38, which is large 
enough for three set of the one hundred cow pans. Four pans are a 
set. Then you have a work room 12 by 16, and a churning room 12 
by 14. If you use four set of pans, your building should be 62 feet 
long. The work room and churning are at the end of the building, 
where the milk is taken in. The walls in all of the rooms should be 
ceiled on the inside about four feet from the floor, and also overhead. 
The remainder should be smoothly plastered, and all of the wood work 
well painted. There should be blinds placed on the outside of the 



65 

windows, to protect the milk from the rays of light. The pans are 
set Avith their ends to the wall on each side of the milk room, with a 
space of about 20 inches between the pans in the rows, and an alley- 
Avay hetwecn the two rows of pans, of about seven feet wide, lengthwise 
of, and in the centre of your milk room. Then if your cellar is at the 
end of your Iniilding, you have a door leading from your milk room 
into it at one end of the alley way, and a door at the other end, leads 
into the work room, in a straight line to a door leading to a 
platform on the outside at the end of the building. The pans are set 
on tables made just the size of the pans, and about two feet high. 
The one hundred cow pans that we use are 51 inches wide, 130 inches 
long, and seven inches deep. The space for Avater is about 1:^ inches. 
The water for cooling the milk is brought into the milk room in lead 
or gas pipes, Avhich are fastened to the Avails of the room, along the 
ends of the pans, and just above them, and the Avater is taken out for 
each pan, through a faucet placed just where they are Avanted. Then the 
milk is brought to the pans on a truck, on which is first placed the scales 
for Aveighing the milk. The truck has four iron grooved Avheels on iron 
axles, Avith a plank box platform large enough for your scales to stand 
on, and high enough so that when your Aveighing can is in its place on 
the scales, that the bottom of your can will be a little higher than the 
top of the pan. Then Ave make a track for the truck, by listening to 
the floor f inch half round iron, about tAvo feet apart, running from 
the outside door to the farther end of the milk room. 

The handling of the milk until it reaches the factory is, I presume, 
the same as that taken to a cheese factory. The milk when draAvn 
from the coav is strained through a Avire cloth strainer into the can, 
audit is again strained at the factory, through a cloth strainer, into 
the pans at our "Keeler Factory." The patrons all strain their milk 
into Avhat is called " Bussey's Aerator," or deoderizing steamer pail, 
through Avhich it runs into the can. As soon as the milk arri\'es at 
the factory, it is emptied into the weighing can, and from that into 
the pans. The Avater is let on as soon as you commence to fill the 
pan. The milk should be cooled doAvn to from GO' to 02 as soon as 
possible, and it should be kept as near that temperature as possible 
until the cream has all risen. When it is found to be cool enough, 
you can graduate your supply of water, so as to keep the temperature 
just Avherc you Avant it, or shut it oflF entirely, as the case may require. 
The temperature of the milk room should be a little higher than that 
of the milk. We think 70' about right. 

NoAv in order to have a butter factory a success, it is indispensably 
necessary that all of your cans, pans, pails, &c., at the farm and factory 
should be kept perfectly clean and SAA'eet, and you must be able to 
keep the temperature of your milk room, milk and cream, exactly 
right all of the time. You can't run a butter factory Avith Avarm 
Avater. Neither can you make gilt-edge butter from impure milk. 
'W'i most scrupulous neatness must be observed in the handling of 
ilie milk, and making the butter, and I Avould not hire a man or 
Avomun to Avoi'k in a butter factory that I did not believe to be ibafuraUy 
neat, and if I found on trial that they Avere not, I Avould not keep 
ihem. And next to neatness, it is necessary to haA^c a good butter 
maker, a person or persons, that understand their business perfectly. 



66 

If you can't get such an one, you might as well shut up yoar factory. 

The milk is allowed to stand 36 hours, unless it is ready to be 
skimmed before that time. It must be skimmed at just the right 
time, and that is, as a general rule, as soon as it becomes sour. It is 
sometimes the case that the cream cannot be removed at that time 
without loss. In that case, you must wait until the milk thickens. In 
taking off the cream we use a large skimmer about 8 by 10 inches 
square, with a handle, and a low, broad, four quart pan or dipper Avith 
a handle. This rests on the edge of the pan, and when full is emptied into 
tin pails holding about four gallons, and the cream is then carried into 
the cellar and set in a vat of cold water, where it is kept at the right tem- 
perature by means of ice put into the water from time to time as occa- 
sion requires. This is in case your cellar is not cool enough. The 
sour milk is emptied from the pans through pipes leading to the out- 
side of the building into a large vat, from which it is taken away by 
the patrons. Cream taken off to-day, for instance, is churned to- 
morrow morning. We use two sixty gallon barrel churns, and put 
about 20 gallons of cream into each churn. If you get in too much, 
it takes a long time for the butter to come. The churns are run at 
the rate of about 30 revolutions a minute. We start the churning 
early in the morning, when it is cool, and before the milk begins to 
arrive. It usually takes about an hour to do the churning, but some- 
times longer. As soon as the butter is come in a granulated state, we 
stop churning, and draAvoif the buttermilk through a sieve, so as not 
to waste any butter, then pour two or three pails full of water into the 
ciiurn, and give it a few revolutions with the hand so as to rinse it 
well, then draw off as before, and repeat the operation until the but- 
termilk is well rinsed out of the butter. The butter is then taken 
from the churn and put into large, round, wooden trays, and carried 
into the cellar, where it is weighed and then spread out thin on the 
butter worker, and salted at the rate of one ounce to the pound, — unless 
otherwise ordered — some of our customers want but half an ounce to 
the pound, and some more than an ounce. We use either the best 
Onondaga factory filled dairy salt, or the Ash ton. Most of the facto- 
ries I believe work their butter but once^ and pack as soon as they 
think it worked enough. At our factory the butter is all worked 
twice. The first time just enough to work the salt in well. It is 
then put back into the trays and covered with a clean cloth, and set 
away until the next morning, when it is w^orked again, taking care not 
to let your lever slip or slide on the butter, or to in any way injure the 
grain of it. Then as soon as we think the buttermilk all out, it is 
packed. We generally pack in sixty pound packages, and the very 
best that can be obtained. It is then covered with a cloth, and that is 
covered with salt about half an inch in thickness. If the butter is to be 
kept long, the salt should be moistened just enough to make a paste, 
and then pressed down tight all around. Put on a tight fitting cover, 
and your butter is ready for market. 

It usually takes on an average, about 23 lbs. of milk for a polind of 
Ijutter. That depends, however, very much on whether 3'-ou are able 
to control the temperature of your milk. Then your feed lias some- 
thing to do with tlie quantity of the milk. Some seasons it takes 
more pounds of milk for a pound of butter than others. The past 



67 

season with us such has been the case. I think, as a general thing, 
cows fed on dry land pastures, give richer milk than those fed on wet 
land pastures, while the latter gives the greatest quantity. 

The following questions were then taken from the question drawer 
and read by the Secretary : 

Is the present grain of salt the best size for the butter maker ? 
Would not a finer grain enable him to work the butter dryer ? 

L. T. Hawley said, I do not approve of working out all the moisture 
from 1 'Utter, I would wash it with brine. It is best after washing 
the butter to vary the amount of salt according to the moisture. It 
is not important to pulverize the salt. Coarse salt will produce good 
brine. 

West Grove, Chester Co., Pa., 1st Mo., 6th, 18TG. . 

Esteemed Friend, E. Reeder : — For some months past I have been 
under appointment by our Experimental Farm Club, to report the 
nature and character of " Color in Butter P It is well known that 
different cows, kept alike on the same feed, make butter of diJBTorent 
shades of color — hence we might infer it was the cow, and not the 
feed that gives the color. 

Then we know the same cow will make much yellower butter in 
summer than in Avinter, and then we might say the feed, or the season, 
had to do with the color. Again, take the same cow's cream, have 
temperature and all just right — churn in 40 minutes or so, and we 
have a splendid yellow butter. Xow some of the same lot of cream 
mismanaged, and too warm or too cold, may come in three minuteSj 
or may take two hours to come, and both be poor and white. Here, 
neither cow, season or feed will be to blame, but why is it while ? I 
have had the best of Jersey cream make a very pale butter by too 
rapid churning. Take any cream, put in a bag and buried, in the 
ground, will make butter, but always white. Now Avhat is it that 
gives color to butter, and why such variations ? 

There is so much among the butter literature of late, that I felt 
willing to call thy attention to the subject, and ask for some help. 

Thine, Thomas M. Harvey. 

Secretary Arnold's attention was called to the question concerning 
color. Mr. A. said : The cause of color in butter is not very Avell un- 
derstood. Color is not a necessary element in butter, and probably 
has nothing to do with its taste. It is common, however, for high 
color and high flavor to be found in the same parcel, and hence Ave 
associate the tAvo as having a connection. High color in butter has no 
more connection Avith high flavor, tlian the green color of grass has 
Avith its nutritious elements. They can be separated in either case, 
for high flavor occurs Avithout high color, and high color exists Avith- 
out higli flavor. But as tliey commonly occur together, imagination 
associates them so strongly, that the taste is generally satisfactory if 
the color is right. Hence the efficiency of artificial coloring. All the 
elements of butter do not have color. Butter is composed of three 
fats ; a soft fit or oil called olein ; a middle fat called margarine, or as 
chemists now call it, palmatine ; and hard fat known as stearine. The 



68 

coloring in butter is attached to the middle fat, commonly known as 
margarine, while the principal flavor in butter comes from the olein, 
which is as colorless as other oils. 

The coloring in butter is partly formed by the vegetable in the 
elaboration of vegetable fats, and hence is varied by breed and feed. 
Green grass contains 60 per cent, of yellow fat, and 40 per cent, of 
Avhite, and when fed to milch cows, produces high color. Grass past 
the blossom has these prorortious reversed, and the butter is lighter 
colored. 

One of Mr. Harvey's queries was, why does cream churned warm, 
produce white butter, when the same churned cold, will produce yel- 
low butter ? For the same reason that cream is paler than butter. 
When butter globules are floating in the milk, or are gathered into 
cream, they consist of a little speck of colored fat, covered with a col- 
orless or white pellicle. So long as the globule remains in this condi- 
tion Ave can only see the coloring of the fat by a faint reflection of its 
color through the thin cover which encloses it. If we break that cov- 
ering oil and expose the fat to view, we see its real bright color. 
"Wlien cream is churned warm, the globules adhere when but few of 
them have been divested of their covers by churning, and hence they 
appear light colored like cream, Avhich they really are, with just butter 
enough churned to stick them together. In a colder stage they Avould 
not adhere till the globules are nearly all divested of their pellicles, and 
the yellow fat within them exposed to view, and hence the product is 
yellow. If the butter Avhich has come white, is salted and set aAvay 
and cooled and Avorked a fcAV times at intervals, the pellicles Avill peel 
off and expose the naked fat, and the butter will become so yelloAV as 
if it it had been cool Avben churned, but it will not keep as Avell, be- 
cause the shells or skins which haA'^e been rubbed off by Avorking and 
stilting, Avill remain mixed Avith the butter, and spoil it sooner than if 
they Avere not there. 

Col. Crocker, of Binghamton, favored feeding stock Avith carrots or 
corn meal to give the butter a richer color. If carrots could not be 
procured in sufficient quantity, he Avould color his butter with grated 
carrots rather than Avith annatto. 

Mr. Lewis enquired why he Avould prefer coloring butter Avitli the 
juice of a vegetable in a condition very liable to decay, rather than the 
juice of another vegetable reduced to a condition not liable to decay, 
and entirely inert ? 

Mr. Witherell asked if two cows, a Jersey and a shorthorn, Avere 
placed in the same stable and given the same feed and treatment, 
whether the butter from both would be the same in color, and if not, 
Avhy not ? If the difference Avas in the feed, this Avould shoAV otherAvise. 

Prof. Arnold said the difference Avas in the secretive poAvers of the 
animals, to some extent. The difference Avas illustrated by feeding a 
cow and a hog on the same food, when they Avould produce different 
colored fat. 

A voice from tlie reporter's desk : " Of tAvo brothers fed at the same 
table, Avhy is the hair of one red and the other black ?" 

Mr. Hardin said he soiled his cows on grass, but it did not always 
contribute to good color. He had been called antediluvian because he 
compared his system Avith shalloAv pans. He believed four-fifths of 



69 

the dairymen of the country were antediluvians in this respect, and 
used the same old pan that Adam did. I use corn-fodder, rye and 
green clover for soiling. I feed some fifty head of cattle for breeding 
purposes on twelve acres. 

Jacob Ellison, of Herkimer, said his butter, made from the milk of 
line-backed cows, kept its quality and flavor for a year. One of the 
objects of the butter-maker was to make butter that would keep for a 
year or more. Mr. Lewis' butter was of a very good flavor, but lacked 
the flavor which the line backs gave it. 

AK EXPERIMENTAL DAIEY STATION. 

BY PROF. E. W. STEWART, OF THE LIVE STOCK JOURNAL, BUFFALO. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : — The magnitude of the 
dairy interest, reaching not less than four hundred millions' worth of 
product each year, led to tlie establishment of this most progressive 
agricultural association. An examination of its proceedings, for the 
first seven or eight years, will show that its attention was turned 
wholly to the then weakest of its specialties, cheese-making. This 
product, then in such disorder and of such uncertain quality, has now, 
under the guidance and enterprise of the members of this association, 
assumed a fixed and nearly uniform type and advanced to the front 
rank in the best dairy markets of the world. Having accomplished so 
mucli for this neglected branch, it has been turning its attention, of 
late, to securing greater uniformity in the butter product, which is 
•still mostly made in private dairies. 

This general advance all along the line of dairy productions, has 
shown the necessity for numerous accurate special investigations, 
which neither inuividual dairymen nor fjictory managers are able to 
make. The improvement in dairy practice, although so great during 
the last twenty years, has been mostly the result of diffusing general 
information by which those of inferior methods have been able to ap- 
proximate to the aATerage standard, while the many special questions 
tiiat have arisen in the most investigating minds remain unsolved. 

In f{ict, it was necessary that a higher general standard should be 
reached before dairymen could see the necessity of tlie more accurate 
special information requisite for an advance of the still higher indi- 
vidual standards. 

Now this association, not willing to rest upon its past laurels, is 
anxiously inquiring how these questions, necessary to further advance, 
may best be solved. It is granted that private individuals cannot be ex- 
pected to take upon themselves the labor and expense of working them 
out, and tliat factory managers, if they had the facilities and the 
knowledge requisite to the solution of those (j[uestions, relating to 
manufacture, would not be justified in using the material belonging to 
their patrons for experimenting. It thus becomes evident that tliese 
investigations must devolve upon an institution, established and ade- 
quately equipped for the Avhole line of experiments. 

QUESTIONS TO BE SOLVED. 

The inquiries to be undertaken are very numerous, and only a few 
can be mentioned within the limits of this paper. 



70 

1st. A system of experiments in breeding — showing the effect of 
various crosses of thoroughbred bulls of milking breeds upon common 
selected cows — running each cross distinct to the fifth generation — 
comparing the cross with the thoroughbred in results, both of the 
various dairy products and of beef, under the same system of food, 
climate and care. This w^ould give a comparative test of incalculable 
value, and probably result in an American breed exactly adapted to 
the general purposes of the dairy. 

2d. A series of experiments in feeding, testing the effect of different 
combinations of food upon the chemical elements of milk, upon the 
quantity produced and upon the health and weight of the cow, the 
cost of the production of a gallon of milk, a pound of butter or 
cheese, and thus the value of the different foods for the production of 
milk and flesh, the comparative profit of high and common feeding, 
whether grain may be profitably combined in the ration with grass, 
what combination of grasses produce the best quality of milk, and the 
feeding value of the refuse of dairy products ; also the eflFect of tem- 
perature upon the amount of food consumed, thus settling, in the 
most accurate way known to science, the comparative value of warm 
stables and various degrees of exposure to that of out-door winter 
feeding. 

3d. A series of experiments in the manufacture of dairy products — 
illustrating the rising of cream in deep and shallow setting — in various 
degrees of light and temperature — testing the effect of heating the 
fresh milk to various degrees of temperature before setting, upon the 
quantity of cream and quality of butter — the effect of light and air 
upon milk while the cream is rising — effect of churning whole milk or 
cream upon quantity and quality of butter ; also experiments tending 
to solve the difficulties and disputed points in factory managers' 
practice. 

4th. It should be a consulting station, provided with experts in every 
branch of knowledge which dairymen bring into use — to which every 
dairyman contributing to its support, may send his questions for solu- 
tion — may find the best food ration for his cows, prescriptions for 
disease in his herd, explanation of taint in his milk, and a dozen of 
other difficulties which beset him. To the factory manager, this sta- 
tion will be of the greatest service, enabling him to bring to his aid 
the best scientific research and experiment. It should thus have the 
good will and co-operation of one thousand factory managers in the 
{State of NeAV York, besides their patrons, owning, probably, more 
than 400,000 cows. Here, certainly, ought to be a basis for such an 
institution, without counting the owners of a million cows in private 
dairies, many hundreds of Avhom, I trust, would gladly contribute. 

KEQUIEEMENTS FOE SUCH A STATION. 

The work epitomised above indicates the necessity of a broad plan 
and a thorough organisation of all its parts. I think the necessities 
of American dairymen require a broader institution, and the execu- 
tion of more complete experiments than any of the German stations 
have given us. Their Avork has been very valuable, so far as it goes, 
and laid tlie world under obligations, but beijig mere advisory stations 
for the determination of local questions and largely for the analysis of 



71 

fertilizers,, the director is usually an expert chemist, and so far as the 
analysis of fertilizers, foods and dairy products goes, are entirely reli- 
able, but it can not be expected that a chemist alone is qualified to de- 
cide all the questions relating to the dairy industry. We have only to 
refer to the experiments of Dr. Kuhn and one or two other German 
station chemists upon the effect of different foods upon the chemical 
com]wsition of milk in which it was sought, by feeding a special ra- 
tion for fourteen days, to determine its effect upon the composition of 
the milk, when a practical animal physiologist would knov/ that a 
good cow, in the active stage of her milk secretions, would continue 
to give milk of about the same average composition for fourteen days, 
if the ration had been simply straw, drawing upon her own system for 
the missing elements ; but further experiments, of longer duration, 
modified his first conclusions. In his later experiments the effect of 
the ration was very variable upon different cows, a fact which a prac- 
tical feeder might have informed him before the experiment began. 
"VVe hold these European stations in highest respect, but this should 
not prevent us from seeing and correcting their errors. We need not 
only an expert chemist, but an expert animal physiologist and veter- 
inarian — a botanist, an expert dairy operator, an educated and prac- 
tical feeder, and whatever other special talent a complete system shall 
prove necessary. No single individual can combine all these require- 
ments. The feeding experiments, conducted by Lawes and Gilbert, 
and those at the Michigan Agricultural College, lose much of their 
value for the want of the presence of a skilled veterinarian, who 
should be able to provide for the health of the animals during the 
continuance of the experiment. In both cases the effort was to deter- 
mine the value (among other foods) of corn meal, and feeding this in 
its most concentrated state, the pigs were, for a considerable portion of 
the time, in a feverish state, unable to eat a full ration, yet these ex- 
periments are often quoted to show the pounds of corn required for a 
pound of pork. A dairy station for the Empire State should be or- 
ganized, so far as possible, to avoid these errors by providing it with 
experts in ail the different departments of knowledge required. It 
will thus be seen that much expense must be incurred if this is to be 
established as a separate and independent institution, for it will be a 
great school for the education of this largest agricultural interest of 
New York. But by connecting it with our Agricultural College, to 
which was given the great endowment of land, and which has already 
the scientific talent requisite, and all the buildings, except, perhaps, 
one for dairy operations, the great bulk of expense is avoided. 

I do not know, from any consultation with the trustees of Cornell 
University, to what extent they are now prepared to carry on such a 
station, Imt I hazard little in saying that the faculty will go to the 
full extent of their valualjle means to second any effort of this associa- 
tion or the dairymen of New York, in furnishing ail the facilities re- 
quired for the line of experiments mentioned. These expernnents re- 
((uire the scientific and practical in harmonious co-operation. Let the 
dairymen designate the expert practical operators, and the university 
will be but too glad to match them with their scientific yoke-fellows. 
The agricultural department of Cornell is most iortunate in possessing 
the practical scientific talent requisite for carrying out just such ex- 



72 

perimeiits as the dairymen of the United States require for the ad- 
vancement of this art. This university has advertised its eagerness to 
be of service to the dairy and other agricultural interests. Shall we 
not now, in our need, avail ourselves of this proffered assistance ? 

HOW TO SUPPORT A DAIRY STATION. 

If we recur to the figures mentioned at the beginning of this paper, 
and see the immense interest at stake — yielding a surplus product 
greater than any other single agricultural interest — it will be seen that an 
assessment of one mill on the dollar of product would yield a sum suffi- 
cient to establish a station in every dairy State. But suppose we examine 
the dairy product of New York. This State is supposed to possess 1,500,- 
000 cows, and the product can not be less than 160,000,000. One mill 
per dollar upon this sum would keep up the working expenses of such 
a station for ten years. Suppose the 1,500,000 cows of New York 
were assessed each only one cent, it would furnish 115,000, or a liberal 
working fund. How utterly insignificant the equalized expense would 
be upon this great industry. 

Now let us look for a moment at the need of such an experimental 
station. The New York State census of 1865 gives returns from 133 
cheese factories for 1864, employing the milk of 67,034 cows through 
the season, and the average product of cheese is only 383 pounds per 
cow. 

Prof. Wickson compiles the returns from 127 cheese factories for 
1874 and published in the last report of the association, by which it 
appears that the average product of all the cows of these 127 factories 
was 343 pounds, showing an advance of sixty pounds per cow in ten 
years — owing mostly, no doubt, to the efforts of the members of this 
association. But this table also shows that the average of the best 
dairies of these 127 factories was 433 pounds per cow, and the average 
of the poorest dairies of the same factories was only 250 pounds per 
cow, showing an average difference of 183 pounds per cow between the 
best and poorest dairies in all these factories. What a wide field is 
here for improvement ! What interest needs an experimental school 
if this does not ? What other interest could stand such a wide dis- 
crepancy of results ? Is it possible to suppose cotton manufacture to 
exist with a difference of 60 per cent, between the highest and lowest 
cost of production, and all going on, indifferent to the facts in the 
case. These facts indicate, not that good farming don't pay, but that 
it is possible to get a living with any kind of farming. Look at a 
great cotton factory, with its thousands of spindles running like clock- 
work, each performing its part and every operator understanding the 
part assigned to him. Here we see intelligent order and thoughtful 
care everywhere — the cost of a yard of cloth can be calculated to the 
smallest fraction. What, let us ask, is the inherent difficulty in plac- 
ing the great dairy interest under the same intelligent order and dis- 
cipline ? What a transformation ! and what a paltry pittance it would 
be for each dairyman to furnish the means of running a model experi- 
mental station, where all the propositions looking to the advancement 
of the dairy interest may be thoroughly examined, and, if thought 
worthy, tested. 



73 

SIMPLEST PLAN TO SUPPORT SUCH A STATIOX. 

Let me suggest the following as a simple tiiid apparently practicable 
plan for supporting sucli an experimental station. There, are 1,000 
cheese factories and creameries in the state of New York, and if we 
suppose the average number of cows to be 400 per ftictory, (which is, 
no doubt, less than the actual count) the owners of 400,000 cows are 
directly interested in improvements in factory practice, and in im- 
provements in breeding, feeding and general management of the dairy. 
JN'ow we all know the marvelous economy of farmers in the expendi- 
ture of cash, however carele.'-s they may be of their products before 
they are turned into money, yet I trust all these dairymen will respond 
with cheerfulness to the equitable proposition I am about to make and 
that is — that each patron of a factory \niy over to the o\vner or mana- 
ger of the factory, for the benefit of such experimental station, the 
sum of three cents per annum, for each cow he milks ; and that for 
this small sum he shall share in all the benetits of the institution, 
which shall include the right for himself or any member of his family 
to receive personal instruction at this station, and prescriptions for dis- 
eases in his herd. These are small sums, to be paid only once a year, 
and without any trouble to the patron, as he goes to the factory every 
day during the season, and the factory manager (!an easily transmit the 
amount to the treasurer of the experimental station. This reduces 
the basis of income to a definite system, and if carried out, would pro- 
duce at least the sum of 812,000 with an average assessment of about 
thirty cents upon each dairyman. Each factory manager ought, cer- 
tainly, to feel sufiicient interest in the matter to explain and urge it 
upon his patrons, and to collect and transmit these small sums. 

And now, gentlemen, if dairymen will not respond to this modest 
suggestion for their own highest welfare, we must leave them to their 
*' hardness of heart and blindness of mind. " 

SALT. 

Mr. McAdam, of Montgomery, in reply to a gentleman from Canada, 
said — We use the Onondaga salt. It is not alwuys what we would like, 
it is not as clean as the salt we used to get in England. But four- 
fifths of the dairymen use it. 

Col. Crocker, of Broome — We made a test at Buffalo a few years ago. 
But little was known of the [Syracuse salt in its improved form. I 
have tested the Syracuse salt with the Ashton. Aly experience led me 
to believe the Syracuse salt v/as the purest and gave the best fiavor. 
The committee spoken of examined many ])ackages of both kinds. 
Twice out of three times we decided in favor of Syracuse salt, finding 
the butter higher flavored. 

Mr. Uawle}' — I propose that we recommend to each factory in the 
United States to pay an assessment of one cent per cow, the funds to 
be forwarded to this association, to be used for the purposes indicated 
by Mr. Stewart — an experimental dairy section. He spoke at length 
in favor of Onondaga salt. 

THE CENTENNIAL. 

Horace J. Smith, of the advisory council of the centennial commis- 
sion, was called upon to speak. 
6 



74 

J. H. Eeall, of Philadelphia, said the American Dairymen's Associa- 
tion was the first association which tlie government had honored by 
sending a representative to speak before it. [Applause.] 

Mr. Smith spoke of the benefits of celebrations of this kind. Con- 
gress appointed a commission to prepare for the necessity. The first 
feature of the centennial was ceremonies, patriotic in nature, to com- 
memorate the hundredth anniversary of American independence. The 
second an international exhibition. The one was sentimental, the 
other material. The country has been greatly prospered in having a 
free educational system. It has also one language, which is spoken 
from Maine to Texas. The country has secured the whole of the Mis- 
sissippi basin. We are blessed with a financial system which is uniform 
over the whole country. Our greatest blessing is that we have a terri- 
tory which is three times as great as Europe, with the ' exception of 
Russia. The century just closed was the grandest hundred years in 
the whole of human history. The developments of agriculture, ma- 
chinery, mining, and the arts and sciencies, physical and intellectual, 
are surprising and gratifying. The declaration of eciual rights, is one 
of the grandest achievements of the century. Mankind never before 
came together to celebrate the birthday of a nation. The result will 
be that those who return to other countries, will take with them new 
ideas of government, which may make new destinies for old nationali- 
ties. The commercial advantages of the exhibition will, we believe, 
give a new impulse to our business. To the farmer and the landholder 
the opportunity is offered of seeing the chances for investment, and be- 
ginning business in all the different parts of the country. The whole 
country is indebted to America for introducing the system of cutting 
grass and grain by a pair of scissors, which is the principle on 
which the mowing machine works. The inventive genius of the coun- 
try may be stimulated to produce even greater results than the mow- 
ing machine. 

The idea of exhibiting your cheese in competition with that of Eng- 
land and other countries, is one of the best of the exhibition, and will 
be of great benefit to you. The exhibition would be nothing without 
the products of the soil and the manufactures. It will be of the great- 
est benefit to dairymen. 

Brief discussions of miscellaneous topics closed the afternoon session. 
DAIRY COMMERCE, 

BY J. M. PETEES, OF XEW YORK CITY. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: The commercial aspects of the 
Dairying interest, upon which I am to have the honor of addressing 
you briefly, have, during the past year presented many features which 
command our considerate attention. The dairyman himself is becom- 
ing so far involved in the commerce in his product that it is not suffi- 
cient that he should look merely into all that pertains to "its manufac- 
ture, but he must study, as well, every phase of its progress and every 
influence affecting it until it has reached the consumer. A review of 
the butter and cheese trade for 1875, while it shovvsrauch that clenotes 
favorable progress, is not altogether encouraging in its exhibit of finan- 



75 

cial returns either to producers or dealers. Before considering the 
reasons, however, let us brieJEly review the course of trade during the 
year. 

The receipts of butter at New York during the twelve months of 
1875, were 1,138,287 packages against 980,654 packages in 1874, and 
948,520 packages in 1873. The recepts for the eight months of the 
trade year, beginning May 1st, were in round numbers 810,000 pack- 
ages against 736,000 packages in 1874, and 770,000 in 1873. This in- 
dicates a greater excess over 1874 than I am inclined to think really 
existed. In fact the opinion seems generally to prevail among those 
best informed in regard to the position of the I\ew York market, that 
there was, at most, only a very trifling increase in the number of pounds 
handled last year, over 1874. The larger receipts as reported in pack- 
ages may be traced to two causes, namely — the greater care given to 
the collection of the reports, and the unusually large proportion of 
small packages. In the Welsh districts of the State, and throughout 
the West, there has been an increasing tendency toward the use of 
small tubs, and the average weight of packages has been considerably 
reduced in consequence, though there was a large proportion of firkins 
in the Summer receipts of Western. 

The year opened with an overstocked market and a dull trade. 
Prices had been forced beyond the point of liberal consumption, and 
before the close of the first month the pressure of heavy supplies and 
slow sales had begun a decline which continued almost through the 
first half of the year. The average price of State dairies — firkins and 
tubs— in the New York market in January last, was about 35 cents, 
while Western averaged about 26 cents. In February the average was 
reduced to 30 cents for State, and 22 cents for Western. The March 
average was 27 cents for State and 19 cents for Western, with a dull 
and declining market throughout, and in April the average Avas down 
to 23 cents for State and 16 for Western, the decline continuing until 
nearly the middle of May, and reaching as low a point as 18 cents for 
State and 13 cents for Western, or about 50 per cent, below the open- 
ing rates. These low prices were the means of opening a considerable 
demand for export, and it was through this outlet that the market was 
relieved of the heavy stocks in time to receive the new crop. The 
decline had a tendency to increase home consumption also, but much 
of the stock had been held so long that it Avas not suitable for home 
use even at the low prices at which it was offered, and was rejected for 
the scattering receipts of fresh made Avhicli had begun to come in. 
The lesson taught by the Avild purchases in the interior Avhich were 
made by the Ncav York buyers in the fall of 1874, Avas a severe one to 
the tratle and one which, it Avas generally expected, Avould be remem- 
bered. Its effects were felt in no small degree by dairymen themseh'es, 
as some of you, doulttless, can testify. The prostrate trade and falling- 
prices of the spring of 1874, convey a lesson so obvious that any future 
disregard of its teachings must be considered as wilfully suicidal on 
the part of the trade. 

The neAv crop of butter came into the market to a quotable extent 
late in May, on a basis of about 25 cents for prime State tubs and 23 
cents for Western. State Avas about one cent higher during June, Aviiile 
Western shoAved no quotable change. July shoAved some improvement 



76 

on State, the market going to 28 cents as an average price. Western, 
on the contrary, was a trilie lower and did not average over 20 cents. 
During August there was not mucli variation from the figures of the 
preceding month on State, while Western was a shade lower tov/ard the 
close after opening a trifle above the July average. September and 
October Avere marked by over fluctuations in values and the average 
was raised to about 30 cents. Western was unchanged during Septem- 
ber, but Avas a trifle better in October. This was maintained through 
. November and December, the average price being about 25 cents. 
During J^ovember and December the market ruled about steady on 
State butter, with quotations not differing materially from the earlier 
figures, though -for firkins and dairies the average rate Avas not above 
28 cents. In quoting these prices I am basing my figures upon the 
grade representing the bulk of the stock, and totally ignoring the 
exceptional qualities Avhich have been used in the best retail channels 
at prices which afford no true representation of the value of the crop. 
The extreme rates for the fancy grades which are adapted to retail still 
mislead country operators, as too much of the butter is graded in the 
interior markets as fit for the best channels. Strictly clioice or fancy 
grades, whichever we may please to term tiiem, do not comprise more 
than five per cent, of our Avhole entire receipts, and it must be obAdous 
that a grade representing only so small a portion of our product should 
not be allowed to influence thfe value of the bulk of the crop Avhich is 
subject to influences Avholly separated from those which govern the 
comparatively small amount taken by the local retailers. There can 
be but one remedy for this evil, and that must be in the abandonment 
of the present method of purchases in the country and the adoption 
of the commission system. To this I shall ask your attention fur- 
ther on. 

While recognizing and heartily applauding the great progress made 
in dairying during the past three years, I am forced to the belief that 
this progress has not been so comprehensive as the welfare of this 
great interest demands. In all that relates to the manufacture of 
your products, you have been zealous students, and through your ex- 
periments and discussions improved methods haA^e been developed, 
until the theory of dairying in the United States has been brought to 
a point of perfection which it has never attained in any other country, 
but I cannot say that, in practice, this perfected theory has always been 
carried out. There are many dairymen in the State of Noav York 
Avhose products, both butter and cheese, measured by the best stand- 
ards we have, are absolutely faultless. They keep pace with the pro- 
gress made in the study and investigations made by scientists, by re- 
ducing to practice every neAvly adopted theory Avhich can be applied to 
the improvement, in any respect, of their product. There are many 
others who seem to disregard all neAV methods and to ignore scientific 
research, and Avhose products to-day are ]jut little better than they 
Avere ten years ago. Not only do they fail to progress themselves, but 
their failure is a check upon the growth of the entire interest. But, as 
a whole, great improvements have been made in the processes of man- 
ufactures in their every detail, and the energy Avith Avhich researches 
are pushed into ncAV fields of discovery by this Association, and others 
of a similar character, give encouragement to the hope that the pro- 



77 

gross already made will be excelled by the future advancement in this 
industry until it shall have reached the ntmost limit of perfection. 

In all this, however, yon are not fully covering the field. The growth 
of the production of butter has been so rapid as to overcrowd the 
natural ontlets or those already developed, and our large and increas- 
ing surplus of this commodity is every year becoming more unprofita- 
ble to us. The prices at which this surplus might, by judicious man- 
agement be marketed, wonld afford results which would render dairy- 
ing the most profitable branch of agricultural industry. There need 
1)6 no limit to the production of snch goods as it is in the power of 
American dairymen to supply. When the outlets now open to us have 
been supplied there are still undeveloped fields which may be made to 
take all the butter and cheese that even our unlimited resources can 
furnish, and only a little well directed enterprise is required to open 
those markets to us. AVhile Ave will not place ourselves jn antagonism 
to that principle of political eoonomy which establishes the imports of 
a country rather than its exports as the basis and index of its wealth, 
we must regard an export outlet for our surplus productions as of the 
utmost importance to our industrial prosperity. When we have more 
goods of any class than are required in the ordinary channels through 
which these goods are distributed, our only resource is to move them 
promptly into other outlets. Our markets are then relieved of their 
weight, and tlie effect of breaking prices in the regular channels which 
must otherwise result, is thus avoided. This course is especially 
desirable in connection with perishable goods, which might frequently 
1)6 made to realize profitable returns if they were moved promptly in- 
stead of being held until much of their value has been lost through 
the deterioration of quality. This is almost invariably the case with 
our butter surplus, though I believe the receivers of Western butter in 
the New York market have, during tlie past year, avoided much of the 
unprofitable delay in marketing their goods, which had l)een the rule 
in former years. We have all learned ere this that current receipts are 
always to be relied upon as furnishing ample supplies for current run- 
ning wants, and it is safe to calculate that any material accumulation 
of stock other than the choicest grade can be more profitably disposed 
of at the time of its accumulation than after being held for any length 
of time, since the very fact of its l)eing upon the market exercises a 
constant depression upon prices. To this must be added the cost of 
carrying and the natural deterioration in ([uality. We should never 
lose sight of the fiict that, practically, and so far as relates to their 
market value, tlie different grades of butter are entirely independent of 
one another. The present position of the New York market illustrates 
this fact very clearly. 'J'he finest half firkin tubs are in demand for 
current local consumption, at o4 to 80 cents per pound. A dairy fine 
enough tliroughout to go into the same channel, cannot be sold to the 
jobbing trade for as much as 32 cents. These goods must be absolutely 
taultless. \'ery little of the stock received at New York is fit for this use, 
ami hence the high prices obtainable. Leaving these grades of firkins 
and tubs, and the next (piality is not marketable to any extent above 
30 cents for tul)S and 27 to 2S cents for dairies entire. There is the 
same difference on Welsh, and also between the finer Western creamery 
and the factory and dairy butter from that section. Fine Western 



78 

creamery is quotable at 30@32 cents. Western tubs and firkins, really 
prime goods, sell at 24 to 26 cents. Should the market and oat of 
town demand for this latter grade of goods prove unequal to the sup- 
ply, the only channel into which it could be crowded would be for ex- 
port", and at 3 to 4 cents per pound below the figures which market 
men and other home buyers are willing to pay for such amounts as 
they require, and yet it were far better that this reduction be made and 
the market relieved of a burdensome accumulation, than that the 
stock be held until by its own weight it has broken prices to a point 
at which somebody will take the goods. I am inclined to the opinion 
that the Western butter business has never been so well and 
profitably conducted as it was during 1875. The local markets at the 
West afford the dairymen quite as high prices for butter they require 
for current consumption, as are obtained for any class of State goods 
in the Ncav York market. But they have a ivery large excess over the 
amount required for home use, and this surplus finds its way to New 
York for a market. The expense for transportation is added, and the 
prices realized are often ten cents per pound below the quotations for the 
best retail grades in the Western cities. The Western dairymen have 
learned the fact, however, that the value of their jDroducts is what they 
will bring when put into the market, and they seem to favor the course 
adopted by our best houses during the past season, of keeping the 
stock moving at the best price obtainable. As one of our leading 
merchants remarked, during a dull period of the summer season, 
" there is one advantage that Western butter has over State, it comes 
here to be sold and if it won't bring 27 cents we can take 17, if we can 
do no better." This principle must be followed more closely in rela- 
tion to our State product, gentlemen, if the dairymen and the dealers 
of dairy products are to enjoy a healthful prosperity. The value of 
your goods is what they will bring when put upon the market to-day — 
not what your neiglibor receives for his, — there may be a difference of 
live cents a pound between your goods and his ; not so many cents 
below the price of pails, nor so many cents above the price of 
Western, but simply what the consumer, whether he be in New 
York or in New Orleans, in Halifax or in Liverpool, can afford 
to pay for your goods, less the necessary profits to the trade inter- 
vening betv/een you and him. The Western butter makers are crowd- 
ing you hard in every branch of the trade, except in the highest retail 
channels, and even then, to a limited extent, their creamery pails suc- 
cessfully compete with yours. The quality of their product is con- 
stantly improving, and during the past year there has been much 
greater uniformity in the packages used, which cures what had pre- 
viously been a serious defect. The old time prejudice against Western 
butter has been removed, and to brand a tub " Western " no longer 
condemns it, nor will branding it "State" insure its sale. A difference 
of one or two cents a pound, at the most, is all that the trade will pay 
for State in preference to Western, and as the latter is always kept at 
a point where consumption is not checked, we must look in the future, 
as it is at present, for a close approximation of prices on the products 
of this and the Western States. Not by raising western butter to the 
hio-hest level of State, but by bringing down State to the basis upon 
which Western lias found a ready sale. The quality of the State butter 



79 

product during the past 3'ear has been up to the average in most coun- 
ties, the chief exception being the Welsh districts, which have not 
forwardedas good a qnalitj of goods as they did in 1874. Too much 
care cannot be bestoAved upon every detail of the manufacture and 
handling, and any lack of care becomes apparent at once to the critical 
buyer when goods have reached the market. The better and sweeter 
butter is when it reaches the consumer, the greater will be the consump- 
tion, and if we are to open new markets for American goods, it must 
be by furnishing a l)etter quality than comes from competing coun- 
tries. 

The exports of butter from New York during 1875, were 4,226,- 
976 lbs. against 4,611,896 lbs. in 1874, and 3,586,103 lbs. in 1873. For 
the eight months from Mav 1st, the exports were 3,069,448 lbs. in 1875, 
3,828,188 lbs. in 1874. 

Our cheese statistics show receipts at New York during the vear of 
2,322,015 boxes against 2,046,575 boxes in 1874, and 2,007,663 boxes 
in 1873. The exports during the same period, were 92,000,950 lbs., 
equal to about 1,867,528 boxes against 1,639,389 boxes in 1874. For 
the eight months of the trade year the statistics are as follows : 1875 
receipts, 2,189,275 boxes; exports, 1,661,180 boxes; 1874 receipts, 
1,919,548 boxes ; exports 1,456,009 boxes. 

The opening of 1875 found fjmcy State factory quotable at 15f @16 
cents, and from this point there was an advance to 16@.16^ cents, at 
which point the market continued until about the first of May, when 
quotations receded to 15^ cents and liefore the close of the month to 

14 cents. With the incoming of new make, the market ranged on an 
average of 12^ cents during June, but touched as low a point as 114- 
cents in July, and ruled about on that basis in August. September 
opened witli the market down to 10^ cents, but prices advanced 
steadily during the month and closed at 13^- cents. During October, 
the market ranged from 13 to 134^ cents, reaching a shade higher point 
in November, but receding to about 13 cents and continuing there 
through December, Western factory cheese opened in January last at 

15 to 15-^ cents, which price was maintained until April, during which 
month 14c. Avas about an average figure. . May saw a decline to about 
13 cents, while the average range in June Avas not over 124^ cents, and 
in July 12 cents represented the range at which sales were chiefly 
made» August opened at 12 cents but closed at 11| cents, and in Sep- 
tember lOf cents was reached, after which there was an improvement 
and the month closed at 12^ cents. October brought an advancing 
market and as high as 13'y cents Avas reached, after Avhich the market 
fell back to l2Q^il->\ cents, AAdiich price continued during the remain- 
der of the year. 

There has been no special effort made during the past year to extend 
our exports of cheese into other markets than they had previously sup- 
plied. In fact, I am not inclined to the opinion that great progress 
Avas made by the trade in any particular. Our previous position was 
maintained, but the season Avas not largely profitable to the trade either 
as producers or dealers. The keeping (pialities of the bulk of the 
cheese received at Ncav York durinir the current trade year have not 
.been up to the standard, and in some instances this defect has l)een a 
positive detriment to the sale of our cheese in the foreign markets. 



80 

Goods have been made to ripen in 15 to 20 days and have been for- 
warded, and exports arriving out in very poor order. Many of the 
shipments have had to be sold immediately upon arrival and in some 
cases at a large loss. Our hard earned laurels are not to be retained 
even by merely keeping up bur former standard, and certainly not by 
lowering the quality of our products. It should be the aim of every 
factory man as it is the aim of this association to introduce every im- 
provement calculated to raise the quality of his product, until other 
markets now closed by the competition of European manufacturers 
are opened to us by the superiority and cheapness of American cheese. 

The unsatisfactory results of the present methods of conducting the 
butter and cheese trades in this State, leads me to urge upon producers 
and dealers the importance of a reform in the commission system, both 
for butter and cheese. The entire Western product coming East is 
marketed on a commission basis, with results far more satisfactory 
than have for several years past attended the marketing of the State 
crop. The system of purchases in the country is a pernicious one, 
which whatever it may bring of profit in individual cases, has been a 
detriment to the dairying interest as a whole. The value of goods by 
this system is made to depend too much upon the opinions of a few 
buyers, instead of being regulated by the relations of supply and de- 
mand, which must ultimately determine the price. Unprofitable spec- 
ulations on the part of the buyer are very likely to fall heavily upon 
the dairyman in the long run. The merchant is entitled to his five 
per cent for doing the business and he cannot afford to do it for less. 
A little caution in your choice of a commission house, to secure one of 
known'integrity, will insure protection to your interests, and by thus 
aiding in breaking up the speculation in these products which the pres- 
ent system has fostered, you will have taken along step toward putting 
this interest upon the most substantial basis of legitimate trade. The 
interior market system as carried on at Utica and Little Ealls, has 
many advantages, but much of its own benefit has been lost, especially 
at Little Falls, through the looseness which has characterized the mode 
of doing business there during the past season. The regulations 
governing the sales at Litttle Falls are not enforced with any strictness, 
and the result is that most of the cheese oifering there last season was 
mortgaged beforehand to certain buyers. The established rules, I am 
informed, have been constantly disregarded in that market, and the 
only regulations enforced have been such as have been made from day 
to day. At Utica there has been more system observed, established 
rules have been adhered to, and stock offered has, for the most part, 
been open to bona fide competition, there having been very little "mort- 
gaged" cheese put up for sale in that market. 

The home consumption of cheese still remains at a point far below 
what it should be, and is worthy of continued effort for its develop- 
ment. Fine cheese at the prices at which it chiefiy retails seems to be 
regarded by home consumers as an expensive article of food, and yet 
it IS exported to England, a country where, of all others, the poorer 
classes have to practice the most stringent measures of economy, and 
there it becomes one of the principal articles in the workingman's bill 
of fare. The tlevelopment of a liberal home demand would afford a 



81 

most profitable outlet, for much of our cheese product and the causes 
that have thus far restricted this trade are, at least, worth inquirino- 
into. Could the retailers of cheese he brought to realize that lowering 
prices on tine cheese to the limits of populj^r consumption would in- 
crease their sales of that article to an extent that would more than 
compensate ihem for the reduction in their now too heavy profits, one 
of the chief barriers in the way of a large home trade would be, I think, 
removed. Our home trade is now supplied chiefly;, with, skimmed 
cheese, and the comparatively few full stock cheese that find their wav 
into home consumption during the summer and early fall (say^ June 
and September,) are very largely the defective rejections from lots 
taken for export. Our friend, Mr. Willard, tells us Ihat at Little Falls 
even, it is almost impossible to find at retail a strictly fine cheese, and 
yet thousands upon thousands of boxes as fine as are made in the 
world, are every season sold thi'ough that market. It is very unusual 
to find good cheese in the groceries around New York and Brooklyn, and 
you would iiave difficulty in making most of the consumers in those two 
cities believe that an article so fine as our best factory cheese was really 
tbe standard American cheese, and that the indigestible compound to 
wliich tliey have become accustomed, and which they have found too 
]ioor to eat, is any where from a third to a tenth rate product, which 
foreigners won't buy. Give Americans the very best of our product 
and they will speedily become a cheese eating people. Skim cheese is 
an adulteration of the worst sort and when, as I hope we soon Avill, we 
obtain a State or a National law requiring the manufacturers of everv 
article of food to brand his product just what it is and requiring- the 
dealer to sell it for what it is branded, we shall have struck a blow in 
favor of fall cream cheese, more effective tlian all that cau be written 
or said upon the subject. The consumer, as a rule, is not an expert 
judge of clieese, and in the interest of our pockets and his stomacli, 
let us select his cheese for him, and brand it so plainlv that his io-nor- 
ance need never be imposed upon. 

I have been announced, gentlemen, to speak upon "Eno-]ish Pro- 
duction, Consumption and Future Supply. " If much is expected of 
me in this connection, I fear I shall disappoint you. Althouo-h re- 
cently taking that subject in hand with a view to writing a series of 
articles upon it, I have not been able to prepare in time for this con- 
vention so careful and comprehensive a paper as the (juestion merits. 
There arc, however, a few leading features of the 13ritisli trade whicli 
I shall touch briefly. The fiiumcial situation in Great Britain is not 
entirely dissimilar to our own. The manufacturing interests are un- 
der a cloud which is daily becoming heavier, and it would appear that 
they are just fairly entering upon such a period of depression aiul 
business stagnation as we have suffered for the past three years, but 
from which, everything indicates, we are now emerging. Every few 
days the cable brings to us the announcement of some heavy failure 
in England or Scotland. It is only the very heavy ones of wiiich we 
hear, and for every one of these concerns that suspend there are many 
smaller ones Avliich are not reported to us. The result is that hun- 
dreds of operatives are daily being thrown out of employment, ami 
tiiis we kiU)wfrom our own experience, means a reduction in the food 
consumption. This influence has not l)een without its ett'ect upon the 



89 

sale of American clieese in England during the past season. Con- 
sumers have been unable to buy as much or pay as dearly for it as they 
did in 1874, and from this has come, to a great extent, our lower prices 
and reduced exports. How long this condition of affairs is to con- 
tinue we cannot even guess, but while it lasts we must expect that our 
commercial relations with Great Britain will be more or less dis- 
turbed, and that, so long as her working people are idle, she will af- 
ford a more restricted market for our food staples than she has during 
the past few years. Another fsature especially worthy of our atten- 
tion, is the fact that there is throughout Great Britain a gradual but 
certain change going on in the complete abandonment of grain grow- 
ing, and the return to grass. In Ireland grass has already taken the 
■place of grain almost entirely, and England is fast following. There, 
as in this and others of our older states, wheat has proved a most un- 
profitable crop, and a change to grass and its products has been found 
an economic necessity. The meat supply of England is wholly inade- 
quate to her Avants, and she finds it more profitable to raise her meat 
and buy her grain, than to reverse this order. With an increase of 
grass must come, of course, an increase not only of beef, but of butter 
and cheese. Now the development of this change, and the growth of 
this increase in the British product of butter and cheese we must 
watch closely. The points I have already noted indicate very little, if 
any, increase in our exports to Great Britain during the next two or 
three years, and to what extent this will occur is a matter of no little 
importance to us. It is very desirable that other export outlets than 
those we now possess should be opened to us, and in this direction it 
becomes essential that our dairymen should familiarize themselves 
with the qualities, sizes and styles of cheese required by other markets 
than those we are now supplying. You can beat the world in dairy 
products, if you will, and it is only necessary to maintain your supre- 
macy through all time, that you use every possible means to improve 
the quality of your butter and cheese, to produce it at the least pos- 
sible cost, and to market it at no greater expense than is necessary to 
secure the services of business houses of ability and integrity. 

THE CENTE^TNIAL. 

J. V. H. Scovill, of Paris, chairman of the centennial committee, 
presented a series of resolutions containing the recommendations of 
the committee. They were adopted and were as follows : 

Resolved, That this committee recommend as the best plan prac- 
ticable for the exhibition of dairy products at the centennial, that a 
cheese factory and butter factory, combined in one building, be erected 
upon the grounds for the display of these products, and that the con- 
vention authorize this committee to proceed at once to the collection 
of a fund of 110,000 to defray the exjienses necessary to a complete 
display. 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed by the chairman, consist- 
ing of one person in the several cities, and also in each of the several 
sections of the different States, to collect money for the purpose of 
furthering the interest for which this committee was appointed ; the 
said committee to receive their authorization by letter from the chair- 
man. 



83 

CAUSES AFFECTING THE CHEESE INTEREST. 

Address of J. H. Really of P liiladelpliia, delivered before the Ameri- 
can Dairymen's Association, at Rome, JSf. Y., Jan. 12th, 1876. 

I am expected to speak upon the " Influences AflFectiug our Cheese 
Interest, " but I may take a little wider range, in which event I ask 
your kind indulgence. 

DEPRESSION OF CHEESE MARKETS. 

The cheese interest has certainly been largely affected in the wrong 
direction the past season, whatever the cause may have been. At no 
time within a year has it been in a good, healthy condition. Towards 
the first of last January the markets, both of this country and Great 
Britain, became dull, and so continued until the new season came on. 
During the early spring they Avere in a most critical condition, but 
leading exporters, who had large stocks in England unsold, felt the 
importance of preventing a break in the American markets, and to 
sustain prices here, bought freely and kept them well up until about 
April, when old cheese declined to one half its original value, or less. 
New cheese commenced selling'at very fair prices, but went rapidly 
down, and during the summer months prices ruled low. Early this 
fall a reaction came, and for a while prices were upon a fair basis, and 
the markets were quite active, l)ut for a long time since the trade has 
been very light and values low. At this time the trade is not as large 
as is desiralde, but the demand seems improving, and there are fair in- 
dications of improved prices. It has been ascertained that stocks are 
only moderate, while the low prices, some -i cts. per pound lower than 
for 12 years before, should stimulate an increased demand for all 
quarters. 

A BRIGHTER FUTURE. 

But I for one have great hopes for the future of the markets. I 
regard the average quality of the cheese now on hand as of better 
quality than usual, though some are of the contrary opinion. The 
home consumption has increased greatly the past year, and a revival of 
the export demand, which must occur, will cause a rapid advance in 
prices, and a prompt reduction of the stocks now on hand. It is but 
fair to reason that the high prices of bacon, pork and beef, must re- 
sult in a greater demand for cheese, it being a kindred article of food. 

The unfavorable condition of the cheese trade the past year may be 
attributed to several different causes, of which the popular one is the 
general depression of manufacturing and commerce in Great Britain 
and the United States, which now exists. To the condition of trade 
here we are apt to ascribe all our misfortunes ; but is tliis fair ? Has 
not the country enough to answer for Avith its corruption in the pub- 
lic service, whisky frauds, newspaper gag laws, back-pay congress- 
men, third term discussions, sectarianism in politics, public school 
agitation, reading the Bible to the children Avithout the parents' con- 
sent, hard and soft money, without being saddled with the extra re- 
sponsibility. Butter has been subject to the influences of dull times, 
and yet has brought excellent prices. Pork, bacon, beef and lard bear 



84 

the same relation to the hard times, but have maintained high figures. ■ 
If this proposition is doubted, those of you Avho may have occasion to 
pay board or iiotel bills, may be convinced by asking a change from 
war prices, when you will be told that, "Beef is as high as ever it was, 
and we can't afford to keep you for less." 

I do not think the condition of the cheese trade is at all attributable 
to "hard times," and the sooner we look for and discover the true 
cause of our trouble, the better. To this end a retrospective view 
may be beneficial. It will be remembered that the practice of skim- 
MTMG Avas recommended a few years ago in these conventions, and 
through the public press, in very strong terms. It Avas jjlausibly ar- 
gued that cheese could be made almost or quite as good from milk 
partly skimmed as from whole milk, while a large profit Avould be 
derived from the butter produced. Dairymen had just enough human 
nature in their composition to prefer the plan that gave them the 
largest present net gain, and therefore commenced the plan of golden 
promise throughout the country. For a long time consumers made 
Jittle objection, but skimming, like other bad practices, grew worse by 
usage. The public, Avith some exceptions, learned that there Avas a 
l:)etter kind of cheese than they had been used to getting, and for fear 
of being deceived farther, they, to a large extent, declined to use any 
kind. Exporters bought: skimmed and inferior cheese freely in 1874, 
and flooded the Englisl\markets to such an extent that the demand 
fell off there, and many consumers Avere turned from the use of 
cheese. Thousands of boxes of this class of goods Avere sold there 
last si:)ring, at a loss of 50 to 100 per cent, to the shippers. The year 
1874 AA'itnessed the height of the half skimming practice, and from 
that year may be dated its decline. I attribute the dullness of this 
year's cheese business, more to the large amount of skimmed and com- 
mon cheese made last year and this, than to all other causes combined. 

The result has been Ioav prices for all qualities, but most especially 
for the poorer kinds. Eeceivers Avill bear me out in saying that never 
before has there been aS great discrimination in quality upon the past 
of buyers as there has this season. Cheese which last year brought 
within one or two cents per pound of prime stock, have this year sold 
sloAV at one half the value of the former. Do these facts need enlarg- 
ing upon. Are they not apparent to all, except those Avho do not 
Avant to see. 

I do not intend to denounce skimming as a fraud or imposition. 
Those who have practiced it haA^e done so from good motives ; the de- 
sire to reap the largest possible reward for their produce and labor. 
Many have been impelled to practice it by competition. It has hap- 
pened in some cases, through peculiar figuring, possibly, that the fac- 
tory making half skimmed cheese declared the largest dividends, and 
other factory men not Avishing to be outdone, have adopted the plan as 
a matter of self defense ; and they need to avail themseh'es of every 
advantage to the factory men. If there is a class of men that deserve 
sympathy, it is the proprietors and operators of our cheese factories. 
Their work is of the most delicate as well as laborious character, 
while they have untold difficulties to contend with ; besides, half are 
insufficiently paid and the other half could make more money at some 
other employment, by the same expenditure of brain and muscle. 



85 

They are not to blame for the evils that have crept into tlie manufac- 
ture of cheese, but it is the individual g-reed of certain dairymen, to 
be found in almost every community. Dairx'men who, for an extra 
dividend one year, will encourage skimming, and thus jeopardise the 
value of their cows and land for the future. Why, no other interest 
could have gtood up under the many different outrages that have been 
perpetrated against the dairy industry. Only its great popularity and 
inherent strength have saved it from irretrievable ruin. 

A STAXD AGAI]S"ST THE PRACTICE. 

In the matter of skimming, our friends in the North-AYcst who 
have made such rapid advances in dairying that they now produce an 
excellent article of cheese, and some as fine butter' as there is made 
anywhere, have taken prompt and effective action by adopting the fol- 
lowing resolution at the recent meeting of the Illinois Association, at 
Elgin. It was offered by the Hon. Judge Wilcox, and read as follows : 

Resolved, That the making of skimmed or partly skimmed milk into 
cheese is detrimental to the dairy business. It tempts and facilitates 
cheating, makes it practicable for the dishonest to sell, as good, an 
inferior article of cheese, and thus impose upon the consumer. This 
impairs confidence in all cheese manufactured in the region where the 
skimmed milk cheese is made; damages the reputation, lessens the 
saleability, depresses the market price, and results in the end in loss 
to the milk producer and cheese manufacturer ; therefore, it is the 
best judgment of the association that the best interests of the dairv 
business of the vState, demand that the making of skimmed milk 
cheese should be discontinued, and that full cream cheese only should be 
made. 

A Committee was then appointed to prepare a bill to be passed by 
the Legislature requiring every cheese maker to brand upon the band- 
age of every clieese made by him, with indelible ink, Iiis name and 
such marks as would plainly indicated whether it was a skimmed, 
partly skimmed, or whole milk cheese. This is both important and 
timely, and reflects wonderful credit upon the intelligence of the dai- 
rymen in Illinois. Skimming was but lightly practiced there, but the 
dairymen had sufficient foresight to see the injury the skimming- 
system would entail. The action of the Committee is warmly com" 
mended by the Western Rural, of Chicago, and I believe will Ije hear- 
tily endo.s.'d by the entire Press of the country, which has always 
opposed iioth skimming and adulteration. 

What of the foolish dairymen who encourage them bv supplying- 
milk, wljen the very principle may destroy the value of his dairy 
properfy for the entire future. He is like the man who built his house 
upon the sand. When the rains came his house was not there anv 
more. 1 shall not attempt any argument with the proprietors of the 
Oleomargej-ine patent. They are like the negro mentioned in one uf 
the newspapers, 

AS TAKIXG THE CHAXCES. 

The other day a colored resident of Vicksburg found a bottle of 
whiskey in the suburbs, of the city, and halting a pedestrian, he 
inquired : 

" Dat's whiskev, ain't it?" 



86 

" Smells like it, and I guess it is," was the reply. 

" And dere ain't no pizen in it ?" 

" Well, there may be — I can't tell, I shouldn't want to drink it." 

" If dere was pizen, I'd be a dead nigger, eh ?" 

" You would." 

" And if dere wasn't any pizen I'd be wastin' a pint of good whiskey?" 

"Yes." 

The finder turned the bottle over and over, smelled of the contents 
three or four times, and finally made ready to drink, saying : " Dere's 
heaps of pizen lyin' around loose, but dere's also heaps ob niggers in 
Yicksburg, an' ize gwine to tip up de bottle an' run de chances I" — 
Viclcshurg Herald. 

OTHEE POOR CHEESE. 

But there are other kinds of poor cheese beside skimmed. There 
are sour cheese, cheese made from heated and tainted milk, and 
cheese made of good milk unfit for a dog to eat. I have seen cheese 
made from half skimmed milk, far superior to whole milk cheese, both 
made in factories within three miles of each other. The one good, 
because made right, the other common, because not half made. There 
are iar too many indifferent, and worse than indifferent cheese makers, 
and why ? Simply because in some localities factories are run upon 
such cheap, not economic principles ; for there is no economy in cheap 
labor, that skilled workmen cannot afford to spend their time at cheese 
making, without a fair compensation, and hence men are often em- 
ployed to make cheese who are no more fitted to the duties, than they 
would be to manage the IST. Y. C. E. E. You save a dollar and lose 
hundreds, by employing this class of men. In many cases, a man who 
has worked three months in a cheese factory, or has now and then 
hugged the sweet milkmaid of the dairy, imagines himself capable 
of making cheese, when no one should be allowed the management 
of a factory who has not been carefully trained in the practical 
part of cheese making. Why, you would not think of employing 
a carpenter to build a house, vmo did not know whether the 
sharp end of a shingle ought to point up or down, or a black- 
smith, who did not know the difference between an anvil and sledge 
hammer. In other matters you do not engage the services of an 
inexperienced person. Why, then, in so important a matter as making 
cheese, to save a few dollars per month, employ incompetent work- 
men ? A cheese maker should have served a regular apprenticeship 
at the business, and be a man of judgment and intelligence. Men 
possessing these qualifications are worth wages, end the dairy industry 
will be greatly promoted by the employment of such men, and such 
only at fair living wages. Look well to this matter, and you will have 
better cheese. See also, that the factory has a good curing house, not 
a building like many of those now used for that purpose, open as 
corn cribs, but a well ceiled, or lath and plastered building. Don't be 
in too big a hurry to start a cheese factory. If you will all wait until 
M;iy the first, you will get a much larger price for this years' 
cheese and next, as early made cheese, are- a curse to the market, 
always have been, and always will be. 

We have thus far talked about bad cheese. A word or two now in 
reference to good. 



87 

GOOD CHEESE, WILL IT PAY? 

■ Will it pay to make clieese good ? That is the first question to be 
considei-ed, but one that has been fully demonstrated in the aftirma- 
tive long ago. We know there is no class of agriculturists who have 
prospered so much in the past as dairymen, and while their duties are 
numerous, and every penny of profit is well earned, the labors of the 
dairymen are far less arduous than those of the ordinary farmer. It 
is well known that the dairy farm not only retains its'fertilitv, but 
continually grows richer, so that there is indirect as well as "direct 
profit derived. In short, dairying has paid well, and there is no ques- 
tion about its future profitableness. The past year has been an ex- 
ceptional one. Nearly all are disposed to complain who have patron- 
ized the cheese factory, but despite all the unfavorable circumstances 
surrounding the industry, I think it can be proven that even this year 
dairying has been as profitable as any other branch of farm husbandrv. 
Without admitting that the dull condition of the cheese trade is 
attributed to the general dullness of commerce, "\ve may contrast it 
with the. position of grain and fruit production upon that basis, and 
Ave find a large difference in favor of dairying. How then would the 
interest have stood had it not been choked and hampered on every side 
with worthless products? It would stand out boldly and promiuentlv 
as the greatest of all agricultural interests, as I believe it to be naturally'. 
Ladies and gentlemen, there never was, and never will be a more noble, 
pure and natural Avork for man than this. From the first creation to 
the present time, in all ages, and in almost CAery clime, herding and 
dairying have been regarded as the purest of all occupations. It is a 
Avork in Avhicli any one may take pride ! It is a Avork that elevates 
man's nature, and purifies his life. There is not a class of men of 
better morals than the dairyman, notwithstanding that noAv and then 
one is found guilty of Avatering his milk, and other disreputable prac- 
tices. That is but the human part of his nature predominating, and 
proves only that there are bad men in very calling. I have never seen 
but two intoxicated cheese fiictorymen, and I haA^e yet to see a drunken 
dairyman : though there may be some. But dairying is a noble call- 
ing, and it must grow in importance just as surely as the seasons 
come and go. We have only to guard against all practices that are 
calculated to injure the trade, anu Avith all our might strive to elevate 
the average quality of the goods we produce. 

I say, then, that dairying Avillpay, and that if properly conducted, it 
will pay better than any other branch of farming. 

HOW CAN DAIRYING BK MADE MORE PROFITABLE ? • 

The question that will next arise, is : "Hoav can we make it pay ?" 
I have partly ansAvered already, in urging the production of prime 
goods. This point cannot be too strongly urged. Upon it depends our 
success. The man who makes a first ([uality of either cheese or butter 
Avill make money, Avhen he who produces a poor article, loses. Let this 
be always borne in mind. If the one can succeed by producing a ])rinie 
article, may not all ? I believe that if you will look OA'cr you reports for 
tlie past eleven years, or as far back as you can go, you Avill find that in 
every convention some one has made the remark that "there never 



was an over supply of first quality cheese or butter." I will say the same 
thing again ; and farther, that there never will be. I have every con- 
fidence in the future success of dairying, and would say to every man 
who feels discouraged, " Stick to it, — make a good article, — a pure arti- 
cle, — a genuine article, and discourage every effort on the part of 
others to the contrary. Take care of the industry, and it will take care 
of you and your children." Amongst other things, to take care of your 
cows is most important, and I still recommend the utmost degree of 
kindness, notwithstanding the experience of the gentleman mentioned 
in the Vicksburg Herald recently : 

A farmer living just out of Vicksburg was reading in an agriculural 
paper the other day, an article headed, " Be Kind to Your Cow." He 
went out to milk with a heart full of kindness, and as he sat down he 
whispered: " So, boss — stand round — good creature — hoist a little — 
there, you intelligent, kind-hearted old bossy." About two minutes 
after that, his wife heard him yelling and whooping, and as she ran to 
the door, he called out : " Bring me the axe, Maria, and the spade, and 
tliat big club there, and the butcher knife, and that shot gnu, for 111 
be darned if this old hellion, shall ever live to kick me in the jaws 
again." 

HOME CONSUMPTION — FUTURE GROWTH OF THE INTEREST. 

There is no doubt whatever, but what cheese will become more and 
more popular as each year comes and goes, as an article of food, pro- 
viding always, that we make a good article. There is more being 
used at home each year. There should, of course, be some increase to 
keep pace with the growth of population, but I believe more cheese is 
being used per capita. And here is our strong point. This is what 
we should work upon, and use extraordinary means to accomplish the 
popularization of cheese in this country. This is our natural market. 
If we ate half as much as the English people do in proportion to their 
population, the production in this country would not be half sufficient 
to supply our own wants. This very matter, home consumption, de- 
serves our most careful consideration. Cannot Lhis Association, and 
the other Asssciations that have done so much to advance the practice 
of dairying, do something to promote an increased home consumption 
of cheese ? Thus far it would seem as if we had tried to retard the 
home demand, inasmuch as Ave have generally given the American 
consumer our poorest cheese, and now force him to pay 4 to G and 10 
cents per pound profit upon it, to the retailer, often one hundred per 
cent, more than the factoryman receives for it. The best cheese 
made in America to-day, are bought tor the English markets before 
they leave the shelves of the factory. Do not our people know what 
a good article is V I believe they do, but they are too often deprived 
of the opportunity to procure it. Two years ago the Hon. John 
Shattuck, of Norwich, I believe, stated in this Convention that he 
had sold all his cheese at home, which is right in the heart of the dairy 
region, for more than it would have brought in New York, and I 
know lie made a prime article. Now while all factorymen could not 
do anything like this, they can yet make such a cheese as will induce 
people to buy the second time, and thus help build up this desirable 



89 

ti'ade.. We make possibly 200,000,000 pounds of cheese per year, 
which is equal to five pounds for one year for each inhabitant, but we 
ship to Englandone-haif of this amount, while she has but half our pop- 
ulation, and produces and receives from Canada probably half as much 
more cheese. 

Five pounds of cheese per year, or 60 cents worth ? Why we ought 
to eat more than that in a month, and we would if our people knew 
the value of the article. We are the greatest butter eaters in the world. 
My friend Prof. Willard says we eat somewhere about 1,300,000,000 
pounds of butter per annum. We therefore certainly apjjreciate 
that article sufficiently, and why should we not know the value of 
cheese? I believe in sustaining our export business, and in extending 
it wherever possible. I would be glad if we shipped 200,000,000 
pounds of cheese to England per annum, and the time will come when 
wo will do it. We should do everything possible to please our cus- 
tomers in Great Britain. We should give them the best article possi- 
ble, and by doing this we will drive out all competition from other 
countries. We cannot make a cheese too good for our English 
cousins. They would as soon pay us 80 as well as oG shillings, if the 
article is worth the money. But we owe it to ourselves to cater to the 
home demand also. We know that for the present our facilities for 
making cheese and butter are practically unlimited as far as quantity 
is concerned. Twenty-five years from now we shall make 500,000,000 
pounds of cheese per annum. I believe we will make one-third to 
one-half more upon the territory now in use, by feeding more grain, 
and increasing the grass-growing capacity of our lands. We are prac- 
tically just commencing the business, and judging from the manner 
in which we have neglected the interest, we have much to learn. 

DIVERSIFIED PRODUCTIOX. 

As we progress, we Avill naturally take advantage of every opportu- 
nity to increase the profits of our business. Instead of making all fiat 
or high cheese, we may discover that small, 8 or 10 pound ones, ])ay 
well. In England the Stilton made in this shape, and of very fine 
quality, has a large demand, and brings nearly or finite double the 
price of ordinary cheese. Last year an enterprising gentleman had a 
hivgii quantity of these small cheese made near Arcade, in this State, 
whicli he designed lor the English market, after putting them through 
a process of moulding. I have no doubt but that he did well on the 
venture. The trouble thus far has been, that the small cheese we have 
generally made, were poor. Now the very best should be the rule, 
and I believe that that quality in small sizes, would find a large and 
growing sale at home. 

I have already spoken of the prime impoi'tancc ot experienced and 
thoroughly capable workmen in a cheese factory, and of the necessity 
of^ far better curing houses than the average of those now in use. I 
might go on and speak of the value of good pasture, good feed and 
good water, and their product, good milk, in making cheese, but other 
speakers have doubtless ventilated these subjects ably and thoroughly, 
and if not, they will do so before the Convention is over. They are 
just as essential as the sun is to our life and health, and I hope you* 
all appreciate it, and the other fact, that cleanliness is next to godli- 
7 



90 

ness, considering that we are to increase our home trade, and very 
material]}^ and that England in. a very few years will take all her 
cheese from us, land being so high there that it does not pay to dairy, 
we must do everything in our power to make first class goods, and we 
must learn to make our cheese so that it will be better at the end of a 
year than when 30 days old, instead of as now, strong enough to walk, 
unless sold before it is out of the press. The ([uickness with which 
cheese are worked up and the corn crib curing houses, have much 
more to do with their getting sharp, than our climate, to which we 
are apt to blame everything that is wrong with our cheese. 

PUBLIC TASTE MORE SENSITIVE. 

Public taste becomes more and more sensitive and refined each year. 
The people require better food than in the years gone by, and we must 
cater to this improved taste if we would succeed. This the dairymen 
are fully competent to do, despite the bad practices of which we com- 
plain. Dairymen as a class, excel all others in enterprise and intelli- 
gence. No class of men devote more earnest thought to their voca- 
tion, or study more carefully the requirements of their calling. 
Imbued with superior intelligence as a class, they are capable of prop- 
erly and successfully conducting this great enterprise, and only need 
such hints as the experience and observation that those who study th*e 
commercial phases of the trade may be able to give, to induce the 
abolishment of all injurious practices, and encourage greater excellence. 

THE CREAMERY SYSTEM. 

A few words with reference to the creamery system, and I have 
done. Butter creameries have become a fixed fact. They are as 
necessary almost as cheese factories. The very best butter that is pro- 
duced comes from these institutions, though it may be claimed by 
some that there are private dairies not to l-e equalled. Still I maintain 
that the best average butter made is produced in the creamery. Each 
year will the creamery system become more popular, and it is pre- 
dicted by some, that in a few years the creamery will be to butter 
making, wdiat the factory has been to cheese production, or in other 
words, that they will supersede the private dairy. It is safe to say 
that creamery Ijutter averages 10 cents per pound higher the year 
through, than dairy packed. The dairymen then suffer a severe loss. 
If there are 1,000,000,000 pounds of butter produced per annum, and 
one-fourth of it could be made worth 10 cents per pound more than it 
is now, we have 125,000,000 of a loss to the dairymen per annum, and 
a like loss to the consumer, who would prefer this kind of butter. 
Butter is always best when fresh, however good we may keep it, and 
some day we will hardly know what easy packed butter is. Then 
winter dairying will be practiced, as in the northwest, and there will 
be no necessity for preserving butter. Creameries should therefore be 
encouraged as much as possible, good butter being a most important 
item .to us all, so important that it brings a better average price m the 
United States than anywhere else. This leads next to a word about 
creamery cheese. I should be very glad if I could persuade my friends 
of the creamery, to leave cheese making alone, as they must some day 
do. You can make more money by turning your skim milk into 



91 

pork, and if you do not learn this, yuu will have to throw your milk 
away, as tliere will eventually.be no market for the kind of cheese you 
make. They have already depreciated about 30 per cent, for last 
3''ears' prices, but pork will always be wanted. Our exports are enor- 
mous. In November they footed up 37,000,000 lbs., valued at $4,700,- 
000. And you can make more money from pork. The most success- 
ful creamery butter maker in the world has never made a pound of 
cheese, but turns all his milk into pork. This is your course for 
profit. It will benefit you, and prove vastly beneficial to the cause of 
legitimate dairying. 

I am favored with the following statistics of the exports of pork, 
bacon, hams and lard, by the efficient and gentlemanly Secretary of 
the 'Ne\v York Produce Exchange, Hon. S. H. Grant, which of them- 
selves are the very strongest argument that could be made in favor of 
hog production. 

In 1867, the exports of pork aggregated -27,495,637 lbs. In 1874, 
60,643,448, an increase of 33,147,811 lbs. in eight years, or 8 per 
cent. In 1867, the exports of bacon and hams footed up 38,104,0!)S ; 
in 1874, 307,755,484 lbs., an increase of 369,651,346 lbs. in the same 
time. In 1867 the exports of lard were 66,015,880 lbs.; in 1874, 178,- 
034,459, an increase of 113,018,579. The total exports of the four ar- 
ticles in 1867. were 131,615,615 lbs.; in 1874, 546,433,391 lbs., a grand 
increase of 404,817,676 lbs. At an average of 13 cents per pound, 
probably a low estimate, their value in 1874, was $65,740,006. This 
is without considering the large amount of the hog product used at 
home. lu producing pork we have a great advantage over cheese in 
the matter of an outlet. While England is almost our sole customer 
for cheese, some portion of the hog finds a demand in almost every 
country, (lermany being an extensive one for lard. 

I have frequently referred to the eminent success of Messrs. Boies 
& Son, of Marengo, 111. It has been as marvelous as it has been de- 
served. As practical results are the true test of merit, and Messrs. 
Boies & Son conduct their business upon such exact principles, I 
feel that a knowledge of their experience must be valuable to all. I 
therefore give you the following extracts from a letter I have from 
them, dated January 3 : 

In July 1873, we bought 10 store hogs and put them in our pen. 
They were fair, nothing more. We fed them — 

42i bushels of com at 56 cts. per bushel $23 60 

9,50011)8. skimmed milk at 20 cts. per 100 19 00 

Total $42 60 

The 10 hogs gained in weight 975 lbs., which at 6 cts. per lb. 58 50 

Profit, besides getting paid for the skimmed milk $15 90 

You will readily perceive that in point of profit, this was better 
than skimmed cheese. The cut made in this way is choice, while 
cheese made from full skimmed milk is only fit to throw at ugly 
dogs. 

I. n. Wauzer, of I^lgin, (who is one of the lai-gest manufacturers of 
butter in the West, and whom I believe made skimmed cheese until 
recently,) has been experimenting this fall and winter with pigs and 



92 

calves. He says either pays far better than putting the milk into 
cheese ; calves paid double, counting the labor the same, and the labor 
is four times as great in making cheese. ' 

I will now give you the product of our dairy from October Tth, 1874, 
to October 7th, 1875, average yield per cow of 395 lbs. of milk; aver- 
age amount of milk to pound of butter, 23|^ lbs. ; average price of but- 
ter for whole year, 38 cts. per lb. Value of sour milk fed to hogs, 20 
cts. per 100 lbs., and but for the hog cholera in our stock, it would 
have been 35 cts. 

At the close of Mr. lieall's paper, the Centennial discussion was 
oj)ened. 

Prof. E. W. Stewart moved that each patron of cheese Victories be 
asked to contribute one cent for each cow owned by him. Carried. 

J. V. H. Scoville, Chairman of the Committee, read encouraging 
letters from Governor Hawley, of the Centennial Committee, and 
Lawrence Lewis, of Utica. 

J, H. Eeall announced the following resolution passed by the Phila-~ 
deli^hia Produce Exchange : 

To the American Dairymen^ s Association : 

At a meeting of the Philadelphia Produce Exchange, held Jan. 
3d, 1876, it was, upon motion of Mr. J. H. Reall, 

Resolved, That the Produce Exchange of Philadelphia, in hearty 
sympathy with the objects of the American Dairymen's Association of 
the United States, and the iSTational Butter and Egg Association, cor- 
dially invites said Associations to hold meetings in Philadelphia 
during the International Exlnbition, and tenders them the use of their 
rooms, and such other accommodations as may be in their power to 
give. Aetemas Ward, Secretary. 

Mr. Eeall then, in behalf of the Exchange, tendered the compli- 
ments of the Exchange, and invited the American Dairymen's Asso- 
ciation to meet in the rooms of the Exchange in October next, during 
the Special Grand Display of Dairy products, then to be held ; 

Thereupon, Mr. Arnold offered the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Association are due to the Phila- 
delphia Produce Exchange for the compliment of their invitation to 
hold a special session in their rooms at the time of the grand opening 
display of Dairy products in October next, and that the invitation be 
accepted. Carried unanimously. 

A programme is to be arranged for the occasion, and the recognized 
authorities in Dairy matters, both in this country and Europe, invited 
to participate. 

THIED DAY. 

Upon re-assembling Thursday morning. Col. 0. C. Crocker, of 
Binghamton, offered the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the American Dairymen's Association emphatically 
condemn tlie adulteration of both butter and cheese, either by coloring 
or skimming, it being considered by the association detrimental to 
the interest of the dairyman both at home and abroad. 



93 

Robert McAdam, of Oneida — This convention sliould hesitate before 
indorsing the proposed action in relation to coloring butter and cheese. 
Coloring is not an adulteration. 

Henry Stewart, of New York — The shop-keepers of New York will 
not buy uncolored cheese, and it would not sell. 

Mr. Gillett, of Delaware county — One season my factory refrained 
from coloring, and we concluded from the experience that it did not 
pay t(^ do so. 

On motion of Mr. Wetherell, of Bost^on, the resolution was amended 
by striking out the conclusion of the resolution beginning with the 
words, " either by coloring or skimming."' As thus amended it was 
adopted. 

Prof. W. P. Peck, of Chester county, Pa. — Chester county is largely 
devoted to the manufacture of butter. We use what are called "spring 
houses," built over springs from which water may be discharged into 
the house. The product is shipped to market as soon as it is made. 
The butter is packed in layers with a slab lietween each layer. The 
packs are folded in muslin. It is not easy to tell whether the butter 
is made by cleanly methods or not. Hence confidence Jn the maker 
is important. Pound and half pound prints we find to be the best 
I'orm of putting up. TJie American people are making a great mis- 
take by separating the fat and the muscle-making elements, and feed- 
ing the former to our children, and sending the latter and more nutri- 
tious portion to England. 

T. I). Curtis cited Professor Smith, author of '• Foods," as authority 
for the assertion that caseine is extremely indigestible, and skim cheese 
should be condemned. 

L. T. Hawley, of Syracuse, then presented the following resolution : 

Resolved, That this association recommends the organization of 
county and town associations — for the purpose of reaching and 
educating the patrons and operatives of butter and cheese factories on 
the importance and necessity of furnishing a prime and uniform 
(juality of milk, if they would be able to send to market a prime and 
uniform quality of products ; and that these associations are advised 
to meet as often as once a month for consultation and discussion. 

In connection with this'i'osolution, Robert McAdam read the follow- 
ing paper: 

PLAIN PRECEPTS FOR PATRONS AND CHEESE MAKERS. 

BY ROIiERT m'aDAM, ROME, X. Y. 

In venturing to make a few remarks before this convention, on some 
practical points connected Avith cheese making, T wish to be under- 
stood as appearing as a practical Cheese Maker. I lay no claim to 
being a scientist, nor a profound or philosophic theorist, but obser- 
vation, reflection, and common sense, are the simple basis of the re- 
marks I have to offer. It will readily ])e conceded by those who are 
competent to judge of the (pudities of the cheese at present produced, 
that there is yet sufficient scope for improvement, also; that there are 
certain defects which characterize American cheese, which operate to 
the detriment of the dairy interest, by lowering the price of that com- 



94 

modity in the markets of the world. I am well aware that great pro- 
gress has been made, in improving the qualities of American cheese, 
during the last twenty years ; and it is with the hope of aiding in 
still further improvement, that I presume to occupy your attention for 
a few minutes. Usually it is a good rule to begin at the beginning. 
Here I will not attempt to follow, up to first causes, but take up the 
subject where tangible causes of evil can be readily controlled, viz., 
when the milk is taken from the cows; and here I will premise, that 
wherever cows are properly cared for and milked every twelve 
hours, there is nothing in the milk to prevent it being made into fine 
cheese. So-called "animal odors " does not affect the flavor of cheese, 
even if coagulated immediately after milking, (keeping milk at a 
high temperature, 9C° to 98°, for even two hours, will do so,) but it is 
the subsequent treatment of milk by the patrons, and the skillful or 
unskillful handling of it, during the process of manufacturing, which 
makes or mars the quality of onr factory cheese. The causes which I 
will now indicate are not far to seek, nor difiicult to find, but are by 
no means easily rectified, for they are in a great degree in the hands 
of our cheese factory patrons, and only a small percentage of these 
take sufficient interest in the matter, or are willing to co-operate with 
the cheese maker, so far as to ensure the desired results ; and experi- 
ence teaches me, very distinctly, that the patrons can, by proper feed- 
ing, care, and cleanliness, remove most of the obstacles which operate 
to prevent the production of an article which will more nearly 
approach, or rival, the finest English cheese. The fine cheese of Eng- 
land are made from milk which has been produced from healthy cows, 
fed on good herbage, the milk having been properly cared for in every 
respect, with the most scrupulous cleanliness ; but here in America, 
under the factory system, care and cleanliness about milk, is a lost 
art, or rather, an art that has never been acquired by many cheese 
factory patrons. I know many will say, " The Cheese Maker " ought 
to see to all these things. I answer, the thing is impossible. Can he 
every night and morning, inspect the milking pails and milk pans, 
and milker's hands, or can he see that no green or gargetted milk is 
sent to the factory, or see whether the cows were hurried home with a 
dog, blown and sweltering with heat, or can he see how many cows 
were left un milked over night, and their half putrid messes sent to 
the factory in the morning, to operate like yeast on the well-kept 
messes of careful patrons ? Or can the cheese maker prevent patrons 
from detaining their milk at home after milking is finished, or from 
lingering to gossip on the way, and then racing to the factory, with 
the hot milk closed up in the cans, advancing rapidly to putrefaction ? 
Another very injurious practice is mixing the morning and evening 
messes, thereby promoting very pernicious eflFects, and depriving the 
maker, in a great measure, of his power to discover fraud. These are 
causes that the cheese maker cannot control, and it is these which 
bafde the skill, and frustrate the efforts of the most competent cheese 
makers, and these are the greatest causes of inferior cheese. But 
besides, the cheese maker has a continual war to wage against sloven- 
liness. He may even furnish the patrons with strainers, and orators 
to cool their milk, but cannot make them use them, for in the factory 
strainers are found leaves, seeds, hairs, feathers, scabs, clots of blood, 



95 

bugs, beetles, cow manure, fowl manure, ilies, spiders, worms, snails 
and lizards, which speak volumes about the care and cleanliness of 
these cheese factory patrons. It surpasses belief to narrate the igiio- 
rance and carelessness manifested by many patrons, about this their 
most valuable product. It is evident that they have but only one 
concern about their milk, viz., that it should " Aveigh well." They 
think the cheese maker should accomplish whatever else is needed to 
make fine cheese. These causes, gentlemen, are also frequent and po- 
tent causes of inferior cheese, and if this Convention can suggest, or 
adopt means which will pervade, indoctrinate and leaven the minds of 
our cheese factory jiatrons with a proper sense of their duty and inter- 
est in this matter, the remaining causes of inferiority can, and will be 
overcome. As these remaining causes of inferior cheese lie with 
the cheese maker, I now solicit their attention. Every cheese maker 
knows, or ought to know, that the proper condition of milk which he 
receives to manufacture, is the most essential requisite to his success 
in producmg fine cheese, and every cheese maker who understands 
his business, and means to do his duty, will not fail to exert himself 
to secure that end, as far as possible. I will not delay, to describe any 
process of manipulation, nor extol one mode of setting, heating, cut- 
ting, stirring, grinding or pressing, over another, for these are only 
secondary considerations, but it is essential that every cheese maker 
should be cleanly himself, and keep every implement and utensil used, 
thoroughly clean, and every act performed, should be done cleanly 
and neatly. The art of cutting and breaking up the curd, after coagu- 
lation, ought to be performed very gently aud carefully, and the suc- 
ceeding warming up, still more so, for one great cause of cheese get- 
ting strong flavored, arises from rapid and incautious heating up. By 
this, a portion of the butter becomes liberated, or separated from the 
casein e, and forms an oil which pervades the whole mass of curd, and 
as it, (the oil.) does not take salt to cure it, as the curd does, it quickh' 
becomes rancid, and induces putrefactive decay. Another source of 
evil, is the cream which rises. This should either be carefully skimmed 
oflf and passed through the strainer with the warm milk, or gently 
heated up to 08, and completely mixed again with the milk just before 
the rennet is added. Another error, is putting the curd into the 
press at too high a temperature. This assists early curing, but also 
promotes early decay, and keeping cheese at a high temperature, 
whilst in the curing room, tends also to impair their keeping qualities, 
and the want of keeping qualities in American cheese, is now their 
greatest drawback in the English markets ; but as the proper devel- 
ment of acid wipes out the old porousness of American cheese, and 
gives the desired solidity, so the *• Proper Condition of the Milk,'' and 
skillful handling of it, may yet give the desired pure and permanent 
flavor. To a cheese buyer who weekly examines a great many factories, 
it is evident that that there are many makers who are ([uite incompe- 
tent to .manage a cheese factory : indeed, many of them have no 
proper idea of what cleanliness really is, and it is often disgusting to 
look upon the slovenliness and filth surrounding both milk and 
cheese. iSwarms of flies, enticed by the foulness, infest the cheese, and 
numbers of them, dead and dro".vning, are floating in the cheese vats 
during the heating up process, and it seems as if everything around 



96 

was specially adapted to favor absorption by the milk of these foul 
odors ; and it is no unusual thing to find the cheese maker equally 
untidy in his own person, with a black pipe in his mouth, and a rake, 
(miserable tool,) in his hand, warming up a vat of curd, his mind 
evidently more engrossed with the going of his pipe, than with care of 
the precious contents committed to his care. I dare not express, what 
I have often felt on occasions such as I now relate, but I will say, 
that such persons are no more fitted for the place they fill, than 
for the office of Chief Justice of the United States — they would be 
in a more jjroper sphere shoveling manure out of a barnyard ; and 
cheese factory patrons neglect their own interest, when they do not 
make certain that careful and competent makers are to manage their 
factories. Many persons fancy that a few months working in a factory 
is sufficient to acquire all the knowledge that is necessary. Such a 
notion is simply a delusion. It would be infinitely better for a beginner 
to work in a first class factory for a season or two for nothing more 
than instruction, rather than undertake the responsibility without a 
competent knowledge of it. Indeed, our best factories ought to be- 
come schools of instruction, and I may state that after J had worked 
fifteen years at cheese making, it cost me $1:^5 gold for a few lessons, 
and twenty years after I now say that the money was well spent. And 
here, I now advise cheese makers to look for the causes of their 
troubles where I have indicated, and throw mere theories to the 
winds, and not be diverted from seeking for the real, by imaginary 
evils. It is pitiable, as well as amusing, to listen to the fancied causes 
of inferior cheese which have been discovered by cheese makers in 
distress. One discovers it is the south wind — another finds it is the 
" swale grass" — another discovers that it is " stagnant water" — another, 
that a " Dead Deacon '' has been found in the cow pasture, &c. ; 
and I will add another, which I think is just as likely to afi'ect 
the quality of the cheese on your shelves, viz : " A damp looking 
cheese buyer coming into your cheese rooms." I am aware that some 
scientific writers claim that they have been able to detect the germs of 
putrefactive fermentation m milk, and even in cheese, which had been 
imbibed by cows in drinking stagnant water, or snified in at the nos- 
trils, from carrion in the pastures. But when we consider the com- 
plex and wonderful apparatus provided by nature to purify whatever 
animals eat, drink, or breathe, and the process v/hich it undergoes be- 
fore passing into the blood or milk, I must be excused from doubting 
whether such conclusions are correct, for if these germs are so perni- 
cious in the milk and cheese, would not they have operated as a blood 
poison in the animals inhaling or drinking them, and have manifested 
their vitalitity by disease among the cows^? But we are not left to 
grope in the regions of conjecture on this point, for experience demon- 
strates that this theory will not stand the crucial test ; for in the 
County of Chester, in England, there are over one hundred thousand 
cows kept, and the majority of these cows are wholly supplied with 
water from stagnant marl pits, and yet floating curds are absolutely un- 
known there, and during eleven years' practice there and fifteen in 
Scotland, I made cheese in over one hundred places ; and seven years' 
practice in American cheese factories has convinced me that causes 
which operate to produce certain effects in England, will produce like 



97 

effects in America, under similar circumstances. Science up to this 
time lias done little or nothing to aid practical cheese makers. They 
must look for help in the experience and practice of those who attain 
the best results, and if the worst class of cheese now made could be 
elevated to equal the best, the best would undoubtedly advance nearer 
the standard of fine English ; and it is by still further copying the 
Somersetshire or Cheddar modes of practice, and keeping our m.ilk 
perfectly pure, that we can hope to attain that degree of excellence in 
our cheese which will entitle it to be classed amongst the luxuries of 
life. The extreme susceptibility of milk to taints, in its passage from 
the milking pails to our tables, as butter and cheese, demands the 
most vigilant care and cleanliness, and the increased liability to taints 
incident to the factory system render it peculiarly so, and neither 
patrons nor cheese makers are fully aware of the bad results arising 
from the lack of these virtues. Thousands of American cheese at 
present, lie in Glasgow, Liverpool and London, which cannot be sold 
at more than one-half of their cost, and be it distinctly understood 
that these cheese were bought in America at full price. But lack of 
keeping qualities, arising from improperly kejDt and improperly manu- 
factured milk, have been their bane, and the only antidote to be 
found, is greater care and cleanliness on the part of the patrons, and 
greater care, cleanliness and skill on the part of the makers. These 
essentials properly applied, will produce cheese which will unite the 
required requisites of richness, fine flavor, solidity, and keeping 
qualities. 

In reply to a question he continued — The curd should not be pnt to 
press at a higher temperature than 75 degrees. The English cheese 
makers allow the best quality of cheddar cheese to lie until a proper 
amount of acidity is developed before salting. 

Setli Bonfoy — The subject of cleanliness has been before the Con- 
vention ever since I have known it. If we form associations, patrons 
will say " This does not mean me, it means some one else," and they 
stay away. I am inclined to think that we talk too much and act too 
little. The proper way to remedy the difficulty is to set away impure 
milk and return it to the patron. We talk too much in a general way 
about uncleanliness. We should speak with definiteness. Go to the 
patron and say to him and to him only, *' Thou art the man.'' Then 
we may hope for better results, I believe uncleanliness is the excep- 
tion rather than the rule. 

Harris Lewis — I believe it is the rule rather than the exception, I 
have seen milk brought into one of the best factories of Herkimer, 
and standing by the strainer have seen every kind of filth from cow 
manure in the lump taken out of the milk. 

Mr. Bonfoy — I have had charge of a number of factories all over the 
State. My practice has been that when a patron brought bad milk to 
the fiictory, he forfeited it. This talk about education of patrons 
amounts to nothing, if we do not put that education into practice, and 
enforce its teachings. 

Harris Lewis — Well, you seem to have educated them pretty well. 
The resolution offered by Mr. Ilawley was then adopted. 



98 



CONGIIATULA.TIOKS PROM CANADA. 



Mr. 0. E. Chadwiok, of Canada, referred to the fraternal feeling ex- 
isting between the Canadian and- the American dairymen, and lioped 
the feeling of brotherly love would grow\ He paid a high tribute to the 
learning, intelligence and public spirit shown by the members of the 
American Dairymen's Association, and the great benefit derived from 
their meetings. No branch of agriculture had been so successful in 
Canada as the dairy interest. He was highly gratified to see the pro- 
gress Americans were making in this respect, and especially their 
determination to stamp out skim milk cheese. He lioped the Ameri- 
cans would aim at the highest and best quality of cheese, and no other, 
at whatever cost or care. The John Bull taste was a critical one. He 
must have cheese to suit his taste, or he will not have it at all. Skim- 
ming milk for cheese is an adulteration that should not be tolerated. 
Gentlemen, we are apt scholars, and having learned much from you, 
may learn more. We may get into making skim milk cheese, if we 
find it profita])le, but I do not believe we will. He then proceeded to 
read a paper, read at the eighth annual meeting of the Dairymen's 
Association of Ontario. It treated exhaustively of the science of agri- 
culture, and urged the necessity of the intellectual elevation of dairy- 
men. 

PROF. E. .J. WICKSON. 

Professor Arnold ofiered the following resolution : 

Resolved, That we recognize the efficiency and value of the labors 
of our former assistant secretary, Prof. E. J. Wickson ; in his with- 
drawal from his official position, this association has lost an energetic, 
talented, scientific and worthy co-laborer, and that we most cordially 
wish him health, wealth and prosperity in his new field of labor on the 
Pacific coast. 

Hon. Harris Lewis — Mr. Chairman : I second that resolution, and 
in seconding it I will say that during my intercourse with Prof, Wick- 
son, I never knew of a thing, with one exception, but that was 
straightforward. He was a very worthy and intelligent young man ; 
and had the respect and good will of all the people in this dairy region. 

Prof. L. Wetherell, of the Boston Cultivator — I indorse the' remarks 
of Mr. Lewis. 1 don't know of any one whose acquaintance I have 
made, whom I esteem more than Prof. Wickson. I was surprised 
when I learned that he had gone to the Pacific coast, and think this 
locality should have ofliered him some inducements sufficient to have 
him remain. In regard to the ITtica Herald in our community, the 
State of Massachusetts, the Herald is looked upon as one of the best 
agricultural papers they could lay their hands upon. Not that it is 
perfect in every respect. It is impossible for any editor, even one so 
talented as Prof. Wickson, to make a perfect newspaper. But he was 
true, honest, earnest and devoted to his calling, and well qualified to 
fill the place he occupied. His labors were appreciated in New Eng- 
land, if they were not here. I consider his transfer to the Pacific coast 
a gain to that portion of the country,. and a loss to this community. 

0. S. Bliss, of Vermont — I should fail to discharge my duty to the 
people of Vermont if I did not indorse all that has been said by the 
gentlemen preceding me. 



99 

X. A. "Willard, of Herkimer — I also indorse all that has been said. 

Chairman Curtis — I take pleasure in offering the resolution to the 
house. 

The resolution Avas unanimously adopted. 

Hon. Harris Lewis — When I said that Prof. Wickson was all right 
with one exception, I should have said that exception was that I found 
that he had a little bit of leaning in regard to oleomargarine cheese. 
[Laughter.] 

J. H. Reall, of Philadelphia — I would say to show how we estimate 
the Utica Herald, that it was and continues to be the best daily paper 
in the United States. 

Professor L. Wetherell — I second that. It continues to be a good 
agricultural paper. The only defect I found with it was this : It was 
said that in the cheese report from Little Falls the Herald quoted 
cheese being sold at so much a pound, and perhaps 110 or 115 pounds 
of cheese were given for 100 pounds, in order to make the price appear 
higher. I don't know anything about it personally, but that was the 
opinion that prevailed m the Boston market. If that is so, it belongs 
to the same list of acts as selling oleomargarine for whole milk cheese. 
Therefore I don't approve of it. 

THE CENTENSriAL. 

J. V. H. Scovill, Chairman of the Committee on the Centennial, 
then presented the report of the Committee. The Committee has 
chosen Ex-Governor Horatio Seymour for its Treasurer. Mr. Scovill 
announced that a list of contributors will be upon the ground for in- 
spection, and made no recommendations other than those contained in 
the resolutions of Wednesday evening. 

Mr. Lewis spoke, exhorting dairymen to see to it that the contribu- 
tions be adequate. 

J. H. Reall, of Philadelphia, recommended tliat the dairymen for- 
mally announce how much^je?* capita may be contributed. 

Mr. Avery, of Morrisville, believed the project to raise money by as- 
sessing each patron per cow would not succeed. Money should be 
raised in the Conventions. 

X. A. Willard believed that there would be a large demand for the 
Centennial cheese, and that it would be well to brand each cheese. 

Mr. Hawley, of Syracuse, assured the Convention that the salt men 
would not be backward in contributing a share proportionate to the 
importance of the salt interest in the manufacture of butter and 
cheese. 

Henry Stewart, of Xew York, alluded to the value of the exhibition 
as an advertising agent. 

Horace J. Smith, of Philadelphia, announced that the cheese will be 
admitted on Wednesday of each week during the exliil)ition. June 
'l^ and October 17, have been suggested as desirable dates for special 
displays. The women of the country have contributed $30,000 for the 
display of their peculiar handiwork. It is estimated that the least 
aggregate of visitors at the exposition will be six millions. There will 
be, however, ample accommodations. 

Mr. McAdam advocated the branding of cheese .so that (he prizes 
may be ftiirly awarded. 



100 

Mr. Willard announced that 500 cheese would be sold at the Cen- 
tennial, and that thei'e was every inducement for dairymen to make 
their best product. 

Remarks were also made by Prof. E. W. Stewart, L. T. Hawley, L. 
Blanding, Mr. Ellison and others, and contributions aggregating about 
$810 were received. 

AFTERNOOK SEvSSION. 

The proceedings of the afternoon session were opened by the read-" 
ing of a paper upon " Dairy Products ; Quality versus Quantity/' by 
William Jeffreys, of New York. 

Its author being absent, the paper was read by Secretary Ai-nold. 
It was as follows : 

DAIEY MANUFACTURING. 

QUALITY VERSUS QUANTITY. 

To an outsider, it would seem that dairymen, as a rule, were striving 
to excel in the quantity, rather than in the quality of their products. 
This is to a great extent the case, although not applicable to the whole 
trade. Many of the manufacturers of butter and cheese are most con- 
scientious in the care, and thoughtful in manipulating the product 
coming from their hands, and the degree of excellence attained by the 
few, is directly traceable to their efforts in this direction. Probably 
one of the mam causes which has led to the production of so many 
inferior goods, is the haste and confusion incident to the management 
of large dairies, the carelessness of hired help, and the absence of tbat 
careful oversight upon the part of dairymen and dairymaids, which in 
the past, was the distinguishing feature of the farm. 

Business thus left tq care for itself, has resulted in sadly depreciating 
the quality of our production, as can be attested by tlie purchasers, 
who complain bitterly of the quality of the bulk of the butter and 
cheese produced during the past season. 

Exporters also re-affirm these complaints, and declare that their 
losses the past year simply by depreciation in quality, have more than 
counterbalanced their entire "profits for the last five years. This grow- 
ing evil therefore should be remedied. That it can be, is what we pro- 
pose to show, and the application should at once be the subject and 
study of every one pecuniarily interested, or with sufficient pride to 
rejoice in its success. Especially must attention be given to it, if we 
wish to preserve and increase the demand for our products at home 
and abroad. 

While the process of manufacturing has greatly changed within the 
past few years, and to the advantage of the dairymen, — as where pro- 
per care and skill are exercised, a decidedly superior article to that for- 
merly made in the same section, is produced — yet the essential featares 
preparatory to manufacturing are so entirely neglected, that with the 
highest degree of skill possible, it weje still impossible to counteract 
the evils which have already wrought upon the delicate material. 

As well might the weaver with broken woof, or the miller with rusty 
grain, endeavor to produce a first-class material, as the cheese or butter 
maker to mauufacture a superior article, from the mass of filth whicli 



101 

under the name of milk, is daily carried to the factories. To such an 
extent has this evil grown, that rarely does the maker offer any remon- 
strance, but accepts the mess, carefully allowing full weight, no matter 
how much sediment remains m the can, and regardless of the condition 
of his strainer. Many, Avho occasionally oflfer a feeble remonstrance, 
do so with hesitancy, for fear of offending a heavy patron, and thus 
diminishing their income from manufacturing. The result of all this 
carelessness is easily traced to the product, and an inspection of the 
cellar or the curing room, reveals its fruits. The buj^er in his visits 
to factories immediately discovers the difiiculty, and quietly mak es a 
note of the facts. Questions as to the cause of this sour vat of cheese, 
the other one off in flavor, the lot of porous spongy floaters, or the 
cow stable flavor of the butter, are all answered in one breath, viz.: 
•• One or more of my patrons brought a mess of bad milk, and as they 
are my heaviest patrons, I did not dare to send it back," thus away 
goes the milk into the vat, and out comes the poor product. By refer- 
iug to the market reports, it will readily be seen that the production 
of a first class article commands quicker sales, and generally more 
remunerative prices, than does inferior goods, although, for two seasons 
past, creamery goods seemed to meet with better favor relatively, than 
full cream stock, but the immense production stimulated by previous 
prosperous seasons, has culminated in disastrous losses, and we shall 
therefore have less of this class of goods to glut the market and break 
down prices. The constant and increasing inquiry by the home and 
foreign trade, is for fancy quality, and at no time of the year is it ne- 
cessary to seek a customer for goods of this description — the customer 
seeks the goods. There is an over-production of the common grades, 
but the supply of first class goods is not equal to the demand. 

The range of prices also between the various grades is wide and con- 
stantly widening, At the present writing, fancy grades of butter and 
cheese, will in the former, command five to ten cents per pound, and 
in the latter two to three cents more than is quoted for good quality 
only. The range of prices in foreign markets is still greater, and the 
following summary of the quotations of the London market on the 
eleventli of December, illustrates this practically, as it appeals at once 
to our most tender jioint, viz., our pockets : 

LONDON (^UOTATIOOS FOR CHEESE, DECEMliER 11, 1875. 

Ent!;li!^ll Cheddar, finest, !)2s. per cwt., equal to 

" second, 743. '* " 

'■ Cheshire, finest, 86s. " " 

second, 76s. " " 

" " good, 70y. " " 

" " poor, oOs. " " 

Scotch Cheddar, finest, 76s. " " 

" " second, 64s. " " 

Dati'h Gonda, finest, 60s. " " 

" second, o6s. " " 

" Edam, finest, 68s. 

" " second, 56s. " " 

American, finest, 58s. " • " 

'• second, 50s. " " 

third, 40s. " 



S32-50 


currency 


18 00 


'' 


21 00 


a 


18 50 


<< 


17 00 


(( 


12125 


u 


18 50 


" 


is; 50 


" 


14 75 


<< 


13 75 


" 


16^50 


ii 


13 75 


" 


14 t)0 


" 


12 00 


" 


!) 75 


" 



102 

These prices are gross, and subject to the charges for transportation, 
selling, &c., incident to the business. Evidently these figures are not 
the result of the mere chances of commerce, nor does the foreign 
dairyman pocket the difference in value, simply because of natioual 
prejudice, but because of the real worth of the article which he manu- 
factures. Our goods are the most yaluable immediately after their 
production. Foreign goods are the better after long continued care 
and curing. Our goods can only be shipped to near by ports, — foreign 
goods are sent the world over. 

The causes for these unfavorable comparisons, can be directly traced 
to the dairy. There, the greater part of the trouble originates, and 
there it eventually but surely comes home to roost. Goods made to 
spoil in thirty to forty days from time of manufacture, must be han- 
dled with wide margins, to save the purchaser from loss, and even then 
frequently the margin is entirely absorbed before a sale is effected. 

The first question which the shipper asks in examining goods is, as 
to the age of the same. " Will it keep, so as to show as well upon 
lauding as it does at present ?" So many have been deceived upon this 
point, and thus sustained ruinous losses, that they are afraid to con- 
tinue in the business. This is very damaging to the trade, as it is well 
known that numbers engaged in handling a product, are more bene- 
ficial to the producer, that if confined to the few, the competition in 
the latter case being greatly lessened. Distributers must feel greater 
safety in the character of the goods they handle to insure free pur- 
chases. 

But we have confined ourselves more particularly to the cause, and 
Vv'ill now proceed to seek for the remedy for all the ills and ailments of 
the butter and cheese trade. First then, we must go back again to 
first principles, cleanliness in and about the farm yard, and more par- 
ticularly in the process of milking. Careful attention to the food and 
drink of the animals. The immediate removal of all excresences, offal, 
carrion, or other offensive matter, and fencing off the low swampy 
grounds, so that impure and rank food and stagnant water shall not 
he accessible. Secondly, proper care to be taken of the milk, making 
it the primary duty of the farm hands, to observe this particular point, 
whatever else may be neglected, t'hen the delivery of the milk to the 
factory, which should be done in the coolest part of the day, and never 
in haste. The horses should be obliged to walk the whole distance, so 
as to agitate the milk as little as possible. Upon its reception at the 
factory the responsibility of the maker commences. 

His first step is his most important one— an error here cannot be 
remedied. Power should be placed with him to reject all impure milk, 
from whatever cause. Like a sentinel he should stand at his scales, 
testing each mess, and scrutinijcing each can, never delegating this 
duty to a subordinate; this done, the way is clear for the production of 
a fine article, and if he fails, it must be attributed either to careless- 
ness, or lack of necessary skill. 

■ Without going into the details of manufacturing, a few thoughts 
may be thrown out to makers, which though trivial may not be useless. 
First, the maker should be the boss of liis factory, independent of 
patrons, committees, or salesman ; he should not follow the advice of 
every person visiting his factory, but making his product to suit the 



103 

demands of the particular customer or market for which it is manu- 
factured. Much mischief is wrought by makers "changiuo- their 
liand/' at the gratuitous advice of every caller. Again, it is not un- 
frequently the case that where the maker has followed instructions, by 
an unfavorable turn of the market, or the neglecting to accept an offer 
at the proper time, or a sufiden change of weather, the goods are left 
on the shelves, and have to be sold at a ruinous loss in consequence of 
the rapid deterioration in quality. In every instance the maker should 
understand that his goods must possess good keeping qualities, so that 
a forced sale must not be resorted to, or the same perish by keeping. 
With many it is a custom to hasten the curing of the cJieese. so that 
it must be sold in fifteen days from the hoop; this custom should be 
abandoned, and a rule established, not to make curds to cure for ship- 
ment in less than thirty days. This will prevent overcrowdino- the 
markets, and insure a better keeping cheese, when the supply is laro-est. 
The maker can readily discover whether or not he has accomplished 
his purpose, without waiting for the buyer's inspection, or the ripenino- 
of his curds. As soon as the cheese is removed from the press, an 
examination will reveal their future quality, so far as the texture, body 
and keeping qualities are concerned. If the surface is brio-ht and 
yields but slightly under the thumb, springing back immediately like 
a rubber surface, he can assure himself — if proper care has been taken 
(if the milk — in having manufactured a first-class article. If on the 
contrary a hard solid 'surface is produced, or spongy cheese appears, 
he should see that there should be no duplicates of them in the future. 
A light cooked or slack salted curd, will ripen quickly, but will not 
retain its flavor, unless it be already foul. Care should be observed 
howcA-er, not to make a dry hard curd, as in that case the cheese while 
preserving its flavor will indicate age, and be sharp to the taste, while 
tlie trade now demands only mild flavor combined with rich texture. 
Coming to the curing process, it is to be regretted that so few suit- 
able places for curing cheese and pi'eserving butter, are found through- 
out our best dairy sections. Much of the cheese made is ruined after 
removal to the curing rooms, or barns, as they might generally be 
called. The great requisite is a carefully constructed apartment, 
wherein the temperature could be regulated and controlled at will. 
The sides should be filled in solidly, and double windoAvs be placed 
througliout, furnished with blinds, so as to exclude the light, heat or 
cold, th.s with plastered Avails and ceilings, and Avell ven^tilated, Avill 
give an atmosphere under perfect control, and exactly suitable to the 
delicate duties required of it. Curing rooms should" ahvays be upon 
the ground floor, unless' the same is damp and the ventilation imper- 
fect. Much damage is annually occasioned by flies depositing their 
eggs on the surfiice of the cheese,^ which after being boxed and sliipped, 
are fouiid on arrival to be damaged by skippers. A dark curino- room 
with a free use of fly pa])er, Avill exterminate these pests, and save the 
dairyman many dollars. The delivery and transportation of the jiro- 
duct Jias be^n overlooked in many sections, and dairymen should giA'e 
ihe subject greater attention. It is true that along the line of the 
Central Iiailroad, goods are moved Avith fair dispatch, "but yet do not 
receive the attention which their perishable nature demands, Avhile 
upon the side roads, frequent delays cause loss to the shiitper or con- 



104 

signee. Your Convention should request the N. Y. C. & H. K. E. & 
Erie roads, to run their cheese and butter trains in the night, and on 
express train time, while the remaining roads should attach butter and 
cheese cars to every through passenger train, and thus insure a prompt 
delivery at destination, Eefrigerator cars have been used considerably, 
but the charges are too heavy for cheese, and the change of tempera- 
ture is injurious to both products. It is important that the cars 
should be well ventilated, to prevent too great heat in summer, while 
in cold weather the ventilators could be closed. 

Consignors attribute unsatisfactory returns to the neglect or inability 
of the consignee to properly handle their shipments, forgetting that 
where goods arrive in bad condition, that the quality never improves, 
or even retains its first state, but grows rapidly worse, and consequently 
has to be forced on the market, whereas if arriving in good condition, 
it enables the dealer to realize more, certainly the market value. 

The largely increased production, with the comparatively low prices 
obtained the past season, warns us to heed every suggestion which will 
improve or benefit the trade, and the thoughts here presented will, it is 
to be hoped, be so digested and the hints adopted, that each person 
engaged in the manufacturing or handling of dairy products,, shall be 
stimulated to greater diligence and caution in his labors. 

Above all things should we remember, that the quality of the pro- 
duct is the acme of our aims, that with perfect success in this respect 
we will be able to defy competition, while without it, competition will 
defy us. W. Jeffreys. 

New York, Jan. 8, 187G. 

PRESERVATION OF MILK. 

BY PROF. G. C. CALDWELL, OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 

In the absence of Prof. Caldwell, his paper was read by the Secretary. 

Within the past year attention has been somewhat prominently 
called to two methods of keeping milk sweet. One of these consists 
in the use of borax, a substance that is readily soluble in water, and is 
({uite harmless when taken internally, at least in any moderate quantity ; 
and yet it appears to be singularly destructive to animal or vegetable 
life when administered in a certain manner. Certain movements of 
the contents of living cells of plants, which are regarded as character- 
istic signs of life in the cell, are entirely arrested after a few minutes 
if the plant is plunged in a solution of borax : the living matter of the 
cell is plainly killed by the borax. The spores of a plant called the 
vaucheria, Avhen they escape from the mother cell into the water, exe- 
cute very rapid movements in the water ; but in a solution of borax 
these movements are arrested almost immediately. Infusoria, rotifers 
and other low forms of life, die very soon in a solution of borax ; when 
tadpoles are put in such a solution they suffer convulsive contractions 
of the tail, the circulation of the blood becomes slower and slower, 
and in an hour the animal dies. Grapes immersed in a solution of 
borax remain unchanged for two years, at least as fa,r as regards their 
external appearance, and they undeigo no fermentation ; they are not 
eataljle, liowever, as some of the borax passes through the skin into the 
grape and some of the -sugar passes out. Meat remains tender and soft 



105 

for an indefinite length of time and suffers no putrefactive changes, 
when kept in a solution of borax, although some change does take 
place, which is manifested in the production of a peculiar odor, differ- 
ing entirely from the usual putrefactive odor. The spontaneous 
changes which milk undergoes under ordinary circumstances are either 
entirely prevented or more or less retarded, according to the amount 
of the preventive used by the addition of borax, the result depend- 
ing on the quantity of borax added. In one experiment 15 grains of 
borax were added to a fluid ounce of fresh milk ; the cream rose m the 
usual manner, and after a time a little mould appeared on the surface 
of the cream; but the remainder of the milk, under the layer of 
cream, suffered no farther change ; it did not become acid, and it re- 
tained the appearance and even the odor of fresh milk for several 
months. It is further stated in a recent number of a German paper, 
that in the districts where the parmesan cheese is made, borax is used, 
to keep the milk from souring too much ; about two ounces of borax 
being added to every hundred quarts of milk. 

The other preservative agent is salicylic acid, anew disinfectant pre- 
pared from carbolic acid ; but, unlike carbolic acid, it is destitute of 
odor or taste, and it is not poisonous. As an instance of its preserva- 
tive power, a piece of meat suitably prepared with it gave off no offen- 
sive odor after having been left in a warm room eighteen days, nor was 
any mould formed on it ; when cooked it gave a good soup, and the 
meat itself tasted like fresh meat. 

When fresh milk had four ten-thousandths of its weight of salicylic 
acid added to it, and was kept in a temperature of 64 degrees Fahren- 
heit, it coagulated 36 hours later than milk that had not been so 
treated, at 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Milk with the same proportion of 
acid added to it kept sweet 26 hours, and with twice as much acid 
added it kept sweet 44 hours ; another portion of milk kept at the same 
temperature without the addition of the acid turned sour'in 16 hours. 
No perceptible taste was communicated to the milk by these additions. 
As to the manner of using this substance, it is recommended to sift a, 
suitable quantity of it over the surface of the milk while stirring it. 
It is usually sold in the form of a fine powder, which, as it is not 
readily soluble in cold water, is liable to ball up and dissolve very 
slowly indeed ; hence it is better to add it very gradually, and with 
constant stirring. After the milk has been delivered at the factory 
and it will do no harm to dilute it somewhat, the acid may be added in 
the form of a cold saturated solution, such a solution may not contain 
more than one part oi acid in one thousand parts of v>'ater, so that a 
large quantity of it will have to be added in order to get in the needed 
quantity of the acid. The acid is much more soluble in hot water, but 
the addition of a hot solution coagulates the milk. 

An important objection to the use of this substance for preserving 
the freshness of milk will, at least for the present, be found in its 
costliness ; for every hundred pounds of milk probably half an ounce 
of the acid would have to be used to produce any marked effect. Deal- 
ers charge about $5 a pound for the acid now, but it is likely that it 
can be produced at a lower rate than this if there is a suflicient de- 
mand for it. 
8 



106 

At the conclusion of this paper Professor Arnold announced that 
the editor of the Milcli Zeitung, stated that oleomargarine cheese was 
much liked in Germany, and its manufacture was deemed a valuable 
method of utilizing the skim milk of that country. 

Prof. Wetherell offered the following resolution, which was adopted : 
Resolved, That this Convention heartily approve such an appropria- 
tion by Congress to the Centennial Board of Finance as shall insure 
the success of that grand national event. 

EXPEKIMENTAL DAIRY STATION. 

J. V. H. Scovill offered the following resolutions : 

Whereas, This association has long felt the necessity of a thorough 
system of experiment, by which disputed questions in dairy practice 
may be solved and settled, and the only practical way appears to be in 
the establishment of an experimental station : and 

Whereas, The paper read before this association by Prof. E. W. 
Stewart, seems to offer a feasible plan for such a station. Therefore, 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed to take this matter 
into consideration and of adopting the plan in said paper, or such other, 
as they shall deem best. That they consult with the authorities of 
Cornell University in reference to the establishment of such a station 
at the College Farm, and take such action as they shall deem best in 
the matter of raising a fund for such station, and report to the next 
meeting of this association. 

Mr. Wetherell — Mr. Stewart's suggestions struck me very favorably. 
The State of Connecticut was the first to establish an experimental 
station. These stations have worked well in Europe, where they have 
been long established. He believed if such a station were established, 
the dairymen, would have the hearty co-operation of the Professors of 
Cornell University. 

Mr. Hawley — The question has never been presented in this shape 
before. I have heretofore opposed it, but this meets my cordial ap- 
proval. 

Mr. Chadwick, of Canada — The question is one that has been taken 
up by our association, and pressed upon the government. The govern- 
ment of Ontario has established an agricultural school, and we are 
trying to have another established. Dairymen should be educated so 
that they could speak from knowledge and not merely from opinion. 

Prof. Arnold — If the project which is here presented is carried out, 
it will be the grandest thing that has ever been produced for dairying. 
It is desirable that the project be carried out on this scale. It will be 
one of the proudest items in the dairy record for years past. It will 
pay for its cost ten times over. 

The resolution was adopted and the following committee appointed: 
C. L. Sheldon, Lewis County ; W. A. Johnson, Erie ; Hon. Harris 
Lewis, Herkimer; William Lock, Oneida; William Blanding, Broome. 
The matter of the centennial coming again under discussion, Hon. 
Harris. Lewis offered a resolution which was adopted, inviting the On- 
ondaga Salt Company to exhibit their products with the American 
Dairymen's Association at the Philadelphia centennial. 



107 



ELECTION OF OFFICEES. 



The Committee on Nominations named the following persons to 
serve as officers of the Association for the ensuing year: 

President — Hon. Horation Seymour, of Oneida. 

Vice Presidenth — X. A. Willard, Herkimer ; T. D. Curtis, Ononda- 
ga; 0. S. Bliss, Vermont; David W. Lewis, New York city; M. Fol- 
som, New York city ; Stephen Faville, Wisconsin ; Charles House, 
Lewis County; G. B. Weeks, Onondaga; Wm. Blanding, Broome; C. 

E. Chadwick, Canada; Dr. George F. Cole, St. Lawrence County; A. 
M. Fuller, Pennsylvania; L. W. Miller, Chautauqua County; E. A. 
Ayers, Jefferson ; F. Keeler, Cattaraugus ; G. E. Morrow,. Illinois ; C. 

F. Whittier, Minnesota ; John T. Ellsworth, Massachusetts ; Hon. Wm. 
A. Johnson, Erie County; Dr. L. L. Wight, Oneida; S. Straight, 
Ohio; Chester Uazen, Wisconsin ; Prof. L. Wetherell, Massachusetts ; 
A. B. Lamont, Tompkins County; Edward Norton, Connecticut; P. 
H. Burchard, Illinois ; C. H. Wilder, Wisconsin; 0. C. Blodgett, Chau- 
tauqua County ; David H. Burrell, Herkimer ; J. M.Peters, New York 
city ; S. A. Farrington, Pennsylvania. 

Secretary — L. B. Arnold, Rochester. 

Treasurer — Hon. Harris Lewis, Frankfort, Herkimer County. 
The report of the Treasurer, was then heard. The receipts of the 
past year have been $356.55 ; disbursements $345.81. 

DAIRY IMPLEllENTS. 

The Committee on Dairy Implements made the following report: 

First. We examined the Whitman & Burrell economizer engine 
and boiler, and Walrath engine and boiler, and we report in favor of 
the Economizer engine and boiler of Whitman & Burrell, for the reason 
that it seemed to possess the most direct and practical smoke stack, 
being larger and more direct; also a simple method of changing the 
stroke, thereby saving steam for light work. 

Second. We recommend the Fraser gang press, and suggest that 
some power be attached to it to continue the pressure. 

Third. We examined the Champion Batter Worker. It is an 
admirable machine. Also, Embree's Kotary Butter Worker, wliich ap- 
pears to work with much convenience. 

Fourth. We have examined the Bhinchard, Bullard, and J. C. Baker's 
Double Dash Eureka churns, and without seeing them operate, it would 
be impossible to decide upon their respective merits. 

Fifth. We examined Bussey's National Milk Cooler, and would 
strongly recommend its universal use — as it cools and airs the milk 
before it reaches the factory, which we believL- to be a great improve- 
ment on the old tight can ; and it is available to every patron. We 
would also recommend liis square tin, with aeiater on bottom, to be 
used on vats or large quantities of milk. 

Sixth. Moore's Emjure Milk Pan would, no doubt, be a good cooler 
where large amounts of milk are to be handled. 

Seventh. Armstrong's Cheese Vat Cover is highly recommended ; 
we believe it to be advantageous in many ways, namely : keeping the 
curds at a uniform temperature, especially in cold weather. Also, we 
believe it will produce a larger return, and we highly recommend the 
adoption of it by factorymen generally. 



•108 

Eighth. Middaugh's Milk Tester we recommend, being simple. Also 
an air-tight butter package with an effective fastening, and a neat and 
handsome package for market purposes. 

Ninth. Hubbell & Chesebro's family butter package is very con- 
venient for family use. 

Tenth. Wells, Kichardson & Go's, golden extract of anatto being 
highly recommended, we leave it to factorymen to give it a trial. 

Eleventh. McAdams' curd grinder we recommend to those using 
curd grinders. The two sample cases exhibited by Sterling & Bingham, 
of Watertown, showed many fine specimens of workmanship and use- 
ful tools. 

Twelfth. ■ Burrell & Whitman's perpendicular and horizontal curd 
knives Ave recommend highly. 

Thirteenth. We have examined the refrigerator used in Hardin's 
improved method of butter makmg, and believe it to be a simple and 
cheap method of making butter, and feel warranted in giving it the 
highest recommendation. 

Mr. Lewis alluded to the subject of the paper, which was to be read 
by Prof. Noah Cressy, of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, upon 
epidemic abortion among cows. He presented the following resolution : 

Besolved, That a petition be presented by this Association to Con- 
gress, asking an appropriation of $10,000 to be offered as a reward to 
any person who shall discover the cause of epidemic abortion among 
cows. 

Prof. Stewart recommended that our representatives in Congress be 
asked to urge this matter before Congress. 

An additional clause was. added providing that a committee of three 
be appointed to draft a petition as provided. As amended, the resolu- 
tion Avas adopted. The following committee Avas appointed : Hon. 
Harris LeAvis, of Ncav York ; L. S. Hardin, of Kentucky, and John 
T. EllsAvorth, of Massachusetts. 

The Convention then adjourned, subject to the call of the Executive 
Committee. 



" «.isn!*¥« »¥ST:T¥:1 l^lB^CZrn ff 



THE BLANCHAED CHURN 

As now oflFered to the Trade and to the practical Dairyman, is the result 

of over twenty-five years experience and experiment. It has 

been proved, and ^wiproved, and a/jproved during the past 

quarter of a century, and is now unquestionably 

THE LEADING CHURN OF THE COUNTRY. 

NEARLY ONE MUNDBED THOUSANI} 

Are now in successful operation. They are for sale in every State and 

Territory of the Union, and many foreign countries. They always 

sell the best where they have been used the longest. They 

combine more desirable qualities than any other Churn 

now made. No other churns are made of as 

good materials, or as faithfully. 

WE OtlA-LLElVG^E COiytFAK^ISOIV. 

They cannot get out of order, because they are so simple. Because 

they are so simple, and thoroughly made, they are very durable. 

They have no cog-wheels or gearing to wear out or break. 

They work the Butter free from butter-milk in the churn, 

without any change of dasher, quicker and better 

than it can be done by hand. They work in 

the salt in the same way. They are 

PERFECT AUTOMATIC BUTTER MAKERS. 

©EVEN SIZES IVIA-DE. 

No. 3, for about 2 gallons of cream, $G 00 I No. 7, for about 18 gallons of cream, $12 00 

No. 4, " 4 " " 7 00 I No. &, for from 50 to 75 gallons of cream, 40 00 

No. 5. " 8 " " 8 00 No. 9, for from 75 to 150 " " 45 00 

No. 6, •' 12 " " 10 00 1 Power Pulley for any size Chnra, 2 50 

If they do not give satisfaction, or prove to be as represented, they 
may be returned to the Agent of whom they are purchased, at our 
expense. 

The Factory sizes, (Nos. 8 and 9), are found to be exactly what is 
needed in large Dairies, or Factories, where power is used. They have 
the unqualified commendation of every one who has used them. 

Send to any dealer in really first-class dairy implements for our 
goods. They all keep them. 

We furnish free, on application, our " New Butter Manual," and de- 
scriptive circulars. Send for them. " Get the Best." 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS, 

PORTER BLANCHARD'S SONS, 



WELLS, RICHARDSON & OO.'S 



Bsito# 



Its superiority over any other preparation is claimed on the following grounds: 

1st. The Extract is the golden yellow coloring matter of the Annatto Plant, 
free from any possible form of adulteration, and purified from the reddish color 
naturally associated with it. By our process we extraet the coloring matter from 
the crude product, and by scientific manipulation completely purify the liquid from 
every substance except the pure golden color which so exactly resembles the nat- 
ural color of June butter. 2d. It is almost entirely without taste or smell and does 
not contaminate butter in the least. Greatly superior to carrots in this and all 
other respects. 3d. It is a fluid Extract, and requires no preparation, thus saving 
much, time and labor. 4th. It gives to butter and cheese a pure golden tmt with- 
out the reddish tinge so often seen. 5th. It is perfectly reliable and always uni- 
form. A single trial will prove its superiority over any other coloring matter. 
6th. At the very low price at which it is sold, it is cheaper for dairymen than any 
other coloring. It adds at least 5 cents per pound to the value of butter during six 
months of the year or more, and 3 cents per pound to the value of cheese. It is 
especially needed for cheese intended for export, for foreign markets invariably 
demand a bright color, such as is most readily obtained by the use of this prepara- 
tion. 7th. It is recommended by the best chemists and. dairymen of the country. 

PRICK LIST. 
rint Bottles, SO Cents. \ Quart Bottles, 75 Cents. 

We also prepare an extra strength for the use of factories, creameries, dyers, calico printers, 
&c., which we sell in gallon bottles, at $3 each. ,.,.,„ ^ ^ 

Manufacturers who use large quantities can be supplied m bulk at reduced figures by applica- 
tion direct to the proprietors. 

WEEKES S BROWNE, Agents, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Proprietors and Sole Manufacturers of the 




FAMOll 




MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

Boilers, Engines, Vats, Curd Sinks, Curd Hills, 
Cans, &c.. 

And every description of DAIRY IMPLEMENTS and FURNISHING GOODS. 
[[^"Illustrated Catalogue sent free on application. 

Near Central Depot, ROME, N. Y. 



THE 




THOROUGHLY TESTED 

Throughout the whole country, and acknowledged ])y all as 

The Leading Pan of the World ! 

AWARDED THE 

FIRST PREMIUM DIPLOMA 

And A SILVER 3IEDAL 

By the VERMONT STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, which is the 
highest award ever awarded a dairy utensil. Will be 

30 DAYS TRIAL GIVEN 

ON EVERY SET. 
II^"Send for Descriptive Circular, which will be sent free to any one. 
'Address, 

W. O. CAMPBELL & CO., 

rtiehford, Vermont. 



To AMERICAN DAIRYMEN. 



We take pleasure in announcing that we have contracted to publish, and expect 

to issue in May next, a volume of great interest and importance 

to dairymen everywhere, entitled 

AMERICAI DAIRYOG, 



A MANUAL FOR 



Butter & Cheese Makers, 

BY 

L. B. ARNOLD. A. M. 



It will contain about 300 12-mo pages, will be liberally illustrated, well printed 
and substantially bound — Price, $1.50. 

The result of long experience, intelligent research, careful experiments and 
correct judgment, this work must at once become standard authority. All sub- 
jects properly coming within its scope will be treated upon in it, and as fully as 
practical men can desire to meet their practical needs. It cannot fail of being for 
every Butter or Cheese manufacturer an invaluable assistant and guide. 

TJie demand for it is certain to be large, and we shall respond to all orders in 
the order received. To insure a copy promptly, please fill out a blank like the one 
appended, and send at once to 

THE KUBAL HOME CO., 

MOCHESTEBf N.Y. 
*%• 

1 3 -F ©. 

THE RURAL HOME PUBLISHING CO., 

Oentlemcn : — Send me as soon as issued, a copy of American Dairyirtfff 
by L. B. Arnold. Upon receipt of it I will remit $1.50, the published pHce. 

Name, 

Place, _ 

State, 



ik 



Send for Cotnjilete Illustrated Ci^'cular of all Apparatus 
and Furnishings for 

CHEESE AND BUTTER FACTORIES. 

NEW METHOD OF MANUFACTUEE GIVEN. 

General Agents for the Celebrated Blaneha7^d Churn, 
French Burr-Stone Grist-Mills, &c» 

CHEESE VATS THAT DO NOT LEAK. 

We have heard a good deal of complaint about vats leaking. We want it dis- 
tinctly understood, that our vats are i^ut together by a way of our own, and will 
not leak. They are made of the best two inch pine plank, thoroughly seasoned 
and perfectly sound, and are the best that can be made. 

We manufacture largely CHEESE-BOX HOOPS, Rims and Heading, and 
ship in Bundles ready to make up into CHEESE-BOXES, TOBACCO DRUMS. &c. 



THE ONLY BOILER FOR DAIRYMEN AND FARMERS. 

Highest award of the Committee 
on Boilers for Cheese Factory pur- 
poses, at the American Dairy- 
men's .Convention, a very large 
assemblage at Rome, to the Econ- 
omizer, over all others on exhi- 
bition. 

The best portable Steam Engine 
in market. Boiler all wrought 
iron. Every part made upon 
honor. All bearing parts made to 
take up wear. Engine warranted 
of best Iron and Steel. Nothing 
cheap but price. Fire passes un- 
derneath boiler to the back, thence 
through the flues and|up_the stack. 

PRICE©. 
Three-horse Powder, $350 ; Four- 
horse Power, $400ji Five-horse 
Power, $450 ; Eight-horse Power, 
$575. The best and only Return- 
flue Agricultur al Engine on wheels, complctwith all the attachments, $750. 
[Refer to page (107) in report on Factory Apparatus.] 

HIGHEST PREMIUMS at twenty-two important Fairs and Exposi- 
tions, including American Institute test of three months — '73 and '74 — for portable 
safety BOILERS AND ENGINES. 

^^" Every article of our Manufacture fully guaranteed. 




The Dairy Room of 




^^<%^^/^^ 



The Patent Gulf Stream Refrigerated Dairy, 

WITH SUBTERRANEAN VENTILATION, 

J. WILKINSOM, Eural Architect, of Baltimore, Md., 

INVENTOR AND PATENTEE, 

Is now available to all Dairymen. The charge for a right to construct and use it 

is but TWENTY DOLLARS. 




The Chester County (Pa.) Agricultural Society has just awarded a MEDAL 
to the inventor of this simple and wonderful invention ; and the Executive Com- 
mittee of the American Dairymen's Association have ordered it for the Dairy 
House, which it is proposed to erect on the International Exhibition Grounds, for 
whijh plans are now being prepared. 

An ILLUSTRATED PAMPHLET, describing the defects of all other styles 
of dairy rooms, and a minute description of the perfect dairy, may be obtained by 
sending Twenty-five Cents and a Stamp to J. WILKINSON, Superintendent of 
the Agricultural Building, International Exhibition— Office in the Building. 

Tlie Pamphlet contains certificates from parties having this Dairy in use, all 
of whom say it is PERFECT. 

March, 1876. 



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EYEEY DAIKYMAN 



SHOULD READ 



(.4 



The Grocer, 

W, H, a JPBICE, Bdit07\ 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY MORNING, 

— BY — 

At No. 163 Chambers Street, New York. 



Subscription Price only $2.00 per Annum, 

(Inoltjding Postage.) 



The GROCER is the CHEAPEST, LIVE- 
LIEST and Most COMPLETE Weekly 
COMMERCIAL PAPER Published. 



Its EDITORIAL Department is devoted to the discussion of fresh and timely 
topics connected with all branches of trade. All matters of Commercial News, 
both domestic and foreign, are promptly and fully reported in its NEWS DE- 
PARTMENT, while its MARKET REPORTS are the most complete and accurate 
published in New York, containing full reviews of the Markets for GROCERIES, 
COUNTRY PRODUCE, BUTTER AND CHEESE, DRY GOODS, HARD- 
WARE, DRUGS AND CHEMICALS, TOBACCO, LEATHER, LUMBER, &c. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS receive special attention in THE GROCER, and the 
methods of manufacture and preparation for market, as well as the condition of 
the home and foreign markets, are freely discussed and truthfully reported. 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE ONLY $2.00 PER ANNUM, IN ADVANCE, in- 
cluding Postage to all parts of the United States and Canada. 

SPECIMEN COPIES sent free upon application. 

All communications should be addressed to 

W. H. C. PRICE, 
No. 163 Cn AMBERS Street, NEW YORK. 



O KT 



THE AMERICAN 

will be sent On Trial 

dress, Thirteen 

cents ! lor the pur- 
iug it to New Read- 
l/nlied States and 





Handsomest 8" Page 
rary and Domestic 
World ! Price $2 a 
Rate $1.60. Price of 
a 1 card, with your 

THE RURAL HOME, 



RURAL HOME 

post paid, to any ad- 

Weeks ±or 40 

pose of introduc- 
ers throughout the 
British America. 






Agricultural, Lite- 
Weekly in the 
year. Lowest Club 
a Specimen, a 'post- 
address on it ! 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Saivleytou, Broome County, N, Y,, 



MANUFACTURER OF 




OF CHEESE AND BUTTER FACTORIES, 

**WITH THE MOST PRACTICAL AND MODERN IMPROVEMENTS 



An experience of 12 years in thel,buildiiig and management of Factories, with a 
constant aim to keep at least even pace with the rapid advance in this important 
branch of agricultural industry, and ever ready to adopt any improvement that 
recommends itself by a thorough test, he believes that a correspondence with many 
engaged in manufacturing, and others contemplating building new factories, would 
be of mutual benefit. 

In his plans and specifications it will be found that economy of construction, 
beauty of design, and practical utility, have been carefully considered. Corres- 
pondence solicited. 

Observe the Folloiving Rules in Writing for Estimates: 

1st. State plainly the mannner of manufacture proposed, whether full milk, 
night's milk only, skimmed or creamery. 2d. Capacity for the milk of what 
number of cows. 3d. Kind of soil, wet or dry, level or otherwise, of proposed 
site. 4th. Elevation, temperature, capacity of spring, and distance from 
factory. 5th. Price of hemlock and pine lumber per thousand, delivered. 6th. 
Facility of draining the factory grounds. 7th. Nearest Railroad station. 

General estimates furnished by request, enclosing return postage. 

Plan of building, with specifications and bill of materials, including'f urniture 
complete, furnished at short notice and on reasonable terms. 

Address, WM. BLANDIJVG, Hatvleyton, N. Y, 

Hon. X. A. WiLLARD, Author of " Practical Dairy Husbandry," " Practical Butter Book," 
Dairy Editor of " Moore's Rural New Yorker," and President of N. Y. State Dairymen's Associa- 
tion and Board of Trade, Little Palls, N. Y. 

Prof. L. B. Arnold, Secretary of the American Dairymen's Association, Rochester, N. Y. 

E. J. WicKsoN, Late Agricultural Editor of the Utica Herald and President of Utica Board of 
Trade, now of the "Pacific Rural Press." San Francisco, Cal. • 

O. S. Bliss, Sec'y and Treas. of " Vermont Dairymen's Association," Georgia, Vt. 

M. W. SuAPLBT, of the "Binghamton Iron [Works," and inventorof the '" Shapley Engine," 
Binghamton, N. Y. ' 

IMPROVED METHOD OF 




Settim Ml for Mm Bitter. 

Recommended by Hon. X. A. Willard, 
Prof. L. B. Arnold, The American Dairy- 
men's Convention, &o. 

FOR CIRCULARS FREE, 



LOUISVILLE, Ky. 



Wari*i lertlliier i#Mpaaf ^ 

ANDREWJH. WARD, Treasurer. 

Office 248, formerly 102, Washington St., Boston. P. O. Box 3456, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



SPECIAL FEUTILIZERS 

For Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Cotton, Grass, Onions,' Buckwheat, 

Tobacco, Clover, Beets, Turnips, Corn, Peas, Hops, Carrots, 

Cabbages, Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Strawberries, 

Celery, Pot Plants, Flowers, &c., «&c. 

AT $15 PER TON IN BULK.r , PACKAGES, EXTRA. 

ALSO FOE SALE 

Superphosphate of Lime, Ground Bones, Nitrate Soda, Potash Salts, 

Ashes, Sulphate Ammonia, Soda Ash, Silicates of Potash, Soda 

and Lime, Nitrate of Lime, Phosphate of Soda, &c. 



WARD'S '^ FERTILIZER 

For House Plants,'odorless, enough for 100 Plants, sent by Mail for 10c. 

WARD'S SEED PREPARATION 

Will increase the Grain, Corn and Cotton crops, 25 per cent., and is 

applicable to; all other seeds. Jf^Sutllcient for an acre, 

sent by Mail for fifty cents. 

WARDS PREPARATION FOR POTATOES 

Increases the yield, and is preventive of the ^' rot. Sufficient sent by 
" Mail, for one bushel of seed, for twenty-five cents. 

ADDRESS ORDERS TO 

AMEf H.¥AED,Treas., %. JOSEPH BBECK& SONS, Aits. 

51 tt- 52 North Market Street, Boston,