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Annual Meeting of tSe Board of Directors.
JAXUABY 21 and 22, 1870.
WASHINGTON, CITY :
Colonization Building, 450 Pennsylvania Aventje.
NORMAL SCHOOL 8TEVM PRE93, HAMPTON, VA.
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY.
1853. Hon. JOHN H. B. LATBOBE.
18S8. Hon. Henry A. Foster, N. Y.
183fi Hon. James Garland, Virginia.
1841. Thomas R. Haxard. Esq.. R. I.
1843. Hon. Lucius Q. C. Klmer, N. J.
1849. R««T. Lovick Pierce, D.D , Qa.
1851. Rev. Robert Ryland. D.D., Ky.
1861. Hon. Fred. P Stanton. D. C.
185S. Hon. H. ratio Seymour, N. Y.
1853. Edward McGehee, Esq., Mips.
1854. Rev. Matthew Simpson, D. D.. Pa.
1854. Rev. Levi Scott, D. D.. Del.
1854. Rev. Robert Paine, D. P.. Miss.
1854. Rev. Edward R. Ames, D.D.. Md.
l&VL Rev. James C. Flnley, IllinoiB.
1854. Hon. John F. Darby, Missouri.
1854. Hon. Joseph B. Crockett, Cal.
1859. Hon. Henry M. Schieffelin, N. Y,
1861. Rev. J. Maclean, D D, LL. D., N.J.
1861. Hon. Ichabod Goodwin, N. H.
1861. Hon. William E. Dodge, N. Y.
1866. Hon. James R. Doolittle. Wis.
1867. Samuel A. Crozer. Esq., Pa.
1869. Hon. Fred. T. Frelinghuysen, N. J.
1869. Rev. 8. IrenaeuB Prime, D. D., N. Y.
1869. Rev. B, L Haight, D. D , LL. D., N. Y.
1870. Robert Arthington, Esq., England.
1872. Rev. Edward P. Humphrey. D.D.,Ky.
1872. Harvey Lindsly, M. D., D. C.
1874. Rev. Randolph S. Foster, D. D., Mas&
1874. Rt. Rev. Wm. B. Stevens, DO., Pa.
1874 Hon. Eli K. Price, Pennsylvania.
1874. Rt. Rev. Gregory T. Bedell, D. D., O.
1874. Theodore L. Mason, M. D., N. Y.
1875. Levi Keese, M. D., Mass.
1875. Rt. Rev. M. A. DeW. Howe. D.D.. Pa.
1875. "Samuel K Wilson, Esq., N. J.
1876. Rev. Wm. I. Budlngton, D. D., N. Y.
1876. Rev. Samuel K Appleton, D. D., Pa.
1876. Rev. Jabez P. Campbell, D.D., Pa.
1876. Rev. H. M. Turner, D. ix, LL. D., Ga.
1877. Prest. E. G. Robinson, LL. D., R. I.
1877. Rev. Joseph F. Elder, D. D., N. Y.
1877. Rev. William E. Schenck, D. D., Pa.
1878. Hon. Richard W. Thompson, Indiana.
1878. Com. Robt. W. Shufeldt, U.8.N., Conn.
1879. Hon. G. Washington Warren, Mas.
The figures before each name indicate the year of first election.
1840. Thomas R. Hazard. Esq R. I.
1840. Rev. Lkonakd Bacon, D. D Conn.
1845, Kev. John B. Pinnky, L L. D Neb.
1861. Rev. John Maclean, D.D., IA,.D..N.J.
1852. jAMBa Hall, M. D Md.
1853. Alksandkb Duncan, Esq R. I.
1855. Gkobqk Law, Esq N. Y.
1858. Rev. JohnObcutt, D. D iV. T.
1864. Alkxandkb Gut, M.D Ohio.
1868. Edward Coles, Esq Pa.
1869. Rev. Joseph F. Tuttlb. D. D . . Ind.
1869. Charles H . Nichols, M . D . . . A'. Y.
1869. Rev. 8. Ihkn^us Prime, D.D.N. Y.
1870. Daniel Price, Esq N.J.
1871. Rev. William H. Steele, D.D.iV. J^,
1871. Rev. Henry C. Potter, D.D..JV: Y.
1873. Rev. QkorobW. 8AM80N, D.D.iV.r.
1878. Rev. Edw'dW. AppLETON,D.D.,J'a.
DELEGATES FOR 1879.
Pennsylvania Coloniz.^tion Society. Rt. Rev. M. A. DeWolfe
Howe, D, D., LL. D., Rev. William E. Schenck, D. D., William V,
Pettit, Esq., Robert B. Davidaon, Esij., Rev. James Saul, D.D., Rev.
Samuel E. Appleton, D.D., Rev. Thomas S. Malcom. Arthur M. Bur-
ton, Esq., Rev. H. L. Wayland, D. D., Joseph P. Brinton, Esq., Wil-
liam H. Allen, Esq., LL. D., Rev. Alfred Elwyn, Rev. Henry L. Phil-
lips, Edward D. Marchant, Esq., William Montelius, Esq.
SIXTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT.
PRESENTED JANUARY 21, 1870.
The American Colonizatioh Society is called, at the commence-
ment of it8 Sixty-Second Annual Report, to oflfer tribute to the memory
of friends whose names are to be enrolled henceforth among the honored
James B. Hosmer, Esq., in 1869 elected a Vice President of the So-
ciety, was buried on his ninety-seventh birth-day, September 27th, the
oldest person in his native city, Hartford, Conn. Quiet and unassum-
ing, he devoted most of his time, after he retired from mercantile busi-
ngs forty-five years ago, to benevolent and religious institutions. He
was deeply interested in the movements of this Society and gave liber-
ally for the furtherance of its work, remembering it in his will with
$2,000, and the Liberia College with $1,000. He witnessed a good con-
fession, and by a blameless walk and conversation, illustrated the prin-
ciples of the gospel.
Herman Camp, Esq., of Trumansburg, N. Y., in 1846, by a donation
of $1,000, made himself a Director for Life in this Society, and he often
took part in its deliberations. An earnest Christian philanthropist, the
lowliest were made glad by his intelligent sympathy and unceasing be-
Professor Joseph Henry, in 1869 constituted a Director for Life of
this Society, always expressed a deep interest in its welfare, and by ser-
vices and gifts, contributed to its prosperity. His life was a long one,
but every day of its maturity was occupied in studies and experiments
that gave to the world discoveries and improvements of great impor-
tance and practical utility. In every domain he entered he was an en-
6 Sixty- Second Annwil Report of
thusiast and a master, his whole energies devoted to the advancement
of the good of mankind. Not the least of his labors was the organiza-
tion and management of the Smithsonian Institution, whereby that
grand gift to the people was made a success. He was as eminent for
his Christian character as for his scientific attainments.
Hon. John B. Kerr, in 1863 chosen a member of the Executive Com-
mittee of the Society, was faithful in attendance at the meetings and
prompt in the discharge of the duties devolved upon him. He was re-
markable for strict probity, tender sympathies, warm affection and un-
faltering devotion to what he believed was right. The sorrow of his
colleagues at his death is lightened by the belief, that though suddenly
called, he joyfully passed to the presence of his Lord.
The continued prostration of all business enterprises and the great re-
duction of incomes from every source, again affect unfavorably the re-
ceipts of the Society.
The receipts during the year 1878 have been:—
Donations and coUectlona >10,682 64
Legacies 1,415 20
Emigrants toward their expenses 260 50
For common school education in Liberia 420 63
Other sources, including $366 . 20 from Investments realized, 3,006 64
Receipts f 15,T86 61
Balance, January 1, 1878 908 49
Making the resources $16,694 10
The diubursements have been 16,406 87
Balance in Bank, December 31, 1878 $ 287 23
The bark "Liberia," whose departure was mentioned in the last Re-
port, arrived at Monrovia, February 6th. Two deaths have taken place
among the fifty-three emigrants sent in her, neither of them, however,
from causes peculiar to the African climate.
Two expeditions have since been dispatched, as follows: By the
"Liberia," from New York, June 19, consisting of seventy emigrants,
and by the new trader "Monrovia," from the same port, December 3,
comprising thirty-one persons. They were mostly in families, and the
description of a portion of them visited by a gentleman of judgment and
■experience applies equally to all, viz. : "They are a very intelligent set
of people and of more than average ability, leading me to hope that they
will do well for themselves and be a help to Africa."
• The American Colonization Society. 7
These one hundred and one emigrants were from the following named
places: Boston, Mass., 14; Norfolk, Va., 3; Indian Town, Currituck
Co., 51; Rose Dale, Pasquotank Co., 8; Woodville, Perquinions Co., 4;
and Shiloh, Camden Co., N. C, 2; Marion, 8. C, 1; Pensacola, Flor-
ida, 6 ; and Marshall, Texas, 12. Forty-four were reported to be com-
municants in Christian churches. Of the adult males, 12 are farmers,
4 clergymen, 3 carpenters, and one each a cooper, miller, machinist,
cabinet-maker, bricklayer, plasterer, teacher, and physician. Nearly all
reached the vessels at their own expense, while others gave us $119.50
in repayment, and a few contributed f 141 toward the cost of their pas-
sage to Liberia. They were thoroughly equipped and every possible
precaution taken to insure their comfort and safety at sea and during
acclimation. Both companies are to locate at Brewerville, a growing
settlement named in honor of the late Charles Brewer, Esq., long an en-
lightened friend of Africa. For this purpose, the Board of Managers of
the Pennsylvania Colonization Society generously appropriated $7,000
from the residuary bequest of Mr. Brewer to that old and zealous auxil-
The "Liberia," in a thick fog, when four days out, collided with the
Australian bark "Marti." No one on the "Liberia" was injured, nor
did the accident cause her to leak, nor do any harm to the hull below
the rail. It, however, carried away her bowsprit, with rigging attached,
and started the windlass. The Captain thought better to return for re-
pairs — which were completed in two days, the water casks were refill-
ed, and she again sailed June 30th, the emigrants remaining on board
all the time, happy and not in the least discouraged. The "Liberia"
arrived out August 10th, and at the latest dates the passengers by her
were well and contented at Brewerville.
. This is the first voyage of the " Monrovia," a clipper bark of 543 tons
register, built of the best materials for Messrs. Yates & Porterfield, long
engaged in the West African trade. She is described as the best in ar-
rangements of all the vessels in the business, having superior accommo-
dations for twenty cabin passengers, and can take in the poop, which is
thoroughly ventilated with side-lights and sky-lights, about ninety emi-
grant passengers. Her cost, when coppered and ready for sea, is $30,-
Emigration to Liberia every year under the auspices of the Society
has been uninterrupted for the past fifty-eight years. Those now re-
ported make the number colonized since the war to be 3,291, and a to-
tal from the beginning of 15,289, exclusive of 5,722 recaptured Afri-
cans, which we induced and enabled the Government of the United
States to settle in Liberia, making a grand total of 21,001 persons to
whom the Society has given homes in Africa.
8 Sixty- Second Annual Report of •
Largely increased numbers of the intelligent and enterprising portion
of the colored population are contemplating emigration to Liberia. The
demand upon the Colonization Society, growing more and more press-
ing, and coming from every quarter, for information about that Repub-
lic and for the means of settlement there, far exceeds anything of the
kind in its history. It is believed that half a million of people are con-
sidering removal to Africa as their home and nationality.
During the year, applications have been received from residents of the
following places, viz. : —
Masmchu^tts. Boston, Hyde Park, Jamaica Plain.
Penn»ylvania. Philadelphia, Reading.
District of Columbia. Washington.
Virginia. Gordonsville, Norfolk, Richmond, Sevensville.
North Carolina. Battleboro, Camden, Concord, Edenton, Elizabeth
City, Enfield, Faison, Hookertown, Indian Town, Lexington,
Maysville, New Berne, Raleigh, Roanoke Island, Rocky Mount,
Rose Dale, Shiloh, Smithfield, South Mills, Warsaw, Woodbridge.
South Carolina. Columbia. .Jonesville, Union.
Georgia. Albany, Augusta, Blakely, Camilla, Milford.
Florida. Jacksonville, Milton, Monticello,'Pen3acola, Pineville, Yalaha.
Alabama. Belleville, Bumsvnlle, Claiborne, Gosport, Greenville.
Mississippi. Aberdeen, Austin, Egypt, Senatobia.
Louisiana. Bastrop, Fillmore, Monroe, New Orleans, Pattersonville,
Texas. Calvert, Hallettsville, Houston, Luling, Marshall, Wharton.
Arkansas. DeView, Duncan, Galloway, Helena, Little Rock, Mariana,
Poplar Grove, Trenton,
Tennessee. Bristol, Memphis, Nashville, Versailles.
Kentucky. Birmingham, Louisville.
Illinois. Chicago, Randolph.
Missouri. Kansas City.
Exodus Associations have been formed at several of the places above
named. Those at Pineville. Florida, are said to have 800 members, at
Houston, Texas, 300, and at Helena, Arkansas, 500, proposing to char-
ter and fit out vessels and proceed at their ow^n expense direct to Liberia.
Since our last Anniversary, there has been witnessed the first effective
movement made by the American people of color from their own orig^-
The American Colonization Society. 9'
nal, voluntary action and at their own expense, to remove to the land of
their ancestors. March 21, the bark "Azor" was dedicated to its special
mission at Charleston with religions services, and April 21 she sailed
from that City full of emigrants for Monrovia. Nearly as many more,
eager to go, were left for want of room.
The Azor is a bark of 400 tons burthen, purchased at Boston by the
Liberia Joint Stock Steamship Company, incorporated under the laws
of the State of South Carolina, and composed entirely of men of African
descent. The number of emigrants who embarked, including both sex-
es and all ages, was 274. Two Church organizations were formed
among them while at Charleston, viz. : The Azor African M. E. Church,
with Rev. S. Flegler as pastor, and the Shiloh Baptist Church, with,
deacons and clerk; but no pastor.
The measles were unfortunately taken on board the Azor by her pas-
sengers, and amid the discomforts of people so hastily brought together
without previous experience at sea, the ship fever made its appearance.
The Directors of the expedition had been disappointed in securing the
services of an educated physician, so that there was no proper medical
attendance, and twenty-four of the emigrants died on the way, a large
part of whom were children.
May 28, the eyes of the passengers were rejoiced by the sight of Afri-
can land. On account of calms, sickness and shortness of water, the
Azor entered Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, and her Captain
there engaged the rrmil steamer Ethiopia to tow her to Monrovia, where
she cast anchor, June 3. By the 5th of June all the emigrants, includ-
ing two born on the voyage, were landed in Monrovia, where the Libe-
rians gave them a warm reception : called a meeting of the leading citi-
zens at the city Hall to welcome them, and there had a general inter-
change of views, satisfactory to all.
The Azor made the home run in thirty-six days, arriving at Charles-
ton, July 24, when she was chartered for a freighting voyage to London.
She returned, in ballast, to Charleston, January 10, and is said to be
in course of preparation for a second trip to Monrovia, to sail February
20, with about 150 passengers and a venture of goods by merchants
and others of Charleston for the Liberia market.
Ex-President Warner, in a letter of November 19, says: "The larger
portion of the Azor people have settled at Poor-Bar or Digby, a few
miles to the North and West of Monrovia; others have removed to Dix-
ville, a village just in the rear of New-Georgia, leaving Messrs. Irons
and Gilliard and a few families still in Monrovia.''
It is proper to state that the 'American Colonization Society had no
agency in the expedition by the Azor, except in active sympathy and
best wishes, and experienced advice and counsel freely given to those
10 Sixty- Second Animal Rpporf 0/
prominently engaged. They preferred to manage it alone, and mistakes
followed. These can and will doubtless be avoided in future. It is a
.gratifying reflection that this Society, in sending 165 expeditions, has
had no serious casualty happen to either vessel or emigrants. Special
•care has been taken to make their passage safe and comfortable, and
kind Providence has given prosperity .
A RACE MOVEMENT.
In addition to the applications for transportation to Liberia and the
independent shipment just mentioned, it is well to recall the fact that
petitions, representing thousands of freedmen, have been presented to
the present Congress asking assistance, to the amount of |I00 each, to
enable them to remove to Africa, this being the sum formerly granted
for the settlement in Liberia of each African recaptured from slave
ships. For this amount the American Colonization Society will furnish
a passage to that Republic, and six months provision and shelter after
arrival, with land.
This spontaneous uprising] is worthy the serious attention of the
whole nation. It indicates the beginning of a race movement which is
<;ertain to gather force as it progresses; and this power will be in propor-
tion to the social disabilities of the people of color in this country, to
their natural increase, to the competition of white labor, and to the ad-
vantages of freedom, education and political advancement in a land
which is ruled entirely by their own race.
There will be great need of wisdom and experience to organize and
outfit expeditions, and to control the character and conditions of emigra-
tion so as to provide for the health, subsistence and comfort of the em-
igrants, and to select those whose intelligence, industry and resolution
shall afford reasonable guarantees of success.
The religious and missionary elements which enter into this move-
ment are in full keeping with the 8.Hme high motives which inspired the
founders of this Society and which have been supreme in its history of
sixty-two years. Instead of being dead and buried, it now appears that
a new era in African Colonizition is at hand— the era of a voluntary and
self-sustaining emigration, in large numbers and with increasing re-
sources. It is clear that the Society will have a very important part to
act in the new exodus. Certain it is, that but for what it has done in
planting civilization and Christianity in Liberia, the very suggestion of
this African exodus would have been impossible. Its record of more
than three score years is full of undeserved contumely and hindrances,
but its quiet unyielding work has given Liberia to Africa, and has made
peaceful colonization the historical sequel to emancipation in these
IJie American Cnjonlzatioii Society 11
The state of affairs in Liberia shows signs of improvement, and that
progress, material and spiritual, will more than ever characterize her
Hon. Anthony W. Gardner, who was inauguratad President of Libe-
ria, January 7th. at Monrovia, was born in Southampton Co., Virginia,
January 24th, 1820, and was taken by his parents, both of whom were
free, to the then Colony, arriving there January 11th, 1831, in the brig
Tolador, sent by this Society. His mother died July 7, 1865, but hia
father, born August 25th, 1796, still lives and is in good health.
President Gardner obtained his education in Liberia, and has held
important positions— serving for sixteen consecutive years as a mem-
ber of the National Legislature, and four years as Vice-President,
His inaugural address exhibits ability, patriotism and statesmanship —
pledging himself "to remove as far as possible, the weight which
aerves to retard labor and to discourage the husbandman, and to
have money not only current with the Government, but with the cit-
The coffee of Liberia, pronounced by those of experience equal in
■quality to any in the world and superior to most, has been of late in
extensive demand. The last crop was the largest ever known, 90,000
pounds of which were brought to New York in May, commanding some
■$22,000. The bark Elverton, dispatched fiom Brazil, took, in April,
about 100,000 coffee plants and 50,000 pounds of coffee seed; she re-
turned to Monrovia in November for a similar cargo, which was readily
procured. An order for 100,000 coffee seed has been sent from Jamaica.
'Queensland, South Australia, Ceylon, Java, Natal, Venezuela, Costa
Rica and other countries are importing and planting Liberia coffee, and
:generally with extraordinary success. It is hardy and grows where oth-
er species will not, it resists the attacks of the dreaded leaf disease and
jields enormously. It is stated that on an estate in Ceylon, where the
Liberian plant has been tested, the unsurpassed crop of two tons of the
fragrant berry has been gathered.
In a revival of religion, native heathen from a wide section of coun-
try attended the meetings, and it was ascertained that among those pro-
fessing coDversiou were residents of villnges as far inland as Boporo.
The Ohnerv er ol Ocioher 2ii, says: "The sum of $2,758.93 has been ex-
pended for repairs on the Monrovia M. E. church. All of this money,
except a few dollars, was contiibuted in Monrovia. « * * On
Thanksgiving Day, a collection was taken in Trinity E. church, Monro-
Tia, in aid of the building fund, and $240 were received."
Liberia needs a railroad, and good common roads with substantial
12 Sixt y- Second Annual Report of
bridges over the creeks, for at lejst one hundred miles back, to locate
the new comers at once from the ship into the healthy regions, and open
to their astonished and thankful gaze one of the finest countries in the
world, only waiting for the civilized and Christian settler to make it a&
desirable a home as may be found anywhere. The Government is not
able to carry out these necessary internal improvements, and yet it is
felt that some such provision ought to be made to diminish the incon-
veniences and lessen the labors of immigrants, and to reach a magnifi-
cent field for commercial enterprise. Let white Americans thus give to
black Americans the facilities for moving eastward from California to
the banks of the Niger, and further still to the highlands of Abysinia.
And who can say that it may not be reserved for the United States to
cross two continents by the energy of her citizens and plant her institu-
tions from the Indian to the Pacific Ocean ?
The much talked of exodus to Liberia has called out hostile criticism
of that Republic. Happily the evidence is at hand of two visitors of
preconceived opposition to the country, who made an examination of it
daring the year.
Mr. A. B. Williams, the correspondent of the News and Covner of
Charleston, S. C, who accompanied the Azor passengers, wrote to that
paper: ''There is one feature of Liberian life worthy of commendation.
As soon as they acquire means, they seem generally to go out to en-
large their ideas by travel and observation. Many of those whom I
met had been to, and generally through, England and America, and
several over the Continent of Europe. * ♦ * The general life of the
older and wealtheir planters along the St. Paul's resembles in many par-
ticulars that of the Southern planter in the ' good old days.' Having a
g©od brick house built, and his coffee or sugar plantation well under
way, the tiller of the soil generally takes his ease, wears good clothes,
only exercising a supervision of his affairs. ♦ * * As the present
generation is growing old, the children take charge after the return of
the heir from his schooling and 'finishing tour.' In view of all this, it
is ridiculous to suppose that the Liberians are relapsing into barbarism.
On the contrary, it is apparent that each generation is bringing them
steadily nearer to perfect civilization."
Dr. A. L. Stanford, who went out as a Commissioner from his race in
Arkansas, returned during the summer with a favorable report. In a
letter to our Rooms, he remarks: — "After traveling extensively in Li-
beria and observing the prosperous condition of the colony which the
American Colonization Society has planted and, I am convinced, firmly
established, I am prepared to lend my aid in disabusing the public mind
Ihe American Colonization Society. 13
in regard to the noble efforts put forth by that Society in elevating the
down-trodden Negro race. I entertain very different views from
what I held before. I verily believe that Africa is the natural home
of the Negro, and that ere long the remnant of her descendants,
wherever dispersed, will return to that lund. Could not a deeper inter-
est be awakened in the public mind in behalf of the people desiring to
emigrate, so as to render them more assistance ? Could not some means
be devised or plan adopted so as to afford them cheap transportation
from the South ? I favor a gradual emigration of the more enterprising,
hard-working and intelligent class of American Negroes. I believe such
a course would prove a blessing to Africu and to the race. The letters
sent by persons in Liberia to their friends in this country do more to
counteract the influence of opposers and contradict false rumors respect-
ing that Republic than any other human power can possibly do. I shall
be ready to go with my family so soon as I am relieved from the General
Assembly of Arkansas, which will be about the 10th of March."
The "labor of our country " seems to be the chief barrier in the way
of the most ardent philanthropists, paralyzing their efforts to promote
the magnificent work of Colonization in the continent of Africa by effi-
cient workers, providentially prepared in the United States by the dis-
cipline of a severe school. Strange that any one should grudge Africa
the advantages they may be able to confer upon her. But labor in the
United States, as elsewhere, will adjust itself to the circumstances with
which God, in furtherance of His purposes, will surround that country.
Eastward the star of Empire is taking its way, and the'vacuum formed
by the exodus of Negroes going east may be filled by Chinese coming
The three schools at Arthington (2) and Brewerville (1) supported
from the income of a fund in the care of this Society, have been contin-
ued with an aggregate of 108 scholars and with the same general prog-
ress as in past years.
The Hall Free School at Cape Palmas, sustained by the Maryland
State Colonization Society, is reported as "progressing, with an increase
of scholars." The regular attendance is given at from forty-five to
fifty, of whom six are aborigines. "Punctuality, industry, neatness,
Tcspect for the rights and feelings of others and a strict regard for
truth," are said to be "enforced as far as possible."
The following statement has lately been made by the Presidents of
the two organizations which have charge of endowments for the Pro-
fessorships of The Liberia College: " 'The Trustees, at Boston, of
Donations for Education in Liberia,' in connection with the New
1 4 Sixty- Second A n n ua I Repo rt of
York State Colonization Society, have for fifteen years past main-
tained a collegiate institution at Monrovia, under the title of The-
Liberia College. The result has been that at no time has there-
been to exceed fourteen pupils in its classes, and that but ten pu-
pils have passed a full course. At present there are but three pupils,
and there is no prospect of a material increase. Under these circum-
stances, both the above mentioned bodies, after a very full ascertainment
of the facts relating to the College, have come to the conclusion that
the only hope of its successful prosecution will be a removal from it»
present site into the interior, at a convenient position to accommodate
pupils from the Aborigines, and to make it in a good degree self-sup-
porting, by making it in the main a manual labor institution. The
Trustees of the College in Africa have passed resolutions consenting to
the removal, and several of the interior settlements will, from their lim-
ited means^ aid somewhat in the expenses of the removal. The plan
proposed will involve a small outlay to obtain sufficient buildiugs to ac-
commodate the Professors and pupils. It is believed that the expendi-
ture of $5,000 for this purpose will be sufficient to establish it in a new
site and maintain fifty pupils without additional ai<l for several years. '^
It being felt that some one especially representing the patrons and
Trustees in the United States should go to Liberia to arouse the people
and organize their efforts for education, the Rev. John B. Pinney, LL.D.,
was early in the year appointed President t;ud Fulton Professor in the
College, and spent several months in Liberia. He returned to this coun-
try, via Liverpool, in September, and again embarked for the eighth
time for Africa by the new trader Monrovia, with as fresh feelings and
enthusiastic zeal for the elevation of the "Dark Continent," as he ex-
hibited forty-five years ago.
The Monrovia Seminary was re-opened, in June, under the superin-
tendency of Rev. R. J. Kellogg, of the Methodist E. Church. It is
stated to have over one hundred pupils in the primary, intermediate and
higher departments, most of whom are paying their tuition fees.
The Preparatory Department of The Liberia College, the Alexander
High School at Clay-Ashland, and a school at Bassa where the higher
branches are taught, each in charge of a graduate of The Liberia Col-
lege, are giving marked satisfaction. The Government schools are
affording instruction to a large number of children. Not the least want
of the Republic is the establishment, at suitable places, of a few institu-
tions of an academic grade, especially for females.
The able and enlightened Secretary of the Navy in his late Annual
Report says: — "The Ticonderoga has been detailed, under the command
The American Colonization Society. l^
of Commodore R. W. Shufelck, for special service upon the Coast of
Africa. This service is regarded as especially important in its relations,
not merely to international matters confided to it, but to our commercial
interests. The officer assigned to this command is peculiarly fitted for
the delicate duty confided to him, and the most satisfactory results are
expected from his cruise. Besides his other duties, he has been desig-
nated to act as a Commissioner to adjust a controversy in reference to
the boundary line between the British possessions in Africa and Liberia. "^
Commodore Shufeldt is admirably qualified for the high and respon-
sible mission entrusted him, and upon the execution of which he left
Norfolk, Va., in the steamer Ticonderoga, December 7th. The territory
of Liberia was in olden times the very centre of the slave-trade traffic;
but it is now one of the principal seats of West African commerce and
civilization, and of Christian education and influence. Without any ex-
traordinary cost or effort, therefore, the United States may be brought
in contact with every portion of the Republic and its vast interior, and
by judicious measures, may set 50,000,000 of natives to work to bring-
together the rich resources of their soil for foreign exportation, in ex-
change for the surplus manufactures of America.
Congress would do well to promptly furnish such aid in establishing
commercial and postal facilities as will develop and strengthen African
trade, and thus, by placing American merchants upon an equality with
competing nations, stimulate and encourage the early revival and exten-
sion of American industries. England, a few years since, subsidized a
line of steamers to Liberia and the West Coast of Africa, and the result
already is that two lines of twenty-four steamers are plying from Liver-
pool, carrying the mails, many of the passengers and much of the freight
to and from the United States.
THE OPEN GATE.
Travelers have made known the fact that the heart of Africa, instead
of being a wild waste, possesses a wonderful lake system, a most fertile
soil, and many millions of vigorous and interesting people. This region
is being largely patronized by British Missionary Societies, from the
The country east of Liberia affords to the United States a distinct Af-
rican field, and a natural one. There is no other portion of the Conti-
nent so promising for commercial activity and Christian labor. That
Republic is a base of operations on the West Coast in sympathy with
America. Boporo has been occupied as a missionary station, Musardu
can be easily reached, and the way seems open from that to the wa-
ters of the Niger, and beyond the Niger to the heart of Soudan.
16 Sixty- Second Annual Report.
The American Nation, through the instrumentality of its Negro popu-
lation, has it in her power to do more for the "Dark Continent" than
any other Christian nation. The United States can send farmers, me-
chanics and merchants allied in blood and race to the indigenous inhab-
itants. It can furnish not only the song, the prayer, and the sermon,
but the singers, teachers and preachers who can live in that country.
Agriculture and commercial operations, and the example of well regu-
lated domestic life, would exemplify and enforce the teachings of the
heralds of the gospel. That despoiled Continent may be thus soon
made to say to her despoilers: — ''Ye thought evil against me, but God
.meant it unto good."
19 2. |p -
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MINUTES OF THE SOCIETY.
Washington, D. C, January 21, 1879.
The Annual meeting of the Americaji Colonization Society was
held this evening at 7^ o'clock, in Metropolitan M. E. Church, the Pres-
ident, Hon. John H. B. Latrobe, in the chair.
The pastor of the Church, Rev. H. R. Naylor, D.D., led in prayer.
The Si.xty-Second Annual Report of the Society was presented l)y the
Corresponding Secretary, who also tead extracts therefrom.
Addresses were delivered by Rt. Plev. M. A. DeWolfe Howe, D.D.,
Bishop of Central Pennsylvania, and Gen. S. C. Armstrong. Principal
of Hampton Institute, Virginia.
The following resolution was offered and advocated by Hon. C Wash-
ington Warren of Boston, .Mass.
Reiolved, That a Memorial !)♦* respectfully preRented by the President and the E.xecu
tive Committee, on behalf of the Society, to Congress at its present session,
praying that an appropriation of #25,000 be made for the purpose of making ex-
plorations and surveys upon the Western Coast of Africa, and from Liberia
into the interior of that deu.sely populated continent, with the view to the build-
ing up of .Viuerican trade and commerce therewith: the same to be expended
under the sanction of the Secretary of the Navy, in the employment of the offi-
cers attached to the V'nited States steamer now on that Coast and of other sci-
entific experts, and for other necessary expenses or in such manner as Con-
gress may deem most advisable.
The President of the Society followed in support of the resolution,
when it was unanimously adopted.
The Society adjourned to meet to-morrow at 12 o'clock m.. in ila
rooms in the Colonization Building.
Rev. James Saul, D.D., pronounced the benediction.
Colonization Rooms, January 22, 1879.
The A.MERiCAN Colonization Society met at the appointed time, mid
in the absence of President Latrobe. detained by professional engage-
ments in Baltimore, Vice President Harvey Lindsly. M.D.. presided.
The Minutes of the meeting of last evening were read and approved.
Minutes < if the Sof'ietij.
President William H. Allen. Hon. Peter Parker and Kev. John W.
Chickering. D.D., were appointed a Committee to nominate the Presi-
dent and Vice Presidents of the Society for the year 187lt.
On motion of Rev. Alfred Elwyn. it was
Resolved. That our acknowledgments are due and are hereby tendered, to Bishop
Howe of Ontral Pennsylvania, and to Genera) .\rmstrong of the Hampton,
Va . Insti'ute. for their able and eloquent addresses, an<l to Jud^e Warren of
Boston, and President Latrobe of Baltimore, for their remarks delivered last
evening at the Anniversary of the Sooiety, and that copies be reque.sted for
Resolved. That the thanks of the Society be Riven to tlie Pastor and Trustees of the
Metrepolitan ME Church, for their kindness and courtesy in granting its use
for the exercises of our Anniversary
President Allen. Chairman of the Committee on Nominations, pre-
sented and read a Report recommending the re-election of the present
President and Vice Presidents, and the election of Hon. G. Washington
Warren of Massachusetts, as an additional Vice President, as follows:—
185.1 Ho.N. JOHN H. B. LATROBE
1R8K Hon. Henry A. Foster. N. Y.
^fV.^R Hon. James Garland, Virginia.
IHtl. Thomas R. Hazard, Esq.. R. I.
1R48, Hon. Lucius Q. C. Elmer, N.J.
1R49. Rev. Ix)vick Pierce, D.D . Ga.
laM. Rev. Robert Ryland, D.D , Ky.
18.51. Hon. Fred. P Stanton, D. C.
IftM. Hon. Hr ratio Seymour, N. Y.
1R5.3. Edward McGehee, Esq., Miss.
IW4. Rev. Matthew Simpson, D. D.. Pa.
ia')4. Rev. Levi Scott, D. D., Del.
lavi. Rev. Robert Paine. D. D., Miss.
1^54. Rev. Edward R. Ames, D D, Md.
ISVl. Rev. James C. Finley, Hhnois.
1H,>1. Hon. John F. Darby, Missouri.
1854. Hon. Joseph B. Crockett, Cal.
Ift59. Hon. Henry M. Schieffehn. N. Y.
1861. Rev. J. Maclean, D D., LL. D.. N. J.
1K61. Hon. Ichabod Go<^)dwin, N. H.
\m\. Hon. William E. Dodge. N. Y.
1866. Hon. James R. Doolittle, Wis.
1867. Samuel A. Crozer. Esq., Pa.
1869. Hon Fred. T. Frehnghuysen, N. J.
1869. Rev. S. IrensBus Prime. D. D., N. Y.
1869. Rev. B L Haighl, D. D, LL. D., N. Y.
1870. Robert Arthington, Esq., England.
1872. Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, D.D.Ky.
1872. Harvey Lindsly, M. D., D. C.
1874. Rev. Randolph S. Foster, D. D , Mass.
1874. Rt. Rev. Wm B. Stevens, D.D., Pa.
1874 . Hon. Eli K. Price. Pennsylvania.
1874. Rt. Rev. Gregory T. Bedell, D. D., O.
1874. Theodore L. Mason. M. D., N. Y.
1875. Levi Keese, M. D., Mass.
1875. Rt. Rev. M. A. DeW. Howe, D.D., Pa.
1875. Samuel K Wilson. Esq., N. J.
1876. Rev. Wm. 1. Budington, D. D., Y.
1876. Rev. Samuel E. Appleton, D. D., Pa.
1876. Rev. Jabez P. Campbell. D.D.. Pa.
1876. Rev. H. M. Turner, D. D.. LL. D., Ga.
1877. Prest. E. G. Robinson, LL. D., R. L
1877. Rev. Joseph F. Elder. D. [)., N. Y.
1877. Rev. William E. Schenck, D. D., Pa.
187S. Hon. Richard W. Thompson, Indiana.
1878. Com. Robt. W. Shufeldt, U.S.N., Conn.
1879. Hon. G. Washington Warren, Mass.
The figures before each name Indicate the year of first election
20 Minutes of the Society.
Whereupon, on motion, it was
Resolved, That the report of the Committee be accepted and the nominations approv-
ed, and that the Society elect the persons named.
On motion, adjourned.
William Coppinger, Secretary.
MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS.
Washington, D. C, January 21, 1879.
The Board of Directors of the American Colonization Society met
this day at 12 o'clock m., in their rooms in the Colonization Building,
No. 450 Pennsylvania Avenue.
In the absence of the President, Dr. Harvey Lindsly presided, and
at his request the Rev. Thomas G. Addison, D. D., led in prayer.
Mr. William Coppinger was appointed Secretary of the Board.
The uuprinted Minutes of the last meeting were read, and the Minutes
were approved .
Hon. Mr. Parker, President Welling and Rev. Dr. Addison were ap-
pointed a Committee on credentials ; who retired and subsequently re-
ported the following named Delegates appointed for the year 1879:
Pennstlvania Colonization Sociicty— Rt Rev M. A. De W. Howe, D. D.,* Rev.
William E. Schenck, D.D., William V. Pettit, Esq., Robert B. Davidson, Esq., Rev.
James Saul, D. D.,* Rev Samuel E. Appleton, D. D., Rev. Thomas S. Malcom, Arthur
M. Burton, Esq., Rev. H. L. Wayland, D. D., Joseph P. Brinton, Esq., William H. Allen,
Esq., LL.D.,* Rev. Alfred Elwyn,* Rev Henry L. PhiUips, Edward D. Marchant, Esq.,
William Montelius, Esq.
The following Directors were reported to be in attendance :
Dr. Harvey Lindsly, WilHam Qunton, Esq , Hon. Pet^r Parker. President James
C. WeUing, Judge Charles C. Nott, Reginald Fendall, Esq., Rev. Thomas G. Addison,
Whereupon, on motion, it was
Resolved, That the report of the Committee on Credentials be accepted and approved,
and the gentlemen named be received.
On motion, it was
Resolved. That Hon. G. Washington Warren, President of the Massachusetts Coloniza-
tion Society, be invited to sit with the Board and to participate in its delibera-
Letters were presented, excusing their absence from this meeting,
from Life Directors, — Rev. John Maclean, D.D., Jan. 20th; Edward
Coles, Esq., Jan. 18th; Dr. Charles H. Nichols, Jan. 17th; Rev. S.
• In attendance.
22 Minufeft of the Board of Directors.
Ireneus Prime, D.D., Jan. 18th; Rev. George W. Samson, D.D., Jan.
17th; and Rev. Edward W Appleton, D.D., Jan. 16th.
The Corresponding Secretary presented and read the Sixty-Second
Annual Report of the Society.
Whereupon, on motion, it was
Resolved, That the Annua) Report be accepted and referred to a special Committee to
select portions to be read at the Anniversary this evening.
Judge Warren, Mr. Elwyn. and President Welling were appointed the
The Corresponding Secretary presented and read the Annual State-
ment of the Executive Committee.
The Treasurer presented and read his Report, with certificate of audit;
also, a statement of receipts by States during the year 1878, and list of
the property of the Society.
Whereupon, on motion, it was
Resolved, That the Statement of the E.Yecutiv»- Committee and the Treasurer's Re-
port, with the accomi)anyinK .Annual papi-rs, be accepted, and that so much of
them and of the Report of the Society as relate to Foreiffn Relations, Finance,
Auxihary Societie.s, .Vgencies. Accounts, Emigration, and Education, be refer-
red to the several standing Committees m charge of those subjects respectively.
The Standing Committees were appointed, as follows:
CoMMnTKE ON FoBKioN Relatio.vs.— HoH. Pi.ttT Parker, Rev. Alfred Elwyn, Judge
Charles C. Nott.
Committee on Fn.A.N<.B —Hon Ci. Washington Warren, WiUiam Gunton. Esq., Regi-
nald Fendall, Esq.
CoifMiTTEE ON ArxiUARV SOCIETIES. -Rev. Thomas O. Addison, D.D., Reginald Fen-
dall, Esq , Rev. James Saul, D.D.
Committee on Aoencies.— Judge Charles C Nott, Rev. Alfred Elwyu, President
James C Welling.
CoMMriTEE ON Accounts.— Hon. G. Washington Warren, William Gunton, Esq., Reg-
inald Fendall, Esq.
Committee on Emigration.— President James C- Welling, Rev. James Saul, D,D..
Judge Charles C. Nott.
Committee on EorcATiON -President James C. Welling, Rev. James Saul, D.D.,
Judge Charles C. Nott.
On motion, it wa.s
Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to nominate the Executive Committee and
Rev. Dr. Addison, Bishop Howe anil Judge Warren were appointed
On motion of Rev. Dr Saul, it was
Resolved, That it is e.xpedient that a iiit'eting of this Society, in connection with the
Pennsylvania Auxiliary, be held at a suitable time during this year, in the city
of Philadelphia, and that the Executive Committee make arrangements for the
Miinitf'fi of the Board of Dir priors. 23
same, and that they endeavor to obtain several speakers to make short ad-
dresses; and that one of the speakers be invited to present a brief statement
of the origin, rise, progress and results already obtained by the Society.
Resolved. That tlu- Executive Committee take into consideration the expediency of
holding similar meetings in the cities of New York and Boston, in conjunction
with the Auxiliary and other Societies iji those cities.
On motion, it was
Resolved, That the Board do now adjourn to meet to-morrow moming at 10 o'clock.
Colonization Rooms, January 22, 1879.
The Board of Directors met at the appointed time, Dr. Lindsly in the
chair, and prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. Saul.
The Minutes of yesterday's meeting were read and approved.
The following letter from President Latrobe was read and ordered lo
be entered on the records with an expression of the regret of the Board
at the inability of the President to meet with the Directors on the pres-
ent occasion, viz. :
Baltimore, January 20. 1879.
My dear Mr. Coppinger:—
A jury was sworn this moming in a cause in our Superior Court here, which will
occupy from 10 o'clock to-morrow until the adjournment of the Court at 3 p. m. This
will prevent my being present at the opening of the meeting at 12 m. to-morrow; but
will not prevent my being with j'ou in the evening at the Metropolitan Church, and I
hope will not prevent my attendance with the Board on Wednesday. Under ordinary
circumstances I might have put off the trial that now embarrasses me, but it was im-
possible for me in this case to do so. Faithfully yours,
Jno. H B. Latrobe, President, &c.
Hon. Mr. Parker, Chairman of the Standing Committee on Foreign
Relations, reported that, in their judgment, there was no business in the
papers referred to tliem calling for action at this time.
Judge Warren, (liaiiinan of tlie Staiidiuix C'oniiuittee on Finance, pre-
sented and read tlu- follo'.vinir Report : whicti was, on motion, accepted
and approved : —
The Committee on Finance have examined the securities named in the Stat<?ment
prepared by the Treasurer, and find the same to be correct.
Rev. Dr. Addison, Chairman of tlie Standing Committee on Auxiliary
Societies, reported that, in their judgment, there was no business in the
papers referred to them calling for the special attention of the B(^ard.
Judge Nott, Chairman of the Standing Committee on Agencies, pre-
sented and read the following Report; which was, on motion, accepted
and the accompanying resolution was adopted : —
24 Minutes of the Board of Directors.
The Committee on Agencies respectfully report that this subject is necessarily in-
volved with and conditioned by the future policy of the Society. If there should be a
largely increased emigration to Liberia under the control and with the assistance of the
Society, agencies to awalcen public interest and collect funds will be indispensably If,
on the contrary, the action of the Society shall be reduced to that of acquiring and
disseminating information, looking to the welfare of Liberia and her immigrants, or if
the interest of the public should be so apathetic that the funds collected will be sub-
stantially nothing more than the compensation of the agents, then clearly the system
of agencies should be abandoned and the Society's course should conform to the condi-
tions of its problem of duty. In the present agitated but unsettled state of the Amer-
ico-African mind it is impossible to forecast with certainty the precise path which the
Society should pursue. A single month may bring about a condition of things which
would fully task the energies of the Society, and warrant it in appeaUng promptly to
the public for aid. and promptitude and efficiency would require the instrumentality of
active agents. For these reasons the Committee submit and recommend the adoption
of the following Resolution,—
Resolved, That the power of appointing agents to solicit subscriptions for the cause of
African Colonization, either at a fixed compensation or for a percentage of the
amounts collected, be confided to the Executive Committee; but that the
Committee be instructed not to establish such agencies unless there be reason
to believe that the amounts collected will be largely in excess of the expenses
of an agency.
Judge Warren, Chairman of the Standing Committee on Accounts,
presented and read the following Report: which was, on motion, ac-
cepted and approved: —
The Committee on Accounts have examined the Treasurer's account for the year
1878. and the vouchers for the same, and find the account to be correct
President Welling, Chairman of the Standing Committee on Emigra-
tion, presented and read a Report; which was, on motion, accepted,
amended, and approved, and is as follows: —
The Committee to whom was referred the subject of Emigration, beg leave respect-
fully to report that at the last Annual Meeting of the Society it was recorded as a mat-
ter of just exaltation thaf, for the first time in its hi.story, it had been able, during the
previous year, to dispatch to Liberia a company of emigrants who had contributed to
defray a considerable portion of the expenses attendant upon their emigration. At the
same time the hope was expressed that this gratifying fact might prove the harbinger
of a new system that should prevail more and more among our colored fellow-citizens
who propyose to remjve to Liberia; and the Executive Committee were instructed to
have primary reference, in the choice of emigrants, to their character and ability to
meet a whole or a part of the expenses of their transportation. In logical pursuance of
the poUcy thus Initiated, your Committee recommend, that during the next year, the
Elxecutive Committee be advised to afford aid to no adult male emigrant who shall
not contribute at least one-half the sum necessary to defray the expense of his emigra-
tion. Your Committee believe that among the half-million of colored people who are,
it is said, considering the expediency of emigrating to Liberia, it should not be difficult
to find a class who are able to help themselves in this matter, and whom the Society
could help with the assurance that it was sending out men of some energy and self-re-
Uance, who would contribute in their measure to develop the resources and strengthen
the social forces of the African Republic. And while suggesting this new condition in
the case of male adults, your Committee beg leave to renew the recommendation of
former years— that the Executive Committee should have due regard to the intellectual
and moral character of the emigrants whom they select as the partial beneficiaries of
Mmutes of the Board of Directors. 25
President Welling, Chairman of the Standing Com-nittee on Educa-
tion, presented and read the following Report ; which was, on motion,
accepted and approved : —
The Committ<:'P to whom was referred tlie subject of Education in Liberia, respect-
fully be;? leave to report that it some misfortunes seem to have overtaken the cause of
higher education in the Republic, it is nevertheless to be hoped that the educational
facihties and appliances of the Liberian people will, in the end, be so adjusted to their
local wants and peculiar conditionii, as to insure a sound and steady progress in all the
arts and sciences best adapted to strengthen and adorn their civilization. Educational
constitutions, like all other constitutions of society, must be, if they are to work bene-
ficially, the natural and normal outgrowtlis of the social state which they are meant to
subserve. In the mean time, it should be our aim. as far as possible, to foster an ed-
ucational spirit in Liberia, and to study the forms under which that spirit may find the
most judicious and the most available expressions.
On motion of Rev. Dr. Saul, it was
Resolved, That we sincerely sympathize with Rev. John Orcutt, D.D., our respected
General Secretary, in his severe and long-continued illness, from which we trust
he may soon recover.
Resolved, That as expressing our appreciation of his many valuable services in the
cause of Colonization, first as Agent and afterward as Secretarj-, we hereby ap-
point him " Honorary Secretary " of the Society.
Rev. Dr. Addison, Chairman of the Special Committee to nominate
the Executive Committee and Secretaries, reported, recommending the
election of the following: —
Skcbktary and Treasurer. — William Coppinger.
ExEciiTivK CoMiirrTKE.— Harvey Lindsly, M.D., William Gunton, Esq., Hon. Peter
Parker, James C Welling. LL.D., Judge Charles C. Nott, Reginald Fendall, Esq., Rev.
Thomas Q. Addison, D.D.
Whereupon, on motion, it was
Resolved, That the Report be accepted and approved, and that the Board elect the
persons nominated by the Committee.
The proposed amendment of the Constitution, offered by the Board of
Managers of the Pennsylvania Colonization Society, January 9, 1877,
and considered by this Board at the annual sessions of 1877 and 1878,
was taken up and pending discussion, on motion, it was
Resolved, That the legal bearings of the Act of Incorporation of the Society on the
proposed change of the Constitution, now under consideration, be referred to
a Committee of three, to report at their earliest convenience.
Judges Nott and Warren, and Mr. Fendall were appointed the Com-
Mr. Fendall, from the special Committee to whom the subject was re-
ferred, reported that, in their opinion, there was no legal obstacle in the
way of adopting the proposed amendment to the Constitution of the So-
The Board continued the further consideration of the proposed change
26 Minutes of the Board of Directors.
of Article Second of the Constitution, and on the question being put, it
was agreed to unanimously, as follows : —
Articub Sbcond.— The objects of this Society shall be to aid the Colonization of Af-
rica by voluntary colored emigrants from the United States, and to promote there the
extension of Christianity and civilization-
At 12 o'clock M., the appointed hour for the meeting of the Society,
the Board of Directors took a recess for ten minutes; at the expiration
of which time, it was again called to order.
On motion of Hon. Mr. Parker, it was
Betolved, That Rev. John W. Chiekering, D.D., be invited to sit with the Board and
to take part in it« deUbe rations.
On motion, it was
Retolved, That the Annual Report of the Society be referred to the Executive Commit-
tee for such action as they may think proper.
The Board united in prayer, led by Rev. Dr. Saul, and then, on mo-
William Coppihoeu, Secretary.