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Full text of "Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution"

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36th Congress, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. J Mis. Doc. 
2c? Session. ) \ 



fS 



A- 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF REGENTS 



OF THE 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 



SHOWING THE 



OPERATIONS, EXPENDITURES, AND CONDITION OF THE 
INSTITUTION FOR THE YEAR 1860. 



33 & 9 



VIKHDRAVW 



FROM 



WASHINGTON: 

GEORGE W. BOWMAN, PRINTER. 

1SG1. 



In the House of Representatives of the United States, 

February 28, 1861. 
Resolved, That there be printed five thousand extra copies of the Report of the Smithson- 
ian Institution for the year 1860; three thousand for the use of the members of the House, 
and two thousand for the use of said Institution. 

Attest: JOHN W. FORNEY, Clerk. 



LE T T EK 



OF THE 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 



COMMUNICATING 



The Annual Report of the operations, expenditures, and condition of 
the Institution for the year 1860. 



February 27, 1861. — Read, and ordered to be printed. 



Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, February 25, 1861. 
Sir: In behalf of the Board of Eegents, I have the honor to submit 
to the House of Kepresentatives of the United States the Annual Keport 
of the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution for the year 1860. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOSEPH HENRY, 
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 
Hon. William Pennington, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS 

*OF THE 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

SHOWING 

THE OPERATIONS, EXPENDITURES, AND CONDITION OF THE INSTITU- 
TION UP TO JANUARY 1, 1861, AND THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD 
UP TO FEBRUARY 22, 1861. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives : 

In obedience to the act of Congress of August 10, 1846, establishing 
the Smithsonian Institution, the undersigned, in behalf of the Regents, 
submit to Congress, as a report of the operations, expenditures, and 
condition of the Institution, the following documents: 

1. The Annual Report of the Secretary, giving an account of the 
operations of the Institution during the year 1860. 

2. Report of the Executive Committee, giving a general statement 
of the proceeds and disposition of the Smithsonian fund, and also an 
account of the expenditures for the year 1860. 

3. Proceedings of the Board of Regents up to February 22, 1861. 

4. Appendix. 

Respectfullv submitted. 

R. B. TANEY, Chancellor. 

JOSEPH HENRY, Secretary. 



OFFICERS OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



JAMES BUCHANAN, Ex officio Presiding Officer of the Institution. 
ROGER B. TANEY, Chancellor of the Institution. 

JOSEPH HENRY, Secretary of the Institution. 
SPENCER F. BAIRD, Assistant Secretary. 
W. W. SEATON, Treasurer. 
WILLIAM J. RHEES, Chief Clerk. 

JAMES A. PEARCE, 1 

ALEXANDER D. BACHE, '} Executive Committee. 

JOSEPH G. TOTTEN, J 



REGENTS OF THE INSTITUTION. 



JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE, Vice President of the United States. 
ROGER B. TANEY, Chief Justice of the United States. 
JAMES G. BERRET, Mayor of the City of Washington. 
JAMES A. PEARCE, member of the Senate of the United States. 
JAMES M. MASON, member of the Senate of the United States. 
STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS, member of the Senate of the United States. 
WILLIAM H. ENGLISH, member of the House of Representatives. 
L. J. GARTRELL, member of the House of Representatives. 
BENJAMIN STANTON, member of the House of Representatives. 
GIDEON HAWLEY, citizen of New York. 



GEORGE E. BADGER, citizen of North Carolina. 
CORNELIUS C. FELTON, citizen of Massachusetts. 
ALEXANDER D. BACHE, citizen of Washington. 
JOSEPH G. TOTTEN, citizen of Washington. 



* Vacancy caused by the death of Hon. Richard Rush. 



MEMBERS EX OFFICIO OF THE INSTITUTION. 



JAMES BUCHANAN, President of the United States. 

JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE, Vice President of the United States. 

LEWIS CASS, Secretary of State. 

HOWELL COBB, Secretary of the Treasury. 

JOHN B. FLOYD, Secretary of War. 

ISAAC TOUCEY, Secretary of the Navy. 

JOSEPH HOLT, Postmaster General. 

J. S. BLACK, Attorney General. 

ROGER B. TANEY, Chief Justice of the United States. 

P. F. THOMAS, Commissioner of Patents. 

JAMES G. BERRET, Mayor of the City of Washington. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



BENJAMIN SILLIMAN, of Connecticut. 

A. B. LONGSTREET, of Mississippi. 

JACOB THOMPSON, Secretary of the Interior, (ex officio.) 



PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

[PRESENTED IN THE FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY, AND 
ADOPTED BY THE BOARD OF REGENTS, DECEMBER 13, 1847.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



General considerations which should serve as a guide in adopting a 
Plan of Organization. 

1. Will of Smithson. The property is bequeathed to the United 
States of America, "to found at Washington, under the name of the 
Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffu- 
sion of knowledge among men." 

2. The bequest is for the benefit of mankind. The government of 
the United States is merely a trustee to carry out the design of the 
testator. 

3. The- Institution is not a national establishment, as is frequently 
supposed, but the establishment of an individual, and is to bear and 
perpetuate his name. 

4. The objects of the Institution are, 1st, to increase, and 2d, to 
diffuse knowledge among men. 

5. These two objects should not be confounded with one another. 
The first is to enlarge the existing stock of knowledge by the addi- 
tion of new truths; and the second, to disseminate knowledge, thus 
increased, among men. 

6. The will makes no restriction in favor of any particular kind of 
knowledge; hence all branches are entitled to a share of attention. 

7. Knowledge can be increased by different methods of facilitating 
and promoting the discovery of new truths; and can be most exten- 
sively diffused among men by means of the press. 

8. To effect the greatest amount of good, the organization should 
be such as to enable the Institution to produce results, in the way of 
increasing and diffusing knowledge, which cannot be produced either 
at all or so efficiently by the existing institutions in our country. 

9. The organization should also be such as can be adopted provis- 
ionally, can be easily reduced to practice, receive modifications, or be 
abandoned, in whole or in part, without a sacrifice of the funds. 

10. In order to compensate, in some measure, for the loss of time 
occasioned by the delay of eight years in establishing the Institution, 



8 PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 

a considerable portion of the interest which has accrued should be 
added to the principal. 

11. In proportion to the wide field of knowledge to be cultivated, 
the funds are small. Economy should therefore be consulted in the 
construction of the building ; and not only the first cost of the edifice 
should be considered, but also the continual expense of keeping it in 
repair, and of the support of the establishment necessarily connected 
with it. There should also be but few individuals permanently sup- 
ported by the Institution. 

12. The plan and dimensions of the building should be determined 
by the plan of organization, and not the converse. 

13. It should be recollected that mankind in general are to be bene- 
fited by the bequest, and that, therefore, all unnecessary expenditure 
on local objects would be a perversion of the trust. 

14. Besides the foregoing considerations deduced immediately from 
the will of Smithson, regard must be had to certain requirements 
of the act of Congress establishing the Institution. These are, a 
library, a museum, and a gallery of art, with a building on a liberal 
scale to contain them. 

SECTION I. 

Plan of Organization of the Institution in accordance with the foregoing 
deductions from the will of Smithson. 

To Increase Knowledge. It is^proposed — 

1. To stimulate men of talent to make original researches, by offer- 
ing facilities for the preparation of memoirs containing new truths ; and 

2. To appropriate annually a portion of the income for particular 
researches, under the direction of suitable persons. 

To Diffuse Knowledge. It is proposed — 

1. To publish a series of periodical reports on the progress of the 
different branches of knowledge ; and 

2. To publish occasionally separate treatises on subjects of general 
interest. 

DETAILS OF THE PLAN TO INCREASE KNOWLEDGE. 

I. — By stimidating researches. 

1. Facilities afforded for the production of original memoirs on all 
branches of knowledge. 

2. The memoirs thus obtained to be published in a series of volumes, 
in a quarto form, and entitled Smithsonian Contributions to Knowl- 
edge. 

3.No_ memoir on subjects of physical science to be accepted for 
publication which does not furnish a positive addition to human 
knowledge, resting on original research ; and all unverified specula- 
tions to be rejected. 

4. Each memoir presented to the Institution to be submitted for 
examination to a commission of persons of reputation for learning in 



PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 9 

the branch to which the memoir pertains ; and to he accepted for pub- 
lication only in case the report of this commission is favorable. 

5. The commission to be chosen by the officers of the Institution, 
and the name of the author, as far as practicable, concealed, unless a 
favorable decision be made. 

6. The volumes of the memoirs to be exchanged for the transactions 
of literary and scientific societies, and copies to be given to all the 
colleges and principal libraries in this country. One part of the 
remaining copies may be offered for sale ; and the other carefully pre- 
served, to form complete sets of the work, to supply the demand from 
new institutions. 

7. An abstract, or popular account, of the contents of these memoirs 
to be given to the public through the annual report of the Kegents to 
Congress. 

II. — By appropriating a part of the income, annually, to special objects 
of research, under, the direction of suitable persons. 

1. The objects, and the amount appropriated, to be recommended 
by counsellors of the Institution. 

2. Appropriations in different years to different objects, so that, in 
course of time, each branch of knowledge may receive a share. 

3. The results obtained from these appropriations to be published 
with the memoirs before mentioned, in the volumes of the Smithsonian 
Contributions to Knowledge. 

4. Examples of objects for which appropriations may be made : 

(1.) System of extended meteorological observations for solving the 
problem of American storms. 

(2.) Explorations in descriptive natural history, and geological, 
magnetical, and topographical surveys, to collect materials for the 
formation of a Physical Atlas of the United States. 

(3.) Solution of experimental problems, such as a new determination 
of the weight of the earth, of the velocity of electricity, and of light; 
chemical analyses of soils and plants ; collection and publication of 
scientific facts accumulated in the offices of the government. 

(4.) Institution of statistical inquiries with reference to physical, 
moral, and political subjects. 

(5.) Historical researches and accurate surveys of places celebrated 
in American history. 

(6.) Ethnological researches, particularly with reference to the dif- 
ferent races of men in North America; also, explorations and accurate 
surveys of the mounds and other remains of the ancient people of our 
country. 

DETAILS OF THE PLAN FOR DIFFUSING KNOWLEDGE. 

I. — By the publication of a series of reports, giving an account of the new 
discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in 
all branches of knowledge not strictly professional. 

1. These reports will diffuse a kind of knowledge generally interest- 
ing, but which, at present, is inaccessible to the public. Some of the 



10 PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 

reports may be published annually, others at longer intervals, as the 
income of the Institution or the changes in the branches of knowledge 
may indicate. 

2. The reports are to be prepared by collaborators eminent in the 
different branches of knowledge. 

3. Each collaborator to be furnished with the journals and publica- 
tions, domestic and foreign, necessary to the compilation of his report; 
to be paid a certain sum for his labors, and to be named on the title- 
page of the report. 

4. The reports to be published in separate parts, so that persons 
interested in a particular branch can procure the parts relating to it 
without purchasing the whole. 

5. These reports may be presented to Congress for partial distri- 
bution, the remaining copies to be given to literary and scientific institu- 
tions, and sold to individuals for a moderate price. 

The following are some of the subjects *which may be embraced in 
the reports : 

I. PHYSICAL CLASS. 

1. Physics, including astronomy, natural philosophy, chemistry, 
and meteorology. 

2. Natural history, including botany, zoology, geology, &c. 

3. Agriculture. 

4. Application of science to arts. 

II. MORAL AND POLITICAL CLASS. 

5. Ethnology, including particular history, comparative philology, 
antiquities, &c. 

6. Statistics and political economy. 

7. Mental and moral philosophy. 

8. A survey of the political events of the world, penal reform, &c. 

III. LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 

9. Modern literature. 

10. The fine arts, and their application to the useful arts. 

11. Bibliography. 

12. Obituary notices of distinguished individuals. 

II. By the publication of separate treatises on subjects of general interest. 

1. These treatises may occasionally consist of valuable memoirs 
translated from foreign languages, or of articles prepared under the 
direction of the Institution, or procured bv offering premiums for the 
best exposition of a given subject. 

2. The treatises should, in all cases, be submitted to a commission 
of competent judges previous to their publications 



PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 11 

3. As examples of these treatises, expositions may be obtained of 
the present state of the several branches of knowledge mentioned in 
the table of reports. 

SECTION II. 

Plan of organization, in accordance with the terms of the resolutions of 
the Board of Begents providing for the* two modes of increasing and 
diffusing knoidedge. 

1. The act of Congress establishing the Institution contemplated the 
formation of a library and a museum ; and the Board of Regents, in- 
cluding these objects in the plan of organization, resolved to divide 
the income* into two equal parts. 

2. One part to be appropriated to increase and diffuse knowledge by 
means of publications and researches, agreeably to the scheme before 
given. The other part to be appropriated to the formation of a library 
and a collection of objects of nature and of art. 

3. These two plans are not incompatible one with another. 

4. To carry out the plan before described, a library will be required, 
consisting, 1st, of a complete collection of the transactions and pro- 
ceedings of all the learned societies in the world ; 2d, of the more im- 
portant current periodical publications, and other works necessary in 
preparing the periodical reports. 

5. The Institution should make special collections, particularly of 
objects to illustrate and verify its own publications. 

6. Also, a collection of instruments of research in all branches of 
experimental science. 

7. With reference to the collection of books, other than those men- 
tioned above, catalogues of all the different libraries in the United 
States should be procured, in order that the valuable books first pur- 
chased may be such as are not to be found in the United States. 

8. Also; catalogues of memoirs, and of books and other materials, 
should be collected for rendering the Institution a centre of biblio- 
graphical knowledge, whence the student may be directed to any work 
which he may require. 

9. It is believed that the collections in natural history will increase 
by donation as rapidly as the income of the Institution can make pro- 
vision for their reception, and, therefore, it will seldom be necessary to 
purchase articles of this kind. 

10. Attempts should be made to procure for the gallery of art casts 
of the most celebrated articles of ancient and modern sculpture. 

11. The arts may be encouraged by providing a room, free of ex- 
pense, for the exhibitionof the objects of the Art-Union and other 
similar societies. 



*The amount of the Smithsonian bequest received into the Treasury of the 

United States is $515,169 00 

Interest on the same to July 1, 1846, (devoted to the erection of the building).. 242,129 00 
Annual income from the bequest 30,910 14 



12 PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 

12.' A small appropriation should annually be made for models of 
antiquities, such as those of. the remains of ancient temples, &c. 

13. For the present, or until the building is fully completed, besides 
the Secretary, no permanent assistant will be required, except one, to 
act as librarian. 

14. The Secretary, by the law of Congress, is alone responsible to 
the Kegents. He shall take charge of the building and property, 
keep a record of proceedings, discharge the duties of librarian and 
keeper of the museum, and may, with the consent of the Kegents, 
employ assistants. 

15. The Secretary and his assistants, during the session of Congress, 
will be required to illustrate new discoveries in science, and to exhibit 
new objects of art ; distinguished individuals should also be invited to 
give lectures on subjects of general interest. 



This programme, which was at first adopted provisionally, has be- 
come the settled policy of the Institution. The only material change 
is that expressed by the following resolutions adopted January 15, 
1855, viz : 

Resolved, That the 7th resolution, passed by the Board of Eegents 
on the 26th of January, 1847, requiring an equal division of the in- 
come between the active operations and the museum and library, when 
the buildings are completed, be and it is hereby repealed. 

Resolved, That hereafter the annual appropriations shall be appor- 
tioned specifically among the different objects and operations of the 
Institution in such manner as may, in the judgment of the Eegents, 
be necessary and proper for each, according to its intrinsic importance, 
and a compliance in good faith with the law. 



REPOKT OF THE SECRETARY. 



To the Board of Regents : 

Gentlemen : From the facts presented in the following report of the 
operations of the Institution, I trust it will .be apparent to your honor- 
able Board and the public that nothing has occurred since your last 
session to interfere with the plan of organization, or with the trans- 
actions authorized in accordance with it ; on the contrary, I think it 
will be evident that the labors to increase and diffuse knowledge hare 
been unremitting, and that the results of these labors have met the 
approval and drawn forth the commendation of intelligent men in 
every part of the civilized world. 

It will also appear that due attention has been paid to the finances, 
and although the expectation of assistance from the Patent Office on 
account of meteorology has not been realized, yet the expenditures 
have been kept within the receipts. 

The annual income of the original bequest has been received from 
the Treasury of the United States, and the interest on the extra fund 
invested in State stocks has been promptly paid. From the report of 
the executive committee, it will be seen that there were $15,034 11 in 
the hands of the treasurer at the beginning of the year 1860 ; and that, 
on the closing of the accounts for receipts and payments for the past 
year, there is a balance on hand of $16,521 95. There are, however, 
outstanding bills, on account of work already contracted for, amount- 
ing to about $4,000, principally for publications which belong to the 
year 1861. 

From this statement, it is apparent that the Institution could wind 
up its affairs at the present time with all the original fund bequeathed 
by Smithson in the Treasury of the United States, with an investment 
of $140,000 in State stocks, a balance in cash in its treasury of 
upwards of $12,000, and an extensive building containing a valuable 
library and collection of apparatus; and, for the history of its opera- 



14 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

tions, could refer to twelve volumes of transactions and to other publi- 
cations which have been printed, and are now to be found in all the 
principal libraries of the world; to a system of international exchange 
which has been inaugurated and successfully prosecuted for the last 
ten years ; to an accumulation of a large amount of material in regard 
to the meteorology and physical geography of the North American 
continent, and to perhaps the largest collection which has ever been 
made of the natural history of the same region ; and therefore, as far 
as they are responsible, the administrators could render a satisfactory 
account of the important trust confided to their care. We hope, how- 
ever, notwithstanding the threatening aspect of our political affairs, 
that the time will be far distant when this Institution will be obliged 
to finally close its accounts. We trust that there is honesty, intelli- 
gence, and liberality sufficient in this country, whatever may be its 
political condition, to sacredly guard the bequest which was • intrusted 
with unhesitating faith to the people of the United States for the good 
of mankind. 

The policy of the Institution, from the beginning, has not been 
merely to collect and hoard up materials for local purposes, but in 
every way to promote the cause of science generally, by a liberal but 
prudent expenditure of its income in advancing among men the various 
branches of knowledge to which its efforts have been directed. For 
example, a great amount of labor has been expended in collecting 
specimens of natural history; and it will be seen, by the remarks on 
the collections that active measures are now in progress for rendering 
the results widely available for the purposes of science and education, 
by a general distribution of the duplicates. 

The several objects to which the expenditures and labors of the 
Institution have been devoted during the last year, are nearly the same 
as those mentioned in previous reports ; and in describing them we 
shall follow the order heretofore adopted. 

Publications.— The twelfth volume of the Smithsonian Contribution 
to Knowledge has been completed, and will be ready for distribution 
as soon as it comes from the hands of the binder. It consists of 537 
quarto pages, and is illustrated by three plates and twelve wood cuts.. 
The following is a list of its contents : 

I. Astronomical observations in the Arctic seas, by Elisha Kent 
Kane, M. D. 

II. On fluctuations of level in the North American lakes, by 
Charles Whittlesey. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 15 

III. Meteorological observations made at Providence, Bhode Island, 
for 28| years, by Prof. Alexis Caswell. 

IV. Meteorological observations made near Washington, Arkansas, 
for 20 years, by Dr. Nathan D. Smith. 

V. Researches upon the venom of the rattlesnake, with an investi- 
gation of the anatomy and physiology of the organs concerned, by 
Dr. S. W. Mitchell. 

1. The first of the papers mentioned above forms the third part of 
the series of memoirs on the results of the observations of Dr. Kane, 
during the second Grinnell expedition. An account of the first and 
second numbers of the series, relating to magnetism and meteorology, 
has been given in the two preceding reports. The third, or present 
paper, gives the discussions and results of the astronomical ob- 
servations which were made, principally at Van Eensselaer harbor, 
the winter quarters of the expedition during 1853-54-55. These 
observations were under the especial care of Mr. August Sonntag. The 
principal instruments employed were two sextants by Gambey, divided 
to ten seconds, a theodolite, a transit instrument, and five mean time 
chronometers. The observatory consisted of four walls of granite 
blocks cemented together with moss and frozen water. The transit 
and theodolite were mounted on piers formed of an extemporaneous 
conglomerate of gravel and ice, well rammed down into iron-hooped 
casks, and afterwards consolidated by water. Thus constructed, they 
were found to be as firm as the rocks on which they rested. 

The first observations for latitude were made with the theodolite, 
and later ones by means of a sextant and artificial horizon, on the 
moon and moon-culminating stars. The time was noted by a 
pocket chronometer. The instrument was properly adjusted in posi- 
tion, but in consequence of the high latitude and the extreme cold, 
this was a very difficult operation. The angle of elevation was, in 
many cases, observed by the reflection of the image of the object from 
a mercurial horizon ; the bubble of the level having been rendered 
useless by the extreme reduction of temperature to which it was 
subjected. 

Observations were also made on occultations and eclipses, namely: 
the occultation of Saturn, December 12, 1853 ; of the same planet, 
January 8, 1854, and February 4, 1854; of Mars, February 13, 1854; 
and on the solar eclipse of May 15, 1855. In the occultations of 
Saturn, the disappearance and reappearance of the more prominent 
points of the ring were accurately noted, and the results have been 
elaborately discussed by Mr. Schott. From all the observations, the 



16 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

longitude finally adopted for the observatory of Van Rensselaer 
harbor was 70° 52' 45" west from Greenwich. It may be interesting 
to remark that the degree of longitude in this high latitude is a little 
less than twelve nautical miles, (11.88.) 

Besides the astronomical observations at Van Rensselaer Harbor, a 
number were made on the coast of G-reenland when the expedition was 
on its way to its winter quarters, and a series for determining latitudes 
by travelling parties at different points in. the regions explored. 

From the full discussion of the whole series of observations both for 
latitudes and longitudes a new map which accompanies the paper has 
been protracted. This map differs from that given in Dr. Kane's nar- 
rative in shifting the position of the shore line of Kennedy Channel to 
the southward about nineteen nautical miles. The highest point of the 
eastern shore line traced on the corrected map is in latitude 80° 56', 
and that on the western side of the channel 82° 7'. These are the 
northern limits of the exploration of the G-rinnell expedition. 

The fourth and last series of discussions and results of observations 
made by Dr. Kane during the second expedition has also been printed, 
and will form a part of the thirteenth volume of the Smithsonian 
Contributions. It relates to the tides in the Arctic seas. Occasional 
observations on the height of. water were taken after passing Smith's 
straits, but the principal number recorded were made at Van Eens- 
selaer Harbor. The series at this place commenced in September, 
1853, and was continued to January, 1855. The observations during 
this period are very unequal in value, owing mainly to physical diffi- 
culties. The observations, by means of a sounding line or staff, were 
subject to irregularities from a slow movement of the vessel, which, 
though imbedded in the ice a greater part of the year, was not entirely 
stationary. The observations, by means of a string passing over a 
pulley and attached to afloat, were also subject to certain irregularities 
due to an occasional slipping of the rope over the pulley, and another 
small variation caused by the gradual rising of the deck of the vessel 
above the level of the water, in consequence of her becoming lighter 
by the daily consumption of provisions and fuel. 

In discussing these observations it was necessary in the first place to 
reduce the measurements to the same zero or level of the sea. To 
effect this, two curve lines were traced on paper, the upper one including 
the maximum rise of water for each day, and the other the lowest water 
for the same time. An intermediate line traced equidistant from these 
curves was then assumed to represent the mean elevation, and this 
Straightened out was adopted as the axis of the mean level of the sea. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. IT 

The corrections fttr referring each observation to the standard level were 
taken from this diagram — no allowance being considered necessary for 
a change in the variation of the mean level of the sea. All the observa- 
tions properly corrected are given in a series of tables. From these 
tables, another series was deduced, exhibiting in one view the apparent 
time of high and low water, and the corresponding passages of the 
moon over the meridian, its declination and comparative distance from 
the earth. These latter tables were again plotted, and from the curves 
thus produced it appears that the average time of the occurrence of a 
series of 480 high waters at Van Rensselaer harbor was eleven, hours 
and forty-three minutes after the passage of the moon across the meri- 
dian, corresponding to a mean declination of the sun and moon of 
sixteen degrees. 

In like manner from 485 observations, the average time of low water 
occurred seventeen hours and forty-eight minutes after the passage of 
the moon over the meridian. The average interval of time between 
the high and low water was six hours and five minutes. 

The tide wave at Van Rensselaer Harbor may be considered as trans- 
mitted from the Atlantic ocean, and only in part modified by the small 
tide originated in the waters of Baffin's Bay. This latter tide must 
necessarily be small, since the direction of the long and comparatively 
narrow bay is at right angles to that which would be most favorable 
to the production of a disturbance of this kind. That the ocean tide 
wave actually travels up along the coast of Greenland, or, in other 
words, that it reaches Van Rensselaer Harbor from the south, is proved 
by comparing the time of high water at different places along the west 
coast of Greenland. 

Having the velocity of the tide wave along Baffin's Bay and Smith's 
Straits, the depth of the water may be approximately obtained. As- 
suming the distance along the channel, between Holsteinborg and 
Van Rensselaer Harbor, to be 770 nautical miles, the tidal wave has 
a velocity of 202 feet in a second, which, according to Airy's table,, 
would correspond to a depth of about 1,300 feet. In the same manner,, 
by comparing the co-tidal hours at Upernavik with those of Van 
Rensselaer Harbor, a resultant depth of nearly 4,800 feet is obtained. 
These two may be considered as the limits of the depths in Baffin's 
Bay and Smith's Straits. 

Besides the points noticed, several others are fully discussed in this 
paper. Among these is what is called the diurnal inequality, or the 
difference between the height of the two tides at the same phases of 
the moon, depending principally on her position with reference to the 



15 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

equator, as well as on her passage across the superior and inferior 
meridian of the place. The moon produces high water at the same 
instant of time on opposite sides of the earth, and were she constantly 
to move in the plane of the equator, the highest points of these tides 
would also be in the plane of the equator, and would consequently 
produce a series of equal tides at any place either north or south of 
this line. Bat it is evident that, when she ascends to the north, the 
plane of the highest tide will tip in the same direction, giving the 
highest point of one tide in the northern and the highest point of the 
other tide in the southern hemisphere. Consequently, when the moon 
has a northern declination, the tide at any place in the northern hem- 
isphere which follows immediately after her passage across the me- 
ridian will he higher than one which passes twelve hours later. This 
variation in the height of the two tides is called the diurnal inequality. 
From theoretical considerations it would not be anticipated that tlris 
inequality should be well marked in such high northern regions ; but 
since the movement of the water at Van Eensselaer's Harbor is not due 
directly to the action of the sun and moon, but is the effect of an im- 
mense wave propagated from the Atlantic through Baffin's Bay and 
Smith's Straits, this inequality becomes well marked. 

About the time of the moon's maximum declination, the difference 
between the day and night tide was two and a half feet. By an ex- 
amination of the diagrams on which the elevations of the tides are 
exhibited, it is seen that sometimes the day and sometimes the night 
tides are the highest ; and., furthermore, that the difference vanishes a 
day or two after the moon crosses the equator, and that it reaches its 
maximum a few days after the moon attains its greatest declination 
north or south. 

The form of the tide wave is also investigated and expressed in a 
diagram, from which it appears that the spring tide wave is slightly 
steeper between low and high water than between high and low water, 
or, in other words, that the water rises more rapidly than it falls, and 
also that the neap-tide wave is nearly symmetrical, the rise and fall 
taking place in nearly equal times. 

The tabulated observations were also investigated in reference to the 
varying position of the sun and moon, giving rise to what is called 
the half monthly inequality, and the result of this is also plainly in- 
dicated by diagrams, for the high water as well as for the low. This 
paper, as we have stated, completes the results of the discussions of 
the series of observations made under the direction of Dr. Kane, and, 
by themselves, or in connection with other researches in the Arctic 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 19 

Tegions, are valuable additions to our knowledge of the physical geog- 
raphy of the earth. 

I regret to be obliged to state that since the publication of the paper 
on the -winds at Van Rensselaer Harbor, some doubt has arisen as to 
the proper interpretation of the original record. It is stated by Dr. 
Kane that the observations of wind were uncorrected for magnetic 
variation. In consequence of this statement a correction was applied 
by Mr. A. Schott to reduce them to the true meridian. Mr. Sonntag, 
one of the principal observers, after his return from Mexico, asserted 
that the observations of the wind were recorded in reference to the 
true meridian, and therefore required no correction. The same state- 
ment was subsequently made independently by Dr. Hayes. An ap- 
pendix has therefore been prepared for the series giving the correc- 
tions to be applied to the tables, in order that the results may be in 
conformity with either assumption. The weight of testimony would 
appear to be in favor of the supposition that the records of the wind 
at Van Rensselaer Harbor were recorded with reference to the true 
north; but the question cannot be fully settled until other observations 
from the same place are obtained. 

The next paper in the 12th volume of Contributions is on the 
fluctuations of the level of the surface of the North American lakes. 
It has long been known that the great interior fresh water seas of 
North America are subject to variations of level. From the observa- 
tions given in this paper and others previously published, the fluctua- 
tions are of three kinds : First. A general rise and fall, extending 
through a period of many years, which may be called the secular 
variation of level. It evidently depends on peculiar changes in the 
meteorology of the country drained, and although it may probably 
have a regular period of return, this has not yet been determined. 
Second. An annual rise and fall, the period of which is completed in 
about twelve months, which is caused by the changes of the seasons, 
can be predicted with considerable certainty, and is properly called 
the annual variation. Third. An irregular movement, producing 
frequently a sudden elevation, from a few inches to several feet. This 
is of two kinds, one evidently due to the wind, and the other result- 
ing from rapid undulations in calm water. Both classes may be 
styled transient fluctuations. To these a fourth may be added, ac- 
cording to a late publication by Colonel Graham, United States Army, 
which is a true lunar tide. The author of this paper professes to 
have condensed from all sources within his reach information respect- 
* ine the fluctuations of the water since the settlement of the country. 



20 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

The whole is arranged in tables giving the dates of observation and 
the authorities from which they have been obtained. Although these 
tables are doubtless very incomplete, they have been accepted for pub- 
lication as contributions to the subject, 'to be corrected and enlarged 
by subsequent observations. 

A series of observations accurately made with properly arranged tidal 
instruments, such as are employed on the coast survey , and continued 
for a number of years, would be of much interest to science, as well as 
of value to commerce in the construction of wharves and the selection 
of harbors. Such a series has been established under the direction of 
Captain Meade, United States Topographical Engineers, which, with 
the observations under the direction of Colonel Graham, at Chicago, 
will furnish, if continued, the data required. We think it not improb- 
able that, if the series is sufficiently extended, a law of periodicity will 
be discovered in the recurrence of the long intervals of rise and decline, 
and that these will have some relation to a periodical variation of the 
seasons in a series of years. 

The most remarkable phenomena in regard to the fluctuations of the 
lakes are those of the fitful oscillations in which sometimes a sudden 
rise occurs of several feet at a particular place in calm weather, and 
also a series of minor agitations. The simplest hypothesis for the 
explanation of these phenomena is, that they are produced by the 
passage of atmospheric waves, such as are caused by thunder-storms, 
and perhaps in some cases by water-spouts, across distant parts of the 
lake. It is well established by observation at the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, as well as at other places, that rapid oscillations of the barom- 
eter accompany the passage of thunder-storms across the meridian. 
The mercury suddenly descends, then rises a little, and again falls, 
and after this regains its former level as the storm passes off to the 
east. A thunder-storm, therefore, in crossing the lake, would cause 
an elevation of water directly under it, which, in subsiding, would give 
rise to undulations, and these arriving in succession from every point 
of the path of the storm would produce effects similar to those which 
have been noted. 

Since the whole lunar tide of the ocean does not exceed five or six 
feet, the effect of the moon even on such large bodies of water as those 
of the upper lakes must be very small. Colonel Graham finds the 
difference between high and low water at spring tides, at Chicago, on 
Lake Michigan, to be about three inches and a half, and to occur at 
thirty minutes after the passage of the moon over the meridian. It is 
probable that the height of the tide on Lake Superior would be greater. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 21 

than this, and might best be observed at the narrowing portion of the 
extreme western end of the lake. 

The twelfth volume of Contributions will also contain the records 
of meteorological observations made at Providence, by Prof. Caswell, 
an account of which was given in the last report. This series of 
observations occupies 179 of the largest quarto pages which can be 
introduced into the volumes of the Smithsonian Contributions. They 
comprise a record of the barometer and thermometer made three times 
a day, the direction and force of the wind, and the face of the sky for 
the same period ; also, the depth of rain, together with a column of 
general remarks on casual phenomena. The series is terminated by a 
number of general tables — the first giving the monthly and annual 
mean height of the barometer during the whole term of years ; 
the second, the monthly and annual mean height of barometer at 
sunrise or 6 a. m., 1 or 2 p. m., and 10 p. m. ; third, monthly and 
annual mean temperatures, deduced from the three observations daily; 
fourth, monthly and annual mean temperatures at sunrise or 6 a. m., 
1 or 2 p. m., and 10 p. m. ; fifth, monthly and annual maximum and 
minimum temperatures and range ; sixth, the number of days in each 
month in which the prevailing winds came from each of the four quar- 
ters of the horizon ; seventh, mean force of the wind at the different 
hours of observation, and for the month and year ; eighth, mean 
cloudiness of the sky at the different hours of observation, and the 
mean for the month and the year ; ninth, monthly and annual number 
of days in which the weather was clear, variable, or cloudy — on which 
rain or snow fell ; the tenth, monthly and annual quantity of rain and 
snow in inches. 

From the records themselves an account of the weather on any clay 
for twenty-eight years past may be obtained. From the general tables 
we can determine the connection of the variations of the barometer 
with the changes of the weather, and deduce rules of practical import- 
ance as well as of scientific interest. From the tables of the records of 
the thermometer, we find that the mean temperature of Providence for 
the whole time is 48° 19', and that during the twenty-eight years of 
observation the oscillation on either side of this, with the exception of 
four years, is within a single degree. 

The coldest year was that of 1836 ; the warmest was 1848. The 
warmest January was that of 1843, and the coldest that of 1857, which 
was also the coldest single month of the whole period. On an average, 
the coldest month of the year is February ; the warmest month is July ; 
and the warmest month of any summer of the whole period was August, 



22 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

1848; and the next warmest, July, 1838. The mean annual amount 
of rain is 40.38 inches, distributed with considerable regularity. The 
month in which the most rain falls, on an average, is August ; and 
that in which the least falls is February. 

Another paper in the twelfth volume of Contributions is a series 
of meteorological observations, similar to the preceding, made at Wash- 
ington, Arkansas, by Dr. Nathan D. Smith. 

The place at which these observations were made is on the summit 
of the dividing ridge between the waters of the Red river and those of 
the Washita, fifteen miles northeast of Fulton and twenty south of 
the Little Missouri. From this ridge there is no higher level for a long 
distance; but to the northwest there is a gradual ascent for about fifty 
miles, to the foot of the mountains. 

The records are of observations of the temperature at sunrise through- 
out the year, and at 2 p. m. in the winter, and 3 p. m. in the summer; 
amount of rain, and remarks on the weather; with the daily mean 
temperature, and monthly mean, maximum, minimum, and range, 
from January 1, 1840, to December 31, 1859, a period of twenty years. 
Appended to these observations are tables giving the following summa- 
ries for each month and year and for the whole series of twenty years : 

1. Extremes of temperature. The highest temperature at sunrise and 
at 2 or 3 p. m. ; the mean temperature of the warmest day; the lowest 
temperature at sunrise and at 2 or 3 p. m. ; and the mean temperature 
of the coldest day. 

2. Variations of temperature. Range of temperature at sunrise and 
at 2 or 3 p. m., and of the daily mean temperature; the extreme range 
of temperature ; the greatest rise and fall of temperature from sunrise 
of one day to sunrise of the next day ; the greatest rise and fall from 
2 or 3 p. m. of one day to 2 or 3 p. m. of the next day. 

3. Mean temperatures. Means at sunrise and at 2 or 3 p. m. ; of 
months, years, and seasons ; and of each day, as deduced from the 
observations for the whole twenty years. 

4. The amount of rain for each month and year, and monthly and 
annual means for the whole series. 

These tables, as in the case of those for Providence, furnish a series 
of interesting facts. For example : the mean temperature of the whole 
period is 61.81°; the warmest month is July, the coldest January; the 
warmest year was 1854, the coldest year was 1843. The coldest New 
Year's day recorded was that of 1840, the mean temperature of which 
was 22°; the warmest 1846 and 1855, the mean temperature of each 
being o1°. From these tables it appears that the coldest day in the. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 23 

year, as deduced from the average of twenty years, is the 18th of 
January, and the warmest the loth of July. 

The mean annual amount of rain is 54.70 inches ; the month of the 
greatest rain is April; of the least rain, September. 

The last paper in the twelfth volume of Contributions consists of an 
account of researches upon the venom of the rattlesnake, with the 
investigations of the anatomy and physiology of the organs concerned, 
by S. Weir Mitchell, M. D. 

This paper gives an account of a series of investigations relative to 
a subject which, from an almost instinctive aversion to venomous snakes 
and the danger to which the student is exposed, has received compara- 
tively little attention. With the exception of the essays of Barton 
and Brainard, the literature of this subject in this country has been 
confined to scattered notices and incomplete statements of cases found 
in the pages of numerous medical journals, and, indeed, if we except 
a few works of Europe and India, in no part of the world has modern 
science done much to further this inquiry. 

The author first gives an account of his observations on the habits 
of the rattlesnake when in captivity. From ten to thirty-five snakes 
were kept together in the same box without exhibiting the slightest 
signs of hostility to one another. Even when snakes were suddenly 
dropped upon their fellows no attempt was made to annoy the new 
comers, while the intrusion of a pigeon or a rabbit immediately roused 
the reptiles when they were in vigorous health. The habits of this 
snake in confinement are singularly inactive. In warm weather, when 
least sluggish, they lie together in a knotted mass, occasionally changing 
their position, and then relapsing into a state of perfect rest. This 
sluggish condition is dangerously deceptive, since it gives no indication 
of the rapidity of their motion when aroused. This reptile seldom 
eats in captivity. The author has kept one alive for a year without 
food, and though he made every effort to tempt the snakes to eat, he 
has never seen them disposed to avail themselves of food when placed 
within their reach. Some of them were forcibly fed by placing milk 
and insects in their throats, yet when even this precaution was not 
taken, provided the snakes had water, they continued healthful, and 
secreted a large amount of venom. 

The author's observations add nothing 'towards confirming, the idea 
of the disputed power of fascination in the snake. Birds, guinea-pigs, 
mice, and dogs, put into the cage generally exhibited no terror after 
the alarm had subsided occasioned by having been dropped into the 
box. The small birds soon became singularly familiar with the snakes, 



24 KEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

and were seldom molested even if caged with six or eight large ones. 
Mice also lived on terms of confiding intimacy, sitting on the heads of 
the snakes and running over their coils, apparently unconscious of 
danger. Larger animals were not so safe in this, especially if they 
moved rapidly. All the animals frequently manifested an evident 
curiosity which prompted them to approach the snake, hut this was 
sometimes reproved by a blow, particularly when a dog indulged his 
inquisitiveness by approaching his nose too close in the act of smelling. 
In a state of rest no odor is observed from the snake ; but when it is 
roughly disturbed and induced to throw itself into contortions, a thin 
stream of yellow or dark brown fluid is ejected, the odor of which is 
extremely disagreeable. 

The author next describes, from his own dissections, the anatomy of 
the parts connected with the secretion and expulsion of the venom. 
He also gives a full and complete account of the part played by the 
various muscles in the act of inflicting a wound. When preparing to 
strike, the snake throws his body into a coil, and by a violent contrac- 
tion of the muscles which lie on the convexity of the bends, a portion 
of the body is immediately straightened and the head thrown forward 
in a direct line to a distance not exceeding one half of its length. 
The hooked fangs are made to enter the flesh of the victim and retained 
there until the venom is injected by a series of muscular contractions 
mLiutely detailed in the description. From this it appears that the 
animal may sometimes fail to inflict injury when seeming to do so. 
A knowledge of these facts is essential to a proper study of antidotes 
for the bite of the rattlesnake. 

The venom is yellow, acid, glutinous, and of a specific gravity of 
104. It is devoid of taste, smell, and acridity ; begins to coagulate at 
140° Fah., and is soluble in water. It consists, first, of an albuminoid 
substance, which is coagulable by pure alcohol, but not by a heat of 
212° Fah. This material is the poisonous element, and receives from 
the author the name of crotaline ; second, of an albuminoid compound, 
coagulable both by heat and by alcohol, and not poisonous ; third, a 
yellow coloring matter and an undetermined substance, both soluble in 
alcohol ; fourth, a trace of fatty matter and of free acid ; fifth, saline 
bodies, chlorine, and phosphates. 

The venom gland presents some anatomical analogy to that in which 
the saliva of other animals is formed ; but there is an entire want of 
physiological resemblance between the venom and the saliva. It was 
found that no temperature from zero to 212° Fah. destroyed the pois- 
onous property of the venom, which also remained unaltered when it 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 25 

was treated with, acids and alkalies at moderate temperatures, or with 
alcohol, chlorine water, iodine, &c. It prevented the germination of 
seeds planted in it, but did not destroy the vitality of large plants 
inoculated with it, nor did it interfere Avith saccharine fermentation nor 
with the accompanying growth of sporules. 

The effect of the venom on cold blooded animals was studied on frogs 
and on the rattlesnake itself. In both the symptoms were like those 
in warm blooded animals, but very much slower of development. In 
the latter the effects were examined on pigeons, reed-birds, rabbits, 
gninea-pigs, and dogs, in all of which careful examination of the post- 
mortem lesions were made. The influence of the venom on the tissues 
and fluids of the economy is given in detail, and the following are some 
of the conclusions arrived at : 

In all animals which die within a very short period after being 
bitten, there is no other lesion than' the wound, the blood and tissues 
both being normal in appearance. In animals whose lives are pro- 
longed, the blood is diseased and the tissues more or less altered. 
The venom is not absorbed by the stomach or the skin, but when 
drawn into the lungs of a pigeon it is fatal. The bite is attended 
with no primary inflammation, and the local swelling is due to effu- 
sion of fluid or semi-fluid blood. The muscles wounded by the fang 
are affected with twitching at first, arid afterwards undergo a peculiar 
softening, and become more liable to rapid putrefaction than other 
parts. The muscular irritability ceases earlier than in ordinary cases 
of death, while the rigidity occurs as usual. The intestinal motions 
and those of the cilia are unaltered. The heart becomes enfeebled 
shortly after the bite, from direct influence of the venom on this organ, 
and not from the loss of the respiratory functions. Notwithstanding 
the diminution of its power, the heart is usually in motion after the 
lungs cease to act, and its tissues remain for a long time locally irri- 
table. The paralysis of the heart is therefore not so complete as it is 
under the influence of upas or corroval. In warm-blooded animals 
artificial respiration prolongs the contractile power of the heart, but 
does not sustain it as long as when the animal has died by woorara or 
decapitation. In the frog, the actions of the heart continue after res- 
piration has ceased, and sometimes survive until the sensory nerves 
and the nerve centres are dead, the motor nerves alone remaining 
irritable. In warm-blooded animals, respiration ceases, owing to 
paralysis of the nerve centres. The sensory nerves, and the centres of 
nerve power in the medulla spinalis and medulla oblongata^ lose their 
vitality before the motor nerves become affected. 



26 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

In cold-blooded animals the muscular system retains its irritability 
for a considerable time after death, so that this cannot be due to its 
loss. The first effect of the venom being to depress the vital energy 
of the heart and nerve 'centres, a resort to stimulants is clearly indi- 
cated as the only rational mode, in our present state of knowledge, 
of early constitutional treatment. In chronic poisoning, death is due 
to the continued influence of venom on the heart and nerve centres, 
and to secondary alterations of the blood and tissues. In these cases 
the fibrin of the blood is more or less dissolved, and the corpuscles are 
rarely and slightly altered, and not at all in animals which die soon 
after being bitten. The venom produces changes analogous to those 
in cases of yellow fever and some other maladies. 

These conclusions rest on a series of apparently well-devised and 
carefully-executed experiments. They are principally original results, 
and the whole paper must, therefore, be considered a valuable addition 
to our knowledge of this interesting subject. 

Attached to the memoir is an appendix containing an enumeration 
of the genera and species of rattlesnakes, with synonomy and refer- 
ences by E. D. Cope; also, a full bibliography of the subject by the 
author, with critical and analytical notices of the works mentioned; 
and this, with the authorities given by Mr. Cope, furnishes a complete 
list of all writers either on the natural history, or on the anatomy, 
physiology, and toxicology of venomous serpents in general. The 
paper is illustrated with wood cuts, and the author acknowledges his 
indebtedness to this Institution for aid in procuring the serpents which 
Avere essential to his investigations. 

Professor Bache has presented for publication the second of his 
series of discussions of the magnetic observations made at Girard 
College between the years 1840 and 1845. Part 1 of this series, 
which is described in the last report, related to the investigation of the 
eleven-year period, or that which is coincident with the recurrence of 
frequency. of the spots on the sun, and to other variations of the needle 
connected with solar action. The present paper relates to the influ- 
ence of the moon on the variation of the magnetic needle. ' 

The existence of a sensible lunar effect on the magnetism of the 
earth has been established by the labors of Sabine and others ; it is, 
however, of much importance to confirm and extend their results by 
the discussion of independent observations. In the previous paper 
the method was shown by which the several influences of the sun were 
eliminated from the observations, leaving residuals from which the 
lunar influence could be deduced, the method being that followed by 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 27 

General ISabine in his reduction of the results of the British observa- 
tions. The records, after having been corrected for the influence of 
the sun and other perturbations, were arranged in tables, correspond- 
ing to the several hours of the day, commencing with the upper transit 
of the moon over the meridian. To ascertain whether the different 
parts of these series would give harmonious results, the whole number 
tabulated, 21,644, was divided into three groups, the first compris- 
ing nineteen months, the second, twenty-one months, and the third, 
eighteen months. From these it was found that the results were 
nearly proportioned to the number of observations, which indicated 
that no constant error of much magnitude existed. 

The three groups were next discussed by means of Bessel's formula, 
two terms of which were found sufficient to give a curve representing 
the observations ; and as a constant term was not found necessary in 
the construction of this curve, it was inferred that the moon exerted 
no specific constant action on the needle, or, in other words, that the 
magnetism of the moon is not per se, but is of that kind called 
inductive, which is due to the action of some extraneous body. 

The curves by which the results of the discussion are represented 
show two east and two west deflections in a lunar day, the maxima 
east and west occurring about the time of the upper and lower transit 
of the moon over the meridian, and the minima about at the interme- 
diate sixth hour. 

In comparison with the effects of other forces operating on the mag- 
netic needle, that of the moon is exceedingly small, and could not have 
been detected previous to the introduction of the more refined instru- 
ments and methods of investigation which have been invented within 
the last twenty years. The total range at Philadelphia scarely reaches 
thirty seconds, and at Toronto it is only a little more than thirty-eight 
seconds. 

The principal western maximum deviation occurs six minutes after 
the moon passes the lower meridian, and amounts to 13.8 seconds of 
arc. The secondary maximum occurs fourteen minutes after the upper 
culmination,, and amounts to 10.8 seconds. The principal eastern 
maximum of variation takes place six hours and seventeen minutes 
after the lower culmination, the deflection being 13.2 seconds. The 
secondary easterly maximum occurs at six hours three minutes after 
the upper transit, and amounts to 11.4 seconds. 

The effect of the moon appears to be subject to a variation depending 
on the solar year, for the investigation of which the preceding results 
were arranged in two groups — one containing the hourly values for 



28 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

the summer months, and the others those for the winter months. 
After being subjected to a similar process of reduction, it was found 
from these that the lunar variation is much smaller in amplitude in 
winter than in summer, and also that the maxima and minima occur 
earlier in the former than in the latter season, the winter curve pre- 
ceding the summer curve by about an hour and three quarters. 

Professor Bache next proceeded to ascertain whether the phases, 
declination, or parallax of the moon have any sensible effect on the 
magnetic variation. Dr. Kreil, from the discussion of ten years' ob- 
servation at Prague, concluded that there was no specific change in the 
position of the magnet depending on the moon's phases or parallax, 
but that the variation was sensibly greater when the moon was at its 
greatest northern declination. On the contrary, Mr. Brown, from a 
much shorter series of observations in India, inferred that there was 
a minimum of variation two days after the full moon. To investigate 
these points, the lunar variation for the days of full and new moon, 
and for two succeeding days, were compared with the average monthly 
variation ; the results indicate that the north . end of the magnet is 
deflected six seconds to the westward at full moon, and as much to the 
eastward on the day of new moon. This quantity is not much beyond 
the probable error of observation, but a more definite result could hardly 
be expected from a series extending over but five years. The period 
of the observations is also too short to exhibit any definite variation 
depending on the moon's greatest northern or southern declination, 
and the same remark may be applied to the effect of the varying dis- 
tance of the moon. Professor. Bache proposes, in another paper, to 
extend the discussion to the moon's influence on the variation in the 
intensity of the magnetic force of the earth. 

I neglected to mention in the last report that, besides the magnetic 
observations made by Professor Bache in cooperation with the system 
inaugurated by the British association, two other series were carried 
on simultaneously- — one in the city of Washington, by Lieutenant 
G-illiss, of the United States Navy, and the other by Professor Bond, 
of Harvard University. The observations of Lieutenant Gilliss were 
made once in two hours with a bar eleven inches long, observed with a 
micrometer microscope reading to seconds of arc, and were continued 
from July 7, 1840, to June 30, 1842, a period of two years. Beside 
the bi-hourly series, another was made on term days, viz : on the 23d 
and 24th of each month, from September, 1840, to" June, 1842, in 
which the position of the needle was recorded at intervals of every 
five minutes. Professor Bond's observations at Cambridge extended 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 29 

from 1837 to 1845. The observations of Lieutenant Gilliss were pub- 
lished by order of the Senate of the United States ; but have not 
been discussed in reference to the various influences to which the 
needle is subjected. Those of Professor Bond are still in manuscript, 
but will probably be published in due time, as a part of the labors of 
the Harvard observatory. 

The fact was mentioned in the last report, that a small appropriation 
had been made, to assist in defraying the expense of the necessary 
material and apparatus for an investigation undertaken by Professor 
Wolcott Gribbs relative to the ores of platinum, of which the following 
is an account : 

Samples of the ores of platinum, according to Gmelin, were first 
brought to Europe in the year 1741. In 1748, the metal was described 
by Don Antonio cle Ulloa as a metallic stone, which, when present in 
large quantity, prevents the working of the gold ores. Watson recog- 
nized platinum as a distinct metal in 1750, and after that period very 
numerous investigations were published in regard to it. In 1804, 
Wollaston announced the discovery of palladium and rhodium in the 
raw platinum ores, and shortly afterward Smithson Tennant showed 
that the same ore contained two other metals, which he called iridium 
and osmium. Finally, in 1844, Claus discovered ruthenium. The 
investigation of the metals accompanying platinum has always been 
regarded as one of peculiar difficulty, in consequence of the remarkable 
analogies between the chemical properties of the metals themselves. 
The comparatively recent discovery of ruthenium illustrates this point 
in a striking manner. All previous investigations related chiefly to 
mixtures of the metals in various proportions, hardly a single one 
having been obtained in a state of purity. Claus's most elaborate and 
successful investigation threw a new light on the whole subject, with- 
out, however, removing all the difficulties which accompany a complete 
separation of the different metals. In 1859, Deville and Debray pub- 
lished a detailed memoir on the working of the ores of platinum upon 
a large scale, and on the physical properties of the different metals. 
In this very valuable paper, methods of fusing large quantities of 
platinum are given, the processes employed being, however, essen- 
tially the same as those successfully used in this country by Dr. Hare 
many years since. 

The purely chemical question of the complete separation of the 
different metals of the platinum group from each other, remained 
unsolved. The investigations of Dr. Gibbs have been undertaken 
partly to supply this deficiency, and partly in consequence of his dis- 



30 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

covery of a very remarkable series of compounds containing osmium, 
ruthenium, or iridium. These investigations have thus far been suc- 
cessful, a few difficulties only remaining to be overcome. They have 
not merely yielded wholly new methods of separation, but have re- 
sulted in the discovery of an entirely new class of salts, possessing 
much theoretical and practical interest. It is by means of these salts 
that Dr. Gibbs has succeeded in effecting a satisfactory separation of 
the different metals of the group. The memoir embodying a detailed 
description of the processes of Dr. Gibbs will consist of four- parts. 
The first will treat of the methods of bringing the ores into a soluble 
condition ; the second, of the methods of separating the metals from 
each other ; the third, of the new salts and bases discovered ; and the 
fourth, of the general relations of the metals of the group. A large 
part of the work is already completed, and the author expects to have 
the whole ready for the press is a few months. 

Beside the papers described, a number of others have been accepted 
for publication, or are in preparation, at the expense of the Smithson- 
ian fund. Among the former we may mention an elaborate memoir 
on the anatomy of the human liver, by Dr. Schmidt, of New Orleans, 
of which the following are the principal points : 1 . The accumulation 
of additional evidence of the existence of a network of capillary vessels 
previously discovered by the author, and described by him as "biliary 
tubules," from which start the smallest hepatic ducts. This network 
is independent of that in which the smallest branches of the j>orta- 
vein, hepatic artery, and veins arise. 2. The discovery of minute 
lymphatics of the liver, and their origin in the network of biliary 
tubules, by which a communication between the hepatic ducts and 
lymphatics is established. 3. The discovery of lymphatic vessels, 
directly joining small hepatic ducts, by which a second communication 
between these vessels is established. 4. A minute description of a 
system of small follicular and racemose glands, the ducts of which 
form extensive plexuses throughout the liver, and their relationship to 
the other constituents of the organ. These glands have been imperfectly 
described by some authors, but their true relations have never been 
known. 5. The discovery of a communication of the lymphatics with 
the ducts of these glands. As many of the latter join the hepatic 
ducts, a third communication between the lymphatics and hepatic 
ducts is thus indirectly established. 

The memoir also contains several other points of minor importance, 
together with a minute description of the blood vessels, hepatic cells, 
&c., perhaps more definite than has heretofore been given. The dis- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 31 

covery of a natural communication between the hepatic ducts and 
lymphatics of the liver, according to the author, is of great import- 
ance, for it explains the phenomena of jaundice as they occur in certain 
diseases. It also explains why the large lymphatics on the surface of 
the liver are frequently found filled with bile after death. The appen- 
dix to the memoir contains a description of the best method of making 
minute injections, together with the apparatus used for the purpose. 

In addition to the foregoing, an original mathematical paper on the 
intersection of circles and spheres, has been presented by Major Alvord, 
of the United States Army. 

Among the memoirs in preparation is one on Arctic meteorology, 
from the original observations made under the direction of Sir F. Leo- 
pold McClintock, during his late voyage in search of Sir John Frank- 
lin, and presented to this Institution by the author, for discussion and 
publication. A full account of this paper and the preceding will be 
given in the next annual report. 

Under the head of Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, the follow- 
ing works have been published during the past year: 

1. Instructions in reference to collecting nests and eggs of North 
American birds ; illustrated with wood cuts. 

2. Circular in reference to the history of North American grasshop- 
pers ; prepared by Mr. P. R. Uhler. 

3. Circular in reference to collecting North American shells. 

4. Circular addressed to the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
relative to the registration of meteorological phenomena, and the col- 
lection of objects of natural history. This circular is accompanied by 
a letter from the late Sir George Simpson, governor of the Hudson's 
Bay Company's territory, Commending the requests of the Institution 
to the favorable consideration of all persons connected with the com- 
pany. 

5. Check lists of the shells of North America, prepared for the 
Institution by Isaac Lea, P. P. Carpenter, W. Stimpson, W. GL Bin- 
ney, and T. Prime. These lists were prepared for the purpose of 
labeling the specimens in the Smithsonian collection, but as it was 
thought they would be of general value in the indication of species 
inhabiting this continent and the adjacent islands, in facilitating the 
preparation of catalogues, the labeling of collections, and conducting 
exchanges, it has been thought proper to print them for distribution. 

6. List of duplicate shells of the Indo-Pacific Fauna, collected by 
the United States exploring expedition under Captain Wilkes. 



32 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

7. Catalogue of the described lepidoptera of North. America, by 
Dr. John G. Morris. This catalogue enumerates over 2,000 species 
of butterflies, moths, &c, which occur in the United States proper. 
"Yet there is reason to believe," says the author, "that hundreds still 
remain to be discovered/' In the preparation of this catalogue, all 
accessible books have been consulted, and it is believed that few descrip- 
tions of American lepidoptera have been overlooked. The classifica- 
tion adopted is that recommended in part by Herrich-Schaeffer and 
Walker ; but in some of the families, Guenee has been followed. 

The following works are in preparation for publication in the Smith- 
sonian miscellaneous collections: 

1. Elementary introduction to the study of conch ology, by P. P. 
Carpenter, of Warrington, England. 

2. List of the species of shells collected by the United States ex- 
ploring expedition, by the same author. 

3. Descriptive catalogue of the shells of the west coast of the United 
States, Mexico, and Central America, by the same author. 

4. Bibliography of North American conchology, by W. G. Binney. 

5. Descriptive catalogue of the air-breathing shells of North Amer- 
ica, by the same author. 

6. Catalogue of North American Crustacea, in the museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution, by W. Stimpson, M. D. 

7. Catalogue of the described Neuroptera of North America, by 
Dr. H. Hagen; edited by P. R. Uhler. 

8. Classification of the Coleoptera of North America, by Dr. John 
L. Le Conte. 

9. Descriptive list of the diurnal lepidoptera of North America, by 
Dr. J. G. Morris. 

10. Descriptive catalogue of the hymenoptera of North America, 
by H. De Saussure. 

11. Descriptive catalogue of the diptera of North America, by Dr. 
Dr. H. Loew and Baron Osten Sacken. 

12. Catalogue of North American orthoptera, hemiptera, and homop- 
tera, by P. R. Uhler. " .. 

Most of these are nearly completed, and will be published during 
the year 1861. 

The thanks of the Institution are due to the gentlemen whose names 
have been mentioned in connection with the preparation of the several 
works just mentioned, since their labors have been bestowed for the 
advance of science, without any other reward than that which might 
flow from the reputation justly due to the authors of such productions. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 33 

The works on insects have been prepared especially to facilitate the 
study of this branch of natural history — a taste for which has much 
increased in this country of late years, principally through the exer- 
tions of the Smithsonian Institution ; and it is believed that, with the 
growing enthusiasm manifested for this study, specimens of nearly all 
the species which inhabit North America will soon be collected and 
accurately described. The practical bearing of a knowledge of ento- 
mology, in its application to agriculture and the arts, as well as in its 
scientific relation to general zoology and physical geography, have 
been pointed out in previous reports. I may mention, however, as an 
interesting fact exhibiting the relation of animal life to the peculiarities 
of climate and soil in different parts of the world, that Baron Osten 
Sacken has ascertained that the same species of insects which inhabit 
the arid plains of the western portion of our continent are nearly 
identical with those found on the steppes of Russia. 

The next class of publications of the Institution consists of the series 
of annual Reports to Congress. The first reports were in pamphlet 
form, and merely gave an account of the operations of the Institution 
and the proceedings of the Regents. Each report, however, since 1853, 
consists of a volume in which is given, in an appendix, some of the 
lectures delivered at the Institution, extracts from correspondence, and 
information of a character suited to the meteorological observers and 
other persons interested in the promotion of knowledge. The first 
volume of this series (that for 1853) contains a reprint of all the pre- 
vious reports of the Secretary, the will of Smithson, the act of organi- 
zation, and all the facts necessary to a history of the establishment 
from its commencement. The report for 1859 contains the usual 
amount of matter, which has thus far been restricted by the action of 
Congress to 450 pages. The number of copies printed by order of 
Congress was 10,000, of which only 4,500 were given to the Institu- 
tion for distribution; whereas, of the report for 1858, the Institution 
received 7,000 copies. On account of this reduction in the number of 
copies, we have been obliged to curtail the list of distribution, and to 
confine it principally to our meteorological observers and to those who 
have manifested their interest in the work by making special applica- 
tion for it. 

In order to ascertain whether the publications of the Institution are 
received by the persons to whom they are addressed, n 'Tinted form of 
acknowledgment is sent, to be returned with the signal ure, post office, 
and occupation of the recipient. The receipts, which have been care- 
fully bound in a series of volumes as vouchers for the faithful discharge 
3 



34 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

of this part of the operations of the establishment, furnish some inter- 
esting statistics as to the occupation, and distribution in the different 
parts of the country, of the readers of the Smithsonian reports. 

Meteorology. — An appropriation is annually made by Congress for 
"the collection of agricultural statistic?, investigations for promoting 
agriculture and rural economy," &c. Of this, Judge Mason, during 
his term of office as Commissioner of Patents, devoted a small portion 
to assist the Smithsonian Institution in collecting and reducing mete- 
orological observations. He considered this kind of information as 
one of the essential elements on which to found a system of scientific 
agriculture adapted to the various local climates of the different parts of 
our extended country, and in his estimates presented to Congress for an 
increased appropriation a certain sum was specified as requisite for this 
important purpose. In his report for 1856, he properly remarks "that 
the degree of heat, cold, and moisture in various localities, and the 
usual periods of their occurrence, together with their effects upon dif- 
ferent agricultural productions, are of incalculable importance in 
searching into the laws by which the growth of such products is reg- 
ulated, and will enable the agriculturist to judge with some degree of 
certainty whether any given article can be profitably cultivated." In 
accordance with these views, an increased appropriation was made by 
Congress, which has been continued until the present time. The part 
of the appropriation originally devoted to meteorology was also con- 
tinued by the successors of Judge Mason, until last year, when it was 
suddenly and unexpectedly suspended. 

The sum thus furnished by the agricultural department of the Patent 
Office was scarcely more than one third of that appropriated by the 
Smithsonian Institution. It was, however, of essential service in 
developing the system and in assisting to defray the heavy expense of 
blanks and reductions. 

The general results of all the observations for six years have been 
presented in a report to Congress, in the joint name of the Smithsonian 
Institution and the Patent Office, and are now in the hands of the 
public printer. The information which is contained in this report is 
such as is almost constantly called for by the public, and forms a part 
of the data necessary to base the practice of agriculture upon the reliable 
principles of insurance, as well as to indicate the climate especially 
adapted to particular productions. The value, however, of such mate- 
rials depends upon the number of years during which the observations 
are continued, and I therefore regret that the late Commissioner of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 35 

Patents did not see fit to continue the appropriation which had been 
made by his predecessors. The system was fully organized and the 
investigation was considered of too much importance to be abandoned, 
particularly after so much labor had been bestowed upon it, and there- 
fore it has since been maintained at the sole expense of the Institution. 
We are sorry, however, that we were obliged to stop the reductions, 
but hope they will be resumed again before the observations have 
accumulated to an unwieldy bulk. 

The whole system of meteorology is still in a prosperous condition ; 
the number of observers reporting directly to the Institution is about 
500 ; the number of stations reporting to the Surgeon General's office 
of the War Department is 75. The returns of fourteen stations in 
Canada are also accessible to the Institution. Observations have been 
made for the year 1860 at 1G6 light-houses on the Atlantic and Lake 
coasts, under the direction of the Light-House Board, copies of which 
are sent through the Institution to the Board of Trade in England. 

The lake system, established under the direction of Captain Meade, 
of the Topographical Engineers, is still continued. It consists of eigh- 
teen stations on lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. 
Each station is furnished with a full set of standard instruments con- 
structed on the plan adopted by the Smithsonian Institution. The 
observations are regularly taken four times a day at equal intervals of 
three hours, besides occasional series at certain places at every hour of 
the twenty-four. The latter are of much value in determining the 
corrections to be applied to the mean derived from observations taken 
at a few hours in the day. This system in its extent, the precision of 
its instruments, and the character of its observers, is one of the most 
perfect which has ever been established, and if continued for a few 
years, will give the local climate of the district, with an accuracy which 
has never been attained in any other part of the continent. 

The observations of Lieutenant Williamson, in California, on the 
hourly fluctuations of the barometer at the level of the ocean and at 
points on mountain stations, were continued until the end of the last 
fiscal year, when they were stopped for the want of further appropria- 
tions. It is to be hoped the Secretary of War will make provision for 
renewing these important investigations, since they are not only of 
great scientific interest, but also of much practical value in correcting 
the observations for heights by the barometer. Indeed, with the 
advance of science, a revision of the deductions from all the observa- 
tions which have been made by the various exploring parties, will be 



36 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

required, in view of tlie greater accuracy attainable by the application 
of corrections derived from observations of this kind. 

The Institution has received during the past year a number of valu- 
able meteorological records from officers of the Hudson's Bay Company 
in different parts of the territory. Among these is a series from Fort 
Simpson, McKenzie's river, for twelve years, transmitted by B. K. 
Boss, Esq., chief trader; and another series, for three years, by J. Mc- 
Kenzie, Esq., from Moose Factory, both of which will be continued 
hereafter. In this connection we may mention that a number of spirit 
thermometers for marking the extremes of cold have been distributed, 
through the agency of Mr. Kennicott, to some of the most distant posts 
of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

The daily telegraphic dispatches of the weather from different parts 
of the country have been kept up with considerable regularity from the 
South as far as New Orleans ; but we regret that frequent intermissions 
take place in the receipt of the telegrams from places directly west of 
the city of Washington, especially as we are more immediately inter- 
ested in these, since they afford the means of predicting with consider- 
able certainty the character of the weather sometimes a day or more 
in advance. 

Besides the sources we have mentioned from which meteorological 
records have been obtained, an account of others from which commu- 
nications on the same subject have been received, is given in the special 
appendix to the Secretary's report. The amount of climatic materials 
relative to different parts of the continent of North America which has 
been collected by the Institution is of great value ; but it cannot be 
rendered fully available for general use without a larger expenditure of 
money than can be devoted to this object by the Smithsonian income. 

All the accounts collected by the Institution of the remarkable 
auroras of August and September, 1859, were placed in the hands of 
Professor Loomis, and by him discussed and published in the "Amer- 
ican Journal of Science." 

During the past year, meteorological instruments have been furnished 
to two expeditions under the direction of the Coast Survey to observe 
the great solar eclipse of the 18th of July, 1860. One of these was 
sent to Labrador under the charge of Professor S. Alexander, of the 
College of New Jersey, and the other to Washington Territory under 
Lieutenant G-illiss. The instruments, in both cases, have been returned 
in good condition. 

A full set of meteorological instruments and other apparatus has 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 37 

teen furnished to Dr. I. I. Hayes, who has undertaken a new explora- 
tion in the Arctic regions for the purpose of gaining additional informa- 
tion as to the existence of an open sea. It is probable that Dr. Hayes 
will spend the present winter at some point on the coast of Greenland ; 
and if he should do so, he has promised to make good use of the instru- 
ments and to adopt measures by which the records of the observations 
may be transmitted to Washington. 

The summer of 1860 was rendered remarkable by the occurrence of 
a number of tornadoes in different parts of the northern and western 
portions of the United States. Some of these were of so peculiar a 
character, and their destructive effects were so extensive, that it was 
thought a matter of sufficient importance to adopt means for their 
special investigation. For this purpose it was deemed advisable to 
send a competent observer to make an accurate survey of the region 
passed over by the meteors, and to collect all the facts which might 
tend in the least degree to throw light upon the character of these 
terrific visitors. The person chosen for this service was Mr. W. L. 
Nicholson, of the United States Coast Survey, who undertook the inves- 
tigation for the sake of science ; his actual expenses alone, exclusive of 
transportation, being paid, and a free passage having been secured for 
him by the Institution through the commendable liberality which 
characterizes the acts of many of our railroad companies. 

The most violent of these storms was that of June 3, in Iowa and 
Illinois, which swept over more than 600 miles, destroying three towns 
and perhaps two hundred persons, besides domestic animals and other 
property to a large amount. 

In regard to these remarkable disturbances of the atmosphere, Mr. 
Nicholson collected a great number of interesting facts, by personal 
inspection of the effects which still remained, from oral information 
derived from many eye witnesses, and from actual surveys of the paths 
of the tornadoes and the relative position of the more prominent objects 
which remained strewed in their course. These will all be presented in 
proper form to the Institution as a report of actual facts ; and it is 
proposed by the Secretary to discuss the phenomena in connection with 
the various theories. which have been advanced to explain the origin 
and progress of storms of this character. Attention was not exclusively 
confined to meteorological phenomena, but was extended to the physical 
and other peculiarities of the regions visited ; and Mr. Nicholson en- 
deavored to diffuse a taste for meteorology among the people, which 
it is hoped will in the future supply some vacancies in our corps of 
observers. He warmly expresses his gratification on account of the 



38 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

liberality with whicli he was aided, the general appreciation of the 
objects of the Institution, and the courtesy everywhere extended to him 
personally. 

It was mentioned in the last report that a commencement had been 
made, in connection with the Coast Survey, in the preparation of a 
hypsometrical map of the United States, and that the elevation of 
upwards of 9,000 points had been collected. This work has been 
continued during the past year, and efforts have been made to obtain 
materials existing in the offices of various railroads and public works, 
and it has been deemed desirable still further to prosecute the research 
among the archives at the State capitols. About 4,000 additional 
elevations have thus been obtained, and considerable progress made 
in the plotting of the material on the sheets of the hypsometrical 
map. 

In furtherance of the same object, a small appropriation in addition 
to the previous loan of instruments has been made to Prof. Gruyot, to 
assist in a hypsometrical survey of the Apalachian chain of mountains. 
During the last two or three years, this accomplished geographer has 
spent a considerable portion of the summer in North Carolina, and 
has now nearly ready for publication a map of the part of the Apala- 
chian system in that region. He has extended a net work of triangles 
over an area of nearly 150 miles in length, and determined within 
these, by a series of contemporaneous barometric observations, the 
heights of all the more important peaks. 

In the report of his labors to the Institution, Professor Guyot makes 
the following remarks: "I only deplore the absence of points the posi- 
tion ot which is determined astronomically or otherwise with sufficient 
accuracy to enable me to locate my survey on the right spot of the surface 
of the globe. The existing maps are very defici%nt in every respect." 
In connection with this subject, I may be permitted to express the hope 
that Congress will in due time make provision for extending the system 
of tnangulation which has been established with so much labor and 
precision along the sea-board to the interior of the continent. The 
necessity of such a work must every year become more and more evi- 
dent, as the value of land increases and the precise definition of polit- 
ical boundaries becomes more important. 

Ethnology. — Whatever relates to the nature of man is interesting to 
the students of every branch of knowledge ; and hence ethnology affords 
a common ground on which the cultivators of physical science, of 
natural history, of archasology, of language, of history and literature. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 39 

can all harmoniously labor. Consequently, no part of the operations 
of this Institution has been more generally popular than that which 
relates to this subject. 

From the preceding reports, it will be seen that the Institution has 
endeavored especially to promote that part of the general subject of 
ethnology which relates to language ; and as in this an increasing 
number of the intelligent public is interested, the publication of the 
Dakota and Yoruba grammar and dictionary was received with much 
favor, and more numerous applications have been made for copies of 
these works than for almost any others which have been issued by the 
Institution. Indeed, the entire edition of the Dakota grammar and 
dictionary, except the copies bound up in the volumes of the series of 
contributions, has been exhausted. The work has not only been con- 
sidered of value to the students of ethnology, but also to the officers 
of the government, missionaries, and others who have been called upon 
to hold intercourse with our western Indians. 

During the past year several works of the same class have been 
offered to the Institution for publication. Some of these, however, were 
not in a condition to be printed without revision and philosophical 
arrangement; and since the death of the lamented Professor Turner, 
we have experienced difficulty in finding a person of the peculiar 
skill and learning required for the undertaking of so responsible and 
difficult a work. We have, however, referred several of the articles 
presented to us to the American Oriental Society, and have been 
favored with the advice and assistance of the officers of that association, 
in enabling us to decide on the disposition of such works ; and among 
these, the Institution is particularly indebted to Prof. W. D. Whitney, 
of Yale College, for the important service he has rendered us in this 
line. 

Several of the grammars and dictionaries which have been presented 
were approved, and would have been published by the Institution, had 
not other means been provided' for giving them to the public more 
expeditiously. Among these, are a grammar of the Grrebo language 
by Bishop Payne, of Africa, which will be printed by the American 
Oriental Society ; and also a Creek grammar and dictionary prepared 
by Mr. Buckner, and about to be published by the Baptist Missionary 
Board. 

Much interest has been manifested by the students of ethnology in 
everything which relates to the Indians of the Pacific coast of North 
America ; and the Institution is accordingly desirous to collect all the 
reliable information on this subject which it can possibly obtain. In 



40 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

this labor it has been much assisted by Alexander S. Taylor, Esq., of 
Monterey, California, through whose instrumentality we have received a 
collection of original manuscripts, of which the following is a descrip- 
tion : 

1. A vocabulary of the Mutsun Indians of San Juan Bautista, by 
Padre Felipe Arroyo, consisting of ninety-two folio pages, written in 
1815, and sent to the Institution by the Kev. John Cuenelias, of 
Monterey. 

2. A grammar of the same language by Arroyo, also written in 
1815, and found at the mission of Santa Yrez, in Santa Barbara 
county, by the Rev. C. Rubio, principal of the college of that place, 
by whom it is lent to the Institution. This grammar was copied from 
Arroyo's manuscripts, in a small octavo of seventy-six pages, in a 
clear beautiful hand, by one of the friars, and is a curiosity of its kind. 
It had been hidden at the old mission where Father Arroyo died, for 
over forty years. 

3. An extensive vocabulary of the Indians of San Antonio Mission, 
of about ninety quarto pages, prepared by Padre Buenaventura Sitgar, 
one of the original founders of California, and Padre Miguel Pieras, 
between 1771 and 1*797. 

4. A catechism of the Chalonese language of the mission of Sole- 
dad, written out by Father Vincente Fio de Sarria about 1819, was 
also found at San Antonio Mission, and forwarded, with the vocabulary 
of Sitgar, by Rev. D. Ambris, curate of Monterey. 

5. A catechism in the language of the San Antonio Mission, with 
a Spanish translation written by Friar Pedro Cabot, in 1817. This 
was copied from a wooden tablet used by the missionaries to instruct 
the Indians at church, and was presented to the Institution by Mr. 
Taylor, according to whom, Friar Cabot was one of the best educated 
Spanish missionaries, and justly celebrated among the people of the 
country for his piety and excellence of heart. He died about 1836. 

We are informed by Mr. Taylor that, at his earnest request, one of 
the learned professors in the college of Santa Clara has undertaken, 
in behalf of the Institution, to prepare a vocabulary and grammar of 
the language, of the Flat Head Indians of Oregon, among whom he 
labored as a missionary for many years. 

The Mutsun vocabulary has been carefully copied, at the expense of 
the Institution, by Mr. Cotheal, of New York, and the original re- 
turned to the reverend gentleman to whom we are indebted for its use. 
The other articles mentioned, which are not given to the Institution, 
will also be copied, and the originals returned. In this way, these 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 41 

valuable contributions to philology, if not printed, will be preserved 
and rendered more accessible to the ethnological student. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Taylor, we have prepared a circular 
addressed to the Catholic clergymen, missionaries, and institutions of 
California, Oregon, Washington, Vancouver's Island, British Colum- 
bia, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, asking for copies of all Indian 
vocabularies, grammars, catechisms, and other philological materials, 
made or collected by the priests who labored among the aborigines, 
and which, we are informed, are still to be found in many of the 
mission stations. In Alta California alone, it is said that there are 
twenty-one missions, in which are preserved books of baptisms, mar- 
riages, and deaths of the Indians from 1769 to 1846. 

Mr. George Gribbs, formerly of New York, during a residence of 
twelve years on the Pacific coast, has devoted much time to collecting 
materials for the illustration of the ethnology of the country. He 
has obtained over fifty vocabularies of the various languages and 
dialects spoken along the coast from Behring's straits to San Francisco, 
and further south ; many of which are accompanied by special 
memoirs by intelligent gentlemen residing among particular tribes or 
families, and who are well acquainted with their respective idioms. 
Mr. Gibbs is at present engaged in arranging his materials with a 
view to present them to this Institution. By the collection and pub- 
lication of all the materials of this class which can be obtained, addi- 
tions may be made of importance to the ethnologist, in solving many 
questions as to the general philosophy of language, and the connection 
of the different families of American Indians with each other and with 
different races of mankind. 

A considerable number of answers have been received to the circular 
addressed by the Institution to the foreign agents of the government, 
missionaries, and other persons in all parts of the world, relative to 
the investigation as to the system of relationship adopted by different 
tribes, nations, and races of mankind, mentioned in the last report, 
as undertaken by Mr. Morgan. These letters have been sent to Mr. 
Morgan, who has, in turn, acknowledged his indebtedness to the Insti- 
tution for the valuable aid rendered him in the prosecution of his 
research. 

Some years ago a memoir was submitted to the Institution, on the 
physical peculiarities of the European man in America, by a gentle- 
man of Cincinnati, which was found to contain a large amount of 
interesting matter, but scarcely sufficient data to warrant a safe induction 
as to the subject of investigation. A similar inquiry has been insti- 



42 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

tuted by members of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
and in cooperation with these, a circular has been issued by the Insti- 
tution, asking for statistics relative to the place of birth, country of 
parentage, profession or occupation, age, height, and weight of native- 
born American citizens. To this circular about one hundred answers 
have been returned from our meteorological correspondents, the whole 
series furnishing the facts relative to about two thousand individuals. 
It is intended to present the statistics thus obtained to the author of 
the memoir above mentioned, as well as to the Academy of Sciences. 
It will, however, be evident, on reflection, that the value of such, sta- 
tistics must depend on the number of cases which they include, and 
the length of time through which they are continued ; since it is highly 
probable that the changes produced by climate and other conditions of 
existence, become marked only after a succession of generations have 
been exposed to the modifying influences. 

The Institution continues to receive from time to time, information 
respecting the existence of mounds and other remains of the original 
inhabitants of this continent not previously described, and since the 
proposition has been entertained of preparing a map to illustrate the 
relative distribution of these remains, all information of this kind will 
be very acceptable. 

A paper has been some time in possession of the Institution, on 
the mining operations of the ancient inhabitants of the region around 
Lake Superior, but it is not yet in a sufficiently elaborate condition to 
be presented to the public through the Smithsonian Contributions. We 
hope, however, that in the course of the year we shall be able to have 
it revised and prepared for the press. It may be proper also to men- 
tion, in this connection, that a large number of crania of different 
tribes of Indians, as well as of different races of men, has been collected 
together at the Institution, the study of which would probably furnish 
some new facts of interest to the ethnologist. 

Magnetic Observatory . — It was stated in the last report that, as the 
changes in the direction and intensity of the magnetic force at Toronto 
were found to be almost precisely the same as at Philadelphia and 
Washington, it had therefore been concluded that more important 
service could be rendered science by making the observations at a 
greater distance from Toronto than the grounds of the Smithsonian 
Institution. In accordance with this conclusion, the instruments of 
the observatory, jointly supported by the Smithsonian Institution and 
the Coast Survey, have been sent to Key West, where the United 
States government has a fortification, and the Coast Survey maintains 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 43 

a tidal station. Key West is situated in latitude 24° 33' north, lon- 
gitude 81° 41' west, and is a low coral island, rising at no point more 
than ten or twelve feet above the sea. The mean temperature of the 
spring is 75°, of summer 82°, of autumn 78°, and winter 69°. The 
daily variation of temperature is therefore very small, and on this 
account as well as from its position, the island is well adapted to mag- 
netic observations, 

The observatory is situated on the grounds of the government, a few 
hundred yards from Fort Taylor, and near the water. A large shed 
belonging to the fort was made use of, by permission of the engineer 
department, as an outer protection for an inner building containing 
the instruments. The inner rooms were properly inclosed in a sub- 
stantial manner, leaving a clear space between their walls and those 
of the outer building for the free circulation of air. The piers sup- 
porting the instruments rest upon the solid rock of the island, and are 
therefore subject to no other changes than those which result from the 
slight annual variation of temperature. A small building to the north 
of the observatory was erected for the instruments employed to determ- 
ine the absolute values of the magnetic elements, to be used in con- 
nection with the continuous photographic records of the variations. 

The instruments were mounted at Key West in January and Febru- 
ary, 1860, by Prof. W. P. Trowbridge, assistant in the United States 
Coast Survey, and a series of observations commenced by this gentle- 
man, assisted by Mr. Samuel Walker, in March, have been continued to 
the present time, under the charge of Mr. George D. Allen, who is now 
retained as permanent observer. The expense of the observations is 
sustained jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and the Coast Survey. 
In the appendix to the last report will be found a minute description 
of the self-recording instruments here referred to, and of the method 
of using them, prepared by Mr. J. E. Hilgard; and in the appendix 
to the present report it is proposed to insert a communication from 
Gen. Sabine to the Royal Society of London, giving a brief exposition 
of the laws of the phenomena of the larger magnetic disturbances, as 
far as they have been ascertained, and of the interesting contributions 
to science which such observations as are now made at Key West may 
be the means of affording. 

Laboratory. — During the last year the laboratory has remained 
under the direction of Dr. B. F. Craig, of this city, and, as in former 
years, many minerals from different parts of the country, submitted 
to the Institution for examination, have been reported upon. It 



44 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

may be proper here to repeat the statement which has previously 
been made as to the policy adopted in regard to examinations of this 
kind, namely : to furnish an account of the character of the mineral 
free of cost to the parties asking the information, provided it is of 
general interest, or immediately connected with the advance of 
science, and can be afforded at little expense to the Institution. If, 
however, the information required is for private interests, a charge is 
made sufficient to cover the expense of the investigation. By the 
adoption of this policy, the laboratory has been kept in operation by 
means of a small annual appropriation for chemicals and apparatus. 

Collections of Natural History, &c. — The Smithsonian Institution, 
during the twelve years of its active existence, has expended a large 
amount of labor and money in collecting and preserving specimens of 
geology, natural history, and ethnology, and has also received the 
entire charge of all the specimens collected by the various expeditions 
of the general Government. The scientific material thus collected is 
very valuable, and, in number and variety of specimens and duplicates 
to illustrate the natural productions of the North American continent, 
far excels any other collection ever made. It is not the policy of 
the Institution to hoard up specimens for the exclusive study of 
those immediately connected with the establishment, or to consider 
the duplicates merely as articles of commercial value, only to be ex- 
changed for marketable equivalents,, but to render them available as 
widely as possible for the advance of knowledge. In accordance with 
this policy, arrangements have been commenced for a more general 
distribution of the type and duplicates, and for the description of new 
species, than has heretofore been practicable. 

The specimens may be divided into two classes: first, those which 
have been described in the reports of the G-overnment expeditions, or 
in the transactions of the Smithsonian and other institutions ; and 
second, those which have not yet been described, and which conse- 
quently are considered of much value to the naturalists who desire to 
gratify the laudable ambition of connecting their names with original 
accounts of new species, or who are engaged in preparing monographs 
of particular families. Of both classes the Institution possesses an 
immense number of duplicates, in the disposition of which, some gen- 
eral principles should be kept constantly in view. After due consulta- 
tion and deliberation the following rules for the first class, and con- 
siderations for the second, are proposed. 

First. To advance original science, the duplicate type specimens 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 45 

should be distributed as widely as possible to scientific institutions in 
this country and abroad, in order that they may be used in identifying 
the species and genera which have been described. 

Second. To promote education, as full sets as possible of general 
duplicates, properly labeled, should be presented to colleges and other 
institutions of learning that profess to teach the principal branches of 
natural history. 

Third. It should be distinctly understood that due credit is to be 
given to the Institution in the labeling of the specimens, and in all 
accounts which may be published of them, since such credit is not only 
due to the name of Smithson, but also to the directors of the establish- 
ment as vouchers to the world that they are faithfully carrying out the 
intention of the bequest. 

Fourth. It may be proper in the distribution to institutions abroad, 
as a general rule, to require, in case type specimens to illustrate 
species which have been described by foreign authors may be wanted 
for comparison or other uses in this country, that they be furnished at 
any time they may be required. 

Fifth. In return for specimens which may be presented to colleges 
and other educational establishments, collections from localities in 
their vicinity, which may be desirable, shall be furnished when re- 
quired. 

The disposition of the undescribed specimens in the collection of the 
Institution i's a matter which requires special consideration, and 
involves in every case of application for the use of them the necessity 
of deliberation to guard against the falling of the specimens into 
improper hands, and prevent as far as possible the charge of favoritism. 

It is not impossible that in some cases, hasty and imperfect descrip- 
tions have been published of specimens belonging to the Institution, 
through the desire of the author to connect his name with a new 
species, rather than from an honest endeavor to advance knowledge. 
It would, however, have been difficult to refuse any person the privilege 
of examining new species, who professed to be actuated alone by the 
desire of having an opportunity of laboring in a particular field of 
investigation ; but it is clear that special encouragement and preference 
should be given to those who undertake the more difficult and laborious 
task of forming complete monographs. 

It is not in accordance with the policy of the Institution to subject 
a person who is engaged in a special line of research, to the expense of 
residing in Washington during the period perhaps of many months 
required for the investigation, but, when necessary, he is allowed to 



46 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

take tlie materials to his home to study them at his leisure, provided 
the Institution is satisfied as to his competency, his integrity, and 
industry. But in granting this privilege, some restriction should be 
put upon the time the specimens may be retained by the investigator, 
and also upon the number he may have at once in his possession. He 
should also give assurance that he will prepare a set of type specimens 
properly labeled for preservation in the Smithsonian museum, and that 
all the duplicates, if required, shall be returned to the general collection. 

The proper distribution of the duplicate specimens is a work of great 
labor and expense. It does not consist merely in assorting and packing 
them for transportation, but also in properly numbering and labeling 
them for immediate use. Without these preliminaries, the specimens 
themselves would be of comparatively little value. For example, we 
may send to an educational establishment a series of specimens, many 
of which are to be found in its immediate vicinity, and yet be of great 
value on account of having attached to them the scientific names by 
which they are known to men of science in every part of the civilized 
world, and without which all that may be stated in regard to them in 
books would have no interest for want of certainty as to the identity 
of the objects described. 

To illustrate the details of the system of distribution, I may mention 
the plan adopted in regard to the shells and minerals. Of these, a 
complete series, consisting of a full representation of each species, is in 
the process of being accurately labeled, and when this work is com- 
pleted, the whole collection of duplicates will be assorted in boxes or 
bins, each apartment containing those belonging to the same species. 
Each shell or mineral in the same box will then be marked with the 
same number, corresponding with a number on a list of printed labels, 
two copies of which will be sent to each recipient of a collection ; one 
to be preserved for reference and the other to be cut up into labels to 
be attached to the specimens. After this preparation and arrangement, 
individual series are made up by taking a single specimen from each 
box. This operation demands a critical knowledge of each particular 
class of specimens, and consequently requires the cooperation of a 
number of experienced naturalists, each an acknowledged authority in 
his special department. 

From the foregoing account it must be clear that the labor and time 
required even to prepare a few sets of specimens for distribution, is 
much greater than at first sight might be imagined ; and since the 
number of suites of specimens in the Smithsonian collection amounts in 
some cases to several hundred, it is evident that the expense must 



REPORT OF T1IE SECRETARY. 47 

exceed the unaided means of the Institution, unless the time of com- 
pleting the distribution be extended over a number of years. 

In accordance with the plan described, a commencement has been 
made in the work, preparatory to the general distribution. The assort- 
ment and labeling of an entire set of shells has been principally 
intrusted to Mr. Philip Carpenter, of Warrington, England, one of 
the first conchologists of the day, who has prepared a report on the 
shells of the northwest coast of the United States for the British Asso- 
ciation. In this work Mr. Carpenter has been assisted by the gratui- 
tous labor of Mr. Isaac Lea, Dr. A. A. Gould, Dr. E. Foreman, Mr. 
W. G. Binney, Dr. W. Stimpson, and Mr. Temple Prime. 

The botanical collection has been placed in the hands of Dr. John 
Torrey, of New York, who has generously offered, with the cooperation of 
Dr.. Gray, of Harvard University, to superintend the labeling of a com- 
plete set of specimens to be preserved in the museum of this Institution, 
of several sets of original type series, to be presented to some of the 
principal museums of this country and of Europe, and the preparation 
of the remainder for distribution to colleges and academies. 

The arrangement of the specimens of the other branches of natural 
history has been commenced and laboriously prosecuted under the 
direction of Professor Baird, who has been assisted especially by Dr. 
H. Bryant, Mr. Theodore Gill, and a number of amateur naturalists. 
In accordance with the policy of rendering the collections of new 
material immediately available for the advance of science, a number of 
series of specimens of different genera and species have been intrusted 
for study and description to different gentlemen interested in special 
branches of natural history. The service which has been rendered the 
cause of natural history by this liberal course is far greater than might 
at first sight appear. 

It may be safely asserted that scarcely any extended investigation 
in the line of natural history has been prosecuted in this country 
during the last ten years without having its material in greater or less 
part furnished by the Institution. 

Explorations. — During the past year the collections have been 
increased by a number of expeditions under the direction of the 
different departments of the general government, and by explorations 
in part at the expense and under the direction of the Institution. Of 
these a detailed history is given in the report of Professor Baird here- 
with presented, and it is only necessary for me in this connection to 
mention some of the latter sources of the increase of specimens. 



48 REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 

Mr. Robert Kennicott, the enterprising young naturalist mentioned 
in the last report, has continued his explorations in the Hudson's Bay 
territory and Russian America, and his labors have, as in previous 
years, received the cordial cooperation of all the officers and agents of 
the Hudson's Bay Company. Not only has he been permitted to visit 
and reside at the different posts, but he has received free transportation 
of himself and collections. Mr. Kennicott will further extend his 
explorations into Russian America, and will probably remain absent 
until the autumn of 1863. 

Mr. John Xantus, whose name has also been mentioned in some of 
the previous reports, has industriously occupied his time not devoted 
to tidal observations for the Coast Survey at Cape St. Lucas, in Lower 
California, in completing the collections of the natural history of that 
region. The specimens he has obtained on the western coast, are 
greater in number and variety, according to Professor Baird, than 
those ever collected in that region by any single individual. 

Mr. C. Drexler, under the special direction of the Institution, during 
the last year made an exploration in the region of James' Bay, and in 
this case also the Hudson's Bay Company liberally seconded the objects 
of the Institution. He was enabled to collect a large number of valu- 
able specimens through the facilities afforded him, and these were sent 
from Moose factory to London, at the expense of the company ; and 
thence to this country by the Cunard steamers, free of charge ; acts of 
liberality which deserve to be specially noticed, not only as examples 
of gratifying appreciation of science, but also of the efforts of the Insti- 
tution to enlarge its boundaries. 

Museum. — What has been said under the head of collections may 
serve to illustrate the service which the Institution might have rendered 
to natural history without having established a public museum, and 
incurred the expense of the erection of a large building and the con- 
tinued cost of supporting its necessary establishment of numerous 
employes. The act of Congress, however, authorized the erection of a 
building for the reception of objects of natural history, under the idea, 
then prevalent, that such a provision was absolutely necessary for car- 
rying out the will of the testator ; but it must be clear to every one 
who critically examines the subject that, unless restricted, the expense 
of making provision for a general museum alone would absorb all the 
funds, and thus confine to a single object, and that principally local in 
its effects, the bequest intended for the increase and diffusion of knowl- 
edge generally among men. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 49 

If the duplicates now in possession of the Institution were to be 
distributed on the plan of demanding an equivalent of specimens in 
exchange, the returns would fill far more than the unoccupied space 
now in the Smithsonian building, and an additional edifice would be 
required, the cost of which would either diminish the original fund or 
absorb for years to come the accruing interest. It is evident, therefore, 
that unless the museum be restricted within definite limits, the active 
operations which have given so much reputation to the Institution, and 
made the name of Smithson as familiar as a household word in every 
part of the world, must ultimately cease. It has, therefore, been con- 
cluded to confine the special collections of the Institution to type speci- 
mens, illustrating the natural history of the American continent. 
Even the cost of the preservation of these will be more than can well 
be afforded from the income of the original bequest. Indeed the Insti- 
tution could do much more service to the cause of natural history, were 
Congress to accept as a gift the Smithsonian building and all its speci- 
mens for the purpose of establishing a separate museum, and suffer the 
Smithsonian income, thus freed from the expense of supporting so 
costly an establishment, to be entirely devoted to the active operations 
of the programme of organization. 

It is not intended by the foregoing to decline accepting foreign 
specimens in cases in which they may be required for special investi- 
gation and comparison ; on the contrary, it is a part of the policy of 
the Institution to furnish, as far as possible, to original investigators 
aid of this kind. 

For an account of the labors connected with the collections and the 
museum, in detail, I must refer to the communication, herewith ap- 
pended, of Professor Baird. 

Exchanges .—The system of exchange still continues to perform an 
important part in the literary and scientific intercourse between this 
country and other parts of the world. During the year 1860 it has 
increased more rapidly than in any other period of the same length, 
and is now the principal medium of literary and scientific communica- 
tion between the American continent and foreign countries. It is not 
confined on this side of the Atlantic to the United States, but extends 
to Canada, the West Indies, and South America. 

As a natural consequence of the extension of this part of the opera- 
tions, the cost of carrying it on has correspondingly increased, and it 
will be impossible with the limited income of the Smithsonian fund to 
enlarge the system, or even to continue it in its present dimensions, 
4 



50 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

without a pro rata assessment of at least a portion of the expenses on 
the different parties who avail themselves of its facilities. The expense 
of the system of exchange would, however, be far greater were it not for 
the many favors we receive from transportation companies, either in a 
great reduction of charges or their entire omission. For conspicuous 
examples of this liberality, the Institution may refer to the Cunard 
steamers between New York and Liverpool, to the North German 
Lloyd between New York and Bremen, the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company, Panama Railroad Company, North Atlantic Steamship Com- 
pany, the Adams Express Company, the steamship Isabel line between 
Charleston and Havana, and Russell's army transportation lines, and 
also to the Hudson's Bay Company. 

The whole number of large packages containing books, specimens, 
and other articles received at the Institution from different parts of the 
world during I860, was 1,000 ; the number of packages of the same 
character sent off was 888. When it is recollected that each of these 
packages contained a large number of articles, all of which were to be 
distributed, while those intended for this Institution were to be cata- 
logued and acknowledged, some idea may be formed of the labor 
required to carry on this single branch of the general operations of the 
establishment. For a detailed statement oi the particulars relative to 
this branch of the general operations, I must also refer to the report 
of Professor Baird. 

Library. — Since the presentation of the last report, the plan adopted 
in regard to the increase of the library has been steadily pursued, 
namely : to obtain as perfect a series as possible of the transactions 
and proceedings of all the learned societies which now exist or have 
existed in different parts of the world. The distribution of the cata- 
logue of the works of this kind already in the library, which was men- 
tioned in the last report, with the request that our deficiencies might 
be supplied, has called forth the presentation of a large number of 
scarce volumes, intended to complete the sets, as well as to increase the 
number of our series. During the last year the Institution has received 
from abroad, for its own library, by way of donation and exchange, 
upwards of 5,000 presentations, consisting principally of volumes and 
parts of volumes. 

The distribution of the same catalogue through this country has 
served to render more generally known the works contained in the 
library of the Institution, and has consequently increased its use. 
The value of this library will, however, be greatly enhanced by the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 51 

publication of the classified index of all papers contained in the trans- 
actions of learned societies and in scientific serials, now in process of 
preparation at the expense and under the direction of the Royal Society 
of London. The following extract from a letter lately received from 
General Sabine gives an account of the character and present condition 
of this work : 

" Our plan comprehends natural history as well as what are usually 
called the exact sciences. It is intended to form three distinct cata- 
logues : first, a catalogue of all the serials included in the publication, 
with the contents of each in chronological order ; second, a catalogue 
of all the separate memoirs in all the serials, alphabetically arranged 
according to the authors' names; third, a classified catalogue of the 
separate memoirs. The two last named catalogues to contain, in 
addition to serials, distinct scientific memoirs in the appendices to 
voyages, travels, &c. We have written in quadruplicate the titles of 
above 80,000 detached memoirs, all from works (serials) in our own 
library. We have still in the library more serials, which will give us 
about 80,000 more titles, which we expect will be the work of the next 
fifteen or sixteen months. In the mean time we are seeking out for, 
and adding to, our library, works of the same nature which we do not 
possess. In this we think you could greatly assist us by lists of Amer- 
ican publications — serials of course." 

The Institution should contribute in every way in its power to this 
important work, and should endeavor, when it is printed, to make 
arrangements by which copies may be obtained at a small expense for 
the principal libraries of the country. In the way of contributions of 
some importance to this great enterprise, we hope to be able, in a short 
time, to furnish the bibliography of North American mammals, birds, 
several orders of insects, shells, and plants ; and to complete, at no 
distant period, the whole series relative to the natural history of this 
continent. 

The first volume of the catalogue of zoological literature from 1750 
to the present day, by J. Victor Carus, of Leipzic, mentioned in the 
last report, has been published ; and we would commend it to the 
patronage of naturalists as the best compilation which has yet appeared 
of the titles systematically arranged of isolated papers on zoology pub- 
lished in American as well as foreign journals. 

Among the special donations since the date of the last report, are 
151 volumes from the Royal Library at Munich, and 193 from the 
University at Olmutz; 60 from the British Museum, 30 from the 
Royal Society of Amsterdam, 25 from the Royal Society of Upsala, 
28 from the University of Utrecht, and 36 from the Royal Observatory 
at Vienna. 



52 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

The donation from the Royal Library of Munich, mentioned above, 
is a part of a large invoice of rare and valuable works, including many 
incunabula, for presentation to different specified libraries in the 
United States, after this Institution should have made its selec- 
tion. 

The purchases have been chiefly in the way of completing such 
series of transactions as could not be obtained by exchange, and of 
works necessary to the investigations connected with the Institution, 
such as those on natural history, meteorology, &c. 

About one third of the expenditure under the head of "cost of 
books,' ' given in the report of the executive committee, is for bind- 
ing — an item of expense which is every year increasing with the num- 
ber of serials received through our exchanges ; the current volumes of 
this kind being usually distributed in paper covers. Since the date 
of the last report, all the scientific pamphlets have been classified 
according to subjects, and placed in the hands of the binder. 

The policy adopted in regard to the library, as we have said, is that 
of rendering it a special collection, as complete as possible in transac- 
tions, proceedings of learned societies, and other scientific serials; and 
since the space which can be devoted — without further extension of the 
building — to the increase of this and other collections is limited, it has 
been thought proper to present to the American Antiquarian Society a 
large accumulation of newspapers in exchange for works more imme- 
diately in accordance with the design of the Institution, and with one of 
the fundamental propositions of the programme of organization, viz: 
that of doing nothing with its funds which can be done equally well or 
better by other means. While the care of these ephemeral publica- 
tions would be troublesome and expensive to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, it forms a legitimate part of the duty of the Antiquarian Society, 
which has a considerable fund expressly devoted to the purpose. This 
disposition of the papers, many of which have been presented to the 
Institution, is not made on account of a want of proper appreciation 
of their value; on the contrary, we fully agree with the opinion ex- 
pressed by Mr. Haven, the learned librarian of the Antiquarian So- 
ciety, "that even partial series, when properly arranged, constitute a 
geographical and historical chart of public sentiment, and of social 
and political facts, in which sectional and denominational diversities, 
of whatever kind, are brought under a single view for examination and 
comparison." They have been presented to the Antiquarian Society 
that they may better subserve this object, and in the spirit of coopera- 
tion which characterizes the policy of the Institution. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 53 

Gallery of Art. — The large and valuable collection of paintings of 
Indian portraits and scenes of Indian life belonging to Mr. Stanley, 
and those of the Government, have continued to form an object of 
attraction and interest to the numerous visitors of the Institution. The 
large room in which these pictures are displayed has been furnished 
with cases to contain the specimens of Indian costume, implements 
of war, and other articles to illustrate Indian manners and customs, 
which the Institution has received as presents from different parties. 

No application of late has been made to Congress for an appropria- 
tion to purchase the valuable collection of Indian portraits belonging 
to Mr. Stanley, although it is hoped that in a more favorable condition 
of the Treasury an appropriation for this purpose will be granted. 

At the last session of the board a letter from Professor Secchi, of 
Eome, was read, stating that he had obtained permission for the Insti- 
tution to procure casts or moulds of celebrated statues in the Vatican, 
but it was concluded that all operations in this line should be deferred 
until the completion of the large and elegant building now in process 
of construction by Mr. W. W. Corcoran, of this city, to be devoted by 
him to the exhibition of works of art. In accordance with the policy 
adopted by the Institution, it has been proposed to cooperate with Mr. 
Corcoran in his liberal and generous enterprise, and to lend the influ- 
ence of the Institution in procuring specimens of art for his gallery. 

A considerable number of valuable engravings have been added to 
the collection by donations from the King of Saxony, and a series of 
those previously in the possession of the Institution, have been framed 
and hung up in different parts of the building. The plaster figures 
received by the Institution from the Patent Office have 'been cleaned 
and repaired, and are now exhibited in the connecting range of the 
west wing. The Secretary of the Interior has sent to the Institution 
the large stone sarcophagus brought from Syria by Commodore Elliott. 
It is an interesting relic of Koman sculpture, and has been placed in 
the south entrance hall of the building. It is proper also to mention 
that the relatives of the late Professor Espy have presented a half 
length portrait of him, which is at present placed in the library. 

Lectures. — In accordance with the programme of the Institution, the 
following courses of lectures have been given to the citizens and visitors 
of Washington, during the winter of 1860-61, namely: 

Five lectures by Professor Fairman Rogers, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, on Civil Engineering, Roads and Bridges, and the 
principles involved in their construction. 



54 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

One lecture, by Professor P. A. Chadbotjrne, of Williams College, 
on Iceland. 

Five lectures by Dr. F. A. P. Barnard, President of the University 
of Mississippi, on polarized light. 

1. Outline of optical discovery ; characteristics of polarized light. 

2. Undulatory theory of light ; physical doctrine of polarization. 

3. Chromatics of polarized light. 

4. Physical theory of double refraction, and of polarization by 
double refraction. 

5. Circular, elliptical, and rotary polarization. 

Two lectures by Professor Stephen Alexander, of the College of New 
Jersey, on solar eclipses and their attendant phenomena, with a par- 
ticular account of the total eclipse of last July, and the observations 
made in connection with it by the Government expeditions to Labrador, 
the Pacific coast, and elsewhere. 

Three lectures by S. Wells Williams, on China and Japan. 

1. The literature and government of China. 

2. The civilization of the Chinese. 

3. Rank of the Japanese among Asiatic nations. 

Five lectures by Rev. John Lord, of Connecticut, on the great 
representatives of modern civilization, &c. 

1. Michael Angelo and art. 

2. Bacon and philosophy. 

3. Cromwell and liberty. 

4. Madame De Stael and literature. 

5. Columbus and discovery. 

Beside the foregoing, a series of experimental lectures on physical 
science has been given by the Secretary of the Institution to the 
teachers of the District, and others interested in the subject. In these 
articles of apparatus presented by Dr. Hare, and those purchased for 
the use of the Institution, were used. During the present lecture 
season, owing perhaps, in part, to unfavorable weather and the dis- 
tracted condition of the public mind, the attendance has been less 
numerous than in former years. The plan suggested in the last 
report, of closing the doors after the lecture had commenced, has 
been adopted and found conducive of good order and more prompt 
attendance. 

Respectfullv submitted, 

JOSEPH HENRY, 

Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 
February, 1861. 



APPENDIX TO THE REPORT OE THE SECRETARY. 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, December 31, 1860. 

Sir: I have the honor herewith to present a report for 1860 of the 
operations you have intrusted to rny charge, namely: those which 
relate to the printing, the exchanges, and to the collections of natural 
history. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

SPENCER F. BAIRD, 
Assistant Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 
Prof. Joseph Henry, L.L. D., 

Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 



PRINTING. 

The publications of the Institution printed during the year 1860 
consisted of 614 quarto and 641 octavo pages, illustrated by seven plates 
and sixty-six wood cuts. 

EXCHANGES AND TRANSPORTATION. 

During the year 1860 there has been a very great extension of all 
operations connected with the department of exchanges. The receipts 
by the Smithsonian Institution have been much enlarged over those of 
any previous year, and an increased use has been made by other 
parties of its facilities both for the transmission and return of pack- 
ages. 

The following tables will be found to exhibit the statistics of this 
branch of operations of the Smithsonian Institution, showing how im- 
portant a part it plays in aiding the scientific and literary intercourse 
of different parts of the globe. 

The expense of the system of exchanges, however, has been correspond- 
ingly increased, and would have been greater than the Smithsonian in- 
come could defray without the many favors from transportation com- 
panies, in the way of material reduction or entire remission of charges 



56 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

for freights. The benefits.resulting from such liberality have of course 
been experienced by all departments of operations, but chiefly in that 
of exchanges and of the collections. The parties to which the Institu- 
tion is chiefly indebted are as follows: 

The North German Lloyd, a line of steamships between New 
York and Bremen, of which Messrs. Gelpcke, Keutgen, and Reichelt, 
of New York, are agents. The Pacific Mail Steamship Company, be- 
tween San Francisco and various ports of Oregon and Washington, to 
the north, and Panama to the south; of which Mr. W. 0. Davidge 
was president for a time— succeeded by Mr. Allen McLane. Also, the 
Panama Railroad Company, Mr. David Hoadley, President. The 
steamer connection with California was, at the date of the last report, 
formed by the North Atlantic Steamship Company, Mr. I. W. Ray- 
mond, President ; and the Institution had the privilege of transmitting 
its exchanges both ways free of charge. Since the new arrangements, 
by which the vessels of Commodore Vanderbilt replace those of the 
last mentioned company, this privilege has been somewhat interrupted ; 
the agent of Commodore Vanderbilt declining to continue it between 
New York and Aspinwall. I am, however, happy to report that no 
serious interruption beyond a little delay has resulted, as Mr. Hoadley 
has authorized the free transmission of Smithsonian parcels by the brig 
line of the Panama railroad between New York and Aspinwall. 

To Mr. A. B. Forbes, agent of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 
in San Francisco, aided by Mr. Samuel Hubbard, the Institution is 
under many obligations, in acting as general agents for it in Cali- 
fornia. 

The great facilities authorized by the Adams Express Company, 
through Superintendent S. M. Shoemaker, and at present exercised by 
the Washington agent, Mr. McLaughlin, mentioned in the last report, 
have been continued the past year, greatly to the interest of the Insti- 
tution. 

. The Cunard steamers, between New York and Liverpool, have car- 
ried many packages free of charge during the year. 

In addition to the parties first mentioned, assistance has been ren- 
dered, as heretofore, to the exchanges and explorations conducted by 
the Institution, by the steamer Isabel, running between Charleston 
and Havana; by Mr. W. H. Russell, army contractor of transporta- 
tion, and by other parties. , 

The services of the parties named above have all been gratefully 
mentioned in preceding reports. To the directors and officers generally 
of the honorable Hudson's Bay Company, through the late Sir George 
Simpson, governor in this country, the Smithsonian Institution has to 
acknowledge its special indebtedness. In addition to the aid afforded 
to the various enterprises of Hudson's Bay explorations on the part of 
the Institution, referred to elsewhere, it has carried a very large amount 
of freight in its canoes, free of charge, consisting of supplies to various 
points, and returns of meteorological records and specimens of natural 
history. Without such assistance the expense of conducting scientific 
explorations in the far north -would be so great as entirely to preclude 
the possibility of any such enterprises on the part of the Institution. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 57 

The entire number of packages received at the Institution during 
1860, by express, railroad, and steamboat, amounted to exactly 1,000; 
while 888 were transmitted in the same time ; making an aggregate 
of 1,888. This number, of course, has no reference to the sub-pack- 
ages or smaller parcels inclosed in larger ones, or in the boxes of 
exchanges received from the agents of the Institution abroad. The 
receipts of the same kind in 1859 were 804; the transmissions 845 ; an 
aggregate of 1,649, showing an increase of 239, or about one seventh. 



A. 

Receipt of books, &c, by exchange in 1860. 



Volumes 



Octavo 781 

Quarto 419 

Folio 71 

1,271 

Parts of volumes and pamphlets : 

Octavo 2,716 

Quarto 1,371 

Folio 93 

4,180 

Maps and charts 220 

Total 5,671 

Showing the very great increase over the aggregate (3,602) of last 
year, of 2,069 volumes and parts of volumes, or nearly as great an 
amount as the receipts of 1858 and 1859 combined. The number of 
separate donations was 1,635, to 1,252 of last year. 

As a matter of some interest I take the liberty of recapitulating the 
receipts by exchange in the ten years, during which the system has 
been in active operation : 

1851 878 volumes and parts of volumes. 

1852 609 do. 

1853 2,556 do. 

1854 2,828 do. 

1855 2,770 do. 

1856 3,330 do. 

1857 1,760 do. 

1858 2,540 do. 

1859 3,602 do. 

1860 5,671 do. 

Total 26,544 do. 



58 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



B. 



Table showing the statistics of the foreign exchanges of the Smithsonian 

Institution in 1860. 



Agent and country. 


T3 

CS 

O » 

w 

a> i. 

3 


o 
a 

° 0> 

o d 

g 


O 

o 

<+- 
o 

o 

s 

1 




Weight of boxes 
in pounds. 


1. Dr. Felix Flugel, Leipsic. 


11 

6 

9 

27 

18 

164 

16 

8 


31 
18 
32 
80 
63 
530 
56 
25 
































Holland 








Germany 








Switzerland 










, 














Total 


259 


835 


21 


274 


6,841 






2. H. Bossange, Paris. 


72 

32 

2 

5 


195 

96 

5 

1 








Italy 
































Total 


111 


307 


13 


174 


4,561 






3. Henry Stevens, London. 

Great Britain and Ireland.... 


105 


430 


22 


299 


8,327 




50 ' 


120 


5 


20 


300 








525 


1,692 


61 


767 


20,029 







c. 

Packages received by the Smithsonian Institution from parties in America 
for foreign distribution in 1860. 

No. of packages. 

Albany, N. Y. — 

Prof. J.Hall 9 

New York State Agricultural Society 16 

Baltimore, Md. — 

Dr. P. R. Tyson 50 

Boston, Mass. — 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences 78 

Society of Natural History , 48 

F. H. Storer 169 

Messrs. Storer and Elliott 78 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 59 

No. of packages. 

Cambridge, Mass. — 

American Association for Advancement of Science 38 

Observatory 8 

Prof. Asa Gray 19 

Columbus, Ohio. — 

State Agricultural Societv 100 

W. S. Sullivant 15 

Danville, Ky. — 

Institution for Deaf and Dumb 10 

Frankfort, Ky. — 

State of Kentucky 150 

Montreal, Canada. — 

T. S. Hunt .... 12 

New Haven, Conn. — 

American Journal of Science 12 

American Oriental Society 8 

Yale College 5 

Philadelphia, Penn. — 

Academy of Natural Sciences 131 

American Philosophical Society 250 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 13 

Isaac Lea 73 

Dr. S. W. Mitchell 6 

Providence, R.I. — 

State of Rhode Island 6 

San Francisco, Cal. — 

California Academy of Science 17 

Toronto, Canada. — 

Canadian Institute 11 

Washington, D. C. — 

United States Patent Office 1,391 

United States Coast Survey 1 85 

Surgeon General 100 

Lieut. Warren, U. S. A 6 

Lieut. J. C. Ives, U. S. A 10 

Williamsburg, Va. — 

Eastern State Lunatic Asylum 12 

Miscellaneous 94 

3,130 



60 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



D. 

Addressed packages received by the Smithsonian Institution from Europe, 
for distribution in America, in 1860. 



Albany, N. Y. 



Dudley Observatory 

New York State Library 

New York State Agricultural Society. 

New York State Medical Society, 

Prof. James Hall 

Albany Institute 

Dr. Brunnow 

Prof. E Emmons 

J. H. Hickcox 

Prof. Peters 

H. W. Schroeder 



Amherst, Mass. 



Amherst College 

Prof. Hitchcock 

Edward Tuckerman. 



Annapolis, Md. 
Naval Academy 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Observatory 

University of. Michigan 
Prof. Brunnow 



Atlanta, Ga. 

Atlanta Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal 



Bahia, Brazil. 
Dr. Folsner, (Hann. Consul). 
Baltimore, Md. 



Maryland Historical Society. 
Rev. Dr. J. G. Morris 



Bogota, Neio Granada. 

Societa de Naturalistas Neo-Granadi- 
nos 



Bethlehem, Penn. 
Rev. Mr. Seidel 



17 




Boston, Mass. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 

Boston Society of Natural History , 

Historic-Genealogical Society , 

Prison Discipline Society , 

Dr. A. A. Gould 

American Statistical Association 

Bo wd itch Library 

Geological Survey 

Philosophical Society 

Library of Boston Athenaeum 

Lyceum of Natural History 

Massachusetts Historical Society 

Massachusetts State Library 

Public Library 

Francis Alger 

Dr. S. L. Abbott 

Prof. J. W. Bailey 

Edward Habich 

Prof, Jackson 

Charles C. Jewett 

Prof. Jules Marcou 

Prof. Moreland and F. Minot 

Profs. W. B. and H. D. Rogers 

Samuel H. Scudder 



Brunswick, Me. 



Bowdoin College 

Historical Society of Maine. 
Mr. Packard 



Burlington, Iowa. 

Iowa Historical and Geological Institute 

Burlington, Vt. 



University of Vermont. 
George P. Marsh 



Cambridge, Mass. 

American Association for Advancement 

of Science 

Astronomical Journal 

Cambridge Observatory 

Prof. L. Agassiz 

Prof. Asa Gray 

Harvard University 

G. P. Bond 

James P. Cooke 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
D — Continued. 



CI 



Cambridge, Mass. — Continued. 

Charles H. Davis 

Dr. B. A. Gould 

Joseph Lovering 

Prof. Pierce...: 

S. H. Safford 

J. E. Worcester 

Prof. Jeffries Wyman 

Cave Spring, Ga. 

Institution for Deaf and Dumb 

Charleston, S. C. 

Society Library 

Dr. Bach man 

Dr. J. M. Geddings 

Prof. Francis S. Holmes 

Prof. John E. Holbrook 

Dr. C. Happoldt 

Rev. Thomas Smyth 

Elliott Society of Natural History 

Chapel Hill, JV. C. 
University of North Carolina 

Charlottesville, Va. 

University of Virginia 

Chicago, III. 

Illinois University 

Chicago Medical Journal 

Mechanics' Institute 

Col. J. D. Graham 

M. C. Herrenkind 

Chuquisaca, Bolivia. 
University of Chuquisaca 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

American Medical Journal 

Historical and Philos'l Society of Ohio 

Mercantile Library 

Observatory 

Public Library of Cincinnati 

John G. Anthony 

Prof. Mitchell 

Dr. Newton 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Dr. J. S. Newberry 

Clinton, JV. Y. 
Dr. C. H. Peters 



Columbus, Ohio. 

Ohio State Agricultural Society 

John H. Klippart 

Columbia, S. C. 

South Carolina College 

State University Geological Rooms 

Robert W. Gibbes 

Concord, JV. H. 

New Hampshire Historical Society 

Cannelllon, Ind. 

Hon. Ballard Smith 

Davenport, Iowa. 

Rt. Rev. Henry W. Lee 

David Sheldon 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

State of Iowa 

Detroit, Mich. 

Michigan State Agricultural Society.... 
Penin.and Independent Medical Journal 
J. C. Holmes 

Dorchester, Mass. 

Dr. E. Jarvis 

East Greenwich, JV. Y. 

Asa Fitch 

Easton, Pa. 

Breckenridge Clemens 

Evansville, Ind. 

Hermann Fliigel 

Frankfort, Ky. 

Geological Survey of Kentucky 

Gambier, Ohio. 

Ken yon College 

Georgetown, D. C. 

Georgetown College 



62 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
D — Continued. 



Hartford, Conn. 

Historical Society of Connecticut 

Society of Physical Science 

Young Men's Institute 

Hanover, N H. 

Dartmouth College 

Havana, Cuba. 

Observ. Phys. Meteorol. de la Havana. 

Hudson, Ohio. 

Western Preserve Observatory 

Indianapolis, hid. 

Indiana Historical Society 

Institution for Deaf and Dumb 

Ioiva City, Iowa. 

State University 

Jefferson, Mo. 

Historical and Philosophical Society of 
Missouri 

Lansing, Mich. 
Michigan Agricultural Society 

Lebanon, Tcnn. 
James M. SafFord 

Lexington, Ky. 
Transylvania University 

Little Rock, Jlrk. 

Governor of Arkansas 

Arkansas State Institute 

State of Arkansas 

University of Arkansas 

Long Island, N Y. 
Dr. Louis Bauer 

Louisville, Ky. 

Historical Society 

Col. Long 

Prof. J. Lawrence Smith 






30 




Madison, Wis. 



Educational Society of "Wisconsin 

Hon. Henry Barnard , 

A. C. Ingham 

Society for Education of Blind 

Wisconsin State Agricultural Society.., 
Historical Society of Wisconsin 



Montreal, Canada. 



Natural History Society . 

College of Montreal 

T. Sterry Hunt 

Dr. Kingston 

Sir William E. Logan.... 



McConnellsville, Ohio. 

Hon. Elijah Hay ward 

Milledgevillc, Ga. 



Oglethorpe University 

Professor James Woodrow. 

Montpelier, Vt. 



Historical and Antiquarian Society of 
Vermont 



Nantucket, Mass. 

Miss Mitchell 

Nashville, Tenn. 

University of Nashville 

Natchez, Miss. 

Public Library 

Newark, N. J. 
Historical Society of New Jersey. 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Prof. George H. Cook 

New Harmony, Ind. 

Dr. D. D. Owen 

Neic Haven, Conn. 



American Journal of Science. 
American Oriental Society.... 

W. P. Blake 

Prof. J. D. Dana 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
D — Continued. 



63 




New Haven, Conn. — Continued. 

Yale College.. 

Giorge J. Brush 

Daniel C. Eaton , 

Samuel W. Johnson , 

Prof. E. Loomis 

Lieut. Olmstead 

Prof. Charles U. Shephard 

Prof. Silliman , 

Prof. W. D.Whitney , 



New Orleans, La. 

New Orleans Academy of Natural 

Sciences 

Lyceum of Natural History 

University of Louisiana 

Dr. Bennet Dowler 



Newport, R. I. 
iedwood Library 



Newton Centre, Mass. 



Horatio B. Hackett. 



JVeio York,N Y. 
• 
American Geographical and Statistical 

Society 

New York Lyceum of Natural History. 

American Ethnological Society 

American Bible Society 

American Institute 

American Agricultural Intelligencer 

Astor Library 

Editor of the State's Zeitung 

Farmers' and Mechanics' Intelligencer.. 

Historical Society 

Mercantile Library Association 

Norton's Literary Gazette 

University Library 

Philosophical Society 

Prof. Clarke 

Daniel C. Eaton 

Prof. Wolcott Gibbs 

Henry Grinnell 

M. Harlan 

Dr. John C. Jay 

Dr. Charles A. Joy 

Charles Loosey (Consul Gsn'l, Austria) 

Temple Prime 

John Lothrop Motley 

James Ren wick 

Mr. Sullivan 

Dr. John Torrey 

Mr. Tuckerman 



411 
38 



Oxford, Penn. 



Dr. E. Pfeiffer. 



Philadelphia, Penn. 

Academy of Natural Sciences 

American Philosophical Society 

Central High School 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia Library Company 

W. G. Binney 

Isaac Lea 

Dr. John L. Leconte 

Dr. Joseph Leidy 

Franklin Institute 

Geological Society 

Geological Survey 

Loganian Library.... 

North American Medical and Surgical 

Review 

Wagner Free Institute 

T. A. Conrad 

Lorin Blodget 

Prof. F. A.Genth 

S. S. Haldeman 

J. P. Lesley 

Chester Morris 

Richard Narlan 

William Sharswood 

H. S. Tanner 

Prof. Wagner 



Portland, Me. 
Neal Dow, Mayor of Portland .. 
Porto Cabello, Venezuela. 



Franklin Litchfield, late United States 
consul 



Princeton, N J. 
College of New Jersey 

Providence, R. I. 

Brown University , 

Rhode Island Historical Society. 



Quebec, Canada. 
Legislative Library of Canada. 

Richmond, Va. 

Historical Society of Virginia.. 
Virginia State Library 



Rochester, N. Y. 
University Library 



64 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
D — Continued. 




Rock Island, III. 

B. D. Walsh 

Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 



Inst. Hist. Geogr. of Brazil. 
Heir Rieder 



Roxbury, Mass. 

Dr. Reinhold Solger 

Salem, Mass. 



Essex Institute 

Prof. F. L. Russell. 



Santiago, Cliili. 



Institute de Santiago 

Observatory 

University 

Prof. Ignacio Domeyko. 

Dr. Landhecth 

Prof. Lobeck 

Prof. R. A. Philippi 



Savannah, Ga. 

Georgia Historical Society , 

St. Paul, Minn. 

Historical Society of St. Paul , 

San Francisco, Cal. 

California Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Dr. W. O. Ayres 

St. Louis, Mo. 

St. Louis Academy of Sciences 

Dr. George Engelmann 

Dr. Wizlicenus 

Deutsche Inst, fur Bef. im Wiss. Kunst. 
un Gew 

Geological Survey of Missouri, (Co- 
lumbia, Mo.) 

St. Liouis Medical and Surgical Journal . 

University Library 

E. C. Angelrodt 

Georffe Bemqys 

Dr. Adam Hammer 

N. Holmes 

Dr. Albert Koch 

Dr. B F. Shumard 

Prof. G. C. Swallow 



Springfield, III. 



Prof. Esbjorn , 



Springfield, Mass. 

William Tully 

Toronto, C. W. 



Canadian Institute 

Board of Agriculture, Upper Canada. 

Trinity College 

Prof. Kingston 



Tripoli. 

Daniel Smith McCauley, late United 
States consul 



Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

University of Alabama 

Utica, JV. Y. 
American Journal of Insanity. 
Valdivia, Chili. 

Dr. Eugen Von Bock 

Vandalia, III. 
Historical Society of Illinois.. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 
Dr. Thomas A. Reid 



Washington, D. C. 



United States Patent Office 

Ordnance Bureau 

United States Coast Survey 

National Observatory 

Secretary of War 

Surgeon General 

Lieutenant J. M. Gilliss, U. S. N.... 

William Stimpsoo 

F. B. Meek, and Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

Congress Library 

His Excellency James Buchanan 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

Commissioner of Patents 

Secretary of State 

Superintendent of Statistical Office ... 

National Institute 

Trigonometrical Survey 

United States Agricultural Society... 

War Department 

Colonel Abert 

Prof. S. F. Baird 

Prof. A. D. Bache 

Major Emory 



REPORT OP ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
D — Continued. 



65 




Washington, D. C. — Continued. 



Prof. Espy 

A. Ferguson 

Hon. Peter Force 

Dr. C. Girard 

Captain H. J. Hartstene 

Baron de Gerolt 

Captain A. A. Humphreys. 

Prof. S.S.Hubbard 

Prof. W. R. Johnson 

Lieutenant S. P. Lee 

Lieutenant M. F. Maury ... 

George W. Riggs 

Baron Osten Sacken 

Charles A. Schott 

H. R. Schoolcraft 

J. C. G.Kennedy 

John Xantus 



3 

1 
3 
5 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
48 
4 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 



Water ville, Me. 



Waterville College 

West Chester, Penn. 

W. Darlington 

West Point, JV. F. 



Military Academy 
Prof. Bartlett 



Williamstown , Mass. 
Observatory 

Worcester, Mass 
American Antiquarian Society. 



Total of addresses 335 

Total of parcels 1,908 

By a comparison with the last report, it will be seen that the total 
number of parcels received for other parties in 1860, is about the same 
as in 1859. Their bulk, however, is much greater, owing to the con- 
solidation by the agents of the Institution, and by societies, of several 
2)arcels to the same address into one package before transmission, as 
advised by the Institution. The average number of parcels to each 
address is nearly six. 

MUSEUM AND COLLECTIONS. 

Additions to the Museum and Collections. — During the year 1860 im- 
portant additions have been made to the collection of various species, 
chiefly North American, and serving to render it nearly complete as 
regards a large part of the fauna of the continent. Many new facts 
in regard to the geographical distribution of species over its whole ex- 
tent, and their habits, have been obtained, while carefully prepared 
measurements, weighings, and other facts bearing on the physical 
constants of animals, as called for in Mr. Babbage's article in the 
Smithsonian Report for 1856, have been accumulated in great num- 
bers in the labels and catalogues accompanying the specimens. 

The great bulk of material received has consisted of specimens de- 
posited by the officers in charge of Government expeditions pursuant 
to the act of Congress in relation to the subject. Next to these, of 
collections made in equally or still more unexplored regions of North 
America at the instance, or through the instrumentality, of this Insti- 
tution, and involving not merely the addition of specimens, but accom- 



66 REPORT OP ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

panied by most important results in physical science. Comparatively 
nothing has been received from the more known portions of the United 
States; the transmission of fishes, reptiles, &c, having almost en- 
tirely ceased. This is due to the fact that no effort has been made to 
secure such specimens, on account of the comparative completeness of 
the series, and the expense of enlarging them. There is already a 
large accumulation of such material in the Institution, which, how- 
ever, the systematic arrangement for distribution of labeled duplicates 
\now in progress will speedily and greatly deplete. 

The only departments of natural history to which additions have 
been made from all parts of the United States, have been those of 
conchology, entomology, and oology. Circulars were issued in 1859 
and 1860 inviting contributions of material towards a series of works 
on these subjects which the Institution had in contemplation, to be 
written by the most competent authorities. The invitation has been 
generally responded to by the transmission of many parcels, (many of 
them containing types of rare species.) These have been placed in the 
hands of the collaborators of the Institution as received, and bave 
proved of great importance. 

The following is a detailed statement of the most important collec- 
tions received in 1860 : 

FROM EXPLORATIONS UNDER THE AVAR DEPARTMENT. 

Construction of Wagon Road from Walla- Walla to Fort Benton, un- 
der Lieutenant John Mullan, U. S. A. — The work of this expedition 
was carried out to Fort Benton during the past season, so as to render 
the road passable throughout. Large collections,, chiefly of fossils, 
birds, and plants, were made by Mr. John Pearsall and Mr. Hildreth, 
attaches of the party. 

Exploration of the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone, under Captain 
W. F. Raynolds, U. S. A. — After spending the winter at Deer Creek., 
on the Platte, west of Fort Laramie, explorations were resumed by the 
expedition in May. Dividing into two parties — one commanded by 
Captain Raynolds, and accompanied by Dr. Hayden ; the other by 
Lieutenant Maynadier, with Mr. George H. Trook as collector — they 
proceeded to explore the Wind River mountains, and other localities 
between the Platte and the Upper Missouri, as far north as Fort Ben- 
ton. Finishing their labors during the summer, both parties united 
at Fort Randall, and returned to Washington in November. 

Many important collections were made by the expedition, of fossils, 
plants, and zoological specimens. In the Wind River mountains espe- 
cially, specimens were obtained of great interest, among them what 
is believed to be a new species of Alpine hare. 

Movement of United, States Troops to Oregon, via Fort Benton, under 
Major G. H. Blake, U. S. A. — This party was accompanied by Dr. J. 
G-. Cooper as one of its medical officers, who made some valuable col- 
lections of specimens, serving to extend the information respecting 
the species inhabiting Oregon and Washington, as recorded in the re- 






REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 67 

port on the subject made to Governor Stevens by Dr. Cooper and Dr. 
Suck ley. 

Artesian Well Expedition, under Captain J. Pope, U. S. A. — The 
remainder of the collections of this party, consisting principally of 
specimens in alcohol, have been received from Captain Pope. 

FROM EXPLORATIONS UNDER THE STATE DEPARTMENT. 

Survey of the Northwestern Boundary , Archibald Campbell, Commis- 
sioner. — This commission nearly completed its work during the year, 
and is now on its return home. Large collections in geology and 
natural history have been made by Dr. Kennedy and Mr. George 
Gibbs, in continuation and completion of those previously reported on. 

FROM EXPLORATIONS UNDER THE INTERIOR DEPARTxMENT. 

Survey of the Northern Boundary of Texas, J. H. Clark, Commis- 
sioner. — In addition to other specimens, a very complete collection of 
nests and eggs of birds was made during the past spring along the 
line of this survey by Mr. Charles S. McCarthy, including several 
species previously unknown to science. 

FROM EXPLORATIONS UNDER THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Exploration of the Parana and its tributaries t under Capt. T. J. Page, 
United States Navy. — This expedition completed its important work 
during the year 1860, and has returned to the United States. In 
addition to its geographical and hydrographical labors, much attention 
was paid to natural history ; and among the large collections brought 
home are many new and rare species. The birds of the country visited 
are especially interesting ; the series, prepared chiefly by Mr. Chris- 
topher Wood, being perhaps the largest ever made in that region. 

FROM EXPLORATIONS MORE SPECIALLY CONNECTED WITH THE SMITHSONIAN 

INSTITUTION. 

Exploration of Cape St. Lucas, by Mr. John Xantus. — In the last 
report reference was made to an exploration of Cape St. Lucas, the 
southern extremity of the Peninsula of Lower California, by Mr. John 
Xantus, tidal observer of the United States Coast Survey. This explor- 
ation, so far as the natural history results are concerned, may be con- 
sidered as completed; as, although many isolated species may yet 
remain uncollected, the general peculiarities of its fauna and flora are 
now well ascertained. Besides the addition of a larger number of new 
animals to our fauna than has been made by one person in any single 
region of North America before, Mr. Xantus has shown that the most 
interesting relationship exists between the land species of the Cape and 
those of the region of the Gila, Upper Kio Grande, and the southern 
Pvocky Mountains. On the other hand, very few of the characteristic 
species of the coast of Upper California occur at the Cape ; while, as 
far as observed, the same may be said of the strictly Mexican types. 



68 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

The entire Peninsula thus proves to be as specially related to North 
America in its land fauna as is Florida, although the number of peculiar 
species is much greater. 

The marine fauna of Cape St. Lucas proves to be quite Panamic 
in its general features — much more so than the opposite coast of 
Mexico. 

It is out of my power, at present, to present a statement of the num- 
ber of species collected by Mr. Xantus during his residence (when last 
heard from) of about eighteen months. There are, however, known 
to be about twenty new birds, as many reptiles, large numbers of 
fishes, crustaceans, and other groups in proportion. The collection of 
shells is much larger than any ever made on the west coast, witli the 
exception of that by Mr. Reigen, forming the basis of the report on 
Mazatlan shells, by Mr. Carpenter, and is superior to any other in 
the extent of the species preserved entire in alcohol. The general 
results form a fitting continuation of the labors of Mr. Xantus at Fort 
Tejon, referred to in preceding reports; and the whole will form an 
extraordinary monument of the ability of a single intelligent and 
accomplished collector to nearly exhaust the natural history of an ex- 
tensive region, under difficulties sometimes apparently almost insuper- 
able. 

To the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, natural science must 
ever acknowledge a great indebtedness for placing Mr. Xantus in a 
position to make his explorations, by authorizing and establishing a 
self-registering tide-gauge station at the Cape, and placing Mr. Xantus 
in charge. All his collections were made in the intervals of his duty 
as observer upon the tides, meteorology, &c, for the Coast Survey. 

Explorations in the Gulf of California, by Capt. Stone. — Capt. Stone, 
in charge of the survey of Sonora, caused numerous collections to be 
made in the northern part of the Gulf, chiefly opposite Guayamas. Of 
these a jjortion, consisting principally of shells, have been received 
during the year, and prove to be of much interest, not only in them- 
selves, but as completing the history of Cape St. Lucas and Mazatlan 
species. 

Exploration of the vicinity of Fort Crook, by Mr. JohnFeilner. — Mr. 
Feilner, sergeant of company F. , first dragoons, stationed at Fort Crook, 
under command of Captain John Adams, United States Army, has 
considerably extended the collections referred to in the last report. In 
May last, by permission of Captain Adams, he visited the lake region 
to the north of Fort Crook, with one companion, with the view of 
pursuing his researches among the breeding places of the water birds 
of California. After meeting with much success, he was attacked by 
hostile Indians, but succeeded in fighting his way through, killing 
several of his assailants, and, unfortunately, with the loss of a consider- 
able proportion of his collections. His gallantry, and that of his com- 
panion, Private Guise, have been made the subject of especial com- 
mendation in a general order from the War Department. 

Dr. Vollum, United States Army, surgeon of Fort Crook, has also 
made various collections for the Institution ; and Hospital Steward Par- 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 69 

kinson lias transmitted others not yet received; so that this fort bids 
fair to be as well marked for an almost perfect knowledge of its natural 
history as Fort Tejon through the labors of Mr. Xantus. A comparison 
of collections from these two points in the same range of mountains, 
dividing the Pacific and middle faunas, and about 500 miles apart, 
has proved of scientific interest in determining the geographical distri- 
bution and variation of the species of California animals, many of the 
facts elicited being quite unexpected. 

Exploration of other points on the West Coast. — Dr. C. A. Canfield, of 
Monterey, has gathered additional materials for illustrating the natural 
history of his vicinity. Rev. Jos. Rowell and Dr. W. 0. Ayres have 
furnished important collections of shells for Mr. Carpenter's use, in 
his proposed elaboration of the conchology of western America. Mr. 
J. G. Swan, of Washington Territory, has also contributed largely to 
the same object. Specimens of birds and eggs have been received from 
Mr. Hepburn, of San Francisco, and Mr. Ferdinand Gruber ; and of 
Californian coniferae, from Mr. Wm. Murray. 

Exploration of the Hudson's Bay territory , by Mr. Robt. Kennicott. — 
In the last report reference was made to the exploration of the Hudson's 
Bay country by Mr. Robt. Kennicott. Since that report was written, 
advices have been received from him up to July, 1860. He had reached 
Fort Simpson in September, and after a short excursion up the Liard 
river to Fort Liard, in the Rocky Mountains, returned to Simpson, 
where he spent the winter as the guest of Mr. B. R. Ross, the gentle- 
man in charge of the Mackenzie River district. In the spring he went 
to Great Slave Lake for the purpose of collecting eggs; making Fort 
Resolution his headquarters, and meeting with great success. 

For a most generous cooperation of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
through Sir George Simpson, and its officers in England and America, 
the Institution is under the greatest obligations. Every possible facility- 
has been furnished to Mr. Kennicott, not only in permission to visit 
the different posts, but in the way of free transportation of himself and 
his collections, quarters at the posts, &c. Wherever he has gone he 
has found an appreciation of his mission and a readiness to assist, grati- 
fying in the highest degree. Nearly all the gentlemen in charge of 
different posts have undertaken to make observations in meteorology 
for the Institution, (for which purpose Mr. Kennicott carried with him 
blank registers, thermometers, &c.,) as well as collections of such 
objects of natural history as he might not succeed in securing himself. 

The gentlemen to whom Mr. Kennicott expresses his indebtedness 
most particularly, after Mr. Ross, are Mr. L. Clarke, Mr. J. Reid, 
Mr. A McKenzie, Mr. MacFarlane, and Mr. Hardisty. 

To Mr. B. R. Ross, chief trader, in charge of the Mackenzie River 
district, the Institution is under great obligations, not only for protec- 
tection and assistance to Mr. Kennicott, which his official position so 
well enabled him to furnish, but for a special contribution of his own. 
In cooperation with the officers of the posts in his district, lie has un- 
dertaken and already, to some extent, realized a special exploration 
of his district, entirely independent of that of Mr. Kennicott. Full 
observations upon the climatology, periodical phenomena, and other 



70 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

features of the country, will be made, with collections illustrating its 
natural history, ethnology, &c, and transmitted to the Institution. 
A large amount of material has already been received from him and 
his coadjutors in the way of meteorology and natural history. Among 
the more important animals are skins of the Rocky Mountain goat, 
Arctic reindeer, Barren Ground bear, Hare-Indian dog, &c. ; skeletons 
of goat, reindeer, wolverene, skins of various fishes, as Tkymattus, 
Salmo Mache'uzii, &c. ; Esquimaux and Indian curiosities, with many 
other objects of equal interest. 

Mr. W. Mactavish, chief factor, resident at Fort Garry, has laid the 
Institution under special obligations by his assistance in the transmis- 
sion of supplies to and reception of collections from Mr. Kennicott, as 
well as himself procuring specimens from different points and forward- 
ing to Washington. 

Mr. Kennicott intended to return to Fort Simpson in August, and to 
proceed down the Mackenzie to Fort Good Hope ; thence across the 
Rocky Mountains to Fort Yukon, on the Yukon river, a post in the 
interior of Russian-America. There, in a region almost entirely un- 
known, not merely in its natural history, but its very geography, he 
expects to remain until next summer, then to proceed to some other 
desirable center of operations. 

It will be remembered that while the chief expenses of Mr. Kenni- 
cott' s operations are sustained by this Institution, very important 
assistance has been received from the University of Michigan, the Chi- 
cago Audubon Club, and the Chicago Academy of Natural Sciences, 
together with several gentlemen interested in natural history. With- 
out the facilities furnished by the Hudson's Bay Companyand its officers, 
however, the enterprise, in its present extent, would be entirely imprac- 
ticable. 

Mr. George Barnston, of Michipicoten, Lake Superior, to whom Mr. 
Kennicott was much indebted for the favorable direction of his opera- 
tions at the outset, has furnished many desirable additions to the collec- 
tions of the Institution from the north shore of Lake Superior. Chief 
among these may be mentioned a skin of the reindeer in superb condi- 
tion, and now mounted in the museum ; also, a nearly complete skeleton 
of the same animal. 

Exploration of James' Bay by Mr. C. Drexler. — Mr. C. Drexler 
visited James' Bay, the southern extremity of Hudson's Bay, in May 
last, and remained until September. He reached Moose Factory the 
end of May, and after a few days, proceeded in a canoe, with some 
Indians, as far along the east coast as Fort George, where he remained 
some time. He was chiefly engaged in the collection of eggs of birds, 
though all other departments of natural history received his attention. 

As in the case of Mr. Kennicott, the aid of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany has been indispensable to the success of Mr. Drexler's enterprise. 
The facilities ordered by Sir George Simpson, and carried out by Mr. 
John McKenzie, at Moose Factory, with the cooperation of the gentle- 
men at the posts visited, enabled him, with the small means at his 
command, to accomplish results of great interest and magnitude. The 
collections made by Mr. Drexler were also taken from Moose Factory 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 71 

to London, free of expense, in the ship belonging to the Hudson's 
Bay Company, and then transmitted to this country. 

Beside the aid furnished by the Institution, it is proper to state that 
the chief portion of the funds used in meeting Mr. Drexler's expenses 
were supplied by Dr. Henry Bryant, of Boston. 

Explorations on the Labrador Coast. — Mr. Elliot Coues, of Washing- 
ton; visited the Labrador coast last spring, in the vessel chartered by 
Mr. John W. Dodge, and spent several months there, going as far 
north as Rigolette. His collection consisted chiefly of birds and eggs, 
of which several rare species were procured. 

During the United States Coast Survey expedition to Cape Chad- 
leigh, on the steamer Bibb, for the purpose of observing the total 
eclipse of the sun of July 18, a number of specimens were obtained by 
Mr. W. A. Henry, one of the party. 

Explorations in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, by Dr. Henry Bryant. — Dr. 
Bryant chartered a vessel at Gaspe, and in it spent several months 
visiting various points in the Gulf and on the adjacent coasts. His 
researches were principally in reference to the breeding of the water 
birds, and important facts in regard to this point were collected by 
him. Full series of his specimens have been presented by him to the 
Institution. 

Exploration of the Coast of Labrador and of Greenland, by Williams 
College. — This expedition, composed of students of Williams College, 
under the direction of Prof. Chadbourne, spent several months along 
the above-mentioned coasts, making interesting collections of natural 
history, selections from which have generously been supplied to the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Explorations on the Southern Coast of the United States. — Interesting 
collections from the vicinity of Micanopy have been received from Dr. 
Bean, and others from Dr. Bryant. Dr. J. B. Holder, now medical 
officer at Fort Jefferson, Tortugas, has made valuable contributions, 
chiefly of birds and eggs, serving to extend and complete those of Cap- 
tains Wright and Woodbury, and Dr. Whitehurst. Specimens of 
several rare birds were also received from Captain Woodbury. From 
Mr. Maslin and Mr. Keyser, tidal observers of the United States Coast 
Survey, collections were also received, made in the vicinity of Char- 
lotte harbor and Cedar Keys. Sergeant Alexander, at Fort Macon, 
North Carolina, has also transmitted numerous specimens. 

Dr. Stimpson and Mr. Gill spent some weeks in the vicinity of Beau- 
fort, North Carolina, daring the past spring, and occupied themselves 
principally in an investigation of the marine fauna of that region. 
Many species of shells were collected, some of very remarkable char- 
acter, as being previously known only as fossils of our coast deposits. 
Specimens of an Amphioxus were obtained, not recorded before as be- 
longing to the American fauna. 

Explorations in the interior of the United States. — Reference has 
already been made to the results of various Government expeditions in 
the Rocky Mountains and elsewhere. In addition to these, valuable 



72 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

collections of animals from the vicinity of Cantonment Burgwyn, New 
Mexico, have been received from Dr. Anderson, United StatesArmy, 
in completion of previous transmissions. These are of especial interest 
as showing an arctic type of the fauna in the high mountain regions 
of New Mexico, previously quite unexpected. The pine grosbeak, 
evening grosbeak, the crossbill, and similar species, appear to be con- 
stant residents. Dr. Anderson also collected many specimens in his 
march eastward through Texas ; among them, the first skin of Hijpo- 
triorchis femoralis received by the Institution. 

Dr. Irwin, United States Army, has also furnished important con- 
tributions from the vicinity of Fort Buchanan, in Arizona, embracing 
new species of reptiles and insects, and many rare birds and eggs. 

An interesting collection of birds, plants, and other specimens of 
natural history was made in the vicinity of Fort Stockton, Texas, by 
Mr. Patrick Duffy, and is of value as illustrating the natural history 
of the high plains. Collections were also made in western Texas by 
Mr. F. Kellogg and Mr. F. S. Wade. 

Important collections of nests and eggs of birds were made for the 
Institution by Dr. Hay, at Racine, Dr. Hammond, in Indiana, Mr. 
Tolman, at Winnebago, and others. 

From Explorations in other parts of the World. — Captain Dow, of the 
Panama railroad service, has transmitted several collections during the 
year. The most important of these consist of shells, embracing several 
new rare species, and considered by Mr. Carpenter as of much value in 
determining the fauna of the west coast. A new species of Anableps, 
and other fishes, new genera and species of Crustacea, &c, are also 
among his collections. 

Dr. C. Sartorius, of Vera Cruz, has supplied desirable specimens of 
Mexican animals, illustrating the distribution of North American spe- 
cies. Mr. I. A. Nieto has contributed specimens of woods of many spe- 
cies of Mexican trees, and a series of coleoptera. Shells of the coast of 
Chili have been received from Mr. Flint, of Caldera ; a very full col- 
lection of eggs of birds of Chili, prepared by Mr. F. Germain, from 
Don Jacinto R. Pena, of Santiago, &c. A series of birds of Guate- 
mala, received from Mr. Osbert Salvin, will be of much service to 
American ornithologists, as embracing many species not otherwise ac- 
cessible in this country to them. 

Valuable specimens of birds and eggs of Greenland, and of northern 
Europe, have been received from the Royal Museum and the University 
Museum of Copenhagen. 

Further indications of more or less important additions to our knowl- 
edge of the natural history of particular regions will be found in the 
list of donations subsequently presented. 

WORK DONE IN CONNECTION WITH THE COLLECTIONS. 

In accordance with your wish, the preliminaries to a distribution 
of the duplicates of the collection in the museum have been pushed 
forward as fast as possible during the year. The assorting of the 
large mass of shells belonging to the Institution, by Mr. Carpenter, 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



73 



has progressed to such an extent that all the duplicate specimens of 
each kind belonging to the general Inclo-Pacific fauna are now in sepa- 
rate boxes, which are arranged systematically and numbered, to cor- 
respond with the numbers of a printed list, so that sets can be picked 
out and distributed with but little trouble. In the labor of assorting 
and naming the collection, he has had the cooperation of Mr. Isaac 
Lea and Dr. E. Foreman, with the Unionidae; of Mr. Lea, with the 
water breathing univalves ; of Mr. Binney, with the air breathing 
univalves; of Mr. Stimpson, with the east coast species; of Mr. Temple 
Prime, with the Cycladidae; and of Dr. A. A. Gould, with the species 
generally. All the type shells of the exploring expedition, and many 
of those of the North Pacific expedition, with large numbers of other 
shells, have been mounted by Mr. Carpenter, or under his direction, 
upon many thousand glass tablets, as referred to in the last report, 
page 70. 

The systematic arrangement and determination of the other branches 
of natural history, their careful catalogue and operations necessary to 
the separation of duplicates and their distribution so as to be of most 
use, in nearly all the different departments of natural history has been 
carried forward very laboriously. In this, I have been much aided 
by the voluntary services of several gentlemen, especially by Mr. 
Elliot Coues and Mr. W. Prentice. The following table will show the 
amount of work of the kind done : 

Table exhibiting the entries in the record books of the Smithsonian collec- 
tion in 1860, in continuation of previous years. 





1851. 


185-2. 


1853. 


1854. 


1855. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


1860. 


Skeletons and skulls. . . 


911 


1,074 
114 




1,190 
198 


1,275 

351 

4,353 


2,050 
1,200 

4,425 


3,060 

2,046 

5,855 

106 

155 


3,340 

3.200 

8,766 

239 

613 


3,413 
3.226 
11,390 
4,370 
1,136 
1.032 
939 


3,650 

3,750 

15,913 

4,616 

1,740 

2,525 

939 

2,000 

1.100 

171 

793 


4,350 
4,575 




20,875 








4,683 






1 






2,975 












4,425 
















979 
















8,832 


















1,308 


















705 






, 












1.132 






! 












550 
























Total 


911 


1,188 


1,388 


5,979 


7,675 


11,222 


16,158 


25,506 


37, 197 


55. 389 







The actual number of entries during the year amounts to 18,192, or 
not far from twice as many as in 1859. The aggregate of 55,389 is, 
however, far from representing the entire number of specimens already 
recorded, some numbers covering tens and often hundreds each. 
Thus, of fishes there are at least 15,000 specimens recorded, and nearly 
as many of reptiles. Under the 4,425 entries of eggs, there are in- 
cluded 17,182 eggs and 1,294 nests, and other classes are in proportion. 

With but trivial exceptions, the osteological specimens — the eggs 
and the mammals, birds and reptiles — are catalogued, though not all 
determined. The greater portion of the fishes, and of most of the 
other classes, excepting perhaps the shells, still remain to be done. 



74 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

With the view of carrying out the arrangement between yourself 
and Drs. Torrey and Gray, in reference to the selection of a single 
series of all the botanical collections made and deposited by the vari- 
ous government exploring expeditions and received from other sources, 
the entire herbarium has been placed in their hands for the purpose. 

Nearly all the mammals, the North American birds, and the exotic 
water birds exhibited in the museum, have been labeled with both 
scientific and vernacular names as far as these could be ascertained. 
The remaining specimens will be similarly treated as fast as they can 
be properly identified. The entire osteological collection has been 
placed on exhibition, as also the geological collections of the Pacific 
railroad and some other Government parties, in the northeast and 
southeast galleries of the museum hall, first opened to the public 
during the year. 

A large number of skins of North American mammals and birds, 
not previously exhibited, have been mounted and placed in the cases. 
All the old stands of mounted specimens have been replaced by new 
ones, and the entire series is believed to be in a good condition, 
although much remains to be done for its perfection by adding defi- 
ciencies of North American species, and replacing old, faded, badly- 
prepared, and otherwise discreditable specimens, by fresher and better 
ones. 

Of the collections mentioned in the last report as in the hands of 
collaborators residing out of Washington, the Ophiuridae have been 
returned, labeled, and identified by Mr. Theodore Lyman, of Brooklyn. 
Many new species were found among the Smithsonian specimens, which 
have been characterized in the proceedings of the Boston Society of 
Natural History, and will be described in detail in a monograph. The 
Echini of the North Pacific expedition have been worked up and 
returned by Mr. Barnard, and much progress made in the determina- 
tion of the Crustacea and sea glars of the same expedition by Mr. 
Stimpson, and of its fishes by Mr. Gill. Mr. Cassin has completed 
his investigations upon the birds of Lieutenant Michler's expedition 
to the Atrato, and of the North Pacific expedition, and returned the 
specimens. The herpetology of the North Pacific expedition, originally 
prepared by Dr. Hallo well, has been revised and brought up to date 
by Mr. Cope, who has also made some important examinations of 
serpents in the collection of the Institution. 

No reports of return of specimens have been made during the 
year by the gentlemen mentioned in the last report as having Smith- 
sonian material in charge, as follows : Turtles by Professor Agassiz, 
Etheostomoids by Mr. F. W. Putnam, Siluridae by Dr. Wheatland, all 
of the Cambridge Zoological museum ; fossil vertebrata collected by 
Dr. Hayden during the expedition of Lieutenant Warren, in the hands 
of Dr. Joseph Leidy, of the Philadelphia Academy. Of other series 
not yet mentioned in the present report, the coleoptera are in the hands 
of Dr. Le Conte, the neuroptera of Dr. Hagen, the diptera of Dr. Loew, 
the lepidoptera of Dr. Morris and Mr. Edwards, the water breathing 
univalves of North America of Mr. W. G. Binney, the west coast and 
exploring expedition shells of Mr. P. P. Carpenter. The birds of 
Captain Page's Paraguay expedition and of Lieutenant Herndon's 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 75 

Amazon exploration are in course of examination by Mr. Cassin. 
Mr. Meek has completed the labeling of the fossils of Captain Simpson's 
expedition, collected by Dr. Engelmann. 

Although so much labor has been expended in the examinations 
and investigation of the Smithsonian collection, a vast amount yet re- 
mains to be done before it can be considered as entirely exhausted of its 
novelties. Probably no collection of its size in the world contains so 
many types of published species, and so many yet new ones yet unde- 
scribed. This is especially the case in regard to North America, as 
well as to many other parts of the world. Much desire is therefore 
manifested by persons, about entering upon the preparation of mono- 
graphs to secure the privilege of using Smithsonian specimens. 

» PRESENT CONDITION OF THE MUSEUM. 

In the report for 1858 will be found an account of the most import- 
ant collections forming the bulk of the museum of the Smithsonian 
Institution. It was continued in the report of 1859, and I beg leave 
to present at the end of the report a list of all the donations received 
in I860.* 

Numerous specimens were received during the year from expeditions 
referred to in the last report, as from Captain Simpson, Captain Ray- 
nolds, Lieutenant Mullan, Mr. John Xantus. Mr. John Feilner, Robert 
Kennicott, Dr. Bean, and others. 

These additions to the museum have resulted in the filling up of 
many important gaps, and in replacing many defective specimens by 
better ones. By the arrangements in progress for distribution of du- 
plicates, and the removal from the building of what is neither worth 



* For convenience of reference, I continue the enumeration of collections, made chiefly 
during certain explorations, from page 71 of the report for 1S59: 

73. Collections made during the march of troops to Oregon, via Fort Benton, under Major 
G. H. Blake, by Dr. Cooper. 

74. Collections made in the Gulf of California, by the party of Captain C. P. Stone. 

75. Collections made on the coast of California, by Dr. C. S. Canfield. 

76. Collections made in the Mackenzie river district, by Mr. B. R. Ross, with the coopera- 
tion of other officers of the Hudson Bay Company. 

77. Collections made on the north shore of Lake Superior, by Mr. George Barnston. 

78. Collections made at Moose Factory, by Mr. J. McKenzie. 

79. Collections made in James bay, by Mr. C. Drexler. 

80. Collections made on the coast of Labrador, by Mr. Elliot Coues. 

81. Collections made in Greenland and Labrador, by the Williams College Lyceum of 
Natural History. 

82. Collections made on the coast of North Carolina, by Dr. Stimpson and Mr. Gill. 

83. Collections made at Cantonment Burgwyn, N. M., on the Pecos, by Dr. W. W. An- 
derson. 

84. Collections made on the Texas boundary survey, by Mr. J. H. Clark. 

85. Collections made in Puget Sound, by J. G. Swan, Esq. 
. 86. Collections made at the Tortugas, by Dr. J. B. Holder. 

87. Collections made in Cuba, by Mr. Charles Wright. 

88. Collections made in Minnesota, by Mr. J. M. Woodwortk. 

89. Collections made in New Mexico, by Patrick Duffy, Esq. 

90. Collections made on the Labrador Eclipse Expedition, by W. A. Henry. 

91. Collections made on the Atlantic coast of the United States, by Lieutenant J. D. Kurtz 

92. Collections made in Chili, by Mr. F. Germain, through Don'J. R. Pena. 

93. Collections from Sable Island, by P. S. Dodd, Esq. 

94. Collections from Nova Scotia, by J. R. Willis and W. G. Winton. 



76 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

keeping nor giving away, it is confidently believed that instead of an 
unmanageable accumulation of material in tlie store-rooms its bulk 
will be reduced to at least one fourth, or more, of the present amount. 

In accordance with the policy adopted by you, the efforts of the In- 
stitution have been directed mainly to the completion of its series of 
specimens illustrating the natural history of North America. At the 
present time it is believed, upon the whole, to have accomplished this 
aim to an extent greater than any other museum in the world. As 
far as regards mammals and their skulls and skeletons, birds and their 
eggs, reptiles, fishes, shells, crustaceans, and invertebrates generally, 
except certain orders of insects, (vertebrate fossils, and plants,) from the 
regions west of the Mississippi; it is probably not exceeded by any mu- 
seum in the number of species and extent of the series, few additions 
remaining to be made to the list. At the same time, as successive 
groups are elaborated and labeled, and the duplicates distributed, the 
bulk of the whole becomes less and less, so that it is quite reasonable 
to assume that the present number of specimens will -be reduced in a 
few years to less than half their present amount. 

In addition to its American collection, derived from all the different 
sources, and including specimens from adjacent regions, necessary 
properly to illustrate it, the bulk of the Smithsonian museum consists 
of materials gathered by various Government expeditions in different 
parts of the world, and deposited here in compliance with the act of 
Congress. Other than as derived from this source, the exotic collec- 
tions not relating to American natural history, are very small in 
amount, although usually of much interest from embracing numbers of 
new species. Among the exotic collections, the series of South Amer- 
ican birds is believed to be among the first extant, while that of Crus- 
tacea, annalids, corals, and certain families of radiata and mollusca, 
generally, are perhaps surpassed by very few. 

As distributions of duplicates for the exotic collections are made, it is 
believed that the mass at present within the building will be so much 
reduced that the present accommodations will always be found ample 
for whatever may hereafter be added,, as long as the present scope of 
the collections is adhered to. Of course, should Congress at any future 
time authorize an extension of the plan, the addition of exotic mounted 
mammals, birds, &c, would require much more space, and must be 
provided for by additional accommodations; these, however, would 
otherwise not be needed. 

The great value of the museum of the Institution at the present 
time consists in its being the depository of so many type specimens, or 
those upon which the first description of species has been established. 
These constitute the great attraction to the scientific investigators, as, 
however carefully prepared the published description or figures of any 
species may be, there is almost always some doubtful point to be set- 
tled alone by an examination of the types. For this reason these are 
always guarded with jealous care, and considered of much more value 
than new and undescribed materials. 

There are few collections embracing more original type specimens, 
or specimens relating to a large number of important works, than that 
of the Smithsonian Institution. Besides the reports of the United 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 77 

States exploring expeditions of the Pacific railroad and Mexican bound- 
ary surveys, and of many other Government works, few monographs 
have been prepared in the United States for some years past without 
deriving many, or even most, of their novelties from the Smithsonian 
museum. The proceedings and transactions of most of the scientific 
journals of the country contain frequent and constant reference to its 
materials as the types. By the distribution of duplicates of these, 
therefore, and their judicious deposit at proper places in different 
parts of the world, a vast amount of good may be done, and the 
reputation of the Institution greatly enhanced. 

LIST OF DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM DURING 1860. 

Abel, J. Balls. — Seventeen-year locust, Albemarle, Va. 

Alexander, Sergeant W., U. 8. A. — Nests and eggs from Fort Macon, 

near Beaufort, N. C. 
Allen, W. T. — Birds, nests, and eggs from Rippon, Va. 
Ambrose, Rev. J. — Eggs of birds from Green Island, N. S. 
Anderson, Ghas. L. — Earths and minerals from Red River country. 
Anderson, Dr. W. W. — Birds, eggs, and fossils from Pecos river and 

the Rocky Mountains. 
Anthon, Henry, Jr. — Fourteen specimens of native timber from the 

Island of Borneo. 
Anthony, J. G. — Collection of melanian shells ; four species of gyro- 

toma from Ohio. 
Angus, Jas. — Seventeen-year locust. 
Amy, Wm. M. F. — Insects in alcohol from Kansas. 
Ayres, Dr. W. 0. — Shells, skulls of seals, and cetaceaus (deposited) 

from California coast. 
Baker, Ghas. L. — Tusk of boar from Washington. 
Barnston, Geo. — Skin and skeleton of caribou, nests and eggs of birds, 

and specimens in alcohol, from Lake Superior. 
Beadle, D. IV. — Eggs of birds and alcoholic specimens from Canada. 
Bean, Dr. J. B. — Nests, eggs, and reptiles from Micanopy, Fla. 
Beesley, Thos. — Birds' eggs from New Jersey. 
Benson, President. — Lignite coal from Cape Palmas. 
Bickmore, A. S. — Nests and eggs from Hanover, N. H. 
Bishop, N. H. — Nests and eggs of birds and living Pine snakes from 

New Jersey. 
Blaklston, Capt. T., R. A. — Birds and eggs from Saskatchewan 

Plains. 
Blassom, W. W. — Petrified wood from Prince William county, Va. 
Boardman, G. A. — Five skins of Pinicola canadensis and eggs of 

birds from New Brunswick. 
Bode, J. L. — Mounted Larus marinus from New York harbor. 
Bowman, Capt. A. W. — Birds from Fort Massachusetts, N. H.' 
Brackett, Geo. E.~- Insects and skins of birds from Maine. 
Bradford, Geo. — Collections of zoological specimens from Cuba, made 

by C. Wright. 
Brendel, Dr. F. — Nests and eggs from Peoria, 111. 
Brewer, Dr. — Skin of Turdusfuscesens. 



78 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

Bridger, J. L. — Two boxes eggs, nests, &c, from Tarboro, N. C. 
Brooks, Capt. J. M., U. S. N. — Specimen of Hyalonema mirabilis from 

Japan . 
Bryant, Dr. II. — Nests, eggs, and skins of birds from Labrador ; 

Sternum of Tachypetes aquila, Bahamas. 
Boyling, Capt. — Birds from Washington Territory. 
Buckland, Rev. Mr. — Shells from Sing Sing. 
California Academy of Natural Sciences. — Shells from California. 
Campbell, A., Com. N. W. Boundary Survey. — Skins of bear and goat, 

alcoholic and other specimens, collected by Dr. Kennerly and 

Mr. Geo. Gibbs. 
Campbell, Mr. R., per B. R. Ross. — Skins of marmot from Athabaska 

Lake, H. B. T. 
Canseco, Don Valero, through J. Xantus. — Fossil shells, &c, from 

Cape St. Lucas. 
Carleton, 3Iajor J. S., U. S. A. — Collections of natural history from 

near Fort Tejon, California. 
Carpenter, P. P. — Sets of Mazatlan shells. 
Catley, H. — -Birds' nests from Oregon. 
Cesena, Donna Rosaria, through J. Xantus. — Nests and eggs from 

Cape St. Lucas, 
Cassin, J. — Skin of Cyanocorax coronatus from Mexico. 
Chicago Academy of Sciences and Agricultural Department, University 

of Chicago. — Eggs, nests, and skins of birds from Minnesota. 
Clark, Dr. — Auriferous sand from Laramie Hills; gold from Cherry 

Creek. 
Clark, Dr. John A. — Birds, nests, and eggs, and skin of diodon from 

Texas. 
Clark, J. H., Texas Boundary Survey. — Nests, eggs, and skins of 

birds from Arkansas, and the line of Texas Boundary Survey, 

collected chiefly by C. S. McCarthy. 
Clark, Wm. P. — Eggs from Medina, Ohio. 
Clarke, L., through R. Kennicott. — Skins of birds, eggs, &c, from 

Great Slave Lake, H. B. T. 
Clapp, Mr. — Skins of birds from Florida. 
Clary, Capt.— Ammonite from Benicia. 

Cleveland, J. T. — Dried hippocampus, or sea horse, from Florida. 
Collier, D. C. — Centipede and skin of Neotoma cinerea from Denver 

City, Jefferson Territory. 
Conradsen, R. — Skins and eggs of European and Greenland birds. 
Cooper, Dr. — Nest and egg of Trochilus evelynae from Nassau, N. P. 
Copenhagen Royal Museum. — Skins and eggs of birds from Greenland 

and Northern Europe. 
Copenhagen University Museum. — Skins and eggs of birds from Green- 
land, star fishes, &c. 
Corston, Win. — Eggs of snipe, &c, from Big River, H. B. T. 
Couper, Wm.- — -Nests and eggs, skin of Nyctale richardsonii, and other 

birds from near Quebec. 
Coues, Elliott. — Skins and eggs of birds and alcoholic specimens from 

the coast of Labrador. 
Crawford, Dr. S. W., U. S. A. — Set of elk horns from Fort Laramie. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 79 

Crossoman, A. J. — -Piece of root from Roger Williams tree. 

Curtis, 31. A. — Skin of mole from Hillsboro', N. C. 

Davis, C. P. — Mounted head of female deer, with horns; also rare 

eggs of American and European birds. 
Davis, H. — Nests and eggs from Iowa. 
Dawson, Prof. J. W. — Pleistocene fossils from Canada. 
DeLeon, Dr., U. S. A. — Silver ores from Heintzelman vein, Cerro 

Colorado mine, Tubac, N. M. 
DeSaussure, H. — Skins of mammals from Labrador and Mexico. 
Diehl, J. S. — Minerals from California. 
Dimmick, C. — Insects from Brockport, N. Y. 
Dodd, P. N. — Skull of walrus, skins of seals, eggs of birds, shells, 

&c, from Sable Island, N. S. 
Dodge, John W. — Skin of guillemot from Labrador. 
Dodero, Donnas Juana and Pachita, through J. Xantus. — Nests, eggs 

of birds, and insects from Cape St. Lucas. 
Dow, Capt. J. M. — Collections in alcohol from Central America. 
Drexler, C. — Collections of natural history from Hudson's Bay. 
Drouet, Mad. Helene. — Skins and eggs of rare European and American 

birds ; prepared skins of carp. 
Duffy, Patrick. — Zoological collections from Fort Stockton, Texas. 
Dunlop, J. V., through B. R. Boss. — Skin of marmot and skins of 

birds from Fort Halkett. 
Emery, Chas. A. — Package of small shells from Stratham, N. H.; 

microscopic earths from New Hampshire. 
Etheridge, A. H. — Black squirrel from Tabasco, Mexico. 
Ferrill, F. — Eggs from Savannah. 

Feilner, John. — Birds, mammals, nests, eggs, &c, from California. 
Fisher, Dr. — Eggs of owl and shells from Sing Sing. 
Fitch, F. — See Stone. 
Flint, C. L.— Shells from Chili. 
Gabb, W. M.~ Package of fossils. 

Garnet, B. — Duck's eggs, with colored epidermis, from Fairfax Co., Va. 
Garrison, 0. E. — Skins of ducks, eggs, and plants from Minnesota. 
Garton, John. — Fish from Abitibi. 

Gerhardt, A. — Shells, insects, eggs of birds, &c, Georgia. 
Gibbs—See Campbell. 
Gill, Th. — Marine animals from Newfoundland, the West Indies, 

and the coast of North Carolina. 
Gilliss, J. R. — Shells and fossils from Payta, Panama, and Aspinwall ; 

also living grasshopper from Panama. 
Gladmon, Mr. — Skins of mice from Rupert House, Hudson's Bay Ter- 
ritory. 
Glasco, J. M. — Snakes from Gilmer, Texas. 
Goodbow, Captain. — Skin of a hawk from White river. 
Goodwin, E. M. — Can of fishes from N. Montpelier, Vermont. 
Goss, B. F. — Nests, eggs, shells, &c, Kansas. 
Gornley, James. — Mineralogical specimens from Pike's Peak. 
Graeff, Ed. L. — Lepidoptera from New York. 

Grayson, A. J. — Scalp of Curassow, and contents of its stomach, (nails, 
coins, gravel, &c.,) Mexico. 



80 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

GriH, Donna Juana, through J. Xantus. — Coleoptera from Cape St. 

Lucas. 
Gruber, F. — Skins and eggs of birds from California. 
Guest, W. A — Jar, with sturgeon, from Ogdensburg, N. Y. 
Gunn, Donald. — Nests, eggs, and skins, from Selkirk settlement. 
Hale, Dr. — Skins of mammals from Essex county, N. Y. 
Halifax, Boys of National School. — Marine shells from Halifax. 
Hanks, Capt. Julian. — Fishes and shells from Socorro Island. 
Hardisty, W. L., through R. Kennicott. — Fossil bones, skins of birds, 

and plants from the upper waters of the Yukon. 
Hardisty, Mrs. W. L., through R. Kennicott. — Mammals and eggs 

from Great Slave Lake. 
Harrington, Capt. — Star-fishes from Mt. Desert. 
Haszlinsky, Prof. F. — Dried plants from Eperies, Hungary. 
Hayes, Dr. S. — Alligator's eggs, insects in alcohol, from Aspinwall, 

and shells from Navy Bay. 
Haymond, Dr. R. — Nests and eggs from Brookville, Indiana. 
Henry, W. A. — Fishes in Alcohol, from Labrador. 
Hepburn, Jas. — Eggs from San Francisco. 
Hiaioassee College. — Hymenoptera, from Tennessee. 
Hildreth. — See Lt. Mullan. 

Hillier, S. L. — Indian pipe, Fort Carver, Minnesota. 
Hinman, W. M. — Skin of Vespertilio pruinosus, Platte river. 
Hitz, John. — Series of minerals from United States and Switzerland. 
Holder, Dr. J. B. — Birds and alcoholic specimens from Tortugas, and 

eggs of terns and pelicans from Florida. 
Holman, Dr. — Skin of sea eel, from coast of Lower California. 
Hopkins, A. — Eggs from Massachusetts. 
Hoy, Dr. P. R. — Nests, eggs, and birds, from Wisconsin. 
Hubbard, Samuel.- — Japanese seeds and tea ; silver ore from Washoe 

mine. 
Hulsner, Gusiav. — Insects from vicinity of New York. 
Irwin, Dr., U. S. A. — Minerals, skins, reptiles, and fishes in alcohol, 

from New Mexico ; skins of birds, including male and female 

Mexican wild turkey, with nests and eggs of birds. 
Janney, N.—Neotomafloridana, and skin of Connecticut warbler, Lou- 
doun county, Virginia. 
Jeivett, Col. E. — Jaws of killer whale, off coast of Payta, and fossils 

from Mt. Lebanon and near Beyrout. 
Jones, Dr. W. L. — Alcoholic specimens of fishes, reptiles, shells, &c, 

Georgia. 
Jung, C. F. — Neuroptera, diptera, &c.,from vicinity of New York. 
Kellogg, Hon. Mr. — Polished gypsum, from Michigan. 
Kellogg, F. — Nests, eggs, birds, and insects from Wheelock, Texas. 
Kennicott, R. — Bird skins and alcoholic specimens, Fort William, 

Lake Superior ; skins of birds, mammals, shells, insects, fish, 

&c, from Fort Simpson, H. B. T. 
Kennerly — See Campbell. 

Kurtz, Capt. J. D. — Shells of United States coast. 
Kirby, Rev. Mr., through R. Kennicott. — Eggs and birds from Lake 

Winnepeg. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 81 

Keyser, Charles. — Can of alcoholic specimens from Egmont Key, 

Florida. 
Kite, Wm. — Larva, and perfect insect of Clytus from Pennsylvania. 
Krieghojf, G. — Eggs from near Quebec. 
Krider, J. — Forty specimens Arvicola, Philadelphia, and Passaris from 

Mexico. 
Laszlo, C. — Alcoholic specimens from Mexico. 
Latimer, Dr. J. T. — Cast of area, Virginia. 
Lander, Col. F. JV. — Keptiles and mammals, collected by J. S. Snyder, 

(including Lagomys princeps.') 
Lapham, Dr. J. A. — Land shells from Wisconsin. 
Lauer, F. — Borings of an artesian well at Reading, Vermont. 
Lazar, Count Coloman. — Fossil land shells from Laswaro, and recent 

land shells from Transylvania. 
Le Conte, Dr. J. L. — -Mammals, reptiles, and astaci, types of Major 

Le Conte' s species. 
Lewis, James. — Shells from Mohawk, New York. 
Libhart, Messrs. A. C. & S. S. H. — Nests and eggs from Marietta, Pa. 
Lincoln, Charles D. — Birds' eggs from Massachusetts. 
Lindhoelm, Capt. — Shells from Magdalena bay. 
Lindheimer, F. — Salamanders from Texas. 
Lockhart, Jas. — Skin of Rocky Mountain goat, robe of musk-ox, and 

fossils from Mackenzie's river district. 
London Zoological Society. — Egg of summer duck from garden of the 

Zoological Society. 
McCarthy, C. 8.— See J. H. Clark. 
Macomb, Capt. J. M. — Collections of geology and natural history, 

from New Mexico, chiefly collected by Dr. J. S. Newberry. 
Mactavish, George F. — Skins of weasels and birds from Hudson's bay. 
Mactavish, Wm. — Ptarmigans, small mammals, fishes, &c, from Fort 

Churchill, H. B. T. 
McAllister, JV. — Skin of evening grosbeak, from Racine. 
McCown, Capt. J. P., U. S. A. — Skins of birds, &c, from Fort Ran- 
dall. 
McCurdy, L. P. S. — Pentremites florealis , &c, from Indiana. 
McDonald, M. — Fossils from Lexington, Va. 

McFarUme, P., per P. P. Poss. — Skin of barren ground bear, Esqui- 
maux dress, and other articles from Lower Mackenzie's river. 
McKenzie, Alexander, per B. P, Poss.- — Mammals and birds from Fort 

Liard. 
McKenzie, J. — Skins of birds, and eggs from James' bay. 
McLean, JV. M. — Two hawk's eggs from Virginia. 
Mallet, Prof. J. JV.— Shells from near Mobile. 
Mallory, Hon. Robert. — Tooth of fossil horse, Big Bone Lick, Ky. 
Marsh, Geo. P. — Native sulphur from Sicily. 
Marston, Rev. S. JV. — Insects and eggs of birds from Iowa. 
Maslin, Geo. JV. — Eggs, shells, and alcoholic specimens, from St. 

George Island. 
Michell, Rev. F. A. — Bear skull and fossil invertebrates, from Phantom 

Hill, Iowa. 
Morgan, Mr. — Eggs from Fairmount, Va. 



82 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

Mullan, Lieut. — Fish, birds, eggs, and nests, and alcoholic sj)eciniens, 
from Rocky Mountains, collected by J. Pearsall. 

Mullan, Lieut. — Zoological, mineralogical, and botanical collections 
from Rocky Mountains, between Coeur d' Alene and Fort Benton, 
made by Mr. Hildreth. 

Murray, W. — Cones, leaves, and wood of coniferae, from California. 

Navarro, Don It anion, per J. Xantus. — Living jays and Bassaris from 
Cape St. Lucas. 

Newberry, Dr. J. S. — See Macomb. 

Newberry, Dr. J. S. — Shells from various localities. 

Newton, Alfred. — Skins of lemming and hare, collected on voyage of 
ship Enterprise, Arctic America. 

Mason, W. A. — Fluviatile shells from western New York. 

Ojeda, Don Marcellino, per J. Xantus. — Dried plants from Cape St. 
Lucas. 

Oslo, Don Juan, through J. Xantus. — Shells from Cape St. Lucas. 

Oslo, Donna Beatrice, through J. Xantus. — Coleoptera from Cape St. 
Lucas. 

Packard, A. S. — Nests and eggs from New Brunswick. 

Page, Copt. T. J., U. S. N. — Zoological, botanical, and geological 
collections from La Plata expedition. 

Paine, G. S. — Eggs and birds from Vermont. 

Parker, S. M. — Insects, &c, from Massachusetts. 

Patent Office. — Ancient Roman sarcophagus, brought from Beyrout by 
Com. J. D. Elliott ; marble slab from the plains of Marathon, 
brought by Com. Elliott; also, two picture frames made of 
hickory and live oak, a part of the latter from the old frigate 
Constitution. (These frames inclose accounts of the two pre- 
ceding articles.) 

Peale, T It. — Plaster mold for making casts of a stone tablet from 
the ruins of Palenque, in Central America. 

Pearsall, J. — See Lieut. Mullan. 

Pedrin, Don Antonio, through J. Xantus. — Insects and birds from 
Cape St. Lucas. 

Pena, Don J. It. — Seventy species eggs of birds from Chili, South 
America. 

Peters, Dr. Thos, M.— Skin of blackbird. 

Philadelphia Academy Natural Sciences. — Duplicates of Mexican rep- 
tiles from Xalapa ; skeletons and skulls of mammals in exchange. 

Pickering, Copt., U. S. N. — Diptera from Cape Florida ; shells and 
other marine animals from Key West. 

Poey, Prof. F. — Fishes and birds from Cuba. 

Poole, H. — Specimens of nitro-boro-calcite, Productus lyelli, fossil 
plants, shells, &c, from Windsor, N. S. 

Pope, Capt. J., U. S. A. — Alcoholic specimens from New Mexico. 

Porter, Com., U. S. N. — Fishes from west coast of Central America. 

Potts, John. — Reptiles and birds from Chihuahua. 

Pourtales, L. F. — Fishes and crustaceans from Florida. 

Purchased. — Cast of gorilla skull, Gaboon. 

Rankin, James. — Shells from Long Island. 

Ravenel, Dr. — Fungi of South Carolina, (Fasciculus V.) 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 83 

Raynolds, Oapt. W. F., U. S. A. — Specimens of natural history from 

upper Missouri, collected by Dr. Hayden ; and of zoology, by 

G. H. Trook, Jas. Stevenson, and Wm. Vincent. 
Reed, Peter. — Lower jaw of Ursus americanus, from a peat bog in 

Washington county, New York; Larus arcticus, from Wash- 
ington county, New York. 
Reed, Wm. M. — Skins and eggs of birds from Eacine, Wisconsin. 
Reid, J. — Skins of birds, eggs, mammals, &c, Great Slave Lake. 
Remond, Mr. — Fossils from Cache le Poudre. 
Richards, Frank. — Eggs of Pyranga aestiva, Fairfax county, Va. 
Roberts, J. H. — Shells, &c, from Illinois. 
Ross, B. R. — Very complete collections of animals, plants, eggs, &c, 

from the Mackenzie Eiver District. 
Rousseau, W. A. — Birds nests from Troy, New York. 
Row ell, Rev. Jos. — Shells from California. 
Riise, A. H. — Conurus xantholaemus , from St. Thomas; and ophiurans, 

reptiles, &c, from West Indies. 
St. Charles College, La. — Coleopterous insects, birds, and reptiles, from 

Louisiana. 
Samuels, E. — Microscopic slides. 
Sartorius, Dr. C. — Crustaceans, insects, and vertebrates, from near 

Vera Cruz. 
Salvin, 0. — One hundred and thirty species Guatemala birds. 
Schafhirt, F. — Skeleton of Cistudo carolinensis, from the District of 

Columbia. 
Schneider, L. — Skins of birds. 

Schoonover, Major. — Robe of grizzly bear skin from Yellow Stone river. 
Schott, A. — Shells from Humboldt Bay, New Granada. 
Schultz, Wm. — Living alligator, from Georgia. 
Sclater, P. L. — Skins of birds from Mexico and Jamaica. 
Sherman, Capt. — Shells from Magdalena Bay. 
Shumard, Dr. B. F. — Insects from Texas. 
Simonds, E. — Skins of mammals, birds, skeletons, &c, from Essex 

county, New York. 
Simpson, Capt. J. H. — Minerals and rocks from Utah, collected by 

H. Engelmann. 
Skilton, J. Avery. — Reptiles, fishes, shells, and two living Sirens, from 

Georgia. 
Slack, Dr. J. H. — Eggs of grebe and tern, from Minnesota. 
Slagle, Mr. — Eggs and tertiary fossils from Virginia. 
Smith, Dr. J. Bryant. — Birds, reptiles, insects, crustaceans, and seeds, 

from Jamaica. 
Somers, Dr., through Dr. Bohrer. — Quartz crystal from Virginia,. 

inclosing a drop of water. 
Snyder, J. S. — See Lander. 

Stagg, T. J. — Seventeen-year locust, from Pennsylvania. 
Stair, D. F. — Old cup, coin, and beetle, from Hanover, Pennsylvania. 
Stanley, J. S. A. — Fossils from Los Angeles, California. 
Stearne, Mrs. J. S. — Portion of Stump of a tree which stood in front 

of Washington's marquee, at Valley Forge, Pa., in the winter 

of 1777-78. 



84 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

Sternbergh, S. — Alcoholic specimens from Panama. _ 

Stewart, George. — Skins of reptiles, nests, eggs, insects, &c., from 

Alabama. 
Stimpson, Wm. — Alcoholic specimens and shrew, from the coast of 

Maine. 
Stone, Gapt. C. P. — Shells from Gulf of California, collected in part 

by F. Fitch, Esq. 
Sivan, Jas. S. — Shells, sponges, and other specimens of natural history, 

from Ne-ah Bay, W. T. 
Sivanston, Tlios., per R. Kennicott.- — Skins of Arvicola, birds, &c, 

from Great Slave Lake. 
SucMey, Dr. George. — Birds, eggs, mammals, and alcoholic specimens, 

from Fort Kearny and Fort Laramie. 
Taylor, N., per B. B. Boss. — Skin of young musk ox, from Fort 

Norman. 
Tollman, J. W. — Eggs from Winnebago, Illinois. 
Totten, Gen. Jos. G., U. S. A. — Minerals from California. 
Tracy, Henry. — Eggs, skin of night-heron, and fish, from coast of 

Maine. 
Travers, Capt. D. B. — Duck eggs with black shells, from Virginia. 
Turner, Mr.- — Skins of squirrels from Hanno Bay. 
Uliler, P. B. — Neuroptera for Dr. Hegan. 
Unknown. — Shells from Monroe county, Mo. 
Unknown. — Living green snake, Letophis aestivus. 
' Unknown. — Humming birds' nests. 
Unknown. — Living Carolina rail. 

Vanshiver, Jas. — Remora from Blackstone Island, Potomac river. 
Veatch, Dr. J. A. — Shells from California. 

Venable, T. P. — Bones of the head of a DelpMnus, from the Pacific. 
Villaescusa, Donna Francisca, per J. Xanlus. — Large shells from Cape 

St. Lucas. 
Villasana, Donna Jesus, per J. Xantus. — Shells from Cape St. Lucas. 
Vogel, G. — Box of coleoptera, from Rhineland, Mo. 
Wallace, J. W. — Serpents and dried Amphiuma, from Louisiana. 
Walsh, D. B. — Diptera, hymenoptera, and neuroptera, from Illinois. 
War Department. — Mass of native copper, from Ontonagon, Michigan. 
Warren, Geo. B. — Eggs from New York. 
Welch, Geo. W. — Mounted skunk, red-necked grebe, nests, and eggs, 

from Massachusetts. 
West, Silas. — Orthopterous insects from Maine. 
Wharton, Jos. — Specimens of zinc and spelter. 
White, Lieut. J. W. — Marine invertebrates, radiata, &c, from Puget 

Sound. 
Wilcox, H. B. — Nests, eggs, shells, and alcoholic specimens from 

Michigan. 
Willis, J. B. — Skins of birds, eggs, shells, &c, from Halifax. 
Williamstoion College Lyceum. — Nests and eggs from Labrador and 

Greenland. 
Winclle, J. E. — Eggs of coopers hawk and skin of snow bird. 
Winston, W.G. — Lepidoptera and skins and eggs of birds from Hali- 
fax. 



REPORT OP ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 85 

Window, B. K. — Skin of duck and eggs of birds from Ohio. 

Wood, Wm. 8. — Nests and eggs of Geothlypis macgillivrayi from Pike's 

Peak. 
Wood, John 0.- — Dead alligator from Georgia. 
Wood, Dr. Wm. — Skin of Accipiter fuscus , shrew, and nests and eggs, 

from E. Windsor Hill, Conn. 
Worthen, Prof. A. H. — Types of fossils from Illinois. 
Woodbury, U. 8. A., Capt. D. P. — Birds from Tortugas. 
Wright, J. J. — Portion of an Indian ax from Williamstown, N. C. 
Wyman, Prof. J. — Rana sinuata from Adirondac Mountains ; casts 

of head of Flat-Head Indian, and skull of Gorilla. 
Wright, C. — See Bradford. 
Xantus, J. — Very large collections of animals, eggs, plants, &c, of 

Cape St. Lucas. 



LIST OF SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATIONS DURING 18G0. 

Astronomical Observations in the Arctic Seas. By Elisha Kent 
Kane, M. D., U. S. N. Made during the second Grinnell Expedition 
in search of Sir John Franklin,, in 1853, 1854, and 1855, at Van Rens- 
selaer Harbor and other points in the vicinity of the northwest coast 
of Greenland. Keduced and discussed by Charles A. Schott, Assistant 
United States Coast Survey; quarto, pp. 56, and one plate. (Pub- 
lished May, 1860.) 

On Fluctuations of Level in the North American Lakes. By Chas. 
Whittlesey; quarto, pp. 28, and two plates. (Published July, 1860.) 

Meteorological Observations, made at Providence, P. I., extending 
over a period of twenty-eight years and a half, from December, 1831, 
to May, 1860. By Alexis Caswell, Professor of Natural Philosophy 
and Theology in Brown University, Providence, R. I. ; quarto, pp. 188. 
(Published October, I860.) 

Meteorological Observations, made near Washington, Ark., extend- 
ing over a period of twenty years from 1840 to 1859, inclusive. By 
Nathan D. Smith, M. D. ; quarto, pp. 96. (Published October, 1860.) 

Researches upon the Venom of the Rattlesnake, with an investiga- 
tion of the anatomy and physiology of the organs concerned. By S. 
Weir Mitchell, M. D., Lecturer on Physiology in the American Medi- 
cal Association; quarto, pp. 156, and twelve wood cuts. (Published 
December, 1860.) 

The preceding compose vol. XII of Smithsonian Contributions to 
Knowledge. 

Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas. By Elisha Kent Kane, M. 
D., U. S. N. Made during the second Grinnell Expedition in search 
of Sir John Franklin, in 1853, 1854, and 1855, at Van Rensselaer 
harbor. Reduced and discussed by Charles A. Schott, Assistant United 



86 REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

States Coast Survey; quarto, pp. 90, and four plates. (Published 
October, 1860.) 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, showing the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Insti- 
tution for the year 1859. 1 volume, 8vo., pp. 450; fifty-five wood 
cuts. 

Instructions in reference to collecting nests and eggs of North 
American birds. 8vo., pp. 22; eighteen wood cuts. 

Circular in reference to the history of North American grasshoppers. 
8vo., pp. 4. 

Circular in reference to collecting North American shells. 8vo., 

PP- 4 - 

Circular in reference to the degrees of relationship among difierent 

nations. Svo., pp. 34. 

Circular to officers of the Hudson's Bay Company. 8vo., pp. 6. 

Check Lists of the Shells of North America, prepared for the Smith- 
sonian Institution by Isaac Lea, P. P. Carpenter, W. Stimpson, W. 
G. Binney, and Temple Prime. 8vo., pp. 44. 

List of duplicate shells collected by the United States Exploring 
Expedition under Capt. C. Wilkes, U. S. N. . Indo-Paciftc Fauna. 
8vo., pp. 4. 

Catalogue of the described Lepidoptera of North America. Prepared 
for the Smithsonian Institution by John G. Morris. *8vo., pp. 76. 



LIST OF METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS AND OBSERVERS 



FOR THE YEAR 1860. 



BRITISH AMERICA. 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


"3 
125 


W. longitude. 


K 


73 

E 




Wolfville, Nova Scotia 


O ' 

45 06 
45 08 


O ' 

64 25 
73 00 


Feet. 
95 


A. 


Baker, J C .. 


Stanbridge, Canada East, (P. 
0. Saxe's Mills, Vt.) 


T. 






B. T. 






43 15 
47 35 

50 06 

45 30 

44 59 

43 39 

51 15 

47 50 
61 51 

44 39 

45 32 


79 57 
52 40 

97 00 

73 36 
64 07 

79 21 

80 45 

85 05 
121 25 

63 37 
73 36 




B. T. 


Delaney, Edward M.J. 


Colonial Building, St. John's 

Newfoundland. 
Red RiverSettlement,Hudson's 

Bay Territory. 


170 

853 

57 
200 

|108 


B.T. It. 
T. R. 


Hall Dr Archibald 


A. 


Hensley,Rev. J. M 

Magnetic Observatory... 


King's College, Windsor, Nova 
Scotia. 


A. 
A. 


Moose Factory, Hudson's Bay 

Territory. 

Michipicoton, Canada AVest 

Fort Simpson, Hudson's Bay 

Territory. 


B. 






T. 






T. 




8 
118 


A. 


Small wood, Dr. Charles. 


St. Martin, Isle Jesus, Can. E.. 


A. 



ALABAMA. 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 


N. latitude. 


3 

-a 

J 


bp 

3 

K 


C 

s 

w 
c 


Alison, H L M D 


Carlowville.... 
Union Town . 
Montgomery. 

Orrvillc 

Orrville 

Livingston.... 

Greensboro'. . 


Dallas 


O ' 

32 10 
32 30 
32 22 
32 46 

32 25 

32 24 
32 30 
32 50 
32 40 


O ' 

87 15 

87 31 

86 31 

88 10 

87 06 

87 06 

88 16 
87 46 
87 34 


Feet. 
400 


T. R. 


Cobbs Rev R A 




N. 




Montgomery. 




N. 




240 


B.T.R. 






200 T.P. 




Dallas 








T. P.R. 


Smith, Rev. Stephen U.... 




ISO 
500 
350 


T. P. 




T. R. 


Waller, Robert B.... 




A. 









'' A signifies Barometer, Thermometer, Psychrome- 
ter, and Rain Gauge. 
B signifies Barometer. 
T signifies Thermometer. 



P signifies Psychrometer. 
R signifies Rain Gauge. 
N signifies No instrument. 
f Above Lake Ontario. 



88 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

ARKANSAS. 



Name of observer. 



Station. 



County. 



°3 

K 



Blackwell,W. H 

Euckner, Rev. H. F.... 
Burris, Robert, M. D.. 

Coulter, B. F 

Featherston, George W 

Female College 

Finley, P. F 

Reynolds, J 

Flippin, W. B 

Graham , Paul 

Howard, J. J 

McBeth, Miss Sue 

Martin, G. Alex., M. D... 

Reynolds, J 

Smith, Dr. N. D 

Weast. J. W 



Perryville 

Micco 

Green Grove.. 
Brownsville... 

Waldron 

Arkadelphia.. 

Spring Hill... 

Yellville 

Bentonville ... 
Mount. Home 
Doaksville.... 
Jacksonport... 
Spring Hill..., 
Washington.., 
Yellville , 



Perry 

Creek Nation 

Conway 

Prairie 

Scott 

Clark 



Hempstead... , 

Marion 

Benton 

Marion , 

Choct. Nation 

Jackson , 

Hempstead..., 
Hempstead.... 
Marion 



O ' 
35 05 
35 00 



o ' 
93 16 
97 00 



34 50 
34 53 

34 08 

33 30 

36 30 
36 23 
36 15 
33 45 

35 36 
33 30 
33 44 

36 30 



92 00 
94 00 

93 00 

93 40 

93 00 

94 10 

92 30 

95 26 
91 16 

93 40 
93 41 
93 00 



Feet. 



1,000 
1,790 



1,000 



N. 
T. 

N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 

T. 

T. 

N. 

R. 

N. 

T. 

T. 

T. R. 

N. 



CALIFORNIA. 



Ayres, W. O., M. D 

Boucher, Wesley K 

Canfield, Colbert A., M.D 
Frombcs, Prof. Oliver S.. 

Gordon, Robert 

Howe, Edwin 

Kibbe,T.R.,M. D 

Logan, Thos. M.,M. D. 

Randall, RoiDert B 

Slaven, James 

Dunkum, Mrs. E. S . 
Whitlock, James H . 



San Francisco. 
Mokelumne 
Hill. 

Monterey 

Santa Clara.... 

Auburn 

Martinez 

Downieville ... 

Sacramento 

Crescent City. 

Honcut 

MeadowValley 



San Francisco 
Calaveras 

Monterey 

Santa Clara... 

Placer 

Contra Costa. 

Sierra 

Sacramento... 
Del Norte 

Yuba 

Plumas 



37 48 

38 18 


122 27 
120 28 


130 
1,502 


36 36 

37 18 

38 54 
31 00 

39 27 
38 35 
41 45 


121 54 

122 00 

121 12 

122 06 


40 

100 

1,176 

20 

2,200 
41 
12 


121 28 
124 11 


39 25 


121 30 




40 20 


120 15 


3,700 



A. 

N. 

T. P.R. 

A. 

T. 

N. 

T. R. 

A. 

T. 

T. R. 

B.T. R 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



MacKee, Rev. C. B 

Smithsonian Institution. 



Georgetown . 
Washington. 



Washington. 

Washino-ton. 



38 54 
38 53 



77 03 
77 01 



60 



T. R. 
A. 



CONNECTICUT. 



Harrison, Benjamin F 
Hunt, Rev. Daniel 

Johnston, Prof. John. 

Rankin, James 

Rockwell, Charlotte... 
Yeomans, "William H. 



Wallin<rford .. 



Pomfret Windham, 

Middlctown ... Middlesex 



New Haven 



Saybrook . 
Colcbrook. 
Columbia.. 



Middlesex 
Litchfield.. 

Tolland.... 



41 27 


41 


52 


41 


32 


41 


18 


42 


00 


41 


40 



72 50 


133 


72 23 


587 


72 39 


175 


72 20 


10 


73 06 




72 42 









A. 

A. 

A. 

T.R. 

T. 

T. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

DACOTAH. 



89 











S3 




5C 


Name of observer. 


Station. 


Count}'. 


d 


O 


fan 


g 








fc 


* 


K 


s 








O ' 


O ' 


Fee«. 










42 52 


98 24 


1,900 


T. R. 











FLORIDA. 



Abert, Thayer 

Alien, George D 

Bailey, James B 

Baldwin, A. S., M. D.. 

Bean, Dr. James B 

Dennis, William C 

Gibbon, Lardner 

Ives, Edward R 

Mauran, P. B..M.D... 
Steele, Judge Augustus 
Whitner, Benjamin F... 



Warrington .. 

Magnetic Ob- 
servatory, 
Key West. 

Gainesville.... 

Jacksonville.. 

Micanopy 

Key West 

Tallahassee... 

Lake City 

St. Augustine 

Atsena Otie... 

Tallahassee... 



Escambia 
Monroe ... 

Alachua.. 

Duval 

Alachua .. 
Monroe... 

Leon 

Columbia 
St. John's 

Levy 

Leon 



30 21 


87 16 


9 


24 33 


81 48 


6 


29 35 


82 26 


184 


30 15 


82 00 


14 


29 35 


82 31 


78 


24 33 


81 28 


16 


30 29 


84 07 




30 12 


82 37 


174 


29 48 


81 35 


8 


29 08 


83 04 


17 


30 24 


84 17 


70 



A. 

B. T.P. 



T. R. 

A. 

A. 

B.T.R. 

T. 

T. R. 

B.T.R. 

B.T.R. 

T. 



GEORGIA . 



Anderson, James, M. D.. 

Camp, Benjamin F 

Doughty, Dr. William H. 

Gibson, R. T 

Pendleton, E. M., M. D.. 

Seavey, Charles C 

Van Buren, Jarvis 

Westmoreland,J.G.,M.D. 



Thomaston 
Covington . 
Augusta.... 
Savannah .. 

Sparta 

Cuthbert ... 
Clarksville. 
Atlanta 



Upson 

Newton 

Richmond... 

Chatham 

Hancock 

Randolph ... 
Habersham. 
Fulton 



32 56 

33 40 
33 27 

32 02 

33 17 



34 35 
33 45 



84 30 
84 00 
81 33 
81 01 

83 09 



83 31 

84 31 



750 
763 
152 

18 
550 



1,632 
1,050 



A. 
N. 
A. • 
T. R. 
T. R. 
T. 

T. P. 
B.T.R. 



ILLINOIS. 



Aldrich, Verry 

Allison, Jesse 

Armstrong, M. C 

Roe, James H , 

Babcock, Andrew J, , 

Babcock, E , 

Bacon, E. E , 

Baker, Nathan T 

Baldwin, Elmer 

Ballou, N. E., M. D 

Bassett, George R 

Boettner, Gustav A 

Bowman, Dr. E. H , 

Brendel, E., M. D 

Brendel, Frederick, M.D 



Tiskilwa 

Bloomington. . 

Chicago 

Aurora 

Riley 

Willow Creek. 

Belleville 

Farmbridge 

Sandwich 

Woodstock. ... 

Chicago 

Edgington 

Robinson's 

Mills. 
Peoria 



Bureau... 
McLean. 

Cook 



Kane -... 

McHenry.... 

Lee 

St. Clair 

La Salle 

DeKalb 

McHenry.... 

Cook 

Rock Island. 
Menard 



Peoria 



41 15 
40 30 



89 66 
89 00 



41 41 

42 11 
41 45 
38 29 
41 13 

41 31 

42 18 
41 54 
41 25 
40 00 



88 17 
88 20 
88 56 
90 06 

m 5i 

88 30 

89 40 

90 46 

90 00 



40 43 89 30 460 A, 



550 



650 
760 
1,040 
600 
600 
575 



686 



N. 
N. 



T. R. 
T. R. 
T. 

B.T. 
T. 

T. R. 
T. R. 
B. T. 
T. R. 
T.P. 



90 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 
ILLINOIS— Continued. 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 


03 


W. longitude . 


°3 

l-H 


o 


Brickenstein, Rev. H. H. 






O ' 


O l 


Feet. 


T. R. 






Cook... 


42 00 87 30 




T. 


Cobleigh, N. E 


Manchester.... 


St. Clair , 

Du Page 

Du Page 
Scott... 


38 37 
41 49 
41 46 

39 33 


89 56 
88 06 
88 11 

90 34 




B.T.R. 


Collier, Prof. Geo. H...... 

Ellsworth, Milton S 


6ts2 


A. 
T. 




683 


A. 






N. 


Harris, J. 0., M. D 




41 20 
41 45 

40 10 

41 52 

42 00 

41 16 

40 36 

42 14 

41 15 

41 21 

42 10 
40 57 
38 30 
42 17 


88 47 

89 31 
91 00 
88 20 

88 15 

90 17 

89 45 
88 38 
88 16 
88 39 
87 30 

87 55 

88 00 

89 12 


500 


T. R. 




Dixon 




N. 


Mead, S. B., M. D 

Pashley, J. S., M. D 
Riblet, J. H 


Augusta 




*203 
636 

777 


T.P.R. 
A. 






A 




Stark 


T. R. 


Pekin 


Will 




T. R. 


Rogers, 0. P. and J. S.... 


Channahon 


842 
643 


B.T.R. 
B. T. 






T. 


Smith, Charles E 






tl8 
551 


T. 


Smith, George 0., M. D.. 


La Salle 

Winnebago.... 


T. R. 


Titze, Henry A 


West Salem... 
W i n neb ago 
Depot. 


T. R. 




900 


B.T R. 







INDIANA. 



Anderson, H. H 

Austin, W. W 

Bartlett, Isaac 

Bullock, J. T 

Chappellsmith, John. 

Dawson, William 

Dayton, James H 

Haines, John 

Larrabee, William H 
Smith, Hamilton, jr.. 
Webb, Miss G 



Rockville 

Richmond 

Logansport 

Shelby ville 

NewHarmony 

Cadiz 

South Bend.... 

Richmond 

Green Castle... 

Cannelton 

Fort Wayne... 



Parke 

Wayne ..., 

Cass 

Shelby 

Posey 

Henry 

St. Joseph 
Wayne .... 
Putnam ... 

Perry 

Allen 



36 00 

39 47 

40 45 
39 00 

38 08 

39 55 

41 45 
39 52 
39 30 

37 57 
41 10 



87 00 
84 47 

86 13 

87 00 
87 50 
8.5 20 
86 20 

84 59 
86 47 
86 42 

85 00 



1,100 
800 
600 



320 



600 



N. 

T. 

T. R. 

N. 

A. 

T.R. 

N. 

B.T. 
800 I N. 
450 | A. 
761 N. 



IOWA. 



Beal, Dexter 

Collin, Prof. Alonzo 

Corse, John M 

Doyle, L. H 

Dunwoodv, Wm. P. ... ) 

Finley, H. S J 

Forey, John C 

Foster, Suel , 

Hon-, Asa, M. D , 

Hudson, A. T.,M.D , 



Grove Hill 

Mount Vernou 

Burlington 

Waterloo 

Davenport 

Bellevue .■ 

Muscatine 

Dubuque 

Lyons 



Bremer 

Linn 

Des Moines . 
Black Hawk. 

Scott 



Jackson .... 
Muscatine 
Dubuque .. 
Clinton .... 



42 45 
42 00 

40 53 
42*30 

41 30 

42 15 

41 26 

42 30 
41 50 



87 15 
91 00 

91 10 

92 31 

90 38 

92 25 
92 00 
90 52 
90 10 



J486 



* Above low water mark at Quiney. 

J Above low water mark in the Mississippi, 



\ Above Lake Michigan. 



555 



666 
401 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 
IOWA— Continued. 



91 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 


o 

T3 
rt 
5 


o 

"3d 

S 


'53 

K 


o 


McConnel, Townsend.... 
McCoy, Franklin, M. D.. 


Pleasant Plain. 




O ' 

41 07 
43 01 

40 37 

42 51 

41 25 

41 00 

41 01 

42 40 

43 30 


O ' • 
94 54 
94 04 
91 28 

91 51 

92 02 

91 13 
91 57 
91 59 
91 46 


Feet. 
950 


T. R. 
T. 








T. R 








1,000 
586 


T. 


Parvin, Theodore S. ... ) 
Ufford, Rev. John J 




Des Moines ... 

Winneshiek ... 


A. 

N. 


Shaffer, J. M., M. D 


940 


A. 
T. 


Williams, H. B 


720 


T. 









KANSAS. 



Berthoud, E. L 

Blackmail, W. J. R... 
Clarkson, Rev. David 
Drummond, Rev. J. H..... 

Ellis, Dr. Wm. T 

Fish, Lucian 

Goodnow, Isaac T 

Goss, B. F 

McCormick, Wm. A, 

Merriam, G. F 

Millar, John H 

Preston, Rev. N. 0..., 



Leavenworth.. 

Lawrence 

Fort Riley 

Celestville 

Lecompton. ... 
Mountain City 
Burlingame .... 
Manhattan . ... 
Neosho Falls.. 

Lecompton 

Gardner 

Wyandot 

Manhattan 



Leavenworth. 

Douglas 

Riley 

Lykins 

Douglas........ 

Arappahoe 

Shawnee 

Riley 

Woodson 

Douglas 

Johnson 

Wyandot 

Riley 



39 19 

39 00 
39 00 

38 40 

39 03 
39 35 


94 50 

95 12 

96 30 
95 16 
95 10 

105 40 


809 

800 

1,300 


760 




39 13 

38 03 

39 03 

38 47 

39 08 
39 13 


96 45 
95 31 
95 10 

95 00 
94 31 

96 45 


1,000 


825 
800 
707 





R. 
A. 

N. 
N. 
T. 
T. 

T. R. 
T. R. 



R. 



KENTUCKY. 



Barbage, Joshua C 

Beatty, O 

Case, Dr. CD 

Mattison, Andrew 

Miles, Thomas, H., S. J. 

Murch, E. M 

Savage, Rev. G.S..M.D. 

Swain, John, M. D 

Woodruff, E. N 

Young, Mrs. Lawrence... 



Hardinsburf 

Danville 

Beech Fork. 

Paducah 

Bardstown .. 
Russelville .. 
Millersburg. 
Ballardsville 
Louisville... 
Louisville ... 



Breckenridge. 

Boyle 

Washington.. 
Mt. Cracken.. 

Nelson 

Logan 

Bourbon 

Oldham 

Jefferson 

Jefferson 



37 40 
37 40 


86 15 

84 30 


500 
900 


37 00 
37 52 


87 21 

85 18 








38 40 
38 36 
38 20 
38 07 


84 27 

85 30 
85 38 
85 24 


804 
461 


570 



N. 

B.T. R. 

T. R. 

N. 

A. 

N. 

B.T.R. 

A. 

A. 

A. 



LOUISIANA. 



Anthonioz, B. F Grand Coteau. 

Mankard, Mrs. M. J Independence. 

Merrill, Edward, M. D...| Trinity 



St. Landry. 
Livingston.. 
Concordia... 



30 30 

31 37 



90 33 

91 47 



T. 

N. 
T. R. 



92 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

MAINE. 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 


as 


jo 


bp 

03 


m 

o 

m 




Belfast 


Cumberland ... 


O ' 

43 39 

44 00 

44 23 

45 00 
44 4a 
44 03 

43 40 

44 00 

43 40 

44 00 
44 48 
44 44 
44 37 
44 28 
44 10 

43 40 

44 55 

43 39 

44 58 
44 30 


O ' 

70 00 
70 29 
69 08 

67 06 

69 46 

70 45 
70 44 
70 00 
70 45 
70 04 

68 47 

67 50 
70 03 

69 47 

70 35 
70 44 

69 32 

70 15 

68 59 

69 49 


Feet. 
180 


N. 




N. 




Waldo 




T. R. 


Dana, W. D 


North Perry... 

N 'th Bridgeton 
Cornishville... 


Washington... 

Cumberland . . 
York 


100 
90 
300 
800 
100 
500 
130 


A. 


Gardiner, R. H 


A. 


Gould, M 


B.T.R. 


Guptill, G. W 


T. R. 




York 


B. T. 


Lord, W. G 


N. 


Moore, Asa P 


Androscoggin. 


T. R. 






T. 


Parker, J. D 


Steuben 


50 


A. 


Pratt, J. Frank, M. D. ... 






N. 




Vassalboro' ... 


Oxford 

York 




T. 


Verrill, G. W., jr 




T. 


West, Silas 


784 

700 

87 


T. R. 


Wilbur, Benj. F 




Cumberland . . 
Kennebec 


R. 


Willis, Henry 


Exeter 


A. 


Wilson, Dr. J. B 


T. R. 


Wyman, A. H 


N'th Belgrade. 




N. 









MAKYLAND. 



Baer, Miss H. M. ... 
Bell, Jacob E 

Goodman, Win. R.... 
Hanshew, Henry E. 

Lowndes, Benj. O 

Stephenson, P>.ev. Jas 
Sutton, Rev. A 



Sykesville 

Leitersburg... 

Annapolis 

Frederick 

Bladensburg.. 
St. Inigoes.... 
Chestertown. 



Carroll 

Washington... 
Anne Arundel. 

Frederick 

Prince George. 

St. Mary's 

Kent 



39 23 
39 35 

38 59 

39 24 
38 57 

38 10 

39 12 



76 57 

77 30 


700 


76 29 

77 26 


20 


76 58 
76 41 
75 59 


70 
45 







T. R. 
T. R. 
A. 

A. 

T. R. 
A 
A. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



Astronomical Observatory 

Bacon, William 

Brown, Nathan W 

Davis, Rev. Emerson 

Fallon, John 

Harvard Col. Observatory 
Metcalf, Jno. G., M. D... 

Mitchell, Hon. Wrn 

Morse, Geo. M., M. D... 

Normal School 

Prentiss, Dr. Henry C... 

Raymond, George 

Rodman , Samuel 

Scandlin, Pv.ev. Wm. G ... 

Snell, Prof. E. S 

Whitcomb, L. F 



Williamstown 

Richmond 

Topsfield 

Westfield 

Lawrence 

Cambridge 

Mendon 

Nantucket 

Clinton 

Bridgewater ... 

Worcester 

Fitchburg 

New Bedford . 

Grafton 

Amherst 

Florida 



Berkshire 

Berkshire 

Essex 

Hampden 

Essex 

Middlesex.... 

Worcester 

Nantucket. ... 
Worcester. ... 

Plymouth 

Worcester 

Worcester. . .. 

Bristol 

Worcester 

Hampshire . .. 
Berkshire 



42 43 

42 23 



42 06 
42 42 
42 23 
42 06 

41 17 

42 25 
42 00 
42 16 
42 35 
41 39 



4:2 2:2 
42 41 



73 13 

73 20 



72 48 
71 11 
71 08 
71 33 

70 06 

71 42 
71 00 
71 48 
71 50 
70 56 



72 34 

73 02 



725 
,190 



180 
133 

80 



30 



150 

528 

484 

90 



267 
J.000 



B.T.R. 

T. R. 

T. R. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

T.R. 

A. 

T. R. 

A. 

A. 

P.T.R. 

A. 

B. T. 

A. 

N. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS, 

MICHIGAN. 



93 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 




o 

3 

'3d 

c 


'3 

K 


m 

o 

s 


Blaker, Dr. G. H.,jr 






O ' 

46 32 
41 56 

4 -J -.'0 
4-2 28 

41 45 

42 24 

43 06 
43 00 
43 00 


O ' 

87 41 
83 30 
85 10 

85 42 

86 46 

82 58 

86 11 

83 00 
86 00 


Feet. 
630 
584 
825 
662 
661 

597 


A. 

B.T.R. 


Campbell,Wm.M.,M.D. 
Coffin, Matthew 


Battle Creek... 




B.T.R. 

N. 


Crosby, J. B 


New Buffalo... 




B.T.R. 


Pitcher, Dr. Zena ) 

Horton, L. S $ 

.Smith, L. M. S ... 




A. 


Mill Point 
Port Huron.... 
Grand Rapids. 

Holland 

Grand Rapids. 




T. 




St. Clair 




T.R, 




680 


T.R. 






Kent 


43 00 
42 40 

41 56 

42 15 


86 00 
85 30 
83 23 

83 47 


752 
690 
590 
751 


T.R. 


Walker, Mrs. Octavia C. 


Kalamazoo. ... 


T. R. 


Whelpley, Miss H. I ... , 
Woodard.C.S 




T. R. 




Washtenaw ... 


A. 







MINNESOTA. 



Byers, S. M 

Clark, Thomas 

Wiekuid, C 

Garrison, 0. E \ 

Hibbord, A. A 

Kelley, O. H 

Riggs, Rev S. R 

Smith, A. C 

Thickstun,T. F 

Wieland, Henry 



Princeton Benton... 

Beaver Bay.... Lake 

Princeton Benton... 

St. Cloud Stearnes. 

Burlington Lake 

Itasca Anoka... 

Pajutazee Brown 

Forest City.... Meeker .. 

Chatfield Fillmore . 

Beaver Bay ... Lake 



45 50 

47 12 

45 50 
4.5 45 
47 01 
45 16 
45 00 
45 45 



47 11 



93 45 

91 19 

93 45 

94 23 

92 30 

93 32 

94 00 
96 00 



91 25 



657 



645 
856 



-325 
850 



T.R. 

A. 

T.R. 



T.R. 
T. 

T. R. 
T.R. 
T. R. 
T. 



MISSISSIPPI. 



Cribbs, J. R \ 

Johnson, Wm. M., M. D 

McCary, Robert 

Moore, Prof. Albert 

Robinson, Rev. E. S 

Swasey, Col.C. B 



Monticello Lawrence.. 

Westville Simpson ... 

De Soto 

Adams , 

Yalobusha 

Jasper 

Yazoo 



Hernando. 

Natchez 

Grenada 

Prairie Line... 
Yazoo City.... 



31 34 

32 00 
34 45 

31 34 

33 45 

32 10 
32 55 



90 00 
90 00 

90 15 

91 25 
90 00 

89 20 

90 31 



600 



no 

264 



T. 
T. 
A. 
B.T.R. 

N. 
A. 

N. 



MISSOURI. 



Bailey, S. S 

Bowles, S. B., M. D ... 




Dade 


38 30 
37 22 


90 10 536 
93 41 1,800 


T. R. 


Harrisonville . 


N. 






N. 













* Above La Crosse. 

\ Above low water mark at Memphis. 



94 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

MISSOURI— Continued. 



Name of observer. 



Dalton.O. D 

Dodson, Benjamin D 

Engelmann, George, M.D 

Fendler, Augustus 

Finley, R. W. 

Heaston, David J 

Horner, W. H 

Kirby, D. J 

Lunemann, John H., 

Maxey, W. F 

Myers, J. H 

Sutherland, Norris 

Tidswell, Mary Alice 

Vankirk,W. J 

Vogel, Chas 

Weber, Philip 

Wells, Wm 

Wilson, Geo. W.,jr 

Wyrick, M. L 



Station. 



Greenville 

Toronto 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

Richmond 

Bethany 

Hornersville.. 

Carroll ton 

St. Louis 

Paris 

Kirks ville 

Boonville 

Warrerfton ... 

Bolivar 

Rhineland 

Hermann 

Stockton 

Lexington . .. 
Cassville 



County. 



Wayne 

Camden 

St. Louis 

St. Louis 

Ray 

Harrison 

Dunklin 

Carroll 

St. Louis 

Monroe 

Adair 

Cooper 

Warren 

P.>lk 

Montgomery 
Gasconade . .. 

Cedar 

Lafayette 

Barry 



37 54 

38 37 

38 37 

39 ]6 

40 15 
3G 03 
39 30 

38 40 

39 30 

40 38 
38 55 
38 37 

37 29 

38 42 

38 40 

39 3G 
39 15 
3G 41 



92 30 
90 15 
90 16 
94 30 
94 00 
90 00 

93 31 

90 15 
92 00 
92 50 

92 30 

91 16 

92 45 
91 41 
91 27 

93 48 

93 45 
93 57 



X 



Feet. 



481 
470 



475 

700 

1,000 



825 



*300 

598 
800 



3,000 



N. 

N. 

A. 

B.TP. 

N. 

N. 

T. 

T. 

A. 

T. R. 

N. 

N. 

T. 

N. 

T. R. 

N. 

T. R. 

N. 

T. R. 



NEBRASKA. 



Allan, James P 

Bowen, Miss Anna M. J 

Hamilton, Rev. Wm 

Pardee, H. C 

Rain, John G 

Rosseau, M. C 

Smith, Charles B ..... 

While, Bela 



Omaha City.. 
Elkhorn City 

Bellevue 

Rock Bluffs .. 

Omaha 

Fort Pierre... . 

Brownville 

Kenosha 



Douglas. 
Douglas. 
Sarpy.... 

Cass 

Douglas. 



Nemaha. 
Cass 



41 15 

41 22 
41 08 

40 54 

41 20 
44 00 
40 30 
40 51 



96 10 
96 12 
95 50 
95 54 
95 57 
100 00 
9G 00 
95 54 



1,300 
1,000 



1,100 
1,400 



1,050 



T. R. 
T. 

T. R. 
T. 

T. R. 
N. 
T. 
N. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Bell, Louis Farmington .. 

Bell, Samuel N Manchester... 

Brown, Branch Stratford 

Chase, Arthur Claremont 

Odell, Fletcher Shelburne 

Pitman, Chas. H North Barn- 
stead . 

Smith, Rufus ' N. Littleton.. 

Wiggin, Andrew j Stratham 



Strafford 

Hillsborough . 

Coos 

Sullivan 

Coos 

Belknap 

Grafton 

Rockingham. . 



43 


20 


42 


59 


44 08 


43 22 


44 


23 


43 


38 


44 


20 


43 


00 



71 00 
71 28 

71 34 

72 21 
71 06 

71 27 

72 13 

73 35 



300 

300 

1,000 

539 

700 



100 



B.T.R. 
E.T.R. 
T. R. 
B.T.R. 
B. T. 
T. 

N. 
N. 



: Above Missouri river. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

NEW JERSEY. 



95 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 




CD 

5 


■M 

o 

K 


o 

S 

m 




New Bruns- 
wick. 

Cinnaminson . 
Woodstown. . 


Middlesex 

Monmouth.... 
Burlington .... 


O ' 

40 30 

40 24 
40 00 

39 39 

40 45 
40 15 


O ' 

7.3 31 

73 59 
75 01 
75 20 

74 10 
74 21 


Feet. 
90 

111 
83 
30 
35 


N 


Thompson, Geo. W \ 


B T P 




N 




T R. 


Whitehead, W. A 


Monmouth 


B T R. 


Willis, 0. R 




T. 









NEW MEXICO. 



Wagner, Lieut. O. G. 
Topographical Engi- 
neers. 



Santa Fe. 



Santa Fe. 



35 04 



10 G 02 



6,846 



NEW YORK. 



Arden, Thomas B 

Aubier, John 

Bartlett, E. B 

Beauchamp, W. M 

Bowman, John , 

Brown, Rev. John J , 

Dill, John B 

Denning, William H.... 

Dewey, Prof. Chester . \ 

Fenner, F. D < 

Frost, Col. E. C ' 

Graham, Joseph 

Grush, James W \ 

Packard, Levi S ' 

Guest, W. E 

Haskin, Wm. L 

Heitnstreet, John W 

Hibbord, A. A 

Holmes, Dr. E. S 

House, John C 

Howell, R 

Ingersoll, J. D 

Ives, William 

Kelsey, Kathalo 

Mackie, Matthew 

Malcom, Wm. S 

Mathews, M. M., M. D 
Morris, Professor O. W, 

Potter, C. D.,M.D 

Russell, C. H 

Salisbury, EliasO , 

Shecrar, H. M 

Slade, Fred. J 

Spooncr, Dr. Stillman.... 



Garrison's 

Fordham 

Vermillion 

Skaneatles ... . 
Baldwinsville.. 

Dansville 

Auburn 

Fishkill Land- 
ing. 

Rochester 

Havana 

Utica 

Spencertown. . 

Ogdensburg.... 

Troy 

Troy 

Hermitage 

Wilson 

Waterford 

Nichols 

Ilion 

Buffalo 

Great Valley.. 

Clyde 

Oswego 

Rochester , 

New York 

Adams Centre 
Gouverneur... 

Buffalo 

Wellsville 

New York.... 
Wampsville .. 



Putnam 

Westchester 

Oswego 

Onondaga ... 
Onondaga .. 
Livingston . 

Cayuga 

Dutchess..., 



Monroe.., 

Schuyler 
Oneida ... 



Columbia 

St. Lawrence 
Rensselear.... 
Rensselear.... 

Wyoming 

Niagara 

Saratoga 

Tioga 

Herkimer 

Erie 

Cattaraugus .. 

Wayne 

Oswego 

Monroe 

New York .... 

Jefferson 

St. Lawrence. 

Erie 

Allegany 

New York.... 
Madison , 



41 23 
40 54 
43 26 



43 04 
42 38 

42 55 

41 33 

43 08 

42 30 

43 07 

42 18 

44 43 
42 44 
42 44 

42 09 

43 20 
42 47 

42 00 

43 00 
42 50 

42 12 

43 10 
43 28 
43 08 
40 43 
43 48 



42 07 
40 45 

43 04 



74 02 
73 57 

77 26 



76 41 

77 44 
74 28 
74 18 

77 51 



76 31 1,041 
75 13 



75 37 
73 37 
73 37 

78 14 
7 s 56 

73 39 

76 32 

79 51 
78 56 
78 45 

77 10 

76 30 

77 51 

74 05 

75 52 



78 06 
73 59 

75 50 



180 
147 
327 



672 



42 



516 



73 32 700 



232 

58 
58 



250 
70 



600 



400 
250 
525 
25 
632 



1,480 

79 
500 



T. R. 
A. 

T. 

B. T. 

T. 

A. 

T. 

B.T.R. 

B.T.R. 

T. 
A. 



R. 

A. 

A. 

T.R. 

T. 

A. 

T. 

N. 

A. 

N. 

B.T. 

B.T.R 

A. 

A. 

R. 

B.T. 

T. 

T. R. 

A. 

T. R. 



96 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 
NEW YORK— Continued. 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 


o 

"2 


-3 

o 




W 
O 

CO 


Sylvester, Dr. E. Ware... 






O ' 


O ' 


Feet 


B. T. 


East Henrietta 

Houseville .... 
Pine Hill , , 


Suffolk 


40 44 
40 37 


72 54 

74 01 

77 51 

73 59 

75 46 
75 32 
79 06 


15 

54 

600 

41 

1,260 


A. 


Van Kleek, Rev. R. D. ) 




B. T.R. 


Howard, Rev. W. W.. jj 
Wads worth, A. S 




43 06 


B. T. P. 


Wakely, Charles C 


New York 


40 44 

42 55 

43 40 
42 45 


A. 
A. 


Yale, Walter D.... 


T.R. 




Erie 


680 


N. 







NORTH CAROLINA. 



Adams, Prof. E. W 

Craven, Rev. B 

Hamilton, W. H 

McDowell, Rev. A 

Moore, Geo. F., M. D.... 
Phillips, Prof. James,D.D 



Goldsborough 

TrinityCollege 

Raleigh 

Murfreesboro' 
Green Plains.. 
Chapel Hill.... 



Wayne 

Randolph 

Wake 

Hertford 

Northampton . 
Orange 



35 20 
35 45 

35 40 

36 30 
36 32 
35 54 


77 51 
80 00 

78 52 
77 01 
77 45 

79 17 


102 
400 
317 







T. R. 
A. 
N. 
A. 

T. R. 
B. T. R. 



OHIO. 



Abell, B. F 

Adams, D. P 

Allen, Frederick D 

Am men, J 

Anthony, Newton 

Atkins, Rev. L. S 

Benner, J. F 

Bowen, Wm. F 

Chapman, N. A 

Clark, Wm. P 

Colbrunn, Edward 

Cotton, D. B., M. D 

Crane, George W 

Davidson, H. M 

Dille, Israel 

Fuller, W. G 

Gamble, J. W 

Hammitt, John W 

Hampton, W. C 

Harper, George W 

Haywood, Prof. John 

Hill, P. G 

Hillier, Rev. Spencer L... 
Huntington, George C... 

Hyde, Gustavus A 

Ingram, John, M. D 

King, Mrs. Ardelia C 

Lumsden, Rev. Wm 

Luther, S. M 

Mathews, J. McD., D.D. 
McClung, Charles L 



Welshfield .... 

Marietta 

Oberlin 

Ripley 

Mount Union. 

Madison 

New Lisbon... 
Sharonville .... 

Twinsburg 

Medina 

Cleveland 

Portsmouth.... 

Bethel 

Freedom 

Newark 

Harmar 

Russell's Sta'n 
College Hill ... 
Mt. Victory ... 

Cincinnati 

Wester vi He ... 

Dallasburg 

Breckville 

Kelley's Island 

Cleveland 

Savannah 

Madison 

West Union ... 

Hiram 

Hillsborough.. 
Troy 



Geauga 

Washington 

Lorain 

Brown 

Stark 

Lake 

Columbiana . 

Hamilton 

Summit 

Medina 

Cuyahoga.... 

Scioto 

Clermont 

Portage 

Licking 

Washington. 
Highland .... 

Hamilton 

Hardin , 

Hamilton 

Franklin 

Warren 

Cuyahoga 

Erie 

Cuyahoga ... 

Ashland 

Lake 

Adams 

Portage 

Highland 

Miami 



41 23 


81 12 


1,205 


39 25 


81 31 


630 


41 20 


82 15 


800 


38 37 


83 31 




40 54 

41 49 
40 45 


81 31 
80 10 
80 45 






961 


39 19 


84 30 


800 


49 29 


81 28 


1,050 


41 07 


81 47 


1,255 


41 30 


81 40 


665 


38' 45 


82 50 


529 


39 00 


84 00 


555 


41 13 


81 08 


1,100 


40 07 


82 21 


825 


39 24 


81 28 


631 


39 13 


83 36 


1,000 


39 19 


84 26 


800 


40 35 


83 36 


1,050 


39 06 


84 27. 


500 


40 04 


83 00 




39 30 


84 31 


800 


41 15 


81 30 


800 


41 36 


82 42 


587 


41 30 


81 40 


643 


41 12 


82 31 


1,098 


41 50 


81 00 


620 


41 20 


81 08 


1,290 


39 13 


83 30 


1,134 


40 03 


84 06 


1,103 



!'.. 



R. 



T. R. 
T. R. 
A. 

B.T 

T. 

T. 

B.T, 

N. 

T. 

A. 

T. 

B.T.R 

T. R. 

B.T.R 

T. 

T. 

N. 

N. 

N. 

A. 

A. 

N. 

A. 

B.T.R 

B.T.R 

A. 

R. 

R. 

R. 



T. 

T. 
T. 
A. 
B.T.R 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

OHIO— Continued. 



97 



Name of observer. 



Station. 



County. 



McMillan, S. B 

Peck, Wm. R..M.D 

Phillips, R. C. and J. H. 

Rhoades, Dr. John 

Shaw, Joseph 

Shields, Rev. Robert 

Spratt, Dr. Wm. W 

Sperry, Mark 

Tappan, Eli T 

Trombley, J. B., M. D... 

Twcedv, David H 

Ward, 'Rev. L.F 

Warder, A. A 

Williams, Prof. M. G 

Wilson, Prof. J. H 

Young, Prof. Chas. A., ) 
Barrows, A. C $ 



East Fairfield . 
Bowling Green 

Cincinnati 

Hocking Port. 
Bellefontaine. . 

Bellecentre 

Andrews 

Croton 

Cincinnati 

Toledo 

Mt. Pleasant . 

Avon 

Cincinnati 

Urbana 

College Hill... 

Hudson 



Columbiana 

Wood 

Hamilton.... 

Athens 

Logan 

Logan 

Morrow 

Licking 

Hamilton 

Lucas 

Jefferson 

Lorain 

Hamilton.... 
Champaign . 
Hamilton 

Summit 



40 47 

41 15 
39 06 

39 00 

40 21 
40 30 
40 45 

40 13 

39 07 

41 39 

40 20 

41 27 

39 08 

40 06 
39 19 

41 15 



o ' 

80 44 

83 40 

84 27 

81 30 
83 20 

83 45 

80 45 

82 38 

84 27 

82 32 

83 34 

82 04 

84 35 

83 43 

84 26 

81 24 



Feet. 

1,152 
700 
540 



1,040 
1,170 
1,500 



*470 
604 



800 

800 

1,015 

800 

1,137 



A. 

B.T. 

B.T. 

N. 

T. R. 

B.T.R. 

T. 

T.R. 

A. 

B.T. 

N. 

A. 

T. R. 

B.T.R. 

B.T.R. 

B.T.R. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



Baird, John H 

Boyers, W. R 

Brewster, Wm., M. D 

Brugger, Samuel 

Coffin, Selden J 

Houghton, George S... 
Cook, Thos. E.,& Sons... 

Darlington, Fenelon 

Davis, Charles 

Eggert, John 

Friel, P 

Hance, Ebenezer. 

Harvey, J. C 

Heckerman, Rev. Henry. 

Heisley, Dr. John 

Heyser, William, jr 

Hickok, W. O 

Hoffer, Dr. Jacob R 

Jacobs, Rev. M 

James, Prof. Charles S ... 
Kerlin, Isaac N., M.D ... 
Kirkpatrick, Prof. J. A... 

Kohler, Edward 

Martin, K. A 

Martindale, Jos. C. , M. D. 

Meehan, Thomas 

Mowry, George 

Muller, Prof. Rudolph.... 
Ralston, Rev. J. Gner .... 

Saurman, John W 

Scott, Samuel 

Smith, Wm., D. D 

Specr, Alex. M., M.D ... 

Swift, Dr. Paul 

Travelli, John I 



Tarentum ; Alleghany . .., 

Freeport ■ Armstrong ..., 

Altoona Blair , 

Huntingdon . . Huntingdon.. 
Fleming ' Centre 



Easton Northampton 



Bendersville ... 
Parkersville ...'< 
Cannonsburg J 

Berwick i 

Shamokin 

Norrisville .... 

Nazareth 

Bedford j 

Harrisburg | 

Chambersburgj 

Harrisburg 

Mount Joy....! 
Gettysburg.... 

Lewisburg I 

Media j 

Philadelphia...! 
Whitehall St 'n| 

Harrisburg | 

Philadelphia. 
Germantown 

Somerset 

Latrobe 

Norristown.. 

Byberry 

Worthmgton.J 
Cannonsburg J 

Pittsburg I 

W. Haverford 
Sewickleyville; 



Adams 

Chester 

Washington... 

Columbia 

Northumber'd 

Bucks 

Northampton . 

Bedford 

Dauphin 

Franklin 

Dauphin 

Lancaster 

Adams 

Union 

Delaware 

Philadelphia... 

Lehigh 

Dauphin 

Philadelphia... 
Philadelphia... 

Somerset 

Westmoreland 
Montgomery . 
Philadelphia... 
Armstrong .... 
Washington... 

Alleghany 

Delaware 

Alleghany 



40 38 
40 44 
40 30 
40 35 
40 55 

40 43 



39 54 

40 17 

41 05 
40 15 
40 12 
40 43 
40 01 
40 16 

39 58 

40 20 
40 08 

39 49 

40 58 



39 57 

40 40 
40 16 
40 05 



40 00 
40 27 
40 08 

40 00 

41 50 
40 17 
40 32 
40 00 
40 38 



79 46 
79 42 
78 31 
78 03 
77 53 

75 16 



75 37 
80 18 

76 15 
76 30 

74 48 

75 21 
78 30 

76 15 

77 45 
76 50 

76 30 

77 15 
76 58 



75 10 

75 26 

76 55 
75 09 



950 



1,168 
734 

780 

320 



218 
936 
583 
700 
30 
530 



618 
320 



624 



50 
250 




T. 
T. 

B.T.R. 
B.T.R. 
T. R. 



N. 

T. R. 

A. 

A. 

T. R. 

B.T.R. 

B.T.R. 

T. R. 

B.T.R. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

B.T.R. 

A. 

A. 

A. 

T. 

B.T.R. 

N. 

N. 

A. 

B.T.R. 

A. 

T. R. 

T. R. 

B.T.R. 

B.T.R. 

T. R. 

B.T.R. 



: Above low water in tlie Ohio river at Cincinnati. 



98 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

RHODE ISLAND. 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 




"VV. longitude. 




!73 

s 

to 

C 


Sheldon, H. C 




Providence .... 


O ' 

41 49 


O ' 

71 25 


Feet. 
120 


A. 
B.T. R. 













SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Cornish, Rev. John H.. 
Glennie, Rev. Alexander 
Johnson, Joseph, M. D 
Dawson, J. L., M. D... 
Ravenel, Thomas P 



Aiken , 

Georgetown , 

Charleston 
Black Oak. „. 



Barnwell 

All Saints 

Charleston . ... 

Charleston . ... 



33 32 
33 29 


81 34 
79 17 


565 
20 


32 46 


80 00 


20 


33 00 


80 00 


50 



T. R. 
A. 

B.T.R. 

A. 



TENNESSEE. 



Barney, Chas. R 

Blake, J. R 

Dodge, J. W.,&Son... 

Dodge, Stephen C 

Houghton, S.W 

Jennings, S. K..M.D. 
Stewart, Prof. Wm. M 
Mitchell, R. W., M. D 



University PI . 

La Grange 

Pomona 

Knoxville 

Winchester.... 

Austin I Wilson 

Clarkesville ... Montgomery. 
Memphis Shelby 



Franklin 

Fayette 

Cumberland 

Knox 

Franklin 



35 12 


86 00 


2,000 


36 00 
35 56 

35 10 

36 20 
36 28 
35 08 


85 00 


2,200 
1,000 


86 11 

86 20 

87 13 
90 00 


2,000 
481 
262 



T. R. 

B.T.R. 

T. 

T. 

T. R. 

T.P.R. 

A. 

A. 



TEXAS. 



Allis, MelvinH 

De Jernett, R., M. D 
D'Spain, Dr. B. L ... 

Ewing, J.M , 

Freese, G 

Friedrich , Otto 

Gaffney, James O 

Gantt, Dr. Wm. H 

Gibbs, T 

Glasco.J.M... 

Kaler, Frederick 

Kapp, Ernst 

Kellog, F 

Moke, Dr. James E 

Palm, Swante 

Rucker, B. H 

Schumann, Bruno 

Sias, Prof. Solomon 

Van Nostrand, J 

Wade, F. S 

West, Dr. N. P 

Yellowby, Prof. C. W... 
Yoakum, F. L 



Gonzales 

Greenville.... 

Tarrant 

Boston 

New Braun 

fels. 
San Patricio. 

Union 

Hunts ville... 

Gilmer 

Aransas 

Sisterdale .... 
Whcelock.... 
Woodboro'.. 

Austin 

Washington. 
Round Top.. 

Bonham 

Austin 

Cross Roads. 
Burkeville.... 
Webberville 
Larissa 



Gonzales. 
Hunt 

Hopkins.. 

Bowie 

Comal 



San Patricio. 
Washington , 

Walker 

Upshur 

Refugio 

Blanco 

Robertson 

Grayson 

Travis 

Washington. 

Fayette 

Fannin 

Travis 

Williamson.. 

Newton 

Travis 

Cherokee 



29 35 
33 10 

33 30 

33 25 

29 41 

27 45 

30 11 



32 46 
27 47 

29 54 

30 50 

33 47 
30 15 
30 26 
30 06 
33 40 
30 20 

30 29 

31 00 

30 10 

31 45 



97 30 

97 23 

96 41 

94 40 

98 15 

98 31 
96 31 



94 51 

97 08 

98 35 
96 30 

96 36 

97 47 
96 15 
96 37 

96 13 

97 46 
97 26 
93 31 
97 31 

95 20 



600 



540 



1,017 
15 

1,000 
450 



435 
650 
672 



N. 

N. 

N. 

N. 
B.T.R. 

T. R. 

T. R. 

R. 

T. R. 

T.R. 

A. 

T. R. 

N. 

A. 

B.T.R. 

T. R. 

A. 

T.P.R. 

T. R. 

T. 

B. R. 

T.P.R. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

UTAH. 



99 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


County. 


"5 


'3d 
8 


2, 

'53 


03 

s 
s 

s 
a 




Washington... 


Washington... 


o.. 
37 00 


O ' 

114 00 


Feet. 


T. R. 








' iiclllIi5 "" ^ 


Great Salt 
Lake City. 




T. R. 


Phelps, W. W 




40 45 


111 26 


4,260 


A 











VERMONT. 



Buckland, David ! Brandon 

Chickering:, Rev. J. W ... Springfield 

Cutting, Hiram A I Lunenburg 

Fairbanks, Franklin j St. Johnsbury 

Paddock, James A | Craftsbury . ... 

Parker, Joseph i West Rupert.. 

Petty, McK ' Burlington 



Rutland . ... 
Windsor ... 

Essex 

Caledonia .. 

Orleans 

Bennington. 
Chittenden . 



45 43 
43 18 


73 00 
72 33 




300 


44 28 


71 41 


1,124 


44 25 


72 00 


540 


44 40 


72 29 


1,100 


43 15 


73 11 


750 


44 27 


73 10 


367 



T. R. 

T. R. 

A. 

B.T.R. 

T. R. 

T. 

A. 



VIRGINIA. 



Abell, J. Ralls Charlottesville 

Appleyard, John Richmond 

Astrop, Col. R. F Crich ton's 

Store. 

Bell, L. J i Harper'sFerry 

Dickinson, George C j Cobham Depot 

Ellis, D. H Wardensville . 

Fraser, James New England. 

Jones, Silas B Fork Union.... 

Kendall, James E Kanawha C.H 

Lockwood, George P Wheeling 

Meriwether, Charles I. ... Richmond 

Marvin, John W ! Winchester.... 

Pickett, John ; The Plains 

Purdie, John R., M. D...[ Smithfield , 

Robey, Charles H '■■ Fredcricksb'g. 

Sanders, B. D j Wellsburg 

Stalnaker, J. W., M.D... Lewisburg 

Van Doren, Abram Falmouth 

Webster, Prof. N. B Portsmouth.... 



Albemarle., 

Henrico 

Brunswick . 



Jefferson 

Albemarle... 

Hardy 

Wood 

Fluvanna ... 

Kanawa. 

Ohio 

Henrico 

Frederick.... 

Fauquier , 

Isle of Wigl» 
Spottsylva' 3 
Brook .... •••• 
Greenbrr • •• 

Stafford ' 

Norfo 1 



WISCONSIN. 



38 00 
'36*40" 



V 31 521 



77 46 500 



38 05 

39 3^ 
39 » 

f& 

A 09 



78 21 
78 03 
81 00 
78 21 
81 30 
80 46 



450 
1,720 



720 



39 15 

38 50 

37 02 

38 30 



37 49 

38 15 
30 50 



78 10 
77 51 

76 37 

77 30 



100 
600 



80 28 2,000 
77 34 ! .350 
76 19 I 12 



T 


R. 


T 




T 


R. 


T 


P.. 


T 


R. 


A 




N 




N 




T. 


R. 


T. 


R. 


T. 


R. 


T. 


R. 


T. 




T. 


R. 


N. 




T. 


R. 


r. 


R. 


T. 


R. 


B. 


r. R 



Armstrong, S. 



Caldwell Pra 



Ra 



Columbia 43 44 

Jefferson 43 00 



< j irie. 

(_ I Pardeeville 

Atwood, Isaac : Lake Mil!' 

Beil, James H i Kilbourn- lt Y\ Co lum bia 43 30 

Clarke, Prof. Ambrose W. Delafiel'- [ Waukesha 43 20 

Curtis, W. W '< Rocky* an --l Colunlb 'a 43 26 



89 16 

89 00 

90 00 

88 31 

89 20 



945 
900 



T. 

T. 

N. 
N. 
B. T 
T.R 



Doyle, L. H Otse/' 



Columbia 43 30 1 IN. 



100 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 
WISCONSIN— Continued. 




Ellis, Edwin, M. D 

Gordon, W. A., M. D... 

Gridley, Rev. John , 

Jennings, J 

Johnson, A K 

Lapham, Increase A 

Larkin, Prof. E. P 

Liips, Jacob 

Mann, William 

Mason, Prof. R. Z 

Mathews, D. and G 

Barker, Melzar 

Ptase, Dr. Clark G 

Phelps, Hiland W 

Porter, Prof. William 

Sterling, Prof. J. W....) 

Clark», S. P ] 

Struthtrs, R. H 

Winklet, C.,M. D 



Whittlesey 
Wausau..., 
Kenosha.... 
Madison.... 
Platteville .. 
Milwaukie 
Milwaukie 
Manitowoc 



La Pointe 46 33 

Marathon j 45 00 

Kenosha ! 42 35 

Dane ! 43 05 

Grant ! 42 45 

Milwaukie .... 43 03 

Milwaukie .... 43 02 

Manitowoc....! 44 07 



Superior Douglas ! 46 46 

Appleton Outagamie J 44 10 

Burlington ' Racine 42 39 

Weyaumega . .'• Waupaca ! 45 15 

Janesville ' Rock | 42 43 

Racine Racine | 42 45 

Bcloit | Rock i 42 30 



Madison. 



Dane I 43 05 

Rural Waupaca 44 20 

Milwaukie . ... Milwaukie .... 43 03 




Name of observer 



MEXICO. 



Station. 



i ° ' 

Hieto, J. A ! Cor ova) Vera Cruz 18 54 

Laszlo, Charles Mmr tlan) Tehuantepec 1 17 59 I 94 07 

Sartorius, Charles ; Mirau,., Vera Cruz ' 19 15 96 25 



W 



Feet. 

2,820 

60 

3,600 



B.T.R. 
A. 

A. 



Canudas, Antonio. 



CENTAL AMERICA. 



Guatemala Colk e > Guatemala 



14 37 90 30 



A. 



WEST lTDIES. 



Elliot, Jonathan St. Domingo 

Crisson, J. C... ) 

Hamilton, ©apt. W \ Turk s Island .J 2 i 30 

Carothers, A. G ) 




70 



15 



N. 
B.T. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 

BERMUDA. 



101 



Name of observer. 


Station. 


Latitude. 


"bp 

© 


,3 

'3 


73 

c 

2 

p 

2 


Royal Engineers, (in the 
Royal Gazette.) 


Centre Signal Station, St. 
George's. 


O ' 


O ' 


Feet. 


A. 











SOUTH AMERICA. 



Hering, C. T ! Plantation Catharina Sophia, 

colony of Surinam, Dutch 
Guiana. 

Brown, George H ! Jauja, Peru 



5 48 



56 47 



12 00 S. 1 75 15 



10,500 B. T.P. 



Stations from which telegraphic reports of the weather were received at 
the Smithsonian Institution in the year 1860. 



Burlington, Vt. 


Parkersburg, Va. 


Raleigh, N. C. 


New York, N. Y. 


Marietta, Ohio. 


Wilmington, N. C. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Chillicothe, Ohio. 


Columbia, S. C. 


Pittsburg, Pa. 


Cincinnati, Ohio. 


Charleston, S. C. 


Baltimore, Md. 


Cleveland, Ohio. 


Augusta, Ga. 


Frederick, Md. 


Cairo, 111. 


Savannah, Ga. 


Hagerstown, Md. 


Elgin, 111. 


Macon, Ga. 


Cumberland, Md. 


Ottawa, 111. 


Columbus, Ga. 


Richmond, Va. 


Rock Island, 111. 


Griffin, Ga. 


Petersburg, Va. 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 


Atlanta, Ga. 


Norfolk, Va. 


Dubuque, Iowa. 


Prairie Bluff, Ala. 


Staunton, Va. 


St. Louis, Mo. 


Montgomery, Ala. 


Lynchburg, Va. 


Bristol, Tenn. 


Lower Peach Tree, Ala. 


Grafton, Va. 


Knoxville, Tenn. 


Mobile, Ala. 


Wheeling, Va. 


Chattanooga, Tenn. 


New Orleans, La. 



LIST OF METEOROLOGICAL MATERIAL CONTRIBUTED IN ADDITION TO THE REGU- 
LAR OBSERVATIONS. 

Alcott, William P. — Observations (thermometer, winds, and clouds,) 
made on an expedition to Greenland, via the Gulf of Newfound- 
land and Bon Esperance harbor, Labrador, in the schooner 
Nautilus, Captain Charles E. Rantlett, of Thomaston, Maine, 
by the Lyceum of Natural History of William's College, Wil- 
liamstown, Mass., from July 1 to September 20, 1860. 

Ballou, N. E. — Printed synopsis of observations of temperature^ rain, 
winds, and clouds, for the year 1860, at Sandwich, Illinois. 

Bandelier, A. — Record of auroras seen at Highland, Illinois, from 
December, 1859, to November, 1860. 



102 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Bleivett, Rev. W. — Notes and observations for January, February, 
and March, 1860, at Thomasville, Georgia. 

Boiven, John S.— Meteorological data from observations made by his 
daughter near Elkhorn City, Nebraska, from June, 1858, to 
January,' 1861, computed with a view to testing the old Ger- 
man notion that a cold spell always occurs when the moon is in 
Aries or Taurus. 

Brooke, Lieutenant J. 31., U. S. N. — Barometric and wind observa- 
tions during a gale at Simoda, August 10, 1859, with graphic 
representations of this and several other storms. 

Ganudas, Antonio. — Printed summary of meteorological and magnetic 
observations, for the year 1860, at Guatemala College, Mexico. 

Clarke, Lawrence, Jr. — Temperature and amount of rain at Fort Kae, 
Great Slave Lake, Hudson's Bay Territory, from October, 1859, 
to June, 1860. (Forwarded by Mr. Kennicott.) 

Daivson, William. — Thermometer observations at Cadiz, Indiana, from 
September, 1854, to December, 1856. 

Dirmeyer, George William, 31. J)., Secretary of the Board of Health 
of Neiv Orleans. — Report of the Board of Health for 1860, con- 
taining full tables of the meteorology of New Orleans for each 
month, furnished by Dr. S. P. Moore, U. S. A. 

Du Pont, Captain S. F., II. S. N. — Printed tables of barometer, ther- 
mometer, winds, and weather, from May to November, 1859, 
kept on board a boat, by Mr. J. H. Hendry, chief officer of the 
Swallow, principally in Chefoo harbor, (lat. 37° 34' N., long. 
121° 27' E.,) the rendezvous of the French expeditionary forces 
in the Gulf of Pecheli, a portion of the Chinese coast hitherto 
little frequented b}^ foreigners. 

Earle, Silas, 31. D. — Register of thermometer kept at Columbia, Tuo- 
lumne county, California, 2,200 feet above the level of the sea, 
from June 16, 1857, to February 19, 1860. 

Fendler, Augustus. — Half-hourly barometric observations from 9 to 11 
a. m.j and 3 to 6 p. m., made at Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 
from May 17 to December 12, 1857, reduced to 32°. (These are 
the same observations that were published in the report for 1857 
without being corrected for temperature.) 
Hourly barometric observations from 5 a. m. to 9 p. m., made at 
St. Louis, Missouri, from May 29 to June 30, 1860, reduced to 
32°. 

Frey, Samuel C. — Newspaper record of barometer and thermometer 
at Springfield, Ohio, during the years 1859 and 1860, and to 
March, 1861. 

Humphreys, Captain A. A., U. S. Top. Eng. — "A lunar tidal wave in 
Lake Michigan, demonstrated by Brevet Lieutenant Colonel J. 
D. Graham^Major U. S. Top. Engs.," with diagrams. (Pamph- 
let.) 

Jeivell, Wilson, 31. 1). — Report on meteorology and epidemics, read 
before the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, February 1, 
1860. The meteorological observations are from the record of 
Prof. James A. Kirkpatrick, of the Philadelphia High School. 
(Pamphlet.) 

Kallussowski, Dr. Henry K. — Meteorological observations at the Astro- 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 103 

nomical Observatory, Vilna, Russia, from December 29, 1859, 
to July 3, 18G0. (Manuscript.) 
Kennicott, Robert. — Observations of rain, clouds, and winds during 
January and February, 1860, made at Fort Liard, Liard river, 
Hudson's Bay Territory. 
Kingston, Professor. — Mean meteorological results at Toronto, Canada 
East, for the years 1859 and 1860, and comparisons with pre- 
vious years, by Professor Kingston, M. A., Director of the 
Provincial Magnetic Observatory at Toronto. (Printed sheets.) 
Kron, F. J. — Thermometer record kept at Attaway Hill, in Stanley 
county, N. C, during the years 1836 to 1839 and 1846 to 1860, 
inclusive. 
Lapham, I. A. — Copy of manuscript notes of the weather, made by 
his brother, Darius Lapham, (deceased,) at and near Cincinnati, 
Ohio, for the years 1832, 1836, 1837. 
Table showing the amount of rain and melted snow at Milwaukie, 
Wisconsin, for each month, season, and year, from 1841 to 1859, 
inclusive, as measured by Dr. E. S. Marsh, I. A. Lapham, and 
Dr. Charles Winkler. (Printed in the Bulletin of the Wiscon- 
sin Agricultural and Mechanical Association for August, 1860.) 
Newspaper scraps relating to the floods, tornadoes, &c, of the 
western States, in April, May, and June, 1860. 
Light-House Board. — Registers kept during the year 1860, chiefly 
without instruments, at one hundred and sixty-six different 
light stations. 
McKenzie, John. — Thermometer observations from September 1, 1857, 
to August 31, 1860, and barometer from September 1, 1858, to 
August 31, I860, made at Moose Factory, Hudson's Bay Ter- 
ritory. 
Meade, Capt. George, U. 8. Top. Engineers. — Register of water level and 
meteorological observations under the direction of Capt. G-. 
Meade, Topographical Engineers, Superintendent Survey of the 
North and Northwestern Lakes, as follows : 
At Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., October, 1859, to December, 1860, by 

Henry Metcalf. 
At Charlotte, N. Y., October, 1859, to December, 1860, by Andrew 

Mulligan. 
At Fort Niagara, N. Y., October, 1859, to December, 1860, by L. 

LefFman. 
At Monroe Piers, Mich., October, 1859, to December, 1860, by John 

Lane. 
At Fort Gratiot, Mich., June, July, and August, 1859, by Lieut. 

Charles N. Trumbull, Topographical Engineers. 
At Thunder Bay, Mich., October, 1859, to November, 1860, by .1 

I. Maiden. 
At Ottawa Point, Mich., October, 1859, to December, I860, by John 

Oliver. 
At Grand' Haven, Mich., December, 1859, to December, 1860, by 

Heber Squier. 
At Ontanagon, Mich., October, 1859, to December, 1860, by H. 
Selby. 



104 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

At Michigan City, Ind., October. 1859, to September, 1860, by 

Wm. Woodbridge, B. D. Angell, and Howard Blake. 
At Superior, Wis., October, 1859, to December, 1860, by George R. 
Stuntz, assisted by E. H. Ely. 
Morton, Lieutenant J. St. Clair. — Observations made by the United 
States Chiriqui Commission at Chiriqui Lagoon, from August 
27 to November 14, 1860. Observer, John E. Neill, Third 
Ass't Eng. U. S. N. 
Navy Department, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery . — Registers kept at: 
Philadelphia, 1857, 1858, 1859, and 1860, complete. 
Pensacola, 1857, 1858, 1859, and 1860, complete, except January to 

May, 1858. 
New York, November and December, 1860. 
Portsmouth, Va., October, November, and December, 1860. 
Pillsbury, M. A. — Thermometer observations at East Cleveland, Ohio, 

taken at 7 a. m., and 9 p. m., from 1840 to 1846, inclusive. 
Poole, Henry. — Meteorological observations at Albion Mines, Pictou, 
Nova Scotia, latitude 45° 34' 30", longitude 62° 42', from 1843 to 
1852. inclusive, viz: 
Mean barometer readings for months and years, corrected for tem- 
perature. 
Extremes of barometer for each month and year. 
Mean temperature of the months, seasons, and years, with the ex- 
tremes of heat and cold. 
Mean and extreme temperature for day and night for each month. 
Nights of frost, nights below zero, and degrees of frost below zero. 
Winds and rain, with the number of nights and days on which rain 

or snow fell. 
Table of snow storms. 

Average amount of rain, divided into two seasons, for the informa- 
tion of the working farmer. 
Ravenel, Thomas P. — Meteorological journal for the years 1859 and 
1860, kept in St. John's, Berkely parish, S. C, for the Black 
Oak Agricultural Society, by T. P. Ravenel, secretary. (Pam- 
pblets.) 
Biter, F. G. — Observations of thermometer, rain, clouds, and winds, 
made at Fort Union, Upper Missouri, from August to Novem- 
ber, 1857, and January, 1858. 
Boss, Bernard B. — Meteorological notes at Fort Simpson, Mackenzie's 
river, Hudson's Bay Territory, from April, 1848, to August, 
1859, inclusive; thirty-four sheets ; compiled from the post jour- 
nal, &c, by Bernard R. Ross, chief factor, H. H. B. C. S. 
Shaffer, J. M. — Summary of observations for each month in the year 
1859, made, with a full set of instruments, at Fairfield, Iowa, 
together with a comparative table of temperature for five years ; 
and also tables of the time of leafing and flowering of plants 
and the arrival of birds, in 1857, 1858, and 1859. (Printed 
sheet.) 
Smallwood, Dr. Charles. — Contributions to meteorology, reduced 
from observations taken during the year 1859 at St. Martin, 
Isle Jesus, Canada East, by Charles Smallwood, M. D., LL. D., 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 105 

Professor of Meteorology in the University of McGill College, 

Montreal. (Pamphlet.) 
Taylor, John. — Mean temperature and amount of snow for each month 

and year at Connelsville, Penn., from 1843 to 1855, and two 

miles east of Connelsville, from 1856 to 1860. 
Volger, Ernest, U. S. Consul, Barcelona, Spain. — Observations, with 

a full set of instruments, from September 1, 1858, to July 31, 

1859, at Barcelona, Spain. 
Williams & Haven. — Meteorological journal kept on board the whaling 

brig Georgiana, of New London, Conn., S. 0. Buddington^ 

master, from November, 1858, to June, 1859, in latitude 63° 20' 

N., longitude 64° 40' W. 



REPORT OE THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



The Executive Committee respectfully submit to the Board of Ke- 
gents the following renprt of the receipts and expenditures of the 
Smithsonian Institution during the year 1860, with estimates for the 
year 1861. 

RECEIPTS. 

The whole amount of Smithson's bequest deposited in the Treasury 
of the United Sto.tes, is $515,169, from which an annual income, 
at six per cent, is derived, of. $30,910 14 

The extra fund of unexpended income is invested as 
follows, viz : 

In $75,000 Indiana 5 per cent, bonds, 

yielding $3,750 00 

In $53,500 Virginia 6 six per cent, bonds, 

yielding 3,210 00 

In $12,000 Tennessee 6 per cent, bonds, 

yielding 720 00 

In $500 Georgia 6 per cent, bonds, 

yielding 30 00 

In $100 Washington 6 per cent, bonds, 

yielding 6 00 

7,716 00 

Total income 38,626 14 

Balance in the hands of the Treasurer January 1, 1860, 
$19,634 11, less the cost of $5,000 Tennessee bonds, 
$4,600 , 15,034 11 

Total receipts 53,660 25 

EXPENDITURES. 

For building, furniture, and fixtures $2,424 76 

For general expenses.., 13,079 34 

For publications, researches, and lectures 13,852 99 

For library, museum, and gallery of art.... 7,781 21 

Total' expenditures 37,138 30 

Balance in the hands of the treasurer January 11, 1861. 16,521 95 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE. 107 

Statement in detail of the expenditures during the year 1860. 

BUILDING, FURNITURE, AND FIXTURES. 

Building incidentals $1,480 55 

Furniture and fixtures in general 619 85 

Funiture and fixtures for museum 324 36 



GENERAL EXPENSES. 

Meetings of the Board $225 35 

Lighting and heating • 987 41 

Postage 537 54 

Transportation and exchanges.... 2,141 86 

Stationery 393 50 

General printing 206 18 

Apparatus 784 78 

Laboratory 150 81 

Incidentals, general '. 755 94 

Extra clerk hire 645 97 

Salaries, secretary 3,500 00 

chief clerk, book-kfieper, messen- 
ger, and laborers 2,750 00 



PUBLICATIONS, RESEARCHES, AND LECTURES. 

Smithsonian Contributions $5,520 59 

Smithsonian Reports 770 22 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 1,131 48 

Other publications 45 89 

Meteorology 4,431 07 

Magnetic observatory 308 00 

Researches and investigations 753 00 

Lectures 892 74 



LIBRARY, MUSEUM, AND GALLERY OF ART. 

Cost of books and binding $2,382 19 

Pay of assistants in library 1,100 00 

Transportation and exchange for library 496 62 

Incidentals for library 41 86 

Museum, salary 2,000 00 

Transportation for museum 872 76 

Incidentals for museum 62 92 

Explorations for museum 476 45 

Collections for museum Ill 23 

Gallery of art ' 237 18 



2,424 76 



13,079 34 



13.852 99 



7,781 21 
37,138 30 



108 REPORT OF COMMITTEE. 

The accounts for the year 1860 were made up to the 11th of Janu- 
ary, 1861, instead of the first of the same month as heretofore. This 
difference in time was occasioned by the delay in obtaining the 
appropriation and interest due at the beginning of the year. 

The balance in the hands of the treasurer at the commencement of 
the year 1860 was $19,634 11 ; of this, $4,600 were expended in the 
purchase of $5,000 Tennessee State bonds, leaving $15,034 11. 

The income during the year from the original and extra fund was 
$38,626 14. The expenditures during 1860 were $37,138 30 ; leaving 
$1,487 84 to be added to the balance in the hands of the treasurer on 
the first of the year, making $16,521 95 immediately available for 
paying in cash the expenses of the operations of the Institution as 
rapidly as the bills come due. 

The foregoing statement is an actual exhibit of the Smithsonian 
funds, irrespective of credits and disbursements which have been made 
in behalf of other parties. For example: the Institution has fre- 
quently advanced money to pay for the transportation of packages for 
other establishments, such as the Coast Survey, Patent Office, &c, 
forwarded through the Smithsonian agents; and in all such cases the 
money, when refunded, has been credited to the appropriation from 
which the expenditure was originally made. Again: the use of the 
lecture-room has in many instances been granted for charitable pur- 
poses, without any other charge than for the gas consumed ; and the 
money received for this has been credited on the books of the Institu- 
tion to the account of "lighting and heating." 

The agricultural department of the Patent Office has for several 
years past expended a small portion of its appropriation, for the col- 
lection of meteorological statistics in connection with this Institution. 
During the past year the assistance from this source has been unex- 
pectedly very much reduced; and hence, the expenditure on mete- 
orology from the Smithsonian fund has considerably exceeded the 
estimate. 

The annual appropriation of $4,000 from Congress, for keeping the 
collections of the exploring and surveying expeditions of the United 
States, has been expended under the direction of the Secretary of the 
Interior, in assisting to pay the extra expenses of assistants, and the 
cost of arranging and preserving the specimens. The aid thus ren- 
dered has served to diminish the cost to the Smithsonian fund of the 
maintenance and exhibition of the museum, although it has by no 
means been sufficient to defray all the expenses of these objects, as will 
be seen by reference to the items given under the head of the museum, 
in the detailed statement. 

The specimens intrusted to the care of the Institution are in good 
condition, and the duplicates are in process of being assorted prepara- 
tory to a general distribution for scientific and educational pur- 
poses. 

The committee respectfully submit the following estimates for the 
year 1861. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE. 109 



Receipts. 

Balance in the hands of the Treasurer, January 11, 1861.. $16,521 95 

Interest on original fund 30,910 14 

Interest on the extra fund 7,716 00 

Total 55,148 09 



Estimate of Expenditures for 1861. 

BUILDING, FURNITURE, AND FIXTURES. 

Incidentals $1,500 00 

Furniture and fixtures 800 00 



2,300 00 



GENERAL EXPENSES. 

Meetings bt the board $250 00 

Lighting and heating 1,000 00 

Postage 600 00 

Transportation, (general) 1,000 00 

Exchanges 1,000 00 

Stationery 300 00 

General printing 300 00 

Apparatus 800 00 

Laboratory 150 00 

Incidentals, (general) 600 00 

Extra clerk hire 500 00 

Salaries. — Secretary 3,500 00 

Chief clerk, book-keeper, .messenger, 

laborers, &c 3,000 00 



13,000 00 



PUBLICATIONS, RESEARCHES, AND LECTURES. 

Smithsonian Contributions $6,000 00 

Smithsonian Reports 500 00 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 1,000 00 

Other publications '. 250 00 

Meteorology 4,000 00 

Magnetic observatory 250 00 

Researches 400 00 

Lectures 800 00 



13,200 00 



110 REPORT OF COMMITTEE. 

LIBRARY, MUSEUM, AND GALLERY OP ART. 

Library.— Cost of books and binding $2,500 00 

Pay of assistants in library 1,200 00 

Transportation and exchange for li- 
brary 500 00 

Incidentals 50 00 

Museum.— Salary 2,000 00 

Assistants and labor 1,000 00 

Transportation 550 00 

Incidentals 1,000 00 

Explorations 400 00 

Gallery of art 300 00 



$9,500 00 
38,000 00 



The committee have carefully examined all the books and accounts 
of the Institution for the past year, and find them to be correct. 
Eespectfully submitted. 

J. A. PEARCE, 
A. D. BACHE, 
JOS. G. TOTTEN, 

Executive Committee. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS 



BOARD OF REGENTS 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



Washington, January 16, 1861. 

In accordance with a resolution of the Board of Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution, fixing the time of the beginning of their 
annual session on the third Wednesday of January of each year, the 
Board met this day in the Regents' room. 

No quorum being present, the Board adjourned to meet at the call 
of the Secretary. 

February 16, 1861. 

The Board of Regents met this day, at ten o'clock, a. in., in the 
Regents' room. 

Present: Hon. James A. Pearce, Hon. James M. Mason, Hon. S. 
A. Douglas, Hon. W. H. English, Hon. Benj. Stanton, Gen. Jos. G. 
Totten, Prof. A. D. Bache, and the Secretary. 

Mr. Mason was called to the chair. 

The Secretary stated that there are at present three vacancies in the 
Board of Regents, among the class of citizens at large, namely: the 
vacancy occasioned by the expiration of the term of service of Hon. 
Gideon Hawley, of Albany, who declines a reelection on account of 
inability to attend; that occasioned by the death of Hon. Richard 
Rush; and that by the expiration of the term of Dr. C. C. Felton, of 
Harvard University: that a resolution was some time since presented 
to the Senate of the United States to fill these vacancies, which had 
not yet been acted upon. 

Mr. Pearce presented the report of the Executive Committee, with 
the estimates for the year 1861 ; which was read and adopted. 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS. 

A communication addressed to the Secretary, relative to the Wynn 
estate, was read. 

The Secretary stated that since the death of Hon. Richard Rush, no 
communication had been received in regard to the remainder of the 
Smithsonian bequest left in England, as the principal of an annuity 
to the mother of the nephew of Smithson ; whereupon, on motion of 
Mr. Bache, it was 

Resolved, That the Secretary be requested to communicate with 
Messrs. -Clark, Fynmore & Fladgate, attorneys in London, informing 
them of the death of Hon. Mr. Rush, and making inquiry as to the" 
present condition of this annuity. 

On motion of Mr. English, it was 

Resolved, That the Secretary be directed to adjust the accounts of 
the Regents for traveling and other expenses, at each annual or special 
meeting, according to the provisions of the act of organization. 

A letter was read relative to the debt of the State of Arkansas, 
desiring the Regents to unite with other parties in endeavoring to 
recover it. 

The Secretary stated that he had replied, giving as his individual 
opinion that the Regents are in no way interested in this matter ; the 
United States having assumed the debt originally due from the 
State of Arkansas to the Smithsonian fund. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the Board concur in this opinion. 

A communication addressed to the Board, from H. A. Gaston, of 
Napa City, California, requesting aid in introducing a new steam 
engine, was read. 

The Secretary stated that this communication was one of a large 
class usually addressed to himself in his official capacity ; that he had 
answered these communications by stating that it did not form a part 
of the policy of the Institution to give an opinion as to the merits of 
any invention, or to render assistance to any enterprise which, though it 
might be of importance to the public, was undertaken for the immediate 
benefit of an individual ; that the government of the United States had 
enacted laws granting an exclusive monopoly to inventors as a reward 
for their ingenity, and that they must apply to the Patent Office for 
the means of securing a remuneration for their labors. That if, how- 
ever, in any case, an individual has made an invention for which he 
does not intend to take out a patent, then the Institution would accept 
on the usual conditions, an account of such invention, and would make 
it known, through the Smithsonian publications, to the civilized world, 
thus securing to the inventor the reputation which might justly be 
his due. 



PROCEEDINGS OP THE REGENTS. 113 

The following memorial was presented from distinguished citizens 
of Philadelphia, accompanied by a letter from Mr. Lowe : 

To Prof. Joseph Henry, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. 0. 

The undersigned, citizens of Philadelphia, have taken a deep interest 
in the attempt of Mr. T. S. C. Lowe to cross the Atlantic by aeronautic 
machinery, and have confidence that his extensive preparations to 
effect that object will add greatly to scientific knowledge. Mr. Lowe 
has individually spent much time and money in the enterprise, and, 
in addition, the citizens of Philadelphia have contributed several 
thousand dollars to further his efforts in demonstrating the feasibility 
of trans- Atlantic air navigation. With reliance upon Mr. Lowe and 
his plans, we cheerfully recommend him to the favorable consideration 
of the Smithsonian Institution, and trust such aid and advice will be 
furnished him by that distinguished body as may assist in the success 
of the attempt, in which we take a deep interest. 

JNO. C. CRESSON. 

WILLIAM HAMILTON. 

W. H. HARRISON. 

HENRY SEYBERT. 

J. CHESTON MORRIS, M. D. 

ISAAC LEA. 

F AIRMAN ROGERS. 

JAMES C. FISHER, M. D. 

THOS. STEWARDSON, M. D. 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT. 

GEO. W. CHILDS. 

JOHN GRIGG. 

S. S. HALDEMAN. 

JOHN F. FRAZER. 

GEORGE HARDING. 

M. McMICHAEL. 
Philadelphia, December, 1860. 

On motion of Mr. Mason, it was 

Resolved, That the Secretary be requested to give Mr. Lowe any 
advice which he may deem fit, as to his experiments ; and to reply to 
the memorialists stating the reasons why the Regents do not consider 
themselves at liberty to make any appropriation from the Smithsonian 
fund for the purpose mentioned in the communication. 

Several communications received by the Secretary from David P.. 
Holton, were read and referred to the Executive Committee. 
The following letters also were presented by the Secretary : 

[Translation.] 

Berlin, November 24, 1860. 
Sir: I have received the last invoice of publications, which through 
your kindness has been presented to me by your great and liberal 
8 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS. 

Institution. The grammar and dictionary of the Yoruba language, 
by Mr. Bowen, have especially interested me. 

Expressing my thanks to the honorable directors, I have the pleasure 
to send some of my latest publications, with the request that they be 
, placed in the Smithsonian library. They are the following : 

1. Two volumes of my "Konigsbuch," containing the chronological 
restitution of the Egyptian dynasties of Manethon, and the collection 
of the hieroglyphical names of all the kings ; being, as it were, a sup- 
plement to the great work "On the Monuments of Egypt and Ethi- 
opia," prepared by myself at the expense of the State, a copy of which 
the King, at my suggestion, has presented to the Smithsonian Library. 
Of this you have lately received the last series of plates, and the de- 
scriptive text will be sent as soon as I can finish it. 

2. A dissertation, read at our Academy of Sciences, on the "Extent 
of the Egyptian History after Manethon." 

3. Another similar one on several points of "Chronology." 

4. A volume of thirty-seven plates, representing the pictures exe- 
cuted, under my direction, upon the walls of the Egyptian Museum, 
in Berlin. 

To these I add some pamphlets relating to the introduction of a 
general linguistic or standard alphabet for expressing foreign lan- 
guages, which have either not been written at all or not in European 
characters. They are, for the present : 

5. An English copy of the pamphlet I have published on the stand- 
ard alphabet. 

6. A German copy of the same. 

7. Translation, by Mr. Lechler, of the Gospel of St. Matthew into 
Chinese, in the characters of the standard alphabet. 

8. Translation, by myself, of the Gospel of St. Mark, into the Nubian 
language ; printed in types of the standard alphabet. This forms part 
of a book which also contains the grammar and dictionary of the Nu- 
bian and several other similar languages, the printing of which is 
not yet finished. 

The two copies of the standard alphabet are of the first edition. We 
are just now printing the second, with some slight alterations and 
a, much more complete collection of alphabets. I shall send it in time, 
and would not, at present, have transmitted the first edition, the small 
number of copies of which has actually been withdrawn, if it were not 
of special interest for a library to follow up the gradual development 
of a subject of general importance. 

You w T ill see from the pamphlet that most of the missionary societies 
have decided to introduce the alphabet, the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions included, and that the number of books 
printed in these characters is rapidly augmenting. I know of sixty 
or more. I do not know whether you have any opportunity of 
exercising an influence among the savans of your country in favor 
of the adoption of the standard alphabet. At any rate you will 
allow me to recommend such a course. Mr. Bowen, from his Yoruba 
grammar, seems not to have had any knowledge of it; while Mr. 
Crouther, his learned predecessor in the grammar of this language, 
has already adopted it in his later publications; and Mr. L. Grout. 



PROCEEDINGS OF TEE REGENTS. 115 

also of the American Board, has made use of and has earnestly recom- 
mended it in his excellent grammar of the Zulu-Kaffir. 

I should feel very grateful, if you will let me know whether there 
has been any attention given to this question with you, and if you 
would communicate to me whatever may relate to the subject. The 
original languages of America will be found transcribed in much 
greater number in the second edition of the standard alphabet; and, if 
you know of any scholar who makes the study of these languages his 
specially, and who could give me instructions as to the exact pronun- 
ciation of the letters of some of them, I would be much obliged if 
you would make me acquainted with him. 

Among your former publications, besides those relating to linguistics 
and ethnology, such as the grammar of the Dakotah language, 
there are also memoirs relating to the antiquities of different parts of 
America, viz : the researches of Squier and Davis on the monuments 
of the Mississippi. I received from Mr. Squier himself his memoir 
on the monuments of New York, (vftl. II, art. 9 ;) and also have most 
of the writings of Squier, Pickering, and Morton, in separate publica- 
tions ; but of your antiquarian publications I am still in want of the 
following: Vol. I ; vol. II, art. 2 ; III, 6, 7 ; VII, 5. I do not ven- 
ture to designate other memoirs that would gratify my general in- 
terest in American science ; yet I should be highly obliged if you 
would continue the transmission of your reports, and add those of the 
foregoing volumes which you can most readily spare. 

Will you let me know whether you have already the first volume 
of my "Egyptian Chronology;" if not, I shall not fail to send a copy. 

I beg your pardon for this long letter, which I fear has taken 
too much of your time, occupied by many other subjects. 

Accept the expression of the high consideration with which I am, 
sir, your most obedient. 

R. LEPSIUS. 

Professor Joseph Henry, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Melbourne Botanic and Zoologic Garden, 

October 25, 1860. 

Honored and Dear Sir : I owe you my grateful acknowledgment of 
transmitting to me, through the kindness of Hon. William Haines, 
the valuable reports of the Smithsonian Institution for 1857 and 1858, 
and the celebrated work on the North American algae, furnished by 
our common friend Dr. Harvey. 

Whilst expressing my warmest thanks for having been deemed 
worthy, by your noble Institution, to share in the gifts which, by the 
world-famed liberality of the Smithsonian Institution, the men of 
science so extensively enjoy, I beg to state that it will be a source of 
pleasure to me to endeavor to reciprocate your friendly offers, and 
that I hope, through Prof. Asa Gray, within a few months, to lay 
several recent publications of mine, including the first volume of the 
" Plants of Victoria," before your Institution and other American scien- 
tific associations. 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS. 

If I can in any way serve the laudable purposes of your excellent 
Institution, I hope you will freely command my services. 
Most regardfullv, clear Professor Henry, yours, 

FEED. MUELLER. 

The Secretary gave an account of what has been done in relation to 
the distribution of duplicate specimens of natural history, and read 
several letters acknowledging the receipt of the donations, and ex- 
pressing appreciation of the policy adopted by the Institution. Among 

these was the following: 

University of Toronto, 

December 3, 1860. 

Dear Sir: In acknowledging the receipt of about 200 species of 
shells sent to the University Museum, through the liberality of the 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, I beg to express my very high 
appreciation of the disposition manifested by the Institution to make 
its superfluous stores available in the communication of knowledge in 
various places, and even beyond the limits of the United States. The 
contribution now made is a very valuable addition to the museum of 
the University of Toronto, even those species of which we have already 
specimens being interesting from their authentic names and known 
habitats.... We are deeply obliged by the kindness manifested; and 
if we find any way of reciprocating it, I shall personally feel the 
greatest pleasure in promoting your views. 

Believe me to be, dear sir, very faithfully yours, 

WILLIAM HINCKS. 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Copies of the several papers and miscellaneous articles published by 
the Institution since the last annual session were laid before the Board. 

The fact was stated that the Potomac water had been brought by 
Government through the grounds of the Smithsonian Institution, to 
the middle of the south front of the building ; that the Institution, was 
now supplied with rain water from the cisterns in the towers, but as 
the supply from this source was uncertain, it was desirable that the 
Potomac water should be introduced ; whereupon it was 

Resolved, That the Secretary procure plans and estimates for the 
introduction of the Potomac water into the building, and that the 
Secretary and the Executive Committee be authorized to make con- 
tracts for tins purpose. 

The Secretary presented his annual report of the operations of the 

Institution ; which was read in part. 

The Board then adjourned, to meet on Tuesday, February 19, at 

8 o'clock p. m. 

Tuesday, February 19, 1861. 

The Board met at 8 o'clock p. m., in the Regent's room of the 

Smithsonian Institution. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS. 117 

Present: Hon. James M. Mason, Hon. W. H. English, Hon. B. 
Stanton, General Joseph G. Totten, Professor A. D. Bache, and the 
Secretary. 

Mr. Mason was called to the chair. 

The minutes were read and approved. 

The report of the Secretary was read and adopted. 

The Board then took a recess till Friday evening. 

Friday, February 22, 8 p. to. 

Present : Messrs. Pearce, Douglas, English, and Totten. 

The Secretary read the appendix to his annual report. 

The Secretary presented the following letters, which he had prepared 
in accordance with the resolution of the Board, relative to aerial navi- 
gation, in answer to the memorial of citizens of Philadelphia, and to 
the communication of Mr. Lowe. 

Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, March 8, 1861. 

Gentlemen: Your communication, addressed to the Smithsonian 
Institution, commending Mr. Lowe to the Board of Regents, for 
assistance in carrying out his proposed experiment to cross the Atlantic 
by means of a balloon, was duly received. It was presented to the 
Board of Regents at their meeting of February 16, was respectfully 
considered, and, after due deliberation, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

" Resolved, That the Secretary be requested to give Mr. Lowe any 
advice which he may deem fit as to his experiments ; and to reply to the 
memorialists, stating the reasons why the Regents do not consider 
themselves at liberty to make any appropriation from the Smithsonian 
fund for the purpose mentioned in the communication ' 

In accordance with the above resolution I would state that the 
Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution are responsible to the 
Government and to the world for the prudent expenditure of the income 
of the Smithson bequest, and inasmuch as the proposed experiment is 
one which, in the minds of the majority of considerate and reflective 
persons, is of great hazard, the Regents do not think, whatever might 
be their individual desire to advance the art of aerial navigation, that 
they would be justified in making an appropriation from the Smith- 
sonian income to assist in this enterprise. 

Any questions which may be propounded to me in regard to the 
experiment of Mr. Lowe will be cheerfully answered, as far as we have 
the means of giving the required information. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOSEPH HENRY, _ 
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 

To Messrs. Jno. C. Cresson, Isaac Lea, and others, 

Philadelphia. 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS. 

Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, B. C, March 11, 18G1. 

Dear Sir: In reply to your letter of February 25, requesting that 
I would give you my views in regard to the currents of the atmos- 
phere and the possibility of an application of a knowledge of them to 
aerial navigation, I present you with the following statement, to be 
used as you may think fit. 

I have never had faith in any of the plans proposed for navigating 
the atmosphere by artificial propulsion, or for steering a balloon in a 
direction different from that of the current in which the vehicle is 
floating. 

The resistance to a current of air offered by several thousand feet of 
surface, is far too great to be overcome by any motive power at present 
known which can be applied by machinery of sufficient lightness. 

The only method of aerial navigation which in the present state of 
knowledge appears to afford any possibility of practical application, is 
that of sailing with the currents of the atmosphere. The question, 
therefore, occurs as to whether the aerial currents of the earth are of 
such a character that they can be rendered subservient to aerial loco- 
motion. 

In answering this question, I think I hazard little in asserting that 
the great currents of the atmosphere have been sufficiently studied, to 
enable us to say with certainty that they follow definite courses, and 
that they may be rendered subservient to aerial navigation, provided 
the balloon itself can be so improved as to render it a safe vehicle of 
locomotion. 

It has been established by observations extending now over two 
hundred years, that, at the surface of the earth, within the tropics, 
there is a belt along which the wind constantly blows from an easterly 
direction ; and, from the combined meteorological observations made 
in different parts of the world within the last few years, that north 
of this belt, between the latitudes of 30° and 60°, around the whole 
earth the resultant wind is from a westerly direction. 

The primary motive power which gives rise to these currents is the 
constant heating of the air in the equatorial, and the cooling of it in 
and toward the polar regions; the eastern and western deflections of 
these currents being due to the rotation of the earth on its axis. 

The easterly current in the equatorial regions is always at the 
surface, and has long been known as the trade winds, while the cur- 
rent from the west is constantly flowing in the upper portion of the 
atmosphere, and only reaches the surface of the earth at intervals 
generally after the occurrence of a storm. 

Although the wind, even at the surface, over the United States and 
around the whole earth between the same parallels, appears to be 
exceedingly fitful; yet when the average movement is accurately re- 
corded for a number of years, it is found that a large resultant 
remains of a westerly current. This is well established by the fact 
that on an average of many years, packet ships sailing from New 
York to Great Britain occupy nearly double the time in returning 
that they do in going. 

It has been fully established by continuous observations collected at 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS. 119 

tliis Institution for ten years,, from every part of the United States, 
that, as a general rule, all the meteorological phenomena advance from 
west to east, and that the higher clouds always move eastwardly. We 
are therefore, from abundant observation, as well as from theoretical 
considerations, enabled to state with confidence that on a given day, 
whatever may be the direction of the wind at the surface of the earth, 
a balloon elevated sufficiently high, would be carried easterly by the 
prevailing current in the upper or rather middle region of the atmos- 
phere. 

I do not hesitate, therefore, to say, that provided a balloon can be 
constructed of sufficient size, and of sufficient impermeability to gas, 
in order that it may maintain a high elevation for a sufficient length 
of time, it would be wafted across the Atlantic. I would not, however, 
advise that the first experiment of this character be made across the 
ocean, but that the feasibility of the project should be thoroughly 
tested, and experience accumulated by voyages over the interior of our 
continent. It is true that more eclat might be given to the enterprise, 
and more interest excited in the public mind generally, by the imme- 
diate attempt of a passage to Europe ; but I do not think the sober 
sense of the more intelligent part of the community would be in favor 
of this plan ; on the contrary, it would be considered a premature and 
foolhardy risk of life. 

It is not in human sagacity to foresee., prior to experience, what sim- 
ple occurrence', or what neglect in an arrangement, may interfere with 
the result of an experiment ; and therefore I think it will be impossible 
for you to secure the full confidence of those who are best able to ren- 
der you assistance except by a practical demonstration, in the form of 
successful voyages from some of the interior cities of the continent to the 
seaboard. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOSEPH HENRY, 
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 

T. S. C. Lowe, Esq., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Board then adjourned sine die. 



GENERAL APPENDIX 



TO THE 



REPORT FOR 1860. 



The object of this Appendix is to illustrate the operations of the 
Institution by the reports of lectures and extracts from correspond- 
ence, as well as to furnish information of a character suited especially 
to the meteorological observers and other persons interested in the 
promotion of knowledge. 



LECTURES. 



ON ROADS AND BRIDGES. 



BY FAIR MAN ROGERS, 

PROFESSOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



FIRST LECTURE. 



It is the business of the civil engineer to design and to execute the 
public works of a country, and of such works the means of communi- 
cation are, perhaps, the most important. In some countries this 
branch of the engineer's profession is taken as a type of the whole 
range of his duties; and we find in France the "Corps des Ponts et 
Chaussees" is not confined necessarily to the consideration of "bridges 
and roads" only, but extended to the many branches which we include 
under the name of "civil engineering." 

I shall devote these lectures to an examination of the principles 
which govern the location and construction of roads, and of the 
bridges, which, under ordinary circumstances, form an important part 
of them. 

In any country, no matter how new, means of communication be- 
tween different settlements of men, or between any points of resort, 
are of the first necessity. Where all traveling is done on foot, as was 
the case in our country while occupied by the Indians, simple trails 
marked by blazed trees to indicate the direction, will be sufficient. 
When beasts of burden are introduced, a wider and smoother path is 
necessary, and road making on a small scale commences; obstacles 
which the hunter on foot easily surmounted must be removed for the 
pack horse. In many rough countries, such as Switzerland and Spain, 
bridle paths were the only avenues of communication until within a very 
recent period, and many of these are in use at the present day. In very 
mountainous countries, even the construction of a bridle path requires 
a considerable amount of labor and ingenuity, as is shown in most of 
the Swiss passes — such as that of the St. Bernard, the Tete Noire, and 
particularly the Gemmi. 

As sledges or wheeled vehicles, even of the rudest description, come 
into use, the roads must be made wider, smoother, and less steep, until 
we come to the limits which are now assigned by engineers for roads 
of the first class. 

It would seem hardly necessary to dilate upon the immense advant- 
ages which spring from ample and economical means of communica- 
tion throughout a country. In this age of rapid locomotion, they are 



124 LECTURE 

strongly set forth in the prospectus of every new railroad project, and 
are familiar to all ; but, somewhat strangely, while we have covered 
our countiy with these iron ways, we have the doubtful honor of having 
the very worst common roads of any civilized country on the globe. 
This is probably owing to two reasons : first, that the railroads which 
were introduced just at the time when our public improvements were 
being projected, naturally absorbed all attention to the exclusion of 
other means of communication ; and secondly, that there has been a 
lamentable deficiency of the information and education necessary to 
insure the successful location and construction of common roads among 
those to whom they have been intrusted. 

In Europe, where perfect roads were needed long before the iron 
way was invented, an amount of money and thought had been ex- 
pended in making roads which strikes the American traveler with 
astonishment. He finds that as much labor and care have been be- 
stowed upon common roads in the old world as have been by us upon 
our railroads. 

It is much to be hoped that as the necessary information is diffused 
throughout the country, our common roads will improve in condition, 
especially since, in many cases, such improvement is attended with 
economy in first cost, in working, and in maintenance, and will only 
require a little more expenditure of thought and care in the planning 
and execution. 

The principles involved in the location and construction of roads 
are few, simple,, and unchangeable ; and a little attention paid to them 
by road makers would prevent the mistakes which are so painfully 
apparent to every traveler. 

The subject of road making is divided into two parts : location and 
construction; the art of locating a road being that of determining and 
tracing on the ground the best line for the road to follow — of construc- 
tion, that of preparing the road bed for the traffic which is to pass 
over it. 

In the very simplest case that can be imagined, that of a foot path 
to connect two places situated on a smooth plain, no location would be 
necessary beyond marking the path in some way, so that the direction 
could be kept by the traveler ; but such a very simple case could 
rarely occur, and as the difficulties increase we must find means to 
overcome them. 

As a general rule, a foot path may be led over almost any obstacles, 
for an experienced mountaineer can ascend nearly perpendicular cliffs, 
especially when aided by even the most simple appliances, such as 
ladders, ropes, or notched logs. The famous "Path of Ladders" at 
the Baths *of Loesche, in Switzerland, is an example of a foot path of 
the rudest description. These baths are situated in a deep valley sur- 
rounded with perpendicular cliffs, and the only way by which they can 
be reached is by passing almost perpendicularly down the cliff by 
means of ladders fastened to the face of the rock. 

Since we rarely find a plain, but usually a surface more or less un- 
dulating, we must be able to locate our road to the best advantage 
upon it. Although upon the map a straight line between two points 
seems to be the shortest, we shall find, when we come to examine it 



ON ROADS AND BRIDGES. 125 

upon the ground, that it is not always so, for it may pass over so many 
elevations and depressions that it is actually longer than a line traced 
near it and avoiding these irregularities. 

If we have a hill of a hemispherical form, like half of a globe, 
jilaced upon a table, the distance from one side to the other over the 
top will be precisely the same as the distance around it at its base, and 
we should have the disadvantage of going up on one side and down 
on the other, instead of keeping a level road around. 

Although this principle seems a sinrple one, we find it continually 
disregarded, there being frequent cases where common roads pass 
directly over a high point with lower ground within a few feet on 
either side of them. In fact, in any country other than a perfectly 
level one, a road which keeps a straight direction for mile after mile, as 
many of our turnpikes do, must necessarily be badly located, since 
advantage has evidently not been taken of the natural features of the 
surface. 

We must bear in mind the fact that the force required to draw a 
well made wagon in good order over a smooth level road is very small 
compared with the absolute weight of the wagon and load. On a good 
turnpike about one fiftieth of the load,* that is a tractive force often 
pounds will move a load of five hundred pounds, the only resistance 
being from friction of the axles and from the minute obstacles of the 
surface. Under such circumstances, the horse's power is applied most 
economically. 

When a horse attempts to move a load up an inclined plane, however, 
in addition to overcoming the friction, he has also to raise a part of 
the weight of the wagon, according as the inclination is more or less 
great. Now, if the two places connected by the road are on the same 
level, all lifting of the load up inclinations only to let it down again 
on the other side will be so much power expended uselessly. Increas- 
ing the length of a road, therefore, to avoid hills, is in most cases an 
economy to the traveler. Of course, the exact amount of increase, or 
the equation of grades and distances, as it is called by the engineer, 
must be a matter of calculation based upon experiment and observation. 

A considerable deviation can be made to the right or left of a straight 
line joining two points without materially increasing the length of the 
road. For example : if the two points be ten miles apart, we may 
deviate a whole mile at the middle of the distance, to either side, with- 
out increasing the length of the path traveled the fifth of a mile. 

Having these general principles to guide him, the engineer, in 
locating a road, should first make a thorough examination, on foot or 
on horseback, of the whole country lying between the points to be con- 
nected. He should collect all the maps of the region that he can find, 
and he should gather from the inhabitants information on various 
subjects: such as, where low places exist in the ridges ; what jjoints 
are particularly free from, or filled up with, snow in the winter ; what 
places are remarkably exposed to the wind; and particularly ascertain 
the height and boundaries of all the streams during the highest freshets 
that have been known, so that no part of the road or bridges may be 
•exposed to danger from a rise of the water. In a rather small region, 

* Poncelet. Morin. 



.26 



LECTURE 



with decided leading features, the experienced engineer will often he 
enahled, after a thorough reconnoissance of this kind, to determine 
within narrow limits upon the location ; but in an extended and difficult 
or broken country, it will often be necessary to make a survey of several 
trial lines before a sufficient amount of information can be collected. 

In the United States, where, except along the sea-coast and in Mas- 
sachusetts, no regular and reliable general surveys have been made, 
the maps will be found quite deficient, and in many cases the engineer 
must prepare one more or less extended for his own use. This will be 
particularly the case in a rough mountain country, where much time 
would be lost in making the surveys of trial lines, many of which would 
turn out to be impracticable when nearly completed. 

Much information can be gained even from a map which has only 
the streams marked upon it. Since the stream- always runs through 
the lowest line of the valley, the position of the valleys and the general 
inclinations of the country will be indicated by them. A very crooked 
stream, with softly rounded bends, will almost always indicate a smooth, 
nearly level, alluvial bottom or meadow land through which it flows; 
while straight streams, with sharp angles, and with branches running 
abruptly into them at large angles, indicate a rocky, hilly country, 
with narrow, steep-sided valleys. These indications are, however, so 
very general that a map, showing the different heights of the various 
points of the country, is absolutely essential. Such a map is called a 
topographical map. 

There are two methods in use of delineating upon paper the topo- 
graphical features of a country — by hachure lines and by contour lines. 
The first and older system indicates the inclinations by short lines 
drawn in the direction of the slope of the ground, and the amount of 
the inclination by the greater or less thickness of the lines, in accord- 
ance with some arbitrary standard. In the second system, the relative 
heights of the various points are indicated by continuous lines of equal 
level, at certain vertical distances apart. The first originated with, 
and is especially adapted to the wants of, the military engineer, since 
the inclination of the surface is the matter which most concerns him ; 
the disadvantage of it, however, is, that it conveys but a faint idea of 
the true features of the surface, even to the expert. Figs. 1 and 2 show 
the two methods applied to the same surface. 




■^diiim- 







Fig. 2 



ON ROADS AND BRIDGES. 



127 



The method of contour lines will he readily understood from the fol- 
lowing explanation. Let us suppose an island situated in a lake: the 
water will wash the hase and form a water line, all the points of which 
will he in the same horizontal plane — that is, on a level with the sur- 
face of the lake. Now, if we suppose the water to rise one foot, another 
water line will he made, all the points of which will he in a horizontal 
plane one foot ahove the first plane, all the points of the surface of the 
island between these two lines will he less than one foot ahove the level 
of the lake. By successive stages of the water we shall get a succes- 
sion of lines, until the island is entirely submerged. Now, suppose 
we place ourselves in a balloon above the island, and look down upon 
it as upon a map, we shall see all these horizontal curves projected 
upon the level surface, as in Fig. 3. 
And if we make a map of the island, 
with these lines upon it, our topograph- 
ical information regarding it will be 
complete. Knowing the vertical dis- 
tance between the lines, by measuring 
the horizontal distance we can determ- 
ine the inclination. The elevation of 
any point may be determined by simple 
inspection. With a map of this kind 
carefully prepared, the engineer can 
locate his line in the office, and often 
to greater advantage than in the field 
— since he can see the whole country 
at a glance. Having thus a general 
map of the country, he will be guided 
by a few simple principles. If a ridge exists between the points to be 
connected, it is usually desirable to cross it at its lowest point. A 
stream commonly starts from such a point, and by following it up, 
the summit can be reached by a comparatively easy ascent along the 
valley. The most difficult countries are those which have no leading 
streams or valleys, but which are broken up by rounded hills and 
disconnected hollows — since a line which appears practicable for a con- 
siderable distance will sometimes end in an impracticable spot. In 
such regions, a carefully-constructed topographical map is indis- 
pensable to prevent the expenditure of a great deal of time in wild 
explorations. 

_ It should be distinctly borne in mind that a reconnoissance suffi- 
ciently accurate for the purpose, can be made in a comparatively short 
time, by an experienced topographer, with a very small party and 
portable instruments ; while the running of trial lines is a much more 
serious matter. In an ordinarily level country, the attention of the 
engineer will be turned to the selection of the best route, without his 
ingenuity being taxed to surmount great obstacles; and lie will there- 
fore aim at making the road as direct as possible, while avoiding any 
great ascents or descents. 

In an extremely mountainous country like Switzerland, it will some- 
times be difficult not only to obtain the best line, but to find any line 
which will be practicable, owing to the great difference of level of the 




Fig. 3. 



128 



LECTURE 



points to be connected. And this brings us to the consideration of the 
important subject of grade. 

I have stated that the force required to move a load on a level bears 
but a small proportion to the whole weight ; but that on an inclined 
plane, the animal drawing the load must lift it vertically through a 
distance which depends upon the inclination. Careful experiments 
have shown that in a first-class mountain road the grade should not 
exceed one in thirteen — that is, a rise of one foot in every thirteen feet 
of horizontal distance, and that even this grade should be used only 
on short sections, and should be varied by frequent levels on which 
teams may rest. Now, if the difference of height between any two 
points is more than one thirteenth of the horizontal distance, it will 
evidently be impossible to connect them by a straight road, since it 
will be too steep. The horizontal distance must be increased while 
the vertical distance remains the same. In cases where the points are 
at the extremities of a straight, narrow valley with precipitous sides, 
as is frequently found in the Alps, considerable difficulty will be en- 
countered in getting this increased length, and the ingenuity of the 
engineer will be severely taxed. 

In Fig. 4., we have two points, 
A and B, ten miles apart, horizon- 
tally situated in the same straight 
valley, and B 5,280 feet above A_, 
A having an elevation of 1,864 
feet above the sea, and B 7,144 
feet, a road ten miles long con- 
necting them would have a grade 
of one in ten, which is too steep. 
The length of the line must, there- 
fore, be increased. This may be 
done by running up the valley of 
the stream to the northwest, as 

indicated by the dotted line 

A C B, or by turning the line upon 
itself in a series of zig-zags on the 
slope of the hill on the other side., 
as shown by the continuous line A D B. Both of these expedients are 
frequently resorted to. Of course, where there is a valley up which the 
road can be taken according to the first method, it should be taken 
advantage of, since the sharp turns of the zig-zags are thereby avoided. 
On the mountain roads of Switzerland, there are many interesting 
examples of these zig-zags or lacets, (lacings,) as they are called by the 
French engineers. Frequently, on the steep side of a valley there is 
no other way of overcoming the ascent, and they must be resorted to. 
On the Italian side of the'Spliigen Pass, the road winds in this way 
down the almost vertical side of" the mountain above the little village 
of Isella, and the carriage descends rapidly, turning the corners at the 
end of the zig-zags and swinging backwards and forwards over the 
valley. 

On the St. Gothard Pass also, on the Italian side, above the village 
of Airolo, the road leaves the main valley and runs in the same way up 




Fig. 4. 



ON ROADS AND BRIDGES. 129 

its steep side, crossing in a depression on the top on to a higher ridge, 
so that, while the carriage winds slowly np the heavy grade, the nim- 
ble pedestrian can scramble up the hill from angle to angle of the road 
and reach the top much sooner. 

"O'er the Simplon, o'er the Spliigen winds 
A path of pleasure. Like a silver zone, 
Hung about carelessly, it shines afar, 
Catching the eye in many a broken link, 
In many a turn and traverse as it glides; 
And oft above and oft below appears, 
Seen o'er the wall by him who journeys up, 
As if it were another, through the wild 
Leading along he knows not whence or whither; 
Yet, though its fairy course go where it will, 
The torrent stops it not; the rugged rock 
Opens and lets it in, and on it runs, 
Winding its easy way from clime to clime, 
Through glens locked up before."* 

The carriage roads of Switzerland are extremely interesting from the 
great difficulties which were frequently met in their location, and from 
the ingenuity with which these difficulties have been overcome, to say 
nothing of picturesque and in many cases wild scenery by which they 
are surrounded. 

The Simplon, built by Napoleon in 1800 — 1806, M. Ceard chief engi- 
neer, is the oldest and the most famous of these roads. The length of 
the mountain division of it, between Brieg and Domo d'Ossola, is about 
forty-eight miles, and in this distance there are 611 stone bridges, ten 
galleries or tunnels, some cut out of the solid rock and others built of 
masonry, to protect the road against avalanches, besides the retaining 
walls and other necessary structures along the line. It has a width of 
twenty-five to thirty feet, a maximum grade of one in twelve, and cost 
about $25,000 per mile. At one time more than 30,000 men were 
engaged upon it at the same time. Mont Caris, by the Chevalier 
Fabbroni; the Spliigen, by Donegani; the St. Gothard, by Miiller; 
the Bernadin, by Pocobelli; the Stelvie, by Donegani, are all of the 
same class of roads and are highly interesting to the student of engi- 
neering. Their summits are all more than 6,500 feet above the sea/.. 
In this country a very interesting road is now being constructed up 
one of the flanks of Mount Washington, in New Hampshire. It starts 
from the Glen House and keeps a nearly regular grade, with here and 
there short levels for resting the horses. It winds up the side of the 
mountain without encountering any great difficulties, and will, when 
finished, afford an easy carriage route to the summit, an elevation of 
more than 6,000 feet above the sea. 



'Rogers' Italy. 



SECOND LECTURE. 



CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 



Having examined briefly the principles which govern the engineer 
in determining the general line of a road, we shall now consider the 
rules to be followed in the construction. 

In the first place a regular cross section of the road bed is import- 
ant, with a smooth hard surface, and sufficient width to accommodate 
the traffic expected. 

In a new, sparsely settled country, the road should be quite narrow, 
since it is then much more easily kept in repair ; a width of sixteen or 
eighteen feet is quite sufficient. Near large cities roads should have 
a width of fifty to sixty feet, or even more. The surface must be such 
as will remain smooth, and not be easily affected by the weather. If, 
as is usually the case in new countries, we make use of the material 
found on the spot, for the road, such as clay, gravel, &c, we may 
make a very good road by paying strict attention to the drainage. 
In fact water or dampness is the great enemy of the engineer; it acts 
in the destruction of the road in three ways. In large quantities, as 
during heavy rains, it washes the surface of the road into gullies, and 
undermining the banks causes serious and expensive accidents. In 
smaller quantities it percolates into the material, and converts the 
earth into a pasty mud, which yields to the horses feet and to the 
wheels, and sometimes slips out of place, so that an embankment will 
melt away into a shapeless mound. In winter it freezes and throws 
up the earth which has been soaked with it to the destruction of the 
surface of the road. 

Drainage is then one of the first objects of the engineer. The sur- 
face water must be carefully and quickly led away by ample ditches 
on each side of the road, which turn it into the natural water courses, 
<or discharge it where it can do no harm. 

These same ditches, when properly placed, and sometimes aided by 
secondary ones, or by drains, will serve to keep the whole mass of ma- 
terial dry, and prevent accident from the two other causes mentioned. 

Almost any material will make a good road if it is properly drained ; 
all will give trouble if drainage is not attended to. Sand, as we find 
it in the neighborhood of the sea, is, to a certain extent, an exception 
to this rule. 

Every precaution must be taken, therefore, to carry off the water 
which falls upon the surface. To effect this the road should be slightly 
sloped transversely from the center each way to throw the water into 
the ditches. 



CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 



131 




Fig. 5. 



The old method was to croivn the roadway ; that is, to give it a 
curved section, as shown in Fig. 5, but 
this is found to be objectionable from 
the fact that vehicles, in order to avoid 
the sloping sides, keep in the middle of 
the road, and cut it rapidly into ruts ; 
it is preferred, therefore, to make the 

cross section with two slopes meeting in the middle, as in Fig. 6, the 
point being slightly rounded off. In 
this way the same difference of level be- a m 

tween the center and sides may be made, \/~^^— — ' \V — 

and the inclination near the side will not Fig. 6. 

be as great as by the old method.* 

The general cross section is shown by these figures. In Fig. 5 the 
ditches or gutters are between the road and the foot paths. There 
are two objections to this ; if the ditch is at all deep, there is some 
danger of overturning a carriage if the wheel is driven into it, and it 
is difficult to cross from the foot walk. 

A better arrangement is shown in Fig. 6, where the ditches are on 
the outside of the fence or hedge, and the water which falls upon the 
surface of the road runs into them by drains passing under the foot 
path. 

In a new country where much labor cannot be spent upon the roads 
it is sufficient to dig two ditches, about eighteen feet apart, and throw 
up the earth between them to make the road, taking care to cut off 
the sod and grub up the bushes from the surface, before laying the 
earth upon it, so that it may bind well, and not be in danger of slip- 
ping into the ditch. 

When the road is higher than the land around it, there is no diffi- 
culty in draining it, but when it is below the general level, more 
provision must be made for carrying off the water ; the excavation must 
be made of sufficient width to contain the road and its two ditches, as 
shown in Fig. 7 ; and the road must not be made to serve the purpose 
of a ditch itself, as is frequently the case — Fig. 8. 





Fig. 7. 

If the excavation is very deep, the road may be made rather more 
narrow at that point. The bottom of the ditches should be at least two 
feet below the roadway, may be lined with stone, if convenient, and 
should be kept clean. 

Stiff clay soils that retain the water, require the most careful drain- 
age ; gravel and sand are more easily kept in order, since the water 
percolates freely through them. 



*-This slope should be about one fifth of an inch to the foot, 
much greater. 



It is a mistake to make it 




132 LECTURE 

On a hillside the road should not be crowned, since the water would 

then run down the slope, and cut it away ; 
hut it should have an inclination towards 
the hill, as shown in Fig. 9 ; the ditch 
should be on the inside, and the water 
should be led from it by drains under the 
road, at proper intervals. Where there 
is a choice between the north and south 
side of a hill or ridge, the south should 
be preferred, since the road will then dry more quickly, and ice and 
snow will melt away more rapidly. 

With the view of exposing the road to the action of the sun, some 
engineers have opposed the planting of trees along the sides ; but the 
difference in the pleasure and comfort of the traveler, especially in 
warm climates, is so very great, that a fine row of trees, at least on the 
south side of a road, must be considered an important addition to it. 

Such planting may be readily and cheaply done when the road is 
first built ; and if the proper trees be selected, the expenditure will be 
amply repaid. In winter, when the action of the sun is desired, the 
leaves will be off, and deciduous trees should therefore be used ; and in 
the summer the shade is grateful, and serves to prevent, to some extent, 
the formation of dust, by keeping the surface slightly damp and break- 
ing the force of the wind. 

On all roads footpaths of some kind should be prepared ; and near 
large cities and through villages they should be on both sides of the 
road, and should be wide, hard, and smooth. It is a great outrage that 
turnpike and plank-road companies should be permitted to occupy 
public routes, and not be required to provide suitable accommodation 
for pedestrians. 

So far we have considered only the way to make a good road of the 
natural soil of the place, but sometimes the very bad material, or the 
desire to have a superior road, will induce us to resort to additional 
means of improvement. 

For a road covering, we want something which shall make a firm, 
hard, lasting, but not slippery surface. If it is yielding like India 
rubber, notwithstanding it may come back to its form after the load 
has passed over it, its resistance to traction will be considerable, since 
the wheel will be always in a hollow or depression caused by the weight 
upon it, out of which it must be lifted. It must be hard, so that it 
cannot readily be cut into ruts or displaced, but there must be no 
danger that the animals drawing loads will slip upon it. 

Loose sand makes one of the worst roads in dry weather ; the wheel 
displaces it, and is constantly moving in a deep rut with the sand 
closing over it ; the horse, too, becomes much fatigued by sinking into 
the yielding material. 

On the sea-beach, where the sand is constantly wet from the rise of 
the tide and the capillary rise of the water between the particles, this 
same material makes the best road with which we are acquainted, per- 
fectly smooth, level, with no obstacle of the size of a pea, so hard that 
the wheels and the horses' feet scarcely make a mark on it, and yet 
not in the slightest degree slippery; but such cases are exceptional, 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 133 

and we must take such roads where we find them ; we cannot make 
them. 

A clay road, although good for certain short seasons, is usually 
intolerably dusty in summer and soft and muddy in winter ; conse- 
quently objectionable. 

There are also certain swampy, soft soils, over which road building 
is attended with great difficulties. On the other hand, a road through 
a gravely soil, if well drained, generally is sufficiently good; and there 
are certain hard clay slates and shales which make roads of the very 
best character. When, therefore, we are called upon to improve a road 
by covering it with some material, we may select gravel, slate, cinder, 
charcoal, or broken stone. 

Gravel for this purpose should be neither very clean nor too dirty ; if 
the former, it will not pack or bind together, but will remain loose and 
incoherent ; if the latter, it will not drain properly, and will be affected 
•by moisture and frost. ■ The stone should be angular, rather than 
round. Slate, furnace cinder, and charcoal can only be procured in 
certain localities, and the last is objectionable from the black dust which 
arises from it ; they are all, however, admirable materials, and can be 
often used with great advantage. 

Broken stone, which can be had in nearly all localities, is, however, 
the material most commonly in use. It should be hard, so that the 
angles of the fragments should not be ground off by the wheels ; the 
close-grained limestones and most of the porphyritic rocks being well 
adapted to the purpose. Any stone which is disintegrated by exposure 
to the weather, should be carefully avoided. The stone should be broken 
into pieces of such a size that they will pass through a ring two and a 
half inches in diameter, and as nearly of the same dimensions as pos- 
sible, uniformity being of great importance. 

The road having been properly graded, with a slope to both sides as 
before described, the broken stone must be laid upon it to a depth of 
from ten to twenty inches, watered a little if the weather is dry, and 
the traffic of the road permitted to come upon it. It should be kept 
clean, the practice of scattering earth over the surface being especially 
pernicious, since it prevents the stones from binding well together. A 
better and quicker method of causing the stones to bind together is to 
roll the road witli a heavy iron roller, but of course it is more trouble- 
some and expensive than merely permitting the travel to do it. 

In the neighborhood of cities especially, where there is much pleasure 
travel, it may sometimes be a good plan to stone the middle of the road 
only for a width of about sixteen feet, and leave a soft summer road of 
clay on each side. 

The preparation of the road bed to receive this coating of broken 
stone, has been the subject of discussion between two eminent road- 
makers in England — Telford and McAdam — and opinion is still divided 
between the two systems proposed by them, although that of the latter, 
having the advantage of less first cost, has been most generally adopted. 

Telford, the engineer of the Holyhead road, thought that the stone 
should be laid upon a rigid foundation, and he therefore paved his road 
bed with thin stones set on edge, and laid the covering on that, con- 



134 LECTURE 

siclering that the stones would not in that case be forced out of place 
into a yielding surface below. 

McAdaui, on the contrary, contended that the road covering thus 
placed between the wheels and the unyielding pavement would be 
rapidly ground to pieces, and that an elastic substratum is necessary to 
prevent such an action ; he, consequent^, laid his road covering upon 
the natural soil. Experience has not shown any great difference in 
practice, although where first cost is no object, the Telford method is 
perhaps somewhat preferable. 

On all stone roads careful attention must be paid to the repairs. The 
usual way in this country of letting a road get into a bad condition, 
and then undertaking general repairs, being much to be condemned. 
The only proper way of keeping a road in good order is by a system of 
constant repairs ; the moment that a rut or a depression is observed, 
the stones in and around it should be loosened with a pick, and enough 
fresh stone should be put into it to bring it slightly above the proper 
level, the traffic soon smoothing it down. It is absurd to attempt to 
mend a road by pouring stone into a deep hollow with smooth hard 
sides, the stones having nothing to bind to ; and when they become 
wet, they grind each other under the wheels into round pebbles, which 
never can be made to hold together. 

No loose stones should be permitted to remain on the surface, where 
they are exceedingly mischievous, but they should be either promptly 
put back into the holes from which they came, or thrown on the stone 
heaps out of the way. Such a supervision and maintenance of the road 
will be found far more economical and satisfactory than any spasmodic 
method of repairs can possibly be. 

A difficult engineering problem has always been to find a good 
material for city streets. While macadamized roads are admirably 
suited to the country, they are objectionable in town on account of the 
dusty or muddy condition into which they invariably fall. Cobble stone 
and broken stone pavements, as usually laid, are noisy and apt to get 
out of repair. Those of cut stone, generally known in this country as 
the Euss pavements, made of cubical blocks, are, perhaps, the worst 
that have been yet tried; slippery, expensive, and most difficult to 
repair. It is true that the tractile force required upon them is small, 
owing to their smooth surface ; but this is nearly if not quite counter- 
balanced by the extreme difficulty with which the draught animal moves 
upon it. Any horseman who has ridden over such a pavement, must 
have noticed that the animal moves as uncomfortably upon it as a 
pedestrian upon smooth ice, and great fatigue is the consequence of 
his endeavors to keep his footing, to say nothing of the absolute acci- 
dents which constantly happen from falls. 

In the cities of Italy, (Florence, for example,) which are paved with 
larger blocks of smooth hard stone, no rider thinks of mounting his 
horse at his door, but has him led to the city gates to avoid the danger 
of a fall ; and in such streets the carriage horses fall down and get up, 
as a matter of course, probably not suffering as much as we might sup- 
pose, since they know how to fall gently from long practice. 

Iron, cast into various forms, has been tried, but has not come into 
general use, owing partly to its expense. 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS. 135 

Probably a pavement made of small flat cobble stones, carefully 
picked and properly set on edge, in a bed of concrete or beton, would 
be found to be the most satisfactory pavement, until we get some 
arrangement of iron which will serve a better purpose. 

Asphalte, a sort of mineral tar, which is found in various localities, 
has been used with very great success in Paris and in other European 
cities. It has been employed to a small extent with us, but has not 
met with so much favor as it deserves, probably owing to the imper- 
fect manner in which it has been applied. 

The asphalte should be melted and mixed with about one half its 
weight of small clean gravel, and while hot poured upon the surface 
prepared to receive it, immediately sprinkled with a little sand, and 
smoothed off with a flat wooden patter or paddle. The mistake which 
is frequently made in laying it is in providing a hard unyielding sur- 
face, such as a cobble-stone or brick pavement, on which it is soon worn 
out. A smooth surface of gravel or sand should be prepared to receive 
it, or if a more rigid foundation should be required, concrete carefully 
rammed and smoothed off may be used. When finished, an asphalte 
pavement presents a smooth, partly elastic, surface, almost like that 
of hard India rubber, or of oil cloth, over which the feet of the horses 
and the wheels of the carriages move almost noiselessly. It presents a 
continuous surface without openings and cracks, and being waterproof, 
is admirably adapted for roadways, or for coverings over stone bridges, 
for which purpose it has been extensively used. 

In Paris the sidewalks are almost all made of it, and in front of the 
Merchants' Exchange, and several of the theatres, where the noise of 
passing vehicles would be objectionable, the middle of the street is 
covered with it. It has also been used in France with considerable 
success on common roads. Its cost, and a tendency to soften under the 
intense heat of the summer sun, are the principal objections to its 
general use. For the pavements of court yards and stables it is supe- 
rior to a,ny other material. 

A few years ago it was supposed that plank roads, especially in 
wooded countries, would be found to be very cheap and satisfactory. 
In many localities they have been used with great success, although 
the opinion is gaining ground among engineers that they are inferior 
in every way to good gravel roads, provided that that material can be 
obtained at any reasonable price. They are usually made by laying 
two longitudinal sills of timber about six inches square four feet eight 
inches apart, filling up carefully with earth to their upper surfaces, 
and then laying three-inch plank of any width upon them. The gen- 
eral practice is now to lay them at right angles to the line of the road, 
and not to spike them. Every fifth or sixth plank has its end pushed 
out a few inches on alternate sides to make it easy to bring a wagon 
back on to the planks if it runs off. 



THIRD LECTURE. 



BRIDGES-BEAMS. 



Bridges are the structures used by the engineer to carry a road over 
streams or dry ravines. They are necessarily structures, with open- 
ings beneath, of greater or less size, and portions of them at least 
must be adapted to carry a load over a space. The solidity of such 
structures depends upon the cohesion of the materials composing them, 
or, in other words, upon the strength of the materials, their resistance 
to compression or extension. When we extend a piece of any material, 
we draw the particles of it further apart than they are in the normal 
condition ; and when we crush it, we force them into closer contact. 
These are direct strains, and can be readily made the subjects of experi- 
ment. To determine the tensile strength of wrought-iron, we have 
only to prepare a rod of any known section — say one square inch — and 
fastening it by one end in a vertical position, hang weights to the 
other end until it gives way. In this case all the fibres in it are equally 
subjected to the strain, and if we double the section, we may double 
the weight which it carried before. The strength is directly propor- 
tional to the section', and the calculations for any weight are of the 
simplest nature. The same remarks apply to the crushing weight 
determined by subjecting a cube of the material of known section to 
the action of a weight tending to crush it directly. 

When, however, we come to the consideration of the strength of 
materials in other forms, and in positions where the direction of the 
force does not coincide with the axis of symmetry, we shall find that the 
investigations become much more complicated, and that direct experi- 
ments must be applied through some general law to special cases. 

The most natural way to span an opening of moderate width is evi- 
dently to throw across it a beam of such length that its extremities 
will rest upon the sides of the opening. The rudest bridge is a tree 
felled so as to lie across a stream. Now, in a beam in this position, 
,and of equal size throughout, we shall find that the fracture, from too 
•great a load distributed over it, will be in the middle ; and that if the 
section of the fracture be examined, it will give evidence of different 
kinds of forces having been in action at that point. 

It is, perhaps, simpler in the beginning to consider half of the beam, 
and to determine what are the strains which are caused by the appli- 
cation of a load. 

If we have a beam firmly fixed at one end in 
F an unyielding wall, and loaded at the other 
i> end as in Fig. 10, we will find it first bend as 

©in Fig. 11 ; and then, as the load is increased, 
break at or near the point of support A C. 
Galileo, who investigated this, noticed that, 




Fig. 11. 



BRIDGES — BEAMS. 137 

in order to change its shape, as in Fig. 11, the 
side A B must become longer than C D, and he 
supposed that all the fibres above C D were 
extended by the action of the weight, and that 
the tensile strength of the material was alone 
called into action. 

It is evident, upon reflection, however, that 
if the material is at all compressible, that the 
fibres along C D, in the giving way, will be compressed. Mariotte 
first suggested this, but very vaguely. James Bernoulli afterwards 
examined the subject, and pointed out the fact clearly, and indicated 
the position of the neutral axis. 

If in the Figs. 10 and 11 the upper fibres are extended, and the lower 
ones compressed, there will evidently be a line along which the parti- 
cles will suffer neither extension or compression ; and this line is 
called the neutral axis. 

If the material is able to resist compression and extension equally 
well, the neutral axis will be in the middle. If it is readily extended, 
and resists compression, the neutral exis will be near to the compressed 
side, and vice versa. As before stated, the beam will bend before it 
breaks, and the amount of this bending is important, partly because 
in many structures great stiffness is necessary, and we should know 
how to attain it, and partly because it is found that any bending after 
a certain amount, is injurious to the beam, although the weight applied 
may not have been sufficient to break it at the time. 

The distance that the point of the beam sinks below the horizontal 
line is called the deflection, and it can only be determined b} r experi- 
ment upon the different materials, although we may deduce the general 
laws which govern it. 

The formula by which the law of deflection is expressed, is as follows: 



Where D is the deflection, W t\\e weight, I the length of the beam, 
b the breadth, and d the depth, c is a constant, determined by ex- 
periment. 

That the deflection should be directly as the weight, that is, that if 
we double the weight we will double the deflection, need hardly be 
demonstrated. 

That the deflection is as the cube of the length is not quite so 
obvious. We must remember that the effect of any force or weight 
does not depend simply upon its amount, but also upon the distance 
of the point of application from the fixed point, upon its leverage, or, 
as it is properly called in mechanics, its moment. Now, when we in- 
crease the length of the beam, the weight remaining the same, we in- 
crease the moment of the weight, and therefore its deflecting power; 
the length, therefore, comes into the expression in that way, once. 

Again, as the extension of the upper side is due to the increased 
distance between the particles with any particular strain, if there are 
more particles there will be greater extension, and so I comes again 
into the expression. Lastly, the angle of the deflection being the 



138 LECTURE 

same, the actual deflection increases with the length, and so it comes 
in again, giving us I 3 . 

In the denominator of the fraction, the deflection with the same 
weight will be diminished as the breadth is increased, simply because 
there will be more material to resist, disposed in exactly the same 
position as before; but when we increase the depth we diminish the 
deflection, not only by adding material, (d,) but by adding it at a 
greater distance from the neutral axis, so that it acts with a greater 
moment to resist the separating action of the weight. Thirdly. The 
amount of separation of the particles at the surface being the same, 
the deflection will be less as the depth is increased, owing to the angle 
of deflection being smaller; therefore, the deflection will be inversely, 
as d 3 . Although we have only considered the upper surface, the same 
reasoning will apply to the compressed side. 

The strength of the beam will also depend upon its proportions, but 
not exactly in the same way. It may be thus expressed : 

Strength = c — 
b I W 

It will evidently depend directly upon the breadth or the amount of 
material; and if we increase the depth we not only add material, but 
we add it at such points, far from the neutral axis, that it will have a 
greater moment, and therefore give us that advantage also, whence we 
have d~. 

In the denominator, the strength will be inversely as the length, 
since increase of length will give the weight additional moment, and 
it will be less as the weight increases, obviously. 

The angular deflection, which gave us one I and one d, and the in- 
creased number of particles, which gave us another I, in the first ex- 
pression, do not come into this one at all, as a careful consideration of 
the subject will show. 

Again, since the tendency to break at any point with a weight, in- 
creases with the distance of the weight from that point, such a beam 
will break at the wall, and if it is strong enough there, it is unneces- 
sarily strong at all other points of its length, and we may econom- 
ically taper it off to the end in the forms shown in Figs. 12 and 13, 

_©©©©_ 







Fig. 12. Fig. 13. 



where Fig. 12 is a beam loaded with a weight uniformly distributed, 
and Fig. 13 one loaded at the end, the under side in this case having 
the form of a parabola. 

In engineering structures, such beams supported only at one end do 
not frequently occur, and we must, therefore, consider how our expres- 
sions already deduced, must be changed to apply to beams supported at 
both ends and loaded in the middle. Such a beam may be considered 
as fastened in the middle and acted upon by two forces, acting upwards 
at its two ends. 



ON BRIDGES — BEAMS. 139 

In this case the lower side will be extended and the upper side com- 
pressed, as in Fig. 14. 





Fig. 14. 

We found that while, if we added material to a beam, so as to increase 
its breadth, we only gained so much strength as was due to the greater 
number of particles ; if we added to the depth we not only increased 
the number of particles, but also their moment, and thus gained a 
double advantage. 

We should, therefore, in designing a beam, make it "as deep and as 
thin as is practically possible, if we wish to economise material. The 
importance of this may be tested by comparing the stiffness and strength 
of an ordinary joist when laid on its side or on its edge across an 
opening. 

Now, we cannot in practice reduce the breadth beyond a certain 
limit, since our beam would twist and fail from that cause, but, since 
the advantage is gained by disposing the material at a distance from 
the neutral axis, we may make our beam with a flange at the top and 
bottom, which will insure that result and give lateral stiffness at the 
same time. 

Fig. 15 shows the cross section of a beam so made. c ^ 
The material in the flanges A B and C D acts with a 
moment due to its distance from the neutral axis G-, 
and the material in the web, as it is called, serves 
merely to keep the flanges together. A e^ ^ b 

In a beam made to bear pressure equally from all 
sides as a straw, the material may be entirely withdrawn from the 
centre and disposed in a circle around the neutral axis, forming a 
tube or pipe, which is much stronger than it would be if the same 
amount of material composing it were disposed in a solid cylinder. 

If the material of the beam resists extension and compression equally 
well, the two flanges should be of the same size, but if not, they must 
be unequal, to give each the share of the strain which it can bear. 

Thus, a cast-iron beam with equal flanges will break always upon 
the lower or extended side, since the material resists com- 
pression well but extension badly; and Mr. Eaton Hodg- ^ 
lunson, who experimented largely on beams, succeeded, by 
gradually increasing the lower flange, in making one 
which was equally strong at the top and bottom. In this 
the bottom flange had six times the area of the upper one, 
(see Fig. 16,) and this is the form now adopted for cast-iron 
beams. 

On the other hand, wrought iron does not resist a compressive strain 
as well as it does one of extension, and in a beam of this material the 
upper flange should have an area nearly twice that of the bottom 
flange. 



140 



LECTURE 




Fig. 17. 



In later examples of wrought iron beams rolled in one piece, the two 
flanges are made of the same size, to avoid warping in cooling, hut in 
beams made of pieces riveted together, this proportion should be 
observed. 

A wrought-iron beam may be modified in another way. 

It is sometimes advisable to divide the web into two plates, 

putting one on each side, as in Fig. 17, and then we have 

the box form, identical in principle with the usual form, 

but in some cases more convenient to manufacture, and 

possessing more lateral stiffness. 

The flanges themselves may be made of several parts, and made 

even tubular, as we shall see in the description of the Britannia bridge 

in a succeeding lecture. 

So far we have only considered cases in which the web is a solid 
plate, but it will frequently be desirable, and often necessary, to make 
the web of pieces, or to frame it ; if we use wood this can hardly be 
avoided. 

We must be able to arrange the parts in such a way as to insure 
strength and stiffness, with economy of material, for we shall thus not 
only save in first cost, but relieve the structure of much dead weight 
of material which would only load it to its injury. 

In using any material in the form of rods or posts we must endeavor 
to direct the strain through the axis of the piece, since all material 
bears a direct strain of compression or extension better than any 
other. 

If a piece of timber projecting from a wall, as A B, 
in Fig. 18, is to be strengthened so as to support a 
weight, W, we can best do it by putting an inclined 
piece under it, with its lower end, C, fastened firmly in 
the wall. Now the triangle is the only straight sided 
figure, the angles of which cannot be altered without 
changing the length of the sides, and the point D can- 
not sink unless A draws out of the wall, or D be- 
comes shorter, since we have supposed the end, C, to be 
immovable. 

If it should not be convenient to place a brace 
under the beam, we may substitute for it a tie or ten- 
sion rod above it, as in Fig. 19 ; this tie will be sub- 
jected to a tensile strain only, and may therefore be 
a rod of wrought iron, or even a rope or chain. 

If we have, therefore, to construct a simple bridge 
over a stream, the width of which is too great to 
permit us to use a single beam, which would deflect 
too much, or perhaps break, we may 
shorten the actual span of the beam 
by introducing braces or struts, as in 
Fig. 20, where the clear span of the 
beam is reduced, from A B to C D, the 
points C and D being firmly supported 




Fig. 18. 






Fig. 20. 



by C E and D F. 
If, for any reason, 



it is not convenient to have such framing under 



ON BRIDGES BEAMS. 



141 




Fig. 21 




D 

Fig. 23. 



the bridge, we can put it above by a simple change, as in Fig. 21, 
where the point C is firmly fixed by 
the braces A C and C B, and there- 
fore the centre point of the beam, A 
D, may be suspended from C by the 
tie rod C D, thus changing the long 
span, A B, into two short ones, A I) 
and D B. 

Again, if we find that A C and C B are so long as to be too flexi- 
ble, we may support their center points by 
additional braces, D E and D F, Fig. 22; 
thus firmly fixing the points E and F, and 
should A D and D B be too weak they can 
be supported from the fixed points E and 
F by tie rods E G and F H. So we arrive 
by this simple process at a form which is comparatively complex. 

If it is desirable to make use of a material like wrought iron for 
stiffening, since it is peculiarly adapted to bear tensile strain, we may 
make use of it in a most economical 
manner. In Fig. 23 we have a beam, 
A B, trussed, as it is termed, by the 
iron rod, ADB, which passes under 
a post or strut, C D ; now it will be im- 
possible, when all the parts are tight, for the point C to sink without 
the lines A D and B D becoming longer. Since the strain upon the 
tie in this case is a direct tensile strain each fibre will be made to bear 
its share of the load, and it will be a very economical mode of using 
our material. We may modify this in such a way as to show that 
the strain upon such a tie is precisely the same as on the lower edge 
of a beam. 

Let us suppose, in Fig. 24, that the strut £ f* 

is made so short as to disappear, and permit ^ D 

the rod to touch the beam throughout its Fi g . 24. 

whole length, it will still act as the tie in 

Fig. 23, but with diminished effect, owing to its being nearer to the 
neutral axis, and the moment of the resistance of its fibres being 
therefore less. 

This mode of strengthening a beam is some- 
times resorted to in carpentry; but that shown 
in Fig. 23 or Fig. 25 is preferable. 

If the distance between A C to C B, in Fig. 23, is so great as to 
cause flexure of those parts of the 
beam, we may truss them again 
by an intermediate strut and tie, 
as in Fig. 26, in which the points 
E and F are supported in this 
way. 

Many roofs are constructed on this plan, and up to very large spans 
it is the most simple and economical arrangement of wood and iron 
that can be made for the purpose. 

Since, in a roof, the principal rafters are inclined, we shall have the 



Fig. 25. 




142 



LECTURE 



arrangement shown in Fig. 27, in which the tie A C is added, to pre- 
vent the, roof from spreading and pushing out the walls. 




Fig. 27. 



There are'innumerable forms of roofs, some entirely of wood, others 
entirely of iron, others mixed, which take different forms, as the braces 
are made either to resist compression or extension, for, as we have seen 
in Figs. 18 and 19, we may always substitute for a tensible brace one 
which acts as a strut. All well designed roof trusses will, however, 
bear the test of an analysis, based on the principles just enunciated. 

One more example may be given in which this simple form of truss 
is extended to adapt it to the heaviest bridges with great success. 

The iron bridges on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and else- 
where, known as Bollman's bridges, are made, as shown in Fig. 28, 
where the struts c d efg h i, and the tie rods belonging to them, sup- 
port the beam A B at these points. 



A c d e f g h 




In an improvement by Fink, shown in Fig. 29, the tie rods on each 
side of each strut are of the same length, and therefore equally effected 
by changes of temperature, which is an important matter, since in 
Fig. 28 the struts near the ends are subjected to side strains from the 
unequal changes of length of the rods. This arrangement of Fink's 
permits, moreover, the use of much lighter tie rods for the lesser parts 
of the system, as indicated in the figure, and no more material is there- 
fore used than is absolutely necessary. 




Fig. 29. 



ON BRIDGES — BEAMS. 



143 



FOURTH LECTURE. 



BRIDGES AND BEAMS 

[Continued.] 



The forms of triangular framing that we have noticed are not suited 
to all cases, and we return to the double-flanged beam, and consider 
its application to long spans. 

There are certain limits which cannot be passed in making beams 
in a single piece, and recourse must be had to some arrangement of 
connected pieces, which will be economical and effective. If we use 
boiler plate we may make a composite beam of the same 
form as the simple ones already described, as in Fig. 30, 
the web being still a thin flat plate, and the flanges being 
formed by riveting angle irons to it. In cast iron this 
would be hardly practicable, owing to the difficulty of cast- 
ing a thin plate of any great size. In wood it would be 
entirely impracticable with any regard to economy of mate- 
rial. 

As stated before, the web may be separated into two plates, 
and the flanges made cellular ; but we may go further, and, retaining 
the flanges, connect them by an open web, in which the material shall 
be so disposed as to resist strains under the best possible conditions. 

In a beam thus made, we have a top and bottom chord or flange, 
connected by pieces of timber reaching from one to the other. If 
these pieces or posts are disposed, as in Fig. 31, they will not serve to 





Fig. 31. 



Fig. 32. 



connect the chords properly, since a weight applied will cause the 
structure to deflect, as in Fig. 32, the posts merely transmitting a 
portion of the strain to the lower chord, and the whole system having 
no more strength than it would have possessed had the posts been 
omitted, and the beam made of depth equal to the sum of that of the 
two chords, while we desire to take advantage of the distance between 
the chords to give greatly increased stiffness and strength. 

The shape of the spaces or bays is evidently altered by the deflec- 
tion in Fig. 32 from rectangles, as in Fig. 31, to rhomboids, the two 
diagonals of which are not equal. Now the rectangle abed cannot 
change into the rhomboid a' b' d d f , without c b becoming shorter, and 
a d longer. If, therefore, we can prevent sucli change of length, we 
can preserve the shape of the figure, and prevent the sinking of the 



144 



LECTURE 



point b. To do this Ave may either introduce a strut, c b, or a tie, a d, as 
in Figs. 18 and 19. If we use a strut or wooden "brace, we shall have 
the arrangement shown in Fig. 33. 




Fig. 33. 



In this arrangement the heam cannot assume the shape shown in 
Fig. 32, without its diagonals becoming shorter ; and since the braces 
are in the most favorable position for resisting — that is, with the 
strain acting in the direction of their length— a small amount of mate- 
rial will do a great deal of work. If it is desirable to use an iron tie 
instead of a wooden brace, we shall have the form shown in Fig. 34. 



Fig. 34. 

For any beam or truss, which is only intended to bear a constant 
and quiet weight, this bracing is sufficient, but if the load is variable 
and passing, as in the case of a railroad bridge, something more is 
needed. 

In a structure of considerable length, the effect of the load at any 
point between the centre and the end will be to cause a rise of the cor- 
responding point on the other side of the centre ; and since the braces 
are not calculated to prevent such a rise, oscillations will take place 
which may soon destroy the structure. Such a rise at any point can 
only take place by a change in the shape of the rectangle ; and if, 
therefore, we introduce another brace in the direction of the other 
diagonal, we shall prevent change of figure in either direction. 



X 


XI 


X 


X 


X 


X 



In Fig. 35 we have such an arrangement. Such braces are called 
counter braces, and since the strain upon them is a secondary one, and 
always small, they maybe made much lighter than the main braces. 

A little consideration will show that ties may be substituted for 
struts in a variety of ways, and vice versa. For instance, in Fig. 33, 
the addition of ties running in the same diagonal as the struts will 
counter brace the truss, and in Fig. 34, the counter braces may be 
light struts in the same diagonal as the ties. Again, we may do all 
the bracing by ties, as in Fig. 35, or we may use struts for both braces, 



ON BRIDGES — BEAMS. 145 

and put vertical ties in the place of the posts, the resistance of both 
sets of braces serving the purpose of the posts. 

We must always bear the principle, however, carefully in mind, and 
not make the mistake of causing a strut to be exposed to a tensile 
strain, or a tie to a strain of compression. 

It will be seen in Figs. 33 and 34 that the braces are always dis- 
posed to support a weight at the central point of the truss, and it is 
evident that if we cut a girder of this sort into two pieces, they will 
not serve as two shorter beams, since in each one half of the braces 
will be in the wrong diagonal of the rectangles. Although this seems 
simple enough, it is sometimes not understood in practice. In the 
lecturer's practice he has seen an iron roof which was in such a posi- 
tion that it could only be sloped one way ; that is, it was a lean-to 
roof, and the builder had copied one half of a very good iron roof truss 
for his half span, the consequence being that the tie rods near the 
high side of the roof became struts, and being too flexible to resist a 
a compressive strain they gave way under a weight of snow, and the 
roof sank in. 

The story is also told of a certain double-pitched roof of an English 
railway station, that, during the absence of the chief engineer of the 
road, some wise man connected with the management proposed to 
strengthen it by putting a row of columns under it down the centre. 
His advice was adopted, and in the act of wedging the columns up to 
sustain the weight the roof fell in, much to the astonishment of the 
sagacious designer. 

It is evident that by means of the braces and ties we have consid- 
erable control over the form of the beam, even after it is up, and it is 
usual to give a bridge a slight cumber or curvature upwards, to insure 
that it shall not settle in time or under a passing load below the hori- 
zontal line. For this reason iron ties in at least one direction are 
convenient, since the screws and nuts by which they are fastened pro- 
vide a simple means of adjustment, while the wedges that must be 
used in a structure entirely of wood are less easily managed. 

Care must be taken in designing a beam that there is no more 
material used than is necessary, such excess being worse than a waste, 
since it increases the load which the beam has to bear. 

Dr. Young called attention to the fact that, besides the tensional 
strain below the neutral surface and the compressive strain above it, 
there was a vertical strain existing near the ends, and diminishing 
towards the middle, which he called the shearing strain. The weight 
of the beam tends to shear off the fibres immediately over the point of 
support just as a bar of metal is cut in a shearing machine. Before 
this was understood, engineers were astonished to find that bridges, 
the parts of which had been carefully calculated, sometimes failed uear 
the abutments while retaining their form towards the centre, and now 
the posts aud braces are made stronger near the abutments, or addi- 
tional struts, called arch braces, are inserted. In cast-iron beams 
with a plate web, it is proper to thicken the web near the points of 
support to resist this strain. 

Care must be taken in deciding upon the proportions of the posts 
and braces that their section is not only great enough to enable them 
10 



146 



LECTURE 



to resist the direct crushing strain, but that it is sufficiently great, 
compared with their length, to avoid a sidewise flexure and conse- 
quent failure. Hodgkinson, in his elaborate experiments, has shown 
that, in practice, when the length of a post is less than thirty times 
its diameter it is not apt to break without it is absolutely crushed ; but 
in such cases the ends should be square and' well fitted, and the strain 
should be central, and not on one side. Posts with rounded ends are 
much weaker than those with flat ones. 

When a post, subjected to an axial crushing strain, is inclined, as 
in the case of a main brace in a bridge truss, we must bear in mind 
that its deflection from its own weight will tend to weaken it as a 
strut, since it commences the flexure to the side which is the ultimate 
cause of the failure of a strut. For this reason, if the cross section of 
such a strut is not a square, and if the length is at all great, the 
greatest side of the cross section should be vertical, as in the case of a 
beam or joist. If a timber strut seems to be too flexible it may be 
much stiffened without adding much ,to its weight by spiking to the 
upper or lower side a fin of narrow plank, deep in the middle and 
tapering off towards the ends. 

Cast-iron struts should either be tubular or have a cruciform 
section, as in Fig. 36, so that the material being disposed at 
the greatest distance from the neutral axis may act with the 
preatest effect in preventing what we may call the initial 
Wrought iron may be used in both these forms with great 
economy of material, a piece of ordinary gas pipe forming the best of 
struts, and the cruciform section being readily got in the rolls of the 
mill. In fact these remarks apply to all pieces subjected to a com- 
pressive strain, such as posts, struts, and the upper chords of framed 
beams or bridges, the tubular or the cruciform section being necessary 
where economy of material and lightness of the structure are desired. 
Since, in practice, it is not always convenient or possible to span a 
chasm by one single beam, intermediate supports (piers) must be made 
use of, and, in an iron structure at least, advantage may be taken of 
them to assist in relieving the strain at other points of the beam 
beside those immediately over them. If the spaces are spanned by 
unconnected beams, as in Fig. 37, each one will act independently, as 





there shown, but if the whole beam is continuous 
will behave differently. 



as in Fig. 38, it 




Fig. 38. 



If, by any means, in Fig. 37, we were to raise the middle points of 
the deflecting beams into a straight line the triangular spaces between 



ON BRIDGES — BEAMS. 



147 



their ends would close up, and tlic upper edges would touch. Now if, 
when in this condition, we unite in any firm way these upper edges, 
when we take away the support from below, the beams cannot sink to 
their original position, since the triangular spaces cannot open, and 
the tensional strain thus brought upon the upper edge over the pier 
will tend to neutralize the compressive strain always existing on the 
upper edge of a beam. In a wrought-iron structure this may be very 
easily done by raising the ends A and C until the gap at B is closed, 
and then riveting the upper plates together. Upon letting the ends 
A and C down again the deflection between them is diminished. 
This was most successfully done in the case of the great Britannia 
Bridge. 

Professor Gillespie has determined that with a flexible beam on 
three supports, each support bears the portion of a uniformly distrib- 
uted load indicated by the fractions in Fig. 39, and on four supports 
as in Fig. 40. 



Fig. 39. 



It is evident that a flexible beam with a uniformly distributed load 
may be so placed on four supports that two of them will not bear any 
part of the weight, as in Fig. 41. 




A few words upon the practical considerations involved in the use 
of iron in engineering structures, will not, perhaps, be amiss. In 
this country where timber is abundant, and labor and carriage dear, 
wood has been used to a great extent for bridges, and when iron has 
been resorted to, wrought has usually been preferred. In England, 
however, where the engineering taste is decidedly for the ponderous, 
cast iron has been used to a considerable extent, and ample opportu- 
nity has been afforded for a comparison of its merits with those of 
wrought iron. 

Cast iron is crystalline, hard, brittle, and non-elastic ; it bears a 
crushing strain up to from 80,000 to 100,000 pounds per square inch, 
and a tensile strain of about 15,000 pounds.* 

Its principle advantage is the ease with which it can be cast into 
any required form, and for heavy masses, or for pieces of nearly equal 



Eaton Hod<rkinson. 



148 LECTURE 

dimensions each way, or for posts subjected only to a statical strain, it 
is admirably adapted. For beams, or portions of beams, especially 
•where it will be subjected to varying strains, to vibrations, and to the 
action of intense cold, it should be used with extreme caution. 

When a single casting has some portions much thicker than others, 
most dangerous strains are induced by unequal cooling and contrac- 
tion ; parts being in this way subjected to tensions, which a small 
added load will render sufficient to cause total destruction of the cast- 
ing. Square corners and square openings in a casting are peculiarly 
dangerous in this respect, and should be most carefully avoided. 
Again, in a casting which is somewhat irregular, bubbles of air are 
apt to be entangled, and they cause holes or flaws, which frequently 
cannot be detected on the outside, even by the aid of the hammer. 
The iron being deficient at these points in the cross section, weakness 
is the result. • 

Under a sharp sudden blow cast iron breaks instead of bending, 
and great cold seems to render it brittle. 

Wrought iron, either hammered or rolled, is tough, elastic, and 
homogeneous, and resists sudden blows and vibrations much better 
than cast. It bears a crushing strain up to 60,000 pounds per square 
inch, and a tensile strain of about the same. 

In practice it has been found necessary to give the upper flange about 
twice the area of the lower one, since a thin wrought-iron flange, being 
soft, yields by buckling, although its resistance to compression per 
square inch of section, is nearly equal to, or, perhaps, a little greater 
than its resistance to extension. As I have elsewhere stated, beams 
are now rolled in this country in one piece, with the two flanges of equal 
areas, and with care in proportioning them, this is an economical 
form. 

Since wrought iron is brought to its form by hammering or rolling, 
there can be no flaws in it from air bubbles or similar causes, except 
in the very rare case of some foreign matter being inclosed by accident 
in the mass. For the same strength as a beam it has less than half 
the weight of cast iron, an important consideration in very large struc- 
tures, of the foundations of which the slightest suspicions are enter- 
tained. 

Its sujjerior elasticity enables it to resist sudden shocks, or the 
strains caused by the unequal settling of adjacent parts, and its tough- 
ness, enables us to make fastenings to resist a tensional strain with 
great facility. 

Fairbaim lias shown that, at English prices, a wrought-iron beani, 
to sustain a given weight, can be made for nearly the same price as 
one of cast iron, with the advantage of much less weight. His state- 
ment is as follows : 

Cast-iron beam, 31 feet 6 inches long, 22 inches deep, weighs 4,480 
pounds $65 00 

Wrought-iron beams, 31 feet 6 inches long, 22 inches deep, 

weighs 1,834 pounds $65 50 

To bear a weight of 25.5 tons in middle, or 55 tons distributed uni- 



ON BRIDGES — BEAMS. 



149 



formly over it. If a great number of such beams were to be raised to 
a considerable height, the small difference would probably be in favor 
of the wrought iron. 

In cases therefore where a portion of the structure is much elevated, 
where it is desirable to reduce the load on the foundations, and espe- 
cially where wrought iron, in its simpler forms, as in tubes, bars, rods, 
and plates, can be used, this material is entitled to a decided prefer- 
ence over cast metal, and it will undoubtedly come gradually in gen- 
eral use. 

The most interesting case of a large wrought-iron beam, in a scien- 
tific point of view, which we have on record, is that of the Britannia 
Tubular Bridge, built over the Menai straits, for the Chester and 
Holyhead railway, in 1849, by Kobert Stephenson, C. E. 

Certain restrictions imposed by the Admiralty upon the construc- 
tion of a bridge over this strait, induced Mr. Stephenson to decide 
upon some form of beam which could be built on the shore, and then 
raised into its place at an elevation of over one hundred feet — an ope- 
ration which will be referred to in a succeeding lecture. The span of 
the longest beam was to be 460 feet. 

At that time Mr. Stephenson, in common with the rest of the pro- 
fession in England, considered the suspension bridge as a structure 
entirely unsuited for railway purposes, and he was therefore required 
to devise a bridge necessarily different from any existing examples. 
After having abandoned the idea of a cast-iron arched bridge of pecu- 
liar construction, he supposed that a wrought-iron hollow beam or 
tube might be made, supported by chains at the central point, and he 
called to his aid Mr. William Fairbairn, an engineer already much 
distinguished for his various experiments on materials of construction. 
Mr. Fairbairn undertook at once an extended series of experimental 
investigations, beginning with the circular and elliptical tubes sug- 
gested by Mr. Stephenson. 

Although direct experiment on small pieces had shown, as already 
stated, that the resistance of wrought iron to compression was about 
the same as to extension, these experiments soon showed that the 
upper surface of the beams failed first, from a buckling or crimping of 
the iron, owing to its flexibility, and pointed out the necessity for an 
increase of material in the top. 

In short, a large number of experiments induced 
Mr. Fairbairn to recommend the form of beam af- 
terwards adopted ; a section of which is shown in 
Fig. 42, where the material in the upper side bears 
to that in the lower the proportion of 565 to 500, 
and is so disposed to resist the crushing strain to 
the best advantage. The cells or divisions shown 
in the figure are made by introducing vertical iron 
plates, and riveting to the horizontal plates through 
angle irons in the corners, thus forming an upper 
flange; which, as shown by the experiments, would 
bear, without buckling, a strain approaching to the 
experimental crushing strain of wrought iron. 
The bottom of the bridge, since it resists only a 




Fig. 42. 



150 LECTURE ON BRIDGES — BEAMS. 

direct tensile strain, or acts as a chain, need not be cellular ; and, in a 
later example, by the same engineer — the Victoria bridge over the St. 
Lawrence river — the bottom is composed of plates riveted closely upon 
each other without cells, and the cells of the top are replaced by ver- 
tical fins, which serve the same purpose. 

In the Britannia beam the sides are quite thin, serving only to con- 
nect the upper and lower flanges, and they are stiffened by fins of T 
iron riveted vertically over the joints. Near the ends of the beam the 
sides are additionally strengthened to provide against the shearing 
strain. 

To avoid change of figure laterally by the action of the wind, tri- 
angular plates are fixed at the top and bottom, as shown in the figure. 
Further details in regard to this beam, and the description of the man- 
ner of raising it, will be given in the next lecture. 

[The remainder of the lectures of this course will be given in th« 
appendix to the next annual report.] 



LECTUPvES 

ox 
MOLLUSCA; OR " SHELL-FISH" AND THEIR ALLIES. 

PREPARED FOR THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

BY PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B. A., Ph. D., 

OF WARRINGTON, ENGLAND. 



Who has not admired the beauty of shells? — the rich luster of the 
Cowries; the glossy polish of the Olives; the brilliant painting of the 
Cones ; the varied layers of the Cameos ; the exquisite nacre of Mother- 
of-pearl? Who has not listened to the mysterious "sound of the sea" 
in the Whelks and Helmets, or wondered at the many chambers of the 
Nautilus? What child ever went to the sea shore without picking up 
shells; or what lady ever spurned them as ornaments of her parlor? 
Shells are at once the attraction of the untutored savage, the delight 
of the refined artist, the wonder of the philosophic zoologist, and the 
most valued treasures of the geologist. They adorn the sands of sea- 
girt isles and continents now; and they form the earliest "footprints 
of the sands of time" in the history of our globe. The astronomer, 
wandering through boundless space with the grandest researches of his 
intellect, and the most subtle workings of his analysis, may imagine, 
indeed, the history of past time and speculate on the formation of 
globes ; but his science presents us with no records of the past. But 
the geologist, after watching the ebb of the ocean tide, examines into 
the soil on the surface of the earth and finds in it a book of chronicles, 
the letters of which are not unknown hieroglyphics, but familiar shells. 
He writes the history of each species, antedating by millions of years 
the first appearance of man upon this planet, the abrasion of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, or the roar of the Niagara at Queenston Heights. He 
searches deeper and deeper into the rocky crust of the globe, still find- 
ing the same types in older characters. As he climbs the rocks of 
Trenton or Montmorenci, he treads on the tide-ripples, the rain drops, 
the trails of living creatures in the ancient Silurian sea, which he in- 
terprets by the Rosetta Stone of Chelsea Beach or Charleston Harbor ; 
and as he reverently unlocks the dark recesses which contain the tradi- 
tions of the early ages, between the dead igneous rocks and the oceanic 
deposits which entomb the remains of life, the first objects which meet 
his gaze are the remains of a thin, horny shell, so like those now 
living in the Atlantic and Pacific waters, that the "footprint" enables 
him to reconstruct a Brachiopod with delicate ciliated arms and com- 



152 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

plex organization, such, as is figured in the beautiful works of Owen 
and Davidson, from dissections of the existing species. 

For be it observed that shells are not things without life, as they are 
often taken to be by thoughtless admirers. Nor are they simply the 
habitations of "shell fish," as ordinary observers consider them. It 
is common to regard the snail-shell as the house which the creature has 
made and carries on its back, having a relation to the animal inhabit- 
ant analagous to that of the coccoon to the chrysalis or the nest to the 
bird. Even viewed in this light, shells would be most interesting ob- 
jects of study; representing the different styles of architecture invented 
by these insignificant mechanics. Such appears to have been the way 
in which the great Linnaeus regarded them ; for he described the ani- 
mals under other names than those of the shells. Indeed., he appears 
to have considered the houses of far more importance than their inhab- 
itants ; for, while he divided the shells into genera and species, he was 
content to group all the living inhabitants under five names, saying 
in the description of each genus "Animal a Clio," &c* Even in his 
error, however, the great Father of Natural History showed his close 
discernment; for these five divisions correspond almost exactly to the 
classes afterwards prepared by Cuvier, and now generally adopted. 

Let it be distinctly understood, therefore, at the outset, that shells 
are truly organic structures, part and parcel of the living animal, as 
truly as the nails of man, the plumage of birds, the armor of arma- 
dilloes and crocodiles, the scales and cartilage of fishes, or the shell of 
the sea urchin. They are more truly part of the living inhabitant 
than the skin of caterpillars or the shell of crabs, inasmuch as they 
are not periodically cast off, but remain, as the hardened skin of the 
creature, during its whole period of existence. To collect and arrange 
shells, therefore, bears the same relation to science as to collect and 
arrange stuffed birds and beasts ; in either case we know only a part 
of the peculiarities of the animal. The mere museum-student would 
not know the porpoise to be a mammal ; nor discriminate the manatee 
as being an abnormal pachyderm ; nor observe the wide separation be- 
tween the horse and the hoofed ruminants. So the mere conchologist 
would associate the Wendletrap with the top-shells, the nerites with 
the Naticas, the Cerithiurns with the whelks, &c, not knowing that 
the animals are structurally as much unlike as the mammals just 
mentioned. It is absurd, therefore, to study shells without examina- 
tion of the soft parts of the animals ; while, to study the soft parts 
alone, without regard to the differences in the shells, would be like 
endeavoring to classify the cat-tribe from examination of tigers, pan- 
thers, &c, which had been previously skinned. 

No one despises a collection of stuffed birds because so few of the 
creatures have been dissected ; so we ought not to despise the study of 
shells because we know so little of their inhabitants. But the bird 
skin tells us much more about the bird than does the shell about the 
"shell-fish;" because the shell is the hardened skin only of a portion 



*The Linnaean Molluscs are Sepia, Limax, Clio, Anomia, and Ascidia. The animal of 
Terebratula was not then known. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 153 

of the animal, (called the mantle,) the head and foot, and other im- 
portant members, not leaving any impress on their unpliant covering. 

It is only of late years that enquirers have even attempted to gain 
information about the animals of shells. The very beauty of the shell 
has contributed to this result. Every sailor could collect shells, and 
every lady could lay them on cotton in a drawer ; the animal was a 
nuisance, liable to rot if not carefully extracted, only to be preserved 
in buttles of spirit, and then presenting nothing but a shriveled or 
shapeless mass, fit only for the dissector's knife. Even the figures of 
living animals in the works of scientific voyagers are by no means in- 
fallible, it being not uncommon to find voracious proboscids figured 
with a vegetarian snout, or to see the shell turned the wrong way on 
the back of the crawler. When it is remembered that a large pro- 
portion of "shell-fish" live in deep water; that even those which 
surround our coasts can be but seldom examined in their natural con- 
dition ; that very few will breed in confinement, and that travelers are 
very seldom able to dissect and examine microscopically, or even to 
draw correctly while on their expeditions ; we must be content to wait 
many years before this branch of natural history is as satisfactorily 
established as other branches of popular science. 

Let not this, however, deter any one from its pursuit. If we only 
collect, arrange, and study shells, we are doing something. We at 
least prepare a store of materials for future use. And every one can 
examine alive and report upon the shells of his own locality, whether 
land, fresh water, or marine. There is not a schoolboy, or a western 
farmer, but what may be not merely a learner of what others have 
done, but a gainer and teacher of fresh knowledge : while to those who 
can engage in scientific travel, there is open a field of original research, 
such as but few branches of science have left untrodden. At the present 
moment, we cannot agree upon the main divisions of our classification 
of shell-fish, for want of knowledge of the animals, habits and food of 
some of the commonest shells, which are annually collected by the hun- 
dred or the thousand merely for the purposes of trade. 

In old days, when every one followed Linnaeus, it was easy to count 
whether a shell had one, two, or many valves, and name it, with con- 
fidence that its jDlace would not have to be disturbed. In the second 
epoch of study, after Cuvier had introduced an approximation to a 
natural system, all the world laid aside the artificial method, and 
arranged their books and shells according to the system of Lamarck. 
But now that we are as much in advance of Lamarck as he was of 
Linnaeus ; and every fresh animal that is examined may alter our clas- 
sification ; we must be content to alter and amend our books with every 
succeeding edition, and not allow ourselves to consider anything as 
fixed. The arrangement proposed in these pages may serve as an 
approximation to the truth, or as a starting point to begin from ; 
neither ignoring recent discoveries, nor departing from recognized 
facts without better authority than hasty observations. 

Another difficulty is much more serious. Most of the early natu- 
ralists, and many in our own day, have been in the habit of naming 
shells without describing them ; or have described them so loosely that 
it is a matter of opinion only what they meant by their words ; or have 



154 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

taken no steps to make their works known in other countries. In real, 
and even necessary, ignorance of their labors, or in despair of under- 
standing them, or purposely ignoring the existence of what was care- 
lessly done, the same shells have been named over and over again, 
thereby burdening the memory and confusing the young student with 
a mass of unnecessary, meaningless, or even barbarous terms. Even 
this evil could be borne ; for the synonymy could be made out, and 
henceforth all but the right name disregarded ; if naturalists were 
agreed as to the right principles of selection. The absolute law of 
priority is followed by some as the most convenient. Others think 
that to discard names universally accepted, merely because some ob- 
scure amateur published a tract a few years earlier, or some Curator of 
a museum wrote his fancy names on the specimens a year in advance, 
or an auctioneer named his wares to effect a sale, is to strain a prin- 
ciple contrary to the law of use. The British Association for the 
advancement of Science issued a series of regulations which were gen- 
erally approved, and which were republished by the American Asso- 
ciation. But Science is a republic in which the minority refuses to be 
ruled by the majority ; and it so happens that the newest authors have 
set the Scientific Associations at defiance. Those who have no access 
to books naturally follow the newest authorities, especially when these 
have deserved well of science by their discoveries. Hence we must 
hold our names in abeyance, and wait till better times ; taking care 
at any rate not to add to the confusion. The limitations of the law of 
priority laid down by the British and American Associations appear 
however to be sound. A naturalist ought not to want his own name 
to appear, even though the first given, if the wide use of another makes 
it more convenient for science. Personal considerations ought always 
to give way to utility : because the knowledge is the end ; the helpers 
to the acquisition of that knowledge are only means to that end. And 
what of honor the Christian naturalist would not claim for himself, 
against the uses of science, he is not bound, for the mere semblance of 
justice, to reserve for others. According to the laws of all civilized 
nations, possession of property for a given term of years confers legal 
right. A similar statute of limitations for scientific nomenclature 
would save a vast amount of time from being frittered away on merely 
archaeological research, or worse than empty recrimination. 

Those who are not deterred by the above statement of difficulties 
from the study of shells are recommended to possess themselves of the 
following works : "Woodward's Manual of the Mollusca : London, 
John Weale." — " Philippi's Handbuch der Conchyliologie und Mala- 
cozoologie. Halle, 1853." — "Genera of Kecent Mollusca by H. & A. 
Adams: London, Van Voorst." — Dr. J. E. Gray's " Guide to the Sys- 
tematic Distribution of Mollusca in the British Museum, London." — 
Chenu's "Manuel de Conchyliologie et de Paleontologie Conchyliol- 
ogique : Paris." These are all cheap books. Woodward's contains 
by far the greatest amount of information in the smallest compass, and 
is well illustrated. The work of Philippi has no plates, nor has that 
of Gray. The Adams' figure the animals when known ; but, with 
Gray, disregard the British Association rules, and upset the familiar 
Lamarckian names. Chenu's work (which, with Gray's, is still un- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 155 

finished) is for the most part a reproduction of Adams' Genera with 
the addition of fossils ; and is chiefly valuable for its copious and accu- 
rate figures of shells illustrating the subgenera. The following pages 
are intended simply as an introduction to any of the above works. 
Books of older date are necessarily so full of errors that they should 
not be studied till after the student has become familiar with, the present 
means of knowledge. 

Shell-making animals have been so little known, that we have no 
English word to express them. They are commonly called ' l 'shell- 
fish," because most of them live in the sea. "Fish" are, properly 
speaking, cold-blooded vertebrates breathing by gills. It is a strange 
assemblage which groups with these the warm-blooded whales ; the 
oysters and whelks ; the jointed craw-fish ; and the radiated star-fish. 
Just as we have been obliged to import the Latin word mammal, to 
include men, whales, bats and tigers, which are all warm-blooded, and 
suckle their young ; so we must import the word molluslc, to include 
snails and slugs, oysters and clams, cuttles and tunicaries ; all of which 
agree in having soft bodies without jointed limbs ; the nervous system 
being irregularly distributed in knots, or ganglia, the principal of 
which surrounds the throat like a collar. 

In general shape, they are very dissimilar from each other. Some 
have a large head with staring eyes ; others are blind and headless. 
Some have many feet, others one, while whole classes have no organ 
of locomotion whatever. Some are so highly organized that many true 
fishes have to confess their inferiority : while some have special organs 
so little developed that it is doubtful whether they should be called 
degraded mollusks or superior zoophytes. 

It is by no means a necessary condition of a mollusk to be shell- 
bearing. The lowest tribes have none ; in the highest they are only 
occasional or rudimentary, or are altogether absent ; the land and sea 
slugs are destitute of hard parts ; and some even of the bivalves are 
almost entirely horny. The name "shell-fish" therefore, as applied 
to the whole group, will have to be given up ; because myriads of species 
live on land and breathe air, and even the water species are not true 
fish ; and because a large proportion of them have no shells. 

Mollusks form one of the five great primary divisions of the Animal 
Kingdom. They rank side by side with the Articulata, or Jointed 
Animals, which include Spiders, Insects, Crabs, Worms, &c. The 
Sea- Worms, which have calcareous shells ; and the Barnacles which 
formed part of the " multivalve shells" of Linnreus, but which are now 
known to be degraded crabs, used to be considered mollusks, and are 
still seen in collections of shells.* Strange as it may seem, these 
apathetic creatures have much closer relationship with spiders and 
butterflies. The mollusks are specially designed for eating ; the artic- 



* The Cirripedes were thought by early naturalists to be the fry of Barnacle Geese. Very 
learned descriptions are on record, illustrated by figures accurately representing the author s 
imaginations, showing how the barnacles grew upon trees in the water, and at last came forth 
from their shelly eggs as full-flown birds. The reality is scarcely less surprising than the 
story: for it is now known that these creatures begin life as an active little crab, with legs, 
head and eyes all complete, swimming about in the open sea. Instead of developing how- 



156 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

ulates for locomotion. The highest mollusks are superior animals to 
the highest articulates ; in both cases the lowest are inferior to many- 
radiates. It is usual to rank them in parallel groups, thus : — 

Vertebrata. 
MOLLUSCA. AETICULATA. 

» Kadiata. 
Protozoa. 

The Vertebrates include Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, 
and Fishes. 

The Radiates include Sea-Urchins, Jelly-fish, Coral-insects, &c. 

The Protozoa include the simplest forms of animal life, such as 
sponges, animalcules, and Rhizopods or Foraminifera. These last 
were till lately ranked with the highest mollusks, because they make 
chambered shells. 

The principal classes of articulates have already been pointed out : 
those of the mollusks are as follows. 

I. Cephalopods, or Head-footed Animals. 

II. Gasteropods, or Crawlers. 

III. Pteropods, or Wing-footed Animals. 

IV. Lamellibranchs, or Bivalves. 
V. Palliobranchs, or Lamp Shells. 

VI. Tunicates, or Cloaked Animals. 
VII. Polyzoa, or Molluscan Zoophytes. 

We propose to give a general description of each of these classes, 
which are as different from each other as are beasts, birds, and fishes; 
and to furnish some account of the families and more important genera. 
The typical mollusks are the Gasteropods, of which Snails, Limpets, 
Whelks, and Cowries are familiar examples. In the same way the 
typical Articulates are not the highly organized Spiders, but the widely- 
diffused Insects. We shall begin, however, with the less known and 
aberrant Cephalopods, which hold undisputed rank at the head of all 
invertebrate animals. 

CLASS CEPHALOPODA. 

{Cuttle-fish and their Allies.) 

Imagine a creature with two staring eyes, which he carries under 
his arms, and which are more complex in structure than those of many 



ever into something more perfect as do the caterpillars, tadpoles, &c, they lose not only their 
feet but their eyes and their very heads; adhere to rocks and sea-weed or floating; timber; 
become almost shapeless lumps enclosed in an acorn or barnacle shell, only betraying their 
articulated origin by the delicate groups of feathery jointed cirri, by waving which they 
induce the tiny ocean currents which bring them their food. There was nothing but the 
resemblance of these cirri to the feathers of birds to form a groundwork for the goose story. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 157 

fishes. His nose is a long snout, or rather a pipe, which he wears under 
and between his eyes, as it were on his breast. He carries his mouth at 
the very top of his head, and could soon make one feel the bite of his 
powerful horny jaws, which are hooked, and work up and down like an 
eagle's. Although he has no legs, he is better off for arms than a 
monkey, having always eight or ten, sometimes a much larger number. 
These he elegantly arranges in a circle round his mouth; forming a 
crown — more dangerous than the fabled hair of serpents — round his 
head. His body appears only of secondary importance, and is inclosed 
in an oval or conical mantle, ending often in a tail like a fish, or adorned 
with fins, one on each side. Imagine this creature walking on his head, 
with his tail upwards, staring at you with both his eyes. As you 
watch him, he rapidly changes color, like a chameleon, by means of 
thousands of contractile pigment-cells all over his skin. He may 
change from yellow to red or brown, sometimes casting over himself a 
bluish tinge; the colored spots and waves appearing and disappearing 
with the greatest velocity. Though not a literary character, he always 
carries an ink-bottle, and generally a pen, along with him ; and, should 
you chance to disturb him, he will instantly discharge a copious black 
stream before you, under cover of which he will dart off before you 
have time to follow his retreat. 

The Cuttles have very acute senses. They have an approach to a 
brain, inclosed in a cartilaginous skull. They can hear sounds, and 
evidently enjoy the taste of their food. They have a large, fleshy 
tongue, armed with recurved prickles, like that of the lion. They 
either crawl on their head, tail upwards, or swim, tail foremost, by 
striking their arms; or squirt themselves backwards by forcing water 
forward, through their breathing funnels. 

They are ferocious creatures, the tyrants of the lower orders, and do 
not scruple to attack and devour even fishes. The larger kinds are 
deservedly dreaded by man. Their weapons consist in their powerful 
arms, which are abundantly furnished with rows of cup-like suckers, 
each of which fastens on to its prey or its foe like a limpet to the rock. 
Often these are accompanied with sharp curved teeth, strong enough 
to be preserved even in the fossil species. "It must be a fearful 
thing," says Dr. Johnston, "for any living creature to come within 
their compass, or within their leap, for, captured by a sudden spring 
of several feet, made with the rapidity of lightning, entangled in the 
slimy, serpentine grasp of eight or ten arms, and held by the pressure 
of some hundreds of exhausted cups, escape is hopeless." With such 
strength do they clutch the object of their desire that it is often easier 
to tear off the limb than induce them to relax their hold. 

They are the largest of all animals that are not supported by a 
jointed skeleton. One was seen in the equatorial Atlantic, which 
must have weighed two hundred weight. Another was seen in the 
Pacific, which must have been six feet long. As it is almost impossible 
to capture these great creatures alive, we remain in great ignorance 
about them. Montfort, one of the early conchologists, represented a 
" kraken octopod" in the act of scuttling a three-master; but he told 
his friend that, if this were "swallowed," he would in his next 



158 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

edition represent him as embracing the Straits of Gibraltar, or capsizing 
a whole squadron of ships. 

The shell, in the typical Cuttle-fish, is not the hardened outside 
skin, as in ordinary mollusks; but, if present at all, is (with one 
exception) an internal appendage, answering the purpose of a skeleton, 
but having nothing to do with protecting the nervous centres. 

All the true cuttles and their allies have eight or ten arms, provided 
with suckers ; two gills, with superadded branchial hearts ; and a 
body shaped for an active, predatory existence. They form the 

ORDEK I. DIBKANCHIATA, 

or two-gilled Cuttles of Prof. Owen. The first group are content with 
eight arms only ; the rest have, in addition, two long arms or " ten- 
tacles," which serve to seize the prey at a greater distance. 

Group I. Octopod a. (Eight-footed Cuttles.) 

Most aberrant among these aberrant animals are the 

Family Argonautid^;, 

or "Paper-Sailors," so called from the delicate, white, boat-shaped 
shell, in which they were fabled to sail on the surface of the waters. 
The Argonaut was known to the ancients, one species being common 
in the Mediterranean. It was the First Nautilus of Aristotle, who, 
though generally so accurate, here invented or perpetuated a very 
pleasing fable. He described the Argonaut as sitting in its elegantly- 
keeled white and almost paper-like boat, holding up its two broader 
arms to catch the breeze, and using its other six as oars. In this posi- 
tion it is figured in all the older works on natural history : for either 
the authority of Aristotle, or the beauty of the story, caused it to be 
repeated from' author to author, like the fable of the "Barnacle Geese." 
Even the naturalists of the present generation have gravely doubted 
whether the cuttle always found in the Paper Nautilus were the real 
former of the shell. A very similar shell, the Carinaria, or glassy 
nautilus, was known to be formed on a very different animal, a true 
Gasteropod. It was supposed that the greedy Octopod, having de- 
voured the Argonaut, possessed himself of the shell, after the fashion 
of the hermit crabs, which may be seen crawling, tail foremost, into 
shell after shell, till they find one to fit them. It was reserved for a 
lady to set these doubts at rest. Madame Power, finding the Argo- 
nauts common in the Mediterranean, inclosed a space with net work 
to allow free ingress to the water, and there established her colony. 
She found that the Octopod was the true inhabitant of the shell, 
although not fastened to it by muscular attachment. She performed 
many experiments on her captives, the results of which have been 
either confirmed or corrected by succeeding naturalists. The Argo- 
naut generally crawls on the ground with her six sucker-covered feet, 
carrying her shell on her back, like a snail, enveloped in the two sails, 
or broader arms. When she chooses to swim, she does not float above 
the surface of the sea; but darts through the water backwards, in the 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 159 

direction of the nucleus of the shell, her sail arms still enveloping the 
frail bark. She generally folds her " oars" together, at arm's length, 
though she uses them occasionally to direct or assist her movements. 
What then is her propelling power? She simply breathes herself on, 
or rather bloivs herself backioards, forcing out the water from her long 
gill-funnel, and so is carried forward in a contrary direction. She 
never turns her back on her enemy ; but, on the other hand, she can- 
not help looking back, wherever she is going. We say il she;" for 
strange to say, all the paper-sailors turn out to be females. For a 
long time the lords of the Argonaut creation eluded the anxious search 
of their brethren of the human species. At last they were found in 
the form of little stunted octopods, without any shell or sail-arms, 
not more than an inch long. Let tyrannical husbands see what 
becomes of their sex in the very highest of the invertebrate animals. 
The male Argonaut is not known to hold any commimication with 
his (to him) giant mate, who lives by herself in her palatial shell. 
The little fellow sends one of his arms, by itself, on the courting 
errand ; and the lady receives her spouse in the for.m of what was at 
first regarded as a parasitic leech. M. Koelliker found that what 
Cuvier had described as the Hectocotylus octopodis, was simply the 
contents of the left arm of the third pair on the male Argonaut, which 
is developed abnormally as a colored bag, and periodically gives birth 
to a Hectocotyle. This having been filled with spermatozoa from the 
body of the little Argonaut, goes forth on its independent existence, 
looking like an arm of an octopod ending in a thread. It lays hold on 
the female Argonaut with its suckers, as though it had a life of its 
own. It is found on her arms, clinging to her nose, or even inside 
the gill cavity. It clasps with such strength that it is difficult to 
detach it ; and yet it has no mouth or other organs for maintaining life. 
After it has communicated the fecundating influences to the ova, it 
perishes. It follows that the beautiful paper nautilus is not a true 
shell, but simply a female appendage to deposit and mature the eggs, 
and at the same time protect the parent. The newly hatched Argo- 
naut has no shell ; and is 'said to be shaped like a worm with suckers. 
This beautiful group belongs only to the existing conditions of our 
globe. One species alone is found fossil, in the Subappenine tertiaries 
of Piedmont. It is now living, but not in the Mediterranean, where 
it is displaced by another species : it has itself migrated to the present- 
China seas. 

Family Octopodid^e. 

The naked octopods resemble the male Argonaut ; and some (but 
not all) of them have the same singular degradation of the lordly sex. 
They generally have small, round bodies without fins, the head and 
arms being the principal part of the creature. They are seldom gre- 
garious, but crawl in the neighborhood of the shore, the small species 
inhabiting pools between tide marks. Here they escape detection by 
coloring themselves to suit the bottom, and moor themselves to crevices 
in the rocks awaiting their prey. They are more or less webbed 
between the arms, like an inverted umbrella ; and progress by flap- 



160 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

ping the whole at once. They can crawl at the rate of seven feet a 
minute; and when wishing to go quicker, they hlow themselves out 
like a bladder, and roll over and over with great speed. They 
were called polypes by the Greeks; and some species bear a strong 
general resemblance to what are now called polypes, the jelly-fish, and 
their allies. The cuttles may be said to represent the radiates among 
the mollusks, but in their organization they are as different as birds 
and butterflies. The genera are Octopus, Cistopus, Pinnoctopus, Ele- 
done, and Cirroteuthis . They differ in the arrangement of the suckers, 
and in the presence or absence of aquiferous pores in the skin and 
fins on the body. The Eledone moschata emits a strong smell of 
musk. The Cirroteuthis mulleri has its slender arms ciliated, with a 
web extending to their extremity. It inhabits the shores of Green- 
land. The 

Family Philonexid;e 

differ from the typical octopods in being gregarious, living in the open 
sea. They hide themselves by day ; but towards evening come up in 
great shoals, to prey upon swimming mollusks and zoophytes. The 
genera are Fhilonexis and Tremoctopus . 

Group II. Decapoda. {Ten-footed Cuttles.) 

These differ from the Octopods in having an additional pair of arms, 
much longer than the others, called tentacles. They are generally 
club-shaped at the end, and armed with a horny ring round the 
suckers, or sometimes with claws. They are within the circle of the 
eight arms, between the third and fourth pairs ; and are (for the most 
part) capable of being drawn in to pouches behind the eyes. The body 
is long, always finned, and strengthened by an internal appendage ; 
which is a horny pen in the squids, a "bone" in the true cuttles; a 
spiral, chambered shell in Spirilla; a complex organ with a cham- 
bered shell inside in the Belemnite tribe. The eyes are movable 
in their orbits; the breathing funnel is generally provided with a 
valve ; and the mantle is supported by internal fleshy bands. 

Family Cranchiad,e. 

The Cranchia is a pot-bellied little creature, with very small head 
and eyes. These are covered by the skin; the mantle is supported by 
two internal fleshy bands; and the breathing-pipe has a valve. 

Family Loliuopsidte. (Calamaries.) 

In Loligopsis, which is a very long animal with a small head, the 
eyes are large and beautiful, and the breathing-pipe is without valve. 

Family Chiroteuthid^e. (Hand-Calimaries.) 

The body of the Hand-calamary, (Chiroteuthis,) seems only like a 
fulcrum, from which to move its powerful head organs. Though only 
two inches long, the arms are eight inches, and the tentacles extend 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 161 

three feet. It must be remembered that these are not mere feelers, like 
the antennas of insects, but strong muscular threads beaded with 
suckers, and armed with four rows of pedunculated claws on the ex- 
panded ends. How easily these will encircle any unhappy creature 
floating at a distance, and carry it to the mouth, to be torn up by the 
horny bills, is at once evident. How so small a body can work the 
muscles at such a tremendous leverage, without any support but a 
loose horny pen, is indeed a marvel. 

The Veiled-calamaries , (Histioteuthis ,) have six of their arms webbed 
together, leaving the other arms and tentacles loose. It resembles 
half an expanded umbrella. One of the species "rivals in color the 
brilliancy of the butterflies of tropical suns. The large membrane 
which unites its arms is of a rich purple, and the suckers are sapphire, 
the under surface being studded with blue and yellow spots on a 
reddish ground,, sprinkled with purple spots." 

Family Onyciioteuthid^e. (Sea- Arrows.) 

These creatures have the mantle supported by three internal car- 
tilages. The eyes are exposed, and furnished with a slit above. The 
breathing-pipe has a valve, as in Cranchia. They are very numer- 
ous, and have been divided into the following genera : Enojjloteuthis 
(Armed-calamary), Ancisiroclieirus , Abralia, Verania, Acanthoteutliis , 
(Spiny-calamary) ; Onyclioteuthis (Hooked-calamary) ; Ancistroteuthis , 
Onychia; Ommastrephes (Sea- Arrows, or Flying-squids); and Tkysano- 
teuthis (Fringed-calamary) . 

Among the active cephalopods, perhaps the most vigorous swim- 
mers are the Armed calamaries. They are the dread of the shell 
divers of the Pacific Islands ; for the arms have, beside the suckers, 
double rows of horny hooks concealed by retractile webs. A cat's 
paw is quite sufficiently disagreeable, with her five claws ; but for a 
bather to feel his naked body embraced with eight snake-like arms, 
with cat's-paw weapons on the whole length, and leech-like suckers 
in addition, to say nothing of the long tentacles still more powerfully 
armed,* and directed by two great staring eyes, much more service- 
able than a man's in the water, the possessor of which can instantly 
hide himself by a discharge of ink, is not pleasant even from a crea- 
ture the size of a cat: but when it is remembered that some of them 
are six feet across, and that they do not kill quickly like the shark, 
but tear their prey piecemeal, we feel thankful to live in safer lati- 
tudes. In the Hooked calamaries, besides the hook-armed cups, there 
is a group of ordinary suckers, at the beginning of the expanded part 
of the tentacles. When these touch each other, they resemble the 
hinge of a pair of pliers, and the unfortunate boast hooked in between 
the flaps is drawn by the united strength of both arms to be .torn to 
death at the top of the cuttle's head. It is a merciful provision that 
his great eyes, so necessary for him in locomotion and attack, are 
spared the sight of the tortures he inflicts upon his prey. The hooks 



s The tentacle suckers of the calamary suggested the obstetric forceps of Prof. Simpson. 
11 



162 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

found fossil in the German Jurassic strata, with the traces of the cut- 
tle itself, prove that the Spiny calamaries were equally the tyrants of 
the ancient seas. The Sea-arroios live in large groups in the open 
sea. They are themselves the prey of whales and birds. In order to 
avoid the attacks of their pursuers, they dart out of the water like the 
flying fish, often to such a height that they fall down on the decks of 
vessels. The eyes of these creatures have a deep lachrymal groove at 
the upper edge, and the ears are furnished with a longitudinal crest. 

Family Teuthidte. (Squids.) 

In the Squids the eyes are without lids, and covered with the skin, 
as in Cranclua; but the mantle is strengthened with internal cartil- 
ages, as in the Sea-arrows. The genera are Gonatus, Loligo, Teutliis, 
Sepioteuthis , Bossia, Sepiola, and Fidenas; with the fossil remains of 
Leptoteutliis , Tcudopsis, Beloteuiliis, and Geoteuthis. 

The Squids form an important element in the North Atlantic fish- 
eries. The common Loligo is the favorite food of the Cod, and is 
therefore itself fished for bait. One half of all the cod taken on the 
banks of Newfoundland are said to be caught by it. "When the vast 
shoals of this mollusk approach the coast, hundreds of vessels are 
ready to capture them, forming an extensive cuttle fishery, engaging 
five hundred sail of French, English, and American ships. During 
violent gales of wind, hundreds of tons of them are often thrown up 
together in beds on the flat beaches, the decay of which spreads an 
intolerable effluvium around." They must themselves be consumed 
in enormous numbers; for it has been estimated that a single squid 
will lay in one season forty thousand eggs. The pens of the squid 
tribe are loose supports in a pouch along the back. In old individuals, 
sometimes two or three are found laid together. They are analogous 
to the "bones" or steel plates in ladies' stays — an instrument which 
ought not to be needed by a vertebrated animal. 

The Sejyiolas are pretty little creatures, with round purse-like 
bodies, and a wing-like fin on each side. They live near shore, and 
may often be seen darting about in rocky pools. They are considered 
a delicacy in the South of France, where they are called supieta. 

The squids first make their appearance in the world's history during 
the epoch of the Lias and Oxford Clay. The octopods may, indeed, 
have existed, but their bodies have no hard parts that would be likely 
to leave traces on the ancient rocks. Of the squids, not only the 
horny pens and claws have been preserved, but even the muscular 
mantle, the bottoms of the arms, and the ink bag filled with sepia 
which an artist might envy. They must have died a very peaceful 
death, as they always spill their ink under the slightest provocation. 
Some of the ink bags of the Lias are nearly a foot long, with a brilliant 
pearly coat. They probably formed part of the food of the formida- 
ble Ichthyosaurians of that epoch. 

Family Sepiad^e. {True Cuttles.) 

The Cuttle-fish proper are furnished with a "bone," which consists, 
on the back, of a hard, shelly dish, covered with membrane and end- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 163 

ing in a knob, and built up within with layer upon layer of very deli- 
cate wafer-like shelly plates, supported by numerous vertical pillars.* 
It is, therefore, very light and porous, at the same time that the shape 
and texture of the back give it great power of support. The cuttles 
are the least elegant of the tribe, having a large, flatish body, finned 
along the whole of each side. The knob, doubtless, protects the 
creature's tail from blows as it swims backward near the shore. The 
Chinese cuttle bones are sometimes eighteen inches long. 

Most persons have seen the delicate Spirula, transparent and white, 
shaped like a ram's horn divided across by pearly chambers. A mere 
conchologist would never suspect any close resemblance between this 
and the cuttle-bone. They are, however, so closely connected by in- 
termediate fossil forms, that, without a knowledge of their animal, it 
is difficult to say to which family these belong. No less different at 
first sight are the "thunderbolt stones," so common in the Jurassic 
and cretaceous rocks of Europe. In the world's history, they begin 
and end with these rocks. They were suddenly poured, in incalcula- 
ble abundance, on our planet ; and as suddenly they became entirely 
extinct. The 

Family Belemnitid.e 

consisted of cuttles whose body was strengthened by a long pen, join- 
ing on, at the tail end. to a conical chambered shell, the air-cells of 
which were connected by a siphuncle at the side. This conical shell 
(formerly called the alveolus of the belemnite, and now known as the 
pkragmocone,) was invested, at the tail end, with a longer cone or 
guard. This is fibrous, consisting of long prismatic cells, like the 
shell of the recent pinnas or the great cretaceous Inocerami, with 
which it entirely agrees in specific gravity. This guard is the "thun- 
derbolt stone" of the common people, and is generally preserved 
entire, while the chambers are often destroyed, and the pen has 
almost always perished. The most perfect specimens were found in 
the Oxford Clay, and are preserved in the British museum and in the 
cabinet of Dr. Mantell. Fragments of the chambered part,- in the 
Lias and Oolite, are very like the then-extinct orthoceratites, though 
the animal is widely different. The last chamber alone sometimes 
measures six inches by two and a half; so that its cuttle must have 
been nearly three feet long. A fortunate breakage, in a specimen in 
the British museum, displays an ink-bag near the siphuncle, at once 
showing that it was an active swimmer, like the cuttles. The length 
of the guard is very variable in the same species, sometimes attaining 
to two feet. The septa frequently perish, leaving the chambers, 
which have been filled with calcareous spar, lying loosely on each 
other like a pile of watch glasses. 

The Belemnites were gregarious, and probably lived in a moderate 
depth of water. The classical writers before Pliny gravely supposed 
that they were the hardened contents of the bladder of the lynx; 



*This substance, when reduced to powder, is cniief. pounce. Among ether uses, when 
rubbed on paper alter "scratching out," it prevents the ink from running. 



164 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

whence they bore the name lyncurium. The writers of the middle 
ages called them "ghosts' candles," "devil's fingers," "nightmare's 
arrows," &c. The more learned supposed they might be petrified 
amber, fossil dates, stalactites, or spines of sea urchins. It was not 
till the beginning of the present century that their true nature was 
understood. The grooved Belemnitella mucronata, which is charac- 
teristic of the chalk and Upper Green Sand, is found on both sides of 
the Atlantic. 

Although the Belemnite itself has not been found preserved, its 
next door neighbor, the Belemnoteuthis, has been discovered at Chip- 
penham, (England,) with its shell, muscular mantle, fins, ink-bag, 
funnel, eyes, arms, and horny hooks, all complete, as if thrown by 
the tide upon our present shore. The hooks are formidable weapons, 
from twenty to forty pairs appearing on each arm. In this creature 
the guard is very thin. In Conotenthis, an active swimmer of the 
Neocoinian age, w r e have a very long pen terminating in a phragmo- 
cone shaped like a paper funnel; forming an exact transition from the 
Squids to the Belemnites. 

Family SpiRULiDiE. 

The shells of Spirilla are as common in tropical seas now, as were 
the Belemnites in those of the middle ages. Their resemblance to the 
pearly nautilus and other allied chambered shells, and especially to 
the fossil Gyroceras, or Crioceras, is very striking. Here is a loosely- 
coiled spiral shell, regularly divided by concave septa, like the Nauti- 
lus, each one pierced by a tubular siphuncle. But the resemblance is 
-superficial only. The last chamber of the nautilus tribe is always 
large, and contains the animal, which is fastened to it by powerful 
muscles. Whereas the last septm of the Spirilla is almost close to 
the margin, indicating that it is an internal shell, enveloped in the 
mantle of the cuttle-fish like the bone of the Sepia. Although the 
shell always forms part of the fancy collections from the Bahama 
Islands, and it is scattered by thousands on the shores of New Zealand, 
a perfect specimen of the animal has not yet been seen. It is, how- 
ever, formed on the usual decapodous type; only the fins and arm-cups 
are very small. The ink-bag lies against the last chamber of the shell. 
Beautiful as the Spirula is, it is still more so when the oifter coat on 
one side has been removed, by allowing it to float on dilute muriatic 
acid, so as to display the siphuncled septa. 

Among recent shells, the Spirilla stands by itself; but it is connected 
with the Belemnites and Squids by fossil forms. In Spirulirostra, 
from the Miocene of Turin, we have a very loose spiral siphunculated 
shell immersed in a kind of cuttle bone of irregular shape. In Bellop- 
tera, a fossil of the Nummulite age, the chambered part is nearly 
straight, and surrounded by a "bone" formed by two inverted cones 
with winged processes between. In Belemnosis, a unique fossil of the 
London Clay, the bone is not winged. In Helicerus, a fossil described 
by Professor Dana from the slate rocks of Cape Horn, there is a guard, 
as in the Belemnites, inclosing a chambered shell somewhat spiral at 
the nucleus. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 165 



ORDER II. TETRABKANCHIATA, 

or four-gilled ceplialopods, of Professor Owen. It might be thought 
a matter of little importance whether a cephalopod had one or two 
pairs of gills ; but it happens that this difference is coordinate with 
others that run through the whole form and structure of the animals. 
The two-gilled cuttles, we have seen, are adapted for an active and 
predacious life. As they could not dart after their prey carrying a 
heavy shell, they are naked, hut furnished with powerful arms and 
ink-hag for their protection. The four-gilled tribes, on the other hand, 
are destined for a quieter life, crawling on the ground like common 
Gasteropods. Instead of eight or ten arms with suckers and hooks, 
they have a multitude of small retractile feelers, something like the 
Sea Anemone. On these they can creep, and draw their prey to their 
mouths ; but they are not able to pursue it in the open sea. Instead 
of a strong breathing tube with a valve, answering the purpose of a 
forcing pump and propeller, they have only an open gutter made by a 
fold in the mantle, like the siphons of the Gasteropods. The eyes, 
which in the cuttles have optic ganglia much larger than the central 
brain, (Alcoch,) are here less conspicuous, and mounted on peduncles. 
The head and tentacles, instead of being the principal part of the 
creature, to which the body might appear subordinate, are here scarcely 
separated from it, and retractile within the general mass. They are 
always furnished with a chambered shell, the last cavity of which 
contains the animal. When disturbed, instead of squirting ink and 
darting off, it shrivels up into its cavity and takes its chance. If it 
sees a delicate crab at a distance, instead of pouncing on it, it must 
crawl, not, indeed, on "all fours," but on "all dozens;" or wait until 
the creature comes within seizing distance, when it will be entangled 
in the arms and be broken up by the jaws or gizzard. 

Only one animal formed after this type is now known to be living 
on the earth ; the pearly or true Nautilus, whose many-chambered 
shell has been an object of admiring speculation from early times. 
This is the last straggler belonging to a race which performed import- 
ant functions in the early ages of our globe. The Nautili themselves 
are among the few genera which have existed at every period of the 
world's history. Our knowledge begins with one species from the 
upper silurian rocks of Bohemia. It has not culminated at any par- 
ticular period; not more than seven species appearing in any forma- 
tion ; but it has never been without its representatives, and two or 
three species are now crawling on the sea bottoms in the East Indian 
archipelago. Before them, however, lived the great Orthoceratitcs of 
the palaeozoic seas ; and as they died out, the great family of the Am- 
monites developed themselves, and held possession of the seas till the 
close of the cretaceous period, when they suddenly disappeared, leaving 
not even a distant relation to grace the tertiary formations, Coordi- 
nate with the prevalence of four-gilled Ceplialopods, we find a general 
absence of the predacious Gasteropods which are now so numerous and 
highly developed. We may suppose, therefore, that they played the 
same part in the economy of nature; and that the Orthoceratites and 



166 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Ammonites did the work of destruction in ancient times, which is now 
performed by murices, strombs, whelks, and their allies. 

The chambered shell is always pearly within, but with an external 
porcellanous layer. The Chinese are fond of leaving patterns carved 
on the Nautilus while the body of the shell is uncoated, to show the 
nacre. In fossils sometimes the outer coat has perished, sometimes the 
inner, and sometimes both. The chambers are always connected by a 
siphuncle, through which the animal maintains a connection with the 
deserted chambers. These are lined with a very thin living membrane 
in the Nautilus] in the Orthoceratites they show the marks of blood- 
vessels, &c, which prove that they played some unknown part in the 
economy of the animals. That these air-chambers serve as a float, to 
balance the weight of the shell and enable the creature to swim if 
needful, cannot be doubted ; but the stories of their filling the cells 
with air or water at pleasure, and so sailing at the top or descending 
to the bottom, appear to be fables, like the classical legends of the 
Argonaut. The living Nautilus only comes to the surface occasionally, 
when the sea bottom has been agitated by storms ; and it is believed 
that the fossil species inhabited depths not greater than thirty fathoms. 
The chambers are filled with nitrogen gas, without oxygen or carbonic 
acid. The animal is attached to the shell by powerful adductor mus- 
cles. As these grow onwards, the animal gradually deserts the last 
chamber; and, at periodic periods of rest, a fresh septum is formed.* 

If a diving bell had explored what is now called New York and 



*The following lines have the rare merit of not losing truth at the same time that they are 
highly poetical. They are copied from the "Atlantic Monthly." Let the reader take in his 
hand a pearly Nautilus cut through the middle, and say — 

This is the Ship of Pearl, which, poets feign, 

Sails the unshadowed main; 

The venturous bark, that flings 
On the sweet summer wind its purpled wings, 
In gulfs enchanted, where the siren sings, 

And coral reefs lie bare; 
Where cold sea-maids rise, to sun their streaming hair. 

Its web of living gauze no more unfurl ; 

Wrecked is the ship of pearl! 

And every chambered cell, 
Where its dim, dreaming life was wont to dwell, 
As the frail tenant shaped his growing shell, 

Before thee lies revealed; 
Its irised ceiling rent, its sunless crypt unsealed! 

Year after year behold the silent toil 

That spread his lustrous coil; 

Still, as the spiral grew, 
He left his past year's dwelling for the new; 
Stole, with soft step, its shining archway through; 

Built up its idle door, 
Stretched in his last-found home, and knew the old no more. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 167 

Canada when they lay at the bottom of the palaeozoic seas, it would 
have encountered multitudes of long pointed shelly cones, floating 
upright in the water, some of them adorned with beautiful colors and 
sculpture, and slowly moving among the corals, sea-weeds, and stone- 
lilies which then adorned the gardens of the great deep. They be- 
longed to the 

Family Orthoceratidte, 

or Straight-horns. Some of them carried on their backs the largest 
shells that ever lived. A specimen belonging to Col. Jewett, of Albany, 
now measures twelve feet, and when perfect must have been fifteen feet 
in length. And yet, from the buoyancy of its contained air, the com- 
paratively feeble cephalopod could maintain its enormous leverage, and 
crawl on its slender tentacles. The aperture of the Ortlwceratites is 
generally contracted, and the head was perhaps always exposed. The 
siphuncle is very large, and in some of the genera very curiously formed, 
indicating much more vitality than in the corresponding part of the 
Spiral Nautilus. This was necessary in order to maintain a living con- 
nection at such a distance from the body. All the orthoceratites have 
simple, concave chambers, with a central opening. They disappear at 
the beginning of the secondary rocks, leaving their work to be per- 
formed by the huge Ammonites of the Lias. In Gonioceras, the shell is 
flattened, and the septa waved. In Actinoceras, Hormoceras and Hu- 
ronia, the siphuncular processes are enormously developed around the 
central tube, according, to different patterns. In Thoracoceras and 
Cameroceras, the siphuncle is marginal, and generally small. The 
strange fossils called Endoceras by Prof. Hall have very long slender 
shells, with a large cylindrical siphuncle, somewhat lateral. This is 
thickened internally by separate layers of shell, or funnel tubes one 
inside the other, called "embryo tubes" by the author, contrary how- 
ever to all analogy. Their use may have been to give increased strength 
in consequence of the great elongation of the shell, Some of the species 
appear to have been constituted from the accident of a young shell being 
lodged in the siphuncular cavity : others from the monstrous formation 
of a second siphuncle. 



Thanks for the heavenly message brought by thee, 

Child of the wandering sea, 

Cast from her lap forlorn! 
From thy dead lips a clearer note is borne 
Than ever Triton blew from wreathed horn! 

While on mine ear it rings, 
Through the deep caves of thought I hear a voice that sings: 

Build thee more stately mansions, my soul, 

As the swift seasons roll! 

Leave thy low-vaulted past! 
Let each new temple, nobler than the last, 
Shut thee from heaven, with a dome more vast; 

Till thou at length art free, 
Leaving thine outgrown shell, by life's unresting sea! 



168 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

The Phragmoceras and Oncoceras form a sub-family, in which the 
shell is pear-shaped and contracted at each end. 

The Lent forms constitute another sub-family, and were perhaps more 
nearly related to the Nautilus. Cyrtoceras is slightly curved, and 
shaped like a gigantic Caecum.* Gyroceras developes a shape like 
Spirula ; and Ascoceras displays a shell bent upon itself, like Ptycho- 
ceras among the Ammonites. 

Family NautilidyE. 

In the living Nautilus, the only interpreter of the great group of 
Tentacular Cephalopods (as D'Orbigny calls the order) the horny beaks 
are surrounded with shelly matter, giving them great crushing power 
over the shells of crustaceans. Similar beaks have been found fossil 
in various strata, associated with Nautili. In the Muschelkalk of Ba- 
varia, where there is only one species of Nautilus, the upper beak has 
been described as Bhyncolites hirundo, and the under beak as " Con- 
clwrliyncas avirostris." D'Orbigny has turned these mandibles into 
cuttle bones, under the names of Ehyncoteuiiris and Palceoteuihis ; one 
out of the many instances in which a knowledge of comparative anat- 
omy is shown to be essential to the study of organic remains. Round 
the mandibles is a circular fleshy lip ; round whicb again are about 
four dozen labial tentacles, answering to the "buccal membrane" of 
the cuttles, and serving to bring the prey to the mouth. Beyond these 
are a double series of tentacles, thirty-six in number, answering to the 
ordinary arms of the cuttles. When the creature is expanded for 
crawling or seizing prey, these would project somewhat in the form of 
a figure 8, the mouth being between the two groups of tentacles. 
When the creature retires into its shell, it protects the opening with a 
hood, which answers to the back pair of arms, united together and 
developed 'for that purpose, as are one pair in the female Argonaut to 
envelop the shell. The tentacles shut up in bunches into sheaths, 
which correspond to the eight common arms of the cuttles. Besides 
these there are four tentacles, one on each side of each eye : these appear 
to be feelers as in the Gasteropods. It is easy to see how much more 
highly organized and active is the paper, than its distant relative the 
Pearly Nautilus. In each case, all the animals examined have been 
females. It has been supposed that the shell-forms with a wide open- 
ing at the axis of the spire, belong to the males, which, as in the other 
Cephalopods, are few in number. Similar differences are found in 
almost all the Ammonites. 

The Fossil Nautili present several sections, differing more or less in 
type from the recent species. In Cryptoceras, the siphuncle is nearly 
external, as in the Ammonites, which it resembles in external form. 
In Tcmnoeheilus, the shell is carinaied. In Discites all the whirls are 
exposed and flattened. These sections are from the palaeozoic rocks. 
The " Ellipsolithes" were simply Nautili and Ammonites which had 
been accidentally compressed into an oval shape. 



• The Corniculhxa figured by Minister as a chambered shell, is probably only a badly 
observed Caecid. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 169 

In the Lituites of the ancient seas, we have a Nautilus, which, on 
coming to maturity, produced its tube in a straight line. The Hortolus 
resembles it, but with the whirls separate as in Spirilla. In Trochoceras, 
we find the spire more or less elevated, as. in snails. 

The sub-family CLYMENiDiE consists of forms in which the chambers 
are more or less waved or indented, forming a slight approach to the 
Ammonites. They are all palaeozoic forms, except Aturia, which makes 
its appearance unexpectedly in the London Clay. This has a very large 
internal siphon, like a number of funnels interwrapping each other, 
and reminding us somewhat of Endoceras among the Orthoceratites. 

Family AmmonitidjE. (Bam's-Hom Shells.) 

This group, so abundant in the middle ages both in species and in 
individuals, suddenly passed out of existence at the close of the creta- 
ceous age. The body of the Ammonites was long in proportion : the 
opening of the shell was guarded by curiously-shaped processes, and 
closed by a double operculum. In the beautiful flat Ammonites of the 
Oxford Clay, the shell makes two long forceps-shaped beaks, one on 
each side of the mouth. In another species, these beaks arch over the 
mouth and meet in the middle, leaving one hole for the head to crawl 
out at, and the other for the opercle-bearing arms. In other species, 
the aperture is almost closed up, as in many snails. 

In the keeled species, the operculum was of one horny piece, as in 
Gasteropods : but in the round-backed groups, it was shelly, and divided 
into two plates. Forty-five kinds have been described, one being from 
the palaeozoic rocks. They were called Trigonellites by the old writers, 
and doctors still disagree as to their nature. D'Orbigny thought them 
cirripedes : Meyer, bivalve shells : Sowerby, fish palates : Deshayes, 
gizzards of Ammonites : Coquand (followed by Chenu) cuttle bones. 
They have however sometimes been found in situ, exactly answering 
to the hood of the Nautilus. 

But the most remarkable character of the Ammonites is the sutures, 
or edges of the chambers. When an Ammonite is sliced down the 
middle, the septa simply appear waved as in Clymene. But when the 
outer shell is removed, and the cast of the edges is displayed, we find 
a beautiful leafy structure, often of very intricate pattern, but constant 
in each species. The siphuncle is always external. The outside is 
almost always very beautifully ornamented, with ribs, knobs, spines, or 
delicate stria?. The under layer is always pearly, as in Nautilus ; and 
beautiful objects they must indeed have been, when painted with vari- 
ous colors and patterns, to those who could have seen them with 
oolitic or cretaceous eyes. Some of them are of enormous size, meas- 
uring occasionally two feet in diameter. These are found in the Lias, 
and in the neighborhood of Bristol (England) may often be seen built 
into the walls by the road side. More than five hundred and thirty 
species are already known. They are rare in America, but very com- 
mon in Europe. Species, similar to those of the English oolite, have 
been found in the high passes of the Himalaya, more than 16,000 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

The most ancient of the tribe are the Goniatites, of the Upper Silu- 



170 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

rian and Carboniferous seas. In these, the sutures are not foliated, 
hut simply lohed, often at sharp angles. In the ceratites of the Mus- 
chelkalk series, the alternate lobes are denticulated. The Goniatite, 
when the spire is unrolled injto a straight cone, like the Orthoceratites, 
becomes a Bactrite; and the Ceratite, similarly unrolled, becomes a 
Baculina. 

The true Ammonites, with minutely lobed septa, present all varieties 
of shape ; from the compressed forms, with the whirls scarcely touch- 
ing, to the involute species, with round backs, narrow chambers, and 
very small umbilicus. They have been variously divided into groups 
by different authors ; but they pass into each other by very slight dis- 
tinctions. Often a shell, which in its .earlier stages would belong to 
one group, develops into a different one as it approaches maturity. 

The Ammonites present various aberrant forms, some corresponding 
to those already mentioned among the Nautili, some peculiar to them- 
selves. In Crioceras the whirls are separate, as in Spirula. In 
Scapliites, the shell begins like an Ammonite, the mouth is next pro- 
duced at a tangent, and then bent back upon itself. It would be curi- 
ous to know how such creatures got their living. Ancyloceras com- 
bines the characters of the two last genera, beginning as Spirula, and 
ending as Scapliites. Anisoceras has the same form, but drawn out of 
the plane into an irregular spiral, like Vermetus. Toxoceras presents 
a simple cycloidal curve. In Eamites, the shell begins cpuite straight, 
then bends and returns again parallel to itself, and so on, like a Spi- 
rula drawn out and flattened on its two sides. In the section Hamu- 
lina, the shell only makes one bend, the two parallel limbs having 
different sculptures, and the body-chamber occupying one limb and the 
elbow. The Ptychoceras is like a Hamulina, with the two limbs 
joined together ; still with different sculptures, so that fragments 
might easily be described as distinct species. In Baculites, the shell 
is quite straight, like a walking stick. It is so common in the Nor- 
mandy chalk as to give it the name of Baculite Limestone. 

In the Terrilite group, we have an approach to the ordinary shape 
of the univalve spiral shells. They are mostly reversed, and are sup- 
posed by Woodward to have had one pair of gills atrophied. In 
Heteroceras , after beginning as a Turrilite, the shell becomes separate, 
as in the adolescent Vermetus, and makes an irregular spire eveloping, 
but not touching, the spire. The Ilelicoceras is as it were a Turrilite, 
with all the whirls drawn out into a corkscrew. 

We have now enumerated the principal known forms of Cephalo- 
pods, both extinct and living. While they are the most highly 
organized of invertebrates, they cannot be considered as typical mol- 
lusks; that is, they do not represent the idea of molluscan life, as do 
the ordinary Gasteropods which we have next to consider. Now those 
classes which go off from the standard idea are generally pretty well 
defined ; while those in which the normal idea culminates are more 
variable in structure. We have seen that the cephalopods are all 
formed on two well-marked but distinct types ; and however much the 
shell of the Baculite may differ from the Nautilus, or the Argonaut's 
egg-case from the cuttle-bone, a beginner even could never doubt con- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 171 

cerning the class of a cephalopocl if lie saw it alive : for though star- 
fish and polypes, as well as Bryozoa, have a central mouth surrounded 
by arms or feelers, the great eyes and funnel, as well as the soft hut 
muscular body, would at once assign its position. It is not so with 
the Gasteropoda. ■ To say nothing of the different shapes of the shell, 
as e. g. in Chiton, Dentalium, Patella, Trochus, Vermetus, Cypraia, 
Murex, and Carinaria, the shapes of the animals are so very unlike 
that even now naturalists are not agreed as to the limits of the 
class ; still less on the arrangement of its fundamental divisions ; least 
of all, on the position of particular families and genera. This should 
by no means discourage the student ; but on the contrary fill him 
with zeal to prosecute a study in which so many unworked materials 
are within his own reach ; and in which, therefore, instead of merely 
following at a remote distance in the steps of the learned, lie may, 
without neglecting the main duties of his life, add materially to the 
stores of human knowledge, and even throw important light on the 
dark places of our planet's ancient history. 

CLASS GASTEROPODA; 

that is, belly-footed animals, or crawlers: comprising snails, periwin- 
kles, ivhelks, limpets, and "univalve shell-fish" generally. 

These creatures form three-fourths of the whole number of mollusks. 
They inhabit sea-shores, and the sea-bottoms, down to the lowest 
depths of ordinary animal life : they are found swimming in the open 
seas, or accompanying the floating gulf .weed : or they live in fresh 
waters, crawling on stones or aquatic plants. Lastly, they are found 
on dry land, in all kinds of situations where lime exists ; either in 
damp' and marshy places, or in rocky deserts ; either burrowing in 
earth or crevices, or creeping on the vegetation of forests, herbage, or 
lichen-covered stones. One cannot live anywhere, therefore, where 
crawling mollusks are not within our reach. The following classifi- 
cation may aid us in understanding these many-shaped creatures : 

Class. Sub-classes. Orders. Examples. 

( f Pectinibranchs . . . Whelks, Cones, Strombs, Cowries, Peri- 

I iransnnu A Tkr/-irra ! Winkles. 

PivObOBKANCHte. ..-j SccTIBRANCHS Limpets, Chiions, Sea-ears, Topshells. 

^.^™ nn <m C I Cirrobranchs Tooth Shells. 

GASTEROPODS. -j PULMO NATES Snails. 

I iiP^THnRmNras $ Tectibranchs. . ..Bullas, Sea Hares, Umbrellas. 

I OPib-IHOBhAlXCHs,. | NcmBRANCHS Doris, Eolis. &c. 

[ NUCLE0BB.ANCHS Carinaria . Janthina. 

In the Prosobranchs, the breathing cavity is at the back of the 
head, in advance of the heart. There is always a distinct shell, which 
generally covers the animal. They form two principal groups, (1) 
the Pectinibranchs, in which the gill is comb-shaped, and the animal 
unisexual : and (2) the Scutibranchs , in which the gills are in plates, 
like the bivalves, and the animal has the sexes united. The Cirro- 
branchs are a small and very aberrant group. 

In the Optsthobranchs, the gills are behind the heart, and- very 
variable in position and structure. There is no shell, except in a few 
families of the Tectibranchs, in which the gills are covered by the 



172 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

mantle. In the NudibrancJis, they form ornamental excrescences, 
more or less diffused over the body. The sexes are always united. 

In all the water shell-fish, the animal afterbirth undergoes a meta- 
morphosis, as in the insect tribe, before it assumes its normal condi- 
tion ; but in the intermediate tribe of Sxails, the creature is born into 
its proper shape. The sexes are united, as in the Opisthobranchs. 

The Nucleobranchs have the gills in a tuft at the lower part of the 
back, sometimes protected by a shell. They do not crawl like true 
Gasteropods, but are an aberrant group passing over to the Pteropocls. 
They swim in the open sea ; and while they devour the jelly-fish, are 
themselves the prey of true fishes and cuttles. 

ORDER PECTIMIBRANCHIATA. (Comb-gMed Crawlers.) 

All these creatures have a spiral body, guarded by a shell. When 
they walk about, the liver and other viscera remain in the upper por- 
tion of the shell : but a large fleshy foot is protruded, on which the 
animal crawls ; as also the head, with a distinct neck. On the head 
are a pair of tentacles, (commonly called "horns," from their similar- 
ity of position with the cow's horns,) which are extremely delicate 
organs of sense. The eyes are on these, or at their base ; or, some- 
times, on little eye-stalks near. In front is the snout, which is either 
short, as in the periwinkles, or produced into a long trunk, as in the 
carrion-feeding Strornbs. Sometimes it appears very short and inno- 
cent; but really it has swallowed, and can at any moment dart out, 
an enormous proboscis, armed with powerful rows of teeth. The bot- 
tom of the shell is in reality its front; for there the animal breathes ; 
there being either a pipe or a hole to let the water-current in to the 
gills. The alimentary canal is doubled back over itself, terminating 
near the gills, so as to be able to act, when the creature is at rest in 
his shell. There are seldom any differences observable in the shells 
of the two sexes. The intromittent organ is near the head, and gene- 
rally very long; varying considerably in shape in the different genera. 
At the end of the foot is a horny operculum or toe nail ; which is drawn 
in last of all into the shell, and serves to close its aperture, like a 
trap -door. 

Remembering that the shell is part and parcel of the living animal — ■ 
a secretion from its muscular skin or mantle — of truly organized struc- 
ture, though not endowed with feeling; we shall naturally expect to 
find differences in the shell corresponding with those in the sentient 
inhabitant. This is generally, but not always, the case. Lamarck 
thought that all creatures with a round-mouthed shell were herbivor- 
ous, and all those with a notched mouth carnivorous; but now it is 
known that some round-mouthed groups are very tierce, as Natica and 
Scalaria, while some that were thought predacious, as Cerithium, are 
vegetarians. In Melania and Io, Bulimus and Achaiina, we have both 
forms oi shell in one family. So Clark imagined that all creatures 
with many-whirled opercula were hermaphrodites; all with few whirls 
unisexual. But the hermaphrodite Nerites have few whirls; while 
Modulus among the Periwinkles, and OeritMdea among the Cerites, 
differ irom the other members of their unisexual families in having 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 173 

many whirls. The study of mo Husks is calculated to warn any stu- 
dent against hasty generalizations. He is continually rinding char- 
acters important in one family, which prove of little moment in 
another: marks which he has long rightfully considered coordinate 
with special distinctions, appearing again in quite different connec- 
tions, as well as essential differences of animal appearing, where there 
was nothing in the shell to lead to their suspicion. An artificial clas- 
sification, therefore, however convenient as an index to characters and 
species, does not convey that knowledge of the whole relationships of 
the animal, which we ought at least to seek to express. It is to he 
regretted that some of the most learned of modern writers have gone 
on this artificial plan ; and, from a determination to be guided by cer- 
tain special characters as fundamental, have grouped together very 
unlike creatures, and separated others with natural affinities, to the 
great perplexing of beginners. Thus, in the arrangement followed 
at the British Museum, the G-asteropods and bivalves are grouped 
together, simply because they have a foot; and the Lamp-shells, Ptero- 
pods, and Cephalopods together, because they have none: the noble 
Cuttles being degraded to the lowest rank among mollusks; and two 
closely allied classes of bivalve shells, as well as the nearly related 
Gasteropods and Pteropods being separated in the primary division, 
simply because they have or have not a foot — a character which varies 
to the greatest extent within each separate class ; for many of the 
Heteropods among the crawlers have not so much of foot as the cut- 
tles, and the oysters among the bivalves have none at all. The same 
grouping, according to individual characters, prevails throughout the 
subordinate divisions. But there is a difference between a classifica- 
tion and an index. The Linnasan grouping of plants is an admirable 
index; by consulting which an unknown flower may be at once 
put into its proper place; but it tells very little, and that little often 
erroneously, of the true relationships of plants. The "Natural Sys- 
tem" is much harder to learn, and requires constant alterations; but, 
so far as it is ascertained, it is a compendium of the existing state of 
science. So the British Museum method is an admirable index; for a 
student, having a fresh animal under examination, can at once ar- 
range it under its appropriate "Suborder, Tribe, A, a, *, f," &c. ; but 
whether he is showing, or upsetting its true relationships by this pro- 
cess, is yet to be seen. It was thought in the days of Lamarck that 
animals, if fully known, might be arranged in a straight line, gradu- 
ally ascending from the monad to man. Every progress in our dis- 
coveries impinges upon this idea, and shows that we cannot even 
arrange by radiations or circles in one plane. We have to branch off 
into space, like the suns in the universe: the attractions of each, with 
its attendants in orbits of different planes, being to every other. To 
express this in a superficial way on paper must needs only give us 
partial impressions, which nothing but patient study can develop into 
even an approximation to the truth. 

The comb-gilled crawlers very naturally divide themselves into 
those with a long retractile proboscis, which can be drawn into the 
mouth or extended at pleasure; and those with an external muzzle, 
more or less produced into a snout. The first group are all preda- 



174 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

cious, rasping the flesh or sucking the juices of other mollusks, crus- 
taceans, or zoophytes. The second group are variously organized, 
according as they scour the shores for carrion, browse on the sea 
weed, or are satisfied, like the bivalves, with the organic matter that 
the sea wafts to their mouths. In each group Ave find creatures of 
equally high organization, as e. g., the whelks and strombs; in each, 
some very low, as Magilus and Vermetus. As a general rule, the 
operculum in the predacious group is in concentric layers ; in the vege- 
table-feeders, more or less spiral in its growth. 

Group Proboscidifera. (Craivlers, ivitli Retractile Proboscis.) 

All these creatures are able to swallow their snouts and their tongues. 
They have sharp tentacles, with the eyes generally placed on knobs, 
part way up their sides. They have thin necks; and, when not hun- 
gry, appear very innocent, as well as graceful creatures, the dangerous 
organs being quite concealed. Their foot is large, flat, and spread- 
ing, more separate from the body than in the snails. But when their 
hungry or ferocious instincts are aroused, they dart out a long trunk, 
sometimes even longer than their shell, at the end of which are vari- 
ous drilling teeth, so arranged that they can bore a hole, even in the 
strongest shells, and suck out the unfortunate inhabitant. Every one 
must have observed these accurately turned holes, especially near the 
hinge of bivalve shells. Besides this drill-bearing trunk, they have 
a long horny tongue, or "lingual ribbon," armed with hundreds of 
teeth, arranged in various patterns, which differ in the various fami- 
lies. These tongues, when at rest, lie coiled up in a cavity near the 
stomach. They do not make such quick work with their prey as do 
the cuttles. Fancy the condition of an unfortunate clam or mussel, 
resting peaceably in his bivalve shield, as he hears a grating noise, 
outside his liver, going on hour after hour, lie knows not why. At 
last he feels the drill, and then the horny tongue, entering his vitals, 
and he is sucked out of existence without possibility of defense! 

The shell of the Trunk-bearers may almost always be known by a 
notch or canal at the base ; the object of which is to protect, or at any 
rate allow the egress of the breathing pipe, which, as in the Nautilus, 
is an open gutter formed by a lengthening and folding of the mantle. 
In most of the tribe the trunk is drawn in base foremost; but in the 
aberrant group of Cowries, Dr. Stimpson has observed that the tip is 
first swallowed. In another group, of which the Cones are the type, 
there is said to be no separate tongue ; but the teeth are inserted, in 
two rows of organs like the sting of a bee, in the substance of the 
trunk itself. The predacious Pectinibranchs are arranged according 
to the form of teeth on the tongue-ribbo'n. 

Foremost in rank and beauty among the Gasteropods, stands the 

Family MuricibvE, 

or Eock-shells, in which the lingual ribbon is long and narrow, with 
a multitude of very small teeth arranged in rows of three, (I'M,) each 
of them with several spikes. The middle row only is fixed. In Murex 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 175 

proper, the animal, as it increases in size, periodically produces beau- 
tiful foliations or varices from its mantle, at least three on each whirl. 
In the typical species these are thin, light, and armed with numerous, 
often very long spines; and the canal which holds the breathing 
siphon is greatly produced, nearly closed, and also armed with spines. 
One would think the animal would be as much incommoded by its 
splendid dress as a fashionable lady in a crowded ball-room. As the 
the animal grows, it eats away the last year's varix, which would 
otherwise close up the aperture. It often happens that old mollusks, 
either to lighten the weight they have to carry on their backs, or from 
becoming more portly inside, eat out part or the whole of the interior 
partitions in the same way. If the spire is long, or they are attacked 
by borers in the upper region, where the liver works, they„also have 
the power of partitioning off the unused or diseased part by septa, 
which, however, are not regular or perforated as in the Nautili. 

When the shells are strong, and the varices numerous and foliated, 
they are called Phyllonotus. They are very numerous and beautiful 
on the west coasts of tropical America and Africa. The shells of 
Pteronotus have a few wing-like varices. When these are feebly 
developed, as in Muricidea, they pass into the next genus, Tr option, 
where the varices have degenerated into mere raised laminae. This is 
an arctic form, both of the northern and southern seas. The Typhis, 
which appears first in the older Tertiaries, is a Murex with a single 
open spine between the varices. This is supposed to perform the 
function of an excurrent canal, like the slit in Pleurotoma, or the hole 
in Vissurella. Another group, of which the Spindle-shells are the 
type, has no varices at all ; but both the spire and canal are greatly 
elongated. The true Fusus is a tropical form;, but an intermediate 
group, with moderate canal, (Chrysoclonms,) abounds in the arctic seas. 
The Chrysodomus antiquus, still common in the British seas, and found 
in the whole circumpolar region of the North, was equally common in 
the various tertiary epochs of the English Crag. A reversed variety 
(" Fusus contrarius") was the characteristic species of the Red Crag, 
and is now found living, beyond the limits of the normal form, in the 
Mediterranean and on the cost of Spain. The Scotch call it the 
" roaring buckie," from the " sound of the sea " which the air makes 
along the spiral passages when held to the ear. The Zetlanders hang- 
it flat, put a wick in the canal and oil in the body whirl, and make a 
lamp of it. It is now fashionable to suspend the great Turbo in the 
same way as a flower vase. The Clavellas have curiously deformed 
mouths, and abounded in the Eocene age. 

Lamarck, knowing little of the animals, divided his families accord- 
ing to the length of the canal ; but this is no index to the length of the 
siphon. In the Pisania group, the canal is very short, but the siphon 
is moderately long and curled back over the shell in walking. A tooth 
on the body whirl, marking off the top end of the mouth, shows the 
position of the excurrent canal. The Enginas are little shells with 
wry mouths, about which very little is known, though they are very 
common on both shores of tropical America. 

As Pisania represents in this family Lamarck's Purpurids, so Comi- 
nella and Metula represent his Buccinids. They are in feet Buccinums 



176 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

with, a Muricoid operculum. Their favorite haunts are the rocky 
shores of South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand; Metula being an 
American and East Indian group. 

In the same way Anachis represents the ColumbeUas; from which 
the shell is known simply by having a more elevated spine and trans- 
verse ribs. 

Family Buccinid.e. (Whelks.) 

The genus Buccinum of Linnaeus contained all the shells with a 
notched base : a heterogeneous group, most of which have been moved 
off, step by step, to other families and genera; leaving only a few 
species, mostly from the boreal seas in each hemisphere, to keep up 
the ancient family name. The Whelks are very closely related to the 
Murices, from which they differ chiefly in having a thin, oval opercu- 
lum, with the nucleus a little out of the centre. The true Buccinum 
has a notch for the breathing tube, and Stromhella (a shell common in 
the Norwegian seas, but still so rare near England that good specimens 
sell for ten dollars) a short canal. The Columbelke, which are very 
pretty little shells, extremely abundant in both oceans of tropical 
America, are still but little known in their economy, but belong by 
operculum to this family. They have their mouths so twisted by 
teeth, that the foot and operculum has to go in and out sideways. 
Perhaps this accounts for the operculum being so often broken and 
abnormally repaired. It is a curious fact that whatever be the form 
of the operculum in the different tribes of predacious mollusks, when- 
ever it has been broken and has to be repaired by the animal, it always 
takes a simple oval shape with concentric layers, the nucleus being in 
the middle. In one place on the English coast there is found a race of 
Buccinum undatum (the common whelk of the English and American 
coasts) which perpetuates a very abnormal condition. They have two 
small opercula of more or less irregular shapes, but each of concentric 
elements. Probably their remote ancestor met with an accident, and 
has transmitted her mode of repairing the fracture to her descendants. 

Family Pyrulidje. 

The shells, of this group run into those of Fusus by insensible gra- 
dations; but the animals present a well-marked difference. The neck 
(not the snout, as in the Strombs) is very long, the proboscis being 
still further extensile. The head and tentacles are small in proportion. 
Many of these shells are very large. The Pyrula melongena and P. 
patula, inhabiting respectively the Atlantic and Pacific shores of 
tropical America, are eaten by the natives. In the genus Hemifusus 
are two of the largest living Gasteropocls, the H. colosseus and probos- 
cidalis of the East Indies. 

Family Purpurid.e. 

The animal of Purpura differs very little from that of Buccinum and 
Murex; but the operculum is formed on a very peculiar plan. Outside 



N^,^ LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 177 

it looks shapeless, like a chip of rosewood; within, however, it is seen 
that it has been formed on the usual concentric plan, but with the 
nucleus elongated, and turned towards the outer lip of the shell. The 
name of the principal genus is derived from a crimson dye which many 
of the species exude when pressed. It was not, however, from these, 
but from the Murex brandaris and M. trunculus of the Mediterranean, 
that the ancients obtained their celebrated Tyrian purple. Cavities in 
the rocks, with heaps of the broken shells, where the mollusks were 
sacrificed to dye the robes of the nobles, are still seen on the shores of 
the Morea and Levant. 

The shells of this group reproduce many of the forms of the Muri- 
cids, but with the chip, instead of the claw-shaped operculum. Thus 
Cerastoma has regular varices like Murex and Vitidaria ; irregular 
ones like Trophon. Rhizocheilus has generally been confounded with 
Muricidea. Chorus presents the shape of Chrysodomus, and liapana 
of Pyrula. Iopas takes the place of Pisania; the wry-mouthed Rici- 
nula of Engina; and Nitidella represents Anachis and the Columbellas. 
The true Purpura has a peculiar scooping out of the pillar-lip. This, 
when exaggerated, and at the same time the body whirl greatly 
enlarged at the expense of the spire, produces the common Concholepas 
of the Peruvian coast, which at first sight might be taken for a limpet. 
In Monoceros, a genus almost peculiar to the Avest coast of America, 
and ranging from California to Cape Horn, a sharp spine is developed 
at the base of the outer lip. The same is seen in Chorus, Cerastoma, 
and Concholepas ; and may be looked upon as a west American pecu- 
liarity. 

In the Rapana group, Melapium represents the Pyrula melongena, 
and the delicate Papa shells the Ficulas. The Pseudoliva is clothed 
with a coarse epidermis, and has a channel running spirally outside 
the base of the shell, the use of which is not known. In the angular 
Cuma tectum and in Purpura columellaris , there is a hump which runs 
along the middle of the pillar lip. 

The purple-shells frequent rocky shores all round the globe, and are 
generally very prolific. They feast on bivalves, periwinkles and other 
shell-fish. Some of them are very sedentary in their habits, especially 
the Rhizocheils, which clasp round the stems of corals and prey upon 
the Polypes. These often have the breathing canal almost rudimentary. 

The Magilus, which used to be considered an Annelid, and afterwards 
a Vermetid, is perhaps a degraded member of this group. When young 
it has a white, globular shell, shaped like Natica. It establishes itself 
among the Red Sea Polypes ; and as the corals grow upwards, so does 
the Magilus, forming a solid, irregular tube, with a keel to represent 
the canal. Leptoconchus resembles its young state, but with a slight 
notch, and no operculum. The Magilus, having plenty of lime to eat, 
fills up its spire and the forsaken part of its tube with solid shelly 
matter. 

Family Nassid^e. (Dog-ivhelks .) 

The Nassas have small, compact, highly sculptured shells, with a 
sharply twisted notch, through which the long curly siphon protrudes. 
There is generally a strong lump on the inner lip. The animal has 
12 



178 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

two slender tails at the end of its foot, and a very thin, horny, triangular 
operculum, very finely serrated on each side. When the operculum is 
reproduced after injury, very few serrations are formed. In the Phos 
group, there is only one tail, the eyes are very near the tips of the ten- 
tacles, and the operculum is claw-shaped, without serrations. The 
animal and even the operculum is as yet unknown in many of the 
genera and most of the species of this group : and it is probable that 
the family will need considerable revision. 

In Bullia, a genus which delights in southern peninsulas, the foot 
is extremely large, giving a glossy coat to the shell, and the animal is 
blind. It probably plows the wet sand for bivalves, like Natica. The 
P seudoslrombs form a transition between these and the ordinary forms, 
not having any gloss on the spire. The true Nassas are active bur- 
rowers, curling their nose-pipe up through the twisted notch, while 
they search the sand for bivalves. They are extremely abundant in 
tropical seas, both in species and individuals. In Desmoulea the shell 
is rolled up almost into a ball ; and in Cyclops, it is curiously distorted 
and flattened like a Nerite. Several of the shells called Nassas, as the 
common " Buccinum obsoletitm" of the west Atlantic, and Nassa pana- 
mensis of the east Pacific, have a Pisanoid operculum. They perhaps 
belong, with Northia, to the Phos group. The Phos shells are very 
beautifully cancellated : they have a sharp plait near the breathing 
notch, and a wave at the base of the outer lip. Nassaria represents 
the Tritons in this family, and Cyllene the Volutes. 

The Eburnas are very beautifully spotted shells, strong, solid, and 
more or less shining. They are always smooth, and rarely display any 
epidermis. They form a transition to the Harps. 

Family Pusioxellice. 

This little group has shells like Fusus, but the operculum is sub- 
triangular, with the nucleus on the inner margin. 

Family Turriculidje, 

These creatures would be taken iovMitras from the shell alone. Indeed 
the only characters by which the shells can be distinguished are the 
trifling ones that they are externally ribbed transversely, and the outer 
lip furrowed within ; characters which in other groins would only 
amount to specific difference. Here, however, they are coordinate (so 
far as yet observed) with important characters in the dentition ; the 
true Mitres being toothed like Fasciolaria, which will be presently 
described ; while the Turriculce agree with Murex. 

In the remaining family of this group, the foot is greatly developed, 
causing a more or less glossy secretion over the whole shell. 

Family Oltvid.e. {Olives and Harps.) 

When the foot is very large, we often find the operculum very small 
or absent. In the Harps and Olives, the foot is deeply chiseled on each 
side of the front ; so as to make lappels, which may be doubled up over 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 179 

the head to protect it as it burrows in the sand. There are three 
divisions in the family, of which the types are Oliva, Ancilla and Harpa, 
and are thus characterized : 

Olivine. Shell compressed, smooth : pillar plaited : suture chan- 
neled : a tail from the side of the mantle occupying the groove. 
Ancillin^e. Without shell channel and mantle tail. 
Harping. Shell ventricose, with varices pointed at the suture. 

The Olives are among the best known and most beautiful of shells. 
They are found plentifully in all tropical seas, especially in the islands 
of the Indian and Pacific oceans. They are fond of burrowing in wet 
sand in quest of bivalves ; and can dart through the water with toler- 
able rapidity, by expanding and flapping their fleshy foot. They are 
very rapacious ; and the larger kinds are fished by hooks baited with 
flesh. The shells are heavy, painted in beautiful patterns and highly 
polished. The colors are often very variable in the same species ; and 
as the shape of the shells is generally pretty uniform, there is great 
difficulty in discriminating several of the kinds. The pillar-lip is not 
plaited, as in the Volutes and Mitres ; but there are numerous spiral 
folds, of which the foremost unite and travel round the base of the spire, 
forming a band of different color. 

In the Olivellas, which are all small shells, living in vast shoals on 
each side of tropical America, the spire is elevated and the mouth ex- 
panded at the base. The foot is not so large ; and the typical species 
have a very small operculum, which is however wanting in Lampro- 
cloma. In Agaronia the shell is even wider, and very thin. The back 
is destitute of polish, and is therefore not so much immersed in the foot. 
It frequents the west coasts of America and Africa, and is found in the 
Eocene strata. In Scaphida the shell is distorted by an enormous lump 
at the suture. 

The Ancillas are polished shells, generally of a uniform white, fawn, 
or brown color, without pattern. They are particularly plentiful in 
Africa, and in the Eocene strata. In Dipsaccus which has, and San- 
clella which has not, a winding umbilicus, the spire is elevated, and the 
spiral band round the base of the shell ends in a rudimentary tooth. 
In Anaulax the shell is not polished outside, and the shell is thin and 
wide-mouthed, like Agaronia in the last group. 

The Harps form a small but well-marked group ; of which the species 
are so like each other that even the Messrs. Adams did not attempt to 
subdivide them. They all have ventricose shells, with varicose ribs at 
regular intervals, which may be sharp or flattened on the same speci- 
men. They are painted brown in beautifully penciled patterns, with 
shades of pink and white ; and on the pillar is a large callosity, formed 
by the olive-like foot of the animal. It is said that the creature will 
part with its tail, rather than be caught ; after the manner of the 
Italian lizards. In the London Clay is a curious fossil, the " Buccinum 
■stromboides" of authors, which forms an interesting transition between 
the Harps and the Ancillas. It has only rudimentary varices ; but 
their pointed tops remain. The general shape, and the lump on the 
pillar, formed by the animal's foot, which is too large to enter the shell, 
show close relations with the true Harps. 



180 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

The teeth, in all the families thus far enumerated are formed on the 
Whelk type, in rows of three each ; of which the central one is broad 
and fixed, while the side ones are movable. All three are armed with 
variously shaped hooks. In the next group of families, the lateral as 
well as the central teeth are fixed ; and the shell always has folds on 
the pillar. 

Family Fasciolariad^. {Tulip-shells and Mitres.) 

This family embraces two very different looking groups of shells, of 
which Fasciolaria and Mitra are the types. They agree however in a 
very peculiar dentition. The central teeth in each row are very small ; 
but the lateral ones are long, narrow, and armed with points like a saw. 
The tulip-shells are not very strong, generalty knobbed outside, with 
the breathing canal a little curved. They are known from Fusus by a 
few very slight and slanting folds on the pillar, close to the breathing- 
pipe. The Fasciolaria gigantea of the South Carolina seas is sometimes 
two feet in length, rivaling in size the great Hemifusi of the East 
Indies. Small specimens greatly resemble the F. princejis of the west 
coast, but are at once distinguished by the sculpture on the operculum 
of the latter. The group called Fulgur, which abounds on the Atlantic 
shores of North America, with the East Indian group Tudicla, were 
formerly reckoned with the Pyrulas. Whether they have a whelk- 
like dentition, or whether they are Fasciolarias with undeveloped plaits, 
cannot be told till their animals have been dissected. Whether it 
speaks well for the zeal of American naturalists that these large species, 
which can be so easily examined, should be abundant in collections, as 
far as the shell is concerned, but as yet undescribed from the living 
animals, must be for others to determine. 

In Latirus, the shell is shaped like Fusus or Pisania, but with a 
few parallel plaits. In Peristernia these evanesce, as in Fulgur; and 
some species can hardly be known from Pisania. In Leucozonia , 
there is a spine in the outer lip, as in Monoceros. The stout claw- 
shaped operculum, which characterizes this tribe as well as the Muri- 
cids, at once distinguishes the shell: but Lamarck's error has been 
repeated by many authors, and even by Chenu. 

The genus Fastigiella is known only by its shell ; which seems to 
represent the Cerites among the Fasciolarias. The plaits are obsolete. 
The Mitra group have always been great favorites. The}'' generally 
have slender, pointed shells, with elegant sculpture and particularly 
brilliant painting. There are a great multitude of species, but most 
of them are rare. They have a love for an insular life; being found 
in great abundance in the islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans, 
while the shores of the neighboring continents have only a few, and 
those plain species. The Atlantic ocean is not their favorite: even 
the choice islands of the West Indies only boasting of a few dull 
species. The pillar lip is always strongly plaited, the top plaits being 
the strongest. They are remarkable for doubling up their little foot 
longitudinally, when they draw themselves in. The operculum is 
generally absent. They have the power of emitting a very nauseous 
odor when disturbed. Their proboscis is enormously long, out of all 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 181 

proportion to the size of the animal. It is difficult to say where they 
find room to deposit it when swallowed. Swainson, who, with many 
fancies, devoted" much time to pointing out the analogies among vari- 
ous groups of mollusks, paid particular attention to the Mitres. It 
has already been shown that one group passes into the Muricid. 
Another possesses the dentition of the Volutes. In the restricted 
group, the Strigatellas have the aspect of Columbella. They are found 
under stones at low water, and are generally covered with an epider- 
mis. Even when living, they are often coated over with nullipore, 
an evidence of their sluggish habits. The Imbricarias are, as it were, 
plaited cones, and Cylindra has the shape of the Olives. They live in 
the sheltered sands of the coral lagoons, and even in the black mud of 
mangrove swamps. Lastly, the fossil genus Volvaria has close rela- 
tionship with Marginella. 

Family Turbinellice. ("False Volutes.") 

The Turbinelles are known from the last family by the lateral teeth 
of the lingual ribbon ; which, instead of being saw-shaped, have only 
one strong horn on each to tear with. The middle tooth, however, is 
very long and trident-shaped. The shell always has strong, trans- 
verse plaits in the middle of the pillar lip. The true Turbinelli are 
pear-shaped, with a long canal. The " 9 shank-shell" is carved by the 
Cingalese; and when found reversed is considered sacred. The priests 
make use of it to administer their medicines. The group Cynodonta, 
of which the two finest species inhabit the tropical shores of Atlantic 
and Pacific America, are compact, and somewhat triangular in form. 
The shell looks as if it bid defiance to all enemies, being extremely 
strong and heavy, armed with stout knobs, and closed with a thick 
twisted operculum. The animal, however, is said to be timid and 
inactive, shrinking quickly within its shell at the slightest alarm. 

In the next section there is only one row of teeth on the lingual 
ribbon, the lateral series being obsolete. The central teeth have gen- 
erally three lobes, but sometimes they end in a single spike. 

Family Volutin. (Volutes.) 

The Volutes are large, showy shells ; most of them rare, and highly 
prized by collectors. They have a very short spire, with a mamil- 
lated nucleus, which is sometimes disproportionately large. The bot- 
tom of the pillar lip is always plaited, with a notch for the breathing 
pipe, which is short, turned back, and often furnished with little flaps 
at the base. The foot is generally large, sometimes with a slit on 
each side near the head, as in the Olives. The tentacles are small, 
far apart, and joined by a veil. The eyes are on lumps behind the 
tentacles. 

The Boat-shells and Melons are large and thin, with very expanded 
mouth, and a few sharply-cut pillar-plaits. They are, as it were, 
Marsupial animals, the eggs being hatched within the mother's body, 
and the young ones living there till they are more than an inch 
long. The Cymbas are almost exclusively West African shells. They 
were called Yet by Adanson, who tells us that the high winds some- 



182 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

times drive slioals of them on shore, where they are eaten for food. 
They have a very large, irregular apex, surrounded by a keeled chan- 
nel, and a twisted pillar. The Melos are brightly painted shells from 
the East Indies, often with a pretty crown of spines around the short, 
smooth spire. In Volutella (a tropical American shell) the expanded 
mantle deposits a coat of enamel over the spire, which is often pro- 
duced into a long horn. Voluta (proper) has a small operculum, and 
numerous secondary plaits. The typical species, from the West In- 
dies, is beautifully painted with a pattern resembling the staves of 
music. The commoner species belong to the group Aulica, in which 
the shell is generally tuberculated, with a sharp outer lip. In Sca- 
phella, a southern form, also found fossil in the English Crag, the 
shell is narrow and elongated. In Fidguraria, the shell is striated, 
and the foot is comparatively small. In Callipara, the shell is like a 
young cowry, with very small plaits. In Lyria, the shell is shaped 
like Marginalia, with very small plaits, and ribbed exterior. It is the 
only form of volute found on the west Coast* of America. 

The family of the Volutes make their first appearance in the creta- 
ceous epoch, but very sparingly. In the tertiary groups, particu- 
larly the Eocene of the London and Paris basins, a peculiar form 
abounds, called Volulilites, in which the spire is sharp, as in Mitra, 
and the plaits are often very faint. A single recent specimen of this 
group was dredged in 132 fathoms of water, off the Cape of Good 
Hope, during the voyage of the Samarang. 

Another group differ remarkably from the true Volutes in the shape 
of the central teeth. Instead of having two large lobes on each side 
of the small central one, they have only one central spike ; which rises 
up so sharply from its arched support, that when arranged over each 
other on the tooth-ribbon, they present the appearance of a keel. 
There is no character in the shell by which the Amoria can be safely 
separated from the ordinary Volutes. In the few specimens examined, 
the surface is polished, and there are five oblique pillar-plaits. 

The same lingual detition is found in the little Volutomitra grarn- 
landica ; remarkable as representing an essentially tropical type on a 
boreal shore. The animal and shell are shaped for the most part as 
in Mitra, from which the teeth are essentially different : so that it may 
be either considered the representation of the Volutes among the 
Mitres ; or, as placed by Dr. Gray, the mitred element among the 
Volutes. 

Family Mab,ginellid2e. 

The Margindlas are a numerous group of very pretty little shells, 
great favorites with collectors from their high polish, and beautiful 
colors. They are almost all from the tropical seas, and the largest 
number of finest species are from Africa. If we judge by the shells 
alone, they form an exact transition from the Volutes to the Cowries ; 
in their plaited pillar and general shape resembling the former, in 
their glossy coat and thickened lip the latter family. Indeed the tran- 
sition-genus Erato is placed by systematists sometimes in one, some- 
times the other group. But so far as the animals are yet known, 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 183 

they are widely dissimilar. In dentition, they are nearly related to 
the Volutes, having only a central row of teeth. But these, instead 
of having three lohes, or a spike, are very broad, with nine small 
serrations. The proboscis is short, I think ; the siphon without auri- 
cles ; and the foot is folded up longitudinally, as in the Mitres. They 
further differ from most of the Volutes in their high polish, caused 
by the sides of the mantle folding over the shell. Sometimes it deposits 
a large callosity on each side of the mouth. 

In the typical Marginellas, the spire is distinct ; the siphonal notch 
is not sharply cut out as in the Volutes ; and there are five distinct 
plaits on the pillar. They inhabit clear sands, in somewhat shallow 
water, and glide along with great rapidity. In Persicula, the spire 
is concealed ; the pillar has numerous plaits ; and the outer lip has 
an excretory notch, and is generally grooved within. In Volvarina 
the shell is very thin, scarcely thickened at the lip, and with very 
small plaits on the pillar. Several small species of this group are 
common in the West Indies. A group of small shells, called Closia 
by Dr. Gray, are extremely like Cyprceovula in shape. The outer lip 
is toothed, and the inner has two large and two small plaits. 

In the next group of families, the teeth are arranged in rows of 
seven each ; the central an inner lateral teeth being fixed, as in Fas- 
ciolaria ; but the two outer teeth on each side being movable. The 
inner teeth have numerous serrations on the edges. They are gene- 
rally very small and transparent ; but the animal makes up for their 
minuteness by having a strong prehensile collar at the end of the 
trunk. In this are inserted a number of horny plates, armed with 
numerous rows of conical teeth. 

Family CassidjE. {Helmet Shells.) 

The true Helmets are large, handsome shells, somewhat triangular 
in form, with very short spire, narrow mouth, toothed on each side, 
and the canal suddenly twisted backward. Like the Murices, they 
leave a varix outside the shell at every period of growth ; which, in 
this genus, occurs at every two-thirds of a revolution. The animal 
has a large strong foot ; and the mantle deposits a very thick pillar- 
lip, the edge of which projects so as partially to conceal the spire. As 
the shell grows, the twisted canal is covered over by the advancing 
pillar lip, leaving a cavity behind. The creatures are active and vora- 
cious ; crawling, with their stout helmet behind their heads, (a fashion 
which ladies have sometimes imitated,) and their nose-pipe bent back 
over it, along the sandy flats where the unconscious bivalves quietly 
wait to be eaten. The inner lip consists of various plates of enamel, 
which lie in alternate colors. Artists have taken advantage of this to 
carve cameos ; which are produced by cutting the figure in one of the 
layers, and leaving the groundwork in the next. The large cameo- 
shell, called by Lamarck Cassis madagascarensis , is a native of the 
Bahama Islands, whence large quantities are brought to the Liver- 
pool market. Dead shells have been dredged by Dr. Stimpson off the 
coast of North Carolina. The colors of the cameos differ according to 



184 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

tlie species of the shell. The operculum of Cassis is very long and 
narrow, like that of the Buccinum drawn out ; hut in the swollen hel- 
mets (Bezoardica) it is shaped like an expanded fan, with the nucleus 
on the inner margin. The shells of this group seldom make a varix 
except when mature ; and the pillar lip is thin, seldom plaited. In 
Levenia (peculiar to west tropical America) the outer lip is sharp, 
hut thickened within ; the operculum being very small, to suit the 
contracted aperture. In Cypreecassis, there is no operculum ; the 
mouth is narrow and toothed on each side like the Cowries ; and the 
inner lip is very thick, hut not projecting as in the true helmets. In 
Cassidaria, (a genus almost confined to the Mediterranean,) the shell 
is like Bezoardica, hut the canal is only partially bent back: in Sconsia 
it is not bent back at all. In Oniscia, the canal is straight, and the 
inner lip wrinkled : while Pachybathron is even more like a Cowry 
than Cyprcecassis, having the mouth toothed as in Trivia with a notch 
at each end. The Helmets first appear in the Eocene tertiaries ; but 
their maximum development, as in most other predacious Gasteropods, 
is in the existing age. 

Family Doliad/e. (Tun Shells.) 

The Tuns are nearly related to the Helmets, both in animal and 
shell. The latter is always very thin and ventricose, with spiral ribs, 
and a sharply notched aperture. The animal is large, with a very 
capacious foot, truncated in front, which it swells out with water when 
swimming. The head is thick, with the eyes on little stalks at 
the base of the tentacles. The proboscis is stout and long, and armed 
with a powerful prehensile collar at the end. The breathing canal is 
turned back, as in the Helmets. In Dolium, the mouth of the shell, 
is very wide and open : in Malea, it is curiously contracted, with ribs 
on each side. The Malea ringens is a very characteristic shell of 
Pacific tropical America. Its fossil remains, discovered by Dr. New- 
bery on the Atlantic coast, prove that the two oceans have been sepa- 
rated since the creation of the species. The Tuns make their appear- 
ance in the Miocene age. 

Family Teitonid^e. (Trumpet Conchs.) 

The Tritons were naturally associated with the Murices by concholo- 
gists ; the only differences observed in the shells being purely arti- 
ficial, viz : that in Murex the varices (or old mouths) are any number 
from three to thirteen ; while in this family they are two or one and 
a half. This trifling distinction, however, is found to be coordinate 
with an essential difference in the dentition ; the Tritons being in that 
respect closely related to the Helmets and the Naticas. They differ 
from the previous families in having but a small foot, and a [nearly 
straight siphon, inclosed in the canal of the shell. They are almost 
confined to tropical seas, and have a much greater love for the old 
world than the new. All the shells of the family have the outer lip 
toothed within, and most of them have the pillar lip similarly orna- 
mented. The operculum is generally as in the Muricids. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 185 

The large Triton Tritonis of the Pacific ocean is a great favorite with 
the South-Sea islanders, who make a hole near the tij5, and then use 
it as a speaking trumpet. A very similar species (T. nodiferus) in- 
habits the Mediterranean, and has been know to crawl to the confines 
of the British seas. One of them was kindly given by the ancients to 
the Sea God, to make his commands better heard : and the poet sings 
of the old Romans, 

" Buccina jam priscos cogebant ad anna duirites." 

The varices appear on every three quarters of a whirl, giving the 
shell a somewhat distorted appearance. In the subgenus Guttemium, 
the canal is very long and straight, as in Murex proper. It is gene- 
rally of moderate size, and somewhat twisted. In the fusiform species 
with a long spire, the canal is very short. Sometimes there are no 
varices till the shell approaches maturity. There is one group (Argo- 
bucciaum) in which the shell is thin and whelk-shaped, and the varices 
irregular or absent. It is characteristic of the west coast of America ; 
the A. nodosum being found in the tropics, the A. scabrum along the 
foot of the Andes, the A. cancellatum in the extreme south, and the 
very similar A. oregonense in the northern districts. These, with a 
large proportion of the true Tritons, are covered with a very thick, 
loose, and generally hairy epidermis. 

The Personce, or Mask-shells, are Tritons with a broad thin inner 
lip, and curiously twisted mouth ; being to Triton what Malea is to 
Dolium. The Euihrice are regarded by Dr. Gray as Tritons without 
varix. The shell appears related to Clavella or Peristernia; but the 
teeth of the animal have not yet been examined. 

The Banella group are very pretty shells, having a row of ornamen- 
tal varices running up each side of the spire. In the typical species, 
the operculum is shaped as in Murex or Pisania. But in B. crumena 
it is formed as in Pusionella. This caused Dr. Gray to remove it to the 
Cassis family, supposing that all the shells with round varices had the 
usual operculum, and all those with sharp-edged ones {Ewpleurd) the 
abnormal one. Having examined however a number of specimens of 
the sharp-ridged Eupleura niticla, collected by Professor Adams, at 
Panama, with the opercula in situ, I find that they belong to the 
Buccinoid type, being oval and annular, with the nucleus near the 
anterior end of the outer lip. This family appears sparingly, like its 
congeners, in the Eocene strata. A curious fossil genus, Spinigera^ 
from the Inferior Oolite, is intermediate in characters between the 
spiny-variced Ranellas and Postellaria, and may have belonged to 
either family. 

Family CEKiTHioPSiDiE. (False Cerites.) 

A group of very small shells were separated from the Cerites, by 
Professor Forbes, on finding that they had a retractile proboscis, and 
a muricoid operculum. They inhabit all seas which have been pro- 
perly searched ; living in sheltered places near the shore among sea- 
weeds and zoophytes. The largest of them scarcely exceeds an inch 
in length, and one-eighth in breadth. They are all highly sculptured, 



186 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

with stout knobs or keels, and are very beautiful objects under the 
microscope. The teeth of Cerithiopsis are said to resemble Triton; 
but the tentacles are more like those of Tornatella. The siphon-pipe is 
extremely short, not protruding beyond the notch of the shell. In 
Triforis, the whirls turn the wrong way, and the lip of the shell is 
often twisted into pipes for the reception of the breathing and excur- 
rent ducts. The third pipe behind, which gave the name to the genus, 
is simply the relic of a former mouth. The shells in each group are 
sometimes so like each other that they can scarcely be distinguished, 
except by the direction of the whirls. Yet the animal of Triforis is 
said to belong to the true Cerites. 



'S 



? ? Family Cancellariad^e. 

The true position of this family is not yet ascertained. The Cancel- 
larias are singularly beautiful shells, always elegantly sculptured, 
with a few small plaits on the pillar, which are sometimes obsolete. 
Often the pillar is hollow ; and instead of a notch or short canal for 
the breathing tube, there is only an angular pinch in the shell. The 
siphon pipe is extremely short; but as to the important characters of 
the head, the learned differ. Messrs. Adams say that it has neither 
tongue, teeth, nor proboscis ; and Deshayes states that it is a vegetable 
feeder. Dr. Gray, however, places it near the Muricids. The genus 
is confined to tropical seas and rather deep water ; but an allied form, 
Achnete, lives in Greenland, and visits the New England shores. In 
the boreal group Trichotropis, so called from the beautiful hairy fringes 
on the epidermis ; there are no plaits on the pillar. The animal has 
been described by some authors as having a retractile proboscis ; by 
others as having a muzzle. Whether widely different animals have 
been grouped together, or whether great mistakes have been made, 
remains to be seen. 

In the foregoing families, when the shell has been partially covered, 
it has been not by the mantle (as often stated) but by the broad and 
fleshy foot. In the aberrant family of Fig-shells, however, the foot, 
though widely extended, is very thin ; and the shell is partly enveloped 
by two flaps of the mantle, as in the Cowries. 

Family FicuLiDiE. {Fig- Shells.) 

The shells of this group are singularly elegant; very thin, pear- 
shaped, finely cancellated outside, with a long wide canal, which 
protects the still longer breathing pipe. The animals are beautifully 
painted, with markings of various colors. They stretch out their long 
white necks, with flat heads, and large black eyes, and crawl very 
rapidly over the sands. There are very few species ; one inhabiting the 
Pacific shores of tropical America, another the Atlantic, and the rest 
the East Indian seas. 

We now come to animals having a very different appearance, and 
furnished with shells having no similarity in shape with those hitherto 
described. The shells were associated by the conchologists with the 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 187 

Nerites, with which they really have scarcely even an external affinity. 
The creatures are very voracious, armed with a retractile proboscis, 
and furnished with teeth constructed like those of Cassis and Triton. 
They have, however, no breathing pipe, the water being conveyed to 
the gills by a fold in the mantle. The shell consequently has no notch 
at the pillar, and the operculum (when present) is spiral. 

Family Velutinhle. 

This is a little group of creatures chiefly from the northern seas, 
with very thin, slightly spiral shells, ending in large round mouths. 
The mantle of the animal partly covers the shell, as in Ficula. The 
Velutince live in deep water in the Eastern Atlantic ; Morvillia in the 
West. In Marsenina the shell is ear-shaped, (as in Lamellar ia ;) and 
in Onchidiopsis it is simply a horny layer. 

Family Natictme. 

The Naticas are very queer creatures; exceedingly voracious, and 
yet generally blind ; armed with the usual carnivorous appendage of 
retractile proboscis and horny jaws; and yet, as they walk, looking 
more like a lump of fleshy sand than a predacious Gasteropod. Their 
shells are strong, beautifully formed, and very innocent looking ; 
having a short spire, hollow pillar, and round mouth. The operculum 
is slightly spiral, and is generally horny; but sometimes has a shelly 
coat outside. The great peculiarity of the animal is its enormous foot, 
which not only envelops the shell, like a mantle, but is doubled up in 
front so as to form a wedge-shaped digger, with which it plows up the 
wet sand. The head is hidden behind the plow, and thus protected 
from the sand ; and as the eyes would be hidden also, they are dis- 
pensed with. The two largest species of the group are found, one in 
New England, the other on the Oregon shores. No sooner does the 
tide go down than they may be seen plowing just below the surface, 
in the region where bivalves love to hide, a small portion of the shell 
just protruding over the moving sand. No sooner do they come in 
contact with an unhappy Tellen, than the plow and the broad foot 
envelop it, the head stretches out, the trunk is darted out, and the 
drilling process commences, which ends in the suction of the unfortu- 
nate bivalve. 

Those who examine the objects on the sea shore in summer time can 
hardly fail to have noticed some curious sandy, ribbon-shaped, frail 
substances, curled like a horseshoe. Naturalists have often taken 
them for zoophytes ; and they have been variously described as Flustra 
arenosa, Eschara lutosa, Alcyonium arenosum, and Discopora crebrum. 
It is however nothing but the nest which Mother Natica makes for the 
protection of her eggs. If held to the light when wet, it will be found 
to consist of sand, glued together, and filled with little cells arranged 
in quincunx, each one of which has contained an egg. The Naticas 
are found in all parts of the world, and have existed in all ages, be- 
ginning with the palaeozoic. 

In Naiica proper, the operculum has a shelly coat, which is often 



188 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

spirally grooved. The umbilicus (or pierced pillar) is generally spiral, 
leaving a lump on which the apex of the operculum lies when open. 
The remaining genera have horny opercula. The northern species 
mostly belong to the group Lunatia, with straight umbilicus and 
small pillar-lump. In Neverita, which is found in subtropical regions, 
the spire is flattened, the mouth wide, and the umbilicus winds round 
a lump which more or less fills it up. This lump is sometimes grooved. 
The shells of Polinices have the spire conical, and the umbilicus nearly 
covered by a very large flattened lump: they are white, or only 
slightly tinted. Ampullina, of which only one species is living, the 
rest abounding in the Eocene, has a ventricose shell, with the axis not 
perforated. It is polished by the very large foot, and there is a large 
lump on the pillar. Naticella has a thin, open shell with very small 
umbilicus, almost covered by a narrow, dark colored deposit. " In the 
form of the shell, it passes into Sigaretus, in which the shell is flat- 
tened, sometimes ear-shaped, and partially concealed by the animal. 
The outside, however, is striated, not polished as in ordinary Naticas. 
The operculum is very small, and the animal sluggish and timid. 
Naticina is intermediate between Naticella and Sigaretus, having an 
umbilicus but no lump. Amaura is a boreal form, with raised spire 
and solid pillar. 

In the families which follow, the teeth are arranged in different and 
peculiar patterns. The shells are of very dissimilar shapes ; but the 
animals all agree in having a retractile proboscis. 

Family LAMELLARIADiE. 

In this family the foot is enormously large, completely enveloping 
the shell. There is a slit in the mantle to convey water to the gills. 
The shell is flat, transparent, or horny. The teeth are in rows of 
three, as in the Muricids; but the side teeth are very large and trape- 
zoidal. The Coriocella is a large black animal, inhabiting the tropical 
seas. Lamellaria and Ermea are principally from temperate regions. 
In Ermea there appear to be additional lateral teeth. 

Family ScALARiADiE. (Wentle Traps.) 

The Dutch called these shells Winding-Stairs, from the beautiful 
step-like rings ascending in a spiral. The spire is more or less eleva- 
ted, with a round mouth and reflexed lip, which leaves a varix at each 
period of increase. Sometimes the whirls are separated from each 
other, only adhering by the edge of the rings. This is beautifully 
seen in the famous Scalaria pretiosa, for which the Dutch used to give 
two hundred dollars, but which may now be bought for one. The 
animal has a fold in the mantle to convey water to the gills, being the 
foreshadowing of the siphon-pipe in the canaliculated shells. The foot 
is extended in front, grooved behind, with a thin, spiral operculum. 
The head is crescent-shaped, and armed with a strong, fleshy trunk. 
When disturbed, the creature emits a purple dye. It is very vora- 
cious, eagerly devouring putrid meat. The teeth are quite different 
from those of all other prosobranchiate mollusks, resembling most 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 189 

those of Bulla and lanthina. There are no central hooks. The lateral 
teeth are very numerous and regular, arranged in lines forming an 
obtuse angle. 

The Scalarias are rare, inhabiting deep waters. They are, however, 
found in all parts of the world, even in the boreal seas. The species 
are generally very much like one another, and white. The Spaniards 
at St. Bias wear them as ear-rings, calling them Caracoles finos. The 
shells with irregular varices are called Cirsotrema. Sometimes they 
are almost evanescent ; in which case the shell can hardly be distin- 
guished from Aclis. Fossil forms, which may or may not belong to 
this group, are found as early as the oolitic rocks ; but true Scalarias 
do not appear till the later cretaceous periods. 

The remaining families of this tribe differ from all the previous 
ones, and indeed from all other known Gasteropods, in having no 
teeth on the lingual ribbon. In fact the existence of a tongue at all 
has to be confirmed. They have, however, a retractile proboscis, and 
probably live by suction. It is said by some careful observers that 
the Gancellarias belong to this section. 

Family EuLiMiDiE, dc. 

The feet in this family are very short behind, but enormously pro- 
duced in front; and are used not merely for crawling, but for explor- 
ing in advance. The tentacles are slender, with small eyes immersed 
in their base. Eulima has a pointed shell, with flat, gloss3 r whirls, 
and is generally white. The mouth is like Melania, with a very thin 
spiral operculum. Leiostraca is very slender and elongated, with 
periodic thickenings every half whirl. Niso is umbilicated, and often 
highly painted. Many of the Eulimai have the axis twisted, especially 
near the apex. This is very much the case in the group Stylifer, the 
animals of which live as parasites immersed in star-fish, or on the 
spines of sea-urchins. They do not appear to have an operculum. 
The Entoconcha has been found living in Synapta digitala. 

Family Pyramidellhle. 

These creatures differ from the Eulimas in having the. tentacles 
short, broad, and folded together. The foot is not prolonged in front. 
The operculum has few whirls, and is very thin, generally wrinkled. 
There is a rudimentary breathing fold in the mantle. All the animals 
of this family are born with a reversed spire ; but no sooner do they 
commence their independent life than they twist themselves round, 
and continue their growth in the usual right-handed manner. The 
reversed nuclear shell is generally found at the tip of the apex, more 
or less immersed in the first regular whirl, and giving the spire a 
somewhat truncated appearance: in some species it even projects be- 
yond the sides of the spire. In the typical group, Fyramidella, the 
shell is sculptured witli transverse ribs, and the pillar is armed with 
strong plaits. The mouth is pinched up in the region of the rudi- 
mentary breathing hole. The operculum is narrow and notched, to 
suit the long contracted aperture. In Obeliscus, the shell is smooth 



190 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

outside, and the lip periodically thickened within. The plaits are 
very strong, often projecting beyond the mouth. Sometimes there is 
only one stout fold. In Odostomia, the sinistral apex is very small, 
the shell Eissoa-shapecl, with one tooth on the columella, which some- 
times (as in Auricidina) becomes obsolete. In 3fonoptygma, the fold 
is slanting.* In Ohrysallida, the shell is strongly sculptured, and the 
shell contracted at each end. The outer lip in the adult is extremely 
thin in front, but thickened behind. The species are very numerous 
on the west coast of America, where they are found in the crevices of 
dead shells. All these creatures are very minute. The Chemnitzias 
are somewhat larger, a few species actually reaching an inch in length. 
They are very much turretted shells, with large sinistral apex and 
melanoid mouth, without plait. Most of the species have flattened 
whirls with transverse plaits ; but in Eidimella and 3Ienestho, they are 
smooth. In Aclis, the whirls are tumid; and the mouth is sometimes 
round, like a Scalaria without rings. 

Large shells are found in the paleozoic and oolitic rocks, which are 
referred provisionally to this family ; but the characteristic apex can 
seldom be examined, and their true position is doubtful. In the ter- 
tiary strata, Ave find representatives of most of the living forms. 

Very few species in this family abound in individuals, and from their 
minuteness and rarity they are seldom seen in collections : but very few 
families boast of so many specific forms. They are more numerous 
even than Rissoas, both in the British seas and in the Gulf of Califor- 
nia. Shell sand, especially from deep water, should always be care- 
fully searched for them ; and the sinistral apex carefully examined, to 
distinguish them from Rissoids, &c. 

Family Solamad/E. {Perspective Shells.) 

The shells grouped together in the Trochus family by Lamarck, are 
found to belong to five very widely separated groups. The true Trochus 
is a Scutibranch, allied to the Ear-shells and Limpets. The Trochita 
is a Kostriferous Pectinibranch, allied to the Slipper-limpets. The 
Risella belongs to the Periwinkles, in the typical portion of the same 
group. The Phorus, or Carrier-trochus, belongs to the further extreme 
of the same group, being a scrambler, allied to the Strombs. While 
the Perspective Top-shells are found to possess a retractile proboscis, 
and to have many points of resemblance with the very differently shaped 
Pyramidellids. The shell of Solarium is known by the wide open 
umbilicus, which has always a crenulated keel within, ending in a 
notch at the base of the mouth. The shell is top-shaped, with a flat 
base, and is always beautifully sculptured. The point of the spire is 
rather flattened, and there may always be noticed a minute hole, even 
in perfect specimens. This is caused by the nucleus of the shell, which 
is reversed and globular as in the Pyramidellids, being turned upside 



*This genus was constituted from very different shells. The supposed original type is 
an abnormal Ancillaria. The name is here kept, as by Woodward, for shining, sculptured 
East Indian shells, intermediate in form between Odostomia and Tornatella. As the animal 
has not yet been observed, their true position is uncertain. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 191 

down, and inserted, bottom upwards, in the succeeding whirl. The 
animal has a large foot, with flat, paucispiral operculum, and short 
tentacles folded sideways. In Torinia, the base is rounded, and the 
operculum is very singular, being conical, with many whirls. Bifrontia 
is, as it were, a Torinia rolled out flat. Sometimes the whirls scarcely 
touch. The mouth is square, as in Solarium. The genus was consti- 
tuted from French fossils ; but Mr. McAndrew has found it living in 
very deep water, near Teneriffe, with an operculum and sinistral apex 
exactly like Torinia. The genus PMUppia consists of smooth Torinia', 
with flat operculum. It is said by Philippi to have an animal like 
Trochus ; but this is probably a mistake, as the apex is sinistral. Dis- 
cohelix is smooth and flat like Planorbis: it is doubtful whether its rela- 
tions are with Bifrontia or with Vitrinella. It is found fossil in the 
American Eocene strata, and living in the Mediterranean. 

A large number of fossil genera are referred to this family by Chenu, 
but their true place is doubtful. Many Trochids have a large crenu- 
lated umbilicus, and the characteristic reversed apex can scarcely be 
observed in the older fossils. 

Three families, differing from each other very much in the shape of 
their shells, but still having many points in common to distinguish 
them from the ordinary siphon-bearing univalves, have beemseparated 
from the rest of the predacious Gasteropods by Dr. Gray, under the 
name 

TOXIFERA. 

They have a retractile proboscis : but instead of a separate lingual 
ribbon, the tube of the trunk is turned in upon itself, and armed with 
two rows of long barbed teeth, implanted singly in the skin of the 
fleshy tube. The teeth are curiously formed, resembling the sting of 
a bee when seen in the microscope ; and probably have more vitality 
than those of the ordinary type. In some species, the end of the tube 
is large enough to admit the little finger ; and the creature is able to 
inflict a decided bite. 

Family Coniile. (Cones.) 

The Cone-shells are great favorites with collectors, in consequence of 
their brilliant painting and regular patterns. The Conns gloria-maris 
has more than once sold for $250. Almost all the species, however, 
are formed on one plan ; and in the living state, the colors are hidden 
by a skin, which is often very rough and thick. The animal has a 
short, strong foot, square in front, and with a large hole underneath, 
through which waiter is sponged up. It bears a long narrow opercu- 
lum, of concentric layers beginning from the point : but if it is mended 
after fracture, the nucleus is in the centre, as in other tribes. The 
siphon-pipe is long, extended through the notch of the shell. There 
is always a notch at the other end of the mouth also. The head has 
two long slender tentacles, with the eyes along their sides. When the 
proboscis is drawn in, it leaves a funnel-shaped expansion, or veil, in 
front of the head. This veil is fringed at the end in Tuliparia ; and 



192 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

probably also in Eollus geographicus, which differs from the rest in 
having no operculum. The Cones are found in all tropical seas ; but 
abound most in the Indian Ocean and Eastern Archipelago. Some of 
the species are very widely distributed, reaching from the Red Sea to 
Easter Island and the Grallapagos. They prowl in the holes and fissures 
of rocks, and the winding passages of coral reefs; where they crawl 
slowly in depths ranging from low-water mark to forty fathoms. The 
shells are generally heavy : and as the animal grows stouter, he absorbs 
the inner whirls of the shell, leaving only a very thin partition. At 
the same time he preserves his weight by depositing thick coats in the 
region of the spire. Shells therefore which a u collector'' would throw 
away, may be valuable to grind down and show the inner structure. 

The Dibaphus is a puzzling shell, intermediate between Conus, Mitra, 
and Terebellum. Its true position cannot be stated without a knowledge 
of the animal. Fossil Cones first appear in the chalk : and are toler- 
ably common in the tertiary strata. The Conorbis of the London Clay 
is lozenge-shaped, closely approaching in form some members of the 
next family. 

Family Pleurotomidje. 

In this family the head is truncate, without a funnel. The shells 
are generally turrited, and are only known from Fusus by a slit in the 
outer lip, near the suture, corresponding with a slit in the mantle of 
the animal. The typical genus, Fleurotoma, has along canal, and the 
slit separated from the suture. The operculum is flat, somewhat trian- 
gular, with the nucleus near the canal. Drillia differs in having a 
short canal. These forms are peculiar to tropical regions. They are 
represented in Northern seas by Bela, which has a somewhat similar 
operculum ; but the slit is nearly obsolete, and the pillar is flattened. 
Lachesis has a Mamilated spire, and a Buccinoid shape. 

Another group is characterized by the nucleus of the operculum being 
in the centre of the long side, as in Pusionella and Bezoardica. In 
Clavatula, the canal is short ; the shell resembling Drillia. In To- 
onella, the spire is short and the canal produced ; the shell resembling 
a Clavella, with a w\ave near the middle of the outer lip. There is a 
thick deposit near the suture, as in that genus. 

A third group has no operculum at all. The Clathurellce, (Defrancia 
of Millet ; the true Defrancia being a Polyzoon,) are among the most 
beautiful of small shells. They are like a Drillia, with a deep posterior 
notch close to the suture ; and the whirls are swollen and delicately 
cancellated. They are found in temperate as well as in tropical cli- 
mates. In Mangelia, the notch is very slight, and the shell plain ; 
being in fact a Bela without an operculum. The Ciiharos, are a group 
of beautiful little shells, like flattened Harps. They have regular trans- 
verse ribs, notched at the suture : the mouth is narrow and straight, 
toothed or wrinkled within, like Oniscia. Dr. Gray places them with 
Cassis, their true position being of course uncertain till the animal has 
been examined. In Daphnella the shell is thin and ventricose, very 
finely sculptured, and with the family notch almost obsolete. The 
shell is closely related to Metula, which has probably a Muricoid 
animal. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 193 

The known species in this family amount to at least five hundred. 
First appearing in the later cretaceous age, they very rapidly became 
plentiful in the tertiary strata, three hundred species having been 
already described. But although so plentiful in forms, they are gen- 
erally, like the Pyramidellidce, rare in individuals ; and collections may 
often be seen entirely destitute of them. They are generally found in 
deep water, ranging however from low water to a hundred fathoms ; 
and culminate in the China seas and in west tropical America. 

Family Terebrid,e. (Augur-shells.) 

The Augur-shells form an aberrant family, in general easily recog- 
nized by the very slender and produced spire, with flattened whirls and 
a deeply-notched aperture. Although several of the species are toler- 
ably large, and very common in the Pacific islands, their anatomy is 
as yet but little known. This group, like the other Toxifers, has only 
appeared late in the history of our planet. About thirty species have 
been found in the tertiaries ; but in the existing seas, fully two hun- 
dred species have been discovered. They live in deep water, almost 
always in tropical climates. So far as known, the teeth and proboscis 
are like those of other Toxifers, but the foot and head of the animal are 
very small. The tentacles are close to the mouth, exceedingly minute, 
and with mere sjjecks of eyes at their summits. Sometimes the eyes 
and even the tentacles are not to be seen ; and the head is little more 
than a mouth, as in the shell-bearing Pteropods. The nose-pipe how- 
ever is very long, and reflected through the sharp notch. The intro- 
mittent organ is longer still, like a living thread proceeding from the 
nape of the neck. There is a small, horny operculum, not filling the 
mouth, and shaped somewhat as in Pleurotoma. The shells are gen- 
erally glossy, heavy, and prettily painted and sculptured. The upper 
whirls of the shell are often of chalcedonic texture, the inner cavity 
having been filled up with glossy shelly matter. In this respect there 
is a striking contrast between the Augurs and the Screws, which latter 
group partition off the upper whirls with thin septa. The Screw-shells 
therefore are often found broken ; while the Augurs are generally per- 
fect. The Augurs are so slender that sometimes as many as thirty 
whirls may be counted on a shell three inches long but not a quarter 
of an inch across at the broadest part. It can hardly be believed that 
the creature can balance his heavy pole, crawling like an ordinary Gas- 
teropod, and supporting his weight on so short a foot at an enormous 
leverage against him. It is not improbable that he lives in the midst 
of sandy mud, through which he can easily push his needle and twist 
round ; leaving the top of his long nose in the water. In such an 
abode, eyes would be of no service. 

It is not yet known how far the differences in the shells are coordi- 
nate with those in the animals. Dr. Gray divides the family into 
those with, and those without tentacles and eyes. From the former 
he separates a genus Leiodomus, in which the suture is callous, like 
Bullla; but the foot is small, not bulky, as in that group. For the 
present, it is convenient to separate the non-sculptured species as 
Subula; keeping Terebra for those with a band near the suture. The 
13 



194 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

beautiful group Myurella has the band nodulous. Euryta is a curious 
group in which the spire is shorter, and the canal so twisted that the 
pillar appears pierced. The form of these shells offers a transition to 
Buccinum; while a few other species present the aspect of Cerithium. 

We have now passed under review all the Gasteropods which are 
known to possess a retractile proboscis. It is not certain that all of 
these are strictly carnivorous ; and it is almost certain that some tribes 
which have a permanently elongated muzzle are not vegetarians. 
Between these two great leading divisions of the comb-gilled crawlers, 
there is a somewhat anomalous group, the true position of which is not 
'yet ascertained. It is strange, (and not, perhaps, very creditable to 
naturalists and collectors,) that Cowries have been among the com- 
monest shells from the earliest times ; abound not only in species, but 
in individuals ; form a regular staple of trade ; are found in all warm 
seas ; and yet a reliable account of the anatomy of the animal is still a 
desideratum. Scientific observers have frequently given accounts of 
them, and the creatures are figured in many of the great voyages; and 
yet Dr. Gray asserts that it has a short muzzle, grouping it with the 
land and sea Periwinkles, while the whole army of ordinary naturalists 
declare that it has the retractile proboscis of the Whelks. At my re- 
quest, Dr. Stimpson examined the animal of the large and typical 
Cyprcea testudinaria, which had been brought home by the United 
States Exploring Expedition ; and to our surprise it did not accord 
with either the one or the other type, but, on the contrary, furnished 
us with an example of a retractile muzzle. The snout, contracted in 
alcohol, was about half the length of the shell. Instead of being 
drawn in from the base, as in Whelks, it was drawn in from the tip ; 
The tongue-ribbon was coiled up in a cavity near the stomach. 
Probably the end of the muzzle protruding in front of the tentacles 
has been mistaken for the ordinary rostrum. 

The teeth of Cyprce-a helvola are very like those of the land and sea 
Periwinkles ; but those of Trivia europcea have no small resemblance 
to those of Natica. The teeth of Ovulum are altogether peculiar; 
whether, therefore, the egg shells are rightly classed with the Cowries, 
remains to be seen. 

Family Cypr^id^;. {Cowries.) 

The Cowry shells, when adult, are nearly globular, not showing any 
spire, with a narrow mouth, toothed on each side, nearly in the middle 
of the base; with a deep notch at each end. They are almost always 
smooth and polished. When young, however, they present a very 
different shape; being then very thin, with an open mouth, sharp lip, 
and short spire. At that period they have the general aspect of Olives 
without the plaits; and, as they never display the same shape or pat- 
tern that they do in mature life, they have sometimes been described 
as differ en t species. The adolescent Cowry curls-round the sharp edge 
of his mouth, and then begins to make teeth on each of the lips. At 
the same time, the mantle spreads out, forming two great flaps, one of 
which envelops each side of the shell, and deposits layer over layer of 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 195 

enamel, till the proper pattern has been given. A line is generally 
seen on the back of the shell, where the two flaps met. The Cowries 
are very pretty animals, with the mantle-lobes generally adorned with 
fringes or ornamental painting. The breathing pipe is very short, and 
often fringed also. They have long, slender tentacles, with eyes mid- 
way up. The foot is very large, but can be withdrawn, with the 
mantle lobes, into the shell. The Cowries are shy, and crawl slowly. 
They hide themselves in coral reefs and under crevices of rocks. They 
are found in all tropical regions, but there are very few on the Ameri- 
can coasts. The difference in this respect between the Pacific shores 
of America and the Pacific Islands, is very remarkable. On the east 
coast of South America no species has yet been found. 

The Cowries form no inconsiderable an item in trade; the larger 
species being brought to port in great numbers, for sale as ornaments; 
while one of the smaller species, Cyprcea moneta, is collected (as gold) 
for money. It passes current in Africa, as the medium of exchange. 
Many tons are annually brought over from the East Indies and the 
Pacific Islands, to transport again to the negroes of the Senegambian 
region. In 1848, sixty tons Were brought into Liverpool alone. 
Cowries were found by Dr. Layard in the ruins of Nimroud. The 
typical species have a singular excavation near the notch under the 
pillar lip. 

In the pear-shaped Cowries, Luponia, this part is irregularly plaited. 
In Aricia, the base is flattened by thick masses of shell, which project 
over the sides. 

In the Trivia group, the foot is short in front, but greatly length- 
ened behind : the breathing canal is long also. The shell is ribbed or 
covered with pustules ; the ribs are carried round the lips, instead of 
separate teeth ; and the pillar is scarcely excavated. All the very 
small Cowries belong to this group. Cyprceovula is intermediate in 
form between this and the next family ; while Erato has a shell 
shaped like Marginella, with minutely crenulated lips and polished 
back. The Cowries first appear in the later cretaceous beds, and are 
now at the maximum of development. 

Family Ovulid^e. {Egg and Shuttle Shells.) 

As far as the shells are concerned, the Ovula may be described as 
unpainted Cowries without teeth on the pillar lip. The animal also 
is sufficiently like the Cowry, in general appearance. The teeth how- 
ever in the only species examined {Ovulum ovum) are so unlike that or 
any other known type, that their habits have probably some great 
peculiarity to correspond. On each side of the short central tooth, is 
a tall hooked lateral with jagged edges ; and on each side of that, a 
very large fan-shaped tooth, bordered by a deeply-cut, curly fringe. 
In Ovulum, the outer lip is turned in and toothed : in Calpurnus, the 
shell is hunch-backed, with a curious wart at each end. In Carinea 
there is a ridge across the back, and the lip is not toothed. 

But the most singular shell belonging to this group is the Weaver's 
Shuttle, {Radius volva,) in which each end of the lip is produced into 
a very slender canal, longer than the body of the shell itself. The 



196 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

creature folds its foot round the Gorgonias on which it lives, carrying 
its shuttle gracefully over its head, the edges of the lip and canal being 
elegantly adorned with tufts. In other species the canals become 
shorter and shorter till they are only a prolonged notch. The smaller 
forms are colored differently, in the same species, according to the 
coral on which they feed. In Simnia, the outer lip is quite sharp, 
and the animal has a long foot and breathing pipe, as in Trivia. None 
of the Cowry or Shuttle tribe have any operculum. 

Sub-order ROSTRIFERA. {Muzzle Bearers.) 

The remainder of the Comb-gilled Crawlers have a longer or shorter 
snout which is not retractile, and is technically called a rostrum. In 
the Strombs and their allies, the snout is very long, and the teeth are 
adapted for tearing carrion, on which they live ; but in most of the 
families, they browseupon the herbage. The proboscis-bearing shells 
are all from the seas or estuaries ; but the vegetarian tribes are also 
found in fresh waters or on land. In the latter case, the gill cavity is 
changed into a lung. The teeth of the Rostrifers are always in seven 
series, 3 • 1 • 3 : but in the first group the lateral teeth are claw shaped, 
as in Cassis and Natica : while in the Periwinkle group they simply 
have serrated, edges, adapted for rasping plants. The Rostrifers are 
arranged by Dr. Gray according (1) to the shape of the foot, (2) to the 
position of the eyes, and (3) the shape of the gills. The dentition has 
not been regarded by him of primary importance, as in the trunk- 
bearers. It is impossible to group them in a straight line so as to 
show all their known affinities ; a few families, as the Strombs, Worm- 
shells and Apple-snails, appearing to disturb every natural order of 
succession. 

First Group. Teeth arranged as for animal food,. 

Family Strombid^i. {Wing Shells.) 

The Strombs and their allies are very strange creatures. They are 
rather leapers than crawlers, and jump about the shore, using their 
foot as a leaping pole, searching for dead fish and other refuse, of 
which they are the useful scavengers. The shape of their body is 
altered to suit their change of habits. As they stretch themselves out 
of the shell, the body seems made up of scraggy limbs, like a dead tree 
partially deprived of its branches. The foot, which is a stout, muscu- 
lar lever, is the trunk of the tree : from this branches off the head, if 
indeed you can say that there is any distinct head or neck ; for it con- 
sists, first of a stout truncated branch, which is the long muzzle with 
the mouth at the end ; next of two smaller branches, also truncated at 
the end ; these appear to be tentacles, but are really stout pillars for 
the eyes to rest in ; lastly, of the true tentacles, which are little pointed 
twigs growing out of the eye-stalks. The second great branch is an 
arm going off at right angles to carry the operculum. This is long, 
claw-shaped, and toothed at the edge, only attached to the animal by 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 197 

a small scar. It serves therefore as a shield when the animal is in 
motion, as well as a door when it is at rest. 

The eyes in the Strombs are remarkably well formed, being (like 
those of the Cephalopods) more highly organized than in many fishes. 
They have a distinct crystalline lens, with an iris differently colored 
in different species. 

The shell also is very peculiar. When young, it resembles a cone, 
with the spire more or less elevated, and a very thin lip. But as it 
approaches maturity, it spreads out a great wing, which is gradually 
• thickened with layer upon layer from the mantle, till the shell is very 
strong and heavy, and able to tumble over without injury, as the ani- 
mal scrambles on the rocky shore. The pillar has a twisted canal for 
the breathing pipe ; and near it is a very deep notch in the outer lip, 
where the animal can save his head from a blow as the shell falls over. 
The wing is further notched at the suture. 

The Strombus gigas, or "Fountain-shell" of the West Indies, fills 
up the earlier whirls with solid matter, and sometimes weighs five 
pounds. It is a favorite ornament in consequence of the delicate pink 
color of the mouth ; and is used for cameo-cutting like the Helmets. 
It is alas ! ground to powder wholesale, for the manufacture of the 
finer kinds of porcelain; three hundred thousand having been imported 
into Liver pool. in one year, from the Bahama islands. 

The Scorpion-shells (Pteroceras) are like the Strombs when young : 
but when mature, they develop six or more long claws, variously 
twisted. In Rostellaria, the head-notch is close to the breathing canal, 
and the spire is long. An exourrent canal generally ascends the spire, 
and is sometimes long enough to twist over at the apex and come 
down on the other side. In the aberrant group Terebellum, of which 
only one species is now living, the shell is glossy, sharply truncated 
at the base, without canal or notch, and with a sharp outer lip. The 
operculum is very singular, having the appearance of a bird's foot 
with claws. The creature, when taken from the water, will leap sev- 
eral inches. In one of the Eocene species, the spire is rolled in and 
hidden ; in another, a canal ascends the spire as in the Spindle- 
Strombs. 

The fossil forms belonging either to this group or to Aporrliais 
appear first in the Oolites. Nature might seem to have amused her- 
self in the strange and varied shapes which many of them assume, 
especially in the Spindle and Scorpion tribes. The true Strombs how- 
ever barely appear in the tertiary age ; at present they culminate, 
while the other forms are dying out. 

Family Phorid^. {Carrier Top Shells.) 

Very different in the form of shell, but agreeing in the peculiar 
shape of the animal, are the Carrier Shells. They live on banks of 
stones and dead shells, chiefly in the East Indies, over which they 
scramble, stretching out their foot-pole, with the opercular arm and 
the long muzzle, like the Strombs. Their eyes however are very infe- 
rior, and are placed at the bottom of slender tentacles. They have no 
breathing tube, the shell being top-shaped. Contrary to the habit of 



198 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

the Strombs, they all make their shells with a wide rim ; but they 
have the propensity to stick pieces of stone and broken shell to their 
backs, so as often to hide what they have made themselves. By this 
means they probably escape detection. In Phorus, the pillar is solid, 
and the operculum thin, concentric, with the nucleus at the side. In 
Onustus, the pillar is open, and the layers of the triangular operculum 
are piled one upon another. 

Family Aporrh~aid,e. (Spout Shells.) 

These creatures may be regarded as Spindle-strombs, passing back 
to the ordinary type, with the common eyes and crawling foot. The 
wing of the shell is always enormously dilated, and often clawed; but 
no mark has yet been found out by which the numerous fossils of the 
secondary rocks can be referred to one or to the other group. The two 
British species, A. pes-pelicani and A. pes-carbonis have, as their name 
implies, very w r ide claws. The New England species has a broad palm 
without ringers. The breathing canal in all the members of this family 
is simply a fold in the mantle entirely covered by the shell. The 
operculum is like that of the Whelks, but the animal is widely different. 
The Struthiolarice have a simple varix instead of a wide lip. They are 
peculiar to the Australian seas. A very curious shell, Halia, like a 
marine Achatina, has been referred to this group; as also has Triclio- 
tropis; but we must wait for a knowledge of their anatomy. 

Family Pediculariad2e. 

The Pedicularia is a curious little shell, living as a parasite on coral 
in the Mediterranean. When young it is spiral, when adult flat and 
open like Concholepas. The most singular point about it is the den- 
tition, which is like that of Strombus and Aporrliais exaggerated. The 
outside teeth are produced into enormous claws, like the fingers of a 
bat's wing folded together. In this respect it resembles C armaria. 
This and the following families are of sedentary habits, either crawling 
about in crypts and chinks, or remaining absolutely fixed for life. 
They are very degraded animals, as compared with the noble Strombs; 
yet their dentition is more allied to them than to the Periwinkles. 
The fixed shells must of course live on what the water vouchsafes to 
bring them ; why therefore their tongues should be armed with weapons 
of war it is difficult to say, as the bivalves, which live in the same 
way, are entirely destitute of them. How much our ignorance is 
revealed to us by the little knowledge which we possess ! 

Family CalYptr^id^:. 

The Slipper-limpets and their allies have the gills in long, slender 
plates, forming an oblique line across the cavity. They may be de- 
scribed as Carrier Shells, which have become tired of a jumping life, 
and have gone into retirement. In shape of shell, Trochita has a very 
close resemblance to Phorus. But instead of a leaping foot, retractile 
into the shell, and closed with operculum, its foot occupies the base of 
the "top;" and the operculum is the rock or shell to which it adheres. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 199 

In Golems, we have simply a spiral plate running round inside a 
conical shell. In the "cup and saucer limpets," (Crucibulum,) the 
conical shell has a cup-like process within, more or less attached to the 
side of the saucer. In Crepidula, the cone is flattened into a boat, and 
the cup into a deck, producing the "Slipper-limpet." In all these 
forms, which (though differing in the types) are closely connected by 
intermediate shapes, the animal presents the same appearance. There 
is a small flat foot, and a little head, with eyes on slender tentacles, 
and a short muzzle with lips. The mantle scarcely extends to the 
edge of the shell. The tongue is armed with teeth, as ferocious as 
those of Natica and Cassis, and yet they seldom walk about, adapting 
themselves to the shape of the object to which they adhere, and growing 
very finely under circumstances in which locomotion is impossible. 
Indeed, in the genus Calyptrcea, in which the "cup" is cut across, 
the animal exudes a shelly support from its foot, by which it is abso- 
lutely cemented to the rock. The remarkable changes of form which 
these creatures assume according to the circumstances of their growth, 
were detailed in the Smithsonian report for 1859, pp. 197-205. In 
their early stage however they are very similar ; having a regular, spiral, 
globular shell, from the pillar of which the deck or cup is afterwards 
developed. 

Family Capulid^;. (Bonnet Limpets.) 

The animals in this family closely resemble the Slipper-limpets, but 
the adductor muscle is not fixed to any shelly support in the form of 
cup or deck. The shell is simply an irregular cone, twisted more or 
less into a spiral at the apex. Some of the living species of Capulus 
greatly resemble the Velutinas in form ; but they are heavier shells. 
The Amaltheea eats a deep hole into the shells on which it rests, with 
a horseshoe ridge in the centre. Hipponyx deposits so thick a shelly 
layer under its foot (like Calyptra'a) that the fossil species were long 
thought to be bivalve shells. The horseshoe muscular scar, formed 
by the attachment of the adductor, is very conspicuous in this family. 
It equally exists however in the spiral shells. 

Even in the Palaeozoic rocks appear forms which cannot be dis- 
tinguished from the members of this family. They have been described 
as Metoptoma, Platyceras, Acroculia, &c. 

Family Naricid^. 

The Naricce are a group of shells, looking like cancellated Natica, but 
made by a very different animal. They are, as it were, Bonnet-limpets 
rolled into a true spiral shell. Their habits are sluggish, but they move 
about somewhat, and are provided with a very thin, sub-spiral oper- 
culum. As in the last families, the creatures are ovoviviparous, 
keeping their eggs under a fold in the mantle till they are ready to 
hatch. The shells were first called Vanicoro by the French naturalists, 
but it is scarcely fair to call a race of creatures by the proper name of 
a place. It is probable that the curious shells called Neritopsis, with a 
scooped out pillar lip, belong to this family. Only one species is now 
living, but many are found fossil in the newer rocks. Without w a 



200 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

knowledge of the animal, however, it is impossible to say whether its 
relationships are not rather with Nerita, or even with Natica. The 
teeth in this family are not properly known. 

Family Ampullariad^;. {Apple-Snails.) 

The Apple-Snails form a very natural and peculiar group, standing 
by themselves, and only presenting an external similarity to the other 
fresh-water shells with which they are generally associated. They 
inhabit the marshes of the tropical regions, both in the Old World and 
the New, and are particularly fine and plentiful in Africa and South 
America. They have a large globular shell, in some fossil species so 
like Natica that it is hard to distinguish them. In general the shell 
is thin, with a strong glossy skin and a horny operculum of concentric 
elements. Although there is no notch in the shell, the creature has 
almost always a long breathing pipe, like that of the Whelks ; but 
with this difference, that it is slit along the upper not the under side. 

The Apple-snails are truly amphibious, having, as it were, a gill in 
the corner of a lung. This arrangement is necessary to enable them 
to survive the long summer droughts, when they bury themselves deep 
in the mud and wait for better times. They have been known to live 
many years out of the water. Their eyes are of respectable dimen- 
sions, planted on little pillars like the Strombs, with a pair of very 
long, slender tentacles in front. There appears to be a second pair of 
shorter tentacles in front of these, but they are really the two halves 
of the muzzle which is split and lengthened out. The teeth are formed 
on the tearing type of Natica, &c. The creatures are eaten in vast 
numbers by marsh birds, who, if they cannot get at their prey through 
the operculum, carry them up to the branch of a tree and break the 
shell by the fall. 

In the true Ampnllarias, which are peculiar to tropical America, 
and are called " Idol-shells" by the Indians, the pipe is long and the 
operculum horny. The group Pomella have thick, heavy shells, with 
very wide mouth. In Marisa, which is found in the East Indies as 
well as in America, the shell is flattened down till it resembles a Pla- 
norbis. Lanistes, from the African rivers, has a flattened, reversed 
shell. In Meladomus, also an African form, the spire is turreted, 
looking like a reversed Paludina. In Pachysloma, which includes 
most of the old-world Apple-snails, the breathing pipe is short, and 
there is a thickened ledge round the mouth, to support a somewhat 
shelly operculum. In Asolene, which frequents the marshes of the 
La Plata, there is no breathing pipe visible. The estuary species are 
often found mixed with marine shells, both on existing shores and in 
the tertiary beds. 

Second Group. Teeth arranged as for vegetable food. 

Among the land snails, there are some very beautiful tribes, almost 
confined to the tropics and the warmer temperate regions, which can- 
not be properly reckoned with the true pulmouate Gasteropods. In- 
stead of a real lung, they have (so to speak) a gill-cavity formed for 
air-breathing, left open by the mantle which is free from the nape of 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 201 

the neck. Any one who will compare a living Cyclostoma with a 
Snail or a Periwinkle, (or their pictures,) will observe how unlike the 
general shape of the body is to its air-breathing ally, and how similar 
it is to the Sea-snail. The general resemblance is fully borne out by 
the details. The Cyclostoma has the eyes at the base of the tentacles, 
a long snout, a spiral operculum, and teeth arranged in seven series, 
3' 1*3, after the rasping fashion of the true herbivorous Kostrifers. 
Moreover, the sexes are distinct, exhibiting a far higher type of 
structure than in the hermaphrodite snails. 

The Cyclostoma family are known, among land shells, by their 
graceful shape, varying however from that of a Planorbis to a Turri- 
tella, the whirls often scarcely touching, and ending in a round mouth. 
They are very numerous, both in sectional forms and in species. Dr. 
Gray divides them into thirty genera, principally on differences in the 
form of the operculum and mouth. The following are the principal 
groups. 

Cyclostoma proper has a shelly, ovate operculum, of few whirls as 
in Litorina. Tropidophora has the whirls somewhat flattened and 
keeled. Otopoma has a ear-shaped excrescence partially covering the 
umbilicus. In Tuclora (a West Indian group) the mouth is pinched 
at the top. Chondropoma has the operculum nearly horny. Choano- 
poma is a singularly beautiful group, abounding in Jamaica, with a 
spreading, generally frilled, lip, and a raised operculum. Realia is a 
small Zziforma-shaped group from the islands of the Old World and 
the Pacific, with thin horny operculum; and Bourciera is a singular 
shell from Ecuador, shaped like Helicina. In this group the sole of the 
foot is grooved, and the animal progresses on each side alternately. 

In the Cyclopliorus group, the shell is depressed, the epidermis 
thick, and the operculum horny and many whirled. The tentacles 
are long and pointed, and the foot broad, without groove. In Aulo- 
poma, the operculum has a grooved border, fitting over the lip of the 
shell. Leptopoma has the lip not complete, as in the snails. Diplom- 
matina is pupiform" ; and Alycaius has the last whirl curiously dis- 
torted. So the fossil form Ferrussina has the mouth leaving the reg- 
ular spiral, and turning upside down. 

In Craspedopoma, the operculum has two rims, one of which fits 
within, the other outside the contracted mouth. Cyclotus has a flat- 
tened shell ; and the operculum has a shelly layer outside the horny 
one. In Fterocychis, the operculum is turretted, as in Torinia; and the 
lip is produced into a roof-shaped beak at the suture. The form is 
found in the East Indian A rchipelago ; as also Opisthoporus , in which 
a little tube comes out behind, as in Typhis. Megaloma has a cylin- 
drical shell and horny operculum ; and Cataulus has the base keeled 
round the pillar, with a horny, many-whirled operculum, which can 
be drawn down out like a cork-screw. 

The Fupinai are a group of beautiful little glossy shells from the 
East Indian Archipelago. The lip is notched, in front and at the 
suture; and the operculum is thin, horny, and many-whirled. In 
Pupinella, there is a rudimentary canal, twisted back. Rhegostoma 
has the axis bent, as in Streptaxis ; and in Callia there is a shining 
deposit over the spire, as in the Margindlm. 



202 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Family Helicinid.e. 

This group consists of very pretty compact little shells, which most 
abound in tropical America, but are also found in the Pacific and East 
Indian islands. They have half-oval mouths, with an operculum of 
concentric elements. The teeth are 3* l - 3, as in Litorina. The ani- 
mal has a propensity to eat away the inner layers of its shell, like 
Nerita. Helicina has a plain mouth, with a lump on the pillar lip. 
In the West Indian group Alcadia, there is a slit on the basal lip, 
and the shelly operculum has a projecting tooth, to correspond with 
it. In Trochatella, the shell is top-shaped, and there is no lump on 
the pillar. In LucideUa, the lip is distorted with teeth. Stoastoma 
has a twisted notch, reflected as in Pupinella. 

Family Aciculid,e. 

A family of very small, turreted shells connects the land with the 
sea Periwinkles. They have the eyes on the back of the head, behind 
the Periwinkles, and a very thin operculum, with few whirls, Acicula 
has the outer lip of the shell plain ; in Geomelania it is produced into 
a tongue. 

Family Trtjncatellidje. {Looping Snails.) 

These little creatures have a very short, round foot, and a muzzle 
prolonged into two lappets. They loop on these, like the geometric 
caterpillers. They have highly organized eyes., behind the tentacles. 
A peculiarity in Truncatella is that on reaching maturity it drops off 
its long, slender spire, fastening up the broken part. A little Kissoid 
shell, called Tonichia, is said to have similar peculiarities. 

Family jEFFREYSIADiE. 

Among the vast group of tiny shore shells commonly called Eissoa, 
Mr. Alder found some, small among the small, who never draw their 
eyes outside their houses. They are placed far back behind the tenta- 
cles, and look through the transparent shells, which float among 
seaweeds in rocky pools. In Jeffreysia, the muzzle is cleft into false 
tentacles, as in Ampullaria. In Hyala, it is plain, and the creature 
has relations with Pyramidellids. The operculum in Jeffreysia is of 
concentric elements, with a bolt standing from it inside at right 



angles 



Family Rissoid^e. 



Almost on every coast where there are any stones for sea-weed to 
grow from, there will be found, living among the algre, or dead in 
multitudes among the sand, a great many species of shells like very 
tiny Periwinkles, but much prettier in their shape, sculpture, and 
coloring. They generally have a short, slightly cleft muzzle, joined 
on to the front of the foot, which is pointed behind. There is a curi- 
ous little tail under the operculum. The lateral teeth are more claw- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 203 

shaped than is usual in the rasping tribes, and furnished with very- 
minute serrations. 

Already several differences have been pointed out among the animals 
of this tribe, which may or may not be confirmed. Some of the groups 
may hereafter be removed to other families. The principal genera are 
as follows : The true Bissoce are somewhat pupiform in shape, with a 
thickened lip, slightly pinched at the pillar, and a thin, slightly- 
spiral operculum. In Cingula, the mouth is sharp and melanoid, 
with flattened whirls. Alvania has the whirls round and is generally 
sculptured ; the mouth also is round, with thickened lip. In Bis- 
soina, which pretty much takes the place of Bissoa in tropical climates, 
the shell is generally ridged, and the mouth thickened, produced in 
front, with a strong pinch at the pillar : the operculum has a tooth at 
the side, as in Nerita. Barleia has the shape of Bissoa, with an 
annular operculum armed with an internal stump. Skeneais flat like 
a Planorbis, with a round mouth and many- whirled operculum. Some 
forms go to the opposite extreme, and are shaped like Turritella. They 
have been supposed till lately to belong to Aclis. The shells of this 
group may always be known from the Pyramidellids by the point of 
the spire being regular, not reversed. The Hydrobias live in brackish 
water, in immense multitudes. The Nematuras, which float under 
dead leaves in the rivers of the East, are like Hydrobia with a curi- 
ously contracted aperture. The relations of Arnnicola have not yet 
been clearly ,made out, though the creatures swarm in the fresh waters 
of North America. In shape they are intermediate between Bithinia 
and Valvata ; but are known from both by the operculum, which is 
spiral, with few whirls. 

• Family LitokinidyE. (FeriivinM.es.) 

The Periwinkles are formed for sea-shore life, and are destined to 
scrape off and consume the various kinds of marine vegetation. They 
abound everywhere except on sandy beaches, and each species has its 
appropriate level in relation to the tide. Some are found at extreme 
low water; some at the ordinary high tide; some where only the 
spring tides reach them ; and a few where they are never covered with 
water except in storms. Some crawl up the mangroves on the shore, 
and some have been found walking on trees half a mile from the sea. 
The ordinary Periwinkles have one very large gill in numerous plates 
lying across the inner surface of the mantle. They have horny jaws, 
and a thin spiral operculum, generally of few whirls. In shape some 
of the shells resemble Turbos, and some Trochuses : but they may 
always be distinguished by their want of pearly lustre. The Litorina 
litoria is a favorite article of food with poor people in English cities ; 
but the L. rudis, which inhabits a higher zone and brings forth its 
young with a hard formed shell, is left to enjoy its native rocks. The 
tongue is two inches long ; and the creature walks first on one side 
of the foot, then on the other. There is a fold in the mantle pre- 
senting an approach to the breathing pipe of the Whelks. There are 
some river species, of Naticoid shape, which live on stones below water 
in the Danube and La Plata. They are called Lithoglyphus. The 



204 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Australian Periwinkles are top-shaped and ash-colored : they were 
first named Risella. Some species, living in marshes of brackish 
water both in England and the East Indies, instead of having the eyes 
on the base of the tentacles, as in all others of the tribe, have them 
on the tips ; or rather perhaps on eye stalks joined to the tentacles. 
They are called Assiminea. In Tectarius, the shell is top-shaped, 
strong, and rudely knobbed outside. Echinella is intermediate between 
this form and the true Periwinkles ; with knobbed exterior, often a 
lump on the pillar, and a many-whirled operculum. Modulus has 
also a many-whirled operculum: it is flatly top-shaped, with a deeply- 
cut tooth at the pillar. Fossarus differs from the Periwinkles in hav- 
ing little frontal lobes between the tentacles. The habits of the ani- 
mal, as well as the shell, greatly resemble Narica. A few species 
from the west coast of America have a lump on the pillar, and are 
called Isapis. Shells closely allied to Periwinkles have been found in 
the Oolitic rocks. In the newer tertiaries, the present species are 
found, even with color bands ; and with shells curiously distorted (as 
now in the Baltic) from the too large admixture of fresh water. 

Family Lacunhle. 

This little tribe of northern shells differs from the Periwinkles, 
(which the shells greatly resemble, except that they have a chink in 
the pillar,) in having no jaws. Dr. Gray even assigns to them a 
proboscis. There are two little tails behind the operculum as in 
Rissoa. The Lacuna vincta is common in the New England seas, and 
deserves a careful dissection. There is no siphonal fold in the mantle. 

Family Planaxid;e. 

The shell of Planaxis differs from Litorina in having a sharp notch 
in the pillar, through which protrudes a small breathing pipe. The 
creatures are all tropical, and are extremely plentiful where they live. 
One little species is remarkable as being common both to the West 
Indies and the Red Sea. They have a solid, stumpy foot, and a long 
snout. In Quoyia, there is a curious sharp keel running along the 
pillar. The shells of this family are often remarkable for the great 
difference in appearance between the young and the adult state. This 
is peculiarly the case in the little Rissoid shells called Alaba, of which 
two extremely similar species are found in tropical America, one in 
each ocean. They would scarcely be distinguished when adult ; but 
the sculpture of the nuclear snout at once separates them. The oper- 
culum is half-mooned shaped and slightly spiral. 

Family LiTiOPiDiE. {Gulf-weed Snails.) 

The Litiopai are tiny shells, very like Planaxis, but the animals 
have a curious series of lappets on each side of the mantle, as in the 
Top-shells. They travel over the ocean on the gulf-weed, from which 
they suspend themselves by spinning glutinous threads. If they lose 
their hold, they make a bubble which they send up to find the weed 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 205 

again, having first anchored themselves to it by a thread. The oper- 
culum is said to have many whirls. 

Family Valvatid.ze. 

Another aberrant family consists of little shells looking like fresh- 
water Cyclostomas. They have perfectly round mouths, and the shell 
is sometimes a little raised, sometimes quite flat. Alone of all the 
Prosobranchiate Gasteropods, their gills are exposed to view; being 
exserted, on the left side of the animal when walking, in the shape of 
a very slender pinnate leaf. When the animal retires, the gill is 
drawn into its cavity. The operculum is many-whirled. The Valvatce 
live in rivers, lakes, and ditches in temperate regions of both the Old 
and New World. As the V. tricarinata is extremely common in the 
northern States, it is to be hoped that some naturalist will examine 
whether the creature is hermaphrodite, as stated by Dr. Gray. If so, 
this again is an anomaly in the Comb-gilled order. Shells not to be 
distinguished generically from living Valvatas are found even in oolitic 
strata, associated with Bithinice, Paludince, &c. It would appear that 
the types of Molluscan life have not changed in fresh waters so much 
as in the marine forms. 

Family Paludinid^. {River Snails.) 

The Paludince take the place of the Ampullarice in the temperate 
regions; but the animal is much more like the Periwinkles. They 
have a long, contractile muzzle; and neck- lappets, folded to make a 
rudimentary breathing gutter. The eyes are on stumps at the base of 
the tentacles. The Paludince are viviparous, the young being born 
with a delicate shell of three whirls. The operculum is thin, and an- 
nular as in Ampullarice. The tongue-ribbon is strong but slender; 
the teeth not much bent, and very finely hooked. The creatures are 
very sluggish, generally living imbedded in soft mud at tire bottom of 
rivers or deep ditches. They live on decaying animal and vegetable 
matter. The smaller species are oviparous, and have a shelly coat to 
the operculum. They are called Bithinia, and have only one neck 
lappet on the mantle. Among the mountain streams of Ceylon, some- 
times at a height of six thousand feet, are found a group of shells 
remarkable among fresh- water snails for their solidity. Their surface 
is generally rough with knobs or ribs, and the point eroded by the 
acid of the water. The last whirl is very spacious, as in the Ampulla- 
rice, and is closed by an operculum increasing concentrically from the 
margin, presenting a shape very similar to that of Purpura. They 
have been erroneously described as Paludomus, and are now known 
under the name of Tanalia. 

Family Melaniad^;. 

The Melanias are a tribe of fresh- water snails, abundant in all the 
sub-tropical regions of the globe. In America they swarm in all the 
southern regions, to the great delight of species -makers, who can at 
anytime immortalize themselves by wading in some unsearched stream ; 



206 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

and to the corresponding confusion of those who have to work-up their 
achievements. They can even subsist in the severe winters of New 
York, but shiver at the thoughts of Lower Canada and New England. 
The Mediterranean appears to have limited their migration into Europe 
to a very few aberrant species in the extreme south. In the East 
Indies and Pacific islands, they again appear with something of the 
prolific character which culminates in the United States. They are 
known from the Paludinas by the edge of the mantle being fringed ; 
they have no neck-lappets, but there is generally a rudimentary siphonal 
fold. The muzzle is large and dilated; the tongue long and slender; 
the gills in a series of stiff, cylindrical plates. The operculum is 
almost always sub-spiral, resembling Planaxis. The shells present 
considerable extremes of form ; and, if marine, might be easily referred 
to Mesalia, Fusus, Bullia, Planaxis, Litorina, and Drillia.- Yet the 
gradations between these extremes are so slight, and the differences in 
the animals of such little importance, that the separation into natural 
groups is a matter of great difficulty. The shells are seldom attractive, 
being generally covered with a dull skin, and often with adhesive mud ; 
many of them however are elegantly sculptured, and a few have very 
graceful forms. It is much to be regretted that American collectors, 
who have not been slow to avail themselves of the exuberant riches 
lying at their feet, which are so acceptable to European naturalists, 
have so generally entirely neglected the preservation and study of the 
opercula ; and that so many points in the physiology and habits of these 
easily-observed animals have not yet been made known. 

The shells of Melania proper have a turreted spire ; oval mouth, with 
sharp, straight lip. Like the Paludinas, they delight in the muddy 
parts of rivers, but do not despise stony places. Many of the species 
are said to be viviparous. In the section Melanella, the spire is 
shortened ; and in Melacantha, there is a coronet of sharp spines. These 
are mostly found in the Old World and the Pacific islands. In Melana- 
tria, which includes the finest East Indian forms, and many fossils of 
the European tertiaries, the shell is strongly sculptured; the outer lip 
is waved ; and the operculum has several whirls, with a central nucleus. 
Pachycheilus, which includes many American forms, has a similar 
operculum, with a smooth shell, and a thickened pillar-lip. The 
stumpy, ridged Ceriphasia of the American rivers, and the stout, 
nodulous Vibex of West Africa, agree in having the outer lip very 
much waved, leaving a broad channel before and behind. Gyrotoma, 
a North American form, has a lump at the back of the pillar, and a 
deep, narrow slit at the suture. Very common in the whole district 
west of the Alleghanies are the stumpy little Leptoxes (of Rafinesque ;* 
Anculotus of Say) ; which are like fresh-water Periwinkles in their 
habits. Having no tide-waves to dash them, they establish them- 
selves on stones in the rapid places of rivers in such numbers that 

*The description is so inaccurate that Philippi in his Manual assigns it a place 
among the Lyraneids. The name of Say was in common use till the conchological archae- 
ologists revived the prior but deservedly forgotten name of Rafinesque. Changes of cur- 
rency, however necessary to introduce the benefits of a decimal coinage, are not necessarily 
useful to science, merely because a bad coin was made before a good one, which has got into 
general acceptation. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 207 

often you cannot tread without crushing them. They live a sedentary 
life,, adhering pretty firmly to the surface by their short, strong foot. 
The spiral part of the operculum is often worn away. They are repre- 
sented in the Himalayan regions by Paludomus; which, with the 
fringed mantle of Melania, has the annular operculum of Paludina. 
In the West Indian islands and the tropical districts of South America 
are found a group of shells differing from the typical Melanias in 
having the pillar sharply notched ; they are called Hemisinus. The 
genus Melanopsis, which is peculiar to the old world, being found from 
Spain to New Zealand, consists of stumpy shells notched for the siphonal 
fold, and furnished with a lump at the suture like Bullia and Polinices. 
The elongated forms, found in Africa and the tropical East Indian 
islands, are called Pirena, and have the lip very much produced in 
front. The shell of Clionella has a distinct notch in the outer lip like 
Drillia. It inhabits the African rivers, but the animal has not yet 
been examined. Lastly, in the Southern States of America are found 
the beautiful shells of Io, in which there is not merely a notch, but a 
distinct, straight canal, to convey water to the gill cavity. 

Family Cerithiad^;. (Cerites.) 

The Cerites are a very numerous tribe of turreted shells, with a notch 
or canal at the bottom of the pillar, in consequence of which they were 
classed with the Muricids by Lamarck. The animals however closely 
resemble the Periwinkles, Melanias, &c. They are known from the 
latter by the absence of fringe on the mantle, by their strongly sculp- 
tured shells, and by the greater development of the siphonal fold in 
the mantle. This is never produced into a projecting recurved pipe, 
as in the notched Proboscidifers. The Cerites are found in all parts of 
the world; but the typical species do not ascend higher than the 
Mediterranean. Some of the species emit a bright green fluid when 
disturbed. Like their neighbors the Periwinkles, they are extremely 
plentiful in individuals. They inhabit the ebb-tide line and deeper 
waters round shores, and certain groups are very plentiful in brackish, 
water and salt marshes. The shells of Cerithium have a very short, 
slightly bent canal, and an operculum like Litorina, of few whirls. 
Rhinodavis has the canal bent back like Cassidaria, with a fold on 
the pillar, and a porcellanous texture in the shell. The fossil group 
Nerincea, found in the older secondary rocks, is like an exaggerated 
Bhinodavis, with a large number of plaits, both on the pillar and in- 
side the whirls. The shell is often very slender like Terebra, which 
it may have resembled in habits. One species of Rhinodavis has been 
figured by Adams with a muricoid operculum, but other species are 
known to possess the paucispiral form. In the remaining members of 
the family, the operculum is round, with many whirls. The dwarf 
Cerites of the northern seas have only a slight pillar notch, and bear 
some resemblance to the elongated Rissoas; they are called Bittium. 

The fresh water Potamides are known by their brown epidermis, 
and lip produced in front. The fossil forms are very numerous and 
beautiful in the tertiary strata. In Pyrazus the outer lip is arched 



208 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

and twisted over the canal, making it somewhat tubular. Lampania 
has a shell shaped like Pirena. Terebralia has a broad pyramidal 
shell with flattened whirls. The mouth is square, with a deeply 
waved outer lip, and a plait on the twisted pillar. The T. telescopium 
is so plentiful near Calcutta as to be burnt for lime. In the very 
pretty group CeritMdea, the notch is almost obsolete; the mouth is 
round; and on reaching maturity it is reflected back. The shells are 
very thin and light, and very commonly decollated at the point. The 
animals live in mangrove swamps, estuaries, and salt marshes. They 
crawl so much out of the water that they have been taken for land 
shells ; and in the dry season, they hang themselves from the man- 
groves by glutinous threads. 

It is not known whether the animals of Triforis are most related to 
Cerithium or Cerithiopsis . Perhaps among the lefthanded species 
which have been grouped together under that name, there may be 
found some of each kind. (See CeritMopsidce, above, page 185.) The 
ancient Cerites are of the Nerincea form : the typical race does not 
appear till the cretaceous age, but rapidly develop in the tertiaries. 

Family Turritellid^e. (Screiv-Shells.) 

The Screws are to the vegetarian section of Comb-gilled Crawlers, 
what the Augers are to the boring tribe. The shell is very long, and 
regularly pointed; the whirls ven r numerous and generally rounded; 
and the texture for the most part strong, and somewhat porcellanous. 
The creatures do not drop away the pointed end, like Cerithidea and 
Truncatella ; but they are fond of marking off the left portions, one 
after another, by plain partitions. In external appearance the Screw- 
mollusks are extremely like the Melanias and Cerites. They have a 
very short foot, squared in front; and a short, thick muzzle, somewhat 
united to the foot below. The mantle is fringed even more prettily 
than in Melania. The operculum is round, with many whirls, as in 
Potamis; often with a thin fringe at the edge. As the foot is grooved 
below, the creature has the power of moving right and left altern- 
ately. But the heavy, long spire and short foot betokens in gen- 
eral a sluggish habit ; and the Screws generally repose in stiff mud 
like the Augurs, in rather deep water. But while the blind Augurs 
grub in the mud for their prey, the Screws expose their delicate 
fringe and long thin tentacles with eyes on stumps beneath to search 
for their food above the surface. The teeth are broad and extremely 
finely serrulated, like those of Paludina; the tongue-ribbon being 
very small. There is a rudimentary breathing fold, but the pillar 
is not notched. The gill-comb is extremely long. 

The animals have not been examined in a sufficiently large number 
of species to ascertain whether there are any generic differences among 
them. They have been thus separated provisionally, according to the 
shell. Turritella has the mouth round. In Haustator, it is somewhat 
squared by the shouldering of the base : very fine species of this group are 
found in west tropical America. In Torcida, the middle of each whirl 
is curiously hollowed out. The shells of Mesalia are short, with flat- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 209 

tened whirls, oblong mouths, and waved outer lip. They are like 
strong marine Melanias, and are found in Greenland, Africa, and the 
Eocene tertiaries. Eglisia has a deeply-marked suture, small mouth, 
and thickened pillar. Shells apparently belonging to this family are 
found in very old rocks. The typical forms begin in the neocomian 
strata, and are exceedingly abundant in the tertiaries. Among the 
latter is the genus Proto, in which there is a broad notch near the 
front of the pillar. The shells of ScoUostoma, which range from the 
Devonian to the Trias, form a remarkable transition to the Vermetids, 
the aperture being produced and trumpet-shaped. 

It is difficult to say what are the true relations of the 

Family CLecidjEj 

whose tiny shells, like bent tusks, closed at one end, are seldom seen 
in the cabinets of collectors, but present many points of singular inter- 
est to the inquirer. The C cecum is first born as a flat spiral shell, 
like SJcenea with which indeed the animal has not a few relations. 
But after making two or three turns, it suddenly leaves the spire, and 
grows outwards in a very slightly arched curve. In this state it 
remains permanently in Strebloceras , the earliest Csecids known, from 
the London Clay ; like a shepherd's crook, twisted at one end into a 
spiral. But in the living genera, it soon drops off the spire, plugging 
up the broken end ; and as it advances in growth, it brings the plug 
forward, and drops off the part behind, always living in a part about 
the same length, broader in proportion as it approaches maturity. In 
Ccecum proper, the shell advances in the same plane ; so that if all the 
decollated parts had been preserved, the whole would have had some- 
what the shape of a Spirilla. In the West Indian genus Ifeioceras 
however, where the shell has to keep pace with the growth of the 
sponge among which it lives, the coil is in loose cork-screw, like a 
drawn-out Turritella. The animal agrees with Turritella in having a 
short foot and many-whirled operculum : also in partitioning off its 
forsaken portions. But the division, instead of being a homogeneous 
septum, continually repeated, -as in the Screws, is a very curiously- 
shaped plug, the form of which is constant in each species. The teeth, 
instead of being broad, with fine serrations, as in the Screws, are said 
to be pointed and hooked, as in the carrion-feeders. As they areprin- 
cipally found in worm-eaten passages of dead shells, they may be 
employed as scavengers, to scrape up the decaying matter that might 
otherwise corrupt the water. The adult shell has both its mouth and 
plug slanting, so that it may be able to crawl through a very narrow 
hole. In the earlier stages, the shells of all the Caeca are smooth and 
slender ; but as they attain maturity, the group Anellum develops 
concentric rings, the Elephantidum longitudinal furrows ; while the 
shells of Fartulum are smooth, and look like tiny sausages. In Bro- 
china, the plug is spherical, and the operculum swelling outwards. 
The Cascids culminate in tropical America, east and west ; and are 
curiously rare in the Pacific ocean. 

14 



210 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Family Vermetid.e. (Worm-ShdU.) 

On almost all shells and stones that have lain long in the sea are to 
be found irregularly twisted shells, sometimes assuming a more or 
less spiral form, sometimes almost straight. A large proportion of 
these have no connection with shell-fish : being true worms, the sea 
analogues of the earthy tribes ; jointed animals with red blood and 
symmetrical organs. When taken alive, these are recognized by the 
beautiful bunch of feelers, bearing an operculum (sometimes adorned 
with stag's horn processes, and never spiral) on a fleshy cup in the 
middle. Some of these, as the tiny Spirorbis, so prolific on sea 
weeds, stones, &c, in the colder seas, have pretty regularly formed 
spiral shells. But in the tropical and warmer temperate regions, 
many species are found, the animal of which is not indeed so beauti- 
ful, but far more highly organized. It is indeed a true mollusk, and 
may be considered a degraded TurriteUa, adapted to a fixed life ; just 
as Magilus is a degraded Purpura. 

In Vermetus proper, the shell begins exactly like a ridged TurriteUa. 
The animal is of course then free, and will probably be found to have 
its foot somewhat developed. But after a season, tiring of its too 
great exertions, it lies down in a safe place, attaches itself to the moor- 
ing, and continues its shell in an irregular twist. The foot then 
becomes obsolete, or rather serves the purpose of a support for the 
operculum. The head has short tentacles with little eyes ; and a small 
muzzle, often cleft into false tentacles, as in Ampullaria, Rissoella, 
and the Slipper Limpets. The teeth have not yet been examined. 
The gill is very long and slender ; and the mantle edge is sometimes 
fringed. 

The shells of Siphonium, though spiral at birth, have no Turrit ettoid 
portion. The operculum is thin and concave, with very few whirls : 
in Metes, it is many-whirled, as in the Screw-shells, but small in pro- 
portion. In Bivonia, the operculum is shaped like a "wide-awake" 
hat, so as to be drawn very tightly into the shell : the outside is ter- 
raced, and often encrusted. In Petaloconchus, the operculum is very 
thin, and the middle whirls of the loose spire very curiously cut up 
by thin spiral laminae, reminding one of Nerincea, or of a drawn out 
Calyptreeid. These two last groups are often twisted together in 
large masses, stretching out straight tubes at the end to get the best 
access to the "currents. The shell of Spiroglyphus is partly imbedded 
in the living shells to which it adheres, growing in the form of Spi- 
rorbis. In Serpulorbis and Cladopoda, there is no operculum, the 
foot of the latter being produced like a club. The shells of Sillquaria 
have either a slit or a necklace of holes, running along the whole 
outer edge of the irregular spire ; corresponding with a slit in the 
mantle to admit water to the long gills. The operculum is terraced 
as in Torinia. The animal is said to be hermaphrodite ; another mark 
of inferior development connecting this with the next order. 

The shells of this family cannot be' certainly distinguished from 
those of sea worms ; but can in general be recognized by their compact 
porcellanous texture, glossy within, like an unrolled TurriteUa: while 
the worms are generally of dead hue, and earthenware consistency. 



LECTURES ON MOLLTJSCA. 211 

We have now completed our sketch of the Comb-gilled Crawlers ; 
the largest, and (except the Cuttles) the most highly organized group 
of mollusks. In the next order, the gills consist of two series of plates, 
more like those of the bivalves. This comparatively trifling distinc- 
tion is found to be coordinate with an inferior type of development in 
other points of structure. The animals, while often much more orna- 
mented than in the former order, are not as it were so concentrated. 
There is never found a breathing pipe or a predacious snout. The 
teeth, instead of being compacted into rows of 3*l - 3, each one of 
which has its special shape, are spread out into very complex series 
of glassy hooks, of which many in the same line are the dittos of each 
other. The shells, while many of them are of surpassing beauty, 
nacreous as the pearl oyster, often lose their spiral form, adopting 
that of the simple cone. And the arrangements for the continuance of 
the species, instead of being separated on different animals, are united 
in the same individual, which is supposed to be capable of self-impreg- 
nation. 

Order SCUTIBRANCHIATA. (Shield-gitted Crawlers.) 
Family Neritidjs. {Nerites.) 

Almost all the Scutibranchs are shore .shells, living wherever there 
are rocks or marine vegetation. Some are found at slight depths ; a 
few of the lower kinds only being found in deep water. 

The Nerites are almost exclusively confined to tropical shores. 
They grub among the stones and rocks on the sea-weed, sleeping by 
day, and prowling about, harmless as they are, towards night. They 
are plain-looking creatures, like the Periwinkles, from which they are 
at once distinguished by the great length of their tentacles, and the 
eyes which rise on short stumps behind. The shells are very readily 
distinguished by the broad flat pillar-lip and stumpy spire. Though 
greatly abounding in species and in individuals, there are very few 
generic forms among them. The true Neritas are strong, sea shells, 
with stout teeth or wrinkles on the pillar lip. The operculum is sub- 
spiral and shelly, with a stout knob fitting like a hinge under the 
pillar lip. The Nerifinas are much thinner shells, almost exclusively 
inhabiting fresh waters, where they adhere to stones or water plants. 
The pillar lip is thin and smooth, or only very finely toothed; the 
operculum also is thin, with a horny edge. In the group Clithon, the 
whirls have a row of spines pointed towards the apex. These live on 
stony bottoms, in still, tropical waters. Some of the Neritinas, espe- 
cially in the group Neripteron, with winged pillar lip, have very short 
spires ; they then pass into the fossil form Velates, which is peculiar to 
the French tertiaries. Here, while the mouth of the shell has the usual 
Neritoid appearance, the back is conical, with only a minute spire at 
the point. In Pileolus, a form peculiar to the oolitic rocks, there is 
no spire at all, the back of the shell being exactly like a limpet. 
Another oolitic form, Neritoma, has a notch in the outer lip, like 
Pleurotomaria. A large group of fresh-water Nerites in the Eastjn- 
dian Archipelago are limpet shaped, but with the point at the side, 



212 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

resembling a fresh-water Crepidula with an operculum. These are 
the Navicellas, the operculum being small, and imbedded in the foot. 
Pelex is a little New Zealand shell, brought home by the United 
States Exploring Expedition, in which the apex is on one side. 

All the Nerites have the power of absorbing the inner whirls of the 
shell, which makes the transition from the spiral to the straight forms 
less extraordinary. The teeth are arranged in very complicated pat- 
terns, the inner rows being of many different shapes, flanked by 
numerous rows of hooks at the sides. 

The great bulk of the Scutibranchs consist of the Top-shells, form- 
ing the staple of Linnaeus' two genera Troclius and Turbo. The ani- 
mals are all formed on the same type; and are known by the beautiful 
fringe and feelers round the foot and head, the long tentacles and eyes 
behind on stumps, and the long and very complicated tongue-ribbon. 
Although the animals can be easily obtained and examined, being 
very generally found between tide-marks, the beauty of the shells has 
generally engrossed the attention of collectors ; and we are left in 
ignorance how far the observed differences in these are coordinate 
with distinctions in the living creatures. The divisions, both into 
families and genera, are therefore for the most part artificial ; but are 
rendered necessary in consequence of the great multitude of species. 
They are found in all seas, from the tropics to the frozen ocean. 
When their beautifully sculptured and delicately painted shells are 
found in company with the dull Periwinkles, and their highly orna- 
mented bodies are compared with the plain forms of the latter, it is 
difficult to realize the fact of their greatly inferior organization. 

Family Turbinid^e. 

The shells of this group are all tropical, or nearly so. They reach 
the Mediterranean, but not the British or temperate American seas. 
They are distinguished by a very thick shelly operculum of few 
whirls. The under layer of the shell is brilliantly pearly. 

The Turbo group have rounded whirls and a circular mouth. The 
large species are imported in great quantities to be polished for orna- 
ments ; the hemispherical opercula used formerly to be regarded as a 
charm for sore eyes. The typical species have a smooth, or slightly 
granular operculum. In T. sarmaticus, the surface is made up of 
large granules. The Snake-shell group, which abound in the Pacific 
islands, have a very rough outside, and a chink at the pillar. The 
shells of Marmorostoma are flattened, with a deep umbilicus, and a 
groove round the operculum which has more whirls than usual. 
Ninella is broad and thin, with a wide, channeled umbilicus ; the 
operculum is nearly flat, with ridges like the human ear. The shells 
of Callopoma are like the typical forms ; but the opercula are deeply 
grooved, with beautiful granular ridges. They are peculiar to west 
tropical America. To the south of Callopoma, on the west of South 
America, is found Prisogaster, with the shape and dull aspect of Lito- 
rina, but a shelly, sharp-edged operculum of few whirls. The New 
Zealand form Modelia has the general shape of Ziziphinus, (a species 
of which is unfortunately figured in this place in Chenu's Manual, f. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 213 

2551,) but it has a stony operculum, with two grooves outside. The 
pretty little African group Collonia, have small Trochoid shells, and 
a many-whirled shelly operculum with a central pit. Species belong- 
ing to this type are found in the Paris Eocene beds. Fossils of Tur- 
binoid form, which may or may not belong to this family, are found 
in all ages from the earliest times. 

Another group, typified by Imperator, has the shell top-shaped. 
The whirls and base are flat; the operculum thinner and oblong. The 
shell is always roughly sculptured, and often considerably incrusted. 
The large Pomaulax of Lower California has a channeled base, and 
an operculum with three bent ridges. Uvanilla has a similar base, 
with two ridges on the operculum. The New Zealand Cookia has one 
ridge, and a shell shaped like Modelia. The shells of Astralium have 
a very flattened spire, with a sharp keel round the base armed with 
spiny scales. An aberrant form of this is the Japanese Guilfordia, 
which has a brilliant, golden nacreous texture, and a few long spines. 

Family Phasianellid^. (Pheasant-Snails.) 

The shells of this group differ from the Turbos in being porcellanous, 
but not nacreous. The shelly operculum is smooth outside. The 
shells are always smooth, and very brilliantly painted. They have 
much the shape of Periwinkles, and the animal has a very long snout. 
Small species are found in most warm seas, but their favorite haunt is 
Australia. This part of the world retains the oldest Jauna now living, 
and has many points of similarity with that of the oolitic rocks. The 
prevalence of large Phasianellas in the European oolites and present 
Australian seas is a striking case of similarity. 

Family Tkochhle. (Top-Shells.) 

The animals of this family are very beautifully fringed, and the 
shells generally highly painted. Very few excel them in the elegance 
of the sculpture, and the beautiful shapes of their pearly mouths. The 
shells are generally thinner than the Turbos, from which they may 
always be known by the thin, horny, glossy operculum of many 
whirls. The genera into which the old genus Trochus have been lately 
divided, cannot be regarded as established until the peculiarities in 
teeth, fringes, opercula, &c, have been examined in a much larger 
number of species. The following are the principal groups: The 
typical species are conical, with many whirls, the last of which often 
bulges, with the pillar-lip twisted and concave in front. In Cardinalia, 
the surface is sculptured, the last whirl a little narro wed-in, with the 
pillar-lip ending in a point in front. The small conical shells with a 
flat pillar and square mouth, which for number and beauty might be 
considered the principal of the groups, have been called Ziziphinus, 
from the commonest European species ; but as great confusion arises 
from raising specific names to the generic peerage, it would be far bet- 
ter to revive Swainson's name Calliostoma. In Pyramidea, the whirls 
are very angular and narrow, and the pillar is sharply twisted so as 
to approach Terebralia among the Cerites. Polydonta has the bottom 



214 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

of the pillar scooped out, and the lip ornamented with blunt teeth. 
When these become obsolete, with sharply keeled whirls, the shell 
resembles Trochita among the Slipper-limpets, and is called Infundi- 
bulum. 

The Australian and New Zealand Top-shells present some curiously 
drawn-out forms ; in which the nacre has generally a greenish hue. The 
shell of Caniharis has a plain pillar, like Pliasianella. In Elenchus, 
which is polished and painted like the Pheasant-snails, there is a tooth 
on the pillar ; and in Thalotia the mouth is toothed round. Banhivia 
is a curious j^wfo'ma-shaped shell, with the pillar bent and truncated. 
Although it is so common as to be used for ornaments by the natives, 
its operculum and animal are still unknown. 

In the next group the shape of the shell is more ovate, with flat- 
tened spire and rounded base. Livona has convex whirls and a round 
mouth, with a deeply-pierced pillar and lump bordering the hole. 
The L. pica is one of the most characteristic shells of the West Indies : 
a closely allied form was taken alive by Colonel Jewett in California. 
The operculum has fewer whirls than is usual in the tribe. TrocMs- 
cus, a form peculiar to California, is nearly allied, but has the oper- 
culum with raised and scaly edges. In Gibbula, a very common Euro- 
pean form, the whirls are shouldered, and the pillar-lip is plain. 
Margarita is a closely allied boreal group, with very thin shells and 
round mouth. The very similar forms Oxy stele and Diloma are like a 
Livona with a closed pillar. 

The shells of Clanculus are remarkable for their ringent mouths, 
twisted by numerous teeth. Monodonta is shaped like a Periwinkle, 
with one stout tooth on the pillar, and others round. Euchelus differs 
from it in being umbilicated, with but few whirls in the operculum. 
Osilinus is like Monodonta, with only one plain knob on the pillar. 
Omjjhalius, the shells of which replace Gibbula on the west coast of 
America, is like a plain Clanculus, with the pillar lip toothed, some- 
what as in Modulus. Tegula, which is peculiar to the Panama region, 
has the mouth of Osilinus, with the Trochoid shape of Omphalius. 

Monilea is a little group of sculptured shells, resembling Torinia, in 
which the open pillar is bounded by an ornamented spiral ridge. 

The Delphinida group are in shape like strong, shaggy sea Cyclosto- 
mas. The pillar is quite open ; the whirls scarcely touch ; and the 
mouth is round. 

Several fossil forms appear allied to this and other recent genera ; 
but in ignorance of their opercula, we cannot locate them with cer- 
tainty. EuomjjJialus is like a flat, thin, unsculptured DelpMnula, with 
angular mouth. The typical species of Cirrus are so irregular that 
they might be considered Vermetids. The C. nodosus of the English 
Oolites, sometimes begins as a left-handed Turritella, ending in a flat 
Euomphalus ; and sometimes take a reversed top-shape from the be- 
ginning. In some species, the whirls are disunited. Some species of 
Euomplialus are believed to have had a stony operculum like Turbo. 

Family Liotid/^. 
Some of the shells classed with Delphinida are found to have the 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSC A. 215 

horny operculum ornamented outside with spiral dottings of shelly 
matter. The mouth always ends in a round varix. They are sepa- 
rated under the name Liotia. 

There is a group of very beautiful little white shells, with flattened 
spire and large mouth, the relations of which are not yet properly 
ascertained. As far as the shells are concerned, they pass both into 
Liotia and liotella by insensible gradations. The shells are not pearly 
as in the Trochids. The species are very numerous in west tropical 
America, and probably in other warm seas, but have hitherto escaped 
observation. They are here provisionally classed with liotella simply 
from the relations of the shell. 

Family RotellidjE. 

The shell of liotella is like a marine Helicina, flattened, with a large 
lump on the pillar. It is glossy, but not pearly. The operculum is 
horny and many-whirled. The animal is said to have a retractile 
proboscis. At any rate it offers the anomaly of having only one of the 
eyes properly developed. One of the tentacles is curiously transformed 
into along veil, which has been mistaken for a breathing pipe. The 
creature is said to grub in sand, like the Naticas. The shells are 
beautifully painted, with such variety of pattern that it is hard to find 
two alike. Several allied forms are found in the secondary rocks. 
Ghrysostoma takes the form of the Periwinkles, with a very small lump. 
Camitia is toothed, like a polished Clanculus. Isanda has an open 
pillar, with 'a toothed mouth. Teinostoma is like a liotella, with the 
mouth drawn away from the pillar, and often ending in a pinch. 
Elhalia is intermediate between the three last forms ; having an open 
pillar nearly covered by the revolving lump of the inner lip. In Vitri- 
nella there is no lump ; the pillar is extremely wide and open; and the 
outer lip is often waved. The shells are all minute ; and are remark- 
able for the large size of the nucleus and the beauty of the sculpture. 
Cyclostrema is like a large Vitrinella, with a round mouth; it is said 
to have a shelly operculum. Lastly, Adeorhis has a very open mouth, 
with the outer lip doubly waved. In form, this group passes into the 
next family. 

Family Stomatid^e. 

These may be described as Ear-shells without any holes. The animals 
are like those of Haliotis, but without the mantle-slit. Like them the 
mantle is fringed, but there are no feelers round, as in the Trochids. 
They pass into the former family though the genus Stomatclla, in 
which the shell is shaped like Sigaretus, and the animal can be drawn 
into it. There is a small, horny operculum of few whirls. The shells 
in the whole family are brilliantly pearly ; they are small, and almost 
confined to the East Indian islands. In Slomatia, and the remaining 
genera of the family, there is no operculum, and the animal cannot 
withdraw its large foot into its shell. Sometimes, when frightened or 
angry, it throws off the back of the foot, like the Harps. In Microtis, 
which has a flat, spiral shell exactly like an unbored Haliotis, the foot 
is cleft in front below the head. In Gena, the shell is drawn out, and 



216 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

the spire very small. Just as we found conical forms among the 
Nerites, so we have a conical Trochid. It is called Broderipia, and 
looks just like a small, pearly Limpet. 

Family Proserpinidje. 

A curious little family of land shells are helieved by Dr. Gray to 
have the same relations to Nerita and Trochus that Cyclostoma and 
Helicina have to the Periwinkles. They differ from the true Pulmonates 
in having the mantle free from the nape, leaving the breathing cavity 
open. They differ from Helicina, &c, in having glassy teeth in com- 
plex pattern like Trochus, and in having no operculum; in which 
respect they resemble Stomatia. The mantle is unadorned, as in 
Nerita; and, like it, has the power of absorbing the inner whirls of the 
shell. On the other hand, it is said to be unisexual, in which it re- 
sembles the Pectinibranchs rather than the present order. The group 
is West Indian, and contains two genera: Proserpina, in which the 
whole shell is glossy, like Pupina; and Ceres, in which it is keeled, 
and only the lower region is polished. In both there is a lump on the 
pillar, as in Botella; and there are spiral ridges inside the mouth. 

Family Scissurellid2E. {Slit-Top Shells.) 

Till lately it was believed that there was no living representative of 
the vast tribe of palaeozoic and secondary Pleurotomarias ; except the 
tiny little shells of Scissurella, which resemble a Vitrinella with a slit 
in the mouth, or a spirally curled Emar g inula . The tiny animal has 
been examined, and found greatly to resemble Cycloslrema, having 
very highly developed pinnate feelers at the sides. In some species 
the slit of the young shell is afterwards closed into a hole ; in others, 
the hole is seen in the earliest stage, and is moved on as in Bimida. 

But the true Pleurotomaria, which was believed to have passed away 
before the Tertiary age, is now known to be living, a beautiful speci- 
men having been dredged in deep water near the island of Marie 
Galante, so like the Oolitic forms that it might, if fossilized, have 
passed for one of their race. It is exactly like a pearly Calliostoma, 
with a slit lip. More than four hundred fossil species are known, 
some of them as large and solid as the Turbos, some as inflated and 
thin as Scissurella. In form they vary from Elenchus to Euomphalus, 
and are either keeled or rounded at the base. In Trochotoma there is 
a hole behind the lip, instead of a slit. In Polytremaria there is a 
row of holes in a spiral necklace, as in Siliquaria. The shells of the 
paheozoic group Murchisonia are elevated like a Melania; while those 
of Schizostoma are depressed like a Euomphalus, with a doubly waved 
lip like Terebralia. Another palaeozoic form, Catantostoma, has the 
last whirl twisted downwards. The closely allied shells of Scaliies and 
Baphistoma are very thin and depressed, with the whirls keeled and 
the outer lip pinched but not slit. 

?? Family Maclureadye. 

Of several other palaeozoic forms, even the family position is as yet 
doubtful. One of the most singular is Maclurea, a Euomphaloid shell 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 217 

characteristic of the Chazy limestone, in which the solid operculum 
has an upright support, as in Jeffreysia. It is supposed by some to 
he related to Bellerophon. It is very difficult to determine the rela- 
tions even of recent shells, when the animal has not been seen, because 
the shells of such different mollusks are very like each other. Much 
less can we expect to understand the relations of abnormal fossils, 
when even the texture affords no clue, and the peculiarities of the 
mouth can be so seldom examined. 

Family Haliotid^e. {Sea-ears or Ormers.) 

The very beautiful-group of ear-shells may be regarded as Turbos flat- 
tened out to adhere to rocks. They present however several charac- 
teristic differences of structure. There are two gills and two auricles, 
instead of one as in the Top-shells ; and the foot is greatly dilated 
and very strong. They adhere so tightly to the rocks that they are 
often forced off by the point of the bayonet. The best way to loosen 
them is to pour warm water on, and then jirk them with the foot. 
They are often cooked ; and the shells, which present a very brilliant 
nacre, golden, green, orange, pink, &c, according to the species, 
form a regular article of trade for ornaments and inlaid work. The 
muscular attachment, instead of being horseshoe-shaped, as in ordi- 
nary univalves, is round and central as in the oyster. There is always 
a ridge along the back, with a few holes near the edge. These are 
filled up as new ones are made. Below them is a slit in the mantle 
to correspond. The foot is very elegantly fringed, and the teeth are 
complicated as in the Top-shells. The Haliotis tribe are rare in the ' 
tropics ; but abound in Japan, California, and Australia, and are 
found along the east coast of the Atlantic. Their absence from the 
whole of the South and tropical America and the eastern shores of 
North America, is very remarkable, seeing that they abound from 
Kamtschatka to Cape St. Lucas. The shells of Padollus have a second 
spiral rib, but without perforations. In Teinotis, (the Ass's Fars,) 
the shell is thin and glossy ; the animal being very active, with a large 
foot. It is thought that the number of holes is constant in each spe- 
cies ; but this is very far from being the case. In the Californian spe- 
cies, they vary from two to four, and from five to ten. 

Family Fissurellid^e. (Key-hole Limpets.) 

In this large and beautiful family the body is symmetrical, and 
only spiral in the first stage. There are two gills at the back of the 
neck, one on each side of the shell, the vent being between them. 
This discharges, in the sea-ears, into the last hole: in this family into 
a hole or slit which is variously situated in the differeift genera. The 
foot is large and more or less fringed, as in the preceding families ; 
but the shell is not pearly, and there are no eye-stumps. As in all 
other Limpets, (with which however they have not a very close connec- 
tion,) the muscle is horseshoe-shaped. The teeth are arranged in 
complex patterns, as in the preceding groups. They are found on all 
shores, though sparingly. The largest species are from South America. 

The shell of Jiimtcla is nearly related to Scissurella, but is formed in 



218 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

a flat spiral, with a rapidly enlarging mouth. The hole is behind the 
outer lip, as in Trochotoma, and is gradually brought forward, the 
j)art behind being filled up. The animal must therefore have the 
power of eating out its anal orifiee, as it grows older. The shells are 
found fossil in the oolites, living in the East Indian archipelago, and 
in the Gulf of California. The boreal form Punciurella resembles it, 
but with a plate inside to'*support the anal siphon which is rather long. 
The young shell of Glyphis exactly resembles Rimula ; but as the ani- 
mal grows, it becomes conical ; and instead of moving the hole, it 
enlarges it where first formed, till at last the whole of the spire is 
eaten away. The animal is larger than the shell, which is always 
prettily cancellated, and crenulated at the edge. In Fissurella proper, 
the spiral nucleus has not been detected, even in very young shells. 
The animal can be entirely drawn into the shell. In most species, the 
shape is very constant ; but in some, there is great irregularity, not 
only in the form of sculpture, but even in the shape of the hole. A 
curious specimen from Mazatlan has two holes ; and another still more 
extraordinary one, found in Chili by D'Orbigny, has none. Clypidella 
has a singular, flat, waved shell, with a narrow key-hole. Macros- 
chisma has a slug-shaped body, projecting in front of the shell ; which 
is oblong, with a very large hole behind. The great Lucapina of the 
Californian coast has an animal as large as a dinner plate, almost cov- 
ering a flattened crenulated shell. Fissurellidcea, from the Cape of 
Good Hope and Tasmania, has a very similar animal and shell, but 
with a smooth border. The shell of the African Pupilkea ; also cov- 
ered by the mantle of the animal, has a sharp, smooth edge. 

Another group have the anal orifice in front. Emarginula has a 
shell like Rimula, but with a slit in the outer lip like Pleurotemaria. 
The shells are always sculptured, and are from deep water. Fossil 
species first appear in the Trias. In the group Hemitonia, the slit is 
very small ; and in Clypidina, it is simply a wave. In the " Duck- 
bill Limpets," Parmaphorus, the shell is white, and almost covered by 
the black mantle, under which is an enormous foot : there is only a 
broad wave for the excretory passage. 

In the remaining families of the Scutibranchs, no tendency has been 
observed to spiral developments, even in the young shell. There are 
no fringes to the mantle margin ; and the animal is generally of slug- 
gish habits, and covered entirely by the shell. The teeth also are 
formed on a much simpler plan, consisting of a few longitudinal series, 
of variable form. 

Family Gadiniad^i. 

A small family of shells, from the west coasts of the Old and New 
World, have characters in common with the Siphonarice, or air-breath- 
ing Limpets. A groove is seen within, proceeding from apex to margin 
on the right side, going over the muscular scar. 'This is probably for 
the vent, as in the last family. But there is only one gill, placed 
sideways across the back of the neck ; and the tentacles are funnel- 
shaped. None of the species are colored. They often adhere to other 
shells, eating out cavities like the Cap-limpets. The west American 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 219 

form, described as Gadinia pente-goniostoma has been found with six, 
five, four, three, two, corners, or only one ; or quite round, which is its 
normal state. So much may we err by describing from single speci- 
mens. 

Family Kcmmidm. {False Limpets.) 

The shells of all the Limpets are so like each other that no charac- 
ters have yet been found to distinguished them generic-ally. But the 
accurate Russian naturalist Eschscholtz,. when examining the Limpets 
of the Californian coast, found that they differed materially from the 
true Limpets in the shape of the gill. While the ordinary Rock-lim- 
pets have the gill greatly developed, going all round the margin of 
the shell, as in the oysters, these deeper water species have one small 
gill on the left side of the neck, like the Top-shells. The teeth also 
are in rows of not more than six each. It would have been very con- 
venient if these very different gills had left their different marks inside 
the shells ; but all the fancied marks turn out fallacious ; the animals 
of reputed Acmceas turning out to be Limpets, and vice versa. Further, 
among the single-gilled Limpets, there are now found considerable 
differences ; the large Tecturina grandis of the Californian coast being 
the type of a separate group. The white, conical Scurria mitra, which 
makes holes for itself in the roots of sea weeds in the west temperate 
regions of both North, and South America, (avoiding the intermediate 
tropical region,) has a fringed mantle, looking like a gill, all round 
the inner edge of the shell. The shells of the beautiful group Scutel- 
lina are thin, finely sculptured, and very glossy inside. They often 
have a rudimentary pillar lip, like Navicella, which caused the west 
American species to be described by Prof. C. B. Adams as a Crepidida. 
The little Scotch Pilidium has a somewhat similar shell. The animal 
of the boreal Lepeta is blind ; its teeth are curiously ornamented like 
a stag's head. 

Family Patellid^i. (True Limpets.) 

The largest known Limpet (Patella mexicana) inhabits the rocks of 
west tropical America, growing to be a foot across, and of capacity 
large enough for a French lady's wash hand basin; else, this tribe, so 
abundant elsewhere, is remarkably absent from North America. The 
rocky shores of the Old World are covered with them, almost always 
above the region of the Acmauds ; sometimes at such high levels that 
they can rarely be dashed over with sea water or find anything to eat. 
Like the Ear-shells, they adhere very firmly to the rocks when once 
touched, by means of their strong muscular foot, grooved across the 
middle. The tongue of the common English Limpet is longer than 
the shell itself; containing 160 rows of twelve teeth each, or 1,920 little 
glassy hooks. With these it rasps the nullipore and sea-weed, prin- 
cipally in the night. It has the organs both of adhesiveness and in- 
habitiveness large, growing according to the shape of the rock which 
it. selected, and where it always returns to roost. In one county of 
Scotland twelve millions have been collected in a year for bait ; and 
near Larme, in Ireland, many tons' weight are annually collected for 



220 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

food. The gill goes round both head and body, just under the shell ; 
and is ornamented with very beautiful fringes, sometimes of two hun- 
dred filaments. One of the south African Limpets, Olana, has a snout 
in front of the shell ; but whether the animal has any coordinate pecu- 
liarity, has not been ascertained. The shells which Messrs. Adams 
call Cymbula are believed to be only True Limpets altered into a com- 
pressed form to living on stems of plants. The Nacellce, or horny, 
Sea-weed Limpets, alter in form in the same way. They have the gill 
interrupted over the head, forming a transition to the Acmseids. The 
shells of the African Helcion are like an Emarginula without slit. 

Fossil Limpets are found in rocks of all ages ; but of course their 
generic position is uncertain. The Limpets, more perhaps than any 
other shells, require to be studied geographically, with careful dissec- 
tions of the animals, and with diligent comparison of a large multi- 
tude of specimens. 

The last family of this order presents special characters so different 
from any other mollusks, that if they alone were attended to, it would 
be necessary to form a class for their sole occupation. Nevertheless, 
they have so much in common with the Limpets that they are gen- 
erally included in this order. 

Family Chitonid^e. (Coat-of-Mail shells, or Sea-iooodlice.) 

It has been well said that the Chitons have their backs armed, like 
the Isopod Crustaceans; their gills, like those of the Brachyurous 
Crustaceans ; their heart, in a long vessel down the back like a Sea- 
worm ; their reproductive organs symmetrical and repeated on each 
side, like the bivalves; a crawling foot and head, like a Limpet ; a pos- 
terior vent, like the Fissurellas ; and a leathery skin, like the Tunica- 
ries. According to the old-fashioned division of shells into univalves, 
bivalves, and multi valves, they were driven by Linnaeus to keep com- 
pany with the headless Pholas and the Crustacean Lepas. For they 
have eight distinct shelly plates, fitting over each other like tiles, the 
middle ones marked off in sculpture by diagonal lines, and all of them 
let into the tough mantle by sharp smooth edges, like Pupillea. Out- 
side, the creatures have a general resemblance to the bodies of Trilo- 
bites; and, like those strange denizens of the palaeozoic seas, or the 
living Woodlice, they can roll themselves completely up into a ball. 
The eight valves and the skin together may be taken to represent the 
shell of the Limpet. Underneath is a small head, with mouth, jaws, 
and long armed tongue, the teeth being arranged in very peculiar 
patterns. The young Chitons have very little resemblance to their 
parents. They are divided into two nearly equal parts, head and 
body, with a pair of eyes between. There is no trace of foot, gill, or 
even mouth ; nor of the swimming fins almost universal in young 
marine Gasteropods. They appear to change their fluids and grow 
by suction, and to move by a fringe of feelers round the neck. Pres- 
ently however the body' half develops lines on the back, between 
which gradually seven of the valves are formed, the shelly matter first 
appearing in granules, as in the land snails. At the same time a foot 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 221 

spreads out below, and gills between the upper and lower portion. 
These gills are not like the single long gill of the Limpet, curled 
round; but are two long, symmetrical organs; it being the fashion of 
Chitons to double almost everything, the generative orifices included. 
The head gradually becomes smaller in proportion, is covered with 
granules which become the eighth valve, and develops a slit, which 
becomes the mouth. It then loses the eyes; the head never stretches 
beyond the valves, and there are no tentacles. 

The Chitons live chiefly on rocks and under stones at low water and 
in moderate depths. They are sluggish creatures, and apparently 
neither disturb others or are themselves disturbed, (except by conchol- 
ogists.) They are found in all seas ; but the finest species are not 
found in the tropics. The largest are from the colder western rocks 
of North and South America. Different as the Chitons are from all 
other living creatures, they are very like each other. The different 
groups are not generally confined to particular shores ; but the species 
do not travel so far as Limpets and ordinary mollusks, as, indeed, we 
might suppose from the young having no swimming fins. A large 
number of genera have been proposed by modern authors, of which 
the following are the principal; writers unfortunately not agreeing on 
the group for which the old name should be retained. 

The true Chitons have the mantle covered with smooth scales, and 
the end valves elegantly pectinated at the edge ; the back valves hav- 
ing the apes raised. Enoplochiton has the scales long and unequal ; 
the back valve with smooth edge and depressed apex. In general the 
middle valves have only one notch ; but in Raclsia there are two ; and 
in Callochiton, the edges are cut into four bifid lobes. In Lepidopleu- 
rus the valves are thin, and easily fall off; the insertion-plates being 
inside the colored parts. The mantle-scales are extremely small. In 
Leptochiton, which includes most of the northern forms, the scales are 
minute, the gills short, and the insertion-plates rudimentary, with- 
out notches. In Lorica and Schizochiton, the mantle and last valve 
are slit behind. They have very minute scales, and in the latter group 
the valves are very small as compared with the mantle. 

In the next series, the mantle is covered with thick hairs or bris- 
tles. Acanthopleura has the insertion-plates pectinated. Corephium 
has the mantle-spines shelly, and the back valve not lobed at the 
sides. Mopalia has the mantle much produced in front, and narrowed 
behind. 

A comparatively small group Tonicia has the mantle naked and 
smooth. One species, in which the valves are more separated, has 
been dignified by Dr. Gray with the classical generic name Fannyia. 

The Oregon district produces a curious group of Chitons, in which 
the valves are nearly or entirely covered by the fleshy mantle. The 
commonest species, whicli was first sent to the British Museum by 
Lady Katherine Douglas, and therefore called by Dr. Gray Katherina 
Douglasice, (Anglice, Douglas's Catherine,) has the valves partly 
exposed and the skin smooth. The giant Crypfochiton, the anatomy 
of which has been so carefully described by Dr. Middendorff, has 
gritty particles in the rough skin. There is no sculpture on the valves, 



222 LECTURES ON HOLLUSOA. 

which are quite hidden ; the creature looking outside only like a lump 
of leather. 

Another main division of the Chitons contains creatures which have 
pores in the mantle margin ; always nine on each side, and armed 
with bristles. The great Plaxiphora of the Cape Horn district has 
irregular hunches of bristles, some of them shelly. The shells of 
Acanthochites are beautifully adorned with regular tufts of bristles, 
which are often of pearly hue. Amicula is almost covered by the hairy 
mantle, like Cryptochiton. In Cryptoconchus , the tufted pores are at a 
distance from the edge; and the exposed parts of the valves are 
extremely narrow. Lastly Ghitonellus has a long, narrow, fleshy, 
slug-like body, with very small and separate valves, adapted to crawl 
in the crevices of coral rocks. 

Valves belonging to the Chiton group have been found in most geo- 
logical periods, from the Silurian age downwards. In one of the 
Silurian forms, called Hchninthochiton, the valves were separate from 
each other, but not covered by the mantle. 

Order CIRROBRANCHIATA. (Tuft-gilled Crawlers.) 

Family Dentaliad^e. (Tusk-Shells.) 

The tooth-shells form a very peculiar and degraded group, which it 
is the fashion to arrange near the Key-hole Limpets, from the fancied 
analogy of the tubular shell to a drawn-out Fissurella. They have 
however scarcely anything in common with that beautiful family, and 
very little with the class of Crawlers. The very Vermetids look down 
upon them; for they have heads, tentacles, and eyes, while these have 
none. The animal is scarcely raised above the bivalves, except that 
it feeds upon them. The foot is conical and funnel-shaped, opening 
into the stomach, which is armed with a gizzard, as in the Bullas. In 
fact they belong rather to the Opisthobranchiate division, the fringe- 
like gills being behind the heart. The blood is red, as in the worms : the 
breathing organs symmetrical, as in the Chitons. They have however 
a lingual ribbon, in three series, on a very simple plan. They live in 
rather deep water, where they prey on Foraminifera and small bivalves. 
Just as the shell of Vermetus resembles Serpula, so the shell of Denta- 
lium often might be mistaken for Ditrujpa, also a sea-worm. The 
Ditrupas however generally have a swelling behind the mouth, while 
that of the tooth-shells is plain. In the group Entails, there is a slit 
at the side of the anal hole. Often a small tube is protruded beyond 
the hole, which is not a constant character, even in the species. 

Sub-class PULMONATA. 

(Air-Breathers.) 

We have already passed under review many of the air-breathing 
mollusks, which by their general affinities seemed more nearly related to 
the marine tribes. The mere fact of crawling on land rocks and plants 
instead of river and shore ones, does not necessarily imply any great 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 223 

diversity of structure. Between the habits of the amphibious Peri- 
winkles, which crawl half a mile from shore, and the Marine Snails 
which are always picked up with sea shells ; or between those of the 
freshwater snails and freshwater Periwinkles, which are found entan- 
gled in the same group of confervas ; there need not exist any essential 
difference. The animals of the true Pulmonates however are formed 
on a lower type from those of the ordinary Sea-crawlers. The senses 
are less acute ; and the individuals perform the functions both of male 
and female to each other. The breathing cavity, instead of being open, 
as in the air and Water-breathing Prosobranchs, is a chamber lined 
with minute blood-vessels, and open only at a small hole. This is 
closed by a valve, to shut out the water in the aquatic tribes, and the 
hot dry air of summer da} r s in the land species. The shape and way 
of crawling of the snails is too well known to need description. They 
are all fond of moisture, and more or less slimy. In the extremes of 
heat, cold, and .drought, they shut themselves up in corners or under 
ground, and often make a false operculum, pierced with a minute 
breathing hole, which is thrown off when the genial season begins. 
In damp mornings and evenings they are in their glory, munching 
the luxurious vegetation, and leaving their slimy track behind them 
as they crawl. They were esteemed a great delicacy by Koman epi- 
cures ; and are still extensively eaten, both in Europe and South 
America. The young snails do not undergo any transformation, like 
that of the pteropodous infants of the Sea-crawlers ; their diffusion 
being sufficiently provided for by ordinary locomotion. Snails are 
found everywhere, from the Arctic regions to the equator, but are rare 
in dry and silicious districts, plentiful wherever there is lime and 
moisture. The continental species are diffused over very wide areas ; 
but the islands of the tropical seas have each their own peculiar forms, 
even if very near to each other, or to the main land. Supposing a 
traveler brought back the snails from a West Indian island, an expe- 
rienced conchologist could tell at once where they were collected ; but 
it would be almost impossible to tell the same from the vast expanse 
of the various United States. 

Snail shells are always lighter than sea shells, having to be carried 
on the back of the animal without the watery support. Their con- 
struction is much simpler, abounding in animal matter ; and they are 
first formed, like the Chitons, by shelly granules deposited in the 
horny layer. Some of the groups are ovoviviparous. The great, 
Brazilian snails lay eggs with hard shells, as large as a pigeon's. 
In some groups, the shell is little more than horny skin ; and in many, 
the animal is too large to be withdrawn into it. Some families indeed 
have no shell at all, or only a plate protecting the most delicate 
organs. ' The tongue-membrane is not a long ribbon as in the sea- 
shells, but a short broad horny layer ; partly spread over the soft 
tongue partly curled up at the side. It is covered with an enormous 
number of minute square teeth, very similar in pattern, and looking 
not unlike a tesselated pavement, with raised knobs. 



224 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Tribe I. Geophila. Land Sn ails. 

Family Helicidje. (True Snails.) 

The true snails have their body distinct from the foot, and protected 
by a spiral shell. The shape of this is extremely variable, presenting 
differences much greater than is usual between widely distinct families 
in the marine tribes. Yet the different forms pass into each other by 
such insensible gradations, and the animals are so like in all essential 
particulars, that the division into genera is a matter of great difficulty. 
There are many myriads of species from all parts of the globe, and 
from all kinds of habitats. Many species have been found on moun- 
tains from 8,000 to 11,000 feet high, both in the Old and New World, 
while others live in marshes, or on the sea-shore. In some few groups, 
both animal and shell present well-marked peculiarities ; others are 
restricted to special districts ; but in general the sections are constituted 
for the convenience of identifying species. How long the snails have 
lived on the surface of our globe it is impossible to say, as the remains 
entombed in rocks are almost exclusively of aquatic productions. 
Nevertheless many snails have been washed down into tertiary strata; 
and it is singular to find forms and even species now peculiar to the 
New World, such as Megaspira, Proserpina, Glandina, and Slenotrema, 
fossil in the European Eocene ; showing that existing forms have long 
outlived existing continents. The oldest snail known is a little Pupa, 
found by Prof. Dawson, in situ, on the fossil trees in the coal measures 
of Nova Scotia ; generically it exactly resembles existing forms. 

The " horns" of the snails are in reality very long and sensitive eye 
stumps. The true tentacles are short, and nearer the mouth. They 
have a saw-like upper jaw to bite the leaves, and plain teeth arranged 
in squares. The nose, or lung valve, is just under the right side of 
the shell; the reproductive orifice under the right eye stalk. Some of 
the European species form and dart out minute needles, it is supposed 
to attract their mates. The old genera of Lamarck may be taken as 
sections, from which the immense multitude of species now known re- 
quire to be subdivided. 

The true snails have a short spire, and a mouth rather broader than 
long. The eatable snail, Helix pomatia, (which is believed to have 
been introduced into South Britain by the Romans for epicurean pur- 
poses,) and its congeners, have a semicircular mouth and rather thin 
lip. Eurycratera has a thin shell and very capacious body whirl. 
Hclicostyla comprises the tall, compact snails of the Philippines. 
Acavus, which abounds in the Old World, has the mouth somewhat 
produced in front, and the lip thickened all round, without umbilicus. 
The group Caracolla has the lip continued all round, the spire flattened 
and generally keeled. In Lucerna the mouth is more or less twisted, 
with teeth; and in Anostoma the adult shell is turned upside down, 
the mouth joining the apex. Lychnus is an Eocene Anostoma without 
teeth. Tridopsis contains the ordinary American toothed snails; the 
flat, many-whirled forms being called Polygyra. Geotroclius contains 
the conical, thin, flat-based snails, shaped like Calliostoma. Solariop- 
sis contains the snake-skin snails of tropical America. Macrocyclis 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 225 

resembles it in form, with swelling whirls, and circular expanded 
mouth. Iberus is a common group in the Mediterranean region, also 
found in California ; flattened, often keeled, with the mouth bent down- 
wards. Ochthephila abounds in the Canaries, with the lip continued 
all round, as in Caracolla. Hygromia contains the small, flat, umbili- 
cated snails of temperate regions, with sharp, rounded mouths, thickened 
within. 

The Helicetta tribe have the margin quite sharp, and the shell thin 
and glossy. They live in dark, damp places, and are remarkable for 
the lingual teeth being pointed at the sides. The shells of Discus 
resemble them, but are not glossy. Those of Zonites are rough above 
but glossy below. The curious Jamaican group Sagda has a stumpy, 
elevated shell, with many whirls, and laminae running along the inside 
of the base. Pitys is angular, with the mouth variously toothed. The 
shells of Stylodonta have the pillar twisted like AcJiatinella ; and those 
of Streptaxis have the pillar curiously distorted. 

The Bidimus group are like snails drawn out into an oval, the spire 
being raised, and the mouth longer than broad. There is generally a 
plait or fold on the pillar. The typical Bidimi of South America are 
six inches long when adult, and an inch when born. Their eggs 
resemble a pigeon's. The animals are exactly like those of the typical 
snails. Cochlostyla is a Philippine group, with the mouth somewhat 
rounded and passing into Helicostyla. The shells of Orthalicus are 
thin, with a sharp lip ; those of Bulimulus approaching Pupa in form. 
The Partulas are an ovoviviparous group, living on low bushes near 
the sea in the Pacific islands. Otostomus is a South American group, 
with very long narrow mouths. The shells of Odontostomus are curi- 
ously toothed, like Pupa; and Tomigerus has a wry mouth, twisted 
upwards as in Anostoma. The shells of Cochlicetta are many whirled, 
like Cylindrella. Chondrus has a tooth close to the suture. Zua is 
glossy like Helicetta. Azeca resembles it, with a ringent mouth. The 
shells of Bostryx have the last whirls separated, as in Vermetus. 

The Achatina group resemble Orthalicus, with the bottom of the 
pillar truncated like Melanopsis. The typical species are African, and 
are the largest land shells known, being eight inches long. Limicola- 
ria forms a transition to Orthalicus, with the pillar pinched, not trun- 
cated ; and Pachyotis, a group which lingers in the islands of the South 
Atlantic, forms a similar transition to Odontostomus. The West Indian 
group Pseudotrochus has a porcellanous, highly painted shell. The 
group Columna is many-whirled, like Cochlicetta. The little Cionellas 
are glossy, and scarcely truncated. Spiraxis has the pillar bent; and 
the large group AcJiatinella, which culminates in the Sandwich islands, 
and is ovoviviparous like Partula, has a sharp, twisted fold on the 
pillar, instead of a truncation. Tornatellina nearly resembles it, but 
with additional plaits. 

The Chrysalis snails are remarkable for being narrowed at each end. 
They are all rather, and some extremely small, and have many whirls. 
The foot is very short ; and the true tentacles very small or altogether 
wanting. The Pupas are very stumpy shells, generally ribbed outside; 
and with the mouth often curiously distorted by plaits. 

In the animals of the little wry-mouthed Vertigo, the tentacles can- 
15 



226 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

not be seen. Boysia is a Pupa, with the mouth turned up, as in 
Anostoma. Gibbus is a group of irregular shells, intermediate between 
Pupa and Bulimus. The shells of Clausilia are drawn out at each 
end, and are always reversed. The animals have the great peculiarity 
of having a kind of operculum (clausium) which moves on a leathery 
hinge, and fits between the teeth of the mouth. They greatly abound 
in the old world; but only three species have been found in the whole 
of America. They are represented in the West Indies by the beautiful 
group Cylindrdla, in which the mouth is round and the lip reflected. 
The upper whirls, which would make the shell too long to be carried, 
are generally thrown off; but the mouth in some species is produced to 
so enormous a distance that the animal must carry its shell poised in 
the air, like a pole held at one end. The polished Cylindrellas are 
called Leia, answering to Zua among the Bulimi. The little reversed 
shells of Balea are like a young Clausilia; and Megaspira is like a 
very produced Pupa, with plaits on the pillar. 

The next group consists of snails, which, though they do not live in 
the water, are never found far off. Their eye-tentacles are short and 
stumpy, and the animal is fleshy, and not fully drawn into the shell. 
This is scarcely calcareous, being rarely more than a spiral skin, 
generally of an amber color. The Succineas are very common in 
marshy places, and easily known by the very loosely spiral shell, with 
long mouth and pointed spire. Amphibulima has the mouth expanded 
and pinched at the top. Simpulopsis has more the shape of ordinaiy 
snails. In Helisiga the spire is extremely small; and in Omalonyx it 
is almost obsolete, the mantle of the animal being reflected over the 
sides, as in Vitrina. 

Family Vitrinid^;. (Glass-snails.) 

The Vitrinas are intermediate between snails and slugs. ' They can 
never entirely enter their shells ; and, when they crawl, the sides of 
the mantle more or less overlap the edges. The shells, like those of 
jSuccinea, are little more than spiral skins, and are generally snail- 
shaped, and green. A passage to the true snails is provided in Pfeif- 
feria. In Daudebardia, the tail is very short; the little shell lying 
at the back of the animal, ajs in Testacellus. The shell of Peltella is 
shaped like the Sea-ears, and is entirely hidden by the mantle. Cryp- 
tella is the slug of the Canary Islands, which hides itself the greater 
part of the year, and then makes sad havoc of the gardens in the rainy 
season. It has an irregular shell, which in the very young state is 
provided with an operculum ; but afterwards it is entirely covered by 
the mantle-shield, on the back of the broad animal. The African tribe 
Parmactlla, have a similar shell, similarly hidden. The foot is trun- 
cated behind, thus passing into the next group. 

Some of the Vitrinas have the tongue-teeth hooked at the sides, and 
are supposed to feast on animal substances. The Stenopus tribe how- 
ever have a horny, saw-shaped jaw and teeth, after the model of the 
true snails. They resemble the Vitrinai in having mantle-flaps partly 
.covering the shell; but differ in having the foot truncated behind, 
with a slime-gland at the end. The shells are horny and polished 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. . 227 

like Heliceila. The large tropical group of Nanina have the sole of 
the foot broad. In some of the sections, the shell is rough above/ In 
Arioptranta, there are no mantle-flaps, but the slime-gland is still seen 
behind the left-handed shell. Helicarion has a Vitrinoid shell, nearly 
enveloped by the flaps of a Naninoid animal. The animal of Pary- 
phanta is not known ; but the shells are like a large horny Vitrina. 

Family Test acell acid jb. {Carnivorous Snails.) 

The great Glandina of South Carolina, and its congeners, have 
the lingual teeth in curled rows and sharply hooked. The head is 
short, and the lips are produced into false tentacles, as in the Ampul- 
larias. The shell resembles a flattened Achatina. It is strictly car- 
nivorous in its habits. 

A curious little group of slugs are found to have similar denti- 
tion and habits. The teeth are pin-shaped. They are known from 
the common slugs by not being slimy; living under ground, Avhere 
they prey upon earth worms ; and having a little solid shell like a Sea- 
ear on its tail. Its head however is shaped like the True Slugs. A 
similar, but somewhat apocryphal slug is figured by Ferussae, with a 
horny, conical shell on the tail ; it is provisionally called Plectrophorus . 

Family Limacidje. (Slugs.) 

The True Slugs, have teeth very like Vitrina, but the points are 
longer. The body of the animal is united to the foot, and a shield is 
seen on the back, under which, in Limax, there is a calcareous plate, 
which has been found fossil in the Eocene beds. They are pretty 
active in damp weather, and love to feed on decaying animal and 
vegetable matter. The Teneriffe Slug, Phosphorax, has a bright 
green spot on the tail, which shines at night like the glow-worm. In 
the Philomycus of the southern States, the shield covers the whole 
back of the Slug. 

The Arions, or Land-soles, have only a few granules instead of a 
shelly plate, and have a slime-gland like Nanina. The common Eng- 
lish species has 160 rows of teeth on its tongue, with 101 denticles in 
each row. They freely eat dead worms; and, like true cannibals, will 
not refuse to finish off an injured individual of their own species. The 
Irish Slug, Geomalacus, has a shell like Limax, and a gland like 
Arion. The reproductive orifice is under the right eye-stalk, as in 
the True Slugs; in the Land-soles, it is just below the breathing 
valve. 

A very curious New Zealand Slug, Janella, resembles Philomycus 
in having the mantle produced over the whole back ; but the eye- 
stalks are behind the forehead, and the mouth beneath, at the front of 
the foot-sole; so that the head is hardly distinct. The mantle is 
grooved down the middle, and the breathing hole is half way down 
the body. The creature coils itself round to sleep like a cat. 

Family Onctdiad.e. (Rough- Slugs.) 
The Oncidia, like the Auricidus, live in damp places near the sea or 



228 • LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

rivers. They are short, stumpy creatures with a rough skin, and 
closely resemble some of the Sea-slugs. Their eyes are at the end of 
the stalks, which are not retractile. The teeth are like those of snails, 
but they have no horny jaws. The breathing hole, vent, and ovary 
are at the back of the body; the intromittent opening under the rig-ht 
eye. Oncidella has flaps round the mouth. Peronia lives on shores, 
moving up and down a few feet above tide level. These Slugs have 
knobs or excrescences on their backs, as well as flaps round the 
mouth. The British species is said to have the heart in front of the 
lung, while in all the other pulmonates it is behind. 

The Veronicella, which lives in damp, shady forests, has a smooth, 
leathery mantle, and a pair of small, bifid tentacles in addition to the 
eye-stalks. The ovary opens half way down the side. These Slugs 
crawl quickly, and are not slimy. They lay their eggs in a coiled 
necklace. 

Tribe II. Limnophila. (Aquatic Snails.) 

The amphibious tribes differ from the true land snails in having no 
eye-stalks. The tentacles are generally short and stumpy, and the 
eyes are fixed at their bases, as in the Periwinkles. The tongue-teeth 
greatly resemble those of the snails. 

Family Auriculid^:. 

The Auriculas were long regarded as sea-shells. They inhabit salt 
and brackish marshes, and their shells are much more solid than is 
usual with land-shells. Some of them absorb the inner whirls like 
the Nerites. The shells always have narrow mouths, more or less 
toothed. 

The typical Auriculas sometimes have large shells, and increase half 
a whirl at a time. They have a stumpy spire, long narrow mouth, 
thickened inside, and a few large folds on the pillar. They rejoice in 
mud banks in the East Indian archipelago. The animal of Cassidula 
has the foot cleft behind. The shell is stumpy, and the thickening of 
the outer lip wrinkled. The shells of Scarabus are conic and rather 
thin, being adapted to a tivue terrestrial life. The whirls have two 
rows of indistinct varices, and the mouth is strongly toothed on each 
side. The little Alexias represent the previous groups in the Atlantic 
regions : having a plain and pointed spire. The tiny Carychium re- 
sembles Piqxi in form, and lives in moist places far off from the sea. 

The Melampus tribe enjoy sea bathing, though strict air-breathers. 
Their foot is cleft behind. Their shells resemble Cassidula, but the 
outer lip is either thin or regularly toothed within. Some species, 
called Tralia, are said to have a pointed foot. The tentacles in these 
animals are sharper than in the less aquatic species. The Sandwich 
Island group Lcemadonta have a curious plait across the outer lip. 
The shells of Leuconia have a sharp outer lip ; and the animal is said 
to differ from Alexia in having the foot grooved across. The shells of 
Pcdipes have a very wry mouth like Scarobus, and a very short spire. 
The animal has a grooved foot, and loops in walking like Truncatella. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 229 

It steps about, more quickly than most rnollusks, in rocky crannies on 
the sea-shore. 

Family Otinidje. {Ear Snails.) 

The little shell of Otina could hardly he distinguished from Velutina 
but the animal closely resembles Auricula. The tentacles are very 
small ; the foot grooved for looping ; and the mouth cleft vertically. 
The little creatures live in the same situations as Pcdipes. 

Family ~Lw$2EH>m. (Freshwater Snails.) 

In company with Melanias, Paludinas, and other gill-breathing 
freshwater Periwinkles, are found in every part of the globe shell-fish 
which never leave the water, and yet are as truly air-breathers as the 
whales. They must needs come to the surface occasionally to breathe, 
where they may be seen gliding upside down, and sometimes letting 
themselves drop at the end of a glutinous thread. They have short, 
stumpy tentacles, with eyes on the inner basis, and very broad feet. 
They abound most in temperate regions. The breathing hole is at 
the right side of the neck : the vent at the left. They lay their eggs 
in gelatinous masses on the leaves of water plants which -they devour. 
The Limncea stagnalis has 110 rows of 111 teeth each, and is said to 
prefer feeding on decaying animal matter. The shells of Limnaia are 
thin, with a pointed spire, and a fold on the pillar. Those of Cliilina, 
which inhabit the clear running streams of South America, are almost 
exactly like Auricula, which the animals of this family greatly resem- 
ble. The shell of Amphipejplea is transparent and swollen ; and is 
nearly covered by the sides of the mantle. 

Family Planorbid^:. 

The animals of this family differ from the Limnseids in having sharp, 
pointed tentacles. The shape of the shells is, extremely variable. In 
the first group they are flat, in the second pointed, and in the third 
limpet-shaped. 

Planorbis has a spiral shell with the whirls inclosing each other on 
the same plane. It lives in a reversed position. The whirls are flat 
and numerous in most of the European species ; generally few and 
swollen in the American. Monstrosities are found, perpetuating them- 
selves in particular ponds, with the spire elevated. The teeth closely 
resemble those of Auricula-. One of the minute British species has 
no fewer than six thousand of them. Some species emit a purple fluid 
when disturbed. In Segmentina the whirls are divided across at reg- 
ular intervals, by septa with toothed openings for the passage of the 
animal. So little was known of its true relations in earlier times, 
that the British species was called the " Freshwater Nautilus/' 

The Physa tribe have shells looking like reversed Limnceas. In 
the typical species they are enveloped, as in Amphipeplea, by the 
fringed sides of the mantle. In the beautiful group Aplexa, the shells 
are glassy, with raised spires, and the mantle margin is plain and not 
flapped. Physopsis is a south African form, like a reversed Achati- 



230 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

nella: and the East Indian Camptoceras has the whirls separated like 
Vermetus. Fossils of this tribe, as of Limn ceo, and Planorbis, are 
found as old as the Wealden oolitic rocks. 

The lirnpet-like shell of Ancylus is as different from Pliysa as Brode- 
ripia from Trochus, or Teslacellus from Glandina. Nevertheless the 
animal is even more closely allied. The shell is sinistral, (the point 
being turned to the right,) and entirely covers the animal ; which has 
much less attachment to it than the Limpets, and can move its long 
neck freely under its large umbrella. Velletia is a dextral shell, with 
the apex turned to the left, and a somewhat different arrangement of 
teeth. Both forms are found fossil in Eocene strata. The curious 
little New Zealand Latia has a deck across one end, like the Slipper- 
limpets. Lastly, the Cuban Gundlachia has the knobby apex pro- 
duced, and the deck broad, so as to resemble some of the small-spired 
Neritince, but without operculum. All these curious freshwater Lim- 
pet-snails crawl on stones or plants, generally in clear water. 

Tribe III. Thalassophila, {Marine-snails.) 

These curious creatures are always found close to the sea. The ani- 
mals greatly resemble Auricula, and have the normal dentition of 
Helix. The inside of the breathing chamber is wrinkled, so that it 
would appear that neither air nor water would come amiss. The 
cavity is however closed as in the true snails," and wet sea air is prob- 
ably most congenial to them. The small tentacles are flattened out 
into a disk round the head. 

Family Amphibolid *:. {Periivinkle-snails.) 

These creatures have shells somewhat like a Natica, with the outer 
lip somewhat notched, as though for an air passage. They are eaten 
in New Zealand like Periwinkles, and differ from all other true Pul- 
monates in having a thin, horny, sub-spiral operculum. There is 
only one genus known, Amphibola, from the Australian seas. 

Family Siphonariadve. {Sea Limpet-snails.) 

The Siphonarias have solid, conical shells, often overgrown with 
sea-weeds and nullipores. They are known from Limpets by their 
irregularity of form, caused by a groove which interrupts _ the muscle 
of attachment on the right side; not traversing it, as in Gadinia. 
They are found on almost all tropical shores. There is a large man- 
tle-flap covering up the breathing hole. The tentacles are entirely 
flattened down into a veil ; and the animal has a much plainer appear- 
ance than the ordinary Limpets. The individuals in many species vary 
more, in shape and sculpture, even than in their water-breathing 
neighbors. These creatures are to the Amphibolce what the Ancylus is 
to the Planorbis. 

Sub-Class. OPISTHOBKANCHIATA. 

The next division of the crawling mollusks consists of creatures 
which are generally destitute of shells, pv simply have them as a pro- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. . 231 

tection to particular organs of the body. The gills are not lodged in 
a special neck-cavity, but are behind the heart. The sexes are united 
in each individual. In the young state, they are exactly like the fry 
of the prosobranchs ; each being inclosed in an operculated spiral shell, 
and furnished with pins and cilia. They are all inhabitants of the 
sea. They are formed on two distinct types; those in which the gills 
are at the side, more or less covered by the mantle, and often protected 
by a shell; and those in which the gills are exposed, and entirely des- 
titute of shell. They live principally on animal matter. 

Order I. TEGTIBRANCHIATA. {Crawlers with sheltered gills.) 
Family Tornatellidje. 

The animals of this tribe are as yet but little known. They are 
arranged by Dr. Gray between Scalaria and Cerithiopsis, on the sup- 
position that the gills are comb-like and the animal unisexual. It is 
curious how large a proportion of existing observations on mollusks 
need verification by those who have honest, well-trained eyes. Just 
as the infant's eye has to be trained to distinguish forms and distances, 
so it requires practice before we know how to see truly an object that 
lies before us. During the educational process it is often very easy to 
see what we wish or expect to see. The shells of this tribe are nearly 
allied both to the Pyramidellids and the Auricidids; and some aberrant 
forms show relations both to Ovida and Dolium. As the living forms 
are confined to a very few species, it is scarcely to be expected that we 
should be able rightly to assign the positions of the various fossil 
groups. These are found in great numbers, beginning with the coal 
strata, becoming very plentiful in the oolites, and culminating in the 
cretaceous age. The ordinary sculpture of the tribe is in spiral lines 
or rows of dots. They differ from all the other Opisthobranchs in 
having a very thin operculum, with broad, thin flaps, so, as completely 
to cover the mouth. The animal is quite retractile into the shell, and 
has the general aspect of an Auricula, with its short, flat, triangular 
tentacles and the eyes at their front. The teeth however are widely 
different. Instead of the thousand tessellated teeth of the snails, there 
are simply two rows of sickles arranged as an arrow head on the nar- 
row, broad tongue. They live in rather deep water, and are by no 
means common in collections. The tentacles are used rather as a veil 
than as feelers, being laid over the front of the shell in walking. The 
gills are at the side, cloaked over hj the mantle. 

The shells of Tornatella proper are thin, with onefold on the pillar. 
Those of Buccinidus are stout, with two folds. (Monoptygmd may prove 
to be an elongated Tornatella, with a single, slanting fold.) All the 
remaining genera are fossil. Acteonina is like a Monoptygma without 
plait. The oolitic Cylindrites have the folds twisted outwards. The 
chalk Acteonella is like a cone-shell with plaited pillar, but without 
breathing notch. Cinidia has a globular shell, with many-plaited 
pillar, and toothed outer-lip. Globiconcha has a similar shell without 
the plaits. Varigera resembles it^ with varices like Scarabus. In the 
Portuguese Tylostoma, varices are formed thickened inside as in Cassis. 



232 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Pterodonia is notched in front, in which respect it resembles the 
living Ringicula. The shells of this genus are very small, and have 
been passed on from one place to another, like an English pauper. 
They have a wry mouth with strong pillar-plates, and a notched lip, 
somewhat like Halea. They probably form a family by themselves. 
differing from Tornatella in their glossy texture. 

Family Cylichnid^. 

In this tribe the teeth are arranged in thirteen longitudinal series, 
greatly resembling Fissurella. The shell somewhat resembles a Torna- 
tella without plaits, with the spire more or less concealed, and the 
aperture pinched behind, swelling in front. In some of the forms the 
apex is prominent and reversed, as in Pyramidellids. The tentacles 
are united into a broad veil, looking something like a Natica as the 
creature ploughs through the wet sand. There are however small eyes 
in front. The deep-water Cylichna has the spire concealed. In the 
littoral Utricidus it is raised; and in Tornatina there is a columellar 
fold, and a channeled suture. Certain little shells, closely resembling 
Radius, have been referred to this family, till more is known concern- 
ing the animals. Volvula has a posterior canal like the Egg-shells, 
but a fold on the pillar like Tornatina. Some curious fossil forms ap- 
pear to belong to this group. 

Family AmphisphyridtE. 

In this little group the shell closely resembles Utricidus; but it is 
transparent, the eyes being placed behind it, as in Jeffreysia. The 
tentacles also are like side-fins, and the animal shuts itself up entirely 
in its shell. The teeth closely resemble Tornatella, but with a square 
key-stone between the rows of sickles. 

Family Aplustrid.e. 

The shells of this family are generally very highly colored, and are 
partially covered by the expanded foot-lobes. The animals, also, are 
highly tinted, and adorned with flap-like tentacles, with eyes at their 
bases. The tongue-teeth resemble Tornatella; so does the pretty little 
shell of Bullinula, which has a twisted, but not plaited pillar, notched 
at the bottom. Ajplustrum, which abounds in the Sandwich Islands, 
also has a twisted and notched pillar,- with a membranous outerlip ami 
flattened spire. In Hydatina, the pillar is simple. 

Family Bullid.e. {Bubble-shells.) 

The shells of this family resemble an Ovulum without canals, and 
with sharp lip. The apex of the spire is generally perforated, and the 
shell adorned with cloudy painting. The teeth are in arrow-headed 
rows of sickles, with a hooked key-stone. The Bidlas love slimy 
places, where they grub for bivalves and other mollusks. The shells 
of Haminea are thin and horny, almost inclosed by the broad flaps of 
the foot and head. Acer a has a similar shell, but more flattened, with 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 233 

a slit at the suture, through which a mantle tail runs, as in the Olives. 
The animal has a very long head, but no eyes. This is also the case 
with Atys, the shells of which are strong, white, and generally notched 
on each side of the lip. 

Family Philinid^i. {Open Bubble-shells.) 

The shells in this family are never completely rolled-round,, but the 
point of the spire can be seen within. They are situated at the tail 
end of the animals, which never wholly enter them. The teeth of 
these creatures consist of two (rarely four) longitudinal series of sharp 
sickles, turned upwards and often serrated within. Sometimes there 
are small, buttress-like teeth outside. The animals, like the rest of 
the Bubble group, have the tentacles merged into the frontal veil, 
making the head wedge-shaped, for swimming or gliding through soft 
mud, the resting-place of unsuspecting bivalves. While the blind 
Naticas deliberately drill their hole and suck out the soft flesh, the 
dull-eyed Bubbles gobble them down, shells and all, and send them to 
their gizzard-mill to grind. This consists of three shelly plates, much 
thicker than the shell-covering of the animal, and working together 
by means of strong cartilage. An old Italian naturalist called the 
plates of this gizzard Gioenia, after himself, and described the habits 
of the invented animal ; so that even Lamarck and Cuvier were de- 
ceived by it. 

The first group never cover their shells. That of the Scaphander is 
very large and swollen in front; narrow and projecting beyond the 
blind animal behind. The green, somewhat pearly shell of the Pacific 
group Smaragdinella is placed on the middle of the back; the spire 
being represented by a cup-like process, as in Calyptrcea. The creature 
has its tiny eyes in the middle of the veil. Phanerophthalmus has a 
horny plate, scarcely bent-in on one side for a spire, at the back of the 
animal, and partly covered by the foot-lobes. Cryptophthalmus has a 
similar shell, with the eyes behind the veil. 

In the next group the shell is colorless, and entirely covered by the 
mantle, at the back of the body. The animals have no eyes. Philine 
has a very open, slightly-spiral shell, Doridium a flat, triangular 
plate. Chelidonura has a thin, slightly curved, ax-shaped shell. The 
animal is very brilliant, with two long tails behind. 

The animals of Gasteropteron and F osterobrancliaia require more 
careful examination. They have no shell, and may belong to another 
group. 

Family Aplysiad^e. (Sea-hares.) 

In the remaining families of Tectibranchs, the head is drawn out, 
and the tentacles are distinct. They present the general aspect of Sea- 
slugs, and, like their land allies, have often a shelly plate to protect 
the vital organs. The tongue-teeth are arranged in very numerous 
longitudinal series, in angular cross lines. The sea-hares are grotesque 
creatures, which crawl about among rock-pools, living on a mixed diet. 
They have ear-shaped feelers, with eyes at their bases; a fat body, 
under the skin of which is an irregular shell, and often rough with 



234 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

hairy or knobbed ornaments, and produced into a tail; and side-flaps 
to the foot which may be used for swimming. When disturbed, they 
discharge a beautiful violet fluid from the skin. The harmless "Un- 
wasliables " (Aplysia) were formerly dreaded by fishermen, who thought 
their stains were poisonous and indelible. They have a convex, horny 
plate covering the gills; and sometimes. old Sea-hares have several of 
these, one inside the other, as in the Cuttle-pens. They have a cartil- 
aginous gizzard, like the Bubbles. In Syiohonota there is an excretory 
tube above the tail. Dolabella has the plate shelly, and generally ax- 
shaped. 

Aclesia is like Aplysia, without shell or swimming flaps. In Sty- 
locheilus the neck and tail are very slender. Notarchus has the body 
rounded, with a very narrow foot for adhering to floating sea-weed. 
Bursatella presents a most anomalous appearance. The common ob- 
server might take it for a jelly fish: for it is quite round, with only a 
rudimentary foot, and with a mass of branched ornament. This con- 
sists, however, first of a large gill hanging out of the back; and sec- 
ondly, of the tentacles which are cut up into branches. 

Family Icaridje. 

A small family of Sea-slugs have a Bulloid shell, not covered by the 
mantle, and only two stumpy tentacles, instead of four, as in Aplysia. 
The body is thin, with a very long tail. The shell of Icarus resembles 
Amphisphyra, with a notch at the suture. Lobiger has a thin shell 
shaped like Pedicularia, with four spreading foot-laps, adapted for 
swimming, like the Pteropods. 

The remaining families differ from the Bubbles and Sea-hares, in 
having the reproductive organs close together, in one tubercle. 

Family Pleurobranchid^e. 

These animals have four stomachs, but very short intestinal canal. 
They are sluggish, compact, often large, and have a somewhat re- 
tractile proboscis. The head is hidden under the edge of the mantle, 
with two tentacles and eyes. The gill is at the side, not on the back 
as in Aplysia. Pleurobranchus has a thin, flat horny shield, and a 
very large foot. The mantle in Oscanius is irregularly expanded, and 
the shield silvery. Sicsania has a plain body, with very small shield, 
and a large mantle deeply notched in front. 

Pleurobranchoea and Neda have no shield, alid a very small mantle. 
The former has a narrow, the latter a broad foot. 

Family UMBRELLiDiE. {Chinese Umbrella Shells.) 

Again we come unexpectedly on a group of Limpets ; for so the 
shells might be considered. The Umbrellas are very large creatures, 
wearing a flat limpet on the middle of the back; not immersed in the 
mantle, as in the very differently organized Lucapina. The gill is 
below the shell, on the right side. The foot is enormously large, and 
encloses not only the body but the head, which has a retractile snout. 
Fossil specimens have been found in the Eocene beds. The animal of 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 235 

Tylodina is intermediate between the Umbrellas and the Pleurobranchs. 
The head is produced and cleft in front; the foot small ; and the shell 
shaped like Scurria, but membranous, and with a small spiral, sinis- 
tral apex. This will probably be hereafter detected in the young 
Umbrellas. 

Family Runctnid2E. 

The Runcinas are tiny Sea-slugs, with gills like Pleurobranchus, 
and hard gizzards like the Bubbles. The tentacles are flattened into 
the mantle. They are supposed to have teeth in three series, and to 
feed on Diatomacece. 

Family DiphyllidiadtE. 

The Phyllidians are curious creatures intermediate between the 
Tectibranchs and the Nudibranchs. Diphyllidia has gills going round 
the back two thirds of the body, the plates being folded in front and 
behind at right angles to each other. The teeth and horny jaws 
resemble the Bubbles. There is a curious veil in front of the tiny 
tentacles, resembling a "respirator." 

Family PhyllidiadyE. 

The Fhyllidias have the general aspect of a Cryptocliiton, the gills 
being arranged all round (except at the head) between the mantle and 
the foot. They have no jaws or tongues. The lips are small and 
conical ; and the tentacles on the back can be drawn into pouches. 
Fryeria has a rough mantle, and the vent is under the mantle at the 
back. Uyjjobranchiaja has the mantle extended into swimming flaps. 

Order II. NUDIBRANCHIATA. 

The Naked-gilled Crawlers form a large tribe of mollusks, of strange 
forms and marvelous beauty. They are found in all parts of the world, 
from the arctic to the torrid zones, wherever theru- is a firm, rocky 
bottom, or a crop of sea-weed. When first born, they dwell in a little 
nautiloid shell, with an operculum; and swim freely with a pair of 
pteropodal fins. Afterwards they drop fins, shell, and operculum, 
and become sedate Crawlers, breathing by means of exposed gills on 
the back, which assume various ornamental shapes, and can often be 
drawn into cavities of the mantle. In some tribes, the skin is coarse 
and leathery ; while in others this and the various tissues of the body 
are so delicate and transparent that we may watch the beating of the 
heart and the digestive processes. The British species have been 
admirably examined by Alder and Hancock, and illustrated by the 
Ray Society in one of the most beautiful Memoirs ever published. It 
is probable that they are equally abundant in other parts of the 
world; but they have been very little observed. They are extremely 
timid; and when disturbed they draw themselves up into a mere lump 
of jelly or tough skin, so that ordinary collectors would pass them by 
altogether; and even experienced naturalists must live in their neigh- 



236 LECTURES ON MOLLUSC A. 

borhood some time before lie can dredge and examine the forms which 
belong to each fauna. As they do not preserve their shapes in alcohol, 
and leave nothing that can be kept in cabinets or impressed on strat- 
ified rocks, they can scarcely be understood without reference to fig- 
ures; and therefore only the principal groups will be here described. 
The student is recommended to examine the plates of Alder and Han- 
cock for the British, and of H. and A. Adams for the exotic tribes. 

In the first group of families, the gills are on the back, near the 
tail, and surrounding the vent. The skin is leathery, of a spongy 
texture, and stiffened with minute darts. 

Family Doridje. (Sea Lemons.) 

The Doris and its allies have tree-like gills, with the vent in the 
middle. The teeth are in very numerous longitudinal series, resem- 
bling the Bullas. They feed on zoophytes and sponges, and lay their 
eggs in a spiral ribbon, attached on one side. The body is convex; 
the mantle large, but plain at the sides; and the back tentacles can be 
drawn into pouches. The gills can be drawn into a general cavity. 
The genera Glossodoris, Ghromodoris, Actinodoris, Asteronotus, Acti- 
nocydus, Atagema, and Dendrodoris are characterized by differences 
in the shape of the gills, tentacles, and mantle. In Hexabranclius 
and Heptabranchus, each gill has a pouch to itself; the circle in the 
latter not being complete. 

Family Onchidoridje. 

In Onchidoris, the gills are not retractile, and the back tentacles are 
laminated. The tongue is narrow, with two rows of large teeth (as 
in Philine) and buttresses outside. The other genera are Acantho- 
doris and Villiersia. 

Family GoxiODORiDiE. 

The Goniodorids have a flattened, angular body. The mantle does 
not reach the head and foot, and the gills are not retractile. The 
tongue-ribbon is narrow, with four series of spines. The Red Sea 
Brachichlanis has the tentacles in front of the mantle. 

The lovely Idalias have the mantle almost obsolete, but produced 
into four false tentacles in front of the true ones, and smaller ones 
round the gills. In the very curious Ancida, ^afterwards named '''Mi- 
randa/') the mantle degenerates into a semi-circular palisade to pro- 
tect the beautiful bunch of branching gills. The tentacles are elegantly 
folded at the ends,, and below are fringed with spreading feelers. This 
smooth, transparent, slug-shaped creature, only yet known in the 
German ocean, glides along, with a spreading moustache above its 
mouth, carrying its living flower-basket on its back. 

Family Polyceridje. 

The " many-horned" Nudibranchs differ from the last family in 
having twelve or sixteen teeth on the tongue-ribbon. In Polycera, 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 237 

the mantle makes a spiked fringe, surrounding the gills and tentacles. 
Palio has the veil slit in front. The tail of Trevelyna is lancet-shaped. 
In Thecacera the mantle is obsolete, and the tentacles retractile. 

Family TEioPiDiE. * 

In this family the teeth are in very numerous rows, on a broad rib- 
bon, but slightly hooked. The tentacles are retractile, within plaited 
sheaths. Triopa has a beautiful set of palisades between the man- 
tle and the foot, forming a fan-shaped row of ornamented tentacles 
above the mouth. Other genera are Euplocamus and Plocamoceros . 
JEgires has the tentacles smooth, and the teeth uniform. 

Family Ceratosomid^e. 

Ceratosoma has conical, spiny teeth in uniform rows, with a spiny, 
somewhat retractile snout. The gills are retractile into a projecting 
horn-shaped pouch ; but not the tentacles. 

In the following groups, the gills are scattered over the back of the 
animal. 

Family Tritoklule. 

The Tritonias are elegant creatures, often large for the order, reach- 
ing six inches in length. The gills are arranged in ornamented plates, 
rising at regular intervals along the mantle-edge. The veil is large 
and fringed : the teeth in very numerous rows, behind the horny 
jaws ; and the fringed tentacles retractile within the sheath. They 
live in shallow water, preying on zoophytes, &c. 

In Scyllcea, the mantle-margin is produced into flaps, bearing the 
gills on their inner edge. The foot is narrow, and grooved for clasp- 
ing floating sea-weeds, on which they are borne about. 

' Family Tethyad.e. 

The Tethys has an enormous flat veil, as large as the body, and copi- 
ously fringed at the edge. Although it has no teeth or jaws, frag- 
ments of crabs and shells have been found in its fleshy gizzard. 

• Family DENDRONOTIDiE. 

In the Dendronotids and the groups which follow, the stomach and 
liver are curiously spread out and branched. Dendronotus has a beau- 
tiful row of tree-like gills, along the middle of the back. The tongue- 
ribbon is broad, with very numerous series of serrated lancet teeth. 
Bornella and Lomanotus are other genera. 

Family Proctonotid^. 

In Proctonotus and Janus the gills look like the stamens of a flower, 
copiously arranged round the mantle edge. There are strong horny 
jaws, and the tentacles are not sheathed. 



23S LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Family Dotonid;e. 

In this family, the tongue-ribbon is narrow, with a single series of 
recurved, serrated teeth. The gills are in two rows of shrub-like pro- 
cesses along the back, into which the liver-vessels enter. In Hero, 
Gellina, and Nerea the tentacles are not retractile ; but in Doto and 
Melibe, they are slender, and can be drawn into the graceful sheaths 
which support them like a candlestick. 

The Chiorcera of Puget Sound may perhaps belong to this group. 

Family Glaucid/E. 

Glaucus is a very singular creature. The foot is rudimentary, and 
it swims in the open sea, feeding on Jelly Fish and Veldlas. The gills 
are arranged on side-fins, spreading out like the snake-tails on a 
gorgon's head. The teeth have some resemblance to those of Amoria 
among the Volutes, but are serrated on each side of the point. 

Family iEoLiDiE. 

The AEoli's tribe are very delicate, graceful, highly ornamented, and 
beautifully painted mollusks, which live in shallow water, principally 
preying on zoophytes. In confinement, they have been known to 
browse on the breathing ornaments of their fellows, or even to devour 
each other's bodies. The gills are arranged as very numerous stamens, 
in variously-grouped rows along the hack. Into these enter the rami- 
fications of the stomach and liver. The tentacles are generally simple 
and unadorned. The teeth consist of a single series of semicircular 
combs. The other generic forms are Calma, Flabellina, Facellina, 
Coryphella, Favor inus , Phidiana, Cuthona, Cavolina, Galvina, Tergipes, 
Embletonia, and Calliopwa. In the last genus the back-tentacles are 
obsolete. They are all characterized by having the last vessel of 
the liver stomach above the ovary, instead of below as in the previous 
families : but agree with the others in having only one orifice to the 
reproductive organs. 

Family Fionhle. 

In this and the next family there are two openings for the repro- 
ductive organs, and two hind vessels for the liver-stomach. Fiona 
has four tentacles, jaws round the mouth, and a fringe on the inner 
side of each gill-stamen. 

Family Herm^eidje. 

Hermcea and Stiligcr have only two tentacles and no jaws. The 
little Alderia, from the salt marshes of Skibbereen, has no tentacles 
at all. 

Family Elysiadje. 

In all the previous families, the gills have appeared the most beau- 
tiful and important organs of the Nudibranchs. In the rest, 'they are 
no longer seen. Elysia and Placobranchus breathe by means of cilia 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 239 

or fine, soft hairs, spread over the surface of the body ; and by plaits 
or vessels radiating on the bach. Their bodies have long swimming 
flaps ; and the branched liver-vessels open into the sides of the 
stomach. 

Family LiMAPONTiADiE. 

In these lowest of Opisthobraricbs, as in the lowest of the Hetero- 
pods, there are no special breathing organs. The aeration of the 
blood is carried on entirely through the skin. In general appearance, 
these creatures are like lungless Slugs. In Limapontia and Actceonia, 
the tentacles are crest-like ; in Ictis, Fucola, and Felta, they are 
linear. The little genus Eliodope is like a creeping worm, without 
mantle, shell, gill, tentacle, or any other appendage. It appears the 
most degraded of Crawlers, but no doubt enjoys life in its own way as 
it progresses over the sea-weeds of Messina. 

Sub-class HETEBOPODA. 

The Heteropods, or Nucleobranchs as they are sometimes called, 
are a very aberrant race of creatures ; and, as such, placed in very dif- 
ferent positions by naturalists. They are in fact Gasteropods, adapted 
for swimming in the open seas. As they do not crawl on the belly, 
they have scarcely a right to the name of the class : accordingly some 
authors treat them as an independent division, between the Gastero- 
pods and the Pteropods. As however we have seen the crawling foot 
obsolete in the stationary Magilus and Vermetus ; and scraggy, more 
fitted for leaping, in Strombus and Fhorus ; it is no great strain on 
our general idea of a Gasteropod to imagine its foot flattened into a 
fin for flapping in the open sea. Many of the Opisthobranchs have the 
foot developed into side-flaps for swimming : we have only now to 
imagine the boat propelled by one central scull instead of by a pair of 
oars. It appears the simplest arrangement to regard them as a group 
coordinate with the crawling Gasteropods, but inferior to them ; as the 
implacental by the side of the ordinary Mammalia. 

In some respects the Nucleobranchs are superior to the ordinary 
crawlers. Their bodies are more sj'mmetrical and their locomotion 
more active. Dr. Gray, indeed, arranges Ianthina with Scalaria among 
the Proboscidifers, and the remaining groups with the Rostrifers. 
Nevertheless, the lower tribes are so like the lower tribes of Nudi- 
branchs — which indeed they all resemble in the exposure of their gills ; 
and the whole group forms so natural a transition to the Pteropods, 
that this appears their most appropriate place. It will be understood, 
however, that Nature never arranges her creations in straight lines ; 
but the higher animals in one division are commonly more complete in 
organization than the lower animals in the groups above it : each t}'pe 
producing the highest as well as the lowest within its own sphere. 

The Heteropods have the sexes distinct, like the Comb-gilled Crawl- 
ers ; and, like them, have the gills in advance of the heart. They 
resemble the Tectibranchs in the subordination of the shell ; which 
sometimes envelopes the whole animal, sometimes only the vital organs, 



240 LECTURES ON MOLLUSC A. 

and frequently is absent altogether. In the delicacy and transparency 
of their tissues, they resemble Nudibranchs. 

Family Ianthinid^e. {Violet Snails.) 

Among the aberrant Heteropods, the Ianthinas form an aberrant, 
not a typical family. The shell .is very thin, snail-shaped, with a 
twisted pillar, angular at the bottom, and a slanting apex. The outer 
lip is always waved, affording a passage for the exposed gills. All the 
species are of a beautiful violet color, deepest on the under side, which 
is more exposed to the light when swimming. The animal has a pro- 
sobranchiate head, projecting beyond the mantle, ending in a stumpy 
• snout, and armed with two long and two short tentacles. The latter 
may be regarded as eye-stalks without eyes. As the animals are be- 
lieved to sleep by day and prey upon the Jelly Fish and Velellas by 
night, they have no need of them. But the most remarkable appendage 
is their float, consisting of air-bubbles set in jelly ; which is about three 
times the length of the shell, and attached to the rudimentary foot. 
Below this the females fasten their eggs. Buoyed up by these bubbles, 
the ocean-snails float about in shoals in the open seas of warm climates, 
and are often cast on shore in vast numbers after storms. The teeth 
are in numerous series, like Scalaria and Bulla. 

There is only one other genus in the family, Recluzia, in which the 
violet color disappears, and the shell somewhat resembles Jeffreysisx. 

Family Macgillivrayid.e. 

The little swimmers which compose this family have not only a 
normally-shaped shell, but also an operculum. As this is found in 
addition to the Ianthinoid float, it proves that the latter does not take 
its place in the last family, as had been supposed. The animal has a 
broad swimming fin, armed with an operculum bearing a support as 
in Jeffreysia. A breathing-pipe conveys water to the gills, which are 
covered in. There are two tentacles with eyes at their bases, and tongues 
armed with teeth and jaw-i)lates, as in the typical Pectinibranchs. 
The most remarkable feature however is the crown of four false ten- 
tacles, branching out behind the head like a collar, as in several of the 
Nudibranchs, and many times the length of the shell. The pretty 
little Ethella has the pillar of the shell pointed in front, and the oper- 
culum on an arm like the Strombs, It appears to be used as a shield; 
while the creature skips and jerks with its complex foot. There is a 
beautiful collar, composed of six elegantly fringed arms. Gem.ellah&s 
a foot like a square-toed shoe, with which it glides along the surface of 
the ocean. The shell is like a flattened Recluzia, with a few whirled 
operculum. "This shell-protected speck buoys up its tiny body" in 
the South Pacific, "cast abroad, though not lost, in the ocean's im- 
mensity/' The singular little shells of Calcarella are abnormally 
spiral, looking more like those* of the Pteropods. They are prettily 
fringed, like Tricliotropis. The animals have comb-like gills ; long, 
well-armed tongue-ribbons, and massive, armed jaws. They are crowned 
with eight fringed arms. All the creatures of this interesting and 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 241 

little-known family are extremely minute. It is very probable that 
the animal of Gheletropis will be found closely allied. 

Family Atl antics. 

The beautiful little glassy Atlanta, when first discovered, was sup- 
posed to be a recent Ammonite. It has a flat, keeled shell, very sharply 
keeled, and deeply notched like Scissurella. The broad, triangular 
swimming-fin has a little disc, with which it can moor itself to any 
floating object. The operculum begins as a right-handed spiral, but 
continues straight. The snout is very long ; the eyes and tentacles 
large, and the neck thin. Oxygyrus has a cartilaginous shell, with a 
triangular, concentric operculum, like the supposed opercula of Am- 
monites. The teeth have a general similarity to those of Garinaria. 

Family BELLEROPHONTIDiE. 

The Bellerophons are a singular race of ancient fossils, the true affini- 
ties of which are not yet agreed on. They are thin, globular, spiral 
shells; like a Nautilus, but without chambers, and displaying a keel or 
notch in the middle. Some liken them to Argonauts; others to Bullas; 
others consider them as enrolled Emarginidas ; but the best-supported 
opinion is that they are as it were swollen Atlants. The little cre- 
taceous species, without notch, are called Bellerophina. The paleozoic 
species with the whirls exposed are Bucania. Those with the whirls 
scarcely embracing, like an unchambered Ammonite with a slit mouth, 
are Porcellia. In Gyrtolites the whirls do not touch, and in Ecculiorn- 
phalus they are drawn out like Spirula. 

Family Pirolidje. (Glass- Argonauts.) 

It is no wonder that the shell of Garinaria has been taken for an 
Argonaut; and even that the true animal of the Argonaut was thought 
to be allied to this, which may be considered as the typical Heteropod. 
The front part of the gelatinous body is enormously developed, while 
the abdomen is small, and the tail (which takes the place of the oper- 
cular arm of the Atlants) is short and pointed. There is along snout ; 
with a short tongue, toothed as in the Strombs and Helmets. The 
eyes are hour-glass shaped, highly organized, and often furnished with 
a little eyelid. They float upside down, with their foot at the top, in 
the shape of a flat fin, armed with a small sucker for adhesion. Below, 
the principal viscera hang out from the back, and are protected by the 
glassy shell, the gills projecting beyond it. They come up to the 
surface to feed in the evenings, and are found in most warm seas. 
Gardiapoda has a discoidal shell, with flaps round the mouth. In 
Firola, there is no shell to protect the nucleus : and in Firoloidea, the 
gills are on the tail, and there is no sucker on the fin. 

Family Phylliroice. 

This family may be considered either as degraded Heteropods or 
Nudibranchs, forming an exact transition between the two. They 
16 



242 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

have no gills or fins; being simply a floating, gelatinous, slug-like 
body, with long tentacles but no eyes. In the union of sexes, the 
teeth, and the digestive organs, they resemble the Nudibranchs; in 
their habits and general appearance the Heteropods. They breathe 
all over the skin, like the lower species of Firoloidea. The tail of 
Phylliroc is flattened into a fin ; that of Acura is pointed. 

Family Pterosomatid/E. 

The curious little bit of jelly which comjDoses this family may be 
compared to a thin Acura, with eyes instead of tentacles, but no snout; 
laid on the middle of a broad, floating flap. Its anatomy is not yet 
made out; but it forms a transition to the Pteropods. 

CLASS PTEROPODA. 

( Wing-footed Mollushs.) 

The "Sea-Butterflies," as they are sometimes called, are a race of 
creatures formed to live, permanently, swimming about in mid ocean. 
They are recognized at once by the two delicate fins, which are con- 
stantly moving, with considerable animation, when at the surface of 
the water. Most of them are crepuscular or nocturnal in their habits ; 
spending the day, poised in the lower depths, and rising, at different 
periods and degrees of darkness, according to the species, to enjoy their 
active life. Some kinds, however, disport themselves beneath the mid- 
day tropical sun. In their first stage, they exactly resemble the fry of 
the Grasteropods ; but the larval fins of the Pteropods fall off, like those 
of their neighbors, and the permanent fins are developed round the 
neck, answering perhaps to the neck-lappets of the Turbos, &c. They 
have no foot ; but in some of the groups there is a little lobe between 
the fins, which is its commencement. Sometimes their feelers have a 
few minute suckers, by which they can hold their prey or moor them- 
selves to floating objects; in w r hich, and in the bending back of the 
alimentary canal along the abdomen, they resemble the Cephalopods. 
They are however inferior, in point of organization, to the Crawlers. 
They have a very feeble circulation and respiration ; the nervous centres 
are behind the gullet ; there are no eyes ; the gills either do not exist 
or are near the tail ; and the senses are rather diffused over the body 
than localized in special organs. In the reproductive system, and in 
many special points of structure, they closely resemble the Heteropods. 
In fact, it is probable that the whole class of Pteropods should be re- 
garded simply as a subclass of Gasteropods, connected with the typical 
forms by Carinaria and Ianthina. Like the Heteropods and Opistho- 
branchs, some have shells and others none; but in this tribe, the shelly 
races are the lowest in rank, inasmuch as they have no heads: in this 
respect alone passing into the next great group of bivalves. They arc, 
therefore, here arranged after the naked tribes. 

The Pteropods are few in number, as far as species are concerned; 
but these are widely diffused, may of them being common to the At- 
lantic and Pacific oceans. But in individuals they are incredibly 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 243 

numerous; their tiny, fragile, transparent forms being found in vast 
shoals, so filling the sea, that even in the Arctic regions the water is 
often discolored by them. They never Avillingly approach the shore, 
not having the muscular power of the Cephalopods to swim away from 
danger : but their delicate glassy shells line the sea bottom at enormous 
depths, and in many districts will form almost the only fossils by which 
future geologists will recognize the strata. The living forms of Pter- 
opods are all very small, the largest scarcely reaching two inches in 
length. They first appear in the Eocene beds. There are, however, 
certain puzzling shells, found in the paheozoic rocks, which may have 
belonged to gigantic animals of the tribe. • 

Order I. GYMNOSOMATA. {Naked Pteropods.) 

These creatures have no mantle or shell, and the gills are indistinct. 
They have however a respectable head, and a tongue-ribbon of nu- 
merous rows of hooked teeth, as in the Opisthobranchs. Like all the 
other Pteropods, they are carnivorous, preying on minute Crustaceans, 
Jelly Fish, or Infusoria. 

Family PNEUMODERMONIDiE . 

The Pneumodermons have the body shaped something like a Cuttle- 
fish, and highly colored. There are two tentacles, copiously fringed 
with tiny anther-like, suckers. The gills are leaf-like projections at 
the tail. When touched, they fold their wings round their neck., roll 
themselves into a ball, and fall to the bottom. In Spongiobranchia, 
the gills form a spongy ring round the tail; and the tentacles have 
cup-shaped suckers, forming a close approach to those of the Cuttles. 
In Trichocyclus, there are no gills; but three rows of tiny hairs round 
the head, tail, and middle take their place. 

Family Cliid^e. 

Clio was the name given by Linmeus to all the Pteropods then 
known. It is now restricted to rather slender animals which, small 
and delicate as they are, form the principal food of the mighty whale. 
The monstrous creature opens his enormous mouth ; takes in a sea of 
water; filters out his Clios through the whalebone sieve; and ejects 
the water through his nose. The Clios have a number of small ten- 
tacular processes round the mouthy furnished with minute suckers. 
In swimming, it touches the ends of its fins on each side. In Cliodita 
the tentacles are obsolete. In Pelagia the head (to speak respectfully 
of this indistinct organ) is truncated in front. 

Family CymodoceidyE. 

Cymodocea differs from other Pteropods in having a second pair of 
club-shaped wings, behind the ordinary ones. 

Order II. THECOSOMATA. (Clothed Pteropods.) 

In these headless tribes, the body is generally shortened, and inclosed 
in a glassy, horny, or cartilaginous shell. 



244 LECTURES ON MOLLTJSCA. 

Family HYALiEiDyE. 

The Hyalceas are protected by a globular shell, consisting of a dorsal 
and ventral plate, (as in the Palliobranchs,) united at the tail. The 
two fins are retractile into the shell, and unite round the mouth. 
There are two tentacular processes behind, passing through side-slits 
in the shell, showing a resemblance to Cymodocea. In Diacria these 
processes are very small and inclosed, while the tail is produced. 
Cleodora has a glassy, pyramidal shell, of three flat sides, each ending 
in a spike. In Balantium the shell is funnel-shaped, not spiked. 
Creseis has a very slender, pointed, circular funnel. In Cuvieria, the 
shell is swollen at the base like an urn, generally with the point trun- 
cated. The point remains permanent inthe Vaginella of the Bordeaux 
beds. 

Family CoxuLAEJADiE. 

The great carboniferous fossil Conularia was probably nearly related 
to Cleodora and C?~eseis, but as its relations are not clear, it is kept in 
a separate family. The shell is four-sided, and very beautifully 
striated across. In the Devonian form Coleoprion, the angles are 
rounded-off. The Silurian Theca has a shell like an elongated 
Cleodora, without spikes. Pterotheca has wing-like projections at the 
sides. 

Family LiMACiNiDiE. {Spiral Pteropods.) 

The tiny shells of Spinalis are spiral, with the point either raised 
or depressed. Between the fins is the rudiment of a foot bearing an 
operculum. These creatures furnish the nearest approach to the larval 
Gasteropods. In Limacina the mouth is round, and there is no oper- 
culum. The shells of this family may be known from the Macgilli- 
vrayids, by being always reversed. 

Family Cymbuliad^e. (Glass- Slippers.) 

The lovely Cymbidia inhabits an elegantly-cut cartilaginous shell, 
foreshadowing the Argonaut, the wings flapping on each side, as the 
sails of that Cuttle were formerly supposed to act. The lingual teeth 
in this genus, and in Eurybia, (which has a cup-shaped boat, and 
tentacles,) are arranged in three series.. Eurybia similarly foreshad- 
ows Bursatella among the Opisthobranchs. Tiedemannia is like a 
Cymbidia without the glass-slipper, forming a transition to the first 
order ; while the delicate little Psyche seems no more than a minute, 
transparent globe, wafted over the banks of Newfoundland by its 
spreading wings. And so end the higher groups of Molluscous 
Animals. 

CLASS LAMELLIBRANCHIATA, 

(or Plate-gilled Bivalves.) 

The remaining classes of mollusks present us with a very different 
type of organization ; inferior, indeed, to the head-bearing tribes, and 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 245 

yet equally perfect after its kind. The student of vertebratecl animals 
and of the various insect tribes, as well as of the Cephalopod and 
Gasteropod mollusks, naturally looks upon the head as the most im- 
portant part of every living creature. We are now going to he intro- 
duced to animals in which not only the head becomes sometimes obso- 
lete, as in the shell-cased Pteropods, but the whole plan of the organi- 
zation makes the existence of a head useless, and therefore impossible. 
The special work appointed for the bivalve and cloaked mollusks in 
the economy of nature, is to filter the water at the sea bottom from its 
infusorial particles. They never prey, either upon living creatures or 
sea plants; hence eyes, jaws, snout, and curiously-armed tongue, 
which are the characteristics of ordinary mollusks, would be entirely 
useless. To go about looking for food, when the very air they breathe 
comes burdened with dainty meat, would be a waste of energies ; so 
that a swimming or crawling foot is not a requisite of their life. Their 
special functions are to digest and breathe, in a quiet but uninterrupted 
manner. All the locomotion they require is to settle themselves in a 
snug place; and then they simply suck-in the water, and let it bring 
food to their mouth and air to their blood. When at rest, they are 
entirely encased in their shelly covering, like the Turbo and Nerite; 
but when in action, instead of crawling out of their shell, they open 
the shell itself to let in water. The shell is therefore made of two 
plates ; which in the ordinary bivalves interlock by means of a toothed 
hinge, and are fastened together by a ligament. 

The headless tribes of mollusks naturally divide themselves into 
three great divisions. In the clams, oysters, mussels, and cockles, the 
animal breathes by means of large plate-shaped gills ; and the valves 
are, as it were, great wings on each side of the body. But in the 
lamp-shells, there are no gills, the breathing being performed by the 
skin, and by the action of very delicate hairs arranged on twisted 
feelers; and the shelly valves, instead of being side-wings, are shields 
on the front and back of the animal. In the third division, instead 
of a shell, the animal is wrapped up in a leathery coat. The ordinary 
bivalves are often called Acephala (Headless creatures ;) a name which 
is equally applicable to all three divisions, and to part of the Ptero- 
pods. Their common name is Conchifera (Conch-bearers ;) but as 
conchs are univalve shells, and as the name was given to include both 
the clams and the lamp-shells, it appears best to distinguish them by 
their leading characteristics as Plate-gilled, Manile-gilled, Cloaked 
mollusks. 

The oyster tribe lie on one side ; and have neither foot nor breathing 
pipes. But ordinary bivalves do not lie as their shells are seen in 
cabinets. They stand upright, like a crawling Cuttle Fish. Their 
foot, or digger, is at the bottom ; their nose and vent pipes close 
together at the top. At the back are the digestive organs : in front, 
a large water chamber, with the gills above, and the mouth below, 
behind the foot. The mantle enfolds the whole body, and secretes the 
two shelly plates. These assume an approach to a spiral form, from 
the growth being in front, the ligament remaining fixed. The breath- 
ing pipe is not a mere gutter, as in the predacious univalves, but a 
fleshy tube, armed with muscles to suck in the water, and often ele- 



246 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

gantl} 1- fringed with feelers to aid the currents. As the water is sucked 
into the gill-chamber, the plates collect the minute plants and animals 
that float in it. These lie in their grooves, and are gradually formed 
into threads, which are carried down towards the mouth. Here they 
are laid hold of by a pair of long delicate flaps or lips, which draw the 
threads to the mouth. The filtered and carbonized water is forced 
back, along with the foecal matter, through the excurrent pipe, which 
is generally longer than the other, in order not to interfere with the 
purity of the inhaled current. These mollusks generally live covered 
up with sand or mud ; and might escape detection, but for the slight 
protrusion of their pipes ; yet the disturbance they make in the water 
by their vigorous breathing is well known to all keepers of aqua- 
riums. 

The bivalve shells are objects of great beauty, both as respects form, 
sculpture, and color. It is however unfortunate for geological purpo- 
ses that the principal differences among them depend on the internal 
structure, the hinge teeth, the muscular impressions, and the marks 
of the siphon pipes, which cannot often be seen in fossil specimens. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter has however shown, (v. Reports of the British 
Association, 1844, pp. 1-24,) that the structure of the shell affords 
very characteristic marks in several of the families and genera -, by 
which the affinities of fossil specimens and even fragments may often 
be satisfactorily determined. 

The bivalves do not group themselves into natural orders like the 
univalve mollusks. There is a much greater similarity of type among 
them, and the points of difference are not constant among the creatures 
whose general relationships correspond. If we compare a "clam" 
with an oyster, we see at once that the clam has two water pipes, a 
foot, and the mantle closed in front ; while the oyster has an open 
mantle, without foot or pipes, and has only one muscle instead of two 
to work the valves. Yet if we separate according to any one of these 
characters, the division, will not suit others, and we shall be obliged 
to part closely allied groups. It may be best therefore to allow the 
families to follow each other in a natural order, without insisting on 
orderly or suborderly lines of demarcation. The following are how- 
ever the leading types of structure : 

I. Borers, Razor-shells, Mya-clams, &c, in which there are two 
long water pipes, more or less united and retractile., the gills being- 
produced into the breathing pipe, and the mantle closed except for the 
foot and pipes. 

II. Venus-clams, Tellens, Cockles, &c, in which the pipes are gen- 
erally separate, the gills not produced, and the foot mostly flattened 
for crawling or leaping. 

III. Sea and Freshiuater Mussels, &c, in which the mantle-lobes are 
only closed to form a breathing hole. 

IV. Oysters, Fan-shells and Arks, in which the mantle-sides are 
entirely separate. 

The Venus tribe may be considered as the typical and most highly- 
organized Lamellibranchs ; from these the stream of affinities flows 
down through the Mussels and Oysters, towards the Palliobranchs ; 
and through the Borers towards the Tunicaries. As however we can- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 247 

not speak or write in diverging lines, it is more convenient to begin 
with the borers, although they are in many ways abnormal. 

Several of the Lamellibranchs are now known to have the sexes sep- 
arate, like the trunk-bearing univalves. As the individuals always 
maintain a solitary existence, it is probable that the fecundating influ- 
ences are diffused and inhaled through the breathing currents. The 
eggs are matured between the outer plates of the gills. The young 
always swim freely about, by means of a hairy flap, which disappears 
when the foot is developed, at the front of which is a slender tail. At 
this time they have minute eyes, which disappear as the animal hides 
itself within its wings. It is singular that in the last published 
treatise, these creatures are said to be self-impregnating hermaphro- 
dites ; although the difference of shape between the shells of male and 
female specimens has often raised them to the rank of different spe- 
cie's. 

It is evident from the essential conditions of life in these headless 
inollusks, that their structure could not be modified to exist on land, 
like the Pectinibranchiate and Pulmonic Snails. A very few of the 
plate-gilled families are able to exist in fresh waters ; but the whole 
of the other classes are marine. 

Family PholadidjE. (Piddocks or Date-Fish.) 

If we divide the ordinary bivalves into active or sedentary, accord- 
ing to their habits of life, we shall find among the latter the two most 
widely divergent groups — the oysters, which sleep on their sides, and 
the borers, which stand on their feet. The habits of the borers have 
been already described at some length, (v. Smithsonian Eeport for 
1859, pp. 209-217 :) it will be sufficient here to point out the principal 
differences of structure. The Piddocks have white shells ; generally 
very thin, but strong, and adorned with rasp-like sculpture. As this 
sculpture however is for the most part turned towards the aperture, it 
cannot be much used for excavating the hollows. The naturalist who 
took the trouble to bore a hole with the shell, could do so most easily 
if he turned the shell the wrong way in. As before stated, the stout 
club-shaped foot is probably the principal instrument of abrasion. This 
is fixed by strong muscles to the shell, which has no articulated hinge 
and ligament, like other bivalves, but is strengthened by a spoon- 
shaped process, curling up from within the beaks. The pipes are 
long, united till near the ends, and inclosed in a tough skin which is 
often protected by cartilaginous " cups." The shells gape all round, 
except at a point before and behind, and the vacant spaces are gene- 
rally covered, in the adult, by accessory plates ; which caused Linmeus 
to separate them from their allies as being " niultivalves." They 
are phosphorescent, living by their own light ; and are often eaten as 
a delicacy. Plwlas proper has one shield placed behind the hinge. 
Dactylina has a shield over each valve, a cross piece, and a long plate 
along the back. ZirpJuea has a broader shell without plates : it is 
the only one of the British species which is also found in America. 
The little group Navea are slightly modified to suit their residence in 
sponge. Xylophacja looks like a very short Ship-worm, making bur- 



248 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

rows in floating wood, against the grain, about an inch long. The 
body is globular, with narrow pipes, separated at the end. 

In the " Cup-pholas" tribe, the foot opening is large in the young 
shell, but closed in by shelly matter in the adult. There are however 
transition forms.. Plioladidea has a single large cup in the adult, but 
no accessory plates. In the African Talona, there are two small cross- 
plates; and the foot-gape is very small, both in the young and adult. 
Martesia burrows in floating wood, and has the valves divided into 
two areas, like Plioladidea ; it differs in having a large shield over the 
beaks, with another along the back; and in having no cup. One 
species has been found living in a Borneo river, twelve miles from the 
sea. The curious west American genus Parapholas has the valves 
divided into three areas, the third consisting of a tiled row of cup- 
plates. The adult is encased in large accessory plates, in front as 
well as behind. In this group the foot-gape in the adolescent aniihal 
is guarded by a strong deposit of shelly matter, to prop up and aid 
the foot. Jouannetia is like an exaggerated Parapholas, in which the 
callous plate of one valve overlaps the other, and the tile-cups are 
almost obsolete. As in the other members of this section, the pipe- 
ends are joined and surrounded by a common fringe, accounting for 
the roundness of the burrow-mouths. The Cup-pholads are found 
fossil in the secondary rocks ; the ordinary forms in the tertiary strata. 

Family Teredld;e. {Ship- Worms.) 

TheShip-wormsare simply Pholads enormously lengthened ; although 
at first sight the shape of their body would cause them to be regarded 
as Annelids or Vermetids, rather than bivalve mollusks. The com- 
mon Teredo has a body from one to two and a half feet long; i. e. in- 
cluding the pipes ; but the body, strictly so called, which contains the 
principal viscera, and is enclosed in a bivalve shell, open at each end 
like a pair of pincers, is not larger than a pea. The gills are long 
and extend into the tube, which is protected by a coat of shell outside. 
At the outer end, where the pipes divide, there are a pair of shelly 
flaps, which aid in working the inhalent and excurrent siphons. 
These flaps, which look like the " screw"-plates of a steamer, might 
be mistaken for the boring apparatus, but that they are always found 
at the opposite end from the boring foot. This is finger-shaped, as in 
Gasliochcena ; but it is quite equal to the task of wood-boring. There 
is no mollusk except the Ship-worm, which has excited the fears of 
merchants and statesmen. Not only ships, (if not coated with metal 
or kyanized,) but piles and dock gates, have fallen victims to its 
ravages. Nevertheless it is a very serviceable creature, gradually 
destroying wrecks and other submerged wood, which might otherwise 
block up harbors and impede navigation. They are ovoviviparous 
and very prolific. They always bore with the grain, only turning 
aside to avoid knots or neighborly intrusion. In Xylotrya the breath- 
ing flaps are pen-shaped and jointed. Some of the species are found 
boring in the floating husks of cocoanuts. 

There is a curious group of Sand-worms, as yet very little under- 
stood, but closely related to the Ship-worms. They encase themselves 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 249 

in very thick shelly tubes, often a yard long and two inches across, of 
prismatic structure like the Pinnas and Belemnites. At the outer 
end, the pipe is divided across for a considerable distance. It is said 
that these Septarias have no bivalve shells at all; but that the foot-end 
is closed in by a cleft shelly plate. 

The Ship-worms are connected with the ordinary borers of the fossil 
genus Teredina; in which the animal is as short as a stretched-out 
Pholas, enclosed in a thick tube, somewhat divided at the outer end. 
The valves, which were probably free in the young state, are soldered 
into the tube in the adult, so that the animal was completely encased. 
Fossil Ship-worms are found in fossil wood as far back as the Lias. 

Family Gastrocil£NID2E. (Tube-Shells.) 

The valves of Gastrochcena have a true ligament, and move freely in 
their burrow, so that the little finger-like foot which protrudes from 
the otherwise closed mantle, is able to perform as much abrasion as the 
stout organ of the Pholads. When the Gastrochcena does not burrow 
in" solid stone or shell, it forms an irregular club-shaped tube, in 
which it encloses both its pipes and its valves. In Ghcena, which 
burrows in sand, the tube is straight; and the part which contains 
the rectangular valves is partitioned off from the pipe portion. The 
very curious shells of Bryopa are like a Teredina with one valve loose, 
and the other cemented into the tube. The animal is stumpy and 
irregular, with rather short fringed pipes, and has the general aspect 
of a tunicary in a shelly case. It is difficult to understand the use of 
the single loose, and the single fixed valve: Dr. Darwin might regard 
it as a Gastrochcena passing into a Teredina, or vice versa. The fossil 
genus Clavagella differs only in having the closed pedal end sur- 
rounded with a bunch of short tubes, in which respect it forms an 
interesting passage to the Watering-pots or Aspergillum group. 

At first sight a "Watering-pot shell" would not be supposed to 
have any connection with ordinary bivalves. It consists of a tube, 
open at one end, at the other closed by a disk, full of holes, and gen- 
erally surrounded by frills of shelly tubes. On looking attentively 
near the rose however, we shall see two irregularly imbedded valves, 
which are small in Aspergillum (the principal part being free inside) 
and large in Penicillus, and which show the intimate relation of the 
creature to Clavagella, Chcena, &c. In the middle of the rose is often 
a slight chink for the rudimentary foot. The open end, which ap- 
pears above the sand, and is often adorned with one or more ruffles, 
affords an orifice for the breathing pipes. In Foegia the valves can 
scarcely be seen outside. The animal of Humphreyia attaches itself 
when young by the front edges of the valves, which it gradually ex- 
tends into a tube. 

Family Saxicavid^. 

The Saxicava group are like shortened Gastrochamids, without any 
shelly tube. They sometimes bore, but more often nestle in holes made 
by other creatures, or in corners of rocks and roots, mooring themselves 



250 LECTURES ON MOLLUSOA. 

by a lyssus, which they spin by their small grooved foot. It is said 
that five genera (placed in different families) and fifteen species have 
been made out of different conditions of the Saxicava arctica, which 
has spread itself over the northern hemisphere from the time of the 
middle tertiaries, having attained its greatest development in the drift 
period. The Cyrtodaria of Newfoundland is one of the coarsest of 
shells, covered with a horny skin, which in drying often cracks the 
shell inside. Glycimeris has a shell exactly like Panopwa; but the 
animal is a gigantic Saxicavid. The long pipes are united almost to 
their ends, the gills protruding into them; and the mantle-line in the 
shell is broken into joints. The shells gape all round like Pholas, but 
have a strong external ligament fixed to stout fulcrum s. 

Family Myidje. {Gapers.) 

In the Myas (called "Clams" in New England, and brought to 
market for food,) the shell is tolerably regular } and covered with a 
wrinkled skin which is produced over the pipes. These are united, and 
fringed at the end. The species are widely diffused, in time and s})ace, 
and are generally pretty large. The cartilage is fixed in a pit between 
a projecting spoon-shaped tooth in the larger valve, and a hollow in the 
smaller. The Californian Platyodon has the pipe-ends strengthened 
by four shelly valves, reminding us of Teredo. The name My a was 
given by Linnaeus to all shells with an internal cartilage ; but the 
character is not always constant in the same family. Panapcea (to 
whicli and to Pholadomya most of the fossils called " My a" belong) 
has an external ligament, and small interlocking hinge-teeth, like 
Glycimeris. Lutraria has a shell resembling the New England 
"clam," but of more porcellanous texture; and with a spoon-shaped 
process in each valve to support the cartilage by the side of a tooth. 
Several shells generally associated with it by American authors have a 
Mactroid animal. The great Californian Tresus, which is eaten at 
Puget Sound, has small teeth on each side of the cartilage pit. Seiz- 
ocheilus may prove to be identical with Tresus; it has two horny valves 
at the end to protect the pipes. The animal of Fastonia has not been 
examined ; but the shell is like a heavy, swollen Latraria, with radi- 
ating furrows outside. 

Family Corbulid^;. (Basket- Shells.) 

The Corbida group are like little Myas, but they scarcely gape, and 
have very short pipes, fringed at the ends. The foot is finger-like, 
adapted to poke in mud and sand, where they live often in immense 
profusion. They have one valve much smaller than the other; the 
hinge consisting of a conical tooth by the side of a cartilage pit in each 
valve. Potamomya includes the flattened estuary species ; and Corbu- 
lomya some of the fossil forms, which begin to appear in the oolites. 
Sphcenia has the nestling habits of Saxicava, with the front end of the 
shell very short. Cryptomya has a Myoid hinge, with a shell inter- 
mediate between that and Sphwnia. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 251 

Family ANATiNiDiE. {Lantern- Shells.) 

The shells in this family care almost always thin, pearly within, and 
roughened outside. They have an internal cartilage, supported on a 
spoon-shaped plate at the hinge, and strengthened by a shelly 
"ossicle" within. Anatina has the spoon supported by a clavicle at 
the umbos. The oolitic fossils, Cercomya, have the valves concentri- 
cally furrowed. In the nestling Tyleria, (of which only one specimen 
is known from Mazatlan, the clavicle is loose, twisted round the side 
of the shell, and united to it by numerous bridges. Periploma has a 
rectangular shaped body, without clavicle. Lyonsia has a shell of 
irregular growth, like Saxicava; and a very small spoon close to the 
umbo. Its Californian neighbor, Mytilimeria, lives imbedded in the 
nests of Tunicaries, and can scarcely open either its valves or its 
mantle. The beaks of the shell are spirally twisted., as in Isocardia. 
The shells of Thracia are not pearly, and are very rough outside. 
Some of the species are nestlers and distorted like Lyonsia. 

The very beautiful shells of Necera are shaped like a Corbula, with 
produced beak to shelter the delicately fringed pipes. They are thin 
and pearly, and only found in deep water. Theora lives in shallower 
water, is more compressed, and has a very wide mantle-bend like the 
Tellens. Thetis has very short siphons, and a very long tubular foot; 
the hinge resembles the Kelliads. 

Two singular groups are placed here provisionally, until the animals 
have been examined. The African Tugonia (also found fossil in the 
Pliocene) has a globular, twisted shell, somewhat resembling Necera, 
with a very large spoon-shaped cartilage-pit, and a very small mantle- 
bend. Anatinella is shaped somewhat like Myodora; with very long, 
narrow cartilage pits, and no bend in the mantle line. In this respect 
it resembles many of the Corbulids. 

Family Pholadomyims. 

There is only one living representative (from the West Indies) of a 
large tribe of puzzling fossils, which have received various names with- 
out much being known of their affinities. The living animal agrees 
with Anatinids in having only one gill on each side, but differs from 
all its predecessors in the mantle having a fourth opening in front. 
The ligament is external. The principal fossil forms which used to 
be classed under the general names of Pholadomya and Amphidesma, 
Elnio, &c, have been separated as Homomya, with thick shell and 
concentric sculpture ; Myacites with Goniomya, Tellinomya, Grammysia 
and Sedgeivichia; Ceromya, Gresslya, Cardiomorpha and Edmondia. 

Family Myochamid/e. 

This is a small group of attached shells, representing as it were the 
oysters and Chamas among the Anatinids. The animals have strong 
points of resemblance with Pholadomya, having a minute ventral 
opening. The ligament is internal, and has an ossicle as in Anatina. 
Myochama lives on other shells at great depths, and has a small mantle- 



252 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

"bend. Chamostrea is shaped like Chama, attached on the anterior 
side, without sinus. They are all peculiar to the Australian region. 

Family Pandomd/E. 

The Pandora group are also nearly related to the Anatinids. The 
shell is shaped like the more regular of the Lyonsias, hut flattened, 
especially on the right valve. The hinge is V-shaped, like Placuna, 
with an internal cartilage, hut no ossicle. The valves are pearly 
within, and with minute prismatic cells outside, of which two hundred 
and fifty are about as large as one in Pinna. The mantle line is broken 
as in Saxicava, and scarcely bent, the pipes being very short, separate 
at the end and fringed. Myodora wants the V-shaped hinge, and has 
an ossicle. It is peculiar to the East Indies. 

Family SoleniDxE. {Razor-Shells.) 

We pass on to a very different-looking race of animals, though 
agreeing in many essential respects with those that have gone before. 
The Razor-Fish have the same habit as the Myas, Panopceas, &c, of 
burrowing in the sand ; only they are created for more rapid move- 
ments. About two-thirds of the animal consists of the powerful foot, 
which can be pointed out, or made club-shaped, for the varied necessi- 
ties of sand-boring, which it accomplishes with such rapidity that the 
creatures are difficult to catch, burying themselves to a great depth 
when disturbed. The pipes are very short, and not extended beyond 
the shell. This is like a piece of pipe cut across lengthways. The 
Solen may be taken as a good illustration of the ordinary habits of life 
of bivalves. It stands on its foot, like other animals; but this is the 
anterior or /ore-end of the shell, the mouth and lips being behind it. 
The top of the animal is at the posterior or hinder-end. of the shell ; 
while the hinge is at the back, and the opening of the valves at the 
front of the creature, the shells being the side-wings. The length of 
the shell is from the anterior to the posterior ends, which represents 
the height of the animal. The breadth is from back to front of the 
animal ; while the height, or thickness of the closed valves, really 
represents the breadth of the living creature. Solen proper has a 
straight shell, and one tooth in each valve; while Ensatella has a 
curved shell and 2-3 hinge teeth. 

Family SoLECURTiDiE. (Short Razor-Fish.) 

The shells of this group are intermediate between the true Solens 
and the Tellens. The beaks, instead of being at the bottom end, are 
more or less near the middle, and the valves are generally flattened. 
The pipes are separate at the end, and more or less retractile. Sole- 
curtus proper is like a Razor-shell cut short, while the animal is almost 
as long ; the pipes being united into a stumpy tube till near the end. 
Novaculina contains the species which live in brackish water, and are 
covered with a coarse skin. The intermediate species have been called 
Tagelus. In Cultellus, the shell is flattened and the beaks are strength- 
ened by a small slanting rib. The pipes are short and separate. Ma- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 253 

chcera has a stout rib coming out at right angles from the beaks. The 
mantle of the animal is beautifully fringed, and the pipes rather long. 
The animal of the European Ceratisolen is very similar ; while the flat 
narrow shell is drawn out nearly to the length of a Solen. All the 
shells of this family gape, both at the foot and pipe ends ; and their 
habits are like those of the Razor-fish. They do not make their ap- 
pearance on our globe till the cretaceous age : the true Solens not till 
the tertiaries. 

We now come to the typical Lamellibranchs, in which the pipes are 
narrow in proportion to the animal, not swollen to allow of the entrance 
of the gills. They are more or less united, or prolonged, in the va- 
rious families and genera ; passing from the Tellens in some of which 
they can be stretched out much longer than the shell, and widely 
divergent, to the cockles in which they are united together, and scarcely 
project beyond the valves. 

Family TELLiNiDiE. {Tellens.) 

The Tellens form a very beautiful and extensive family, abounding 
on all shores, where they live in sand or mud, generally at slight 
depths. The animals have very long, slender, and divergent pipes, 
and large triangular lips. The mantle is elegantly fringed, and open 
in front for the tongue-shaped foot. The shell is generally thin and 
transverse, often highly colored and very delicately sculptured. 

In the first group, the shell gapes and forms a transition to the short 
Solens. The shells of Soletellina are generally violet, with a somewhat 
horny epidermis ; having small hinge-teeth, and beaked at the breath- 
ing end. There is a strong ligament, supported on stout fulcrums. 
In Sanguinolaria, the shell is shortened and very thin. Psammobia 
gapes but little, and generally has the hinder side angular. In Cap- 
sula the shell is swollen, and ornamented with radiating ribs. This 
group makes its appearance in the cretaceous age. 

The typical group Tellina consists of shells varying from a very 
transverse to a nearly rounded form, not gaping, and with a slight 
fold or angle at the breathing end. The muscular impressions are 
rounded and polished; and the mantle-bend is very large, occupying 
a large proportion of the shell. In the Californian species, T. nasuta, 
it is larger in one valve than in the other. The side teeth of the hinge 
appear to be of very little consequence in this group, being sometimes 
present in both valves, sometimes only in one, and often altogether 
absent. About two hundred species are now living, and nearly a 
hundred and fifty are found fossil, beginning with the oolites. The 
orbicular species have been called Arcojxigia, a name also used unfor- 
tunately for a group allied to JDonax. Some of the British, and 
probably of the American species are said to have only two, instead of 
four gills : they have been named Macoma. The Strigilla group, 
which abound in tropical America, have rounded shells with the valves 
obliquely sculptured. The elegant shells of Tellldora are found on 
the east and west coasts of tropical North America ; they are white, 
flat, and triangular, like Myodora. The shells of Gastrana are some- 



254 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

"what wedge-shaped, with a bipid tooth in one valve. The animal is 
of sedentary habits, boring in mud or clay. The shell of Elizia is 
very like a flat Diplodonta, but there is a wide mantle-bend. Lucin- 
opsis has a swollen thin shell, with a binge like a Venus; but the 
animal is of the Tellen type. 

The next group have the cartilage internal, like the Madras; which 
appears at first sight a very great distinction, but there are some species 
that might be ranged with equal propriety in either section, the car- 
tilage-pit being at the margin, close to the ligament, which is always 
external and generally slender. Scrobicularia lives buried in estuary 
mud, extending its pipes five or six times the length of the shell. 
The hinge-teeth are very small. Semele has a stronger shell, with a 
tooth on each side of the cartilage-pit. Syndosm.ya has a very thin, 
white, Tellinoid shell ; with a hinge like Scrobicularia, but with lateral 
teeth. The animal of Gumingia is irregular, the shell being found 
nestling in crypts like Saxicava. One valve has very strong lateral 
teeth; the other none. 

Family D on acid^e . ( Wedge-Shells . ) 

The Donax family differ from the Tellens in having shorter breathing- 
pipes, and stout, triangular shells. In the typical species of Donax, 
the breathing-end is very short, the foot-end long and pointed. The 
valves are stout, with crenulated margins and short ligament. There 
are strong lateral teeth. Heterodonax wants the crenulations, and has 
a rounded form. Iphigenia has a somewhat swollen shell, without 
lateral teeth. It lives in estuaries, and the species greatly resemble 
each other. The curious genus Galatea is peculiar to the African 
rivers. It has a very thick, triangular shell, with stout hinge-teeth 
like the Venus tribe. 

Almost every sandy shore in the warmer regions has its species of 
Donax, which lives in myriads at a certain depth below the surface. 
At Panama, the natives clear off the sand just below this depth, and 
thus quickly collect bushels of the mollusks, which are considered 
dainty food. Yet the species, though more abundant than any other 
bivalves, are less widely distributed than most, each district having 
its peculiar form. They have not been found fossil previously to the 
tertiary ages. As among the Tellens, so here, a group is found with 
an internal cartilage. The marine Erycina* has no little external 
resemblance to Galatea, being triangular and. solid ; but the cartilage 
is in a narrow pit between stout teeth. Mesodesma, which abounds in 
the Australian region, is shaped like Psammobia, but solid ; with two 
short, stout lateral teeth. Donacilla has a wider distribution, and is 
wedge-shaped, with one of the lateral teeth long. Geronia, one spe- 
cies of which inhabits the New England seas, has the side teeth 
strongly grooved. The Messrs. Adams unfortunately assign all the 

*The genus Erycina is here restricted to the triangular shells of the Mesodesma type, 
called P aphid by modern authors. This latter name has a very obscure and intricate gene- 
alogy, and had better be dropped, as it 'is in use for butterflies. The heterogeneous genus 
Erycina of Lamarck has very properly been dismembered ; but the name should be kept for 
the principal species. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 255 

species to California ; although the west coast of North America has 
not yet furnished a single shell belonging to this sub-family. The 
shells of Anapa are shaped like Erycina, but there is no mantle-bend, 
and the animal may prove to be allied to Crassatella. The shells of 
Ervillia belong to the Atlantic ocean and the Red Sea. They have a 
Tellinoid shape, with deep mantle-bend, but no lateral teeth. Shells 
of this section have been found fossil in the earlier cretaceous age. 

Family Mactrid;e. 

The beautiful shells of this family are generally somewhat trian- 
gular, and with an internal cartilage, like Erycina : but the breath- 
ing-pipes are united to the end, and beautifully fringed. The mantle 
is freely opened in front, allowing free play to the tongue-shaped foot, 
which is used either for burrowing in sand or for leaping. The lips 
are very long and pointed. The shells are generally thin, and often 
highly colored. Mactra proper has well developed lateral teeth, double 
in one valve, and a small ligament separated from the cartilage. 
Spisida has the side teeth strong and cross-ribbed, as in Ceronia. The 
American genus Mulinia has the ligament internal as well as the car- 
tilage ; the side teeth smooth, and the mantle-bend angulated. In 
the African form Schizodesma, there is a triangular opening between 
the beaks to receive the ligament. Mactrella is a tropical American 
group ; with very thin shells, keeled on one side and gaping at each 
end. The side teeth are very short, and the mantle-bend large and 
round. Harvella is another tropical American form, with paper-like 
shells, keeled on one side and concentrically furrowed. The ligament 
is separated from the cartilage. In Standella it is joined to the carti- 
lage, as in Spisula, and the side teeth v are short, not projecting beyond 
the cartilage pit.* All the strictly marine Mactrids have a V-shaped 
hinge tooth, more or less developed. They are found fossil in all 
strata from the Lias. Another tropical American group, Rangia, (bet- 
ter known as Gnathodon,) inhabits brackish water, and has the breath- 
ing-pipes partly separated. Though the shell is angular, the hinge 
line is rounded, and the V-shaped tooth is broken into two. Though 
the shells are so abundant near New Orleans and Mobile as to be used 
for making roads, they are still sadly too rare in Europe. 

Another somewhat aberrant group may, from the shells alone, be 
grouped either with the Lutrarias or Madras. Their true position 
cannot yet be determined, through our ignorance of the animals. The 
Raeta, so abundant in South Carolina, but rare in Europe is like Har- 
vella, with the side teeth changed into clavicles supporting the hinge 
plate. Cypricia (unfortunately confounded by Messrs. Adams with 
Cryptodon of Conrad) is a closely related form, not furrowed, and 
largely gaping in front. The mantle-bend in both groups is more 
akin to Lutraria than to Mactra. In Heterocardia it is very large, 
as in the Tellens, and the hinge somewhat resembles Rangia. The 
shells of Ccecella inhabit shallow muddy bays. They have a mantle- 
bend like Mactra, with a hinge like Lutraria. The very singular 



This genus will probably be found more nearly related to Lubraria. 



256 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Vanganella has the shape and internal rib of Machcera, with a very 
projecting cartilage-pit, lying against the rib. 

Family Veneridye. 

The Venus-tribe may be regarded as the types of the Lamellibranchs, 
presenting the greatest balance of characters. The animals have 
rather short pipes, fringed at the ends, and more or less united ; the 
incurrent being the longer of the two, contrary to the usual habit. 
The mantle is closed in front, with a large opening for the tongue- 
shaped foot. They are found in all seas, generally in shallow water. 
They first appear in the oolitic strata, and are now at their maximum 
of development. The shells are strong, almost devoid of structure, 
very beautifully colored and sculptured, and held together by a stout, 
external ligament. The hinge teeth are very large, and generally 
divergent. As among the snails and other large families, there are so 
many intermediate forms between the extremes that the division into 
genera is a matter of great difficulty. The most elaborate classification 
of the species is to be found in Deshayes' British Museum Catalogue. 

The shells of Trigona somewhat resemble Erycina and the Mactrids. 
They are triangular, with from three to six hinge teeth, and one rather 
long side tooth. The tertiary fossil Gratelupia greatly resembles it, 
with an additional number of small parallel posterior teeth. Meroe is 
wedge-shaped, with the margin crenulated, and the ligament in a 
deep-cut groove. Cytherea has a heavy shell, with a tooth next the 
ligament crenulated, and the outside tooth transverse. The mantle- 
bend is very slight. Callisla, (which is the Dione of the British Mu- 
seum Catalogue, and includes most of the species grouped together as 
Cytherea by Lamarck,) has a wide mantle-bend, the pipes being rather 
long, and united as in Mactra. The hinge teeth are 3-4, the outer 
being short, but transverse. Dosinia also has united siphons, with an 
angular mantle-bend. The shells are somewhat twisted spirally, with 
close concentric furrows, and a sharply-cut lunule. In Cyclina, the 
shell is thin, inflated, and without lunule, resembling Lucinopsis ; but 
the animal closely resembles Dosinia. dementia has a very thin 
shell, with a hinge resembling Venus, but pipes and mantle-bend 
like Dosinia. 

The restricted genus Venus has the pipes separate and diverging ; 
with a short angular mantle bend. The hinge-teeth are 3-3, nearly 
equal and spreading. The valve margins in this group are crenulated, 
corresponding with the fringing of the mantle. In Chione, (a bad 
name, because it does not include the old Venus chione, now a Callista,) 
the pipes are short and united at the base. The mantle-bend is very 
slight ; and the teeth are 3-2, one being longer than the rest. The 
common Mercenaria, or u clam" of the Atlantic States, has the area 
inside the ligament coarsely furrowed. Anomalocardia has irregular, 
thick, triangular shells, with two teeth in each valve, and the mantle- 
bend almost obsolete. The little New England Gemma has the hinge 
of a Venus, the external aspect of a Circe, and the deep angular mantle- 
bend of a Dosinia. 

The Tapes group have oblong, transverse shells ; with narrow, com- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 257 

pressed hinge-teeth, often bifid. The animal has a long foot, grooved 
and often furnished with a lyssus. They are rather sedentary in their 
habits, hiding themselves in corners, and sometimes even burrowing 
in rock like the Saxicavids. The same species are however found on 
the same shores, either boring or free in the sand. The siphon-pipes 
are partly separate, and beautifully fringed ; and the mantle-bend is 
deep. They most abound in the Old World. But on the northern shores 
of the Pacific is found a remarkable group, Saxidomus, with additional 
and somewhat irregular teeth, (as in Trigona,) a posterior gape, and 
no lunule. 

Family Petricolid^;. (Boring-Venus Tribe.) 

These creatures have the mantle closed in front, like the Saxicavids, 
with an opening for the small, pointed foot : but the pipes are short 
and partially united, as in the Venus tribe. They generally bore in 
shells or rock; but the opening is irregular, and displays the "nose- 
end" of the shells. Petricola has a shape generally resembling Gas- 
trana, with coarsely moulded beaks. The teeth are 2-2, often partially 
absorbed by the cartilage area, which in the Choristodon section is 
somewhat internal. Rupellaria is Tapes-shaped, and is an irregular 
nestler, like Saxicava and Cumingia : the valves are generally prettily 
cancellated. Naranio has a rectangular shell, with divaricated sculp- 
ture outside, and bifid teeth within. All the shells in this family have 
a wide mantle-bend. 

Family Glaucomyid^:. (Solen-Venus Tribe.) 

The shells of Glaucomya are covered with a dark green skin, and are 
found in East Indian rivers, especially at the mouths. The hinge- 
teeth are small, as in the Tellens, and the shape is like a very trans- 
verse Petricola. There is a deep narrow mantle-bend, caused by the 
retraction of the very long, united pipes. The mantle is closed in 
front, except for the large mud-boring foot. The lips are large and 
sickle-shaped. Tany siphon has long pipes, united nearly to the end. 

In the remainder of the bivalves, (with a few abnormal exceptions,) 
there is no bend in the mantle-line, showing that the breathing pipes 
are not long and retractile. This however is not a character of ordinal 
importance. In the Venus tribe, we see the bend becoming smaller 
and smaller, till the passage from Anomalocardia to Circe, whieh has 
none, is scarcely sufficient for family distinction. In the following 
families, we sometimes find two perfect but short pipes, sometimes only 
one, sometimes a simple opening in the mantle. The mantle itself is 
either partially or wholly closed in front ; or it is freely open for the 
passage of the water into the gill-cavity. 

Family Cyprinidje. 

The shells of this group abound fossil from the secondary age, but 
very few are now living. The only living Cyprina has a shell like a 
swollen Callista, with a distant side tooth at the back. The little 
northern shell called Circe minima has an animal like Cyprina, with 

17 



258 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

very short, siphons, and a mantle open in front. It has fewer hinge- 
teeth, and has been associated with Gouldia, which probably belongs, 
with the true Circes, to the Astartids. 

Family Isocardiadje. {Heart Cocldes.) 

The animal of Isocardia, like that of Cyprina, has short pipes and 
open mantle. The shell is swollen, allowing of a very large gill-cavity ; 
and the beaks spirally twisted, with the hinge-teeth following the curve 
of the margin. The foot is small, for sand burrowing. The fossil 
species are very numerous ; but many called by this name belong to 
the Pholadomya group, and some to the Areas. In the little group 
Cardilia, the ligament is fixed on an internal plate, as in some of the 
Lucinids. 

Family Cardiadte. (Cockles.) 

The Cockles abound in shallow water, in almost all sandy bays, 
and are extensively collected for food. On the northern shores of 
the Atlantic States, they are curiously rare; their place in the market 
being supplied by the clams. The animal has short pipes, covered 
with feelers; and open mantle, generally plaited at the margins. Most 
of the bulk of this mollusk consists of the foot, which is long and 
knee-shaped, doubled up into the gill-cavity when at rest, used as a 
leaping-pole when extended. The typical species of Cardium have 
swollen shells, with radiating ribs interlocking at the margins. The 
hinge teeth are small, but, with the side teeth, are deeply interlock- 
ing. The shells of Bucardinm gape at the sides; those of Levicar- 
dium are smooth outside, but generally toothed at the margins ; those 
of the boreal Serripes are almost edentulous. The cretaceous form 
Protocardium has the bulk of the shell concentrically furrowed, while 
the side has the usual radiating furrows. The Hemicardium group 
are keeled and flattened on one side; while the abnormal and very 
beautiful Cardissa group are flattened out on each side, with a hollow 
projecting keel. Papyridea is like a thin Bucardium, flattened in 
the opposite direction from Cardissa, and very much produced on one 
side. 

The very aberrant Cockles of the Caspian Sea have very long pipes, 
not fringed, and united nearly to the ends. The foot is shaped as in 
Venus. The shells are shaped like common Cockles, but without 
teeth. Sometimes however there are one or two small ones. They 
are called Adacna, (with Monodacna and Didacna,) and are often ar- 
ranged with the Pholadomyas. 

Shells having a general resemblance to Cockles have been found 
fossil in all strata, beginning from the Upper Silurians. Several 
however must have had very different animals. The ancient group 
Conocardium, is like Hemicardium with a very long tube projecting 
from the truncated side, like the wing of an Avicula. The structure 
of the shell also is in cubical prisms ; but the tube was probably for 
the protection of Adacnoid pipes, as in the Gastrochcenids. 

Family Astartidje. 
The shells of this very extensive family partake of the characters of 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 259 

the Venerids, the Cyprinids, and the Cockles. The animals however 
differ (so far as yet known) in having *no true breathing pipes, but 
only a fringed opening in the mantle, as in the Unios. The foot is 
tongue-shaped, and the creatures are of sedentary habits, sometimes 
burrowing in coral. They form one of the most extensive groups of 
bivalves in the secondary and older tertiary strata ; but now most of 
the forms are extinct, and others are dying out. It is probable that 
some of the following genera really belong to the Cyprinids. 

The first division have shells furrowed like the Cockles. Veneri- 
cardia also resembles that group in having a bent foot for leaping ; 
but the shape and hinge more resemble Venus. Cardita has some- 
what the shape of Rupellaria, and has a short lateral tooth within the 
ligament. Thecalia has a curious cup inside the valves to receive the 
eggs. Trapezium has 3-3 hinge teeth, besides the lateral. Corallio- 
pliaga is shaped like Lithophagus, and is also a borer ; but the hinge 
resembles Trapezium. 

The oolitic fossil Myoconclia is shaped like Moctiola, but was closely 
related to Cardita. It has a long tooth at the beaks, which is often 
encroached upon by the hinge-margin as in old specimens of Cardita 
orbicularis. Hippopodium (peculiar to the English Lias) has a very 
thick, irregular, toothless shell, looking like a gigantic Saxicavid. 
Cardinia and Anthracosia have £7/wo-shaped shells, abundant in the 
oolitic age, with a hinge more resembling the Cockles. Pachyrisma 
and Opis form a passage to the Heart-cockles. Cypricardites, Pleuro- 
phorus, Megalodon, Goldfussia, Megaloma, and Pachydomus are palae- 
ozoic forms, the relations of which are not yet properly ascertained. 

The Astarte race are generally flattened shells with concentric sculp- 
ture. The fossil species abound in the oolites and tertiaries ; the recent 
are few in number, covered with a thick, dull skin, and mostly from 
the boreal and north temperate zones. In the warmer seas are found 
small Astartoid shells with lateral teeth, called Gouldia. In the trop- 
ical regions of the east are found a group of shells with hinge resem- 
bling Trigona, but without mantle-bend. They are called Circe, and 
have a peculiar flattening at the beaks. 

One group, related to the other members of this family in the ani- 
mal, has the cartilage internal, as in Semele and 3Iesodesma. Crassa- 
tella has a ponderous shell with a stout hinge and short lateral teeth. 
It is found fossil from the cretaceous age. The shells of Davila are 
rounded and flattened, like Felania. 

Family Chamice. 

The Chama-tribe seems to interrupt the natural sequence of the 
families, presenting us with a race of irregular shells like oysters, 
always attached, and generally covered with spines or ridges, like the 
Spondyii. The shells are known by the two strong muscular impres- 
sions, and the Unio-shaped teeth at the hinge. The umbos are more 
or less twisted into a spiral, as in the Heart-cockles. The animal ap- 
pears to resemble a stationary Isocardia, with the mantle closed in 
front, and very short pipes. The foot is bent, as in the Cockles, but 
its use is not clear. They are found only in the warmer seas, begin- 



260 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

ning from the green sand. They are generally attached on one side; 
but the Caribbean Arcindla has the valves furrowed like a Cockle, 
and attached by the right beak. Fossil Chamas are found from the 
green sand upwards. One very singular group, Biceras, from the 
oolite, is like an exaggerated Arcinella. Both of the beaks are prom- 
inent and spiral, and the muscular impressions are bounded by shelly 
plates, as in Cucullaea. In the cretaceous Monopleura, the attached 
valve is funnel-shaped, and the other flat. Another cretaceous form, 
Requienia, has the left valve so developed spirally that it has the gen- 
eral appearance of a Faludina, the other valves looking like a spiral 
operculum. 

Family Hippuritid^:. 

The Rudistes, as Lamarck called them, are characteristic of the cre- 
taceous age, and are far more aberrant even than Requienia. As there 
are no living shells at all resembling them, and many of the forms are 
only known by casts, there has been a great difference of opinion as to 
their true relations. They were however probably related to the 
Ghama group. In Woodward's Manual, pp. 279-289, will be found 
an elaborate explanation and figures of their chief peculiarities. They 
have a general resemblance to Monopleura, having one very long valve, 
with numerous partitions as the creature advanced upwards, Chamoid 
teeth, a strong internal cartilage, and tubes in the outer layer of the 
shell. The free valve is limpet-shaped. The Hippurites cornu- 
vaccinum is twisted like a cow's horn, and sometimes more than a 
foot in length. In Radiolites, the cavity for the animal is much larger 
in proportion, the internal mould having been called from its shape 
" Birostrites." Bii^adiolites has a very large ligamental groove. 
Caprina has a shape presenting an evident analogy to Requienia. 
One valve is twisted into a flat spiral, like an Ammonite, and is some- 
what regularly chambered ; the other valve being Hippony x-sh&ped. 
Caprinella has the whirls separated, like Crioceras. They sometimes 
measure a yard across. Caprotina presents a more normally Chamoid 
appearance. 

Family Trtdacnid^e. {True Clams.) 

The American appropriation of the word "Clam" to the very dis- 
similar Myaand Mercenaria is somewhat perplexing, the name having 
been first given to the ponderous bivalves which inhabit the coral 
lagoons of the Pacific islands. They have a general resemblance to 
transverse Cockles, but differ from all other bivalves with closed man- 
tles in having only one stout adductor muscle, like the oysters; the 
other being obsolete. The compact mantle has three openings; one 
in front, for the fresh water; one near the posterior side, armed with 
a tubular valve, for escape ; and a very large one near the beaks, cor- 
responding with a large gape in the shell for the finger-like foot, which 
is grooved to spin a stout byssus. A pair of valves of Tridacna gigas, 
measuring two feet across and weighing five hundred pounds, are used 
for holy water in the church of St. Sulpice in Paris. Such a mollusk 
may have been, when captured, more than a hundred years old. The 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 261 

force with which they close the valves makes it. dangerous to put the 
hand into the open shell. The Clam is considered good eating, and 
sometimes weighs twenty pounds. The beautiful Hippopus maculatus 
has no gape for the byssus: it is imported in vast numbers into Liver- 
pool for parlor ornaments, where duly acidulated specimens can be 
procured at twelve cents each. These aberrant families make a digres- 
sion from the main line of the Venus and Cockle group. We return 
now to the more normal forms. 

Family Lucinid^. 

The shells of this family are either heart-shaped or flattened like 
Dosinia; but may generally be recognized by the great lengthening 
of the anterior muscular scar. The mantle is open in front, joined 
behind to form breathing passages. There is. only one gill on each 
side, and the mouth and lips are very small. The foot is cylindrical 
and hollow, often twice as long as the animal. When at rest, it is 
doubled on itself, and hidden between the gills. Fossil forms are 
found even in the palajozoic rocks. Lucina proper has lateral and 
hinge teeth like the Cockles. Some specimens are obliquely sculptured 
like Strigitla, from which they are known by the mantle-line being 
without bend. Codakia has a hinge somewhat resembling Dosinia. 
Loripes has the ligament concealed and no lateral teeth. The animal 
has a long, fringed excurrent pipe. This is also found in Cvyptodon, 
where the shell is thin and toothless. 

Fimbria has a stout shell like a transverse Cockle, very beautifully 
cancellated. There are very few living species, but it abounds fossil 
from the Lias age. Semicorbis and Sjjhcera have no side teeth. Uni- 
cardium is almost toothless. The oolitic Tancredia is shaped like 
Ipliigenia. 

Family Diplodontidje. 

The shells in this family may generally be known by a bifid tooth 
at the hinge. The animals have two gills on each side, and a tubular 
foot. Diplodonta has a globular shell, and nestles in crevices. Felania 
a smooth, flat shell, living in sand. Ungulina has a very irregular 
ligament, and is said to bore. In Scacchia, the cartilage is internal, 
and the foot tongue-shaped. It forms a transition to the Kelliads. 
The shell of Gyrenoida resembles Felania, but the animal is figured 
with two united, rather long pipes, which however produce no bend 
in the mantel-line. 

Family KELLiADiE. 

The Kelliads all have thin, small shells, generally with an internal 
cartilage. The animal has a strap-shaped foot, with which it crawls 
about, or moors itself by a byssus at pleasure. They generally nestle 
in holes and crypts, and have been mistaken for borers. Some species 
have a very wide distribution. They are found fossil in the tertiaries. 
In Kellia, the ligament interrupts the hinge margin, and the mantle 
is produced in front into a breathing tube. In Lasea, the ligament 
lies on the thickened hinge-margiu. In Turtonia, it is external; and 
in Cyamium partly so. 



262 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Mbntacuta is destitute of the anterior tube, and the shell is slanting; 
the cartilage occupying a pit between two strong teeth. Pyihina has 
the shell narrowed in the middle, generally with slanting sculpture. 

Family Leptonhle. 

This group differ from the Kelliads in having the mantle produced 
beyond the edge of the valves, and adorned with filaments. The foot 
is spread out, for crawling like a Gasteropod. Lepton has a shell 
somewhat resembling Kellia, often minutely punctured, with diverging 
teeth. Tellimya resembles Montacuta in shape, but has an ossicle in 
the cartilage-pit, like the Anatinids. Galeomma resembles an arc, 
with a wide gape in front. It has a small cartilage-pit, without teeth, 
and opens its valves wide, like Solemya. Scintilla has small hinge- 
teeth, and gapes at the sides. Cydadella perhaps belongs to the 
same group ; but has la'teral teeth, a hinge-tooth parallel to the margin, 
and an external ligament. 

Family Solemyadje. 

The little group called Solemya appears more related to Galeomma 
than to either Solen or My a. The shell is extremely thin, enclosed in 
a wide horny skin. The hinge resembles Leptom, with a very long 
cartilage-pit. The creature opens its valves very wide, and swims 
by dilating the end of its wide foot, which it works as we open and 
shut an umbrella to shake off the wet. The mantle is closed in 
front ; and there is a tail on each side of the excurrent opening. There 
is only one gill on each side. 

We now proceed to the freshwater families; the first of which has 
relations both to the Kelliads and the Venus tribe. 

Family Cyrenid^:. (Fresh-water Cockles.) 

These creatures hatch their eggs within the mantle, but are not very 
prolific. Their habits may easily be observed by placing the little 
creatures, which may be found in any pond or ditch, in a little fresh 
spring water. They then drag themselves along by extending their 
transparent tongue-shaped feet, and protrude their short pipes. The 
young shells are sufficiently transparent to allow of the gills and heart 
being seen within. Cyrena has two short, separate pipes, and a strong 
shell, with 3-3 hinge-teeth, and smooth laterals. It is found in the 
English tertiaries, but is now confined to tropical regions. Corbicula 
has furrowed valves, with grooved side teeth. The shells of Batissa 
have strong hinge-teeth, with very short laterals. They are from the 
Pacific islands. Velorita has a very stout hinge, somewhat resembling 
Cyprina, with a slight siphonal fold. 

The temperate regions abound in the thin shells of Cyclas, which 
has two rather long pipes, partly united ; and of Pisidium, in which 
the shell is slanting, and there is only one excurrent pipe. Both Cyclas 
and Cyrena are found fossil as far back as the Wealden' rocks. 

Family Unionhle. (Fresh-water Mussels.) 
As far as shells are concerned, this family forms the special glory of 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSC A. 263 

North America, and especially of the drainage area of the Mississippi. 
The American Unios are the most numerous, the most remarkable, 
and the most beautiful that are found in any portion of the globe. 
There is perhaps a special reason for this provision. In no other known 
portion of the earth is there so large an area covered with soluble lime- 
stone. The water of the rivers, being saturated with this, would be 
unfit for many of its uses, were it not for the immense development of 
this group of heavy shells. The North American Unios may be re- 
garded as so many water-filters, absorbing the lime from the water, 
and preserving it from reabsorption by their strong horny skins. The 
musk-rats also play an important part in this economy, being nature's 
great Unio-fishers. They bring them up out of the streams, and leave 
the shells in heaps on the banks. 

The Unios are too easily accessible to most of the readers of this 
report to need much description. They have the flaps of the mantle 
entirely separate, (except between the anal and branchial regions,) not 
united into breathing pipes; but in the breathing region the edges are 
fringed. The foot is large, thick,, and tongue-shaped, enabling the 
animal to crawl for considerable distances in case of drought. They 
are often found half buried in sand or mud, leaving the beaks exposed, 
which thus become worn away by the acids in the water. But some- 
times they lie on their sides like oysters ; and at others they fix their 
narrow breathing end upwards. In Europe they are rarely found 
except in rather deep water ; but in America even large and heavy 
species will be found barely covered by water, and stemming strong 
currents. To resist these, the shells of Unto have very stout hinge- 
teeth, with long interlocking side teeth, inside the strong ligament. 
But the Margaritana group, which abounds most in quieter regions,, is 
destitute of the side teeth ; and the Anodons, which are thin and tooth- 
less, inhabit the still and comparatively soft waters of the lakes and 
ponds. The extreme forms of the Unionids are widely removed from 
each other ; but between each are so. many intermediate shapes that 
their division into genera, however necessary for the easy identification 
of species, is a matter of great difficulty. Prof. Agassiz has however 
found that there are differences in the arrangement of the gills and 
other organs, which are more or less coordinate with those of the shells. 
It is very desirable therefore that all persons who have access to living- 
specimens should examine and report on them on the spot ; or at any 
rate preserve a number of each species in alcohol for future investiga- 
tion. It was in this family that the bisexuality of the Lamellibranchs 
was first placed beyond dispute. The shapes of the males and females, 
especially in the "II. perplexus " group, are so very dissimilar that 
no persons unacquainted with the subject would be disposed to consider 
them the same species. This is due to the eggs in the female filling 
the whole extent of the outer gill ; in some instances, as has been com- 
puted, to the number of six hundred thousand at once. The fossil 
species present the same generic forms as the recent, and are found as 
far back as the Wealden rocks. 

Of the Unio group, with distinct -lateral teeth, the following forms 
belong to North America: Eurinea, Lampsilis, Canthyria, Tlielklerma , 
Cunicula, Glebula, Uniomerus, Metaptera, and Plcctomerus ; to South 



264 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

America, Corrugaria and Iridea; to Africa, CaJatura; to Asia, Naia, 
Lanceolaria, Dipsas, Hyriopsis, Nodularia; to Australia, Hyridella, 
Parreysia, and Cucumaria. The European My sea has but slight pecu- 
liarities. 

In the Margaritana group, without lateral teeth, the old pearl 
muscle, M. margaritifera, is found throughout the colder regions of both 
Old and New World. It used to be extensively fished in the British 
islands for the occasional pearls. Complanaria, Alasmodonta, Leptodea, 
and Sirophitus are all found in North America; Monocondylcea and 
Plagiodon in South America ; and Monodontina is an Asiatic form. , 

The Anodons of Europe, though very variable in form, are believed 
to belong to one species; but in North America the distinct forms are 
very numerous. The young of many Unionids are known to attach 
themselves by a byssus at pleasure ; but in the South American Bysso- 
donta this appears to be permanent. An accurate arrangement of the 
family, founded both on peculiarities in the animals and on geograph- 
ical distribution, is still a great desideratum. 

Family Mycetopid^. 

In the South American Mycetopus, the mantle is open except around 
the anal aperture ; the shell resembles a toothless Solecurtus ; and the 
foot is very much lengthened, ending in a hammer-shaped knob. 

Family iRiDiNiDiE. 

The shells in this family closely resemble those of the Unionids ; but 
the animals differ in having the mantle-flaps united at the side to form 
two short pipes. Castalia is like the Arciform Unios, with the hinge- 
teeth furrowed, as in Corbicida. Hyria has spreading wings like 
Metaptera or Avicida, with the teeth somewhat plaited. Leila can 
scarcely be distinguished from Anodon by the shell alone. These forms 
are peculiar to South America. In Africa are found Fleiodon, with 
the hinge line broken across into numerous teeth, like Area; Callisca- 
pha, with slight crenulations on the hinge line; Spatha, with a bent 
hinge, like Alasmodonta; and Iridina, like a very transverse Anodon. 
There are no members of this family known from the northern con- 
tinents. 

Family Etheriad2E. (Fresh-ivater Oysters.) 

Just as the Chamas might be regarded as Cockles turning into 
oysters, the Etherids may be considered as Anodons making even a 
greater stride in the same direction. The shells of ffiheria, which 
were first discovered by Bruce, being eaten in the Upper Nile, are free 
when young, and shaped like Anodon; they have then probably a foot. 
But when adult, they are attached and irregular, resembling an olive- 
green oyster with two muscular scars. There is then no foot, and the 
mantle is freely open. It is found in the tropical rivers of Africa and 
South America. 

Still more remarkable is the Mulleria from New Granada. It begins 
life, free, like the Ftheria, with two adductor muscles ; but when adult 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 265 

and fixed, it is found to have left both the early free valves, having 
fastened them on the right valve, and dejjosited layer upon layer over 
thern. At the same time the adductor muscles have united so as to form 
only one scar. Lamarck made his primary division of the bivalves 
into those with two and those with one adductor muscle. -This creature 
would have had to march from one to the other order, as he approached 
maturity. The entire withdrawal of the animal from one valve and 
manufacture of another is a complete anomaly. It is greatly to be 
desired that some New Granadian would watch the development of 
the animal. 

Family Mytilidjs. {Mussels.) 

The Mussels are easily recognized by their triangular shells, which 
are generally pointed at the anterior, and very much produced at the 
posterior side. The Mytilus edulis is much used for food in some parts 
of England, and is found widely diffused in the northern hemisphere, 
being taken on both sides of the Atlantic and the Californian coast. 
About 400,000 are eaten every year in Edinburgh alone, and enormous 
multitudes are collected for bait. In Mytilus the mantle is freely open, 
fringed in the breathing region like Unio ; and the small foot is grooved 
to spin a stout byssus by which the animals attach themselves to rocks 
or to each other in enormous numbers. The shell of Myrina resembles 
Alasmodon, and was found on floating blubber. 

The shell of Modiola is swollen near the hinge ; and the mantle is 
partially closed into an excurrent tube. The animal spins a very fine 
byssus, in which it sometimes wraps itself up. CreneUa has a swollen 
transverse shell, always furrowed outside and crenated within. The 
hind part of the mantle is produced into an excurrent tube, and it is 
partially closed in front. The animal spins for itself a silky nest, or 
burrows in the test of Ascidians. The shells of Lithophagus are finger 
shaped and very thin. They burrow in rocks, shells, and corals, the 
hole being only just large enough to receive them and not to turn round 
in. The outside end is generally encrusted with spongy layers, of 
different arrangement in different species, often produced into long 
beaks, but always outside the skin, and capable of being separated 
from the rest of the shell. These beaks sometimes interlock ; but have 
no more to do with the burrowing than the pallets of the shipworms. 

Fossil Mussels are found in all ages from the palaeozoic times. Those 
from the old rocks have been grouped under Modiolopsis and OrtJio- 
notus. 

Family DREissmiDiE. (Closed Mussels.) 

These differ from the true Mussels, as Iridina does from Anodon. In 
the fresh-water Dreissina, which was accidentally brought on timber 
from Kussia to London, and is now completely naturalized all over 
England, the mantle is closed all round, and produced into two short 
breathing pipes, with an opening for the byssus-spinning foot. The 
shell differs from the true Mussels in having a deck at the beak to sup- 
port the anterior adductor muscle. The same deck is seen in the 
marine Sejitifer, and in the fossil genera, Hoplomytilus and Myalina. 



266 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Modiolarca has a thin shell moored to floating sea-weed, and greatly 
resembles Alodiolojms in shape. This also has the mantle-flaps united. 
Lelosolenus represents Lithophagus in this famity, from which the 
shell alone cannot be distinguished. It has however siphon pipes, and 
excavates a deep and very spacious burrow, like Gastrochcena. 

The next group of families differ in the same way, as to the posses- 
sion or absence of siphon pipes. They agree in having the foot large, 
bent, and deeply grooved ; and in having numerous teeth at the hinge. 

Family Arcade. (Arks.) 

The boat-shaped Arks are easily known by their distant umbos, with 
straight hinge and two well-marked muscular impressions. The 
mantle is freely open, without pipes, and the mouth is not provided 
with lips. The hinge may be regarded as having two diverging teeth, 
each of which is cut across into numerous smaller ones. In old speci- 
mens these are often obsolete, and a ridge appears instead. In Area 
proper, the shell is cockle-shaped, and lives freely in sand or mud, 
crawling on its crenated foot. In Scapharca, which abounds on the 
shores of the southern States, the valves are unequal, and generally 
thin. The American genus NoUia is like an ark with one side cut off. 
Argina, also an American form, is more regular ; but with one row of 
hinge teeth very short and twisted. In Lunarca, which closely re- 
sembles it in form, the short tooth is not serrated. Trisis has the valves 
shaped like Byssoarca, but curiously twisted. It has some resemblance 
to the curious little fresh-water Ark, Scapltula, from the East Indian 
rivers, in which however the teeth are rather transverse at the ends, 
forming a transition to CucuUcea. In this group the serrations of the 
teeth are normal in the middle, but parallel to the hinge line at the 
ends. The posterior muscular scar is bounded by a stout ridge. This 
form is now almost extinct, but in the oolitic and cretaceous strata it 
was very abundant. In the Macrodon group of the older rocks, only 
the shorter hinge tooth is serrated, the longer one remaining as in 
Unio. 

One large group of Arks is completely sedentary in its habits, re- 
maining fixed in crevices or old burrows. But instead of spinning a 
byssus like the Mussels and Pumas, it adheres by the end of its foot, 
which deposits a number of horny plates, which can be cast off- and 
renewed on special occasions. It appears more convenient to regard 
Cockle-arks (A. grandis, &c.) as the types of the family, and to call 
the fixed species Byssoarca. The typical forms have long straight 
hinges, winged on each side, with very numerous sharp teeth, and a 
gape in front where the creature fastens itself, with its face to the 
corner like a naughty boy. In the common form Barbatia, the wings 
are rounded off, the gape is not seen, and the hinge line is slightly 
curved, forming a transition to Pectunculus. 

Fossil Arks are found in great numbers in every age, the paleozoic 
forms being chiefly of the CucuUcea, Cucullella, and Isoarca type. 
They live now at all depths, from low water to two hundred and 
thirty fathoms ; and in all climates, from the equator to Prince Kegent 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 267 

Inlet. The form of the ligamental area is an important guide in the 
discrimination of species. 

Another very abundant group resembles a flattened Cockle, with the 
beaks nearly close and the hinge-line curved. Pectunculus has a lig- 
ament like Barbatia, with very strongly marked muscular scars. The 
inner margin of the valves is crennated, as in the Fan-shells, and the 
free borders of the mantle have rudimentary eyelets to correspond. 
The lips are simply a prolongation of the gills ; and the foot is large 
and crescent-shaped, waved on the sole. They are probably more 
active than the Arks. Half the species known are from the American 
shores, where they range from shallow water to a hundred fathoms. 
They first appear in the Neocomian age. The oldest shells of this 
group, being found from the Bath Oolite, have the ligament concen- 
trated in a pit between the beaks, like Lima, and are thence called 
Limoiosis. A few species are still living in the Old World, from Nor- 
way to the Cape. As Macrodon and Lunarca are to the Arks, so is 
the little crag fossil Nucinella to Pectunculus. On one side of the 
hinge the teeth are broken up, while on the other the plain ridge 
remains. A very similar shell has just been found living at Cape St. 
Lucas, by Mr. Xantus. 

Family NucuLiDiE. (Nut-Shells.) 

The shells of Nucula are like a small, angular Pectunculus, with a 
pearly layer within. The cartilage is in an internal pit, and the 
hinge is in two divergent rows of very sharply interlocking teeth. 
They are generally covered with a smooth, horny skin, while that of 
the Arks is shaggy, and of Pectunculus velvety. The foot is very 
large, deeply grooved; spreading out to crawl into a broad disk with 
saw-like edges. The mantle flaps are freely open, without pipes ; and 
the plume-like gills are small, and united behind. The lips are very 
long, curiously ornamented, and capable of protrusion outside of the 
valves, forming a singular contrast to the Arks, with which they are 
generally associated. The Nuculas are found in deep water and in all 
seas ; they date from the earliest rocks, and are very numerous in 
species. Nuculina, from the French Eocenes, resembles Nucinella, 
but with an internal ligament ; while Stalagmium and Nucunella form 
transitions to Limopsis. 

Family Ledule. (Beaked Nut-Shells.) 

This family, in most respects closely resembling the Nut-shells, and 
like them having the mantle freely open, presents us with the strange 
anomaly of a pair of regularly formed siphon pipes, reminding one of 
Pandora and the Anatinids. The shell of Leda is like a beaked 
Nucula, with a slight mantle-bend. The pipes are unequal and par- 
tially united ; there being two flaps from the mantle which fold together 
like a third tube. The species are found in deep water from all seas, 
and abound in most ages from early times. Yoldia, which is almost 
entirely a boreal form, has the pipes united, with a deep mantle-bend, 
but no flaps. The shells are less pointed, and are found fossil in the 
newer tertiaries. A group of very transverse shells, with the hinge 



268 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

lines almost straight, and gaping at each end, are called Adrana, and 
found in tropical seas. The animal of Toldia is very active, and leaps 
very far on its bent foot. The group Portlandia has an irregularly 
swollen shell, truncated at the side. Neilo has a similarly-shaped 
shell, but not nacreous, and with the cartilage external. The mantle- 
edge is double, and furnished with flaps. It is found living in New 
Zealand, but fossil in Patagonia. Solenella is a similar shell from 
Chili, but shaped like Sanguinolaria, nacreous within, and with part 
of the anterior tooth remaining undivided, as in Macrodon and Nuci- 
nella. 

Family Trigoniad^. 

The Trigonia race make their appearance in the secondary rocks, 
and abound as far as the cretaceous age ; but in the tertiary series 
they have not yet been found. They linger however along with 
other old forms, in the Australian seas, presenting us with shells and 
animals of surpassing beauty. They have long, sharply-bent, pointed 
feet, like the Cockles, with which they can take surprising leaps. But 
they resemble the Arks in having the mantle freely open, the foot-sole 
crenulated, and the gills united. They are almost entirely nacreous 
within, and strongly sculptured outside. The hinge has 2-1 very 
large, deeply furrowed teeth. In many strata, the shell has entirely 
perished, leaving very characteristic internal casts, called " horse- 
heads" by the quarry men of the Portland oolite. Myophoria has a 
similar shell, but less sculptured. Ascinus makes its appearance in 
the Upper Silurian, with small, smooth teeth. Similar shells have 
been described as Mactra, Isocardia, Anodontopsis , Anatina and Dola- 
bra. Lyrodesma is the earliest form in this family, with several radi- 
ating teeth, striaied across. Verticordia is a small group from the 
newer tertiaries, and still living; with thin, nacreous, X?tcma-shaped 
shells, with two Unioid teeth in each valve. The Eocene Hippagus 
has a similar shell without teeth. This family combines many of the 
characters of Nucula, Castalia, and Cardium. 

Family Aviculid^:. (Wing-Shells, Pearl and Hammer Oysters.) 

This extensive family of living and extinct forms are remarkable for 
the microscopic structure of the shells, as shown by Dr. W. B. Car- 
penter, (in the British Association Reports, before quoted.) The out- 
side portion consists of large prisms; which in transparent young 
shells can be detected with a single glass, and in the old decaying 
shells of Pinna easily break up into needle-like fragments, resembling 
Arragonite. These have been formed by rows of simple shells, some- 
times of different colors, piled one over the other. The fragments of 
the great Inocerami from the cretaceous rocks have the aspect of fossil 
wood. The same structure is found in the floats of Belemnites. The 
inside of the valves consists of true pearls, the beautiful iridescence of 
which is caused by very finely wrinkled skins, with layers of shell be- 
tween. After the shell has been dissolved in acid, and the wrinkles 
flattened out, the iridescence ceases. Many of the fossil forms have 
shells intermediate in form between Avicula and Pecten; but their 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 269 

family relationships can always be determined by the microscopic ex- 
amination of any small fragment; the prismatic structure not being 
seen in the Fan-shells. 

The animal of the Pearl-oysters has the mantle free all round, ex- 
cept where the flaps are joined, in the middle, by the attachment of 
the gills. The edges are beautifully fringed. The lips are plain, and 
rather small. There is only one principal adductor muscle in this and 
the remaining families of the Pectinibranchs ; although there are often 
seen other small scars, formed by the foot-muscles and the retractors 
of the mantle. The foot is finger-like and grooved, working through 
a notch at the side of the shell, and spinning a byssus, which in Pinna 
is long and silky, but in other genera is horny and rather solid. 

All the Aviculids which have been observed in the young state have 
the pointed shape of the Mussels, which is permanent in the Pinnas. 
These creatures, which are sometimes two feet long, stick their pointed 
beaks in the sand or mud, with the knife-like edges of their gaping 
shells projecting upwards. These are sometimes dangerous to navi- 
gation. They differ from the ordinary Wing-Shells in having the 
small anterior adductor somewhat developed. A little crab (called 
"Pinna-guardian" by Aristotle; perhaps the mollusk calls it Pinna- 
plague) is fond of nestling in its breathing cavity. Fossil species are 
found from the Devonian age; some of the thick oolitic forms being 
grouped as Trichites. 

The typical Avicula tribe have thin, slanting shells, swollen in the 
middle, and produced on each side of the hinge into wings which are 
some times very long, but greatly vary in the same species. They are 
fond of mooring themselves to Gorqonias, floating wood, and other 
light bodies. One valve is generally larger than the other; and there 
are small hinge-teeth as in Alasmodon. The fossil, species are very 
numerous, beginning from the earliest rocks. 

The Pearl-oysters, (Margaritiphora,) have heavy shells with short 
wings, having thick layers of "mother o'pearl," beautiful wherever 
it is worked. The pearls themselves are formed by excrescenses or 
deposits of pearly matter in the mantle, often taking form from sand 
or other extraneous substance which has been introduced. Nearly 
three hundred tons of this shell are yearly imported into England. 
They have no hinge teeth. In this respect they resemble the Ham- 
mer-oysters, (Malleus,} which take the contrary extreme of shape. 
The body and the side-wings being all very long and narrow, the 
shell takes the form of a T. In the young shells, which are often 
regarded as distinct species, the side wings are not developed. The 
shape then resembles the ^Vulsella, which lives embedded in sponge, 
and has the ligament concentrated in a spoon-shaped cavity. Some 
of the early fossil forms have been grouped as Ambonychia, Cardiola, 
and Eurydesma. Mo?iotis and Halobia are from the Triassic rocks. 
The Silurian Pterinea and the oolitic Pteropema have few or numer- 
ous anterior teeth,, and long posterior teeth as in Unio. The ancient 
Posidonomya has a thin, earless shell, without teeth. 

In the remaining group of this family, the young shell is like Avi- 
cula, but in the adult the ligament is fixed into numerous pits along 
the hinge line. The name Perna, given by Lamarck to the common 



270 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

forms, with square pits, has been used by different authors in such 
various ways that it may be convenient to revive the old name Isogno- 
mon, (or Melina.) In some of the tertiary fossils, the pearly layer is 
an inch thick. Crenatula has the pits small and rounded. In the 
fossil Gervillia and Bakewcttia, which abound in the secondary strata, 
there are long hinge teeth inside the ligament row. Inoceramus, 
which is very characteristic of the cretaceous age, has the shell and 
the hinge rounded. Some species are a yard long. Other fossil forms 
are Hypotrema, Catillus, Pulvinites, and possibly Pachymya. 

Family Pectenid^e. {Fan-Shells, or Scallops.) 

The Fan-shells are at once recognized by the broad ears on each 
side of the beaks, with a slit in one valve for the passage of the foot 
and byssus. The animals have a double edge to the free mantle; the. 
inner hanging like a fringed curtain, the outer bordered with a row of 
minute eyelets, each of which is protected by filaments. The gills are 
extremely delicate, and hang loose. The lips are beautifully cut. The 
shell consists almost entirely of membranous plates laid over each 
other. In the young state all the species moor themselves by a lyssus, 
which some do permanently. Others live freely, either few together, 
or in great scallop banks. They can swim by flapping their valves, 
often jerking themselves some yards at once. They do not abound on 
the west coast of the Atlantic; but in most seas they are numerous, 
and generally very highly sculptured and painted ; the lower valve 
often having a very different hue from the other. Mollusk-eaters con- 
sider them great delicacies. The cartilage is in an internal pit. The 
typical Pectens have the valves nearly equal. In Amusium one is gen- 
erally larger than the other; the shell gapes at the sides; and the 
valves are either smooth or irregularly waved. In Janira, which in- 
cludes some of the finest species of the tribe, one valve is flat or even 
concave, while the other bulges. The J. jacobaia of the Mediterra- 
nean was formerly worn by pilgrims who had been to the Holy Land. 
Pallium differs from the ordinary Scallops in having teeth on each 
side of the hinge-plate. Neithea differs from Janira in the same way. 
Hemipecten has only one ear ; the other being incorporated into the 
shell. Fossil species are plentiful in all ages from the carboniferous. 
Those of Aucella and Aviculopecten form the transition to the Avi- 
culids. 

Family Limine. 

The Lima group differ from the true Pectens in having no eyelets 
on the outer mantle-margin, and in having the inner fringed with very 
long and numerous tentacles. The shells are always white ; and the 
inner layer is pierced with a network of minute tubes. The ligament 
is in an external pit, like Vulsella, and the ears are very small. The 
creatures can swim by jerking their valves, like the Pectens. They 
either live free, or moor themselves by a byssus; or make a nest of 
stones and broken shells, spun together by byssal threads, in which 
they completely hide themselves. Fossil species are extremely nume- 
rous, from the carboniferous age ; and abound in the Lias and oolites, 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 271 

where they are often of large size, and are called Plagiostoma. Idmcea 
begins with the Lias, and has one recent representative. It is a Lima 
with a row of Area-like hinge teeth. Limatula, a northern group 
which begins in the English Crag, has the valves equilateral. 

Family Spondylid^e. (Thorn-Oysters.) 

These creatures may be regarded as attached Fan-shells ; and form 
a natural transition from them to the true Oysters. The animal of 
Spondylus closely resembles that of Pecten, but the foot is rather more 
rudimentary, and there are no eyelets. The shell has strong inter- 
locking teeth, and the attached valve has a very long beak, with a flat 
area, which is wanting in Plicatula. In one specimen of the " Water- 
clam" (so called from the layers of shell having spaces between them) 
in the Smithsonian Museum, there is an area in both valves. Fossil 
species are found from the lower oolites. The Spondylus spinosus, a 
very characteristic species of the chalk, lived nearly free ; like the 
recent S. imperialis. Hinnites begins free like a Pecten, and after- 
wards becomes fixed. Pedum has a thin, flat shell ; living imbedded 
in madrepores. It has a deep notch for a byssus in the lower valve. 

Family Ostreid^e. (Oysters.) 

As all readers of this report have access to Oysters, which, instead 
of eating, they can dissect and examine at pleasure, it is needless to 
describe either the shell or the animal. The chief peculiarity is the 
entire absence of foot. They are found in all seas, and in every age 
from the carboniferous ; varying greatly in form, according to the sur- 
face to which they have been attached. The mangrove-oysters (Den- 
drostrea) are thin and but slightly attached. The cock's-comb spe- 
cies are deeply plicated. In the fossil genus Gryplma one valve is 
spirally twisted, and the other nearly flat. The animal was probably 
not attached. The shell, of Exogyra, characteristic of the oolitic and 
cretaceous ages, is CAama-shaped. The fossil Ostrea longirostris of 
the Tagus is sometimes two feet long. 

Family Placunidje. (Window-Shells.) 

The Placunids are extremely flat, thin creatures, with a very unu- 
sual hinge. There are two long divergent teeth, like a V, to the sides 
of which the ligament is attached, as in Pandora, to which the shell 
offers some resemblances. It consists of very thin, somewhat nacre- 
ous plates. The shells of Placuna, often called Saddle-oysters from 
their shape, have the hinge-ridges equal, and rapidly diverging. 
Those of Placenta are nearly transparent, being used lor window glass 
by the Chinese ; and have the hinge ridges nearer, and one shorter 
than the other. Placunopsis is an oolitic fossil, with a transverse liga- 
ment groove. There is only one principal muscular impression in the 
Placunids. 

Family Anomiad^:. 

The shells of this family are remarkable for the large number of 



272 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

muscular impressions in the convex valve. The flat valve is pierced 
by a hole, which is rilled up by a shelly plug, which is more or less 
separate from the valve. The animal diners from the Oysters in hav- 
ing a small foot, connected with the plug which takes the place of the 
byssus in the mussels. The convex valve has four scars, of which the 
largest is made by the plug muscle, and the front one by the adductor. 
The third central scar, and one near the internal cartilage, are made 
by the retractors of the foot. The Anomias are extremely thin and 
pearly, found in all parts of the world, and in all ages from the oolites. 
In Placunanomia, there are only two instead of three muscular scars. 
The hinge fulcrum is notched, and the plug often becomes imbedded 
in the lower valve. The fossil Limanomia is eared like Lima. Carolia 
has a plug when young, like Anomia; but when adult it resembles 
Placunopsis, and might be ranked with either family. It belongs to 
the tertiary age. 

The species in this family ought always to be studied in connection 
with their geographical relationships ; and the young animals ought 
especially to be examined, as being less likely to be affected by the 
disturbing influences of later life. 

CLASS PALLIOBRANOHIATA. 
{Mantle-breathers, or Brachiopods.) 

The Palliobranchiate bivalves may be considered as a parallel group 
with the Lamellibranchs, but inferior to them ; as the Implacental as 
compared with the Placental Mammals. They are always attached, 
either by the surface of the valve, or by a peduncle passing through a 
hole, as in the Anomids. The resemblance however which caused 
Linnasus to unite Terebratula with Anomia is only superficial. The 
valves, instead of being side wings, are front and back shields. There 
are no true ligaments or hinge teeth. Above all, there are no gills ; 
the breathing being performed by the general surface of the skin. The 
water-currents are established by the action of cilia and variously 
twisted "arms," which gave Lamarck the class-name Brachiopoda. 
But they are not, in any strict sense, arms or feet; not being used for 
locomotion ; but on the contrary correspond to the lips of the Lamel- 
libranchs, their office being to waft the food-particles to the mouth. 
They are generally fixed to a shelly skeleton within, the form of which 
is very characteristic of the genera. The valves of the Lamp-shells are 
fastened by interlocking teeth ; but the work of ligaments is performed 
by a set of muscles which act in the opposite direction from the adduc- 
tors. After the skin and lips are deducted, the body of the animal 
remains in but a small portion at the back of the shell, often parti- 
tioned off by a strong membrane, in the centre of which is the mouth. 

As there is no special breathing organ, the mantle is more than usu- 
ally supplied with blood vessels, and adorned with various filaments. 
The marks of the blood vessels may often be traced in the valves of fos- 
sil shells. These display far more of the peculiarities of the animal 
than do the valves of Lamellibranchs, in which the hinge is almost the 
only safe guide to their affinities. It is therefore fortunate that so 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 273 

very large a proportion of the fossil bivalves, up to the tertiary age, 
belong to this class. 

The structure of the shells is more simple than in the ordinary 
bivalve and univalve tribes. There is no distinction between the outer 
and inner layers ; the whole consisting of long flattened prisms, arranged 
sideways. In most of the families these are traversed by numerous 
vertical tubes, which are trumpet-shaped outside and sometimes arbo- 
rescent. As the valves open but a little way, and there are no specially 
directed breathing currents, the tubes which are no doubt occupied by 
prolongations from the mantle (which is not loose, as in ordinary 
bivalves) assist greatly either in the breathing or excretory functions. 
There are no pores in the internal lip skeleton. 

In the ancient rocks both of the Old and New World, a Lingula is 
the first organic "footprint on the sands of time/' the same generic 
form being still found in all the oceans of the globe. As we read on- 
wards in the palasozoic chronicles, the forms, and still more the number 
of specimens, continue prominent, typical, and diagnostic above all 
other fossils until they reach their maximum of development in the 
Devonian ages. They continue extremely abundant throughout all 
the secondary and cretaceous ages ; decreasing in comparative import- 
ance as the Lamellibranchs gradually appear. The Productus tribe 
does not enter the secondary period ; the Spirifers and Orthids die out 
in the lower beds; while the JihynconeUids, Craniads, and Lingular 
have maintained their position, throughout all the changes in other 
races of animals, throughout all the fossil ages, to the present time. 
The Terebratidids were the latest to appear, not showing themselves 
decisively till the carboniferous age. Most of the tertiary and living 
forms belong to this group. Although the Palliobranchs are compara- 
tively rare in the tertiary ages, the boreal Crag furnishes us with one 
of the largest species known. No members of this class attain the 
size of the Lamellibranchs ; a more complete system for breathing and 
digestion being necessary to maintain a Scallop, a Panopasa, or a 
giant clam. 

It used to be thought that the prevalence of Palliobranchs in any 
stratum was a sure evidence of deep-sea origin. It is true that they 
are found living in the greatest depths yet dredged ; but species are 
also found in pools left by the retiring tide ; and it is probable that 
many of the earliest rocks were deposited in comparatively shallow 
water. Although the recent shells are still rare in collections, they 
are common in the regions they inhabit ; and as seventy species are 
already known, a greater number than has been discovered in any 
single secondary stratum, and as probably "more than half the living 
forms are yet to be discovered, we have no right to say that the race 
are dying out. While some species are very local, other forms are 
widely diffused both in area and in time. The Atrypa reticularis is 
found through a whole series of strata, in the Old and in the New 
World t ; and Spirifcra striata ranges from the Cordillera to the Ural 
mountains. 

The. fullest account of the shells and physiology of this class will be 
found in Davidson's treatise on the "British Fossil Brachiopoda/' 
printed by the Paleeontographical Society. A very full abstract of 
18 



274 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

everything known up to the date of publication, illustrated by many 
of the woodcuts in Davidson's work, will be found in "Woodward's 
Manual of the Mollusca," pp. 209-240, and 465-467. Additional 
genera are described by Prof. Hall in the annual Reports of the Regents 
of the University of New York. Those who wish to examine magnificent - 
series of the shells of the older rocks, exhibiting the internal structure, 
are specially directed to the private collection of Prof. Hall, and to the , 
Museum of the Geological Survey of Canada, arranged at Montreal 
under the direction of Sir W. Logan. The following is a sketch of 
the principal groups ; but as the distinctions of the genera depend 
principally on the form of the lip-skeleton, which can be best under- 
stood by figures, they will only here be indicated. 

Family Terebratulidje. (Lamp-Shells.) 

The Lamp-shells lie on their back, which is shielded by the smaller 
valve; the front valve bends over, and is pierced at the beak by a hole 
through which a peduncle anchors the animal to foreign objects. This 
presents a fanciful resemblance to the plug of the Anomiads ; but, in- 
stead of being a side-bunch, produced by the foot, it is a lump which 
grows of itself behind the mouth ; as though a Chinese mandarin were 
laid on his back and fastened by his hair-tail. So there is a resemblance 
between the mouth-arms of the Palliobranchs and the mouth-feelers of 
the four-gilled Cephalopods, Dr. Gray grouping these classes on each 
side of the Pteropods ; but the likeness is almost as artificial as if we 
should compare the Star-fish ivith the Cuttles, both groups having 
locomotive organs round the mouth. 

Terebratula proper is thin and smooth, with a very short loop. This 
only joins into a horseshoe ; in the striated shells of Terebratidina, it 
unites into a ring. In Waldheimia, the shell is somewhat plaited, and 
the loop is very long and reflected. Fudesia differs in being sharply 
plaited. Meganteris is a long-looped Devonian form. In this group 
the loop is attached near the end of the back valve. 

In Terebratella and its neighbors the loop is joined along the middle 
of the valve, to a perpendicular plate. The cretaceous Trigonosemus 
has a prominent, curved beak. Lijra (also cretaceous) has a long, 
ribbed beak. Magas has the reflected parts of the loop disunited. In 
Bouclwrdia the peduncle plate (called "deltidium," and separating 
the hole from the hinge) is blended with the shell . Morrisia is moored 
mouth-upwards, the hole being scooped out of both valves. 

Kraussia is a southern form, with the beak truncated. Megerlia is 
also truncated, with the loop trebly attached. Ismenia has the valves 
ornamented with corresponding ribs ; and Kingena has the surface 
spiny. 

Family Thecidiad^i. 

Tliecidium has no hole, but is attached by the beak to sea-urchins, 
corals, &c. Argiope resembles it in general aspect, but has a peduncle 
through the truncated valve. The mouth-arms are folded into four 
lobes; in Cistella, into two. Stringocephalus is a similar form from the 
Devonian ; and Zellania resembles Tliecidium, from the secondary rocks. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 275 

Family Spirifebjd^e. 

'In this extinct group, the mouth-arms were supported by very large 
spiral coils, which occupy almost the whole of the sides of the shell. 
These are sometimes spiny, showing that they were covered with stiff 
cilia. In some members of this family the shell is pierced by tubes ; 
in others not ; but in metamorphic rocks it is very difficult to speak 
positively on this point. The species of Spirifera are found in palseozioc 
rocks all over the world. They are generally very transverse, like 
Argiope. Cyrtia has a pyramidal shape, with a prominent beak. 
Spiriferina and Suessia include the secondary forms, with a prominent 
plate inside the upper valve. Athyris (Spirigera) is shaped like a 
smooth Terebratula. Merista resembles it, with arched plates round 
the hinge. Retzia is punctured, like a Terebratulina with spiral arms. 
Uncites is not punctured, has no hinge area, and is furnished with a 
large concave deltidium, approaching Pentamerus. 

Family Rhynconellid^. 

Rhynconella has long, spiral mouth-arms, directed inwards, (not 
outwards, as in the Sp>irifers^ and not supported by any shelly skele- 
ton. The shell is not punctured, leaving the mantle loose. The living 
species are black and slightly plaited ; the fossils are very numer- 
ous, and generally deeply plaited, with the margin of the valves 
twisted. In Porambonites, the surface is minutely pitted. Camaro- 
phoria has ridges supporting dental plates. In this respect it resembles 
Pentamerus, in which the plates are so magnified as nearly to divide 
each of the valves. They branch in the middle, so as to inclose a 
separate chamber in which the viscera were probably situated. Atrypa 
resembles Rhynconella, but with the mouth-arms calcified. 

Family Orthids . 

The Orthids have punctate shells, generally very much depressed; 
with small beaks and straight hinge. They probably had horizontally- 
coiled spiral arms. In Orthis, the hinge-line is narrower than the shell, 
and both valves are convex. In Orthisina, it is wider. Streptorhyncus 
has the beak twisted. Strophomena is widest at the hinge-line. The 
valves are nearly flat during adolescence ; when they approach matu- 
rity, they suddenly bend to one side. Slropheodonta has a toothed 
hinged-line. The restricted genus Leptcena has the valves regularly 
curved. Koninckia has the valves rounded and smooth. Davidsonia 
was attached by the outer surface of the ventral valve. Calceola is 
generally reckoned with the " Rudistes ;" all of which are, by Philippi 
and others, ranked with this family. It is funnel-shar-ed, resembling 
Radiolites; but the internal markings indicate strong affinities with 
the Orthids. The true Calceolas are a Devonian group ; the so-called 
Carboniferous group, Hypodema, are believed to be Oapulid Gaste- 
ropocls. 

Family Productid;e. 

In this singular group, the creatures were bent backwards ; the 
back valve being concave, and the front valve very convex. They 



276 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

were probably attached by the long hollow spines, which adorn the 
shells ; and may have moored themselves in chinks, or partly buried 
in mud. Productus has the hinge-line linear, and is a Devonian 
group. Aulosteges has a hinge-area, like Spondylus. Strophalosia 
was attached by the beak of the front valve. The Silurian Chonetes 
has one row of spines along the hinge-line of the front valve. 

Family Craniad^e. 

The Cranias have lived from the palasozoic times till now. They 
have no hinge, and are attached by the front valve : the back valve 
being limpet shaped. The mouth-arms are free, supported by a nose- 
like projection in the front valve. The eye-like muscular scars give 
some of the species a rude resemblance to a skull. The valves are 
shelly, and very minutely punctured. The ancient Pseudocrania had 
the valves free. The position of Spondilobolus is uncertain. 

Family Discinidje. 

The shells of Piscina are quite horny, and flexible when fresh. 
They are attached by a peduncle, passing through a chink in the 
lower valve. The mantle is surrounded by stiff bristles ; but the cilia 
on the mouth-arms are very tender and flexible. The ancient fossils 
have been separated as Orbiculoidea. Trematis has convex valves, with 
a thickened hinge-margin. • Siphonotreta is covered with hollow spines, 
with a tubular hole at the beak. Acrotreta is shaped like Calceola. 

Family Lingulid^. 

As the Lingulas are the earliest, so they may be regarded as the 
lowest bivalve shells. They live half buried in sand or mud, often at 
slight depths ; and, as their horny shells hang at the end of a very 
long peduncle, they have no slight resemblance to the Lepad Barna- 
cles. Members of the group lived in all ages in the British seas, down 
to the Coralline Crag ; and a species is still living on the Atlantic 
shores of North America. The Silurian form Obolus is nearly round, 
with a thickened hinge-margin. 

CLASS TUNICATA. 

{Tunicaries, or Cloaked MollusJcs.) 

We have now completed our sketch of the shell-bearing classes of 
Mollusks. The remaining groups form a transition to the zopphytic 
condition of animal life. The higher Tunicaries offer many points of 
similarity with the sedentary Lamellibranchs ; but the lower races 
lose their separate individuality, and become incorporated into a gen- 
eral mass of life, like the Polypes. Although not attractive to the 
general observer, they present many points of singular interest to the 
scientific student. They have lately been carefully examined and re- 
ported on by Huxley and Rupert Jones. The first group are the soli- 
tary or simple Ascidians. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSC A. 277 

Family Ascidiad^. {Sea-Squirts.) 

The Sea-squirts appear at first sight nothing but leathery bags, 
covered perhaps with sea-weed or other accretions. The presence of 
organic life is only made known to us by the violent jets of water 
which they force out when disturbed. This leathery bag or "test" 
takes the place of the shell in the bivalves. It is less distinctly ani- 
mal in its nature than any other substance produced by sentient life, 
containing a large quantity of the vegetative cellulose. It is freely 
bored into by bivalve mollusks, such as Crenella and Mytilimeria. But 
under this test, is found a delicate mantle, like that of ordinary mol- 
lusks, united into a sac, and terminating in two openings,, the inha- 
lent and excurrent. The bulk of the body is occupied by the bran- 
chial sac, the mouth and all the viscera being collected into a small 
space at the bottom. If the test were removed and a Mya-shell placed 
over the inner mantle, the creature might pass for a Lamellibranch. 
But there are no true gills ; the respiration being performed by the 
more or less wrinkled lining of the water chamber : there is no foot : 
the mouth has no lips to choose its food : there is no complete circu- 
lating system ; the blood being carried backwards and forwards along 
the same vessels ; and the reproductive functions are of so low an 
order that fresh individuals can be produced by budding, as in plants. 
The Ascidians are always fixed at the bottom of their squirts, and 
may often be gathered on the fronds of sea-weecls, shells, &c. In 
many places they are taken to market, and even considered dainty 
articles of food. The Ascidia vary from one to six inches in length, 
and often are brilliantly colored within, Molgula and Glandula have 
globular bodies, differing in the number of lobes at the apertures. 
Cynthia has a basket-shaped body, with two ovaries ; Dendrodoa has 
only the left, and Pandocia the right ovary. Pera has a pear-shaped 
body, scarcely adhering. Pelonoea has a long body, ending in the 
two pipes, and looks like the outside portion of a Panopcea. Chely- 
osoma is a Greenland form, with a tortoise-shaped body. Boltenia is 
kidney-shaped, resting on a long stalk, on which the young ones some- 
times grow. 

Family Clavellinidjj;. (Social Ascidians.) 

Here, for the first time as we descend downwards in the animal 
scale, we meet with several living creatures, each having their own 
organs of individual life, but all connected together into a common life 
by prolongations from a central stem or creeper, in which the common 
blood keeps circulating in opposite directions. The compound creature 
is called a Zooid. The creatures are quite transparent, and very 
small. New creatures are formed by buddings-off from the common 
stem, as well as by fresh eggs. Glavellina looks like a bunch of Cine- 
ras. Perophora grows on sea-weed, like little specks of jelly dotted 
with orange and brown. Syntethis grows in dahlia-shaped masses 
six inches across. The zooid of Ghondrostachys has a long cylindrical 
stem. 



278 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

Family BoTRYLLiDiE. {Compound Ascidians.) 

These creatures have their tests fused into a common mass, so that 
each zooid looks like a single animal outside ; but the individuals are 
found to be separate within. In the Botryllians, the individuals are 
united into systems round common excretary cavities. In the Didem- 
nians, the chest and abdomen are distinct. In the Polyclinians, there 
is a chest, with the breathing organs ; an upper abdomen, with the 
digestive organs ; and a lower abdomen, with the heart (so called) and 
reproductive organs. 

In Botryllus, the breathing-holes are star-shaped, the cloaca being 
poured into a common sewer. In Botrylloides, the stars are more 
irregular, and the animals are vertical. 

The zooid of Didemnium is very irregular, the individuals with a 
pedunculate abdomen. In Euccelium, the animals are scattered, or 
arranged in quincunx. Leptoclinum makes thin, variously colored, 
zooids, adhering to the roots of tangles. Distomus and Diazona are 
bistellate, the latter being flower-shaped, like Syntethys. 

Sigillina is also bistellate ; i. e. both the mouth and anal orifice are 
rayed. The zooid grows like a plantain. In the remaining genera, 
the mouth only is rayed. Polyclinum has a fungus-shaped mass. The 
Aplidia or jSea-figs have often been confounded with Alcyoniwn. Sid- 
nyum forms transparent, amber-colored masses under shelving rocks at 
extreme low water. Syncecium is an arctic form, with a stalked zooid. 
Amcercecium has a common central cloaca to the pod-shaped zooid. 

Family Pyrosomid^e. 

The Pyrosomes combine in innumerable numbers to form hollow 
transparent tubes, open at one end, which receive the common cloaca. 
These tubes, or zooids, are from two to fourteen inches long, and an 
inch across. The mouths are outside ; and by the combined force of 
the exhalent currents, the zooid is driven forward in the open sea 
with the closed end forward, reminding us in a feeble manner of the 
squirt-swimming of the Cuttles. They increase by buds or by eggs : 
and often fill the sea in such vast numbers as greatly to incommode 
the nets of fishermen. At night they are brilliantly phosphorescent, 
resembling "incandescent cylinders of iron." Humboldt observed 
them as forming lights, eighteen' inches in diameter, by which the 
fishes were made visible. 

Family Salpid^;. 

The Salpas first exhibit to us the zoophitic condition of alternate 
generation. No Salpa is like its parent or its child ; but always re- 
sembles its grandparent or grandchild. The creatures of one genera- 
tion therefore do not exhibit to us the whole Salpoid structure. Just 
as in the higher animals we must have two individuals, male and 
female, before we can gain a complete idea of the species ; so in the 
Salpas we must see two generations, mother and child, before we can 
understand the complete Salphine zooid. The Salpas are found under 
two very contrary conditions ; as free individuals and as serpentine 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 279 

chains of compound animals. That they were the same, was first dis- 
covered by Chamisso, the author of the well-known " Man without a 
Shadow." The solitary Salp always gives birth to the compound, 
and those again to the single. Doliolum is* intermediate between 
Salpa and Pyrosoma. 

Family Appendicular:: ad^;. (Larval Ascidians.) 

The minute Appendicularias appear as cloudy patches of red color- 
ing matter in the northern seas. They are little tadpole-shaped crea- 
tures, and resemble the larval stage of the higher tribes of Tunicaries, 
arrested at the first period of growth. 

CLASS POLYZOA. 

Among the creatures generally grouped together as zoophytes, and 
forming the structures usually known as "Corallines," "Sea-weeds," 
&c.j are many which are found to have a much more complex organi- 
zation than the rest. There is an excurrent opening distinct from the 
inhalent cavity ; and though their general habit of life resembles the 
true zoophytes, yet there is sufficient analogy between them and the 
compound Tunicaries to entitle them to a place in the molluscarf sub- 
kingdom. They differ from even the lowest Tunicaries, in not having 
any special circulating vessels; the fluids being generally transmitted 
through the transparent mass of the tiny bodies. They have been 
designated both as Polyzoa and Bryozoa; the former name being the 
earliest, the latter the most distinctive as a class. By some authors 
they are considered as superior Radiates, by others as degraded Mol- 
lusks. The balance of characters seems in favor of the latter view; 
but as they are more conveniently studied in common with the true 
zoophytes, and are generally described in treatises concerning the 
latter, they will not be further considered here. Those who are at 
the sea-shore, and can examine the " sea-mats" and Lepralias in their 
living state under the microscope, will do well to examine the differ- 
ences between them and the common Sertularian Polypes. Some of 
the forms are peculiar to fresh waters. The test formed by their com- 
pound zooids is often somewhat calcareous. Their remains are ex- 
tremely abundant in the Coralline Crag ; and even in the paleozoic 
rocks, they play an important part among the fossil keys to knowl- 
edge. It must be borne in mind however that many of the objects 
described loosely as Bryozoa have no relation to this class. 

Those who desire information on this interesting class of creatures 
are referred to "Johnstone's British Zoophytes," and to the works of 
George Busk, Esq., published by the British Museum. 

On bringing to a close this brief digest of our existing knowledge of 
molluscous animals, any one who will take the trouble to compare the 
nomenclature and arrangement here adopted with that of any one or 
more of the principal treatises on the subject, will be struck with the 
general want of harmony which prevails among the different authori- 
ties. It will not help us out of our difficulties to ignore their exist- 



280 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

ence. In the old days when all knowledge was supposed to be centered 
in Lamarck, we had nothing to do but to study his system and follow 
it. We are now turned loose on a new sea of inquir} r ; where every 
voyager makes his own* discoveries, which is right; and his own spec- 
ulations, which may be correct or very erroneous. 

Our uncertainties for want of knowledge are quite sufficiently dis- 
couraging; but for these we must be prepared. With every fresh, 
patient, and honest observation, these will be steadily lessened, in 
spite of the prejudice and human tempers which ought not indeed to 
be allowed to enter into the domain of science, but alas ! are to be 
found there as rife, as in any other department where men enter on 
each other's paths. And it ought to be an incentive to pursue this 
branch of study that there is so much to be done ; and so much, too, 
the materials for which are easily accessible. The principal requisites 
to insure really useful results are not indeed great talents or special 
acquirements, which fall to the lot of but few; but what an ordinary 
person may possess himself of, an accurate eye, patience, and honesty. 

It is well, in the present state of science, to take nothing on trust. 
What is copied from book to book, and what is repeated from figure 
to figure, may be correct; "but then, on the other hand, it may not." 
Very few can examine all things with their own eyes ; and the greatest 
authors take many things $>n trust, which humble students may prove 
to be unfounded. It is a mistake to suppose that the evidence of the 
senses is infallible. The eye has to be trained to see, just as much as 
the ear to appreciate false and true harmonies, or the hand to discrim- 
inate weights. Very few persons at the beginning of their investiga- 
tions see things in the microscope as they do after long study. The 
best artist, if required to draw a shell, might very likely overlook 
features which a student has learned to see at once. Therefore let a 
man work some time, comparing his observations with the books, and 
repeating them under different conditions, before he considers himself 
competent to trust his own eyesight. 

Let the student especially avoid hasty conclusions. Because char- 
acter A is found to be coordinate with character a in one class of 
shells, let him not infer that it is so in another; still less that char- 
acter B is coordinate with character b. The following table may 
serve as a lesson of caution, to show how little can be gathered from 
general similarity in appearance. It furnishes some of the more 
striking examples of Grasteropods similar in' form of shell, but known 
to belong to different families by peculiarities in the animal. 

TABLE OF SIMILAR SHELLS, BELONGING TO DIFFERENT FAMILIES OR GENERA. 

Murex, Muricidce. Cerastoma and Vitularia, Purpuridce. Kanella 
and Triton, Tritonidce. 

Chrysodomus, Muricidce. Strombella, Buccinidce. Io, Melaniadce. 

Engina, Muricidce. Ricinula, Purpuridce. 

Anachis, Muricidce,. Nitidella, Purpuridce. Columbella, Buccinidce. 

Cominella, Muricidce. Buccinum, Buccinidce. Truncaria, ? Purpu- 
ridce. 

Pisania, Muricidce. Iopas, Purpuridce. Peristernia, Fasciolariadce. 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 281 

Pyrula, Pyrulidce. Fulgur, Fasciolariadce. Rapana, Purpuridce. 
Ficula. Ficulidce. 

Leucozonia, Fasciolariadce. Monoceros, Purpuridce. 

Mitra, Fasciolariadce. Turricula, Turriculidce. Volutomitra, Volu- 
tidce. 

Aulica, Volutidce. Amoria, Do. 

Metula, f Muricidce. Daphnella, Pleurotomidce. 

Marginella, Marginellidce. Erato. Cyprceidce. 

Oerithiopsis, Cerithiopsidce. Fastigiella, ? Fasciolariadce. Cerithium, 
CerithiadcB. 

Velutina, VelutinidoB. Capulus, Capididce. Otina, Otinidce. 

Sigaretus, Naticidce. Lamellaria, Lamellar iadce. Stornatella, Sto- 
mal idee. 

Drillia, Pleurotomidce. Clionella, Melaniadce. 

Lunatia, Naticidce. Lacuna, sp. Lacunidce. Pachistoina, Ampulla- 
riadce. 

Naticina, Naticidce. Narica, Naricidce. Fossarus, Litorinidce. 

Menestho, Pyramidellidce. Mesalia, Turritellidce. Melania, Melani- 
adce. 

Aclis, Pyramidellidce. Turritella, Turritellidce. 

r f op-shells in general, e. g. : Solarium, Solaria-dee. Phorus, Phoridce. 
Risella, Litorinidce. Trochita, Calyptrceid.ee. Trochatella, Helici- 
nidee. 

Especially : Phorus, Phoridce, Guildfordia. Turbidce. Torinia, So- 
lariadce. Monilea, Trochidce. Infundibulum, Trochidce. Trochita, 
Calyptrceid.ee. 

Kostellaria, Strombidce. Aporrliais, Aporrhaidce. 

Tanalia, Paludinidce. Paludomus, Melaniadce. 

Vermetus, Vermetidce. Serpula, Annelids. 

Dentalium, Dentaliadce. Ditrupa, Annelids. 

Planorbis, Planorbidce. Marisa, Ampidlariadce. Polygira, Helicidce. 

Limpets in general, e. g. : Patella, Patellidce. Acmrea, Acmceidce. 
Anialthea, Capididce. G-adinia, Gadiniadce. Siphonaria, Siphonari- 
adce. Broderipia, Stomatidce. Umbrella, Umbrellidce. 

Especially : Nacella, Patellidce. Ancylus, Planorbidce. Latia, Pla- 
norbidce. Crepidula, Calyptreeidce. Tylodina, Umbrellidice. Scurria, 
Armceidce. 

Ampliibola, Amphibolidce . Scissurella, Scissurellidce. 

Achatina, Helicidce. Glandina, Testacellidce, &c. &c. 

A similar table might easily be prepared of shells very greatly dif- 
fering in appearance, which are known to belong to the same family. 

This branch of study has been favored with quite a sufficient num- 
ber of hasty generalizations to last for some time to come. What we 
want now is patient verification of the past, and cautious observation 
for the future. " Non omnes possumus omnia," and every man is not 
bound to do his work well ; because he cannot ; but he is bound hon- 
estly to use all the materials at his command. There is so much yet 
to be known about the commonest land and fresh-water shells, in their 
anatomy, habits, distribution, and specific differences ; and there are 
so many materials hoarded up in museums awaiting the study of nat- 



282 LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 

uralists, that all who are disposed to train their eyes and set to work 
can easily find the means for useful service. 

The objects of the Smithsonian Institution are both the increase and 
the diffusion of knowledge. So very much confusion is constantly arising 
from wrongly or uncertainly named specimens, that those who are not' 
prepared to increase existing knowledge can make themselves very 
useful simply by diffusing the knowledge of others. On comparing 
together the American shells given me by a number of accurate and 
trustworthy American naturalists, I find myself considerably bewil- 
dered, not merely by the wrong names which are given, but by names 
given as by Lea, Say, and other distinguished authors, which contra- 
dict themselves, and therefore cannot be depended upon. These diffi- 
culties are to be met by the copious diffusion of specimens named from 
types. All that can thus be vouched for have a peculiar value, espe- 
cially in a foreign country : and if collectors will merely amass a 
multitude of specimens, and see to their being named by those who 
possess the typical knowledge, the Smithsonian Institution will see to 
their being made available for the purposes of science. It is not neces- 
sary for the uses of science that the name given should ultimately stand 
as the correct one. Whether, e. g., among the Unios, a name of Lea 
or of Rafmesque be permanently chosen, matters little. What we 

want to know is that such a shell is really the Unio of Lea, or the 

Unio of Conrad. When it is known accurately what each author 

means by his own descriptions, his successors have something tangi- 
ble to work upon. At present a large proportion of every author's 
time is taken up with trying to find out, and that under ordinary cir- 
cumstances with necessary errors, what his predecessors mean. If 
this is true even of the most careful writers, such as C. B. Adams, 
Conrad, &c , what can be said of the imagination of Rafmesque. 

As to questions of generic nomenclature, it is hoped that the present 
climax of confusion will make the necessity felt of agreeing on some 
common basis. At present some writers endeavor to follow the rules 
of the British and American associations ; others avowedly set them 
at defiance. To revive the careless work of old writers, to the upset- 
ting of those whose useful toil has been recognized by general accept- 
ance, appears worse than folly. If any one will compare the names of 
the Messrs. Adams and of Dr. Gray, who profess to follow the same 
rule of absolute priority, it will be found that ancient genera were so 
ill defined that even those who most desire to understand them, have 
interpreted them quite differently. Under these circumstances, it is 
well for ardent young naturalists not necessarily to adopt all the inter- 
pretations now offered of old names, from the bewitching love of nov- 
elty ; but to remember that use and accuracy are matters far more 
important than supposed justice to men whose works might as well 
have been forgotten. Every naturalist ought to start with a feeling 
that it is of no consequence what becomes of his own names and his 
own reputation, if the " increase and diffusion of knowledge among 
men : ' is promoted by his own retirement ; and what he thus feels for 
himself, he should be willing to accord to those whose works are as 
inaccessible as they have proved to be injuriously confusing. In ar- 



LECTURES ON MOLLUSCA. 283 

ranging the nomenclature for this report, we have endeavored to pre- 
serve as far as possible the names in common use; and when dead 
names have been revived, they are taken not as the works of Link or 
Klein, but as the names of Gray or Adams, who have given an accu- 
rate diagnosis to what before was of uncertain import. By all means, 
let us spend our time in the living present. The naturalist is not 
required to be the archa3ologist. 

The study of .Mollusks in connection with their geographical distri- 
bution is a matter of the very first importance. For this reason, all 
persons who will carefully note what shells are found living, what 
dead, and what fossil, in their own localities, and distribute them 
accordingly, may be rendering the most essential service. Our knowl- 
edge of the American faunas is by no means so complete as of those of 
Europe : and as men of intelligence are now to be found in every part 
of the continent, and the young are now learning freely in the public 
schools what in the Old World has long been the property only of the 
learned few, we ought to find our information accumulating with giant 
strides. 

To young naturalists, we may be allowed to say that he who will 
carefully work up the labors of his predecessors, and make out their 
synonymy, is doing far more useful and more honorable labor than he 
who only affixes his own name to a number of fresh species. 

If space and time had permitted, it might have been interesting to 
have followed up this sketch of the generic forms of Mollusks, with an 
account of their geographical and geological distribution. But this 
has been clone so admirably by Woodward, in the latter part of his 
"■ Manual of Mollusca," that there is scarcely occasion to do more than 
to refer the reader to his pages. We have followed the plan of Gray 
and Adams, of free multiplication of families and genera, rather 
than that of Woodward of only keeping a few leading distinctions, 
simply because in the actual work of identifying shells we have found 
it far more convenient ; but a comparison of all ordinary books with 
the " Manual" only amazes us more and more at- the vast amount of 
patient investigation, of accumulated facts, and of philosophic judg- 
ment which its author has condensed into a small volume ; and it is 
equally surprising how^ with all the beautiful engravings and wood- 
cuts, it can be sold (as it is in London) for $1 32. 

The days are coming when books will be more accessible to students. 
The contemplated series of text books on American Natural History 
which the Smithsonian Institution propose to issue will be of essential 
service. The cheap figures of Chenu will form a portable collection of 
shells for those who have not access to museums. And to those who 
cannot obtain even the cheapest of books, there lies, spread out before 
them, in every stream, in every wood, on every prairie, at every shore, 
the one grand book of Nature ; ever ancient and yet ever new ; in 
which the still small voice of its Life-giver is ever inviting us to come 
unto Him, and learn ; to come unto Hinx, and labor ; to come unto 
Him, and rejoice in his boundless love. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 
BY A. MORLOT, 

OF LAUSANNE, SWITZERLAND. 



TRANSLATED BY PHILIP HARRY, ESQ., FOR THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



A century has scarcely elapsed since the time when it would have 
been thought impossible to reconstruct the history of our globe prior 
to the appearance of mankind; but though contemporary historians 
were wanting during this immense pre-human era, this era has not 
failed to leave us a well-arranged series of most significant vestiges. 
The animal and vegetable tribes which have successively appeared and 
disappeared have left their fossil remains in the successively deposited 
strata. Thus has been composed, gradually and slowly, a history of 
creation written, as it were, by the Creator himself. It is a great 
book, the leaves of which are the stratified rocks, following each other 
in the strictest chronological order, the chapters being the mountain- 
chains. This great book has long been closed to man ; but science, 
constantly extending its realm and improving its method of induction, 
has taught the geologist to study those marvelous archives of creation, 
and we behold him now unfolding the past ages of our world with a 
variety of details and a certainty of conclusions well calculated to in- 
spire us with grateful admiration. 

The development of Archaeology has been very similar to that of 
Geology. Not long ago we should have smiled at the idea of recon- 
structing the bygone days of our race previous to the beginning of 
history properly so called. The void was partly filled up by repre- 
senting that ante-historical antiquity as having been only of short 
duration, and partly by exaggerating the value and the age of those 
vague and confused notions which constitute tradition. 

It seems to be with mankind at large as with single individuals. ~ 
The recollections of our earliest childhood have entirely faded away 
up to some particular event which had struck us more forcibly, and 
which alone has left a lasting image amidst the surrounding darkness. 
Thus, excepting the idea of a deluge which exists among so many 
nations, and therefore appears to have originated before the emigra- 
tion of those same nations, the infancy of mankind, at least in Europe, 
has passed without having any reminiscences ; and history fails here 
entirely, for what is history but the memory of mankind. 

But before the beginning of history there were life and industry, of 
which various monuments still exist; while others lie buried in the 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 285 

soil, much as we find the organic remains of former creations entombed 
in the strata composing the crust of the globe. The antiquities enact 
here a similar part to that of the fossils ; and if Cuvier calls the geolor ' 
gist an antiquarian of a new order, we can reverse that remarkable 
saying, and consider the antiquarian as a geologist, applying his ' 
method to reconstruct the first ages of mankind previous to all recol- 
lection, and to work out what may be termed pre-historical history. 
This is Archaeology pure and proper. But Archaeology cannot be con- 
sidered as coming to a full stop with the first beginning of history, for 
the further we go back in our historical researches, the more incom- 
plete they become, leaving gaps which the study of material remains, 
helps to fill up. Archaeology, therefore, pursues its course in a par- 
allel line with that of history, and henceforth the two sciences mutu-r 
ally enlighten each other. But with the progress of history the part\ 
taken by Archseology goes on decreasing, until the invention of print-) 
ing almost brings to a close the researches of the antiquarian. 

To pursue geological investigations, we must first examine the pres- 
ent state of our planet, and observe its changes — that is, we must 
begin by physical geology. This supplies us with a thread of induc- 
tion to guide us safely in our -rambles through the past ages of our 
earth, as Lyell has so admirably set forth; for the' laws which govern 
organic creation and the inorganic world are as invariable as the re- 
sults of their combinations and permutations are infinitely varied, 
science revealing to us everywhere the perfect stability of causes with 
the diversity of forms. 

So, to understand the past ages of our species, we must first begin 
by examining its present state, following man wherever he has crossed 
the waters and set his foot upon dry land. The different nations 
which at present inhabit our earth must be studied with respect to 
their industry, their habits, and their general mode of life.- We thus 
make ourselves acquainted with the different degrees of civilization, 
ranging from the highest summit of modern development to the most 
abject state, hardly surpassing that of the brute. By that means 
Ethnology supplies us with what may be c*alled a contemporaneous 
scale of development, the stages of which are more or less fixed and 
invariable ; whilst Archaeology traces a scale of successive develop- 
ment, with one movable stage passing gradually along the whole 
line. 1 

Ethnography is, consequently, to Archaeology what physical geog- 
raphy is to geology, namely : a thread of induction in the labyrinth of 
the past, and a starting point in those comparative researches of which 
the end is the knowledge of mankind, and its development through 
successive generations. 

In following out the principles above laid down, the Scandinavian 
savants have succeeded in unraveling the leading features in the pro- 
gress of pre-historical European civilization, and in distinguishing 



1 Some naturalists see a correspondence of the same sort between embryology and com- 
parative anatomy, for they consider the human embryo as passing during its development 
through the diiferent stages of the scale of animal creation, or, at least, as passing through 
the different states of the embryos of the different stages of that scale. 



286 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

three principal eras, which they have called the Stone-age, the Bronze- 
age, and the Iron-age. 1 

This great conquest in the realm of science is due chiefly to the 
lahors of Mr. Thouisen, director of the Ethnological and Archasologi- 
cal Museums at Copenhagen. 2 and to those of Mr. Nilsson, professor 
at the flourishing University of Lund, in. Sweden. 3 These illustrious 
veterans of the school of northern antiquarians have ascertained that 
Europe, at present so civilized, was at first inhabited by tribes to whom 
the use of metal was totally unknown, and whose industry and domes- 
tic habits must have borne a considerable analogy to what we now see 
practiced among certain savages. Bone, horn, and chiefly flint, were 
then used, instead of metal, for manufacturing cutting-instruments 
and arms. This was the Stone-age, which might also be called the 
first great phase of civilization. 

The earliest settlers in Europe apparently brought with them the 
art of producing fire. By striking iron-pyrites (sulphuret of iron) 
against quartz, fire can be easily obtained. But this method can only 
have been occasionally used, and seems to have been confined to some 
native tribes in Terra del Fuego. 4 The usual mode has been evidently 
that of rubbing two sticks together; but, on further reflection, it is 
easy to perceive that this was a most difficult discovery, and must at 
all events have been preceded by a knowledge of the use of fire as 
derived from the effects of lightning or from volcanic action. 

The Stone-age was, therefore, probably preceded by a period perhaps 
of some length, during which man was unacquainted with the art of 
producing fire. This, according to Mr. Flourens, indicates that the 
cradle of mankind was situated in a warm climate. 5 

The art of producing fire has been perhaps the greatest achievement 
of human intelligence. The use of fire lies at the root of almost ever} r 
species of industry ; it enables the savage to fell trees, as it allows 
civilized nations to work metals. The importance is so great, that, 
deprived of it, man would perhaps scarcely have risen above the con- 
dition of the brute. The ancients already were sensible of this. 
Witness the fable of "Prometheus." As to their sacred perpetual 
fire, its origin seems to lie in the difficulty of procuring it, thereby 
rendering its preservation essential. 

In Europe the Stone-age came to an end by the introduction of 
bronze. This metal is an alloy of about nine parts of copper and one 



1 The history of Danish Archaeology has been sketched by T. Hindenburg. (See "Dansk 
Maanedsskrift," I. 1859.) 

2 " Ledetraad til nordisk Oldkyndiajhed." Copenhagen, 1836. Published in English by 
Lord Ellesmere under the title of "A Guide to Northern Antiquities." London, 1848. 

5 Nilsson. "Scandinaviska nordens urinvonare." Lund, 1838 — 1843. 

* Weddell, "A Voyage towards the South Pole in 1822, 1824." London, 1827. P. 167. 

5 Flouren's " De la Longevite Humaine." Paris, 1855. P. 127. Man, from the con- 
struction of his teeth, his stomach, and his intestines, is primitively frugivorous, like the 
monkey. But the frugivorous diet is the most unfavorable, because it constrains its follow- 
ers perpetually to abide in those countries which produce fruit at all seasons, consequently 
in warm climates. But, once the art of cooking introduced, and applied both to animal and 
vegetable productions, man could extend and vary the nature of his diet. Man has, conse- 
quently, two diets: the first is primitive, natural, and instinctive, and by it he is frugivorous 
the second is artificial, being due entirely to his intelligence, and by this he is omnivorous. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 287 

part of tin. 1 It melts and moulds well; the molten mass, in cooling;, 
slowly acquires a tolerable degree of hardness — inferior to that of steel, 
it is true, but superior to that of very pure iron. We therefore under- 
stand how bronze would long be used for manufacturing cutting- 
instruments, weapons, and numerous personal ornaments. The north- 
ern antiquarians have very properly called this second great phase in 
the development of European civilization the Bronze-age. 

The bronze articles of this period, with a few trifling exceptions, 
have not been produced by hammering, but have been cast, often with 
a considerable degree of skill. Even the sword-blades were cast, and 
the hammer (of stone) was only used to impart a greater degree of 
hardness to the edge of the weapon. 

The Bronze-age has, therefore, witnessed a mining industry which 
was completely wanting during the Stone-age. Now the art of mining 
is so essential to civilization, that -without it the world would perhaps 
yet be exclusively inhabited by savages. It is, therefore, worth our 
while to inquire more closely into the origin of bronze. 

Copper was not very difficult to obtain. In the first place, virgin 
copper is not exceedingly scaree. Then the different kinds of ore 
which contain copper, combined with other elements, are either 
highly colored, or present a marked metallic appearance, and are con- 
sequently easily known ; they are, besides, not hard to smelt, so as to 
separate the metal. Finally, copper-ore is not at all scarce, it is met 
with in the older geological series of most countries. 

Virgin tin is unknown, but tin-ore exists, of a dark color, and very 
easy to smelt. However abundant copper may be, tin is of rare occur- 
rence. Thus the only mines in Euroj^e which produce tin at the pres- 
ent day are of Cornwall, in England, and of the Erzgebirge and Fich- 
telgebirge, in Germany. 

But the question arises whether, previous to the discovery of bronze, 
man, owing to the great rarity of tin, may not have begun by using 
copper in a pure state. If so, there would have been a copper-age be- 
tween the stone and bronze-ages. 

In America this has really been the case. When they were dis-\ 
covered by the Spaniards, both the two centres of civilization, Mexico 
and Peru, had bronze composed of copper and tin, which was used for 
manufacturing arms and cutting-instruments, in the absence of iron 
and steel, which were unknown in the New World ; but the admira- 
ble researches of Messrs. Squier and Davis on the antiquities of the 
Mississippi valley 2 have brought to light an ancient civilization of a 
remarkable nature, and distinguished by the use of raw virgin copper, 
worked in a cold state by hammering without the aid of fire. The 
reason of its being so worked lies in the nature of pure copper, which, 
when melted, flows sluggishly, and is not very fit for casting. A 

1 Bronze is still used for casting bells, cannon, and certain parts of machinery. It must 
not be confounded with common brass, which is a compound of copper and zinc, much less 
hard, and appearing only in the Iron-age. 

2 Squier and Davis. "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Knowledge." Washington, 1848. It is one of the most splendid archaeo- 
logical works ever published. 



288 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 

peculiar characteristic of the metal, that of occasionally containing 
crystals of virgin silver, betrays its origin, and shows that it was 
brought from the neighborhood of Lake Superior. This region is still 
rich in metallic copper, of which single blocks attaining a weight of 
fifty tons have lately been discovered. There was even found at the 
bottom of an old mine a great mass of copper, which the ancients had 
evidently been unable to raise, and which they had abandoned, after 
having cut off the projecting parts with stone hatchets. 1 

The elate of this American age is unknown ; all we know is that it 
must reach as far back as ten centuries at least, that space of time 
being deemed necessary for the growth of the virgin forests, now 
flourishing upon the remains of that antique civilization of which the 
modern Indians have not even retained a tradition. 

It is finally worthy of remark that the "mound-builders," as the 
Americans call the race of the Copper-age, seem to have preceded and 
prepared the Mexican civilization, destroyed by the Spaniards; for in 
progressing southwards, a gradual transition is noticed from the an- 
cient earth-works of the Mississippi valley to the more modern con- 
structions of Mexico, as found by Cortez. 

In Europe, the remains of a copper-age are wanting. Here and 
there a solitary hatchet of pure copper is found; but this can easily be 
accounted for by the greater frequency of copper, while tin had usually 
to be brought from a greater distance, so that its supply was more 
precarious. 

Europe did not witness the regular development of a copper-age. 
It seems, according to M. Worsaac's very just remark, that the art of 
manufacturing bronze was brought from another quarter of the world, 
where it had been previously invented. It was most probably some 
region in Asia, producing both copper and tin, where these two metals 
were first brought into artificial communication, and where also traces 
of a still earlier copper-age are likely to be found. 

An apparently serious objection might be started here, by raising the 
question how mines could be worked without the aid of steel. This, 
however, is sufficiently explained by the fact that the hardest rocks 
can be easily managed by the agency of fire. By lighting a large fire 
against a rock, the latter is rent and fissured, so as to facilitate con- 
siderably its quarrying. This method was frequently employed when 
wood was cheaper, and is even practiced in the present day in the 
mines of the Kammelsberg, in Germany, where it facilitates the work- 
ing of a rock of extreme hardness. 

That metal of dingy and sorry appearance, but more precious than 
gold or the diamond — iron — at length appears, giving a wonderful 
impulse to the progressive march of mankind, and characterizing the 
third great phase in the development of European civilization, very 
properly called the Iron-age. 

Our planet never yields iron in its metallic or virgin state, for 
the simple reason that it is too liable to oxydation. But among the 



1 Lapham. "The Antiquities of Wisconsin." Smithsonian Contributions to Knowiedge, 
p. 76, 1855. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 289 

aerolites there are some composed of pure iron, with a little nickel, 
which alters neither the appearance nor the qualities of the metal. 
Thus the celebrated meteoric stone met with by Pallas in Siberia was 
found by the neighboring blacksmiths to be malleable in a cold state. 1 
Meteoric iron has even been worked by tribes to whom the use of com- 
mon iron was unknown. Thus Amerigo Vespucci speaks of savages 
near the mouth of the La Plata, who had manufactured arrow-heads 
of iron derived from an aerolite. 2 Such cases are certainly of rare 
occurrence, but they are not without their importance, for they ex- 
plain how man may probably have first become acquainted with iron, 
and they also account for the occasional traces of iron in tombs of the 
Stone-age, if, indeed, this fact be well established. 

It is, notwithstanding, evident that the regular working of terres- 
trial iron-ore must have been a necessary condition of the commence- 
ment and progress of the Iron-age. 

Now iron-ore is generally found in most countries, but it has usually 
the appearance of stone, being distinguished neither by its weight 
nor color. Moreover, its smelting requires a much greater degree of 
heat than copper or tin, and this renders its production considerably 
more difficult than that of bronze. 

But even when iron had been obtained, what groping in the dark, 
and how much laboriously accumulated experience did it not require, 
to bring forth at will bar-iron or steel! Chance, if chance there be, 
may have played a part in it ; but as chance only favors those privi- 
leged mortals who combine a keen spirit of observation with serious 
meditation and with practical sense, the discovery was not less diffi- 
• cult nor less meritorious. We need not, then, be surprised if man 
arrived but tardily at the manufacture of iron and steel, which is still 
daily being improved. 

In Carinthia traces of a most primitive method of producing iron 
have been noticed. The process seems to have been as follows: On 
the declivity of a hill an excavation was dug, in which was lighted a 
large fire. When this began to subside, fragments of very pure ore 
(hydroxyd) were thrown into it, and covered by a new heap of wood. 
When all the fuel had been consumed, small lumps of iron would then 
be found among the ashes. 3 All blowing apparatus was in this man- 
ner dispensed with — an important fact when we come to consider how 
much its use complicates the metallurgical operations, because it im- 
plies the application of mechanics. Thus, certain tribes in southern 
Africa, although manufacturing iron and working it tolerably well, 
have not achieved the construction of our common kitchen-bellows, 
apparently so simple; they blow laboriously through a tube, or by 
means of a bladder affixed to it. 

The Romans produced iron by the so-called Catalonian process, and 
the remains of Roman works of that description have been discovered 



1 Pallas. " Voyages en Russie," Paris, 1793, vol. iv, p. 595. There was but one mass of 
meteoric iron; it weighed 1,600 lbs. 

2 " Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge," vol. ii, art. 8, p. 178. 

3 Communicated to the author by mining-engineers in Carinthia. 

19 



290 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 



and investigated in Upper Carniola, Austria 1 . The Catalonian forge 
is still used in the Pyrenees, where it yields tolerable results ; hut it 
consumes a large quantity of charcoal, requires much wind, and is only 
to be applied to pure ore containing but a very small proportion of 
earthy matter, producing scoria?. The process, in fact, consists in a 
mere reduction, with a soldering and welding together of the reduced 
particles, without the metal properly melting. According .to the 
manner in which the operation is conducted, bar-iron or steel are ob- 
tained at will. This direct method dispenses with the intermediate 
production of cast-iron, which was unknown to the ancients, and 
which is now the means of producing iron on a great scale. 

Silver accompanied the introduction of iron into Europe — at least, 
in the northern parts; whilst gold was already known during the 
bronze-age. This is natural, for gold is generally found as a pure 
metal, while silver has usually to be extracted from different kinds of 
ore, by more or less complicated metallurgical operations — for ex- 
ample, cupellation. 

With iron appeared also, for the first time in Europe, glass, coined 
money — that powerful agent of commerce — and finally the alphabet, 
which, as the money of intelligence, vastly increases the activity and 
circulation of thought, 2 and is sufficient of itself to characterize a new 
and wonderful era of progress. From thence we can date the dawn of 
history and of science, in particular of astronomy. 




The fine arts presented, with the introduction of iron in Europe, a 
new and important element indicating a striking advance. During 
the stone-age, but more so in the bronze-age, the natural taste for art 
reveals itself in the ornaments bestowed upon pottery and metallic 
objects. These' ornaments consist of chevrons, circles, and zig-zag, 
spiral, and S-shaped lines, the style bearing a geometrical character, 
but showing pure taste and real beauty of its kind, although devoid of 



1 Jahrbuch der K. K. geologischen Reichsanstalt. Vienna, 1850, vol. ii, p. 199. Carin- 
thia and Upper Carniolia formed part of the Roman province Noricum, celebrated for its 
iron. 

2 "The circulation of ideas is for the mind what the circulation of specie is for com- 
merce — a true source of wealth." C. V. de Bonstetten. " L'homme du midi et l'hommc dw 
Nord." Geneva, 1826, p. 175. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 291 

all delineations of animated objects, either in the shape of plants or 
animals. It is only with the Iron-age that art, taking a higher range, 
rose to the representation of plants, animals, and even of the human 
frame. No wonder, then, if idols of the Bronze-age as well as of the 
Stone-age are wanting in Europe. It is to be presumed that thy 
worship of fire, of the sun, and of the moon, was prevalent in remote 
antiquity — at least during the Bronze-age, perhaps also' during the 
Stone-age. 

The preceding pages present a sketch, certainly very rough and 
imperfect, of the developments of civilization. They establish, how- 
ever, in a very striking manner, the fact of a progress, slow, but un- 
interrupted and immense, when the starting point is considered. The 
physical constitution of man has naturally benefitted by it. The de- 
tails contained in the treatise of which the present paper forms the 
introduction prove that the human race has been gradually gaining in 
vigor and strength since the remotest antiquity. 1 The domestic animals 
also — the dog first, then the horse, the ox, and the sheep have shared 
in this physical development. Even the vegetable soil has been gradu- 
ally improving since the Stone-age — at least in Denmark. And yet 
there are persons who deny all general progress, seeing everywhere 
nothing but decay and ruin, like that worthy specimen of a northern 
pessimist who exclaimed, ''See how man has degenerated; he has 
even lost his likeness to the monkey!" 



I. KJOEKKENMOEDDING. 

General View. — On certain points of the Danish shore there are 
found heaps, some times enormous, of marine shells, which were at 
first taken to be natural deposits, indicating an ancitmfc level of the 
sea higher than at present, or, to speak more correctly, a level of the 
dry land lower than the present one. 

But in the natural deposits along the coast we observe an assem- 
blage of individuals of all ages, young and old, belonging to the 
littoral mollusk fauna, whilst here the younger are wanting, and we 
discover merely adult individuals belonging to a small number of 
species, which have not all even the same habitat, as the oyster and 
the littorine, and could not therefore be met naturally in each other's 
company. Neither is the arrangement of the mat^ials conformable 
to what is observed in natural deposits, where there is always more or 
less stratification and sorting, according to the volume and weight. 

Qn*.examining more closely these heaps of shells, it was not long 
before there were discovered in them broken bones of various wild 



1 This agrees perfectly with the testimony of statistics. (See " GLuetelet sur l'homme et 
le development de ses facultes." Paris, '1835, vol. ii, p. 271. This work of first-rate 
merit is very near akin to Archaeology. M. duetelet has just published a new work, which 
will certainly be. even more remarkable than the first, and which the author of the present 
paper regrets not to have had within his reach. 



292 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

animals, and among these the hones of some species now extinct; then 
there were splinters of silex, (flint or quartz,) with roughly fashioned 
instruments of the same material, very coarse pottery, charcoal, and 
cinders. 

At the same time most extensive excavations and most minute in- 
vestigations established the fact that there was in these heaps a com- 
plete absence of any metal, whether iron or even bronze, as well as of 
any kind of domestic animal, except the dog. Here was then unmis- 
takably the refuse of repasts, lying confusedly mingled* with the rem- 
nants of the primitive mechanical inventions of a people that had 
resorted to the sea-shore in the most remote antiquity, living on fish 
and game. These remnants and refuse, accumulated in one spot 1 
during a long series of centuries, have been called by the Danes 
Kjoeklsenmoed&ing, from Kjoehken kitchen and Moedding- refuse, 
rubbish, filth. 

The KjoeJckenmoedding 3 are invested with peculiar interest, because 
their nature excludes the presence of any object of a posterior date. 
Unless the soil should have been disturbed subsequently, which is 
always easily ascertainable, and which, on many spots that are now 
very distant from habitations., never has happened, we are sure that 
all that is drawn from these deposits does most certainly belong to 
high antiquity, and has not been brought there at a later time. The 
Kjoekhenmoedding are therefore real zoological museums of the animal 
kingdom, of the fauna, which man found on arriving in the country, 
and they thus form a link which binds the geological past of our 
globe with the present historical period. It is for this reason that 
the Danish savans have, for the last ten years, since 1847, set them- 
selves to investigate the deposits in question with a spirit of research 
that does them the greatest honor, and which has not failed to lead to 
results of singular interest. And yet the subject in itself might ap- 
pear to be somewhat trifling to those who do not consider that every- 
thing in this world is susceptible of being dignified by true genius. 

In order that the question might be mastered under every aspect, it 
was attacked by the united forces of an association very fortunately 
composed of Mr. Forchhammer, the father of the geology of Denmark, 
of Mr Worsaae, one of the greatest archeological celebrities of the 
north, and of Mr. Steenstrup, a zoologist and botanist, well known to 
all those who take an interest in the great and curious question of 
alternating generation and in the no less important one of the forma- 
tion of turf-bogs. 

These gentleman, all of them professors m the University of Copen- 
hagen, have published six annual reports of their researches, (from 
1850 to 1856,) addressed to the Academy of Sciences of Copenhagen, 
and signed collectively by all three. They have also gathered little 

*Sea shell-fish supply an enormous quantity of refuse, for the very simple reason that the 
animals are small and their casing is solid and spacious. 

2 This term is found in Yorkshire, England, under the form of midding, and with exactly 
the same meaning. 

8 The plural in Danish is Kjockkenmoeddinger. We have retained the singular. In the 
present memoir all the foreign terms are preserved without alteration in the singular number. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 293 

by little a collection which contains, among other things, some ten 
thousand specimens of bones, each of which is labelled according to 
where it was found; this having been determined most carefully. 
Finally, with a select portion of these materials they have formed 
in the Museum of Antiquities of the North the admirable creation of 
Mr. Thomsen, a representation of the Kjoekkenmoedding , interesting on 
account of its size and the judgment with which it has been arranged. 

Let us now enter upon the details of their researches : 

Geographical Distribution. — The Kjoekkenmoedding have been ob- 
served in Seeland, especially along the Isefjord, in the isle of Fyen, of 
Moen, and Samsoe, also in Jutland, along the Liimfjord, the Maria- 
gerfjord, the Bandersfjord, the Kolindsund, and the Horsenfjord. 
The move southern regions of Denmark have not yet been explored. 

The Kjoekkenmoedding are scarcely found anywhere but along the 
fjords and arms of the sea, in places where the action of the waves 
has little power. Along the shore of the open sea, where the waves 
waste away, and little by little encroach upon the banks, there are 
none found. Now, as they must necessarily have also existed there, 
we may conclude therefore that in such localities there must have 
been a general encroachment of the sea on the land. There would 
be nothing surprising in this, for Denmark being composed in great 
part of very movable ground, which is but slightly elevated above 
the level of the sea, the action of the waves washes it away and easily 
eats into the shores. 

Ordinarily the Kjoekkenmoedding are situated immediately on the 
edge of the water. At certain points, however, they are met with at 
as great a distance as two geographical miles from the present shore, 
but in such cases it can be proved that the dry land has made an in- 
road on the sea, either by sand and mud banks, or by the encroach- 
ment of turf formations. The shells have never been carried inland 
to any distance from the ancient shore line. 

As regards the elevation at which the Kjoekhenmoedding are situ- 
ated, it is to be remarked that on the shores of Denmark, although so 
low, they are nevertheless found out of reach of the action of the 
waves in rough weather ; say at some ten feet at least above the pres- 
ent level of the sea. 1 When the shore is higher the Kjoekkenmoed- 
ding are found also at a greater elevation 

It is evident that deposits corresponding to the Kjoekkenmoedding 
will be found in a great many countries. Thus, M. Bruzelius, con- 
servator of the Museum of Antiquities of Lund, has just found some- 
thing similar on the coast of Sweden, near Kullaberg, in Scania. 

M. Forel de Morges has discovered on the edge of the sea, near 
Mentona, (G-ulf of Genoa,) certain caves with deposits containing 
quantities of shells of edible species, broken bones of animals, char- 
coal, and splinters of flint, fashioned precisely like those in the 
north. 2 Here, then, are Kjoekkenmoedding of the age of stone, just as 



*A Danish foot is 0.31376 metres. 

2 The grottoes and caverns have usually been inhabited in high antiquity. They there- 
fore deserve special attention from archaeologists. 



294 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

in the north. 1 This discovery is all the more interesting from the 
fact that it has "been some times denied that the south had its age of 
stone, because the Greek and Roman classic writers do not speak of it. 
As if a child could relate what had happened previous to its birth! 

Lastly, Lyell, Darwin, and others have pointed out deposits of this 
kind, due to the habits of savage tribes on the shores of North America, 
on the coast of Newfoundland, and elsewhere. 2 

Conformation — The KjoekJcenmocdding present generally a th iekness 
of from three to five feet. There are, however, points, as at Meilgaard 
and at Kolindsund, where the thickness of the mass attains ten feet. 
Their extent varies, it reaches sometimes to a thousand feet in length, 
with an irregular width, never exceeding from one hundred and fifty 
to two hundred feet. In the case of these great deposits we perceive 
that their surface is undulating, the mass having accumulated more 
at certain points than at others. Occasionally, as at the mill of 
Havelse, near Frederikssund, the deposit surrounds irregularly a space 
which has remained free and wherein was evidently situated the habi- 
tation of the shell-fish eaters. If no traces of these habitations have 
been left, it cannot be astonishing, for they must have been very 
wretched huts. 

The interior of the deposits alluded to presents no sign of stratifi- 
cation. We remark merely at certain points the predominance of 
certain species of shells, indicating the particular circumstances of 
season and fishery. Thus there are found thousands of cockles (Cardi- 
um) piled up in one place, to the exclusion of every other species. 

What has been said relates to the normal type of the Kjocklcemnoed- 
ding, when the materials have been accumulated on the very locality 
of habitation. Apart from these points, others are founds situated on 
the shore and within the field of action of the waves, where the usual 
materials of the Kjoelckenmocdding are mingled with sand and gravel, 
and where the whole mass is more or less clearly stratified, of which we 
may see a classical example at Biliat, near Frederikssund. It is evident 
that at these places the ancients cooked their meals on the very beach, 
after leaving their boats. The various fragments which they left were 
subsequently rearranged by the next heavy sea, which rolled the ma- 
terials about and mingled them with the composition of the coast 
deposits. We can understand then how the fire places, composed of 
pebbles of the size of a man's fist, have resisted the action of the waves 
and have remained in their place, whilst the smaller materials have 
been rolled along with the sand and gravel. 

A very singular circumstance is that the Kjoekkenmoedding , formed 
beyond the reach of the waves, present sometimes at their surface a 
deposit of slight thickness composed of rolled and stratified materials. 
But this is only observed up to a height of from fourteen to eighteen 
feet above the present level of the sea, and solely on the counter-slope 
of the ground turned towards the sea. At Oesterild, in northern Jut- 

1 Mr. Steenstrup, who has examined the collection deposited by Mr. Fore] in the Museum 
of Turin, finds this correspondence complete, only he has not been able to find any marks 
of knives on the bones, which are however split and opened for the extraction of the mar- 
row, as in the north. 

3 Lyell. A second visit to the United States of America. London, 1850; I., 338; II., 106, 
135. Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches. London. 1840; 228. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 295 

land, this stratified coating attains a thickness of one foot and contains 
pehbles that are occasionally as large as a goose-egg! Above this 
stratified layer nothing more is found, it is never covered over by new 
accumulations of shells. It would seem then, that the age of the 
Kjoekkenmoedding was ended by some catastrophe which violently 
agitated the waters of the sea, and that the latter then rushed in at a 
moderate height beyond its habitual boundary. 

It is just possible that this event might have occurred at any epoch 
posterior to the age of the Kjoekkenmoedding. Nevertheless Mr. 
Steenstrup is disposed to consider it as marking the very end of that 
age. 

Flora o*the Kjoekkenmoedding. — Of the vegetable kingdom there 
is left but few determinable remains. Charcoal and ashes are found in 
abundance in them. • The charred vegetable matters have been gathered 
together, in order to determine to what species they belong, but this 
investigation is not yet concluded. 

It is worthy of notice . that there has been found in the Kjoekken- 
moedding neither carbonized wheat nor a trace of any cereal whatsoever. 

There are observed sometimes, not so much in the mass itself of the 
Kjoekkenmoedding , as in the soil adjoining them, deposits oftentimes 
rather considerable of a dark and pulverulent matter, resulting 
evidently from the carbonization of vegetable substances, which, how- 
ever, were not wood, and which appear to have had their lye extracted. 
Chemical analysis revealed the existence of a large proportion of 
manganese in them, which, according to the researches of Mr. Forch- 
hammer, is also found in pretty large quantities in the eel-gi^ass, 
(Zostera marina, L.) Now, it is scarcely two hundred years since 
the eel-grass was employed for making salt. This vegetable was 
gathered into heaps, which were set on fire, the remains were then 
sprinkled with sea-water, and on the surface were formed saline efflo- 
rescences, which were collected. The product was a salt that was 
tolerably good, and which people must have been very glad to obtain 
when there was no other to be had. It seems, then, that the primitive 
population of Denmark were in the habit of manufacturing salt by the 
incineration of the eel-grass. 

Fauna of the Kjoekkenmoedding. — The four species of shells, of 
which the greater part of the deposits in question are compounded, are : 

The Oyster, (Ostrea edulis, L.) 

The Cockle, (Cardium edide, L.) 

The Muscle, {Mytilus edulis, L.) 

The Littorine, (Littorina littorea, L.) 
These four species, referred to here in the order of their frequency, 
are all represented by specimens generally large and of vigorous 
development. The oyster, which is the most abundant species in 
the Kjoekkenmoedding , and which often composes them almost entirely, 
has now disappeared from all the region situated farther in the interior 
than the Kattegat, and more southerly than the northern shore-line 
of Seeland. In the Kattegat itself we meet here and there with 
isolated living oysters. But there is one point only, that between 
the island of Laesse and the northern extremity of Jutland, where 



296 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCH/EQLOGY. 

an oyster bed has been regularly worked. It is from this that the 
city of Copenhagen is partly supplied. At the beginning of this 
century some oysters were procured at the entrance of the. Isefjord, 
now they are no longer known in that locality, 1 and, as a matter 
of course, none are to be found in the innermost parts of the Isefjord. 
And yet in ancient times oysters abounded there and even through- 
out its whole extent. The fishing business may have contributed to 
cause the decrease in the quantity of oysters, but it could never have 
made them disappear entirely. Besides, the presence in the Isefjord 
of beds of dead oysters in situ plainly proves that it is not the fishery 
that has destroyed them. Their disappearance in the localities alluded 
to must therefore be attributed to a diminution of the saltness of the 
water, which must have become slightly fresher since the ancient 
times. 

This observation is confirmed by what is remarked concerning the 
cockles and littorines. These two species are still found ordinarily 
living in the neighborhood of the Kjoekkemnoedding , in the inner part 
of the Kattegat; but they are at present smaller, and do not attain the 
vigorous development that they did in the old times in this vicinity. 

The four species of shell-fish mentioned are all edible and are still 
used as food by mankind. They make their appearance, for example, 
in the London markets. The oyster is, however, by far the best; 
there is scarcely any other which is admitted to the table of the 
wealthy. 

In addition to the four species referred, some others make their 
appearance, but only as exceptions, in the Kjoekkenmoedding , undoubt- 
edly because as food they are very inferior in quality, and also because 
they are less abundant in the Danish waters. They are: 
Buccinum reticidatam, L. 2 
Buccinum undatum, L. 
Venus palustra, Mont. 

As regards the Crustacea there are but few remains of crabs found. 
The remains offish, on the other hand, are in great quantity. 

The herring (Clupea harengus, L.) is the most common, but the 
following species are not rare: 

The Cod-fish, (Gadus callarias, L.) 

The Flounder, (Pleuronectes limanda, L.) 

The Eel, (Muraena anguilla, L.) 

The abundance of these remains of fish proves that the primitive 
population used to fish in the open sea. And yet their craft could 
scarcely have been anything more than canoes, formed of trunks 
of trees scooped out by the aid of fire. One thing is certain, the 
shell-fish, especially the oysters, could only have been procured by 
fishing for them in boats, for the sea does not throw them up alive on 
the shore. 

With reference to the eels, it is rather interesting to remark, that 
their ancient remains abound especially in the localities in which the 

x It is well however to remark, that at this point it was a great numerical increase of the 
star-fish, (Jlsterias rubens, L.,) which brought about at the commencement of the present 
century the destruction of the last generations of oysters. 

2 Bucciumm nassa. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 297 

species still delights at •the present day, as in the neighborhood of 
Aalborg. 

Among the birds, it is the aquatic and palustrine species that abound. 
We meet especially with several kinds of ducks and wild* geese. 

The presence of the wild swan (Anas cygnus) proves, that the 
Kjoekkenmoedding were also in process of formation during the winter, 
for it is only in winter that this bird makes its appearance in Denr 
mark. On the approach of spring it returns to the more northern 
regions. It is then, especially, that is heard its harmonious song, 
partaking of the sound of distant bells and of the eolian harp, whence, 
doubtless, the myth of its death chaunt. 

The wood grouse (Tetrao urogattus, L.) is represented by large indi- 
viduals of vigorous development. We see that the species throve in 
those countries ; but as it feeds chiefly on pine buds, it follows, that 
in old times the sea-shore was clothed with pine forests, whilst now-a- 
days these trees no longer grow naturally in Denmark. We will 
revert again to this subject, when speaking of peat-bogs. 

A species which it was very surprising to find in the Kjoekkenmoed- 
ding, and which it was very difficult to identify, for the reason that 
museums contain only their skins stuffed with straw, without any 
skeleton, was the Great Penguin, of Buffon, (Alca impennis, L.) This 
bird, about the size of a goose, was totally incapable of flying, having 
nothing but the most diminutive apologies for wings or arms unfurn- 
ished with feathers suitable for flight. It frequented consequently 
only the small islands where there were no carnivorous animals. In 
the middle ages the great penguin was found in the islands near the 
coasts of Newfoundland and Cape Cod, in the United States, then in 
the islands near the southern shores of Iceland, in the Feroe islands, 
and at St. Kilda, to the west of the Hebrides. In old narratives and 
voyages to the Feroe islands we read, that the inhabitants of those 
regions were in the habit of eviscerating a penguin, thrusting a wick into 
the cavity of its stomach, setting fire to it, and letting this singular 
apparatus burn as if it were a lamp, so very fat and oily was the bird. 
On a little island near the coast of Newfoundland they burned these 
birds, for want of other fuel, as if they were logs of wood, and in this way 
they cooked one individual by the help of his companion. The species 
was so abundant on the islands of the coast of America that navigators 
very frequently calculated upon them as a fresh supply when their 
provisions were exhausted in a long passage. Whole boatloads were 
frequently brought on board. It has, nevertheless, also happened, 
that certain ships' crews, not meeting with the expected birds, have 
been driven to eat each other. This species, which was so numerous 
not very long ago, and of which we still possess a few stuffed speci- 
mens in museums, appears now to be completely destroyed and extinct, 
thanks to the omnivorous intervention of man. It was surmised that 
it might still be found on a small island to the southwest of Iceland ; 
which is an almost inaccessible rock on account of the breakers. But an 
expedition that has just been undertaken by Mr. Wolley, to ascertain 
whether this was so, has not been able to find the lost bird. It is true 
that Temminck says in his great work on birds, and his words are often 
repeated by others, that the great penguin is common in Greenland^ 



298 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHyEOLOGY. 

but the Danes, who are pretty well acquainted in that region, know 
nothing about it. 1 

Our domestic fowl (G alius domesticus) has not been found in the 
Kjoekkenmoedding . The well established absence of the two kinds of 
swallows, inhabiting now-a-days the constructions of men in Denmark, 
the chimney swallow (Hirundo rustica, L.) and the window swallow, 
(Hirundo urbica, L.,) and then again that of the sparrow (Fringilla 
domestica, L.) and the stork, (Ciconia alba, Bel.,) is nothing very 
surprising. 

The quadrupeds, whose remains are most numerous^ are : 

The Deer, (Cervus elaphus, L.) 

The Roe-buck, (Cervus capreolus, L.) 

The Wild-boar, (Sus scrofa, L.) 
These three species are no where deficient ; they constituted evi- 
dently the principal food of the primitive population as regards land 
animals. 

The Urus, (Bos urus or promigenius,) 

The Beaver, (Castor jiber, L.,) and 

The Phoca, (Phocq gryphus, Fab.,) 
are likewise species often met with, and which have constantly served 
for food to the primitive population. Now, the beaver has entirely 
disappeared from Denmark, the phoca is still seen in the Kattegat, 
though very rarely, and the Urus is an extinct species. Speaking of 
the latter, it will not be amiss to enter into some details resjiecting 
the genus Bos, for species are often confounded. Many persons think, 
for example, that the wild ox of Lithuania is the Urus, whereas 
it is the bison. Setting aside the decidedly fossil oxen, we distinguish 
the following species : 

1°. i?os primigenius, (Boj.) Bos urus, (Nilsson.) Bos primigenius, 
(Owen.) Thur, Ur, and Urochs, according to the Germans. A spe- 
cies now extinct, but which must have still been in existence in Swit- 
zerland in the tenth century of our era, for it figures among the num- 
ber of viands that appeared in those days at the table of the monks of 
St. G-all. The manuscript 2 mentions the Urus, the Wisent, and a 
wild ox which seems to have been simply the offspring of the domes- 
tic ox gone back to the wild state, and which, according to Tschudi, 3 
was still hunted in the sixteenth century. 

2°. Bos bison, (Auct.) Urus nostras, (Boj.) Bison europoeus, (Leidy.) 
Aurox, so called by the French. The Wisent and Bison of the Ger- 
mans and the Zuhr of the Poles, Bonasus of the ancients. A species 



1 Mr. Steenstrup has published a whole treatise on the great penguin in the scientific com- 
munications of the Natural History Assemblies of Copenhagen, 1855. 

2 Benedictiones ad mensas Ekkeharde monachi Sangallensis. Memoirs of the Society of the 
Antiquaries of Zurich, vol. III. Here is the passage in question : 

Signet uesontem bencdictio comipolentem 
Dextra dei ueri comes assit carnibus uri 
Sit 60s siluanus sub trino nomine sanus. 
Sit feralis equi caro dulcis in hac crucc Christi. 
However veson comipotens and urus may here be nothing more than synonyms of the 
same species. That is, at least, the opinion of Mr. Steenstrup. 
3 Tschudl. The Alps. Berne, 1859. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 299 

formerly spread all over Europe ; no longer found at present except 
in the forest of Bialowice in Lithuania, where there exists a herd of 
some seven or eight hundred head, which owes its preservation to the 
ukases of the Emperors of Russia. 

The skeleton of the urus is more thick set, squat, and much stronger. 
His atlas attains the enormous width of twenty-seven centimetres- — 
10.63 inches, (Museum of Lund.) The bison is more slender, he is 
moreover furnished with thick fur and a strong mane, which appear to 
have heen wanting in the urus, judging from what the ancients say. 

3°. Bos frontosus , (Nilsson.) 1 Appears to have existed in Denmark 
only in the domestic state, during the age of bronze and the first part 
of the age of iron, until about the commencement of the Christian era. 
There are extensive remains of them in the peat-bogs of Denmark. 
This species is distinguished from the others by the manner in which 
the horns are fixed on a lateral protuberance of the skull, and by the 
gibbosity of the occiput. 

4°. Bos taurus, (L.) Corresponds probably to the Bos longifrons of 
Owen. It is the most generally diffused species, as a domestic race, 
in the middle ages and at present. Only it attains a more vigorous 
development than formerly. The wild ox of the park of Hamilton^ 
in Scotland, {white urus,) is the same species, but in a wild state. 

The four species mentioned above present not only differences of 
race, they are really distinct species. It is only the first, the urus 
proper, which has been found in the Kjoekkenmoedding . The second, 
the bison, is missing, but is found, though rarely, in the peat deposits 
of Denmark. 

The elk (Cervus aloes, L.) and the rein-deer (Cervus tarandus, L.) 
have not yet been discovered in the Kjoekkenmoedding . They will 
doubtless be found therein, for their bones have been gathered among 
the remains of the stone-age in Denmark. 

There are also found in the Kjoekkenmoedding : 
The Wolf, (Canis lupus, L.) 
The Fox, (Canis vidpes, L.) 
The Lynx, (Felis lynx, L.) 
The Wild-cat, (Felis cat us, L.) 
The Sable, (Mustela martes, L.,) and 
The Otter, (Lutra vulgaris, Erxl.) 
These species are found more rarely than the preceding ones ; they 
have, however, served as food to man. 

The hedge-hog (Erinaceus europceus, L.) and the water-rat (Hypu- 
dceus amphibius, L.) have been found accidentally in the Kjoekken- 
moedding, where they also find bones gnawed by these rats. 

Not the slightest trace has been found of the hare (Lepus timidus) in 
the Kjoekkenmoedding . But this can be accounted for when we reflect 
that the Laplanders and several other nations have a sort of supersti- 
tious repugnance for the hare, and would not eat it except wheji 
driven to do so by the utmost extremity of famine. 

According to what has already been stated, the Kjoekkenmoedding 
have furnished no domestic animal whatsoever except the dog. And 

1 Nilsson. Scandinavisk fauna, II edit., Lund., 1847, p. 555. 



300 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

even with respect to that, it could not be ascertained a priori, whether 
the bones of the dogs which were found had belonged to a domestic or 
a wild race. The following is the way in which they have been able 
to solve the question indirectly. 

It was surprising not to find, among the exuviae of birds any but 
the middle part of the long bones, the heads having been broken off 
very irregularly. Whilst, numerically, the long bones form very 
nearly the fifth part of the sum total of the bones of a bird, they 
are in the Kjoekkenmoedding from twenty to twenty-five times more 
numerous than the other. Whence comes this singular preponder- 
ance of the long bones? It was thought at first that the ancients had 
consumed on the spot merely the limbs of the birds, reserving the car- 
casses for a stock of provisions at sea. This was rather far-fetched. 
Mr, Steenstrup bethought himself of keeping some dogs in confine- 
ment, and giving them for a certain time birds to eat. He then found 
that all that the dogs left were the same long bones, such as the 
Kjoekkenmoedding present. All the rest had been devoured. Some 
other carnivorous animal, such as the wolf or the fox, might, it is 
true, have done the same, although the wolf, for example, generally 
drags off his prey, and does not devour it on the spot. But as these 
numerous fragments of birds, thus gnawed, are found everywhere, in 
all the Kjoekkenmoedding that have been examined and in .every part 
of each of these deposits, 1 it follows, that the people were accompanied 
by a domestic carnivorous animal, which is only represented by the 
dog. This induction is confirmed by the abundance of gnawed bones 
of quadrupeds. Nearly all the cartilaginous and more or less soft 
parts of the bones have been irregularly subtracted. Often the marks 
of the teeth that have gnawed the bone, are sharply defined. Thus 
one rarely finds a shoulder-blade that has not been gnawed, or a rib 
whose extremities are entire. 

The marks of knives which Mr. Steenstrnp observed on the bones of 
the dog, led him to conclude that the primitive population ate this 
animal, as is still done in many parts of the globe, in America, Ocean- 
ica, Africa, and, as it would appear, even in Europe. Mr. Forel de 
Morges has asserted that in the Riviera of Genoa they eat dogs, and 
that rats are considered a delicacy there. 

They have not yet found in the Kjoekkenmoedding any traces of 
those young aquatic birds, which are taken in their nests, and of 
which there is at present a great consumption, in Jutland, for exam- 
ple. It is a dish in great request, and very abundant in certain local- 
ities ; and there are some islets, perfectly barren in other respects, 
where the right to collect eggs and young birds produces a very hand- 
some income. We might have been tempted to conclude from the 
absence of the remains of young birds, that the primitive population 
absented itself from the localities of the Kjoekkenmoedding from the 
month of May to August. But it is more likely that the dogs caused 
the disappearance of the smallest traces of the young birds, inasmuch 
as they left merely the very hard middle part of the long bones of 



1 About forty have been examined minutely. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 301 

even the adult birds, the splinters of which threatened to choke them. 
Man himself came in doubtless for his share in the matter, for we 
know of certain persons even nowadays eating whole quails, without 
taking the trouble to separate the bones. 

The sojourn of man on the Kjoekkenmoedding grounds during the 
autumn, winter, and spring is also indicated by the degree of growth 
of the horifs of the deer and roe-buck*, as well as of the embryos and 
young individuals of these species and of the wild hog, which have been 
eaten and whose remains are met with. Here again the summer season 
is not clearly marked, but as the primitive population dwelt on the sea- 
shore in winter, according to what we have seen, when speaking of 
the wild swan, it is very likely that it spent the fine season there also, 
during which it must have been much more comfortable in every 
respect. 

Man and the products of his Industry. — The Kjoekkenmoedding 
have never presented any human bones. One may possibly meet with 
skeletons there, but in that case they belong to those graves, often of 
very recent date, which the inhabitant of the coast digs for the 
body of the shipwrecked individual that has been cast up by the sea. 
No ancient burial place of the age of stone has ever been observed 
there, and we understand in effect, that the primitive population 
would not bury its dead in such places. Besides, the numerous tombs 
of the age of stone in Denmark bear witness, by their often gigantic 
proportions, as also by their contents, to the respect in which the dead 
were held. 

It is here worthy of remark, that there has never been observed in 
Denmark, either in the Kjoekkenmoedding or elsewhere, any signs of 
cannibalism, though an antiquary supposed that he had found such 
signs in a cavern in Belgium. 1 If his observations were of value, 
we might expect that same fact would be observed in other parts of 
Europe. 

There are sometimes found in the internal mass of the non-stratified 
Kjoekkenmoedding, as there are in the stratified deposits of the sea- 
shore, fire-places simply formed of a pavement of pebbles about the 
size of a man's fist. When we can obtain a quite fresh and clean 
section of a non-stratified deposit, we sometimes observe on each side 
of the fire-place a little black band, gradually becoming less distinct. 
This is made by the coal, which had been swept away when a new fire 
had to be lighted. These fire-places are not large, they are more or 
less circular, and their diameter is somewhere about two feet. 

Fragments of a very coarse pottery are not scarce. The vases have 
been molded by hand, and not by a lathe, and the clay has always been 
mixed with sand, evidently in order that the vases should not crack 
easily in the fire. This device is still resorted to by certain savage 
tribes of America; we find them even, when they cannot get sand, 
substituting for this purpose a powder of ground-shells. One fact had 
struck the Danish archasologists, namely: that the grains of sand im- 
bedded in this pottery are angular, whilst no sand is found in the 
country but what is rounded by the action of the waves. They then 

1 Royal Academy of Belgium, Tome XX, Nos. 11, 12. 



302 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 



remarked that the granitic stones of the fire-places, when they had 
been subjected to the action of fire, were easily reducible to coarse 
angular sand, corresponding exactly to that found in the pottery. 

Mr. Emilien Dumas de Sommieres, (department du Clard.) a much- 
esteemed geologist, and a great connoisseur in pottery, has observed a 
very great diversity of materials mixed with the paste of the ancient 
pottery. These substances seem to vary according to the fhineralogi- 
cal character of the region. Thus it is that in the departments of the 
Gard, Vaucluse, and Bouches-du-Khone, the ancient pottery contains 
generally little rhomboidal fragments of white spathic carbonate of 
lime. In Auvergne, in the Vivarais, and even at Agde, near Mont- 
pellier, where there exist also ancient traces of volcanic eruptions, the 
place of calcareous spar is supplied in the ancient pottery by volcanic 
scoria (peperino.) Lastly, in Corsica, a few years since ; they made 
use of amianthus in the manufacture of common pottery, which gave 
it great toughness and tenacity, and enabled it to resist most effica- 
ciously the effects of a blow or of irregular dilatation. Amianthus is 
also found mingled witli the paste of some Chinese vases of common 
manufacture. It is likewise known that the walls of Babylon and 
certain constructions of ancient Egypt were built of bricks dried in 
the sun. In making these bricks they added to the sandy clay which 
composes them, chopped straw, and even fragments of reeds and other 
marsh plants, in order to produce greater strength in the mass. Be- 
sides, this necessity for the addition of straw is well-established by 
the fifth chapter of Exodus, which alludes to the refusal of the king 
of Egypt to furnish the Israelites with the straw required for their 
work. 

The age of stone, as we know, is characterized preeminently by the 
presence of arms and instruments of flint, or of some other kind of 
stone, and which are frequently of beautiful workmanship, especially 
in the islands of Denmark. Now, in the Kjoekkenmoedding , it is true 
that there are found a great abundance of instruments of silex, but 
they are so very rough and unshapely, that one might take them at a 
first glance -for mere pieces of .stone. Nevertheless, with a little atten- 
tion and comparison it becomes easy to recognize them as wedges or 
hatchets, chisels, and especially those long and narrow splinters called 
knives. All these objects are simply hewn by hand, by successive 
blows with another stone; they are of coarser workmanship than 




*'ig. 4. Fig. 5. 

Very rough wedges. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 303 

many objects of flint found elsewhere, especially in the tombs. 
This has caused it to be believed, that the Kjoekkenmoedding might 
belong to a first age of stone, which should be distinguished from a 
second one, to which ought to be attributed the handsome specimens 
so frequently found in the North, and which bear witness to a general 
progress of civilization. It is possible that this is really the case, but 
there is as yet no decisive reason in favor of this opinion. If none 
but very rough objects are found in the Kjoekkenmoedding , it is not 
very strange; since in ancient times, any more than now-a-days, would 
people be likely to scatter objects of value among their sweepings, and 
we should, therefore, merely find the refuse of their industry. Not- 
withstanding, there have really been found in the Kjoekkenmoed- 
ding some rare specimens of fine workmanship. They are, a lance- 
head of silex, an arrow-head of silex, and a little hatchet of trap 
(volcanic rock) of regular shape and nicely bored, all which would 
certainly not indicate an industry just at its origin. Finally, the 
bones of the animals which have served as food to the primitive popu- 
lation bear positive witness to the use of well made instruments. 
They (the bones) have been jagged and chipped in divers ways, either 
when the animal was being cut up or when portions of it were being- 
eaten, and the flesh was separated by means of knives. Now, on ex- 
amining attentively these marks, we recognize that the primitive 
population made use of well ground and keen-edged instruments, 
which have made incisions in the bone as clearly as a good steel knife 
would do. A simple splinter of flint, however sharp it may be, and 
supposing it not to be ground, will leave a mark bearing the character 
of the saw ; that is to say, there will easily be seen in it, by the aid of 
a magnifying glass, a number of parallel stria?. Therefore, in the age 
of the Kjoekkenmoedding they had already instruments of silex of good 
workmanship, only they did not fling them away among the rubbish, 
but they took good care of them since they must have cost much 
more labor than our steel instruments. 

Besides the rough instruments of silex, already spoken of, there are 
found in the Kjoekkenmoedding a tolerably large quantity of hewn 
pebbles, but in such a shapeless manner, that the workmen could evi- 
dently have had no other intention, when thus preparing them, than 
to give them sharp edges and angles. Now, if we reflect, that an 
angular pebble will wound much more severely than a round one, it 
becomes very probable that we are here presented with the offensive 
projectiles of the primitive population. 

Pebbles cut in this way are frequently found in the turf-bogs of 
Denmark. They were probably thrown in old times, either by hand 
or by slings, at aquatic birds, and have since become inclosed by the 
turf in its process of formation in these localities. Let us remark 
lastly, that in the salt-works of Hallein, in Austria, there were found, 
together with a bronze hatchet, a little wallet of skin containing two 
projectiles like those above alluded to. 1 

The Kjoekkenmoedding furnish a tolerable quantity of ends of decr- 



1 These articles are preserved in the museum of Salsburg. 



304 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

horns, which have been cut off and broken. It was naturally the 
refuse only which was thrown away, and so the pieces that were 
wrought and finished are missing. Nevertheless this refuse shows 
positively enough that well ground chisels of silex were used,' and that 
they were managed with skill. 

Carved bones have also been met with in the Kjoekkenmoedding . 
They were made into awls, chisels, and even a sort of comb very 
neatly fashioned, which appears to have been used in the manufacture 
of thongs from sinews. 

A circumstance worthy of notice is, that all the solid bones, not hol- 
low, of quadrupeds, are entire, whilst those which are hollow are found, 
almost without exception, broken, showing frequently the mark of the 
blow by which they were opened. The primitive people were evi- 
dently fond of marrow, which they extracted wherever they found it, 
either to eat it, or to employ it with brains in the preparation of skins, 
as is done by the savages of North America. 1 The hollow bones (os 
metacarpi and metatarsi) of ruminating animals, such as the deer and 
roe-buck, presenting a longitudinal partition, which separates more or 
less the marrow into two parts, have always been split transversely to 
this partition in the direction of their length. Thereby the two compart- 
ments of the marrow were laid open at one blow, and its immediate 
extraction was thus rendered easy. The same process is still in vogue 
among the Laplanders and the Greenlanders, with whom the marrow, 
still warm from the natural heat of the animal, is considered the great- 
est delicacy and a dish of honor, which they offer to strangers and to 
the employes of the government. The dexterity with which these 
people thus open the bones of the reindeer, is said to be surprising. 
It is to be noticed, however, that they split the hollow bones of the 
reindeer longitudinally, and parallel to the middle partition, which is 
very thin in this species. 

Another circumstance affords its testimony to the practical sense of 
the primitive people of Denmark. It is that, for the fabrication of 
instruments and objects of bone, they have been clever enough to select 
and to profit by that portion of the skeleton of the animal whose struc- 
ture offers the greatest density and strength, namely: that on the 
inner side of the radius. 



II. PEAT-BOGS. 

The Kjoekkenmoedding have furnished valuable data for the study of 
the ancient fauna of Denmark ; but we have seen that they present 
very few resources for the study of the ancient flora of this country. 
What they are, however, in regard to the animal kingdom, the peat-bogs 
are to the vegetable kingdom. Mr. Steenstrup has made these the object 



1 Hearne. Voyage du Fort du Prince de Galles a l'otean Nord en 1769, 1772. Paris, 
vol. VII, p. 343. " The Indians prepare the skins with a lye made of brains and marrow." 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 305 

of a special study, and that for about twenty years past. 1 The folio w- 
lowing are the principal results : 

Denmark is very rich in peat, and we distinguish there several 
kinds of peat-bogs, according to circumstances of location, extent, and 
internal composition. They are : 

1°. Tlie Kjaermose or Engmose, of the Danes ; Wiesenmoor, of the 
Germans ; which may be translated by bog-meadows. This kind of 
bog occupies especially the bottoms of wide valleys, alongside of water 
courses and low grounds, often bordering on lakes. They are also 
disposed to take possession of the bottom of bays and shallow fjords, 
whence the sea then retires little by little. The kjaermose are formed 
principally of the remains of rushes and herbaceous plants, with but 
few mosses. They present in their formation infra-aquatic parts, and 
supra-aquatic or emerged parts. The first owe their origin to plants 
that grow at the bottom of the water. The kjaermose are generally of 
a less thickness than the other peat-bogs ; they are usually not more 
than from five to twelve feet deep. 

2. The Lyngmose, Svampmose, or Hoermose, of the Danes ; Heid- 
emoor or Hochmoor, of the Germans; which may be translated heather 
bogs. They often occupy very extended planes, the surface of which 
is above the level of the sea. They are formed of decayed mosses, 
{sphagnum and hypnam,) and are covered with heather. These bogs 
are ordinarily from eight to ten and sometimes fourteen feet deep. 

3°. The Skovmose, of the Danes ; which may be rendered by WaM 
moor in German, and by forest-bogs in English. 2 They are the most- 
interesting, and deserve to be discussed in detail. 

The Skovmose occupy in the quaternary lands of Denmark singular 
depressions of rounded form and slight extent, when there are not sev- 
eral joined together, but of a depth that reaches to thirty feet or, more. 
These quaternary lands are in a great part deposits of erratic origin, 
formed from compact glacial mud, inclosing pebbles and blocks of stone 
of Swedish origin. These latter are often polished and sharply stria- 
ted, just as we frequently observe on the surface of the- great blocks 
forming the sepulchral halls, in the interior of the tu.muli of the age 
of stone. These abrupt depressions of the ground in, such a soil are 
rather surprising and difficult to explain. There are some that owe 
perhaps their origin to the sinking in of the subjacent calcareous rocks. 
In his travels in Iceland, Mr. Steenstrup remarked that blocks of ice 
detached from the great glaciers became sometimes mixed up with 
the materials of the moraine, and then produced, when they are 
melted, depressions of the surface very analogous to those alluded to 
in Denmark. 

The Skovmose display the following internal composition. Astht-ir 
edges were more or less precipitous, the trees that grew there,, 
when they had become very large, ultimately lost their balance and 



x The principal essay of Mr. Steenstrup on this subject is to be found in the Memoirs of the 
Academy of Sciences of Copenhagen, vol. IX, 1842. An excellent work in French on the 
same subject is : "Some Researches on the Peat-bogs," by L. Lesquereux. Neuchatel, 1844. 

2 Skov signifies forest, and mose marsh, 

20 



306 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 

fell over into the bog, where they were thus preserved and accu- 
mulated. It was thought at first that this was caused merely by a 
gust of wind, but a more careful examination of a peat-bog brought to 
light the Fact that along its whole circumference the trunks were laid 
more or less regularly towards the centre. Sometimes the Skovmose 
is so small that the trees cross it from side to side. Often the trunks 
have accumulated in such numbers that we might imagine them to be 
artificially and skillfully heaped up and interwoven in such a manner 
as to pack together the greatest possible number in the smallest space. 
When the bog is not small enough to be thus encumbered all over, its 
central portion is occupied by the peat formation properly so called. 
We have thus to distinguish in the Skovmose an exterior woody zone 
and an interior or central bog zone. The latter is formed in an iden- 
tical manner with that of the Lyngmose, for these differ from the 
Skovmose merely by the absence of the exterior woody belt, which 
could not be formed on account of the edges being usually too flat and 
too little inclined in the Lyngmose. There is consequently a gradual 
transition from the Lyngmose to the Skovmose, and we may consider 
these latter as Lyngmose that are very contracted and deepened. 

Central Region of the Skovmose. — Its composition is very regu- 
lar. The foundation of the basin, occupied by the bog, is formed by 
an argillaceous layer, produced from the wash of the edges of the 
depression. Next above this comes a horizontal layer of from one and 
a half to two feet, in extreme cases of three to four feet, in thickness, 
of amorphous peat, forming a pulp with the water, and in which we 
can easily discover with the magnifying glass the presence of vegeta- 
ble substances, but without being able to distinguish their species. In 
the normal peat-bogs the amorphous peat is very pure and without ad- 
mixture of extraneous substances. But, according as the waters were 
charged with mineral matters, there have often been formed in this 
inferior stratum, siliceous deposits, composed of the shells of infu- 
sores, or else of deposits of calcareous tufa, or even also layers of an 
intermixture of the two matters. These deposits are the sediments of 
which the water clarified itself. Whilst they were settling, the forma- 
tion of the peaty matter must have been more or less retarded, to 
recommence again vigorously at a later time, when the waters had 
become clearer. 

To the amorphous peat succeeds a layer, usually from three to four 
feet thick, of a peat which it is easy to recognise as being composed of 
mosses, (Hypnum.) Then there appear sometimes trunks of pine {Pi- 
mis sylvestris,) which have grown on the spot, and which have some- 
times formed a forest on the swamp. But these pine trees are stunted, 
crooked, and with the rings of their growth (Anneaux d' accroissement) 
so very close together that seventy have been counted in one inch of 
thickness. We perceive that the locality was not propitious to them, 
and yet that did not prevent them from living for three or even four 
centuries. In the large swamps there are found as many as two and 
three layers one over the other of these pine trunks in situ, with their 
bases and roots well preserved. 

As the ground became gradually higher and dryer by the growth of 
the bog, those species of mosses which had first made their appear- 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 307 

ance gave place to others ; the hog-moss, {Sphagnum,) and finally the 
heather made its appearance. Firstly came the cranberry, (Vaccinium 
oxycoccos, L.,) the Vaccinium uliginosum, (L.,) and the Erica tetralix, 
(L.,) and lastly the Erica vulgaris, (L.) The arborescent vegetation 
of the pines then gave place to white birches, (Betula alba, L.,) and 
afterwards to alders, (Alnus glutinosa, L.,)and to hazel bushes, (Cory- 
lus avellana, L.) 

This last stratum of the Sphagnum attains from three to ten feet 
thickness, according to circumstances. It concludes the formation of 
the Skovmose, the surface of which finally becomes more or less solid 
and firm. 

As a matter of course, the complete development of all the strata 
spoken of can be observed only in the central region of the swamps, 
where the depth is sufficient. Towards the edges of the swanips, 
the formation is more compressed and restricted within narrower 
limits of thickness. 

We do not yet possess any data respecting the time which has been 
required for these peat-bogs to reach their last stage of growth. Mr. 
Steenstrup estimates that in order to form one of these masses of peat 
ten or twenty feet thick it has required at least four thousand years, 
but he thinks that this may be only the third or the quarter of the 
necessary time. 

It is often supposed that the formation of the peat is more or less 
rapid, because pits whence it has been extracted become filled up again 
in a more or less short period. Mr. Steenstrup sees in this phenome- 
non the effect, less of the growth of the turf, which is extremely slow, 
than of a filling up from below, by the hydrostatic pressure of the sur- 
rounding swamp. And, accordingly, the peat-bogs become altogether 
exhausted in the long run, as Denmark has actually experienced. 

Exterior Forest Zone of the Skovmose. — Above the clayey de- 
posit spoken of, which constitutes the basis of the basin containing the 
swamp, there appear, firstly, the recumbent trunks of the pine (Pinus 
silvestris) in great numbers. They attain a diameter of three feet, 
with a corresponding length, and their magnificent stature proves on 
one hand that they found conditions of existence favorable to their 
growth, and on the other that they grew very closely together, form- 
ing forests of pure species, unmixed with any others ; for when pine 
trees are not thus closely arranged they do not arrive at this straight 
and tall stature. The species certainly was the same as our present 
one, only the cones were on the average a little smaller, and the bark 
was thicker than at the present. 

The presence of the pine in the peat-bogs of Denmark was the more 
surprising, that in our day the species has entirely disappeared from 
the country, the pines that are found there now having been introduced 
in modern times. This is so true, that no historical or even traditional 
data makes the slightest allusion to the pine, as having grown natur- 
ally in Denmark ; therefore, the species must have disappeared a 
very long time ago. As for the firs (Pinus abies) it never occurred 
spontaneously in Denmark, not even in ancient times. They have 
begun to plant it since the end of the last century. 



308 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 

We will state here that there are localities where the pine-trees of 
the exterior zone enter under and are partially covered over by an 
upper layer of pine-trees in situ belonging to the central bog region. 

Ascending through the series of formations of the exterior zone of 
the Skovmose, we find that the pine trees gradually disappear and are 
replaced by oaks, which finally prevail exclusively. Here again the 
trees are of handsome stature, betokening a vigorous growth, for the 
trunks often reach a diameter of four feet. It is the Quercus robur 
sessijiora of Smith, the Winlereiche of the Germans, which is generally 
thus found in the Skovmose. As for the Quercus pedunculata of 
Ehrhard, Sommereiclie of the Germans, that Koch and others consider 
as specifically different from the first, it has not yet been discovered in 
the lower portions of the Skovmose, whilst it makes its appearance in 
the upper layer together with the warty birch, the alder, and the filbert 
tree. (Speaking of these two forms of oak it has been remarked, in 
Sweden, for instance, that the Quercus robur preferred uncultivated 
lands, and that it tended of its own accord to disappear and to give 
place to the peduncled oak when the soil became improved by a pro- 
longed cultivation that increased the proportion of humus. 

]Sow, the oak is in its turn in a fair way of disappearing from Den- 
mark. Although it is still found here and there, especially in Jutland, 
in thinly peopled and uncultivated districts; it is, however, almost 
exclusively the peduncled oak which is thus met with. But the 
arborescent vegetation of Denmark produces now, in preference, the 
beech, (Fagus silvatica,) and that so luxuriantly, that Denmark is 
deservedly celebrated for its forests of beech, the finest, it is said, in 
the whole world. 1 The stranger will be struck no less with the beauty 
of the beech forests, especially on the pleasant shores of the Sound, 
than with the profound admiration of the Danes for this ornament of 
their interesting country. 

If the oak has not entirely disappeared from Denmark, the beech 
has established a footing there a long while ago, as is testified by public 
opinion, which holds that the forests of beech are of the highest anti- 
quity in the country. The beech is missing altogether in the Skov- 
mose, even in their upper parts. We would not be justified in 
concluding from this that it did not exist in the country, for this par- 
ticular locality, on the edge of the marshes, was no more suited to it 
anciently than it would be nowadays. But the presence alluded to of 
the wood-grouse in the Kjoekkenmoedding proves, that elsewhere also 
the pine prevailed in the highest antiquity. 

We come then to the conclusion, that there have been three distinct 
periods of arborescent vegetation in Denmark; a first period of the pine, 
a second period of the oak, and lastly a third period — still continuing — 
of the beech. 

What is the cause of these changes, which have evidently not been 
abrupt, but which have been brought about little by little, without 
the intervention of anything like a catastrophe or a cataclysm of 
nature? 

1 See the Memoir of Vaupell on the invasion of the beech in the forests of Denmark. An- 
nals of the Natural Sciences. Paris, 1857; tome VII., No. 1, 2. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 309 

The climate has scarcely changed since the first appearance of man 
in the country, for the terrestrial mollusk species, which are found 
accidentally in the Kjoekkenmoedding, and the fluviatile mollusks which 
are met with in greater number in the marly layers of the peat hogs, 
are without exception identical with the species living at present in 
the country, and we know what good climatometers snails are, (helix.) 
Our vineyard snail (Helix pomatia, L.) is missing in the antiquity of 
Denmark, while it is now found in the country; but it is known that 
it was introduced by the monks in the middle ages. 

The succession of the pine, the oak, and the beech appears to be 
simply owing to a gradual desiccation of the soil and a gradual amelio- 
ration of the mould. For it is the pine that is satisfied with the most 
humid and least fertile soil, whilst the beech craves the dry est and in 
general the best. 

We may notice here that the aspen (Popidus tremula, L.) traverses 
the whole of the turf epoch from its beginning, and that it still 
flourishes in the country. Not so with the white birch, (Betula alba, 
h.,) which is found in the lower layers of the peat-bogs, where it is 
represented by large individuals of fine stature, but which give place 
in the upper layers to the ivarty birch, (Betula verrucosa, Ehr.,) which 
flourishes still in Denmark. 

Archaeology of the Feat-Eogs. — The peat-bogs of Denmark swarm 
with antiquities of all kinds and of all ages, as the museums show. 
Mr. Steenstrup estimates that there is scarcely a vertical column a 
metre square at the base, and taken anywhere, in any peat-bog what- 
soever in the country, in which at least one antique object may not be 
found. The traces of the presence of man cannot, however, be followed 
to the very bottom of the Skovmose, which are generally the most 
ancient of the peat-bogs, and the more ancient as they are less exten- 
sive but deeper. There are no antiquities in the amorphous peat, but 
traces of man appear early in the pine layer of the outer band of 
the Skovmose, and this establishes the high antiquity of the primitive 
population of Denmark. There have been found various objects of 
flint, characterizing the age of stone, in the pine layer; Mr. Steen- 
strup withdrew some with his own hand from beneath trunks. Among 
the trees of this layer they have remarked some that had been cut 
with the aid of fire, specimens of which are preserved in the museum 
of Copenhagen. 

The pine had very nearly disappeared before the end of the age of 
stone in Denmark, for the indications of the latter are observable even 
in the oak-layer. 

It is very possible that man himself may have contributed to cause 
the disappearance of the pine, for it was an easy wood to cut and 
pleasant to burn; moreover, the inner part of its bark, properly pre- 
pared, furnishes when boiled a very edible broth. The Laplanders are 
still quite fond of it. When they prepare a meal of it, they bark the 
tree all around up to a certain height. The tree then dies, and thus 
the routes of migration in Lapland are marked by a track of dead 
pines, which is continually widening. We can easily conceive how 
in a country, every part of which is so accessible as Denmark, the 



310 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

pine might have diminished sensibly in this way, in consequence of 
the increase of the primitive population. 

The decrease of the oak is also due, in some measure, to the progress 
of industry; this has been very apparent for the past. four or" five 
centuries, and especially during the present one. 

The direct intervention of man would, however, not explain suffi- 
ciently the development of new species, and the fact of a gradual and 
natural change of the arborescent vegetation in Denmark is not the less 
an acquisition to science. 

In connection with this it is somewhat interesting to state here the 
remark of a good observer: "The fir does not flourish at present in 
Denmark, it is always small and unhealthy, and it runs to waste in 
branches, the longest of which remain trailing on the ground. This 
gives it the shape of a cone with a wide base, which never rises above 
twenty-five or thirty feet. It is only in Sweden and Norway that the 
fir reassumes its height and beauty." 1 

As to the synch ronological relations that may exist between the age of 
bronze and that of iron, on one hand, and the development of the 
arborescent vegetation of Denmark, on the other, there are not suffi- 
cient data to establish them. All that is known on this subject is, 
that the age of bronze must have commenced after the close of the age 
of the pine, and after the commencement of the age of the oak. It is 
also known that the epoch of the oak corresponds, at least partly, with 
this age, for there have been found articles of the age of bronze, such 
as the magnificent bronze bucklers of the museum of Copenhagen, in 
a Kjaermose connected with the age of the oak. Lastly, it is known 
that the historical age, including that of tradition, that is, the age of 
iron, belongs essentially to the epoch of the beech. 



III. SUBJECT OF EACES. 

The human races, which have followed each other in the course of 
ages, beginning with that primitive population, which accumulated 
the materials of the Kjoekkenmoedding on the shores of Denmark, are 
absorbing the attention of the scientific men of the North, antiquaries 
as well as naturalists. In the absence of all historical or even philo- 
logical data, they have to turn towards natural historj* and set them- 
selves to gather together the solid remains of the ancient populations, 
especially skulls, in order to arrive at the result by the method of 
comparison. This study has formed, for a number of years past, the 
speciality of the learned Professor Retzius, of Stockholm, and it is not 
neglected at Copenhagen. Much yet remains to be said on the sub- 
ject, but the researches are still continued, and they begin to be full of 
light. 

We are now in possession of good materials for the age of stone, 
for the primitive population of the North buried its dead in sepulchral 

1 Ch. v, Bonstettcn. Scandinavia and the Alps. Geneva, 1826, page 70. Under the term 
of ordinary language, fir, the author probably means the pine of the botanists. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 



311 



vaults, carefully constructed of large undressed blocks of stone, and it 
has been easy to collect a great many skulls, whose type could be de- 
cided on. They are small heads, remarkably rounded in every direc- 
tion, but with a facial angle tolerably large, and a forehead which 
bears the stamp of an intellect not a little developed. This type 
reminds us of that of the Laplander, without our being able to affirm 
precisely that it is identical with it. We have } r et to pursue the study 
of the Laplander, in order to know him better, and to see whether he 
may not have somewhat changed in the course of ages. Nevertheless, 
it cannot be denied that the aggregate of what is known tends to induce 
us consider the Laplanders as the last remnant, the descendants of the 
primitive population of Denmark, and probably of all the rest of 
Europe, for antique skulls of the same type have been discovered in 
France, in Ireland, and in Scotland. 1 On the other hand, the Lap- 
lander is considered, as it were, an extreme branch of the Mongol race; 
to which, therefore, the primitive population of the age of stone in 
Europe is likely to have belonged. 




Fig. 7. (J) 

Type of the age of stone, 
Denmark. 



Fig. 8. (i) 

A skull of the earliest times of the 
age of iron, Denmark. 



If materials are not wanting to establish the type of the skull of the 
age of stone in Denmark, there is a great deficiency of them for the 
age of bronze, for the people of the age of bronze in the north usually 
burned their dead. But, as with the age of bronze we notice the ap- 
parition in Denmark of the domestic animals, the horse, the ox, the 
sheep, the goat, and the hog, we are thereby quite naturally led to 
believe in the irruption of a new flood of population, in the immigra- 
tion of a new race, coming from the East. 

With the introduction of iron, inhumation reappears in the north, 
but we are only beginning to collect the skulls of this epoch. Figure 
8 represents one found at Sanderumgaard, in the island of Fyen. Here 
we are in presence of quite a different shape. The skull is remarka- 
bly elongated fore and aft, and the forehead is somewhat retreating. 
It is the form, though less decided, which predominates nowadays 
in Europe. It is also, according to Retzius, the long oval form, 
which is the so called Celtic type. 

The human race of the age of stone, or in fewer words, the race of 



1 Retzius. Academy of Stockholm, 1847, No. 1. 



312 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

stone, seems, in view of its analogies with the Laplander, to have 
been the most diminutive, and doubtless the weakest. We miss the 
bony framework of the race of the bronze epoch, but we have a measure 
of its hand in the handles of its swords, and we know how small are 
the proportions of these. 1 As the race of the bronze epoch evidently 
overcame that of the stone, and supplanted it, it is likely that it was 
superior to it, not only in the employment of metal, but also in the 
joint advantages of its civilization and its physical development. With 
iron there finally appears a large, strong race, as is denoted by the 
skeletons and arms. With the general progress of civilization, there 
has, therefore, been a progressive physical improvement of humanity. 

People frequently marvel at the sight of certain gigantic works of 
antiquity, and they fancy that the ancient races must have been 
stronger than ours. But a little reflection will easily make us perceive 
the difference between the effects of patience, combined with skill, 
and the results of strength guided by knowledge ; which, however, 
does not exclude either patience or skill. There are scarcely any 
ancient constructions of man, that are proportionally of greater mag- 
nitude, than certain ant hills. On the other hand, the great pyramid 
of Cheops is a wonder more likely to be admired than a chronometer, 
but in reality less astonishing, even considering the nature of the forces 
made use of in its execution. 2 

A ncient Manner of Eating. Let us describe here, apropos to the 
human race, an interesting peculiarity of the primitive population of 
Denmark. Modern nations use their incisive teeth to sever and cut 
as with scizzors. The front teeth lap over each other for this purpose, 
and there results necessarily a wearing of these teeth of a correspond- 
ing nature, and all the more easily recognizable as the individual is 
more advanced in life. Not only do the incisive teeth suffer from this 
manner of eating, but as in the region of the molars the two jaws cor- 
respond exactly Avith each other ; that is to say, that the upper molars 
bear directly on the inferior ones, it follows hence, that the two jaws 
themselves cross each other at two points, namely, at the two angles 
of the mouth ; whence a more or less irregular wearing away at these 
points. Now, when we examine attentively well-preserved sets of 
teeth of the age of stone in Denmark, that have belonged to individ- 
uals who have outlived at least the age of fifty, we find that the two 
jaws bear directly and wholly one on the other. The masticating sur- 
face of the upper jaw fits perfectly that of the lower jaw, and so all 
round the set of teeth. The incisive teeth do not lap over each other, 
but impinge on each other at their summits like the molars, and are, 
therefore, worn away quite differently from ours. 3 At the same time 

1 The same thing is observable nowadays among the Hindoos. The handle of their 
swords is too small for the hands of the English. Pritchard. The Natural History of 
Man, 1843, vol. I, p. 129. 

2 Consider the blast furnaces, tilt hammers, the rolling mills, with their accessories of 
steam and other engines, serving to prepare the materials and the instruments used by the 
watchmaker. 

3 There are exceptional persons who now use their teeth in the ancient way. Cuvier dis- 
covered the same modi' of usin^ the teeth among the ancient Egyptians. He says : "The 
incisive tecih of the mummies are all truncated, and with flat coronals." Comparative An- 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 



313 



the wearing away of the summits in the angles of the ancient jaws is 
more regular, and when we look straight along the surface of mastica- 
tion, we perceive that the latter is an almost perfect plane. Therefore 
the primitive race ate in an entirely different manner from what we 
do ; they used their incisive teeth, not to sever their victuals, as we 
do, but to seize them, to hold them, and to grind them. Thus we dis- 
tinguish sometimes, according to what the individual had been eating 
last, striae in a transverse direction to the axis of the mouth on the 
facets of mastication of the incisive teeth. 

The Greenlanders, among the other people of the north, display the 
same peculiarity. When they eat flesh, after having disengaged it 
from the hone at one end, they seize it with the front teeth and tear it 
away partially ; they then cut off the mouthful close to their lips by 
means of a knife. Even their children practice this method of eating 
with a dexterity which Europeans cannot imitate. 

Ancient Knives. A circumstance, which is not without archaeo- 
logical importance, is that when eating and in general for the require- 
ments of their industry, the Greenlanders do not use the knife with a 
longitudinal cutting edge like ours. Their knife is, properly speaking, 
a chisel, whose edge has a transverse direction, rather oblique to the 
longitudinal axis of the instrument. 

This may explain why we find in the North so great a quantity of 
stone wedges or hatchets. These articles have not all served as hatch- 
ets, a great many were nothing more than knives of the Greenland 
pattern. So there are some not seldom found with an edge peculiarly 
curved, sometimes oblique. They are then rather generally cut away 
more or less to a point towards the other extremity, which rendered 
them decidedly unfitted for any handle, whilst they thus became more 
easily managed by the hand. They were evidently knives. There 
are some even that are clearly characterized as having been intended 
for the right hand. This is the case with the handsome specimen in 
Nephrite, Fig. 9 ; for, when taken hold of in the right hand with the 





Pig. 9. (i) 

Hatchet-knife of Nephrite. 
Moosseeiiorf. 



Fig. 10. (i) 

Hatchet intended for a handle. 
Switzerland. 



atorny. Brussel's edition, 1838, vol. II, p. 105. The skulls of the Danish queens, Dagmar, 
deceased in 1216, and Beengjard, deceased in 1221, whose tombs were examined in 1855, 
show also this ancient use. See Kongregavene I Ringstedkirkc, Kjoebenhavn, 1858. There 
are anatomists who consider the irregular use of the teeth as an effect of the crossing of 
races in modern times ; but, according to Mr. Steenstrup, this opinion is inadmissible. 



314 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 



obliquity of the cutting edge turned towards the person, the face A, 
which is then inwards, is found to be almost flat, whilst the opposite 
exterior face is much more convex. It would be the reverse if the 
instrument were held in the left hand, but keeping naturally the obli- 
quity of the knife edge towards the person. We remark also that 
the instrument thus held suits the right hand much better than the 
left. It is therefore evident that this hatchet-knife has been made 
intentionally and with forethought to be used by the right hand. 




Fig. 11. (i) 

Stone hatchet. Denmark. 



Other wedges, with more prismatic forms, with straighter edges, 
terminated at the other end, not by a point, but by a surface perpen- 
dicular to the longitudinal axis of the piece, were evidently designed 
to be fitted with the handles, to be used as hatchets, properly speaking. 
Finally the stone hatchets, bored transversely for the introduction of 
a handle in the manner of our woodmen's axes, might possibly have 
been intended for some particular use, for they are found much more 
rarely than the others. We are, however, able to prove directly, that 
the knives of the age of stone were, at least partly, composed of these 
wedges ; they are, with the exception of the chisels and gouges, the 
only instruments of flint with a cutting edge produced by the grind- 
stone ; 1 and we have seen that the marks of knives on the bones of the 
Kjoekkenmoedding came from instruments sharpened by grinding, 
which were, therefore, necessarily the wedges alluded to. The splin- 
ters of flint, usually called knives, appear to have served as saws. 




Fig. 12. (i) 

Hatchet-knife of hronze. Denmark. 



It would seem that the Greenland knife was still in use during the 



1 In high antiquity they were only acquainted merely with the fixed grindstone which is 
often found. The rotary grindstone only makes its appearance later. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 



315 



age of bronze, for certain specimens, both from Italy and from Switzer- 
land and the North, have something like winglets or very narrow 
flanges, which run along nearly the whole length of the haft; and the 
purpose of which has clearly been to render the latter more adaptable 
to the hand without any handle. We may also remark that the cut- 
ting edge presents a greater convexity, and it sometimes actually 
becomes a semicircle, which assimilates these specimens to the crescent- 
shaped knives of the saddler. The edges of the bronze hatchets, so 
called, are generally much less convex and straighter. 






Fig. 13. (i) 

Bronze hatchet-knife. 

Switzerland. 



Fig. 14. (i) Fig. 15. 

(paalstab.) (celt.) 

Bronze hatchets for handles. 



(I) 



Nevertheless, in consequence of their weight and of the direction of 
their cutting edge, the Greenland shaped knives of stone and bronze 
cauld be used perfectly well for cutting, either like a knife, a chisel, or 
a hatchet. They constitute, therefore, an instrument which one might 
call a hatchet-knife, that must have been very effective, and which we 
do not have nowadays in use. 

The Subject of Domestic Animals is of equal importance with that 
of the human races, and is scarcely less interesting. It is extremely 
remarkable that we are able to establish progressive physical improve- 
ment in animals that have been subjected to the influence of man. 
The dog affords us the most striking example of this. _ 

In Denmark they have thought they could recognize three distinct 
types of races of dogs, corresponding to each of the three archaeological 
ages. Now the canine race of stone is the weakest and the most puny 
of limb ; the race of bronze is plainly stronger, but it is the race of iron 
that surpasses both the others. 1 The difference of the three races is, 
moreover, marked by the proportions of the apophyse coronoide. _ This 
bone is shorter in the dog of the stone age ; it is sensibly longer in the 
dog of the bronze age, and still longer in the dog of the iron age. 



*It is worthy of remark, that Indian dogs were renowned among the ancient Greeks. 



316 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 

The sheep was wanting in Denmark during the age of stone, and only 
makes its appearance witli the bronze. But this sheep of the bronze 
age has limbs so very slender, that in determining it from certain 
bones, we would not suppose it to be of the same species as our present 
sheep. 

It was known that the heaths of Jutland supported a race of very 
puny sheep. After three years' researches Mr. Steenstrup succeeded 
in obtaining a sample of them, but of which the race had undergone 
an increase of size. The bones of this sample are much more slender 
than those of the present sheep ; they hold a middle place between the 
sheep of the bronze age and ours. The pure race of the heaths of 
Jutland appears not to have been in existence for nearly two centu- 
ries. There was no material interest in preserving it, for it was small, 
and its fleece furnished a coarse wool, and slight in amount. 

The domestic ox only makes its appearance in Denmark with the 
age of bronze, but this ancient race was not as strong as ours. 

Neither does the horse appear in Denmark until the bronze age, and 
the horse of this age is also smaller than our present horse. As 
would appear, it was somewhat late before the horse began to be used 
for riding, at least for warlike purposes. Thus the Greeks do not 
seem to have made use of cavalry until towards the seventh century 
before our era. 1 

The other domestic species, the hog and the goat, remain still to be 
investigated. It is merely known, as we have already seen, that they 
were introduced into Denmark with the bronze age. 

In general there is not yet in Denmark, for the age of bronze, 
what the Kjoekkenmoeddhig furnish for the age of stone, namely : ver- 
itable well-arranged zoological museums, where we are sure to find 
nearly all the animals of the epoch brought together, without any 
mixture of any other fauna, either anterior or posterior. Nevertheless 
there have been already found at three points in the lowermost layers 
of the peat, on the edge of the Kjaermose, a considerable accumu- 
lation of bones, representing the fragments and refuse of meals, and 
belonging, judging from divers objects which accompany them, to the 
age of bronze. It is especially from these findings that the domestic 
animals of the age of bronze have been determined, and they are evi- 
dently the most ancient domestic animals of Denmark, except the dog. 

By reference to Arabic documents, which the professor of Arabic, 
at Copenhagen, Mr. Meeren, has communicated to Mr. Steenstrup, the 
latter informs us that they began to tame the cat in the East towards 
the seventh century. It was not yet generally distributed there in the 
twelfth century, and it appears to have traveled into Europe shortly 
after, at that remarkable epoch when European civilization again 
received a powerful impulse from the East. 

We frequently imagine that we discover the original stock of our 
domestic cat in the wild cat of Europe, but it is not the same species, 
although very nearly so, and rather difficult to distinguish by the 
skeleton. Connoisseurs, therefore, affirm that our wild cat does not 
cross with the domestic cat. 

1 Minutoli, Abhandungcn Vermischten Inhaltcs. Berlin, 1831, vol. I, p. 129. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 317 



IV. PHYSICAL CHANGES. 

The animal kingdom and the vegetable kingdom are not the only 
ones that have had their vicissitudes. Physical nature has also un- 
dergone sensible changes in the north. 

Eenmark. — We have seen that the geographical distribution of the 
Kjoekkenmoedding indicated an encroachment of the sea upon a large 
portion of the exterior shores, which have been eaten away and grad- 
ually swallowed up. This action appears to have been quite consid- 
erable in certain districts. We have seen that, on other points the 
Kjoekkenmoedding indicate an invasion of the domain of the waters by 
the dry land, either by embankments, beaches, or alluviums in gen- 
eral, or again by the encroachments of bog. These latter have been very 
considerable, both in the domain of the Iresh waters and in that of the 
salt water, in the fjords, arms of the sea, and other low grounds of 
that kind. 

It has thus been recognized that Jutland had been anciently trav- 
ersed from end to end by many fjords and arms of the sea, which then 
made this region an archipelago, composed of numerous islands in- 
dependent of each other. Nowadays there is only the Liimfjord, 
which traverses the country from the Kattegat to the North Sea, and 
even its mouth into the latter, the canal of Agger, is very narrow and 
shallow, allowing only small craft to enter; it even threatened to close 
up entirely in the spring of 1859. 

Seeland also was cut up by fjords and arms of the sea. Thus, in 
the middle ages, they sailed up to Slangerup, which was then a sea- 
port. Now the arm of the sea is supplanted by a brook, running from 
Slangerup, along a distance of seven kilometers (four statute miles) 
before it enters the Isefjord, near Frederiksund. 

Tradition relates that a naval combat took place on the spot now 
occupied by Lake Tiis, in Seeland. Tlie fleets must have come from the 
north and from the southwest, for this spot must then have formed 
part of a fjord that traversed from end to end the western region of 
Seeland. Nowadays Lake Tiis communicates with the sea merely by 
means of a brook. In this case, as in that of Slangerup, it is the 
peat-bogs that have brought about the change. 

The great swamp called Lille Vildmose, situated at the eastern 
mouth of the Lumtjord, on the southern shore, has given occasion to a 
curious observation, recorded in the memoir already alluded to of Mr. 
Steenstrup on the peat-bogs. Its area must have formed anciently a 
marine flat, for dead oysters are found on it in situ. Later this flat 
was separated from the sea by a shore line which the latter threw up ; 
this held back the out-flow of the waters and formed a lagune, where 
the peat gained ground so last that the whole ended by being con- 
verted into a vast boggy, fresh-wafer marsh. In 1760 they bored 
through the shore line to enable the waters to escape, and thus to 
regain their former level. The area of a number of small lakes was 
thus drained dry, and it was found that these latter represented so 
many little ancient islands, on which the peat had not been able to 
get a footing, and which were now bounded all around their contour, 



318 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

by a wall of peat from six to ten feet high. But what is the most 
curious is that there were found on these ancient islands burial- 
tumuli belonging to the age of bronze. 

It is not only at this point that the formation of a shore-line by the 
action of the waves has been of some importance. It must have played 
a great part in the history of the changes of the soil in Denmark, 
particularly in Jutland, where it has combined to form the "downs." 

Decrease of the Saltness of the Sea. — This we have seen proved 
as regards the interior waters of the Kattegat by the mollusks of the 
Kjoekkenmoedding . It may be owing to two different causes. First, 
to the fact that the communication between the Kattegat and the 
North sea has sensibly diminished by the accessions of land in Jut- 
land, which were alluded to ; but it may also be consequent upon the 
great mass of fresh water continually poured into the Baltic by the 
rivers, for there is no sea that has, in proportion to its size, so great 
an affluence of fresh water. This circumstance establishes a sensible 
difference between the sea-bathing outside and inside of the Sound. 
The further we go towards the interior of the Baltic, the more the 
saltness of the sea diminishes. Thus, at Rostock, it is no more 
than half of that of the North Sea at Aurich, 1 and at the bottom of 
the Gulf of Bothnia, it is scarcely brackish. In the Sound and in 
the Belt may be observed decided currents. In the Sound, which is 
the best known of these straits, there are on the average twelve days 
of current going out of the Baltic, for five days of current coming in. 
This excess is no doubt compensated for, partially at least, by the cur- 
rents of the Great Belt. But it may be, that the efflux from the 
Baltic is so much greater than the influx, that in the long run the 
saltness of its waters becomes less and less. 

It might be objected, that if this effect had made itself so sensible 
since the appearance of man in the north, the waters ought to have 
become much fresher during the later ante-human ages, so that the 
primitive population would already have found no oysters in the in- 
terior of the Kattegat. To this it may be answered, that formerly 
there was a communication between the White Sea and the Baltic, 
which was not closed long before the arrival of man. 

Level of the Land. — The situation of the Kjoekkenmoedding proves 
that there has been no permanent change of any importance in the 
general elevation of the dry land in Denmark, since the coming of 
man. For if the non-stratified Kjoekkenmoeding , of which a great 
many descend only to ten feet above the present level of the sea, had 
formerly been a few feet lower, they would have been reached by the 
waves, during rough weather, and their interior would be partially 
stratified at these points. On the other hand, if the shore had been 
more elevated than nowadays the Kjoekkenmoedding on the shores, 
that have a stratified construction, could never have been reached by 
the waves. 



1 The hydrological data are taken from the excellent work Der Danische Staat von A., v. 
Baggeson. Copenhagen, 1845. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 319 

The Danish savans are, however, disposed to admit a slight up- 
heaving of the land, because at certain points, as, for instance, at 
Bilidt. near Frederikssund, the stratified Kjoekhenmoedding are now 
above the reach of the waves. But at Bilidt these layers are very near 
the present shore, and it might be that the sand-banks of the Isefjord 
had reduced the intensity of the motion of the sea. As to what con- 
cerns points outside of the Isefjord, it is necessary to consider what 
follows. At present the tide produces a difference of level of merely 
one and a half feet in the Kattegat. 1 On the shores of the northwest 
of Jutland this difference amounts to two feet, and on the western 
shore of Schleswig and Holstein it reaches nine feet. But the action 
of winds and storms is much more powerful than that of the tide. 
Thus the westerly winds, by driving back the waters of the North 
Sea into the Kattegat, produce differences of level that amount in the 
Sound to four feet. On the island of Foehr (western coast of Schles- 
wig,) the same causes produce sometimes a depression of the water of 
four feet below their ordinary level, whilst at the same point there 
was in 1825 a rise of the sea (sturmfluth) of twenty-five feet above the 
mean level, a total of twenty-nine feet difference of level at this point, 
owing to the action of the winds. Now, the northern extremity of 
Jutland is like a dyke, a spur, protecting, partially at least, the Katte- 
gat against the violence of the waters of the North sea. But anciently 
Jutland was an archipelago, affording an easy passage to the sea and 
establishing a communication, now intercepted at these points, be- 
tween the North sea and the Kattegat. It is quite possible, therefore, 
that there may have been formerly a greater unity of action between 
the movements of these seas, with their dependent domains. 

Sweden. — It has been thought that at Malmoe, opposite Copen- 
hagen, there had been a depression of the soil, because street pave- 
ments were found there one over another. But this repetition of pave- 
ments is easily explained by the vicissitudes of war. When, after a 
siege or a partial devastation, a city was rebuilt, they did not take the 
trouble to remove the rubbish ; the ground was leveled and buildings 
were erected on the ruins of previous constructions. Thence a verita- 
ble superposition of layers in regular chronological order, as in the 
strata of which the crust of the globe is composed. 

Mention has also been made of peat-bogs containing antiquities of 
the age of stone and covered over with embankments of marine forma- 
tion, (Jceravall,) in the south of Sweden. But it appears that the 
fact requires confirmation, just as that of the cottage buried under 
sixty feet of marine deposit, which was said to have been discovered 
when digging the canal of Soclertelje, near Stockholm. 

Geological Antiquity of Man. — It has already often been supposed 
that proofs of this had been found in other countries, but they have 
always been unreliable. Thus the discovery made by Lund, in the 
caverns of Brazil, of human skulls having incisive teeth with edges 
parallel to instead of transverse to the axis of the mouth, which skulls 



1 Baggesen. Already quoted. 



320 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

were supposed to be associated with certain animal species now extinct, 
was based on a misunderstanding. 1 This was the result arrived at 
from the investigations of Dr. Beinhard, whom the Royal Museum of 
Copenhagen sent to the spot to complete the observations of Lund on 
the living and fossil fauna of Brazil. It would seem, moreover, that 
the account of this singular fact came from a third party, who must 
have erroneously stated what Lund himself had doubtless not pro- 
perly explained. 

The discovery made in the State of Missouri by Koch, who dug out 
the Hydrarchos and the Zenglodon, and the remains of a Mastodon, 
which was said to have been killed by man, might well be explained by 
the customs of the modern Indians, who often make use of any kind 
of bones, as well as of stones, to build their fire-places and other con- 
structions of that nature. 2 

Allusions have been made to antique burial places found under an 
intact covering of lava at Marino, near Albano, in the States of the 
Church, although there are now in those countries only extinct vol- 
canoes. But it appears that these tombs had been excavated in gal- 
leries by entering laterally under the ancient coating of lava. Such 
is, at least, the opinion of Professor Ponzi at Rome, a geologist of 
great merit, and of Mr. Pietro Rosa, an archaeologist in great estima- 
tion with the Germans. 3 

The caverns containing bones in France and Belgium have given 
rise to long discussions, on account of the mixture they seem to pre- 
sent, of ancient human remains and supposed fossil bones. The fact 
that they have, from all time, and especially in the age of stone, been 
used as dwellings and places of security by man, complicates very 
much the question, which has not yet been decided in a definite manner. 

The bone caverns of the South of France, among others that of 
Mialet, (Basses-ctvennes,) have been carefully explored by Mr. Emilien 
Dumas, who has arrived at the following conclusions : First, that man, 
the bear, (Ursus spelceics , Blum,) and the hyena {hyaena spelcea, Groldf. ,) 
have certainly not inhabited these caverns at the same time; second, 
that the most ancient remains of industry which are found in them 
are of flint, cut into the shape of little hatchets, and very coarse pot- 
tery altogether similar to that of the lacustrine habitations of the age 
of stone in Switzerland. 

Finally, much has been said about human bones, found under the 
product of an eruption of the Mountain of Denise, an extinct volcano 
of the Puy en Velay, in France. The discussion bore especially on 
the determination of the bones, which were at last recognized as really 
appertaining to man. But it appears that their burial at this point 
was posterior to the epoch of the activity of the volcano, and that it is 
explained by a land-slip. Moreover, the volcanoes of Auvergne and 
the Vivarais must have been still in operation at a quite recent geo- 
logical epoch; for, in the diluvium of the valley of the Rhone, M. 

1 Memoirs of the Society of Antiquaries of the North, 1845, 1847, p. 49. D'Jlrchiac, 
History of the Progress of Geology, II, 382. 

2 The author has had the opportunity of questioning Mr. Koch in person. 
8 Communicated by Mr. Gauden, at Lausanne. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 321 

Euiilien Dumas finds only peridotous basalt proceeding from the an- 
cient veins, and no felspathic basalt, peculiar to volcanoes with craters 
and tap-holes. 

As a proof of the prodigious antiquity of man, the following fact, 
observed by Mr. Nilsson, is also sometimes stated. This savant has 
deposited in the museum of Jund a lance-head of silex of the age of 
stone, which had been re-touched since it was first cut in ancient times ; 
this, however, is not an uncommon case. But, what had never been 
previously remarked, was, that before having been re-cut, and after 
having been first made, it had grown white on the surface, as has 
happened frequently to ancient specimens. Now, it was believed that 
silex required a very long time to thus whiten, and it was concluded 
that this lance-head must already have been very ancient when it was 
found and re-cut in the age of stone. But Mr. Steenstrup has observed 
numerous cases of silex very much whitened in a few years, as it were, 
under his own eyes, and by natural means. This depends merely on 
local and peculiar circumstances of position. The lance-head in ques- 
tion therefore proves nothing. 



V. COMPARISON OF THE NORTH WITH SWITZERLAND. 1 

We do not here entertain any idea of writing a treatise on the 
Archeology of Switzerland ; our intention is merely to bring out the 
rather remarkable features of resemblance and correspondence that 
Switzerland presents with the North. 

In Switzerland, the three ages of stone, of bronze, and of iron, are 
quite as well represented as in Scandinavia, but the most important 
discoveries in this order of things are of tolerably recent date. 

Lacustrine Habitations. — It is some years since there were found in 
the lakes of Switzerland, 2 at certain points where the water is only from 
five to fifteen feet deep, piles corroded and worn, sometimes not above 
the level of the bottom, and therefore very ancient. In these localities 
the bottom of the water is strewn and sown with various antiquities, 
sometimes almost like the glass cases of a museum, in disorder. When 
the whole matter is examined with some degree of attention, we easily 
recognize that we are in the presence of the remains of ancient lacustrine 
dwellings, of constructions, of townsor villages, built upon piles, and then 
destroyed and forgotten for ages. There are lacustrine habitations of the 
pure age of stone, wherein, among hundreds of articles of stone, of horn, 



1 At the museum of Copenhagen there are in the corresponding divisions special series of 
Swiss antiquities of the age of stone, of the age of bronze, and of the first age of iron, well 
fitted for a comparative study. In Switzerland, the collections of Mr. Troyon and of the 
author present material for establishing the same comparisons. One may also obtain an idea 
of the subject by studying the two following works: G. de Bonstellen, Collection of Swiss 
Antiquities, Berne, 1855, folio; and Worsaae, Jifbildningtr fra (let Kongelige Museum for Nor 
diske Oldsager; Kjoebehhavn, 1854. 

2 The discovery by Dr. P. Keller of the lacustrine habitations in Switzerland (at Meilen) 
dates from January, 1854. 

21 



322 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

of bone, or of wood, there has not been found the smallest vestige of 
any metal whatsoever, either of iron or even of bronze. Such is, for 
instance, the piled locality in the littoral bog of the very small lake of 
Moosseedorf, near Hofwyl, at two leagues from Berne, which has been 
examined with great talent by Dr. Uhlmann, at Miinchenbuchsee. 1 
Such is also the very extensive piling at Waugen in Lake Constance, 
near Stein, discovered and examined by a very intelligent peasant ot 
the place, who had been specially taught and directed by Dr. Ferdinand 
Keller, the leader of the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich. It was also 
Dr. Keller who published the first general essay on the lacustrine 
habitations of ancient Helvetia, describing the piling at Meilen in the 
Lake of Zurich, and who has thus-opened the path in this direction. 2 

The locality of Meilen presents the same assemblage of objects, the 
same character as Moosseedorf and Waugen, and belongs therefore 
also to the age of stone. But the presence of two specimens in bronze, 
a paltry little bronze bracelet of great simplicity and a bronze hatchet- 
knife of the lightest kind, proves that here the lacustrine establishment 
of the primitive population lasted until the commencement of the in- 
troduction of bronze into Switzerland. Meilen has also furnished a 
very small number of stone hatchets with holes in them for handles, 
articles which are entirely deficient at Moosseedorf, where stone hatch- 
ets without holes are abundant, as also at Meilen. 

Elsewhere we have pile-works of the age of bronze in full develop- 
ment. One of the most remarkable places belonging to this category 
is situated in the Lake of Bienne, between Bienne and Nidau. It is 
called the Steinberg by the fishermen, who have long known it, as 
they have generally all these ancient pile-works, because they cannot 
cast their nets in them, on account of their liability to be torn. The 
Steinberg has been examined by the most active of the collectors in 
Switzerland, Colonel Schwab, at Bienne. Another remarkable place 
is the pile-work of the age of bronze at Morges, examined by M. 
Forel. We may form some idea of the richness of these localities, 
when we are told, that the Steinberg alone has contributed 500 bronze 
hair-pins, and that at Morges have been fished up forty bronze hatchets, 
without counting many other objects of the same metal. 

Lastly a ver} r recent discovery of M. Schwab's leads to the presump- 
tion that there have been in Lake Neufchatel lacustrine habitations of 
the age of iron. The indefatigable collector has found there, together 
with the gallic sword of iron, hatchets of iron, shaped like those of 
bronze, and which are evidently remains of the age of bronze, charac- 
terizing the beginning of the age of iron. 

The existence of lacustrine constructions in Europe, after the intro- 
duction of iron, is confirmed by the following narrative of Herodotus: 
"The Pa3onians of Lake Prasias (probably now Lake Takinos, in the 



1 A. John and J. Uhlmann. Die Pfahlbanalterthiimer von Moosseedorf. Berne, 1857. 

2 F. Keller. Die Kelteschen Pfahlbauten en den Schwerzerseen. Memoirs of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Zurich; 1854. 

F. Keller.' Pfahlbauten, Zweiter Bericht. Memoirs of the Society of Antiquaries, of 
Zurich; 1858. 

See also the eighth article of Mr. Troyon in the Guide to Swiss History and Antiquity 
Zurich, June 1858. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 323 

province of Eoumelia, Turkey in Europe) could not be entirely con- 
quered, (by Megabyzes, towards 520 before Christ.) Their houses are 
thus constructed: On very high stakes, driven into the lake are placed 
planks joined together; making a platform to which a very narrow 
bridge is the only causeway. * * * * Q n one f these 
platforms a hut is erected with a trap door well fitted which leads 
down into the lake." (Herod. V., 16.) 

Remains of ancient lacustrine habitations have been discovered in 
the Lake of Annecy, in Savpy. In Ireland the name of crannoges 
is given to constructions that assume the form of more or less arti- 
ficial islands, that served as places of ~ refuge in times of political 
troubles until the seventeenth century. 1 Similar ancient artificial 
islands have also been observed in Switzerland. There is one in the 
center of the very small Lake of Inkwyl, between Herzogenbuchsee 
and Soleure. 2 There is likewise one in the center of the small 
.Lake of Nussbaumcn, a lea"gue to the south of Stein, in Thurgovia. 
Remains of lacustrine habitations must have been found in Brande- 
bourg and in the peat-bogs of Hanover, and even their existence in 
Canada is spoken of. They seem to be indicated in Denmark by the 
abundance of antiquities in the bog-formations, many of which have 
commenced by being shallow lakes. In a peat-bog (especially at Vau- 
gede, Brogaard, three leagues from Copenhagen) Mr. Steenstrup ob- 
served not only various antique instruments, but also fragments of 
pottery, coals, and broken bones bearing the marks of knives. He 
had thence come to the conclusion that man must have lived there in 
a stationary condition. As the locality was originally a lake of no great 
depth, it is all but evident that there was formerly a lacustrine habi- 
tation there. 

Lastly, Messrs. Herbst and Steenstrup have just been making obser- 
vations tending to the presumption that there were during the age 
of stone, habitations on piles in the marine bay of Noer, near Kor- 
soer, in Seeland. This need not astonish us, as Dumont d'Urville 
describes and delineates villages built on piles in the sea at the harbor 
of Dorei, in New Guinea. 3 

When man stationed himself thus on piles, all the refuse of his 
industry and the fragments of his food were naturally thrown into the 
lake, where they were particularly well preserved, especially when 
they became gradually buried up in the peat and mud. These locali- 
ties represent therefore for Switzerland the Kjoekkenmoedding of the 
north, and, in certain respects, surpass them, since the preservation 
of the substances is more thorough, and because they frequently con- 
tained, not only simple refuse, but likewise a number of excellent 
specimens. When such an establishment was surprised and burnt 
by the enemy, a thing that must have happened occasionally, what a 
quantity and variety of objects must there not have been swallowed 
up by the waters for the benefit of archeology ! 



1 Wilde. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. April, 1S3G; p. 220. 

2 Thc lake and its island arc quite visible from the railway which passes near by. 

3 Dumont d'Urville. History IV., p. 607. 



324 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 

Reason for the lacustrine habitations. — The question is often pro- 
pounded, what motive sufficiently powerful could impel the ancient 
people of Switzerland thus to station themselves on the water at great 
expense of trouble and labor. 

Without pretending to decide this most embarrassing question, it will 
perhaps not be uninteresting to allude to the following circumstances. 

The Eomans must have introduced north of the Alps the art of 
masonry with stone and mortar, and that of burning bricks and tiles, 
for we find nothing like it in Switzerland connected with previous 
times. Before the invasion of the Eoman element (fifty-eight before 
Christ) there would therefore have been no constructions except of 
earth and wood, such as in fact Ca?sar found among the Gauls, whose 
civilization was the same as that of the Helvetians. But such con- 
structions are always liable to be overthrown or fired. Now, a lacus- 
trine habitation, as soon as the narrow bridge which connected it with 
the main land was intercepted, was no fonger accessible except by. 
boats, whose approach it was easy to prevent by means of stockades or 
rows of piles level with the water. This must have transformed these 
establishments into citadels almost impregnable, and much more safe 
than any construction of the times on the main land. When the 
water froze in winter, a space of broken ice could easily be kept open 
all round. This would prevent the crossing of wild animals, most 
dangerous during the winter season, whilst among savage tribes, as 
well as among civilized nations, hostilities are carried on by preference 
during summer. 

We can conceive, therefore, how great was the importance with 
which these lacustrine, habitations must have been invested in high 
antiquity. 

Keversing the question, we shall be led to see in the abundance in 
Switzerland of lacustrine habitations of the age of stone and of the age 
of bronze an indication that during those times the population of the 
country was divided into a multitude of independent tribes, often at 
war among themselves. With the age of iron a social organization 
of a much superior character and a certain centralization 1 seem to have 
caused in Helvetia the cessation of the petty internal wars and the sub- 
stitution of great enterprises against a common enemy. 2 Thencefor- 
ward the lacustrine habitations lost a great deal of their importance; 
and thus we see them becoming very scarce at this epoch. If analogous 
establishments were maintained to a later time in Ireland, it is because 
intestine wars afflicted the country longer., and perhaps more generally 
than in any other part of Europe, 

Age of Stone. — Let us see what the localities of the lacustrine habi- 
tations of this age, in Switzerland, have produced. 

The pile- work of Moosseeclorf has furnished an abundance of broken 
bones of animals. We find that here, as in the north, man has split 

• , 

1 A Roman inscription, preserved in the Maison do Ville of Lausanne, speaks of an Hel- 
vetian parliament, (conventus helvetiorum.) 

2 Witness the remarkable expedition of the Helvetians, which met with such a sad over- 
throw at the battle of Bibracte before the irresistible genius of Cfesar, in the year fifty-eight 
before the Christian era. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 325 

open all the hollow hones to extract the marrow from them. Only the 
hollow hones of ruminating animals, whose interior is separated in two 
by a longitudinal partition do not present themselves here split in the 
direction of their length, and in that of this partition, as is the case 
in the Kjoekkenmoedding of Denmark. They are split irregularly and 
in every way. Many specimens hear the mark of the instrument with 
which the game has been cut up when it was eaten ; but we perceive 
that these instruments were not provided with as good a cutting-edge 
as the knives and wedges of the primitive inhabitants of Denmark. 
The fact is that in Switzerland the fine flint of the north is not to be 
had, it was replaced by serpentine and dioritic stone. Notwithstand- 
ing this, the points of the piles of Moosseedorf, which show every 
stroke of the hatchet, as if had but just been made, bear witness to the 
skill with which the stone instrument was handled, and to the effect 
that might be produced by means of it. We might sometimes almost 
•believe that the strokes had been make by steel hatchets, if we did not 
know otherwise. 

The aggregate of the instruments and utensils of Moosseedorf 1 cor- 
respond generally with what is found in the North. We see espe- 
cially the same stone hatchets, large and small, and again the same 
splinters of flint. Only Switzerland, being very poor in flint adapted 
to be worked up, the ancient splinters that one meets there, as well at 
Moosseedorf as elsewhere, have frequently been brought from other 
parts far distant, among others, to all appearance, from the south of 
France. This circumstance tends to establish the fact, that there 
already existed, in the age of stone, commercial relations between the 
different parts of Europe. At Meilen, at the Steinberg of Bienne, and 
at Moosseedorf, there have even been found some hacking knives and 
wedges of a kind of nephrite, which appears to be foreign to Europe, 
and which might very possibly have come from the East. The same 
base occurs in other countries. Thus a tumulus in Normandy has 
also furnished a hatchet of oriental nephrite. 2 

At Moosseedorf and at Wauwyl the layer of peat which incloses the 
remains of the industry of the lacustrine habitations of the age of 
stone, overlies immediately a whitish, marly, calcareous, tufous de- 
posit, containing an abundance of palustrine shells, but without signs 
of man, unless it be the pointing of the piles, which have often been 
driven into this inferior deposit. 

At Moosseedorf we find besides an abundance of chisels, awls, and 
divers pointed tools of bone, next stag horns carved, very coarse pot- 
tery, charcoal, and finally shapeless pebbles, but which are broken in 
such a manner as to present edges and angles, evidently indicating 
projectiles, like those of the North. 

The same assemblage of objects is reproduced at Waugen, on Lake 
Constance. 3 

1 Tho museum of Berne possesses a fine collection of them. Dr. Uhlmann, at Miinchen- 
buchsee, near Berne, has also a handsome collection of them. 

-Mnnifaucon, Antiq. Expl.T. V., vol. II, p. 194. Quoted by F. Keller. Nephrite must 
have been in great request, because it combines greathardness with agreater toughness than 
that of silex, which shivers so easily. 

3 Collection of articles from Waugen, in the museum of Zurich, where there also found 
series from Meilen. 



326 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

The lance heads of silex, so common in the North, are not found at 
Moosseedorf and at Waugen. On the other hand we find there 
arrow heads of flint, and sometimes even of rock crystal, only they 
are in general less delicately fashioned than in the North, where the 
art of working the silex was pushed to the highest degree of perfec- 
tion, doubtless because the raw material was found there in all its 
beauty. 

At Moosseedorf little stone wedges, fitted longitudinally into deer- 
horn handles, pointed at the other end, constitute excellent knives, 
with transverse edges, after the Greenland pattern. Stronger wedges 
inserted in one end of a large deer antler, the other end of which had 
been cut into a mortice, to receive in its turn a transverse wooden 
handle, represented hatchets properly so called. At Waugen these 
wedges have also been found, fitted simply into handles, made of 
pieces of roots or crooked branches. A similar specimen, in perfect 
preservation, was found latterly near Halle, in Prussia, and can be 
seen in the museum of that town. 1 





Fig. 16. (A) Fig. 17 (!) 

Hatchet with a handle. Switzerland. Split stone with a handle. Switzerland. 

Splinters of silex from Waugen and from Moosseedorf, fitted late- 
rally into wooden handles, in the cleft of which they were fixed by means 
of pitch still in preservation, evidently represent saws. They are, if 
not neatly toothed, at least tolerably crenelated, so as to be as capable 
of sawing as they are incapable of cutting or cleaving. Moreover 
there is nothing else in Switzerland that could have been used as a 
saw, whilst bones, deer horn, and even stone, are frequently found 
with the mark of this instrument. In the North the saw is often rep- 
resented by pieces of flint in the shape of a crescent, of fine workman- 
ship, sometimes with well-defined teeth ; but this kind is wanting 
altogether in Switzerland. Here, on the other hand, the splinters of 
flint are frequently crenelated, whilst in the museums of the North 
they are sometimes seen with a natural edge quite sharp and fresh, as 
if they had not yet been used. 

At Waugen and at Moosseedorf have been found hatchets and wedges 
of stone, especially of serpentine, bearing the mark of a saw. As the 
rock did not split with a blow, as silex does, they were obliged to 
resort to the much more laborious alternative of the saw to shape their 
implements. Pieces commenced and others half finished display 
clearly the manner of procedure. Having chosen a rounded pebble of 
the desired rock, they began by sawing into it grooves of some milli- 
metres (about four hundredths of an inch) in depth, which cleterm- 



1 Communicated by Mr. Silvius Chevannes. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON AKCELEOLOGY. 327 

ined so many tolerably regular planes of cleavage. They continued 
frequently the process of smoothiug by means of a piece of quartz, and 
they gave the last finish with grindstones of different degrees of fine- 
ness. 

Marks of the process by the aid of the saw do not yet appear to 
have been observed in the North, where the raw material, the flint, 
was roughed down and fashioned so well, simply by cleaving, that 
nothing was left to the grindstone but to give a finish to certain pieces. 

The huts or cabins of the lacustrine establishments appear to have 
been of a round shape, and constructed of lattice or wicker-work daubed 
with clay in the interior; for there have been found fragments of vari- 
ous sizes of this interior coating calcined, doubtless by conflagration, 
and very well preserved, so that they display the interlacing of the 
twigs. The same mode of construction was still in use among the 
Gauls in the time of Cresar ; it is seen represented among the bas-re- 
liefs of the column of Antoninus. 

At Waugen, pieces of cord and shreds of tissues, made from a vege- 
table substance difficult to determine accurately, but resembling hemp 
and flax, settle the question of the ancient cultivation of a textile 
plant. The tissue being plaited and not woven in a weaver's loom, 
it seems that this latter was not yet invented. A most unexpected 
circumstance, but perfectly authenticated, is the presence of carbon- 
ized grain at Moosseedorf, and that as far down as the bottom of the 
peat layer containing ancient objects, exclusively belonging to the 
age of stone. At Waugen the same discovery was made of carbon- 
ized grain, and in great quantity, at a place which appears to have 
been the locality of an ancient storehouse which was burned. Pro- 
fessor Oswald Heer, at Zurich, the author of one of the finest works 
on fossil flora, has examined this grain from Waugen, and has pro- 
nounced it to be the ordinary wheat, (Trilicum vidgare,) the starch 
wheat, or " grandeepeautre," (Triticum dicoccum,) and double-headed 
barley, (Hordium distickon.) Therefore the population of the age of 
stone, occupying the lacustrine habitations of Switzerland, raised 
crops of grain. 1 

This fact might lead us to admit of a second age of stone, subsequent 
to that of the KjoekJcenmoedding, if it were proved that the people who 
accumulated these heaps of shells on the coast of Denmark were not 
acquainted with agriculture. 2 

Age of Bronze. — As to what concerns this age, the objects of metal 
which characterize it in the north, present the greatest analogy with 



r There have also been found at Waugen quarters of apples and of the wild pear, (Pyrus 
malus and Pyrus communis.) They have been carbonized by fire, which had thus insured 
their perfect preservation. At Moosseedorf Mr. Uhlraann found the|water-cal trop, (Trapa 
natans, L,) which has now almost disappeared in Switzerland. As to the presence at Wau- 
gen of beech nuts, (Fhgus silvatica,) of pine cones, (Pinus silvetlris,) and the seeds of the 
raspberry and blackberry, (Rubus idceus and Robusfruticusus,) there is nothing surprising in 
it. But the most abundant fruit of the lacustrine habitations of the age of stone in Switzer- 
land is the filbert, (Conjlus avellana.) 

2 Mr. Heer has just discovered the carbonized fruit of flax (Linum usitatissimum) in the 
lacustrine establishments of the age of stone, at Waugen and at Robenhausen, (lake of 
Pfoeffikon,)and well characterized fragments of extremely coarse carbonized bread, found by 
Mr. Messikommer, at Robenhausen. 



328 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 

those of Switzerland. We see the same hatchets and hatchet-knives, 
the same swords, the same bracelets, and with the same ornaments, 
save some slight local variations such as one observes everywhere. We 
recognize evidently a tolerably uniform civilization during this age 
throughout central Europe ; and this is conceivable, inasmuch as a reg- 
ular trade must necessarily have furnished Europe with tin, which is 
found only in so few places, and which, with about ten times its weight . 
of copper, constituted the ancient bronze, as we have stated in our 
" Considerations Generates. " 

First Age of Iron. — The ante-Roman age of iron, that is, previous 
to the introduction of civilization into the country; and which we, after 
the antiquaries of the North, shall call the first age of iron; was recog- 
nized in Switzerland only a few years ago. 1 

The most important discovery belonging to this epoch was made at 
the Tiefenau, near Berne. 2 A wide excavation in what has evidently 
been a battle field brought to light an abundance of objects of iron, 
such as the iron work of chariots, including the tires of wheels; next, 
various arms, among the rest nearly a hundred Gallic swords, long, 
straight, double-edged, with a rounded extremity, and without guard 
or croisiire; and again, fragments of iron coats-of-mail, bridle bits, 
and harness gear, but no horseshoes, although there was no lack of 
the bones of these animals. There were, besides, objects of bronze, 
such as clasps for mantles or fibula?, articles of glass, pottery of a 
rather coarse kind, but turned in the lathe, a little hand mill, and 
finally about thirty coins, which gave a peculiar value to the whole of 
the discovery. These coins are of bronze, cast, then stamped at Mar- 
seilles, of the best time of Greek art, (a head of Apollo, left side, 
crowned with laurel; on the reverse the superb tossing bull, under 
which we read in full letters MA22AAIHTQN,) then silver coins, 
stamped, gneco-massilian, (oboli,) stamped silver coins, Gallic bar- 
barian, with Macedonian and Marseillese prototype, and lastly, cast 
barbarian, pinch-beck coins, among which there are some that look as 
if they might be Helvetian. The presence of these coins, combined 
with the absence of all articles of Roman style, leaves no doubt as to 
the ante-Roman age of the articles discovered. 3 

The Tfefenau is not the only spot that has furnished objects of this 
epoch, which are far from being rare in Switzerland. Thus several 
tumuli, belonging to it, having been carefull} 7 searched by Messrs. 
Keller and Troyon, have revealed the custom of human sacrifices 
among the ancient Helvetians, who participated, therefore, in the san- 
guinary rites of the Gauls. 

It behooves us to remark here, that in addition to the foreign Mar- 
seillese and Gallic coins, they find also indigenous pieces of this epocli. 



1 The supposition that the Kjoekkenmoadding are anterior to the lacustrine habitations of the 
age of stone in Switzerland is also borne out by the presence in these latter of domestic ani- 
mals, which are wanting in the Kjoekkcnmoedding. 

2 Collection of articles in the museum of Berne. 

3 See the excellent article from Mr. John, in the Memoirs of the Historical Society of the 
Canton of Berne, II, 350, and in the Jahrbuch des Vcreines vonJllterthumsfreundenun Rheinland, 
XXI, 135. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 329 

They are of the same kind as the Gallic barbarian coins, but they bear 
the names of Helvetian chiefs, among whom is found that of Orgetorix, 
so well known through Cresar's narrative. The inscriptions on these 
coins, as well as certain rare lapidary inscriptions, are in Greek or 
Etruscan characters. 1 It is known, moreover, that Caesar found the 
Greek alphabet in use among the Helvetians. 

It is also but few years since the learned Danish archo3ologists, 
Messrs. Herbst and Worsaae, arrived on their part, and independently, 
at the recognition of this first age of iron in the North. 2 The corres- 
pondence that exists between the antiquities of this epoch in Denmark 
and in Switzerland is truly remarkable ; only they have not yet found 
in the former any Greek medals. This is natural enough, for being 
already tolerably scarce in Switzerland they would be still more so 
further North, where they may nevertheless yet be found some day. 
The only medals that have presented themselves hitherto in company 
with objects of this epoch are some pieces of Koman money of the first 
and second century of our era. As to the rest, we meet in the North 
with the same iron sword, without guard or croisiire, the same iron 
hatchet, shaped like the bronze hatchet, the same bridle bit, and even 
the same coat-of-mail, as in Switzerland. 

A remarkable circumstance is, that the iron arms of this epoch show 
in the North a forge workmanship of rare perfection, and which has 
probably never since been surpassed. Thus we meet with swords of 
beautifully damasked steel. 3 There are even some articles, such as 
lance-heads, that are ornamented with cheveron tracings, sometimes 
inlaid with silver, the whole in the style of the corresponding articles 
of the age of bronze, which denotes clearly the coomieneenrent of the 
age of iron. In Switzerland there is also superior workmanship, ob- 
served in certain specimens of this epoch. Thus one of the fragments 
of a coat-of-mail from the Tiefenau is formed of rings which are only 
five millimetres (0.2 inch) diameter, and which are forged with the 
greatest regularity, and the iron swords that M. Schwal found in Lake 
Neufchatel with iron hatchets shaped like the bronze hatchets, have 
iron scabbards admirably ornamented, in one case even with silver in- 
laying. 4 In other respects we see the same kind of mountings and 
scabbards as those of Tiefenau, where there has not, however, been 
found the iron hatchet of the same form as the one of bronze. 

Lastly, there is found — from the south of Italy, all through Switzer- 
land and Germany, as far as the North — certain bronze vases, orna- 
mented with figures of animals, of superior execution, and more rarely 



1 Mommsen . Nordetrueskische Alphabete . Memoirs of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Zurich', VII, 1853. 

2 Worsaue. Afbildninger fra det Kongelige Museum for Nordiske Oldsager ; Kjoeben- 
havn, 1854. 

3 Communicated to the author by Mr. Strunte, one of the learned and amiable conservators 
of the Museum of Antiquities at Copenhagen. 

Greek coins of Cyzicus, Egina, and Athens, many of which are of the most ancient stamp- 
ing and found in the Grand Duchy of Posen in Prussia, strongly bear out what is advanced 
concerning the ancient commercial relations of the North with the South and the East See 
Levezow, Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin, 1833, p. 204. 

* Sec the second memoir of Mr. Keller, already quoted, on the lacustrine habitations. 
Memoirs of the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich, vol. XII, sheet 3, plate III. 



330 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 



with human figures, less perfect; the whole in a style to a certain de- 
gree Etruscan or Archaic, and representing a state of art, a civiliza- 
tion which evidently preceded the Roman development. We do not 
mean thereby, that this civilization was anterior to the first times of 
Rome, which probably are connected with it; but merely, that in the 
country where it shows itself, it is anterior to the invasion of the Roman 
element, so called. It must have immediately preceded the latter and 
been superseded by it, so that we must occasionally find it in imme- 
diate contact with the Roman element itself. 

The most curious specimen of this Etruscan type found in Switzer- 
land is the bronze of Gneehwyl, preserved in the museum of Berne, 




Fig- 13- (?) 

Bronze from Gnechvvyl. Switzerland. 

and described by M. Jahn. 1 It is an ornament that was riveted to a 
bronze vase, of which there remained some fragments. It presents 
features of resemblance with the Assyrian style, for the drawing of 
the muscles in the legs of the lions, and that of the manes is in 'the 
manner of that of the bulls of Nineveh. 

As an example of the specimens of Germany, we may allude to the 
bronze vase of Mayence, preserved in the museum of Copenhagen, and 
ornamented with a handle (chasse) carved around its circumference; 
also another vase of the same kind found in Hanover and very well 
described by Mr. Einfeld. 2 



1 A. Jahn. Etruskische Alterthiimer gefunder in der Schweitz; Memoirs of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Zurich, vol. VIII, sheet 5; Zurich, 1852. See also Gerhard, Archaologische 
Zeitung; Berlin, 1854, p. 177. 

s Independent pamphlet without any date. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 



331 



Denmark itself lias furnished its contingent of specimens of this 
type, for example the bronze vase of Himlingoeie in Seeland, preserved 




Fig. 19. (i) 

Bronze Vase from Elimlinscpie. Denmark. 



in the museum of Copenhagen. We may also here speak of the bronze 
helmet-crest, found in the peat-bog of Yiemose, near Allesoe, in the 




Fig. 20. (i) 

Bronze crest, Denmark 



332 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 

island of Fyen, with a great quantity of various objects of the first 
age of iron, but also with some Eoman coins of the two first centuries 
of our era. 

Finally, the museum of antiquities of the south, at Copenhagen, 
contains bronze vases brought from Italy, which combine the characters 
of the specimens of Greechwyl with those of the vases of Mayence, of 
Hanover, and of Himlingceie. We find on them the same animals 
well executed ; human figures less skillfully drawn though expressive, 
the Greek helmet, the Etruscan palm-leaf, and the corresponding 
ornaments. 

It seems, therefore, that the first age of iron in Switzerland and in 
the North is connected with the epoch of civilization in Greece which 
preceded the times of Roman splendor. 

Human races. — The great subject of ancient human races is not 
yet much advanced in Switzerland. Scarcely anybody but M. Troyon 
has gathered materials for its solution. On examining his collection, 
which contained specimens from the first age of iron inclusive to the 
fifteenth century of our era, M. Retzius has grouped the skulls into 
several series, each of which represents a separate people. Thus there 
were found among them Etruscans, Celts, Goths, Sclaves, and Huns. 
The Goths, with whom are included the Burgundians, are about 
equal in number to the Celts and Romans. The Celts are more 
numerous than the Romans. The Etruscans, the Sclaves, and the 
Huns are merely exceptional. These races are precisely those 
which Mr. Troyon had already discovered to have formerly inhabited 
the country, merely by examining the remains of their industry, and 
without any reference to their skulls. 1 

Since the visit of Mr. Retzius in 1857, the collection of M. Troyon 
has been augmented by some skulls of the age of bronze, found in the 
neighborhood of Aigle and Sion. They represent the rounded type of 
the age of stone. But, on the other hand, the discovery in the same 
localities of numerous cubical tombs 2 so characteristic of the age of 
stone, and containing, nevertheless, an abundance of bronze, had 
Drought Mr. Troyon to the conclusion that at these points of the valley 
of the Rhone the primitive race of stone had continued to subsist 
during the age of bronze, whose civilization it adopted, saving what 
concerned the religious usages of burial. 3 

With the introduction of iron into Switzerland seems to correspond 
the arrival of this same race, which must have brought the civilization 
of the age of iron into the North. This is more or less indicated by the 
remarkable analogy of style above alluded to between the objects of 
the ante-Roman epoch of iron in Switzerland and those of the North. 
Moreover, a well preserved human skull, taken from a grave of the 
Tiefenau and plainly characterized by the articles found with it as 



1 Communicated by Mr. Troyon. 

2 Tombs of unwrought flag-stones, with an interior hollow two or three feet in length, 
and about the same in width and height, and in which the body has been placed in a bent 
position, say sitting. 

3 Troyon. Statistics of the Antiquities of Western Switzerland, fourth article. Guide to 
the History and Antiquities of Switzerland, Zurich, March, 1856. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 333 

having belonged to tliis first age of iron, presents exactly the same 
profile as the skull of Sanderumgaard, Fig. 8. The height of the 
Swiss skull is identically the same, and its length is also a little — 
about five millimetres (0.2 inch) — greater than that of the Danish 
skull. This skull from the Tiefenau is in the museum of Berne, with 
another one of the same age, less perfect; but presenting the same 
elongation fore and aft. 

If the cases of survival of the primitive human race are rare excep- 
tions, it is because the introduction of the civilization of the age of 
bronze appears to have been effected less by purely pacific intercourse 
than by means of a great social derangement, such as we have before 
alluded to when speaking.of the first appearance of domestic animals. 1 

We have, therefore, in the discovery of Aigle and Sion, one of these 
clearly defined cases of an ancient population continuing to exist in 
the mountains whilst it was disappearing in the open country, where 
it was supplanted by new-comers. 

It may very well be, that in Europe the succession of the three ages 
of stone, of bronze, and of iron, corresponds to the succession of three 
distinct human races, which successively supplanted each other with- 
out mixing or coalescing, something like what is taking place at the 
present day in North America, where the white race is driving out the 
red. For, if the distance that separates these two races is greater than 
the distances that we may suppose to have existed between the races 
that followed each other in Europe, this circumstance would be likely 
to have been greatly compensated by the greater ferocity of manners 
in ancient times, causing antagonisms of race sufficient to explain the 
extermination of the ancient people by the invaders. Lastly, the 
question is complicated by this other one not yet scientifically 
solved, namely: that of the unity of the human species. For, accord- 
ing to the observations of learned men of great merit, the perfectly 
distinct types of the human races, such as the white, the red, and the 
black, do not produce by their crosses an intermediary hybrid race, 
which can propagate and maintain itself in virtue of its own fecundity. 

Apropos of what is going on in America at the present day, we 
will quote the following passage, borrowed from a recently published 
work: 2 

" Civilization as it approaches them, takes no hold of these hordes, 
(the red men of the United States,) it drives them back, and crushes 
out the small remnant of life which is still in them. There is near 
Vancouver a territory where there formerly flourished a powerful 
tribe. The plow came one day and dug its furrow in that soil hith- 
erto untouched by the labor of man ; immediately fevers spread 
through the district, and nearly the whole Indian population was 
swept off. Such is the fate that civilization has in store for the red- 



1 Mr. N. G. Bruzelius has observed in Scania a similar case of a burial place of the age of 
bronze with a skull of the type of the age of stone. Annaler for nordisk Oldkyndighed og 
Historie. Kjoebenhavn. 

2 Paul Kane. Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America: London, 
1S59. Revue des deux Mondcs, of the 15th August, 1859. One perceives that it is an ar- 
tist who is painting; his coloring is vivid, but it does not follow that his outlines are false. 



334 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

skin.- Thrust backwards by European invasion, brutalized by the 
spirituous liquors which the whites bring to him, the Indian will 
retire further and further north ; he will fly until he finds himself 
stopped by the everlasting polar ice; there, after having cast his nets 
in vain and shot his last arrow, having no further hope but in the 
home promised by the Great Spirit, he will lie down on the snow, 
that will soon cover him with its winding sheet, and with him a whole 
race will disappear for ever from the face of the earth." 

Domestic Animal Races and Wild Species. — The subject of ani- 
mal species and races is more advanced in Switzerland than that of 
the human races. There have been a large number of bones col- 
lected, to the study of which the learned Professor Kutemeyer, of 
Basle, has specially devoted himself. The following is a summary of 
the results he has obtained up to this time. 1 

The pile-works of the age of stone of Wangen, (W.,) on Lake 
Constance, of Wanwyl, (W. W.,) in the canton of Lucerne, 2 and of 
Mosseedorf, (M.,) near Berne, have furnished, among domestic ani- 
mals : 

The Dog. — A very constant and uniform race in the various locali- 
ties ; it was rather small, its size being a medium between the hound 
and the pointer. 

/tt7 a? "" £ Small races. In all three localities. 
The IS keep. ) 

The Cow. — A small race, with greatly curved horns. Everywhere. 
The same localities have also furnished the following wild animals: 

The Brown Bear, (Ursus Arctus, L.,) M. 

The Badger, {Meles vulgaris, Desm.,) M. W. W. 

The Martin, {Mustela martes, Briss.,) M. W. W. 

The Polecat, {Mustela putorius , L.,) M. W. W. 

The Ermine, {Mustela hcrminea, L.,) W. W. i 

The Otter, {Lutra vulgaris, Erxl.,) M. 

The Wolf, {Canis lupus, L.,) W. W. W. 

The Fox, {Canis vulpes, L.) Everywhere. 

The Wildcat, {Fells catis, L.,) M. W. W. 

The Hedgehog, {Erinaceus europceus, L.,) M. 

The Beaver, {Castor fiber, L.,) M. W. W. 

The Squirrel, {Scinrus europams, L.,) M. W. W. 

The Wild Boar, {Sus scrofa ferns, L.,) M. W. W. 

The hog of the peat-bogs, {Sus scrofa palustris, Rut.) A wild race 
very peculiar, established by Mr. Rutimeyer, who, however, does not 
yet lay it down as a separate race. 3 In all the three localities. 

The Elk, {Cervus alces, L.) Everywhere. 

The Deer, {Cervus elaphas, L.) Everywhere. 

The Roe-buck, {Cervus caprceolus, L.) Everywhere. 



1 Memoirs of the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich, XIII, January, 1860. 

2 Examined with minute care by Colonel Suter at Zofingue. 

3 Mr. Rutimeyer is going to publish it in the Memoirs of the Helvetic Society of Natuns. 
Sciences. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 335 

The Urns, (Bos primigenius, Baj.,) M. 

The Bison, {Bos bison,) W. W. 

The Wild Ox, {Bos taurus ferus,) M. 

The Gos-hawk, {Falco palumbarius, Gmel.,) M. W. W. 

The Sparrow-hawk, {Falco nisus, Gmel.,) M. 

The Ring-dove, (Columba palumbus, L.,) M. 

The Wild Duck, (Anas boschas, L.,) M. W. W. 

The Teal, {Alias querquedula, L.,) M. 

The Gray Heron, (Ardea cinerea, L.,) M. 

The Fresh Water Turtle, (Cistudo europcea, Dum.,) M. 

The Frog, {liana esculenta, L.,) M. W. W. 

The Salmon. {Salmo salar, L.,) M. 

The Pike, (Esox lucius, L.,) M. W. W. 

The Carp, {Cyprinus carpio, L.,) M. 

The Dace, {Cyprinus leuciscus, L.,) M. 

It is well worthy of remark, that the hare {Lepus timidus) is want- 
ing here entirely, as in the Kjoekkenmocdding of the north. This 
would seem to indicate that the primitive inhabitants of Switzerland, 
like those of Denmark, had the same superstitious ideas concerning 
the hare that the Laplanders of the present day have. 1 

Bones gnawed by dogs and bearing the impress of their teeth are 
numerous in Switzerland, as in the north. There are likewise bones, 
and especially deer horns, gnawed hy rats and mice. 

The domestic hog and the horse appear to be wanting in the age of 
stone in Switzerland. Some isolated and doubtful facts might lead us 
to believe in the presence of the horse during the age of stone in Swit- 
zerland, but there is no proof that this animal existed there at that 
time in the domestic state. The Benedictiones, previously quoted, 
speak of the wild horse, Equus feralis. But in the middle ages what 
were meant thereby were horses that were allowed to run wild, and 
for whom they had no stables. One additional fact is curious — horse 
flesh is mentioned as appearing on the table at St. Gall, whilst in the 
north the Church excommunicated those who ate it. 2 

M. Schwab having sent to Copenhagen some bones from the Stein- 
berg, which are known to have belonged to the age of bronze, it became 
possible to compare them with the ancient bones of Denmark. This 
comparison, although made between a small number of specimens, has 
already furnished some very interesting results. There was found 
among these specimens from the Steinberg a jaw-bone of a dog, ex- 
actly corresponding with the dog of the bronze age of Denmark. 
There was also the domestic hog, and, moreover, the long bones of the 
sheep, even a little more slender than those of the sheep of the bronze 
age of Denmark. A very small tooth of a horse established still 
another connecting link with the north. 3 

1 Cesar states that the Britannia ate neither the hare, the hen, nor the goose. De hello 
gallico, V. 12. 

- The hog of the turf-bogs is still found, it seems, as a domestic jrace in the canton of the 
Grisons, (Switzerland.) This same canton also possesses some very small races of cows, 
goats', and sheep, the study of which, about to be undertaken by Mr. Rutimeyer, cannot 
fail to bo very interesting. 

s Mr. Troyon has found at Echalleus,in burgundian tombs of the fifth and sixth centuries 
of our era, horses of as great size as the largest we have now. 



336 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 

Considering these facts, it is quite likely that the analogies between 
the ancient domestic races of Switzerland and those of the north may 
be carried out still further. 

The polar regions and high mountains are naturally enough places 
of refuge for the ancient races, who are driven into them by the pres- 
sure exercised by new comers, who spread themselves out into the more 
fertile and more easily accessible regions. This is so with man, as it 
is with many of the lower animal species. The reindeer, for instance, 
and the great penguin, are generally supposed to be indigenous to 
high latitudes, just as the wood grouse is reputed to belong to high 
mountainous districts. And yet, from all that can be observed, it is 
merely because they have held their ground there longer in spite of 
the encroachments of man, who has exterminated them in more ac- 
cessible regions. 

The reindeer gives occasion for a rjeculiar remark. Where this ani- 
mal has passed, the cow refuses to browse, thereby establishing an 
antagonism, that leads sometimes to deadly conflict, between the agri- 
cultural settlers of the north of Sweden and the nomadic Laplanders, 
who breed the reindeer. We can easily conceive, therefore, that the 
fact of the introduction of a domestic bovine race may have caused the 
destruction of the reindeer in the temperate regions of Europe, where 
it has existed, not only in Denmark, as we have already seen, but also 
in France, Belgium, 1 England, 2 and Switzerland. 3 It is, however, 
well to remark that the remains of the reindeer found hitherto, might 
very well belong to the glacial epoch, and might consequently all be 
anterior to the advent of man in Europe. 

We may therefore foresee what singular interest, in an antiquarian 
point of view, must attach to the polar and the alpine regions, and 
what important questions will yet find their solution in the last men- 
tioned countries. 



VI. CHRONOLOGICAL QUESTION. 

State of the Question. The general chronology of the three great 
phases in the development of civilization in Europe, called the age of 
stone, the age of bronze, and the age of iron, is purely relative, like the 
chronology of the geological formations. It is not known when the age 
of stone or that of bronze, or even that of iron, commenced, nor how 
long a time each of them lasted. We merely know that what belongs 
to the age of bronze succeeded the order of things of the age of stone, 
and preceded that event, so important to the destinies of mankind, the 
introduction of the manufacture of iron. This is itself a great deal, 
for it is but a short time since nothing at all was known of what had 



1 Pictet. Treatise on Palaeontology. Geneva, 1853, vol. 1, p. 356. 

2 Owen. A History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds. London, 1846, p. 479. 
3 Bullctin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelle. December, 1859. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 337 

occurred previous to the present age of iron. But we are so accus- 
tomed to precise dates in what has hitherto heen understood as history, 
without troubling ourselves whether the figure indicated was true or 
purely imaginary, that we cannot become accustomed at once to the 
system of simply relative data of archeology ; to a history without 
dates. Dates figure to advantage even in poetry. Witness the cele- 
brated lines of Victor Hugo, on Napoleon II : 

Eleven and eighteen hundred, fateful year — 
Which saw the nations, under gloomiest clouds 
And prostrate, wait till Heaven should give assent. 

We have accustomed ourselves to relative dates in geology, where 
we have, and shall continue to have for a long while, nothing else. 
We have to make up our minds to it also in archaeology, for history, 
with positive and direct dates, does not go very far back. 

The most ancient authentic geological data do not go further back 
than the era of the Olympiads, (776 before Christ,) and the most 
ancient Greek inscriptions that are known do not reach any further. 
Previous dates are computed in genealogical series of generations, 
either of names of kings or names of priests, for the authenticity of 
which there is no warrant. Thus the historian Hectasus, of Miletus, 
who lived about five hundred years before Christ, fixed the epoch, when 
the gods still intermingled with men, at sixteen generations before 
himself, which would make about nine centuries before the Christian 
era. It is true that he met with opponents ; some added a certain 
number of generations to his account, others, more rationalistic, per- 
mitted themselves to doubt that men had descended from the gods. 1 
This may give an idea of the value of the Greek dates previous to the 
era of the Olympiads. 

As to the stamped coins, which are considered the most ancient, they 
are the Greek silver pieces of Egina and Cyzicus, in Asia Minor, with- 
out any date or legend, but which are thought to be of the end of the 
eighth century before Christ. 2 Now, at this epoch iron must have been 
in use, and for some time previous, for the above coins must have been 
impressed by means of steel stamps, cut with steel gravers ; audit is 
not by such a proceeding that people begin on first coming to the use 
of iron. 

We may therefore calculate that iron was known in the South at 
least a thousand years before the Christian era ; that is to say, about 
3,000 years ago. 

We often hear it said that the knowledge of the metals has spread 
very slowly from the South to the North, where it did not arrive till 



1 Herodotus II, 143. 

2 These pieces have an effigy only on one side. It is an animal, or only the head of an ani- 
mal, without any inscription. On the other side we find the mark of the anvil on which the 
piece was placed to give it the stamp, the quadratum incusum. The most ancient stamped 
Roman coins are of 269 before Christ. They are of silver. 

22 



338 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

very late. But this is nothing but pure and simple conjecture, to 
which may be opposed the following considerations : 

Ancient Commercial Relations. The presence of foreign mineral 
substances, flint, and nephrite, among the remains of the age of stone 
in Switzerland, would indicate commercial relations with distant parts 
even from the highest antiquity. This ought not to surprise us, when 
we see that the Indians of the United States, who belong, by their 
civilization, to the age of stone, are very fond of traveling, and carry 
the beautiful red pipe-stone of Coteau des Prairies to great distances 
from its bed. 

The example of these Indians of the United States may perhaps be 
quoted in favor of the opinion, that the use of stone and metals might 
have existed simultaneously in the same country, so that the difference 
of these materials in Europe might arise, not from different ages, but 
from different degrees of civilization or of wealth at the same epoch 
among the same people. But the case in question rather proves the 
contrary, for the Indians have been in such haste to adopt iron, that 
they no longer make use of their ancient instruments of flint, except 
for the purpose of amulets, and they have even forgotten how to make 
them. These articles have thus passed, among them, into the class of 
antiquities. 

During the age of bronze a regular commerce, as has been seen, must 
have necessarily existed between the different portions of Europe, where 
there prevailed a tolerably uniform civilization, at least in what apper- 
tains to the technical arts. 1 

How much more likely it is that similar commercial relations, and 
a similar uniformity and contemporaneousness in the most important 
elements of industry must have existed in Europe from the earliest 
times of the age of iron. As regards the North, in particular, it ap- 
pears that at this epoch commercial relations were entertained not only 
with the South, but perhaps even with the East. For the bronze vases, 
above alluded to, display among others, such animated figures of lions, 
that they must, one would think, have come from the hands of artists 
who had these animals before their eyes. Other articles which the 
South, perhaps Phenician industry, furnished to the North, are the 
31illefiori, 2 some specimens of which have been found in Denmark and 
Sweden. In return the North supplied ancient Greece with amber 
from the Baltic. 

It is also known that the shores of the North Sea were visited in the 
fourth century before the Christian era by Greek navigators, who must 
have reached a latitude of 64° or 6G°, for they allude to a duration of 
two or three hours as that of the shortest night. They may even per- 
haps have penetrated to the Arctic Circle, of which they had, at any 
rate, a direct or indirect knowledge, inasmuch as they knew that the 



1 The Museum of Copenhagen contains a scries of Italian antiquities of the age of bronze, 
corresponding very well with what is found in the north. 

2 Glass balls, with an interior nucleus of colored glass mosaic work, perhaps enamel. 
They are found in the Etruscan and Egyptian burial places. Minutoli. Uber die Anferti- 
gung und Nutzanwendung der farbigen Glaisur beis den Alten. Berlin, 1836. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHEOLOGY. 339 

day there was twenty-four hours long at the summer solstice. 1 Now, 
they could not have failed to mention so important a fact as the em- 
ployment of bronze, instead of iron, for arms and cutting instruments, 
as they were enabled to describe, among other things, how grain was 
thrashed in covered barns, on account of the rainy climate. 

Lastly, the Sagas and the most ancient traditions of the North all 
refer to the age of iron and know nothing of an age of bronze. 2 

Ancient Civilization of the North. — The North, especially Denmark, 
is rich in flint of a very fine quality, peculiarly adapted to be fashioned 
by the simple action of cleavage. This facilitated the work extremely 
and allowed instruments to be made of very considerable usefulness, 
for flint is harder even than steel. 3 This very material circumstance 
must have contributed, and perhaps very extensively, to bring about 
a superior development of the primitive civilization in this country. 
Thus some of the daggers of flint in one piece, and with ornamented 
handles, which are found in Denmark, are the finest articles of the kind 
that have been anywhere observed. 

The civilization of the age of bronze would appear also to have 
reached its culminating point especially in the North, judging at least 
from the contents of the museums. 

Finally, as to what regards the first age of iron, direct and indirect 
archaeological data give us a glimpse of the fact, that the North had 
at this epoch a considerably advanced civilization, entirely independent 
of that of Rome. This was scarcely suspected generally, for the atten- 
tion of the literary public had been so much absorbed by the Roman 
element, that this had concealed, as it were with a veil, a whole ante- 
terior growth which is just now beginning to show its outlines above 
the horizon. 4 

It would seem that the shores of the Baltic, with their Danish archi- 
pelago, the soil of which is so fertile, have furnished anciently a 
center of civilization, like the countries of the Mediterranean with their 
Greek archipelago. 

All this certainly does not tend to show that the knowledge of the 
metals was late in arriving in the Scandinavian north. The aggregate 



1 Lelevel. Pytheas of Marseilles and the geography of his time. Brussels, 1836; German 
edition. Hoffmann. Pytheas und die Geographie seiner Zeit. Leipzig, 1838. 

2 Munch. Die Nordisch-germanischen Volker. Lubeck, 1853; p. 7. 

5 If silex were not so liable to break, and had the tenacity of steel, it would be of superior 
usefulness to the latter. 

4 At the present day the Scandinavian north can boast of an intellectual cultivation of 
which there is but a very vague idea in the south. Here are some significant facts: Prof. 
TJrsin published, some twenty years ago, at Copenhagen, a popular astronomy, for the Ice- 
landic translation of which he had, in Iceland, 600 subscribers, among whom figure simple 
farm servants of both sexes. In 1840 the reading of the Icelandic peasants consisted of a 
new and quite good translation, not of the "Wandering Jew of Eugene Sue, but of Homer's 
Odyssey. Prof. Berlin, of Lund, published, in 1852, on the natural sciences, a popular 
treatise, of which 20,000 copies have been disposed of in Sweden, and 40,000 in Norway. 
As for Denmark, its capital passes for the Athens of the North, as well in what concerns the 
sciences as in what belongs to the scenic arts — music, painting, and especially sculpture. 
The excellence of the Scandinavian character has been well understood by a Bernese of the 
last generation. See the remarkable work.of Ch. V. de Bonstetten: The Southern Man and 
the Northern Man. Second edition; Geneva, 1826. 



B40 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 

of the facts lead us, on the contrary, to consider all the portions of 
Europe as having most probably passed, very nearly simultaneously 
through, first the age of stone, then the age of bronze, and lastly 
the first age of iron. This is natural enough, for in a part of the 
world at once so small and so interspersed with seas, and conse- 
quently so easy of access, the great industrial and social revolutions, 
prepared beforehand in the East, must have been introduced and spread 
rapidly. 

Absolute Chronology. — If nothing is known respecting the absolute 
date of the age of stone and the age of bronze, it is at least evident 
from the large accumulation of their remains, that they have each 
lasted a very long while. In Denmark the tombs of the age of stone 
are found in prodigious numbers, and they are often truly gigantic 
works. The lacustrine establishment of Moosseedorf must clearly 
have lasted a very long time, judging from the quantity of bog which 
has been formed in the interval, and which has engulfed the remains 
of the industry of the age of stone. As to the numerous and often 
extensive lacustrine cities of the age of bronze, which have existed in 
the Lake of Bienne and in that of Geneva, they were scarcely con- 
structed to be immediately abandoned. 

The Danish savans estimate that the age of stone goes back at least 
4,000 years, perhaps very much further. In fact, the appearance of 
man at an early date in the pine layer of the Skovmose invests him 
with a very high antiquity in Denmark, as we have already seen. 

But such estimates cannot end in positive results. To arrive at dates 
in archaeology it will be necessary to call in the aid of geology, just as 
no absolute chronological data in geology can be obtained without the 
assistance of archaeology, starting from a sufficiently thorough knowl- 
edge of what has happened since the appearance of man on the earth. 
The two sciences are thus called upon reciprocally to complete each 
other. 

The following is an observation of this geologico-archaeological char- 
acter, which has just been made in Switzerland. 

Cone of the Tiniere. — The cone of torrential dejection (SchuttJcegel, 
in German) of the Tiniere, 1 at the point where the material is cast into 
Lake Leman at Villeneuve, is cut transversely by the railway excava- 
tion. The excavation thus made has laid open the interior of the cone 
for a length of about 500 feet and to a depth of nearly 23 feet. There 
was found here at four feet depth under the surface of the ground, 
quite regularly parallel to this latter and that over a great extent, 
both in length and width, an ancient stratum of from four to six inches 
in thickness, with angular fragments of Roman tiles, and w it'll Roman 
coins somewhat defaced, but apparently anterior to the lower empire 
At ten feet in depth under the modern surface of the ground, and 



1 For information respecting this kind of formations see Ji. Swell. Essays on the torrents 
of the Higher Alps. Paris, 1841, in quarto. It is a very good work, only the exlincl cones 
of the author belong to the diluvium, and net to modern formations. 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHAEOLOGY. 341 

also regularly parallel to the latter, over a great extent in length and 
width, there was found a second ancient stratum of six inches in 
thickness, characterized as belonging to the age of bronze by the pres- 
ence of a well preserved metallic object, 1 and by angular fragments 
of the pottery of this epoch. Lastly, at nineteen feet in depth under 
the present surface, the superficial vegetable mould attaining at this 
point, owing to peculiar circumstances, a thickness of a foot and a 
half, there has been laid bare over another rather extensive space and 
still parallel to the general stratification of the deposit, a layer of 
ancient mould of the age of stone six or seven inches in thickness, with 
numerous angular fragments of very coarse pottery, and with abund- 
ance of charcoal and broken bones of animals, of which many had 
been gnawed by a carnivorous animal. Evidently man had lived on 
tire spot, and during some time, for the charcoal was found in a still 
lower gravelly stratum, at twenty feet under the present surface of 
the ground. 

It will not be out of place to notice that the three layers referred to, 
of tour feet, ten feet, and from nineteen to twenty feet in depth, rep- 
resent so many ancient layers in situ. For, if they had been formed 
and deposited by the torrent in the way in which they are found, the 
fragments of pottery which the} r contain would have been rounded, 
and not angular, and there would not be seen in them fragile shells 
of snails, perfectly intact and well preserved. 2 

Now, deducting three centuries for what has been caused by modern 
accumulations of soil, fixing the beginning of the Roman epoch in Switz- 
erland at the commencement of the Christian era, a.nd its end at 563 
after Christ, the date of the land-slip of Tauredunum, that laid waste 
this vicinity, we come to admit that ten or fifteen centuries have been 
required to bury the Roman layer under three feet (exactly 0.92 meter, 
deducting 0.15 meter for the thickness of the Roman layer and 0.07 
meter for the thickness of the sod) of torrential alluvium. We may 
also admit, considering the uniformity and regularity in the internal 
composition of the cone, that the latter had a tolerably constant ratio 
of growth, at least when we take in, as we do here, a series of many 
centuries. Only this growth must have gone on at a gradually dimin- 
ishing rate, because the volume of a cone increases as the cube of its 
radius. Taking this circumstance into consideration, and assuming 
900 feet, say 270 meters, as the radius of the present cone, (which is 
a minimum,) and four degrees as the inclination of its surface in the 
locality alluded to, (from forty measurements based on the levels taken 
by the railway engineers,) we' arrive at an estimate of from twenty- 
nine to forty-two centuries of antiquity for the layer belonging to the 
age of bronze, and at one of from forty-seven to seventy centuries of 
antiquity for the layer that belongs to the age of stone. By the same 



1 Pincers — perhaps a depilatory — of molten bronze, of the style of the age of bronze, and 
preserved in the collection of Mr. Troyon at Eclepens. 

2 The museum of Copenhagen and that of Lund possess each a relievo model in plaster, 
representing the cone of the Tiniere with the excavation for the railway and the layers 
alluded to. 



342 GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHyEOLOGY. 

process of calculation, we should find from, seventy-four to one hundred 
and ten centuries for the total age of the whole cone, and this is rather 
a minimum than a maximum. 

The date thus found of the layer of the age of bronze does not dis- 
agree so much with what has been said of the antiquity of that of iron. 
As to the date of the layer of nineteen or twenty feet, if the age of bronze 
did last so long, as everything leads us to believe, how much time has 
not man required from the commencement of his primitive civilization 
to arrive at the bronze epoch ! Must not the progress of mankind in 
its infancy have been extremely slow! 

We may, perhaps, be surprised, that the intermediate layers of the 
torrential deposit did not also furnish antiquities. In the first place, 
there is nothing to show that the locality was constantly inhabited ; 
on the contrary, it must occasionally have been abandoned for a long 
while, after the devastations of the torrent. Furthermore, it could 
only be exceptionally that the torrent, in spreading itself to the right 
or left, would allow the layer of vegetable soil, which had formed since 
the last breaking up, to remain. It must usually have begun by rip- 
ping it up and sweeping it entirely away ; it was only when it covered 
it again suddenly with a fresh coating of gravel, brought down with- 
out too much impetus, that it was preserved. Thus the layers of the 
ancient mould are lost entirely as we approach the central axis of the 
cone, where the water has always acted with more violence, as is con- 
firmed by the gradual increase in volume of the transported materials 
in this direction. At one point in this region there was found in the 
gravel, but still at a depth of ten feet, a hatchet knife of bronze some- 
what oxydized, and a well-preserved bronze hatchet, which had, 
therefore, not been rolled about. Its weight had probably caused it 
to remain stationary, whilst the earth that surrounded it was carried 
away by the torrent. 

It is needless to say, that no one of the ancient deposits alluded to 
represents the total duration of each of the corresponding ages, but only 
some portion of each of those ages. It might, however, happen that 
the presence of each of these ancient deposits was consequent upon so 
many embankments, which, by stopping the overflows of the torrent 
on that side, had allowed the mould to accumulate and attain a certain 
thickness. In that case, each of the three layers in question would 
indicate rather the end than the beginning of each of the correspond- 
ing ages. This is confirmed, as regards the layer of the age of bronze, 
by the fine workmanship of the bronze pincers, which were found 
therein, and which could not have belonged to the early part of that 
age. As to the layer of mold on the present surface of the soil, its 
slight normal thickness of two or three inches only, including the 
space taken up by the roots of the grass, proves that it is not of very . 
ancient date. 

The cone of the Tiniere has been for three years past the object of 
continued research, the details of which will be laid before the public. 
The results which have just been made out, appear tolerably satisfac- 
tory, but it will be necessary now to compare them with other facts of the 
same kind, obtained in other localities. At any rate, it is a singularly 
kickv chance to find thus layers of the three a<2;es in the same excava- 



GENERAL VIEWS ON ARCHCEOLOGY. 313 

tion ; and the result obtained, however little positive and certain it 
may appear, is assuredly much better than the total absence of any 
data on the subject; and we must, therefore, be contented for the 
present with this approximation, for the want of a better one. 1 

A third memoir with plates, by M. F. Keller, at Zurich, on the 
lacustrine habitations will be published in the course of the month of 
March, 18G0. It will contain a report in French on the lacustrine 
habitations of Concise and the neighborhood of Yverdun, by M. Louis 
Rochat; and another article, also in French, on the lacustrine habita- 
tions of Estavayer, by Messrs. Rey and De Vevey. 

[In connection with this paper, which has been translated from a 
pamphlet presented by the author, we may mention that Frederic 
Troyon, of Switzerland, has also just presented to the Institution sev- 
eral copies of a very interesting work on ancient and modern lacustrine 
habitations. 2 This work gives a detailed account of the remains of 
the ages of stone, bronze, and iron found on the site of ancient build- 
ings erected on the borders of lakes in different parts of the world. 

After having collected and classified all the data relative to this 
subject, the author gives a summary of the conclusions which have 
been drawn from the facts. — Secretary Smithsonian Institution.] 



1 Objections against what has been said about the cone of the Tiniere have been raised in 
the discussions of the "Societe Vaudoise des Science Naturelles." See the Bulletin of this 
Society of the 16th of June, 1858. But the opponent not having thought it necessary to verify 
the observations of the author, nor even to notice his numerical results, the latter considers 
himself excused from answering, except by silence. 

2 Habitations Lacustres des Temps Ancienes et Modernes, par Fredric Troyon. Laus- 
anne, 1860. 



THE MICROSCOPE. 



TRANSLATED FROM " AUS DER NATUR, ETC.," LEIPZIG, 1858, FOR THE SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION, BY C. A. ALEXANDER. 



It may be generally observed that those to whom the performance 
of a scientific instrument is not known through its proper use, are 
disposed partly to overrate, arid again, in some other respects, to 
conceive too low an estimate of its effects ; and this is no where more 
clearly seen than in regard to the microscope. Nor have we to seek 
far for the reason. The operations of the microscope have not been 
made known to the great public through the results of scientific re- 
search alone; while the costliness, and still more the difficult handling 
of the instrument have prevented it from becoming, like the mag- 
net, and the electrical machine, a familiar means of "pleasant and 
instructive" amusement, by which it might have found its way into 
wider circles. So much the greater, however, has been its use, and 
often misuse, by itinerating showmen, whose interest it was to exag- 
gerate to the utmost the marvel and strangeness of the object by which 
spectators were to be attracted. Numerous are the fallacies which 
have been thus scattered abroad. It may not be out of place, then, to 
attempt to convey more accurate views of an instrument to which de- 
scriptive natural science is indebted for the most important of its 
advances in modern times. 

Microscopes, or, in the widest sense, the apparatus by which objects 
but slightly removed are made to appear larger than they really are, 
and the observer is enabled to inspect parts of them which are other- 
wise undiscernible, are of great antiquity. Archa3ologists are now 
agreed, however eloquently Lessing may have maintained the opposite 
opinion, that the ancients were in possession of magnifying glasses, 
without the help of which it would have been impossible that the ex- 
quisite work of their engraved stones could have been executed. In- 
deed, the wonder would be if it had been otherwise. Daily observa- 
tion must have evinced to them, as it does to us, that transparent 
bodies with curved surfaces magnify objects which are viewed through 
them. 

The physical laws on which this phenomenon depends are so well 
known, that we shall only briefly indicate them. Kays of light which 
pass from one transparent body into another of different density, from 
air for instance into glass, undergo a deflection from their original 
course, and are bent or refracted. Those proceeding from a remote 
object in parallel lines will, at the point of contact with a transparent 
body bounded by spherical surfaces, (a lens,) be bent in such a manner 



THE MICROSCOPE. 345 

that on issuing from it they converge, and at a certain distance behind 
it are collected into a small image of the object; the distance being so 
much less as the curvature of the surface is greater and the form of the 
lens approximates to that of a sphere. The place at which this image 
appears is the focus of the lens. If the body from which the rays 
proceed be placed in front of the lens at the distance of its focus, the 
inflection of the rays which fall upon the anterior surface in divergent 
lines, will cause them to issue on the other side in parallel lines. 
Move the object still nearer, so that the angle of divergence formed by 
the incident rays shall be greater, and the lens has no longer the p'ower 
of rendering the transmitted rays parallel. They will only issue from 
it in lines less divergent than before. 

The human eye is itself a lens which casts diminished and inverted 
images of observed objects on the retina, the membrane which is alone 
sensitive to the effects of light. To the distinct perception of small 
objects brought near to the eye, there is consequently a limit pre- 
scribed, since, through an undue approximation of the objects, the 
image into which the eye collects the rays proceeding from them, falls 
behind the retina. The distance between the object and the eye, from 
which this effect results, is different, according to the visual peculiari- 
ties of observers. Very near-sighted persons are able to see objects 
distinctly at three inches distance ; consequently they see more of the 
details or single points of an object than the far-sighted ; for it is alto- 
gether essential to the distinctness of any object that its image should 
have a certain extension on the retina. But this extension will be the 
greater, the wider the angle under which the rays proceeding from its 
several points strike upon the eye. 

If we interpose now between a very near object and the eye a convex 
lens, the rays from the object pass through the lens into the eye in 
parallel or slightly divergent lines, provided the object be at the dis- 
tance of the focus of the lens or somewhat nearer. The eye is now in 
a position to cast a well-defined image from the closely approximated 
object on the retina. The object, which in the case of the near-sighted 
must be situated nearer the lens, is seen, as if it were no further removed 
from the eye than the distance from the object to the central point of 
the lens: being thus seen under a wider angle of vision, it will of 
course appear larger. 

The magnifying power of a lens depends, on the one hand, on the 
refractive properties of the substance of which it is composed. On the 
other hand, a lens will magnify the more strongly, the smaller the 
radius of the sphere, of which the curved sides represent points of the 
surface. In a sphere of crown glass the focus is distant from the sur- 
face about the fourth part of the diameter; in a double and equally 
convex lens, about the length of the semi-diameter of the sphere of 
which one of the sides of the lens represents a part. Such a lens, whose 
curvatures correspond to sections of a sphere of one inch diameter, 
magnifies, to a sound eye, about eight times. Were it of diamond, it 
would magnify twenty-one times, since the refractive power of the 
diamond is two and a half times greater. 

There is no practical difficulty in providing lenses of a spherical 



346 THE MICROSCOPE. 

radius extremely small, and consequently of enormous magnifying 
power. We may obtain very small and almost exactly spherical lenses 
by drawing out a glass thread and melting off small drops from it. 
Globules thus obtained, and set in a fitting manner, afford a linear 
enlargement of as much as 2,000, (or if we accept the authority of the 
itinerant microscope-exhibitors, to whom we shall return hereafter, an 
enlargement of just 8,000 million times;) but this rate of increase 
has never been used or pretended to be used in scientific researches. 
In practice, to be sure, no limit as regards the magnifying power of 
single lenses is to be too strictly regarded: but a train of radical defects 
makes the profitable employment of such results as those just alluded 
to impossible. 

The rays which impinge on the center of a lens and the points im- 
mediately around it are more slightly refracted than those which enter 
nearer the edge. The points at which the rays proceeding from an 
object are united do not coincide, but present a series of images lying 
closely behind one another. The image of the sun, received with a 
single lens, appears at the distance from the lens where the image is 
brightest and clearest (the focus of the rays falling in and near the 
center) surrounded by a visible fringe, the cause of which is, that the 
rays entering towards the edges of the lens, after crossing one another 
at their respective points of union, situated in front of the receiving 
surface, fall upon that surface in the circumference of the principal or 
brightest image. The name of spherical aberration has been given to 
this unequal refraction of rays transmitted through a lens. In like 
manner the rays passing through the lens will not be collected by the 
e^ye into a sharply-defined image. Those entering at the edge, fringe 
the image of those which have passed through the middle. The image 
of a small object is injuriously circumscribed, that of a large one dis- 
torted; inconveniences, which, with the progressively increased power 
of the lens, become at last intolerable. 

The second inconvenience, increasing with the augmented power of 
single lenses, is, that objects seen through them appear surrounded by 
colored borders. A ray of white light, in consequence of being bent 
in its passage from one transparent body to another, is not symmetri- 
cally refracted, but separated into rays of different colors, whose refrangi- 
bility is unequal. Of the variously colored rays, into which white light 
thereby is resolved, the violet is most, the red least diverted from its 
original course. From the transmission of white light through a 
prism arises the well known seven-colored spectrum, whose red rays 
lie nearest, the violet farthest from the point, at which the prolonga- 
tion of the original direction of the beam of white light would strike 
the surface on which the spectrum is formed. 

By transmission through a lens the violet rays, in virtue of their 
greater refrangibility, will be collected into a focus nearer the lens, 
the red ones further off. As in consequence of the spherical aberra- 
tion of light a succession of foci exists at different distances from 
the lens, the rays from the outer portions of the lens uniting nearer 
to it, those from the middle further off, so, through the separation of 
the white light into differently colored rays, a series of differently 



THE MICROSCOPE. 347 

colored foci is formed ; the violet nearest, and successively, the blue, 
the green, the yellow, and so on. In whatever place of this series 
the image may be received, it appears encircled by colored borders, 
which proceed, according to the distance of the receiving surface 
from the lens, from the circumstance of the colored rays striking on 
that surface, either before their union into a focus, or after they have 
crossed one another therein. Only in the centre of the image of an 
intercepted white ray is seen the whiteness proceeding from the union 
and accordance of all the individual colors. All lines and points of a 
body viewed through a lens, have, on the other hand, a tinted bor- 
dering, so much the deeper colored and broader, the greater the curva- 
ture of the lens. 

There are means for obviating in a great measure the effects of 
spherical aberration : we need only prevent the transmission of rays 
through the margin of the lens. But the so-called "diaphragm" 
employed for this purpose, the application of a metallic disk perfor- 
ated in the middle in front of the lens, increased another inconveni- 
ence which had been before too sensibly felt in the use of strongly 
magnifying, and therefore greatly curved and small lenses. The pen- 
cil of rays passing through such a lens, is itself so small that a very 
limited space only can be surveyed. And since it can give only a very 
circumscribed portion of light to the retina, the use of small lenses is 
thus rendered extremely fatiguing to the eyes. Both defects are in- 
creased by the application of the diaphragm, setting aside that its 
employment is imjjossible in the smallest class of lenses. 

The painful and laborious use of single lenses early gave occasion 
to a different form of the instrument. Here, however, it may not be 
out of place to say, that common usage gives to magnifying glasses, 
which, while they enlarge perhaps as much as thirty times, may, 
when disengaged, be readily managed by the hand, a different name 
from those which require a fixed frame, in order to keep them immove- 
able at a determinate distance from the object : the former are styled 
in German, lupen ; the latter, microscopes. 

A double convex lens depicts, by means of the rays which pass 
through it from an object in front, an inverted image ; a diminished 
one when the object is situated at more than its double focal distance, 
an enlarged one when it is brought nearer, but not so near as the sin- 
gle distance of the focus, for then no image is any longer formed behind 
the lens ; all the transmitted rays still diverge. The image is so 
much the larger, and at the same time further from the lens, the nearer 
the object is approached to the focus on its anterior side. 

The inverted image formed in this way by a lens is much larger 
than the apparent extension of the object viewed through the lens when 
the eye is closely applied to the latter. The former mode of observa- 
tion also does not impose the condition of so near an approach of the 
object to the lens. Another related circumstance is, that a larger 
space can be observed at once than is the case when the lens is brought 
close before the eye. 

The compound microscope, in its original form, consists of a tube, 
on the lower end of which is screAved the single lens which first receives 
the rays proceeding from the object to be observed. By a mechanical 



348 THE MICROSCOPE. 

contrivance the tube, and consequently the lens (called the object ; glass) 
attached to it, may he adjusted and maintained at any desired distance 
from the object. The object-glass transmits into the tube an enlarged 
inverted image, which, by regulating the distance between the glass 
and the object, we can bring with accuracy to the upper end of the 
tube. Here it is viewed through a moderately magnifying lens (the 
eye-glass) to which the eye is directly applied. Instead of a single 
lens as eye-glass, the practice soon obtained of using a combination of 
two, arranged at something less than their focal distance from one 
another, which, being set in a brass cylinder, might be inclosed in the 
tube of the microscope. The lower and weaker of these two lenses 
causes the rays of the image transmitted through the object-glass some- 
what to converge ; it diminishes the image, but makes it brighter and 
sharper. This image is once more enlarged by the upper lens of the 
eye-glass. In the tube of the microscope and eye-glass perforated dia- 
phragms are appropriately disposed, which exclude from the eye rays 
passing through the rim of the differently refracting lenses. 

It was in this form that the second decennium of our century found 
the compound microscope. It was a very imperfect instrument. Its 
sole advantage over strongly magnifying single microscopes, over 
lenses of short focal distance to which the eye was immediately applied, 
consisted in a greater convenience of handling ; an advantage more 
than counterbalanced by its lower optical efficiency. All the faults of 
single lenses in regard to the magnified images produced were still 
conspicuous in proportion to the enlargement. The colored bordering 
of the images still proved very annoying, and the narrowing of the 
aperture, occasioned by the diaphragms which intercepted the side 
rays, robbed the images of a large share of light. Besides, only weak 
object-glasses could be employed. Hence it was that several of the 
most distinguished microscopists continue to avail themselves prefera- 
bly or exclusively of single microscopes. 

Up to the time of the modern great improvements in compound mi- 
croscopes, the most important observations and discoveries had been 
made with single microscopes, from the researches of Leuwenhoek, 
which led the way (first decennium of the eighteenth century) to those 
of Robert Brown, of whose striking discoveries we shall here only men- 
tion that which led him to detect a certain independent and oscillatory 
motion of small portions of organic and unorganic bodies floating in 
liquids. 

The first step to these improvements was the elimination of the col- 
ored circles fringing the images of the microscope. The degree in 
which different transparent bodies refract the rays of light does not in 
all cases bear an equal proportion to that in which, in refracting, they 
separate white light into the colors of the spectrum. While crown- 
glass, for instance, strongly refracts the ray, it separates it into the 
different colors only in a moderate degree. Flint-glass, on the other 
hand, effects the prismatic dispersion in a much greater degree, while 
the refraction of the rays is not greater than in crown-glass. The 
optician has hence a means of preparing compound lenses, constructed 
of concave and convex lenses, which transmit the light almost without 
prismatic dispersion. If a convex crown-glass lens be joined with a 



THE MICROSCOPE. 319 

concave flint-glass one, whose curvature is such that its prismatic 
power equals that of the crown-glass lens, then, because the prismatic 
dispersion originating in the concave flint-glass lens counteracts that of 
the convex crown-glass lens in consequence of the opposition of their 
curvatures, the former annuls the latter. The image formed by the 
combined lenses, though its enlargement falls much short of that which 
the crown-glass lens alone would give, is on the other hand nearly col- 
orless — achromatic. Not wholly so: from causes whose exposition here 
would lead us too far, there always remains a colored bordering ; but 
it is scarcely observable, and for practical uses no longer embarrassing. 

It is generally received that Frauenhofer was the first who (about 
the year 1811) adopted for microscopes this important improvement, 
which had long before been applied to astronomical telescopes. The 
Dutch, who assert for their countrymen the origination of so many inven- 
tions, claim also for one of them the honor of this, as well as of gunpowder 
and printing ; and here, it would seem, with better right than in the 
case of Laurenz Kosur. It is credibly stated that about the end of the 
last century, Beedsnijder, an optician of Amsterdam, had prepared 
object-glasses of this kind of pretty good quality ; Van Deyl very good 
ones about 1807. 

Something was thus gained, but not a great deal. The Frauenhofer 
object-glasses gave no very considerable enlargement. The spherical 
aberration was still present, and necessitated the use of a narrow open- 
ing. The idea of obviating the aberration by the combination of sev- 
eral lenses, selected with a view to the counteraction of their respective 
faults one by another, was first carried into execution by Selligue, in 
1824. This measure was of the most decided advantage. The spher- 
ical, and in great part the remainder of the chromatic aberration, could 
be now conveniently corrected, inasmuch as the distances between the 
successive, and in themselves nearly achromatic lenses could be experi- 
mentally adjusted, until the image cast by them should be infected 
with the fewest possible faults. The practical opticians pressed forward 
with zeal in the newly-opened path. Before all, Amici, in Florence; 
next to him the English opticians, Ross, Smith, and Beck; followed 
by the Dutch, Plossl, Schieck, Merz, the French Chevalier, Ober- 
hauser, offered and offers in this way instruments of high perfection, 
and far excelling in every respect the single microscope, with a faculty 
of magnifying those of Amici to the extent of 500, and the Dutch about 
300 times, and with an unimpeachable clearness and sharpness. By 
further approximation of the object to the object-glasses, and lengthen- 
ing the tube of the instrument, as well as by the employment of more 
strongly magnifying eye-glasses, the size of the image indeed may be 
increased, but not its distinctness. We see no longer, in the more en- 
larged image, lines and points as before. 

These are the approximate limits of the working capacity of our 
present microscopes. An enlargement of more than 800 times can in 
no case be employed with advantage. 

Opposed to the high figures which itinerant microscope exhibitors 
give out as the magnifying capacity of their instruments, the low ones 
we have stated will surprise many readers. In explanation, a few 



350 THE MICROSCOPE. 

words are necessary on the specific definition of the magnifying power 
of a microscope. To ascertain that power, let us observe through the 
microscope a scale minutely graduated on glass ; it is not difficult for a 
mechanist, with the help of rulers moved forwards by means of fine 
screws, to graduate scales on glass plates with the diamond, whose 
single divisions shall be t l, or even ytqo* °f a ^ ne from one another. 
Let us fix near the microscope, at the distance before the eye of distinct 
vision, a scale proportionally divided, only more coarsely: let us say 
into lines. Commonly ten inches, or as well twenty centimeters, are 
taken as the distance from the eye. It may now be determined, by 
visual measurement, how many divisions of the fine and magnified 
scale apparently occupy the same space with the divisions of the larger 
scale seen with the naked eye. Let, for example, the fine scale be 
divided into hundredth parts of a line, and let two divisions of this 
scale, viewed through the microscope, occupy the same extent as eight 
lines on the scale seen with the naked eye: the microscope thus mag- 
nifies 1 -§-° X 6 = 300 times. This is the linear magnifying power of 
the microscope; and since it affords the simplest expression of the prac- 
tical performance of the instrument, it is that which is usually specified 
by scientific observers. It is now plain, that a square y^o of a line in 
length and breadth, seen under such enlargement, will appear one 
line long in each direction ; that thus on its surface, 90,000 squares, 
each -j-J^ of a line in length and breadth would find room. The super- 
ficial enlargement by the instrument would hence be 90,000 fold. 
Instead of the square let us assume a cube with sides r J 7 of a line in 
extent, and through the 300-fold linear enlargement this cube would 
appear of such an extension that twenty-seven million cubes, of T ^o of 
a line lateral measure, would be contained in it. The magnifying 
power of the instrument in respect to the whole mass is therefore 
27,000,000 fold. In this way do the perambulating microscopists 
obtain their loud-sounding million-times-magnifying numbers. A hun- 
dred fold linear enlargement itself gives one million fold, two hundred 
ibid gives eight million fold, cubic measure. 

It is in the nature of things that the images of the most perfect ex- 
isting microscopes, the compound, of which we have been before speak- 
ing, can be seen with but one eye at a time. A microscope, to serve 
for exhibitions, whose figures are to be seen by many persons simulta- 
neously, must have an essentially different construction. The sun or 
hydro-oxygen gas microscope (they differ from one another only as 
regards the source from which the light issues) is, in essentials, simi- 
lar in arrangement to the well known child's toy, the Laterna magica. 
The wdiole difference lies in the greater intensity of the light employed, 
and the careful management of the magnifying glasses. The rays of 
the^ sun received upon a mirror, or those from a cylinder heated to 
whiteness by the hydro-oxygen blowpipe, are thrown, after being con- 
centrated by convex lenses, on the exhibited object: the rays pro- 
ceeding from this now pass through a system of achromatic lenses, in 
all points equivalent to the object-glass of a microscope of the ordinary 
sort, composed of several lenses. Since the object is now placed some"- 
what more removed from the object-glass than its focal distance, there 



THE MICROSCOPE. 351 

is produced behind the object-glass a magnified inverted image, which 
received on a white surface from twenty to thirty feet distant, may be 
seen at once by any desired number of persons. 

The sharpness and clearness of the images of a solar microscope, 
still more (on account of the less intensity of the light) of a gas-micros- 
cope, fall far short of those of the compound miscroscope. There are 
incomputably fewer of the details of an observed object to be perceived 
with the best solar microscope, with like magnifying qualities, than 
with an indifferent compound microscope. It were a great error to 
believe that, in reference to the practical adaptation of a microscope, 
we should take as a measure the greatest enlargement which it is ca- 
pable of effecting. Incomparably more important is it that the micros- 
cope should exhibit the outlines of the observed object with the utmost 
possible sharpness, and the component details in the greatest possible 
number. Both requisites will be the better fulfilled, the more com- 
pletely the spherical and chromatic aberration are averted through 
the adjustment of the cooperative lenses. In lenses for solar micros- 
copes no optical artist has thus far succeeded in attaining the degree 
of excellence possessed by the optical part of the compound micros- 
cope. We shall presently return to the working capacity of the 
microscope as independent in certain respects of its magnifying power, 
and illustrate it by some examples. In the mean time let these sug- 
gestions suffice to show the value of the showman's statements, in 
cases where they conflict with the judgment of the scientific investi- 
gator. It should not, however, in dismissing this subject, be said, that 
among these itinerants there are not to be found qualified individuals, 
to w r hom, next to their gains, the instruction of the gazing public is 
not indifferent. But only two many charlatanisms of the worst kind 
are practiced. We remember an instance where the circulation of the 
blood in human hair was exhibited to the believing spectators and 
hearers ; another, where the showman pointed out the movable thorn- 
shaped excrescence on the back of the common wheel animal, as its 
heart, which this remarkable creature carries about with it on a stake. 
And not one of these exhibitors of sun and gas microscopes, whom 
we have had an opportunity of seeing, but has presented to the crowd, 
as infusoria existing in every drop of water, the larva? of gnats and 
even dragon flies — animals several lines in length, of which not only 
the outline but the separate parts are visible to the naked eye, and 
which only exist in standing water, rich in many other organisms ; 
in water which swine, at all particular, would not drink. The spas- 
modic contortions of the death struggle of animals in the exhausted 
water were set forth as an example of the war of all against all, and 
if one glanced by another, that signified that it had devoured it. But 
let the drinkers of water take courage: We here record for their 
comfort, that in water which appears crystal clear to the naked eye, 
not even the microscope has been able to detect any sort of animal. 

Microscopic vision differs chiefly from that with the naked eye, in 
that the instrument, in a great degree, refuses accommodation to the 
organs of sight with reference to distance. We see clearly through 
the microscope only the parts of the object lying in a determined hori- 



352 THE MICROSCOPE. 

zontal plane. To see other parts clearly, the distance of the inner 
apparatus of the microscopic tube from the object must be altered. The 
observer has to construct the form of the observed object in his mind 
from a succession of different images thus obtained. This is soon 
learned : other circumstances however there are, which render micros- 
copic investigation so difficult and particular, that it requires long 
continued use for the practical mastery of the instrument. 

The higher the degree in which an object is magnified, the weaker 
is the illumination. Even with a hundred fold linear enlargement, a 
body in ordinary daylight appears as if in deep twilight, and the 
minute particles of its surface are no longer to be distinguished. Nor 
is the matter bettered by illumination with the direct rays of the sun, 
collected perhaps through a lens. The light can then only be thrown 
upon the object lens in a very oblique direction, since this lens, where 
a greatly magnified image is to be produced, must be brought very 
near to the object. Small prominences spread deep shadows over the 
surface. Shining spots reflect the light with embarrassing effect. 
For practical research, where great enlargement of the object is re- 
quired, we must have resort to an expedient for evading these difficul- 
ties : the object to be observed must be rendered transparent or trans- 
lucent, and be lighted from beneath, so that the rays may pass through 
it into the microscope and thus into the eye. This will be most conve- 
niently effected by placing the object on a glass plate over the tubu- 
lar frame of the microscope, under the opening of which a movable 
mirror is placed. With this we collect the light, and the mirror is so 
directed that it throws a fascicle of reflected rays through object and 
instrument upon the eye. 

There are no organized and only a limited number of unorganized 
bodies which are absolutely opaque. Thinly separated layers allow 
the light to pass sufficiently for the microscopic examination of a body. 
It is an essential preliminary with microscopists, if the structure to be 
examined be not in itself simple and conspicuous enough to make this 
unnecessary, to prepare the object for examination by means of light 
passing through it. Small organs are to be separated and stripped of 
the enveloping textures. Of larger and more complex structures, the 
thinnest possible sections must be taken. Often there are parts to be 
dissected so small that the unaided eye cannot perceive them. Their 
division under the microscope has to be effected with the finest pointed 
and edged instruments. Scarcely anywhere is Franklin's saying so 
applicable as to the manipulations thus rendered necessary : " A natu- 
ral philosopher must, at a pinch, be able to bore with the saw and to 
saw with the auger.'*' x\s the compound microscope shows the images 
inverted, the preparations which are to be gone through with, by means 
of needles and knives, are highly incommodious. To remedy this, we 
commonly use either a single microscope, or else a compound one whose 
eye-glass represents a smaller compound one. The image, twice re- 
versed, now appears upright. 

It is not the difficulties here indicated which have procured for mi- 
croscopic observers the reproach, bat too well deserved, in earlier times, 
of unreliability. Had observers always prevailed upon themselves 
rigorously to separate what was really seen from what was only con- 



THE MICROSCOPE. 353 

jectured, and to have delivered matters of fact without adornment, it 
would never have come to pass that LinnaBUS himself, and his school 
after him — a school of so much influence and for years exclusively 
dominant in descriptive natural history — should have put the micro- 
scope, so to speak, under the han, and have looked with indifference 
or scorn on the painstaking labors of inquirers who employed that 
instrument. It may be some offset to this, that, in later times, mi- 
croscopists have been by no means backward in repaying to non-micro- 
scopists this disparaging estimate with interest. The propensity to 
piece out the chain of observed facts by conjectures is too deeply 
grounded in human nature not to operate strongly in a department 
where but few and isolated laborers were to be found — so few, that the 
most effective restraint, the objections of rival cotemporary inquirers, 
was almost wholly wanting. Even the earliest leaders and guides 
could not keep themselves free from sophistications of this kind. To 
give but one example : Leuwenhoek asserted, in the most positive 
manner, that the corpuscles of the blood, (whose real organization as 
somewhat flattened globular cellules is clear at the first glance with 
our present instruments,) are each of them composed of six spherical 
polygons, made so by reciprocal pressure on their touching sides ; and 
that each of these again consists of six similarly shaped smaller spheres, 
and so on to infinitude. This view has not only been set in the clearest 
light by frequent republication, but a certain English writer has drawn 
it out in still greater detail as one of the most striking proofs of the 
infinitely divisible constitution of organized bodies. Such fallacies 
were once long lived. But since the middle of the third decenniuni 
of our century the number of skillful microscopists has been so great 
that nothing of the kind could possibly have' been asserted without 
immediate contradiction. Microscopical errors, defended with the 
utmost skill, pertinacity, and recklessness, have not in later times 
maintained their ground for more than a few years. 

The very copiousness of the subject admonishes us to be brief when 
we speak of the effect of the microscope on the development of the 
descriptive natural sciences. The microscope opened to us, not less 
than the telescope, a new world, and every improvement has permitted 
us to push further back the limitary boundaries of our knowledge. 
Still more than for an acquaintance with a countless number of animal 
and vegetable existences, which had before lain beyond the bounds of 
our sensible perception, are we indebted to the microscope for the dis- 
closures which it makes of the exquisite internal structure of living 
beings and unorganized bodies. Yet must we not rate too highly the 
knowledge thus obtained : it is more an extension in breadth than in 
depth. The instrument has put it in our power to perceive with the 
senses a multitude of heretofore hidden phenomena which accompany 
organic existence. But these experiences have only indirectly and 
but little advanced us in a knowledge of the primitive forces which 
determine the conditions of organization and of life. Towards this goal 
of physical research, the assignment of the complicated play of the 
constructive and destructive forces of nature to their several factors 
which refuse all further* investigation, it advances us a little way only, 

23 



354 THE MICROSCOPE. 

when we have learned the construction and the single parts of the 
machines which are set in motion by those forces, however necessary 
this preliminary knowledge may be to further research. And to 
procure us more than this preliminary knowledge the microscope is 
powerless. 



SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 



BY M. J. NICKLES. 



TRANSLATED FOR THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, FROM THE MEMOIRS D'LACADEMIE 
DE STANISLAS, NANCY, 1859, BY C. A. ALEXANDER. 



I. Scientific Assemblies of Germany. 

A meeting of professors of science and of medicine, which took place 
at Leipsic, September 18, 1822, laid the foundation of those scientific 
assemblages of G-ermany which have been since known by the title of 
"the Association of German Savants and Physicians." These assem- 
blages are held annually; and being open, without distinction of na- 
tionality, to all men of science, we have hence enjoyed the privilege of 
taking part in that which was convened in the course of the present, 
year, 1858, at Carlsruhe, the capital of the Grand Dutchy of Baden. 

Whether considered with reference to the persons who composed it, 
the labors communicated, the ideas suggested for consideration, or the 
enthusiastic reception accorded to the members both by court and 
people, this thirty-fourth reunion of the association is admitted, with- 
out contradiction, to have been amongst the most brilliant and mem- 
orable which has occurred. Before proceeding, however, to give an 
account of the transactions of the late meeting, it may not be without 
interest to recite the statutes under which the organization hajs been, 
advanced to so high a degree of vitality and usefulness. 

Statutes. 

1. The object of the association is to afford to the scientific ant! 
medical inquirers of Germany an opportunity of becoming personally 
acquainted with one another. 

2. Whoever in the domain of medicine or the sciences of observation 
has given the results of his labors to the public^ is recognized as a 
member, and every one who is engaged in such studies may procure 
himself to be inscribed as such. A mere inaugural thesis, however, is 
not in itself regarded as furnishing a title to be enrolled as a member. 

3. The association makes no special nominations and bestows no 
diplomas. 

The right of voting pertains to those only who are actually present 
at any session ; and decisions are to be determined by a majority of 
voices. 



356 SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 

4. The meetings take place once a year; they are public, and, com- 
mencing the 18th of September, are to be continued several days. 

5. The place of meeting is migratory; at each reunion the city shall 
be designated where the next is to be held. 

6. Business affairs shall be conducted by a general agent (Geschcefts- 
fuJirer) and a secretary, inhabitants of the city designated, and shall 
be charged with the control till the next meeting. 

7. The general agent shall designate the place and hour of the ses- 
sions and determine the order of the day ; he should receive timely 
notice from all those who propose to address the meeting. The Secre- 
tary is charged with the protocol, with the accounts, and the corres- 
pondence. To these two functionaries are intrusted all signatures in 
the name of the association. 

8. It shall be their duty to advise the authorities of the city desig- 
nated, and to give due publicity to all which shall be determined on. 
If the nominations to these offices, which shall be made in advance at 
each meeting, be declined, those already in office shall have the power 
to appoint others, and may, in case of necessity, designate a different 
place of meeting from that chosen by the association itself. 

9. If either of these two functionaries should die, the survivor shall 
nominate a successor, and in case of the death of both, the nominees 
for the year following shall at once assume the control of affairs. 

10. The association shall possess neither collections nor property of 
any sort. An object presented at any of the sittings shall be returned 
to its owner. The accruing expenses shall be provided for by an 
assessment made with the consent of the members present. 

More than nine hundred persons, who had inscribed their names 
en the list of the secretary, took part on this occasion in the 
labors of the sections or the fetes given in honor of the Congress. 
Quite naturally, a majority of these were natives of the country, not 
more than a hundred strangers being present, of whom the greater 
part were French, owing doubtless to the proximity of Carlsruhe. Of 
English savants there was an entire deficiency. 

Paris was represented by a number of learned men, at the head of 
whom we remarked M. Despretz, of the Institute, professor of the 
faculty of sciences, and M. Wurtz, professor of the faculty of medi- 
cine. Alsace had sent its principal representatives, among whom 
MM. Daubree, Lereboullet, Schimper, and Bertin were present from the 
first day, together with MM. Opperman, Kirschleger, and Kopp, of 
the school of pharmacy. The learned professor of chemistry from the 
same province, M. Kuhlmann, gave in the course of the sessions some 
of the principal results of his ingenious applications of chemistry to in- 
dustrial purposes. Nor, among French savants from more distant 
places, can we pass by M. de Caumont, founder of the scientific re- 
unions of France, or Dr. Duchenne, from Boulogne, who gave, in the 
French language, his researches on the treatment of certain maladies 
by means of faradisation, a new word, designating currents of induc- 
tion as applied to therapeutics. As little possible is it to neglect 
the name of M. Kuhmkorff, the skillful constructor of Paris, who, 



SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 357 

however, arrived too late to exhibit to the greater number of the 
physicists, already departed, the beautiful apparatus of induction 
which he had brought with him, whose effects considerably surpass 
those of the apparatus which he had presented on the occasion of his 
competition for the prize of the electric pile, and which had procured 
for its author well-merited encouragement and a prize of the Academy 
of Sciences. 

The Congress was formally opened Thursday, October 16, at half 
after ten in the forenoon, in the presence of their royal highnesses the 
Grand Duke and Duchess, at the botanic garden of the Orangery, a 
magnificent structure decorated for the occasion, and surmounted by 
the national flags of the different savants present at the Congress. 
After addresses of welcome and inauguration from the "Geschaefts- 
fuhrer," Drs. Eisenlohr and Volz, one might have expected that the 
general session would have been adjourned in order to proceed to the 
installation of sections and the formation of bureaus; but, though the 
thermometer marked 104° Fah., and the heat, as well as the fatigue 
of their recent journeying, greatly incommoded the assistants, first 
one and then another, and finally a third orator were to be listened to, 
descanting on the generalities of science, chiefly on the question so 
much debated, of the alliance of faith with reason, until those present, 
who under other circumstances might have been disposed to acknow- 
ledge the great ingenuity with which the topics were treated, found 
themselves in the situation of men who, worn down in body and mind, 
aspire only after an adjournment which seems forever to flee before them 
like a mirage. Meanwhile the Orangery was crowded, and a heavy 
atmosphere, of which the orator alone seemed insensible, weighed upon 
the auditory. Still their royal highnesses maintained their place, and 
alone appeared to share nothing of the general fatigue, though the 
Grand Duche'ss had been obliged to have recourse to her parasol as a 
shelter from the solar rays. 

This continued till three in the afternoon, when we were, at last, at 
liberty to withdraw to our respective sections ; the bureaus were formed, 
and the order of the ensuing day was arranged. 

The first day was terminated by a banquet, followed (by order of 
the government, and in honor of the members of the Congress) by a 
representation of the Antigone of Sophocles. Similar alternations of 
scientific conferences with festive reunions, of which latter, it may 
be said, that they were allowed to entrench to too great an extent on 
the precious time due to the former, occupied the succeeding days of 
the Congress. Thrice only was a general session convened, on which 
occasions ^the author was too much occupied with the special pursuits, 
in which he bore a part, to attend, and shall only mention that, in 
the second of these sessions, Koningsberg was designated as the place 
of assemblage for the year 1859. 

Having given these details, as characteristic features of the late 
Congress, we gladly pass to a consideration of its labors. 

The group of sciences represented on this occasion was divided into 
ten sections, in the following order: Geology and mineralogy ; Botany 
and vegetable physiology ; Mathematics, astronomy, and mechanics; 
Physics; Chemistry ; Anatomy and Physiology ; Zoology, (this science, 



3f)8 SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 

in consideration of the small number of zoologists present, coalesced 
with the section of anatomy;) Medicine; Surgery; Ophthalmology and 
gyn cekology ; Psychiatrics . 

The transactions which we propose for special notice on this occasion 
arc those of the fifth and sixth sections, (physics and chemistry.) 
These two sections held their meetings in the amphitheaters of the 
Polytechnic Institute, a vast establishment, frequented annually by 
more than 600 pupils from different parts of Germany and the Scandi- 
navian islands, but whose buildings are not yet sufficiently spacious 
for the reception of all the collections. The largest part is assigned 
to chemistry, which, under the superintendence of the learned pro- 
fessor, M. Weltzien, forms a very important portion of the course of 
instruction at the Institute. 

In what follows will be found a sketch of the principal facts sub- 
mitted to the sections, whose proceedings we have undertaken to 
report. 



II. Section of Chemistry. 

A Solvent of Cellulose and of Silk — Apparatus for Preparing Ozone — Anemonine and 
Anemonic Acid — Preservation of Wood — Solubility of Sulphate of Barytes. 

The presidents of this section were successively MM. Leibig, Woehler, 
Schoenbein, and Rose; under the former of whom, during the first 
clay's session, the following communications, in the order here given, 
were submitted : 

M. Schlossberger, Professor at the University of Tubingen. — The 
province of this savant is animal chemistry, which is indebted to him 
for numerous and interesting observations. His discourse on this 
occasion related to the reagent of Schweitzer, the ammoniacal oxyd 
of copper, which possesses the curious property of increasing the bulk 
and dissolving both cellulose and silk. M. Schlossberger has ascer- 
tained that the ammoniacal oxyd of nickel exerts, to a certain extent, 
the same property with reference to silk as the reagent with a copper 
base; only, in the case of the latter, the solution of the silk retains the 
blue color, while it is of a yellowish brown when treated with the 
nickel. 

The cupro-ammoniacal liquid dissolves neither gum nor dextrine, but 
it readily dissolves the filtering paper. The salts, and more especially 
the alkaline salts, precipitate ^iis solution of cellulose; the precipitate 
offers no trace of organization or crystallization, its centesimal com- 
position not appearing to differ from that of the cellulose. 

The same alkaline salts do not precipitate the solution of silk; hence 
we have the elements of a process for separating silk from cotton. A 
neater process, however, is based on the employment of the ammoni- 
acal oxyd of nickel, which, as we have seen, dissolves the silk, but is 
absolutely without action on the cellulose. 

The solution of cellulose is equally precipitated by alcohol, by a 
concentrated solution of honey, of gum arabic, or of dextrine. Schweit- 



SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 359 

zer's reagent is without action on the pyroxyline or gun-cotton, as well 
as on collodion. 

J. Nickles, Professor of the Faculty of Sciences at Nancy. — On re- 
searches respecting fluorine, its presence in sulphuric acid, in blood, 
bones, teeth, in mineral and ordinary waters, the sources from which 
the animal organism derives it, and on the causes of error which infect 
the old process, with the means of avoiding those errors, &c. Memoirs 
of the Academy of Stanislas, 185*7, p. 77; Comptes rendus de V Acad- 
emic des Sciences^ T. XLV, p. 331 ; Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 
T. XXIV, p. 113. 

An interesting discussion took place in reference to this paper in 
which several chemists, particularly MM. Liebig, Erdmarm, and 
Fritzsche of St. Petersburg, bore a part. 

De Babo, Professor at the University of Fribourg, in Breisgau. — 
Apparatus for preparing ozone. This apparatus, by which ozone is 
obtained through the combustion of phosphorus, accomplishes the 
separation of the gas from the phosphorus acid with which it is usually 
contaminated. This result is obtained by causing the fluid to pass 
into a solution of chromic acid, which acid does not restrict itself to 
the oxydation of the phosphorus acid, but, as M. Baumert, a pupil of 
M. Bunsen, had already perceived, it also enriches the ozone, since 
after the washing the ozone is found to be surprisingly increased, ob- 
viously because the oxydation of the phosphorus ackl is itself a cause 
of ozonization. 

M. De Babo has succeeded in desiccating ozone to the extent of ob- 
taining it in an anhydrous condition, whence it follows that ozone, 
or at least this particular species of ozone, cannot be confounded with 
the hydrogenized ozone discovered by M. Baumert. 

MM. Bunsen and Magnus, who gave their views on this occasion, 
are of opinion that it is necessary to recognize two species of ozone, 
the one to be regarded as allotropic oxygen, the other as a hydrogenous 
combination. We shall see presently that this obscure question of the 
nature of ozone received considerable elucidation at one of the subse- 
quent sittings. 

Erdmann, Professor at the University of Leipzig. — The name of M. 
Erdraann is of interest to us^ not only account of the honorable labors 
which it signalizes, but because the savant who bears it was also the 
first master of the unfortunate Gerhardt. It was he who had the 
merit of presaging the future chemist, and of initiating in science the 
eminent man who died so young, and who had opened to chemistry so 
wide an horizon. It was into his own house at Leipzic that M. Erd- 
mann received the young commercial traveler of Alsace, whom an irre- 
sistible inclination allured to the science, though somewhat, it must be 
confessed, to the detriment of those mercantile interests in which he 
had been engaged.* 

The occasion might justly be deemed fortunate which led us to make 
the personal acquaintance of the first master of our lamented friend, 
and enabled us to obtain information on some of the obscurer incidents 



* See biographic notice of Gerhardt, Silliman's Journal of Sciences, Vol. XXIII, p. 102. 
Author. 



360 SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 

of his youth and scientific career. The oral lecture of M. Erdmami 
brought to the notice of the section several new facts verified in his 
laboratory : 

First. Vesicatory Principle of the Ranunculus Sceleratus.- — This prin- 
ciple presents itself under the form of an acrid oil which, in the end, 
changes into a white mass composed of anemonine and of anemonic 
acid. This transformation takes place in the plant even when sub- 
jected to desiccation, and the vegetable, in consequence of it, loses all 
its acrimony. 

Second. Action of some Metallic Salts on Ligneous Substances. — It is 
a customary practice to preserve wood, and especially the sleepers of 
railways, by impregnating them with certain metallic solutions, and 
among others, the solution of sulphate of copper; for these saline 
substances form with the wood a species of combination which appear 
sufficiently intimate to resist the action of water, and wood thus pre- 
pared may, in effect, be sunk in water without abandoning to it' the 
copper which is held in combination. Now, this is not the case when, 
instead of wood in its normal condition, we -employ purified ivood; 
that is to say, cellulose. Impregnated with sulphate of copper, the 
cellulose becomes colored, indeed, but at the slightest lavage with 
water, it resigns the sulphate which it seemed to have fixed. 

Examining this fact a little more closely, we recognize that, in order 
that wood should Jbe capable of fixing the sulphate of copper, it must 
necessarily be resinous. Moreover, it is known that weak solutions of 
the sulphate of copper remove azotised substances from wood. 

Third. Solubility of the sulphate of baryta. — The sulphate of baryta 
is one of the salts on which water has the least action ; but if this sul- 
phate is insoluble in pure water, it becomes soluble when this last con- 
tains nitrate of ammonia ; a concentrated solution of that salt even dis- 
solves considerable proportions of it. This solution remains limpid 
in presence of the chlorides of potassium, of ammonia, of strontium, 
and of calcium, but it is rendered turbid by salts of which the base is 
baryta. Water added, even, in great quantities, has no action on it. 
This solubility of the sulphate of baryta in the nitrate of ammonia is 
considerably augmented when we add to this last a little chlorhydric 
acid ; in which case the dissolving agent is the chlorine, resulting from 
the decomposition of chlorhydric acid. 

From the fact that at this first sitting of the section the list of de- 
signated speakers was small, an opportunity was afforded for objec- 
tion, and several lively and instructive discussions arose on the part 
of the members ; but from the 18th of September, the order of the day 
being fuller, and the sessions restricted to two hours, little questioning 
could take place, and the speakers, whose names had been enrolled, 
were required to succeed one another with as much rapidity as pos- 
sible. 



SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 361 



III. 

New Hydrocarburets — Picric Combinations — Industrial Processes — Different Species of 
Oxygen — Science and the Metrical System — International Relations and the Metrical Sys- 
tem — Standard Liquors. 

At the second meeting facts of great importance were communicated 
by MM. Fritzsche, Kuhlmann, Schoenbein, and Mohr. The first 
exhibited several new hydrocarburets which he had discovered in the 
tar proceeding from the distillation of wood ; and adverted to a char- 
acteristic property of certain hydrocarburets of forming definite com- 
binations with picric acid. This property, equally a discovery of the 
Kussian chemist, will be found described in a French publication, the 
11 Journal de Chimie et de Pharmacie," 1858, vol. XXIV, p. 158. 

The novel facts brought to the notice of the association by M. Kuhl- 
mann, were the result of inquiries having their origin in the desire to 
render salubrious a form of industry which has heretofore been the 
reverse, the fabrication, namely, of artificial soda, after the process of 
Leblanc. In this pursuit the transformation of marine salt into the 
sulphate of soda gives rise to streams of chlorhydric gas, a part of 
which diffuses itself in the atmosphere, which it renders unwholesome 
to animals and even plants. We need not speak of the attempts made, 
up to this time, to remedy this state of things, but we can certify that 
M. Kuhlmann has succeeded so well that he draws benefit and profit 
from it. Hence he was induced to give his process at length, that it 
may be available to all. In few words this process is as follows : 

In the current of the acid gases, he places lumps of the carbonate of 
baryta, which occurs in masses in the mineral kingdom. By the 
action of the chlorhydric gas, the carbonate is decomposed, and is re- 
placed by a useful product, the chloride of barium, which, by means 
of sulphuric acid, may be easily transformed into sulphate of baryta, 
a substance much in request at present, and of which M. Kuhlmann 
himself manufactures 2,000 kilogramms a day. 

An improvement is adopted the moment the manufacturer finds his 
account, in doing so, and such will be the case with this process, whicli 
will supply the means of disinfectment for many localities. It is not 
meant that the carbonate of barytas alone is available under such cir- 
cumstances. At no distant day, when the chloride of calcium shall 
have undergone proper applications, this carbonate may be advanta- 
geously substituted for the other. 

Another new fact which M. Kuhlmann had realized, relates to the 
employment of a residuum of a different kind, but at least as insalu- 
brious as chlorhydric gas ; the masses, namely, of chloruret of man- 
ganese, resulting from the manufacture of chlorine, which accumulate 
by millions of litres around the workshops, without a possibility of 
being conveniently gotten rid of; for there can be no question here of 
discharging the accumulations either into the river or the subterranean 
conduits, whose waters would be thereby rendered unwholesome. We 
may add that this residuum of the chloruret of manganese retains a 
sufficiently large proportion of chlorine to make the economizing it an 
object of importance : since, in France alone, the waste of chlorine in 



362 SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 

this way amounts, in point of value, to something like two millions of 
francs per annum. 

M. Kuhlmann proposes two modes of employing this residuum : one 
by transforming it into chloruret of barium by means of carbon and 
the sulphate of barytes ; the other by treating it with another embar- 
rassing residuum of the soda manufactures, the oxysulphuret of cal- 
cium, from which M. Kuhlmann obtains sulphide of manganese and 
chloruret of calcium. 

The last mentioned chemist was followed by M. Schoenbein, the dis- 
coverer of ozone, who, as he himself stated, has been occupied for 
twenty years with the study of oxygen, and who furnished us, in the 
results at which he has arrived, still another instance of the fact that 
in science a noble reputation may be achieved even when the inquirer 
restricts himself to the observation of a single body. We must observe, 
however, that the new phenomena detailed to us on this occasion, im- 
ply a degree of sagacity which doubtless does not fall to the lot of 
every observer. 

Mr. Schoenbein began with informing us that there are three kinds of 
oxygen, of which one, the common oxygen, is that which we respire 
in the air. The two other kinds constitute two species of ozone, which 
with reference to one another are as the two species of allotropic elec- 
tricity, &c. We regenerate common oxygen when we place these two 
species of ozone in contact, and, on the contrary, we destroy it when 
by a given chemical agency we separate one of the two modifications. 
This tendency, on the part of these two modifications, to produce com- 
mon oxygen, explains certain effects called catalytic, and which had 
till now remained unexplained; thus, the peroxyde of barium and 
oxygenized water rendered acid by means of nitric acid, reciprocally 
decompose each other in giving place to water, oxyd of barium, and 
common oxygen: under the same circumstances, the permanganate of 
potassium is reduced to manganic oxyd, the chromic acid becomes the 
oxyd of chrome; that is to say, these compounds are deoxydized m 
presence of an abundant supply of oxygen, and precisely at the con- 
tact of that particular species of oxygen, ozone, whose burning power 
is effectual to oxydize directly the least oxydizable bodies, such as 
azote. 

Effects apparently so contradictory are to be explained by what we 
have said above ; a combination highly oxygenized may be resolved in 
presence of another compound rich in oxygen, whenever one of these 
compounds contains oxygen which may be termed positive and the 
other that which is negative. The result of such decomposition is 
ordinary or neutral oxygen. A like result is had when we agitate 
with oxygenized water ozone obtained with phosphorus ; the product 
is nothing else but pure water, and common oxygen. 

That ozone, then, or nascent oxygen prepared with phosphorus 
should act energetically as an oxydizer, it is not necessary that it 
should be in presence of the oxygen arising from the oxygenized 
water. 

Since, according to the experiments of M. Woelher, there is required 
an equivalent of oxygenized water to decompose an equivalent of per- 
oxyde of manganese, it may be said that, just as an acid loses its acid 



SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS OF CARLSRUHE. 363 

properties in presence of a base, and vice versa, so likewise does ozone 
affected with the sign -|- for instance, lose its oxydizing properties in 
presence of ozone affected with the sign — . 

This polarity of the different states of chemical activity in which 
oxygen may present itself, results still more from the manner in which 
certain oxyds act in regard to chlorhydric acid. In this case the per- 
oxyde of manganese is replaced by a protochloride, chlorine, and 
water. 

Mn O 2 + 2 CI H — CI Mn + CI + 2 HO (1.) 

With the peroxide of barium, on the contrary, we obtain not chlorine, 
but oxygenized water. 

Ba O 2 + CI H = CI Ba + HO 2 (2.) 

To the group of t