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Full text of "Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution"



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42d Congress, \ HOUSE OF REPEESENTATIVES. ( Mis. Doc. 
3d Session. § \ No. 107. 



ANNUAL EEPORT 



BOAKD OF REG-ENTS 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



J 



SHOWING 



THE OPERATIONS, EXPENDITURES, AND CONDITION OF THE INSTITUTION 
POR THE YEAR 1872. 



WASHINGTO:^: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1S73. 



In the Senate ov the United States, 

February 3, 1S73. 
The followiDg resolution, originating in the Senate December 20, 1872, was agreed to 
by the Honse of Representatives January 31, 1873. 

Besohed, (the House of Eopresentatives concurring,) That twelve thousand five hun- 
dred additional copies of the report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 1872, be 
printed ; twenty-five hundred of which shall be for the use of the Senate, five thousand 
for the use of the House, and five thousand for the use of the Institution : Provided, 
That the aggregate number of pages of said report shall not exceed four hundred and 
fifty, and that there shall be no illustrations except those furnished by the Smithsonian 
Institution. 
Attest : 

GEORGE C. GORHAM, Sccretanj. 



LETTER 



FIIO:\I THE 



SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

TRANSMITTING 

TJie annual report of the 8mitJisonia7i Institution for the year 1872. 



Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington^ February 20, 1873. 
Sm : In behalf of the Board of Eegeuts, I have the honor to submit 
to the Congress of the United States the annual report of the opera- 
tions, expenditures, and condition of the Smithsonian Institution for 
the year 1872. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOSEPH HENEY, 
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 
Hon. S. Colfax, 

President of the Senate. 
Hon. J. G. Blaine, 

Speaker of the Mouse of Representatives. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOR 1872. 



Tbis document coutaius: 1. The programme of organization of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 2. The annual report of the Secretary, giving 
an account of the operations and condition of the establishment for the 
year 1872, with the statistics of collections, exchanges, meteorology, &c. 

3. The report of the executive committee, exhibiting the financial affairs 
of the Institution, including a statement of the Smithson fund, the re- 
ceipts and expenditures for the year 1872, and the estimates for 1873. 

4. The proceedings of the Board of Eegents. 5. A general appendix, 
consisting principally of reports of lectures, translations from foreign 
journals of articles not generally accessible, but of interest to meteor- 
ologists, correspondents of the Institution, teachers, and others inter- 
ested in the promotion of knowledge. 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



ULYSSES S. GRANT Presideut of the United States, cx-officio Presiding- Officer 

of the Institution. 

SALMON P. CHASE Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor of the Insti- 
tution, Presideut of the Bo.ird of Regents. 

JOSEPH HENRY Secretary (or Director) of the Institution. 



EEGENTS OF THE INSTITUTION. 



S. P. CHASE Chief Justice of the United States, President of the Board. 

S. COLFAX Vice-President of the United States. 

HENRY D. COOKE Governor of the District of Columbia. 

L. TRUMBULL Member of the Senate of the United States. 

J. W. STEVENSON Member of the Senate of the United States. 

H. HAMLIN Member of the Senate of the United States. 

J. A. GARFIELD Member of the House of Representatives. 

L. P. POLAND Member of the House of Representatives. 

S. S. COX Member of the House of Representatives. 

W. B. ASTOR Citizen of New York. 

T. D. WOOLSEY Citizen of Connecticut. 

L. AGASSIZ Citizen of Massachusetts. 

JOHN MACLEAN Citizen of New Jersey. 

PETER PARKER Citizen of Washington. 

WILLIAM T. SHERMAN.. Citizen of Washington. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF EEGENTS. 
PETER PARKER. JOHN MACLEAN. WILLIAM T. SHERMAN. 



MEMBERS EX-OFFICIO OF THE INSTITUTION. 



U. S. GRANT President oftho United States. 

S. COLFAX Vice-President of the United States. 

S. P. CHASE Chief Justice of the United States. 

H. FISH . . .• Secretary of State. 

G. S. BOUTWELL Secretary of the Treasury. 

W. W. BELKNAP Secretary of War. 

G. M. ROBESON Secretary of the Navy. 

J. A. J. CRESWELL Postmaster-General. 

C. DELANO Secretary of the Interior. 

GEO. H. WILLIAMS Attorney-General. 

M. D. LEGGETT Commissioner of Patents. 

H. D, COOKE Governor of the District of Columbia. 



OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTION^, 1872. 



JOSEPH HENRY, Secretaky, 
Director of the Institution. 



SPENCER F. BAIRD, 

Assistant Secretary. 



WILLIAM J. RHEES, 

Chief Cle)-k. 



DANIEL LEECH, 

Corresi)on(Ung Clerk. 



CLARENCE B. YOUNG, 

Book-keeper. 



HERMANN DIEBITSCH, 

Meteorological Clerk. 



HENRY M. BANNISTER, 

Museum Clerk. 



JAKE A. TURNER, 

Exchange Clei'k. 



SOLOMON G. BROWN, 

Transportation} Clerk. 



JOSEPH HERRON, 

Janitor. 



PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



[PKESENTED IN THE FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY, AND 
ADOPTED BY THE BOARD OF REGENTS, DECEMBER 13, 1847.] 



IKTRODUCTIOK 



General considerations icliicli should serve as a guide in adopting a Plan of 

Organizatio7i. 

1. Will of Smithson. The property is bequeathed to the United 
States of America, " to found at Washington, under the name of the 
Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and dif- 
fusion of knowledge among men." 

2. The bequest is for the benefit of mankind. The Government of 
the United States is merely a trustee to carry out the design of the 
testator. 

3. The Institution is not a national establishment, as is frequently 
supposed, but the establishment of an individual, and is to bear and. 
perpetuate his name. 

4. The objects of the Institution are, 1st, to increase, and 2d, to dif- 
fuse knowledge among men. 

5. These two objects should not be confounded with one another. 
The first is to enlarge the existing stock of knowledge by the addition 
of new truths ; and the second, to disseminate knowledge, thus increased, 
among men. 

6. The will makes no restriction iu favor of any particular kind of 
knowledge ; hence all branches are entitled to a share of attention. 

7. Knowledge can be increased by different methods of facilitating 
and promoting the discovery of new truths; and can be most exten- 
sively diffused among men by means of the press. 

8. To effect the greatest amount of good, the organization should be 
such as to enable the Institution to produce results, iu the way of in- 
creasing and diffusing knowledge, which cannot be produced either at 
all or so efficiently hy the existing institutions in our country. 



8 PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 

9. The organization sboiild also be such as can be adopted provis- 
ionally 5 can be easily reduced to practice; receive modifications, or be 
abandoned, in whole or in part, without a sacrifice of the funds. 

10. In order to compensate in some measure for the loss of time occa- 
sioned by the delay of eight years in establishing the Institution, a 
considerable portion of the interest which has accrued should be added 
to the principal. 

11. In proportion to the wide field of knowledge to be cultivated, the 
funds are small. Economy should, therefore, be consulted in the con- 
struction of the building ; and not only the first cost of the edifice 
should be considered, bnt also the continual expense of keeping it in 
repair, and of the support of the establishment necessarily connected 
with it. There should also be but few individuals permanently sup- 
ported by the Institution. 

12. The plan and dimensions of the building should be determined 
by the plan of organization, and not the converse. 

13. It should be recollected that mankind in general are to be bene- 
fited by the bequest, and that, therefore, all unnecessary expenditure 
on local objects would be a perversion of the trust. 

14. Besides the foregoing considerations, deduced immediately from 
the will of Smithson, regard must be had to certain requirements of the 
act of Congress establishing the Institution. These are, a library, a 
museum, and a gallery of art, with a building on a liberal scale to con- 
tain them. 

SECTION I. 

Plan of organisation of the Institution in accordance icith the foregoing 
deductions fr 07)1 the tvill of Smithson, 

To INCREASE KNOWLEDGE. It is proposed — 

1. To stimulate men of talent to make original researches, by offering 
suitable rewards for memoirs containing new truths ; and, 

2. To appropriate annually a portion of the income for particular re- 
searches, under the direction of suitable persons. 

To DIFFUSE KNOWLEDGE. It is propOSCd — 

1. To publish a series of periodical reports on the progress of the dif- 
ferent branches of knowledge ; and , 

2. To publish occasionally separate treatises on subjects of general 
interest. 

DETAILS OF THE PLAN TO INCREASE KNOWLEDGE. 

I. By stimulating researches. 

1. Facilities afforded for the production of original memoirs on all 
branches of knowledge. 



PROGKAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 9 

2. The memoirs thus obtained to be published in a series of volumes, in 
a quarto form, and entitled Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. 

3. No memoir on subjects of physical science to be accepted for pub- 
lication which does not furnish a positive addition to human knowledge, 
resting on original research; and all unverified s])eculations to be re- 
jected. 

4. Each memoir presented to the Institution to be submitted for ex- 
amination to a commission of persons of reputation for learning in the 
branch to which the memoir pertains; and to be accei)ted for publica- 
tion only in case the report of this commission is favorable. 

5. The commission to be chosen by the officers of the Institution, 
and the name of the author, as far as practicable, concealed, unless a 
favorable decision is made. 

6. The volumes of the memoirs to be exchanged for the transactions 
of literary and scientific societies, and copies to be given to all the col- 
leges and principal libraries in this country. One part of the remaining 
copies may be olfered for sale, and the other carefully preserved, to 
form complete sets of the work, to supply the demand from new institu- 
tions. 

7. An abstract, or popular account, of the contents of these memoirs 
to be given to the public through the annual report of the Kegents to 
Congress. 

II. By appropriating a part of the income, annually, to special objects of 
research, under the direction of suitahlc persons. 

1. The objects, and the amount appropriated, to be recommended by 
counselors of the Institution. 

2. Appropriations in difierent years to different objects; so that in 
course of time each branch of knowledge may receive a share. 

3. The results obtained from these appropriations to be published, 
with the memoirs before mentioned, in the volumes of the Smithsonian 
Contribp<^'':>ns to Knowledge. 

4. Examples of objects for which appropriations may be made : 

(1.) System of extended meteorological observations for solving the 
problem of American storms. 

(2.) Explorations in descriptive natural history, and geological, mag- 
netical, and topographical surveys, to collect materials for the formation 
of a i)hysical athis of the United States. 

(3.) Solution of experimental problems, such as a new determina- 
tion of the weight of the earth, of the velocity of electricity, and of 
light ; chemical analysis of soils and plants ; collection and publication 
of scientific facts accumulated in the offices of Government. 

(4.) Institution of statistical inquiries with reference to physical, moral, 
and political subjects. 

(5.) Historical researches, and accurate surveys of places celebrated 
in American history. 



10 PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 

(6.) Ethnological researches, particularly with reference to the differ- 
ent races of men in North America ; also, explorations and accurate 
surveys of the mounds and other remains of the ancient people of our 
country. 

DETAILS OF THE PLAN FOR DEFFUSING KNOWLEDGE. 

I. By the jmhUcaiion of a series of reports, giving an account of the new 
discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all 
branches of hnowledge not strictly professiotial. 

1. These reports will diffuse a kind of knowledge generally interes^ 
ing, but which, at present, is inaccessible to the public. Some of the 
reports may be ijublished annually, others at longer intervals, as the 
income of the Institution or the changes in the branches of knowledge 
may indicate. 

2. The reports are to be prepared by collaborators eminent in the dif- 
ferent branches of knowledge, 

3. Each collaborator to be furnished with the journals and ijublica- 
tions, domestic and foreign, necessary to the compilation of his report ; 
to be paid a certain sum for his labors, and to be named on the title- 
page of the report. 

4. The reports to be i^ublished in separate parts, so that persons in- 
terested in a particular branch can procure the parts relatiiig to it with- 
out j)urchasing the whole. 

5. These reports may be presented to Congress, for partial distribu- 
tion, the remaining copies to be given to literary and scientific institu- 
tions, and sold to individuals for a moderate price. 

II. By the publication of separate treatises on subjects of general interest. 

1. These treatises may occasionally consist of valuable memoirs, 
translated from foreign languages, or of articles i)repared under the 
direction of the Institution, or procured by offering ijremiums for the 
best exposition of a given subject. 

2. The treatises should, in all cases, be submitted to a commission of 
competent judges, previous to their publication. 

3. As examples of these treatises, expositions may be obtained of the 
present state of the several branches of knowledge mentioned in the 
table of reports. 

SECTION II. 

Plan of organization in accordance with the terms of the resolution of the 
Board of Regents providing for the two modes of increasing and diffusing 
Jcnowledge. 

1. The act of Congress establishing the Institution contemplated the 
formation of a library and a museum 5 and the Board of Eegents, in- 



PROGRAMME OF ORGANISATION. 11 

eluding these objects iu the plan of organization, resolved to divide 
the income into two equal parts. 

2. One part to be appropriated to increase and diffuse knowledge by 
means of publications and researches, agreeably to the scheme before 
given. The other part to be appropriated to the formation of a library 
and a collection of objects of nature and art. 

3. These two plans are not incompatible with one another. 

4. To carry out the plan before described, a library will be required, 
consisting, 1st, of a complete collection of the transactions and pro- 
ceedings of all the learned societies in the world ; 2d, of the more im- 
portant current jjeriodical publications, and other works necessary in 
j)reparing the periodical reports. 

5. The Institution should make special collections, particularly of ob- 
jects to illustrate and verify its own publications. 

G. Also, a collection of instruments of research in all branches of ex- 
perimental science. 

7. With reference to the collection of books other than those men- 
tioned above, catalogues of all the different libraries in the United 
States should be procured, in order that the valuable books first pur- 
chased may be such as are not to be found in the United States. 

8. Also, catalogues of memoirs, and of books and other materials, 
should be collected for rendering the Institution a center of bibliograph- 
ical knowledge, whence the student maj^ be directed to any work which 
he may require. 

9. It is believed that the collections in natural history will increase 
by donation as rapidly as the income of the Institution can make pro- 
vision for their reception, and, therefore, it will seldom be necessary to 
purchase articles of this kind. 

10. Attempts should be made to secure for the gallery of art casts of 
the most celebrated articles of ancient and modern sculpture. 

11. The arts may be encouraged by providing a room, free of expense, 
for the exhibition of the objects of the Art-Union and other similar 
societies. 

12. A small appropriation should annually be made for models of an- 
tiquities, such as those of the remains of ancient temples, &g. 

13. For the present, or until the building is fully completed, besides 
the Secretary, no peru)anent assistant will be required, except one, to act 
as librarian. 

14. The Secretary, by the law of Congress, is alone responsible to the 
Kegents. He shall take charge of the building and property, keep a 
record of proceedings, discharge the duties of librarian and keeper of 
the museum, and may, with the consent of the Eegents, employ assist- 
ants. 

15. The Secretary and his assistants, during the session of Congress, 
will be required to illustrate new discoveries in science, and to exhibit 



12 PROGRAMME OF ORGANIZATION. 

new objects of art. Distinguished individuals should also be invited to 
give lectures on subjects of general interest. 



The foregoing programme was that of the general policy of the In- 
stitution until 1866, when Congress took charge of the library 5 and since 
an appropriation has been made by Government for the maintenance of 
the museum the provisions of Section II are no longer fuUy observed. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY FOR THE YEAR 1872. 



To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution : 

Gentlemen : The report which. I have the honor to present at this 
time completes the history of the operations of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion for the first quarter of a century of its active existence ; and as it 
is important to recapitulate, from time to time, the policy which has been 
adopted for the management of the funds intrusted to the United States 
for the good of men by James Smithson, it may bo well on this occasion 
to recall the essential features of the trust, and to briefly state such 
salient points connected with its administration as may be of especial 
importance in the future. 

At the time the funds were received by the General Government, the 
distinction between education and original scientific research was not 
so fully recognizsed as it is at the present day, and therefore it is not 
surprising that the brief though comprehensive language in which the 
will of Smithson was expressed should not have been generally under- 
stood, or that the words "I bequeath the whole of my ijroperty to the 
United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of 
the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffu- 
sion of knowledge among men,^'' should have been so interpreted as to 
induce Congress to direct the expenditure of the income of the fund 
I)rincipally to objects which, though important in themselves, did not 
comport with the strict interpretation of the will, being of a local char- 
acter instead of affecting the interests of humanity in general. 

Smithson devoted his life to abstract science and original research, 
and there cannot be a reasonable doubt that he used the terms " increase 
and diffusion of knowledge among men"* to imply that the income of 
his bequest should bo devoted to original research in all branches of 
knowledge susce[)tible of increase, and the diffusion of the result of this 
through the press for the benefit of mankind generally. 

* The terms increase aud diffusion of knowledge were used, in the specific sense here 
indicated, by men of science of the time of Smithsoi^. As an illustration of this we may 
cite the following remark of William Swainson, a celebrated naturalist. Speaking of 
the Zoological Society of London, he says : "It is more calculated to diffuse thau to 
increase the actual stock of scientific knowledge." The author further remarks that, 
"while we may truly exult in this awakening of the national intellect, avc must remem- 
ber that diffusion and advancement are two very different processes ; and each may exist 
independent of the other. It is very essential, therefore, to ovu" present piu-pose, when 
we speak of the diff'nsion or extension of science, that avo do not confound these stages of 
development with riiscoi'cr^ or adya«cemeji<; since the latter may be as different from 
the former as depth is from shallowness." (See Cabinet Cyclopedia, Natural History, 
p. 314, London, 1834.) 



14 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

The terms of the will, when critically aualyzecliu their scientific signi- 
fication, will admit of no other interpretation, and the fitness of the 
policy which has been adopted after much discussion, and, as far as the 
original restrictions of Congress would allow, has met with general 
approval by men of science of all countries. 

After having devoted assiduously twenty-five of the best years of my 
life to the administration of the affairs of the Institution, I may be par- 
doned for making some personal allusions to the past, and expressing 
my earnest desire that the same j)olicy which was inaugurated and has 
been continually^ observed under my direction may be continued in the 
future, when I shall have ended my connection with the establishment, 
with only such modifications as the ever-changing conditions of the 
world may render necessary. 

Immediately after the organization of the Institution, in 1846, I was 
requested by personal friends in the Board of Eegents to give my views 
as to what the Institution ought to be, in order to realize the intention 
of the founder as expressed in his will. Having been long impressed 
with the importance of special provision for original research, and 
believing it was the intention of the founder of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion to ofter fiicilities for this purpose, I suggested the essential features 
of the i^rogramme published in my first report to the Board of Eegents 
in 1847; and, on account of this suggestion I presume, I was informed 
that if I would accept the position of Secretary, or rather director, of 
the establishment, I would receive the appointment. 

Being at the time engaged in a series of original researches, I did 
not at first entertain the proposition ; but afterward, on the expression 
of the opinion of the more i^rominent members of the American Philo- 
sophical Society that it was my duty, as the only scientific candidate 
that had been proposed, to accept the appointment, I ficcordingly con- 
sented, was elected, and entered upon my duty; not, however, without 
much anxiety and great solicitude as to my ability in the line of admin- 
istration, but with the hope that the policy which I wished to inaugu- 
rate would be readily understood and properly appreciated ; that my 
plans would be immediately adopted; and that, after seeing the Insti- 
tution full3" under way in the direction proposed, I might retire from its 
charge, return to my former position in the College of Kew Jersey, and 
resume my scientific investigations. In this, however, I was sadly dis- 
appointed. 

The plan proposed was too much in advance of the popular intelli- 
gence of the day, both in this country and in England, to be immedi- 
ately adopted. The value of scientific research had not then received 
that high appreciation which it enjoys at the present time; and, indeed, 
no distinction was then made between the popular expounder of scien- 
tific principles and the original investigator, to whose labors the world 
was indebted for important additions to human knowledge. 

Ox^posed to the views of establishing an institution the great feature of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 15 

\rhich should be the facilitatiug of orij^iual researcli, was the organization 
which had been directed by Congress, namely, that i)rovision should 
be made on a liberal scale for a museum, a library, a gallery of art, lec- 
tures, and an arboretum, involving the construction of a large building, 
whereas the j)lan for original research required a building of compara- 
tively small dimensions, the cost of which need not to have exceeded 
$50,000; while the estimated cost of the one proposed was $250,000, and 
it has actually cost more than double that sum. It was in vain to urge 
that the law of Congress might be altered, although the will of Smithsou 
could never be changed. Public opinion apparently was generally in 
favor of the erection of a large building, and the establishment of a 
library, museum, gallery of art, and lectures. Still a majority of the 
Board of Eegents were in favor of the plan of original research and 
liublication, and, after much discussion, it was finally agreed, as an 
experiment, to divide tbe income into two equal parts, giving one 
part to what has been called the "active operations," and the other to 
the library, museum, and other local objects. In the attempt to carry 
out this division, difficulties occurred which led to its final abandonment, 
and to the adoj>tion of another arrangement, that of making such pro- 
vision from time to time for the museum and library and gallery of art 
as might be thought necessary" under existing conditions. As might 
have been anticipated, the cost of the building far exceeded the origi- 
nal estimate, and the multiplicity of objects was far too great to be sus- 
tained by the comparatively small income of the establishment. The 
increase of the library, by exchanges for the publications of the Institu- 
tion, itself was so rapid that the care and binding of the books alone 
absorbed a considerable i^art of the income. 

The collections of natural history and ethnology belonging to the Gov- 
ernment were transferred to the care of the Institution, and an allow- 
ance of only 8i,000 annually made for their support, while, as the num- 
ber of specimens was continually increasing, the sum allowed by Con- 
gress finally scarcely paid more than one-fourth the actual expenses, 
without estimating the rent and cost of repair of the building. Besides 
this, Congress had presented to the Institution a portion of the public 
reservation on which the building is situated. In the planting of this 
with trees, nearly $10,000 of the Smithson income were expended. 

It is readily seen from this statement that with the increase of the 
library and museum, the formation of a gallery of art, and the sustain- 
ing of a public park, all the income would be absorbed, and the cherished 
plan of an institution to facilitate original research, and the jniblication 
of its results, must be abandoned. 

To prevent so undesirable a result, advantage was taken of the expo- 
siu^e of the books after the fire, to urge the plan of uniting the library of 
the Institution with that of Congress, and of the two to form a collec- 
tion worth}' the name of National Library. The proposition was adopted, 
and the results have proved eminently successful. The Library of Con- 



16 KEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 

gress is now the largest iu the Uuited States, the scientific part of 
which is rapidly becoming, through the Smithsonian exchanges, one 
of the best of the kind in the world. Furthermore, Congress is now 
about to erect a separate building for its accommodation. 

Previous to this union of the libraries, however, an appropriation had 
been made by Congress for improving the public ground between the 
Potomac and the Capitol. Advantage Avas taken of this to include the 
Smithsonian portion of these grounds in the general i)lan, and thus to 
relieve the Institution from the cost of its maintenance. 

The remaining drains upon the income, which continued to diminish 
the active operations, were the care of the building and the maintenance 
of the museum ; and the next step, therefore, was to induce Cougess 
to relieve the Institution from these. The results, in the mean time, of 
the active operations having signally demonstrated the importance of 
original research and publications, together with the general system 
of exchanges which had been adopted. Congress finally' lent a favorable 
ear to the petition for appropriations sufficient to support the museum, 
and now annually appropriates $15,000 to this purpose. 

In justice to the trust, however, the Government ought to do inuch 
more than this. It should repay at least a portion of the $000,000 
which have been expended on the building, erected in accordance with 
the instruction of Congress, and far exceeding in cost an edifice wanted 
for the legitimate objects of the Institution. The proper course to adopt 
would be for Congress to take entire possession of the buildiug for 
the National Museum, repay the Smithsou fund, say $300,000, adding 
$200,000 of this to the principal of the trust-fund, and applying the 
remainder to the erection of a separate buildiug, consisting of offices, 
laboratories, store-rooms, &c., required for the present use of the 
Institution. 

The only other requirement of Congress which has not been fully met 
is that of a gallery of art. It is true the Institution owns a very valu- 
able collection of specimens of the early masters to illustrate the prog- 
ress of the art of engraving, and some articles of painting and sculp- 
ture, which may be considered as forming the commencement of a gal- 
lery of art; but the expense of supporting a collection of this kind has 
been obviated by the establishment in this city of a gaUery of art by 
the liberality of Mr. W. W. Corcoran, with an income larger than all of 
that from the Smith son fuud. 

Notwithstanding the various burdens which have interfered with the 
full development of the plan of active operations, it is through this plan 
that the Institution has made itself knoA\\n throughout every part of 
the civilized world. The publications which result from the facilities 
it has afforded to original research are to be found in all the princii)al 
libraries, and its specimens in all the great public museums of the 
world. And it is hoped that in future, with the appropriations of Con- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 17 

gress for the support of the museum, still more important results will 
be obtained. 

The success of the jilan for realizing the intentions of Smithson for 
increasing and diffusing knowledge among men has been due to its 
simplicity and efficiency. Under a Board of Regents, which holds its 
sessions once a year, the operations of the establishment are directed by 
a single individual, called the Secretary, who, with the cousent of the 
Eegents, employs assistants and disburses the income of the fund. In 
determining the appropriations to different objects of research, the 
advice of persons of established reputation in different branches of 
science is obtained, and in all cases, before an article is accepted for 
publication, it is submitted to a conmiission of experts, who report upon 
its fitness for adoption by the Institution. In order to obtain a free and 
unbiased judgment, the name of the author, as far as possible, is concealed 
from the examiners, and the names of the latter are unknown to the 
former. By adopting this course the Institution secures the co-opera- 
tion of the best minds of the country, and in some cases has called in 
the aid of foreign savans. It is gratifying to be able to state that in no 
instance has aid of this kind been declined. In this way the greatest 
amount of mental labor is secured with a given expenditure of funds. 
It is true the lilan might have been adopted of electing men of original 
research in the various branches of science, and supporting them entirely 
on the funds of the establishment; but the income was not sufficient for 
this puri30se, as will be evident when the fact is considered that the will 
includes all branches of knowledge, and that every subject susceptible 
of increase is entitled to the benefit of the funds. At the beginning, 
however, since Congress directed the formation of a library anda museum, 
it was necessary that the Secretary should have assistants to take 
especial charge of these two branches of the establishment. With the 
transfer of the library to the care of the Government, a librarian of the 
Institution has been dispensed with; but since the museum is still under 
the care of the Institution, an assistant in charge of this is still re- 
quired, and Professor Baird, who has acted as assistant secretary, has 
had charge of the museum, and has rendered important service, not only 
in the line of natural history, but in that of the general operations of 
the establishment. 

The greatest opposition to the plan of active operations was made by 
the friends of the establishment of a library, but they have finally acqui- 
esced in the propriety of the course which has been pursued. The num- 
ber of books of the first class w'hich the Institution is bringing into the 
country through its system of exchange, and which are distributed 
to all the large cities of the United States, more than compensates for 
the support of a restricted library in the city of Washington by the 
funds of the Institution. 

The plan in regard to the museum was also at first misunderstood. 

It was supposed that because the Secretary opposed the establishment 

^ s 



18 EEPOET OF THE SECRETAEY. 

of a museum at the expense of the Institution that he was not well dis- 
posed toward the advance of natural history. But this misapprehension 
can readily be removed by the consideration that natural history could 
be much more eifectually advanced by expending less than a moiety of 
the cost of the building for the museum and the support of the collec- 
tions, in original explorations, in collecting specimens not to be pre- 
served, but to be distributed to all who might have the desire and ability 
TO investigate special problems in this branch of knowledge. The policy 
in regard to natural history is that of making collections of large num- 
bers of dui)licate specimens to illustrate the natural productions of North 
America, to make these up into sets, reserving one for the National 
Museum, and distributing all the others for scientific and educational 
purposes to the museums of the world. In every case in which appli- 
cation has been made to the Institution by an original investigator from 
any part of the world for specimens connected with his researches, they 
have been sent to him as far as possible, assurance being given that the 
specimens would be properly used and full credit given to the name of 
Smithson. As the specimens are collected, as a general rule, they are 
submitted to specialists in the various branches of natural history, who, 
without charge, classify, arrange, and label them for distribution. In 
this way the Institution has done much for natural history ; but it is 
evident that it could have done much more had it not been obliged to 
support a public museujn at the expense of several hundred thousand 
dollars for an edifice for this purpose. 

One prominent maxim of the Institution has been " co-operation i^ot 
monopoly," and another, "in all cases, as far as possible, not to occupy 
ground especially cultivated by other establishments," or, in other words, 
not to expend the money of the bequest in doing that for which provis- 
ion could be obtained through other means. To gratify men of litera- 
ture as well as to advance an important branch of knowledge, from the 
first much attention has been given to anthropology, including linguis- 
tics, antiquities, and everything which tends to reconstruct the history 
of man in the past ; this being a common ground on which the man of 
letters and of science could meet as harmonious collaborators. 

From the foregoing sketch it will be evident that the theory of the In- 
stitution is that of an ideal establishment for the collection of facts, the 
elaboration of these into general principles, and a difihsion of the re- 
sidts among men of every race and of every clime. That an institution 
of this character, in which the accumulation of ideas and not merely of 
material objects is the gi-eat end, should not have been properly appre- 
ciated at first in a country so eminently practical as ours is not surpris- 
ing. But we are happy in knowing it has been from year to year 
growing in public estimation, and we are encoui-aged to cherish the 
belief that it will not only realize the ideas of the benevolent founder 
of the Institution, but also serve as an example of imitation, while the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 19 

errors which may have been committed will also be of service in an 
opposite way. 

There is one feature of the establishment ordained by Congress which 
is worthy of imitation in the conduct of all endowments for benevolent 
objects, namely, the restriction of all expenditures to the annual interest. 
This rule has been rigorously adhered to in the conduct of the Institu- 
tion, and after expending-, in accordance with the act of Congress, up- 
ward of $000,000 on the buildings, tlie original fund remains intact with 
an addition made to it of upward of 8150,000 by savings, judicious 
investments, &c. 

FINAIsXES. 

The following is a general statement of the condition of the funds at 
the beginning of the year 1873 : 

The amount originally received as the bequest of James 
Smithson, of Eugland, deposited in the Treasury of the 
United States, in accordance with the act of Congress of 
August 10, ISIG 8515,1(39 00 

The residuary legacy of Smithson, received in 18G5, depos- 
ited in the Treasury of the United States, in accord- 
ance with the act of Congress of February 8, 18G7 26, 210 G3 

Total bequest of Smithson 511^ 370 03 

Amount deposited in the Treasury of the United States, as 
authorized by act of Congress of February 8, 1807, as 
derived from savings of income and increase in value of 
investments 108, G20 37 

Total permanent Smithson fund in the Treasury of the 
United States, bearing interest at C per cent., payable 
semi-annually in gold C50, 000 00 

In addition, there remains of the extra fund from savings, 

&c., in Virginia bonds, at par, 888,125.20, now valued at . . 37, 000 00 

The balance in Fu'st Kational Bank 1st of January, 1873 ... 17, 811 30 

Total Smithson funds 1st January, 1873 701, 811 30 

The income of the Smithson fund during the year, including 

premium on gold, was 40. 916 45 

The expenditures were 45, 420 11 

Leaving a balance of 1, 406 34 

To be added to the balance at the beginning of the year 1872. 

Included in the income was $3,004.90 derived from back interest on 
the Virginia bonds. The value of these bonds has appreciated during 
the year. 



20 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The publications of the Institution are of three classes — the Con- 
tributions to Knowledge, the Miscellaneous Collections, and the Annual 
Eeports. The first consist of memoirs containing positive additions to 
science resting on origiual research, and which are generally the result 
of investigations to which the Institution has in some way rendered as 
sistance, or of such an expensive character as cannot otherwise be pub- 
lished. The Miscellaneous Collections are composed of works intended 
to facilitate the study of branches of natural history, meteorology, &c., 
and are designed especially to induce individuals to engage in studies 
as specialties. The Animal Eeports, beside an accomit of the oijera- 
tions, expenditures, and condition of the Institution, contain translations 
from works not generally accessible to American students, reports of 
lectures, extracts from correspondence, Szc. 

The followmg are the rules which have been adopted for the distribu- 
tion of these publications : 

1st. They are presented to learned societies of the first class which in 
return give complete series of their publications to the Institution. 

Ud. To libraries of the fmst class which give in exchange their cata- 
logues and other i)ublications, or an equivalent, from then* duplicate 
volumes. 

3d. To colleges of the first class which furnish meteorological observa- 
tions, catalogues of their libraries and of their students, and aU other 
publications relative to their organization and history. 

4th. To States and Territories, provided they give in return copies of 
all documents published under their authority. 

5th. To public libraries in this country, not included in any of the 
foregoing classes, containing 15,000 volumes, especially if no other copies 
are given in the same place, and to smaller libraries where a large dis- 
trict would be otherwise unsupplied. 

Cth. To institutions devoted exclusively to the promotion of iiarticular 
branches of knowledge are given such of the publications as relate to 
thek respective objects. 

7th. The Eeports are presented to the meteorological observers, to con- 
tril3utors of valuable material to the library or collections, and to per- 
sons engaged in special scientific research. 

The distribution of the publications of the Institution is a matter 
which requires much care and a judicious selection of recipients, the 
great object being to make known to the world the truths which may 
result from the expenditure of the Smithson fund. For this purpose, the 
principal class of pubhcations, namely, the Contributions, are so dis-- 
tributed as to be accessible to the greatest number of readers, and this 
is evidently to principal libraries. 

The volumes of Contributions are presented on the express condition 
that while they ai^e to be carefully preserved they are to be accessible to 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 21 

students and others wlio may desire to consult them. These worlvS, it 
must be recollected, are not of a popular chai-acter, but require profound 
study to fidly understand them. They are, however, of iminense impor- 
tance to the teacher and the poi^ular expounder of science. They con- 
tain the materials from ^Yhich general treatises on special subjects are 
elaborated. 

Full sets of the publications cannot be given to all Avho appl}- for them, 
since this will be impossible with the limited income of the Institution ; 
and, indeed, if care be not exercised in the distribution, so large a portion 
of the income will be annually expended on the distribution of what has 
already been printed that nothing further can be done in the way of new 
IJublications. It must be recollected that every addition to the list of 
distribution not only involves the giving of publications which have 
already been made but also of those which are to be made hereafter. 

At the commencement of the operations of the Institution the publi- 
cations were not stereotyped, and consequently the earlier volumes have 
now become scarce, especially the first, of which there are no copies for 
distribution, although it can occasionally be obtained at a second-hand 
book-store in some of the larger cities, the authors having been allowed 
to strike off an edition to sell on their own account. 

No copyright has ever been taken for any of the publications of the 
Institution. They are left free to be used by the compiler of books 
without any restrictions except the one that full credit shall be given 
to the name of Smithsonfor any extracts which may be made from them. 
The printing of the publications of the Institution almost since the 
organization has been principally done at Philadelphia, by the house of 
T. K. Collins, under the superintendence of Mr. J. W. Huff, whose accu- 
racy and typographical skill leave us nothing to desire in this line. 
The stereotype plates are all deposited in the flre-proof vault of the 
basement of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia; and to 
this society the Institution has been indebted many years for the cour- 
tesy of storing, free of cost, this valuable property. 

Publications in 1873. — During the past year the volume of Tables and 
Eesults of the Precipitation in Bain and Snow in the United States and 
at some stations in adjacent parts of North America, Central and South 
America, has been printed and partly distributed. It consists of 178 
quarto pages, with five plates and three charts. It contains the abstracts 
ofall the records of observations of the rain-fall which have been made 
from the early settlement of this country down to the close of the year 
18G6, so far as they could be obtained. These records are from about 
twelve hundred stations, and consist of the observations made under 
the direction of the Institution, assisted since 1854 by the Pateut-Olhce 
and Department of Agriculture, of those of the Medical Department of 
the United States Army, of those by the United States Survey of the 
North and Northwest Lakes, of those made by the New York University 
system, by the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and also of those by 



22 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

Oilier scientific institutions and individuals. During tbe past year the 
compilers bave completed the tables of rain for 600 Smithsonian stations 
for the years 1808, 18(>9, and 1870, and of 220 military posts from Decem- 
ber, 1864, to November, 1871. The result of all the observations has 
been incorporated in the charts published in 1872, but the tables will be 
combined with those already published at some future time. 

It is i)roper here to express our obligations for the valuable co-opera- 
tion of the Medical Department of the Army, under Surgeon-General 
Barnes, who has given us free access to all the unpublished records ; and 
also for that of the Department of Agriculture, under its former commis- 
sioner. General Caprou. These tables furnish the means for important 
deductions intimately connected with the agriculture, commerce, and 
mechanical industr}' of the country, while they constitute a valuable con- 
tribution to the physical geography of the globe. 

This memoir is one of a series embodying the results of all the labors 
of the Smithsonian Institution in regard to the meteorology' of the United 
States. These will include not only all the observations which have been 
made under its own direction, but also the discussion of all that has been 
made In' other parties. The whole series will embrace the tabulation 
and discussion of observations on the temperature, atmospheric pressure, 
direction and force of the wind, moisture of the air, and miscellaneous 
j)heuomena. 

Another work, that of Dr. Horatio C. Wood, jr., of Philadelphia, on 
the frcsh-ivafcr aJrja'j was briefly' noticed in the report for 1870. It forms 
a complement to the great w^ork on the marine nlgCQ by Dr. Harvey, 
published in 1858 by the Smithsonian Institution. It is illustrated by 
numerous drp,wings, made i^rincipally under the microscope, and will 
serve to illustrate an obscure department of botany, and also to furnish 
the means by which investigators of minute microscopical organisms may 
compare recent and fossil forms. The work was presented to the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society and also to the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, but the expense of the engravings prevented either of 
these societies from undertaking its publication, although it was consid- 
ered entirely worthy of their adoption. It was referred by the Institu- 
tion to Dr. Torrey and Professor Barnard for critical examination, and 
liublished on their recommendation. 

A large part of the material for this work was gathered by Dr. 
Wood himself, although he was indebted to several persons for aid, 
especially to Dr. J. S. Billings, of the United States Army, for col- 
lections made near Washington ; to Professor Eavenel, of South Car- 
olina, for collections in Texas, South Carolina, and Georgia ; to Mr. 
C.J.Austin for specimens gathered in Northern New Jersey; to Mr. 
William Canby for collections obtained in Florida f to Professor Sereuo 
Watson for others from the Eocky Mountains; and to Dr. Lewis for 
specimens from the White Mountains. The work embraces all families 



REPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 23 

of tlie fresli-water algte except the diatomaceaB, which are so numerous 
as to constitute in themselves a special object of study. 

The syuonomy of Professor Eabenhorst has been generally followed, 
this naturalist having gone over the subject most thoroughlj^, with full 
access to all its literature. " To attempt to differ from him," says Dr. 
Wood, "would cause endless confusion. I have therefore nearly always 
contented myself with his dictum, and have referred to him as authority 
for the names adopted." The memoir in question consists of 272 pages, 
and is illustrated by 21 quarto-plates of a very expensive character, since 
they required in most cases a number of printings to produce the differ- 
ent colors. 

Another investigation to the prosecution of wliich the Institution has 
contributed is that by Mr. William Ferrel relative to the tides. To this 
subject the author has given much attention, and has completed a me- 
moir in regard to it, which is now in the press. This memoir does not 
puri^ort to be a regular treatise on the tidal theory, but is for the most 
part supplementary to what has already been done. It does not, there- 
fore, include elementary principles, but pertains principally to those parts 
of the general theory in which new results are attainable or old ones 
susceptible of being presented in a more concise and simple manner. 
For the author's purpose, however, it was necessary to go over much of 
the ground which had been investigated; but all those parts of the sub- 
ject which had already been well treated are passed over with a mere 
reference as to where they might be found. At the time when this subject 
was treated by La Place, Young, and Airy, but few observations had 
been made and little attention had been gi\'en to the accurate compari- 
son of the results of observation with those of theory, or to the forma- 
tion of tables for the purpose of predicting the time of the phases of the 
tides. For accomplishing the result it is necessary to obtain not only 
an accurate development of the solar and lunar disturbing forces, but 
also to determine the exjjressions which shall represent most accurately 
the tidal relations to any one part of the whole of these disturbing forces. 
"Every investigator of the tides," says the author, "must frequeutlj" have 
felt the great need of formula of this kind prepared to his hand, which 
he could use and thus save the labor of ditticult developments and ac- 
curate determinations of co-eliicients in special cases." This great need 
the author has attempted to supply. 

Believing that most of the hitherto unexplained apparent anomalies 
in the tides are due to the friction of the water on the surface of the 
earth, the author has given special attention to the effects of this in 
all the various cases, not only on the hypothesis of its being in direct 
proportion to the velocity but also as the square of the velocity. The 
results obtained in this part of the investigation are regarded as being 
interesting and important in relation to some of the phenomena of the 
tides which have not hitherto been explained, especially to the occurrence 



24 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

of the greatest tides in the Atlautic one or two days after the time of 
the greatest force. A correct tidal theory should furnish the data for 
a determination of the moon's mass ; and this determination should be 
the same for every i)ort. Considering this as one of the best tests 
of any tidal theory, the author has given much attention to framing 
various equations from theory for this i^urpose, and to their api)lication 
to the results of tidal observations at various ports. The comparisons 
are made with the extended series of observations of the United States 
Coast Survey and with the results obtained by the Tidal Committee of 
the British Association from the analysis of tidal observations of various 
ports by means of the harmonic method of analysis. The memoir also 
contains the discussion of the i^ublished series of observations of the 
French government at Brest, with a comparison of the results with 
theory, and a chapter on the retardation of the earth's rotation on 
account of the tides, and its eiiect upon the apparent secular variation of 
the moon's motion in its orbit. 

Beside the labor expended on this memoir in the line of higher mathe- 
matics, it involves arithmetical computations of a very laborious charac- 
ter, the expense of which will be defrayed by the Institution. 

The investigation of the orbit of Uranus, by Prof. S. j^ewcomb, of 
the National Observatory, was substantially completed in October last, 
and has since been entirelj^ prepared for the press, with the exception 
of some final revision. Considerable additions and alterations are, 
however, still required in the appended tables, to be used for comput- 
ing ephemerides of the planet; but these the author hopes to complete 
in a few months, so that the work may be put in the hands of the 
printer early in 1873. 

This work, on which the author has been engaged for tliirteen years, 
has absorbed the greater part of his leisure time Irom his duties in the 
National Observatory during the last five years. Its preparation not 
only involved abstruse mathematical discussions, but also arithmetical 
calculations of very great extent. The' latter were made at the expense 
of the Institution; and through the assistance thus rendered. Professor 
Newcomb has been ena,bled to complete his important investigations 
without devoting his energies to labors which could be well performed 
by intelligence of a less valuable character. 

The followiug remarks by the author of this work may here be con- 
sidered in place : 

" It will perhaps surprise those not especially devoted to astronomy 
to learn that, although the planet Neptune has been known for a 
quarter of a century, the positions of Uranus in all the astronomical 
ephemerides of Europe are still computed, without regard to the action 
of that body, from the old tables of Bouvard, dating back as far as 1820, 
the errors of which led to the discovery of Neptune in 1810. A result 
of this was that an occultation of Uranus by the moon, which occurred 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 25 

in 1871, was erroneously predicted by the Nautical Almanac to tlio 
extent of some six miuutes, and in consequence a number of observers 
Avlio were on the alert to see so rare a pheuomenon missed it entirely. 
An outcry was raised against the almauac in consequence, but it was 
met by the remark that that work could use only such tables as were 
at its disposal, and that the construction of new ones corresponding 
to the present state of astronomy was now almost beyond the power 
of any individual, and could only be undertaken under the auspices of 
some sufficiently liberal government. 

" The disinclination of astronomers to undertake such a work as this 
may be illustrated by the fact that the tables of Jupiter and Saturn, as 
well as those of Uranus, are more than fifty years old, and are, of 
course, considerably in error. The Astronomical Society of Germany 
has been engaged in preparing the data for new tables of Jupiter during 
the past five years, but I am not aware of any recent report of progress. 

" The first chapter of the work gives an exposition of the method 
employed in calculating the action of the disturbing planets Jupiter, 
Satiu-n, and Neptune on the motion of Uranus. In the second chapter 
this method is illustrated by quite a detailed calculation of the pertur- 
bations of Uranus produced by Saturn, including, however, only those 
which are of the first order with respect to the disturbing force. In the 
third, the perturbations produced by Jupiter and Neptune are given, but 
the computations are not presented with the same detail. The fourth 
chapter opens with a i)reliminary investigation of the orbit of Saturn, 
using Hansen's perturbations and the Greenwich observations, the 
object being the accurate determination of the terms of the second 
order. This is followed by the computation of the terms of the second 
order produced by Saturn, which include those containing as a factor 
either the square of the mass of that planet, or the product of its mass 
by that of Jupiter or by that of .Uranus. The most remarkable of 
these terms is one of very long period, in which the results differ materi- 
ally from those of other authorities, including Le Yerrier, Delauuay, 
Adams, and Hansen, who all agree among themselves. I cannot find 
any error in my work, and so must, of course, retain my own result, 
leaving it to future investigators to find the cause of the discrepancy. 
The difference is of such a nature that it cannot affect the computed 
position of the planet until after the lapse of more than a century. 

"The sixth chapter gives a discussion of all the observations of Uranus 
which have been published and reduced in such a manner as to be 
made use of. The entire number is 3,763. The correction to a provis- 
ional theory given by each series of observations is deduced. 

"The object of the seventh chapter is to apply such corrections to the 
elements of Uranus and the mass of Neptune that the observations 
shall be represented with the smallest possible outstanding errors. The 
mass of Neptune comes out ^^ji^,-,, almost exactly the same as that found 
by Professor Peirce more than twenty years ago. 



2G EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

"The representation of the observations by tbe concbided theory will 
probably be regarded as good. The mean outstanding difference dur- 
ing each five years since the discovery of the i^lauet only exceeds a 
second of arc in a single instance, namely, during the years 1822-'2G, 
vrhen it amounts to 1".4. This agreement is very much better than any 
obtained before. Still the vast number of observations used, and the 
care taken to reduce them to a uniform standard, led me to believe a 
better representation possible; and the outstanding differences, minute 
though they be, follow a regular law, thus showing that they do not 
arise from the purely accidental errors of observation. How far they 
arise from errors in njy own theoretical computations, how far from the 
reductions of the observations themselves, and how far from the una- 
voidable errors of the instruments, I am unable to say without further 
investigation. It would be desirable to learn whether they may be due 
to the action of a traus-ISTeptuniau planet, but to do this would require 
an entire re-reduction of all the older observations. Such a work is on 
many accounts an astronomical desideratum, but it could not be under- 
taken except under the auspices of the Government. 

" In the eighth chapter the general formulfc and elements are collected 
and expressed in tbe form most convenient for i^ermauent use. 

"The ninth and concluding chapter gives tables by which the position 
of the planet may be computed for any time between the Christian era 
and the year 2300." 

It has been mentioned in several of the reports that the Institution 
has collected large numbers of vocabularies of the several Indian lan- 
guages of Xorth America, including those of the Indian tribes of Wash- 
ington Territory, California, northwest coast. New Mexico, Arizona, and 
the prairies ; that these had been placed in the hands of Mr. George 
Gibbs for critical study and revision ; and that, after consultation with 
some of the principal philologists of the country, it had been concluded 
to publish them, as it were provisionally, as material for ethnological and 
linguistic investigations. During the past year Mr. Gibbs has devoted 
considerable time to the arrangement of these vocabularies, and has 
completed the preparation for the press of one of the sets, namely, that 
of the Selish language, which is now in the hands of the printer.* 

In order to facilitate the re-arrangement of the collections of the 
National Museum, the Institution has requested experts in the various 
branches of zoology to prepare catalogues exhibiting the best arrange- 
ments of the several classes of the animal kingdom ; the families, in 
each case, to be numbered in successive order, and the subfamilies to 
beindicatedby letters, thus: "15,CanidiB; (15) a, Caniufc; (15) Z<,Mega- 
lotinie," &c. It is intended that these numbers and letters shall be 

' * Since the presentation of this report, the work in question has been stopped by the 
death of Mr. Gibbs, one of the most esteemed coUaborators of the Institution. 



EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 27 

attacbed to tlie specimens or receptacles containing them, and tlius tlie 
agency of an ordinary laborer, or one unconversant with the animals, 
can be utilized in sending for specimens, replacing them, and revising 
the collections. 

In accordance with the requests made, Professor Gill has prepared three 
catalogues, one on the arrangement of the families of raollusks, referred 
to in previous reports; another on the arrangement of the families of 
mammals; and a third on the arrangement of the families of fishes. The 
last two were published in November, 1872. 

The "arrangement of the families of mammals" embraces a list of the 
recent as well as extinct families and subfamilies of the class. Of 
these, 136 are recognized. These are combined under fourteen orders 
and three subclasses, the subclasses being those almost universally recog- 
nized at the present time — mouodelphia, didelphia, and ornithodelphia. 
The orders of monodelphia have been segregated into two higher divi- 
sions, or " super-orders," equivalent to the educabilia and ineducabilia 
of Prince Bonaparte, but with other characters derived from the interior 
structure of the brain; the educabilia correspond with the archencephala 
and gyreucephala of Owen combined, and the ineducabilia to the lissen- 
cephala. 

"Synoptical tables of characters of the subdivisions of mammals, 
with a catalogue of the genera," have been in part published in connec- 
tion with and under cover of the arrangement of .the families of mam- 
mals, embracing pages 43 to 98 of that work ; only that portion em- 
bracing the orders of educabilia has been completed, the remaining 
portion having been necessarily deferred. In contrasted dichotomous 
tables are given characters successively of the (1) subclasses, (2) the or- 
ders of monodelphia, and (3) the suborders, (4) families, and (5) sub- 
families of each group of the educabiliau monodelphia. The " arrange- 
ment of the families of fishes " is limited to an enumeration of the sur- 
viving families of the class, and was especially prepared for imme- 
diate use. The group of "fishes" is considered as an artificial combi- 
nation, and is divided into three classes — fishes proi)er, marsipobranchi- 
ates, and leptocardians. The three classes contain 244 families, of 
which the true fishes embrace 240 ; the marsipobranchiates, 3 ; and the 
leptocardians, only 1. The families of the fishes j^roper are combined 
under eighteen orders and three subclasses ; the teleostein ganoidei and 
elasmobranchii differing in this last respect from Miiller's — the most gener- 
ally accepted — classification simply in the union of the ganoids and dip- 
uoans. The greatest deviation from the current classifications is the 
constitution of the order teleocephali. In an extended introduction the 
reasons are given for the modifications suggested. 

A large demand has been made for these catalogues for the arrange- 
ment of other museums and collections. 

It wa3 mentioned in the last report that a new edition of the List of 



28 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

Foreign Correspondeuts of the lustitution was iu press. This work, con- 
taiiiiug- all the later additions to the list, has beeu published, and is now 
in use by the lustitutiou and its correspondents. 

It was also stated that a List of the Scieutiflc, Educational, and Liter- 
ary Establishments in the United States was in press. This work, which 
was prepared by Mr. W. J. Khees, the chief clerk of the Institution, has 
been published, aud is of much service iu the distribution of the publi- 
cations of the Institution, as well as those of the different Departments 
of Government, and. of educational establishments, aud will be of assist- 
ance to members of Congress in the distribution of documents. It 
includes 8,575 titles of societies, libraries, «&c., as follows : 

Colleges, male and female, (so-called) 758 

Academies, normal and high-schools 2,850 

Law schools and libraries 53 

Medical schools and libraries 22 L 

Theological schools and libraries 127 

Observatories 23 

Scientific societies and libraries 91 

Agricultural societies 1,082 

Libraries, general 2,092 

Asylums aud hospitals 491 

Asylums for insane 05 

Asylums for deaf and dumb 38 

Asylums for blind 30 

Prisons having libraries 51 

For the purpose of forming a general hypsometrical map of the North 
American continent and for collecting together, for permanent record 
and publication, the data on which such a map should be based, letters 
of request have been sent out in every direction likely to be available 
for such information, while the printed reports of the various govern- 
mental, military, and geological expeditions and of railroad and canal 
surveys have been consulted and made to render tribute. The whole 
of this work has beeu placed in charge of the topographer of the Post- 
Office Department, Mr. Walter L. Nicholson, who reports in regard to 
it as follows: 

" Contributions, in manuscript, have been received from 312 engineers 
and other ofQcers of railroad companies, furnishing a large body of valua- 
ble facts, which, with the heights siiown on upward of 70 graphic pro- 
files collected, give upward of 10,000 points more or less accurately 
determined, over the several States and Territories. 

But great labor and perplexity have arisen from the discrepancies 
found to exist among many of the statements given, owing, cbielly, to 
the various planes of reference used in the surveys, and to the iudcfi- 
niteness iu their references ; and great difQculty has been experienced 



EEPORT OF THE SECRETAEY. 29 

in co-ordinating the items so as to refer tlieui all to a common base, the 
mean level of the sea, while another source of incoherence remains from 
the nou-retnrn of answers from numerous railroad corporations, which 
have been applied to with all possible courtesy and with expression as 
to the value of the results sought. Unfortunately, many corporations 
and engineers have lost or taken no pains to preserve the record of 
their surveys. 

These collections of heights have been copied in twenty-five quarto- 
volumes, for iireservation and convenience in collation. The heights 
are arranged under the names of places alphabeticallj', under the 
headings of the individual States, «&c., for convenience of reference 
when published — giving county, specification of locality, and authority, 
with notes where required. 

This large mass of material is, in greater part, copied in manuscript 
directly from the returns — the individual names to be finally cut off in 
slips and arranged alphabetically for printing. While this is being pro- 
ceeded with, a map has been projected, to represent the mean results of 
these data, on a scale of five-millionth, size of mai> 52 inches by 39 inches, 
which will embrace the large area from 15° to 58° latitude, and, from 
east to west will take in Newfoundland, the Bermudas, the larger 
West India Islands, (to St. Thomas,) and on the northwest coast, Van- 
couver's Island and Queen Charlotte's Island, extending thus well up 
into Hudson's Bay and down to Central America." . 

This work will form the basis of a physical map, and will be useful 
for many purposes of reference other than that of hypsometry. 

The report of the Institution for the year 1871 was presented to Con- 
gress, and ordered to be printed. A resolution was offered as usual order- 
ing an extra number of copies ; and the House of Eepreseutatives directed 
an edition of 20,000 copies. This number was reduced in the Senate to 
12,500, and unfortunately, before an arrangement satisfactory to both 
branches of Congress could be made, the adjournment took place. Up 
to this time, however, no further action has been taken, and the Insti- 
tution is still without extra copies for distribution. 

As an offset to this disappointment, we are gratified to bo able to 
state that a resolution passed Congress at the last session, directing 
that an edition of 2,000 copies of all the reports of which there were 
stereotype plates be printed for the use of the Institution for distribution 
to public libraries and especially to colleges and higher academics. The 
series of eight volumes thus reproduced includes the reports from the 
years 18G3 to 1870, inclusive. 

We doubt not that Congress before the close of the present session 
will order the Public Printer to strike off the usual number of copies 
from the stereotype plates of the report of 1871, and that we shall thus 
be enabled to gratify in some measure the increasing calls upon the In- 
stitution for copies of this document. 



30 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

In addition to tbe report of the Secretary, gi\iug an account of the 
operations, expenditures, «&c., of the Institution, and the proceedings of 
the Board of Eegents to the 4th of April, 1872, the report for 1871 
coutaiusamemoirof Sir John Frederic William Herschel,by K S. Dodge, 
esq. ; a eulogy on Joseph Fourier, by Arago ; an account of Prof. Thomas 
Graham's scientific work, by William Odiing; translations from the 
German of a lecture on the relation of the physical sciences to science in 
general, by Dr. Helmholtz ; a lecture on alternate generation and par- 
thenogenesis in the animal kingdom, by Dr. G. A. Kornhuber ; a lecture 
on the present state of our knowledge of cryptogamous plants, by Henry 
William Eeichardt ; an original paper on the secular variations of the 
planetary orbits, by John IST. Stockwell, being an abstract of the elabor- 
ate memoir published by the Institution in the Contributions to Knowl- 
edge; an original article on methods of interpolation applicable to the 
graduation of irregular series, such as tables of mortality, &c., by E. 
L. DeForest; a translation of the transactions of the Society of Physics 
and Natural History of Geneva from June, 1870, to June, 1871 ; the scien- 
tific instructions to Captain Hall's north polar expedition; together 
with a large number of articles on ethnology and meteorology. 

EXCHAI^TGES. 

The labors of the Institution in promoting literary and scientific inter- 
course between this country and other parts of the world have been 
continued during the past year. The system of international exchanges 
includes not only all the principal libraries and important societies, but 
also a considerable number of the minor institutions of Europe. The 
following table exhibits the number of establishments in each country 
with which the Smithsonian is at present in correspondence : 

Sweden 20 

Norway 22 

Iceland 2 

Denmark 27 

Russia loo 

Holland 62 

Germany 588 

Switzerland ... 63 

Belgium 105 

France 229 

Italy 156 

Portugal 20 

Spain 11 

Great Britain and Ireland 336 

Greece 7 

Turkey 11 

Africa 19 



EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 31 

Asia ' 36 

Australia 20 

New Zealand 13 

Polyuesia 1 

South America 30 

West Indies 7 

Mexico 9 

Central America 2 

British America 18 

General 4 

Total 1,985 

As in previo.us years, the Institution has received important aid from 
various steamer and railroad lines in the way of free freights, without 
which the expense of carrying on the system would be far beyond the 
means at command. Acknowledgment is again due for the liberality of 
the following oompanies: 

Pacific Mail Steamship Company. 

Panama Eaikoad Company. 

Pacific Steam Navigation Company. 

New York and Mexico Steamship Company. 

New York and Brazil Steamshii) Company. 

North German Lloyd's Steamship Company. 

Hamburg American Packet Company. 

French Transatlantic Company. 

North Baltic Lloyd's Steamship Company. 

Inman Steamship Company. 

Cimard Steamship Company. 

Anchor Steamship Company. 

The Adams Express Company also continues its liberal poUcy in re- 
gard to freight for the Institution. 

During the year 2,561 jiackages, containing many thousand different 
articles, were transmitted to foreign countries. These packages filled 
159 large boxes, having a cubical content of 954 feet, and weighing 
20,850 pounds. The parcels received at the Institution for parties in 
this country, in addition to those for the Smithsonian library, num- 
bered 4,635. 

It was mentioned in the last report that the advantages which result 
from the system of international exchanges had become so apparent 
that arrangements similar to those adopted by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution are beginning to be introduced into different parts of Europe, and 
that a central scientific bureau for the Netherlands had been estab- 
lished at Amsterdam to receive and transmit packages for different 
parts of the world, and in the United States to co-operate with the 
Smithsonian Institution. A similar arrangement has been proposed in 



32 REP.OIIT OF THE SECRETARY. 

Brussels, by wliicb the Belgian Academy will become a center of scientific 
exchanges. 

Duriug the past year we have received as usual, from j^ersous abroad, 
copies of works to be distributed gratuitously to institutions and in- 
dividuals in this country, 

Tne following are the regulations which are to be observed by parties 
availing themselves of the privilege of the Smithsonian system of ex- 
change : 

"The SmithsoT]ian Institution receives parcels at any time with 
assurance of speedy delivery, at least to the more important addresses, 
upon the following conditions, which must be strictly observed : 

" 1. Every package without exception must be enveloped in strong 
paper, and secured so as to bear separate transportation by express or 
otherwise. 

"2. The address of the institution or individual for whom the parcel 
is intended must be written legibly on the package, and the name of 
the sender must be written in one corner. 

" 3. ]!^o single i^ackage must exceed the half of a cubic foot in bulk. 

" 4. A detailed list of addresses of all the parcels sent, with their 
contents, must accompanj^ them. 

" 5. Xo letter or other communication can be allowed in the parcel, 
excepting such as relates exclusively to the contents of the package. 

" G. All packages must be delivered in Washington free of freight 
and other expenses. 

" Unless all these conditions are complied with, the parcels will not 
be forwarded from the Institution, and, on the failure to comply with 
the first and second conditions, will be returned to the sender for cor- 
rection. 

"The Institution recommends that every parcel shall contain a blank ac- 
knowledgment, to be signed by the recipient and returned, either through 
the agent of the Institution, or, what is still better, directbymail,tothe 
sender. Should exchanges be desired for what is sent, the fact should also 
be explicitly stated on the accompanying circular. Much disappointment 
has often been expressed at the absence of any return in kind for trans- 
missions; but unless these are specifically asked for they will fre- 
quently fail to be made. It will facilitate the labors of the Institution 
greatly if the number corresponding to the several addresses in the 
Smithsonian ijrinted catalogue be marked on the face of each parcel; 
and for this purpose a copy of the work will be forwarded to all who 
apply for it. 

" Specimens of natural history will not be received for transmission, 
unless with a previous understanding as to their character and bulk." 

LIBRARY. 

It was stated in the last report that the accessions to the library dur- 
ing 1871 had not been as large as they were the year before, on account 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 33 

of tlie war in Europe. In 1870 the whole number of books, &c., received 
was 5,182 ; in 1871, 4,597 ; while during 1872 it has been 5,902, as will be 
seen from the following detailed statement of the books, maps, and charts 
received by exchange in 1872 : 

Volumes : 

Octavo or less 975 

Quarto or larger 287 

1,262 

Parts of volumes : 

Octavo or less 1,371 

Quarto or larger 1,250 

2,621 

Pamphlets: 

Octavo or less 1,557 

Quarto or larger 321 

1,881 

Maps and charts 198 

Total receipts 5,962 

The following are some of the principal donations received in 1872 : 

From the Commission europ6enne du Danube, Galatz — " IMemoire sur 
les travauxd'amelioration executes aux embouchures du Danube," with 
an atlas of 40 plates. 

From A. W. Franks, esq., London — "Catalogue of the Collection of 
Glass," formed by Felix Sladc. London, 1871. Folio. Beautifully illus- 
trated. 

From the Observatorio do Infante D. Luiz, Lisbon — " Annals." Vols, 
iii-viii, 1866-1870, Folio. 

From the Institut de France, Paris — " Memoires de I'Academie des 
sciences." Vols, xxxvi, xxxvii. 4to. "Comptes-rendus." Vols. Ixviii-lxx. 
" Tables Genfeile," 1851-1865. 4to. 

From Dr. K. Keck, Berlin, 203 pamphlets — University Theses. 

From the University of Tiibingen — " Eep<^rtorium morale," Vols. i-ii4. 
1489. Folio. "Universitiitsschrif ten," 1870; and 18 pamphlets. 

From the Universities of Bonn, Erlangen, Giessen, Gottingen, Greifs- 
wald, Halle, Heidelberg, Jena, Leipzig, Marburg, Pesth, Bern, Ziirich, 
and Havana — Inaugural Dissertations for 1871. 

From the Royal Veterinary Academy, Utrecht — 47 pamphlets. 

From the University and Government of Chili, Santiago — 10 vol- 
umes and 2 pamphlets. 

From the Public Library of Buenos Ayres — 151 volumes, 334 parts 
of volumes and pamphlets, and 7 charts. 

From the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pesth — 9 volumes and 
33 parts of volumes. 

From the Royal Public Library, Stuttgart — 26 volumes and 11 parts. 
3 s 



34 REPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 

From the Hydrograpliic Departmcut of the Ministry of Mariue, St. 
Petersburg — 57 charts, IG volumes, aud 9 parts. 

From the Eoyal Academy of Sciences, &c., Rouen — " Memoire sur 
le Comiuission maritime de Rouen," vols, i aud ii; aud "Precis ana- 
Jytique," 180J-1S70, 14 volumes. 

From the Ohio State Library, Columbus — 13 volumes and 5 charts. 

Amoug- the donations there are two which deserve especial notice, 
namely, the memoir upon the works which have been executed for the 
improvement of the mouth of the Danube, aud the fac-similes of the 
Egyptian papyrus. 

The first consists of an account, with a large atlas of plates, of the 
investigations wliich have been made in regard to the obstruction iu 
the way of navigation of the outlet of the Danube, through several 
channels along the delta of the river. This subject appears to have 
been of so much importance that a commission was instituted in accord- 
a"Ace with the provisions of the treaty of Paris of SOth March, 18oG, 
including the representatives of seven different powers. The body of 
the memoir in question gives an extended account of the followiug sub- 
jects : 1. Preliminary investigations and preparatory works ; 2. The 
choice of the mouth to be improved, and an elaboration of a definite 
project; 3. The provisional work. An appendix presents the report of 
the chief engineer. Sir Charles Hartley, containing : 1. A general de- 
scrii)tion of the delta of the Danube; 2. The formation of the bars; 3. 
The means of imi)roving the entrance to the river; 4. A comparison 
of the different branches ; 5. The result of meteorological and technical 
observations from 1859 to 18G5; C. Statistics relative to commerce and 
navigation. The memoir is accompanied by a large atlas of 40 double- 
folio colored plates. 

The work is one of great value to the engineers of this country, in 
reference to the improvements which will doubtless be undertaken in 
regard to the rivers and water-courses of the United States. To this 
subject public attention has not been directed with an intensity com- 
mensurate with its importance. 

If we cast an eye ou the map of the United States and view the rela- 
tion which exists between the vast body of water in the northern lakes 
and the branches of the Mississippi and the Ohio, we must be struck 
with the means which nature has i)laced within the power of man for 
improving the navigation of the great water-courses which form the 
channels of communication between the interior of the country aud the 
sea-board. 

We have, in a previous report, mentioned the interesting fact that 
among our correspondents was the Institute of Egypt, founded at 
Alexandria in 1859. Since then our correspondence with that coun- 
try has been kept up, and more especially increased during the last year 
by the visit to that country of one of the members of the Board of 
Regents, General Sherman. We have received from General Stone, of 



REPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 35 

the Egryptian army, an interesting chart of tbe fluctnations of the Nile, 
and from the anthor, Auguste Mariette Bey, the fac-similes of the Egyp- 
tian i)apyrus in the mnsenm of Bonlaq, i^repared under the auspices of 
S. A. Ismail Pacha, Khedive of Egypt. These fac-siniiles occupy forty- 
four folio-plates, on tinted paper, representing in color and form the pres- 
ent appearance of the i)apyrus. 

Among the donations to the library should also be mentioned a col- 
h^ction of two thousand drawings of tislies, including coities of all known 
engravings of fishes pnblished up to 1834, made by Dr. A. Eeuss, for- 
merly of Germany, but now of Belleville, Illinois. 

WORK DONE IN THE INSTITUTION AND IN CONNECTION WITH OTHER 

ESTABLISHMENTS. 

The Secretary, from the first organization of the Light-House Board, 
has been one of its members, and has acted as chairman of the com- 
mittee on experiments. In this capacity he has made in past years an 
extended series of investigations relative to different materials of illu- 
mination, also investigations relative to difterent instruments proposed 
for fog-sigpals, besides reporting on a large number of propositions made 
to the board with the idea of improving the aids to navigation. Daring 
the last year he continued the investigations in regard to fog-signals, 
and for this purpose spent his last summer's vacation on the coast of 
Manie. For these services he receives no other compensation than ten 
cents a mile as traveling expenses. The work is one, however, in which 
he takes great interest, and it has been to him a source of diversity of 
employment and a means of improved health. 

He has, during the past year, upon the retirement of Admiral Shu- 
brick, been elected chairman of the board. 

The Secretary is also one of the visitors to the Government Hospital 
for the Insane, and as President of the National Academy of Sciences 
directed the preparation of the instructions for scientific observations 
for Captain Hall's arctic exploration. In addition to the foregoing, the 
Government placed the direction of the exploration of Major Powell in 
charge of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Appropriations have been made at the last two sessions of Congress 
for investigations, under the direction of Professor Baird, of this Institu- 
tion, relative to thealleged decrease of food-tishes on our coasts. To this 
at the last session was added an appropriation for stocking the rivers 
and lakes in the United States with useful fishes. These investigations 
have occupied all the time and attention he could spare from his duties 
in connection with the Smithsonian Institution. 

Besides the prominent subjects of immediate inquiry, there were quite 
a number of collateral matters bearing on the general questions, which 
were prosecuted at the same time, and which have in themselves much 
scientific interest. His headquarters for the season were fixed at East- 
port, on theBayof Fundy 5 and, with Professor Verrill to take charge of the 



36 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

invertebrate fauna, lie was enabled to gatlier, both at Eastport and Grand 
Manan, immense numbers of specimens, which, when fully elaborated, 
will be distributed to various scientific establishments throughout the 
world. With the facilities furnished by the Goverument in authorizing the 
use of the revenue-cutter Mosswood whenever necessary, the party was 
enabled to carry on these researches in every branch of the inquiry, 
including dredging and temperature-observations at great depths in the 
Bay of Fundy. Every facility was heartily rendered in this work by 
Captain Hodgdon and his officers. For a jiortion of the time a detail of 
the party, consisting of Professor Webster and idr. C H. Pond, was oc- 
cupied at Cape Porpoise, south of Portland, as also i'lt the island of 
Grand Manan. 

By permission of Professor Peii'ce, the Superintendent of the Coast-Sur- 
vey, Professor Baird also placed a party on board the Coast-Survey steamer 
Bache while surveying the Georges Banks and other shoals olf the 
coast of New England ; this detad. consisting for a time of Mr. S. J. 
Smith, and Mr. Oscar Harger, of Yale College, and afterward of Dr. A. 
S. Packard, jr., and Mr. Cook, of Salem. 

The additions to our knowledge of the natural history of the Ameri- 
can seas made by all these parties has been very great, and the results 
will be published in detail in the report of the commissioner to be made 
to Congress. 

While engaged at Eastport himself. Professor Baird had a party also at 
Wood's Hole, the scene of his labors during the year 1S71: and several 
interesting additions to the known fauna of the Vineyard Sound region 
were made, among them, two genera and species of the sword-fish 
family, previously unknown on the coast of the United States ; and other 
specimens of marine animals, especially of fishes, were contributed by 
Mr. Samuel Powell, of Newport. 

The following is an account of the work done by Mr. F. B. Meek, who 
still retains his apartments in the building, and examines and reports 
to the Institution all specimens of paleontology and geology submitted 
to it for examination. 

Most of his attention during tlie year 1872 has been devoted to the 
invertebrate paleontological department of the Ohio State geological 
survey. The collections have been sent to him at the Smithsonian 
Institution. He has, from time to time, published preliminary ixjpers on 
these fossils in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia and the American Journal of Science and Arts, and sub- 
sequently prepared more elaborate descriptions for the first volume of 
the Final Eeport of the Ohio Geological Survey, in charge of Dr. J. S. 
Newberry. He has also had the dravrings, illustrating his part of this 
volume of the Eeport, and a part of those for the second volume, made 
in the Institution, under his immediate direction 5 and has likewise ar- 
ranged the plates and superintended the engraving of the same, so far 
as completed. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. S7 

In the early ])art of the year he prepared for publi(?atloii some notes 
on the geolojjy of the country immediately about the White Suli)hur 
Springs, of Greenbrier County, West Virginia, with figures and 
descriptions of a few new fossils. He has likewise su[>erintended the 
engraving of the qnarto-plntes of fossils from the Upper Missouri coun- 
try, illustrating a report on the region, to be published by the Government 
in connection with the results of the United States Geological Survey 
of the Territories, in charge of Dr. Hayden. 

On account of failing health he was induced to avail himself of an 
opportunity to spend the summer in the Eock}^ Mountains and along 
the Union Pacific Eailroad through to the Pacific, during which jour- 
ney he collected specimens and made observations at the expense of 
the Government survey. Since his return he has prepared descriptions 
of some forty or fifty new species of fossils collected during his journey, 
to be published in Dr. Hayden's report. 

IMETEOROLOGY. 

Among the first acts of the Institution was the establishment of a 
system of meteorology, intended especially to gather trustwortliy infor- 
mation as to the character of American storms and tlie general clima- 
tology of the United States. To assist in this enterprise, Mr. James P. 
Espy was for several years previous to his death associated with the 
Institution. Lieutenant Maury, then in charge of the Observatory, had 
previously established a system of meteorology for the sea, and for sev- 
eral years another system had been carried on by the War Dei)artmeut 
at the various military posts of the United States, besides subordinate 
systems in the States of Kew York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. 

It was the intention of the Institution to harmonize these different sys- 
tems, and, as far as i)ossible, to reduce and discuss the results on one 
general plan. For this purpose it had prepared at its expense, by Pro- 
fessor Guyot, a volume of meteorological tables, also a series of instruc- 
ticms, and introduced a set of trustworthy instruments, constructed by 
Mr. James Green, of New York. 

The Institution was the first to employ the telegraph in the prediction 
of the weather; but as its income was not sufficient to carry on this oper- 
ation to its full extent, and owing to the interference of the war, the 
project was for a while abandoned. The proposition was, however, 
afterward brought before Congress by other parties, and a system of 
weather-forecasts established under the direction of the War Deparfe- 
ment, in the especial charge of Chief Signal-Officer General A. J. Myer. 

The placing of this system of forecasts under the War Dei)artment gave 
it special advantages not otherwise to be secured by it. The observers 
ai"e all enlisted in the Army and paid out of the Army ai)j)ro[)riations. 
The whole being under military discipline gives the system a regularity 
and efficiency which leaves nothing in this respect to be desired. The 



Ob EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

appropriation for the support of the system has thus tar been very lib- 
eral, aud I do uot doubt it will coutinue to be so from year to year. 

Siuce the establishmeut of the Goverumeut system of weather-fore- 
casts I have proposed, on the part of the Smithsonian Institution, to aban- 
don the field of meteorology to General Myer, preserving to the Institu- 
tion only the labor of discussing and reducing all the observations which 
it has collected from its own observers and from all others in the coun- 
try up to, say, the year 1872. To this proposition I have not as yet 
received a reply. 

The Smithsonian system includes at present about five hundred obser- 
vers, who give their services voluntarily. They are of two classes : those 
who report upon the barometer, thermometer, psychrometer, rain and 
wind gauges, and those who rei)ort upon only the temperature, the 
wind, the face of the sky, and the rain. Of the first class there are 
about one hundred and fifty, and these serve as standards to which the 
observations of the second class are referred. Most of the instruments 
of the first class have been constructed by Mr. Green. The rain-gauges 
are of a very simple form, consisting of merely a cylinder of tinned 
iron, two and a half inches in diameter and twelve inches deep, in which 
the rain is measured to within half a tenth of an inch by the insertion 
of a graduated slip of wood. 

If the system just described were incorporated with that of the Gov- 
ernment, and an agent sent from time to time throughout the country 
to instruct the observers, the wliole would form a more extended and 
perfect system than any now in existence. The voluntary observers 
would render good service in supplementing the more precise observa- 
tions of the Army in marking the extent and boundary of special con- 
ditions of the atmosphere and in noting casual phenomena, such as 
thunder-storms, auroras, tornadoes, &c. 

The Smithsonian system has now been in operation more than twenty 
years, and the Institution is at present occupied in reducing and dis- 
cussing the observations up to 1870 for publication. The only part of 
the results as yet published is that relating to the rain-fall. The part 
relative to the winds will be put to press in the course of a few months. 
All the observations on the winds which the Institution has been able 
to collect from unpublished aud published records were placed in the 
hands of Professor J. H. Cofan, of Easton, Pa., who has nearly com- 
pleted their discussion. Of this discussion of the " winds of the globe," 
which has been made at the expense of the Institution, excepting as far as 
the labors of Professor Coffiu were concerned, the tables have nearly all 
been completed, and the preparation of the maps and descriptions 
alone remains to be done previous to putting the work to press. 

All the temperature-observations have been for several years placed 
in charge of Mr. Charles A. Schott, of the Coast Survey, and are being 
reduced as rapidly as the appropriation for the purpose from the Smith- 
sonian income will allow. The first division of this work has been com- 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 39 

pletetl, and will be seut to press during tlie coming year. This section 
consists of tables and discussions necessary to reduce observations 
taken at different times of the day to the true mean of the day, and 
other general corrections of irregular observations, and hence it was 
necessary that this should be prepared first. It includes — 

1. General remarlcs on the explanation and extreme cases of the daily 
fluctuations of the temperature; investigation of the corrections to 
the mean temperature from certain hours of the day to refer it to the 
true mean of the day. 

2. Tables of times of sunrise and sunset for every tenth day of the 
year, and between latitudes 23° and 00°. 

3. Applications of Bessel's circular function to represent the daily 
fluctuation, (yearly average;) the results for twenty stations are given. 

4. CUissification of the daily flu(;tuation into six typical forms; epochs 
of maxiauim and miuiuuim, and of mean values and daily range, (with 
two diagrams.) 

5. Annual variation in the range of the daily fluctuation, (witli two 
diagrams;) and extremes of daily fluctuation in December and June, 
(with three diagrams;) also table of recorded daily range of tempera- 
ture for every month and for certain stations. 

C. Variability of the temperature at any hour from the normal value 
of that hour, specially investigated for Toronto, Mohawk, Philadel- 
phia, and Sitka. 

7. Table of the mean values of the hourly, bi-hourly, or semi-hourly 
observations of teniperature, for every month, at nineteen stations. 

8. Table of the daily fluctuations of tem})erature derived from the 
preceding table, and showing, for every hour and for each month and 
the year, the difference from the respective daily mean temperature. 

Self registering instruments are absolutely necessary for this kind of 
investigation, and when their readings are applied will place the results 
on a niore satisfactory footing, and one commensurate with the bnport- 
ance of the subject. 

The following is the condition of the work, which has been continued 
during the past year with the labor of two computers : 

1. Consolidated tables, giving the mean temperature for each month, 
season, and the year, have been prepared for the following States, &c.: 
Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Dakota, Idaho, Nebraska, West 
Virginia, Greenland, Iceland, British North America, and part of New 
York. 

2. A large number of observations made at Havana, Cuba, have been 
computed and added to the general tables. Various other additions 
have been made and many deficiencies supplied. 

3. About three-fourths of the annual means at the different stations 
have been calculated, embracing about 7,000. 

4. The maxima and minima tables have been nearly completed. 



40 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

At a meeting of the British Association in 18G8 a committee was 
appointed for the purpose of obtaining observ^atious in various localities 
on the rate of increase of underground temperature downward. This 
committee (through its secretary, Prof. J. D. Everett) has requested 
the Institution to furnish observations on this subject from the United 
States. 

These observations are generally made by noting the temperature in 
artesian wells; and although a large number of these borings for water 
have been made in this country, the precautious to be taken, and the 
skill required, in obtaining the true increase of temperature in relation 
to the depth are of a character not to be intrusted to ordinary obser- 
vers ; and, therefore, to meet the requirements of the committee, a special 
agent will be necessary to visit the diflerent localities. The income of 
the Institution, up to this time, has not j)ermitted the incurring of the 
cost of such an agency, although we hope in the future to be able to 
make an appropriation for the purpose. In the mean while we have 
intrusted a set of four standard thermometers, furnished by Professor 
Everett, and compared at the Kew Observatory, to Mr. B. D. Frost, 
engineer of the Hoosac Tunnel, Massachusetts. 

The investigation is one of great interest to the geologist, being inti- 
mately connected with the hypotheses concerning the geological changes 
to which the globe, has been subjected. The fact has been fully estab- 
lished that, in every part of the world where observations have been 
made, after descending a few feet below the surface or beyond the 
depth at which the temperature of the ground is affected by variations 
in the solar heat, there is a gradual increase of temperature varying in 
the rate of increase at different places, but on an average not far from 
one degree in every sixty feet, or a rate which, if continued, would indi- 
cate the fusing-point of iron at a depth of about twenty-eight miles. 

At the last meeting of the Board the subject of the desirability of 
the franking privilege to the Institution was discussed, as it had fre- 
quently been at previous meetings. Hon. Mr. Hamlin, who is a member 
of the Post-Ofiice Committee of the Senate, offered to endeavor to pro- 
cure action of Congress in regard to this object, and accordingly at 
the last session the following law was enacted. 

" All publications sent or received by the Smithsonian Institution, 
marked on each package ' Smithsonian Exchange,- shall be allowed to 
pass free in the mail." (New Postal Code, 6th subdiv., 183d sec.) 

It will be seen from the above that the franking privilege is confined 
to printed matter, and does not relieve the Institution from the burden 
of its large letter-correspondence, and, above all, from a new and unex- 
pected source of expense in the mineral specimens which, since the 
transfer of the collection of the Land-Oflice to the museum of the Insti- 
tution, are sent by mail from the different Government surveyors. We 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 41 

have before us a lot of specimens from one Government officer on wbicli 
postage of upward of, thirty dollars is charged. Unless provision is 
made for the transmission of these to the Institution through the mails 
free of cost, as it was in the case of the Laud-Oflice, we shall be obliged 
to decline receiving them. 

By the will of Henrietta Jane Bedford, of Wilmington, Del., daugh- 
ter of Hon. Gunning Bedford, jr., one of the iramers of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, aid-decamp to General Washington, and 
first district judge of the United States for the distri(^t of Delaware 
under the Constitution, a bequest was made to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion of a pair of pocket-pistols, presented to her father by General 
Washington ; also a silver punch-strainer, said to have been made out 
of a silver dollar earned by Benjamin Franklin on the first day news- 
papers were carried round the city of Boston for sale. In case these 
bequests should not be accepted by the Institution, they were to be given 
to the Historical Society of Delaware. 

While the motive which induced this bequest is fully appreciated, the 
objects, not being of a kind now in its collections, which relate more 
especially to natural history and anthropology, the Institution preferred 
that they should be presented to the Historical Society of Delaware. 

At the request of the ladies in charge at Mount Vernon it has been 
thought proper to deposit with them the model of the Bastile of Paris, 
])resented to General Washington ; an iron stirrup of a saddle used 
by Mrs. Washington ; and a small picture of Mount Vernon. These 
articles came into the possession of the Institution from the effects of 
the National Institute, and can be reclaimed for the National Museum 
at any time it may be thought important to obtain possession of them. 

It was mentioned in the last report that a portion of the large room 
in the second stoi'y of the building was used for the exhibition of the 
cartoons or original sketches of Indian life, made by the celebrated 
Indian student, George Catlin. Mr, Catlin continued his exhibition of 
these pictures during the summer, and devoted all his time not occn])ied 
in exjdaining his pictures to visitors, to tinishing the sketches. Unfor- 
tunately, in passing between the Institution and his boarding-{)lace, 
which were separated by the distance of more than a mile, he exposed 
himself to the heat of the unusually warm summer, and was seized with 
a malady which terminated his eventful life on the 2'3d of December, 
187-5, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. 

Since the subject will again come before Congress, I may here rejieat 
what was said in my report last year relative to the purchase by Con- 
gress of the Catlin collection : "The entire collection, which comprises 
about twelve hundred paintings and sketches, was oft'ered by Mr. Catlin 
to the Government in 1840, and its purchase was advocated by Mr. Web- 
ster, Mr. Poinsett, General Cass, and other statesmen, as well as by the 
principal artists and scholars of the country. A report recommending 



42 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

its purcliase was made by the Joint Committee ou the Library of Con- 
gress, but, owing to the absorption of public attention by the Mexican 
war, no ap}»ropriation was made for the purpose. Mr. Catlin made no 
further efforts at the time, but exhibited his pictures in Europe, where, 
on account of an unfortunate speculation into which he was led in Lon- 
don, claims were brought against them which he had not the means to 
satisty. At this crisis, fortunately, Mr. Joseph Harrison, of Philadel- 
phia, a gentleman of wealth and patriotism, desiring to save the collec- 
tion for oiu' country, advanced the means for paying off the claims 
against the pictures, and shipped them to Philadelphia, where they have 
since remained unredeemed. Mr. Catlin, however, retained possession 
of the cartoons, and has since enriched them with a large number of 
illustrations of the ethnology of South America. Whatever may be 
thought of these paintings from an artistic point of view, they are cer- 
tainly of great value as faithful representations of the person, features, 
manners, customs, implements, superstitions, festivals, and everything 
which relates to the ethnological characteristics of the primitive inhabit- 
ants of our country. We think that there is a general public sentiment 
in favor of granting the moderate appropriation asked for by Mr. Catlin, 
and we trust that Congress will not fail to act in accordance with this 
feeling." It is the only general collection of the kind in existence, and 
any one who has given thought to the subject could scarcely fail to sym- 
pathize with the last anxious feelings of Mr. Catlin that, after a life of 
devotion to Indian ethnology, these results of his labors might be i)ur- 
chased by the Government. To insure the permanent preservation of the 
collection, Mr. Catlin would have gladly presented the pictures to the 
Government as a gift had he not expended all his worldly i^ossessions in 
the formation of the collection, and therefore had nothing wherewith to 
redeem the portion of the general collection pledged for debt or to be- 
stow upon his three orx)han daughters. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Until the year 1870 the sui)port of the ISTational Museum princi- 
pally devolved on the Smithsou fund, only $4,000 having been annually 
appropriated by Congress for this purpose. Since that date, however, 
Congress has indicated an intention of providing for the full support of 
the museum. In 1870 and 1871 it appropriated $10,000, and in 187li, 
$15,000. This last sum, however, is scarcely yet sufticieut to defray the 
expenses. 

The cost of the reconstruction of the building, exclusive of furniture, 
after the lire of 1805, was $130,000, the whole of which was paid from 
the Smithsou income. This expenditui-e was for restoring the main 
building and not for fitting up rooms wanted for the further extension 
of the museum. For the latter purpose, Congress has made appro- 
priations, since 1870, amounting in all to $35,000. Of these appropria- 
tions $20,000 have been expended in ceiling, flooring, plasteriug. and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 43 

finishing the great liall, occupying the entire second story of the main 
bnikling, intended for the extension of the museum ; and, with the 
remainder of the appropriation, arrangements have been made for iur- 
uishing with cases this room, and also the room formerly occupied by the 
library, and now devoted to mineralogy and geology. 

With a view to the entire separation of the affairs of the mnsenm 
from those of the Smithsonian proper, all the operations of the hitter, 
with the exception of those in the Eegents' room, are carried on in the 
east wing and range of the building, leaving all the other parts, includ- 
ing the main edifice, towers, west wing, and west range, to the mnsenm 

The following is Professor Baird's account of the additions to the 
Musenin, and the various operations connected with it during 1872: 

Additions to the National Mnsenm in 1872, in geographical sequence. — 
The additions to the National Museum, in charge of the Smithsonian 
Institution, during the year have shown a gratifying increase over those 
of 1871, and have been decidedly equal in value to those of any previ- 
ous year. The great bulk, as might be expected, has been derived from 
tiie collections of the various Government expeditions, especially those 
under the charge of Professor Hayden, Professor Powell, and Lieuten- 
ant Wheeler, supplemented, however, by others, contributed by private 
effort, especially on the part of Mr. Henry W. Elliot and Mr. William 
H. Ball. 

A great addition to the magnitude of a portion of the cabinet, namelj', 
that of mineralogy and geology, has been the result of the transfer to 
the Institution, under the order of the Secretary of the Interior, of the 
extensive museum of the Laud-Ofifice. 

In the appendix to this report will be found a detailed list of the 
donors of the various specimens, together with the general indication of 
their nature ; but with a view of calling attention more particularly to 
the different regions represented therein, I beg leave to present some 
remarks, both in regard to the auspices under which they were secured 
and their general character. 

As in previous years, the principal regions of America are more or 
less represented among the additions in 1872, and these, as usual, will 
be mentioned in systematic order. 

Beginning, therefore, with the Northwest Coast, we have, in the first 
place, from the Island of Saint Paul, one of the fur-seal group in Behr- 
ing Sea, a very extensive collection, presented by Mr. Henry W. Elliot, 
for a long time connected with the Institution. This gentleman visited 
the two seal-islands. Saint Paul and Saint George, as an assistant agent 
of the Treasury Department, to attend to the interests of the Govern- 
ment with the Alaska Commercial Company, and to look after the wel- 
fare of the native tribes. The collection embraces a large number of 
skeletons of many species of water-fowl, as well as their skins and eggs, 
quite a number of which are new to the national collection : also various 



44 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

fisli, niollusca, ami other mariue objects, together with minerals, rocks, 
and phvnts. 

Mr. William H. Ball also contributed largely from the region a 
little to the south of that occupied by Mr. Elliot, namely, Unalaska 
and some adjacent islands. The most marked feature of Mr. Dall's 
contribution consists in the rich collections of prehistoric objects, some 
of them found in localities of which the native Aleuts have no tradi- 
tion as being the site of ancient settlements. The series is or interest, as 
showing the state of civilization among the progenitors of these i)eople. 
Other objects collected by Mr. Ball couvsist of marine invertebrates, 
fishes, and numerous birds, eggs, &c. Among the eggs are several new 
kinds, which, with the contributions by Mr. Elliot, nearly comi)lete the 
desiderata of the National Museum in regard to the water-birds of the 
North Pacific. 

Some contributions have also been obtained from Professor Harring- 
ton, the companion of Mr. Ball. It should be stated that Mr. Ball 
has been engaged since July, 1871, in the service of the Co^ast Survey, 
in surveying the Aleutian Islands, and that the collections made by 
him, like those of Mr. Elliot, were gathered entirely at his own ex- 
pense, at such periods as could not be occupied by any regular official 
work. In addition to the specimens just named, skulls of rare species of 
cetaceans were supplied by Cai)tain Scammon, who has also added to 
them others from Southern California. 

From Oregon have been received several series of Indian relics, and 
a number of human and other crania, i^resented by Mr. Bissell. 

California has furnished some curious remains of fossil vertebrates 
from Point Conception, presented by Mr. Sceva, and collections of 
Sacramento salmonidcc Irom Mr. Stone. Br. L. O. Yates has continued 
his contributions of ancient relics, as also of minerals and fossil remains. 
Some rare birds' eggs and nests have been furnished by Mr. William 
A. Cooper, of Santa Cruz. 

From the States and Territories in the interior of North America, 
especially those of the Great Basin and of the Eocky Mountain region, 
the collections have been principally made on the part of the Govern- 
ment expeditions, nearly all of which have had the center of their opera- 
tions within these boundaries. Among these we may mention, first, the 
parties of Professor Jlayden, who renewed in 1872 his explorations of 
1871 in the Geyser basins of the Upper Yellowstone, as also farther to 
the west, in the regions between Fort Hall and the Three Tetons. 

In addition to the researches prosecuted by his own immediate party, 
and its division under charge of Mr. Stevenson, with Professor P. H. 
Bradley as geologist, there were several subsidiary explorations prose- 
cuted in connection with Br. Hay den's labors, by Professor Joseph 
Leidy in Wyoming, and by Professors Meek and Bannister, Professor 
Lesquereux, and Professor E. B. Cope, all of whom added largely 
to the general collections, the total number of boxes of specimens re- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 45 

ceivecl from Professor Haydeu's expedition {imouutiiig to very nearly 
one hundred. 

The hibors of Lieutenant Wlieeler in the more southern portions 
of the region referred to were continued throughout the season, with 
Messrs. Gilbert and Howell as geologists, Dr. Yarrow as surgeon and 
chief naturalist, JMr. Henshaw as assistant naturalist, and Mr. Sever- 
ance as ethnologist. The investigations of these gentlemen were prose- 
cuted in Southern Utah and in Eastern Nevada, and resulted in the 
acquisition of rich collections of geological specimens, as also of a large 
series of animals, especially of the vertebrates. The ethnological con- 
tributions of the party were also of much interest. 

Professor Powell also, in continuation of preceding exi)lorations along 
the Colorado River, devoted himself more particularly to the collection 
of Indian remains, and succeeded in procuring a very extensive series 
of everything illustrating the habits and manners of the interesting 
tribes that now occupy" that region. 

From Governor Arny, of New Mexico, the museum has received some 
valuable minerals, and numerous articles of dress and ornament of the 
Apaches and other modern tribes. He has also contributed the re- 
mains of what Dr. Leidy considers to be a new species of American 
fossil ele})hant, and other bones of the same species were sup[)lied by 
General J. H. Carleton. 

Some interesting reptiles of New Mexico were contributed bj^ Dr. 
Bailey. Other collections of less extent will be found mentioned in the 
table of list of contributions. 

l^rom the valley of the Mississippi have been received human remains 
from the mounds of Dakota, contributed by General Thomas; from 
Louisiana and Mississij>pi, casts of some very remarkable stone imple- 
ments, furnished by Professor Joseph Jones, of New Orleans; and also 
original flint objects, together with insects, from Mr. Keenan. 

j\lr. J. G. Ilenderson has lent us the rarities of his fine ethnological 
collection, gathered principally in Illinois, with permission to duplicate 
them by means of casts; while from Mr. Peters, of Kentucky, Mr. 
Anderson, of Ohio, and other gentlemen, additions have also been 
made to the ethnological department. 

From the chain of lakes extensive contributions in the way of food- 
fishes have been furnished by various parties. Among them may be 
mentioned, as the most important contributor, Mr. J. W. Milner, deputy 
commissioner offish and fisheries for the lakes. His transmissions em- 
brace the different species of trout and white-fish in great variety. 

In obedience to the instructions of the minister of marine and fish- 
eries of Canada, the fish-wardens on the lakes have also supplied speci- 
mens of trout and white-fish from Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Lake Cham- 
plain, the Saint John's River, &c. These have been received from 
JMessrs. Kerr, Kiel, INIacfie, and others. 
The Suite of Maine is very amply represented in the collections of 



46 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

the year by means of the specimens of marine animals collected by 
Professor Baird as United States commissioner of fish and fisheries, and 
his assistants and associates. In addition to the collections made on 
the coast of Maine, the InstitiiWon has received, through the commis- 
sioner of fish and fisheries, a valuable series of the salmon of the Penob- 
scot River from Mr. Atkins: of the blue-backed trout of the Rangely 
Lakes from Mr. Stanley; and lake-trout and laud-locked salmon of the 
Saint Croix from Senator Edmunds. Marine animals in great variety 
and of much interest were also collected for the fishery commission at 
Fort Macon, i^orth Carolina, by Dr. 11. C. Yarrow, assistant surgeon of 
tbe United States Army, supi)lemented by others from Dr. Mackie. 

The donations from the interior of the Atlantic coast States consisted 
of In<Uan relics from Mr. Kellogg, of Connecticut; minerals and rocks 
of South Carolina from jMr. Waldo; and various specimens of birds from 
Florida from Mr. George A. Boardman. The trustees of the Charleston 
College have been kind enough to lend to the Smithsonian Institution, 
to be copied in ])laster, several unique objects of ethnology. 

Proceeding to the regions south of the United States, w^e may men- 
tion, first, contributions from the Isthmus of Tehuautepec, furnished by 
Professor Sumichrast, these consisting of numerous birds and rei)tiles, 
in continuation of similar collections previously transmitted. Mr. Flor 
entin Sartorius, of Yei'a Cruz, also furnished specimens of the rare and 
curious wax-producing insects first described as Lystra cerifera. 

From Gruacemala have been received collections of insects, presented 
by Mr. F. Sarg, and from Nicaragua a collection of rare pottery, by Dr. 
Earl Flint. Certain collections made several years ago by Dr. Bereudt 
near Belize w^ere received during the year, consisting principally of rep- 
tiles and shells. As these were gathered at tLie expense of the several 
contributors to a common fund, they were assigned for distribution to 
Mr. Thomas Bland and Professor Cope. 

Of South American regions, ISTew Granada is represented by a col- 
lection of birds presented by the American minister at Bogota, Mr. 
Hurlbut; Southern Brazil by the skeleton of a tapir from Mr. xVlbu- 
querque; and Chili by a very valuable collection of native minerals 
from the University of Santiago, through Professor Domeyko, and a 
collection of Chilian eggs of great interest from the national museum, 
through Dr. Philippi. 

Perhai)S the most interesting South American object is a human head 
prepared by the Jivaro Indians of the province of Chimborazo, Peru, 
and presented to the Smithsonian Institution by Don Edward de Feiger, 
through the honorable Eumsey Wing, United States minister to Ecua- 
dor. This head belongs to a very rare series of ethnological objects, of 
which a very few only have been brought to Europe and America. They 
are held by their owners in much veneration, and jealously guarded as 
household divinities. Tliey are believed to be trophies of victories; the 
head of an enemy being thus prepared for permanent preservation. The 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 47 

precise method of manipulation is unknown, but is supposed to consist 
in the careful extraction of the bones, flesh, and brains of the head, and 
the subsequent contracting of the skin by some astringent. The result 
is a well formed and fpiite symmetrical head, about four inches in diame- 
ter; all i)arts contracted in equal proportion, and with long flowing 
black hair; a braid of strings is passed through the lips, and there are 
several other artificial a|)pendages. 

Prof. William M. Gabb has kindly presented to the National Museum 
some extremely rare and remarkable stoue implements and pottery from 
San Domingo, while Professor Poey, the eminent and veteran naturalist of 
Havana, has supplied a seiies of lishes from Cuba as types of his sj)ecies. 
Fishes of Bermuda were also received from Mr. J. Brown Goode. 
The collections from other parts of the world, as might naturally have 
been expected, have not been so great, either in number or value, as 
those already referred to, although some of them are very important, 
as tending to complete the series already in the museum. The most 
interesting of these objects are certain pre-historic stone implements, 
es})ecially of the drift-period, presented by Mr. William Blackmoi-e, 
of England, and a similar collection furnished by Mr. Baker. 

Professor Hoist, of Christiania, has supplied a series of minerals from 
Konigsberg, a mining-region near that city, while Dr. Sars and Dr. 
Boeck have furnished specimens of the Crustacea, Mr. Robert Collett 
of the fishes, and Dr. William Boeck a skeleton of Htjperoodon. Dr. 
Mcibius, of Kiel, has also sent us a series of the food-fishes and crusta- 
ceans from the vicinity of Kiel. 

No collections are recorded from Africa, with the exception of a 
8U[)erb skull of the Koodoo antelope, from Captain Holmes. Prom 
Japan, however, have been received some remarkable stone and bronze 
implements of prehistoric times, presented by the Japanese minister, 
Mr. Mori. 

The Sandwich Islands are represented by collections of skulls and 
ethnology, from Mr. Valdemar Knudsen. 

Systematic summary. The preceding enumeration expresses the geo- 
graphical relations of the collections received during the year; and it 
may be well, in addition, to make a brief systematic reference to the 
principal objects received, so far as this has not already been done, 
especially as some general collections, covering a wide range of country, 
have not yet been referred to. 

The department of ethnology has been especially enriched, not only 
by the collections of Professor Powell, Mr. Dall, Professor Hay den, and 
others, but very largely by a contribution from Mr. Vincent Colyer. This 
gentleman, while connected with the Board of Indian Commissioners, 
took occasion during his official visits in various parts of the Indian 
country to collect, at his own expense, large numbers of objects, all of 
which are now in possession of the Institution. 



48 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

The head of the mummy, preseuted by Don Edward de Feiger, 
akeady referred to, is perhaps the most importaut of the ethnologieal 
series; but there are other objects of very great interest worthy of 
note. Among them, one of special interest, is an Indian pipe of black 
slate, carved in a very striking likeness of a loon, found in West 
Virginia and presented by Eev. J. N. Davis. 

In the department of mineralogy and geology, the additions brought 
in by the parties of Lieutenant Wheeler and Professor Haydeu have 
been esi)ecially rich; tbe donation of Chilian minerals by Professor 
Domeyko, and of Norwegian by Dr. Hoist, will do much to increase 
the value of this portion of the collection. 

The most importaut addition, however, is that of the Land-Oflice 
collection of minerals, embracing many thousands of specimens, and 
especially rich in series of ores from Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, 
and California. These collections will shortly be arranged with others 
of the same character in the new mineralogical hall. 

In the department of zoology, a contribution from the Imperial Zoolog- 
ical Museum of Vienna, of skeletons of large mammals, such as those of 
the lion, tiger, giraffe, brown bear, &c., may be considered as chief in 
value. The skeleton of the Bra/.iliau tapir, from Mr. Albuquerque, is 
also of much moment, as rendering the collection of American ta])irs 
nearly complete. We previously possessed skeletons of the tapir of 
the Andes from Mr. Hurlbut, the Panama tapir from Captain Dow, 
and the Guatemala tapir from Mr. Henry Hague; the last additions 
making skeletons of four perfectly distinct si^ecies or varieties of this 
animal. 

The skeletons and skulls of the cetaceans of the west coast from 
Captain Scamraon, a skeleton of hyperoodon whale from Dr. Boeck, and 
skeletons of many hundreds of birds from Henry W. E'diot may also 
be enumerated. 

Among mammals, the chief accessions have been that of a Eocky 
Mountain goat, from W. J. Wheeler, since mounted and placed in the 
collection; that of a gnu from an unknown source, and the restoration 
in full size of the Irish elk, deposited by Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins. 

The lloyal College of Surgeons of London has contributed a col- 
lection of casts of the brains of mammals. 

Of birds, a valued addition is that of the rare Labrador duck from 
the Museum of Natural History of New York ; and the extensive col- 
lections of Professor Hayden, of Lieutenant Wheeler, of Mr. Dall, and of 
Mr. Henry Elliot embrace many important specimens. The eggs from 
Messrs. Dall and Elliot, taken in Alaska, and those from Chili, are of 
principal value. 

The collection of fishes has been very large, made principally by or 
in behalf of the commission of tish and fisheries. It embraces speci- 
mens of the ^ahnonidcc of the Sacramento liiver, received from Mr 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 49 

Livingston Stoue, and of viirions localities on tlie great lakes, and in 
the States of Maiue and New Hampshire. 

The marine collections from the coast of Maine, Vineyard Sound, 
Khode Island, Fort Macon, Cuba, and the Bermudas have already been 
referred to. The European collection presented by Messrs. Sars, Boeck, 
and Oollett, as also those of Dr. Mobius, of Kiel, will also be of much 
value for purposes of comparison. 

The invertebrates gathered under similar auspices have also been 
very numerous, and will furnish ample means for distribution to other 
museums. 

In accordance with the policy of the Institution, all the specimens of 
human anatomy, including crania and skeletons from the ancient 
mounds, have been turned over as soon as received to the Army 
Medical Museum, while the insects and the plants have, in like manner, 
been deposited Avith the Agricultural Department. 

The total number of distinct donations received during the year 1872 
amounted to 315 entries, comprising 514 separate packages and coming 
from li03 different donors. 

The corresponding figures for the year 1871, consist of 271 donations, 
comprising 400 packages. 

Worlc done in the museum. — The addition of so large a stock of ma- 
terial to the collections already in charge of the Institution, of course, 
involved a great deal of labor, such as the unpacking and classifying 
of the objects; the labeling of all, at least as to localities; the entering 
in their respective record-books; the putting such of them in order 
as required it ; placing such as were ready for immediate exhibition 
on their respective shelves; and storing the rest away where they could 
most readily be referred to on occasion. 

All dry objects of an animal nature generally need prompt attention 
to prevent their being affected by mold or by the attacks of insects ; 
ethnological objects usually requiring to be thoroughly cleaned and 
poisoned, while skins of animals, furs, Indian robes, dresses, &c., must 
be immersed in some poisonous solution before they can be considered 
as permanently secure. All this has been effected with as much thor- 
oughness as the time and force at the command of the Institution would 
permit. 

In addition to this, it was found that the immense collection of objects 
of dresses and ornaments belonging to the ethnological galleries, vvcre 
more or less infected by moths, and it became necessary to subject the 
entire series to a process of renovation, embracing many thousands of 
specimens. 

The transfer of the mounted birds and nmmmals from the old stands 
to those of a neater form has also been prosecuted to ;.. considerable ex- 
tent during the year, several thousands having been so treated, to tho 

manifest improvement of the general appearance. 
4s 



50 EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 

Perhaps tlie most important labors iu the museum have been that 
connected with the renovation of the extensive alcoholic collections. 
These were iu a very unsatisfactory condition, in consequence of the 
lire of 18G5, and the unavoidable confusion during the i)rocess of recon- 
struction of the various apartments of the Institution. 

The bottles were necessarily stored in a damp cellar, where the labels 
became obliterated to a greater or less degree ; and although the pre- 
caution had been taken to introduce within the jars numbers corre- 
sponding to those of the external label, yet both in many cases were 
found to have become illegible. It was necessary, therefore, to use 
every effort to remedy the difficulty by re-labeling such specimens as 
had not lost their history beyond recovery ; and this work has occupied 
a considerable portion of the force the entire year. All the bottles, 
however, have been cleaned and placed in a dry cellar, and dnring the 
coming year tliis part of the collection will be put in as good order as 
can be desired. 

A considerable portion of the time of the employes of the museum 
was occupied iu the transfer of the extensive collection of rocks and 
minerals from the Land-Office, which has necessarily required great care 
to prevent the misplacement of the labels. This was, however, satis- 
factorily accomplished, and the specimens are now safely in the posses- 
sion of the Institution, and, it is hoped, will be placed on their shelves 
in the coiu'se of the year 1873. 

Quite a number of the skeletons of the larger animals, such as the 
Irish elk, several species of tapir, the American moose, the buffalo, 
American and European bisons, the elk, camel, &c., have been mounted 
<luring the year and placed iu the general collection. There is yet much 
to be done in this direction, the museum fortunately possessing very 
comi>lete series of the bones of most of the American mammalia and 
many foreign species. Several large mammals have also been mounted, 
such as the bison, the moose, walrus, and a considerable number of the 
larger fish found on the Atlantic coast. 

Distribution of specimens. — In accordance with the policy adopted by 
the Smithsonian Institution in the administration of the collections of 
the I^fational Museum, much has been done in the way of transmission 
of specimens to other museums at home and abroad. 

Many of the rare and more choice stone implements in different mu- 
seums throughout the country have been borrowed and duplicated by 
means of casts, and enough of these prepared to permit quite an exten- 
sive distribution. 

The collections brought in by Professor Hayden during his different 
expeditions of several years past were all unpacked and arranged 5 and 
after reserving a series for the Museum of the Institution, the remainder 
were made up into some fifteen or twenty sets, which were distributed 
to different colleges and academies throughout the country. This branch 



EEPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 51 

of the work of the lustitutiou, it is hoped, cau be greatly extended 
during- the coming year, in view of the immense number of duplicates 
which will be found in the Laud-Ofilice collection and in the collections 
just received from the various Government expeditions. 

A large number of specimens in mineralogy and geology were also 
boxed up and transmitted to Professor Egleston and Professor I^ewberry, 
of the School of Mines in ^ew York, under the existing arrangement 
with those gentlemen to select and label a perfect single series for the 
jSTational Museum and to exchange the duplicate specimens in its interest. 
]S"umerous returns have already been received of valuable material, 
adding greatly to the richness of the lithological department. 

Dr. Coues, assistant surgeon in the Army, having volunteered to pre- 
pare a monograph of the smaller rodents of Korth America for publi- 
cation by the lustitutiou, received at Baltimore the entire collection of 
specimens, both in alcohol and in skins. Having subjected these to a 
careful criticism, he made the duplicates into thirty sets, which will be 
distributed in the course of the coming year to the different museums 
in this country and Europe, in return for which we shall doubtless 
receive some valuable additions to the cabinet. 

A few of the small number remaining on hand of sets of minerals, geo- 
logical specimens, shells, &c., have been sent out to various addresses, 
and as also several series of birds, &c., mammals, skeletons, eggs, «&c. 
The entire number of specimens thus sent forth will be found in an 
accompanying table. 

The museum may now be considered as in much better condition than 
it has ever been before. The process of renovation is progressing as 
rapidly as possible, and will, before long, be completed. The establish- 
ment of better store-rooms in which to keep the unmounted skins of 
animals, and the alcoholic collections, has enabled us to work to much 
better advantage. As fast as each department can be re-organized and 
placed in a satisfactory' condition, pains will be taken to eliminate the 
duplicates, and distribute them as authorized. The result will be to 
greatly reduce the bulk of crude material to be cared for by the Insti- 
tution, and to render a great service to the cause of scientific instruc- 
tion by disseminating authentically-labeled types of the various species. 
Returns of great value may be expected also for these specimens. 

There is, however, a great deal to be done before the collections at 
present in the National Museum may be considered as finally arranged, 
to say nothing of those yet to be received. The greater portion of the 
ethnological museum will need to be properly mounted on tablets, or 
otherwise prepared for permanent exhibition, and labeled. As soon as 
the cases in the large hall of the Institution can be completed, these 
specimens will be placed in position. It is intended to prepare a large 
number of effigies representing accurately the lineaments, dress, and 
form of the tribes of Indians, and to place upon these their correspond- 



52 EEPORT OF THE SECRETAEY. 

iug ornaments, weapons, &c.; aud to iutroduce tliera, either singly or in 
groups, into suitable cases, where they can most readily be seen. 

The approach to completion of the new cases for the mineralogical 
hall, formerly occupied by the library, makes it necessary to re-arrange 
all the mineralogical and geological specimens, these including not only 
such as have been for a long time in the Institution, but the newly-ac- 
quired treasures from the Land-Oliice, and the Government expeditions 
of 1872. These transfers will vacate a portion of the present exhibition- 
room, amounting, perhaps, to nearly one-third its present capacity; and 
it is proposed to occupy the gaps thus made by specimens of mammals, 
birds, and skeletons. Of these there are ample series in the building, 
enough, indeed, to fill several large rooms. Such a selection will be 
made from these as will make up the most important deficiencies in the 
mounted series at present on exhibition. 

Mineralogical collection. — Under the authorization of the Secretary of 
the Interior, the Commissioner of the Land-Oflice transferred to the care 
of the Institution, as a part of the National IMuseum, the collection of 
minerals which had been formed by Mr. Joseph Wilson, the previous 
Commissioner. This collection, intended to illustrate themineral resources 
of the country, consisted of samples of ores and geological specimens from 
every State and Territory in the Union. Though a very valuable addi- 
tion to the Museum, it is formed in some degree of duplicates of specimens 
already in the Institution. Thisfact, however, will enable us to make up 
setsof duplicatesfor distribution to colleges and academies. It is proposed 
to continue the plan inaugurated by ilr. Wilson, of illustrating the 
mineral products of all parts of the United States in addition to a gen- 
eral systematic mineralogical cabinet. For the exhibition of the latter 
the large room formerly occupied by the library will be devoted, while 
the connecting range, hy a few changes, will serve as the receptacle for 
the specimens to illustrate the former. 

In concluding the history of the Institution up to the year 1872, it will 
be evident that the establishment has had, on the whole, a successful 
career, although it has not been free from mishaps, and the appropriation 
of the fund was not at first as conformable to the strict interpretation 
of the will of the founder as could have been wished, yet continued 
improvement has been made in this respect from year to year. ]N^ot 
only the s*";ate of the funds, but the character which the Institution has 
established over the world, will enable it to compare favorably with the 
management of any endowment with which we are at present acquainted. 

EespectfuUy submitted. 

JOSEPH HENEY, 
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, February, 187'^ 



NOTES RELATIVE TO GEORGE CATLIN. 



George Catlin was born in Wilkesbarre, in tlie valley of Wyoming, 
Pennsylvania, in the year 171)0. His father was a lawyer of considera- 
ble reputation, and designed his son to practice the same i)rofession, 
which he did for a short time ; but his natural inclination for art was so 
strong that after two or three years he abandoned the idea of becoming 
a lawyer and removed to Philadelphia, where he pursued his occupation 
principally as a portrait-painter. It was here that an incident occurred 
which determined that future career which has made his life and labors 
famous. A party of roving Indians visiting Philadelphia, decorated 
with the barbaric splendor of their native dresses, by their bold and 
martial bearing, and by their unconstrained attitudes and gestures, so 
impressed him that he determined to become the historian of this 
remarkable race, which was rapidly becoming extinct, and to devote 
himself to the illustration of their arts, types, manners, and customs. 

With this purpose in view, in 1830 and lS31,he accompanied Governor 
Clarke, of Saint Louis, then superintendent of Indian Affairs, who was 
engaged in making treaties with the Winuebagoes, Mouomouees, Shavr- 
nees, and Sacs and Foxes. In 1832 he ascended the Missouri, on the 
steamer Yellowstone, to Fort Union, and afterward returned, in a 
canoe, with two companions, a distance of 2,000 miles, visiting and 
painting all the tribes, so numerous at that time, on the whole length 
of the river. The next year he went up the Platte as far as Fort 
Laramie, and extended his journey to Great Salt Lake. In 1831 he 
explored the Mississippi as far as the Falls of Saint Anthony, and visited 
the OJibbeways and other tribes, and returned to Saint Louis, a distance 
of 900 miles, in a bark canoe. In 1835 he made a second visit to the 
Falls of Saint Anthony, and thence proceeded to the Eed Pipestone 
region on the Couteau des Prairies, and then, returning to the Falls of 
Saint Anthony, descended the river a second time in a canoe to Saint 
Louis. In 183G he accompanied Colonel Dodge on an expedition to the 
Comanches and other southwestern tribes ; and in 1837 visited Florida 
for the purpose of painting the Semiuoles and Euchees- During these 
eight years he visited fifty different tribes of North American Indians, 
taking sketches all the time. Having tluis accumulated a large number 
of paintings representing the portraits of the principal men and the tribes 
and the pictures of savage life, he exhibited them in various parts of 
the United States, especially in Washington, Philadelphia, New York, and 
Boston, with such success that, in 1839, he went to London and Paris, 
where the artist and his collections attracted general attention. From 
this time until 1852 he remained in Europe, being everywhere treated 



54 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

with marked disUnctiou. In 1852, when flfty-sixyears old, his enthusi- 
asm undiminished by his advancing age, and with a vigor and endnrance 
rarely found even in the young men of our day, he explored, with the 
same object, the forests of South America. He went to Venezuela, and 
visited the Orouoco, Amazon, and Essequibo, taking a great nnmber of 
pictures on his route. He afterward crossed the continent to Lima, 
and going northward visited the mouth of the Columbia Eiver, Nootka 
Sound, Alaska, and to The Dalles, and up the Columbia River to Walla- 
Walla, thence up to the Salmon River Valley, and across the moontaius 
into Snake River Valley at Fort Hall, thence to .the Great Falls of the 
Snake River, and returning to Portland j)roceeded to San Francisco 
and San Diego. From San Diego he crossed the Colorado of the West 
and the Rocky Mountains, and descended the Rio Grande del Korte in 
a canoe to Matamoras. From Matamoras he set out for Sisal, in Yucatan, 
and thence proceeded to Havre. Starting again from that place in the 
fall of the same year, 1855, he went to Rio Janeiro and Buenos Ayres. 
Ascending the Paraguay and Parana, he crossed the Entre Rios 
Mountains to the head-waters of the Uruguay, which he descended to 
the mouth of the Rio Negro and returned to Buenos Ayres. From this 
place, in 1856, he took passage in a sailing-vessel coasting the whole 
length of Patagonia, and then north to Panama; thence to Chagres, to 
Caracas in Venezuela, to Santa Martha and MaraSaibo. In these six 
years, completing his Indian studies, he retired to Brussels, and, with 
pen and brush, again set himself to recording the results of his travels, 
adding to his history of the jSTorth American Indians that of the Indians 
of South America. He i-emained at Brussels until 'his return to thi" 
country in 1871. 

During his life, and in periods of rest from his travels, he wrote and 
published the following works : 

1. Catlin's litotes of Eight Years' Travels among the North American 
Indians, 2 vols., 1851. 

2. Catlin's Notes of Eight Years' Residence in Europe, 2 vols, 1848. 

3. Catlin's North American Portfolio, 1844. 

4. Okee-pa, a Religious '^Mandan" Ceremony. 

5. Life among the Indians, (book for youth,) 1867. 

6. Last Rambles among the Indians of the Rocky Mountains and 
Andes, 1867. 

7. Shut Your Mouth, 1869. 

8. Uplifted and Subsided Rocks of America, 1870. 



APPEiNDIX TO THE REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



Table sliounng the number of entries in the record-hooks of the Smithsonian 
Museum at the close of the years 1871 and 1872, respectively. 



Class. 



Skeletons and skulls . . . 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Fishes 

Eggs of birds 

Crustaceans 

MoUusks 

Radiates 

Annelids 

Fossils 

Minerals 

Ethnological specimens 

Total 




177, 747 



Increase for 1872, 8,387, 
Approximate table of distribution of duplicate specimens to the end of 1872. 



Class. 


Distribution to the 
end of 1871. 


Distribution 
during 1872. 


Total to end of 

1872. 




Species. 

1 


Speci- 
mens. 


Species. 


Speci- 
mens. 


Species. 


Speci- 
mens. 


Skeletons and skulls 

Mammals. 


325 
941 

22, 940 
1,841 
2, 477 
6, 600 

83, 712 

1,078 

583 

1,838 

18,503 
4, 109 
4,630 
1,295 
1,836 
29 


827 

1,822 

35, 428 

2,970 

5,311 

16, 698 

186, 157 

2,650 

778 

5, 152 

25, 063 

10, 135 

9,974 

1, 342 

3, 150 

623 


19 

22 

1,129 


37 

68 
1,667 


344 

963 

24, 069 

1,841 

2,517 

6,627 

84, 617 

1,078 

583 

1,844 

20, 370 

4, 112 

5, 313 

1,676 

2,248 

58 


864 

1,890 

37, 095 

2 970 


Birds 


Reptiles ' 


Fishes 


40 
21 

905 


87 

22 

1,035 


5, 398 
16 7"^0 


Eggs of birds 


Shells 


187, 192 
9 GjO 


Crustaceans 


Radiates . . . , 






778 


Other marine invertebrates 
Plants & packages of seeds 
Fossils 


6 

1,867 

3 

683 

381 

412 

29 


8 

4, 642 

6 

728 

397 

1,144 

29 


5,160 

29, 705 

10,141 

10,702 

1,739 

4,294 

Gm 


Minerals and rocks 

Ethnological specimens 

Insects 


Diatomaceous earths 


Total 


152, 743 


308, 080 


5, 517 


9,880 


158, 260 


317, 960 



56 ADDITION'S TO THE COLLECTIONS. 

ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION IN 1872. 

AbcU, J. Ealls. Indian relics, insects, &c., from Virginia. 
AJchurst, J. Specimens from Nortbwest Coast. 
Albuquerque, F. Skeleton of Tapir and head of Deer from Brazil. 
Alien, J. A., for 3Ius. of Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass. Specimen of 
Lagomys in alcohol, and nest and egg of Plectropkanes ornatus. 

Two specimens Leucosticte tephrocotis from Colorado. 
Aman, 8. Specimen of Spider-crab from Chesapeake Bay. 
American Museum of Nat. History, Neiv YorJc. Monnted specimen of 

Labrador Dnck, [Camptolaemiis labradorius.) 
Anderson, ^Ym. Ethnological specimens and fossils from Ohio. 
Amy, Hon. W. F. M. Bundle of arrows of White Mountain Apaches, 

Arizona, and many other specimens of Ethnology, Mineralogy, and 

Natural History. 
AtJcins, C. G. Two specimens of Salmon, from Bucksport, Me. 
Aubin, N. Copper-ores from Lake Superior. 
BabcocJc, Gen. 0. E. Specimens of silicifled wood from excavations of 

public works, Washington, D. C. 
Bailey, Br G. W. One bottle alcoholic reptiles, insects, &c., from New 

Mexico.* 
Baird, Prof 8. F.. U. S. Commissar of Fislieries. Forty -four boxes general 
collections from Eastport, Me. 

Embryonic chicken in alcohol, Washington, D. C. 
Balcer, TT. A. Collection of prehistoric llint implements from Great 

Britain. 
Barnes, Thos., through Col. E. Jeicett. Copper chisel from Niagara Co., 

N.Y. 
Bendire, Lt. TJ. 8. A. Birds dried in the flesh, nesis, and eggs, from 

Arizona. 
Berendt, Dr. H. Three boxes and one package general collections from 

Honduras. 
Binclcley, J. M. Indian stone implement from Virginia. 
Bi^sell, Geo. P. Stone implements, and antler imbedded in wood, from 

Creswell, Oregon. 
Blaclcmore, W. Prehistoric stone relics from Europe. 
Blalceslee, B. Indian stone relics from Ohio. 
Bloom, F. J. Fossils and Indian relics from Mississippi. 
BoecJc, Axel. Crustaceans from Norway. 
Boles, Hon. T. 8. Specimens of iron-ore from Arkansas. 
Brevoort, J. Carson. Specimen of Eing-tailed Monkey from the Amazon, 

(fresh). 
Brown, Dr. Byland T. Specimens of rock-salt from Arizona. 
Broicn, Hon. 8. G. Quartz arrow-head from Anacostia, D. C. 
Brush, A. P. Indian stone implements from Quincy, Pa. 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 57 

Bryan, 0. N'. Skull of a momid-builder, from monud near Dubuque, 

Iowa. 
Carleton, Eev. Hiram. Specimens of wheat prepared against rust. 
Carleton, Gen. J. H. One box fossil bones from Souora, Mex. 
Choate, J. B. One box fossils from Iowa and Illinois. 
Clarke, Geo. Fishes from Lake Erie and Detroit River. 
Clarice, S. C. Ethnological specimens from Spruce Creek, Fla. 
Cleburne, Wm. Three boxes fossils from along the line of Union Pacific 

Eailroad. 
Clements, C. C, Surveyor-General of Utah. Specimens of silver-ores. 
Cochrane, J. Ancient pottery, &c., from Illinois. 
Cogswell, Mrs. W. F. Specimens of iron-ores from Lake Superior. 
Collett, Robert. Collection of Norwegian fishes. 
Colyer, Vincent. Indian clothing, implements, &c., from Alaska and the 

western Territories. 
Comstoclc, Gen., TJ. S. A. Specimens of dredgings made under the lake 

survey in Lake Superior. 
Cooper, W. A. Birds' eggs from Santa Cruz, Cal. 
Coues, Dr. Elliott, U. S. A. Skeleton and odd bones of Didelphys vir- 

ginianus, (types of his monograph of the species.) 
Curtis, B. C. Fossils from Genesee Co., N. Y. 
Curtis, W. W. Specimens of quartz from Wisconsin. 
Cusiclc, G. C. Ethnological specimens from Dakota Territory. 
Dall, W. H. General collections from Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, 

part of the collections by M. W. Harrington. 
Davis, Rev. J. R. Indian stone pipe, (loon shape,) from West Virginia. 
Dennis, Joel M. Ancient i)ottery from Newark, Ohio. 
Dobson, J. R. Specimens of iron and iron-ores from Pennsylvania. 
Domeyl-o, Dr. Ignacio, University of Chili. Eight boxes of Chilian min 

erals. 
Duvall, Geo. W. Specimen of Cormorant, {Graculus dilophus,) Sucking- 
fish, and woodchuck, from Annapolis, Md. 
Dyer, C. B. Box of fossils from Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Edicards, Amory. Fossils from Kansas. 

Edwards, Vinal R. Fishes, &c., from Vineyard Sound, Mass. 
Elias, Mr. Medal issued in commemoration of the introduction of water 

into the citj^ of Buenos Ayres, South America. 
Elliott, Renry W. Ten boxes general collections from Saint Paul's 

Island, Alaska. 
Faulkner, J. Collection of birds' eggs from Northern Illinois. 
Feiger, Don Ramon. Prepared head of Indian from Ecuador, South 

America, (through Hon. Ramsey Wing, United States minister.) 
Fitliie, Jas. S. Insects, &c., from Mississippi. 
Flint, Dr. Earl. One box of ancient pottery from Nicaragua. 
Gabb, Prof. W. M. One box stone implements and jjottery from Santo 

Domiiiiio. 



58 ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 

Gibbon, Lardtier. Arrow-heads and Indian relics from South Carolina. 

GilcH, Norwood. Birds' eggs and nests Croni North Carolina. 

Oilpin, Dr. J. B. Specimens of Sea-Trout from Labrador and fishes from 
Nova Scotia. 

Goldsmith, Dr. through P. 8. Phelps. One box fish from Ticonderoga, 
Lake Cham plain. 

Goode, G. Brown. One box fishes from Bermuda. 

Greene, A. li. One package minerals and one can fish from Maine. 

Griffith, T. D. Cotton raised by Indians of ChickasaM' Nation, Indian 
Territory. 

Hamilton, Hon. C. L. Specimen of white Coral from Key West, Fla. 

Hansen, F. Walter. One ancient implement of polished iron-ore from 
Texas. 

Harenbergh, J.R., U. S. Sumey^r-GenH. Specimens of ores from Calave- 
ras Co., Cal. 

Harford, G. One box of birds from San Miguel Island, California. 

Harris, Wyatt. Fossil univalve from Mt. Vernon, Mo. 

HawMns, B. Waterhouse. Model of Irish Elk (restored) on deposit. 

Haydcn, Dr. F. V. General collections of minerals, fossils, and speci- 
mens of Natural History from Wyoming, Utah, and Montana. 

Hatch, Dr. Four specimens of Silver Trout, from Centre Pond, Dublin, 
N. H. 

Henderson, Jno. G. Indian stone implements from mound near Naples, 
111., (loaned.) 

Hides, W. R. One package Indian relics from North Carolina. 

Hilgert, H. Specimens of silicified wood from New Mexico. 

Hobbs, Maj. T. J. Specimen of Potomac Black Bass. 

Hoffman, Dr. A. H. Indian relics from Angel Island, Cala., (through 
Surgeon-General's office.) 

Hoffman, Dr. W. J. Tortoise from Colorado Desert. 

Holmes, G. G. Skull and horns of African Antelope "Koodoo." 

Hoist, Dr. Chr., Uyiiversity of Christiania, Norivay. Collection of min- 
erals from Norway. 

Hoover, Jno. T. Nest of small Fly-Catcher from Dansville, N. Y. 

Hough, K. B. Nests and eggs of birds from Northern New York. 

Hovey, Geo. Specimen of Gordius in alcohol. 

Hoicell, B. Indian relics and fossils from Tioga Co., N. Y. 

Hurlburt, Geo. H. One box of birds from New Granada. 

Imp. Mus. Vienna. See Pelzeln, A. von. 

Jeicett, Col. E. Stone disk from mound at Cedar Key, Fla. 

Jones, Dr. Jos. Casts of ancient stone implements from Louisiana. 

Jordan, H. C. Alcoholic collections from Brazil and Paraguay. 

Junghuuns, Dr. Two human skulls from Japan. 

Kalteyer, Geo. H. Fossil tooth [rtychodus) from Texas. 

Keenan, T. J. B. Ethnological and other si)ecimens from Mississippi 
and Louisiana. 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 59 

Kellogg, B. B. Indian stone implements from New Fairfield, Ct. 

Kerclieval^ A. Minerals and fossils from West Virginia. 

Kerr, Jno. W. Eight specimens of Lake White-fish from Lakes Erie 
and Ontario. 

Kiel, Peter. One box White-fish from Wolf Island, Ontario. 

Knudsen, Valdemar. Ethnological and zoological collections from the 
Sandwich Islands. 

Kron, F. J. Indian antiquities from North Carolina. 

Lee, Col. J. G. C. Specimens of Indian pottery and other relics from 
Arizona. 

Lehnne, Jas., Hospital Steward U. S. A. Specimen of Mountain Eat, 
{Neotoma,) and skin of Horned Owl from Camp Douglas, Utah. 

Leidy, Dr. Jos. One box ethnological specimens from Wyoming Terr. 

Luce, Capt. 8. B. Specimens of ancient Roman mosaic pavement from 
Italy. 

Ludington, C. Fresh fish, shells, &c., from lower Potomac. 

Macfie, R. One box White-fish from Alburgh Springs, Vt. 

Mackenzie, Jas. Specimens of corals and shells imbedded in asphalt, 
from Cuba. 

Macldn, Br. C. One jar alcoholic collections from Beaufort, N. C. 

3farqiiardt, H. Specimens of Guaco, and Nopal, from Mexico. 

21aynard, C. J. One box birds, (lent for examination.) 

McCallum, D. Specimen of Glow-worm. 

Mc Williams, Br. Specimen of rose-breasted Grosbeak from Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Meigs, Gen. 2f. C. One jar alcoholic collections from Arizona, shells, 
&c., from Lower California. 

Merritt, Jno. F. Arrow-heads5 from Northern New York. 

Metcalf, W. Birds, &c., from Michigan. 

Miller, J. Be Witt. Indian stone implements from New York. 

Miller, S. A. Collections of fossils from Ohio. 

Milner, James W. Collections of fishes, rei^tiles, &c., dr^^ and in alcohol, 
from the great lakes. 

3Iobius, Br. Karl, University of Kiel, Prussia. Fishes trom the Baltic 
Sea. 

Moore, A. B. Birds' nests and eggs from Florida. 

Moore, Carleton B. Indian stone relics from the Eastern Shore of Mary- 
land. 

Mori, Hon. Arinori. Set of Japanese gold and silver coins, and ethno- 
logical specimens from Japan. 

Morris, Jordan, through Z. B. Sturgis. Fragment of fossil Coral [Favo- 
sites) from Salem, Ind. 

Mullet, A. B. Two boxes of minerals. 

Munson, Chas. Specimens of gray coi)per-ore. 

Mus. Gomp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. Cases of fossils; two boxes general 
collections. 



60 ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 

Nelson, W. J. Specimen of rock from Virginia. 

Nichols, Br. C. R. Specimens of Jaguar and Monkey from S. America, 

(died in captivity at Government Hospital for the Insane.) 
Nugent, F. F. Birds' nests and eggs from Utah. 
Olcr, H. D. Indian flint implements from Illinois. 
Palmer, Jos. Casts of skulls and alcoholic specimens, 
Pajrhicau, F. A. Insects from Kansas. 
Feahody Mus. See Wyman, Dr. Jeffries. 

Pelzelni Dr. A. von, Imperial Mits. Vienna. One large box skeletons. 
Poey, Prof. F. Two casks and one box Cuban fishes, labeled. 
Powell, Maj. J. W. General collections from Utah and Arizona. 
Powell, Capt. 8. One box fishes from Rhode Island. 
Prentiss, Dr. D. W. Birds collected in the vicinity of Washington. 
Propper, Geo. H. Fossils and ethnological specimens from Dakota Ter. 
Putnam, Geo. D. One box insects from Iowa. 
Read, Rev. D. One box fresh- water shells from Minnesota. 
Reinscli, Dr. Paul. Herbarium of mosses (2 vols.) from Central Europe. 
Richsecker, F. One box of eggs from Nazareth, Pa. 
Rioig, Lt. F. M. General collections from Alaska. 
Robinson, Miss Agnes G. jSTest of Vireo from vicinity of Washington. 
Roessler, A. R. Specimen of cop])er-glance from Archie Co., Tex. 
Rouclcendorjf, W. Cluster of barnacles. 
Royal College of Surgeons, London, Prof W. IT. Floiver. Casts of brains 

and osteological specimens. 
Rutter, H. Fresh fish {Coregoni) from Fredericton, IS". B, 
Salt Lake 2Iuseum,. One box minerals, fossils, &c. 
Sarg, Francis. Collections of insects and shells from Guatemala. 
Sars, G. 0. Embryonic Cod fish from Norway. 
Sartorius, Florentin. Four specimens of the wax-producing insect 

{Lystra cerifera) from Mirador, Mex. 
Sayre, W. Marine invertebrata from South Carolina. 
tScammon, Gapt. C. M. Specimens of bones of Cetaceans, &c., from N. W. 

Coast. 
Sceva, Geo. Five boxes of fossils from Pt. Conception, Cal. 
Schacht, Bros., Sanduslcy, 0. One box fish-products. 
Schoolcraft, ]\lrs. H. R. Indian flint knife. 
Schrocli, J. Ethnological specimens from Ohio. 

Sherman, Lsaac G. Stuffed specimen of Bill-fish, {Histiophorus gladius.) 
Sinclair, Thos. Specimen of young Sucking-fish from George's Bank. 
Spencer, J. W. Fossils from Sullivan Co., Ind. 
Stanley, H. 0., through H. T. Richardson. Six jars Blue Trout from 

Eangely Lake, Me. 
Stearns, B. F. G. One box birds' nests and general collections from 

California. 
Stimpson, Dr. W. Two cases general collections from Florida. 
Stone, Livingston. Salmon-eggs from Sacramento River, Cal. 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 61 

Street, W. Eggs of Hawks from Eastbampton, Mass. 

Sumichrast, Br. F. General collections from Tcliuantepec, Mex. 

Surgeon- General U. 8. Army. See Hoffman, Dr. A. H. 

Sican, J. G., through Geo. GihJ)s. Indian implements from Washington 
Territory. 

Thomas, Gen. ff. G. One box bones of mound-builders from Bak >ta. 

Thompson, I). Iinlian stone relics from Ohio. 

Thompson, J. R. One jar fishes from New Bedford, Mass. 

University of Chili, Santiago, Chili. See DomeyJco. 

University of Christiania. See Hoist, Dr. Chr. 

University of Kiel. See Mobius, Dr. K. 

Unknown. Fossils irom Onondaga Co., Tsl. Y. Box of living plants 
from Washington Ter. Fresh skin of African Gull. One Moth from 
Erie, Pa. One box specimens from Pa. One box alcoholic specimens 
and insects. One box fossil bones from North Carolina. One living 
serpent [Ahastor erytlvrogrammus) from Georgia. Ores from Amador 
Co., Cal. Bones of Mastodon from Mississippi. Silver-ores from 
Montana. One earthen pipe. 

Voorhees, P. W. Specimen of bog-iron ore from New Jersey. 

Waldo, Rev. Milton. One box minerals and fossils from South Carolina. 

Wallcer, Dr. B. L. Indian stone hammers and arrow-heads from Penn- 
sylvania. 

Wallace, Jno. Skeletons of Flamingo and Swan. 

Ward, Prof. H. A. Skeleton of Buffalo. 

Wasson, Jno., Surveyor- General Arizona. Specimens of silver-ores from 
various mines in Arizona. 

Watson, S. Sets of plants made up for distribution. 

Watters, Dr. W. Fragment of skin of a Plagiostome from Searsport,Me. 

Webber, Mrs. Specimens of shells in alcohol from Florida. 

Westcott, 0. S. Specimen of Bald Eagle from Illinois. 

Wheeler, Lt. G. 71/. General collections from Utah and Arizona. 

Wheeler, W. F., U. S. Marshal. Skin of Rocky Mountain Goat from 
Montana Territory. 

Whitman, G. P. Beak of a Cuttle-fish from Rockport, Me. 

Williams, H. G. Stone arrows and ax from Fairfax Co., Va. 

Wilson, Dr. J. N. Copper quiver from near Newark, O. 

Wood, Dr. W. M. One box general collections. 

Woodworth, 0. H. Specimens of Horned Toad and insects from New 
Mexico. 

Wright, Chas. D. Brick from the wall of Pekin, China, (on deposit.) 

Wyman, Dr. Jeffries, Peabody Mus., Cambridge, Mass. Three boxes of 
European prehistoric relics. 

Yarroic, Dr. H. C. General collections from Ft. IMacon, N. C. 

Yates, Dr. L. G. Minerals and stone relics from California. 

Yongc, Wm. Penn. Specimen of Shad from Alabama Eiver. 

Zaremba, Dr. C. W. Fruit and leaves of Chilian Boldo-tree, [Pruniis 
fragrans.) 



62 



EXCHANGES. 



TABLE SHOWING THE STATISTICS OF THE 
EXCHANGES IN 1872. 



SMITHSONIAN 



Agent and country. 


IB 

CO 

? 

CI 

O 
1 


a3 

to 

a 

o 

a 

P 

o 

6 
12; 


IB 

a; 
X 

o 

O 


IB . 

Z.2 

■^ a 

1— 1 


CD 
O 
X 

'^ 3 
-I 


Eoyal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stock- 
hohu : 

Sweden 


27 


73 


4 












Royal University of Norway, Christiania : 
Norway . ....... .... 


22 


58 


3 












Royal Danish Society of Sciences, Copenha- 
gen : 

Denmark ... 


25 
2 


57 
2 








Iceland 


3 










Total 


27 


59 


3 












Watkins & Co., St. Petersburg : 

Russia 


89 


189 


6 










Frederic Miiller, Amsterdam : 

Holland 


56 

95 


125 
140 


4 
4 






Bel<''ium . ... .. . 












Total 


151 


265 


8 












Germauy . . . . . 


435 

56 

3 


626 

148 

3 


40 
4 
1 






Switzerland 






Greece ^ 












Total 


494 


777 


45 












Gustave Bossange, Paris : 

France 


1«7 


349 


8 












R. Istituto Lomb. di Scienze e Lettere, Milan: 
Italy 


131 


232 


5 












Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon : 


19 


19 


1 












Spain 


8 


8 


1 












William Wesley, London : 


299 

20 

4 


432 

22 

4 


27 

43 

3 






Asia 






Cape Town and Mauritius, Africa 










Total 


323 


458 


73 












Australia 


19 


20 


1 












Parliamentary Library, Wellington : 

New Zealand 


5 


5 


1 














42 


49 


20 















1,544 


2,561 


179 


954 


26, 850 





METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS OF SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



Instruments used : B, barometer ; T, thermometer ; P, psyclirometcr ; E, rain-gauge. 



Name. 



Alabama. 

Alison, H. L.,M.D 

Autlion J-, Dr. E. L 

Hudson^; Dr. H. S 

Hurley.D.P 

Peters, Thomas M 

Ttitwiler, Henry 

Wilson, W.W 

ARKANSAS. 

Bishop, Harmon 

Borden, J. E 

Greene, E 

Jacks, T. M., ji- 

Martin, Jos. P 

McLendou, I. G. P 

McClung, Charles L 

Eussell, O. P 

Wellborn, William T 

Whitticigton, Granville 

CALIFOKNIA. 

Abbott, Dr. E. K 

Ames, M. E. Pulsifer 

Asher, J. M 

Barnes, Dr. G. W 

Canfield, Dr. C. A 

Cheney, Dr. W. Fitch 

Compton, Dr. A.J 

Thornton, Dr 

United States Naval Hospital 

COLOKADO. 



Byers, William N 

Croft, Clayton I 

Lakes, Arthur 

Nettleton, E. S. and Copley E. 



CONNECTICUT. 

Alcott, Rev. William P. 

Andrews, Luman 

Barnes, Aug 

Johnston, Prof. .John. . . 

Rockwell, Charlotte 

Yeomans, William G. .. 



DAKOTA. 



Ambrose, Henry 

Baylis, A. R., and Black, D. S. 
Greene, H. C 



DELAWAKE. 



Bateman, J. H. 
Gilman, R. H.. 



Baldwin, Dr. A. S 
Barker, Edward . 



Carlowville . - . 
Hunt.svillo. ... 

Selma 

Troy 

Moiilton 

Havana 

Bluif Springs . 



Mineral Springs . 

Washington 

Clark.sville 

Helena 

Pocahontas 

Mineral Springs . 

Fayetteville 

Helena 

Forest City 

Mount Ida 



Salinas City... 
Indian Valley. 
National City. 

San Diego 

Monterey 

Chico ■ 

Watsonville .. 

Mendocino 

Mare Island . . 



Denver 

Fountain 

Golden City 

Colorado Si) rings. 



Round Hill . 
Southington 

do 

Middletowu . 
Colebrook . . . 
Columbia... 



Fargo 

Second Crossing 
Bon Homme 



Dover . . 
Milford . 



Jacksonville . 
Springfield... 



County. 



Dallas .... 
Madison . . 
Dallas .--- 

Pike 

Lawrence. 

Halo 

Clay 



Hempstead ... 

do 

Johnson 

Phillips 

Randolph 

Arkansas 

Washington . . 

Phillips'. 

Saint Francis . 
Montgomery.. 



Monterey.. 

Plumas 

San Diego. . 

do^... 

Monterey . . 

Butte 

Santa Cruz. 
Mendocino . 



Arapahoe . 
El Paso... 
Jc'lfcrso.'... 
El Paso. .. 



Fairfield . . 
Hartford. . 

do ... 

Middlesex 
Litchfield. 
Tolland . . . 



Pembina 

Cheyenne 

Bou Homme . 



Kent. 



.do 



Duval . - . 
Jackson . 



TR 

TR 
BTPR 

TR 
BTR 

TR 

R 



TR 
TR 
TPR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 



T 

TR 

T 

BTPR 

BTPR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

BTR 



TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 



BTR 

TR 
BTR 
BTPR 

TR 

TR 



BT 

BT 

None. 



TR 
TR 



BTPR 
TR 



64 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



Name. 



Florida — Contiuued. 

Beecher, Kev. Charles 

Betts, Truman S 

Ohambei lin, S. N 

Lowd, Edmund li 

Powell, Charles F 

Eobinson, General George D. . , 

Rollins, John F 

Sturtcvant, E. T 

Thralls, George E 

White, W.F 

GEORGIA. 

Barker, Ebenczer 

Colvard, A 

Cutter, John L 

Deckner, F., & Son 

Grant, Dr. W. T 

Hillyor.H.L 

Holiifield, Hor. N 

McClutchen, A. 11 

San ford, Professor Sheltun P. . 

Smith, Dr. F. M 

Stephenson, Dr. M. F 

ILLINOIS. 

Aldrich, Verry 

Blanchard, O. A 

Bowman, Dr. M. B 

Brendel, Fred 

Brookes, Samuel 

Chaso, Dr. D. H 

Cochrane, Joseph 

Dudley, Timothy 

Duncan , Kev. Alex 

Grant, John and Maggie 

Hamilton, Mrs. M 

Hearne, Frank I 

Horine, sr., W. II 

James, J. "W" 

Langguth, John G 

Livingston, Prcfesscr W 

Marcy, Professor Oliver 

Mead", S. B 

Moss, G. B 

Murray, Peter 

Osborri, Ethan 

Patterson, H. N 

Phelps, E. S. and Miss L. E. . . . 

Puffer, A. W 

Spaulding, Dr. A. and Mrs 

Spencer, AV^illiam C 

Whitaker, B 

INDIANA. 

Alden, Thomas E , 

Applegate, J. A., and daughter 

Boerucr. Charles G 

Chappe'lsmith John 

Clark, W. S 

Crosier, Adam 

DawsoD, William 

Deem, D 

Evans, Aaron 

Halleck, E. L 

Holmes, D. D., Kov. Thomas 

Howard, J. K 

Irwin, Albert C 

Robertson, R- S 

State University 

Sntton, George 

Williams, Dr. B. C 



Ashley, M. V 
Babcock, E . . 



Town. 



Newport 

Tallahassee . . 

Day tona 

New Smyrna. 

Bicalata 

Pilatka 

Fort George . 

Biscayne 

Welboru 

Tampa 



Saint Mary's. 

Cabaniss 

Quitman 

Atlanta 

Athens 

Saint Mary's. 
Sandersviile . 
La Fayette . . 

Penfleld 

Traders' Hill. 
Gainesville . . 



Tiskilwa , 

Elmira 

Andalusia 

Peoria 

Chicago 

Louisville 

Havana 

Warrensburgh. 
Mount Sterling 

Manchester. 

Jersey ville 

Quiticy 

AVcteiloo 

Marengo 

Chicago 

GalesDurgh 

Evanston 

Augusta 

Belvidere 

Manchester 

Hennepin 

Oquawka 

Wyanet 

Mattoon 

Aurora 

Dubois 

Warsaw 



Rising Sun 

Mouu"t Carmel . 

Vevay 

New Harmony. 
Beech Grove. .. 

Laconia 

Spiceland 

Knightstown . . 
Cannelton .... 
North Liberty . 

Merom 

Livonia 

Sweetser 

Fort Wayne ... 
Bloomington . . . 

Aurora 

Steam Corner. . 



Afton 

Boonsborough . 



County. 



Wakulla...., 

Leon 

Volusia 

..do 

Saint John... 

Putnam 

Duval 

Dade 

Suwanee 

Hillsborough . 



Camden 

Monroe 

Brooks 

Fulton 

Clarke 

Camden 

Washington 

Walker 

Greene 

Charlton 

Hall 



Bureau 

Stark 

Rock Island 

Peoria 

Cook 

Clay 

Mason , 

Macon 

Brown 

Scott 

Jersey 

Adams 

Monroe 

Mc Henry 

Cook 

Knox 

Cook 

Hancock 

Boone 

Scott , 

Putnam 

Henderson . . . 

Bureau 

Coles 

Kane 

Washington . 
Hancock 



Ohio 

Franklin 

Switzerland . . 

Posey 

Rush 

Harrison 

Henry 

Rush 

Peixy 

Saint Joseph. 

Sullivan 

Wa.shington . 

Grant 

Allen 

Monroe 

Dearborn 

Fountain 



Union . 
Boone . 



TR 

R 
TR 
TR 
PT 
TR 

T 

TR 
TR 
TR 



TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
T 



T 

TR 
BTR 

BTPR 
T 

TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTPR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTPR 

BTPli 

BTR 

TR 

TR 

■ TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTPR 
TR 
TR 



TR 

TR 

BTPR 

BTPR 

TR 

BTR 

BTR 

BTPR 

Bill 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

BTPR 

BTPR 

TR 



TR 
TR 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



65 



JTame. 



Iowa — Coutinned. 



Town. 



Bryant, A. F 

Cornell College 

Dicliir.son, James V 

Harris, E. A 

Ilorr, Ur. Asa 

•Tanes, J. E 

Kridelbaugli & Peterson 

Mirsliall, Gregory 

McBride, X. H...'^ 

McClintock, Frank 

McC ready, Dan'l and Miss Lucy 
Milli'r, Edwin and Mrs. li. . . 

Nelson, Daniel B 

Koss, F. A 

Russell, A. M. and M. M. ... 

Sheldon, I). S 

State Uuivcrsitj' 

Stern, Jacob F 

Talbot, Benjamin 

Townseud, .Satban 

Wadey, F 

Walton, J.P 

Wariie, Dr. George 

AVaneii James H 

Wluaton, Mrs. D. B 

Witter, D.E 



KAXS.\S. 



Beckwitb, W 

Cotton. Wm. 11. and Joh;i M. . . 

Easlc, E. F 

Fo^le, D 

Henry, AV. F 

Horn', Dr. U. B. and Miss 

Hoskinsiiu , Kile y M 

Hunt, A. M....! 

Hylaud. William 

Lamb, Mrs. W. M 

Neiswcnder, William X 

Raynolds, J. W. i\m\ Can-, Austin 

Eicliardson, A. G 

Shoemaker, J. G 

State Agricultural College 

State University 

Stayniau, Dr. J 

Walrad, L. D j 

Walters, Dr. James I 

Woodworth, Dv. Abner 



Fontanelle 

Mount Vernon 

Guttonberg 

Red Oak J unction . 

Dubuque 

Monticello 

Clarinda 

Cresco 

Hopkintou 

West Union 

Fort Madison 

Grant City 

Sac City .' 

Durancl 

Atalissa 

Davenport 

Iowa City 

Logan 

Council Blufls 

Iowa Falls 

Rockford 

Mu.scatine 

Independence 

Algona 

Independence 

Council Bluffs 



KENTUCKY. 



Beatty, 

Horr,'Edw. W 

Letton, Rev. J. E 

Martin, Dr. Samuel D. . 

Ogden, James M 

si) river, Howard 

Young, Mrs. Lavrreucc . 



Olatha 

Rural 

Buffalo Creek . . 
Williamsbnrgh 
Independence . . 
Atchison ..... 

Burlingamo 

Hutcbinson 

Baxter Springs 

Douglass 

Topeka 

Belleville 

Plum Grove . . . 

Le Roy , 

Manliattan .... 

Lawrence 

Leavenworth . . . 

Paoli 

Holton 

Council Grove . . 



LOUISIAX.\. 



Danville 

Blandville 

Harrodsburgli 
Cbilesburgh . . 
AVinchester. . . 
Arcadia . . . . 
Spriugdale 



Cleland, Rev. T. H Delhi 

Collins, H. C I Ponchatonla . . . 

Foster, Robert W j Xew Orleans. . . 

Leoni, George N I New Iberia 

Moore, Dr. Jos. L I Shreveport . . . . 

Stathem, Lsaac New Orleans . . . 

Turner, Ernest Point Pleasant . 



Clifford, J. Ft. and A. 

Colson, J. A 

Fernald, M. C 

Gardiner. R. H . . . . . 

Guptill, G. W 

Haskell, W 



Montville . 
Bucksport 

Orono 

Gardiner. ., 
Cornish ... 
Bucksport 



County. 



Adair 

Linn 

Clayton 

Montgomery. . . 

Dubuque 

Jones 

Page 

Howard 

Delaware 

Fayette 

Leo 

Sac 

do 

Cedar 

Muscatine 

Scott 

Johnson 

Harrison 

Pottawattamie . 

Hardin 

Floyd 

Muscatine 

Buchanan 

Kossuth 

Buchanan 

Pottawattamie . 



Johnson 

Jcfi'erson 

Woodson 

Fianklin 

Montgomei'y . 
Atchison . . . . 

Osage 

Reno 

Cherokee . . . . 

Butler 

Shawnee 

Renublic 

Butler 

Cotfey 

Riley 

Douglass 

Leavenworth. 

Miami 

Jackson 

Morris 



Boyle . . . 
Ballard . . 
Mercer . . 
Clark . . . . 

do . 

Lincoln . . 
Jefferson 



Richland 

Tangipahoa . 

Orleans 

Iberia 

Caddo 

Orleans 

Tensas 



Waldo 

Hancock . . . 
Penob.scot . 
Keunebeck 

York 

Hancock... 



TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTPR 
TR 
TR 

BTR 
TR 

BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTPR 

BTPR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTR 

BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 



TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
BTPR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 



BTR 

TR 

TR 

BTR 

T 
BTPR 
BTPR 



R 
BTR 
BTR 
TR 
BTPR 
BTPR 
BTPR 



TR 
BTPR 
BTPR 
BTPR 

TR 
BTPR 



O S 



QQ 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



Town. 



County. 



Maine — Continued. 

Moore, A. P 

Moulton. John P 

Ohler.W.H 

Parker, J. D 

Pinkham, M. S 

Pitman, Edwin 

Reynolds, Dr. H 

Smitli, H.D 

Tripp, Kev. L. S 

West, Silas 

WiIbur,B.F 

MARYLAND. 

Curtiss, G. G 

Devilbiss, F. J 

Ellicott, James P 

Goodman, William R 

Hanshew, John Is. — . . 

Jourdan, Professor C. H 

Kiuscll, E.G 

McCoruiick, J^ames O 

Naval Hospital 

Skepperd, H. M 

Skriver, E. T 

Valonte, A. X 

Vanuort, Dr. E. A 

MASSACHUSETT.S. 

Bacon, William 

Caldwell Jolm H 

Cunningham, George A , 

Dewhurst, Rev. E 

Fallon, John 

Frost, Beniamin D 

Hart, George S 

Hopkins, Professor Albert 

Lunatic Hospital 

Metcalf, Dr. .lohu George 

Nason, Rev. Ellas 

Nelson, S. A. and H. M 

Newcomb, G. S 

Perry, Rev. John B. and Mrs 

Sophia H 

Rodman, Samuel 

Slade, Elisha 

Sucll, Professor E. S 

Teele, Rev. Albert K 

Tucker, Ed ward T 

MICHIGAN. 

Bullard, Ransom 

Ellis, Dr. Edwin 

Higgins, F. W 

Holmes, E. S., D. D 

Kedzie, Professor R. C 

Lathrop, O. C 

GUvot College 

Paxton, John W 

Smith, Rev. George N 

Streng, L H 

Whelpiey. Florence and Thos. 

Wilson, William 

Winchell, Professor and Mrs- 

MINNESOTA. 

Cheney, William 

Paterson, Rev. A. B 

Pendeigrast, Solomon 

Pyle, Dr. D 

Roe, A . L 

Roos, Charlea 

Wadsworth, H. L 

Wicland, C 

Winters, J. K. P 



Lisbon 

Standish 

Portland 

Mount Desert ... 

Mill bridge 

Sebec .. X 

East Wilton 

Norway 

Surry ." 

Cornish 

West Waterville. 



Fallston 

Sam's Creek 

Saint Inigoes 

Annapolis 

Frederick 

Emmittsburgli 

Green Spring Furnace . 

Woodlawn 

Aniia])olis 

Ellicott City 

Cumberland 

Woodstock College . . . . 
Mount Airy 



Richmond 

Newljury 

Lunenburgh ... 

Hinsdale 

Lawrence 

Hoosac Tunnel 
New Bedford . . 
Williamstown . 

Worcester 

Mendon 

North Billerica 

Georgetown 

Kingston , 



Cambridge 

New Bedford 

Somerset 

Amherst 

Milton 

New Bedford . 



Litchfield 

Ontonagon 

Detroit 

Grand Rapids. 

Lansing 

South Haven. . 

Olivet 

Alpena 

Northport 

Grand Rapids . 

Monroe 

Happy Valley 
Ann Arbor . . . 



Minneapolis 

Saint Paul 

Bonuiwell's Mills . 

Audubon ... 

Afton 

New Ulm 

Litchlield 

Beaver Bay 

Beaver . ..". 



Androscoggii 
Cumberlaud 

do 

Washington 

do 

Piscataquis . 

Franklin 

O.xford 

Hancock 

York 

Kennebec . 



Harford 

Carroll 

Saint Mary's. ., 
Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

do 

Washington . . . 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel . 

Howaid 

Alleghany 

Baltimore 

Kent 



Berkshire . 

Essex 

Worcester 
Berkshire. 
Essex 



Bristol 

Berkshire . . 
Worcester . 

, do .... 

Middlesex . 

Essex 

Plymouth . 

Middlesex . 

Bristol 

do .... 

Hampshire . 
Norfolk.... 
Bristol 



Hilhsdale.... 
Ontonagon .. 

Wayne 

Kent 

Ingham 

Van Buren . . 

Eaton 

Alpena 

Lcelenaw . .. 

Kent 

Monroe 

Benzie 

Washtenaw. 



Hennepin. ... 

Ramsey 

McLeod 

Becker 

Washington . 

Brawn 

Meeker 

Lake 

Winona 



TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
BTR 
TR 



TR 

TR 

TR 

BTPR 

BTR 

BTPR 

TR 
BTR 
BTR 
BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 



TR 

TR 

BTR 

BTR 

BTPR 

BTR 

TR 

BTR 

BTPR 

BTR 

BTR 

TR 

TR 

T 
BTPR 

TR 

BTPR 

TR 

TR 



BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTPR 
TR 

BTPR 
BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTPR 



BTPR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
BTR 
BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



67 



Name. 



County. 



Minnesota — Continued. 

"Woodbury, C. W. and C. E . . 
Young, Tb. M. and ilary H. 



MISSISSIPPI. 



Coleman, Thomas B 

Fithio, James S 

Florer, Dr. Thomas W . 

Jennings, Dr. S. H 

Kecnaii, Mrs. W. E. A . 

Payne. John S 

Tairant, John F 



MlirSOURI. 



Bond, P.J 

Bullard, Rev. Henry... 

Carlton, A. V 

Do Wyl, Nicolas 

Goodwin, Spencer L 

Harris, "Wyatt 

Kauclicr, "\Viiliam 

Kriblicu, Bertram D... 

Martin Horace 

McCord, B. n 

Buggies, Homer 

Salisbury, S. W 

Smith, John M 

Saint Louis Universitj'. 
"Weston, Arthur H 



MONTANA. 

Koch, Peter 

Minesiiigcr, J. M 

Stuart, (jranville . . . 



NEBUASKA. 

Caldwell, Mrs. Eveline E 

Dunn, AVilliam 

Hamilton, Eev. "William . 

Kelloixsr, Edward , 

Seltz.'Charles 

Smith, Lewis H , 

Truman, George S 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Brewster, Alfred 

Brown, Branch 

Colby, Alfred 

Couch, E.D 

Hurliu, Rev. "William 

Kidder. L. D 

Masoii, E. S 

OdcU, Eletcher 



NEW .TEKSEV. 



Beans, Tlumias J 

Brooks, William 

Chandler, Dr. "William J .. 

Cook, E. Rezeau 

Fleming, John 

Green, JL A 

Howard, Thomas T., jr 

Ingram, Dr. John 

Koll, Arthur B 

Palmer, Mrs.J. B 

Perry, U. C 

Shepi)ard, R. C, aud si.ster. 

Stnckwell, Dr. "W. H 

"Whitehead, W. A 



NEW YORK. 

Adriance, Charles E. . . 

Arden, Tliomas B 

Arnold, C. P 



Sibley . 
Koniska 



Holly Springs . 

"Wasson 

Mario"! 

Baldwin 

Brook haven ... 

Grenada 

Columbus 



Nevada 

Saint Joseph. . . 

"Wet Glaze 

Jett'erson City . 

Richland 

Mount Vernon. 

Oregon 

Saint Louis 

Corning 

Wiilard 

Rolla 

Kansas City . . . 

Hematite 

Saint Louis . . . . 
Gallatin 



Bozeman 

Missoula 

Deer Lodge City. 



Bellevue . 

Emerson 

Omaha Agency 

Red Cloud 

DeSoto , 

New Castle 

Santee Agency., 



Tarn worth 

Stratford 

Amoskeag 

Sp.lisbury 

South Antrim 

"Whitlield 

Gorham 

do 



Morristown 

Paterson 

South Orange 

Trenton 

Mount Airy 

Atco 

Jersey City 

Vineland 

New Gerniantown 

Rio Giande 

Allowaystown 

Greenwich 

Orange 

Newark 



Hector 

Garrison's 
Angelica. . 



Sibley . . 
McLeod 



Marshall . . . 

Copiah 

Lauderdale 

Lee 

Lawrence. . 
Yalabusha. 
Lowndes 



Vernon 

Buchanan . . 

Camden 

Colo 

Pulaski 

Lawrence. .. 

Holt 

Saint Louis . 

Holt 

Greene 

Phelps 

Jackson 

Jefferson . . . 
Saint Louis . 
Daviess 



Gallatin 

Mis.soula 

Deer Lodge. 



Sarpy 

Otoo 

Burt 

"Webster 

"Washington 

Dixon 

L'.Eau qui Court . 



Carroll 

Coos 

Hillsborough 
Merrimack . . , 
Hillsborough 

Coos 

do 

do 



Burlington.. 

Passaic 

Essex 

Mercer 

Hunterdon . . 

Camden 

Hudson , 

Cumberland 
Hunterdon .. 
Cape May . . 

Salem 

Cumberland 

Essex 

do 



Schuyler. 
Putnam.. 
Allegany 



TR 
TR 



TE 
BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
BTPR 



TR 

TR 

TR 

BT 

TR 

BTR 

BTPR 

BTPR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

BTR 

TR 

BTPR 

E 



TR 

TR 

BTR 



TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 



TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
R 
TR 
BT 
TR 



TR 

TR 

TR 

BTR 

TE 

TR 

BTPE 

BTPR 

BTR 

TR 

TR 

BTPR 

TE 

BTR 



None. 
TR 
TR 



68 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



County. 



r!s'E\v York— Continued. 



Eater, Gilbert D 

Barrows. Captain Storrs 

Bartlett, Ei astu.s B- 

Bussing, John \Y. and D. S. . . . 

Clark, B. Wbeaton 

Edwards, Daniel 

Godfrey, 11. F 

Haas. Henrv 

Haclienberu, Br. G. P 

Hiudricks,!). i; 

Heimstrect. Jobu ^y 

Howell, Eobert 

Hungerford's Collegiate Insti- 
tute. 

Hunt, J. M 

lugalsbe, Grenville M 

Irish, Eev. William 

Ives, William 

Johnson, Eev. Samuel 

Keese, G. Pomeroy 

Lee, Leslie A 

Love, Samuel G 

Mack,EliT 

ilaillor, P - 

ilalcolm. William Scbuyler . . . 

Merritt, .Tolin C ' 

lIorri8,Miss E 

Morris, Prof. 0. W 

Partrick, -LM 

Eoe, Sanfoid AY 

Eusscll, ("yrns H 

Sawyer, G. F 

Smith, E. A., and daughters 

Soule, Prof. William 

Spooner, Dr. Stillman 

Trowbiidgc, David 

I'nited States Kaval Hospital. 

Water Works 

Willis, O. It., and daughters . . . 

Wooster, Charles A 

Yale, Wnlter D 

Young, J. M 



Milo 

South Trenton. 

Palermo 

Miuaville 

Loekport 

Little Genesee . 

Cailtou 

Deijauville 

Eochester 

JTear Kingston. 



Troy.... 

Xichols . 
Adams . 



Xorth Ai'gvle . 

South Hartford . . 

Lowville , 

Buffalo •.... 

Gioton 

Cooperstowu 

Canton 

Jamestown . . . ^ . . 

Elatbush 

Brooklyn 

Oswego 

Earmingdale 

Throf'.s Neck.... 

New York 

North Yolney 

Middleburgh 

Gouvernour 

Fairfield 

Moriches 

Cazenovia 

Oneida 

Waterburgh 

New York 

Brooklvn 

White 'Plains 

North Hammond 

Hcusevillo 

West Day 



KOliTH CAROLIXA. 



Adams, Prof. E. W ... 
Allison, Thomas H... 

Aston, Edw. J 

Austin, Eobert H 

Beal, William . .. 

Beall,Dr.E.L 

Clark, T. A 

Davies, Mr.s. D. D . . . . 

Gilmer, Eobert S 

Hardy, Dr. J. F. E 

Hicks, Dr. William 11. 
Hines, Eichard N . . . . 

Howard, S. A 

Kitchen, A. E 

Kron, F.J... 

Lawrence, G. W 

Morelle, Eev. Daniel . 

Murdoch, W. H 

Pemberton, S. J 

Eumley, Jamer; 

Siler, Albert 



OHIO. . 

Baldwin TTuiver.-^ity. 

Bareis, August 

Barringer. W 

Bingmau, T. J 

Bowman, Peter 

Burras, O 

Clarke, John 

Crane, George W 

Ferris, E. J. 



Goldsborough. .. 
Statesville ... . 

Asheville 

Tarborough 

Mmph J- 

Lenoir 

Weldon 

Wob.ster 

Mount Airy 

Asheville .'. 

Oxford... 

Edentou . 

Greensl;orough 

New Garden 

Albemarle 

Fayetteville 

Wilmington 

Anandale 

Albemarle 

Beaufort 

Franklin 



Berea 

Groveport 

Bellefontaine . . . 

Pennsville 

Savannah 

North Fairfield 
Bowling Green. 

Bethel 

Painesville 



Yates 

Oneida 

Oswego 

Montgomery. 

Niagara 

Allegany 

Orleans 

JeflTerson 

Monroe 

Ulster 

Eenu.selaer . . 

Tioga 

Jefierson 



Washington 

do 

Lewis 

Erie 

Tompkins 

Otsego 

Saint Lawrence . 

Chautauqua 

Kings 

do 

Oswego 

Queens 

Westchester 

New York 

Oswego 

Schoharie 

Saint Lawrence. 

Herkimer 

Sufiblk 

Madi.sou 

do 

Tompkins 

New York 

Kings 

Westchester . . . 
Saint Lawrence. 

Lewis 

Saratoga 



Wayne 

IredeU 

Buncombe 

Edgecombe . . . 

Cherokee 

Caldwell 

Halifax 

Jackson 

Surry 

Buncombe .... 

Granville 

Chowan 

Guilford 

do 

Stanly 

Cumberland . . 
New Hanover 

Wake , 

Stanly 

Carteret 

Macon 



Cuyahoga 
Franklin. . 

Logan 

Morgan . . . 
Ashland . . 

Huron 

Wood 

Clermont . 
Lake 



TE 

TE 

TE 

TE 

TE 

TE 

TE 

TE 
BTPE 

TE 

BTPE 

T 

BTE 

BTE 

TE 

BTPE 

BTE 

TE 

TE 

TE 

BTPE 

BTE 

BTPE 

BTE 

None. 

T 

BTPE 

TE 

TE 

BTE 

BTPE 

TE 

BT 

TE 

TE 

BTE 

BTPE 

T 

BTE 

TE 

TE 



TE 
TE 
TE 
TE 
TE 
TR 
TE 
TE 
TE 
BTE 
TE 
TR 
TE 
liT 
TE 
TE 
BT 
TE 
T 

TE 
TE 



BTR 
TR 
TE 
TE 
TE 
TR 
TR 
. TR 
. BTPE 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



C>[) 



Xaiue. 



Ohio— Contiuued. 



Hammitt. John W 

Haiper, George "W" 

Heirick, L 

Hyde, Mr. and Mrs 

Mar^li, Mrs. M. M 

Matthews, Joseph McD 

McFarhind, Prof. 11. W 

Morton, Dr. George Tl 

Mouut Auburn Young Ladies' 
Institute. 

Midler, Dr. E 

Keill, Thomas 

Otterbem University 

Ousley, Dr. J. B . . .' 

Phillips, 11. 

Pollock, Kev. J. E 

Kodgers, /Alexander P 

Shaw W. S 

Shields, J. H 

Shrevo, Martha B 

Smith. Dr. Charles H 

Smith. Charles J 

Stubbs, Jes.se 

Thompson. Rev. David 

True. Dr. H. A 

TTrbaua Univeisity 

West ein Reserve College , 

"Wilkinson, John R 



OREGON. 



Coe, Charles C 
Oxer. Hepry A.. 
Pearce, Thomas. 
Wil.son, Louis . . 



PJSNNSYLVANIA. 



Albree, George 

Bell, Joseph 

Bentley, E. T 

Black. Samuel A 

Burkhalter, John 

Cooke, Dr. AVilliani H 

Corson, Samuel M 

Cumminus, I 

Curtis, A^. W 

Darlingtoo, Feneloa 

Day, Theodore 

Eeicht, Dr. B 

Fenlon, Eiisha 

Grathwohl, John 

Haines, N. S 

Hamilton, A.J 

Hanco, Ebenezer 

Haworth, John 

HotVer, J. R 

Hubbs. Dr. J. Allen 

James, Professor C. S 

Jeft'eris, W. A 

Kirkpatrick, James A 

Kohler, Edward 

Lefever, Jacob 

Madlen', W. F 

Marsdcn, Dr. J. H 

Marl in. Dr. George 

McCounell.E. M 

Meehan, Tho uas 

Packarc,D. P 

Raser, John Heyl 

Sisson, Rodman 

Smith, Rev. William, D.D 

Spencc'-. !Mis8 Anna 

Spera, W. H 

Stockei-, .las. D. and Jerome T. 

Stump, J. M. L 

Taylor, John 

Taylor, Rev. R. T 



Town. 



College Hill 

Cincinnati 

Oberlln 

Cleveland 

Carson 

Hillsborough 

Oxford 

North Bass Island 
Mouut Aubuva . . . 



Carthagena 

Sandusky 

Westerv'ille 

Jackson boi'ough . 

Cincinnati 

Salem 

Gallipolis 

Savannah 

Cincinnati 

Martin's Ferry. .. 

Kenton 

Hudson 

\VestElkton 

I'irraingham 

ilarion 

Urli.'ina 

Hudson 

Wiliiamsport — 



Hood River . 
Portland ... 

Eola 

Astoria 



Pittsburgh 

Franklin 

Tioga 

HaiTisburgh 

Meadville 

Carlisle 

Plymouth Meeting 

Tarentum 

Catawissa 

Parkerville 

Dvbeiry 

AUegheny City .....' 

Grampian Hills 

iSfyces 

Ringtown 

Exper. Farm 

F^alisingtou 

Hazleton 

Mount Jov 

IJrownsville 

Lewi.slinrgh 

Wrsl Chester 

Pi-iladelphia 

Euypt 

i\I(>uut iiock 

Ephrat.ih 

York S'llohur Springs . . . 

West Chester 

Kew Castl 

Germautov.-n 

Greenville 

Reading 

Factory villa 

Cannonsliurgh 

Horsham 

Enhratah 

Salem 

Greeusburnh 

Connellsville 

Beaver 



County. 



TR 
BTPR 

TR 
BTR 
BTPR 
BTPR 

BTR 

TR 
BTPR 

BTPR 

BTPR 

BTPR 

TR 

BTR 

TR 

TR 

Ashland ' BTR 



Hamilton 

do 

I^orainc 

Ciiyaiioga 

Huron 

Hiu-hland 

Butler 

Ottawa 

Hamilton 



Mercer 

Erie 

Franklin... 

Butler 

Hamilton . .. 
Columbiana. 
Gallia. 



Hamilton 
Belmont . .. 

Harding 

.Suuiinit 

Preble 

Guernsey . . 

Marion .' 

Champaign 

Summit 

Pickaway. . 



"Wasco 

Multnomah . 

Polk 

Clatsop 



TR 
T 

TR 
BTR 
BTR 

TR 

TR 
BTR 
BTR 

TR 



TR 
BTPR 

TR 
BTPR 



Allegheny 1 TR 

Yenanao'. | TR 

Tioga.*: I TR 

Dauphin ! BTPR 

Crawford I T 

Cum'^erland ' BTPR 



BTR 
T 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 

BTR 
TR 
Lancaster I BTR 



Montgomery . 
Allegheny . . . 

Columbi?v 

Chester 

Wnyne 

AUcLihenv .-. 
Clearlieki . . . . 

Pike 

Schuylkill ... 

Indiana 

Bucks 

Luzerne 



Fayette 

Union 

Clies-er 

PhilaiJelphia . .. 

Lehigh 

Cumberland ... 

Lancaster 

Adams 

Chester 

Lawrence 

Philadelphia... 

Mercer 

Berks 

AVyomiug 

"\Vashingt(m ... 
Montgomery ... 

Lancaster 

"Wayne 

"U'estmoreland . 

Fayette 

Beaver 



TR 
BTPR 

TR 
BTPR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 
BTPR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 
BTR 

BTR 

BTR 

TR 

TR 

TR 
T 



70 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



Name. 



Pexksvlvaxia — Continued. 



Tolman, Ecv. M. A Franklin. 

United States Naval Hospital. . Pbiladelpbia . 

Walker, S. C Foaataiu Dale 

Weaver, W. D GreensbiuKli. - 



linODE ISLAND. 

Barber, W. A 

SOUTH CAKOLIXA. 



Busby, D. Benjamin . . . 
Cornish, Ilev. Jolni H . 

Gibbon, Lai'dnor 

Pearsall, E. D 

Petty, Charles 



TENNESSEE. 



Amsdeu,E.W 

Bancroft, Kev. C. F. P 

Bluhui,P.C 

Calhoun, P. B 

Doab, W. S. and S. S 

Franklin. Dr. W. E 

Grig.sby, William T 

Jennings, Dr. S. K 

Kennedy, Dr. Thomas J 

Lewis, Miss Blanche 

Lewis, Charles H 

Payne, Professor J. K 

Stewart, Professor William. 

SVaterbnry, Kc^v. C 

Wrisht, T. P 



Newport . 



Pomaria 

Aiken 

Hacienda Saluda. 

Grahamsville 

Gowdys^ illo 



TEXAS. 



Anderson. Rev. John ; Clarksville 



Connell, Miss Jane 
Davis S. and Mrs. Rush. 

Fietsam , James 

Glasco, J. M 

Martin, Allen 

Melchert, William 

Pettersen, Fred 

Runjje, C 



Houston 

Greenville . .. 

Bluft" 

Gilmer 

Clarkville . . . 

Boernc 

San Antonio . 
Kew Ulm ... 



Scott, T.M : Highland. 



Simpson, F 

Van Nostrand, J. 

Wade, F. S 

White. Dr. A. C . . 
WoodruU', L 



Bullock, Thomas 
Hanison, E. L. T 
Lewis, James 



Oakland 
Austin . . . 
McDade . 
Clinton . . 
Loekhart 



Salt Lake City. 

do . 

Harrisburgh . . . 



VERMONT. 

Barto, D. C. and M. E , 

Cassino, Ed.son S 

Cutting, Dr. H. A 

Kennedy, James C 

Normal School 

Paine, Charles S 

Phelps, Samiiel B 

Wild, Rev. E.P 

Wing, Minerva E 

Woodstock Academy , 



VIRGINIA. 



Bowman. George A 

Brown, Rev. .Fames A 

Chamberliu, Mrs. S. E 

Clarke, Dr. and Miss Belle 



Panton 

Lunenburgh 

do 

South Troy 

Castlston ! 

East Bethel 

Norwich 

North Craftsbury. 
Wr.st Charlotte... 
Woodstock 



Vienna 

Wytbevillo . . 
Water ford . . . 
Mount Solon . 



County. 



Venango 

PhUadelphia. . . 

Adams 

Westmoreland . 



Jackson Madison 

Lookout Mountain Hamilton 

Smithville DoKalb 

Au.stin Wilson 

Greenville Greene 

Lagrange Fayette 

Trenton Gibson 

Bethel Springs MoNairy 

Cast-'.lian Spiings Sumner 

McMiuDville Warren 

Elizabothtown Carter 

Knoxville , Knox 

Clarksville. j.Montgomery. 

Rotherwood Hawkins 

Clearmont Warren 



Newpoi't . 



Newberry . 
Barnwell . . 
Greenville . 
Beaufort ... 
Union 



Red River 

Harris 

Hunt 

Fayette 

Upshur . . . 
Red River . 
Kendall.... 

Bexar 

Austin 

Collin 

Colorado... 

Travis 

Burleson... 
De Witt... 
CaldweU... 



Salt Lake County. 

, do 

Washington 



Addison . . . 

Essex 

do.... 

Orleans 

Rutland 

Windsor . . . 

, do .... 

Orleans 

Chittenden 
Windsor . . . 



Fairfax . . 
Wythe... 
Loudon . . 
Augusta . 



TR 
BTR 
PTll 
BTPR 



TR 
BTR 
TR 
TR 
TR 



TR 
BTR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 
BTPR 
BTPR 

TR 

TR 



TR 

T 

TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
BTPR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TR 
TPR 

R 



TR 
TR 
R 



TR 
BTPR 

BTR 

TR 
BTPR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 

TR 



TR 
BTR 
TR 
TR 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



71 



Name. 



ViuGiNLV — Continued. 

Covell, J.C 

Gilliiigluam, Chalkley 

Horn. Captain D. B 

Martin, Vrillifini A 

ilerri wi'tbcr, Charles I 

Moore, C.K 

Payne, I) 

Shriver, Howard 

Sliunian, .Tames M 

Ta yloe, iMlward T 

Towii.send, Emma C 

United Slates Hospital 

Vincent, G. C 

Williams, Franklin 

Williams, H.C 

WASHINGTON. 

McCall, Ch.arles 

Sampson, Alexander M 

Wliitcomb, Thomas M 

WEST VIKGIXIA. 

Roffe, Charles L 

Stevens, Professor S. G 

WISCONSIN. 

Beloit College 

Benton, Elliott H 

Breed, J. Everett 

Curtis, W.W 

DeLyser, John 

DniiLjan, John L 

Lapham, I. A., LL. D 

Lnps, Jacob and Miss Clarina 

Maguirc, Felix 

Mead, H. C 

Pinney. Mrs. C. C 

Shints. Henry J 

State University 

Tate, Andrew 

Waite, M. C 

Whiting, W. H 

WYOMING. 

Lewis, George H 



Town. 



Staunton 

Woodlawn 

Cedar Hill 

Mech.anicsville 

Lyncbburgh 

Johnson Town 

Markbam Station. 

Wytheville 

Hamilton 

Comorn 

Capevillo 

Norfolk 

Richmond 

Near Piedmont . . . 
Near Vienna 



Cathlamet . . 
Port Angclos 
Union Eidgo . 



Ashland 

Morgantown . 



Beloit 

Lo Iioy 

Embarrass 

Kocky Bun . . . 

Uingham 

Now Lisbon . . 
Milwaulvce . . . 
Manitowoc . . . 

Mosineo 

Waupaca 

Sturgeon Bay . 

Edgeiton 

Madison 

Bay li eld 

Barnboo 

Geneva 



County. 



Augusta 

Fairfax 

Altemarle 

Fauquier 

Bedlord 

Xoithampton 

Fauquier 

Wythe 

Elizabeth 

King George.. 
Northampton . 

Norfolk 

Henrico 

Fauquier 

Fairfax 



Waukiakum , 

Clallam 

Clark 



Cabell 

Monongalia . 



Atlantic . 



Rock 

Dodge 

Waupaca . . 
Columbia . . 
Sheboygan . 
Juneau . . . 
Milwaukee. 
Manitowoc 
Maratlion . . 
Wauijaca . . 

Door 

Rock 

Dane 

Bayfield . . . 

Sauk 

Walworth . 



Sweet Water 



BTPR 


1868 


BTR 


1870 


TR 


1871 


TR 


1869 


TR 


1868 


BTR 


1868 


TR 


1871 


BTPR 


187-2 


TR 


1869 


TR 


1849 


TR 


1871 


BTR 


1868 


TR 


1872 


TR 


1869 


TR 


1869 


TR 


1870 


TR 


1869 


TR 


1871 


TR 


1865 


BTR 


1872 


BTR 


1871 


TR 


1872 


TR 


1864 


TR 


IS.™ 


TR 


1868 


T 


1867 


BTPR 


1849 


BTR 


18.57 


TR 


1870 


T 


1863 


TR 


1870 


TR 


1867 


BTPR 


1869 


TR 


1867 


TR 


1864 


TR 


1863 



a ^ 



72 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 



State. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut... 

Dakota 

Delaware 

Plorida 

Georg a 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Mas.sachiisetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi . . . 
Missouri 






State. 



Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampsliire . 

New J(;r.s('y 

N<'W York 

North Carolina.. . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsvlvaiiia 

i;h(«le' Island .... 
South Caridina... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington Ter 
"West Virginia . . . 

Wisconsin , 

Wyoming 



Total 530 14t! 



li 



-3 g; 
£■=1 
3 o 



5-.24 I 79 



:5 

7 

7 
14 
38 
18 
3.5 

3 
41 

1 

5 
15 
14 

3 
10 
19 

3 

14 




Besides the observers making mouthly reports upon Smithsonian 
blank forms, the institution receives regular returns from — 

The Chief Signal Officer^ United States Army, daily records, including 
weather maps. 

From the Central Parle ohservatory^ New York, weekly. 

From Chas. G. Fwing, San Francisco, newspaper slips from the Alta 
California, containing meteorological observations, monthly. 

Some of the observers famish, in addition to their reports, more 
detailed descriptions of various meteorological phenomena. 

Milller, Dr. B., Theological Seminary, Carthageua, Ohio, monthly. 

WilUams, Rev. R. G., Castleton, Vermont, hourly meteorological ob- 
servations, observations on magnetic variations, &c. 

Wing, Miss 31. E., West Charlotte, Vermont, manuscript notes on the 
winds and the weather in general, record of periodical phenomena, &c. 

Printed summaries or abstracts from newspapers or agricultural pub- 
lications are mentioned in the list of additional meteorological mate- 
rial. 

british america. 

Nova Scotia: 
Acadia CoiZe^e, Wolfville, King's Province, BTR; D. F. Higgins, the 
present observer. The college has sent observations since 1854. 

New Brunswick: 
Murdoclc, Gilbert, St. John, BTPii ; since 1850. 

Canada : 
Stewart, James, Province Manitoba, Selkirk County, BTPKj since 
18G9. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVERS. 73 

Newfoundland : 
Dclancy, John, Saint John's, BTR, 1871. 

Cli/t, Henry A., Harbor Grace, remarks on anrora, &c., in MS., 1872. 
Mnnn, Archibald, Harbor Grace, Tli ; 1872. 

Quebec : 

Gilmour, Arthtir II. I., Staubridge, Missisqnoi Conuty, Til; since 18G8. 

Ontario : 

Wylie, Wm., Mount Forest, Wellington, and Grey Counties, BTPE. 
Eeports of Mount Forest Grammar School, weekly, 1872. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



The Executive Committee of the Board of Eegeuts respectfully' sub- 
mit the followiug report in relation to the funds of the Institution, the 
receipts and expenditures for the year 1872, and the estimates for the 
year 1873 : 

STATEMENT OF THE FUND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE YEAR 1873. 

Amount originally received as the bequest of James Smith- 
son, of England, deposited in the Treasury of the United 
States, in accordance with the act of Congress of August 
10, 1S4G $515, 109 00 

Eesiduary legacy of Smithsou, receive<l in 1865, depos- 
ited in the Treasury of the United States, in accordance 
with the act of Congress of February 8, 1867 26, 210 63 

Total bequest of Smithson 511, 379 63 

Amount deposited in the Treasury of the United States as 
authorized by act of Congress of February 8, 1867, 
derived from savings of income and increase in value of 
investments 108, 620 37 



Total permanent Smithson fund in the Treasury of the 
United States, bearing interest at 6 per cent., payable 
semi-annually in gold 650, 000 00 

In addition to the above there remains of the extra fund 
from savings, &c., in Virginia bonds, at par value, 
$88,125.20, now valued at 37, 000 00 

Cash balance in First National Bank, 1st January, 1873.. 17,811 36 

Total Smithson funds 1st January, 1873 704, 811 36 

The Virginia stock has risen in value during the past year, and as 
the prospect is that the legislature of the State will make provision for 
the regular payment of the interest, the probability is that this stock 
will continue to rise. 

During the past year, the Institution has received from its agents, 
Messrs. Biggs & Co., on account of back interest on Virginia bonds, 
after deducting expenses, $3,001.90, in regard to which a detailed account 
is given in a communication of the Secretary to the Board at its meet- 
ing of Januarv 16th. 



REPORT OP THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 75 

The balance at the beginning of the year, $17,811.30, as given in the 
foregoing statement as a part of the Smithson fund, has not been invested 
because it is required to pay bills as they become due, previous to receiv- 
ing the semiannual income at the end of June, 1873, or, in other words, 
to support the Institution during the accumulation of the first half 
year's semi-annual interest. 

STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS FROM THE SMITHSON FUND FOR 1872. 

Interest on $050,000, at per cent, in gold $39, 000 00 

Premium on gold June and December, (13f and llg)--- - 4,911 55 
Interest on Virginia stock, less commissions 3, 004 90 



Total receipts 40, 910 45 

Total expenditures from the Smithson income during 1872, 

as shown by the detailed statement given below .... 45, 420 11 



Balance u!jexpended 1, 490 34 

The above balance is added to the uninvested savings from previous 
years, viz, $10,315.02, making the $17,811.30 found in the preceding 
general statement of the condition of the funds. 

EXPENDITURES FROM THE SMTIHSON FUND FOR 1872. 

Building. 

Reconstruction and repairs $0, 072 35 

Furniture and fixtures 1, 025 87 



General expenses. 

Meetings of the board 

Lighting the building, exclusive of Museum . 
Heating the building, exclusive of Museum. 

Postage, exclusive of Museum :..... 

Stationery, exclusive of Museum 

Incidentals, exclusive of Museum 

Salaries, clerk-hire, and labor 11, 153 83 

Puhlicatlons and researches. 

Smithsonian Contributions, quarto $0, 394 17 

Miscellaneous Collections, octavo 1, 001 99 

Annual reports, octavo 527 50 

Meteorology 2, 550 00 

Apparatus 045 00 

Laboratory 109 87 

Lectures 000 00 





$155 50 




217 


07 




754 


00 




320 


73 




541 


02 




525 


02 


11 


,153 


83 



$8, 298 22 



13, 008 97 



12,548 53 



76 REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Exchanges. 

Literary and scientific exchanges through agencies in 

Loudon, Paris, Leipsic, Amsterdam, Stockholm, &c..- |a, 870 32 

MuHenm. 

Salaries, preservation of collections, »S:c., paid from the 
Smithsonian income in addition to the sums drawn from 
the appropriations by Congress 5, 034 07 

Total expenditure from the Smithson fund in 1872, 

as given above 45, 420 11 

During the past year the Institution has advanced money for the 
payment of freight on specimens, the purchase of apparatus for Govern- 
ment expeditions, &c., the repayments of which, together with the amount 
received for sales of publications and old material, have been deducted 
from the several items of the foregoing expenditures, as follows: 

From museum, for repayments for freight ^ $010 03 

From exchanges, for repayments for freight- 4G2 81 

From apparatus, for instruments for expeditions 1, 306 23 

From lectures, for advance for scientific course 382 20 

From Smithsonian Contributions and Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions, for copies sold 307 30 

From building and incidentals, for sale of old material 44 08 

Total repayments and miscellaneous credits in 1872. . 3, 113 31 



The estimates for the year 1873 are as follows : 

ESTIMATES. 

Recei]}ts. 

From interest on the permanent fund, in gold, to be re- 
ceived June 30, 1873 119, 500 00 

To be received December 31, 1873 19, 500 00 

Probable premium on gold at 10 per cent 3, 900 00 

From interest on Virginia stock 1, 7U0 00 

Total receipts 44, GOO 00 

Appropriations. 

For building $3, 000 00 

For general expenses 13, 000 00 

For publications and researches 20, 000 00 

For exchanges 7, 000 00 

For contingencies , 1, 0(10 00 



44,000 00 



EEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE co:mmitte::. 77 

NATIONAL MUSEU3I. 

Until the year 1870, tlie support of the Natioual Museum had princi- 
pally devolved on the Smitlisouian Institution, only $4,000 having been 
annually appropriated by Congress Ibr this purpose. Since that date, 
however. Congress has indicated the intention of jtroviding for the full 
support of the Museum, as is evident from the following extracts from 
the annual appropriation acts: 

Smithsonian Institution : For preservation of the collec- 
tions of the surveying and exploring expeditions of the 

Government, ten thousand dollars 810, 000 00 

41st Cong., Sess. II, Chap. 202, Stat, at Large 1809- 
'71, p. 295. Act (July 15, 1870) making appropria- 
tions for sundry civil expenses, &c., for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1871. 

Smithsonian Institution : For preservation of the collec- 
tions of the surveying and exploring expeditions of the 

Government, ten thousand dollars 10, 000 00 

41st Cong., Sess. Ill, Cb. 114, Stat, at Large 1809-'71, 
p. 500. Act (March 3, 1871) making appropriations 
for sundry civil expenses of the Government, &c., for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1872. 

Smithsonian Institution : For preservation of the collec- 
tions of the surveying and exploring expeditions of the 

Government, fifteen thousand dollars 15, 000 00 

42d Cong., Sess. II, Ch. 415 Stat, at Large 1871-'72, 
1). 3C1. Act (Jnne 10, 1872) making appropriations for 
sundry civil expenses, «&c., for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1873. 

It should be noted in regard to the above appropriations that the fiscal 
year of Government is not the same as that of the Institution, the 
former ending on the 30th of June, and the latter on the 31st of Decem- 
ber. From this fact it follows that although the last appropriation of 
Congress is 815,000 for the care of the Museum, yet the amount available 
from this appropriation, in 1872, was only $7,500, or the first half of 
the appropriation for the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1873. 

Besides this, however, there Avas drawn the whole appropriation for 
the fiscal year ending 30th of June, 1872, viz, $10,000, the first half of 
which should have been drawn the previous year, and thus have dimin- 
ished the expenditure from the Smithson income for the Museum in 
1871. 



78 EEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The following is therefore a statement of the receipts and expenditures 
for the care of the National Museum in 1872 : 

Appropriation by Congress for the first half of the fiscal 
year ending 30th June, 1872, viz, July to December, 1871. $5,000 00 

Appropriation by Congress lor the first half of the fiscal year 

ending oOtli June, 1872, viz, January to June, 1872 5, 000 00 

Total for fiscal year ending 30th June, 1872 10, 000 00 

Appropriation by Congress for the first half of the fiscal year 
ending 30th June, 1873, viz, July to December, 1872 7, oOO 00 

Total from congressional appropriation 3 7, 500 00 

Also from Smithson income for 1872, as shown in the preced- 
ing statement 5, 034 07 

Making a total for the care of the Museum 22, 534 07 

This large expenditure was necessary for the preservation of a num- 
ber of perishable specimens, the mounting of the large casts of fossils 
presented by Professor Henry A. Ward, of Rochester, N. Y., the prepa- 
ration of numerous skeletons, the transfer of the Mineralogical and Geo- 
logical Museum of the Government from the General LandOfBce to the 
Smithsonian building, and the preliminary examination of the speci- 
mens of which it consisted. 

The cost of the reconstruction of the building after the fire of 1865, 
exclusive of iurniture, was $130,000, the whole of which was paid from 
the funds of the Institution for restoring the main building, and not for 
fitting up the rooms wanted for the fiuther extension of the Museum. 
For the latter purpose Congress has made provisions in the following 
acts : 

Smithsonian Institution : Toward the completion of the 
hall required for the Government collections, ten thou- 
sand dollars $10, 000 00 

41st Cong., Sess. II, Ch. 292, Stat, at Large 18G9-'71, 
p. 295. Act (July 15, 1870) making appropriations 
for sundry civil exi)enses, &c., for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1871. 

Smithsonian Institution : For the completion of the hall 
required for the Government collections, ten thousand 
dollars 10, 000 00 

41st Cong., Sess. Ill, Chap. 114, Stat, at Large 
1809-71, p. 501. Act (May 3, 1871) making appro- 
priations for sundry civil expenses of the Government 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1872. 



KEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 70 

Smithsonian Institution : To commence the proper fitting 
up, in a tire proof manner, of the vacant ajiartments in 
the Smithsonian Institution building, for the proper dis- 
tribution and exhibition of the Government collections 
of natural history, geology, and mineralogy, tive thou- 
sand dollars $5, 000 00 

42d Cong., Sess. II, Ch. 172, Stat, at Large 1871-'2, 
p. 131. Act (May 18, 1872) making appropriations to 
supply deficiencies in the a])propriatious for the service 
of the Government for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1872, and for former years. 
Smithsonian Institution : For the completion of the hall 
required for the Government collections, ten thousand 

dollars 10, 000 00 

42d Cong., Sess. II, Chap. 415, Stat, at Large, p. 301. 
Act (June 10, 1872) making approi)riations for sundry 
civil expenses of the Govern lueut for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1873. 

Of these appropriations, $20,000 were expended in 1871 on account 
of ceiling, flooring, plastering, and finishing halls for the extension of 
the Museum ; and in 1872, $2,902.50 for cases for the geological hall, 
leaving available lor the first half of 1873, for finishing these cases, and 
for commencing those for the large hall in the second story of the main 
building, $12,037.50. 

The foregoing expenditures for fitting up rooms for the Museum, 
$2,962.50, as well as those for the care and preservation of the collec- 
tions, $17,500, have been accounted for to the Secretary of the Interior, 
as in previous years. 

The Executive Committee have examined thirteen hundred and ninety- 
five receipted vouchers for i:)ayments made during the four quarters of 
the year 1872, both from the Smithsou fund and the ai)propriations 
from Congress. In every voucher the approval of the Secretary of the 
Institution is given, and the certificate of an authorized agent of the 
Institution is appended, setting forth that the materials and property 
and services rendered were for the Institution, and to be applied to the 
purposes stated. 

The quarterly accounts-current, bank-book, check-book, and ledger 
have also been examined and found correct, showing a balance in the 
First National Bank, 1st of Jauuar,, 1873, of $17,811.30. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

PETER PxVRKEK, 
JOHN MACLEAN, 
W. T. SHERMAN, 

Executive Committee. 

January 20, 1873. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



Thursday, January 10, 1873. 

A meeting of the Board of Kegents of the Smithsonian lustitatiou was 
held this day, at G o'clock p. m. Present: The Chancellor Chief Justice 
Chase, Hon. S. Colfax, Hon. H. Hamlin, Hon. L. Trumbull, Hon. J. \V. 
Stevenson, Hon. J. A. Garfield, Hon. L. P. Poland, General Sherman, 
Professor Agassiz, Hon. Peter Parker, Rev. Dr. John Maclean, and Pro- 
fessor Henry, the Secretary. 

The Chancellor being unable to be present at the beginning of the 
meeting, Hon. Mr. Hamlin was called to the chair. 

The Chancellor arriving at 7 o'clock, assumed his ofticial position as 
presiding officer of the Board. 

The Secretary informed the Board that since its last meeting the death 
of Hon. Garrett Davis of the United States Senate had occurred, and that 
the vacancy thus created in the Board of Eegents had been tilled by the 
appointment of Hon. J. W. Stevenson, a Senator from the State of 
Kentucky ; whereupon, on motion of General Garfield, the following 
resolutions were adopted : 

Resolved, That the Board of Regents have heard the announcement 
of the death of their highly esteemed colleague, Hon. Garrett Davis, of 
Kentucky, with deep and sincere regret. 

Resolved, That in the death of Mr. Davis the Smithsonian Institution 
has lost a warm friend, an efficient supporter, and judicious adviser; 
and the country a patriotic, virtuous, and influential citizen. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered upon the journal, and a 
copy of them be transmitted to the family of the deceased. 

The Secretary presented to the Board an exhibit on a large diagram 
of the condition of the funds on the 1st of January, 1873, and of the 
receipts and expenditures during 1872. 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, these exhibits were referred to the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

Hon. Peter Parker, in behali of the Executive Committee, made sub- 
stantially the following preliminary report : 

" The Secretary, who by law is the custodian of the Smithsonian funds, 
has presented to the Regents an ocular exhibit of the present condition of 
these funds, and the Executive Committee have, at the present time, to 
state that they have been laboriously engaged for several days in exam- 
ining 1,395 vouchers for the expenditures of the Institution for the past 
year; and comparing these with the bank account, as well as the appro- 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 81 

priiitions from Congress, find the whole in accordance with the statement 
ill the diagram snbmitted by the Secretary, there being a balance now 
on hand in the First National Bank of $17,811.36. At the next meeting 
the committee will present a detailed statement of all the accounts, with 
estimates of the receipts and appropriations for the year 1873." 

The Secretary presented the following statement relative to the inter- 
est on the Virginia stock held by the Institution, as furnished by Eiggs 

6 Co. : 

1870. Jan. 16. 2 per cent, interest on $53,500, less $5.35 $1,0G4 G5 

1872. June 21. f of $1,761 coupons, $1,174, less i, $4.40 1,169 60 

Aug. 2. I of $1,761 coupons, $1,174, less J and tax, $77.77.. 1,096 23 

$3,330 48 

1871. Dec. 23. To i per cent, commission on funding, $88,125 20 ... . $220 31 

1872. Jan. 12. To ^ per cent, couiuiission on $58,700, conversion of 

registered to coupon bonds 73 37 

June 21. To express charge on $58,700, bonds sent to Richmond 

for affixing State seal, inadvertently omitted 20 20 

Aug. 2. To express on $1,761 coupons to Richmond 1 20 

Aug. 2. To express on $1,761 coupons to Richmond 1 50 

325 58 

1872. Nov. 9. Balance paid by Riggs & Co. to the Institution .3,004 90 

This communication was referred to the Executive Committee. 

Tlie subject of the deposit of the articles of fine art belonging to the 
Institution in the Corcoran Art Gallery was presented by the Secretary; 
and, on motion of General Garfield, it was 

Besolvcd, That the Executive Committee and the Secretary report as 
to the character and organization of the Corcoran Art Gallery, and the 
plan to be adopted by the Smithsonian Institution in co-operating with 
that establishment and in depositing articles with it. 

Dr. Maclean presented a statement relative to the claim for the por- 
trait of Washington, and stated that a report would be presented on the 
subject by the Executive Committee at the next meeting. 

The Secretary presented the part of his annual report of the operations 
of the Institution during 1872 relative to original researches, viz : the 
planet Uranus; the tides; altitudes of over 10,000 difl'erent places in 
the United States; isothermal map; rain tables; winds and under- 
ground temperatures. 

On niotion, the Board adjourned to meet on Monday, January 20, at 

7 o'clock p. m. 

Monday, January 20, 1873. 
A meeting of the Board was held this day at 7 o'clock p. m. 
Present: The Chancellor Chief Justice Chase, Hon. H. Hamlin, Hon. 
J. W. Stevenson, Hon. L. Trumbull, Hon. J. A. Garfield, Hon. L. P. 
G s 



82 JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Poland, General Sherman, Hon. Peter Parker, Professor L. Agassiz, 
liev. Dr. John Maclean, and the Secretary, Professor Henry. 

The Chancellor took the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Excuses for non-attendance were received from Messrs. Colfax, Cox, 
and Cooke. 

Hon. Peter Parker submitted the report of the Executive Committee, 
which was read, and, on motion of Mr. Poland, was accepted. 

Dr. Maclean, from the Executive Committee, presented a report ad- 
verse to the claim for a portrait of Washington painted by C. W. 
Peale. 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, the report was accepted, ordered to be filed, 
and a copy to be furnished to the claimant. 

The Secretary stated that during the last session of Congress, mainly 
through the efforts of Mr. Hamlin, the following provision had been 
adopted in regard to postage facilities : 

"All publications sent or received by the Sniitbsoniau Institutiou, marked on each 
package "Smithsonian Exchange," shall be allowed to pass frke in the mail." 

fNew Postal Code, 6th Sub-div., 184th Sec, June, 1872. 

This does not provide for letters, nor specimens of natural history; 
and since the transfer of the museum of the Land-Office to the Institu- 
tion, the postage on minerals sent by the United States surveyors had 
become a considerable item of expense. The Secretary of the Interior, 
however, had oifered to receive for the Institution all such specimens, if 
sent by mail to that Department. 

Mr. Hamlin stated that a bill had passed the House of Pepreseuta- 
tives abolishing the franking privilege, and if it passed the Senate the 
Institution would again have to pay postage.* 

The Secretary stated that the 'New York, Newfoundland, and London 
Cable Telegraph Company, and the Western Union Telegraph Company 
had liberally granted the privilege the Institution had requested, to 
transmit without charge between Europe and America announcements 
of astronomical discoveries, such as planets, comets, «S:c. 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, the following resolution was adopted : 

Besolved, That the thanks of tlie Board of Eegenrs of the Smith- 
sonian Institution be tendered to the New York, Newfoundland, and 
London Telegraph Company, and to the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, for their grant of the free transmission of telegrams relative 
to astronomical discoveries. 

The Secretary stated that Mr. George Catlin, the Indian traveler and 
student of ethnology, who had exhibited his sketches of Indian life in 
the Institution, died in December last, and as it was very desirable that 
his valuable ethnological collection should be preserved, and, if possi- 
ble, secured by Congress, it was proper that the Board of Regents 
should take some action in regard to the matter. 

* This bill has since become a law. 



JOURXAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 88 

Professor Agassiz commended the collection as of great ethnological 
value, and expressed the opinion unhesitatingly that it ought to be 
purchased by the Government. 

On motion of General Garfield, it was resolved that the Executive 
Committee ascertain from the heirs of Mr. Catlin the terms on which 
his Indian paintings, sketches, specimens, »S:c., can be i)rocured, and 
furnish the information, with such recommendation as they think pro- 
I)er, to the Library Committee of Congress. 

General Garfield presented the subject of the proposed endowment of 
agricultural colleges in a bill which had passed the Senate and was 
now before the House, and expressed the hope that some action could 
be taken to secure the benefit of the act to the Smithsonian Institution. 

Professor Agassiz remarked that there were other institutions in the 
country that were well worthy to share with this Institution any ben- 
efits which might be derived from the distribution of the proceeds of 
the sales of the public lands ; especially the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology in Cambridge. This museum now contains the largest collec- 
tion of specimens for the illustration of some departments of zoology of 
any in the world, and has been supported at an annual expense of from 
fifty to sixty thousand dollars, principally raised from donations of the 
friends of the establishment. Professor Agassiz also observed that he 
thought Professor Henry, in the distribution of specimens abroad, ought 
in all cases to ask for a return of an equivalent in kind. By not doing 
so he interfered with the growth of other establishments of a similar 
character iu this country, and especially with the museum at Cam- 
bridge. 

In reply Professor Henry stated that the policy of the Institution 
from the beginning had been of a most liberal character; that its motto 
was " co-operation, not monopoly;'' that it had endeavored to cooperate 
with all institutions iu this country and abroad; that the bequest was 
forthe benefit of men, notfor men of this country alone, butof every coun- 
try. Whenever specimens have been wanted for scientific research, these 
specimens have been sent as far as the means of the Institution would 
allow, and in cases where specimens were required for special investiga- 
tion in this country, the Institution has endeavored to procure them for 
the object required. It is true a return in kind has not been asked for 
because the appropriation from Congress for the support of the museum 
has not been more than one-fourth of the actual cost, and the Institu- 
tion has not had the means to pay for transportation of the specimens 
and the care of those not immediately wanted for research. It has, 
however, iu all cases distinctly announced, in presenting specimens to 
foreign institutions, that suitable returns would be expected from the 
duplicates in their collections whenever the Institution might desire to 
obtain them.* The Institution has in this way a large accumulation of 
credit abroad, and now that the Government has commenced to make 
*See Appendix " G " to the Journal of the Board. 



84 JOUENAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 

more liberal provision for the support of the National Museum, it may 
begin to ask for specimens in return, and m doing so may harmoniously 
co-operate with the Museum of Comparative Zoology by procuring speci- 
mens for it, and in receiving from the latter others in return. 

At the request of the Board, Professor Agassiz then gave an 
account* of his late expedition from Boston through the Straits of 
Magellan to San Francisco, in the steamer Hassler, of the United States 
Coast Survey, after which the Board adjourned to meet at the call of 
the Secretary. 

Wednesday, February 13, 1873. 

A meeting of the Board of Regents was held this day, at 7 o'clock p. 
m. Present: Chief Justice Chase, Chancellor, Hon. H. Plainlin, Hon. 
L. Trumbull, Hon. J. A. Garfield, Hon. L, P. Poland, Hon. Peter Parker, 
Hon. H. D. Cooke, and the Secretary, Professor Henry. 

The Chancellor took the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Dr. Parker presented the following report of the committee relative to 
the Corcoran Art Gallery : 

The committee to whom was referred the subject of inquiry into the 
character and organization of the Corcoran Art Gallery ,t and the plan 
(if any) to be adopted by the Smithsonian Institution in co-operating 
with that establish uieut and in depositing articles with it, and report 
thereon, have to state : They learn that the Corcoran Art Gallery was 
incorporated by act of Congress on the 24th of May, 1870, [as appears 
from Statutes at Large, Forty-first Congress, secoud Sessiou, chapter 3, 
page 139,] and is in no way connected with the District or territorial 
government of Washington. 

Your committee have conferred with Mr. W. W. Corcoran, and learn 
from him his desire in relation to the art gallery bearing his name is to 
make it one of very high order of art, and, with' some exceptions which 
he specified, he is of the opinion the specimens of the Smithsonian will 
not come within the scope of his design. The profter of the aid of the 
Smithsonian Institution, through its extensive toreign correspondents 
and agencies, in collecting valuable works of art from abroad, will be 
highly appreciated by Mr. Corcoran and the Directors of the Corcoran 

Art Gallery. 

PETER PARKER, 
W. T. SHERMAN, 

Committee. 

February 13, 1873. 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, the following resolution was adopted : 
Resolved, That the report of the committee be accepted, and, in view 
of the facts stated, no further action in the premises is required, except 

*See Appendix "A" to Journal of the Board. 
t See Appendix " C " to Journal of the Board. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 85 

SO far as relates to co-operation of the Suiithsoniaii Institution in obtain- 
ing for the Corcoran Art Gallery contributions from abroad when re- 
quested by the directors and at the expense of the corporation. 

The Secretary announced the death of Professor James H. Coffin, who 
had for many years been associated with the Institution in its meteor- 
ological work, and had nearly finished a verj^ elaborate paper on the 
Avinds of the globe, prepared from material furnished by the Institution, 
and to be published as a Smithsonian Contribution to Knowledge. He 
spoke in the highest terms of the character of Professor Coflfln as a scien- 
tific investigator, an able 'eacher, and exemplary Christian. 

On motion of Hon. Mr. Trumbull, the following resolutions were 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the Boaixl of Eegents have heard with profound sor- 
row of the death of Professor James H. Coffin, of Lafayette College, 
Easton, Pennsylvania. 

Resolved, That in the death of Professor Coffin the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution has lost a valuable collaborator who has assiduously labored in 
connection with it in the cause of science for more than twenty years; 
the country has lost an efficient teacher, an honest, truthful, and indus- 
trious man, and the world an original contributor to the science of the 
day. 

RcsolvM, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the fam- 
ily of the deceased. 

The Secretary stated that since the last meeting he had received a 
telegram from Dr. C. H. Peters, of Clinton, New York, announcing the 
discovery of a new planet, and that he had availed himself of the facili- 
ties offered by the Cable and Western Union Companies, and had sent a 
dispatch in regard to the discovery to the European observatories. 

The Secretary informed the Board that James Hamilton, of Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania, recently deceased, had left a legacy of one thousand 
dollars to the Board of Eegents of the Smithsonian Institution, the 
interest to be "ai)propriftted biennially, either in money or a medal, for 
such contribution, paper, or lecture on any scientific or useful subject as 
the secretaries may approve." Action on this subject was postponed 
until more definite information had been receive<l.* 

The Secretary stated that an amendment had been offered in the 
House of Representatives, but not at the instance of the Institution, 
to Senate bill 693, "to provide for the further endowment and support 
of colleges for the benefit of agriculture, &c., &c.," as follows: 

"And it is further provided, that the share allotted to the said District 
of Columbia shall be appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution, to 
be expended under the direction of the Boanl of Regents of said Insti- 
tution, for the support of the National Museum, and in distributing 
specimens and publications to the colleges named in this act and to 
other institutions." 

* See Will iu Appeuil ix " E " to Joiuual of Board. 



86 JOURNAL OF PEOCEEDINGS. 

By this bill tbe Secretary of the Treasury is to invest auuually one- 
fourth of the net auiouut of sales of the public lands for each year, in 
United States bonds, bearing five per cent, interest, and is to give to each 
State and to the District of Columbia an equal share of this interest, pro- 
vided that the appropriation for any one share shall not exceed in a 
single year the sum of $50,000. 

The opinion was expressed by the Eegents that the bill might pass, 
although it was believed that the income to be derived from the sales of 
the public lands would be inconsiderable for many years.* 

The Secretary stated that the plan of the Smithsonian Institution for 
increasing knowledge bad met with such favor, that other persons, in 
imitation of James Smithson, had established foundations to advance 
science, and gave an account of the bequest of the late Professor Alex- 
ander Dallas Baohe ; the foundation for lectures by Dr. J. M. Toner, 
of Washington, and the gift of Professor Tyndall of the proceeds of his 
recent lectures in this country. 

In each of these cases, Professor Henry had been made the chairman 
of the boards of trustees appointed to carry out the wishes of the donors. 

On motion of General Garfield, it was 

Resolved, That a full account of the Bache, Toner, and Tyndall sci- 
entific foundations, or trusts, be published in the annual rei)ort of this 
Institution, together with a letter from Professor Tyndall to Professor 
Henry.t 

The Secretary stated that he had transmitted to Congress the annual 
report of Professor J. W. Powell, relative to his geological and trigono- 
metrical survey of the Colorado of the West and its tributaries. 

The Secretary presented his annual report for the year 1872, which 
was read in part, when, on motion of Dr. Parker, it was 

Besolved., That the further reading of the report of Professor Henry be 
dispensed with, and that it be submitted by the Secretary to Congress. 

On motion, the Board then adjourned sine die. 

* This bill did not pass the House of Representatives. 

t See Appendix " B," "D," "E" to the Proceedings of the Board. 



APPENDIX TO THE JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD 

OF REGENTS. 



PROFESSOE AGASSIZ'S NARRATIVE. 

'•' I was invited by Professor Peirce to take passage in tlie Ilassler, 
while she was going" to the tield of her duty on the coast of California, as 
surveying vessel, provided that my expenses were borne by other par- 
ties so that the Coast Survey should not be i)ut to any additional outlay. 
In consideration of this proposition, my friends in Boston liberally sub- 
scribed $20,000 to enable me to make as thorough a series "of iavestiga- 
tions of animal life and other physical objects as possible, and a little 
more than this sum was expended. 

"We left Boston on the 4th of December, 1871. Our first observations 
of much interest were upon the Gulf weed, with its well-marked varieties 
distinguished by differences of stem and leaves. We made large col- 
lections of the hydroid communities inhabiting the sargossum, and 
also of the small fishes, Crustacea and other animals finding shelter 
within its branches. I saw no reason to suppose that the sargossum 
originates as afloating-i^lant. On the contrary, all the masses we found, 
however large, bore marks of having been torn from some attachment. 
I have already given an account of the nest of the chironectes built of 
gulf weed, and picked up by us. 

"Our first port was Saint Thomas, where we anchored on the 15th 
of December. Here we made very large collections both of marine and 
land animals, fish, corals, sea-urchins, star-fishes, and ophiui*ans, Crus- 
tacea, shells, lizards, snakes, toads, and frogs, insects and birds. We 
shipped from Saint Thomas alone eleven barrels and boxes of speci- 
mens. Barbadoes was our next collecting-ground. There we made our 
first cast of the dredge and with remarkable success. The collections 
forwarded from this i^ort were not so large, but were perhaps more in- 
teresting than those of Saint Thomas. The fauna upon the shoals off 
the Island of Barbadoes strangely resembles that of a past geological 
time. The comatulpe, pedunculated crinoids, pleurotoinaria^,, sipho- 
nine, and cnemidia found upon these shoals recall forms which belonged 
especially to the Mezozoic ages. This dredging was ailso rich in corals, 
sea-urchins, starfish, and ophiurans, and in a great variety of beautiful 
and rare shells. In some notes handed to meby Count Pourtales, hesaysof 
this same dredging, December 29th and 30th off Barbadoes, about six miles 
north of Bridgetown, numerous casts of the dredge were taken in depths 
varying from 17 to 120 fathoms with very rich returns in mollusca, crusta- 



88 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL 

coa, ochiiiodei Ills, polyps, aiid sponjics ; iriaiiy of them were new to science, 
others eitlier very rare or ol' inneh interest on account of their geograph- 
ical distribution. Pleurotoniaria is an example of the former ; asthen- 
os'oina, ceraiophozus, rhizociinus, and other echinoderms, of the latter. 
J)eep sea-corals were obtained in considerable (juantity, but none ai)pear 
to be identical with those of the North Atlantic; they also seem to differ 
more from those of Florida than would have been expected. 

" Between Barbadoes and Brazil we had little opportunity for observa- 
tion, except upon the niotions of the llying-fish, the hal)its and ap[)ear- 
ance of the physalia, &c. But we had an interesting dredging about a 
day's sail south of Peruambuco in 500 fathoms, from which we obtained, 
besides other specimens, a living shell, closely allied to the Pe(;ten para- 
doxus, as described by (jloldfuss. Another cast, about 40 miles east of 
Cat)e Frio, in 45 fathoms, gave us a new crustacean, singularly like the 
ancient trilobites. With reference to temperature off the coast of 
Brazil, Count Bourtales' notes give the following details : ' Olf Maceio, 
Brazil, January 17, in latitude 0° 45' S., longitude 35^ 0' west, the surface- 
temperature was 80^.5. At 100 fathoms it was 67^ ; at 485 fathoms, 
44°.5 ; at 550 fathot.ss, (a few miles farther west,) 42°.5; in latitude 
11° 40' south, h)ngitude37o 10' west, surface, 80^.3 ; at 613 fathoms, 39o. 
A number of dredgings were taken on the same parallel, but nearer 
shore, with moderate success.' He adds that subsequent casts of the 
dredge were taken at various i)oints along the east coast of South 
America, and in the Strait of Magellan, but almost always in de[)ths 
lessthau 50 fathoms where temperature presented no particular interest. 

"A delay of three weeks at Bio de Janeiro interrupted our work at 
sea, but 1 made use of it to collect largely in the market of Bio de 
Janeiro and in the neighboring rivers and brooks. The most valuable 
contribution to science made there, howevei', consisted in i)re])aratious 
of large numbers of lish-brains, both marine and Iresh-water. 

"Our next port was Montevideo. Here, however, the quarantine pre- 
vented us from entering the city, but I had an opportunity of studying 
glacial phenomena on a hill in the harbor, where 1 was allowed to land 
and where I found erratic material of an uncpiestionably glacial cliar- 
actc^r, and other evidences of glacial action. Indeed, the most striking- 
fact of all is that the hill itself is a true ' roche moutonnee.' On leaving 
]lio de la IMate, February 22, we dropped the dredge in some seven 
fathoms, and it came up laden with valuable specimens. Among other 
things this cast gave us a large voluta and the egg of a voluta, (of which 
weibund many afterward belonging to different kinds of. volutas,) many 
olivas, serulas, renillas, crustaceans and echinoderms. It is not worth 
while to record all our dredgings ; they were frequent, sometimes very 
remunerative, and sometimes not at all so. One dredging, of es[»ecial 
value for its rare mollusks and echinoderms, was taken off the mouth 
of the liio Negro. 

"The next point of great interest was the gulf of San Mathias, at the 



APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 89 

Lead of wliicb is the so called Port San Antonio. In this region our 
collections were very large and various. Among our treasures was a 
very interesting collection of tertiary fossils in this bay. The cliffs 
were largely composed of them. My original programme had included 
a reconnoissance of the rivers Negro and Santa Cruz, and a visit to 
the Falkland Islands, where I was esi)ecially anxious to have a look at 
the so-called " rivers of stone," believing, as 1 do, that they are of 
glacial origin. But the circumstances of the vessel and the lateness of 
the season made it important to hurry on, and I reluctantly relin- 
quished this part of my scheme. We touched, therefore, at no other 
l)oint between the gulf of San Mathias and the strait of Magellan, 
though we paused for a cast of the dredge off the gulf of St. (leorges, 
and were rewarded b}- some superb star-fishes of immense size, (astro- 
phyton or basket-fish,) besides other valuable specimens. 

" We rounded Cape Virgins on the 13th of March, and made our first 
anchorage at Possession Bay. My i)ublished reports have already given 
sonie account of our work in this region. The most important results 
obtained in this locality were Count Pourtales' discovery that Mount 
Aymon is an extinct volcano, with a very perfect crater, and forming 
the nucleus, as it were, of a cluster of smaller volcanoes; beside; some less 
striking geological observations of my own. In the strait of Jdagellan, 
and in Sjnythe's Channel, we passed three weeks, anchoring every night. 
The zoological results throughout this region were very satisfactory. 
We made large collections ; chiefly marine, of course. But the glacial 
phenomena here interested me more deeply than the fauna. Prom the 
character of the drift, and the constant presence of erratic materials, 
evidently quite foreign to the soil, and recurring along the Patagonian 
coast throughout the strait of Magellan, and, as I afterward found, 
high up on the Chilian coast; from the glacier- worn surfaces on the 
two sides of the strait, as compared with each other, aiid on the walls 
of Smythe's Channel, I satisfied myself that there has been a move- 
ment of ice from south northward, preceding all local glacial i)henom- 
ena, the latter being indeed only the remnant of the former. 

"Leaving Smythe's Channel we kept along the coast to the southern 
end of Chiloe Island, making a run up the gulf of Corcovado in the 
hope of passing through the archipelago of Chiloe. As we had no 
charts, however, the captain feared to attempt the inside passage, and 
after making some collections in Port San Pedro we returned to the 
open sea, and reached Sau Carlos de Ancud, at the northern i-nd of the 
island, on the 8th of March. Here I found again the erratic of the 
straits and of the Patagonian coast resting upon the breccia of Ancud 
showing the chronological relation of the volcanic formations of this 
region to the glacial phenomena. From San Carlos we proceeded with 
no pause (except at Lota for coal) to the bay of Coucepcion. Here Ave 
remained a fortnight, and at no point did I make more full and valuable 
collections. From Concepcion Bay the Ilassler went to Juan Fernandez, 



90 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 

but as I wished to see sometliiug of the geolog^y between the coast and 
the Andes, I proceeded by hind to Santiago. My observations here con- 
firmed my previous impressions as to the glacial phenomena. There is 
very little evidence of local action proceeding from the Andes, but the 
whole Chilian valley lying between the coast-r'ange and the Andes 
proper has been modeled in a south-northerly direction by ice. The 
valley is, in short, a glacier bottom. 

"At Valparaiso we joined the vessel again, audi add some notes from 
Count Pourtales concerning temperatures based upon soundings, »S:c., 
taken on their voyage to and from Juan Fernandez: 'In the Pacific 
Ocean soundings were taken between Talcahuana, Chili, and Juan Fer- 
nandez. The hundred-fathoms line was found to be abcmt 35 miles off 
shore. At a distance of 52 miles the depth was 1,006 fathoms. In lati- 
tude 35° 30' south and longitude 75° 11' west the depth was 2,410 fath- 
oms, temi)erature 35°. Mud and fragments of a delicate sponge were 
obtained by the lead ; but the dredge-line having been damaged by 
dampness, parted when hauling up. About two miles north of Juan 
Fernandez, surface temperature Cic> ; at 377 fathoms, 41°.5 ; at 056 
fathoms, bottom temperature 61°. The dredge brought up only a few 
small stones. About three miles off the northwest corner of the same 
island the depth was 1,144 fathoms, bottom temperature 36°. The 
dredge brought up nodules of clay, pebbles, worm tubes, ond a small 
isis. About 25 miles north of the island a depth of 2,214 fathoms was 
found, with a bottom temperature of 36° ; bottom of reddish mud. The 
dredge was lost again, with a large quantity of line. On the way from 
Juan Fernandez to Valparaiso a ca^t of the lead was taken in latitude 
33° So' south, longitude 77° 2' west ; depth, 1,585 fathoms, bottom tem- 
perature 36°; fine white globigerina mud. The hauling up of the line 
took more than six hours, on account of the constant precautions needed 
to prevent it from parting. Further attempts were thereafter given 
up.' 

" From Valparaiso we proceeded up the coast, touching at all the prin- 
cipal points, and collecting everywhere. One of our richest collecting- 
grounds was Parraca Bay, where the fauna was of astonishing richness 
and variety. The geology was also exceedingly interesting, and I was 
indebted to Lieutenant Murray Day for a very detailed map of the drift- 
formation in that region. 

" From Payta we struck off to the Galapagos, where we arrived on the 
10th of June, and remained till the 19th, touching at Charles Island, Albe- 
marle, Saint James, Jarvis, and Indefatigable Islands. The zoology of 
these islands is intensely interesting, not only from the peculiar character 
of the fauna, but also from the physical conditions in which it occurs, all 
these islands being of such recent volcanic formation as to preclude the 
idea of a migration of animals from the mainland, and their subsequent 
adaptation to new circumstances. Our collections in the Galapagos 
were exceptionally large. Iguanas, both marine and terrestrial, (the 



APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 91 

two species of amblyrbyncbus, first made known by Darwin,) lizards, 
birds, seals, turtles, besides a great variety of lisbes, Crustacea, mol- 
lusks, and radiates. 

" From the Galapagos we proceeded to Panama, where we arrived on 
the 25th of June. We were detained here for three weeks, but they 
were very profitable weeks for the collections. The loss of the greater 
part of our dredgiug-apparatus between Juan Fernandez and Valparaiso 
had indeed made dredging in deep waters impossible, but we were the 
more industrious in collecting in shoal waters along shore and on land. 
Our next poi^t was Acapulco, where we arrived on the 4th of August, 
and remained for some days. There, also, we were successful in col- 
lecting, and not less so in Magdalena Bay, where Ave passed two days 
in drawing the seine. We made no pause between Magdalena Bay and 
San Diego, where we arrived on the 18th of August. In the Bay of San 
Diego we added very considerably to our collections. Here, and in- 
deed all along the coast from Valparaiso northward, we Ibund many 
specimens of cetaceans and selachians. We gathered a large number 
of cestracions alone. 

" Leaving San Diego on the 28th of August, we reached San Francisco 
on the 31st. Here our voyage ended, but I remained in San Francisco 
for some weeks for the sake of completing collections formerly made for 
me in this region. Both there and in Sacramento, with the aid of 
friends, I succeeded completely in my object. 

" It wonld.be impossible for me now to give you more than a very vague 
and imperfect idea of the extent and value of the collections derived from 
this voyage. Indeed, I do not fully know it as yet myself, the unpack- 
ing being but just begun. The number of barrels and cases, however, 
forwarded to Cambridge during the ten months of our absence was 
2G5 — almost a barrel a day. It would have been simplj' impossible for 
me to collect on this scale, but for the cordial assistance 1 received from 
the captain and otHcers of our ship, and, under their direction, from the 
men, who were always cheerfully ready for the work of the seine and 
dredge. I was also greatly indebted to Dr. Hill and Dr. White, the 
l)hysicists of the expedition, who, "whenever not engaged in their own 
duties, were ready to aid me in every way. I should not forget to men- 
tion that Dr. Hill made, also, a most valuable and admirably preserved 
collection of marine plants, gathered at every anchorage where time was 
allowed for landing. As to the special work of the chemical and phys- 
ical departments, under the charge of Dr. Hill, ex-president of Harvard, 
and Dr. White, of Philadelphia, I can give you little information. You 
could, no doubt, learn all details respecting this part of the work by 
application to these gentlemen, or to the Superintendent of the Coast 
Survey. 

" My own special party for zoological work consisted of Count Pourtal(Ss, 
Dr. Steindachner, and Mr. Blake. Count Pourtales, while sharing in all 
the general work of the expedition, had special charge of the dredging 



92 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 

operations. Dr. SteindacLner, altliougli an admirable collector in all 
departments, was especially engaged in the care of the ichthyological 
collections. His great knowledge and untiring industrj- made his 
assistance invaluable. Indeed, without him I could not have carried out 
the comprehensive scheme for collecting which I had laid out. Mr. 
Blake had special charge of the mollusks, and his time was chiefly em- 
ployed in the drawing of perishable specimens. As I cannot give you 
an accurate summary of the zoological collections, I will give you a 
slight sketch of my general scheme, alluded to above, that you may 
understand their signilicance as a whole. 

"I have endeavored, in the first place, to collect as many specimens of 
the same species as possible, in every stage of growth and every con- 
dition of development, in order to ascertain the range of variation in 
each species. M j second object was to learn the boundaries of the dif- 
ferent faunae, especially along the Pacific coast from the strait of 
Magellan to California. In this I have included, wherever it was pos- 
sible, the fishes from the riv^ers on the western slope of the continent, 
for comparison with those on the eastern ; but this part of my plan was 
difficult of execution, because I had not the means of collecting in land. 

"During our whole journey I was careful to make, or to have made, 
large numbers of anatomical preparations of such jiarts of marine ani- 
mals as can rarely be well studied from alcoholic specimens. The most 
valuable of these preparations are those of fish brains. 

"I need hardly add- that we owed the great opportunity for scientific 
investigation afforded by the voyage of the Hassler to the liberal policy 
of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, who is ever ready to com- 
bine the larger interests of science with the special work of the survey, 
when it can be done without detriment to the latter. I should add, 
however, that the means for making the zoological collections were con- 
tributed by gentlemen of Boston, who raised nearly $20,000 for the pur- 
chase of alcohol, jars, and other apparatus for collecting on a large scale, 
and for charges of freight in forwarding the si^ecimens from foreign 
ports. The latter charges were, however, comparatively small, owing 
to the liberality of both railroad and steamship companies, of the com- 
manders of our naval forces in various ports, to whom I had special 
recommendations from the Secretary of the Navy, and of the captains of 
vessels employed upon whaling voyages or in private mercantile enter- 
prises." 



APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 93 

B. 
BACHE FUND. 
Extracts from the icill of Alexander Dallas Baclie. Dated Marcli 18, 1862. 

Dem. As to all tlie rest and residue of my estate, including the sum 
of five thousand dollars placed at the disposal of my wife, in case she 
should not desire to make any disposition of the same, I direct my ex- 
ecutors, hereinafter named, to a])ply the income thereof, after the death 
of my wife, according to and under the directions of Joseph Henry, of 
Washington, Louis Agassiz and Benjamin Peirce, of Harvard College, 
Massachusetts, to the prosecution of researches in physical and natural 
science, by assisting experimentalists and observers in such manner and 
in such sums as shall be agreed upon by the three above-named gen- 
tlemen, or any two of them, whom 1 constitute a board of direction for 
the application of the income of my residuary estate, for the above ob- 
jects, after the death of my said wife. The class of subjects to be se- 
lected by this board, and the results of such observations and experi- 
ments, to be published at the expense of my trust estate, under their 
directions, out of the income thereof, but without encroaching on the 
principal. 

In case of the death or inability to act of all or any of the three gen- 
tlemen I have named, in my wife's lifetime, my will is that she shall 
supply their places in the board of direction by an instrument of writ- 
ing, either testamentary or otherwise, desiring that in the selection of 
the persons to administer the income of the trust funds hereby created, 
she will have regard to the selection of persons whose attention has been 
directed to the same branches of science as those I have named, and so 
that each of the departments of physics, mathematics, and natural his- 
tory shall be represented in the board. In case of any vacancy occur- 
ring in the board of direction after its organization, and after the death 
of my wife, by reason of the death, inability, or refusal to act, or resig- 
nation of any of the members, my will is that the surviving or remain- 
ing member or members for the time being shall have power to fill va- 
cancies so occurring in the board by the selection of other person or 
persons to fill such vacancies, and so on, from time to time, as vacancies 
shall occur. 

My intention being that the board of direction shall have power to 
continue its existence, and to filling all vacancies occurring in their 
body from time to time. 

I direct that a minute of their proceedings be kept, and that the ap- 
pointment of any member by the board shall be notified in writing to 
the trustees for the time being of my residuary estate. 

In the event of any failure of the board for the time being to direct 
the application of the income of my said residuary estate, or to continue 
its existence by filling vacancies occurring in their body, my will is that 



94 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 

tlie applidatiou of tbe income thereof, for the purposes and objects de- 
clared in tliis clause of my will shall be made by tbe trustees, under tbe 
direction of tbe American Pbilosopbical Society, of Pbiladelpbia. 

Extract from the codicil to tJie tciU of Alexander Dallas BacJie, dated Juhj 

15, 18G3. 

Item. My will is that upon tbe deatb of my wife all tbe rest and resi- 
due of my estate shall be paid over to and rest in tbe corporation of 
'' The National Academy of Sciences," incorporated by act of Congress 
passed tbe third day of March, A. D. 1803, whom I hereby appoint 
trustees in tbe place of my said executors, under the fourth clause of 
my said will, to apply the income according to the directions in the 
said clause contained, to the prosecution of researches in physical and 
natural science by assisting experimentalists and observers in such 
manner and in sucb sums as shall be agreed upon by the board of di- 
rection in tbe said clause named. 

My will further is that in case of any failure of the board for tbe time 
being to direct tbe application of the income of my residuary estate, or 
to continue its existence by filling vacancies occurring in their body, 
the api)licatiou of tbe income thereof for the purposes and objects de- 
clared in the said clause shall be made under tbe directions of the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences, instead of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, of Philadelphia. In all other respects the said application of the 
income to tbe purposes aforesaid to be made hy the same persons, and 
under the same rules as I have prescribed in the said clause of my will. 



C. 
COECORAN ART GALLERY. 

Letter from Mr. Corcoran to the Trustees. 

Washington, May 10, 1869. 

Gentlemen : It is known to you that the building at the northeast 
corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and Seventeenth street was designed by 
me for the encouragement of the fine arts, as is indicated by tbe dedi- 
cation upon its front. 

The work was begun in the year 1859, and was prosecuted with the 
heartiness naturally incident to sucb an undertaking, until it was inter- 
rupted by the breaking out of the late civil war, when tbe public exi- 
gencies led to the immediate occupation of the building for military 
purposes ; and to these uses it has been devoted ever since, until, being 
no longer required by the War Department, it is about to be restored to 
my possession. 

It was my cherisbed hope to have placed the proposed establishment, 



APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 95 

complete in all its appointments, in successful operation before divesting 
myself of the title by any formal instrument, but the years which have 
thus passed away, and the accumulation of other cares and duties, warn 
me no longer to indulge the pleasing anticipation. 

1 have, therefore, not doubting your general interest in the subject, 
taken the liberty of executing to you, as trustees, a deed, which I here- 
with deliver, sufficiently defining the trusts which I ask you to accept. 

In addition to the title to the property itself, you will observe that 
the instrument vests in you, for the purposes of the trust, the right to 
receive the rents, wholly unjtaid, for the period during which it has 
been occupied by the Government, now nearly eight years, which will 
doubtless be adjusted with you, in the absence of any special agreement, 
upon fair and, perhaps, liberal terms. 

As soon as the interior of the building shall have been completed ac- 
cordnig to the original plans, (which will be placed at your disposal,) 
for which the rents in arrears will more than suffice, I shall ask you to 
receive as a nucleus my own gallery of art, which has been collected at 
no inconsiderable pains, and I have assurances from friends in other 
cities, whose tastes and liberality have taken this direction, that they 
will contribute tine works of art from their respective collections. 

I may add, that it is my intention to [)rovide further endowment of 
the institution in such manner and to such extent as may consist with 
other objects which claim my attention ; and I venture to hope that, 
with your kind co-operation and judicious management, we shall have 
provided, at no distant day, not only a pure and refined pleasure for res- 
idents and visitors at the national metropolis, but have accomi)lished 
something useful in the development of American genius. 

I am, gentlemen, with great respect and regard, your obedient ser- 
vant, 

W. W. COECORAK 
To James M. Carlisle, James C. Hall, George W. Riggs, An- 
thony Hyde, James G. Berret. James C. Kennedy, Henry D. 

Cooke, James C. McGuire, William T. Walters. 



Beply of the Trustees. 

Washington, ^lay 10, 1S69. 

Dear Sir : W^e have accepted the trusts confided to us by your deed 
of this date, in the formal manner indicated by the deed itself. 

But we desire, individually and collectively, to add the expression of 
our personal appreciation of the privilege of endeavoring efficiently to 
administer such an institution, projected spontaneously by your liberal 
mind and securely founded by your sole munificence. 

While we cannot doubt that, at least in the time of our successors, all 
your anticipations will be realized, we sincerely hope that you may 



96 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 

yourself live to eujoy the high and pure gratification of witnessing the 
complete success of your generous intentions. 

With ;great respect and warm regard, we remain, very truly, yours, 

J. M. Carlisle. 

J. C. Hall. 

Geo. W. Eiggs. 

A. Hyde. 

James G. Berret.* 

James C. KENNEDY.t 

Henry D. Cooke. 

J. C. McGuiRE. 

W. T. Walters. 
William W. Corcoran, Usq. 



Deed of gift and trust of the Corcoran Art Gallery. 

This indenture, made this tenth day of May, in the year of our Lora 
eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, by and between William W. Corcoran, 
of the city of Washington, District of Columbia, of the first i^art, and 
James M. Carlisle, James C. Hall, George W. Riggs, Anthony Hyde, 
James G. Berret, James C. Kennedy, Henry D. Coohe, and James C. Mc- 
Guire, of the city of Washington, and William T. Walters, of the city 
of Baltimore, State of Maryland, of the second part, witnesseth : 

Whereas the said William W. Corcoran, in the execution of a long- 
cherished desire to establish an institution in Washington City to be 
" dedicated to art," and used solely for the purpose of encouraging 
American genius, in the production and preservation of works pertain- 
ing to the " line arts," and kindred objects, has determined to convey to 
a board of trustees the property hereinafter described, to which he may 
hereafter make other gifts and donations, to be held by said board, and 
used for the purposes aforesaid : Now, therefore, the said William W. 
Corcoran, in consideration of the premises, and of the sura of $1, 
current money of the United States, to him in hand i)aid by the said 
parties of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, 
hath granted, bargained, and sold, aliened, enfoeffed, and conveyed, 
and by these presents doth grant, bargain, and sell, alien, enfeoff, and 
convey unto the said parties of tlie second part, and the survivors of 
them, and the heirs and assignees of such survivor — 

Lots numbered 5, (five,) 0, (six,) 7, (seven,) and 8, (eight,) in square 
numbered 1G7, (one hundred and sixty --seven,) in the city of W^ashington, 
and District of Columbia, as the same is laid down and distinguished 
upon the public plat of said city, fronting 196 feet 9 inches, more or less, 
on President's Square, and 160.17 feet, more or less, on Seventeenth 
Street west, together with, all and singular, the buildings, improvements, 

*H. C. Matthews has been elected a trustee vice J. G. Berret. 

t Prof. Joseph Henry has been elected a trustee vice J. C. Kennedy. 



APPENDIX TO JOURXAL. 97 

liereditameuts, and appurtenances thereto appertaining, or in any wise 
belonging, and all the estate, right, title, and interest of the said party 
of the first part in and to the same: 

To have and to hold, all and singular, the lots and jiarcels of ground, 
and premises aforesaid, with the appurtenances, unto and to the use of 
them, the said parties of the second part, and the survivors and sur- 
vivor of them, and the heirs and assigns of such survivor, in trust, 
nevertheless, and to and for the intents and purposes hereinafter ex- 
pressed and described, that is to say : 

First. That the said parties of the second part shall, without unnec- 
essary delay, after their acceptance of this trust, to be signified by their 
signing and sealing the memorandum to that eifect hereunder written, 
organize themselves into a i)ermanent board of trustees, with such 
ofiBcers to be selected from their own number as to them may seem nec- 
essary or convenient for the orderly management of this trust, and the 
more efficient attainment of the ends and objects designed by the said 
party of the first part, as indicated by his general intent, to be gathered 
from this instrument in all its parts and provisions, and with the same in- 
tent and for the same ends and objects, shall make, and as often as may be 
necessary from time to time, make, alter, amend, repeal, and re-enact, 
in whole or in part, all necessary by-laws, rules, and regulations in the 
premises, in execution of, and not inconsistent with the provisions and 
true intent of this instrument ; in all which they shall act by t<be con- 
currence of a majority of the whole number of trustees. 

Secondly. That when the number of the said original board of trus- 
tees, being the said parties of the second part, shall, by death, resigna- 
tion, or inability, to be ascertained by a resolution of the said board 
acting by a majority of the whole number, shall have been reduced 
below the number of nine members, the remaining members shall elect 
suitable persons, in their discretion, from time to time, as often as may 
be necessary, so that the board shall always be composed of nine mem- 
bers. 

Thirdly. That all the property, real, personal, and mixed, rights, 
credits, choses in action, or other valuable thing whatsoever hereby 
conveyed or intended to be conveyed, or which may hereafter be con- 
veyed, given, or transferred and assigned and delivered to the said 
board of trustees, whether comjiosed of the said parties of the second 
part or of their successors, jehosen and elected as hereinbefore provided, 
whether in whole or in part, shall be held, managed, limited, used, and 
devoted to executing the trusts, and giving effect, according to the best 
judgment of the said board of trustees, from time to time ; and all legal 
rights and titles in the premises shall be taken and held in such manner, 
and with such legal forms, as shall serve the trusts, intents, uses, and 
purposes declared or plainly indicated or implied in and by the terms of 
this instrument. 

Fourthly. The property as received and held, or which may be received 
and held by the said board of trustees, shall be held, used, managed, 
7s 



98 APPENDIX TO JOUEXAL. 

and disposed of by tbern and* their successors and assigns, whether 
under this instrument alone or under any act of incorporation hereafter 
to be procured, for the perpetual establishment and maintenance of a 
public gallery and museum for the promotion and encouragement of the 
arts of i)ainting and sculpture, and the fine arts generally, upon such 
system and with such regulations and limitations as the board of trustees 
may, from time to time, whether corporate or incorporate, prescribe, 
limit, and ordaiu : Provided always, That the gallery and museum shall 
be open to visitors, without any pecuniary charge whatever, at least two 
days in each week, for such convenient and customary hours as shall be, 
from time to time, prescribed and made public, and at such other times, 
not being such public days as aforesaid, such moderate and reasonable 
fees for admission may be prescribed and received, to be applied to the 
current expenses of preserving and keeping in proper order the building 
and its contents. 

Fifthly. While the ofiicers necessary or appropriate to the organization 
of the board of trustees shall be elected from their own number, it is 
understood that the board shall and may, at its discretion, at all times, 
employ other persons to be the officers, agents, and servants of the 
board, for the orderly and efficient management and conduct of the 
institution. 

Sixthly. The system and the appropriate measures for increasing the 
collection of paintings, statues, and kindred works of art, of which the 
private gallery of the party of the first part will form the nucleus, and 
such other voluntary donations as the trustees may from time to time 
receive, are confided to the direction and judgment of the trustees, as 
is also the management generally of the institution. 

Seventhly. The general intent of the said party of the first part be- 
ing expressed in general terms in the premises and recitals of this in- 
strnment, and further indicated, with certain specifications, in the afore- 
going articles, numbered from one to six, inclusive, it is hereby declared 
that, all and singular, the gifts, grants, conveyances, and assignments 
herein expressed and set foith are, to and for the trusts, intents, and 
purposes so as aforesaid expressed, implied, set forth, or indicated, 
and to none other whatsoever; and that, while it is the intention 
of the grantor and donor herein that no unruly, technical, or 
formal breach of, or departure from, the terms and conditions of this 
trust shall operate as any forfeiture or defeasance in favor of his heirs, 
or of any claiming in his right, it is hereby declared, and these presents 
are upon the express and strict condition, that these presents, and 
every matter and thing hereinbefore contained, and every estate, 
right, title, interest, and power thereby given, granted, conveyed, 
and limited, shall cease and determine, and become utterly void and of 
no effect, whensoever it shall be decreed, adjudged, or declared, by the 
highest judicial authority having jurisdiction, upon a proper proceed- 
ing, in law or in equity, to be instituted by the heirs, devisees, or assigns, 



APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 09 

of tlie said party of tlio liist part, that the real estate hereinbefore con- 
veyed shall have been diverted from the purposes of this trust, to be 
gathered from this instrument in all its parts and provivsions, so as 
substantially to defeat orpkiiuly to be inconsistent with and repugnant 
to this trust, construed and interpreted in a liberal and sensible spirit ; 
and thereupon, as in case of a breach of a strict condition-subsequent, 
the heii'S, devisees, assigns, or other proper legal representatives in the 
premises of the said William W. Corcoran, shall be entitled to re-enter 
upon the said real estate as of his, the said Vv'^illim W. Corcoran's,.right 
and title prior to the execution of these presents, and as if the same 
had never been executed ; and in like manner all and every other estate, 
property, chattel, or valuable tiling, the title to which shall have pro- 
ceeded in the premises from the said William W. Corcoran to the said 
trustees or their successors and assigns, shall, as far as may be consist- 
ent with the rules and principles of law and equity, revert and be re- 
vested in right of the said Corcoran or his proper legal representatives 
therein. 

Eighthly. That the said board of trustees may at any time hereafter, 
in its discretion, apply for and accept an act of Congress incorporating 
them and their successors, so as to facilitate the execution of this trust, 
by vesting the same in a perpetual body-corporate, with the like pow- 
ers and for the same trusts, intents, and purposes herein declared, ex- 
pressed, or indicated, but for no other trusts, intents, or purposes what- 
soever; such act of incorporation to refer to this deed, and to be expressed 
to be in execution of the trusts thereof ; and thereupon the said parties 
of the second part, and the survivors and survivor of them, or the heirs 
and assigns of such survivor, shall execute such convejances as maybe 
necessary to transfer the whole property of this trust to such corpora- 
tion, upon the trusts of this deed. 

And whereas the lots of ground and improvements hereinbefore de- 
scribed and referred to have, by reason of the exigencies of the public 
service of the United States, been rented and occupied for the public 
use, without any special contract, but subject to the constitutional pro- 
vision that "private property shall not be taken for public use without 
just compensation," which just compensation for the whole period of 
such occupation by the United States now remains to be paid ; and 
considering the same properly to belong to this trust, as being of the 
rents, issues, and profits of the ground and buildings which he had here- 
tofore, and as early as the year 1859, devoted and dedicated to the trusts 
and purposes hereinbefore formally declared : Now, therefore, in consid- 
eration of the premises, and of the sum of 81 by the said parties of 
the second part to him in hand paid, he, the said party of the first part, 
hath assigned, transferred, and setover,and by these presents doth assign, 
transfer, and set over unto the said parties of the second part and the sur- 
vivors and survivor of them, and the executors, administrators, and 
assigns of such survivor, all and singular the rents, issues, and profits 
of the lots of ground and improvements hereinbefore described, for and 



100 APPENDIX TO JOURXAL. 

during the whole period of the occupation and possession of the same 
by the Government of the United States, and all the just compensation 
which may be due from the United States for the public use of the same, 
hereby authorizing and empowering the said parties of the second part, 
or a majority of them, either by themselves or by any substituted 
attorney or attorneys, to be named and appointed by them, or a maJGrity 
of them, to acquit and release and receipt for the same in any sufficient 
legal form of acquittance which may be according to law, as fully as he, 
the said party of the lirst part, could personally release and acquit the 
same. 

Which rents, issues, and profits, and just compensation for the public 
use of the said property shall be received and held by the said parties 
of the second part for the same uses, intents, and purposes hereinbefore 
declared ; but shall, as far as may be necessary, be applied, before all 
other objects, to the completion of the interior of said building, and to 
putting it in a condition to be immediately applied to the primary in- 
tents and purposes of this trust, as expressed in the recital in the 
premises of this deed. 

In testimony whereof the said party of the first part hath hereunto set 

his hand and afiixed his seal,- the day and year first hereinbefore 

written. 

W. W. CORCOEAX. 

Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of — 

John Hunter. 

A. T. Brice. 
We jointly and severally accept the trusts of the aforegoing deed. 
Witness our hands and seals the said tenth day of May, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-nine. 

James M. Carlisle. Geo. W. Eiggs. 

James G. Berret. Henry D. Cooke. 

W. T. Walters. J. C. Hall. 

Anthony Hyde. Jas. C. Kennedy. 

Jas. C. McGuire. 



District of Columbia, County of Washington : 

I, Whitman C. Bestor, a notary public in and for Washington County 
aforesaid, do hereby certify that William W. Corcoran, the party of the 
first part to a certain deed, bearing date the tenth day of May, A. D. 
eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, and hereto annexed, personally 
appeared before me, in the county aforesaid, on the day of the date 
hereof, the said William W. Corcoran being personally well known to 
me to be the person who executed the said deed, and acknowledged the 
same to be his act. 

Given under my hand and notarial seal this tenth day of May, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-nine. 

whitma:n^ c. bestoe, 

Notary Public. 



APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 101 

D. 

TONER LECTURES. 

Deed of conveyance from Dr. J. M. Toner to five trustees, instituting the 
Toner lectures at the city of Washingtori, and estaUlshing a permanent 
and increasing fund for their support and continuance annually. 

This indenture, made this thirteenth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eiftht hundred and seventy-two, between Dr. Joseph 
M. Toner, of the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia, of the 
lirst part, and the Secretary or chief scientific officer of the Smithsonian 
Institution, (for the time being Professor Joseph Henry;) the Surgeon- 
General of the, United States Army, (for the time being J. K. Barnes, 
M. D. ;) the Surgeon-General of the United States Navy, (for the time 
being J. M. Foltz, M. D.5) the president of the Medical Society of the 
District of Columbia, (for the time being- Grafton Tyler, M. D.;) of the 
second part, all at i^resent residing- in said District of Columbia: 

Whereas the said party of the first part, believing that the advancement 
of science — that is, a knowledge of the laws of nature in any part of 
her domain, and particularly such discoveries as contribute to the ad- 
vancement of medicine — tends to ameliorate the condition of mankind, 
hath determined to convey and transfer to the said parties of the sec- 
ond part, and their successors forever, in their several official positions 
as aforesaid, the hereinafter described real and i)ersonal i)roperty, 
amounting in value to about $3,000, ninety per cent, of the interest of which 
is to be applied for at least two annual memoirs or essays by different 
individuals, and, as the fund increases, as many more as the interest of 
the trust and revenue will in the judgment of the trustees justify, rela- 
tive to some branch of medical science, to be read at the city of Wash- 
ington at such time and place as the said parties of the second part and 
their successors as trustees may designate, under the name of " The 
Toner Lectures ;" each of these memoirs or lectures to contain some new 
truth fully established by experiment or observation, and no such 
memoir or lecture to be given to the world under the name of " The 
Toner Lectures" without having first been critically examined and ap- 
proved by competent persons selected by said trustees for that purpose. 
It is further provided, that such of the said memoirs or lectures as 
may be approved shall be published in such manner and through such 
channels as said trustees may determine. 

And, in order to carry out the intentions hereinbefore expressed, the 
said party of the first part hath associated with himself the said other 
parties of the second part, each in his official character as hereinbefore 
named, with this provision : that upon removal from official position of 
any one of said parties of the second part, by death or otherwise, his 
successor in said position shall succeed him as one of the trustees of 
"The Toner Lectures;" and that upon the death, resignation, or removal 
of said party of the first part, or his successors, the other trustees 



102 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 

surviving- shall, witbin a reasonable time tbereafter, elect to succeed 
bim an active and energetic member of tbe regular medical profession 
in good standing and practice in tbe city of AVasbington, who sball 
upon bis acceptance thereof be and become one of the trustees oi* '' Tbe 
Toner Lectures."' xVnd if tbe IMedical Society of tbe District of Colum- 
bia sball at any time hereafter be dissolved, so that there woukl no 
longer be a president thereof, then and within a reasonable time there- 
after tbe other trustees sball elect to succeed the said president, as trus- 
tee in this behalf, an active and euergetic member of tbe regular medi- 
cal profession in this District, in good practice and standing, who sball 
upon acceptance thereof be and become one of the trustees of "The 
Toner Lectures ;" and so on from time to time, so as to continue to have 
tive trustees, who shall serve without compensation. And to carry out 
tbe hereinbefore-expressed intentions these presents are made. 

Kow, therefore, this indenture witnessetb that tbe said party of the 
first inirt, for aud in consideration of tbe premises aforesaid, and, fur- 
ther, tbe sum of one dollar, lawful money of the United States, to him 
in band paid by the said parties of tbe second part, at aud before the 
sealing and delivery of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby 
acknowledged, bath granted, bargained, sold, aliened, enfeoffed, aud 
conveyed, aud doth by these presents grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoll^ 
and convey unto tbe said parties of tbe second jiart, tbe survivor or 
survivors of them, (aud their associates duly elected,) aud to their heirs, 
executors, administrators, aud assig'us, according to the quality of the 
estate granted, the following described real estate in the said city of 
Washington, known aud described as being lots numbered six (G) and 
seven (7) in Clark's recorded subdivision of square north of square num- 
bered three hundred and thirty- four, (334,) and also money and private 
securities amounting to tbe sum of $1,100 j together with all the bu- 
provements, ways, easements, rights, privileges, and appurtenances to 
the said real estate belonging, or in any wise appertaining, and all tbe 
remainders, reversions, rents, issues, and profits thereof: 

To have and to bold tbe said real and personal estate or private securi- 
ties unto and to the use of tbe said parties of the second part, together 
with tbe said party of the first part, their heirs, executors, administra- 
tors, and assigns, iu aud upon the trusts, nevertheless, hereinafter men- 
tioned aud declared — that is, whenever it seems to them that the pro- 
ductiveness of tbe fund will be increased thereby, to ibiell the said real 
estate, and the same to convey iu fee simple to the purchaser thereof; 
aud to convert the said personal estate or private securities into money, 
and the proceeds of said sale and conversion to invest, re-invest, from 
time to time, aud to keep invested in some safe public or private securi- 
tiesin the name aud for the use of tbe trustees of " The Toner Lectures," 
"who shall api>ly ninety per ceut. of the interest thereof annually to de- 
frayiugtheexpeusesof said ''Toner Lectures," andthe publication thereof 
whenever tbe publication thereof is deemed advisable. The remaiuiug 



AITENDIX TO JOUKNAL. 103 

ten per cent, of tlio said annual interest from tlie whole fund, as well as 
any additional gift or unexi)ended balance at the end of each year, they 
shall from time to time invest, and the same shall be and become a part 
of the principal, for the steady increase of the permanent and producing 
fund of said " Toner Lectures." It is hereby provided that the said 
trustees shall hold at least one regular meeting aniiually ; kee]) a cor- 
rect record, in a book for the purpose, of all proceedings and actions as 
trustees, with a statement of the expenditures of the rev^'iiue, and the 
condition of the i'und, where and how invested ; all of which they may, 
from time to time, at their pleasure make public, and be governed in all 
matters relating to the general execution of the trusts and intentions 
herein expressed and declared, and in the investing and disbursing of 
all trust-moneys, by such rules and regulations as may from time to time 
be adopted by them for their own government, with this ex[)ress con- 
ilition, however: that for the election of any new trustee to fill a va- 
cancy, for the sale of any property or stocks or securities, or the invest- 
ment of any funds, the approval of a majority of said trustees, in writing 
or by their votes at a meeting of the trustees, shall be absolutely neces- 
sary. 

And it is further provided, that in case of the failure at Jiny time of 
the ])uri)oses for which this trust is created, or in case of the failure of 
the trustees to act for three successive years, or in case of the total fail- 
ure of the trustees to give effect to this trust, then, and in any such 
contingency, the fund hereby provided for and created shall revert to 
the said party of the first part and his heirs or personal representatives. 

In testimony whereof, the said party of the first part hath hereunto 
set his hand and seal on the day and year first hereinbefore written. 

J. M. TOXEil. 

Signed, sealed and delivered before Edward Clark, justice of the 
peace, in the presence of — 
S. H. Kauffman, 
G. B. GoFF. 

We hereby accept the foregoing trust. 

JOSEPH DEXRY, 
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 
J. K. BAENES, 
Surgeon- General United States Army. 

J. M. FOLTZ, 
Surgeon- General United States ]^avy. 
^ GllAFTONTYLEK, i¥. 7)., 

President Medical Society of the District of Columbia. 
JOSEPH MEKEDITH TONE 11, M. I). 



104 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 

E; 

THE TYNDALL TRUST FOR THE PROMOTIOI^ OF SGiEIS^CE 
IX THE UXITED STATES. 

Letter from Professor Tyndall to Professor Henry. 

Kew York, February 7, 1873. 

i\lY Dear Professor Henry: I liave made my "will" iu due form, 
aud signed it iu the preseuee of witnesses. 

My desire aud iuteutiou in accepting the invitation of my friends 
were, as you know, to hand over the proceeds to Chicago. But the re- 
covery froui calamity is quick iu this country, so that Chicago not only 
does not need my feeble aid, but would be willing of her abundance to 
add to my wealth. 

]\Iy disbursements, as I told you, are heavy. Living I hjive found to 
be exceedingly expensive iu the United States; hence the balance which 
I am able to hand over to the board of trustees is not so large as I 
uould wish it to be. It, however, amounts to a little more than thirteen 
thousand dollars. 

I have bestowed some care on the accounts, and do not think I carry 
home with me a single cent of American money. But I carry home 
what is to me incomparably more precious, and that is the assured good- 
will of the American people. 

The instruments that I take home with me I iutend to present to the 
Royal Institution, where they will be turned to good account. My 
hands will be then entirely clean, and no foreign element will mingle 
with the bright memory of the time I spent here. 

Ever yours, faithfully, 

JOHX TYNDALL. 
Professor Joseph Henry, 

Secretary Smithsonian Instiiiition, WasJiington, D. C. 



THE TRUST. 

I, John Tyndall, professor of natural philosophy iu the Royal Institu 
tion of G-reat Britain, having, at the solicit^ition of my friends, lectured 
iu various cities of the Uuited States, fiud the receipts and disburse- 
ments on account of these lectures to be as follows : 

I. — Receipts. 

From Boston, for six lectures , $1, 500 00 

Froui Philadelphia, for six lectures 3, 000 00 

From Baltimore, for three lectures 1, 000 00 



APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. - 105 

From WashingtoD, for six lectures . $3, 000 00 

From New York, for six lectures . 8, 500 00 

From Brooklyn, for six lectures G, 100 00 

From New Haveu, for two lectures 1, 000 00 

Total receipts 23, 100 00 



II. — Disbursements. 

Before leaving England : Wages of assistants during the 
preparation of the lectures; work of philosophical instru- 
ment maker ; new apparatus ; sundry items for outfit ; 
traveling expenses of myself and two assistants from 
London to New York, make a total of £671 6s. 8d., which, 
at the rate of $5.50 per pound, amounts to $3, 692 31 

In the United States : Hotel and traveling expenses for myself 
and two assistants; other expenses incidental to lectures in 
Boston, Philadelphia,* Baltimore, Washington, New York, ' 
Brooklyn, and New Haven, covering a period of four 
mouths, plus traveling expenses of myself and my assist- 
ant from New York to London, make a total of 4, 749 35 

Present to Yale's Scientific Club 250 00 

Salaries to assistants for four months, £250, which, at 85.50 
\)ev pound, amounts to 1, 375 00 

Making the total disbursements 10, 006 66 

IIL 

The total receipts are $23, 100 00 

The total disbursements 10, 066 6Q 

Making the net proceeds of lectures 13, 033 34 

As an eviilence of my good-will toward the people of the United 
States, I desire to devote this sum of thirteen thousand and thirty-three 
dollars to the advancement of theoretic science and the promotion of 
original research, especially in the department of jihysics, in the United 
States. 

To accomplish this object I hereby appoint Professor Joseph Henry, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington City, D. C.^ Dr. 
E. L. Youmans, of New York, and General Hector Tyndale, of Philadel- 
phia, to act as a board of trustees to take charge of the above sum— =to 
carefully invest it in permanent securities; and I further direct that the 
said board shall, for the present, appropriate the interest of the fund 

*At Philadelphia I had no hotel expenses, but was most comfortably lodged at the 
house of my kiusmau, General Hector Tyndale. He, I may add, paid his own hotel 
expenses wherever he accompanied me. 



106 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 

in supportinsi", or in assistinji' to support, at siu'li European universities 
as they may eonsitler most desirable, two American pupils, who may 
evince decided talents in physics, and who may express a doterinination 
to devote their li\es to this work. j\Iy desire would be that each pupil 
should spend tour years at a Geruian university — three of those years to 
be devoted to the acquisition of knowledge, and the fourth to original 
investigation. 

If, hou ever, in the progress of science in the United States, it shouhl 
at any time appear to the said board that the end herein proposed 
would be better subserved by granting aid to students, or for some 
special researches in this country, the board is authorized to make the 
appropriations from the in.come of the fund for such puri)oses. 

1 further direct that vacancies which may occur in said board of 
trustees, by death or otherwise, shall be tilled by the president of the 
Kational Academy of Sciences. 

If in the course of any year the whole amount of the interest which 
accrues from the fund be not expended in the manner before mentioned, 
the surplus may be added to the principal, or may be expended in addi- 
tion to the annual interest of another year. 

If at any time any organization shall be established, and money pro- 
vided by other persons for the promotion of such original research as I 
have in view, I authorize the said board of trustees to exercise their 
discretion as to co oi)erating in such work from the income of this fund. 

In witness w hereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 7th ol 
February, 1873, in the city of I^ew York. 

. JOnX TYNDALL. [seal.J 
In presence of — 

C. BUKRITT \A^VITE. 

L. E. Fuller. 



BEQUEST OF JAMES HAMILTOX. 

Letter fyo)n the exeeufors. 

Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Ajyril 17, 1873. 

Dear Sir : Inclosed please find printed copy of the last will and tes- 
tament, and codicil thereto, of James llamiltou, esq., late of this place, 
deceased, by which we notify you of the becpiest made to your board by 
said last will and testament. 

As certain legal questions will have to be ilecided by the courts before 
wre will feel justitied in paying over eleemosynary bequests, it wouid be 
well for your board to be represented by counsel. 

One of the religious associations have employed Henderson andllays, 
who, we understand, are making i)reparations for a case. 



APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 107 

We give you early notice that you may act accordiugly, and all legal 
difficulties be removed at as early a day as practicable. 
Our post-ofiQce address is Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 
Yours, respectfully, 

JOSEPH n. STUAET, 

ABEAM BOSLER, 

Executors of James Hamilton, deceased. 
Professor Joseph Henry, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Extract from the icill of James Hamilton, dated November 20, 1871. 

" In the name of God, amen. I, James Hamilton, declare this to be 
my last will and testament, with respect to my personal property : 



8. I give one thousand dollars to the Board of Regents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, located at Washington, D. C, to be invested by said 
regents in some safe fund, and the interest to be appropriated bienni- 
ally by the secretaries, either in money or a medal, for such contribu- 
tion, paper, or lecture on any scientific or useful subject as said secre- 
taries may api)rove." 



G. 

CIECULAR SENT WITH SPECIMEKS PRESENTED TO INSTI- 
TUTIONS. 

The following is a copy of the circular sent to foreign museums on 
the presentation to them of specimens from the collections of the insti- 
tution ; which was alluded to by the secretary in his remarks at the 
meeting of the Board on the 20th January, 1873 : 

Smithsonian Institution, 

Washingtonj I). C, , 18 7-. 

Dear Sir : In behalf of the Smithsonian Institution, we have this 

day forwarded by the specimens mentioned in the accompanying 

receipt — a i^reseut from the Institution, uj^on the following conditions : 

1. That an acknowledgment be made to the Secretary of the Institu- 
tion immediately on receipt of the specimens, by signing and returning 
the accompanying blank. 

2. That full credit be given the Institution for the donation, on the 
labels of the specimens, in published reports, and under all other cir- 
cumstances. 

3. That free access to and use of these specimens be allowed, under 
the proper restrictions, to all persons engaged in original investigations 
requiring such material. 



108 APPENDIX TO JOURNAL. 

4. That suitable returns be made from the duplicates iu the collee- 
tious under your charge, whenever the Institution may desire and call 
for them. 

Vei-y resiiectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOSEPH HENEY, 

Secretary S. I. 

[To be signed and returned prepaid to the " Secretary of tlie Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington."] 

, , 187-. 



I have received from the Smithsonian Institution, through 



, iu behalf of , the following collections, subject to 

the conditions mentioned in the accompanying circular-letter. 



GENERAL APPENDIX 



THE SMITHSONIAN REPORT FOR 1872. 



The object of this appendix is to illustrate tbe operations of the 
lustitutiou by reports of lectures aud extracts from correspondence, as 
well as to furnish information of a character suited especially to the 
meteorological observ^ers and other persons interested in the promotion 
of knowledge. 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 



BY M. ARAGO. 



[Translated for the Smithsonian Institution.] 

GENTLE:srEN : It is my duty to-day, in accordance with an article of 
the academic regulations dating back to 1G66, and which during this 
long interval of time has always been faitlifully executed, to bring be- 
fore you the labors of one of our most illustrious associates, and at the 
same time to cursorily glance at his life. 

These biographical sketches have not always preserved the same 
characteristics. Before the judges of the eighteenth century, Fonte- 
nelle himself, the ingenious Fontenelle, ventured to refer so briefly to 
technical points that his eulogy on Newton occupies only about thirty 
pages in octavo. If you will open this master-piece of delicacy, elegance, 
and atticism, you will find the celebrated "Treatise on Optics" confined 
to a few lines, and the title of the "Universal Arithmetic" not even 
mentioned. In proportion as the sciences progress the ancient bounda- 
ries of the academic eulogies should be enlarged, and, in fact, we having 
at last reached a period when the crowds are largely pressing to expositions 
of the mathematical and natural sciences with which our vast lecture 
rooms daily resound, the secretaries of the academy have begun to feel 
that it is time to rid themselves of the restraints which their illustrious 
predecessors had imposed upon themselves, that henceforth they might 
here, at the i)ublic sittings, speak of the labors of their associates in the 
terms hereafter to be used by the historians of the sciences. This new 
course has already several times received your kind approbation. The 
idea of departing from it has never even suggested itself to my mind, as 
indeed, a little reflection would have reminded me, when IM. Ampere 
was removed from our midst, of the impossibility of examining his 
works, and of making the analysis of his complete encyclopedia, with- 
out departing from theusual limits of our eulogies. I must acknowledge, 
too, that a close intimacy, an intimacy without a cloud for more than 
thirty years, has also contributed to extend this biography, and to ena- 
ble me to give importance to certain details that one indifferent to him 
would have passed by unnoticed. If an excuse be necessary, gentlemen, 
I will give it to you in a line in which a great poet has defined friendship 

" The only passion of the soul in wliiv;h excess is tolerated." 



112 EULOGY ON AMPEKE. 

INFANCY OF AMPI^RE, HIS EXTRAOEDINARY JIEMOBY, HIS PRECO- 
CIOUS TALENTS, HIS FAVORITE BOOKS — HE WRITES ON THE PRIMI- 
TIVE LANGUAGE. 

Andre Marie Ampere, the son of Jean Jacques Ampere and Jeanne 
Antoinette JSarcey de Sntieres, was born at Lyons, in the parish of Saint 
]S^izier, on the 22d of January, 1775. 

Jean Jacques Ampere was* well educated, and highly esteemed. His 
wife was also generally beloved for the uniform sweetness of her dispo- 
sition and a beneficence, ever on the watch for occasion upon which to 
exercise itself. A short time after the birth of their son, M. Ampere 
abandoned commerce and retii'ed with his wife to a small estate in Poley- 
mieux-lez-Mont-d'Or, near Lyons, and here in an obsciu'e ^dllage, without 
the assistance of a teacher, began to dawn, or, as I should say, to be de- 
veloped that w^onderful intellect, the brilliant phases of which I am about 
to unfold. 

The first talent shown by Ampere was that for arithmetic. Before 
even understanding figures, or knowing how to form them, he made 
long calcuhitious with the aid of a limited number of pebbles or beans. 
It may be he had fallen upon the ingenious method of the Hindoos, or, 
j)erhaps, his pebbles were combined like the corn strung upon parallel 
lines by the Brahmin mathematicians of Pondichery, Calcutta, and 
Benares, and handled by them with such rapidity, precision and accur- 
acy. As we advance in the life of Ampere we shall find this supposi- 
tion gradually losing its apparent improbability. To illustrate to what 
an extraordinary degree the love of calculation had seized upon the 
young student, being deprived, by the tenderness of his mother, during 
a serious illness, of his dear little pebbles, he supplied their places 
with pieces of biscuit which had been allowed him after three days 
strict diet. I shall not dwell longer on this illustration, as I am far from 
wishing to give it as an unanswerable or incontestible indication of the 
future vocation of Ampere. There are children, I know, whose apathy 
nothing seems able to arouse, and others, again, who take an interest iu 
every thing, amuse themselves with even mathematical calculations 
without an object. You object to this assertion, charge it, perhaps, with 
exaggeration, and class numerical calculation with those distasteful 
tasks which duty and necessity alone can induce one to undertake. My 
answer is ready, and I will cite, not mere school-boys, but a distinguished 
savant, who, perceiving my astonishment at seeing him, during a public 
meeting of the academy, undertake the multiplication of two long lines 
of ligures, said to me at once, " You forget the pleasure it Avill give me 
directly to prove this calculation by division.^ 

Young Ampere soon learned to read, and devoured every book that fell 
into his hand. History, ti'avels, poetry, romances and philosophy inter- 
ested him almost equally. If he showed any preference, it was for 
Homer, Lucian, Tasso, Fenelon, Corneille, Voltau-e, and for Thomas, 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 113 

whom it is siu-prisiug to find, notwithstanding his miquestionable talent 
in so brilliant a company. The i^riucipal study of the young student of 
Poleymieux was the encyclopedia in alphabetical order, in twenty yoI- 
imies in folio. Each one of these twenty volumes had separately its 
turn, the second after the first, the third after the second, and so on to 
the end, without once interrupting the arithmetical order. 

ligature had endowed Ampere, to an extraordinary degree, with the 
foculty Plato so aptly, and not too extravagantly, describes as "a great 
and powerful goddess." Thus this colossal work was completely and 
deeply engraved on the mind of our friend. Each one of us has heard 
this member of the Academy of Sciences, at a somewhat advanced 
age, repeat, with perfect accuracy, long passages from the encyclopedia, 
relating to blazonry, falconrj^, etc., which a half century before he had 
read amidst the rocks of Poleymieux. His mysterious and wonderful 
memory, however, astonishes me a thousand times less than that force 
united to flexibility, which enables the mind to assimilate, without con- 
fusion, after reading in alphabetical order, matter so astonishingly va- 
ried as that in the large dictionary of d'Alembert and Diderot. I will 
ask you to glance with me over the first pages of the encyclopedia. I 
mention the first pages as I prefer not to choose, that our admiration 
may be spontaneous. 

To begin : The jireposition a fills the reader's mind with nice gram- 
matical distinctions; ah transports him to the Hebrew calendar; abadir 
to the midst of the mythological histories of Cybele and Saturn. Tlie 
word abaissement (depression) carries him at times into algebra, to the 
reduction of the degrees of equations ; into one of the most difficult 
problems of geodesy and the nautical art, when required to determine the 
depression of the horizon at sea; and to heraldry, when abateme^it desig- 
nates the peculiar signs added to the arms of families when necessary 
to debase their bravery and dignity. Turning the page the article ahl>e 
will enlighten you as to all that is fickle and capricious in the ecclesias- 
tical discipline. The next word, ahscesSj carries you into surgery. To 
the description of the anatomical organization of bees, {alceUcs,) of their 
mode of living and reproduction, of their habits, of the hierarchical or- 
ganization of the hive, succeeds almost immediately the explanation of 
the immortal and subtile discovery of Bradley; of those annual move- 
ments of the stars, which, under the name of aberration, demonstrate 
that the earth is a planet. Some lines further on you fall into the ahyss 
of cosmogony. Abacadabra plunges you into necromancy. 

This, then, is the kind of reading that a child of thirteen or fourteen 
undertook, or rather planned, for himself without finding it too severe 
a task. I shall have more than one example to give of the strength of 
Ampere's mind. None, however, more remarkable than the one I am 
about to relate. 

As the modest library of a retired merchant could no longer satisfy 
the yoiuig student, his father took him from time to time to Lyons, where 
8 



114 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

Le bad access to the rarest books, amoug others the works of Bernoulli 
and Elder. When the puny and delicate child first asked the librarian 
tor these works the good M. Daburon exclaimed, '' Do you understand 
the works of Bernoulli and Eulerl Eeflect, my little friend. These 
works rank among the most abstruse the human mind has ever pro- 
duced." " I hope, nevertheless, to be able to understand them," replied 
the child. " You are aware, I presume, they are written in Latin," added 
the librarian. This revelation for a moment disheartened our young 
and future associate ; he had not yet studied the Latin language. It 
is unnecessary to tell you now that at the end of a few weeks this obsta- 
cle was removed. What Ampere sought above all things were ques- 
tions to fathom and i:)roblems to solve, even in his earlier studies. The 
word tongue or language {langue) in the ninth volume of the encyclo- 
pedia transported him to the banks of the Euphrates and to the Tower 
of Babel of biblical celebrity. There he found men speaking all the 
same language. A miracle related by Moses suddenly produced the 
confusion. Each tribe spoke from that time a distinct language. These 
languages mingled and became corrupt, and lost by degrees that char- 
acter for simplicity, regularity, and grandeur which distinguished the 
common stock. To discover this original language, or at least to recon- 
struct it with its ancient attributes, was a problem certainly very difd-. 
cult, but the young student did not consider it beyond his powers. 

Great philosophers had already been engaged in this work. In order 
to give a complete history of their attempts, it would be necessary to go 
back to that King of Egypt, who, if we can believe Herodotus, caused 
two children to be brought up in absolute seclusion with only a goat as 
nurse, and who then had the simplicity to be astonished that these chil. 
dren should bleat. The word becos proceeding more or less distinctly 
from their mouths, he considered the Phrygeans, in whose language is 
found the word beck, (bread,) best qualified to be thought the most 
ancient race of the world. 

Among the modern philosophers who have interested themselves in 
the primitive language, and in the means of restoring it, Descartes and 
Leibnitz occupy, incontestably, the first places. The problem, as these 
men of genius treated it, was not nierely to improve the musical qualities 
of modern languages, to simplify their grammar and to banish from them 
all irregularities and exceptions. They supposed it to consist especially 
of a kind of analysis of the human mind, of the classification of ideas, 
and of the complete and exact enumeration of those which should be con- 
sidered elementary. By means of a language built upon such a founda- 
ion, "the peasants," said Descartes, " would be better judges of the truth 
of things than are the i)hilosophers now." Leibnitz expressed the same 
idea in different terms, when he wrote that " the universal language 
would add more to the powers of reasoning than the telescope to the 
eye, or the magnetic needle to the progress of navigation." 

IsTo one would be so presuming as to affirm that young Amjoere treated 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 115 

the question of tlie universal language \ritli the same comprehensiveness 
and the same research as Descartes and Leibnitz, but it can be said, at 
least, that he did not banish its solution, as the first of these philoso- 
phers did to the land of romance. Nor did he confine himself as the 
second did, to dissertations on the marvellous fitness of the future in- 
strument. This instrument he created! Several of Ampere's friends 
have had in their hands a grammar and dictionary, the fruits of 
his indefatigable perseverance, containing the almost finished rules 
of the new language. Some have heard him recite fragments of a 
poem comi^osed in this new tongue, and can testify to its harmony, the 
only thing, to tell the truth, of which they could judge, as the meaning 
of the words was unintelligible to them. Who, besides, among us does 
not remember the joy experienced by our associate, when, in glancing 
over the work of a modern traveler, he discovered in the vocabulary of a 
certain African tribe several combinations, which he had himself formed. 
It will be remembered that a similar discovery was the chief cause of 
Ampere's warm admiration for the Sanscrit. 

A work which has reached such a degree of advancement, should not 
be condemned to oblivion. The carrying out by Ampere of an idea of 
Descartes and Leibnitz will always interest philosophers and philologists 
in the highest degree. The manuscripts of our brother are fortunately 
in hands eminently qualified to bring out all that could contribute to 
the advancement of science and letters. 

AMPl^RE'S AFFLICTION DtlEING THE TERRIBLE REVOLUTION — SUSPEN- 
SION OF HIS INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES — RECOVERY — 
BOTANICAL STUDIES — HIS MEETING WITH THE LADY WHO AFTER- 
WARDS BECOMES HIS WIFE. 

The revolutionary tempest in 1793, during one of its most violent con- 
vulsions, i^enetrated as far as the mountains of Poleymieux, and Jean- 
Jacques Ampere becoming alarmed, in order to escape a danger which his 
parental and marital solicitude had, perhaps, greatly magnified was 
guilty of the fatal steps of leaving the country and taking refuge in 
the city of Lyons, and of there accepting the office of justice of the 
peace. 

You will remember, gentlemen, that after the seige of that city, Collot- 
de Herbois and Fouche perpetrated there, under the unfortunately spe- 
cious name of reprisals, the most execrable butcheries. Jean-Jacques 
Ampere was one of the first of their numerous victims, less on account 
of holding the position of magistrate during the trial of Chalier, than 
on account of the hackneyed charge of aristocrat with which he was 
branded, in the writ of arrest, by the very man, who, a few years later, 
had" engraved on the panels of his carriage, the most brilliant coat of 
arms, and who signed with the title of duke, the conspiracies he was 
plotting against his country and his benefactor. 



116 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

Tlie clay he was to asceud the scaffold, Jean-Jacques wrote to his 
vdfe a letter full of the most sublime simplicity, resignation and heroic 
tenderness, in which you willfind these words: "Say nothing to Josephine 
(the name of his daughter) of the unhax)py fate of her father ; try to 
keep her ever in ignorance of it. As to my son, I expect everything of 
h im.'^ Alas ! the victim deluded himself. The blow was too severe, it was 
beyond the strength of a young man of eighteen ; Ampere was com- 
pletely paralyzed by it. His intellectual faculties, so active, so ardent 
and well developed, seemed suddenly to degenerate into a complete 
idiocy. He would pass whole days mechanically contemplating the 
skies and the earth, or in heaping up little piles of sand. His anxious 
friends, fearing his symptoms gave indication of a fatal and rapid de- 
cline, tried to entice him into the neighboring woods of Poleymieux, to 
arouse him, if possible, from this lethargy, where "he was," (I use the 
very words of our associate,) a mute witness, " an observer without eyes 
or thought." 

This torpor of all feeling, mental and moral, lasted for more than a 
year, when the botanical letters of J. J. Eousseau falling into his hands, 
their clear, harmonious language seemed to penetrate into the very soid 
of the afflicted youth, and in some degree to restore tone to his mind, 
as the rays of the rising-sun pierce the thick fogs of the morning and 
bear life into the bosom of the plant that the "numb cold night" had 
rendered torpid. About the same time a volume, accidentally opened, 
brought to his notice some lines from the ode of Horace to Lucinius. 
These lines seemed to convey no meaning to our friend, to him who had 
merely learned Latin with sufficient accuracy to enable him to read essays 
on mathematics ; but their cadence charmed" him, and from this time, 
contrary to the principles of the moralist who declares the human mind 
incapable of entertaining at the same time more than one ardent pas- 
sion. Ampere gave himself uj) with unrestrained zeal to the simulta- 
neous studies of plants and the poets of the Augustan age. A volume 
of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum accompanied him in his herboraza- 
tions, as well as the works of Linnaeus, and the meadows and hills of 
Poleymieus resounded daily with declamations from Horace, Virgil, 
Lucretius, and especially from Lucian, in the intervals of his dissections 
of a corolla or the examination of a petal. The quantity of the Latin 
words became so familiar to Amx)ere, that forty years after, he com- 
posed one hundred and fifty eight technical lines in a post-chaise dur- 
ing a tour of inspection of the universities, without once referring to 
the Gradus. 

The botanical knowledge he acquired in these solitary studies was as 
profound as it was lasting. It is my good fortune to be able to cite on 
this point the unexceptionable and striking testimony of our colleagi^e, 
M. Auguste de Saint-Hilaire. 

The genus Begonia was among the number of those classed by 
the illustrious de Jussicu under the head of incertn sedis, because he 



EULOGY OX AMPERE. 117 

had not succeeded in discovering their natural relations. On reaching 
Brazil, where a large number of the species of this genus is found, M. de 
Saint-Hilaire examined them with the serui)ulous care which gives so 
much value to all his labors, and discovered their true affinities. Some 
time after his return to France, M. de Saint-Hilaire, meeting M. Ampere 
in society, after the usual interchange of civilities was addressed by him 
in the following terms: "I found yesterday, while walking in a garden, 
a begonia, and amused myself examining it. With what family do you 
classify it!" " Since you have examined it, permit me to ask you how 
you would classify it?" "I would place it in the adjoining group of 
onagraircs,''^ replied M. Ampere. And, in fact, this was precisely the 
idea a thorough examination, made on the very spot where the plant 
grew naturally and in the open air, had suggested to M. de Saint-Hi- 
laire. But our two colleagues were guilty of the error of not publish- 
ing to the world the solution of a problem whose difficulty is de- 
monstrated by the hesitation concerning it shown by de Jussieu. Ten 
years later, after his own investigatious, Lindley assigned to the genjiis 
Begonia the place it should properly occupy — the -place first indicated 
by Ampere and M. Auguste de Saint-Hilaire. Does it not surprise you, 
gentlemen, to find the name of a geometer thus associated with those 
of distinguished botanists f 

Before the bloody catastrophe of Lyons, Ampere, then but eighteen 
years of age, made a careful examination of his past life, and discov- 
ered, he said, but three prominent points, but three circumstances, 
whose influence on his future life was important and decided •. these 
were, his first communion, the reading of the eulogy of Descartes by 
Thomas, and finallj' — I foresee your surprise — the fall of the Bastile. 

From his first communion, our associate dates the existence of fixed 
religious feeling ; from the reading of the eulogy of Descartes, his 
taste, or rather his enthusiastic love for the study of mathematics, 
physics, and philosophy ; and from the fall of the Bastile, the first 
exultation of his soul at the names of liberty, human dignity, and phi- 
lanthropy. The terrible death that snatched from the worthy family 
of Poleymieux its venerated head was calculated to deaden for a time 
the faculties of our associate, but there was no change wrought in his 
convictions. From the moment his intellect was aroused from its slum- 
ber, that devotion of mind and heart to the cause of civilization resumed 
its sway. He scornfull^^ rejected the idea that the fury of a few demons — 
that crimes — from which he had so cruelly suflered could arrest the pro- 
gressive march of the world. 

The fertile mind with w hich nature had endowed the student of Poley- 
mieux had been active from his earliest infancy ; but such, hovrever, 
had not been the case with his senses. Those powerful instruments of 
pleasure and of study were revealed to Ampere at a much later date — 
at least in all the fullness of their power — and then by a kind of sudden re ve- 
lationj which, on this account, seems not unworthy of being classed with 



118 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

Chesseldeu's history of the man blind from his birth and suddenly restored 
to sight by the removal of a cataract. Ampere was extremely near-sight- 
ed: obj ects only slightly distan^t seemed to him but confused and undefined 
masses. He could form no idea of the pleasure manifested in his pres- 
euce by the hundreds of people at various times descending the river 
Saoue between Laneuville and Lyons. One day there chanced to be on 
the boat a traveler as near-sighted as himself, and with glasses which 
proved tobeof anumbertosuithiseyes. He tried them, and as if by magic 
all nature assumed a different aspect, the smiling woods, picturesque 
country, graceful, gently undulating hills, rich, warm, harmoniously 
blended tints, spoke for the first time to his imagination, and a torrent 
of tears proclaimed his deep emotion. 

Our associate was then but eighteen, and from that time was 
keenly alive to all the beauties of natui-e, I have been told that, in 
1812, while traveliug along the Mediterranean shore of Italy, a view 
from certain points of the celebrated Corniche on the coast of Genoa 
threw our friend into such an ecstacy of admiration that instant death 
in the presence of that sublime picture was all he desired. 

Were it needful to show how profound were these impressions, and 
to what extent Ampere could make them available in coloring the 
most common-place scenery he "desired to embellish, a striking proof may 
be found in a letter dated January 21, 1819. 

At this time our friend was living in a modest house he had piu'- 
chased at the corner of the streets Fosses- Saint- Victor and Boulangers. 
The garden, more unpretending still, contained not more than ten super- 
ficial meters of unproductive land, recently spaded. Several terraces 
were succeeded by a steep and tortuous trench, crossed by two or three 
narrow planks over the deepest parts, the whole surrounded by a very 
high wall. But, you exclaim, you are describing the damp, gloomy yard 
of a prison. No, gentlemen ; I am describing the plan and appearance 
of a garden where Ampere, in the middle of January, in the street des 
Boulangers, was already dreaming of — I had almost said was absolutely 
seeing — green grass, trees in full leaf, and beautiful flowers, filling the 
air with their delicious perfumes ; and clumps of shrubbery beneath 
whose shade he could revel in the delightfal task of reading letters from 
his Lyonnese friends, where a bridge thrown over the valley formed 
a pictiu-esque object. 

Pardon me, gentlemen, for having anticipated the order of time — for 
having selected from the life of our friend the only circumstance, per- 
haps, where his imagination has not been a source of sorrow to him. 

It was not only the emotions of beauty, grandeur, and sublimity with 
which the hearts of most men are inspired by the view of rural and 
mountainous scenery to which Ampere had been suddenly awakened. 
The musical sense was also of sudden birth. In his youth Ampere 
had given very serious attention to acoustics. He had taken great 
delight in studying the manner in which waves of air are created 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 119 

and pro[)afi:atod ; the difi'erent vibrations of a stretched cord 5 the 
curious periodic changes of intensity, designated as beats, &c. But 
music, properly so-called, was to hiin a sealed book. 

The day finally came, boAvever, when certain combinations of sounds 
were to Ampere something more than mathematical problems — some- 
thing more than the monotonous tinkling of bells. 

In the thii'tieth year of his age he accompanied some friends to a con- 
cert on one occasion, where, in the beginning, the scientific, animated, 
and expressive music of Gliick was alone performed. The discomfort 
of Ampere was apparent to all; he yawned, twisted himself, arose, 
walked about, halted, walked again, without aim or end. From time to 
time (and this with him was the last stage of nervous impatience) he 
would place himself in one of the corners of the room, turning his back 
on the whole assembly. Finally, ennui, that terrible enemy our acade- 
mician had never learned to control, from not having been, as he said, 
at school in his childhood, seemed to ooze from every pore. Now, the 
scientific music of the celebrated German composer was succeeded un- 
expectedly by some sweet, simple melodies; and our associate suddenly 
felt himself transported into a new world, antl his emotions betrayed 
themselves again by copious tears ; the chord uniting the ear and heart 
of Ampere was struck, and made for the first time to vibrate in unison. 

Time made no change in this peculiar taste. During his whole life 
Ampere showed the same fondness for simple, unaffected songs; the 
same distaste for scientific, noisy, labored music. Can it be true that 
in the beautiful art of such masters as Mozart, Cherubini, Berton, 
Auber, Eossini, and Meyerbeer there are no fixed rules by which to 
distinguish the very good from the very bad ; the beautiful from the 
hideous*? At all events, may the example of the learned academician 
render us indulgent to the champions of the ruthless war between the 
Gluckists and Piecinists witnessed by our fathers ; and may it induce us 
to pardon the famous mot of Fontenelle, ^^iSonatc, que me veux tti V — 
("Sonata, what have you to do with me F) As we have just seen, Ampere 
was almost blind to one of the fine arts until eighteen, and almost deaf 
to ahother until thirty. It was during this interval — that is, when about 
twenty-one — that his heart suddenly opened to a new passion, that of love. 
Ampere, who wrote so little, has left some papers, entitled J. .'>< or »»?, 
to which he confided, day by day, the touching, artless, and truly beau- 
tiful history of his feelings. The first page begins thus; "One day 

while strolling, after sunset, along the banks of a solitary stream," 

The phrase remains unfinished. I will finish it with the aid of the 
memory of some of the early friends of the learned academician. 

The day was the 10th of August, 1796. 

The solitary stream was not far from the little village of Saint Ger- 
main, a short distance from Poleymieux. 

Ampere was botanizing. His eyes, in perfect condition to see since 
the adventure on the barge of the Saone, were not now so exclusively 



120 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

fixed on pistils, stamens, and nerves of leaves that he was nna.ble to 
observe at some distance two young and pretty girls, of modest de- 
meanor, who were gathering flowers in a vast meadow. 

This accidental meeting decided the fate of our associate. Until then 
the idea of marriage had never even presented itself to his luind. You 
fancy, perhaps, the idea will quietly take root there, and germinate by 
degrees ', but romantic imaginations do not proceed in this way. Am- 
pere would have been married that very day. The woman of his choice 
— the only one he ever would have married — was one of those two young 
girls seen in the distance, Avith whose family he was not acquainted, of 
whose name he was ignorant, and whose voice had never reached his 
ear. But the affair was not so speedily disposed of. It was not until 
three years afterward that the young girl of the solitary stream and 
meadow. Mademoiselle Julie Carron, became Madame Ami)ere. 

But Ampere was without fortune, and before' giving their daughter 
to him the parents of Mademoiselle Carron prudently exacted that he 
should consider the expenses entailed by marriage, and, as is commonly 
said in the world, establish himself in some business. You will smile, 
I am sure, to hear that, entirely engrossed by his passion. Ampere 
allowed them seriously to propose his applying for a position in some 
shop, where, from morning until night, he would unfold and fold and 
unfold again the beautiful Lyonnese silks ; where his duty would con- 
sist principally in detaining the purchasers by engaging them in agree- 
able conversation, in adhering strictly to a fixed price, but without 
impatience; in descanting at large on the quality of the fabrics, the 
taste of the trimmings, and the fastness of the colors. 

Ampere, without having taken any part in the discussion, escaped 
this great danger. Science winning the day in a family council, he left 
his beloved mountains and proceeded to L^^ous to give private lessons 
in mathematics. 

AMPi^RE, PRIVATE PROFESSOR OF BIATHEMATICS AT LYONS — CHEM- 
IG^LL STUDIES — MARRLiOE — A CHOSEN PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS AT 
THE CENTRAL SCHOOL OF BOURG. 

The period now reached iu the life of Ampere is marked by more 
than one memorable event. In this he formed those intimate friend- 
ships which stood the test of, without being shaken by, the political 
crises and disorders of more than half a century. The new friends, 
animated by the same tastes, met every morning, at an early hour, at the 
house of one of the number, M. Lenoir, who cannot be described more 
clearly thiui as one of the best, gentlest, and most benevolent men who 
has ever honored the human race. There, in the Place des Cordeliers, 
before sunrise, in the fifth story of the house, seven or eight young men 
componsati^l themselves, in advance, for the weariness of the day de- 
voted to business, by reading aloud the chemistry of Lavoisier; a work 



EULOGY ON AJVIPERE. 121 

in which the severity of the method and the clearness of the exposition 
seemed to vie with the importance of the results, and, which excited in 
the mind of Ampere the most genuine enthusiasm. The public, a few 
years later, were surprised to find a very profound chemist in the pro- 
fessor of transcendental analysis in the Polytechnic School ; but at that 
time nothing was known of the private readings in the Place des Corde- 
liers in Lyons. On examining the matter closely, you will find it rare, not 
to be able to discover in the lives of all men the thread, sometimes 
highly attenuated, connecting the excellences and tastes of a riper age 
with the impressions of youth. 

The marriage of Amp6re took place the 15thThermidor,in the year VII, 
(the 2d of August, 1799.) The family of Mademoiselle Carron having 
no faith in the sworn priests, the only ones then recognized by the civil 
law, considered it necessary to have the religious ceremony performed 
secretly. This circumstance, as will be readily understood, made a pro- 
found impression on the mind of the learned geometer. 

Ampere, now enjoying the fullness of a happiness which alas was 
destined soon to end, quietly divided his time between the i)leasures of 
family and friendly intercourse and the direction of the mathematical 
studies of his private pupils. The 2dth Thermidor, in the year VIII, 
(8th of August 1800,) his happiness was increased by the birth of a 
son, who, though still young, ranks high among the elite of French 
literary writers, and bears with distinction an illustrious name.* 

Our friend, now feeling the responsibilities of paternity, could no longer 
remain satisfied with the precarious living derived from the position of 
a private teacher ; and, obtaining the chair of physics in the central 
school of the department of Aix, in the month of December, 1801, he 
repaired to Bourg, with a sad and sorrowful heart at the separation 
from his family, being forced to leave his wife, then seriously ill, at 

Lyons. 

ampere's memoir on probabilities. 

The studies, i)lans, and investigations of M. Ampere up to this time 
had never been given to the public, but remained confined to the limited 
circle of a few friends. 

It seems unnecessary to make any especial exception of the two man- 
uscript memoirs addressed to the Academj'- of Lyons. Now, however, 
the young savant began to reveal himself to the public, and, as might be 
expected, the first occasion was the discussion of a complicated and 
controverted question of most difficult solution. 

The vast field of mathematics embraces on one side abstract theories, 
and on the other their numerous applications. In the last form they 
interest the generality of men in the highest degree; whom we see, in 
all iiges, seeking, suggesting, and proposing new applications, founded 
on observations of natural phenomena or the necessities of everyday 
life, thus giving the mere amateur the privilege of having his name hon- 
orably inscribed on the records of science. 

* Siuoo dead. 



122 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

Hiero, Kiug of Syracuse, suspecting the honesty of a goldsmith, and 
desiring, without injuring his crown, to determine the purity of the 
gold, applied to Archimedes, who thus, through his instrumentality, 
discovered the fundamental principle of hydrostatics, one of the most 
brilliant discoveries of antiquity. 

The curioso who asked, after having observed the seven bridges be- 
tween the two branches of the river Pregel and the island of Kueiphof, 
whether it were possible to cross them successively without passing 
twice over the same, and he who wished to know how the knight could 
move over the sixty-four squares of the chess-board without returning 
twice to the same square, became involved in that geometry of 2)osiUon, 
(glanced at by Leibnitz,) which never makes use of the magnitudes of 
quantities. 

Finally, the speculations of a gambler, belonging to the aristocratic 
circles, the Chevalier de Mere, first suggested, in the reigu of Louis 
XIV, the calculation of probabilities, or at least directed toward it 
the attention of Pascal and Perm at, two of the most wonderful 
geniuses of whom France is so deservedly proud. 

This last branch of applied mathematics, although called, by an illus- 
trious geometer, " common sense reduced to calculation^^'' was not received 
without opposition. 

Even now public opinion will scarcely admit that analytical formulas 
are capable of determining the secret of judiciary decisions ; or of giv- 
ing the comparative values of judgments pronounced by tribunals dif- 
ferently constituted ; it unwillingly adopts, also, the numerical limits in 
which have been included the mean result of several series of distinct 
and more or less concordant observations. When there is a question 
of an order of problems less subtile, all understanding play require 
but the most ordinary intelligence to see at a glance that the aid of 
algebra can here be satisfactorily called in, but even here are met, 
in the details and applications, real difficulties, requiring the skill of 
professional men. 

Every one readily understands the danger, the stakes being equal, 
of playing when the conditions of the game give to one greater chances 
of winning ; every one sees, too, at the first glance, tbat if the chances of 
the two players are unequal, the stakes should be so too; that if the chances 
of one, for example, are tenfold those of his adversary, the respective 
stakes, the sums risked upon the game, should be in the proportion of 
ten to one ; that this exact proportionality of the stakes to the chances 
is the necessary and characteristic rule, sufficient for all fair play. 
There are cases, however, where, in spite of the observance of these 
mathematical conditions, a prudent man would decline to play. Who, 
for instance, with a million of chances against one in his favor, would 
risk a million to gain one franc? 

In order to explain this anomaly, this disagreement between the re- 
sults of calculation and the inspirations of common sense, Buftbu found 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 123 

it would be necessary to add a new condition to the principles which 
had seemed to satisfy all but himself. He referred to moral considera- 
tions. He remarked that we could not, unless by instinct, prevent our- 
selves from acknowledging the effects, the loss or i)rofit attached to the 
proposed games would have on our social position and habits ; he ob- 
served that an advantage derived from a benefit could not be measured 
by the absolute value of that benefit, separated from the fortune to 
which it was about to be added. The geometrical relation of the increase 
of fortune to the primitive fortune seemed to him to lead to considera- 
tions much more in accordance with our mode of life. By adopting 
this rule you understand at once, for example, that with a million of favor- 
able chances against one single adverse chance, no man, in the full 
possession of his senses, would consent to play a million francs against 
one. 

The introduction of moral considerations into the mathematical theory 
of play has undoubtedly detracted from its importance, its clearness, and 
vigor. It should be regretted, then, that Buffon has used them to reach 
the conclusion, given in these words : "A long series of chances, is a 
fatal chain: whose prolongation leads to misery," in less i)oetical terms, 
a professional player ends in certain ruin? 

This proposition is of the highest social importance, and Ampere was 
anxious to demonstrate it without borrowing the conditions used by 
the distinguished naturalist, and the not less celebrated Daniel Bernoulli. 
Such was the principal object of the work, which appeared in Lyons in 
1802, with the modest title of ^^Considerations sur la theorie mathemati- 
que du jcu^'' — "Eeflections on the mathematical theory of chances," in 
which the author proves himself an ingenious and jiracticed calculator. 
His formulas, full of elegance, lead to pm-ely algebraic demonstrations 
of theorems, seeming to require the aijplicatiou of the differential 
analysis. The principal question, moreover, is found completely solved. 
The course followed by Ampere is clear, methodical, and faultless. 
He first established that, betw^een two persons, equally rich, the mathe- 
matical principle of Pascal and Fermat, the proportionality of the 
stakes to the favorable chances should inevitably be the rule of the 
game 5 that inequality of fortunes should give rise to no change in this 
general rule when the players have decided to play but a limited num- 
ber of games, so few that neither shall be exposed to the total loss of 
all his fortune; that the question is changed if there should be an in- 
definite number of games, and a possibility of continuing the play a 
longer time, thus giving to the richer player an incontestable advant- 
age, which rapidly increases, in iiroportion to the difference of fortunes. 

The disadvantage of one of the players becomes immense if his ad- 
versary be very much richer than he, which is always, and very evi- 
dently, the case of the professional player, who plays with every one. 
The whole number of players against whom he plays is to be considered 
as one single individual endowed with an immense fortune. In games 



124 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

where the chances are equal, and where skill is not required, the pro- 
fessional player may be sure, in due time, of certain ruin — a fact estab- 
lished beyond dispute by the formulas of Ampere. 

The empty words "good luck," "chance," "lucky star," "lucky run," 
can neither hasten nor retard the execution of a sentence pronounced in 
the name of algebraic authority. 

There is a school, calling itself the utilitarian, which has inscribed 
on its banners three formidable words, A quoi hon? "Of what use !" 
and which, in its bitter warfare against what it calls material and intel- 
lectual superfluities, would commit to the flames our fine libraries and 
splendid museums, and reduce us to the necessity of eating acorns as 
our fathers did. These adepts would now ask me, How many gamblers 
have Ampere's calculations reclaimed? 

I confess now, in advance, with all humility, and without intending 
to reflect upon the memory of our colleague, that the work just analyzed 
in detail has not, perhaps, reclaimed one single individual infected 
with the inveterate mania for j)lay. The remedy has not taken effect ; 
but can it be proved it has often been applied ? Have there ever been 
I)rofessional players sufliciently versed in algebra to understand the 
formulas of ^I. Ampere, and to appreciate their perfect accuracy? You 
would be sadly mistaken, too, if you fancied that the certainty of losing 
would deter every one from gambling. My doubt seems pai-adoxical, 
certainly; I will endeavor to justify it. 

Some years since in Paris, I made the acquaintance of a distinguished 
foreigner, of great wealth, but in wretched health, whose life, save a few 
hours given to repose, was regularly divided between the most interest- 
ing scientific researches and gambling. It was a source of great regret 
to me that this learned experimentalist should devote the half of so 
valuable a life to a course so little in harmony with an intellect whose 
wonderful powers called forth the admiration of the world around him. 
Unfortunately there occurred fluctuations of loss and gain, momentarily 
balancing each other, which led him to conclude that the advantages 
enjoyed by the bank were neither so assured nor considerable as to pre- 
clude his winning largely through a run of luck. The analytical formu- 
las of probabilities offering a radical means, the only one jjerhaps of 
dissipating this illusion, I iH'oposed, the number of the games and the 
stakes being given, to determine in advance, in my study, the amount, not 
merely of the loss of a day, nor that of a week, but of each quarter. 
The calculation was found so regularly to agree with the corresponding 
diminution of the bank-notes in the foreigner's pocket-book that a doubt 
could no longer be entertained. 

Did the learned gentleman renounce gambling forever! No, gentlemen ) 
for a fortnight only. He declared that my calculations had completely 
convinced him; that he would no longer be the ignorant tributary 
of the gaming-houses of Paris; that he would continue the same 
kind of life, but without the mad excitement of hope and fear that led 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 125 

himon before. " I shall no longer," he added, " be in ignorance of the 
fact that the 50,000 francs of my fortune consecrated to play will pass 
into other hands. I am resigned to it perfectly; but I shall no longer 
be, in the eyes of the world, the dupe of an absurd delusion. I shall 
continue to play, because the superfluous 50,000 francs expended in any 
other way would be unable to excite in my feeble frame, undermined by 
suffering, the lively sensations alone aroused by the various combina- 
tions, fortunate and adverse, displayed every night on the green carpet!" 

A little reflection will prove that these words are not a mere para- 
phrase of the well-known witticism of a celebrated statesman : "After 
the pleasure of winning, I know none so great as that of losing." 

It would be doing injustice to mathematical science if I attempted to 
defend its formulas against the reproach of not having foreseen that 
the passionate storms, resulting from play, which sweep the bosom would 
not always prevail over the soft and touching gratification men of means 
might daily enjoy in applying their wealth to the alleviation of human 
misery. The passions, although of divine institution, as a woman of 
the world ouce said, are so protean that it would be a vain effort on the 
part of mathematics to entwine them in their regular and methodical 
meshes. But, again, if science has failed in such a task, the misfortune 
is shared by the dialectics of the moralist, the eloquence of the pulpit, 
and even by the sweet persuasions of the poet. I have read somewhere 
that Colbert on one occasion wished to dissuade the monarch whom he 
had never failed to serve with devotion and ability from undertaking a 
certain war. Boileau, promising to aid him in his effort, addressed to 
Louis XIV that beautiful letter containing a seductive picture of the 
delights of peace, and, among other remarkable passages, the lines on 
the Emperor Titus, that live iu the memory of every one : 

Qui rendit de son joiig I'univers amotireiix ; 
Qu'on n'alla, jamais voir sans reveuir heureux ; 
Qui soupirait, Ic soir, si sa main fortunde 
N'avait par ses bienf aits signal6 sa journ^. 

Who led tlie "world captive, yet charmed with its chain, 
From whom no one could part without joy in his breast, 

Whose evenings were saddened and shadowed with pain, 
When closing a day that his hand had not blest. 

These lines touched the heart of the king. He caused them to be 
read aloud to him three times, then ordered his horse to be saddled, and 
straightway joined the army. 

AMPliRE'S POETICAL COMPOSITIONS. 

Ampere composed, in his early youth a tragedy on the death of Han- 
nibal, in which are to be found some excellent poetry and the noblest 
sentiments. I must add here, that during his sojourn in the principal 
town of the department of Ain, his mind was not so completely ab- 
sorbed iu science, that he could give no time to the study of literature 



120 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

and the higlier kinds of poetry. Take for example a letter handed to 
me recently, by oiu- learned colleague M. Isidore Geoffroy, from Boui-g, 
and read by him, the 26th germinal, year XI, before the Emulation 
Society of Ain, beginning thus: 

Vons voulez, done, belle Emilie, 
Que de Gresset on dllamilton 
Devobaut le leger crayou, 
J'aille cherclier daus ma folie, 
Siu" les rosiers de I'Helicon, 
S'il reste encor quelqiie boiiton 
De taut de lleurs qu'ils ont cueillies; 
Souveut mes teudi'es reveries, etc. 

Then, TTOuldst thou, fairest Emily, 

Have me steal the pencil free 
Of Gresset or of Hamilton; 

And wend my way to Helicon, 
To see if on the rose trees there 
Some buds remain, they well could spare 

From all the flowers they have culled 
To glean some bud they well could spare 

To be for thy soft bosom pulled. 

I am not sure that the beautiful Emily was not one of those imagi- 
nary beings so lavishlj) invested by poets with perfections of their own 
ci-eation ; but the friends of Ampere will remember that the eminently 
good, beautiful and distinguished woman, who had united her destiny 
with his, had often inspired his muse; many will recall some lines, 
whose first appearance excited no little sensation ; 

Que j'aime h m¥,garer dans ces routes flenries, 
Oil je t 'ai vue errer sous uu dais de lilas; 
Que j'aime a rep6ter aux nymphos attendries, 
Siir I'herbe oil tu t'assis, les vers que tu chantas. 

Les voila ces jasmins dont je t'avais parde, 

Ce bouquet de troene a touch6 tes cheveux, etc. 

'Tis sweet my wandering steps to lose 

Along the path of flowers, 
Where lighter feet were wont to choose, 

Their way mid lilac bowers: 
And on the turf that thou hast prest, 

To breathe forth once again. 
The song that made the wood nymphs blest, 

Thine own enchanting strain. 

They lie around, those jasmins fair 

With which I deck'd thy brow ; 
That privet, it hath touched thy hair, 

To me 'tis sacred now. 

A certain mathematician once made the sad mistake of publishing 
some verses, faultless as to measure and rhyme, but without other 
merit. A witty lady, hearing them read, remarked. that the author 
of the lines, after the exami^le of M. Jourdain, wrote prose tvithoiit 
hioioing it. Many writers, called poets, though never having passed 
through a course of geometry, have fallen into the same error. A 
satirical remark, however, cannot revive the so often silenced question 
of the chilling influences of scientific studies. Such names as those of 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 127 

Plato, Lucretius, Descartes, Pascal, Haller, Voltaire, and of J. J. Rous- 
seau, eUectually settle it; and should the discussion be ever renewed, 
Ampere's letter, several lines of which I have just quoted, could be 
cited with advantage, and his name added to the distinguished list. 

You may think, perhaps, gentlemen, and not without reason, that I 
have lingered too long over the poetical works of Ampere. 1 would 
like to remind you of the four lines, not more, addressed to the cele- 
brated Ninon de I'Euclos by the great geometer Huygens, and so 
uncharitably revived by literary writers. The law of retaliation 
authorizes me to contrast, with this unlucky quatrain, the scientific 
errors of different poets. Boileau might figure in our polemics, if we 
thought it advisable, as but a sorry votary of the learned Urania, 
proved by these two lines from his Satire on Women : 

Que I'astrolabe en main, nue autre aille cliercher, 
Si le soliel est fixe on toitrne sur son axe — 

" Let another try to discover, with the astrolabe in hand, whether the 
sun is fixed or whether it turns on its axis^ 

The worthy Abbe Delille did not prove himself more orthodox, when 
he attributes, in a passage in his inaugural, the more brilliant coloring, 
rapid growth, and greater fragrance of the tropical productions to the 
fact that the Sun 'warms them from a nearer point. 

This remarkable instance of scientific knowledge is worthy of being 
ranked with that conveyed in the line of a man, who surely had never 
doubled Cape Horn, nor even read Cook's voyages ; a line which should 
have suggested to the writer to knock from beneath him the Parnas- 
sian ladder — 

From the frozen to tlie 'burning pole ! 

But it seems to me, gentlemen, that within these walls instead of 
looking for poets who are not savants, it would be better to cite savants 
who have been something of poets. 

A3IPi:EE, SnOIONED TO PARIS, BECOMES TUTOR, AND APTERWAEDS 
PROFESSOR OF ANALYSIS, AT THE POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL. 

Lalande and Delambre were delighted with the analytical work of 
the young professor of Bourg on the calculation of probabilities ; they 
summoned him to Paris, and gave him the position of tutor in the Poly- 
technic School, where he acquitted himself with great credit, but not 
without encountering many trials, results Qf the retired life he had pre- 
viously led. Badly advised by friends ignorant of the customs of the 
place, Ampere made his appearance before his classes, in a school almost 
military, dressed in a fashionable black coat, miserably made by 
one of the most unskillful tailors of the capital ; and for several weeks 
this unlucky garment was a source of such distraction to more than a 
hundred young men that' they were unable to attend to the treasures of 
science falling from the lips of the savant. 



128 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

Tlie tutor, feariugtlie characters on the black-board are not sufficient- 
ly distinct to be seen by the more distant members of the class, very 
naturally endeavors to remedy the evil by increasing their size. In 
the discussion which usually follows the lesson, with the young men 
gathered around him, several of them, in a spirit of mischief, exagger- 
ating their want of sight, induce the benevolent professor to increase 
the size of the figures by degrees, until the immense black-board, far 
from affording room for intricate calculations, can scarcely give place to 
a few figures. 

Absorbed finally in the elucidation of a difficult theory, in the heat of 
demonstration he mistakes the rubber covered with chalk for his hand- 
kerchief. The.account of this certainly very innocent mistake, amplified 
and magnified, i^asses from rank to rank, until, when he appeared again 
before them, he was no longer the learned analyst of their admiration, 
but the innocent object of their mirth ; his moments of abstraction, so 
eagerly watched for, being but signals for ridicule too long anticipated 
to be willingly relinquished. 

You now know, gentlemen, the rocks upon which the knowledge and 
zeal of the worthy professor were so often wrecked. 

PSYCHOLOGrY, METAPHYSICS, AMPERE'S PASSION FOR THEM. 

At the same time as geometrician and metaphysician. Ampere, 
from his first arrival in Paris, moved in two distinct societies 5 the only 
feature of resemblance being the celebrity of their members. In one. 
were to be found the first-class of the ancient Institute, the professors 
and examiners of the Polytechnic school, and the professors of the col- 
lege of France. In the other, Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy, Maine de 
Birau, Degeraudo, &c. 

Here the effort was to fathom and analyze the mysteries of the mind. 
There this mind, in such measure as nature has bestowed it, and as edu- 
cation has improved and enlarged it, was each day producing new 
marvels. The psychologists sought the paths that lead to discovery ; 
the geometers, chemists, and physicists were actually making discover- 
ies. Without devoting too much time to the manner in which it was 
done, they discovered sometimes the analytical formulae now actually 
including the laws of the movements of the stars ; sometimes the sub- 
tile rules of molecular actions, which, while giving us the cine to the causes 
of a great number of natural i)henomena, throw light upon the operations 
of art, and developed national wealth. They made themselves mas- 
ters finally, of the new properties of light, electricity and magnetism, which 
have given so much brilliancy to the first years of this century. Vibrat- 
ing between these two schools, if the term may be allowed. Ampere's ar- 
dent imagination daily endured the severest trials. I am not able to 
say, with any certainty, how the exact sciences were regarded by meta- 
physicians ; but I know that geometers and chemists held in very slight 
esteem, investigations purely psychological. 



EULOGY OX AMPEKE. 129 

This error, for I am very much iuclined to helieve this was au error, 
will be somewhat lessened in the eyes of those who will take into con- 
sideration that in metaphysics every thing is connected, linked and 
bound together like the meshes of the most delicate tissue, in such a 
manner that a principal cannot be detached from the whole number of 
definitions, observations, and hypotheses from which it emanates, with- 
out losing most of its apparent importance and i^erspicuity. When 
Ampere, still warmly excited by the conferences he had just held with 
the psychologists, strove madly, I mean without preparation, to hurl 
Vemcsthese, for example, into the midst of a reunion of geometers, phy- 
sicists, and naturalists, when still under the influence of his enthusiasm, 
he maintained that au obscure word, or at least one not understood, con- 
tained the most beautiful discovery of the century, was it not natural 
he should encounter skeptics 'I This would have been of no conse- 
quence if the extreme amiability of our associate had not allowed the 
skeptics whose role is to ridicule, to usuri^ the place of those whose 
doubts were serious, 

I find in the manuscript correspondence, to which I have access 
thi'ough M. Brediu, that Ampere had contemplated while in Paris the 
publication of a book which he intended to call " Tntroduction to PJiil- 
osopliyP 

The famous anathema of Napoleon against ideology did not discour- 
age him ; it seemed to him rather to contribute to the propagation of 
this kind of studies than to its supx)ression. Our associate continued 
to elaborate his Theory of Relations, his Theory of Uxistencc, of Suhjec- 
tivc and Ohjeetive Knoicledge, and of Absolute Morality. 

He considered himself incapable of throwing sufficient light on sub- 
jects so diflicult to treat without submitting them to animated verbal 
discussions. Unfortunately the so ardently desired opportunities were 
not to be found in Paris at that time. Maiiie de Biron had returned to 
Berjerac, and among the remaining inhabitants of that immense capital, 
not one seemed to feel any interest, from a metaphysical point of view, 
in subjective, objective, and absolute morality. Ampere then turned 
his eyes in the direction of the friends of his youth, and resolved to re- 
turn for a short time to Lyons. The terms of the visit were strictly 
arranged; a certainty of «/: least four afternoons a iceelc devoted to dis- 
cussions on ideology , a formal promise that each day should be read 
and examined with a view to correction in composition and perspicuity, 
the subjects of each day's study. Although I have not at hand the text 
of the replies received by Ampere I have every reason to believe they were 
far from giving him satisfaction. " How wonderful is the science of psy- 
chology !" he wrote to M. Bredin, " and most unhappily for me, you no 
longer feel an interest in it, is it necessary, besides to deprive me of ail 
earthly consolation, he said, to know we no longer sympathize on meta- 
physical subjects. * * * About the onlv thin 5- which interests Lie, 
9s 



130 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

you no longer tliiiik as I do. * * * This creates a frigbtfal void in 
my soul." 

Ampere's friends in Lyons liad found liis x)sycliology somewhat dry 
and minute. They tried to induce him to return to the exact sciences, 
but our associate replied to them in a lyrical strain, " How can I abandon 
a country full of flowers and fresh, running waters ; how give up streams 
and groves for deserts scorched by the rays of a mathematical sun, 
which, diffusing over all surrounding objects the most brilliant light, 
withers and dries them down to the very roots >? * * * How much 
more agreeable to wander under flitting shades than w^alk in straight 
paths, where the eye embraces all at a glance, and where nothing seems 
to fly before us to incite us to pursue !-' 

It was my desire to seek the fresh groves discovered by Ampere and 
to try to persuade you to enter them wifh me ; but, alas ! accustomed 
by your advice and example to prize above all things in matters of sci- 
ence, straight and well-lighted paths, my dazzled eyes found but pro- 
found darkness where the piercing eyes of our ingenious friend were 
privileged to see brilliant semi- tints. Without the guide of Ariadne's clue 
it would be in vain to attemp't Ampere's manuscripts, I should be afraid, I 
must acknowledge, of being forced, as Voltaire was formerly, to place at the 
end of each metaphysical proposition the two letters i^. L., traced by the 
style of the Eoman magistrate, when the cases seemed too obscure to 
allow a well-grounded judgment. But non liquet, (it is not clear,) too fre- 
quently repeated, in spite of perfect sincerity, would have worn an air 
of affected modesty to be avoided at any price. 

Is my extreme diffidence to be condemned ? It would not be diflicult 
to justify it by pointing alone to the arrogant contempt each iDsychologi- 
cal school casts upon its rival, and that through the organ of its most 
eloquent propagandists. 

Listen to what I will read to you from the lectures of oue of its most 
celebrated teachers, Laromiguiere, " ^\T]at is a science which has 
neither fixed nor invariable methods ; which changes its nature and its 
form at the will of those vrho profess it? What is a science which is 
no longer to-day what it was yesterday ; which by turns boasts as its 
oracles Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Leibnitz, and so many others 
whose doctrines and methods seem to have nothing in common? In a 
word, what is a science, not only whose existence, but whose possibility 
is questioned?" 

But Ampere bespoke in advance all my reserve when he exclaimed, 
These last have only uttered what is eminently just and true, when iu 
comparing the true metaphysicians of the schools of Kant and Schel- 
iiug with the followers of Eeid jind Dugald Stewart, they said, the last 
are to the first what good cooks are to chemists. 

I will leave to the most competent judges of future times to assign to 
Ami;)ere a place amongst i)sychologists. Nevertheless, I may now affirm 
that the wonderful j^owers of penetration and the rare faculty of reach-- 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 131 

ing- wide generalizations from minute detail must have distinguished 
his metaphysical researches, since it shone with such brilliancy in 
works on physical mathematics the most solid, or, if jou prefer, the 
most generally recognized and the most indisputable foundation of his 
scientific fame at the present day. Ampere, in metaphysics, as nearly as 
the subject would ijcrmit, approximated to the experimental method. It 
certainly is not from his mouth that proceeded those incredible words 
attributed to a psychologist, " I despise you as I do a fact." 

He, on the contrary, held facts in the highest favor. He showed great 
fertihty in combining them with his theories. When, thongh rarelj^ his 
efforts in this line were fruitless, theories were immediately changed or 
abandoned. Amongst my hearers there are probably some to whom 
these words will recall both the first ideas of our associate on the instinct 
of animals and the manner in which he modified them. The circum- 
stances of this sudden change seem to merit being preserved. 

Among the most prominent of the many vexed metaphysical ques- 
tions is, whether animals possess the jiowers of reasoning, or are solely 
guided bj' instinct — a question which will, perhaps, be better understood 
by presenting it in these terms: Must we, with Aristotle, concede only 
feeling and memory to the brute creation ! Is it true they are without 
the faculty of comparing their actions and drawing conclusions ? Am- 
pere, avowing himself on this point a decided peripatetic, in the pres- 
ence of several of his friends, one of them related, in opposition to his 
views, the following anecdote : 

" Being overtaken one night, not far from Montpelier, by a violent 
storm, I took refuge in an inn, in the first village I found on my road. 
The death of a lean chicken was the immediate result of this unex- 
pected visit. The cook, placing the almost fleshless fowl on the spit 
immediately tried to seize a terrier, which, when introduced into a 
rotatory drum of quite large dimensions, under the mantel-piece, was to 
perform the office of moving the combinations of weights, springs, and 
cogged wheels now found in the humblest kitchen, but then, in the 
center of France, a great rarity. The terrier absolutely refused to per- 
form the duty assigned him ; he would yield neither to blows, threats, 
nor caresses. So much firmness, resolution, and courage attracting my 
attention, I inquired if the poor beast were making his first trial. 
Poor beast ! some one replied, ill-naturedly and roughly, he does not 
deserve your pity, on my faith ; for such scenes take place every day. 
Do you know why this fine geiitleman refuses to turn the spiff Because 
he has decided, in his head, that he and his comrade must divide the 
labors of roasting exactly regularly between them. I now remem- 
ber he was the last to turn the sj^ut, and he now concludes this is not his 
turn to icurJx: 

'■'■ The words, it is not his turn now, seemed to me to include a world of 
meaning. At my request the stable-boy was sent into the street to 
fetch the second dog. This one showed the most exemplary docility ; 



132 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

tlie rotatory drum received him, and lie would soon liave finished the 
task if, wishing to complete the experiment, I had not caused him to be 
removed in order to give the refractory dog a new trial. The refractory 
dog, whose turn had noio come, obeyed the first signal of the cook, entered 
the rustic turn-spit without resistance, and went to work like a squirrel in 
its cage. 

''Does it not follow from this, my dear Ampere, that dogs can have 
the consciousness of the just and tlie unjust, leading tliem to lay out a 
rule for themselves, and to endure corporal punishment rather than 
allow any violation of it?" 

Ampere's features so keenly expressed the interest he took in the 
recital that you might have fancied he was about to exclaim with Lac- 
tauce, " Except in matters of religion, the brute creation share all the 
advantages of the human race." However, our associate did not press 
the matter as far as the Christian Cicero. While modifying his former 
views on instinct, he merely admitted that animated beings, taken in 
the aggregate, exhibit every possible degree of intelligence, from the 
lowest up to that which, to adopt the expression of Voltaire, might in- 
spire with jealousy the familiars of Jove himseJf. 

1 shall not leave this subject without giving another example to show^ 
in spite of his extreme animation in discussion in the liiain, how 
true and tolerant Ampere was, and how free from the malevolent pas- 
sions tUiit unconceived ideas and conceit usually bring in their train. 
In some manuscript notes of a professor of Lyons, M. Bredin, with 
whom Ampere studied the metaphysical doctrine of the absolute, I find 
these exact words: '■'■Very animated discussions daily arose between us, 
and in them originated that holy and indissoluble friendship ichich has so 
firmly united us.''"' 

A writer of romance would fancy he was doing violence to proba- 
bility by placing friendship among the possible consequences of heated 
discussions. A presumption so unparalleled could only be tolerated in 
the laud of fable. 

MATHEMATICAL LABORS OF AMPi:EE. 

Such a man as Ampere often puts the self-love of his biographer to a 
severe trial. I was obliged just now to shrink from psychological 
researches whose importance and depth I could not reach 5 and here 
again I am forced to confess that an intelligible analysis, in common 
language, of the works of our associate on pure mathematics, is beyond 
my powers. Nevertheless, as in these works figure the memoirs 
which, after the death of Lagrange in 1813, opened the doors of the 
Academy to our friend, they ought ty be mentioned, if only by their 
titles. 

The adventurous mind of Ampere was alwaj'S fond of questions that 
the fruitless elforts of twenty centuries had pronounced insoluble ; he 
was never happier, if I may be allowed the expression, than when 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. loo 

npturiiiug the priuciples of science. I must acknowledge I was not a 
little astonished not to ilud him struggling with the quadrature of the 
circle. This inexplicable hiatus, in the youth of our associate, has just 
been filled. A manuscript note from the secretary of the Academy of 
Lyons apprises me that, on the 8th of July, 1788, Ampere, then thir- 
teen years of age, addressed to that learned body a paper relating to 
the celebrated problem just mentioned. Later duriug the same year 
he submitted to the examination of his compatriots an analogous memoir, 
entitled " The rectification of any arc of a circle less than the semi-circum- 
ferencc:'' These memoirs have not reached us. If the manuscript note 
sent to me can be relied upon, young Ampere, not only did not think 
the problem insoluble, but flattered himself he had almost solved it. 
Scruples, respected by me without being shared, demanded the sacri- 
fice of this anecdote. It certainly would have been a very small sacri- 
fice, but I did not consider it consistent with my duty to make it. The 
scientific weaknesses of men of a very high order of intellect are lessons 
quite as useful and i^rofitable as their successes, and the biographer has 
no right to cover them with a vail. Is it quite certain, too, that there is 
anything here to excuse or conceal 5 that a geometer need blush for 
efforts made in his childhood, or even at a riper age, to square the cir- 
cle geometrically ? To sustain, however, such a proposition, we have 
only to recall the fact that antiquity presents to us, as deeply engaged 
in this problem, Anaxagoras, Meton, Hippocrates, Archimedes, and 
ApoUonius; and to these we may add the modern names of Snellius, 
Huygens, Gregory, Wallis and Kewton ; and, finally, that amongst those 
whose sagacity the quadrature of the circle has set at defiance — I mean 
who have been involved by it in palpable errors there are many who 
have, in other respects, rendered genuine service to science ; for example 
J. B. Porta, the inventor of the camera-obscura; then Gregon^e de 
Saint Vincent, the Jesuit, to whom we owe the discovery of the won- 
derful properties of hyperbolic spaces terminated by asymptotes; Lon- 
gomontanus, the astronomer, &c., &c. 

If your mind is engrossed with the idea that, in order to justify their 
efibrts to square the circle, others will cite hereafter, to their advan- 
tage, the attempts of a child of thirteen, I reply unhesitatiugly — for my 
academic duties bring me frequently in and personal relations with the 
squarers of the circle — that authorities have absolutely.no weight in their 
eyes; that they have long since entirely separated themselves from every- 
thing that bears or has borne the name of geometer; that Euclid himself, 
in his principal theorems — for example, that of the square of the hypothe- 
neuse — seems to them scarcely worthy of trust. If a mania — I was on 
the point of saying a furor which manifests itself especially in spring, 
as proved by experience — couk^ ever be amenable to logic, it would be 
necessary, in order to battle it successfully, to distinguish more carefully 
than has ever yet been done the various aspects under which the prob- 
lem of the quadrature of the circle ought to be considered. An example 



134 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

of cure under 1113' own eyes might give me some confidence in this mode 
of treatment. 

The first, according to date, of all the mathematical memoirs of Am- 
pere, i)rinted after his arrival in Paris, relates to a question of elemen- 
tary geometry. This memoir, presented to the Academy of Lyons in 
1801, appeared in the publication of the correspondence of the Polytech- 
nic School in the mouth of July, 180G. A few words will suffice to de- 
scribe the end Ampere proposed to himself 

There is in elementary geometry a j^roposition so evident that it may 
properly be regarded as an axiom. It is this : 

If two lines situated in the same plane are parallel, or, in other words, 
if, prolonged indefinitely, can never meet ; and if a third line, forming an 
angle at any point with the first of the two parallels, be indefinitely ex- 
tended from the point of intersection, it will cut the second. No one can 
feel a doubt about this theorem, although all the efforts of the most cele- 
brated geometers, the Euclids, the Lagranges, the Legendres, &c., to add 
to its natural evidence byway of demonstration, properly so-called, have 
been fruitless. 

The geometry of solid bodies, had offered, up to the present time, a 
proposition whose truth was quite as evident, and that, nevertheless, 
had never been demonstrated. I refer to the equality of volume of sym- 
metrical polyhedrons. Two oblique polyhedrons have the same base 
situated on a horizontal plane ; one is entirely above the plane, the 
other entirely below. Their faces are similar and of the same length ; 
moveover, their inclinations correspond exactly to a common base. To 
give the same idea in different words — one of the two polyhedrons being 
considered as an object, the other would be its image reflected on the 
plane of the common base, if that plane were a mirror. 

The object of Ampere's treatise is to demonstrate the equahty of these 
two i^olyhedrons ; and it can be affirmed that, on this point, in the sci- 
ence of geometry there is nothing more to desire. 

In I8O0 M. Ampere addressed to the institute a very finished work-, 
which, however, was not given to the public until much later, (1808,) 
entitled " Treatise on the advantages to he derived, in the thcori/of curves, 
from due consideration of osciilatcry parabolas^ We also find a treatise by 
Ampere dated the 2Gth florial year 11 which was published in the first 
volume of the collection of the foreign savants of the Academy of 
Sciences. This is its title " Investigations on the application of the gen- 
eral formulas of the valculus of variations to problems in mechanics^ 

The formulas of equilibrium, given by the immortal author of ana- 
lytical mechanics, have a form analogous to that of the equations that 
the calculus of variations turnishes for the determination of the max- 
ima and minima of integral formulas. Ampere thought that this simili- 
tude of form, i^reviously noticed by Lagrange, would aftbrd him the 
means of avoiding, in the solution of questions in statics, the trouble- 
some integration by parts. The analogy is not as complete as might be 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 135 

thougbt at first sight. The ordinary formuhis require to be changed 
in order to be used in the solution of problems of mechanics. Ampere 
gives these transformations and applies them to the ancient problem of 
the catenary. 

This problem, which consisted in determining the curve formed by an 
iuextensible chain of uniform weight when attached to two fixed points, 
is famous under more than one name. Galileo tried, ineffectually, to 
solve it. His conjecture that the curve sought might be a parabola, 
was found false, in spite of all the paralogisms accumulated by Peres 
Pardies, and de Lamis to prove its accuracy to the singular adver- 
sarj^ who brought to oppose them proofs from mechanics. In 1G91 
Jaques Bernoulli challenged the scientific world with the same problem. 
Only three geometers had the courage to take up the gauntlet — Leib- 
nitz, Huygens, and Jean Bernoulli, who, we may remark in passing, at 
this time, evinced the first symptoms of his jealousy of his master, bene- 
factor, and brother; thus demonstrating that the love of fame is capa- 
ble of becoming the most ungovernable, most unjust, and blindest of 
the x^assious. The four illustrious geometers were not content to give 
the true differential equation of the curve ; tbey also pointed out the 
consequences deduced from it. Everything now seemed to authorize 
the belief that the subject was exhausted ; but this was a mistake. The 
treatise of Ampere contains, in fact, new and very remarkable ijroperties 
of the ^atenary and its development. There is no small merit, gentlemen, 
in discovering hiatuses in subjects explored by such men as Leibnitz, 
Huggens, and the two BernouUis. I must not forget to add that the 
analysis of our associate unites elegance with simplicity. Ampere 
gave, moreover, a new demonstration of the celebrated mathematical 
relation known as Taylor's theorem, and calculated the finite expression, 
neglected when the series are arrested at any term whatsoever. 

Called to the chair of mathematics at the polytechnic school, Ampere 
could not fail to seek a demonstration of the principle of virtual veloci- 
ties, disengaged from the consideration of infinitesimals. Such is the 
object of a treatise published in 180(3, in the thirteenth number of the 
journal of the school. 

Whilst candidate for the position left vacant by the death of La- 
grange in 1813, Ampere presented to the academy, first: General con- 
siderations on the integrals of equations of partial differences ; and 
afterwards, an application of these considerations to the integration of dif- 
ferential equations of the first and second order. These two treatises give 
superabundant proof that analysis, in its most difficult form, was per- 
fectly familiar to him. 

Ampere was not inactive after becoming a member of the academy ; 
he busied himself with the application of analysis to the physical 
sciences. xVmongst these productions we may cite : 

1. Benionstratioii of the laws of viariotre, read at the academy Jan- 
uary 24, 1814. 



136 EULOGY OX AMPEEE. 

2. Demonstrations of a ncic theory, from tchicJi can he (Seduced all the 
Jaws of refraction, ordinary and extraordinary; read at tbe academy 
March 27, 1815. 

3. A memoir on the determination of the curved surfaces of luminous 
7rares in a medium whose elasticity differs in three dimensions ; read at the 
Academy of Sciences Angnst 20, 1828. 

ampere's eeseakches in the science of electeo-dynamics. 

Amongst the works of our friend there is one which excels all the oth- 
ers ; it constitutes, in itself, a beautiful science, audits name, "Electro- 
dynamics," will ever be inseparably linked with that of Ampere. Instead 
of presenting to your thoughts twenty different subjects in succession, 
permit me to concentrate them for a time on the vast and teeming con- 
ception of our friend, happy if I succeed in diseugagiug it from any 
appearance of obscurity and ambiguity it may have presented up to 
this time, and thus show the elevated rank which will entitle it, 
with the most beautiful discoveries of the age, to the gratitude of pos- 
terity. While so many of the ancient and modern sciences were making 
rapid and momentous progress, the science of magnetism had remained 
almost stationary. We have known that, for centuries at least, barsot 
iron, and more especially of steel, freely supported, turn toward the 
north. This curious property has given us the two Americas, Austra- 
lia, the numerous archepelagoes, and the hundreds of isolated islands of 
Oceauica, &c.; it is to it this, in cloudy and foggy weather, the mariner, 
plowing the mighty oceans, has recourse, to guide and direct his ship ; 
no truth in physics has had results so colossal. Nevertheless, until the 
present time, nothing had been discovered regarding the nature of the 
peculiar moditication undergone by a bar of neutral steel during the 
mysterious — I had almost said, cabalistic — operations which transform 
it into a magnet. 

The whole phenomena of magnetism, the diminution, the destruction, 
the inversion of the polarity of the needle of the compass, occasioned 
sometimes on ships by violent discharges of lightning, seemed to estab- 
lish some intimate connection between magnetism and electricity. Nev- 
ertheless, the labors, ad hoc, undertaken at the request of several acad- 
emies in order to develop and strengthen this analogy, led to so few 
decisive results that we read, in a programme by Ampere himself, printed 
in 1802 : 

"The professor will demonstrate that the electrical and magnetic phe- 
nomena are owing to two different fuids, which act independently of 
each other." 

Sciences had reached this point when, in 1819, the Danish physicist, 
CErsted, announced to the learned world a fact, wonderful in itself, but 
more so especially from the consequences deduced from it ; a fact tbe 
memory of which will be transmitted from age to age, as long as science is 



EULOGY OX AMPERE. 137 

honored amongst mei). I v.ill tiy to give a elear and exact idea of this 
most important discovery. 

The voltaic pile is terminated at its extremities, or, if you prefer as 
an expression more suitable, at its two poles by two dissimilar metals. 
Let us suppose, for example, the elements of this wonderful apparatus 
to be copper and zinc ; if the copper is at one of the jioles the zinc 
will inevitably be at the other. The battery, with the exception of some 
shg-ht traces of tension, is, or at least seems to be, completely inert as long 
as the extreme poles are not put into communication by means of a sub- 
stance conductive of electricity. A metallic wire is generally used to 
connect the two poles of the battery, or, which amounts to the same 
thing, to put the app aratus in action. This wire is then called the con- 
junctive icire. 

A current of electricity passes along the whole length of the con- 
ductor, and circulates iinintemiptedly through the closed circuit, result- 
ing from the union of the wire and the battery. If the battery is very 
l)Owerful, the current will be equally so. 

Physicists had for a long time known how to impart to an insulated 
metallic wire a large quantity of electricity in repose, or electricity of ten- 
sion, as it is called in treatises on physics; they also know how to trans- 
mit electricity along wires not insulated in very large quantities ; but in 
this case the passage was sudden and instantaneous. The first means 
of combining intensity with duration in currents of electricity is fur- 
nished by the galvanic battery, with which a discharge, more powerful 
than could be produced by the largest ancient machines for the millionth 
part of a second, is here given for hours together. Does the con- 
junctive wire, the wire along which a quantity of electricity passes un- 
interniptedly, acquire, in consequence of this movement, any new prop- 
erties ! To this question the experiment of QErstcd replies aflirmatively 
in the most striking manner. 

Let us place a wire of a certain length, of copper, silver, platiua, or 
any other metal without appreciable magnetic action, above a horizontal 
compass, and 2)arallel to its needle. The presence of the wire will have 
no effect. Make no change in the first arrangement, but join, either 
directly or by intermediary long or short wires, the two extremities of 
the parallel wire to the two poles of a voltaic pile ; or in this way let 
lis transform the insulated wire into a conjunctive wire, along which a 
permanent current of electricity passes, and at that very instant the 
needle of the compass will change its direction ; if the battery be feeble 
the deviation will be inconsiderable ; but if the battery be very strong, 
notwithstanding the action of the earth, the magnetic needle will form 
iiu angle of nearly 90° with its natural position. 

I have supposed the conducting wire above the magnetic needle, 
placed below the phenomenon would be the same with regard to quantity, 
«qut exactly opposite as to the direction of the deviation. The conjunc- 
tive wire above would impel the north pole of the needle toward the 



138 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

west; the deviation would be toward the east when, the conditions 
being the same, the wire is helow. It is necessary to remark here that 
the wire preserves absobitely none of that deviating power the moment 
it ceases to be a couducting wire, or to join the two poles of the battery. 
It would indicate a total want of scientific perception not to understand 
how extraordinary and important are the results I have just announced; 
not to observe with surprise an imponderable fluid imparting for the 
moment to the slender wire along which it passes, properties so powerful. 

These properties, studied in their specific characters, are not less 
wonderful. 

Even a child knows it would be useless to try to turn a horizontal 
lever around a pivot on which its center rests by pushing or pulling it 
lengthways — I mean, following the line leading to the center of rota- 
tion. The force must necessarily be transverse. The perpendicular to 
the length of the lever is, no matter in what direction, that which 
requires the least force to create a given movement. The exiseriment 
of M. Oersted is directly opposed so these elementary rules of mechanics. 

Please then to remember, when the forces developed by the passage 
of the electrical current in each point of the conducting wire are found 
to correspond vertically with the axis of the needle itself, either above 
or below, the deviation is at its maximum. The needle remains at rest, 
on the contrary, when the wire is presented to it in a direction nearly 
perpendicular. 

Such is the strangeness of these facts that, in order to explain them, 
various physicists have had recourse to a continued flow of electrical 
matter circulating round the conducting wire at right angles to it, and 
producing the deviations of the needle by way of impulse. This was 
nothing less, on a small scale, than the famous vortices contrived by 
Descartes to account for the general movement of the ])lanets around 
the sun. Thus a physical theory which had been abandoned for more 
than two centuries was recalled by the discovery of CErsted. 

AVe have already mentioned the important remark of the celebrated 
Danish physicist, that the deviations of the needle of a horizontal 
comxiass approach nearer and nearer 90 degrees in proportion to the 
increase of the power of the battery during the connection of the two 
poles by the wu'e. Feeble batteries, on the contrary, produce only 
scarcely sensible movements. What is the part played by that myste- 
rious power, seeming to reside in the arctic regions of the globe, to at- 
tract magnetic bodies in a certain way, and repel others f What part 
does it pei^form in lessening the deviations when the battery has little 
j)0wer ? 

Ampere perceived the importance of this question at the very first 
glance ; he saw it was not a mere nice and subtle refinement without 
bearing; he understood that the solution of the problem would stamp 
with characteristic features the forces brought into play by the experi- 
ment of CErsted ; but how get rid of the attraction of the earth ; how 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 139 

eliminate it; bow intercept it "? I see some smile at my question, and 
bear them exclaim, Do not mariners cover with pieces of canvas or pea- 
jackets the iron cannon in the neighborhood of the compass, wheu- 
ever they wish to obtain exactness in their bearings ? Screens, then, 
ought efiectually to furnish the means of protecting the needle from 
terrestrial magnetism. As to that, a glass sphere, inclosing the com- 
pass, would answer. 

A single word will dispel this illusion. Xo substance, thick or 
thin, has yet been discovered through which magnetic action, like that 
of gravity, does not exert its full force, without any abatement. The 
custom of covering cannon, balls, and anchors, with sails, tarred or un- 
tarred, or with anything else, to prevent their action on the compass, 
belongs to the thousand and one usages recorded in treatises on naviga- 
tion before science had diffused its light around it. Even when ex- 
posed, such usages diffuse and perpetuate themselves, and are the blind 
powers which govern the world. The researches of Ampere did not abso 
utely require (which, in fact, would have been an impossibility) that his 
apparatus should be completely free from the attraction of the earth; it 
was suflicient that this attraction should not counteract the movement 
of the needle ; and this simple reflection became the ray of light that 
guided the illustrious physicist, and gave rise to a kind of compass 
never before thought of. 

To understand the invention of Ampere by vrhich a magnetic needle 
could be so arranged as to be free to obey the action of a galvanic cur- 
rent, and undisturbed by the magnetism of the earth, suppose an ordi- 
nary dipping-needle apparatus so placed that its graduated circle shall 
be perpendicular to the magnetic meridian of the place, and then so 
inclined to the horizon that the graduated circle and the needle within 
it shall be at right angles to the direction of the magnetic dip of the 
place where the experiment is made. In this condition the magnetism 
of the earth will act perpe ndicular to the direction of the needle and be 
opposed by the pivot on which the lower point of the axis rests. It will 
therefore be free to take any position in the plane of the divided circle 
which an extraneous force may give it. Ampere was therefore quite 
right in calling his new instrument an astatic compass. 

Ampere's astatic needle, placed before a conducting wire, takes a 
direction exactly perpendicular to that wire, neither one second more nor 
less ; and, a very remarkable circumstance, a very feeble electricity ijro- 
duces as much effect as a current of sufficient intensity to reduce metals 
to a state of incandescence. Here, then, is one of those simple laws that 
science loves to record, and the mind receives with confidence, and be- 
fore which false theories will inevitably disappear. 

The discovery of Oersted reached Paris through Switzerland. At our 
weekly meeting on Monday, September 11, 1820, a member of the 
academy from Geneva repeated before you the experiment of the Dan- 
ish savant. Seven days later, on the 18th of September, Ampere pre- 



140 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

sented to you ;i iiiueli more general fact tlian that of the physicist of 
(Jopeiihagen. 

lu that short interval of time he had conjectured that two connecting 
wires, two wires traversed by electrical currents, would act on each 
other; he had devised exti^emely ingenious arrangements to make these 
wires movable without the necessity of detacliing the extremities of 
each from the respective poles of their batteries. lie had embodied 
these conceptions in instruments capable of acting ; he had, in fact, 
reduced his wonderful idea to a decisive experiment. I do not know 
whether the vast lield of ])hysics ever exhibited so beautiful a dis- 
covery conceived and consummated with so much rapidit3\ 

This brilliant discovery of Ampere may be summed up in these words: 
Two parallel connecting wires attract each other when the electricity 
traverses them in the same direction ; on the contrary, they repel each 
otlier when the electric currents move in opposite directions. 

Tiie connecting wires of two batteries similarly i)laccd, of two bat- 
teries whose copper and zinc poles respectively correspond always, 
then attract each other. There is in the same way always repulsion be- 
tween the connecting wires of two batteries when the zinc pole of one 
is o])posite the c()])per pole of the other. 

It is not a necessary condition of these singular attractions and re- 
pulsions that the wires in operation should belong to two different bat- 
teries. By bending and rebending a single connecting wire such an 
arrangement may be made that two of its portions, opposite to each 
other, may be traversed by the electrical current either in the same or 
in opposite directions. The phenomena, then, are absolutely identical 
with those which result from currents proceeding from two distinct 
sources. 

The i)henomena of (Ersted, from their origin, had been called, very 
appropriately, electro-magnetic. To those of Ampere, in which the 
magnet plays no distinct part, the more general name of electro-dyna- 
mics has been applied. 

The experiments of the French savant did not escape at first those 
criticisms which envy reserves for all things possessing novelty, im- 
portance, and a future. Men were unwilling to see in the attractions 
and repulsions of these currents anything more than a hardly appre- 
ciable modification of the ordinary electrical attractions an<l repulsions 
known since the time of Dufay. On this point the replies of our friend 
were prompt and decisive. 

Bodies similarly electrified re])el each other; similar currents attract 
each other. Bodies in an opjtosite condition of electricity attract each 
other; unlike currents repel each other. 

Two bodies similarly electrified repel each other from the moment of 
contact; two wires traversed by similar currents remain together like 
two magnets, if brought into contact. 

No subterfuge in the world could resist this close argumentation. 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 141 

Another class of critics embarrassed our associate more seriously. 
These last acted apparently in a charitable spii-it. To believe them, they 
invoked with all their hearts, but without hope, the solution of a great 
difficulty ; it pained them deeply, they said, to see the glory with which 
these new discoveries would have surrounded the name of Ampere 
vanish so rapidly. This is somewhat the manner in which the insur- 
mountable difficulty was formulated. Two bodies which separately 
have the property of acting on a third cannot fail to act on each other. 
The connecting wires, according to the discovery of CErsted, act upon 
the magnetic needle, then two connecting wires ought to influence each 
other reciprocally ; hence, the movements of attraction and repulsion, 
when brought together, are deductions, necessary consequences, of the 
experiment of the Danish physicist ; hence, it would be wrong to rank 
the observations of Ampere among the primordial facts which open to 
science entirely new paths. 

Action and reaction are equal. There was in the phraseology just 
cited a false air of that incontestible i)riuciple of mechanics which misled 
many minds. Ampere replied by challenging his adversaries to deduce 
with any degree of ijlausibility the resultant direction {le sens) of the mu- 
tual action of two electrical currents ; although he made the demand with 
much spirit, no one acknowledged himself defeated. 

The infallible means of reducing this violent opposition to silence, of 
sapping its objections to their foundation, was to cite an example where 
two bodies which would act separately on a third would, nevertheless, 
not act on each other. A friend of Ampere remarked, that magnetism 
exhibited a phenomenon of this kind. He said to the benevolent an- 
tagonist of the great geometer : " Here are two keys of soft iron ; each of 
them attracts this compass ; if you cannot show that, placed near each 
ther, these keys attract and repel each other, the point of departure of 
all your objections is false." 

From that moment the objections were abandoned and the reciprocal 
actions of electrical currents took definitely the place belonging to them 
among the most beautiful discoveries of modern physics. 

Once disembarrassed of the charges of originality and priority, always 
more painful when implied than when openly made. Ampere sought with 
zeal a clear, vigorous, and mathematical theory, which would embrace, 
under a common head, not only all the phenomena of ordinary magnetism, 
but also those of electro-dynamic phenomena. The investigation bristled 
with all kinds of difficulties. Ampere overcame them with methods on 
which the genius of invention shone at every step. These methods will 
remain as one of the most precious models in the art of investigating 
nature; of seizing in the midst of the complex forms of phenomena tho 
simple laws which govern them. 

Dazzled by the eolat, grandeur, and fertility of the law of universa' 
attraction — that immortal discovery of Newton — persons little conversant 
with mathematics imagine that, in order to introduce the planetary 



142 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

movements into the domain of analysis, it wonld be necessary to sur- 
mount obstacles a tliousaud times greater than those met by the modern 
geometer, when he wishes, with the assistance of mathematics, to follow 
in all their ramifications the various phenomena discovered and studied 
by physicists. However general this opinion may be, it is not the less 
an error. The smallness of the planets, when compared to the sun ; the 
immensity of the distances 5 the almost spherical form of the celestial 
bodies ; the absence of all matter caj^able of oiiering any sensible resist- 
ance in the vast regions where the elliptical orbits are described, are so 
many circumstances extremely simplifying the problem, and bringing 
it within the abstractions of rational mechanics. If, instead of the 
movements of the planets — I mean of distant bodies capable of being 
considered reduced to simple points — the only guide had been the 
phenomena of attraction of irregular polyhedrons, acting on each other 
at short distances, the laws of universal gravity would remain yet to be 
discovered. 

These words Avill suffice to give an idea of the real obstacles which 
render the progress of mathematical physics so slow. No one need, 
therefore, be sui'prised to learn that the propagation of sound, or of 
luminous vibrations; that the movement of the light waves ruffling 
the surface of liquids ; that the atmospheric currents caused by irregu- 
larities of pressure and temperature, etc., are much more difficnlt to 
calculate than the majestic course of Jupiter, Saturn, or Uranus. 

The phenomena of terrestrial physics Amx)ere proposed to unravel 
were certainly among the most complex. The attractions and repul- 
sions observed between conducting wh-es resulted from the attraction 
and repulsion of all their parts. Xow, to pass from the whole to the 
determination of the numerous and different elements which compose 
it, or in other words to the investigation into the manner in which the 
mutual actions of two infinitely small parts of two currents vary, when 
their relative distances and inclinations are changing, offered unwonted 
difficulties. 

All these difficulties have been overcome. The four conditions of 
equilibrium, which have rendered so much assistance to the author in 
developing phenomena, will be called the laws of Ampere, as the three 
great consequences, deduced by that celebrated genius from the obser- 
vations of Tycho, are called the laws of Kepler. 

The oscillations, turned to so great profit by Coulomb in the measure- 
ment of small magnetic or electrical forces, imperatively exact that the 
bodies for experimeiit should be suspended by a single film without tor- 
sion. The conducting wire cannot be i^laced in such a position, as it 
Avould be in danger of losing its virtue unless in permanent communi- 
cation with the two poles of the battery. 

Oscillations give very exact measurement, but coupled with the 
express condition of being numerous. The conducting wires of Ampere 
never fail to be at rest after a very small number of oscillations. 



EULOGY OX AMPERE. 143 

The problem appeared truly insoluble, wbeu our associate perceived 
be could reach bis object by observing different conditions of equilib- 
rium between conducting wires of certain forms placed one before the 
other. The choice of these forms was the essential point; and it is here 
the genius of Ampere displayed itself in the most marked manner. 

He first enveloped with silk two equal portions of tlie same conduct- 
ing wire ; he bent this wire so that its two covered portions should be 
in juxtaposition, and traversed from opposite sides by a current from 
the same battery ; he was satisfied then that this system of two equal 
but opposite currents exercised no power over the delicately sus- 
pended conducting ^vire, and thus proved that the attiactive force of a 
given electrical current is perfectly equal to the force of repulsion it 
exercised when the direction of its course is mathematically inverted. 

Ampere then suspended a very moveable conducting wire, exactly 
between two fixed conducting wires, which being traversed from the 
same side by one and the same current ought to repel the intermediate 
wire ; one of these fixed wires is straight, the other bent and twisted, 
presenting a hundred small sinuosities. The communication necessary 
to give play to the currents being established, the moveable intermediate 
wire will stop exactly between the two fixed wires, and if moved from 
its position will return itself to the same place. From this it follows that 
if a straight connecting wire and a sinuous connecting wire, though 
their unfolded lengths may be very different, exercise jiowers exactly 
equal if they have extremities common to both. 

In a third experiment Ampere established undeniably that no closed 
current whatever could cause a circular portion of connecting wire to 
turn round an axis perpendicular to that one arc passing through its 
center. 

Tlie fourth and last fundamental experiment of our associate is an 
instance of equilibrium, involving three suspended circular circuits 
whose centers are in a straight line, and whose radii are in a continuous 
geometrical proportion. 

Our associate made use of those four laws to settle what he had al- 
lowed to remain arbitrary in his analytical formula, conceived in the 
most general terms imaginable to explain the mutual action of two in- 
finitely small elements of two electrical currents. 

A skillful comparison of the general formula with the observation of 
the four cases of equilibrium shows that the reciprocal action of the 
elements of two currents is exercised in the direction of the line uniting 
their centers ; that it depends on the mutual inclination of these ele- 
ments, and that it varies in intensity in the inverse proportion of the 
squares of the distances. 

Thanks to the profound researches of Ampere, the law, which governs 
celestial movements, the law, extended by Coulomb to the phenomena 
of electricity at rest or in tension, and then though with less certainty, 
to magnetic phenomena, becomes one of the characteristic features of 



144 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

the powers exercised by electricity iu motion. The general formula, 
which gives the value of the mutual actions of the infinitely small ele- 
ments of currents, once understood, the determination of the combined 
actions of limited currents of diflerent forms becomes a simple problem 
of integral analysis. Ampere did not fail to follow out these applica- 
tions of his discoveries. He first tried to discover how a rectilinear 
current acts on a system of circular closed currents, contained in i^lanes 
j)erpendicular to the rectilinear current. The result of the calculation, 
confirmed by experiment was, that the planes of the circular currents, 
would, supposing them movable, arrange themselves parallel to the rec- 
tilinear current. If like transversal currents pass over the whole length 
of a magnetic needle, the cross direction which, in the experiment of 
GSrsted, completed by Ampere, seemed an inexplicable anomaly, would 
become a natural and necessary fact. Is it not evident, then, to all how 
memorable would that discovery be that would rigorously establish the 
fact that to magnetize a needle is to excite, to put iu motion around 
each molecule of the steel, a small, circular, electrical vortex ? Ampere 
fully realized the wide reach of the ingenious generalization that had 
taken possession of his mind; and he hastened to submit it to exjieri- 
meutal proofs and numerical verifications, which, iu our day, are the 
only processes considered entirely demonstrative. 

It seemed very difficult to create an assemblage of closed circular 
currents capable of great mobility. Ampere confined himself to an 
imitation of this composition and form, hy causing a single electrical 
current to circulate through a wire enveloped iu silk, and coiled like a 
helix iu very compact spires. The resemblance between the effects of 
this apparatus and those of a magnet was very striking, and encouraged 
the illustrious academician to devote himself to a difficult and minute 
calculation of the actions of closed circuits perfectly circular. 

Starting from the hypothesis that like currents exist around the i)ar- 
ticles of magnetic bodies, Ampere, recognized, in elementary actions, 
the laws of Coulomb. These laws treated with the most consummate 
skill by an illustrious geometer have explained all the known facts of 
the science of magnetism ; the hypothesis of Ampere represents them 
with equal accuracy. 

The same hypothesis, finally applied to the investigation of the action 
which a rectilinear connecting wire exercises over a magnetic needle, 
leads analytically to the law that M. Biot has deduced from extremely 
nice experiments. 

If, with the almost entire body of ancient physicists, it is thought ad- 
visable to consider steel as composed of solid molecules, in each of 
which exist two fluids of opposite properties, fluids combined, and neu- 
tralizing each other when the metal is not magnetic, fluids more or less 
separated when the steel is more or less magnetized, the theory will 
cover all that is known at present, even in the most subtle numerical 
particularities of ordinary magnetism. This theory is silent, ]in\:^Aver, 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 145 

with reference to the action of a magnet on a connecting wire, and still 
more silent, were it x^ossible, as to the action that two of those wires ex- 
ercise upon each other. 

If, on the contrary, we take, with Ampere, the action of two cur- 
rents for the primordial fact, the three classes of phenomena will depend 
on one principle, one single clause. The ingenious conception of our 
associate possesses thus two of the most salient characteristics of a 
true laws of nature, simplicity and fertility. 

In all the magnetic experiments attempted before the discovery of 
CErsted the earth had acted like a large loadstone. It was to be presumed, 
then, like a magnet, it would act on electrical currents. Experiments, 
however, had not justified the conjecture. Calling to his aid the electro- 
dynamic theory and the talent for inventing apparatus, so brilliantly 
displayed by him, Ampere had the honor of filling the inexplicable 
hiatus. 

For several weeks native and foreign physicists crowded the humble 
study in the street Fossee-Saint- Victor to witness with amazement a con- 
necting wire of platina take a definite direction through the action of 
the terrestrial globe. 

What would Newton, Halley, Dufay, ^pinus, Franklin, and Cou- 
lomb have said if it had been announced to them that a day would 
come when, in default of a magnetic needle, navigators would ho able 
to guide their vess'4s by observing electrical currents, electrified wires? 

The action of the earth on a conducting wire is identical in all the cir- 
cumstances presented by it, with that which w^ould proceed from an as- 
semblage of currents, having its seat in the depths of the earth, south 
of Europe, and whose movements would be like the diurnal revolutions 
of the globe from west to east. Let it not be said, then, that, the laws 
of magnetic action being the same in the two theories, it is a matter of 
indifference which to adopt. 

Suppose the theory of Ampere true, and the earth, as a whole, inev- 
itably a vast voltaic pile, creating currents moving in the direction of 
the diurnal revolution ; and the memoir in which is found this magnifi- 
cent result will take rank, without disadvantage, with the immortal 
works which have made of our globe a simple planet, an ellipsoid fiat 
tened at the poles, a body formerly incandescent in all its parts ; incan- 
descent still down in its depths, but retaining on its siuface no appre- 
ciable trace of this original heat. 

It has been asserted that the beautiful conceptions of Ampere, of 
which I have just given a detailed analysis, were coldly received ; it has 
been said that the French geometers and physicists showed themselves 
little inclined either to recognize or study them ; that the academy, with 
the exception of one single member, swaj'ed by its prejudices, refused 
for a long time to yield itself to unexceptionable proof. 

These charges reached the public through an eloquent and eminently 

honorable organ. I cannot, therefore, pass them by without notice. 
10 s 



14G EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

The experimeuts of Ampere, from their first appearance, were the ob- 
ject of the severe critici-soi just cited, and, soou after, of universal ad- 
miration. The only competent and capable judges of intricate and 
scientific calculations of nice theoretical deductions of whose almost 
boundless range I have just tried to give you an idea, were of necessity 
geometers. Now is it jnst to say the French geometers found fault with 
our distinguished associate, when, a short time before the discovery of 
electrodynamics, M. Savary was found completmg a very important 
point of that theory; when M. Lionville was trying to simphfy its bases 
and render them more rigorous; when, in the compilation of the most 
difficult parts of his grand memoir Ampere found in M. Duhamel an 
earnest collaborator ? 

Is it true that Ampere's formula displayed no features likely to 
occasion astonishment amongst geometers ? Would not the curiosity of 
those most famihar with Newtonian theories be awakened by observing 
the introduction of general expressions of the mutual action of these 
elements, trigonometrical quantities relative to the respective inclina- 
tions of the iufiuitisimal elements of the electrical ciuTcnts ? Was not 
some hesitation natural when new theories seemed to depart so com- 
l)letely from beaten paths 1 There was nothing extraordinary, excep- 
tional, nor extravagant on the part of the savants who experienced this 
hesitation. A few years before the transversal waves of light of Fresnel 
had created the same doubts, the same uncertainty, and in the minds of 
the same individuals, although they seemed a still more evident conse- 
quence, a more direct and immediate translation and one easier to verify, 
of the facts of interference exhibited by polarized rays. 

Let us not complain in general terms of the worship rendered usually 
by men to the ideas under whose influence their minds have been devel- 
oped. In such cases it is just, natural, and proper to make no change 
of views without a thorough investigation. From a scientific point of 
view, the criticisms and difficulties, so frequently overwhelming innova- 
tors, are substantially useful. They arouse the idle to triumph over 
indolence; even jealousj", with its cruel and hideous acuteness, becomes 
an incentive to progress. It can be relied upon to discover gaps, blem- 
ishes, and imperfections that even the most careful author allows un- 
avoidably to escape him. The control it exercises over him who dis- 
dains not to profit by it, is worth ten-fold that of the best friend. It 
commands no gratitude either, for its services are involuntarily rendered ; 
and on the other hand it would be a weaknessto sympathize too warmly 
with the vexatious it causes in men of genius; for fame and peace of 
mind rarely bear each other company. He who is ambitious of high 
place in the world of matter or of ideas, must expect to find as adver- 
saries those already occupying the highest places. Small minds aim at 
trivial objects, and alone are privileged to reach, at will, insignificant 
points, whose possession no one dreams of dis^iuting with them. 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 14"? 

AMPi^RE TAKES PART IN A CELEBRATED DISCUSSION BETWEEN GEORGE 
CLTTIER, AND GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE ON THE UNITY" OP STRUC- 
TURE IN ORGANIZED BEINGS. 

This discussion rested on some very nice considerations. If it were 
desired, for instance, to trace the resemblance between the arrange- 
ments of the viscera of a cephalopodic monusk and those of man, it 
wonld be necessary to fancy the latter bent backwards from the line of 
the navel, so that the pelvis and lower limbs should be joined to the 
nape of the neck; it would be necessary, moreover, to imagine man 
walking on his head. Other comparisons required that one of the two 
animals should be reversed like a glove; that the bonj^ structure should 
pass from within to without, that the enveloped shonld become the en- 
velope, etc., etc. The members of the mathematical department of the 
college could take no part in this subtle debate ; they were satisfied to 
be attentive listeners. Ampere alone threw himself headlong into the 
arena. But it was found that the views so warmly opposed by Cuvier, 
and so decidedly sustained by our honorable colleague, Geoffroy Saint- 
Hilaire, were those entertained by Ampere in 1803. 

Cuvier, the learned secretary of the academy, when concluding his 
course on the history of the sciences of the nineteenth centurj^, was 
naturally led to allude to the German school known under the name of 
Philosoi^liers of Nature. 

The principles of the philosophers of nature, at least those referring 
to the unity of structure in animals, appearing to him erroneous, he 
undertook to oppose them. Ampere was one of the auditors of our illus- 
trious colleague. If, as at the Normal Convential School, the students 
had the right to challenge the professors, each lecture of Ouvier's course 
would assuredly have ended in an animated and instructive debate ; 
but the regulations imperiously forbade such an innovation. Ampere 
was not the man to be discouraged by difficulties. Custom denying 
him permission to speak in the arena where Cuvier was unfolding his 
views, openly without leaving the precincts of the college founded by 
Francis the First, if not on the same day, at least during the same week, 
when delivering his course onMathcsiologie, Ampdre broadly announced 
himself, with reference to the chief point of philosophic zoology, the 
declared adversary of the first naturalist of Europe. In each of his lec- 
tures he gave a minute and detailed criticism of the preceding lecture 
of Cuvier. But in return, Cuvier regularly used an analysis of Ampere's 
argument, made by his brother Frederic, who attended the course on 
Mathesiologie, as the text for each succeeding one of those lectures, 
'whose glorious memory will long be preserved by the" College of France, 
and in which shone in the same high degree, his talent for explaining, 
his knowledge of facts in detail, and must it be avowed, his art of ren- 
dering sarcasm cutting without overstej)ping the limits of a well-bred 
critic. Each week Ampere would seem felled by the blows of the new 



148 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

Hercules, and each succeeding week, like Anteus in the fable, he would 
be found prepared to sustain a new contest, not, however, without 
having changed ground, though very slightly and skillfully between the 
successive assaults. 

In order to assume that Ampere considered this contest an ostenta- 
tious tourney without consequences, it would be necessary to admit, 
contrary to all reason and probability, that voluntarily closing his eyes, 
he did not perceive that even blunted weapons in Ouvier's hands could 
intlict painful wounds. We will hasten to announce that Ampere was 
fully conscious of how formidable was his adversary ; and if in spite of 
this, he continued his course, it was to fulfill what he considered a con- 
scientious duty. In July, 1824, our associate sent to the press, but with- 
out giving his name to the publication, a theory of the organization of 
articulated animals. In this work, after making himself master of a 
single type, he followed it up amidst a thousand disguises, through the 
multitude of species of which the animal kingdom is composed. He 
sought, for example, how the fragile butterfly could be traced to the 
clumsy toad, the toad to the colossal whale. The criticisms of Cuvier 
were then addressd as well to Ampere as to the jihilosophers of nature 
or Geoffroy Saint Hilaire; and our friend decided to sacrifice all personal 
feelings to the interests of science and surrenderthe privileges of anonym- 
ity. He fullfilled this obligation without bitterness, but with firmness 5 he 
utterly disregarded the many annoyances incident to the position forced 
upon him by circumstances, and allowed nothing to turn him from his 
purpose, not even what Frenchmen dread the most, ridicule. 

1 still remember a dialogue that took place on one occasion, in my 
presence, between M. Ampere and an academician, who was the declared 
adversary of the unity of structure, and whose witty sallies were not 
only dreaded by his antagonists but often by his friends also. I will 
rei-ite the beginning : 

'•Well, M. Ampere, do you hold, from an anatomical point of view, 
that Master Crow perched on a tree, did not differ from the crafty, cun- 
ning animal who carried oft" his cheese ; and do you believe that 

' The heron with the long heak set upon the long neck, ' 
is but a simple modification of the gossip carp he so foolishly disdained 
to eat for his dinner f And again, do you think the fabler was guilty of 
a heresy in natural history when he said : 

' A rat to prove he was no elephant, 

Came out of his cage in less than an instant?'" 

"Yes, sir; yes," said Ampere, "I admit as facts all you have just 
enumerated as impossibilities. Fuither details on the subject would bQ 
superfluous. After the most conscientious study, I shall remain firm to 
a principle, apparently singular, but which time will establish ; to the 
l)riuciple that man is formed after a model found in all the animal cre- 
ation, without one single exception." 

"Wonderful, M. Ampere, your theory has one rare and incontestable 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 149 

merit ; it is clear and categorical. Je vous attends a I'escargot," (I shall 
wait to see you a modified snail.) 

Ampere entered, for a few moments very good naturedly into the 
gaiety provoked in all present by this sally ; but he soon began to treat 
seriously the laughable question just proposed to him; his manner of 
handling it showed the most profound research, and the most compre- 
hensive knowledge of anatomy and natural history, and where the 
first step seemed to lead to absurdities, he pointed out resemblances 
and analogies so ingenious that we were surprised to find ourselves not 
regretting that the term of comparison offered to Ampere had been se- 
lected so far down in the scale of animal life. 

ESSAY ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCIENCES. 

The literary life of Ampere began by the study of the Encyclopedia of 
the Eighteenth Century, and was closed by the compilation of a plan for 
a new encyclopedia. The most essential feature of this vast scheme 
was a classification of all human knowledge. 

Moliere formerly, through the medium of one of the characters of his 
immortal comedies, asked whether it were more correct to speak of the 
figure or the shape of a hat ; which was equivalent to asking whether 
hats should be classed as to shapes or figures. 

The abuse of classification could not possibly be described at the same 
time more profoundly and more ludicrously. To go back to the time of 
Moliere, or even to the early part of the eighteenth century, you will see 
the great poefwas not attacking a vain phantom, and you will be struck 
with the strangest association of ideas ; you will find the classifiers 
yielding to the most truly absurd analyses and comparisons; for ex- 
ample, in the Society of Arts, created by a prince of the blood, Comte 
de Clermont, a society embracing the sciences, belles-lettres, and the 
mechanical arts, the historian is classed, in all seriousness, with the em- 
broiderer, the poet with the dyer, etc., etc. 

In all things abuse is not use. Let us see, then, whether Ampere 
paused at the use, in the work, still only partly published, which he 
composed at the close of his life, and entitled, Essay on the Philosophy 
of the Sciences ; or Analytical Exposition of a Natural Classification of 
all Human Knoivledge. 

Ampere proposed to undertake the vast and celebrated problem whose 
solution had already been attempted by Aristotle, Plato, Bacon, Leib- 
nitz, Locke, D'Alembert, &c. 

The unsuccessful eiforts of so many men of genius are a convincing 
proof of the difficulty of the question ; do they also completely prove 
its utility? 

Aristotle claimed that all subjects could be included in ten categories. 
If I should recall the number of times they have been rearranged, the 
reply would very reasonably be, these were the necessary and foreseen 
consequences of the progress of the human mind. I should then, un- 



150 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

doubtedly, propose a still more embarrassing question, by asking, of 
what use have the categories been f 

It has already been shown what Moliere thought of them. Here is 
the opinion of the celebrated author of the Logic of Port Eoyal : "The 
study of the categories cannot but he da)i(/erous, as it accustoms men 
to be satisfied with words, and to believe they know everything, when 
they are only acquainted with arbitrary names." • 

To this extravagant criticism, if it had fallen under his eyes. Am- 
pere would have replied: That a natural classification of the sciences 
would be the model on which the sections of an institute claiming to 
represent the universality of human knowledge, should be scrupulously 
formed : That a natural classification of the sciences would indicate 
the proper omissions in the subjects of a well-arranged methodical 
encyclopedia. That a natural classification would control a rational 
distribution of the books in large libraries, a matter of so much im- 
portance that Liebnitz devoted to it much thought and labor : That a 
natural classification of the sciences would create a desirable revolution 
in the art of teaching. 

All this is just and true. But, unfortunately, the principles which 
a priori seemed to lead to natural classifications, have assimilated, 
grouped, and uuited the most incongruous subjects. 

If you take the encyclopedical tree of Bacon and D'Alembert, which 
is founded on the hypothesis, against which no objections have ever 
been raised, that the human mind can be reduced to three faculties — 
memory, reason, and imagination, — 3'ou will be led in the large division 
of knowledge depending on memory to classify the history of minerals 
and vegetables with civil history; and in sciences belonging to the do- 
main of reason metaphysics will be associated with astronomy, ethics, 
and chemistry. 

Follow Locke, or rather Plato, and theology and optics will be found 
side by side. Divide, as the schools of Eome do now, all knowledge 
into three kingdoms, the sciences of autliority^ of reason, and of obser- 
vation, and anomalies almost laughable will arise at every step. 

These serious defects are not found iu the classifications of Ampere. 
All analogous subjects are classed together ; all that differ are separated. 
The author does not create at the will of his imagination pretended fun- 
damental faculties for the basis of a system without solidity. His two 
chief poiuts, his two Mngdoms, are the study of the world — cosmology; 
and the study of the mind — ontology. 

The cosmological sciences are divided, in their turn, into two sub-king- 
doms, namely, the sciences which treat of inanimate objects ; and those 
which cousider only animate objects. The first sub-kingdom of the 
cosmological sciences is divided again into two branches — the mathe- 
matical and physical sciences. By always following out this division 
by twos. Ampere succeeded in forming a table in which the whole range 
of sciences and arts is found divided — 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. I5l 

Into two kingdoms 5 

Into four sub-kingdoms ; 

Into eight branches 5 

Into sixteen sub-branches ; 

Into thirty-two sciences of the first order; 

Into sixty-four of the second order; 

Into one hundred and twenty-eight of the third order. 

This is what it wonkl be necessary to study in order to be perfectly 
familiar with the whole range of human knowledge. 

Ought not this large number to be at the same time a subject of 
discouragement to individuals taken separately, and a just cause of 
pride to the human race "^ Neither one nor the other. Ampere only 
succeeded in finding one hundred and twenty-eight distinct sciences in 
the acciunulated labors of forty centuries by dividing and separating 
what bad until then been united; by changing into distinct sciences the 
simple divisions of the complete sciences, and by applying to them names 
which might well be objected to, such as canolbology cyhernitics, tcr- 
2)no(j)wsi/, teclDiesthetics, etc., etc. 

Tt now remains to examine whether the new divisions are not too 
numerous; whether they would add to clearness — a quality to be sought 
at any price — and whether they would introduce any facilities into the 
art of teaching. There is scarcely a professor who does not understand 
now that the most elementary course of astronomy should first present 
to the student a description of the apparent motions of the heavenly 
bodies ; that, on a second division, it is necessary to leave the apparent 
for the real ; and that a third division, finally, should be devoted to 
the investigation and study of the phj'sical causes of these movements. 
Here are three parts of one and the same whole. I do not see, I 
must confess, what would be gained by making, of tlie first section of 
the first course of the subject or treatise, a distinct science, vranogrcqjhy, 
and by dividing the second subject into two other sciences heliostatics 
and astronomy. 

Our illustrious associate banished from the course of general physics 
the comparative study of the modifications experienced by phenomena 
in different places and at difi'erent times. If this referred to profounder 
study the thesis could be sustained. But on a contrary supposition, it 
would be difiicidt to conceive how, after having announced that to-day, 
at Paris, the north point of the magnetic needle declined 22^ from the 
north to the west, the professor could stop suddenly and leave to his 
colleague, the professor of i)hysical geography, the office of declaring, the 
year after, perhaps, that at Paris, before IGGG, the observers found no 
declination; that it is not the same at all places, and that at each place, 
considered apart, it exhibits a diurnal oscillation around its mean posi- 
tion. 

Ampere found the union of the materia-medica and therapeutics in the 
aiedical course inadmissible. It is very true that a knowledge of tlio 



1.02 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

properties of .medicine is quite diiiereut from knowing how to apj)ly 
them ; but when you consider that the properties in question would be 
but little studied but for the purpose of relieving human suffering; that 
their union under both points of view, abstract and practical, sustains 
the interest and saves time, you return to what at iirst seemed defect- 
ive. " Life is short, and art is long." These memorable words of Hip- 
pocrates, let me add, whose truth has not been impaired by the mate- 
ria-medica or therapeutics, unitedly or separately, deserve to be remem- 
bered in the distribution of the studies of youth. 

Ampere thought he had succeeded in avoiding entirely all repetitions ; 
he flattered himself that henceforth each science could be studied with- 
out any trace of syllogistic circles ; that, while engaged in one study, it 
would never be necessary to refer to the science coming after on the 
synoptical table. 

An illustrious metaphysician did not believe this methodical course 
possible unless in the science of abstract mathematics. Eeaders, he 
said, must trust; they must be willing to give credit for a time, if they 
wish to be satisfied; for geometers alone always pay cash. 

Could Ampere always pay cash, as Malebranche expresses it, even 
in applied mathematics'? If time permitted I could easily prove, I 
believe, that on this point our illustrious colleague deceived himself. 
In his table I see, for example, astronomy before physics ; and, conse- 
quently, before optics. How, then, in the first lessons of urauography 
and the first study of the diurnal movements of the heavens, could the 
professor explain the use of the telescopes, of the lines placed in the com- 
mon focus between the object and eye glasses'? What could he say, 
without asking for credit of the atmospheric refractions which so percep- 
tibly deform the circular diurnal orbits of the stars *? All astronomers 
"would agree with me that it is very unnatural that heliostatics, or the 
demonstration of the Copernican system, should precede the exposition 
of the laws of Kepler, considered as simple results of observation. 

I could multiply these remarks, but they would not prevent Ampere's 
classification from being very superior to all those preceding it ; it would 
require but a few suppressions and some rearrangement of points of 
slight importance to make it asperfoct as would be compatible with the 
nature of the subject. It can be unhesitatingly affirmed that its various 
parts bear the indelible stamp of an erudition as remarkable for its 
extent as its profoundness. 

Ampere had not only essayed the vast problem of a general classifi- 
cation of the sciences, but had also been engaged in introducing classi- 
fications into the physical and natural sciences separately. 

The chemical classifications proposed bj^ the learned academician 
could even now be published with profit. They would prove — and how 
strange the fact — that, during one of the last revolutions in the science, 
Ampere, the geometer Ampere, was always in the right, even when his 
opinions were opposed to those of nearly all the chemist^s of the world. 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 153 

THE USTFLUENCE EXERCISED BY A PRIVATE EDUCATION ON AMPi:RE'S 

MIND AND MANNERS. 

Ampere, enjoyiug the wide reputation we have indicated, suggests 
in himself too stiili:iug a comparison between the advantages of a 
private education and one acquired in the tumult of pubhc schools not 
to excite eager discussion. I only refer to this discussion, however, to 
deny its utiUty. At the time of his departure from the mountains of 
Poleymeux, our future associate possessed an immense amount of infor- 
mation, an extraordinary memory', a strong intellect, and a rare aptitude 
in mastering all subjects ; but who would dare affirm that these qualities 
woidd not have been as well developed at a i^ublic school? An isolated 
fact could lead to no positive cou elusion on so nice a point. 

The adversaries of private education remembered that Ampere con- 
tracted in his secluded life habits which they tax with siugidarity. 
Amongst others is cited the impossibility he found in giving a clear ex- 
planation, when professor, of subjects with which he was jjerfectly 
famiUar ; without calling, as it were, to his aid peculiar movements of. 
the body. This is undeniably true. There was always, iutellectually 
speaking, a great diftereuce between Ampere in repose and Ampere in 
action. I, especially, have always sincerely regretted that the illustrious 
savant, in his riper years, should have felt his eminent powers and all 
enthusiasm decline as soon as seated at his desk, without having, how- 
ever, the temerity to ascribe it to the solitude in which his jouth had 
been passed. 

What is known, in fact, of the mental struggle accompanying the 
birth and development of an idea? Like the first uncertain ghmmer- 
ings of a star, an idea begins its dawn on the very verge of the intel- 
lectual horizon, at first so small and faint that its unsteady, w avering 
light seems to reacn us through an almost impenetrable mist. It in- 
creases in size, until sufficiently developed to display a delicate outhue; 
and finally, its contom- clearly defined, it stands sharply out from all 
around — from all that is not itself. At this last stage language seizes it, 
clothes and stamixs it with the definite, the impressive form which will 
engrave it indelibly upon the memory of future generations. 

The causes accelerating or retarding the bu'th of a thought, and its 
various transformations, are numerous and evanescent; and there is, 
moreover, neither regularity nor consistency in their mode of action. 
Paesiello composed wrapped uj) in his bed-covers. Cimerosa, on the 
contrary, received the inspirations that gave to the world the beautiful 
themes with which his operas abound in the midst of the mirth and 
bustle of a crowd. The historian Mezerai wrote, even at mid-day in 
the month of July, hy the light of wax candles. Eousseau, on the 
other hand, gave himself up to his most profound meditations in the 
full light of the sun, while engaged in herborizing. 

If Ampere were only inspired while standing and in motion, Descartes 



154 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

required to be lying down immovable, and Cnjas studied satisfactorily 
only when stretched at full length on his face on the floor. We have 
all, in our youth, had occasion to smile at the sight of lazy school-boya 
gazing lixedly at the ceiling of the school-room, as if looking for the 
lesson they no longer remembered. This was the position in which 
Milton, his head thrown far back, always composed. 

These facts seem singular; but what will you say of Gnido Reni, who 
was incapable of inspiration unless magniticently dressed ; of the mu- 
sician Haydn, who declared himself utterly unable to coraiiose his grand 
choruses without having on his finger the costly ring given him by 
Frederick II; of the poet Mathmin, who would stick a wafer on 
his forehead between his eye-brows, as much to excite his imagination 
as a signal to his servants not to interrupt him by questions. 

The eyes, it has been said, are the windows of the soul. I am con- 
viuce<l that it would be a mistake to generalize this remarlc too much by 
extending it to gesticulations, or, if you please, to nervous action. The 
arms of iSTapoleou's chair were not hacked by a penknife in moments of 
anger or deep preoccupation only ; joy and mirth also gave employment 
to his instrument of destruction. If the questors of our legislative as- 
semblies did not place discretion in the front rank of the good qualities 
which distinguish them, they could tell us that some members do not 
less actively destroy the mahogany of their desks on the days of stormy 
debate than during the monotonous and drowsy operation of the call 
and recall. Does any one, while reading Glover's ballad entitled the 
Shade of Admiral, Rosier, divine for a moment that the poet com- 
j30sed it while unconsciously destroying with his cane a bed of tulips, 
the especial delight of his friend, Lady Temple. 

Uncomfortable and painful attitudes, so necessary to some, are not 
the only conditions indispensable to the development of the higher in- 
tellectual faculties. Addison mentions a lawyer \vho could never plead 
without passing the thumb of his left hand through a loop of twine, 
which he would tighten to spur the thought or expression. One of our 
most eloquent prose writers, who spoke as well as he wrote, was only 
able to do so, however, when his right leg was twisted around the left, 
like the serpent of Troy around the arms of the Laocoon. Let us re- 
member all these facts. Their very singularity should induce us to do 
so. But let us be careful not to draw from them any premature conclu- 
sions against any particular mode of education ; for amongst the dis- 
tinguished personages whose names I have just cited there are no two 
who in their childhood were placed in exactly similar circumstances. 

If necessary to enter more into detail, I should be less reserved about 
other habits of our associate which have more or less influenced his 
career. Had Ampere been sent to school in his childhood to the hum- 
blest village school, his disposition and habits would possibly have been 
somewhat modified. He would have learned that scissors were not in- 
tended for making pens ; that writing in large characters was not the 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 155 

ultimate object of calligraphy. He would uot have received froui a Ibr- 
eigu scientist, full of wit aud waggery, after Up became a member of 
the academy, an invitation to dinner written in the first letter of his 
signature. He would have known that to write a running hand rapidly 
and easily, a movement of the lingers, and not the arm, is required — 
a knowledge which would have saved him, during his whole life, much 
bodily exertion and intolerable annoyance. Ampere's school-fellows, 
much less forbearing than father or mother, would ha^'e roughly checked 
his incessant restlessness. He would have learned to control those i)ar- 
oxysnis of rage which, later in life, rendered him so unhappy — called by 
his friends lamb-like wrath ; and which to excite was rather a subject of 
congratulation, so spontaneous, candid, aud unreserved was his repent- 
ance. He would have known how to confine himself to regular work. 
The necessity of performing his tasks at fixed hours would have taught 
him, as an author very clever in such matters said, to make his 
thoughts flow rapidly from the nib of his pen, aud not to drown them 
afterwards in an ink-stand. Borrowing the beautiful image of Cleanthe, 
l^reserved by Seneca, Anipere's thoughts, once repressed, would re- 
semble the voice, which, confined to the narrow channel of a trumpet, 
bursts forth at length the more clear aud the more powerful. Compo- 
sition would then have been of secondary importance to him, and he 
could have exclaimed triumphantly with Racine, "My work is finished; 
nothing now remains but to write it out." The success of this mode of 
investigation would have induced him to give up handling a thousand 
different subjects at once and yielding to the nervous excitement pro- 
voked by it. If he had considered the time lost in useless discussions, 
he would not now sadly exclaim with the poet cited not long since — 

Je ne f ais pas le bien que j'aime, 
Et je fais le mal que je liais. 

("I do not do the good I love, but the evil that I hate.") 
Here 1 must stop; for instead of maintaining an even balance between 
the two contrary systems, as I had intended, I find myself almost plead- 
ing in favor of public education. 

AMPEEE AN ADEPT IN ANEMAX, MAGNETISM. 

Ampere often lent the aid of his imposing authority to the adepts of 
animal magnetism. His imperfect vision, his want of bodily dexterity, 
and his great credulity, rendered him a fitting subject for the tricks and 
legerdemains which ought to have induced him to consider magnetism 
a branch of the art of jugglery. At certain reunions, W'here the love of 
the marvelous, a desire to fathom the mysteries of animal organization, 
and especially the hope of discovering some new means of alleviating 
human suffering, brought many estimable people together, Ampere was 
often fascinated by legerdemains only suitable for the amusement of 
children, such as the sudden increase of little balls, multipHed almost 



15G EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

infinitely, and passing successively into different boxes, at tlie will of 
one of those individuals now called prestidigitators. It was in tbis way, 
doubtless, that Ampere had been led to admit that, under certain 
conditions of nervous excitement, a man might be able to see even at 
great distances without the aid of his eyes ; that he might, with his knee, 
see stars ; follow the movements of actors on a stage with his back turned, 
and read a note with his elbow. Is it not possible that we, who even 
now have no faith in such marvels ; we, who formerly opposed the convic- 
tions of our friend with all kinds of arguments, eyen resorting to raillery, 
might have carried this oj)positiou too far on other points of animal 
magnetism ? Is an extravagant skepticism more philosophical than an 
unlimited credulity ? Have we any right, for example, to sweepingly 
affirm that no man ever has or ever Avill be able to read, with his eyes, 
in the profound darkness which reigns under a depth of twenty-nme 
meters of earth and rocks — I mean at the bottom of the vaults of the 
Paris observatory 1 Has it been well established that opaque bodies — 
that is, those impermeable to light — allow nothing to pass through them 
which coidd supply and produce vision? Do systematical ideas au- 
thorize us to disdain any reference to experiment, the only competent 
judge in such matters ? I present all these doubts as a kind of repara- 
tion and expiation offered to the manes of Ampere. 

Pardon this digression, gentlemen, rendered necessary by circumstances. 
Your indulgence will be the more precious to me for having possibly — 
nay, I will say more, probably — displeased both the advocates and 
antagonists of magnetism. The latter will blame the extent of my con- 
cessions ; the former, on the contrary, find me too skeptical. But, such 
reproaches would not be very alarming ; for has magnetism, unless in 
some few^ isolated j)oints, any real foundation *? All that its advocates 
can desire, all they can rightfully claim at present, are unprejudiced 
judges, w^ho will refuse neither to see nor to hear. 

Is it necessary, on the other hand, to side with those who, fanatically 
devoted to the experimental method, proceed exclusively by means of 
direct corollaries, and who regard an idea unworthy of behig followed up 
which does not flow logically from a previous idea ? I will also remark 
that to deny, a j;Won, belongs to theory; that negative theories are even 
more to be condemned, as they provoke no trial, no attempt, and there- 
fore reduce the mind to a state of quietude and somnolence from which 
science woidd have much to suffer. 

I cannot, besides, admit that there would be less pride in saying, not 
only to the sea but to all nature, " thou slialt go no farther P 

AMPi^EE'S CHARACTER. 

The traits of character which, in the course of this sketch, are 
found scattered here and there through the scientific analyses, would 
amply sufl&ce in the eidogies of a large number of the academicians. 
But this would not answer in Ampere's case. From an early period a 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 157 

singular concoiu'se of circumstauces had iuitiated the public into all the 
details of his private life. They interested themselves almost as much 
in what they called his credulity, his eccentricities, his absence of mind, 
and his very frequent alternations of wonderful activity and profound 
apathy, to which he was subject, as in his brilliant discoveries. Our friend 
gradually became the principal actor in a multitude of fantastic adven- 
tures, creations of the imaginations of a few idle people. Calumny, 
always on the watch for such opportunities, began early to exercise its 
detestable role; and thus it is that I would not attain my end were I to 
neglect to give a faithful sketch of the character and habits of Ampere. 

I have just spoken of calumny, but am far from wishing to ap})ly s*o 
severe a term to those who do not share the estimate I have formed of 
Ampere's character. Philopa?min once '-'■paid the fine of his deformity ^ 
said Plutarch. Ampere also paid the penalty of certain manners and 
habits which it is not my intention to extol. I freely acknowledge that, 
with the kindest feelings in the world, no one could help admitting a 
want of dignity in his too profound salutations. 

We have passed over times in which a man of letters, a man of 
science, such as Ampere, had any reason to fear that he would be 
stripped of his office if not orthodox in matters of religion and a parti- 
san of the political systems of the day. Perhaps, under such circum- 
stances, our associate recalled too vividly his responsibilities as the 
father of a family; perhaps an ardent imagination painted in exagger- 
ated colors the brutal condition to which such a deprivation would 
reduce him ; and he thus stooped to measures, such as visits and pre- 
sentations, which can be legitimately and justly condemned. The right 
of doing so, however, can only be conceded to those who have never 
been guilty of like faults, and which I refuse unhesitatingly to those 
functionaries, infinitely more numerous, whose only advantage over 
Ampere is that of having discovered the secret of diverting atten- 
tion. Besides, do not believe that the judgments and opinions whose 
organ I shall be, and which it would give me so much jileasure to have 
prevail here, rest on so unsound a foundation as rumor or the chit-chat 
of society — but on acts misunderstood and susceptible of different inter- 
pretations. I have formed an estimate and judgment of Ampere's char- 
racter from a private correspondence not destined to see the light — which, 
indeed, in strict accordance with the express wish of our friend, should 
have been destroyed. In such documents I could hope to find Ampere's 
thoughts free from all delusive alloy. It was while reading this precious 
correspondence I learned more and more to love our associate. Are 
there many men who would thus gain by being stripped of the mask so 
generally worn in public? These reflections have occupied much time, 
gentlemen. You will pardon me if I say it is a mistake to consider them 
a mere preamble ; they are a direct refutation, and by way of anticipa- 
tion, of the objections with which the last portion of this notice is 
threatened, even before being given to the public. 



158 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

Like Lafoutaine, between whom there was more than one point of 
resemblance, Ampere would remain sometimes unconscious of all 
arouutl him in the midst of a crowd ; and from this proceeded certain 
eccentricities, certain aberrations of language, of carriage, and dress, 
difficult to be understood by those who have never known what it is to 
be swayed by the tyrannical domination of an idea or of a sentiment. 
Abstraction ofiends, where it does not excite laughter. Ampere's obliv- 
iousness was of the latter kind, and yet it must have offended some, 
since it has been fancied, and even seriously maiutained, that the many 
instances of which we have all been witnesses were the result of affec- 
tation. This serious charge has been too widely spread to allow me to 
give a kind of assent by silence. I will refer, then, boldly to the con- 
temptible circumstances which gave rise to it. 

Tell us, for example, what advantage could Ampere expect the day 
when, seated at the table of persons whom all his interest required him 
to treat with deference, he exclaimed in a fretful tone, fancying himself 
at hoaie, " What a vile dinner; will my sister ever understand that, 
before engaging cooks, it is necessary to inquire into their skill f ' 

I am almost ashamed to have to stoop to such a justification ; for, 
after all, Ampere is not the only distinguished man subject to absence 
of mind. Would you like to generalize the charge ? I can at once cite 
the instance of the celebrated astronomer, who, on being asked b^'' his 
house-keeper the exact number of minutes required to boil an egg, 
found with despair that his watch, of great value, and on which depended 
the accuracy of all his labors, had been in the boiling water for a Avhole 
minute, while the egg was in his hand. I can mention, too, the case of 
the pious Father Beccaria, who, his mind filled with an electrical experi- 
ment even while celebrating mass, shouted in his loudest tones, '■'■L-eHpe- 
riensa e fatta,'''' when he should have chanted the Domiuus Vobiscum; an 
obliviousness, by the way, which, being reported to the ecclesiastical 
authorities, resulted in the suspension of the illustrious physicist. 

To transform an absent-minded man, by the system just alluded to, into 
a sort ot mixture of the impostor and the hypocrite, would be to force 
us to destroy some of the clever pages of La Bruyere, and to condemn 
to the flames an agreeable comedy of Eegnard. There is still another 
consequence, which creates yet more disgust : the inimitable fabler 
would no longer be the loortlii) man, as Moliere baptized him. While 
admiring his immortal works, we should be forced to deprive him of 
that halo of respect and esteem — in fact, almost tender attachment — 
with which so many successive generations have surrounded him. The 
cause is lost, gentlemen, when it leads to consequences so violently irri- 
tating to public feeling. 

Ampere's credulity had become in a measure proverbial. It induced 
him to believe one after another the most extraordinary facts in the 
political world and the most chimerical events in the intellectual. Still 
this avowal can create no prejudice against the wide reputation of the 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 159 

celebrated academician for perspicuity. Credulity usually implies a 
want of intelligence. This, of course, was not the case in this instance 
It often arises, too, from a general sluggishness of mind, and is well 
described by a popular adage : "J would rather believe than examine for 
myself.'''' 

Indifference, in order to escape the importunities and contentions it 
so much dreads, sometimes wears the mask of credulity. But indif- 
ference cannot be general. Though felt towards certain subjects, it 
admits in others a wide field for active interest. Such was the case 
with the grammarian to whom some one was describing the fancied 
symptoms of a general conflagration in Europe. He admitted all, ac- 
cepted all, without a frown or a word ; and was about being set down 
as one of the most credulous men of the age, when he broke the silence 
by exclaiming, "Happen what will, I have not less than three thousand 
verbs well conjugated in my lists." 

Ampere belonged to another class, infinitely more rare, with whom 
credulity was the result of imagination and genius. When he heard 
an extraordinary statement related, his first feeling was that of sur- 
prise, undoubtedly ; but his penetrating and prolific mind, discerning 
possibilities where ordinary minds discovered only chaos, would, with- 
out interval or rest, persevere until he connected the strange phenom- 
ena, by links more or less solid, to the principles of established science. 

Should I fear being accused of misunderstanding the human heart 
if I add that the merit of overcoming difliculties had its influence 
on the tenacity of our learned associate in defending certain theories % 
On leaving Lyons, in 1805, Ampere had not weighed well all he was 
relinquishing in the associations and friends of that city. Soon after his 
arrival in Paris he was seized with an attack of genuine nostalgia — 
home-sickness — from which he never entirely recovered. 

In letters of 1813 and 1820, and even of a later date, his acceptance 
of the situation connecting him with the Polytechnic School is described 
as an act of egregious folly. His favorite dieams were combinations, 
always impracticable, to restore him to the haunts of his childhood. 
His griefs of all kinds always found expression in, " O, had I never 
left Lyons!" This, then, gentlemen, gives the key to many circum- 
stances in the life of our friend until now inexplicable. 

Metaphysics, to which I have already referred, were constantly inter- 
fering with the works on mathematics, physics, and chemistry, on which 
our associate was engaged. They were suspended, but at short inter- 
vals, in 1820, 1821, and 1822, during his electro-dijnamie researches, the 
results of which have already been shown. 

In 1813 Ampere consulted his friends in Lyons as to a plan, (I give 
his own words,) " to devote himself exclusively to psychology." He 
fancied himself called " to lay the foundation of that science for all 
ages." He did not reiDly to a letter from Sir Humphry Da^n*' on chem- 



inO EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

istry. '' No longer haviug," lie said, " the courage to fix his thoughts on 
that tedious subject." 

I will say uo more, gentlemeu, as I would be afraid by dwelling longer 
on the harm done to j)hysics by psychology, of exciting against the lat- 
ter too violent an opposition. 

Among the writers conspicuous in literary history for their invaluable 
aud indefatigable zeal, we shall fiud some profoundly pious, some in- 
different, and others skeptical. Those, on the contrary, who all their 
lives have been harassed by internal religious struggles, have rarely suc- 
ceeded in accomplishing works of great magnitude. Ampere belonged 
much more than we had suspected to the last class of savants. 

Madame Ampere had early begun to instil into the heart of her son 
the pious sentiments animating her own. A diligent study of the Bible 
and the fathers of the church was the unfailing expedient of the young 
geometer when his faith was wavering. Later in life this talisman lost 
somewhat of its early efficacy, a fact revealed to me by some scraps of 
manuscript, for during his life Ampere never allowed me to perceive the 
cruel doubts which from time to time disturbed his mind. In glancing 
over to-day his letters to the friend whom he had selected as the confi- 
dant of all his mental struggles, the reader is surprised to find that he 
has really before him an account of the excessive tortures experienced 
by the author of the Frovincials. "If this were true, however," he 
wrote (m the 2d of June, 1815, "miserable creature that I am. * * * 
Former views have not the power to make me believe ; but they still 
have the power to strike terror into my soul. If I had only preserved 
them intact, I would not now be phinged into this gulf." 

By comparing dates, it is evident to me that these vicissitudes of feeling 
were not unconnected with the political revolutions of France, or with 
family afflictions. How readily it can be believed that the tears filling 
the unhappy eyes do not alone change the appearance of the external 
world ! 

In moments of religious excitement there was no literary sacrifice 
Ampere would not have considered light. Whde at the central school 
of Bourg, the young professor composed a treatise on tJie future of 
chemistry. In it were some bold predictions, which at the time did not 
alarm his conscience. The work was scarcely published, however, when 
various circumstances threw Ampere into an extraordinary mystical 
exultation. From that moment he fancied himself in the highest degree 
culpable for having attemi^ted to unveil prematurely a multitude of 
secrets that future ages bore and still bear in their bosom 5 and seeing 
in his work only the suggestions of Satan, he committed it to the flames. 
The illustrious academicau has since deeply deplored this loss in common 
with all interested in the progress of science aud the glory of the coun- 
try. Eeligious doubts were not the only ones w^hich perplexed Ampere. 
Doubt, whatever the object, always disturbed his mind in the same 
degree. "Doubt," he wrote to a Lyonnese friend, "is the greatest 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 161 

torment endured by mau on eartli." Here is, among a tlionsaud others, 
a question assuredly of doubtful solution, some would say quite insolu- 
ble, whicli exercised the ingenuity of our friend, and permit me the 
expression, almost transported him with enthusiasm. The study of fossil 
animals shows that our globe was once the theater of several successive 
creations, which by gradual progression at last reached the condition 
of man. The earth, at first, i^resented no living thing, no organized 
matter. Then were found traces of vegetation ; then invertebrated ani- 
mals, worms, and mollusks; later, fishes and sea-reptiles; later still, 
birds 5 and finally mammifers. 

" Do you not see," wrote Ampere to one of his friends. in Lyons, " do you 
not see the pakcotheriums, and the anoploilwriums replaced by man. 1 
hope tor my part, that after a new cataclysm, men, in tlieir turn, will be 
replaced by beings more perfect, more noble and more sincerely devoted 
to truth. I would give the half of my life for the certainty that this 
transformation will take place. Would you believe it ? there are peo- 
ple stupid enough, (his own words,) to ask what I Avould gain by that. 
Have I not just cause to be indignant at such a question f 

It would not surprise me that any one, at the first glance, should 
evince astonishment at my enumerating political events and passions 
amongst the causes so frequently saddening and discouraging Ampere's 
heart, and interfering with his scientific labors. Was not I, his friend, 
for thirty years, obliged to read his most private correspondence in or- 
der to discover a trace of those political griefs hidden under an ax)par- 
ent serenity, an outward show of gentle resignation. 

The year 1815 was marked by events cruelly stamped on the life of 
our associate. The Emperor had returned from the island of Elba; 
and the clash of arms resounded throughout Europe ; nations were hur- 
rying to encounter each other on unknown battle-fields, and this terrible 
shock might result in the subjugation of France and the world for 
many long years. These thoughts threw the mind of Ampere into the 
wildest state of confusion, and he then had the incredible misfortune 
to become associated with those, and God grant I may never discover 
any traces of them, with whom all he most dreaded was an object of 
hope, in whom the most disastrous news excited transports of joy ; who 
thought that the death of half a million of our countrymen would not 
weigh in the balance against the preservation of their rotten institu- 
tions. 

These hideous sentiments inspired our associate with a well-founded 
and profound antipathy. Again, he found on the other hand, among 
the Parisian populace manj so violent that, without waiting for provo- 
cation on the part of their antagonists, proposed putting all mercilessly 
to the sword. 

It was at this time that Ampere wrote, (I have the letter at hand) to 

his friends in Lyons : ••' I am like a grain between two mill-stones. 

No words can describe the anguish I feel ; I have no longer strength to 
11 s 



162 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

sustain life. here, I must, at auy cost, return to you, flee from those who 
say to me, 'you will sufter uo personal inconvenience ;' as if 1 could 
think of myself in the midst of such catastrophes." 

Would you not, gentlemen, have a bad opinion of a man who, under 
circumstances so sad, could command sufdcient tranquility of mind to 
be able to combine formulas, invent apparatus, and make new experi- 
ments 1 

Ampere, from diftidence, carefully concealed the painful feelings in- 
spired by public events. Twice, however, the measure of his grief was 
fnll to overflowing, too full to be restrained. I can cite but one in- 
stance of such despair as that experienced by our associate when in- 
formed of the fall of Prague, and later of that of Warsaw, to be found, 
too, among the former members of the Academy. It was that of Euello, 
who entering the room with his clothes in disorder, his face pale, his 
features distorted, began a lecture on chemistry in these words, which 
I prize as highly as the most beautiful experiment: "I fear I shall fail to- 
day in clearness and method; I have scarcely strength to collect and 
connect two ideas; but you will pardon me wben you learn the Prussian 
cavalry were passing and repassing over my body all night." 

The news of the battle of Eosback had reached Paris the evening be- 
fore. 

Once surrender yourself to the influences of mind, temperament and 
heart in the contemplation of political events and the calculation of 
their importance and weight and you will find it difficult to confine your- 
self to those of one period, even were it as fruitful in terrible catastrophe 
as the close of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries. 
Biographers relate that Lamothe-Levayer died, demanding- in a faint 
voice, "What news of the Grand Mogul?" With Ampfere the Grand 
Mogul was the whole world, time, past, present and to come. The suf- 
ferings of the subjects of Sesostris, Xerxes, and Tamerlane touched in his 
heart as tender a chord as did those of the poor peasants of La Bresse, 
among whom his youth was passed. To use his owu words, he took the 
same strong interest in what might take place centuries hence, as in 
what was passing under his owu eyes. We still recognize in this the 
horror of the doubt not long since alluded to, but now supported by 
philanthropic sentiments. 

" Friends," exclaimed Lord Byron, in a moment of ill-humor, "are rob- 
bers of time." A great student said before him, but with less asperity, 
"Those who come to see me confer an honor, those who do not come 
confer a favor." Such a thought, equally selfish, in either form, never 
sullied Ampere's heart. His study was open to all at all hours. But 
no one ever left, we must confess, without being asked by our associate if 
he understood the game of chess. If the answer were in the affirmative, 
he would seize the visitor, and force him to play, willingly or unwillingly 
for whole hours. Ampere was too unsuspicious to perceive that un- 
skillful players, (several have themselves told me so,) knew an infallible 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 163 

way oi wiiHiing; when fortune seemed against tliem, they wowld declare, 
in very positive terms, that after very mature reflection it seemed to 
them that chlorine was undoubtedly oxygenated muriatic acid; that 
the idea of explaining the properties of the magnet by means of electri- 
cal currents was truly chimerical; that sooner or later physicists would 
return to the system of emission and consign luminous waves to their 
place among the rusty old lumber of Cartesianism. Ampere had thus 
the double vexation of finding pretended adversaries of his favorite 
theories and himself check-mated. 

Philosophers, even those whose whole lives have been passed in digest- 
ing codes of wisdom for all the nations of the world, frequently, in regu- 
lating their own lives, fail to steer clear of the shoals evident to the 
eyes of the most casual observers. Ampere, for example, never seemed 
to understand how much both his health and science would suffer from 
the isolation to which he had condemned himself. He fancied he was 
yielding to peremptory medical prescriptions, or to the urgent entreaties 
of friendship, and he really believed he was resting his mind, when, 
during the day, he passed several hours either in profound darkness, or 
without book, pen, or pencil in hand. Such a delusion could not de- 
ceive us ; and it was not strange, therefore, that we desired to lure our 
friend, for real distraction, to the Comedie-Franc^aise ; we were anxious 
that he, who, in his youth had composed tragedies, should partici- 
pate in the pure and elevated pleasure excited by the master-pieces 
of Corueille, Eacine, Moliere, and at a time, too, when these im- 
mortal poets had for interpreters such artists as Talma, Fleury, and 
Mademoiselle Mars. Fearing our friend might be restrained by the 
powerful influence of his religious scruples, we concluded to relate to 
him the instance of the lady at the court of Louis XIV who, in con- 
sulting her confessor as to whether she committed a sin in going to the 
theater, received this reply : " Madame, it is for you to tell wic." These 
admirable words could not fail to make an impression on so quick and 
discriminating a mind as Ampere's. For a moment we thought our 
cause gained ; in fact, his mind and heart were convinced ; but how could 
we insist when we saw he hesitated from the very praiseworthy fear of 
wounding the feelings of those whose opinions he regarded? 

I shall have displayed a great want of skill, gentlemen, if in the char- 
acter of Ampere, presented to you under so many different phases, I 
have not seemed to offer, at least within certain bounds, a very natural 
explanation of the despondency to which our friend so often abandoned 
himself, and given the principal causes of the distaste so frequently inspired 
by studies that a slight perseverence would have crowned with a bril- 
liant success. A careful glance over the later years of Ampere's life 
will detect numberless instances of this despondency and distaste. 

He who in his youth had devoured books of every description, even 
the twenty volumes in folio of the encyclopedia, after reaching a certain 
age seemed no longer to have the energy to read. With only a few ex- 



164 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

ceptious tlie books of his library remained uncut. Here and there a few 
leaves were found jagged at the edges like a saw, certain proof of their 
having been separated by a misapplied linger. An author, even 
amongst the most celebrated, would have vainly sought for more numer- 
ous and more manifest traces of the interest and curiosity of our friend. 
With the single exception of the plan for a natural classification of all 
human knowledge, to everything in the scientific and literary world he 
had become so indifferent that, as a proof, there now is in the hands of 
geometers, and the students of oiu* large schools, a treatise on the differen- 
tial and integral calculus, without the name of the author, title, or table 
of contents; the pubUsher, after many ineffectual attempts, was forced 
to conclude that Ampere would never furnish the few lines necessary 
to give the new book the form of aU books since the time of Gutenberg. 

Do not exclaim, gentlemen, at the singularity of this fact. I have, ac- 
cording to my judgment, something still more extraordinary to relate. 

Fresnel, that illustrious physicist, who carried the experimental art to 
its utmost limits; who, in the discussions of the most complex phenom- 
ena, succeeded, by the force of genius, in dispensing with those power- 
ful but almost inaccessible aids found now in transcendental analysis — 
Fresnel, by his death, left in the scientific world a great void, which, in 
one respect at least, A mpere could have filled. Friends urged it ; they 
painted in brilliant colors the glorious futiu-e of fame and usefulness 
which would be added to a reputation already European ; but it was all 
in vain. Ampere was deterred by an incredible obstacle ; he could not 
accept the position offered, because, he said, it would place him under an 
obligation to read two essays on the theory of waves, with which science 
had just been enriched by M. Poisson. (The two essays were M'ritten 
with the elegant precision which distinguishes all the works of that 
illustrious geometer.) Ampere's excuse will astonish every one ; but he 
gave it in so feeling a tone that to show displeasure would have been 
an act of barbarity. If great and small things may be compared, they 
would remind me of the reply of the young and able-bodied workman 
to this question of Marivaux, "Why do you not work T' "Ah, sir, if 
you only knew how lazy I am !" 

. The large share I have just ascribed to influence of character must 
not divert our attention from a cause not less powerful, which has itself 
greatly contributed to diminish Ampere's works. If it is true that the 
discoveries whose analysis I have just given, in spite of all they present 
of the vast, the profound, and the ingenious, form but an inconsidera- 
ble part of those which might have been the fruits of the powerful in- 
tellect of our associate, the institutions responsible (solidaires) for so sad 
a result merit the reprobation of every friend of science. I will follow, 
gentlemen, by devoting a few words to the development of this idea, the 
sensible advice of the author of the Essay on Eulogies: " In describing 
great men, whether you emulate the gravity of Plutarch or the pungent 
good sense of Fontenelle, do not forget that your aim is to be useful." 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 1G5 

Among" the contemporaneous savants whose wonderful talents have 
been misapplied, no name is more prominent than that of Ampere. 

A statesman, celebrated for his witticisms, said of one of his political 
adversaries: "His vocation is not to be minister of foreign affairs." 
And we, in our turn, might say of Ampere: " His vocation was not to 
be a professor." 

And yet he was forced to devote the best portion of his life to a pro- 
fessorship, and to supply the deficiencies of his patrimony by paid 
lectures. 

A severe wound received in his arm in childhood had no little 
share in impairing his manual dexterity. The first place, nevertheless, 
that is given him is that of i)rofessor of pliysics, chemistry, and astron- 
omy, at the central school in the department of Ain. The professor 
of physics invariably fails in his experiments; the chemist breaks his 
apparatus, and the astronomer can never succeed in bringing two stars 
within the field of the telescope of the sextant or circle of retlection. 
Are such the real difliculties encountered by the modern type of the func- 
tionary called the administrator ? He derives from his office the right 
to appoint; a vacancy occurs; he fills it, and there is the end of it. 

Ampere left Bourg to fill the chair of mathematics in Lyons, and 
afterwards the office of master of analysis in the Polytechnic School at 
Paris. In this new position he was not obliged to handle retorts, elec- 
trical machines, and telescopes ; more complete success might now be 
expected; but he who undertakes the instruction of jrolicsome, rest- 
less, and petulant youth, quick to seize the slightest occasion of ridicule 
to minister to their amusement, will find knowledge and genius not all 
that is necessary for the task. To avoid giving occasion to their mis- 
chievous acuteness, it is necessary to study, by living for a long time in 
their midst, their tastes, their manners, their tempers,- and their pecu- 
liarities. The man whose character has been moulded by himself, who 
has not been trained in public schools, lacks one of the elements of suc- 
cess. If your bow is too profound, instead of receiving acknowledge- 
ments for the deference, you excite peals of laughter. Eccentricities, 
ignorance of the world, and what is called in our artificial society a 
want of style, did not interfere with Ampere's right to rank first among 
the savants for i)erspicuity and ingenuity ; but we must acknowledge 
his lectures suffered in consequence. But the superior powers of a mau 
of genius should have easily commanded a more judicious and useful 
position ; and science itself, with its exquisite sensibilities, must regret 
that one of the noblest and most glorious of its representatives should 
have been exposed to the jests of giddy youths and idle minds. 

In the seventeenth chapter of his second book of his celebrated es- 
says, Montaigne makes this confession: "I can neither calculate in my 
head nor on paper ; the greater part of oui' coins are unknown to me ; 
nor do I know one grain from an other, either in the field or in the 
barn, unless the difference is very apparent; nor can I distinguish cab- 



166 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

bage from lettuce iu my garden ; and I understand still less of traffic; 
and my knowledge of merchandise is more limited still." 

Ampere, who was a very skillful botanist, would never have confounded 
cabbage with lettuce, but he was as little skilled as the philosopher of 
Pingueux in trafiic and merchandise, which is shown by the astonish- 
ment he expressed when wishing to initiate himself somewhat into the 
details of his little household ; he saw fifty francs for parsley iu the ex- 
pense of a month, and six hundred francs for the whole year. 

This, then, nevertheless, is the man who, for more than a quarter of 
a century, received each year as inspector-general of the university the 
mission of controlling the expenses of our ijriucipal colleges ;" and think 
not he was better qualified to examine the professors and scholars, for, 
once excited, his ardent imagination would straightway overleap the 
boundaries of classic theories. A word in jest or seriousness would 
often hurry him into unknown paths, which he would explore with the 
most surprising clearness, utterly unconscious of his surroundings. It 
was in this way that year after year the theory of Avignon, the de- 
monstration of Grenoble, the proposition of Marseilles, and the theorem 
of Moutpellier, enriched his public lectui'cs delivered at the polytechnic 
school and college of France ; but this habit of our friend of distin- 
guishing each of his conceptions by the name of the place where it 
originated, makes us fear that he did not give at Avignon, Grenoble, 
Marseilles, and Moutpellier that individual attention that duty required 
of the examiner. 

If Ampere little suited the office of inspector-general of the uni- 
versity I can assert the office as little suited him, for his domestic re- 
sponsibilities, a beneficence often exceeding the limits of prudence, at 
times, too, when his friends were anxiously calculating hoio much his 
icants exceeded his means, the extravagant habit of altering unnec- 
essarily the proofs of the printing-office, his endless desire for the con- 
struction of new apparatus for electro-magnetism, prevented Ampere 
from resigning the principal source of a modest income. So far from 
this, every year when the offices were distributed in the bureaus of the 
university, did we see our friend submit with resignation to the busi- 
ness of a solicitor to obtain a position which might injure his health and 
could not add more than a hundred francs to his doiuestic economj^, and 
waste in painful, humiliating, and frequently fruitless efforts his most 
precious time. 

Finally, he departs, and for three or four months the author of the subtle 
theories of electro-dynamics goes from department to department, from city 
to city, from college to college, contending with a parcel of wretched chil- 
dren. Whole days are passed hearing them decline, conj ugate, and explain 
passages from f7eyi>-/6" and the metamorphoses, or iu detaining them before 
the so much dreaded black-board, where they stammer over the certainly 
ver\' harmless, but very i^rosaic, rules of multiplication, division, and 
the extract of roots. The hour of return has also its tribulations of 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 167 

a diffoieut uatiire, but not the less poiguant. The portfolios of the 
universities have hastily stowed away in their recesses minute lists of 
the barbarisms, solecisms, and errors in calculation, which the inspector- 
general luiTst examine. Their gaping jaws also demand the accounts, 
giving the expenditures for the bedding, furniture, and provisions of 
thirty boarding-schools. It is in vain our friend, who has scarcely the 
power to reduce his own favorite works to writing, is asked for such 
accounts. In a letter, after enumerating the numerous and very 
just causes of annoyauce by which he was besieged, he gave the finish- 
ing touches to this sad picture in these words: "The severest and 
most painful of duties is to be seated, pen iu hand, immoveable before 
a desk." Ampere would then have to submit to the demands of the 
clerk, the heM of the bureau, the chief of the division, and the minis- 
ter, all leagued against him ; and during these daily struggles, pro- 
longed until the time for new iuspections, he expended more time, more 
ingenuity and thought, than were required to i)roduce a chapter of his 
theories of electro-magnetism. 

So miserable a prostitution of the highest intellectual faculties can 
have no supporters within these walls nor anywhere else ; but some one 
asks. Where is the remedy "? The remedy would not be difficult to find. 
I would suggest that the colossal budget should not forget that France 
is covetous of all kiuds of glory. I would suggest that it should guar- 
antee an independent support to the limited number of men whose pro- 
ductions, discoveries, and labors command the admiratioii and are the 
characteristic features of all ages. I would suggest that these intellect- 
ual powers as soon as discovered should be placed under the tutelary 
protection of the whole country 5 that it should watcb over their full 
and complete development 5 that it should not j)ermit them to be wasted 
on common-place subjects. Any objections to which this plan could give 
rise must be more specious than solid. I had summed them up and re- 
futed them, but a want of time obliges me to defer this portion of my 
work to another sitting. I intend to make it the subject of a special 
proposition on which I shall ask the opinion of the public before sub- 
mitting it to the decision of a legislative vote. There is, however, one 
I)oint about which, from this time, there could be no difference of oi^in- 
ion, for every one will acknowledge that, under the liberal regime I have 
just sketclied. Ampere would have been one of the first of savants to 
feel the effects of his country's muuificence. Free, then, from all care 
and anxiety, released from a multitude of laborious occux)ations, nig- 
gardly details and petty services, our friend would have been able to 
carry out with ardor, enthusiasm, and perseverance the thousands of 
ingenious ideas with which his mighty brain was daily teeming. I re- 
marked not long since that the discoveries and works which he has 
left behind him, would occupy a distinguished place in the history of 
science, and be honored by posterity, and I added, too, without the fear 
of contradiction, that they were but a small portion of what there was 



168 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

every reason to expect from one of tlie most subtle and profound minds 
ever created from the so rare union of the spirit of detail with the 
powers of generalization. This idea did not originate with me. I dis- 
covered it sometimes unveiled, sometimes veiled, in everj^ P'^ge of Am- 
pere's correspondence with the frieuds of his youth. Each day our as- 
sociate, unfortunately, weighed iu the balance what he had done and 
what he should have done, aud each day the results of this examina- 
tion increased his intense sadness. 

You now know the secret of what embittered his whole life ; of his 
desire to have inscribed on his tomb the brief but most expressive epi- 
taph, also selected by a celebrated Swedish minister — 

Happy at last ! (Tandem felix.) 

DEATH OF AMP£:RE. 

Ampere left Paris in a snffering condition, August 17, 183G. His 
friends, notwithstanding, were full of hope and confidence, inspired by 
the thought that a southern climate had once before restored liim to 
health. But M. Bredin, who had joined him at Saint-Etienne, did not 
share this delusion. The learned superintendent of the veterinary 
school of Lyons discovered in Ampere's appearance unmistakable symp- 
toms of decay; his whole face seemed changed, even the bony outline 
of the profile. All that remained unchanged about him was, and this 
was exerting the most fatal influence on his already shattered condi- 
tion, the enthusiastic and absorbing interest he evinced in everything, 
north, south, east, or west, that could possibly ameliorate the present 
condition of the human race. The racking cough which was weakening 
our friend by slow degrees, his painfully changed voice, his increas- 
ing feebleness, all demanded silence and absolute rest, even those least 
interested in him would hesitate to make him utter ten words ; yet when 
M. Bredin decliued to enter into a minute and difficult decision on the 
proposed changes in the second volume of the Essay on the Fhilosophy 
and Classification of the Sciences^ Ampere became most violently excited, 
" My health, my health !" he exclaimed. '' To talli of my health ! There 
should be no questions between us but those of eternal truth." These 
exclamations were succeeded by a profound development of the delicate 
subtle links, imperceptible to the generality of men which unite the dif- 
ferent sciences. Then passing beyond the conditions at last conceded 
by M. Bredin, Ampere, kindling with enthusiasm, summoned to his 
presence, for more than hour, all who, in ancient or modern times, have 
influenced, for good or for evil, the lives of their fellow-beings. This vio- 
lent effort exhausted him, and increased his illness during the remainder 
of the journey. On reaching Marseilles, the city of his affections, which 
once before had restored him to life, and which had overwhelmed his 
son with so many warm-hearted kindnesses, he seemed in an almost 
hopeless condition. The tender and respectful attentions of all the 
functionaries of the college and those of a skillful physician produced a 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 169 

slight improvement. His waut of great age, too, seemed a source of 
boi)e, for uo oue recollected that Ampere uiight have said, with the Dutcli 
artist Van Orbeeck, "Count double, gentlemen, count double, for I have 
lived day and night !" 

Our associate did not share the hopes of his friends. When leaving 
Paris he knew himself near death, proof of which I have found in a let- 
ter recently sent to me, in his answer to the urgent exhortations of tlie 
chaplain of the college at Marseilles. " Thanks, M. Abbe, thanks ; before 
starting on my journey I performed all my religious duties." Ampere's 
resignation in his last moments astonished all who knew his excitable 
disposition, his livelj^ imagination and warm heart. JSTo one ever ex- 
pected to find him display the calmness of that ancient philosopher, 
who, on the bed of death, requested to have all disturbing influences 
removed, in order, he said, to be able the better to observe what would 
take place at the exact moment of the separation of soul and body. A 
few moments before our associate lost entire consciousness, M. Des- 
chape, provisor of the college of Marseilles, beginning to read in a low 
voice the Till itat ion, Ampere remarked that he " knew the book by heart." 
These were, I believe, his last words. In addition to the fatal chronic 
affection of the lungs, he was now seized with a high fever j and on the 
10th of June, 183G, at five o'clock in the morning, our illustrious associate, 
sinking under the accumulated bodily and mental sufferings of sixty 
years, as Buffon so beautifully expresses it, "died before he had finished 
living." 

The same day the wires of Marseilles transmitted the sad news to 
Paris, where it excited, as you remember, the most profound and uni- 
versal grief. And let no oue think this swift serial uiesseuger dropped, in 
this instance, its official role to intrude itself into the domain of private 
life ; for Ampere's death was a public calamity. 

[Tlie folloAviiig sketch, wliicli was origiuaUy published in Blackwood's Muirazine, 
furnishes an illustration of some traits of the character of Ampere as pres(>iived by 
Arago:] 

Ampere, the friend of Davy, and whilome one of the great natural phi- 
losophers of France, is selected for this sketch, not from the space he at 
present occupies in science, but for la petite comecUe que void,* and the 
amiable old age he exhibits. You see a venerable oete^enairef of small 
stature, clad in a coat of grotesque cut, on which the marks of ciimac- 
tercial decay are as visible as upon the excellent old man who has borne 
it for a quarter of a century. He has parted with his teeth, his mem- 
ory, and his elasticity of step, but he retains his honhommie, his delight- 
ful mannerism, and ever and anon exhibits some flickerings of that en- 
thusiasm in the cause of science with which he began life and without 
which nothing is to be done. I dare not, however, meddle with the 
splendid fragments of that genius which so often startles you into the 
conviction that a great man is addressing you. T have been present at 

*The little farce which follows. tAn eighty year old. 



170 EULOGY ON AMPERE. 

several amusing little scenes enacted between himself and bis pupils ; 
and one or two are so illustrative of amusing simplicity and a not-to-be- 
superanunated good-nature, that I shall venture to try their effect sec- 
ond-hand. On the very first day I went to hear him, (it was an introduc- 
tory lecture,) lie had so filled the slate with first and secondary branches 
of the goodly tree of science as to leave no room for more boughs, 
unless by topping the head and abridging the undue growth of the origi- 
nal shoots. Space was wanted, and the remedy should have been at 
hand ; but, lo ! the sponge had disappeared, and could nowhere be 
found, though the class showed much cmiyressement in seeking it. At 
last, with a look most comically solemn, the old gentleman drew out his 
cottdn representative for a foulard* and looking first at the slate and 
then at the mouc]ioir,f plainly could not make up his mind to sullj" its 
gaudy colors by exacting from it the ofiice of the sponge. But while 
necessity and reluctance were contending for the mastery on his features, 
the sponge was picked up by one of the students and eagerly presented 
to M. Ampere, whose delight and manner of expressing it were irre- 
sistibly comic. Seizing it between both his hands, as if to be sure that 
it was not the shadow of the veritable detergent, but the very substance 
that he held, he hastened to the door, and putting his head out, called 
to his assistant, a la Molidre, in the happiest and most unconscious 
imitation of the de Pourccangnac accent " Jc Vai trouve; c'cst a dire, 
oil Va trouve — il n^entendpas. [Aside:] Monsieur ! Ecoutez done P'' Then 
at the highest i^itch of his voice, '■'■Monsieur ! ne vous donnez pas la peine 
de la vhercJter; je Vai ici; on v lent de la ramasser ! ''^ "I have found 
it, that is to say, it is found. He doesn't hear me, (aside.) Monsieur ! 
I say, Monsieur, don't trouble yourself about it; I have got it here; 
they've just picked it up!" Then, quite regardless, and ajiparently un- 
conscious, of what the French journalists call "ime vive explosion dliila- 
rite'''X from the class, he resumed as if nothing had occiuTcd. He had 
been lecturing on the polarization of light and heat, and had assumed 
a. square ruler and a pasteboard almanac to represent a cylindrical ray 
and a transparent medium of transmission, when gradually warming 
with his subject, he began (as one is apt to do in lecturing) to describe 
X)arabolas with his ruler, one of which encountered the tumbler, (which 
is here d^usagc,)^ and broke the pieces of glass into his eau sucrec.\\ (With- 
out eau sucree nobody could get on with a lecture at the College de 
France or the Sorbonne, though law and physic lecture with unlubri- 
cated fauces.) Out of this half-demolished glass, he was presently 
preparing to drink, when half a dozen voices at once called out, '■'■Mon- 
sieur Ampere, eh, Monsieur Ampere, f/u allez-vous done f aire V "Monsieur 
Ampere, oh, Monsieur Ampere, what are you going to do?" But he, 
nothing heedful of these exclamations, raised the tumbler to his lips, 
and began to sip its now dangerous contents. In an instant one of the 

*A real Ibaudaua. § Customary. 

t Haudkercliief . |1 Sugar and water. 

t A loud burst of merriment. 



EULOGY ON AMPERE. 171 

foremost in the class springs forward and seizes the old man's hand, 
another wrests the tumbler from his grasp. A scene ! Profound silence 
in the class ! The venerable man looks at them ironically. " Thank 
you, gentlemen ! Very kind of you ! But you are giving yourselves un- 
necessary trouble ! I took it for grauted that my class understood the 
laws of gravitation. With your permission, gentlemen, I will first drink 
my eau sucree, Avhich I want, and will then give you a hint, which you 
appear to want." He now drank without further molestation, and then 
drawing in a long breath — ^^Uh! comment, Messieurs, voulez vous quHl 
est en du danger ! Ne savez-vous dona pas que le verre est plus pesant que 
Veauf^ "What, gentlemen! then you thought there was some danger! 
But ain't you aware that glass is heavier than w^ater ! And did you not 
observe how careful I was to drink the contents of the tumbler at a rea- 
sonable angle?" Then, taking up the tumbler, he continued to incline 
it over the table till it was nearly horizontal, and so on, till the pieces of 
glass fell out, and the class laughed. " Ah! sije Vuvais bu a cette angle- 
la I — mais fai eteplus adroit ! " "Ah ! if I had drunk at this inclination ! — 
but I was too knowing for that." Here (for it was at the end of his lec- 
ture that this little episode occurred) a bright-eyed damsel went up and 
asked some question respecting the course of rays of light through cer- 
tain media, but whether old Ampere referred her to his heart, as we 
should have done, we could not hear. She colored, however ; her eyes 
seemed x)leased with the interpretation given to her question, whatever it 
might have been, and they walked out together — a "January and May" — 
separated only by the insecure partition of the i^asteboard almanac which 
the elder of the months still kept in his hand. 



THE SCIENTILIC LABORS OF EDWARD LARTET/ 



By Dr. P. Fischer. 



The Geological Society ot France has always paid due respect to the 
metaory of the men who have taken an active part in its transactions 
and whose scientific reputation ought in justice to be perpetuated. 
M. Gervais, president of the society, has already expressed the uni- 
versal regret caused among us by the death of 31. Lartet, and one of 
his pupils may now be allowed to review the labors of the estimable man 
whose loss we deplore. 

Edouard Auiand Isidore Hippolyte Lartet was born on the 15th of 
April, 1801, in the department of Gers, at Saint Guiraud, near Castelnau- 
Barbareus. He was descended from a family which had settled in the 
country at a very early date. He was the youngest of five brothers, 
with whom he was sent, for education, to the Lyceum at Auch, and he 
was one of the three pupils who received the medals awarded to that 
establishment by the first iSTapoleou. His predilections were for history 
and archteology rather than the judicial sciences, but, in deference to 
the wishes of his father, after leaving the college of Audi he entered 
the law-school of Tonlouse, where he graduated iu 1820. By a singular 
coincidence, Cuvier, then counselor of state, signed, instead of the min- 
ister of public instruction, the diploma of a youth afterward to be 
distinguished in the path which this eminent scientist had opened to 
])aleontology. 

In order to perfect him in the practice as well as the theory of his 
profession, he was now sent to Paris, in company with an elder brother. 
Here, while fullilling the duties imposed upon him with that fidelity 
which characterized him throughout life, he foUnd time for his favorite 
studies. After he had mustered the rudiments of these sciences, he 
continued to pursue them, and as his store of books was not large he 
sold those he had read in order to obtain others. When he returned to 
Gers he was not only prepared for the practice of the law but for The 
especial researches which afterward rendered his name illustrious. 

M. Lartet, after completmghis law education at Paris, settled in Gers. 
The practice of his profession was, however, confined to giving advice to 
the peasants, which was the more highly appreciated because gratuitous. 
Frequent emanations of this kind from the kindness of his heart consti- 
tuted a prominent trait of his character. Impelled by gratitude his 
clients frequently brought him medals of Gallo-Eomanic antiquity wliicli 

*A translation for the Smithsonian Institution of '"Xote, siir la vie et les travans 
iVfid. Lartet, par M. le docteur Fischer, In a la seance geuerale ainnielle do la Socicto 
geologiqne de France," from " Yie et travaux d'£douard Lartet: notices et discours 
publics a Toccasiou des a mort," x'P- 39-55. 



SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF ED WARD LARTET. 173 

tlicy had found accidentally, and sncli fossil bones as had attracted their 
attention.* One of these gifts, the tooth of a mastodon, seems to have 
determined his true vocation, and led to one of the most important dis- 
coveries in geology, that of the contents of the marl-pit of Sansan. He 
soon gave himself up entirely to the study of geology and comparative 
anatomy. He made several underground explorations, and then, hav- 
ing entered into cooimunicatiou with some of the savans of Paris — Blain- 
ville, Arago, Flourens, Geoftroy St. Hilaire, Michelin, Desnoyers, &c., 
commenced the publication of his researches. From 1834 to 1870 he la- 
bored unceasingly in the development of new and interesting results; but 
in order to appreciate his investigations, it is, I think, necessary to group 
them under three principal heads, and to examiue in succession the pub- 
lications relating to the fauna of Sansan, to tertiary i^aleontology, and 
to the quaternary period. 

I. — INVESTIGATIONS RELATIVE TO THE MARL-BEDS OP SANSAN. 

The existence of fossil bones at Simorre, in the department of Gers, 
had been noticed in 1715 by Eeaumur, but no one had described this de- 
posit or studied its fauna. M. Lartet, who resided at a short distance 
from Simorre, and who had discovered marl-beds much richer at Sansan, 
was surprised to find that important differences existed between the re- 
mains of vertebrata of these two localities. The fauna of Sansan pre- 
sented a large number of new species of mammals, and was termiuated 
by the existence of a stratum containing numerous terrestrial and tluvial 
molluscs. M. Lartet described the strata of Sansan in a letter ad- 
dressed to Geoffroy Saint Hillaire in 1831. Encouraged by his dis- 
coveries, he undertook a series of methodical researches, which were soon 
to render famous the locality of Sansan as well as the name of the natu- 
ralist who explored it. In 1837 the work was sufficiently advanced to 
establish the general characteristics of the two fauna of Simorre and 
Sansan. While at Simorre the dominant species were reduced to two 
dinotheria, five mastodons, three rhinoceroses, one pachyderm resembling 
the wild boar, one small stag, and one large ruminant; at Sansan the 
dinotheria appeared to be wanting; the rhinoceroses were different — had 
four fingers upon the fore feet. Among other mammalia was observable 
one paleotherium resembling that of Orleans, one anoplotherium, one 
animal similar to the anthracothcrium, several stags, one antelope, one 
small ruminant, one gigantic carnivore, its teeth indicating affinity with 
the cat and the dog, one dog, one large cat, several rodents, «&:c. But 
the two most remarkable specimens of the fauna of Sansan were un- 
doubtedly a large edentate and a veritable monkey. The edentate 
seemed to M. Lartet very similar to the gigantic pangolin of Cuvier, 
but as its teeth were molars it could not be classed in the same family 
as the pangolin. As to the monkey, the lower jaw and its dentition 

*The peasants sux^pose these specimens were the creations of the devil, who imitated 
in the bowels of the earth the works of the Deity. 



174 SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWARD LARTET. 

were complete — four incisors, two canines, four false molars, six molars ; 
in all, sixteen teeth in a continuous series — the dental formula of man 
and of some monkeys. 

M. Lartet comprehended immediately the importance of the discovery 
of the monkey of Sausan, and the intluence it would have upon the prog- 
ress of paleontology. "We have here," said he, "a mammal of the fam- 
ily of monkeys, contemporaneous with the paloeotherium and the auo- 
plotherium, extinct genera long considered the most ancient inhabitants 
of our continents. Types of certain genera are not, then, so recent as 
has been generally supi)osed. Perhaps sooner or later further observa- 
tion may teach us that this ancient system of nature, still so little known, 
was neither less complete nor less advanced in the organic scale than 
that in which we live. M. Lartet's communication produced quite a 
sensation in the Institute, and excited a discussion the interest of which 
may be appreciated when we recollect that at this time Cuvier's "Ee- 
searches on Fossil Bones" formed the alpha and omega of the paleontol- 
ogy of vertebrates. 

Cuvier, after a critical examination of the bones of men and of mon- 
keys supposed to be contemporary with extinct species, proved that they 
were not authentic. He then remarks upon the tardy appearance of the 
monkey and man. It is astonishing, he says, that among all these 
mammalia, the larger number of which have living representatives in 
warm climates, not a bone or tooth of a monkey has been found. Xo 
trace whatever of man — all the bones of the human species hitherto dis- 
covered among the fossils were placed there accidentally. In thus as- 
sociating the time of the appearance of man with that of the monkey 
Cuvier gave great eclat to the happy discovery of the monkey of Sansan, 
as it was very probable that the discovery of the fossil monkey would 
be followed by that of the fossil man. 

The caution of Cuvier in regard to the antiquity of man has been in 
these latter days singularly exaggerated. Instead of blame he ought to 
receive ]n^aise for the precision of his researches, the most important 
result of which has been to compel the supporters of the antiquity of 
nmn to bring forward positive and multiplied proofs in support of their 
hypothesis instead of premature assertions. It would be well if some 
of the advocates of tertiary man had possessed a small portion of the 
critical acumen which was one of the most important characteristics of 
the mind of Cuvier. 

Blaiuville, who prepared the report of the communication ofM. Lartet, 
agreed with him, after the examination of the jaw, in the opinion that 
it had belonged to a monkey of the old world — a monkey superior in 
degree, an/1 that no living species was identical with it. From the above 
concl asicri'5 he proceeded to the discussion of trivial and unimportant 
points of anatomy. He regarded ijaleontology merelj" as a description 
of fof3sil animals compared with their living representatives. The idea 
of a succession of living beings in order of time; of the diversity of 



SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWARD LARTET. 175 

tauua according to their geological i^eriods ; of their correlation with the 
temperature, the extent, and the flora of ancient continents, did not 
occur to his purely analytical mind. It was far otherwise with Geoffroy 
Saint Hilaire, who, notwithstanding his errors, his obscurity, and the 
aflectation of his language, boldly sought to penetrate the mystery of a 
science still in its intancy. Geoftroy called his articles RcniarJxS upon 
the singular and important fact in natural history of the existence of a 
species of monlcey found in the fossil state in the south of France. " It has 
been asserted," he says " that the monkey of Sansan is allied to the ape 
of the Sunda Islands, and yet the animals thus related, the one so old, the 
other now existing, are separated by thousands of centuries." We would 
suppose that, in contemplating fossil bones, the idea of their wonderful 
antiquity would alone completely absorb the mind. ''The discovery 
of the fossil jaw of the monkey by M. Lartet seems to me to be the 
commencement of a new era in the knowledge of the human species; 
of new research into the distinguishing characteristics of the varions am- 
bient media ; of closer approximation to the laws which govern those 
grand domains of the universe, where from age to age the mutation of 
things is accompli.shed." 

Certainly the successful labors of modern paleontologists in relation 
to the climate, the fauna, and the flora of the tertiary and quarteruary 
periods, have realized the aspirations of Geoffroy Saint Hilaire. What 
progress has been made in this difficult branch in less than thirty years, 
and how much may be anticipated from the future of a science whose 
development has been so rapid ! It is easy to foresee the light it will 
throw upon the history of the evolution of life npon our planet. But 
Geoflioy Saint Ililaire went still further — the new facts disclosed by 
paleontology he regarded as so many new arguments against the theory 
of the fixity of species maintained by Cuvier. " The incessant muta- 
tion of things," he writes, "is a dominant fact verified by every new 
geological discovery." We see by a review of these discussions how 
much the savaus of the Institute were at that time engrossed with the 
problems of paleontology. Blainville shortly after read before the Insti- 
tute a report upon a new set of fossils from Sansan, which were described 
by M. Lartet in a letter to Flourens. 

M. Lartet observed a singular conformation in the stags of Sansan ; 
the horns seemed the same at every age, and to all appearances were 
not dropped as those of living deer. M. Lartet proposed the name 
dicrocerus for this group of ruminants. Blainville approximated them 
to fC. 7nuntja1cJ the genus cervulus, whose very prominent frontal pro- 
longations are crowned by horns which are shed every year. 

An accidental discovery, at this time, of a peculiarity in the denti- 
tion of the ruminants of Sansan will be more fully described elsewhere. 
The evolution of the second molars is quite complete before the loss of 
the false molars or milk-teeth, while in living animals of the same group 
the milk-teeth are replaced before the appearance of the last molar. 



176 SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWARD LARTET. 

The coinpositiou of the teeth is also not the same. Cortical or cement 
was wanting in those of the ruminants of Sansan, although found in 
the teeth of the fossil ruminants of Auvergne, most of which are more 
recent. 

These ingenious researches of M. Lartet formed the germ of a work 
which appeared in 1868, in which he laid still more stress upon the dif- 
ferences between the fossils of the same genus of successive geological 
periods in regard to the structure of the teeth and the size of the 
brain. 

In 1839 M. Lartet published his first summary of the discoveries in 
geology and paleontology in the department of Gers, with an appendix, 
in which were described forty-foiu^ species of fossil vertebrates. Another 
article, published in 1851, under the title, ^^Description of the Hill of 
Sansan,^^ was exclusively devoted to the paleontological examination of 
tb is locality, and of the other fossiliferous deposits o f Gers. The author, in 
order to explain the richness of the fauna, and the profusion of bones 
Ibund, supposes that a lake existed at Sansan in which the lacustrine mol- 
luscs lived, and into which the vertebrates were thrown after their death. 
He shows that gTcat difference exists between the fossil and the li^'ing 
fauna of Sansan, and will not admit that the existing animals descended 
directly from the miocene animals reconstructed by himself. Finally, 
he gives a complete list of all the vertebrates he collected, with the ad- 
dition of a catalogue of the terrestrial and lacustrine molluscs described 
by Saint Ange of Boissy, Noulet, and the Abbe Dupuy. 

This list, after its publication, was modified to suit the changes in 
nomenclature, and then confided to M. D'Archiac, to be inserted in his 
report on tbe Paleontology of France, (1868, j). 360.) The fauna of 
Sansan comprises seventy-one mammals, rej)resenting thirty-nine gen- 
era, eighteen birds belonging to twelve genera, twenty-eight or thirty 
reptiles, a few fishes, and forty molluscs of twelve genera, the largest 
collection of vertebrates in our country ; and very few localities in the 
world could show a similar accumulation of animals in as limited a space. 
- In 1845 M. Lartet sent a synopsis of his recent discoveries at Sansan to 
the Institute. "About 8,000 or 10,000 remains have been collected, 
among them the bones of a large fossil edentate or Macrotheritim, and 
enough parts of a dinotherium to con\ance naturalists tbat this ani- 
mal is not cetaceous, but rather a terrestrial quadruped. There is 
not a single species identical with existing forms. This special point 
on the earth's surface known as Sansan, has, it seems, given birth to a 
variety of mammals much greater than that now existing. Every de- 
gTee in the animal scale has been here represented, including the 
monkey. A still higher type — that of man — it is true, has not been 
found ; but because he is wanting in these ancient formations we need 
not conclude that he did not exist." 

These ideas in regard to the fossil man were singularly in advance of 
the age in 1815. It almost seems as if M. Lartet had a presentiment of 



SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWAKD LARTET. 177 

the important part be was to take later iu the scientiiic; discussion of 
the contemporariness of man and the hirge quaternury mammals. 

Through the interveutiou of the professors of the museum, the ground 
where the excavations had been made at Sausan was purchased by the 
government, and M. Lartet gave to the museum his rich collection of 
fossil vertebrates, which may now be seen in the galleries of that estab- 
lishment. In 1851 new excavations were made under the dii'ection of 
MM. Laurillard, Merlieux, and A. I\lilne-Edwards; and in 18G9 M. Lartet 
himself presided over some explorations, which led to the discovery of 
some very interesting fragments of large mammals and numerous re- 
mains of small vertebrates. 

II. — INVESTiaATION IN REGARD TO TERTIARY PALEONTOLOGY. 

The scientilic activity of our lamented fellow-member was not confined 
to the study of the fossil fauna of Gers. Wo are indebted to him for a 
number of articles upon various subjects connected with paleontology. 

In 18o5, Constant Prevost announced to the Institute the discovery, 
in the osseous conglomerate of iMendon, of the tibia of a bird, of a very 
large size, called Gastornis Parisicnsis. The zoological afiiuities of the 
gastornis were warmly discussed. M. Hebert considered it a palmiped, 
nearer a swan than a pelican; M. Lartet, although he allied it to the 
lamelhrostral palmiped, thought that it came from a bird less essen- 
tially a swimmer ; Yalenciennes compared it to the albatross, and Dumeril 
to the stork, while Richard Owen thought it resembled the dinornis 
and large quarternary birds of New Zealand. At this day it seems 
probable that the opinion of MM. Hebert and Lartet was correct. 

Two years after M. Lartet described anotlier large bird, of the softened 
miocene of Armagnac, the Felagornis miocwnus, distinguished solely by 
a humerus a third longer than that of the albatross, and consequently 
of aU living birds. The pelagornis approaches the lougipennate palmi- 
peds. 

The comparative rarity of fossil birds in the marl-beds surprised M. Lar- 
tet. It is possible that on account of their peculiar organization they may 
have escai)ed more easily than other vertebrates the motlifyiug miluences 
of physical changes. Hence the great interest in studying them is to prove 
whether they are iuitiallj' endowed with a specific jjower of longevity suffi- 
cient to continue them, by successive generations, down to the present 
time. 

M. Lartet, after connecting his name with the discovery of the monkey 
of Sansan, had the good fortune to describe a new fossil animal of 
the same group, the Dryoplthccus Fontani, found in the neighborhood of 
Saint Gaudens by M. Fontaiu. It was represented by a fragment of the 
lower jaw, and a humerus, and was found in a stratum with the macro- 
therium, the dicrocerus, and the rhinoceros, similar to those of Sansan. 

The dentition of the Bryopithecus places -it between man and the ape; 
112 s 



178 SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWARD LARTET. 

it ought, therefore, to be classed with the superior orders of the simian 
group, which include the orang-outang, the chimpanze, the gorilla, the 
ape. and the Protopithecus antiquus of Sansan. 

In the same basin of Garonne, M. Lartet discovered a new species of 
Sirenian fossil, the liytiodus, whose enormously developed incisors seem 
to be related to the means of defense of the dugong. The classification 
of the fragments, collected at Sos (Lot et Garonne,) was attended with 
great dilficulties, which were, I think, very skillfully overcome. 

The collections of our associate iucluded numerous remains of probos- 
cidian fossils, (dinotherium, mastodon, elephant.) He saw the necessity 
of settling first their specific characteristics, and then of establishing 
their stratigraphical age. His undertaking was laudable and of unques- 
tionable utility, since the teeth of the proboscidians are almost always 
found in the tertiary and quaternary deposits. It was first necessary to 
elucidate an obscure system of synonymy; then to show the dental 
formula of each species, to settle the question of the successive evolu- 
tion of the teeth ; to fix the time of the fall of the milk teeth, and finally 
to give the characteristics of the persistent grinders. Such was the work 
proposed by M. Lartet in his remarkable memoir upon the dentition of 
the proboscidian fossils, and the stratigraphical distribution of their re- 
mains in Europe. 

He proves the probable existence of four species of dinotheria, notwith- 
standing the large number of species described, and in opposition to the 
opinion (held by several naturalists) of the union of these species into 
one. A beautiful fragment of a young dinotherium. gave him an oppor- 
tunity of observing the evolution of the teeth. 

Among the six species of mastodons admitted by him he shows a new 
form, the Mastodon Fyrenaicus ; the replacement of the teeth iu the 
mastodons was exhibited to him by the jaw of the Mastodon angus- 
tidens. Among the elephants he recognizes four species identifying 
the ElepiMs priscus with the elephant of Africa. 

The appearance of these fourteen proboscidians was anticipated in 
Europe by that of the rhinoceros. The dinotherium and the mas- 
todon are found in the miocene period; but, while the dinotherium 
disappeared or becomes extinct in the miocene, the mastodou died out 
in the pliocene. The elephant born in the pliocene disappeared from- 
Europe probably after the establishment of man in that country. 

In 1850, M. Lartet gave, conjointly with M. Gaudry, an account of the 
fossil fauna of Pikermi. The importance of these collections of M. 
Gaudry in Greece are now well known ; fifteen species of vertebrates, 
represented by thirty-three genera, have since been described in his 
article upon the fossil animals and the geology of Greece, but in ISoG 
the classification of the fossils had hardly commenced. There were 
•iumerous remains of monkeys, a careful examination of which proved 
hat the two species described by Wagner and Eoth, under the names 



SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWARD LARTET. 179 

of ^lesopifhccHs Pentelicns, and MesopWiecits major, were only the two 
sexes of the same monkey. 

MM. Lartet and Gaudry mention a large edentate of Greece, like the 
macrotherium of Sansan; they also describe the Thalassictis rohusfa, 
the Eystrix primigenia, and give details in regard to several other 
species discovered by Wagner ; but the most valuable facts brought to 
light by their article relate to two fossil giraffes, one of which after- 
wards became the type of the curious genus Heltadotfierium. They also 
pointed out the analogy between the fauna of Pikermi and that of 
Cucuron, and the excavations of M.^ Gaudry and Cucuron have since 
confirmed their views in this respect. 

M. Lartet observed that with the most ancient ruminants of the ter- 
tiary period, that part of the molar-teeth which forms the enameled 
crown above the socket was shorter and projected less beyond the edge of 
the alveolus than with the quaternary ruminants or existing species of 
the same family. 

M. Lartet concluded from this that the tertiary lynx, whose molars 
are not so long in the crown as in the animal now in existence, must have 
been shorter lived, since the duration of life necessarily depends upon the 
functional persistence of those indispensable organs of nutrition. 

He also observed that in the old mammals the size of the brain was 
small compared with that of the head. Ouvier had before been im- 
pressed by the small relative volume of the brain of the anoplotherium, 
and supposed in consequence that the animal had very little intelligence. 

The examples presented by M. Lartet in support of his thesis are con- 
clusive. Thus, the BracJiyodQn eocenus of the eocene, the lophiodons of 
Issel, have brains smaller and less complicated than that of the Caenothe- 
rium of the lower miocene of Allier 5 the brain of the Eipparion has 
fewer convolutions than that of the horse ; the wild-cat ( Viverra antiqua) 
of the miocene of Allier has a cranial bone less voluminous than that of 
the living species, while its olfactory lobes are more developed. 

The size of the cranium, considered iii relation to the length of the en- 
ameled crown of tlie teeth, induced M. Lartet to suppose that the longev- 
ity of animals increases in direct proportion to the cerebral development, 
and consequently the animals now existing ought to live longer than their 
corresponding types in the ancient world. 

I ouglit to mention among the researches of M. Lartet in regard to ter- 
tiary fauna, his latest work upon the Trechomys BonducJM, a rodent of 
the size of a rat, from the upper marl of the gypsum of Pantin. Mo- 
lars with a crown similarly formed may be found among existing ro- 
dents of the American type; Among fossil rodents which have some 
relation to the Trechomys may be mentioned the Theridomys and the 
Isopfychvs. 

In the calcareous formations of Gironde, M. Lartet mentions the unex- 
pected association of a rhinoceros with an anthracotherium and a paleo- 
therium. These fossils were discovered by M. Delfortrie, of Bordeaux. 



180 SCIENTIFIC LABOKS OF EDWARD LARTET. 

The rhinoceros may be compared to the E. latidens ; the authracotherinm 
to the HippoiMtamus lepiorliynclms^ of Eouzon, near Puy-m-Velay ; the pa- 
leothermm to a species of Paloplotherium of the calcareous deposit of 
Eonzou. The existence of the rhinoceros is thus carried back to the 
[time of the paloplotherium. The same relations between these animals 
may extend to the beds of Hempstead, in the Isle of Wight, where there 
are hippopotami and paleotherians ; also, to Bournocie Saint Pierre, where 
the Ehinoceros Brivatensis has been found associated with a paleotherium. 
Certain types of mammals which have been for a long time considered 
as characteristic of distinct tertiary periods ought now to be examined 
carefully with reference to the age of the deposits m which they are found. 

III. — RESEARCHES RELATIVE TO QUATERNARY FAUNA TO THAT OF 
THE CAVES AND TO THAT OF THE PRESENT TIME. 

The researches of M. Lartet in regard to quaternary fauna, to that of 
the caves, and to fossil man, added gTeatly to his reputation, and i)laced 
him among the most illustrious sarans of our country. He did not seek 
celebrit^^ 5 modest, conscientious, and burdened with the heavy respon- 
sibilities of an official position, he loved science for the pleasure it 
gives its votaries. His amicable relations with most of the naturalists 
of Eiu-ope was of great advantage to him, and his careful study of qua- 
ternary and tertiary fauna prepared him for the discussion of the great 
question of fossil man. It was, therefore, not surprising that he should 
have distinguished himself in this branch of natural science. 

The memoir of M. Lartet upon the ancient migTations of the mammals 
of the present time may be considered as .an introduction to the consid- 
eration of the fauna of the caves. According to his observations, the 
quaternary fauna includes two distmct zoological gTou[)S : The first is 
represented by the elephant of Africa, the two-horned rhinoceros, the hijp- 
popotanuis, the lion, the panther, the serval, the striped hyena, the genet, 
the wild boar, &c., animals now nearly all African, which lived in 
Europe before, during, and after the great migratory i^henomenon of the 
north. 

The second zoological group is composed of mammals of northern 
origin, Elcphas prhnigeiiins, Ehinoceros tichorliinus^ and many species of 
Europe. A few of its representatives, the musk-ox, the lemming, the 
glutton, the reindeer, since the quaternary period, have migrated to subarc- 
tic latitudes ; others, such as the UlcpMs primigenius, the Ehinoceros tich- 
orhinus, Ccrvus giganteiis, Bos primigenius, JJrsiis spelccuSj &c., are gene- 
rally becoming extinct, in accordance with the laws which control the 
longevity of iadiAiduals, and so limit the duration of species. 

Truly an examination of the quaternary fauna is not less important 
ihan that of the periods which })receded and followed it, and we can 
well comprehend M. Lartet's opposition to the doctrine, then all-power- 
ful, which reduced to a short period of physical convulsions, the time 
during which the quaternary species were developed. " This quaternary 



SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWARD LARTET. 181 

period," he says, " which is regarded by many as a sudden and violent 
transition from geological to ])resent times has probably witnessed the 
development of millions of successive generations of the mammals 
which now inhabit Europe, and the day may not be far distant when 
the word cataclysm will be expelled from the vocabulary ot i^ositive 
geology." 

This theory in opposition to the great effect of cataclysms upon the 
existence of species was elaborated and supported by incontestable facts 
in ^' some rojiarls upon the geological antiquity of the humem species, in 
Southern Europe,'''' addressed by M. Lartet to the Academy in 1800, and 
printed in the BihUotheque do Geneve. 

In regard to the discoveries of M. Boucher des Perthes, then greatly 
contested, M Lartet considered that all doubt w^ould be dissipated if 
traces of human action could be found upon the bones of the animals 
exhumed at the quartz works. He then sought for the quaternary 
bones described or mentioned by Cuvier, and found upon them very 
evident traces of the action of flint instruments. 

The human race who worked the quartz of Amiens inhabited Eng- 
land and France were the same. The two countries were then united; 
their separation did not take place until after the deposit of the diluvial 
banks. Alter that event no great catastrophe occurred in Europe; 
the water courses may have been more rapid, but they did not overflow 
the limits of their present hydrographic basins. A dozen mammals, 
more or less, disajipeared by gradual and successive extinction, and the 
greater part of the terrestrial population passed through the ordinary 
supposed changes of this long quaternary period. 

From 1800 M. Lartet was almost exclusively employed in the caves, 
and we are indebted to him for interesting descriptions of Aurignac, of 
the Madeleine, of Laugerie, of the Eyzies, of Bruuiquelj and of several 
other celebrated localities. It is difiicult to give in a limited space an 
idea of the various matters discussed by M. Lartet in regard to these 
caves; questions which belong to ethnology, anthropology, i)rimitive in- 
dustry and even historj' ; but I cannot pass over in silence the oppor- 
tune intervention of paleontology in the chronological classification of 
the caves. 

In looking over the list of the great quaternary mammals, it will be 
seen that eight or nine extinct or emigrated species have been found 
among the remains of the caves. Some of these have never been met 
with except in the lowest strata of these caves, where they have been 
succeeded by several zoological generations, while their presence in the 
oldest diluvium equally attests their age. Several successive periods 
may thus be distinguished during the time of the caves. 

For instance, the Ursus spelceus seems to have appeared the earliest, 
and to have become extinct before the animals associated with it. The 
Elephas primigenius and its faithful companion, the Ehinoceros tichorhi- 
nus, are found in the diluvium, but are wanting in the peat, the kitchen 



liS*2 5>C1ENTIFIC LAB0K8 OF EDWAKD LaKTET. 

refuse, the lacustrian habitations, »S:i.'. The reindeer, on the eontrary, are 
still in existence, as also the urns or bison of roland. 

M. Lartet divides the period of primitive humanity into four ages : the 
ag'e of the bear of the oaves, the age of the elephant and of the rhinoce- 
ros, of the reindeer and ot" the Poland bison or auroeh, but these sys- 
temaVic divisions are ai>plieable only to a limited region. In Lithuania, 
the aurochs still exist, as in the time of Caesar the reindeer was still an 
inhabitant of the heivyniaii forest. 

Such were the facts disclosed by Al. Lartet by his examination of 
the cave of Aurignac. In his other excavations all his sagacity was 
called into play by theiigures of aniuuils sculptiu'ed and engraved — the 
tirst artistic etforts of the men of the caves. It would be unjust not to 
mention in this connection the name of the English savan Christy, who 
displayed so much zeal in the explorations of Perigord, and who pre- 
pared, with 31. Lartet's assistance, a beautiful work entitled ''lieliquitc 
Aquifauica:" 

It was in association with M. Christy, that M. Lartet calculated the 
..oological population of most of the grottoes of Perigord. " A race, 
aboriginal or otherwise," he says, ^'inhabited this region in the same 
l>eriod with the reindeer, the bison, the wild goat, the chamois, animals, 
some of which have now represeiitarives only in extreme climates, while 
a few descendants of others are found on the summits of the Alps and 
the Pyrenees. These people were not acipiaiuted with the use of morals, 
they lived by hunting, and no animal was domcsticared by them. Their 
sculpture indicates great artistic feeling." 

We are indebted to this artistic talent for a very satisiactory repre- 
sentation upon an ivory tablet of the UU'phas pyimujenius. This re- 
markable specimen came from the care of the j^adeleiue. The figure 
of the reindeer is found engraved upon many of the bones from Perigord. 

All the facts relative to the caves of the southwest part of France 
were to have been collected iu a large volume by MM. Cliristy and 
Lartet, but unfortunately this interesting book was not completed, iu 
consequence of the premature death of its authors. The parts published 
are tilled with original research iu regard to the caves of the valley of 
X'ezere, the ancient fauua of Perigord, the grotto of Cromaguon, the 
exploration of wldcU was made by a son of M. Lartet, and the humau 
fossils of Cromaguon, »S:c. 

31. Lartet also examined the bones of the caves of the Maritime Alps 
and of Heraidt. He found in the cave of Mars, about two miles from 
Vence, a new species of bear, strongly resembling in some respects the 
polar bear : this bear was associated with the leopard and the Mhuioccros 
Jlerl'ii. From the rhinoceros M. Lartet endeavored to determine the 
characteristics of the quaternary rhinoceros, of which the affinities are 
very obscure. 

Iu conclusion I would call attention to a memoir upon the fossil 
musk-ox, a portion of the skull of which was found iu the diluvium of 



SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWAKO LARTI-:T. 183 

Procy, (OJse.) There was nothing' peculiar in the character of thi.s 
fossil ; its classification was easily determined; but its presence in the 
(luaternary ])eriod was a f;u5t wortliy the consideration of i)aleontolo- 
j^ists. M. Lartet irientious as aualoj^ous cases the reindeer found at the 
foot of the Pyrenees; the sperm whale of the bone-pits of Montmo- 
rency, and that of the caves of Perigord, which resemble the American 
species; the bear of Canada, which is identical with the 'sup])Osed 
agouti of the caves of Liege; the ant(;loi)e found at Perigord; the 
desman, of Muscovy, in Xorfolk, described by Owen under the name 
PalwoKpalax maynus, &c. Were these consecutive changes of habita- 
tion du<; to elective migration; to a forced retreat on account of the 
invasion of man, or to a gradual reduction of the species destined to 
become extinct? 

This sketch of the works of M. Lartet, however incomplete, may give 
some idea of tlie cliaracter of his mind. lie was to the last degree 
caieful and accurate in the examination and classification of fossil 
specimens; but their cliaracter once esta1)lish<'d on a firm foundation, 
his ingenuity, his patience, his originality, and i)Ower of close observa- 
tion frequently from facts api)arently the most sterile, developed very 
unexpected and interesting results. The definition of genius, as 
applied to a well-known naturalist, " genius is patience," was fully 
exemplified in him, and he was never more patient than dining his 
excavations in the caves, while in his api)lication of paleontology to 
the classification of the fossil specimens found there, he truly acted as 
a pioneer in this brant^h of science. 

In the latter years of his life M. Lartet, whose modesty equaled his 
wisdom, received many marks of honorable distinction. He was elected 
to preside over the Geological Society in 1800 ; shoitly after the Anthro- 
pological Society gave him the same testimony of esteem. He was made 
President of the International Archaeological and Prehistoric Anthropo- 
logical Congress, whicli was inaugurated at Paris in 1807, and which 
claimed the honor of having originated theories in regard to fossil man. 
He was ap[)ointed a member of the commission for the History of the 
Tranmctiowi of the Exposition of 1807, and took an active part in the 
organization of the very interesting anthropological galleries. He ren- 
dered important assistance in the formation of the museum of Saint Ger- 
main, and was made an oflicer of the legion of honor at time of its in- 
auguration. In 1809 he was elected by the professors of the museum 
to the chair of paleontology, made vacant by the death of M. d'Archiac, 
whose loss was deeply deplored and whose memory will always be vene- 
rated by the Geological Society. 

M. Lartet was sixty-eight years of age when he entered iipon his pro- 
fessorship ; he had never undertaken a course of public instruction, and 
felt the importance of the task imposed upon him. He prepared a cer- 
tain number of lectures, but unhappily, to his great regret, his liealth, 
already impaired, pre\'ented a full exposition of his views in regard to 



184 SCIENTIFIC LABORS OF EDWARD LARTET. 

tertiary faima. His physicians soon interdicted all intellectual work 
and recommended his return to his native air as the only hope of recovery. 
He left Paris in the early part of August, a prey to the most gloomy 
presentiments, and had hardly arrived at Gers, near Sansan, the scene 
of his former labors, when he was heart broken by the national misfor- 
tunes of the French, at the time of the foreign invasion ; his strength 
failed rapidly, and he expired on the 2Sth of January, 1871, less than 
two years after his appointment by the museum, bequeathing to us an 
example of a life honorable, disinterested, and entirely devoted to science. 



THE SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 



AN ADDRESS DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT OF THE 
WORCESTER (MASSACHUSETTS) FREE INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL SCI 
ENCE, JULY 31, 1872.* 



By Professor Andrew P. Peabody, of Harvard College. 



Manj^ years ago there was a strong feeling tlironghout New England 
in behalf of manual-labor schools (so-called.) I think I am right in 
saying that the experiment, wherever tried, failed. The reasons are 
obvious. The labor was not skilled labor, and therefore gave no mental 
revenue, and very low wages. It was merely a clumsy endeavor to 
enable poor young men to pay by the least remunerative kinds of work 
for their board and tuition at a half-time school. The hand-labor not 
only taught them nothing, but stupified those of them for whom that 
work remained to be wrought. Most of them, however, started with 
not a very large or active brain-capital ; for so slow and limping a gait 
had few attractions for youth of genius or ability. 

This institution is at the broadest remove from those, in theory and 
in i)ractice. Its name so implies. It is an institute of industrial science. 
Its labor is brain- work ; its machine-shop is a recitation-room ; its me 
chauical i)rocesses correspond to the collegian's drawings on the black 
board ; its finished products, to his corrected and approved diagrams. 
Its object is to train liberally educated mechanics and artisans — men 
who shall start in life with progressive ideas and the power of rapid 
self-advancement ; who shall diffuse intelligence while they create 
values ; who shall adorn as men the society which they enrich as opera- 
tives ; who shall have, independently of their callings, a selfhood im- 
measurably more precious and more honorable. 

In addressing the students, graduates, and friends of this institution, 
I have chosen for my subject the worth of an extended education to 
mechanics and artisans. 

Suffer me to begin with the lowest consideration, that of money's 
worth — the lowest as it is commoulj^ called, yet by no means to be 
despised ; for though we have the best authority for saying that ''the 
love of money is the root of all evil," this love and the sordid qualities 
which it implies and engenders are, I think, oftener produced by pinch- 

* Furnished by the author for publication by the Smithsonian Institution, at its 
special request. 



186 SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND AETISANS. 

iug penury than by earned and merited prosperity; while the position, 
influence, and capacity of usefulness which money confers are worthy 
of every man's strong desire and honest endeavor. Especially do they 
suit the ambition of liim who may hope to enrich himself by the crea- 
tion of values, and not by speculating upon them. 

Let us analyze the price of a finished commodity. Here is a lathe, or 
an air-pump, or a steam-engine, held at a certain price, which, where 
competition is free, very nearly represents its exact value. That value 
is composed of three parts : the wages of labor, the wages of skill, and 
the reimbursement and profit of capital. 

The wages of labor, that is, of mere physical force, or of processes 
which require no knowledge or discretion, constitute the smallest part 
of this value. Labor can never earn more than a mere subsistence, nor 
ought it to earn more. Left to itself, it cannot produce more than 
enough to sustain a meagre, starveling life. The aborigines of North 
America had dwelt on this soil for hundreds, perhaps thousands of 
years, yet had not only accumulated no wealth, but were unable, ex- 
cept at rare intervals, to secure a satisfying supply for the rudest wants 
of nature. A New England farmer, even with the ownership of his 
laud, if he apply no skill or science to his farm, though he, his wife, and 
his children toil incessantly, can obtain barely the necessaries, hardly 
any of the comforts of life. Now, the wages of labor must be measured 
by its products, and by this measure will generally fall short of the cost 
of comfortable living. They somewhat exceed this standard in our 
country at the present moment. The reason is that in the development 
of our resources, the construction of railways, and the opening of fresh 
soils, the demand for manual labor keeps a little in advance of the sup- 
I)ly. But what mere bone and muscle can earn in an old and settled 
community, what their earnings tend to become and may very soon 
become here, may be learned by the wretched pittance of Euglish opera- 
tives, not sufficient to save their families from a death-rate which shows 
that poverty is no less destructive than pestilence. 

Moreover, low as these wages are, the tendency in a fully-settled 
country is to a still farther decline. Though production may increase, 
the demand for unskilled labor diminishes. The time was when all 
work was done by hand. Now, machinery driven by steam or water- 
power supersedes the greater part of hand-labor. All the strong men in 
the habitable world could not exert the amount of physical power which 
is at this moment at work in the little island of Great Britain. The 
substitution of machinery for human strength is still going on. Steam 
is replacing even the shovel and the pickaxe ; and the time will come 
when the Briarean steam-engine, with its fireman and feeder, will every- 
where do the work which a hundred arms do now. The supply of labor 
thus tending constantly to exceed the demand, its wages must sink 
very nearly to the starvation point. 

The second part of the price of a manufactured commodity is the 



SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 187 

wages of skill. This is distributed aiuoug tlie workmen employed, in 
proportion to tlieir respective degrees of skill. He who can work only 
as a journeymen under the direction of others, or who can i)erform but 
a single and not very diilicult process in a complicated piece of work, 
receives a somewhat higher compensation than he would get for carry- 
ing a hod or shovelling earth, and this slight advance is tlie price of the 
imperfect training and the moderate degree of brainpower whicli be 
puts into his work. He, on the other hand, who understands every 
j)art of his business, who can knowingly direct the labors of others, 
who can insure for the articles of his manufacture the highest reputa- 
tion, and can be relied on for the fulfillment of his contracts, can ob- 
tain a price fully proportioned to bis superior skill and ability. His in- 
come is a compensation for the amount of labor which his skill super- 
sedes. A part of the saving inures, indeed, to the public in the cheap- 
ening of the commodities i)roduced, but a large portion becomes the 
legitimate recompense of his own skill. Competition will prevent his 
receiving more than he fairly merits. The master-machinist or manu- 
facturer, who has some hundreds of operatives under his employ, even 
though he have twice or three times the salary of the governor or chief 
justice of the State, earns all that is paid to him, and is at the same 
time a public benefactor to a very large extent ; for the commodities 
that he furnishes would, under a less skillful superintendence, be pro- 
duced at a much greater cost. But for skill like his, clothing and fur- 
niture, that are now within every one's reach, would be too expensive 
for the means of any save the richest purchasers. 

But this skill, except in the rarest instances of mechanical genius, 
is to be acquired by education alone, and not by the mere training of 
the hand, but equally of the brain. The skilled laborer cannot dispense 
with the knowledge of chemistry, physics, and mathematics. By chem- 
istry he must learn the properties of materials, their proportions and 
laws of combination, the action upon them of oxygen and hydrogen, of 
heat, light, and electricit3\ By physics he must become acquainted with 
the mechanical powers, the strength of materials, the effect of friction, 
the constants and variables which must always be taken into the ac- 
count to prevent either the deficiency or the waste of force. But physics 
is a mathematical science, and chemistry has become one; indeed, till 
it was one, it hardly merited the name of science. Without a very 
thorough mathematical training, neither cheuiistvy nor physics can be 
so understood that the artisan can have a fair command of his mate- 
rials, instruments, and forces ; can meet unexpected exigencies ; can avail 
himself uuderstandinglj' of im[)roved i)rocesses ; can calculate results, 
economize resources, and give his products their highest degree of per- 
fection. Then, too, the skilled artisan needs general culture. He is to 
conduct correspondence, to treat on equal terms with men of intelli- 
gence and education, to maintain in society a position worthy of re- 
si)ect and confidence, to do his part toward raising his special calling to 



188 SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 

tlie rauk of a liberal profession ; for this is what the various depart- 
meuts of mechanical art ought to be, and they will be thus called and 
recognized, so far as their professors show themselves men of liberal 
nurture. 

The third part of the cost of a commodity, is the reimbursement and 
profits of the capital expended in buildings, machinery, and raw mate- 
rials. Capital is, in fact, the accumulated savings of the wages of skill. 
Labor creates all values. But, as we have seen, mere hand-labor can 
no more than support the laborer ; it leaves no surplus to be saved. 
Skilled labor, on the other hand, creates more value than the laborer 
consumes, and the surplus remains in hand — in the ruder states of so- 
ciety, in such wealth as can be locked up in coffers, ward-robes and 
granaries; in a more advanced community, in such forms as admit of 
its expenditure in industrial operations. By laws, which I have not 
time to expound, but as inevitable as those by which the little streams 
of a valley lose themselves in the river that drains it, small cajntals 
tend to run together, and thus to form the large capitals, which are the 
object of so much senseless jealousy and hostility. These large capi- 
tals are indispensable to the stability of industrial operations ; for even 
in the most lucrative descriptions of business there are not unfrequent 
seasons of stagnation and reverse, which would be ruinous, were there 
not capitals ample enough to keep the wheels of industry in motion 
without immediate revenue. 

Capital ought to earn much more than the mere su^jport of its holders 
and managers. It ought to have such profits as will lead to its own 
large annual increase, which is needed, in part, to replace the immense 
amount of property annually destroyed by fire, storm, shipwreck, and 
disaster, and, in part, to meet the essential outlays for the industrial 
demands of a population grovring rapidly, both in number and in wants. 
Here let it be remembered that all capital, in order to yield a profit, must 
be used for industrial purposes. The hoarding of it is a mere fiction. 
It must all be worked over, and the labor and skill which it employs 
must be paid for before the capitalist receives the first dollar of his in- 
come. It will be observed, also, that large capitals, so far from super- 
seding, utilize, protect, and cherish small capitals, ho\Yever invested, 
whether directly in industrial enterprises, or iiulirectlj- through banks ; 
and while the absorption of small capitals is constantly going on in a 
healthy condition of societj-, their creation is more rapid than their ab- 
sorption, as in a rainy season the brooks and streams receive from the 
heavens more water than they can carry into the river. 

Now the point which I wish to urge is this: By the education given 
nere, the mechanic or artisan is enabled to secure for himself at once 
the wages of labor which will feed and clothe him, the wages of supe- 
rior skill which Vvill yield him a surplus revenue, and the profits of 
capital, by the investment of his savings year by year, and of the con- 
stantly increasing income of those savings. This, indeed, is the proper 



SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 189 

way of settling the (.•oiiflic-t betweeu labor and capital. Every skilled 
laborer belongs to both parties, and in fighting against capital he is at 
war with himself. If he begins life poor, his interest may, indeed, then 
seem to be on the side of labor ; bat with every year's savings it is 
more and more for his interest that capital should yield a remunerative 
income, and the very measures which, if successful, would impoverish 
the millionaire, would render his modest surplus earnings unproductive 
and their investment insecure. The graduates of this institute may re- 
gard themselves as capitalists in the near future ; for the brain-power 
that is furnished here is the very material from vrhich wealth is created. 
Were I familiar with the names in "Worcester, I know that I could point 
out to you not a few of the proi)rietors of these great manufacturing 
establishments, who came hither with no resource except hands and 
brain, and have fairly earned, by industry and skill, every dollar of the 
tens and hundreds of thousands which it may be literally said they are 
worth ; for, though a man may not be worth all the money he has, he is 
worth all that he has honestly acquired. 

But there are higher grounds on which institutions like this should 
be cherished. We are training in our schools of industrial science dis- 
coverers and inventors in their several departments — men who will 
shorten and cheapen the labor of production, introduce new ai)plications 
of science to the useful arts, and add permanently to the wealth of 
humanity by industrial imx)rovements. 

There are some families in the vegetable creation — dioecious, so 
called — in which the fructifying pollen and the fruit-producing blos- 
some are elaborated on different plants. Similar has been the case, for 
the most part, in the industrial world. Inventions have generally been 
the joint product of two very different classes of minds, neither of which 
could have effected anything without the other ; and, not uufrequently, 
between the two an important invention has been kept for many jears 
in abeyance, and, when ti^nally perfected, has been of doubtful or dis- 
puted parentage. The germinal idea or principle has been conceived 
and suggested by a man of learning, science, and studious and reflective 
habits, but of no practical skill. He has tried in vain to embody it; 
has encountered, it may be, ridicule, opposition, contempt. Perhaps, 
afteryears of fruitless endeavor, he has lapsed into unhonored penury or 
death. His idea has been taken up by some man who had the skill to 
actualize 'what he had not genius or knowledge enough to originate, 
and he has reaped the honor and the profit of his predecessor's uncom- 
pensated study and toil. As by the old slave-law the child follows the 
fortunes of the mother, so the invention — the brain-child — is, by gen- 
eneral consent, accredited, not to the fertilizing mind, but to the pro- 
ducing hand. 

An obvious instance may be found in the history of the application 
of ether as an autesthetic agent. You know that Drs. Jackson and 
Morton both claimed the invention, and both, I believe, with equal 



100 SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 

truth, thongli by the hiw which I have specified the right was Morton's. 
Jackson conceived the idea, for which Morton's scieutihc knowledge was 
inadequate. Morton contrived means for the successful experiment, for 
which Jackson's practical skill was inadequate. Had Jackson been a 
practising dentist as well as a chemist, or had Morton been a scientifl- 
cally educated man as well as a dentist, either might have borne the 
undisputed honor of discoverer and inventor.- 

lu a certain sense inventions are said to be the work of their age 
rather than of individuals ; but they have generally been a little behind 
their age. A new and fruitful idea has commonly been current in the 
scientific world for a generation or more, before it has been actualized, 
and this for the simple reason that the scientific men have not had the 
skill requisite for successful experiments, and the men of i^ractical skill 
have not had science enough to recognize and welcome the dawning of 
any new light. Thus, an invention of prime importance has often hov- 
ered long within the near reach of both speculative and practical men, 
waiting for that conjunction of science and skill without which it could 
not assume an available form 5 and when it has been at length brought 
forth, many had approached so near it and had so distinctly antici- 
pated it as to claim with entire honesty the merit of its inception. 

The history of steam-power affords numerous illustrations of the prin- 
ciple which I ha^^e enunciated, A full century of experiments by spec- 
ulative philosophers on steam as a working force had elapsed — with the 
construction of various forms of machinery, which demonstrated its 
potential efiicacy, yet were too cumbrous, or too frail, or too restricted 
in their range of work to be put to any use, except for pumping water 
from mines — when the steam-engine, with its cylinder and piston sepa- 
rate from the boiler, came from the hands of jS"ewcomen, the blacksmith, 
and Cawley, the plumber, about the beginning of the last century. 
Some sixty years later. Watt conceived the idea of a separate condenser, 
to save the loss of power and the waste of fuel by the alternate heating 
and cooling of the cylinder — a contrivance which alone and at once 
placed steam in advance of all other mechanical agencies, and gave sure 
presage of its enduring and world-wide supremacy. But he, though a 
mechanical genius of the highest order, was hardly more than a self- 
taught workman, having had but a single year's apprenticeship to a 
London mathematical-instrument maker. His conception and foresight 
of his great invention were clear and vivid 5 but his own working-power 
was very limited, and in all Glasgow he could not find artisans capa- 
ble of the delicate workmanship required, the collective skill of the city 
not sufficing for the casting and boring of a cylinder, while a hammered 
cylinder left fatal interstices betvv^een its inner surface and the piston. 
After fourteen years of speculation and experiment he had got no 
further than to show that he ought to have succeeded, and was yielding 
to despair under the pressure of poverty and repeated failures, when he 
entered into partnership with Boulton, a trained and skilled manufac- 



SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 191 

tiirer iu irou and steel, iu Birmiiigbam, the emporiniii of skilled labor 
for the British Empire. Under these uew auspices his progress was a 
continuous triumph — a triumph which, however, was his, only because 
his partner was a just and true-hearted, man; for it is under precisely 
such circumstances that in numerous instances the actual inventor has 
succumbed to the skilled and able artisan, while Boulton left to Watt 
the fame that was his rightful due, and took care that his long years of 
toil and want should be crowned by an old age of ease and affluence. 

Attempts at navigation by steam were made at intervals for a century 
and a half, or more, but generally by men who had more science than 
art; often by those who had neither, but onlj^ a vague conception of the 
capacity and destiny of this mighty agent which was to inaugurate a 
uew era for human industry and enterprise. Some of these experiments 
were partially successful, yet failed to combine the essential conditions 
of power, speed, manageableness, and durability. Fitch, had he been 
a well-trained mechanician, would undoubtedly have antedated by sev- 
eral years the establishment of steam-navigation on our western waters. 
But the glory was reserved for Fulton, who, though not educated as a 
mechanic, had made himself one by taste, study, and matured practice, 
and was as familiar with the details of material, method, and workman- 
ship as with the scientific conditions to which all these are subservient. 
Yet even he was retarded in the successful execution of his plans by 
the fact that he was not by profession a machinist or a ship-builder. 
The idea, full grown and available, preceded its final embodiment by at 
least fourteen years, an interval in which he had experimented in France 
rnder disadvantages ?ind discouragements that would have been facal 
to the scheme, but for his indomitable elasticity and hopefulness. Had 
he been master of a machine-shop or a building-yard of his own, he 
would undoubtedly have launcbed the Clermont not later than the first 
year of this century instead of the seventh, and would have been spared 
the litigations with rival claimants which imbittered the residue of his 
life, and hastened its close, leaving, as his biographer says, for "the only 
patrimony of his children, the load of debt which their parent con- 
tracted in those pursuits that ought to command the gratitude, as they 
do the admiration of mankind." 

Of the disabilities under which an inventor may labor in consequence 
of his not being an artisan by profession, we have a striking illustration 
in Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton-gin. In his case the concep- 
tion and the execution were united. He was a man of thorough literary 
and scientific education, and at the same time of a native mechanical 
genius, which attested itself in his very boyhood by the manufacture of 
tools, cutlery, and musical instruments, of peculiarly good (]uality and 
finish. After graduating at Yale College he went to Georgia under an 
engagement as a teacher. Cotton was at that time almost worthless as 
a staple of agriculture and commerce, as it could be cleaned from the 
seed only by hand, at the rate of a pound of the gross cotton per day 



192 SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 

for each laborer. He saw at once the possibility of performing this pro- 
cess by machinery, and constructed a rude and imperfect model, worked 
by hand, which turned out fifty pounds of the cleansed staple per day. 
But he found in Georgia neither the workmen nor the materials for i)er- 
fecting his invention or for multiplying his machines. It took him 
years to get the manufacture well under way. Meanwhile, in the eager- 
ness for the use of this wealth-yielding process, his patent-rights were 
ignored ; cotton-gins embodying his principle, with trivial variations, 
were multiplied ; the interest of intrusive manufacturers and that of the 
planters who adopted their contrivances, and thus laid themselves open 
to legal i)rosecution, were arrayed against him, and elicited a strong 
public sentiment to his ]>rejudice ; sixty suits were instituted before he 
obtained a single legal decision in his favor ; and his invention, which 
at once raised the whole southern section of the country from thriftless 
poverty to abounding opulence, was to him never worth the parchment 
on which his i^atent was engrossed. 

Now the effect of institutes like yours is to replace the dioecious by 
monoecious trees — to have the pollen and the fruit-buds grow on the 
same stalk. Tou have here, students and graduates, all that careful 
training can do for you to make you discoverers and inventors — to en- 
able you both to initiate and to actualize industrial improvements, and to 
reap, without hinderauce or rivalry, your merited honor and recom- 
pense. Moreover, nothing less than this training can put you on the 
arena with the jjromise of success. No accurate practical results can 
be reached without the most exact calculations ; for, whether man 
know, or be ignorant of, the laws of number and proportion, all sub- 
stances and forces in nature obey them, and man masters nature only 
by making them his rule and measure. 

Your literary education here tends in the same direction. Especially 
is this true of the command you acquire of the French language. He 
who would contribute to the industrial advancement of mankind must 
know what others have thought and done, how far each separate art 
and science has advanced, what unsuccessful expeiiments have been 
made and therefore need not be repeated, and in what directions men of 
learning and skill are looking for the new light of which they may uncon- 
sciously be the harbingers f and the French has been for more than a 
century the mother-tongue of science and the useful arts, abounding 
equally in encyclopedic works and in monographs, and presenting the 
most advanced views in every dej^artment of physical philosophy and 
of practical technology. 

With these exercises of the school-room you have the education of 
the workshop, far more systematic, comprehensive, and exact than 
could lall to your lot under the best private auspices. You thus vvill 
be prepared to execute or direct your own plans, to embody your new 
thought in wood, steel, or brass, and to insure for yourselves a fair 
trial of whatever process or agency may seem to you an improvement 
on the past. 



SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 193 

Think not that the canon of inventive genins is closed. It is but just 
opening. Agents may be slumbering unrecognized that shall supplant 
those now in the ascendant. Steam — the sovereign of our time — may- 
yield the sceptre to a mightier energy. The power now obtained by 
the holocaust of forests and the disemboweling of the solid earth may 
be replaced by some one of those elementary- forces which " spread 
undivided, operate unspent." The general use of condensed air for pur- 
poses of locooaotion by land and water is now as probable as that of 
steam was a century ago; and Ericsson has advanced as far in the 
former as all the predecessors of Fulton had done in the latter. How 
know we that the electro-magnetic force which we have harnessed to 
our thought may not one day bo yoked to our railway trains'? Who 
can say that the pretended generation of light and heat for common 
uses by the decomposition of water (the rumor of which, if I mistake 
not, emanated from this very city,) while an audacious imposture, may 
not have been an unintended prophecy"? Who knows but that the still 
deficient directing and impelling force may yet be so applied as to give 
certainty and calculable utility to aerial navigation? Then, too, in 
many of our established processes, machines, and modes of locomotion 
there are still limitations, liabilities to accident, possibilities of added 
speed or efiicacy, in fine, a thousand directions in which inventive talent 
may be fruitfully busy. Nor is there any invention, however insignifi- 
cant it may seem, which multiplied, as it may be, by thousands or mil- 
lions, and extending into an indefinite future, may not carry with it an 
untold saving of cost and labor, and in many cases, even of life. The 
invention which in the least degree facilitates industry, and increases 
and cheapens its products, is a benefaction to society which will im- 
measurably outweigh and outlast the most munificent gifts that wealth 
can bestow. It is by such charities that many of you, I trust, will elo 
honor to your calling as liberally-educated artisans. 

Permit me now briefly to advert to the need which our country has 
of institutions like yours. Nothing is more evident than the over- 
crowding, at the present time, of every department of commerce. Up 
to a certain point commerce is, like the mechanic arts, a creative pro- 
fession. A commodity is not a finished product till it is brought within 
easy reach of its consumer, and the merchants — wholesale and retail — 
who are needed for the successive stages between the producer and the 
consumer are to that extent co-agents in the production, as are also the 
bankers and brokers who supply the necessary funds and facilitate the 
essential pecuniary arrangements. But when members of the mercan- 
tile profession are so needlessly multiplied that they create supernu- 
merary stages in the passage of goods from the producer to the con- 
sumer, interpose to arrest instead of facilitating their transfer, levy 
black-mail on every commodity in the market, and get for themselves 
the lion's share in its ultimate price, they then inflict a grievous wrong 
on both parties — they make their superfluous profit on the spoils of 
13 s 



194 SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AKD ARTISANS. 

botlr, on tlie one IkiikT scaiitiuj"' the wages of productive industry, on 
tlie oilier hand cramping- the consumers' purchasing power. 

That this is the condition of things in our country at the present time, 
there can be no doubt. The reason, too, is obvious. Our schools edu- 
cate our young men to a point at which they feel that they sacrifice 
their self-respect and sink beneath their proper level by becoming mere 
laborers, or mere routine-mechanics, especially when they are thus 
placed by the side of, or brought into competition with, the hordes of 
uneducated and rude immigrants that crowd our labor-market. Those 
who were themselves content with hand-labor are ambitious of a 
liigher destiny for their sons. Hence the rush into commerce. Hence 
the scores of applicants lor every vacant clerkship. Hence the spec- 
tacle — equally ludicrous and sad — of hands that could wield the sledge- 
hammer, measuring tape, drawing soda-water, and weighing sugar- 
plums. Everything that can by the broadest construction call itself 
trade or commerce deems itself respectable ; and therefore our towns 
and cities are supporting twice the number of shopkeepers that they 
need, and sustaining able-bodied men, too, in paltry commercial in- 
dustries, which yet would give a competence to our thousands of starv- 
ing women and girls. 

To restore the deranged balance of society, its old honor must be 
rendered back to labor. Industrial pursuits must be raised in respecta- 
biliry and dignity above the lower walks of commerce, and fully to a 
level with its higher departments and functions. Both agriculture and 
liandicraft must be made liberal professions. This can be effected only 
by stocking them with men of liberal culture; for it is not the profes- 
sion that gives character and standing to the man, but the man to the 
l)rofession. Our agricultural colleges and our industrial institutes are 
su[)[)lying the needed culture, and are going to replenish the lield and the 
workshop with a new order of large and high-minded operatives, men 
of liberal tastes, pursuits, and aims, who will do honor to their respect- 
ive callings, and make them seem worthy the noblest ambition of the 
aspiring youth of the coming generation. The successful impulse has 
been already given. It is already no uncDmmon thing for the graduates 
of our best colleges to pass at once into the machine-shop or the factory, 
and to go through the entire novitiate as a raw apprentice might. It 
has, indeed, been demonstrated, and it will soon be made ajjparent to 
the whole world, that there is no department of productive industry iu 
which genius, talent, science, and learning may not find fit investment, 
ami)le room to grow, and adequate social i)Osition and honor. 

There are other points to which I would gladly ask your attention 
had I not taxed it so long. But I cannot close without reminding the 
students and graduates of this institute that education has, or ought to 
have, a higher use than what we call its use. We are too apt to think 
of the course of early study and discipline, chiefly as a specific prepara- 
tion for one's business or calling iu after-life, as the means of becoming 



SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION OF MECHANICS AND ARTISANS. 195 

a good lawyer or physician, merchant, mechanic, or farmer. This, how- 
ever important, is bnt a secondary pnrpose. You might better be, my 
young friend, a beaver or a sparrow, if skill as an artisan or a fabricator 
seems to you the great aim and end of life. Over and above your pro- 
fession, exceeding it, mastering it, should be your selfhood, your man- 
hood, your being as a thinker, a knower, a member of human society, a 
child of God, an immortal soul. Your course of instruction here has its 
highest value iu giving you real knowledge, materials for thought, 
stimulants to mental activity, and, withal, food for your moral, spiritual 
nature. In the laws of the material universe, and especially iu the 
necessary and eternal laws that underlie all mathematical science, you 
enter into close contact — I would that you might ever know and feel 
it — with the Infinite mind ; you become conversant with forces which 
are but the multiform, yet undivided, Omnipotence. In the study of 
physical science you are within temple gates and on holy ground. Let 
then these pursuits into which you are here initiated for a life-long self- 
training, vindicate their claim to be regarded as liberal studies by the 
breadth and depth of thought, sentiment, and character which they 
inspire and cherish, by the high type of manhood which they foster, by 
the noble lives to which they give the impulse. 

Remember, above all, that your ultimate success depends on charac- 
ter. Genius and skill, unsustained by character, will but glitter and 
vanish. Industry, probity, chastity, sober habits, a quick and healthy 
conscience, are worth fully as much in the mere material interests of a 
life of average duration as they are iu the judgment of God and in the 
esteem of good men. Young persons are very apt to discriminate be- 
tween prei)aration for this world and preparation for tlie world to come. 
To one who has lived as long as I have, the two seem identical. CouUl I 
start at your age with the fruits of my three score years of observation 
and experience, I should take precisely the same route to the surest and 
highest earthly success, emolument, and honor, which I would take as 
the nearest way to heaven. 



ORGANIC BASES. 



Lecture deli\t:red by Professor A. Bauer before the Vienna Society for the Dh'TUsion op 

Scientific Knowledge. 



[_Tra)islated for the Smithsonian Institution. '\ 

Altbongli bodies having the properties of acids, as, for instance, tar- 
taric, citric, and malic acids, had long been known to exist in certain 
vegetable and animal substances, it was reserved for our century to dis- 
cover bodies of alkaline or basic properties in the organic world. A 
chemist, Sertiirner by name, first succeeded in isolating morphine from 
opium, the long-known juice of the poppy, obtained by making incisions 
into the capsules, and afterwards drying the product in the air. 

Little attention was at first paid to this discovery, because all the 
energies of chemists had been turned to the study of inorganic chem- 
istry ; it was out of the regular line of research at the time, and, 
therefore, remained isolated and unappreciated. When, however, sev- 
eral years later. Gay Lussac showed the importance of Sertiirner's dis- 
covery, and proved himself, in a dissertation published in 1816, that 
morphine acted like an alkali in regard to vegetable colors and acids, 
nis work became the incentive to a search for similar bodies in such 
plants as were known for their sanative or poisonous effects. In many 
cases their active principle was found to consist in an alkaline substance, 
combined with an organic acid, and hence called an alkaloid. 

Pelletier and Caventon found alkaloids in Peruvian bark and in the 
snychueaceJE,and in 1820 LTuverdorben succeeded in artificially i^reparing 
several alkaloids or organic bases by the dry distiHation of horn, bones, 
and other animal substances. These discoveries gained for organic bases 
a place among the most important and interesting bodies in chemistry, 
and many chemists devoted themselves exclusively to their study. 
Theoretical considerations concerning the nature of organic bases 
caused their more extended investigation. These theoretical considera- 
tion were founded upon the interesting fact of the similarity of all 
these bases to ammonia. In the natural alkaloids the similarity consists 
chietly in the chemical equivalents, but in the artificial bases lately dis- 
covered it is also exhibited in their physical properties. 

These facts have led to the supposition that there exists an intimate 
relation between the organic bases and ammonia. Berzelius, indeed, 
suggested the probability of the preexistence of ammonia in all these 
bases ; while Liebig, in the first volume of his Dictionary of Chemistry, 
(Handworterbuch der Chemie,) developed a theory concerning their con- 



OEGANIC BASES. 197 

Rtitntion, wliicb forms the basis of our present views as to this interest- 
mg braiicli of cbemistry. He assumed that ammonia was the type of 
all oro-anic bases, and tbat it was itself such a base, of the simplest 
composition. Ammonia consists of only two elements, containing one 
atom of nitrogen and three of hydrogen in one molecule.* Liebig as- 
sumed that, in the organic bases, a part of the hydrogen was replace<l 
by other radicals, composed of several elements; these bases might 
therefore be considered as made up of a compound radical and a combi- 
nation of one atom of nitrogen with only two of hydrogen, the other 
atom of hydrogen being replaced by the new radical. The compound 
thus formed is called amid.f Such a base is called an amid base.l 

Liebig developed this idea in the clear and ingenious manner peculiar 
to himself, and expressed his views concerning the probable nature of 
compounds which could be formed from amid and the alcohol radicals. 
Ten years later his ideas were verified by experiment. Ethylamine, and 
a whole series of similar bases, were produced by Wurtz in Paris in 
1849. 

These discoveries of the celebrated French scientist justly excited un- 
usual attention, which was still increased when A. W. Hofmaun and 
Wurtz demonstrated that not only one atom of hydrogen in ammonia 
could be replaced by an alcohol radical to form amid bases, but that 
compound radicals could be substituted for two, and even for all three, 
atoms of hydrogen. These bases might be designated as primary, sec- 
ondary, and tertiary amid bases, according as one, two, or three atoms 
of hydrogen of the ammonia have been replaced by compound radicals. 
(In English treatises on chemistry they are usually designated as amid, 
imid, and nitril bases. — The Translator.) Their chemical formulse are rep- 
resented h}' the following table, in which A, B, C, stand for the compound 
radicals. 

Ammouia base. Amid base. Imid base, Nitril base. 

A) Ai 

BVu B >a 

As Hofmann has shown later that there is a series of compound rad- 
icals which may replace two atoms of hydrogen in the doubled formula 
of ammonia, producing a second extensive series of bases, whose com- 
position is expressed in the following table, where A^ B' and C^ repre- 
sent the compound radicals. 

H. ) A' > ' A' ) A' ) 



H >u 






11.2 B' >U2 B' >U2 



If we suppose onlj^ 52 such compound radicals capable of replacing 
one atom, and 32 of replacing two atoms of hydrogen, we obtain 
35,000 millions of possible compound organic bases. 

* The symbol N, (nitrogen,) in cbemlcal formula?, means one atom of nitrogen, and 
H one atom of hydrogen. The formnia for ammonia is therefore : H-(-H-|-H-|-N= H3N. 

t The chemieal formula of amid is therefore : H: N. 

t The formula for an amidogen base is : A-f-HiN, in which A stands for a compound 
radical. 



198 OEGANIC BASES. 

This euormons number shows how impossible it is, in spite of the 
most persevering labors, to become acquainted with more than a very 
small proportion of these compounds. This very number urges us to 
study only the prominent representatives of whole series, and to give to 
them our whole time and energies. 

From what has been said in regard to the composition of organic bases, 
it was thought evident that nitrogen would appear to be the component on 
which their properties depend, for they all contain nitrogen. But we know 
now whole series of analogous bases containing, instead of nitrogen, 
some other element of similar properties. These also have the charac- 
teristics of ammonia. As early as 1846, Paul Theuard had made phos- 
phorus bases, which were more thoroughly investigated in 1855 by 
Hofmann and Cahours. Analogous arsenic bases have been known 
much longer. In 1700 Cadet prepared one, the composition of which he 
could not, of course, exi)laiu. The investigations of Bunsen, from 1837 to 
1843, shed more light on this remarkable class of organic bodies, and 
the constitution of the arsenic bases was finally completely made clear 
by the researches of Cahours, Kolbe, Biche, and especially Baeyer, in 
Berlin. In 1850 Lowig discovered antimony and bismuth bases, so 
that we now have four other elements capable of forming whole series 
of basic combinations like those of nitrogen. Compare these with the 
above-mentioned number of possible nitrogen bases, and we will be con- 
vinced that the chemist as well as the astronomer is able to astonish us 
with magnificent numbers, and to call up before the mind's eye endless 
series of possible combinations, all producing bodies having special 
qualities. 

However much these researches have extended our knowledge, they 
have but slightly improved our acquaintance with the bases and alka- 
loids spontaneously formed in nature. The constitution and the rela- 
tions of these natural alkaloids to the other bases and to other chem- 
ical compounds are much less understood than the foregoing statement 
would lead us to suppose. The causes of this are that the natural al- 
kaloids are mostly very complex bodies, and that they suffer such com- 
plete changes in most reactions, that it is difilcult to study them, or 
to form any conclusion as to the constitution they had before they were 
decomposed. It must be left to the future to shed more light on the 
nature of these bodies. Let us hope that it will be possible to make 
those alkaloids synthetically which have hitherto been found only in 
nature. We must not forget in this connection that most of the natural 
bases contain oxygen, which is not lound in the ammonia bases. Although 
the discovery of the so-called ammonium bases, and Wurtz's beautiful 
discovery of the behavior of oxide of ethylene to ammonia, have indi- 
cated the way of preparing such oxygen bases artificially, there is nev- 
ertheless a difficulty, which seems almost insurmountable. It is the 
fact that most of the natural bases have optical properties, while we 
cannot succeed with the aid of the above processes in preparing com- 
pounds possessing similar properties from substances not originally 



ORGANIC BASES. 199 

possessing them. The discovery of methods for the artificial or syn- 
thetic preparation of the alkaloids would not only be of higii scientific 
interest, but it would also greatly advance our material interests, for 
there is scarcely another group of bodies of such manifold uses as the 
organic bases. 

Many of these alkaloids play an important part in the arts, others are 
known as the active principles of stimulating articles of food, while the 
great number of them are valuable as medicines. Many of them are ex- 
tremely violent poisons, and have acquired an unenviable reputation 
from cases in which they have been employed. 

Poisoning by means of vegetable bases is rendered doubly dangerous, 
because it is often diflicult to prove with certainty the presence of the 
poison in the corpse or the secretions by chemical analysis, while the 
presence of mineral poisons can generally be detected with ready cer- 
tainty. The reason of this is not difiicult to understand. We are but 
imperfectly acquainted with the properties of the natui'al alkaloid^;;. 
They resemble each other very much. In cases of poisoning, they are 
mixed up in the stomach or other parts of the body with many other or- 
ganic substances, all containing carbon and having certain properties iu 
common with them. These organic substances are of course more akin 
to the vegetable bases than to inorganic substances, such as the com- 
pounds of arsenic, which are not found in any part of the human body. 
Metals are present only in insignificant quantities, and those which are 
present are not at all similar to arsenic. Now the organic bodies pres- 
ent all contain nitrogen and may have basic properties, both character- 
istics of alkaloids. It is obvious that the detection and separation of 
very similar bodies are much more difficult than the separation of dis- 
similar ones, where the detection of a single property often sufiices to 
prove their presence with certainty. 

If we consider furthermore that the alkaloids are very easily decom- 
posed, and that in legal chemical investigations the bodies in which they 
are to be sought for are generally in a state of putrefaction, i. e., of contin- 
ual active change, we will understand how impossible it is frequently 
for chemists to separate the jioisons in a state of purity from parts of 
the body and to prove their presence with certainty. It is indeed some- 
times possible to inject the substances which in cases of poisoning 
must contain the vegetable base, into the blood of living animals or to 
mix it with their food, and then to judge, from the ijhysiological effects 
on the animals, which poison was present. The changes produced by 
certain alkaloids on the beating of the heart, on the general action of the 
muscles, and on the nervous system, are fre(piently so characteristic that 
we can judge of the presence of one or other alkaloid with as much cer- 
tainty from these effects as from pure chemical reactions. Such proofs, 
however, have not the full force of evidence in court, for in such cases 
the separation of the pure poison must always be the chief aim of the 
chemist. 

Dangerous as our organic bases may become in the hands of the 



200 OKGANIC BASES. 

inunlorer, tlioy .are hin^lily .salutary in the prescriptions of the physician, 
M'ho employs them with j^reat success in the treatment of severe and 
otherwise unyielding diseases. Peruvian bark owes its efficacy to the 
alkaloid quinine wh'wh it contains together with cinchoni)teimd chinidine 
in varying- proi)()rti<)ns. Fortnerly, before these facts were known, there 
was no standand by which the value of dilferent specimens of Peru- 
vian bark conld be correctly judgtMl. Sometimes a. certain kind of bark, 
whose dose had been fixed by experience, accpiired a nuu;h greater value 
than others whoso eflicacy far surpassed it. ISTow the value depends ou 
the amount of bases contnined in the bark and not on tlie color, shajie, 
or other external signs. Not the smallest piece of the baik is now al- 
lowed to be lost on gathering it, because processes are known by which 
even the smallest quantity of cpiinine contained in it can be obtained. 

The same is true of different kinds of opium. Their medicinal value 
depends on the amount of alkaloids they contain. These are morpliine^ 
codeine, and uarcotine, three beautiful crystallizable bodies, tlie latter of 
which is distini'uished by the peculiar property of furnishing another 
base, trimetln/hnnine, when mixed with soda-lime and subjected to dry dis- 
tillation. ( Chemists have proved the presence of trimethyhunine in the 
})ick!e of herrings. It is the cause of their jieculiar odor. Urine con- 
tains it also in small (juantities, hence its snu'll of herrings when inu(!h 
of it is evaiJorated down. The hrlhtdonna aiul the dninra strammonimn 
contain the allcaloid atropine, whose tc^rribly poisonous i)ro])erties are 
generally known, but whi(;h plays a very important part in treating 
diseases of the eye. Applied to the eye in a dilute state, or rubbed into 
the skiu near the eye, it powerfully dilates the pu))il and greatly facili- 
tates certain operations on that organ. Prom all parts of the hendock, 
a colorless, triins[)arent oil of penetrating odor can be obtained, which 
is known un<ler the name oi conilne, and is one of the most i)oisonoiis 
alkaloids. ]^]ither this or cic^t^me contained iu the water-hemlock was 
the cause of the tragical death of Socrates, In the St. Ignatius bean 
and the nux vomica, atryehnine is found along with brueine; it forms a 
beautiful, crystallizable alkaloid, distinguished by its extremely bitter 
taste and by its producing tetanic spasms when injected into the blood. 

To this class of organic bases belong also those poisons wliich savages 
use for steeping the i)oints of their arrows. There are undoubtedly 
several such poisons. It seems that the one used by the savages of In- 
dia and Afri(!a is essentially difterent from that used by the natives in 
the nortlu;rn i)art of South America. The former, called antia, imme- 
diately stops the beating of the heart, while the latter, called curare, 
iirst palsies the general muscular action and then stoi)s the heart. Curare 
is the better known of the two; it was first brought to Europe by Sir 
Walter Paleigh in 1505. According to Humboldt, the preparation of this 
poison resembles our vintage feast. The savages collect poisonous vines 
in the forest, while the women prepare an intoxicating fermented liquor, 
of which they all i)artake. When all are intoxicated and lie in deep 
sleep, the master of the art prepares the poison by extracting the juice 



ORGANIC BASES. 201 

of the vines and evaporating it down. Different travelers agree that 
they also add poisonons ants and fangs of snakes. It wonld seem 
therefore that curarht, the active i)rinciple of the arrow-i)oison or 
cnrare, was a constituent of the juice of vines; but there is no certainty 
on this subject, since travelers do not agree in their accounts of the 
prei)arati()n of this interesting substance. Curare can be taken into the 
alimentary canal without the slightest danger, and even the meat of 
animals poisoned by it is innocuous, while it is certainly and often sud- 
deidy fatal when injected into the blood even in small <iuantity. When 
introduced into a wound, this i)oison occasions no pain whatever'. The 
symptoms preceding death are very remarkable, as can be seen when a 
very small quantity is introduced into the blood of a large animal. There 
is an immediate relaxation of the muscles, all voluntary motion ceases, 
the animal sinksdown powerless, but with its consciousness unimpaired, 
and finally the respiration ceases and death ensues, without the presence 
of any symptoms which would indi(;ate excitement or a death-struggle. 
It is a pi'ogressive palsy, ending in the brain. 

A whole series of organic bases is esteen)ed on account of the pleasant 
stimulating effect they exert on the body when in small quantities and 
diluted with other substances. They belong to the category of luxuries. 
Among them, nicotine, the active principle of tobacco, takes the fore- 
most rank. 

Pure nicotine is a liquid, which becomes brown in the light, has a to- 
bacco-like smell and possesses very ])()isonous proi)ertic»s. The amount of 
nicotine contained in different kinds of tobacco varies. Although it is 
not exactly in the inverse, it is by no means in direct proportion to the 
excellence of the tobacco. Fine brands, such as Havana and IMary- 
land tobaccos, contain but very little ; the former not quite two and the 
latter from two to four per cent. Kentucky and Virginia brands con- 
tain as much as from six to seven per cent., Jind some of the domestic 
brands of Germany (contain considerable quantities. 

Besides nicotine, there are some other bitter principles contained in 
tobacco, which are the chief cause of nausea in young smokers. These 
are kept back by smoking pipes with long stems, which only allow the 
gaseous bodies to reach the niouth. Besides carbonic acid and carbonic 
oxide, tobacco smoke often contains as much as 3 per cent, of carbonate 
of ammonia, (which causes the increased secretion of saliva,) ami also 
butyric acid, empyreunuitic oils and resins, traces of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen and even prussic acid, but no creosote. 

Pei)per owes its pungent taste to pipcrine, a crystallizable alkaloid. 
Tea and coffee both contain the same organic base, theine or caffeiiu', 
which are easily obtained from them in silky needles. A solution of 
this alkaloid neither has the taste nor the pleasant stimulating effect of 
an infusion of tea or coffee. In these beverages, as in tobacco, the value 
of the article used depends on other substances, which accompany the 
alkaloid. 



202 ORGANIC BASES. 

Chocolate owes its value to tlieobromine, an allialoid contained in 
cacao. It has been lately found tliat iodide of methyl digested with 
theobromine for some time in a sealed tube, at the temperature of boil- 
ing water, will convert it into theine. 

The excellent effect of pure meat broth on the system is due to krea- 
tine and kreatinine, two bases contained in meat. Broth, therefore, 
belongs to the same class as tea, coffee, and chocolate, and it certainly 
deserves the preference when the system of the sick person requires a 
stimulating and strengtheniug beverage. 

Some organic bases have obtained a prominent place in the chemical 
arts. It is only necessary to mention Jcyanole or aniline, which is ob- 
tained in large quantities from coal-tar, aud is used in the manufacture 
of the finest colors. Aniline red is the chloride or acetate'of rosaniline, 
a colorless base obtained from aniline. Aniline violet must also be con- 
sidered as an aniline base. 

Two artificial bases, the amid bases of ethyl and methyl, which but 
lately had merely been preserved in chemical collections as interesting 
and rare substances, are now used instead of ammonia, in Carre's ice 
apparatus, in the artificial production of ice. 

The description of the individual members of this extensive series of 
organic bases or alkaloids could be considerably extended if our time 
permitted, and if I did not fear to fatigue my hearers. 

As I mentioned in my introduction, organic bases were a terra incog- 
nita to chemists "half a century ago. As you probably have gleaned 
from my remarks, chemists have since diligently labored to explore this 
region ; but whenever they had succeeded in scaling a height, from 
which they hoped to obtain a general view of what they had investigat- 
ed, new and ever greater fields opened to their astonished eyes — fields 
whose exploration will require the most diligent efforts of chemists for 
many years. 

Just as in the discovery of a new country the value of which the people 
realize only when the plowshare has turned the new soil and when its treas- 
ures have begun to circulate in the great commercial veins and arteries 
of the world, it happens with our organic bases, which are generally 
appreciated only as far as they are useful to commerce', the arts, or 
medicine. 

Let us not forget, however, gentlemen, that as the treasures of the 
mountains of California and the products of India would never have en- 
riched our country if it had not been for indefatigable travelers, who 
wandered through unknown countries, impelled by a pure love of knowl- 
edge. So we also owe our acquaintance with the organic bases to purely 
unselfish and scientific investigations, which have taught us that 
nothing is useless in science — a truth written in conspicuous letters on 
every page of the book of nature, aud which can only fail to be read 
by the grossest ignorance. 



THE NITROGEIS^ BODIES OF MODERX CHEMISTRY. 



A LECTURE BY PROFESSOR KLETZIXSKY. 
Delivered December 15, Id/O, 



[Translated from Aus der Natur for the Smitlisonian Institution.] 

I liave tlie honor to direct your attention this morning to a group 
of compound bodies which are of the highest importance, whether we 
consider them from a theoretrical or a practical point of view. They are 
all the artificial products of the laboratory, and while the study of them 
has led to the most interesting views of the constitution of matter, some 
of them have found a widely-extended industrial application, and others 
give promise of a brilliant future. They are what is called the nitrogen 
compounds of modern chemistry : 

Volume substitution is now accepted as the ruling principle of chemi- 
cal combinations. All substances may be considered as combining in 
certain definite volumes, and the unit adopted by science in this respect 
is hydrogen. This atom, which in respect to weight and volume is the 
chemical standard, we denote as unity, and all other atoms which enter 
into the composition of bodies, and which require the same space as the 
atom of hydrogen, can be substituted in the place of this unit. 

Chemists have succeeded in substituting for the hydrogen in organic 
substances radicals of hyponitric acid; that radical which is denoted by 
the formula NO2. 

This radical called nifri/l, whose introduction into organic chemistry 
led to the conception of the nitrogen compomids, is formed when we 
unite one equivalent, of nitrogen having a combining power of 3 with 
the weight 14, and two atoms of oxygen which is bivalent, that is, 
having a combining power of 2 with the weight 16. This body is 
therefore represented by the formula '"^"O-,, in which the dashes 
('" ") represent the combining volumes. Since the nitrogen is trivalent 
and the oxygen bivalent, and since there are two atoms of oxygen the 
combining power of which is four, there evidently remains one unappro- 
priated equivalent volume; and this free equivalent volume determines 
the equivalence of the radical. On this ground we designate this radical 
as univalent, or having a combining power of one ; and as such it can 
be in all cases substituted for the hydrogen monad. 

Now, if this substitutiou of nitryl for hydrogen in organic bodies be 
extended as far as the actual relations admit, w^e arrive at the formation 
of the nitrogen compounds. For a complete exposition of our subject 



204 NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 

we liaA^e still to mention the qnadrivalent atom of carbon. The carbon 
atom requires four times the space of the hydrogen atom, and tills that 
space with the weight 12. It bears the symbol ""G. 

The elements, then, with which we^have to deal and effect our ex- 
changes are represented as follows: 

Fig. 1. 
1. Hydrogen, ^ 'H. 



2. Oxygen, C'"^ "^• 

3. Nitrogen, COO '"^• 

4. Carbon, COOO ""Q. 

The equivalence of the elements, i. c, the proportion of their volumes 
compared with hydrogen as a standard, is not an invariable quantity. 
Expansion and contraction may take place in the atoms ; within certain 
limits these can increase or decrease in volume. But it is important to 
observe that this expansion and contraction will always be bipolar; 
that is, if a univalent atom exi)and it will do this in both directions and 
become, not bivalent, but necessarily trivalent. The trivalent nitrogen 
atom may become quinquivalent, but not quadrivalent. Hence, we have 
the simple rule that the character of the equivalence cannot change 5 if 
it is expressed by an even number it must still, though the atom con- 
tract or expand, be expressed by an even number ; and reversely, if the 
equivalence is expressed by an odd number it must in all cases be so 
expressed. This will readily be understood if we suppose a unit volume 
to be added to each side of the symbol oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen-, as 
given in Fig. 1. In this case the oxygen will become four, the nitrogen 
five, &c. The trivalent nitrogen atom in some circumstances may 
become quinquivalent. This expansion of atoms takes place when they 
are subjected to peculiar chemical actions. 

I now call your attention to a salt which is produced from acetic acid 
and ammonia, and which is introduced into the pharmacopoeia as the so- 
called spirit of Mindererus, the acetate of ammonia, or acetate of oxide 
of ammonium. 

In the delineation of the formulae of chemical compounds, without 
which a clear understanding of the processes is impossible, this acetate 
of ammonia is represented in Fig. 4: 



NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 205 

It is necessary to state that in all acetic acid salts a radical called 
acetyl is couiuiou. This radical is represented as follows, in Fig. 2 : 

Fis. 2. 
""Qi 'H, "O — >. 

or 




In order to form the salt from this radical we need a link of oxygen, 
which shall unite the radical of the base ammonium ('""N 'H4,) whose 
equivalence is one, there being four atoms of hydrogen and one of pente- 
valent of expanded nitrogen. This uniting oxygen is represented in 
rig. 3. 

Fig. 3. 

CO 

Fig. 4. 

or 

OOOCOCOt 

o< 
o< 
o< 

0( 

The oxygen, which is here (Fig. 4) somewhat more distinctly marked, 
holds together the radical of the acid and the radical of the base, and 
thus forms acetate of the oxide of ammonium. 

Now, when, by chemical agency, we force the water from this salt, 
as by a high degree of heat, by the action of chloride of phosphorus, or 
an anhydrous acid, (chemists have many expedients for separating water 
from organic compounds, forming it anew, and eliminating it again,) 
when, therefore, we take from this compound two molecules of water, 
2 ('H2 "O,) the nitrogen contracts from five to threefold equivalence, 

and we have the following formation : 

/// 

— --^ Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 

N oooccoo 0000 

/// 

•which represents the compound acetonitryl. 

Wc obtain the same result if we saturate acetic acid with carbonate 
of ammonia 3 evaporate the liquid and distill the salt with chloride of 



206 NITROGEN BODIES OF MODEEN CHEMISTRY. 

phosphorus. The product thus obtaiued, the acetonitryl, furnishes a 
startiug-poiut for further transformatious. Suppose, now, that for one 
hydrogen atom we substitute the radical of unit equivalence, ("'X "O.2) 

Fig 7. 

"OOCCOO 




Here we have a ]ierfectly-liuked atomic-chain, where everything fits, a 
nitrogen body, 

w" a/'" H'2 N'" O2" 

the nitro-acetonitryl. 

If we substitute for the two remaining atoms of hydrogen one biva- 
lent atom of mercury, (represented by the shaded circles in Fig. 8,) we 
shall obtain common fulminate of mercury. 

Fig. 8. 




This latter substance cannot, in fact, be obtained from acetate of am- 
monia ; our means are not yet adequate for that. We have another and 
quite diifereut way, which is not less interesting; it is the action of ni- 
trate of mercury on alcohol. When strong spirits of wine and strong 
nitric acid are mixed and metallic mercuiy is added to the mixture, in 
a short time nitrous acid vapor is developed, the mass begins as it were 
to seethe, and on cooling yields a deposit in the form of fine needle- 
crystals, and this is the fulminate of mercury. 

Alcohol has the radical so often occurring in chemistry, G2 H5, and 
has the formula C2 He O, or 

Fig. 9. 

00000000 
It aitryl mei'CUJT (represented iu Fig. 10) acts upon this — 

Fig. 10. 

CCO®#CX>D 

cocococo 




NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 207 

We shall have the compouud represented iu Fig. 11 — 

Fig. 11. Fig. 12. 

OOOOCOO CXD CO 

Q®®COOO OO OO 

CO 
OO 

Fig. 12 represents the molecules of water extracted. 
(In this again) we have fulminate of mercury and water. Finally, if in 
the above nitroacetonitryl (N'" C/'" H2' N'" O2") we substitute nitryl for 
the two hydrogen atoms, we obtain tri-nitro-acetouitryl — 

Fig. 13. 

ceo 

CX)COO 

()CX)CO 

^cpo ceo 



a substance which forms crystals transparent as water, resembling 
naphthaline, and which on exposure to air emits a disagreeable odor, a 
body which liquifies at 45° aud at 120° ex})lodes with violence, rend- 
ing its way through all obstacles. ]S"ow, whence arises this explosive 
force of the nitrogen bodies '? 

It comes in this wise : from the substitution of oxygen for hydrogen 
there occurs so intimate a blending of combustibles and supporters of 
combustion that on contact with a spark, on the signal given for decom- 
position, the whole mass with tempest swiftness, so to speak, burns up 
at once. 

At the instant of combustion this solid substance is resolved into 
elastic tluids tending to exx)and, and, moreover, by reason of the 
augmented temperature attendant on the process of decomposition 
already expanded to a remarkable degree, aud therefore filling a space 
many hundred times greater than before. If, by raising its temperature 
to 120° I should cause the decomposition of this body in the glass tube, 
in which, to prevent accidents, it is usually liquefied, there would result 
in place of this small quantity a volume hundreds of times larger than 
the tube; its cohesion being overcome, the glass would be shattered, and, 
with a report like that of fire-arms, the gas would escape into the air. 

The effect of the common explosive gas depends on the intimate 
blending of the inflammatory oxygen with the combustible hydrogen. 



208 NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 

Liquids do not blend thus unless tliey are soluble in each other; unless 
they ha\e a i)eculiar mutual affinity. 

Oil and water placed in the same flask, and thoroughly shaken, will 
present a uniform appearance, but if left standing a short time they 
separate again, the oil gradually rising to the surface, and the heavier 
water sinking below. 

The case is different with aeriform bodies. Two gases i)Ossessing no 
mutual affinity, if introduced into the same space, will each be diffused 
throughout the whole space precisely as if the other were not present, 
and the result will be their perfect uniform blending. 

Suppose we admit into the flask two volumes of hydrogen and one 
of oxygen, the atoms will group themselves as follows : 

Fig. 14. 

oo 

f^-\y^ ^2' ^h ^3- 

OO 

This, a million times repeated, affords an idea of detonating gas. The 
hydrogen is combustible, the oxygen is inflammatory, (the kiudler,) there 
is needed only an electric spark, a glimmering splinter of wood, the 
presence of catalytic platinum sponge, or any other inconsiderable 
source of heat, and the hydrogen burns in the oxj^^gen ; an immense 
volume of watery vapor is suddenly' produced, extremely elastic, at a 
tem])erature of 1000° R., and this forces its way through every obstacle. 

Many nitrogen compounds act in accordance with this principle. By 
the introduction of nitryl, that radical abounding in oxygen, in the 
])lace of hydrogen, a more intimate combination of combustible and in- 
flammatory substances is effected, even in solid bodies, than is possible 
in the most successful fabrication of gunpowder. 

What is the operation of the manufacturer of gunpowder? He has 
two combustible substances, carbon and sulphur, and one inflammatory 
substance, saltpeter. Each of these three materials he reduces sepa- 
rately to the fluest i>owder. He then mingles them, moistened, to avoid 
explosion through friction, and then with the utmost care rubs them to- 
gether for hours, yes, days, till the blending is as intimate as it can pos- 
sibly be made. He must still force the compound through sieves 
to grain it; he must smooth and glaze these grains, «&c., but with the in- 
corporation of these three ingredients his chemical labor is finished. 
Thus it consisted in ])roducing the most uniform possible commixture 
of combustible and inflammatory substances, so that the carbon and sul- 
])hur, which are combustible, are throughout in contact with the salt- 
peter, which is the source of the oxygen. A spark coming in contact 



NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 209 

with a single, grain the eouibustiou is transfeired from grain to grain, 
and the wliolo(|uantity of carbon andsnlphnr isconsumed in the oxygen. 

Nevertheless, gunpowder, though compounded with all possible care, 
though triturated and incori)orated Vvith the most scrupulous attention, 
can never acquire that perfect blending wliich may be attained by the 
introduction of combinations of atoms into the structure of organic for- 
mulic. 

As intimate and uniform an incorporation of the atoms as occurs in 
the nitrogen bodies can never be effected by the meclianism of povaler- 
mills ; and this alone indicates the importance of the nitrogen com- 
pounds. 

iNot among the earliest of those bodies, it is true, but a very recent 
descendant from thejn, and iirst brought into notice by the celebrated 
chemist Schonbein, is gun-cotton. Gun-cotton is ordinary cotton ni- 
trogenized. Cotton is chemically called cellulose, vegetable cellulin, 
vegetable hbrin. Vegetable hbrin has the formula — 

Ei. 



cooooococo 

QOOCXXX)CCOOOO 

ooo 




In the middle we see the union of the carbon atoms to be firm ; at 
the ends comparatively weak. Xow if,, step by step, wo replace the 
hydrogen with nitrogen compounds, with nitryl, we have trinitrocel- 
lulose, wherein these atoms of hydrogen are replaced by nitryl, and 
we have before us gun-cotton, whose formation was effected by this 
substitution of nitryl radicals N O2 for hydrogen. 

The manufacture of gun-cotton is extremel}'^ simple. We require 
oulytheso-callednitro-sulphuric acid, which isin common use. Thereare 
two liniits in compounding tliis acid. We may mix equal parts of good 
jSTordhausen acid, or Saxon or Bohemian oil of vitriol, and ot good 
fuming nitric acid, or three parts of Nordhauseu acid and two parts of 
nitric acid 5 or two ])arts of iSTordhausen acid and three of red fuming 
nitric acid. A mixture with either of these proportions ]>roduces a. 
serviceable nitro-sulphuric acid, which has received the trivial name of 
ifulminii! acid from its use in the manufacture of fulminating compounds. 

In mixing the brown oil of vitriol with red nitric acid there occurs a 
moment when the mixture of the two acids is nearly colorless. This is 
the state in wliich the compound is most available. It must be effect- 
ually cooled, if possible in a freezing mixture composed of three parts 
snow and one partejisom salts or common cooking-salt; or, at all events, 
Us 



210 NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 

in cold water, often cbanged; for the acid must be ice-cold to insnre 
success. In this perfectly cold mixture immerse now, liake by flake, 
strand by strand, the cellulose, the pure vegetable fibrin. Tbe purer 
the fibrin the drier and the freer from all mechanical soiling, tbe better 
of course will be the result. The cotton is immersed in the liquid by 
pressing it down with a glass rod; we wait till all the air-bubbles escape, 
till the cotton is fully saturated with the acid ; moreover, we are careful 
to immerse no more cotton than can be contained without pressure and 
will be entirely covered by the acid. Half an hour, as I have repeatedly 
satisfied myself, is sufficient for the process ; still there is no harm in 
leaving the cotton in the acid for an hour or several hours ; thirty or 
forty minutes, however, are amply sufficient for the required effect. 
This done, with the glass rod take out the Avet cotton, i^ess it between 
thick plates of glass to remove the superfluous acid, throw it into an 
abundance of cold water to reduce the temperature, and immediately 
pick it apart, for if you let the compressed cottontail into the water and 
lie there in a mass, 5'ou will find that, with a perceptible increase of 
temperature and the escape of reddish brown vapor, it gradually dis- 
solves and disappears. After the cotton is thus pulled apart, and, as it 
were, drowned and quenched in cohl water, it must be carefully washed, 
in a running stream if possible, for you will accomplish as much in six 
hours with running water, wiiicli easily penetrates among the fibers, as 
in two or three days with standing water. If all has been done as 
directed, you have first-class gun-cotton. It has now only to be dried, 
in a temperature not exceeding 100°, to expel all the water, and then it 
may be kept for years without the slighest deterioration. 

We know whatwonderlul changesof opinion have taken i)lace in ourown 
time in respect to gun-cotton. The Austrian minister of war has really 
played with it the poetical game of the daisy : " Thou lovest me well, 
through good and ill, a little, or not at all." A large amount of money was 
expended on gun-cotton. At first, it was glorified ; later, doubts were 
entertained ; and then, when suddenly the tower of Simmering flew into 
the air, gun-cotton fell into disrepute. And yet England has recently 
made it the subject of a thorough investigation, and opinions in regard 
to it now seem very favorable. I have here some gun-cotton in the form 
of skeins and lamp-wick. This specimen is fully eleven jears old, and 
in that time has not changed in the least, absolutely not in the least. 
It is just as effective to-day as when first made. It is a property of gun- 
cotton that in a moist condition, and notably when ithasbeen imperfectly 
washed, it is decomposed in a way which may result in a partial dissolution 
and eventually in explosion. A spontaneous conbustion of clean, well 
washed and dried gun-cotton is inexplicable on scientific principles and is 
not known to have occurred. On being ignited gun-cotton explodes with- 
out smoke or vapor, and with no residue of ashes. Yv^e perceive only a 
weak odor of nitrous acid. It is a great advantage in the use of gun- 
cotton in blasting, that it does not leave that stifling atmosphere, that 



NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 211 

snlplinrons smoke which renders approach impossible, as torexami)k^ iu 
mines. ParticiUarly when common gunpowder is used for fracturing' rocks, 
when experimental bkistings are made with closed shafts, after the ex- 
plosion the air is irrespirahle, the ventilating shaft must act for a long 
time before the place can be entered. This inconvenience is avoided ] >,v 
the use of gun-cotton. I take this opportunity to indicate how we may 
easily and intiillibly recognize a nitrogen body. It is merely necessary 
to i)roduce its explosion in a partially closed space ; the space becomes 
filled with weak nitrous acid vapor. For nitrous acid we have a very 
reliable reagent, the sulphate of iron. Of course the experiment should 
be made with a very small quantity of the cotton, as othervrise the ex- 
jilosion would be too violent ; it would act in all directions, and prove 
its fracturing force on the vessel. I beg here to repeat that the explo- 
sion of such bodies consists in the sudden liberation of confined gases. 
There is an instantaneous iiroduction of gas occupying a hundred-fold 
the space of the cotton, a gas of high temperature and great elasticity. 
Such gases iu a spherical space act in all directions ; therefore they act 
not merely lengthwise of the. tube but against the sides of it also. Now, 
if the action is on a scale not large enough to overcome the cohesion of 
the sides of the vessel, the gas has time to escape upwards; but if the 
action is so intense that its lateral components are sufQcienj] to overcome 
the cohesion of the containing vessel, the fracturing force takes effect, 
the vessel is shattered. Y/e must therefore use only a very small 
quantity in our experiment. 

Nitrous acid changes the color of sulphate of iron to brown. We are 
not to expect a conspicuous change of color, observe, because most of 
the vapor escapes, only a small proportion remaining. Still there is 
enough to prove that we have to do with a nitrogen compound. 

The slowly burning form of gun-cotton is called collodion-cotton. 
This modification of gun-cotton, which is not so rapidly consumed, but 
gradually burns out, is not used to propel projectiles, but it has other 
and very valuable uses. This allotropic form of gun-cotton is obtained 
by mixing English sulphuric acid with nitrate of potash and heating 
the mixture to 50°. The nitrate of potash is decomposed, and the result 
is bi-sulphate of potash and concentrated monohydrous nitric acid. 
When it is all dissolved we immerse in this liquid at 50° cotton well 
separated and dried, just as much as will lie in the liquid without pres- 
sure and be entirely covered, and we let it remain at this temperature, 
carefully watching it, from half an hour to an hour. The heat must rise 
no higher, for if it does the mass begins to develop red vapors, the cot- 
ton is in a tumuK, and presently nothing is left but oxalic acid. The 
red vapor is a signal to lower the temperature. When this is all done 
the cotton must be picked apart, rinsed in cold water, and dried ; and 
thus we have cotton which does not explode well, but which dissolves 
in alcohol and ether, while good gun-cotton will not so dissolve. Cot- 
ton prepared at freezing temperature is insoluble in alcohol and ether, 



212 NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 

or, iit most, only sligbtly soluble iu acetic ether. On the other hand, 
cotton prepared at a higher temperature, which explodes impeifectly. 
has just this property of dissolving in alcoholized ether. 

In pure alcohol, entirely free from water and ether, collodion-cotton 
dissolves imperfectly or not at all. If the cotton be wet with pnre alco- 
hol the snpertiuous alcohol may be poured off and ether added ; the cot- 
ton will now dissolve in common ether. The cotton wet Vvith alcohol 
begins to dissolve iu the ether, and the liquid thus obtained is usually 
liltered through cotton in its natural state to remove any libers which 
may remain undissolved, and the liltered liquid is the so-called collo- 
dion, adhesive ether, i. c, the solution of tri-nitrocelluline in alcoholized 
ether. This collodion muy be saturated with gun-cotton to a somewhat 
thick liquid. Allowed to evaporate on glass, it leaves a film of collo- 
dion. This solution of collodion is applied to burns when there is no 
blood or moisture. In scalds, if not very severe, it does good service. 
In order to avoid painful contractions of the skin, it is best applied with 
a solution of castor-oil in alcohol. This imparts to it a degree of pli- 
ancy which causes it to yield to the motions of the skin without causing 
pain. 

There is a whole series of bodies besides gun-cotton belonging to the 
same class; e.g., nitro-mannite, obtained from maunite, from manna. If 
manna, such as is procured from the ash-tree, is dissolved in nitro-sul- 
phuric acid, and left standing a while until red vapors appear, and then 
Ijoured into cold water, a white, powdery, crystalline mass is precipitated; 
this is nitro-mannite. This substance explodes tolerably Avell. An 
attempt was made to substitute it for fulminate of mercury, but the at- 
tempt was abandoned. ]S"evertheless, it is destined to important uses 
in the industrial arts. 

. Ordinary cane-sugar treated in the same manner, dissolved in nitro- 
sulphuric acid, i. e., a mixture of red fuming nitric acid and Nordhansen oil 
of vitriol, kept ice-cold, and when the red fumes appear, poured into cold 
water solidifies, and when it softens can be drawn into threads of almost 
silken luster. It is certain that the solutions of it in alcohol and ether, 
even iu the water, in which it is preserved, taste extremely bitter. 
This body is called nitro-saccharine. By the mere substitution of 
nitryl for one atom of the hydrogen, the sweet taste of the sugar is 
changed to one thus iuten.;c.!y bitter. How complete a transformation 
takes place is shown by this, that nitro-saccharine is incaj)able of the 
vinous fermentation, is no longer a means of nourishment, but has be- 
come a poison, a foreign substance, which bids defiance to assimilation 
and digestion as well as fermentation. 

When starch is treated in the same manner, the purest starch, from 
potatoes, rice, or wheat, when it is stirred into the mixture of acids, it 
cannot be said to dissolve, but a glutinous swelling takes place, and 
when on the appearance of the red vapor the mass is poured into cold 
water, a shining white substance is deposited, which is called xyloidine. 



NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 213 

Those are bodies less explosive, certainly, than guu-cotton, but which 
belong to the same class, carbo-hydrogeus, in which the hydrogen is re- 
placed by nitryl. 

There are still other and very different nitrogen comi^ounds, and, in- 
deed, the first known, the oldest, belongs to a different chapter. This 
compound comes from i)henyl acid, a radical which in many respects 
excites the interest of chemists. The main sonrce of phenyl is benzol, 

""Ce 'Uo, or 

Fig. IG. 

C^^^OOCCCQCCCOOOO 

ooocccocococcoo 

Pare benzol is a colorless liquid, somewhat refractive, as evaporable 
as ether, of penetrating odor, but not unpleasant when much diluted. 
It is the well-known scouring drops. This most volatile of the coal-oils, 
called, eupion, is an exceedingly mobile and refractive medium, possess- 
ing the property of dissolving all oily substances without aliecting any 
color or injuring any material; it can therefore be used to extract spots 
of grease and oil from all fabrics, even from the most delicate rose- 
colored silk. Spots from acids, fruits, or lye are not removed by it. 
It produces no effect whatever on discolored spots; it can merely 
remove the grease and with that the dust; for every spot of grease on 
a garment is naturally a place on which the dust floating in the air 
is deposited. This benzine or benzol is, in a scientific view, phenyl- 
hydrogen. 

By replacing the hydrogen with hydroxyl, HO, we obtain from ben- 
zine carbolic acid, or phenyl acid, which in a pure state forms colorless 
crystals, but, however carefully protected from the air, it changes grad- 
ually to dull red, and finally to brown. Carbolic or phenyl acid is 
found in coal-tar, and is obtained from it in the form of carbolate of 
lime. The carbolate of natron, prepared by preci[)itating this salt of 
lime by means of a natron lye, is of inestimable value to the physicians 
as a means of obviating the fatal etiects of hospital gangrene, of cleans- 
ing wounds, and exciting healthy action which has been suspended. 

By substituting for one atom of the hydrogen in benzine — not hydroxyl, 
but nitryl — we obtain a new substance, nitrobenzol, mirbanol, and this 
brings us to ordinary perfumery. Thus, from the benzol of coal-tar is 
produced the artificial oil of bitter almonds, employed as a perfume in 
common pomades, in many cleaning mixtures, and substances contain- 
ing strongly-scented mineral matter, and in common soaps. This mir- 
banol is obtained by mixing carefully, drop by drop, at a low tempera-' 
ture, benzol and nitric acid. It would be unsafe to mix at once the 
whole mass of benzol and nitric acid, since it would produce intense 
heat and lead to explosion. In mingling benzol and red fuming nitric 
acid there is need of the greatest foresight, carefulness, and subdivision 
of the process. In spite of refrigeration, the benzol dissolving in the 



214 NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 

nitric acid develops beat and gases, and when ihe masses Lave for a 
time acted on each other, they are ponred into an abundance of cold 
water. Then, while the benzol, being lighter than water, floats on the 
surface, the mirbanol, which is heavier, siuks underneath ; thus the ni- 
trobeuzol is prepared from the mixture of benzol with red fuming nitric 
acid. This crude mirbanol, which has still an unpleasant odor, is 
washed with weak carbonate of nitrogen, and then distilled off with ex- 
treme care. It is unsafe, after washing it, to place this compound in a 
retort over a fire, for, in case it approached the boiling temperature, 
there would be a flash, a fearful explosion, and the retort would be shat- 
tered. It must not be forgotten that, although this compound is not 
used for explosive purposes, it is a nitrogen body; you have admitted a 
wolf into the sheepfold ; you have introduced the element of inflamma- 
bility — oxygen — among the atoms of hydrogen, and when once the 
kindling takes place the hydrogen burns throughout the whole mass. 
And yet the crude mirbanol is distilled, because the cousumption of it 
depends entirely on its freedom from color. This is accomplished by a 
chemical process, whereby the crude mirbanol is placed in a retort and 
the vapor of water introduced. At first, the water is condensed in the 
retort, but the vapor being constantly renewed, the water at length at- 
tains the boiling-point, is again vaporized, and escapes into the receiver 
at a temperature, however, below the boiling-point of mirbanol, and the 
latter is carried along by the watery vapor into the receiver. Of this 
device much usehas been made, because this method of distillation at a 
low temperature greatly improves the odor and discharges the color of 
the substance distilled. I beg you not to suppose that the artificial 
mirbanol thus obtained from the crude nitrobenzol can be a substitute 
for the genuine oil of bitter almonds — a costly, natural ethereal oil. If 
you compare the two, you will find it absurd to give the same name to 
the former, so delicate and fresh is the genuine hydro-benzole, rela- 
tively to the crude and harsh nitrobenzol. They are indistinguishable, 
however, in a diluted state, and in alkaline fluids, particularly in lye 
compounds ; in soaps the artificial oil is altogether i)referable. Of 
these common products, for overcoming strong odors, the genume, 
fine bitter-almond oil would be wasted — it would be lost— overpowered 
entirely by the rancid odor of the soap, for example, and would be less 
effective than its more powerful companion. 

But this is not its only use. When mirbanol is exposed to hydrogen 
in a nascent state, a nitrogenous compound is formed, aniline, which is 
merely iDhenylamin : 

Ce H5 N H3 

This is a substance whose synonyms bewilder the beginner in our 
science. Amidophenas, benzidam, krystallhie, kyanol, aniline, phenyla- 
min, they are all the same, but, singularly enough, their production was 
accompanied by v. onderful misapprehensions. A chemist separating it 
from coal-tar, supposing it an oil, and observing that it gave a blue color 



NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CIIEMISTKY. 215 

to chloride of lime, called it ky auol, bl ue oil. Others have obtained it from 
phenyl acid, from the beuzoate of ammonia; others again from indigo, 
and these called it aniline, from the Indian name of indigo. Anil Indi- 
gofera ; no one suspected that all these different bodies, produced in dif. 
ferent ways, were identical, until their composition was studied, and after 
numerous and varied experiments it was found that they were one and 
the same pheuylamin. This base is obtained when we subject mirbauol 
to the action of iron filings. The mirbauol is placed in a covered kettle 
containing iron filings and water. The iron rusts ; thus by attracting the 
oxygen, decomposing the water, and the nascent hydrogen from the 
decomposed water, produces aniline from the mirbauol. This process 
completed, the contents of the kettle arc distilled, and crude aniline 
passes over. This requires repeated cleansing, and changes to manifold 
colors. Kow, therefore, we find ourselves among the coloring substances. 

When aniline and arsenic acid are subjected for some hours to intense 
heat, they are changed into a pitch-like, dark purple mass, which, on 
beiug purified, yields crystallized Inch sin ; and if this red dye is dissolved 
in an excess of aniline and the solution heated again in the same man- 
ner, without suifering it to evaporate, it becomes a blue mass with a 
coppery luster, (azuline.) If we add nitric acid to rose aniline, we obtain 
aniline yellow and orange. If aniline is oxygenized with chromic acid, 
chloric acid, and the salts of copper, we have gray and black ; if the sul- 
phate of rose aniline is added to hyponitrite of natron, we obtain aniline 
green. There is scarcely a color of the spectrum or of art which cannot 
be produced from aniline. 

Aniline is the root of innumerable sliades of color, which are all of 
marvelous beauty, but extremely i)erishable, not subject to chemical 
influences, but whose chief enemy is the light; hence the exceeding 
tendency to fade, of fabrics dyed with aniline. For this reason they are 
suitable for those materials only which are soon worn out or soon out 
of fashion; while durable fabrics ought never to be dyed with these 
colors, since the light destroys them under all circumstances in a fabu- 
lously short time. 

Aniline dyes have competitors. From the naphthaline of coal-tar — 
this coal-champion — have similar bodies been produced, andnitro-naph- 
thaline furnishes a whole series of colors, Vvhich, however, are of no 
l)ractical interest. 

As the consumption of aniline dyes is enormous, efibrts are now in 
progress to produce such modifications of them as will be soluble in 
water or diluted nitric acid; because the original solvent, alcohol, or 
wood-spirit, not only is too expensive, but also involves this evil, that 
constant inhalation of alcoholic vapor produces injurious, sometimes 
latal, effects on those who are subjected to it. 

When carbolic or phenic acid is mixed with fulminic acid, all three of 
the hydrogen atoms at the other extreme of the chain are replaced by 
uitryl, and thus is produced tri-nitrophenyl acid. This is probably the 



21G NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 

oldest of the iiitrogeu compounds, the all prevailing bitter, picric acid. 
This substance is of a pale-yellow color; by day a beautiful yellow, at 
night white. Picric acid dyes animal tVibrics yellow, without the use of a 
mordant ; it is almost poisonous, and particularly hostile to insects. It is 
])roved by experience that animal fabrics impregnated with picric acid, 
T^■ith which we must always accept the yellow tint, are never attaclvcd 
by moths or insects of any kind. When it is admissible, viz., wben the 
color is not an objection and there is question merely of the preservation 
of the material, the use of picric acid may be warmly recommended. It 
is not so poisonous as to involve any danger in its use. Picric acid may 
be fixed in vegetable fabrics when these are impregnated with a solu- 
tion of caseine in borax. Still the acid can never be made perfectly fast 
in these textures, while for animal fabrics it furnishes one of the most 
durable of yellow dyes. This acid was formerly obtained from ditferent 
substances— from indigo, for example. Common Bengal indigo, evap- 
orated with nitric acid, leaves a deposit, which on the application of 
heat decrepitates feebly. This is picric acid. 

Aloes, which is unfortunately in so common use as a drastic purga- 
tive, digested with nitric acid also yields picric acid. 

Eecently the most abundant source of picric acid is gum acaroid, from 
an Australian tree, {Xanthroehoca hastllis.) This resin, acted on by nitric 
acid, affords the highest percentage of picric acid. I must mention one 
more substance ; and this is obtained by the action of nitrogen IVom gly- 
cerine, the so-called oleo-saccharum, a widely-ditfased article, which has 
the formula : 

i\ U, H3 O3 

We may suppose it a three-fold water, in which three atoms of hydro- 
gen are replaced by the bivalent radical glyceryl, 

o n5 

We can substitute nitryl for three atoms of the hydrogen in the 
glycerine and then we have trinitroglycerine, glonoin, or glonoidin, the 
Swedish explosive oil, a body first produced and examined by Sobrero, 
and which is heavier than water, (LOG.) To prepare this we add a de- 
ciliter of the purest glycerine, free from water, to Nordhausen sulphuric 
acid and red fuming nitric acid, mixed in the proportions of G:4; 
thus, c. g., one liter to GOO cubic centimeters and 400 cubic centimeters, 
which mixture must be kept ice-cold ; it should stand in the cold several 
hours. Then this liter is poured into at least ten liters of ice-cold water, 
and the heavy, colorless oil, trinitroglycerine, sinks to the bottom ; it 
should be well washed in water, in which it is nearly insoluble. In watery 
alcohol it dissolves with difficulty, but readily in absolute alcohol, ether, 
and pyroxylic spirit. It has a sweet but unpleasant taste, and induces 
protracted headache, so that the hom<Popathists have seized upon it as 
a specific against headache. This Swedish explosive oil is apparently 
the most formidable of the nitrogen bodies 5 while one gram of gun- 



NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 217 

powder affords 300 cubic centimeters of gas, one gram of nitro-glycer- 
ine developos 720 cubic centimeters. Moreover, tlie gun[)o\vder leaves, 
theoretically, 43 per cent, of residuum, wbile uitro-giycerine leaves none 
at all, for tbe large jiroportion of oxygen is so perfect a kindler for the 
mass that it is changed altogether into gas. This gas contains 58 per 
cent, carbonic acid, 20 per cent, watery vapor, 3^ per cent, oxygen, 18 J 
l^ercent. nitrogen. 

Oxygen is seldom observed among the gases resulting from exi)losion, 
and I do not think the oxygen found in this case is free ; it is probably 
present as iiitroxyd gas, and still a compound which supports combus- 
tion. The tremendous forceof nitro glycerine renders it tbe most energetic 
servant in our mines, it divides our rocks, does all the work of blasting, 
it is the Polyphemus of modern civilization — goes parallel with fearful 
accidents. The slightest imprudence may provoke a terrible reaction; 
and, moreover, it is a very capricious substance, which does not explode 
as readily as gunpowder or gun-cotton ; occasiouiilly it burns away 
quietly; on this account, ignorant people who have to do with it grow 
more and more fearless, more and more careless, they disregard the 
warnings of their overseers until at length tliey become foolhardy 
and do something which arouses it from its indifference, when it explodes, 
rending and destroying everything in its vicinity. The fact that the 
liquid state of nitroglycerine causes it to leak and spread everywhere 
led to attempts to produce it in a solid form, aiul the result of these 
attempts is dynamite. This is merely a combination of nitro-glyceriue 
with siliceous earth, containing a small quantity of oxide of iron,- which 
tinges it yellow. This siliceous earth is the product of alga? of infusoria, 
and of microi>hytes, and has a peculiar tubular structure. The tubules, 
by reason of their capillarity, absorb the nitroglycerine, and hold it so 
firmly tfiat it never becomes moist nor does it yield to light pressure or 
friction ; therefore this form, dynamite, is comparatively harmless, and 
has in some degree superseded the formidable explosive oil. Dynamite 
explodes at 180°. An explosion in unconfined space is very different from 
one that takes jdace under pressure. If I burn gun-cotton in the open 
air the explosion is attended by no remarkable effect, because the air- 
wavei8 equalize and convey away the shock ; but in a confined space the 
explosion exerts its fracturing force on whatever is nearest. This, of 
course, holds good of dynamite, and hence the inimerous accidents re- 
sulting from careless handling ef the charges — I might say from the 
utterly reckless use of dynamite. At first the untaught laborer is cow- 
ardh^, too careful and fearful, when warned of danger by the experienced 
overseer; by degrees he grows less vigilant, he begins to imagine that 
the matter is not quite so serious, and finally, in some way, arouses this 
malicious substance, and then the catastrophe takes place. 

It is to be hoped that this exi)losivecomi)ound will be in all cases manu- 
factured at the place where it is to be used. The production of it is so 
easy, success is so certain, that I do not comprehend why the hazard of 



218 NITROGEN BODIES OF MODERN CHEMISTRY. 

its transportation and the innumerable consequent accidents sliould be 
encountered. 

It is possible that this dangerous, untamed laborer, who performs the 
compulsory service of cleaviug our rocks and mountains, will yet be- 
come civilized; it may be that, through progress in mechanics, in 
chemistry, and in general science, it will become possible to subdivide 
aud control the explosion, and to use it, thus controlled and modified, 
as the most convenient source of power to move our pistons and propel 
our machinerv. 



SCHEME FOR THE QUALITATIVE DETERMINATION OF SUB- 
STANCES BY THE BLOW-PIPE. 



By T. Egleston, E. M. 



In the course of my iustruction in blow-pipe analj'sis, I formei'ly 
fouud great difficulty in teacliing the students how to distinguish with 
certainty, and within a limited time, tbe substances contained in a mix- 
ture of four or five ingredients. The old routine method of examination 
in the closed and open tube, and then on charcoal, &c., answered very 
well when not more than one or two substances were present, but did 
not answer in the hands of beginners when they came to examine alloys. 
For a long time I was convinced that it was useless to expect of a stu- 
dent that he should be able, without extended practice, to determine, 
qualitatively, the composition of a very complex substance. It finally 
suggested itself to me, however, that a plan similar in some respects to 
the one used in certain quantitative assays wonld answer for the gen- 
eral outline of qualitative work. I therefore prepared a provisional 
scheme, which, in order to test, I gave to the students to work with. 
The result of a few weeks' use of this scheme convinced me that it was 
possible so to arrange one as to make it applicable to almost any com- 
pound, whether it was natural or artificial. I therefore drew up a 
carefully-prepared scheme, which was modified from time to time, as 
changes were suggested by its use in the blowpipe laboratory. The re- 
sult was such that I felt no hesitancy in giving to students who had had 
only a few weeks' practice, complex mixtures, feeling certain that they 
would work systematically, and consequently with confidence and iileas- 
nre, where they were formerly iu doubt. This scheme has been in con- 
stant use for four years, and has effected an entire revolution in the 
working of the blow-pipe laboratory. Much of the success which has 
attended its use is owing to the publication of a translation of Piatt- 
ner's Manual of Blow-pipe Analysis, by Professor Cornwall,* to which 
constant reference is made in the scheme. I have to acknowledge iu 
its preparation the valuable suggestions of my two former assistants, 
Mr. J. H. Caswell and Professor n. B. Cornwall. 

With regard to the use of the scheme, the routine to be followed may 
be varied according to circumstances. If sulphides, arsenides, &c., are 

'Plattner's Mauual of Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses with the Blow-Pipe. 
Translated by Professor Cornwall. 2d edition, D. Van Nostraud, New Yoik, 1873. 



220 SCHEME FOR THE QUALITATIVE DETERMINATION OF 

being trojited, the substances must be carefully roasted. If test 1 fails 
to show As, Sb, S,or Se, as sulphides, &c., the substance is either an oxide 
or an alloy. If it is an oxide, the roasting, 2, is omitted. If it is an 
alloy, it is subjected to the test 1, r/, for Vh, &c., and then the test 2 A is 
performed by fusing it on coal with borax in the K. F., thus combining 
2 A and 2 A a in one operation. Some sulphides during the roasting, 
2 A, will becjome reduced to the metallic state, and then, after thorough 
roasting, may be treated as alloys. A metal, or a raw sulphide, &c., 
must never be treated on platinum wire, but the metal is fused on coal, 
with a flux. This is done in E. F, if it is desired to get only non-redu- 
cible metals in the flux, such as Fe, Co, &c. If Cu, Ni, and other re- 
ducible metals are to be fluxed, it is performed in the (). F. The JJiix 
so prepared is then transferred to the wire. Sulphides, etc., must always 
be roasted before testing with borax, or S. Pli. 

The word head always refers to the flux, and hutton to the metal. In 
regard to 2 ES, Sn and Zn are rarely found together, except in alloys. The 
l^resence of the one generally implies the absen(;e of the other. If 
they are together as oxides, Sn can, however, alwiiys bo found in the 
presence Zn by reducing them with soda and a little borax, and tritu- 
rating the mass with water, p. 90.* In alloysthe Zn can be detected by 
treating for a short time in the li. F. ; the Zn, if [)resent, will volatilize 
flrst, and the coating may be tested with the cobalt solution. 

S C II E M I'] . 
The substiince may coutaiu As— Sa— S— Sc— Fc— ITiM— Cu— Co— Ni— Pb— 

55i— Ajf— Am— Mg— Zbb— Cd— Sbb— CI— Br-I-Co"— Si— N-li, &c. 

1. Ti-cat on Cli. in the O. F. to find volatile substances such as As— Sb— S— Se — 
PB> — 9£l — C«l., «S:c., p. 66 et 8cq. Test in au open tube to see whether As, Sb, 8, are 
present as ars(^nl(les, &c., or in an oxidized state, j). Go ct acq. 

a. If tliero arc volatile substances present, form a coating, and test it with S. Ph. 
and tin on Ch. for SB), p. 99, or to distinguish between PE> and Bi, p. 280. 

a. Tcllow coat, yielding with S. Vh. a black bead ; disappcariiij; witli blue llanie, no part of it yielding 
greenish Sb flame. IPb and Bi. 

h. Yellow coat, generally wilh white border, yielding black or gray bead with S. Th, disappearing 
with blue flame ; also the border disappearing with green flame ; I»E> and 5^11>. 

c. Yellow coat, very similar to h, but yielding no blue flame ; IJi and Sb. 

d. Make a special test for Bi, p. 521. Pb in presence of Bi, if not in too small a quantity, is detected 
by the blue flame yi(!ldod by the coat, or by the leducod mental itself, p. 021. 

h. If there are no volatile substances present, divide a part of the substance into 
threw portions, and iiroceed as in A. 

2. It Ai9— SB* — S — S« are present, roast a large quantity thoroughly on Ch., \). 77. 
Divide the substance into three jjortions, and proceed as in A. P. xv, note. 

A. TitiCATMENT OF THK FiEST PORTION. — DissolvG a vcrv Small quantity in borax 
on platinum wire in the O. F., and observe the color i)roduccd. Various colors will be 
formed by the combination of the oxides. Saturate the bead and shake it oil' into the 
porcelain dish ; repeat this once or twice, p. 79. 

a. Treat these beads on Ch. with a small piece of lead, silver, or gold, in a strong 
R. F., p. 11:5. 

* These numbers refer to the pages of Plattuer's Manual, translated by II. B. Cornwall, 2d edition. 
D. Van Noatrand, New York, 1873. 



SUBSTANCES BY THE BLOW-PIPE. 221 

5. !■'«— Ma« — Co — &c., remain iu the bead, i>. 115. 

If the b(!ii(l .s]neuil.s out on the Ch, it must bocoUoctod to a globule by coiitiimcd blowiujc. 
Make 'i borax bead on platlnuiu wiru, and dis.solvi; in it some of the ii■agnleut^^ of the bead, reserving 
the rest for accidents. 

c. J\i — Cm— Ag — Ah— Sbj — Pb— Ea are reduced and collected by the lead but- 
ton. Su, I'b, Bi, if present, will Ik: partly volatilized, p. 115. 

Keraove the lead button from the bead wliilo hot, or by breaking the latter, when cold, on the anvil 
between papisi', carefully preserving all the fragments. 

(I. If Co is present, the bead will be blue. 

tf a large amount of Fe is i)resent, add a little /borax to prove the presence or absejce of <"o, p. 

If Mil is iirescnt, the bead, wl)on treated on platinum v.'ire in the O. F., will become dark violet or 
black. 

e. If only Fe and Mu with no Co are present, the bead will be almost colorless. 

Look here for Cr, Ti, Mo, U, W, V, Tn by the wet way. 

A considerable amount of Ti may be detected with S. Ph, and tin in the original oxides, in ab.scnce of 
other non-reducible coloring oxides, p. 323. Mo will be shown by the cloudy brown or black appear- 
ance of the borax bead in the K. F. on platinum wire, p. 105. 

/. Tiv.it Ihe button c on Ch, in tlie O. F. until all the lead, &,c. is driven off; Ni, 
Cm, Ay:, Ah remaining behind ; or separate the lead with boracic acid, p. 442. 

(/. Treat the residue </ on Ch, in O. F. with S. Ph bead, removing the button while 
the bead is hot. 

h. If Ni and Ch are present, the bead will be green when cold, p. 292. If IVi 
only, yellow. If Cm only, blue. 

Prove Ch by treating with tin on Ch in tlie R. F., p. 293. 

i. For A^ and Au make the special test No. 8. 

B. Ti:i;.vTMENT of the second poution.— Drive off the volatile substances in the 
O. F. on Ch. Treat with the R. F., or mi.x with soda, and then treat with the R. F., 
for Zai, Cd, Sh. If a white coating is formed, test with cobalt solution, pp. 251, 
256, 27G. Note, p. XV. 

C TitE.iT.MENT of THE TiiuW) fOHTiox.— Dissolve some of the substance iu S. Ph 
on platinum wire in O. F., observing whether Si O- is present or iiot, and test for Mu 
with nitrate of potassa, p. 210. 

3. Test for As with soda on Ch, in the; R. F., or with dry soda in a closed tube, p. 
345 ef seq. 

4. Dissolve in S. Ph on platinum wire in the O. F., (if the substance is not metallic 
and does not contain any S.,) and test for SB> on Cli with tin in the R. F., p. 99. To 
detect small amounts of Sb with Cu or Sn, see p. 'Sol. 

5. Test for Se on Ch, p. 368. 

6. In absence of Se fuse with soda in the R. F., and test for S on silver foil, p. 365, 
In presence of Se, test for S in open tube, p. 360. To di.stingui.sh between S and 
SO-', see p. 363. 

7. Test foi- lis: with dnj soda in a closed tube, p. 304. 

8. Mix some of the substance with as.say lead and borax glass, and fuse on Ch in 
the R. F., p. 401. Cupel the lead button for Ag., p. 407. Test with nitric acid for 
Au, p. 320. 

9. Test for CB, Br, and I with a bead of S. Ph saturate-d with oxide of copper, pp, 
373, 374, 375. 

10. Test for CI or Br wifli bisu][)hate of potassa, ]>. 374. 

11. Test for HO in a clo.sed tube, p. 3.53. 

12. Test on platinum wire, or iu platinum pointed forceps, for coloration of the 
flame, p. 72 e/ seq. 

13. Test for CO= with hydrochloric acid, p. 360. 

14. Test for ]\'0^ with bisulpliate of potassa, p. 351, 

15. Test for Te in an o^jen tube, p. 351, 



222 BLOW-PIPE APPARATUS. 



BLOW-PIPE APPARATUS, 

XiVKUFACTURED BY HAWKINS AND WALE, STEVENS IN- 
STITUTE, HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY. 

FOR QI:ALITATI^^5 DETERJIIXATIOXS. 

Blow-pipe, with two platinum jets 13 00 

Extra jets, each 75 cents 

Blow-pipe lamp - 4 HO 

Platioum-pointed forceps 1 75 

Brass forceps .' 75 

Steel forceps, for lamp 22 

Cutting plyers 1 50 

Platinum wire-holder, with six wires 1 50 

Hammer 75 

Anvil C5 

Bar-magnet 35 

Magnifier, with two lenses 1 25 

Alcohol lamp, with brass cover 75 

Charcoal saw 35 

Knife 38 

Two brushes 26 

Lamp-scissors 40 

Coal-tray 65 

Dirt-tray 40 

Charcoal-borer, elul i-shapc 1 25 

Steel mixing-spatula 40 

21 06 



FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMIXATIOXS. 

Holder for evaporating-dish, triangle, &c $2 00 

Holder for funnel and chimney 1 54 

Flat- nose plyers, (nippers) 45 

Charcoal-borer, four cornered 62 

Charcoal-borer, with spatula 40 

Two ivory spoons 00 

Mattrass-holder 35 

Mixing-capsule, brass gilded 45 

Two brushes 26 

Box for soda papers 23 

Wooden form for paper cylinders 15 

Cupel-holder, with two cupel-cups and one mold 1 75 

Charcoal-iiokler, with platinum ring and screen 2 25 

Test lead measure 38 

Assay button brush 45 

Stand for charcoal-holder 12 

Charcoal-borer, club shai^e 1 25 

13 25 



THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTORY. 



a lectuite deliveeed before the viexxa society for the diffusion of sciextific knowledge, 

By Edwatid Suess. 



[Translated for the Smithsonian Institution.] 

If we were to attempt a general review of the whole past history of 
our earth and its inhabitants, we should be immediately led to consider 
the first appearance of man as one of its chief epochs. The study of 
the countless ages preceding that epoch belongs exclusively to geol- 
ogy and palteontology ; the study of the later and much shorter period 
principally to history. 

The boundary between geology and history is therefore the time of 
the first appearance of man, and it is the part of a lecturer on this epoch 
to describe the phenomena which attended the first appearance of the 
human race. However, that cannot be done in the present state of 
science, since it is probable that man did not appear everywhere at 
the same time. Perhaps thousands of years intervened between his first 
appearance in Asia and America, in Europe and in Australia, and hence 
it is necessary to divide our subject into geographical periods. We shall 
confine ourselves to the first appearance of man in Central Europe, that 
part of the earth being the only one which has been sufficiently inves- 
tigated in this respect to arrive at any possible scientific conclusions. 

Geology teaches that our mountains were produced by numerous dis- 
turbances after many changes in the distribution of land and water, and 
that afterward they assumed their present forms, and the continents 
their present outlines. Pala?ontology exhibits to us strange beings in 
the first periods of life, whose forms, only in a few instances, present any 
analogy to existing species. The nearer we approach the j)resent time, 
however, the greater becomes the similarity to the present animals and 
plants. Even before the api^earance of man in Central Europe, there were 
first marine and then land animals and plants, kindred to which still 
exist; and since their places and modes of living are known, we are 
enabled to draw from them many certain conclusions as to the external 
conditions of life in those ancient times. In this way the geologist and 
the palaeontologist approach the first appearance of man from distant 
ages, and the nearer they approach the clearer are their observations 
and the more certain their conclusions. The opposite is the case in his- 
tory; the historian must go backward to arrive at the same point. 

If, now, in Middle and Northern Europe we endeavor to go back 
before the times of which we have the short and partial descriptions of 



224: THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTORY. 

Eomau bistoiians, we iiutl uotbing but a few obscure traditious. It is 
known, bowever, especially tbrougb tlie examination of ancient graves, 
tbat tbese regions were iubabited by people wbo made tbeir weapons 
and tools of bronze, a mixture of copper and tin. Tbe remnants left 
by tbese people indicate peculiar taste for ornaments and great skill in 
tbe working of tbese metals. Tbis great epocb of civilization is called 
tbe age of Jjronze. 

Otber discoveries sbow tbat before tbe age of bronze tbere lived a 
jjeople wbo were ignorant of tbe manner of working tbe metals. Tbey 
made tbeir weapons and utensils only of stone, sbarp splinters of bones, 
and of wood. Tbis more ancient epocb bas been called tbe age of stone. 
To it belongs a great number of tbe graves found in Denmark and 
Sweden. Our knowledge of tbe mode of life of some of tbese ancient 
])eoples bas been increased in an unexpected manner by tbe discoveries 
of tbe Swiss arcb geologists. Tbe very low water-mark to wbicb tbe 
Swiss lakes fell in 1854 laid bare extensive palafittes or pile-construc- 
tions in tbe lakes of Geneva, Constance, and many otbers. In some of 
tbese,. remnants of tbe age of bronze, and in otbers of tbe age of stone, 
were found between tbe piles in tbe muddy bottom of tbe lakes. On 
tbese piles were erected formerly tbe babitatious of tbe natives in sucb 
a manner as to protect tbem against tbe attacks of tbeir enemies and of 
wild beasts. It is known tbat sucb palafittes are still in use in ISTew 
Guinea ; and Herodotus gives a detailed description of similar construc- 
tions in Lake Prasias, wbere Megabazus, tbe general of Darius, found 
tbem. 

Apparently tbe age of stone can be divided into an earlier one, in 
wbicb men only knew bow to cleave stones in order to give tbem tbe 
required sbape, and a more recent one, in wbicb tbey understood tbe 
art of grinding and polisbing stone articles. Tbe traces of tbe oldest 
time are tbe most interesting, because we can inquire bow far tbey corre- 
spond witb tbe facts wbicb natural science reveals to us. Here, tbeu, 
geology and pakieontology bave tbeir brigbtest pages, wbile bistory 
sbows us tbe first traces of buman existence. For tbis reason our con- 
sideration of tbe question is geological ratber tban arcbiieological. Our 
metbod will be as follows : First, we sball consider tbe pbenomena ap- 
parent in tbe inorganic creation of tbat epocb, and tbeu describe tbe 
plants and animals w'bicb existed in tbese regions immediately before 
tbe appearance of man. We sball also sbow under wbat circumstances 
traces of tbe oldest age of stone bave been in various places discovered. 

Tbere are in tbese places large masses of loose rocks, wbicb evidently 
came into tbeir present position at a time after tbe surrounding country 
bad assumed its present condition. Tbe most remarkable of tbese are 
tbose brougbt to tbeir j)resent places by tbe glaciers. Ice is not abso- 
lutely solid, but possesses a certain degree of viscosity, wbicb causes 
masses of it collected on tbe bigb mountains to flow slowly down into 
tbe valleys in tbe form of great streams of ice. Tbese would soon fill 



THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTORY. 225 
• 
up the valleys were it not for the milder temperature of the latter, wliicli 
melts them and puts an end to their progress. Frequently rocks fall 
down upou them from the precipices above and are carried down into 
the valley. These stones collect at the lower end of the glaciers, form- 
ing heaps called moraines, and are usually in the shape of a half-moon 
with its concave side toward the glacier. If a long-continued cold 
temperature sets in, which favors the progress of the glacier, the latter 
will push before it the moraine, along with a mound of earth, uprooted 
trees, &c. ; and if the temperature rises, the lower end of the glacier 
melts away and the glacier apparently recedes, leaving the moraine at its 
advanced position as a mark of its extent to future observers. 

Such advanced moraines are found with nearly all the larger groups 
of glaciers in Central Europe, some of them miles away from the pres- 
ent end of the glacier, as, for instance, at Eerne and Zurich in Switzer- 
land. Mountain-ridges like the Carpathian, which have no ice near 
them to-day, have ancient moraines. Marienzell rests upon bowlders 
brought to their present position by glaciers. At the foot of the 
Rosalia JMountains are found the traces of glaciers which formerly ex- 
isted on the Wechsel and Schnee IMountains. 

Since these moraines extend directly across the valleys, they often ob- 
struct the water-courses and give rise to Alpine lakes. The upper lake 
of Gosau is bounded toward the valley by the moraine of the western 
Dachstein glacier. The " Meerauge," a lake in the Tatra Mountains, is 
hemmed in by a similar moraine, although at the present time there is 
neither a glacier nor even an extensive snow-field in the place. All 
these moraines are a proof that a much colder temperature must have 
prevailed in these regions at a time after they possessed their present 
formation, and if these traces of past glaciers are so numerous in the 
latitude of Switzerland, we can easily imagine that they are still more 
extensive farther north, in Scandinavia. 

The northern part of Europe also presents other striking phenomena, 
which must be described in detail. The topography of a region depends 
on the relative height of its different parts ; the distribution ot land 
and water on the absolute height of the whole. The level of the sea 
may be taken as unchanged. By the " continental" elevation and de- 
pression of large regions, considerable changes have been produced in 
the outlines of the dry lands, and these changes are divided into three 
great epochs. 

1. The first epoch is that of depression. Then the sea extended as far 
as Hanover, and from Breslau to Cracow. The whole I^ortli German 
and Central Kussian lowlands were under water. Scandinavia and 
parts of the British Isles were above the surface of the sea. In Scandi- 
navia the ends of the glaciers reached down into the sea, just as they 
do in arctic regions in the present day, and from time to time a large 
piece, often covered with huge blocks of the moraine, would separate, 
float down to the southward, and there deposit its load. Thus it hap- 
15 s- 



226 THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTORY. 

• 
pens that a large portion of Central Europe is to-day covered with a 
bowlder formation of Scandinavian or Finnic origin. 

2. The following epoch is, on the contrary, one of extensive and con- 
siderable upheaval or elevation, whicli has been specially studied by the 
English geologist Austin. While the sea had before extended so far 
into Central Europe, all the sea-bottom between Ireland, France, En- 
gland, and Scandinavia was now raised above the surface of the water, 
and our continent extended as far as the Shetland Islands. What is 
to-day the North Sea was then an extensive lowland, traversed, no doubt, 
by a large stream, the continuation of the present Rhine, which then 
had the Elbe and the Thames for tributaries, and its mouth far to the 
northward. Even at the present day fishers find in the deeper portions 
of the ISTorth Sea bones of deer and elephants, which once lived on the 
banks of that great river. On many i^ortions of its banks submerged 
forests are known to exist, reaching far below the present sea. The 
present bottom of the sea presents a line of steep descent at a depth of 
about 200 fathoms. This line runs west of Scotland and of Ireland, in- 
cluding, therefore, that island also, and approaches the i^reseut continent 
only in the direction of the Bay of Biscay. There is some reason for 
supposing that this line indicates the former outlines of Europe. 

3. The next epoch was that of the depression, which gave the conti- 
nent of Europe its present form. 

The most important changes which can be recognized in Europe at 
so late a period are a severer climate and repeated alterations in the dis- 
tribution of water and land. Astonishing as these phenomena may 
appear, a glance at the present state of things will demonstrate their 
possibility. 

Europe possesses at present an exceptionally mild climate; a stream 
of warm water coming from the Gulf of Mexico washes and warms the 
greater part of its western coast ; warm currents of air blow over its 
southern parts from the Desert of Sahara, and the absence of a large ex- 
tent of country near the north i^ole prevents the accumulation of great 
masses of snow, and the cold winds resulting from it. But all these 
favorable conditions could be completely removed by a change in the 
distribution of land and water. Such changes are, indeed, still going 
on in some places. A portion of Sweden is known to be rising, while 
a part of Greenland is sinking with considerable rapidity. 

Having thus far considered only the inorganic world, let us now turn our 
attention to the organized beings which inhabit Central Europe under 
the above circumstances, and we will see that their character entirely 
corresponds to a severer climate. 

The remains of the land-animals of those times are found either in 
alluvium or in caves. An alluvium of yellowish-brown clay, found in 
most river-valleys of Central Europe, is formed by fresh-water rivers 
or lakes, and contains no sea-shells. In it we find the shells of various 
land-snails and the remains of herbivorous mammals much more fre- 



THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HLSTORY. 227 

quently tbau those of beasts of prey. In caverns, however, the latter pre- 
douiiuate. Since the herbivorous animals, which were carried to the 
caverns by beasts of prey, were the same as those found in the alluvium, 
and since we occasionally find remains of the same beasts of prey in 
the alluvium, we are justified in considering their existence as coeval. 
The whole fauna of mammals may be divided into four groups : 

1. Animals now extinct and not mentioned in human traditions. To 
these belong the mammoth {Elephas primigenius), the large two- 
horned rhinoceros with bony septum in its nose {EMnoeeros tichor- 
Mnus), the cave-lion, hyena, and bear, and the Ursus priscus. 

2. Animals which are known to have become extinct, or to have been 
exterminated in historical times. Among these are the "schelch"of 
Niebeluugen-Lied, [Ccrvus euryccros Aidr.,) a very large species of deer, 
related to the fallow-deer, but much larger ; the Urus, or ur, of the an- 
cient Germans; and another species of ox, the Bos longifrons. Among 
those which are nearly exterminated or driven out of Central Europe in 
historical times are the wisent of the Niebelungen-Lied — an animal 
still kept in the Lithuanian forests by order of the Russian government, 
and often exhibited as a Urns in menageries — the elk, and the beaver. 

3. Animals still living in Central Europe, such as the wolf, fox, pole- 
cat, hog, horse. 

4. Animals still extant, but not in the lowlands of Central Europe. 
To these belong the reindeer, the North American musk-ox, the com- 
mon lemming, the glutton, (wolverine,) which now live much farther 
north, and the marmot, now found on the Alps. 

The fourth group of mammals points with great certainty to a colder 
climate during those times. The bones of all the above-named animals 
have either been found in the alluvium, or in caverns, or in both. But 
besides these direct discoveries, there is an indirect way of obtaining 
information concerning the ancient flora and fauna, which the English 
naturalist, Edward Forbes, has the credit of discovering. The phe- 
nomena which will now be mentioned seem better calculated than all 
others to cast some light on the first appearance of man in Central 
Europe. 

The researches of the last decade leave no doubt that each species of 
animal or plant had an original home, from which it spread in different 
directions in the course of time, according as the external conditions of 
life permitted, and no geographical obstacles, such as a sea, or a very 
high mountain-chain in the case of a land-animal, were in the way. 
Hence, each species has a geographically connected region; and where 
this is not the case, we may assume that this region was divided by 
later influences. 

In many cases human influence is perceptible 5 the lion, for instance, 
has a considerably divided region, having been exterminated in the 
ancient civilized countries. The ox, on the contrary, has a twofold 
home, by having been transported to America. 



228 THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTORY, 

All these clianges produced by man affect only single species, and 
not tbe whole fauna. The phenomena which must be ascribed to geo- 
logical revolutions are much grander. The flora of the Canary Islands 
and of the Azores, in particular, shows so great a resemblance to that 
of the Western European coasts, that we must assume the former con- 
nection of these points in spite of their present distance apart. The 
inhabitants of the island of Madagascar differ, on the other hand, from 
those of the eastern coasts of Africa, and those of the Galapagos 
Islands from those of the coasts of South America. Hence it follows 
either that the separation of these islands from the continent is older 
than the inhabitants of the islands, or older than those of the conti- 
nent, or older than either. 

In Central Europe there are to day two remarkable examples of di- 
vided regions. The first consists in the identity of the fish species in 
our various rivers, and this is at least partially explained, on geologi- 
cal grounds, by the very plausible supjjosition of a large stream in the 
region of the present North Sea, which had the Thames, the Elbe, and 
others for tributaries. The present inhabitants of our rivers may be 
considered as the isolated remains of those which formerly- i)eopled the 
great united stream. 

The second phenomenon is the following : On the isolated heights of 
various mountains a peculiar flora repeats itself, and many species of 
this Alpine flora are found again far away in Scandinavia and Lapland. 
Many animal species are distributed in the same way. The white 
mountain-hare, {Lepus variahiUs,) for instance, is found in the pine-dis- 
tricts of the Alps, on the mountains of Scotland and Ireland, and in 
Scandinavia, Lapland, Northern Eussia, Siberia, and Greenland. If 
this animal came on our mountains from the far north, how does it hap- 
pen that it is not found in the intervening valleys ? 

Now if the hypothesis of the original connection of such regions is 
correct, these Alpine species must have had some connection with the 
northern ones ; and since it has been observed that the reindeer and 
lemming not always lived iar north, but also in Central Europe, and that 
the marmot could also exist there, it is highly probable that in Central 
Europe all those species of plants and animals existed then which are 
now found both on our mountains and on those in the north. 

In the colder time these beings, therefore, had their common abode in 
Ceiitral Europe, and were distributed gradually while the change of 
temperature was going on, since they could only find the conditions 
necessary to their existence on high mountains or in boreal countries. 
Some only remained in the valleys, (those of the second and third 
groups,) some became extinct, (those of the first group,) and some emi- 
grated, (those of the fourth group.) At the same time new species of 
animals and j^lants appeared, which form the greater part of those of 
the present day. The merit of having indicated how we may obtain 



THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTOKY. 229 

information on the order of their appearance also belongs to Edward 
Forbes. 

The gradual appearance of these species is connected with the estab- 
lishment of a milder climate, a consequence of the great depression or 
sinking of the European coasts, through which the sea gradually en- 
croached on the Rhine, forming the North Sea and also St. George's 
Channel. With the immigration of new species the British Islands 
gradually separated from the continent, and this isolation had been 
already accomplished before the new comers had spread. These found 
insuperable obstacles in the newly formed channels, and never reached 
Great Britain. Hence it comes that of the twenty-two species of rep- 
tiles existing in Belgium, only eleven are found in England, and only 
five in Ireland. 

According to Mr. Thompson, if we compare the Irish fauna with the 
English, we will find that tha former is deficient in many instances. 
Ireland lacks fourteen or lifteeu species of the eighteen English varie- 
ties of bats, many other common animals, as the squirrel, the dormouse, 
all field-mice without exception, the common field-hare, the pole-cat, 
the wild cat, the mole, many kinds of shrew-mice, all snakes, the common 
lizard, {Lacerta agilis,) &c. All these, we may therefore suppose, reached 
England only after Ireland had separated. Hence we see why the 
mountain-hare is found on the Irish mountains, while the common field- 
hare is wanting in the valleys. It also appears that some of the most 
common inhabitants of our fields and meadows are among the animals 
wanting in Ireland. Perhaps the country was composed only of forests 
and swamps at the time Ireland became separate. 

We furthermore see that the animals now existing together in Cen- 
tral Europe did not appear together ; they may, therefore, be divided 
into groups, not according to their organization as by the systematist, 
but simply according to the date of their appearance in Central Europe. 

It is from this point of view that we may obtain the means of judging 
of the first appearance of man in these regions. We must show under 
what circumstances the most ancient traces of man were found. Two 
instructive and fully accredited discoveries will suffice to show that the 
first appearance of man dates much farther back than is generally sup- 
posed. 

1. Belgian scholars (especially Schmerling and Spring) found humai.i 
bones and crudely made weapons of flint in the caverns of Gouffon- 
taine and Chokier in the " Trou chauvan" between Namur and Dijon. 
These remains were accompanied by the bones of the cave-bear, hyena, 
lion, " schelch" deer, and a species of horse, in a manner which leaves 
no doubt as to their co-existence. Three fragments of human skulls 
were found there, which differ from all at present existing in Europe by 
being long and flattened out at the sides and by the shape of the fore- 
head. They apparently belonged to an elderly man, a twelve-year-old 
and a seven-year-old child. Human lower jaws have also been found. 



230 THE BOUND ARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTORY. 

They are broader iu frout, and tlie chin forms a sharper angle backward, 
than in any of the present European races. These skulls, therefore, 
exhibit a prognathous form, which is only found iu a low state of civ- 
ilization. 

2. In 1849 M. Boucher de Perthes, of Abbeville, in Northeastern France, 
announced that he had found strata of sand and alluvium, in which skel- 
etons of extinct species of animals occurred, together vv'ith human weap- 
ons and tools of flint and stag-horn. Soon afterward Dr. Eigollot, of 
Amiens, made similar discoveries, and many excellent geologists, like 
Prestwich, Lyell, &c., who visited these regions since, agree that the 
human and animal remains found there are of the same date. Human 
bones have not been found there. Of the animal remains it is sufficient 
to mention the mammoth, the rhinoceros with divided nose, and the cave- 
hyena ; the appearance of the reindeer is also of special interest. 

Sir Charles Lyell described these discoveries in detail last fall iu his 
opening address as president of the British Association. According to 
his statement the alluvium stratum has been explored to a distance of 
fifteen English miles, and has already furnished over 1,000 flint utensils. 
To explain such a numerous occurrence of these manufactures along 
with animal skeletons without the presence of human bones, Lyell 
instances a phenomenon observed by him on Saint Simon's Island, iu 
Georgia, North America. There the traces of an old Indian settlement 
are visible in a stratum 5 feet thick and covering about ten acres, which 
contains oyster-shells, arrow-heads, stone hatchets, and fragments of 
Indian pottery. If now the Altamaha Eiver were to wash away this 
stratum from the island and deposit it again farther along its course or 
at its mouth, we would have a deposit of numerous human manufactures, 
but without human bones, just as at Abbeville. 

The occurrence of the reindeer along with human remains has re- 
cently again been confirmed by Mr. Prestwich, who found a flint weapon 
immediately under the horns of a reindeer in the cave of Brixham, En- 
gland. This animal, as is well known, is very sensitive to milder tem- 
peratures ; all attempts to acclimatize it in Northern Scotland have 
failed. It therefore follows, not only that man was the contemporary of 
the extinct large mammals of the first group, but also, from his simul- 
taneous appearance with the reindeer, that he was a hunter iu Central 
Europe already at the time when the climate was much severer than it 
is now. 

If we compare these most ancient human remains yet discovered with 
those of the palafittes, which may be counted as belonging to the age 
of stone, we will perceive striking differences; first, the position of the 
palafittes proves certainly that the water-level of the Swiss lakes has 
not changed very considerably since their construction, and we may 
therefore conclude that the glacier period was past at the time of their 
coustruction. In some cases this can be fully proved. Among the 
remains found in them neither the reindeer nor any of the animals of 



THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTORY. 231 

the first or fourth groups occur. Tortoises, whose reiuains are found 
there, are cospecific with the European swamp-tortoise, the shells of which 
occur with human remains in Scandinavia, in peat in Hungary, and 
which, according to Tschudi, is even found alive in the Keuss Valley, 
Switzerlaud. Among vegetable remains numerous broken hazel-nut 
shells are remarkable, not because they were necessarily an article of 
food of the lacustrians, but because they belong to a plant, which was 
formerly widely distributed and whose fruit is even found in the peat 
of the Shetland Islands. Cereals have also been found. 

The articles of human manufacture from the palafittes also differ from 
those of Abbeville and the Belgian caverns. They are not cleft but 
ground. Sherds of pottery-ware are only found in the former, and every- 
thing xioints to a higher civilization and to external circumstances, 
which could not have been very different from those of the present day. 
A pearl of amber found by M. Keller in the palafittes of Meilen, in Lake 
Zurich, is perhaps another proof that the eastern coasts of Prussia were 
the same then as now. 

If we are warranted, therefore, in assuming the prevalence of a 
severe climate during the first division of the age of stone, because of 
the simultaneous occurrence of the reindeer and weapons of flint, and 
that the palafittes contain indications of conditions similar to the pres- 
ent, it follows that the last great changes in the temperature and the 
concomitant redistribution of land and water took place withiu the age 
of stone of the archaeologists. And since the migration of organic beings, 
like that of the lowland flora of those times, to the Alps and to Scandina- 
via could only take place very slowly and under a very gradual change 
of climate, we must assume that the age of stone included an extremely 
long period of time. 

The first progress of tribes in civilization is always slow, and the 
Hindoos do not show divine honors to Twachtri, who taught the prep- 
aration of brass, without a cause. No one knows how long before Pan- 
sanias the Sarmatian stuck to his arrows of bone-splinters, or how long 
the African has hurled his boomerang. At the time of Diodorus, the 
arn)s of the Libyan consisted of three light darts and a leather bag of 
stones. To-day the traveler finds the same weajions in the hands of 
the African. 

Combining what has been said, the following appears to be the result 
of the most recent researches concerning the antiquity of man in Cen- 
tral Europe. 

Even at a time when Central Europe was cold enough for the reindeer 
to live in Northern France, when the mammoth and the rhinoceros in- 
habited the swampy shores, and lions, hyenas, and bears the caves, 
when Great Britain was probably connected with the continent, and 
Scandinavia with Denmark, a race of men lived there who had prog- 
nathous skulls, and possessed only weapons of flint and bone-splinters 
to hunt food with and to protect themselves against these large beasts. 



232 THE BOUNDARY-LINE BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND HISTORY. 

Gradually, in the course of thousands of years, tbe land sank, the sea 
separated parts from it, and a milder temperature prevailed. Then a 
portion of the flora and fauna slowly migrated, partly to the mount- 
ains, partly to the north, and partly to both. Many large animals like 
the mammoth, incapable of living in the mountains, remained behind; 
the lowlands at the lower part of the Ehine's course, which were prob- 
ably the principal abodes of these large herbivorous animals, gradu- 
ally sank below the present I^orth Sea, so that they, exposed to an un- 
congenial climate, surrounded by a new immigrated flora not their orig- 
inal food, and subjected to the attacks of man, gradually died out. In 
the lowlands new species continually appeared, many after Ireland and 
some few after England had already become separated from the conti- 
nent. Finally came new tribes of men with new arts, and we find the 
first traces of agriculture. Here the historian takes up the account 
from the geologist and palaeontologist. 

This sketch necessarily remained imperfect, because it was not possi- 
ble to make it include all the further proofs furnished by the study of 
the present distribution of plants, of lower animals, (laud snails,) and 
especially of marine animals. It was also necessary to pass over all 
those phenomena which relate to the existence of a separate population 
in Western Europe. But jjerhaps what has been said will be sufficient 
to give a general idea. 

Defenseless, like no other animal of the same size, man is born with- 
out sharp teeth, without claws, without any external means of defense, 
such as the fur of many beasts. The child is dependent a longer time 
on its mother than the young of any other animal, and no being is as 
helpless. And yet man has made himself the master of all. He has 
made a thousand instruments, fire, and the modulations of speech his 
own. The space of time, which now follows and which is called the Age 
©f Man, exhibits one great, enduring, eminent characteristic — the pro- 
gressive, irresistible triumph of the intellect. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY 
AND CRYSTALLOPHYSICS/ 



By Aristides Brezina. 
[translated for the smithsonian institution by professor t. egleston.] 



INTEODUCTION. 

Among all the metbocls in crystallograpby there is not a single one 
which has remained so completely coufied within special limits as Mil- 
ler's. The reason for this is not the abstract method in which the sub- 
ject is treated, nor its difficult mathematical principles, but is principally 
owing to the fact that, up to this time, it has never been treated separ- 
ately from those operations which serve for the derivation of certain 
special mathematical formul* in the first principles of geometry. 

Miller's method is really capable of an elementary treatment, which, 
almost without the use of mathematics, renders xiossible not only the 
quick and certain explanation of all combinations in the way of zone- 
observations, but also the recognition of the physical characters of 
cr^'stals on the basis of their relations of symmetry. 

These characters of this known method are especially useful for min- 
eralogists and lithologists, who make microscopical observations : for the 
first, because he, without many measurements and calculations, can 
show, from only the simple inspection of a crystal, the connection of the 
different faces, together with the explanation of the combination ; and 
for the latter, because he is in position, on account of a precise knowl- 
edge of the relations of symmetry, to recognize, in thin sections, both 
the crystalline system and the elements of a crystal ; and in both cases, 
without presumption of such mathematical knowledge, which is without 
the departments of mineralogists and lithologists. This method is, for 
this reason, not only simple and fundamental, but is in eYery way supe- 
rior to the others in use, which have originated with Weiss, Naumann, 
and Levj. 

One of the most important advantages of it is the possibility of a 
simultaneous development of the crystallographic and physical rela- 
tions of every system from its known symmetry. This method of pro- 
cedure gives, from the very commencement, a complete insight into its 
habits and characteristics, and secures, during its development, a survey 
of the whole theoretical structure. But while this method of derivation 
was first carried out for the crystallographic part by von Lang^, the in- 

' Miuenilogische Mittbeiluuf^eu. Wien, 1872. 

^ Laog, Krystallograpbie. Wien, Braumiiller, 1866. 



234 PEINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 

troductiou of Whewell's' method of notation of the faces of crystals 
was an important element in Miller's system. 

Miller's symbols consist, as will be explained later, of three indices, 
which are inversely proportional to the intersections of the faces on the 
three axes ; while in Weiss's system they are directly proportional. 
Naumann's and Levy's systems sometimes give sections of the axes and 
sometimes the relations betweeen two sections. The advantages of Mil- 
ler's notations are very numerous : Chiefly it allows of representing every 
individual face ; while Nanmann's and Levy's symbols give only the 
form, i. e., the re-union of all the faces which belong together. When it 
is necessary to represent the whole form in Miller's system, the symbol 
of the face is represented in parentheses ; it has, therefore, the advan- 
tage, that, according as it is required, either the face or the form can be 
exactly and concisely designated. 

Miller's symbol is, besides, exceeding simple and convenient. While 
here three low whole numbers, 0, 1, and seldom 2, are sufficient, in 
Weiss's system three or four fractious, and three or four letters, in groups 
of three or four, are required, "separated by colons : 



i « : & : GO c 



or 



i a' :a' : tia' : c 



In [Raumann's, two fractions and a letter, with perhaps as many as four 
accents, as : 

2 P OD or ^ 'P', : 3 
Levy's symbols are, in many cases, complicated, as in pyramids : • 

bi d' di 

where there are three letters and three fractions. 

Naumann's, and Levy's symbols are not symmetrical with regard to 
the crystallographic axes, i. e., while with Miller the first, second, and 
third indexes refer invariably to the first, second, and third axes, it is 
never the case with Naumann, and with Levy only in the most compli- 
cated cases (the pyramid of the second order) that every axis is repre- 
sented by an index, and even in this case the signs of the axes change 
their position. This symmetry of axes is important, because it makes 
both the transformation of the indices in changes of axes, as well as the 
calculation of zone-equations, exceedingly simple and demonstrative. 

Singularly enough, this side of Miller's symbols has been attacked be- 
cause in Naumann's and Levy's symbols the diiference between pyra- 
mids, prisms, domes, and pinacoids is apparent. This is, however, 
extremely unjust. In Miller's system, in the symbol of the pyramid, 
there are three O's of different values. In the symbol of a prism or dome, 
an index is equal to 0; a pinacoid has the symbol (1 0), (0 1 0), or 
(0 1), which contains twoO's, and is certainly a difference which strikes 
the eye. 

As opposed to the notation of Weiss, Miller's method, besides the 

' 1 WheweU, Phil. Traus., 1825, p. 87. 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 235 

brevity mentioned above, has the further advantage that, instead of the 
symbol co, zero is used, because the figures of both these systems are 
reciprocal. How great the importance of this particular is in the calcu- 
lation of zone-equations will be immediately shown. On the facility of 
zone-development, however, depends the quick and sure solution of the 
combination. 

The method of establishing a zone-equation is, according to Miller, as 
follows : Given two faces, efg and p q r, the sign of the zone formed by 
both can be obtained by crosswise multiplication and subtraction, as 
follows : 

efu cfg 

XXX 
p q r J} q r 

[fr — gq- gp — er; eq—fp] 

[u V ^v] 

[n vie] is the symbol of the zone ; now, cfg pqr are severally whole num- 
bers; the products, /r, gq^ gp, , are, for that reason, likewise so; 

the same is therefore true of their differences, which represent the in- 
dices u V ui of the zone. 

If the face xyz lies in the zone represented by [uviv\ the similarly-sit- 
uated indices of face and zone multiplied, and all three added together, 
must be equal to : 

n X -\- V y -|- w 2; = 

A numerical example makes the brevity still more apparent : 

ahc 310 210210 

_x X x_ 
pqr Ill llllll 



1. 1-0. i; 0.1-2.1; 2. T-1.1 
1-0; 0-2; -2-1 

uvw [12 ^] 1 2 3 

xyz 30 1 1.3+2.0+3.1=3-3=0 

The face 3 01, therefore, lies in the zone [1 2 3J, produced by 2 1 and 
111. 

Let us observe the method of zone-calculation according to Weiss:* 
Given two faces — 



aa : 3h : nc\ and 



a' a : i3' b : 11 c 



which are already reduced to a similar co-efficient of c. The zone pro- 
duced is — 

{71g; a"a-\-,3"b) 



therefore — 



a' i3—a-i' ' ' aft' — a' 13 



* Weiss, Berliuer academische AbliuudluugeD, 1820-21, pp. 169-173. 



236 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



The values aa'^ /S/S', are therefore negative when the axes a or &, for 
which they stand, are primed (rt' V). 
If the face — 



lies in this zone, one of the following propositions mnst be right: 

/S" ^ i a'" — o" ^ 

t3"' N = < o." — oJ" V : FJ" 
I 



-.III _i 



+ «' 



The simple inspection of this method shows how minute in detail this 
method is. In the first place, the symbols of the laces, with respect to 
an axis, (in the above case c,) must be reduced to similar co-efficients; 
then by multiplication and addition, respective subtraction and division, 
the values a" and fi" are to be determined. It is to be remarked that 
both the numerator and the denominator of these quantities are frac- 
tions, which must be reduced to a common denominator. The calcula- 
tion, it is true, {loc. cit, p. 169,) can be simplified when the symbols of 
the faces are written — 



1 

- a 

iV 



y 



n c 



This, however, is using Miller's symbols, which are the reciprocals of 
Weiss's ; and even then the calculation is more circumstantial, because 
the three symbols are equated with reference to c, and are not symmet- 
rical according to the three axes. 

The steps of the calculation in the hexagonal system are still more 
incumbered, since, from a four-membered symbol a three-membered 
parameter must be first calculated, and then introduced into the previ- 
ously-developed calculation. 

Queustedt* employs these symbols in his so-called zone-point formulae 
in a somewhat more convenient, although in a much less concise, man- 
ner than Miller. Let there be three faces — 



ma : nb : cL pa : qh : c , and xa : yh : c 



whose tautozonality is to be proved. For every pair of these the zone- 
point formulie must be written, and the verification as to whether the 
zones are identical, made. Thus, for the zone — 



ma : 


nb : 


c 




1 


1 






<l 


n 


— i 


% 



to 



pa : qb : c 



1 



m q~ p n 



1 

m q 



1 

p n 



Quenstedt, Miueralogie, 1863, p. 44. 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 237 

Tbe same must be done for the zone — 



m a : nh : c to 


X a : 


yh : c 


11 1 

y n m ~ 

n • 


1 


1 1 ^- 1 

my xn ■ my 


1 

X n 



from which, as a condition of tantozonality, follows the equality of both 
relations. Queustedt and P. Klein* employ tjie zone-control in this form. 
It is to be remarked that these zone-point formulae can be essentially 
simplified, because the denominators of both sides are alike ; thus — 

\q nj \m pj \y nj \m xJ 

Also, the condition — 

\(i nJ \m ])J \y nJ \m xJ 

But this equation is much more complicated than Millers. In our 
former example we had — 

210 = Ja : I : ooc; lil = «:Z>':c;301=:rJa:c/D&:c 

Exchanging the axes a and c in all the three faces, in order to be able to 
make the coefficient of c equal to unity, which has no influence on the 
tautogonality, we have — 

GO«:Z*:ic;«:&':c;a:co&:^c 
or — 

. coa : 2h : c ; a : h' : c ; 3a : ooh : c 

It follows that — 

m n -5 J> (i X 3 y 

bv substitution — 



or — 



-3 :_i = _!:_: 



The proportion is correct, consequently the zones exist. The numerical 
values of the letters must here, also, be substituted according to the 
above-mentioned method, and the division carried out; while in Miller's 
method the very simple and symmetrical calculation can be carried out 
on the indices, without the help of letters, by means of the crosswise 
multiplication and subtraction of whole numbers. 

* Kleiu ; Leonh. Jahrb., 1871, p. 480. 



238 PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 

Naumanu's iDethod is still more circuitous: first, Weiss's parameters 
must be calculated, aud then tbe^- must be introduced into the equation — 

a W c" ^ be' a" c a' b" a b" & b c" a' c a" b' 

in which a b c, a' b' c', a" b" c", represent the parameters of the faces. If 
these numbers contain two figures, as is frequently the case iu the hex- 
agonal system, there must be twelve multiplications, six divisions, and 
the addition made. The division must be carried out to four decimal 
places, and sometimes farther; while in Miller's system the convenience 
of a calculation with whole numbers is always secured. 

This circuitous course has caused the adherents of the schools of Nau- 
mann and Weiss, to this day, to use Quenstedt's method ; and they are 
contented with an approximative zone-verification, while, since the foun- 
dation of Miller's method, even the beginner is both capable of and 
accustomed to verify ^very zone by means of the exceedingly simple 
calculation of zone-equations. In fact, Kohscharow/ iu the year 18CG, 
again first called attention to the zone-verification calculation, which, 
since the publication of Weiss, had been almost entirely forgotten ; von 
Eath,2 Hessenberg,^ and C. Klein^ followed, replacing the construction 
iu specially -complicated cases by calculation. 

The use of the angle of the normal to the faces, instead of the interior 
angle of the solid, is also important : in the first place, with respect to 
conveuience and coi^ciseness, while, as a rule, the interior angle is 
greater than 100°, and therefore contains three figures, the angles of 
the normals have, for the most i^art, two figures ; further, the angles 
measured at present with the reflecting-goniometer are for the most 
part angles of normals. In the simple evaluation of an angle with the 
eye even the supplement is easier to estimate than the real angle, be- 
cause it is generally smaller. 

The most important advantage of normal angles is, that they can be 

immediately introduced into the calculation. This is especially apparent 

p. in tautozonal faces, in which, from two angles of every 

two out of three tautozonal faces, the third can be had 

by simple addition or substraction, (Fig. 1,) as — 
<^ab + ^b c = <^ac. <^ a e — <^ a b = <^b c 

which is not the case with the angles made by the 

faces themselves. 

In the determination of combinations a very quick 

orientation is furnished by this method. Lastly, only 
normal angles are suitable for introduction in spherical projections, 
where they themselves directly form the sides of the spherical triangle. 

1 Von Kohscbarow, Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlantls, 1866, p. 216. 

2 Von Rath, Pogg. Ann., cxssii, 1867, p. 393. 

3 Hessenberg, Min., Not. ix in Seucheub. Ges., Abh. vii, 1870, p. 259. 
* Klein, loc. cit., p. 481. 




PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 239 

This also shows one of the advantagfvs of the metliod of spherical pro- 
jections, which is entirely wanting in Quenstedt's system. Since, further, 
Miller's entire method of calculation is based upon spherical trigonometry, 
the illustrating figure is shown on the projection, which, therefore, at 
the same time represents the zone-connection of the form and the method 
of the calculation of the crystal. 

Spherical projection has, finally, the great advantage of being limited, 
so that the geometrical situation of all faces can be actually delineated, 
and can be united iti a comprehensive representation, a characteristic 
which is wanting both in the gnomonic method and that of Quenstedt. 
In this way alone it is possible to use projection for the introduction of 
all the i^hysical relations, which circumstance, on account of its increas- 
ing use, is a very important one. 

A reproach, which, although perhaps not expressed, still is silently 
made against this method of projection, is that in its construction trian- 
gles and dividers are necessary, while with Quenstedt's method trian- 
gles alone are used. This reproach is, however, entirely without foun- 
dation ; for, in the first place, dividers are necessary for every exact 
projection, even if only the convenient form provided with steel points; 
but for general use both triangles and dividers are unnecessary, be- 
cause on account of the extraordinary simplicity of zone-calculation 
the adherents of Miller's system of spherical projection are accustomed 
to use it only for representing and not for investigating existing zones, 
and they may therefore save themselves the trouble of making an exact 
drawing, unless they intend to publish. 

To the many advantages of Miller's method no one has yet been able 
to oppose a disadvantage. If, in spite of this, it has not yet generally 
found its way into Germany and France, it is owing solely to the fact 
that in these countries Haiiy, Weiss, and jSTaumann have taught ; but 
when such completely independent theories are offered, the learner 
satisfies himself for the most part with the system which has been ex- 
pounded ; or if he afterward goes beyond that, the system to which he 
was first accustomed is easier, and his knowledge of it more funda- 
mental, so that he does not become acquainted wdth many of the advan- 
tages of the new system. 

The introduction of the Whewell-Miller principle was tried in Germany 
by Frankenheim, and in France by Bravais and de Senarmont, without, 
however, any permanent result. Eecently the young german school, on 
account of the prominence to which the physical examination of crystals 
has attained, begins to make itself master of detached parts of Miller's 
method. 

The purpose of the following pages is summarily to develop what is 
necessary for the solution of a combination, or for the knowledge of the 
physical nature of a crystal. We shall, therefore, in the first section, 
treat, according to Miller's method, the pure geometrical relations of a 
crystal, so far as they are requisite for the determination of combinations. 



240 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGEAPHY. 



The second section treats of tlie possible systems of crystallization and 
their corresponding relations of symmeti\y ; it is taken as an abstract 
from the work of von Lang. In the third section I have shown how, 
with the foundation of the 0])tical relations of a crystal in general, the 
optical characters for each individual system of crystallization are 
derived from their symmetry. 

SECTION I. 

THE GEOMETRICAL RELATIONS OF CRYSTALS. 



-%^- 



§ 1. — Miller's Symbols. 

It is well known that the situation of any plane is perfectly defined 
when its sections, o H, o K, o L, (Fig. 2,) of three straight lines, o X, o Y, 

Z, which are not parallel, and which 
have a common origin, o, are known. 
These straight lines are called the 
axes ; the point o the center of the 
axes ; the plane of every two axes, 
)^. X Y, Y Z, Z Y, the planes of the 
axes; and the sections o H, o K, o L, 
the parameters of the face H K L. 

Because every axis considered in 

regard to O has two sides, these are 

z distinguished as the positive and 

negative half-axes. For this reason the sections of the axes are used 

iu the calculation as + o H or — o H. 

The lines joining every two sections of the axes of a plane,(H K, K L, 
LH,)give the intersection of the plane HKL with the three planes of 
the axes. 
If we multiply the three parameters of a face with the same number, 

the direction of the j)lane re- 
^'9"^ 1 mains unchanged ; it will only 

be moved parallel to itself, 
(Fig. 3.) 

From the equality of the re- 
lation — 





= m 



H o K oh 

results the similarity of the 
triangtes K O L, K' O L', &c., 
and from this the parallel- 
ism of HKL and H'K'L'. 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGEAPHY. 



241 



If another face, ABC, is given, with the parameters o A, o B, o C, 
which we may call a, h, c, then — 

o A = a ; o B = h ; o C = c 

and the face H K L is determined when the relations — 



A 






a 



li 



oC 






c 
oIj 



oB_ h 
o H " o H ' ~ o K o K ' ~ L 

are known ; so a third face, H' K' L', is determined by its relations or 
indices li' W I', in which — 

a . 7/ h 7/ c 



h 



oR'' ^' K" 



l' = 



oL' 



We see, also, that if three planes, X o Y, Y o Z, Z o X, are given, 
whose three lines of section ^. ^ z 

represent the axes o X, o Y, 
Z ; fnrther, a fourth face, 
A B 0, whose section of these 
axes is the measure of the 
length of the axes, any face 
in their direction is perfectly 
determined when its indices, 
i. e., the relation between the 
parameters of ABC and its 
own, are given. 

The values ab c and the y 
plane of the axes are constant for one and the same crystal. 

Eespectiug the indices /i, I', I, certain important cases are to be dis- 
tinguished : 

I. All three of the indices may be different from (o li, I; I,) > o. This 
is the general case, and represents octahedral or pyramidal faces. 

II. One index, I, for instance, equals zero, I = o ; the face h, 1c, o, is 
evidently parallel to the axis o Z, and we have — 




,_oC 



c 



Because o = c is constant, this fraction can only be equal to o if o L 
is infinitely great; but if the face H K o cuts the axis o Z at an infinite 
distance, it is parallel to it. Thus, if A; = o, we have h o I, and if h = o, 
we have o hi of the axis of Y, parallel faces with respect to X. These 
kinds of faces are called dodecohedral, prismatic, or dome-faces. 

III. Twoindices = ofc = ? = o.-..100; l = 1i=o = 010', h = lc = o 

01, the face 10 has first the index A; = o, and is for that reason 

parallel to the above axis of Y, and also to the axis of Z, because I = o. 
This face contains, therefore, both the axes of Y and Z, It is with them 
parallel to the axis-plane X o Z. We call such faces pinacoids ; they 
are those by means of whose section-line the i)osition of the axes is deter- 
mined. 

16 s 



242 



PEINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



If the planes of the axes are parallel faces, X o Y, Y o Z, Z o X, as the 
faces ABO and H K L, which may be real or possible faces of a crys- 
tal, experience shows that the indices hkl of every possible face of this 
crystal are to each other as rational numbers. 

This law, which is the first fundamental law of crystallography, is 
called the law of rational indices; it is of the greatest importance, and 
allows of the derivation of the greater part of the other laws of crystal- 
lography. 

If the indices h k I of any face of a crystal are rational, it is always 
possible to represent them by three positive or negative whole numbers, 
because the direction of a plane remains unchanged when its three 
indices are multiplied by the same number. 

Experience shows further that the indices of the most frequently 
occurring faces are almost always the simplest whole numbers and 1, 
rarely 2, so that the calculation with them will always be very simple. 

§ 2. — Law of Zones. 
The consideration of the zones occurring in a crystal is of the greatest 
importance for the determination of a combination. 

Two planes which are not parallel always cut each other, when duly 
extended, in a straight line ; all planes, therefore, whose lines of section 
are parallel to the same straight line, belong to a zone, and are called 

tautozonal faces ; the straight line to 
which their lines of section are parallel 
is called the axis of the zone. (Fig. 5.) 

Because the axis of a zone is parallel 
to all the faces of that zone, a plane, P, 
perpendicular to the axis of the zone, will 
also be i^erpeudicular to all the faces of 
that zone : and when a i^erpendicular to 
every zone-face is erected, all of these 
normals will be parallel to this face P. 
This important characteristic of tau- 
tozonal faces, that their normals all 
lie in a plane ijerpendicular to the zone- 
axis, we shall make use of in the discussion of spherical projection. 
After the direction of the zone-axis is determined by the section of two 
planes which are not parallel, it must be possible, from the known ele- 
ments of these planes, to calculate for the indices such values as will be 
characteristic for the axes of the zone produced by these planes. Let 
P {h Jc I) and Q{pq r) be the two planes, and let their indices be written 
twice, one over the other, and multiplied crosswise, beginning with the 
second upper index Jc- 



Ftg.5 








h Tc I 


Ji Tc 


I 










X 


X X 












p qr 


p q 


r 






Tcr 


u 


Iq; Ip 


-lir; 

V 


hq 


w 


kp 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGEAPHY. 



243 



Subtracting now tlie products obtained by multiplying tbe index right 
above with that left below, from tbat obtained by multiplying the index 
left above with that right below, we obtain three whole numbers (u v to), 
which are either positive or negative, are determined for the zone P Q, 
and are called zone-indices. In order to distinguish these from the in- 
dices of the faces, they are Inclosed in rectangular brackets. 

The zone-indices of a zone containing more than two faces can be cal- 
culated from any two faces of the zone which are not parallel. The 
same value is always obtained, abstraction being made of a constant 
factor of all three indices, with which we can always multiply all of 
them without changing the direction of the face or line represented. 

If, now, a third face, R(.»t/5;),isplaced in the above zone P O, we have 
a simple criterion, whose expression is produced from the fact that the 
zone-axis [P E] or [Q R] must have the same indices, even to a constant 
factor, as [P QJ. This criterion is the existence of the equation — 

ucc + vy -\- wz =0 
If this equation is realized, all the three faces P Q R are in the same zone. 
If the symbols of two zones, [efg] and [w v lo], are given, the symbol 
of a face (coyz) lying in both zones may again be found by crosswise 
multiplication — 

^ f 9 efg 

XXX 
U V W U V W 



fw — gv:gu — ew: ev ~ fu 
in the same way as the zone-symbol from the indices of two faces. 

At the close of this section the most important special zone-laws and 
some examples of the development of zones will be given. 

§ 3. — Spherical Projection. 

The method of spherical projection introduced by Naumann gives the 
simplest mea*ns of representing the opposite faces of a crystal. It has 
the advantage of showing, even p- q 
in extremely rough executions 
of it, a representation of the 
zone-combinations of a crystal, 
and allows of the determina- 
tion of the indices of its faces, 
on the assumption of a primi- 
tive form, almost without any 
measurements. 

For this purpose let us imag- 
ine that from a point o, in the 
interior of a crystal, (Fig. 6,) 
perpendicular straight lines, 
o a^ a', ob, o c, c', o d, o e, 
be drawn to all of its faces. 
From the point o, as a center, let us construct a sphere of any radius, and 




244 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGEAPHY. 



produce the perpendiculars until tbey cut the spliere AA' BCO'DE, 
&c., which are called the poles of the faces, which they meet. 

lu this construction, in which, for the sake of distinctness, only the 
front side is drawn, we see immediately that the poles of tautozoual 
faces, A D B E A' for instance, lie in a great circle of the sphere, because 
the normals of tautozoual faces lie in a plane, which must pass through 
o, from which point all the normals are produced ; a plane passing 
through the middle point, however, cuts the sphere in a great circle, 
which consequently contains the pole of the tautozoual faces. 

In order to draw a sphere containing the poles of the faces of a crystal, 

we may select several different methods of projection. Of these the 

stereographic method, introduced by Miller, is the most convenient. 

As plane of projection let us take, for this purpose, a plane pass- 

_. . ing through the center of the 

sphere c, (Fig. 7) which, accord- 
ing to the above, cuts the sphere 
in a great circle, ABO; let us 
draw a diameter of the sphere, 
O C, perx^endicular to this, 
whose extremities, O and 0, are 
90° from every point of the 
principal circle, so that the 
lower pole O shall be the point 
of sight; let us now join by a 
straight line every pole of the 

sphere ABCDEF with 

the point of sight O. The inter- 
sections AB cilef ... . of these 
straight lines with the princi- 
pal circle give the stereographic projection of the pole AB CD. 
In general, the principal circle will be taken perpendicular to the faces 




/'///<S 



of a zone, so that the projection of these 
l^oints of the faces will be the periphery 
of the circle. 

The most important peculiarities of such 
a projection are the following : 

1. Every circle will be projected on the 
sphere, either as a circle or a diameter. 

2. Every great circle will be projected on 
/ the sphere as an arc, which cuts the prin- 
cipal circle in the extremities of a diameter 
of the zone, or as a diameter itself. In such 
an arc, for that reason, also, the poles of the 

tautozoual faces lie, as, for instance, A e/A' ;BdeB';BcfB';A d c A'. 

3. Let every point, P, which, on the sphere, is at 90° from all points of 

this circle, be the pole of a zone-circle, H K, (Fig. 8,) which is also the 




PEINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



245 




projection of a face perpendicular to the zone-faces. The proposition 
obtains that the normal angle of two faces, H and K, is equal to the arc 
hlc^ which is cut off from the principal circle by the straight lines PH 
and P K produced. 

From these three characteristics all the laws for the construction of 
stereographic projection are derived. 

It is immediately apparent that the normal angle of all faces projected 
by points on the principal circle are determined by the arcs contained 
between the i)oles; that all zoues passing the center of the main circle 
will be projected as diameters 5 p/gO 
that, further, the pole of such a 
zone falls again in the principal 
circle, and will be on one of the 
extremities of the diameter per- 
pendicular to the zone. 

If the projection of a pole, P, 
(Fig. 9,) is given, and that of the 
opposite face parallel to it sought, 
it is at once clear that it must lie 
outside of the principal circle. If 
a zone is determined by P and the center, 0, of the main circle, the oppo- 
site pole P' must be in the same zone, because every zone in which a 
face lies must also contain the opposite face which is parallel to it. In 
the zone P O we have now only to look for the point at 180° from P in 
order to determine P'. For this purpose we must, according to the third 
chai'acteristic of projection mentioned above, draw from one of the 
points R or Q, which, as before, represent the pole of the zone P O, the 
point E for instance, a straight line, RPj?, to its intersection with the 
principal circle ; find the point p' 
of the principal circle, which is, 'V-'''^ 
at the required angle, 180°, from 
I) ) and then draw a straight line, 
Ej/P', whose section with the 
zone P O gives the pole opposite 
to P. 

If two poles, P Q, (Fig. 10,) be 
given, and the zone passing 
through them be sought, we look 
for the opposite pole of one of 
them, P' for instance, which in 
any case must lie in the zone P Q. 

Through the three points P Q P' we draw, according to the known method, 
(erection of a perpendicular in the middle of a line joining any two 
points,) an arc, which represents the required zone. 

In order to find the pole of a given zone, E, (Fig. 11,) we must con- 
sider that it must be 90° distant from every point of the zone-circle. If, 




246 



PEINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



now, C,D are the points of section of the zone with the main circle, 
we draw the diameter O D and a perpendicular to it, E F, and it is clear 
that the pole sought for must lie in the zone E F. Since, now, it must 



Fnj.lh 



be 90° distant from every point of the 
zone, and therefore also from R, while 
the pole of the zone E F is one of the 
lioints or D, we draw the straight line 
C E r and Pjp, so that the arc r i^ = 90°, 
and thus find the pole p of the zone 
CRD. 

Thus, all the expedients are given which 
are necessary for the construction and 
use of the projection ; in general, the sim- 
plest of these are sufficient, especially 
c while in this method of projection we do 

not aim at the greatest exactitude attainable, but only a presentable 

representation of the arrangement of the faces. 

As a close of this section we shall give some special modes of the 
laws of zones, and an example of a complete development of them. 
1. Zone passing through two i)inacoids — 

100 100 
010 010 




0.0 — 0.1 5 0.1 — 1.0; 1.1 — 0.0 
1 



[0 1] is the symbol of the third pinacoid. If a face, Ji 1c I, lies in this 
zone, so must — 

/i . + A: . 4- L 1 = 
also, I = 1, the general symbol of a face lying in the zone 10 0.010==- 
[0 1] is k h 0. 
2. Zone passing through a pinacoid and any face : 

U h I lilil 

100 100 

k.o—l.o',l.l—h.o', h.o—Jc.l 
o I % 

If a third face, J??y-, lies in the zone [o fk], so must — 
X .0 + y .l—1c .z = 

7 7 y Tc 
yl = lcz^ - = r 



or 



If. therefore, a zone passes through a pinacoid, the relation of those two 
indices, which, in the symbol of the pinacoid, are o, is constant for all the 
faces of this zone. 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



247 



3. The cases given under the second and tliird rules are special cases 
of a more general one; and, certainly, two given faces, [hJcl) and {pqr)^ 
in which — 

fc _ g 

T r 

can alwaj^s be so represented that their symbols have the form (e u v) 
and (.r wi"), because the three indices of a face may be multiplied by the 
same number withont changing the symbol. 
For the zone we have — 

euv euv 
xuv xuv 



u . V — n . u ; V . X — e . V ; e . u — u . x 

o; V {x — e); u [e — x) 

or, if we divide the three zooe-indices by {x — e), [0 v «] ; a face, {r st)^ 
lies in this zone, if — 

o.r-\-v.s — u.t = o 
so — 

s _u 

i~v 

Let any two faces of a zone be represented by the symbols (xuv) and 
{euv), or, generally, let them have two similarly-situated indices in both 
faces with like relations, all the faces of this zone will be represented in 
the form {puv). 

That the second law comes also under this head is clear, because the 

relation _ ^ indeterminate, and therefore can answer to every value. 
* 
As an example of development by zones, we have chosen the crystal 

represented in Fig. 12. Because we assume that there are no measure- 





ments, but only the data of the zones, we shall presume, in the projec- 
tion, (Fig. 13,) that it is triclinic. In this projection we record the faces 
in the order in which they are to be determined. 



248 PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 

Let the zones to be determined be — 
l)man; bdce; afc; apd; hpfq; cspm; dsfii; cqn; aqe 
The existence of these will be seen principally from the parallelism oi 
the respective edges. Where there is no real edge, as is the case in the 
angle a q, the hypothetical zone-axis can be found by turning the crystal 
round. All faces which, in turning round the same axis, reflect the 
light are tautozonal. 

In order to determine the combination, it is first necessary to select a 
system of axes. Eegard will be had to the real or apparent symmetry of 
the crystal, in this way, that when a system less symmetrical in com- 
pleteness and inclination of the faces approaches one of higher sym- 
metry, this analogy is retained. 

We select three faces, ahc, for the planes of the axes ; their lines of 
section give the crystallographic axes. We project these in such a way 
that the zone a 6 is contained in the principal circle. 

The exactitude of the relation of the angles makes naturally no dif- 
ference, if it is only a question of the solution of the combination. The 
faces are introduced into the projection in the order in which they are 
to be determined, first a bo. 

The faces ahc then are designated by the symbol belonging to the 
pinacoids, 1 0, 1 0, 1. 

In order to fix a ground-form, we have yet to determine the relations 
of the axes ; this, according to the relation ofp, may be (111); the axes- 
sections of the face p give also the value o A, o B, o 0, from which the 
parameters of every other face will be determined. 

That the indices of p must be 1 1 1 follows from the equatron (p. 9) in 
which the indices of a face are determined, as — 

,_^oA 7_oB ] _oC 

Substituting the section o A, o B, o G, in this equation, we have — 

h=lc=l=l 

After the outline and the axes of the crystal are determined, the 
drawing of the faces can be developed. 

Determination of m. m lies in the zones 6 mail and c 1> m. In or- 
der that a face may lie in the first zone, it is a necessary and sufficient 
condition that it has the symbol h Tc o, that is, is parallel to the axis c, 
as also follows from the derivation of the zone-equation. 

For the second zone we have the condition — 

because, as we have seen, the equality of the same index-relations, in 
two faces of a zone, determines their equality for all the faces of that 
zone ; thus — 

h ^ 1_^0_ 

& 1 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 249 

This results also from the zone-equatiou — 
111 111 

00 1 001 

1.1-0.1; 1.0-1.1; 1.0-0.1 
which gives [1 1 0] as the zone-equation, or — 

1 . X —1 .y + . s=^0 OTX =.y 
as condition of the tautozonality of a face, xy z^ with 01 and 111; the 
symbol of m h Jc o becomes changed under these circumstances into (1 1 0). 
In the same way the position of d, in the zones h dc and ap d, is deter- 
mined. The first zone gives, as condition, the first index as equal to 0, it is 
thus oh I; the second gives the equation of the second and third index — 

I 1 ""0 
and therefore the symbol (0 1 1). 

Finally, the face/ is determined in the same way by the zone afc, as 
h I, and by the zone h pf, as 10 1, because — 

h = ^ -^1 = 1 
I ~1 "~0~ 

Thus it is to be kept in view that the quotient- may have any rational 

value which is first fixed by the two faces. 

For the face oi we have the zone b m a n, by which we get the symbol 
Jc h o and dfn; for the last w^e have — 
011011 
10 1 10 1 

1 . 1-0.1; 1. 1-0. 1; 0.0-1 . 1 

or [111]; also as condition — 

A . 1 -f /v . 1 - . 1 = or /t = - A: 
This condition is satisfied by ll and T 1 0, of which the first is the 
symbol for the face in front, and the last for the opposite one behind. 

For the determination of q we have the zones cqn and d pf q; the 
first gives, when li Jc I is the symbol of q — 

Jl 1 -, /7 T 7\ 

-=^^=-=- lor{JiJil) 
the last — 

l^ = \=\ = lov{JihJi) 

which, when contracted, is 1 T 1. 

The face e lies in the zone b d c e, wherefore Ji = o ; and in a q e, for 
■which reason — 

Jt ^ -J. ^ _ _ . 
I 1 

e has thus the symbol (0 1 1). 

There remains s in the zones m p s e and d sfn to be determined ; the 
first zone gives — 

/i ^ 1 ^ 1 
A;~ 1 ~ 1 



250 PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 

or the general symbol li li I ; and lias [1 1 IJ for its zone-index, so — 

h-\-Ji~l = 0ov2h = l 
which condition is satisfied by (112). 

Thus the collective forms of this combination are determined. 

There certainly may be cases presented where the existing zones do 
not suffice to determine all the faces of a combination ; these cases are, 
however, rare, and occur in very few instances. 

Instead of the above selection of a face, (111), determining the collect- 
ive relations of the axes, two domes in two i)inacoid zones could very well 
be used, as 1 1 0, in which a : h, and 101, by which a : c,is determined. 

In the simpler and often recurring faces, as we have seen above, even 
the very simple calculation of the symbols from two zone-symbols, by 
crosswise multiplication, is superfluous, because at least the conditions 
for it, in a zone, can be at once expressed in the general symbol of the 
face, so that by substitution in the equation — 

Jix + ley -\-ls = 
the indices hlcl are fully determined. 

SECTION II. 

symmetry of the systems of crystallization. 

§ 1.— Derivation of the Sy^stem from the Law of K ational Indices. 

The rationality of the indices is, for the possibility of a face of a 
crystal, as we have said above, not only a necessary but a sufficient 
condition. It is, therefore, a possibility of every face whose indices are 
rational numbers. A collection of faces, therefore, which is to obey the 
law of rational indices must also answer to all the consequences which 
in mathematics follow from this law. 

The carrying-out of this deduction, which can here only be announced, 
leads us to the different elements of symmetry, and especially to the 
consideration of planes of symmetry. 

A plane of symmetry has the peculiarity that its physical relations 
are equal on both sides of it. 

The identity of the physical peculiarities of two faces or lines is also 
jr,;^j3,^ determined by the similarity of their position with 

respect to the plane of symmetry, and this condition 
is really fulfilled by two planes when they are tau- 
togonal with the plane of symmetry, and are so sit- 
uated with regard to both sides that they form like 
anzles with them, (Fig. 13a, where the angle P:Q = aO 
and pi : Q = /3o are equal to each other.) Two lines, 
A and o B, (Fig. 13&,) satisfy the condition if they, 
with respect to the plane of symmetry P, contain a 
similar angle; and if a plane, E, at right angles to the 
plane of symmetry can be passed through, then arc A C = arc B. 

The derivation of the crystalline system is as follows : Let two possi- 
ble faces of a crystal be taken which are symmetrical with respect to a 



A- 


bh^ 


X^o 


\ 


P' 


p 


Q 




X \ 





PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



151 



Fig.rAb 



plane ; it is to be determined if symmetry with regard to another plane 

does not follow from it ; given a zone, which is symmetrical with respect 

to one or more faces, i. e., that for every 

face of the zone there is also a possible 

one which will be symmetrical with it^ 

it is required if from this, symmetry in 

other directions does not follow, i. e., 

if for ever}' i^ossible face of the given 

zone another face is not also possible, 

with which, according to presumption, 

the zone sought for is parallel. 

The criterion of the possibility of a face is, therefore, always the ra- 
tionality of its indices. Proceeding in this way, we recognize that only 
that reunion of faces is, crystallographically speaking, possible, which, 
by the number and position of their planes of symmetry, belong to one 
of the seven characteristic crystalline systems. By plane of symmetry 
of a crystal we understand a plane in relation to which all the possible 
faces of a crystal are symmetrical, so that for every possible face of a 
crystal there is another which, so far as the plane of symmetry is con- 




Fig.l^. 




Fig. 16 




cerned, is symmetrical with it. It is therefore apparent, that only the 
following combinations are possible: 

1. '^0 plane of symmetry existing Triclinic system. 

2. One plane of symmetry, B, (Fig. 14) Monoolinic system. 

3. Three difierent planes of symmetry at right angles to each other, 

A, B, C, (Fig. 15) Ehombic (orthorhobibic) system. 





4. Three tautozonal and simdar planes of symmetry inclined to each at 
angles of 60° and 120°, A A' A", (Fig. 16), Ehombohedral system. 



252 



PEINCIPLES OF CEYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



5. Five planes of symmetry, of which four are tautozonal and inclined 
to each other 45° and 90°, every two 90° apart sfmilar, A A', 
A' A", (Fig. 17.) The fifth, C, at right angles to all the others, and 
not similar. Tetragonal system., 

G. Seven jilaues of symmetry, sis of which are tautozonal and inclined 
30° and 00°, every three 60° apart, similar, A A' A", B B' B", (Fig. 
18.) The seventh, C, at right angles to all the others, not 
similar Hexagonal system. 



F-J.13. 




FLgi9. 




7. Nine planes of symmetry, three of which, A A' A", (Fig. 19,) are at 
right angles to each other, and similar. The other six, similar to 
each other, B B' B" . . . . B"^, intercalated between every two tautoz- 
onal A, and at an angle of 45°. Tesseral (isometric) system. 

§ 2. — Characteristics of the Systems. 

From the above statement of the relations of symmetry in each crystal- 
line system we shall next derive the single faces belonging to each form 
as well as the most practical method of selecting the axes of the crystal. 

For axes we may select any three edges or zone-axes which are formed 
by three possible faces of the crystal not tautozonal with each other. 

We shall, however, on account of the existence of planes of symmetry, 
so select the axes that, wherever it is possible, they are placed sym- 
metrically to the planes of symmetry, by which we shall at once see that 
all the faces of a form will take the same numerical indices, but arranged 
in different orders. We understand by form the combination of all those 
faces which are symmetrical with each other, according to the planes of 
symmetry of the given crystal, and which, together, possess the same 
l^hysical peculiarities. 

With regard to the selection of the axes, we only remark that it ap- 
pears necessary, on theoretical grounds, which were first developed by 
Frankenstein, so to select the axes that every acute axis-angle shall be 
greater than 60°, and that every obtuse one shall be less than 120°, 
which is always possible. 

1. Triclinic sy'STEM. — No plane of symmetry. The choice of the 
axes is arbitrary, as also the face 1 1 1, by which the plane of the axes 
is determined — 



«^&<c; 



n-j^ 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



253 



Five elements are undetermiDed, two relations and three angles of the 
axes. Because no plane of symmetry exists, a single face, It 1c I, (Fig. 20,) 
with the one parallel to it, constitutes a form. It is only necessary to 
consider this analogy in the selection of the axes, where there exists a 





similarity in the angle and in the composition of the faces, with a more 
highly symmetrical system, as the monoclinic or orthorhombic, 

2. Monoclinic system. — One plane of symmetry, B, (Fig. 21.) We 
first select this plane as one of the i)lanes of the axes, especially for the 
plane XZ, so that it takes the symbol 010. For every face, lilcl, a 
second one is now possible, which, with it, is placed symmetrically with 
regard to the plane of symmetry 010, and, therefore, as is easily seen, 
takes the symbol hid. These two fiices, with those opposite to them, 
constitute together the general form of the monoclinic system. A zone- 
axis is determined by every two such pairs of faces, which, as is easily 
perceived, must lie in the plane of symmetry, because 010 lies in the 
zone [ {h Jc I) {h 7:1)]. If two such zone-axes are taken for the axis of X Z, * 
it is at once clear that the angles of the axes will be — 

X T = C = 90° ; Y Z = .- = 90° ; (KZ = rj)% 90° 
A fourth face gives the sections of the axes a^h^c, and we have in 
this system three unknown elements, two ratios, and one angle of the 
axes. 

3. Orthorhombic system. — Three planes of symmetry, ABC, (Fig. 
22,) at right angles to one another, which 
we select for the planes of the axes, with 
the symbols 1 0, 1 0, 1. The three 
axes will, for this reason, be at right an- 
gles to each other, and we Lave now, by 
means of a fourth plane, to determine 
their lengths, so that — 

a> & > c; ? = >5 = : = 90o 
In this system we have, therefore, two un- 
known elements, - , - ; the four faces, 
' c c 

h h I, 11 A: 1, h ic J, 111- 1, with their opposites, are similar, so that the general 
form is an eight- sided rhombic pyramid. 



Fij 22. 




254 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTi\XLOGRAPPIY. 



■^j i^. 



"With regard to tbe selection of the three pinacoids, there may be a 
number of assumptions. Grailich and Lang talce (r > Z> > c : Schrauf 
selects, in substances which can be optically examined, 01, perpendic- 
ular to the bisectrix, 100 and 010, so that « > ?>; other authors follow 
no principle, but take the first method of exhibition. 

4. EnoMBOHEDRAL SYSTEM. — Three phiues of symmetry, A A' A", 

(Fig. 23,) which are tautozonal, similar, and 
inclined to each other at an angle of 60°. 
In this case it is not admissible to select 
•MhX ;, the planes of symmetry for the planes of 
^^ the axes, because thej- are tautozonal. In 
order to observe the symmetry of the 
method of notation, we select for the i^lanes 
of the axes three faces of the crystal which 
are symmetrically situated with regard to 
the planes of symmetry, and so constitute 
a form. The faces 10 0, 010, 001, must 
be perpendicular to every plane of symmetry, because ouly one such 
form, composed of only three faces with their opposites, exists; every 
other one is composed of six or of two. For the determination of the 
planes of the axes we select a face, as 111, which is at right angles 
to the zone-axis of the planes of symmetry, and is consequently simi- 
larly inclined to the three planes of the axes. Therefore — 

«, = & = c; (c = ^ = C) >90o 
• A single dimension, the angle of the axes, is undetermined. 

The three planes of symmetry have the symbols 1 1 = A ; 1 1 = A' : 
1 1 = A!' . The symbol of each, with the faces tautozonal to the plane 
of symmetry, which are prisms according to the general notation, thus 
deviating from usage in the other crystalline systems, is liable to the 
condition /; -f A- + 7 = o, because the symbol of the zone of symmetry is 
[1 1 1]. The other forms are scalenohedrons, which is the general form 
of this system, with six faces, li Jc I, (Fig. 23,) and their opposites ; rhom- 




.-icf.-Z^ 



bohedrons, whose faces are perpendicu- 
lar to every plane of symmetry; the 
base 111. 

It is plain that the axis-angle r is equal 
to plane-angle of the faces at the vertex 
i'"* of the primitive rhombohedron, (10 0). 
5. Tetragonal system. — Four tau- 
tozonal planes of symmetrj^ inclined at 
an angle of 45° to each other; every al- 
ternate two, A A', BB', (Fig. 24,) simi- 
lar; a fifth one, C, perpendicular to these, but not similar. For planes 
of the axes we select two similar planes of symmetry, which are perpen- 
dicular to each other, B A A', and the single plane of symmetry, C, at 




PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



255 



right angles to it, and finally 1 as plane of X Y. For the determina- 
tion of the lengths of the axes we select a face, 111, perpendicular to 
one of the intermediate planes of symmetry. We thus have the ele- 
ments — 



Thus we have only one unknown quantity, -. 



The intermediate planes 




of symmetry have the symbols 110, 110. The most general form is a 
pyramid of sixteen faces. The similar faces of hJcl may be seen in 
Fig. 24. 

6. Hexagonal system. — Seven planes of symmetry, six of which 
are tautozonal and inclined at an %.2i. 
angle of 30°; every other one, 
A A' A", B B' B", (Fig. 25,) simi- 
lar ; and the seventh, which is at 
right angles to them, not similar. 
We might here have selected for 
the planes of the axes three planes 
of symmetry, as C, and two others 
from the zone, symmetrical to the 
planes of the axes, but the sym- 
metry of the notation would thus 
be lost. We select, therefore, as 
in the rhombohedric system, three 
alternate faces, of a form perpen- 
dicular to the six planes of sym- 
metry, for tl 3 planes of the axes 10 0, 10, 1. We determine the 
length of the axes, as in the rhombohedric system, by the face 111, 
which is ijerpeudicular to the axis of the zone of symmetry, by means 
of which we get, as before — 

Because in particular values of their elements there is no difference 
between this and the rhombohedric system, they are often united, which 
is contrary, however, to physical laws. 

In this system it is no longer possible to represent the united faces of 
a form with the same indices with regard to the symbols of the planes 
of symmetry, as 1 I, 1 1, 1 1 0, it is for the primary 112, 121, 211; 
for the secondary planes, B B' B", whose sign follows from the zones, 
we have, for the faces efg, belonging to those lying opposite to h k I, the 
determinative equations — 

€= _/t + 2fc-f2Z 

f= 2 h- ]c + 2l 

g=2h + 2]c- I 

The most general form of this system is a tweuty-four-faced pyramid, 

the half of whose faces, as is seen on Fig. 25, are represented by the 



156 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, 




symbols li Ti l, and the other half by efg. The forms of this system are 
generally pyramids of twenty-four faces, two orders of twelve-faced pyra- 
mids, whose faces are perpendicular to the principal section, prisms of 
twelve faces, two orders of six-faced i^risms, and the base. 
7. Tesseral (isometric) system. — Nine planes of symmetry, three 

of which, A A' A", (Fig. 26,) 
are similar and at right an- 
gles to each other; the others 
tautozonal in pairs, with an 
A intercalated between each 
two, B . . . . B^, at an angle 
of 45° to them. We select 
the three which are perpen- 
dicular to each other for the 
plane of the axes, and deter- 
mine the length of the axes 
by the face 111, which lies 
in an intermediate zone; we 
t '"'» thus have — 

a'= & = c; e = >y = C = 90o 
The five elements are determined. 

The most general form, hJcl, consists of forty-eight faces, whose dis- 
tribution is shown in Fig. 26. 

In the previous development only the most general form, JiTcl, has 
been considered ; it is, however, very easy by specializing the symbols, 
as by an equation of two indices, for instance, or by conditions which can be 
conceived in the projection, to represent all the forms of a system by 
the number and signs of the faces. 

We wish, for example, the symbol of the faces of the six-sided, the 
twelve-faced pyramid of the hexagonal system. Their symbols result 
from the relation of the zones. On the other hand, a simple inspection 
of the planes of symmetry of this system shows that a face occurring 
in the zone [(111) (2 1 1) j has on the upper side five similar faces. Thus 
it results that the symbol of the opposite rhombohedron, similar to the 
primitive rhombohedron, is (122), according to the formula, (p. 22.) 
Partial forms have not been included in the above representation, any 
more than the researches on the symmetry of lines and planes, which 
will be given in another place. 

SECTION III. 

optical relations of crystals. 
§ 1. — Double Eefraction and Absorptiotst. 

It is known that in media of equal density throughout, also in uncrys- 
tallized media, a ray of light moves in every direction with the preserva- 
tion of its condition of vibration; that, further, its velocity of propagation 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 257 

is only dependent on the color of the beam of light, and on a factor 
which is constant for the entire uiedinm, and not from the direction in. 
which it moves. 

If, therefore, a beam of light, under any condition of vibration, enters 
such an isotrope medium, it can very easily, taking into consideration 
its angle of incidence, change the direction, and, taking into considera- 
tion its color and molecular constants, the velocity of its propagation ; 
the condition of vibration, however, remains constant. The condition of 
vibration of the beam of light is said to be con)pleteIy polarized, partially 
polarized, or unpolarized, according as the whole of the light or only 
part of it vibrates in a constant path, or this course takes in an infinitely 
short space every possible transversal position. In the first case, where 
the whole light has a constant path of vibration, we say again that the 
light is polarized in a straight line, circularly, or elliptically, according 
as the path of oscillation is a straight line, perpendicular to the direc- 
tion of propagation, a circle, or an ellipse. The movement of the light 
in an isotrope medium is, therefore, dependent on that of the incident 
light, the angle of incidence, and a molecular constant. 

In a crystallized medium, in which the density can be supposed vari- 
able with the direction, only two beams of light of a determined velocity 
of propagation for each color, and determined direction of vibration, 
can, in general, be propagated in any determined direction ; on the con- 
trary, a beam of light entering a crystalline medium will not only be 
deviated from its direction, but separated into two divergent beams, 
each one of which, according to its direction in the crystal, will have 
variable velocities of propagation and direction of vibration. 

Just as the intensity of the light is weakened by its passage through 
an isotrope medium, and has different strengths for different colors, so 
is it the case Avith crystalline media, only here the unequal absorption for 
different colors depends on the direction in the crystal; the same is here 
true as of the manner of vibration and the velocity of propagation. 
The same direction in a crystal corresponds thus to two determined 
beams with determined velocities of propagation, direction of vibration, 
and absorption ; and a ray of light entering a crystal is divided into two 
beams of determined but different directions of proj^agation, velocities, 
directions of vibration, and absorption. 

§ 2. — The Ellipsoid of Polarization. 

The law according to which the whole inovemeut of light in a crystal 
is determined can, so far as is necessary for our present pur^iose, be 
enunciated as follows : 

In every crystal an ellipsoid with three axes can be constructed in 
such a way that the velocity of propagation and the direction of vibra- 
tion of the two rays of light, which can move in a fixed direction in a 
crystal, may be determined by the major and minor axes of the ellipse, 
which are formed when, from the center of the ellipsoid, a plane is passed 
17 s 



258 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



perpendicular to the given direction of propagation of both of the beams, 
and this prolonged to its section with the ellipse. 

Let o A, B, o C, (Fig. 27,) be the principal axes of the ellip- 



F.-^S7. 




sold, at right angles to each 
other ; S o, the direction, 
l^assing through the center, 
in which the two beams of 
light should move. Let us 
pass through O a plane per- 
; pendicular to o S, which cuts 
the ellipsoid in the points 
M J^ M', which points be- 
long to an ellipse whose ma- 
jor ai;.d minor half-axes are 
o X and o Y ; of these two 
beams, propagated in the di- 
rection S o, the one has the direction of vibration o X and the velocity 

of propagation -, and the other O Y and -. 

The situation and the length of the principal axiaof this ellipsoid are, 
in general, dift'ereut for every color. The absorption of the light in any 
direction can also be determined from the principal axis. With the co- 
efScient of absorption of the principal axis we can again construct an 
ellipsoid whose axes correspond to those of the ellipsoid of polarization. 
The co-efficient of absorption for the two rays of light corresponding to 
a direction will be determined sometimes by the ellipse-section and 
sometimes by the absorption -ellipsoid ; the major and minor axes of this 
ellipse, it is true, do not coincide exactly, but they do approximatively 
with those of the direction of vibration. 

In the most general case, which we shall first discuss, the three axes 
jr/^o^ /\ of the ellipsoid are of unequal 

lengths ; they will be called 
axes of polarization or of elas- 
ticity ; by the last is also spe- 
cially understood their recip- 
rocal lengths, as — 

oA' ^H' ^~ olJ 

in which « > & > c is chosen ; 
hence the distances o A, o B, 
0, are themselves propor- 
tional to the priscipal quotient 
of refraction. 

A plane of the axes containing two axes of elasticity is called the 
principal section, and is jjerpendicular to the third axis. 

A plane parallel to one axis, as o C, (Fig. 28,) cuts the ellipsoid in an 




a = 



PEINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



259 




ellipse, C P C, one axis of wbich coincides with the known axis of elas- 
ticity, and the other axis, o P, is perpendicular to it iu the principal 
section A B o. 

A plane M N o, (Fig. 27,) inclined to all three of the axes of elasticity, 
cuts the ellipsoid in an ellipse, whose axes are not parallel to any of the 
axes of elasticity. In g^eneral, ft > & > c is true in the principal section 
A o C, (Fig. 20,) whenever 
there is a radius, O &, whose P'3-^ 
length is equal to the mid- 
dle axis of elasticity, O B. 
If a plane, B o ft, is passed 
through this last and this 
radins, their section of the 
ellipsoid is a circle; the 
normal o a to this circle- 
face lies in the principal 
section of the largest and 
smallest axes of elasticity, 
A C, and is called an op- 
tical axis. This ellipsoid, 
which has three axes, has two optical axes, o a and o a', (Fig. 29.) which 
are in the planes of the greatest and smallest axes of elasticity, and are 
situated symmetrically with regard to both. 

The optical axes form with each other two supplementary angles, an 
acute, 2 Y a, and an obtuse, 2 Y o, so that 2 Y « = 180° — 2 Y o, which 
are equally divided by the axes A and C ; that axis which divides the 
acute-angle axis is called the first oniddle line, f bisectrix J and the one 
which divides the obtuse-angle axis is called the second middle line, so 
that two cases are again possible : 

First middle line ^ second middle line c : negative crystal. 

First middle line ^ second middle line a : positive crystal. 

The first case is assumed in Fig. 29. Fig. 30 shows a sketch of the last. 

According as the nature of double refrac- piqso. 
tion consists in a difference of the velocity 
of propagation and of the direction of vi- 
bration of the two beams of light capable 
of being propagated in the same direction, 
it is at once clear that the double refraction 
must disappear along the optical axes. The 
plane normal to a beam of light, that is, the 
one which propagates itself in the direction 
of an optical axis, cuts the ellipsoid in a 
circle; the velocities of propagation of the 
beams of light given by two radii are equal 
to each other; the directions of vibration are undetermined, %. e., remain 
unchanged, as they were before their entrance into thecrystalline medium. 




2G0 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



If a crystal has a plane of symmetry, it must coiucide with a princi- 
pal section of the ellipsoid for every color, because an ellipsoid with 
three axes is symmetrical only in its principal sections ; this coincidence 
must not, however, occur in the same principal section for every color ; 
thus, for red light, b c, and for blue light, ac, may fall in the plane of sym- 
metry. If two axes of elasticity of the same ellipsoid are equal, their 
principal section will be a circle, and the two axes become reduced to one ; 
if, tor instance, the tliird axis of elasticity is perpendicular to this principal 
section, the ellipsoid is an ellipsoid of rotation. The sections of such 
an ellipsoid, with a plane, are either perpendicular to the optical axis, 
section a circle, no double refraction, direction of vibration undeter- 
mined ; or parallel to the optical axis, section an ellipse, one axis of which 
is the optical axis, the other has a constant value, which is that of the 
axis of elasticity originating in the circle ; or inclined to the optical axis, 
section an ellipse, whose axes are inclined to the optical axes. Ellipsoids 
with a single axis are of two kinds, lengthened or flattened, according as — 

6 = c ; ^ the optical axis ; negative crystal, (Fig. 31.) 

a = h ; f^ the optical axis ; positive crystal, (Fig. 32.) 



' + 



n\j3j. 



Fi^.32. 





If all three of the axes of elasticity of the ellipsoid are equal to each 
other, it becomes a sphere ; every section by a plane will be a circle; all 
the axes of such a circle will be equal to each other. Such a crystal is 
monorefringent, and has no determined direction of vibration, that is to 
say, the direction of vibration of the beam of light entering the crystal 
remains the same. 

As has been already mentioned above, the relations of absorption in 
the whole crystal can be determined if they are given for the three axes 
of elasticity. If we construct an ellipsoid from the three principal ab- 
sorption-constants (for a determined color) as axes, we find, exactly as 
in the ellipsoid of polarization, the amount of absorption for a given 
direction in the crystal by passing a normal plane and determining the 
axes of the ellipse- section so produced. 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 261 

§ 3.— Optical Eelations of Plane Plates whose Sides are 

Parallel. 

We shall first consider the relations of i)lane plates of crystals whose 
sides are parallel, in straight-lined parallel light and perpendicular inci- 
dence. Let the entering beam of parallel straight-lined light polar- 
ized by any means, such as a nichol prism, heropathite, or a plate of 
tourmaline, fall perpendicularly upon a plane plate of the crystal whose 
sides are parallel. In consequence of its perpendicular incidence, for 
we can treat parallel light always so, the beam of light enters the 
crystal without deviation; in this defined direction only two beams, 
whose direction of vibration is determined according to § 2 of this sec- 
tion, can transmit themselves in the crystal, because we bring the plane 
of the plates, which is perpendicular to the path of the beam of light, 
into the section of the ellipsoid of polarization. 

The entering beam of light must now be divided, according to these 
two lines at right angles to each other, into two component parts, which 
then follow the same path entirely through the crystal; passing out of 
it, however, they fall upon a second polarizing arrangement, the 
analyzer, which, as the polarizer, allows the vibrating light to pass only 
in a given direction. Here the two beams of light are divided in such 
a way that only that component which falls in the plane of vibration of 
the analyzer comes out of it; finally, both these components, polarized 
in straight lines, have similar directions of vibration, and the same path, 
and for this reason unite in a straight polarized beam of light, with the 
same direction of vibration as component and anal3'zer. 

We suppose that both the polarizer and the analyzer are so placed 
that their directions of vibration are parallel to 
each other, which position is once for all deter- , ''^' ' 

mined. Let us now turn the crystal-plate in its 
own plane until its directions of vibration come 
together, the one, ol, (Fig. 33,) with o P of the po- 
larizer, the other, otj, with o A of the analyzer, 
and we have the following result : 

Straight-lined polarized light comes from the 
polarizer in the direction of vibrating light, o P. 
By its entrance into the crystal it will be divided ° 1 

in the direction of and or^^ which is its direction of vibration; thus no 
component escapes, especially in the direction otj, but the beam passes 
through the plate in the direction o f, and passes out of it with the di- 
rection of vibration o f , falls upon the analyzer, is here divided into two 
components, of which only the parallel one, o A, is allowed to pass 
parallel to o A ; however, o I gives out no component, which means that 
in this case no light whatever comes through the analyzer. 

We see also that any crystal-plate with parallel planes appears dark 
when placed between polarizers which are at right angles to each other, 



!G2 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



as soon as its direction of vibration coincides with that of the analyzer 
and polarizer. 

In order to observe the absorption, we have only, when the plate is in 
the position of darkness, to take away the analyzer or the polarizer. In 
this case only the color corresponding to the one direction of vibration 
of the plate appears. This occurrence thus shows itself entirely analo- 
gous to the iirevious one. 

It is at once clear that a plate perpendicular to an optical axis ap- 
pears dark in every position of the crossed polarizers. Eespecting the 
relations of a plate with parallel sides between polarizers in a cone of 
monochromatic light, we only remark that optical axes are shown by a 
system of very nearly concentric rings, through whose center a dark, 
straight or hyperbolic beam, or a dark cross, appears. The appearance 
of these in white light will be described for some of the systems. 

§ 4. — Optical Eelations in each Crystalline System. 

As has already been mentioned above, the position of the principal 
0])tical section and the value of the axes of elasticity are different for 
different colors. A coincidence takes place only in the case of the exist- 
ence of one or more planes of symmetry, because such a one must 
always be a principal optical section. 

1. Triclinic system. — iSTo plane of symmetry. The position of the 
ellipsoid of polarization for the different colors cannot be determined a 
iwiorl; the axes of elasticity are inclined to the axes of the crystal; all 
the principal optical sections are dispersed, that is, have a different po- 
sition for every color. In general, the dispersion of the principal section, 
both here and in the following crystalline systems, is small, and seldom 
goes beyond one or two degrees. The appearances of color in plane 
plates with parallel sides, which allow the optical axes to be distin- 
guished, are in monochromatic light as follows : A plate jjerpendicular 
to the bisectrix shows, when the polarizers are crossed, a black cross, 
(Fig. 34,) upon one arm of which the elliptical rings of the optical axes 



F<gM. 





appear surrounded by lemniscates if the principal axes of the plate co- 
incide with those of the polarizer ; when hyperbolae (Fig. 35) pass 
through the rings of the axes, the principal sections of the plate are 
inclined 45° to the polarizer; in white light the rings of some colors 



PRINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 



263 



appoar snperposed ; on account of the dispersion of tlie principal section, 
both of tlie two images of the axes, and also the arrangement of the 
colors in both of them, will be unsymmetrical with regard to the princi- 
pal section, which is marked by a somewhat faint and black beam. The 
detail of this image of the axes is most simply described by saying that 
a union of the cases of dispersion, met with in variable intensity in the 
following system of crystallization, is to be here observed. 

2. MONOCLINIC SYSTEM.— One plane of symmetry. A principal opti- 
cal section of every color must coincide with the plane of symmetry, so 
an axis of elasticity of every color must coincide with the axes of the 
crystal o Y, perpendicular to the plane of symmetry. The two other 
principal sections, as also the two axes of elasticity lying in the plane 
of symmetry, are dispersive for the different colors. There are here 
three possible cases : 

First. The principal section a c, containing the optical axes of a color, 
coincides with the plane of symmetry, inclined dispersion, {disjyersion 
inclinee of Descloiseaux.) The general case is, that the analogous principal 
sections have for all colors very nearly the same position ; in this case 
the optical axes, for all the colors, lie in the plane of symmetry ; the 
image of a plate perpendicular to a bisectrix, (convergent light,) on 
account of the correspondence of the direction of vibration of the plate 
and. the polarizer, is symmetrical with respect to the black beam joining 
the image of the axes, (Fig. 30.) 

Secondly. The principal section of the axes is perpendicular to the 



Fi>f.36. 




plane of symmetry; the bisectrix 
lies in the plane of symmetry, hori- 
zontal dispersion, {dispersion horizon- 
tale of Descloiseaux.) In this case 
c h for positive crystals, and a b for 
negative crystals, coincide with the 
plane of symmetry. 

If the general case of the approximate coincidence of similar princi- 
pal sections for diHerent colors is selected, we see that here the planes 
of the optical axes are dispersive. The image of tlie axis appears sym- 
metrical with respect to a beam perpendicular to the line of the optical 
axes. (Fig. 37.) 

Thirdly. The section of the axes ac and the bisectrix are perpendic- 
ular to the plane of symmetry ; the prin. /Fy.jr. 
cipal section a b for positive, and c b for 
negative crystals, coincide, therefore, 
with the plane of symmetry ; cross-icise 
dispersion, {dispersion croisee of Descloi- 
seaux.) The planes of the axes are dis- 
persive. 

Under the same supposition as before, " 

the image of the axes will not be symmetrical with regard to any line j 




264 



PRrNCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, 



3. Orthorhombic system. 
Fig.38. 




the planes of tlie axes appear round the normal to the plate, (second 
crystallograpliic axes, o Y, bisecting,) dispersed in the shape of a fan, 
(Fig. 38.) 

-Three unequal planes of symmetry at 
right angles to each other. Every plane 
of symmetry must coincide with a prin- 
cipal section ; here the position of the 
principal optical section is completely 
determined, and only the value and po- 
sition of the axes of elasticity are unde- 
termined. In most cases the similar 
jirincipal sections of all colors coincide, 
as also do the axes of elasticity a, 6, c. 
The image of the axes, according to the former suppositions, is sym- 
metrical with regard to the two black beams; it appears also in white 
light, similar to Fig. 34, but in this case the black ellipses are replaced 
with color. The principal optical section is not dispersive ; the optical 
axes, however, are ; that is, the angle of the axes is different for different 
colors, as in both the previous systems. 

4. Khombohedric system. — Three tantogonal and similar planes of 
symmetry, inclined at an angle of G(P. Every one of these must be a 
principal section of the ellipsoid ; this is only possible if all these zones 
belonging to the sectiou of the ellipsoid are equal to each other; that is, 
it is an ellipsoid of rotation ; the principal section j)erpendicular to the 
pl-ane of symmetry is a circle; the axis of the zone of symmetry is the 
optical axis of all the colors. Here, as we have already mentioned, two 
cases are possible, i^ositive or negative crystals, according as Z> = c or 
a = &. 

If we again make the supposition that the similar axes of elasticity 
coincide for all colors, we get, as the image of a plate cut perpendicular 
to the optical axis between two crossed polarizers, a black cross with 
concentric colored rings, (Fig. 39.) 

5. Tetragonal system. — Five planes of symmetry, four of which 
l-ig.29. are inclined 45° to each other, every alternate one 

being similar, the fifth perpendicular to the four 
others. 

A principal optical sectiou is parallel to this 
last, as the hypothetical plane of symmetry 01. 
All its perpendicular ellipsoid sections must be 
equal to each other, because in this zone four 
planes of symmetry exist, all of which must be 

principal sections of the ellipsoid. The tetragonal system, therefore, is 

optically exactly like the rhombohedral. 

6. Hexagonal system. — Seven planes of symmetry, six tautogonal 
inclined 30°, every alternate three similar, one perpendicular to them. 
This last, taken as a ijriucipal section, makes, as in the two previous 




PEINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. 265 

systems, all sections perpendicular to it similar, on account of the sym- 
metry- according to the six tantozonal planes of symmetry; on this 
account, therefore, having the same optical relations. The base 1 1 1 is 
])erpendicular to the optical axis. 

7. Tesseral (isometric) system. — Nine planes of symmetry, three 
perpendicular to each other and similar, the other six intercalated tau- 
tozoually at 45° between each two of the first. 

If we take the first three planes of symmetry parallel to the three 
principal sections, it results immediately, from the existence of the other 
planes of symmetry, that the ellipsoid of polarization must be a sphere 
whose radius is different for different colors. A sphere has only circu- 
lar sections ; therefore, simple refraction is produced in all directions. 

We have above considered only the cases where the similar principal 
sections of all colors very nearly coincided ; the exceptions to this law 
are really very rare, and present no difficulties. Observation by means 
of monochromatic glasses or sources of light always allows a very quick 
orientation. 

We have also in the above description left out crystals with one axis, 
which polarize circularly, because they, in spite of the greatest theoret- 
ical differences, can practically be regarded exactly as the other mono- 
axial crystals, with the exception of the image of the axis, which inside 
of the rings shows that the black cross is replaced by a uniform color, 
which is dependent on the thickness of the plate. 

It is now no longer necessary to describe the special behavior of sec- 
tions of different crystals with respect to the orientation of their direc- 
tion of vibration. The orientation of the ellipsoid, with regard to the 
axes of the crystal and their respective planes of symmetry, is given 
above ; if, therefore, the crystallographic orientation of a plate is known, 
the kind of section in the ellipsoid and the directions of vibration can 
be at once determined. Inversely, the experimentally easily-determined 
position of the direction of vibration of a section of known crystal- 
lographic orientation gives a starting-point for the determination of 
the system. 

Eeviewing the method of development of the foregoing sketch, we 
see, as the starting-point, the law of experience, that by the selection 
of a certain method of representation, the symbols of all faces and zones 
consist of whole numbers, whose relations with one another are therefore 
rational numbers. 

From the rationality of these numbers follows, in a way which we 
could only briefly dwell upon, that only such groupings of faces are 
possible which belong to one of the seven different kinds of symmetry, 
the seven systems of crystallization. From the general law of the 



266 PKINCIPLES OF CRYSTALLOGKAPHY. 

movement of ligbt in crystals resulted the ellipsoid of polarization for 
the derivation of all special rules. The relations of symmetry of the 
separate systems of crystallization allow us to discover in a very simple 
manner the nature of the ellipsoid of polarization, and with it the optical 
characters of every system, with which we have completed the object 
of this memoir. 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



By Dr. Wceikof, 
Of the Bussian Imperial Geograpliical Society. 



The first meteorological observations in Russia were made about the 
middle of the eighteenth century. The points of observation were few, 
scattered irregularly over the country, with very different methods and 
instruments. About the end of the last century attention was directed 
to that distant but highly Interesting land, Siberia. The natural his- 
tory of the country having been studied by Lepechin, Pallas, Gmelin, and 
others, the necessity of investigating its climate was also felt. Some 
efforts were made in this direction ; thermometers were distributed, but 
the result w^as not encouraging, and we know next to nothing relative to 
these first Siberian observations. Even at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century the necessity of the study of meteorology was not gener- 
ally recognized in Eussia, and only as late as about 1820 were the num- 
ber of points of observation increased. Between the years 1820 and 
1835 meteorological observations were made in about thirty places, gen- 
erally by private individuals, without any unity of plan, and often with 
imperfect instruments. Probably even many of the journals kept at 
that time were lost to science, for every observer worked by himself, 
and had generally no communication with each other and the leading 
savans of the time. 

The great impulse given to the study of magnetism in 1828 had an 
influence on meteorology. In that year the " magnetische verein" was 
founded in Germany, and its president. Baron Humboldt, made great 
efforts to induce the Eussian government to establish magnetical obser- 
vations in its dominions. The Academy of Sciences warmly seconded 
this effort, and in consequence magnetical observatories were estab- 
lished at St. Petersburg, Kasan, Nicolajef, Sitka, and Pekin, and some- 
time afterward at Catherineuburg, (Ural,) Barnaul, (West Siberia,) and 
the mines of Kertschinsk, (East Siberia.) 

In 1833 Kupfer presented a plan of reorganization of the mag- 
netical observatories, so as to include meteorology. He was supported 
by the minister of finance and the chief of the engineers of mines 
K. W. Tchefkine. This plan was approved by the Emperor Nicholas 
and, like the system of magnetical observations, was placed under super 
vision of the department of mines, with its center at St. Petersburg, 
Magnetical and hourly observations were to be made at the following 
places: St. Petersburg, Barnaul, Catherineuburg, and Nertschinsk, and, 



268 METEOROLOGY IN EUSSIA. 

in addition, meteorological observations at Bogoslovlsk and Zlatonste, 
(Ural) and Lngan, (Southern Russia.) The observations were to be pub- 
lished at the expense of the department of mines : and Kupfer was ap- 
l)ointed director of the system. All this was accomplished between 1835 
and 1841. The observatories, however, of Nicolajef, Sitka, and Pekin 
were not under Kupfer's direction, nor was that of TiHis, founded in 
1844. A yearly publication, under the title of " Annuaire magnetique et 
meteorologique," was devoted to the meteorological observations of the 
stations of the department of mines, as also to those of Sitka, Pekin, 
and Tillis. 

In 1849 the Russian central physical observatory was founded. No 
change was made in the position of the principal points, but the obser- 
vatory entered in communication with jirivate observers, furnished them 
with good compared instruments, and published the daily means of 
their observations, as also those of the government stations, in a quar- 
terly volume named "Correspondence meteorologique." The publication 
of the hourly observ^ations of the principal stations continued under the 
title of " Annales de I'observatoire physique central." Thus for the first 
time a general system of meteorological observations was founded in 
Russia. New observers volunteered to assist in the woik, and public 
institutions took part in this movement. The department of public 
lands furnished good instruments to its schools of agriculture, and some 
of their observations are very valuable. Mr. Wesselovsky stimulated 
their zeal and began at the same time to collect the meteorological 
journals of private observers, for a general work on the climate of Russia. 
Many journals were thus saved from oblivion, and the results of many 
private exertions were placed in the reach of the scientific world. 

His " Climate of Russia " appeared in 1857, and, being still the most 
extensive and complete work on this subject, I may be allowed to give 
an account of its contents : 

The author having the intention of publishing a strictly climatological 
work, with a view to apply his researches to statistics, and especially to 
the inllaeuce of climate on man, unfortunately excluded all that relates 
to the pressure of the air. Extensive tables are, however, given of the 
mean temperature for one hundred and forty-seven stations, in which 
number twenty-six are for Siberia and Russian America, with a clear ex- 
Ijosition of the principal features of the distribution of the temperature, 
and an appendix on the heating jiower of the sun's rays and the tem- 
13erature of the soil. A table is also given of the freezing and opening 
of one hundred and forty rivers and lakes. In this respect the compiler, 
Mr. Wesselovsky, was favored by the particular position of the rivers of 
Russia, and the attention always paid to this subject. Yet the collection 
of much of the datawas due to his strenuous exertions. We are present- 
ed with an unbroken record of the time of freezing and opening of the 
Neva, at St. Petersburg, reaching back to 1706, that is, for one hun- 
dred and sixty-seven years, and records of from eighty to one hundred 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



269 



years for about ten otber places. The most important part of the work 
relates lo the winds. Wesselovsky was the lirst to prove that in south- 
ern Eussia the winds are easterly in autumn and winter, while in the 
center and northern part of the country they are from the southwest at 
this time of year, the same as in England and Germany. These relations 
of the wind to the seasons were exposed with the greate.st clearness, 
and the new data since collected have only confirmed Wesselovsky's 
views; as I shall afterwards show, surprising as it may appear, the 
anemology of Eussia and Siberia is even now misunderstood, especially 
by foreign meterologists. A chapter on vapor, clouds, rain, and hail 
follows. The observations were very few, while these phenomena, 
being local, can only be well studied when we have a great number 
of observations. The last chapter of the woi^k is also of great import- 
ance 5 it treats of the changes of climate, and presents conclusive evi- 
dence that appreciable changes have not taken place in historical times. 
By consulting the classical authors, Wesselovsky shows that the general 
opinion that the climate of Southern Eussia has become milder has no 
foundation. If Ovid, banished to the countries of the lower Danube, is 
astonished at the rigor of the climate, this is quite natural for a south- 
erner. The Danube froze at that time as it freezes now, at least in its 
lower parts. The facts related by Herodotus relative to Scy thia are still 
more important. At that time, as now, rains and thunder storms were 
frequent in summer, and this was new to a Greek, accustomed as he was 
to a rainless summer in his own country, while the rains of winter were 
less abundant in Scy thia than on the shores of the Mediterranean. 

Herodotus also tells us that Southern Eussia was a steppe, (^) at his 
time, as it is now, and probably has been during the whole of the pres- 
ent geological period. 

The freezing and opening of rivers affords the author another proof 
that the climate has not changed in this respect since the beginning of 
the eighteenth century; at least that the time when the temperature 
is below the freezing-point is now the same as before. There is certainly 
a great variation in this respect in single years, and even in periods of 
from ten to twenty years. But nothing indicates a i)ermanent change 
of climate. Cold years are followed by warm ones, and vice versa. If 
we take periods of thirty years at St. Petersburg, we have as follows : 



Years. 


Freeziug. 


Opening. 


Days frozen. , 


1724-.')3 


Novcmher. 

•■Z'o.l 

29.7 
22.0 
26.9 


April. 
22.G 

20.G 

23.2 

19.5 


148.7 


1754-178:5 


14:3.4 


1784-181:! 


153.2 


1814-184;} 


144.6 







(') Jreeles' region, prarie. 



270 METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 

If we take i^eriods of sixty years the difference is still less. 



Years. 


Freezing. 


Days frozen. 


1724-1783 


Noveinhcr. 
27.4 
24.5 


145.1 


1794-1853 


147-9 







The Diina at Kiga, where we have some observations made in the 
sixteenth century, gives a similar result. The average time ot the open- 
ing of the river, in forty years of the sixteenth century, was x\pril9.6; 
in ninety-one years of the eighteenth century, it was April 7.2 ; in fifty- 
four years of the nineteenth century was 8.4. The Dwina at Arch- 
angel and the Dnepr at Kiev also show very slight differences between 
this century and the last. 

The second part of Vfesselovski's work contains extensive tables in- 
valuable to the meteorologists. The mean temperature, the number of 
rainy days, and amount of fallen water, are given for every mouth of 
every year, so far as he could obtain the data. This collection of obser- 
vations is extremely important for the study of the non-periodic varia- 
tions of the meterological elements. The freezing and opening of riv- 
ers is given for every year separately, and it is much to be desired that 
such tables should be obtained for other countries. As yet they are 
very few in number, and no country of any considerable extent has 
tables of this kind comparable to those given by Wesselovsky. 

About the year 1850 the geographical society of Eussia began to col- 
lect information on the climate of tbe empire. No society or institution 
has the means of enlisting the cooperation of so many meterological 
observers as this society, it being widely known throughout the coun- 
try, and having a great number of correspondents. It was thought 
necessary to collect topographical descriptions of different places, as a 
foundation of local climate, as well as observations of the periodical 
phenomena. In 1857 a meterological committee of the society recom- 
mended the establishment of a periodical devoted to the meteorology 
of Eussia, as well as to allied branches of this science. The society 
adopted this recommendation, and the journal known as the " Eeperto- 
rium fiir Meteorologie " was established under the directorship of 
•Kiimtz from 1859 to 18G3. Three volumes appeared and were highly 
valued by men of science. The most important contribution was 
by Kiimtz, " Klima der siidrussischen Steppeu." About this time, espe- 
cially since ISGO, a general belief was entertained that the system of 
meteorological observations established in Eussia had proved a failure, 
the money given by the government had been expended to little 
purpose, that the whole system required reorganization. As is generally 
found in such cases, there was considerable truth, and also a great deal 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 271 

of exaggeration in this opinion. The enormous extent of country over 
"which the meteorological stations were scattered prevented their fre- 
quent revision, a condition necessary to the successful working of 
a meteorological system. The instruments of the stations were not fre- 
quently enough compared with the standards. All this certainly rendered 
the observations less valuable than they would otherwise have been, 
yet the location of the observatories, especially those of Barnaul and 
of Nertschinsk, in a country the study of which is especially important 
to meteorology, rendered even second-rate observations valuable. On 
the other hand, the liberality of the Kussian government in publishing 
the observations in full was of great use to science. It is onlj' within 
the last ten or fifteen years that we have learned the great \'alue of ac- 
tual observations, while in former times monthly means were thought 
quite sufficient. The Eussian imblicatious were not valued as highly 
as they merited, because they were in advance of their time, and we 
are now able to say that the system of observations and publications 
established by the Kussian government was not a failure, but rendered 
good service to science. 

About the year 18G5 efforts were made to extend the meleorological 
observations and establish a system of telegraphic bulletins. The min- 
isters of the navy and public instruction took an interest in the 
enterprise, but the practical result was next to nothing. 

After the death of Kupfer, Kiimtz was nominated director of the 
physical observatory. Extensive reforms in the organization of the 
meteorological system began at this time, and were continued by his 
successor. Dr. H. Wihl. The physical observatory is now placed under 
the authority of the academy of sciences, and that body has the choice 
of its director. A new set of instruments was ordered to be made, 
compared at the observatory, and sent to the different stations. The 
centigrade scale for the thermometer, and metrical divisions for 
the barometer, and rain-gauge have been in use since 1870, so that 
nearly the whole continent of Europe have the same measures for the 
meteorological instruments. The German meteorological system, directed 
by Dove, alone forms an exception, having the Eeaumur scale for the 
thermometer and the old French measures for barometer and rain- 
gauge. The form of publication was also changed; hourly observa- 
tions had ceased since 1868 except at Tiflis, and it was decided to 
publish the observations made thrice a day, without any difference 
between stations maintained by the government and those of private 
observers. The first Annales published in this way were those of 1865; 
those of 1866, 1867, and 1868 were in the same form, while the obser- 
vations of 1870 and 1871, made after the new system, are already pub- 
lished, and those of 1872 in active preparation. No meteorological 
system in Europe has a publication of the same importance, for 
it must be repeated that original data are especially necessary in the 
present condition of science. These data must be printed to render 



272 METEOROLOGY IN EUSSIA. 

them most useful, and also to place them within reach of every 
studeDt of meteorology. This is generally recognized by all men of 
science in Europe, and they would establish a similar system of publi- 
cations if only the money could be procured to defrffy the expense. In 
the present position of central and western Europe this is very difficult, 
as the expenditure for military operations has increased to the utmost, 
and the governments are very economical in their appropriations for 
scientific purposes. Happily Eussia is now in a better condition, and 
can afford to devote more means to the cultivation of science and other 
truly useful purposes. 

We have seen that the system of publication adapted in Eussia is com- 
mendable. The other points of the system are far from being as good. 
(1.) There are too few stations in many parts of the country, especially in 
the North and in Siberia. (2.) The stations are too seldom visited, and 
their instruments compared with standards. (3.) The practical applica- 
tions of meteorology are lost sight of by the physical observatory. The 
inconvenience arising from the too great distance of the stations from 
the central observatory has already been recognized. Wild proposed to 
have branch central observatories in the university towns, and some 
other iiriucipal cities of the empire, the director of which would each 
have the supervision of a part of the country. The directors of these 
observatories would inspect the stations as often as possible, and com- 
pare their instrument with standards. The central physical observatory 
at St. Petersburg would have th determine as to the system of ob- 
servation and registration to be adopted, and to reduce, discuss, and 
l)ublish the observations from all parts of Eussia. It was proposed to 
have such branch observatories in Moscow, Kasan, Charkof, Kiev, 
Odessa, Dorpat, Warsaw, and Helsingfors, Wilna, Titlis, Irkutsk, Tasch- 
kend, and Pekin which would complete the system. At Tiflis the system 
is in operation, as the director of the observatory at this place has the 
control of the observations niadein the Caucasian provinces, inspects their 
instruments, &c., and sends their observations, after discussion, to Peters- 
burg to be published. Unfortunately this system of centres could not 
be fully realized for want of means. The principal reason why the me- 
teorological system of Eussia, so excellent in many respects, cannot be 
completed as was intended, is that meteorology has uot been practically 
applied in Eussia, and the observatory has not interested the people at 
large in its principles and importance. This is true to such an extent 
that very few, even in St. Petersburg, have an idea of the existence 
of a central physical observatory. Indeed the notion is prevalent that 
meteorology is a part of the operations of the astronomical observatory 
of Pulkowa ; this being the case, a much less number of observers are 
willing to do the work imposed by the regulations of the government, 
and for which they are not paid, because they do not have a definite no- 
tion of what becomes of their work when it is sent to St. Petersburg. 
Some of the former observers have refused to undertake the greater 



METEOROLOGY IN EUSSIA. 273 

amount of labor necessary in carrying out the new system, and certainly 
there are many of these who are quite unknown to men of science, 
whose laborious eflbrts have in a great measure been lost for want of 
proper instructions of what and how to observe. A second drawback 
experienced in carrying on this system is the difficulty, to which we 
have before alluded, of getting the additional grant of public money so 
necessary to the further progress of meteorology as well as to its prac- 
tical application. So far from interfering with the progress of pure 
science, the practical applications, in extending the number of observa- 
tions and increasing the number of men interested in science, can only 
conduct to new discoveries. 

In speaking of practical appliances I, of course, refer to the system 
of weather telegrams and predictions so extensively used at present in 
the United States. 

As some of the general movements of the atmosphere have been 
determined, and it is known that in Eussia the storms move from west 
to east, as they generally do in the middle latitudes of the globe, we 
are in a very favorable position for the prediction of the weather, much 
more so than those in Western Europe, and scarcely less than in the 
United States. As a great many meteorological stations exist in the 
west of Europe, it is easy to obtain telegraphic communications relative 
to the weather from them for the mere expense of the telegrams. The 
Norwegian meteorological institute has already established fore warn- 
ings of storms, and it would be only necessary to establish telegraphic 
lines to the shores of the Arctic and White Seas, for the benefit of the 
shipping and fisheries of these regions. The western part of llussia, 
with the Arctic, White, Baltic, and Black Seas, would thus mainly de- 
■peiul on intelligence received from abroad, while the raih'oad officials and 
travelers inland could be warned of the approach of storms of snow and 
rain by the intelligence received from Western Eussia. The delays on 
the railroads and the great loss of life which frequently occur on ordinary 
roads could thus to a great extent be prevented. After the climatical 
features of Eussia have been sufilicieutly studied, agriculture itself would 
profit by the warnings of heavy rains and thunder-storms predicted in 
advance ; they would be prepared for and lose a part of their baleful 
influence. Within the three las^ years the geographical society has 
again busily occupied itself in promoting the study of meteorology in 
Eussia, and the success of the first two years of this work is very en- 
couraging. The geographical society did not, however, wish to inter- 
fere with the business of the physical observatory, yet the inability of 
this institution to perform all the labor was too clear to be ignored. It 
was proposed to elect a meteorological commission from among the meui- 
bers of the society. This commission was elected in the beginning of 
the year 1870, and discharges the duties of meteorological societies in 
other countries ; that is, it furnishes the theoretical and i^ractieal prop- 
ositions of the science. 
18 s 



274 METEOROLOGY IN EUSSIA. 

A general system of rains and tbiintler-storm observations was com- 
menced, in the prosecution of wliich the society was much faivored by 
its extensive correspondence throughout the country. Circulars ex- 
l^laining the necessity and mode of observations were sent to the corre- 
sponding- members, to various schools, to the presidents of the district 
assemblies, &c. A cheap rain-gauge was also adopted, of which the 
principle is simple and its use easy to understand. Of these there were 
about sixty new observers in the spring of 1871, while all the necessary 
preparations were not completed until the autumn of 1870. A year 
later the number of observers had increased to about two hundred, and 
this state of things continued to be very i)romising up to the time when 
I left St. Petersburg, in December, 1872. The success of this effort 
proves that it is not diflicult to find many persons willing to work for 
science, even if an immediate practical result is not expected, provided 
only that the final utility of the results is properly explained. 

To obtain this very desirable result it was necessary to i)ublish and 
send to the observers papers on meteorological subjects, which would tend 
to awaken and snstiiin their interest in the subject. This was done by 
the geographical society in ]Sros. 1 and 5 of its " iswastia " which contained 
papers of this kind, copies of which were sent to all observers, and 
generally distributed. Being secretary of the meteorological commis- 
sion, I was charged with the duty of drawing up the result of the first year 
of observation, from December, 1S70, to November, 1871. The results 
obtained were better than could have been expected from the variable 
nature of aqueous precipitation. It was even possible from the data to 
draw isohyetal lines, tlie first ever attempted in Russia, for the months 
of May, July, August, and September, 1871. It was found easier to 
draw isohyetal lines for one single month than for means of different 
years in difierent places. As to the thunder-storms, it was less easy to 
obtain general results from the few observations made in 1871 ; maps 
could not be drawn from them. On the other hand, the results for the 
direction of thunder-storms and the hours at which they occurred were 
satisfactory. The most prevailing direction was from southwest, next 
from south,southeast, west and northwest, while from the other direc- 
tions their appearance was very seldom indeed. The hour of the most 
frequent occurrence of thunder-storms was about 3 p. m. At some sta- 
tions situated from one hundred to two hundred and fifty miles east 
of the Ural mountains a second hour of maximum occurrence existed 
late in the evening. As the storms move from W. to E. these latter ones 
evidently originated in the Ural mountains, where it is known that fre- 
quent and very violent thunder-storms occur in summer, and moving 
eastward arrived later in the day. A similar feature could be noticed 
in the southwestern group, Kiev, Podolia, and Volhynia. They are to 
the east of the Karpathians, and the thunder-storms from that quarter 
reach them in the night. 

The geographical society further decided to devote a volume of its 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 275 

(" Sapiski ") memoirs entirely to meteorology, especially to investiga- 
tious relative to the climate of Kiissia. The reason of this decision was 
the desire that was felt to have this subject thoroughly investigated, so 
as to produce a work on the level of the science of our time, as 
Wesselovski was of that of sixteen years before. It was hoped that 
the members of the meteorological commission would contribute to the 
desired result, which could only be attained by the united efforts of 
many laborers. The plan of periodical publication of the society 
"isvastia" was not well adapted to meteorological works of great 
extent, being principally devoted to the progress of geography. The 
Siberian section of the geographical society at Irkutsk has also estab- 
lished a meteorological commission, with the same powers as that of 
St. Petersburg. Many observations made in Eastern Siberia are reduced 
and discussed there, and much progress in the science may be ex- 
pected from that quarter. There are few countries so interesting to 
meteorology and yet so little known as Eastern Siberia. It includes 
the meteorological pole of winter — that is the coldest region in this sea- 
son — and besides embraces an enormous extent of country, with every 
variety of local climates. 

A secondary meteorological center at Irkutsk is also very important 
for the supervision of stations and comparison of instruments. It is 
next to impossible to effect these objects from St. Petersburg. 

It would be going too far to mention the efforts of the various gov- 
ernment boards and societies to establish systems of meteorological ob- 
servations in different parts of Eussia, the more so as a unity of direc- 
tions is now shown to be necessary to the progress of this science. Most 
of these systems are now united with that of the i)hysical observatory, 
having adopted the same measures and methods. This is the case with 
the navy, which has meteorological stations on the White, Baltic, 
Black, and Caspian Seas, and also on the Pacific coast. 

We shall now give a brief exposition of what is known of the climate 
of Eussia, what are the advances made in latter years, and what re- 
mains to be done in this respect. 

Our knowledge of the temperature of Eussia is far more complete 
than that of the other meteorological elements. A striking fact has 
been brought to our knowledge in the last ten or fifteen years, that the 
mean temperature of winter is higher on the shores of the Arctic Ocean 
than to the south of it on the same meridian. Near the North Cape it 
is higher, even if we advance from southwest to northeast, while in the 
rest of Europe the northeastis the coldest quarter. This isduetothe warm 
waters of the Gulf Stream, which flows along the north coast of Norway, 
and farther along the Eussian Murman coast as far as the Svjatoi Noss, 
(Holy Cape.) The waters in this region never freeze, even masses of 
floating ice are never seen in them, and they communicate their tem- 
perature to the surrounding air. The places in the interior of the con- 
tinent, far from the warming influences of the Gulf stream, will natur- 



276 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



ally have a lower winter temperature. No long meteorological observa- 
tions bave been made on the Murman coast, but the cities of Northern 
Norway situated on the same ocean, and subjected also to the influence 
of the Gulf stream, have a very similar climate. For the consideration 
of the winter and summer temperature of the same meridian from north 
to south we will refer to the following table : 

Meridian about 22°. 



Hammerfest, 71° N 

Torneo, 66o N 

Helsingfors, 60^> N . 
Mitaw, 57'^ N 

Warsaw, 52° N 



Winter. Summer 



23.9 
0.4 

20.7 
24.8 
27.0 



49.0 
57.9 
59.0 
62.1 
63.5 



Diff. 



25.9 
51. 5 
38.3 
37.3 

36.5 



Meridian ahout 29"^ E.from Greemcich. 



Winter. Summer 



Diff. 



Wardoe, 70° N . . . . 
Petersburg, 60° N 

Gorki, 54° N 

Kiev, 50-2 N 

Odessa, 47° N . . . . 
Sevastopol, 45*^ N 



21.9 
17.4 
18.1 
22.6 
27. 9 
36.9 



45.9 
60.8 
61.5 
65. 3 
70. 3 
72.7 



24.0 
43. 4 

43.4 
4'J.7 
42.4 
3i3.8 



We see that Wardoe has nearly the same temperature in winter as 
that of Kiev, situated 20° to the south on the same meridian. Even far 
from the shores of the Arctic Ocean the increase of temperature from 
north to south is very slow. It is accelerated only Avhen we approach 
the shores of the Black Sea. Here again the warming influence of the 
salt-water basins is felt, while the temperature of summer also increases 
rapidly, and this for the reason that South Eussia is principally a steppe, 
(prairie,) and such treeless regions are more heated by the sun than 
those covered with woods. 

In the case of increase of temperature from north to south. Northern 
and Central Eussia are very diflerent from the United States, the former 
having the least and the latter the largest increase of temperature from 
north to south known in any extensive region. This increase is as fol- 
lows in Eussia, for 1 degree of latitude in degrees of Fahr. : 



From GU° N. to 50° N 
From 50° N. to 42° N . 

Diiiereuce 



Year. 



Winter. 



0.70 

1.78 



1.08 



0. 58 
2.79 



2.21 



Summer. 



0.76 

0.81 



0. 05 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



277 



The temperature of the winter is also higher on the western coast of 
Nova Zembla than in the northeast of European Eussia and Western 
Siberia. It has been found to be 5.7 on the 74° north in Nova Zembla, 
while it is - 6.5 at Berezov, (04° N.,) l.G at Ischim (50° N.,) and 10. 2 
at Kasalinsk, on the lower Syr-Daria, (46° N.,) so that it is only 4^o 
higher, for a difference of 28° of latitude. The mildness of winter tem- 
perature on the Arctic Ocean is also illustrated by the fact that, while 
this ocean does not freeze so far as the Swjotoi Noss, the Caspian and 
Azov Seas, in a latitude of about 40°, freeze to a great extent. 

The observations made in Eussia furnish us with the means of tracing 
the changes of temj)erature from east to west, from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Ocean. Generally the winter temperature decreases as we ad- 
vance into the interior of the continent from west to east, and increases 
a little on the eastern shores of Asia, Yet, being much lower there than 
in Western Europe, the temperature in the interior is a little higher in 
summer than near the Atlantic, and decreases very rapidly near the 
Pacific, being much colder there than anywhere else on the same par- 
allel in Europe or Asia. 

Parallel of 70° N. 



Wardoe, (Norway,) 29° E .'. 

S. E. coast of Nova Zemla, 57° E 
Ustjavsk, 1380 E 



Winter. 


Suuimer. 


21.9 

3. 2 
— .35. 9 


45.9 
35. G 

40. 8 



Diff. 



24. 
32.4 

72.7 



Parallel of 02^ to 64° K 



Thorshavn, Feroe Island 7° W 

Soudmor, Norway, 6° E 

Wore, (Finland,) 22° E 

Ustsisolsli, 51° E 

Berezov, 65° E 

Jakutsk, 130° E 



Winter, 


Summer. 


39.2 


54.7 


27.1 


55.8 


17.4 


59. 4 


7.5 


59.4 


— 6.5 


.58.1 


— 37. 3 


58,0 



Diff. 



1.5.5 
28.7 
42.0 
51. 9 
64.6 
95,9 



The difference between the limited climate of the shores of the Atlan- 
tic and the excessive climate of the interior of Eastern Siberia is strik- 
ingly illustrated by this example. The difference of the mean temper- 
ature of January and July in the last place is more than 100°, (January, 
— 41.4; July, 63.3.) Unfortunately we have no observations on the 
shores of the Pacific north of the 59th degree. The winter temperature 
would certainly be much higher there than at Jakutsk. 



278 



METEOROLOGY IN EUSSIA. 
Parallel of 59° K 



Saudwick Orkney, 3^ W . 
Eeval, 250E 

Wologda, 40° E , 

Bogoslowsk, (1) 60° E ... 
OcLotzt, (Pacific,) 143° E 



Winter. Summer. 



39.7 
22. 3 
12. 9 

- 0.2 

- 8.1 



53. .5 

59. 
GO. 8 
58. 9 
52.1 



Diff. 



13.8 
36.7 
47.9 

59.1 
60.2 



Parallel of 50° N. 



Winter. 



Summer. 



Diff. 



Glasgow, 4-^ W 

Copenhagen, 13° E... 

Moscow, 37° E 

Kasan, 490E 

Ischim, 69° E 

Ajan, (Pacific,) 138° E 



38.8 
31.3 
14.7 
11.0 
1.5 
- 1.1 



57.2 
62.1 
64.3 
64.8 
63.6 
51. 4 



18.4 
30.8 
49.6 
53.8 
61.1 
52.5 



Parallel of 53° N. 



Dublin, 6° W 

Groningen, 7° E 

Orel, 36° E 

Pensa, 45° E 

Barkaul, 340E 

Nicolajevsk, (Amoor,) 140- E 
Petropavlovsk, Kamtcbatka 



Winter. 



41.6 

35.1 

17.1 

8.1 

1.0 

— 6.3 

20. 3 



Summer. 



58.6 
63.5 
65.1 
65. 3 
64.9 
58.9 
55. 5 



Diff. 



17.0 

28.4 
48.0 
57.2 
63.9 
65.2 
35.2 



Parallel of 46° N. 



La Eochelle, 1° W 

Venice, 12° E 

Odessa, 30° E 

Astrachan, 48° E. 
Kasalinsk, 64° E . . 



Winter. 



39.7 
38.8 
27.9 
22.4 
10. 2 



Sunmier. 



67.6 
72.5 

70. 3 
74.9 
73.6 



Diff. 



27.9 
33.7 
42.4 
52. 5 
63. 4 



(') Above 700 feet eastern slope of tbe Ural. 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 
Parallel of 39° to 40° N. 



279 



Lisbon, 9° W 

Naples, 150 E 

Lenkoran, (Caucasus,) 48^^ E 
Pekiu, (China) 



Winter. 



50. 

47.8 
Ij9 9 

28.8 



Summer. 



70.0 
72. 9 
75. G 

77.9 



Diff. 



20.0 
25. 1 
35.7 
49.1 



The diflereiice between the east and west is less sensible in the lower 
latitudes than northof the 50th degree. Scarcely will the winter be found 
colder anywhere on the 40th degree than in Pekin, and yet the difference 
between this place and Lisbon, on the Atlantic, is only 26°, while the 
winter climates of Dublin and Nicolajevsk differ by 47.9, and yet in the 
last place tlie temperature is already milder, because of the proximity 
of the Pacilic. Blagovestscheusk, on the upper Amoor, latitude 50°, 
has a winter temperature of — 8.5, while in Kelston, in Southwestern 
England, it is 40.0 ; difference, 54.5. 

The summer temperatures are much more equable, being lowest on 
the Pacific shore, (Ochotsk, Ajan, Petropavlovsk.) 

The ratio of the change of temperature in European Eussiafrom w^est 
to east may be adopted as follows, in degrees F. for 1° of longitude : For 
the year: — 0.25; winter, — 0.56; summer, 0.13, (i) that is, it increases 
very little in summer and decreases very rapidly in winter. In this last 
season the decrease from -west to east and from south to north is the 
same- 

The extensive plains of liussia and Western Siberia are very favorably 
situated for this kind of study, since the local peculiarities do not in- 
terfere with the result as much as in other countries. In Eastern Sibe- 
ria the conditions are different ; the country is intersected by many 
mountain chains ; the vicinity of the Pacific modifies the climate to a 
great extent. On the other hand, as the points of observation are very 
widely scattered, it is not to be wondered that we know very little as 
yet of the climate of this interesting country. The pole of winter cold 
is situated, we know, at or near Jakutsk, on the Lena. As I have said 
before, the general system of meteorological observations did not extend 
so far northward, and it was a private individual, Mr. Keverof, to whom 
we are indebted for thie twenty-five years' observations at Jakutsk. In 
Eastern Siberia, as in Western, the cold of winter is more intense in the 
interior of the continent than on the shores of the Arctic; the coldest 
known winter being at Jakutsk, latitude 02° N. In this respect Asia 
seems to differ very much from America, as here the coldest peninsulas 
and islands of the Arctic Ocean are far beyond 70° N. 

The cause of this difference is probably that the Arctic north of the 
Asiatic continent is not entirely frozen, even in winter, while the nu- 



(I) Haun, I.e., p. 394. 



280 



METEOEOLOGY IN EUSSIA. 



nieroiivS bays aucl sounds north of America are covered with an un- 
broken sheet of ice and snow. These bodies being very bad conduct- 
ors of heat, their surface, and the air immediately overlying them, can 
cool to a great extent, as would a continent. These facts should be borne 
in mind wheu speaking of the climate of Eastern Asia and America, ex- 
plaining the differences found, contrary to the general opinion of the 
similarity of the eastern shores of both great continents. The changes 
of temperature with elevation are also very much modified by the gen- 
eral features of Eastern Siberia, geographically and climatically. We 
know two high points of this country which have a higher mean winter 
temperature than the surrounding lowlands. These points are Mount 
Alibert 52^ 30' N. latitude, and 100° 41' longitude E. of Greenwich, 
7.300 feet high, and the mines of Wosnesensk, 58° 46' latitude X., llo*^ 
10' E., 2,817 feet high. (^) Igivehere the temperatures of January as they 
were observed, and the supposed temperatures of the same points at sea- 
level, according to Dove's isothermal map. 

Temperature, of January. 





Observed. 


Supposed. 


Differeuce. 


Mines of Woaneseusk. . 
Moiiut Alibert 


+ 13,0 
2.1 


— 26. 5 

— 6.0 


13.5 

8.1 



We see that these high points have a much warmer winter tempera- 
ture than was supposed. Wosnesensk is not very far from Jakutsk, 
where the temperature of January is — 41° 4', that is, more than 27° lower. 
Irkutsk is not far from Mount Alibert, and has a much lower winter 
temperature. 

The increase with the height iu winter in these two cases being shown, 
the question follows as to the cause. In clear, cold spring niglits vegeta- 
bles are often known to suffer from frost in low situations, while those 
on hills escape injury. This has long been explained by the action of 
radiation and gravity, when the air is calm. The colder and denser 
l)ortions have a natural tendency to flow downward, and this tendency 
in a clear, calm night is not counteracted by the suu and winds, as it 
is generally during the day. Now a condition, analogous to that of 
spring, does prevail very generally iu Eastern Siberia, especially in 
winter. The air is calm, the sky clear, the sun appears only for a short 
time, and the superposition of strata of air which would be caused by 
radiation and gravity is very little impeded. It is not to be wondered 
at, then, that a condition which is rare in Europe and the United States 
should be so common in Siberia, so as to raise even the mean tempera- 
ture of high stations above that of low ones. A very general and strong 

(') For fnrtber particnlars see " Zeitschrift der Osterreichischen Gesellschaft fiir 
Meteorologie," year 1871, p. 52. 



METEOROLOGY IN EUSSIA. 



281 



west wind was also noticed in winter at Mount Alibert, and described 
as a warm wind, wliile, as we have said before, calms with intense radi- 
ation prevailed in the lowlands. 

These facts, as also much of what we begin to know abont the plateaus 
of iSTorth America, show that the so-called laws of decrease of tempera- 
ture with elevation are not generally applicable. The older notions on 
this point are taken from the observations in tropical South America 
and the mountain regions of Western Europe; that is, from maritime 
climates and mountain-chains. In regard to plateaus, these laws, we 
are sure, must be very different, but we are not able at present to state 
what they really are. In the present state of our knowledge we can 
only say that the decrease of temperature will be greater, first, in mount- 
ain-chains than on [>lateaus ; secondly", in summer than in winter, or gen- 
erally in warm temperatures than in cold 5 thirdly', in dry than in moist 
air. 

The parts of Asia belonging to Russia present the most interesting 
l)roblems relative to the influence of position on the distribution of 
temperature which can be found. Unfortunately these countries are 
scarcely emerged from darkness. 

The range of temperature is an important element, which ought to be 
more studied than it is at present. I will refer only to an oi)inion very 
widely entertained in Russia, that the Siberian climate is very constant 
in comparison with that of Europe. This is erroneous, at least so far 
as Western Siberia is concerned, which has a very variable temperature 
especially in winter, scarcely less than that of the Mississippi Yalley, so 
cc)nspicuous in this respect. 

The following table shows the mean highest and lowest tem])eratures 
of each month, observed with maximum and minimum thermometers, 
ibr twelve years, from 1851 to 18G2. 



Month. 



January . . 
l''ebrnary . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August - . - 
September 
October... 
Is'ovember 
December 



St. Petersburn 



a 



35.4 
34.0 
39.7 

74.3 

79.2 

83.3 

77.4 

C8.7 

57.4 

43. 

37.0 



-11.2 

-8.5 

-2.6 

15. fi 

29.1 

39.2 

48.9 

45.3 

34.9 

23.0 

4.1 

- 4.7 



4G.4 
42. 5 
42.3 
39.0 
45.2 
40.0 
34.4 
3-2.1 
33. P 
34,4 
39.4 
41.7 



Lugan, (Soutli- 
east Kussia.) 



3 



39.7 
40.5 
56.3 
77.0 
86.9 
92.7 
95.0 
93.9 
85.3 
74.8 
56.1 
43.0 



Pi 



-1.5.7 

-13.4 
- 2.4 
21.0 
34.5 
42.6 
50.0 
44.4 
34.7 
19.2 
5.7 



Barnaul, (West 
Siberia.) 



r^ 



28.2 
37.1 
41.2 
63.7 
82.0 
87.1 
89.4 
85.5 
75.0 
02.6 
41.9 
33.1 



-43.1 
-30.4 
-27.4 
1.4 
23.0 
30.7 
4G.3 
39.6 
25.9 
4.8 



O 



71.3 
08.6 
68.6 
63.3 
59.0 
50.4 
4.3.1 
45.9 
49.7 
57.8 
64.0 
07.7 



K'ertschin.slj, (2,000 
feet,) (East Si- 
beria.) 



3 



2. J- 

17.4 
40.6 
60.8 
79.2 
87.6 
86. 5 
84.4 
72.3 
57.0 
33.8 
11.1 



-42.9 
-35.1 
-22.2 
2.1 
21.4 
34.7 
45.1 
35.1 
22.8 
- 1.1 
-25.1 
-38 6 



5a 

s 

4.5.0 
52. 5 
62.8 
58.7 
57.8 
52.9 
41.4 
49.3 
49.5 
58.1 
58.9 
49.7 



282 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



Barnaul, in West Siberia, has tlie greatest range of temperature, nt 
least from November to May. In the winter Xertscliinsk has a rel- 
atively small range; it is the constant winter of Eastern Siberia; in Jan- 
uary the range is even smaller than at St. Petersburg. The maxima 
are clearly seen in IS'ertschinsk in March and November, while January 
and July have the least range. The temperature sometimes may fall as 
low in Western Siberia as in the eastern part of that country, only in 
the latter the cold is constant, and the thermometer never rises above 
the freezing-point from the first days of November to the middle of 
March. The following table gives the absolute maxima and minima of 
the winter months in the same period ; to which I have added those of 
Jakutsk for ten years, 1845-1854:, from observations taken thrice a day 





St. Petersburg, 
absolute. 


Liigan, 
absolute. 


Barnaul, 

absolute. 


Nertschinsk, 
absolute. 


Jakutsk, 
absolute. 


3 


3 
1 

oi 

41.0 
38.3 
37.2 


"a 

-17.5 
-31.0 
-23. 1 


8 

1 


3 


'3 


6 
o 

5 
1 

5 


1 
V. 


S 




V, 


f3 

5 


d 

s 
i 


a 


3 


o 

s 


Dec. 
Jan .. 
Feb .. 


58.5 
C9. 3 
CO. 3 


52.7 
45.3 
50. 3 


-33. 2 
-31.0 


85.9 
76.3 

81.4 


40.5 
3G.5 
42. 1 


-C7. 
-G4.7 

-58. 7 


107.5 
101.2 
100.8 


27.0 
14.0 

28.0 


-44.3 
-49.7 
-45. G 


71.8 
C3.7 

74.2 


0.5 

0. 

11.7 


-64.0 
-63. C 
-GO. 1 


64.5 
63.6 

71.8 



The absolute range is less in January in Eastern Siberia than in any 
other of the given points, while it surpasses 100° at Barnaul. At this 
last point od'^.o were observed on the Ith of December, 1800, and — 07.0 
on the IGtli of the same month, being a difference of 103.5c> in twelve 
days. These enormous variations of temperature have also been ob- 
served in the valley of the Jeuissei — for example at Krasnojarsk, oo.l on 
i'8th of November, 1840, and — 51.2 on the 30th, being 84.3 difference 
in 40 hours. In Eastern Siberia these enormous changes are unknown 
in mid-winter. 

The pressure of the air has received much less attention in Russia 
than the temperature, and this can be said of the observations, as well as 
of their calculation and tabulation. We do not possess as >et good 
barometrical tables, although we may hope to have them, as Lieutenant 
IiiJcatscJuf and Baron MaydcU, both of the physical observatory, are occu- 
pied with the reduction and discussion of all the barometrical observa- 
tions which they could obtain in Eussia. The largest collection of 
barometrical means for Russia is that in Buchan's work on " Mean 
l)ressure and winds." 

The great summer depression of the barometer is strongly marked in 
Southern and Central Russia, and is perceptible even larther to the 
wed.t. It probably attains its greatest amount on the plateau of Cen- 
tral Asia, from Eastern Turkestan to the 'Gobi, but we have not a single 
year of contiuued barometrical observation in this widely-extended 
country. The greatest amount of the summer depression known to us 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



28; 



was observed west of tbe plateaus, on the upper Iityseli and east of 
them at Pekin. The following- table shows the distribution of pressure 
in different months : 



Western Europe. 

E('il;iavig, (Iceland) 

Greenwich 

Hamnierpest. Xorway . 

Tldiue, North Italy 

Vienna 

North and West Eussia. 

Archangel 

St. Petersburg 

Kostroma 

Warsaw 

Kiev 

Eastern Asia. 

Irkutsk 

jSTertichinsk 

Pekin 



>^ 








a 








- 








hj 


*^ 


29.47 


20.00 


.7G 


.Kl 


.51 


.73 


.(i.i 


.58 


.36 


.30 


.74 


.70 


.85 


.78 


.34 


.15 


.59 


.44 


.88 


.67 


28.78 


28.19 


27.90 


27. 56 


30.24 


29. C7 



SQUth and East Jliissia. 

Odessa 

Lugan 

Samara 

Orenburg 

Astracan 

Caucasus. 

Redut Kale 

Tiflis 

Baku 

West Siberia and Central 
Asia. 

BogosloTsk 

Catherinbui'g 

Barnaul 

Novo Petrovsk 







:: 




Janu 




20. 88 


29. G7 


.83 


.48 


.60 


.43 


.87 


.44 


30. 22 


29. 88 


.00 


.84 


28. 55 


28. 20 


30.21 


29. 81 


29.28 


20. 05 


20. 13 


28.713 


.81 


20.10 


30.08 


72 



.21 
. .S5 
.37 
.43 
.34 



-.23 
-.35 
-.71 
-.36 



The monthly differences of pressure have only lately attracted general 
attention. The cause of this is that in Western Europe, Eastern ISTorth 
America, and the tropics, these differences are very small. It was only 
after the observations in Siberia, China, and India were known, that the 
barometrical depression of the summer was noticed, and the summer 
monsoon of India and China was explained by the rarefaction of the 
air in the middle of the continent, and the consequent drawing in of the 
air of the surrounding seas. 

Now that the relations of the pressure to the winds are better known, 
much more attention is given to barometrical observations, and espe- 
cially those of the Asiatic continent attract the attention of all me- 
teorologists. There are two problems which remain to be solved here 
in regard to this matter : (1) Barometrical observations in the interior of 
Asia, to ascertain the true amount of summer depression at a distance 
from the influence of the ocean, and (2) a line of levels from the Baltic 
to the Pacific Ocean. So long as the true height of Siberian points of 
observation is not known, and the adopted heights may be wrong from 
300 to 500 feet, we can know very little of the pressure of the air in this 
region. It is a circuJifs vitiosns, as the heights are measured by the 
barometer, and afterwards the observed barometrical readings are reduced 
to sea-level, on the supposition that the obtained height is true. The 
isobars drawn in Buchan's excellent work on the mean'pressure are not 
free from this reproach, as any isobars must be so long as the actual 
height is not accurately known. The plan of a line of levels from the 



284 JklETEOROLOGY IX RUSSIA. 

Ural Mountains to Lake Baikal was discussed last year by a special 
commission of the Eussian geographical society, and the importance of 
this work clearly pointed out. The council of the society, however, 
declined to undertake the work immediately for want of adequate 
means, yet it was hoped that private individuals would help the society 
in this important enteri^rise, the more so as it has a practical bearing. 
A line of railroad from Xijny-Xovgorod over the Ural to Irkutsk, 
ftnd from thence to the Amoor Siver, or directly to China, is in serious 
contemplation. Its feasibility is beyond doubt, as the difficulties are 
far from being so great as those of the American Paciiic Eailroads. 

The barometrical minima have an important bearing on the produc- 
tion of storms, as it is now well ascertained that these violent commo- 
tlous of the atmosphere are caused by a great barometrical diflerence 
between places near each other. Generally the barometer is very low in 
the center of a storm, this center drawing in from every direction the 
surrounding air. On the other hand, a great barometrical depression 
can only be sustained by the condensation of vapor ; cold and dry con- 
tinental areas will then arrest the progress of storms moving towards 
them. The coldest region of Siberia can have no storms in winter, if 
the foregoing views are correct. This is also the case; for example, at 
Il^ertschinsk, we find scarcely a moderate wind in the three winter 
months, calm or very light northwest winds being the rule. In West- 
ern Siberia calms prevail in very cold winter mouths, while the winds 
are stronger in warm winters. In considering European winter storms, 
*Mohn arrives at the following conclusions: 

Storm-centers move from S. 71° "W. in the Arctic and Atlantic 
Oceans, from X. 7^ W. in Scandinavia and Germany, and from X. 27^ 
W. in Russia. He says that the air is too cold and dry in Northern and 
Eastern Eussia to sustain the barometrical depression ; the condensation 
on the southern side is much greater, and so the storm moves south- 
ward, while the barometer rises in its center. The mean pressure in 
the center of storms is 28.68 inches over Scandinavia and Germany, 
and 29.13 over Eussia. 

Mohn has not attempted to trace the European storms to Siberia, as 
the observations were too few for this purpose. I have tried to gain 
some knowledge of the subject of storms by considering the barometri- 
cal range ; that is, the mean maxima and miuima of each month.f I 
can, however, only briefly state the results: The mean barometrical 
Hiinima of the winter months, reduced to sea-level, are : At Eeikiavik, in 
Iceland, 72G millimeters, or 28.5 inches ; at Hammerfest, Xorway, 730 
millimeters, or 28.7 inches ; at St. Petersburg, 737.3 millimeters, 29.0 
inches. At Barnaul, (West Siberia,) 754.7 millimeters, or 29.7 inches ; 
at Xertschiusk. (East Siberia,) 7G3 millimeters, or 30.04 inches. In 
the last-mentioned place, the mean barometrical miuima are an inch and 

' In his ••Srorm-Atlas." 

t Zeitscbrift der osterreichischen Gesellschaft fiir Meteorologie, year 1871, p. 161. 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 
Mean monthly haromeiric curves. 



285 




St.. Louis, Mo. 



Brunswick, Me. 



Hammerfest, Norway, 71° N. 



St. Petersburg, 60° N. 



Vienna, 48° N. 



Lugar, S. Eussia, ■18° N. 



Orenburg, E. Russia, 51° X. 



Catbariuenburg, Ural, 57° 2f. 



Barnaul, S. W. Siberia, 53° if. 



Minefs of Ncrtscliinsk, E. Siberia, 51° Uf., 
2,000 leet. 



Bekiu, Cbina, 40° If. 



28G 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



a lialf higher tlmn in Iceland. In Siberia the mean minima are also 
higher in January than in the other mouths, while generally iu Europe 
and North America the contrary is the case, indicating a greater inten- 
sity of the storms in midwinter. In the annexed diagram the move- 
ment of the minima is graphically represented. North America and 
Western Europe have the same system of curves, the miuima being 
highest iu summer, lowest in winter. In Siberia and Eastern Asia the 
contrary is the case ; this is especially marked at Pekin. The stations 
of Lugan, in S. Kussia, and Cathariuenburg, on the Ural, occupy an 
intermediary positiou, having neither the oceanic, nor the true continental 
type. The greatest difference between the last two places being that iu 
Lugan October has the highest minima iu the year, and Cathariuenburg 
the lowest. This is not accidental. In October the conditions of the 
temperature and moisture of the air on the Ural, and iu Siberia, are 
more favorable to the propagation of storms than in winter. In the 
same season the Atlantic storms take a ujore northern course, causing 
a great depression of the miuima on the Ural. In Southern Russia 
the pressure is generally high iu autumn, as also the miuima. Octo- 
ber is not a stormy month there, while November and December are. 

It is possible that in October Atlantic storms may reach as far as 
Jakutsk. The sky is generally overcast there, it is the most cloudy 
month of the year, and the number of west and southwest winds is great. 
The temperature has uot yet fallen so low, even in the northern inte- 
rior of Siberia, as to prevent the propagation of storms. 

We shall next consider the winds, whi(!h are in so intimate a connection 
with the pressure of the air. I have said before that Wesselovsky had 
proved the existence of a belt of eastern winds during autumn and winter 
in Southern Russia, while at the same time the southwest winds prevail 
iu the northern jjart of the country. The movements of the atmosphere 
are better known at the present time as far as the Jenissei, and I have 
been able to prove the existence of a belt of prevailing southwest winds 
in Northern Siberia, and of eastern winds in the south of that conntry 
and Central Asia. The division line runs about the parallel of 50° or 
52° north in Siberia, and a little more south near the shores of the Black 
Sea.* 

This is illustrated by the following table, which shows the percentage of 
winds in winter in Western Siberia, Central Asia, and Southeastern 

Russia : 

South of 52°. 



Oieuburg 

Seinipalatiusk 

Raimsk, (Syo-Daria) 
Astrachan 



I^. 


N.E. 


E. 


S.E. 


S. 


S.W. 


-AV. 


11 


17 


19 


8 


11 


17 


9 


1 


4 


2(5 


19 


15 


13 


13 


9 


19 


21 


IS 


8 


7 


12 


6 


Ifi 


22 


16 


3 


8 


15 



'" Tswiistia" of the Eussiau Geographical Society, year 1671, Xo. 5.) 



METEOROLOGY IN EUSSIA. 



287 



Xorlh of 52°. 



Eastern Ural, (three stations) 

Tobolsk 

Jschim 

Koiirgan 

Omsk 

Barnaul. 

Elrasnojar.sk 



X. X. E. E. S. E. S. S. W. W. ^' W 



24 
12 
41 
15 
24 
44 
CO 



The prevalence of southwest winds in the northern part of the country 
is clearly seen in this table. Even Orenburg and Seiiiipalatinsk, situ- 
ated between oO'^ and 52°, have prevailing east winds, but a great num- 
ber of southerly also, while Astrachan and Raimsk have much less 
southwest and much more northeast winds than all the other points. 
The differences we notice between the several points are easily accounted 
for, if we consider the rough mode of observing the wind-gauge and the 
different local circumstances having an influence on the indications of 
this instrument. 

I have also noticed an influence of the upper river valley, the winds 
in the direction of this being generally more frequent. For example, 
at Tobolsk the Irtysch comes from the southeast, and the winds trom 
that quarter prevail. At Jschim, Barnaul, and Krasnojarsk the rivers 
flow from the southwest, and so the local direction corresponds with 
the general one, giving an enormous prevalence to the southwest winds. 
At Omsk only this is not the case ; the rivers flow from east and south- 
east, and yet the prevailing wind is southwest. This is probably due to 
the very level position of the surroundings of Omsk. The winds of this 
place can be considered as typical for Western Siberia, north of 52°, 
that is, a moderate prevalence of the southwest, extending also to the 
south and west winds. Three or four years ago nothing accurate was 
known as to the winds in the basin of the Yenissei. Now we know that 
the southwest extends as far as there, and probably even to the east of 
this river. 

Further to the east the winds are so rare and irregular in the winter, 
and cahus so general, that I may call this region one of prevailing- 
calms. It embraces the basin of the Lena and the tributaries of the 
Northern Ocean, east and west of it, as also Transbaikalia. It is the 
region of the Siberian meteorological pole. The atmosphere is generally 
clear and calm, with cold generated on the spot by radiation, and not 
brought from other places by the winds. We must not imagine that this 
region is of equal magnitude every winter; it extends and contracts 
unperiodically. lu very cold winters it stretches westward to the Ural, 
and even farther, while the warm winters of Western Siberia are those 
in which it shares in the atmospherical currents of Europe. To prove 
this I calculated the temperature of the winds at Krasnojarsk in the 



288 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



wiuter months of 1870-71, as given in the lollowiug table, in which X. 
C. indicates the number of winds observed : 





N. E. 


E. 


S. E. 


s. E. s. vr. 


W. 


N. AV. 


Calms. 


Month. 




g 

Pi 
S 


d 


1 

s 

H 


!^ 


c 
ft 

2 

O 


d 


2 


d 


6 

s 

s 

H 


d 
Izi 


o 

i 


d 


1 

a 


d 


2 


December. . 
January . . . 
February . . 



9 
5 


-12.3 
-1.5 



4 
1 


-11. 
24.6 


1 

2 


—35. 5 
21.2 




6 


9.0 


44 
55 
4C 




0.7 
1.4 


5 
9 
9 


-24.7 

-6.7 

5.2 


c 


2 


-4.0 
-19.1 


37 
16 
13 


-27. 6 

-13.2 

9.5 



The temperatures of the mouths were : in December, — 12.2 ; Jan- 
uary, — 4.2; February, 4.0. February is much warmer than Decem- 
ber, yet the temperature of the prevailing southwest winds is nearly the 
same, differing only 1.4, while the mean temperature differs by 10^.2. 
But we see that in December calms were much more prevalent than in 
February, and the temperature of the calm days very low. To show 
more clearly that the movement of the air in this region tends to elevate 
the temperature, I have calculated separately the temperature of light, 
moderate, and strong southwest winds. 





Month. 


S.W. 




Light. 


Moilerate. 


Strong. 


December .. 


—3.1 

—2.0 
2.1 


—2.4 

1.2 

—2.4 


9.7 


JuDiiarv 


1X8 


February - - - - - - 


14.4 









The strong winds are by far the warmest, the difference of tempera- 
ture between light and strong being 12. 8 in December, 15. 8 in Janu- 
ary, and 12. 3 in February. The region of caims, or of the Siberian pole, 
is bounded on the south and east by that of the Asiatic monsoons, or 
periodic winds, blowing from the laud in winter and from the sea in 
summer. It is only within the last year that the true extent of this 
interesting region has become known. In the winter the interior of the 
continent is cooled by radiation, the atmospheric pressure rises, and the 
air flows out to the Indian and Pacific Oceans, where the i>ressure is 
less. In summer the continent is heated, the pressure is much lowered, 
and the air from the surrounding seas flows in upon Asia. Encounter- 
ing high mountains on the south and east, the sea-air is forced up into 
a higher and colder altitude, and loses its vapor in copious rains; so 
the gap can never be filled, as the precipitation causes a low pressure 
near the mountain sides. These movements of air are especially marked 
in JSouthern and Eastern Asia, because the heated xjlateaus ot the iute- 



METEOEOLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



289 



rior are there nearest to the ocean. Air is also drawn into Central 
Asia from the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, but, having a much longer 
distance to travel before reaching the mountains, and being originally 
colder, it does not cause such a great precipitation. The in-draught 
from the north and west is also less regular, since the pressure over the 
Arctic is not high in summer, and the air of the Atlantic is also drawn 
toward the deserts of Africa where the pressure is low in summer. 

The Asiatic monsoons were first known to the Europeans in India, and 
therefore we often find them called Indian monsoons. It is also supi)osed 
that they always blow from the northeast in winter, (dry monsoons,) and 
from the southwest in summer, (wet monsoons.) In the lately published 
"pilot-chart" of the British admiralty the monsoon region is repre- 
sented as extending northward to Southern China only. But the 
winds much farther to the north have the same periodical character. 
Even in Northern China, Japan, Mantschuria, the Eussian Amoor 
provinces, and on the western coast of the Sea of Ochotsk, cold, dry 
winds (northwest) from the interior of the continent generally i)revail in 
winter, while in summer they are from the sea, bringing cloud and rain. 
There is, therefore, no reason why we should not extend the Asiatic 
monsoons to these countries, since their climates are of the same char- 
acter as that of India, the temperature alone excepted, the winter being 
the clear, dry time of the year, and the summer being the rainy period. 
Sometimes the summer monsoon extends as far inland as Lake Baikal. 
In 18G9 this lake, the greatest fresh-water basin of the world except 
Lake Superior, rose more than 10 feet above its ordinary level, causing 
disastrous floods in the neighborhood. Such copious and long-continued 
rains in summer are unknown in European Kussia; the great rivers are 
unaccompanied with freshets in summer, especially those traversing 
great lakes, as the Neva. 

The following table shows the periodical character of the winds in 
the regions of Eastern Asia : 

Percentage of icinds at Nicolajei'sJc, mouth of the Amoor. 



Months. 



January 

February. .. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 
October .. .. 
November .. 
December .. 

19^ 



N. 


NE. 


E. 


SE. 


S. 



sw. 

4 


W. 

57 


10 


2 


1 





10 


4 


3 


1 





3 


42 


16 


11 


13 


4 


1 


3 


30 


6 


14 


31 


y 


1 


3 


23 


5 


14 


35 


14 


1 


1 


20 


3 


18 


42 


20 


1 


1 


8 


G 


9 


4G 


14 


1 


1 


15 


6 


10 


36 


9 


1 


2 


13 


10 


13 


19 


9 





2 


21 


9 


12 


12 


4 


1 


:5 


31 


7 


5 


4 


3 





3 


37 


10 


G 


4 


1 


1 


5 


50 



26 

36 

23 

13 

9 

6 

9 

23 

36 

29 

40 

9-2 



290 



METEOKOUHU' IN lUiySlA. 



The western Mintor moiusoou is ostablishod as early as the ejul of 
September; that is, in the time of tiie typhoons of llie Sonthern (Miina^ 
seas. Tlie navigators in the Seaof Ochotsk have lonj;- known (he 
periodicity of (he winds in this region, of wliieli (hey take advanta,i;e in 
going in the sninnier (roin Kain(s('ha(ka (o (he wes(ern ('oas( of (his 
sea, and retnrning in Septendu>r or ()i'(ober, when (he westcMii winds 
have fairly se( in. 

The extrenu'ly nnpUvisant cold and damp snminer elimate of these 
regions is caused by the prevailing east wind coming from the cold Sea 
of Ochotsk, a true i)olar basin transfered to a lower latitude. The 
yearly increase of temperature is also checked (o a great degree by this 
inilnence, the warmest month being generall> August, when (he sea- 
water has accpured a higher temperatnie. 

The summer rains are very copious, even in places inland as far as 
Pekin. In this plac(>, as also at tlu^ mines ol' Nertschinsk, the fall of 
"water is nunc than (if(y (imes larger in July than in January. In the 
last place (here is hardly any sledging in win(er, though the ((Mn[)era- 
ture remains six months b(>low (he free/ing-point. The countries on the 
Lower Anu)or and Jai)an have more oi' snow and rain in autumn and 
winter. The east winds from the adjoining sea are seldom experienced, 
yet when they «lo occur the precijiitation is copious, (he dilVerence of 
temperature between land and sea. being very grea(. \Ve lind a resem- 
blance to this in the climate of Eastern North America, wliere (he rain- 
fall is more copious than in l'au'0[)e ; yet the sky is clearer and (he 
number of rainy days less. 



Prvv'qtitittlon in inches. 





Your. 


Wintor. 


Spviiijy. 

1.7;! 
8. -19 


SuiuiMor. 

17. :ui 
10. (!4 
IC. 46 


Autumn. 

4. 00 
a. 80 
10. 1'4 


Greatest. 

8. 00 July. 
a.yOAuj;. 
S.aiJuly. 


Least. 


rokiu 


ir>. IT 

4-1. 01 


0. iM 

' (1. ;!0 
«. 11 


0. 14 Jan. 
0, 07 Fob. 




1.89 Jan. 







I have said before that the monsoon climate is characterized by a gen- 
erally dear winter and a rather cloudy summer. The amount of cloudi- 
ness has only begun within the last few years to attra(^t the attention of 
scientidc men. An extensive collection of tables of (his element has 
been commenced by Kamtz, and continued by ^^'ild, who has published 
the results in the new " Kepertorinm fiir Meteorology." TIu\v tMiibiace 
many places in Russia and in Siberia. 1 present here an extract from 
these tables, in which the means oi' several [)laces have been cond)ined 
together. The amount of cloudiness is expressed in percentag*^ ; a cloud- 
less skv taken as zero. 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 



291 



(1) Alaska: 

Sitka 

(2) KiiHtt'rii Asia : 

I'ckiii 

0('li<>LHk, A.jaii, Nicolajdvsk 

Mini's orNertscliin.sk 

(I!) (;(Mi(ral and West Siberia : 
Jakutsk 



Bainaul 

Tob()lnlc, 'i^ara, Tscliim 

BoH'oslowslt and JJoronov , 

(1) (J()ntral and Nortliorn lluflsia : 

"WclikiUHtjiip;, Glazov, Slobodskoi 

Ardatov, Baladma, Gorbatov, Tambov, 

birsk, WolHk 

Anandiis, lloval, Baltischiiort, Kij^a ;. , 
Yozki, Kaluga 

(5) Southern liussia : 

Kursk, Orel 

Sud8(!ha, Lugan, Catlioriiiboi^burg 

Odessa, Nicolojov 

(C) Southoastorn Steppes : 

Astracban, l''t. Alexander, Uralsk 

llaimsk, Kasaliusk, and FortPcrovski 

(7) Caspian : 
Baku, Lenkoran, Asbiir-Ado 



Sim- 



Tho contrasting cliuiiites are those of European Russia and Eastern 
Asia, the first having? the greatest amount of cloud generally in J)e(;ein- 
ber, the last in July or August. The greatest part of Siberia is a hind 
of transition, having the least amount of cl()n<l in March and the gn^at- 
est in October or November. Barnaul has very little cloudiness from 
February to August, so as to form a transition between the steppes on 
the southwest, and the countries on the east of it. Yet it must be said 
that the accuracy of this table is not very great, the amount of cloud- 
iness not being observed in former times in Kussia, and only such des- 
ignations as clear, cloudy, overcast, &c., being given, and sometimes 
also the diff(5rent (jualities of clouds, [cirro cvmnhis,) ^c,. It seems 
especially that the amount of cloudiness in youthern liussia is less than 
that Shown in Wild's table, and the same probably api)lies to the south- 
east st('i)])es. In regions wheic the sky is clear tbi- sonui weeks together 
the observers will record "cloudy " if only a few clouds appear, &c. A 
cloudiness of from 70 to 72 at Odessa and Lugan seems to me quite 
impossible. 

I have already spoken of the summer winds in the monsoon region. 
In the region of the southwest winds the change from winter to summer 
is far less marked, the winds being a little more from the north in sum- 



292 METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 

iner, the prevailiug direction being still west. In the steppes of South- 
ern Eussia, and far into Central Asia, the winds are a*lso west in June 
and July, the prerailiug direction being the opposite of that of winter. 
Yet this has not so great an influence on all the features of the climate 
as in Eastern Asia — 1st, because winds from other directions are more or 
less common in both seasons ; and 2d, because there is not the contrast 
existing in Eastern Asia between the winds from the continent and those 
from the ocean. 

Jn Transcaucasia the winds are also generally easterly in winter and 
westerly in summer, as on the northern shores of the Black Sea. Yet 
the iiiilaeuce of the mountains and sea is strongly felt. On the Caspian, 
especially, the day and night breezes are very regular in summer. The 
Persian sailors know this very well, and in going from the south to As- 
trachau they keep along the eastern shore, where the breezes are stronger 
than on the western. 

We possess veiy few observations on the quantity of falling water, 
and this has induced the Geographical Society to establish a more gen- 
eral system, especially for this element. Yet we must wait at least from 
ten to fifteen years before having reliable data from the new stations. 
Some general features can, however, be ascertained even now, with the 
aid of the few points of observation we possess. In a work on the rains 
of Eussia* I have divided the country thus : 

1. Eegion of prevailing summer rains, with a maximum in July: In- 
cluding the northern part of Eussia and Siberia as far as the 50^ in the 
west, and 5^^ in the east. 

2. Eegion of prevailing summer rains, with a maximum in June: In- 
cluding the country south of the former, being the principal part of the 
steppes (prairies) of southern and eastern Eussia. 

The two regions differ, moreover, in this, that the second has a very 
marked dry time in September and October, with easterly- winds, and 
a second maximum in Xovemb'er. 

Possibly the difference of the time of most copious rains coincides 
with the physical aspect of the country, being well wooded in the north 
and nearly naked in the south. In the beginning of the summer the 
grasses and corn-fields of the steppes are green, and in this condition 
the evaporation is considerable, giving enough of vapor to the air, 
while at the same time the cold caused by evaporation is favorable to 
the condensation of moisture. In July the grasses are already withered, 
the corn ripened, and iu these conditions the plants evaporate mucli less 
water, and therefore the rains are less frequent and copious. 

In the wooded region of the north evaporation from the leaves of 
trees goes on the whole summer, the best conditions for rain being in 
July, the hottest month. In the United States the conditions are simi- 
lar. The country east of the Eocky Mountains is also principally one of 

* To be i>ublished iu the "Sapiski" of the Russian Geograi^hical Society; also, 
"Zeitschrift der osterreichischen Gessellschaft fUr Meteorologie," year 1871, p. 193. 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 293 

summer rains, but in the prairie States tlie maximum of falling: water is 
reached earlier; so in Missouri and Kansas there is a marked maximum 
in June ; farther to the south even in April and Mixy, which is due to 
the earlier vegetation. lu the wooded Atlantic sea-board, on the con- 
trary, there is uo such tendency to an early maximum, the rains being 
very equally distributed in the Northern States, and having a maximum 
in July or August in the South. 

Besides the above stated difference between the north and south, 
there is a marked one between the east and west of Russia. Precipi- 
tation in winter is much less in the former. This is not due to the differ- 
ence of the currents of the air, but to the winter cold, which is greater 
in the east. The warm, moist southwest winds contain little vapor in 
Eastern Eussia, and therefore the quantity precipitated cannot be great. 
Yet snow falls occasionally, and in small quantities, even at Jakutsk, 
which has the coldest winter of which we have any knowledge. Snow- 
falls have been observed there at temperatures of from — 40 to — 4G Fahr. 
The rain-fall of summer does not diminish generally from the Baltic to 
the Obi in Siberia. Local circumstances seem to have a great inflneuce 
on the summer rains, but their study requires many more observations. 
There are also two small regions with prevailing rains in autumn — one 
on the Baltic coast, comprising Southwest Finland and Libau ; another 
in the southern part of the Crimea, south of the Jaila Mountains. 

3. Nearly rainless region of the Caspian and Kirghez steppes. Hero 
the amount of rain falling yearly is from 4 to 6 inches, and is very irreg- 
ularly distributed. It is an arid, desolate country, in which agriculture 
is impossible without irrigation. The boundary of the region of sum- 
mer rains No. 2 is very clearly marked on the west. It is the high, right 
bank of the Volga from 50° to 48° K, and a line of heights called Jergeui, 
forming its continuation to the south, extending to the Kuma-Mauytsch 
depression, about 40° N. On the south of this depression the plateau 
of the Western Caucasus rises, and its eastern border is also the line 
of division between the two regions, the eastern being low, salt, and 
desert; the western having regular summer rains, and a luxurious nat- 
ural grass vegetation. A great part of it is already under cultivation, 
yielding excellent corn-crops. 

The mountains of Central Asia have more rains than the steppes at 
their foot, and the rivers descending from them are extensively used 
for irrigation. The inhabitants are well aware of the benefit of this sys- 
tem, and, though not very civilized, have excellent modes of irrigation. 
The whole of Central Asia, as much as we know of it, has a similar cli- 
mate, the sedentary inhabitants gathering around mountain streams, 
and often draining them to the last drop for their fields. 

4. East of this country is the monsoon region of Eastern Asia, with au 
enormous prevalence of summer rains. The principal features and ex- 
tent of this region have been already described. These are the four 
principal regions from the Baltic to the Pacific. The floods of the riv- 



294 METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 

eis iurnisli ns also means of distinguisliiug tbe Enroi>eau climate from 
that of tbe Pacific slope. All great rivers of European Eussia, as also 
tbe Obi and Jeuissei, have one inincipal Hood in tbe year, after tbe melt- 
ing of tbe winter snow. Tbe rise of water is more or less protracted, 
owing to tbe climate and extent of tbe basin, so tbat tbebigbest stage 
of water is reacbed as late as tbe 15tb of June by tbe Volga at Astra- 
chan, owing to tbe late melting of tbe snow on tbe western slopes of 
the Ural and tbe enormous distance tbe water has to pass from thence 
to Astracban. 

Tbe summer rains are not long enough continued, and too local to 
have great influence on tbe rivers. 

Tbe Angara Eiver, tributary of the Jenissei, does not rise generally 
in spring, the quantity of snow falling there being too small. But 
sometimes the river and Lake Baikal, which it traverses, rise very high 
in summer. Tbe Amoor has. also no great Hood, due to tbe melting of 
snow, but rises very high sometimes in summer. The disastrous flood 
of 1872 will long be remembered by the inhabitants of tbe country. 
Tlie rivers of China have also floods, due to the si)ring and summer 
rains, and, like all rivers in such condition, their floods are very disas- 
trous and irregular. 

The Caucasian provinces, though of sniall extent, show great diifereu- 
oes in the quantity and character of their rains. South of the principal 
chain we must distinguish three principal belts: (1) tbat ot the eastern 
coast of the Black Sea, a country of very copious ijrecipitation. It in- 
cludes Mingrelia, Imeretia, Guria, antl Abchasia, being bounded on 
tbe northeast by tbe principal chain of tbe Caucasus, and on tbe east 
by tbe Suram Mountains, separating Imeretia from Grusia. xlbout 60 
inches fall in tbe year, which is tolerably well distributed, the maxima 
l)eing in June and December. A warm climate and copious rains pro- 
duce a rank, luxurious vegetation, having some features of that of the 
tropics. Climbing plants are especially favored by the climate, and tbe 
trees of Central Europe attain immense dimensions. (2.) Grusia has a 
less rainy climate, tbe maximum falling in May. Irrigation is found 
much necessary in the valleys, while tbe mountain-sides, from 2,000 to 
5,000 feet high, are clad with forests. Tbe maximum of rain-fall in May 
is strongly marked, this month at Tiflis having also tbe greatest number 
of rainy days and the greatest amount of cloud. On the higher plateau 
of Armenia, 4,800 feet. May is also the rainiest month, as it is due north 
of tbe Caucasian chain at Alagir. (3.) The western shores of the 
Caspian have sub-tropical rains — that is, the greatest quantity falls in 
autumn and winter, while the summer is decidedly dry. The distribu- 
tion is nearly tbe same along all this shore, while the quantity varies 
much ; Lenkoran, for example, has more than 50 inches, while Baku has 
only 10. The vapor coming from the Caspian, places having mountains 
to the westward receive copious rains. Lenkoran has a similar position, 
the Talysh Mountains rising from 5,000 to 7,000 feet due west of the 



METEOEOLOGY IN EUSSIA. 295 

town. Baku is situated in a low, arid country north of this place. 
The vicinity of Kuba and Derbent has much more rains, because the 
ramifications of the high Sbah-Dagh approach the Caspian. This country 
has magnificent forests and very favorable conditions for agriculture. 

I have already said that the opening and freezing of rivers was long- 
ago observed in liussia. These data give us tbe means of ascertaining 
something of climates where no thermometrical observations have been 
made. 

In the following table the rivers are arranged according to natural 
basins. The principal rivers are taken from then' source to their mouth, 
and their affluents afterwards. 

Numher of days the rivers were frozen. 

BASIN OF THE PACIFIC. 

Amoor at Nicolajovsk 193 

Onou iiear Nertcbiusk 170 

BASIN OF THE ARCTIC. 

Yana at Ustyansk, 70° N 260 

Leua ut Kirensk, 57° 204 

Lena at Yakoutsk, 62° 204 

Yenisei at Yeuisseisk, 58° 171 

Angara at Irkoutsk, 52° 87 

Obi at Barnaul, 53° 167 

Irtisb at Tobolsk, 58° 173 

Tom at Tomsk, 56° 1^:0 

Tobol at Kurgan 171 

Sosva at Beresov, 64° 207 

Isset at Catberiueburg 179 

Petcbora at its moutb, about 240 

]) wina at Arcbangel, 05° 191 

Sucboua at Ustjug 163 

Wy tscbegda at Jarensk 132 

Wologda at Wologda, 59° 170 

Onega, 64° 169 

Tana at Utsjoki, 69° 197 

BASIN OF THE BALTIC. 

Kemi near Toneo, 66° 207 

Euontekois, 68° 223 

Uleo at Uleaborg, 65° 201 

Neva at St. Petersburg, 60° 147 

Narova at Narva, 59° 137 

Embacb at Dorpat, 58° ]31 

Dwina at Witebsk, 56° 134 

Dwiua at Riga, 57° 126 

Niemen at Ko vno, 54° 90 

Vistula at Warsaw, 52° 85 

BASIN OF THE BLACK AND AZOV SEAS. 

Danube at Galatz, 45° 48 

Dneper at Kiev, 50° 97 



296 METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 

Dneper at Catherinenslav, 48° 91 

Dneper at Kherson, 4G° 80 

Sosch at Gomel, 52° 122 

Berezina at Borissov, 54° 129 

Pripet at Turov, 52° 105 

Don at Ust-Meclvedizo, 49° 135 

DonatAksai, 47° 107 

Woroneje at Woroneje, 52° i:>5 

Lopan at Charkov, 50° 127 

BASIN OF THE CASPIAN. 

Wolga at Tver, 56° 147 

Wolga at Yaroslav, 58° 152 

Wolga at Kostroma, 58° Ifil 

Wolga at Kasau, 56° 153 

Wolga at Samara, 53° 150 

Wolga at Saratov, 51° 132 

Wolga at Astrakhan, 46° 99 

Oka at Orel, 53° 130 

Jua at Tambov, 53° , 146 

Kama near Dedjuchiu 180 

Kama at Ussolje, 60° 176 

Kama at Perm, 58° 160 

Kama at Jelabuga, 56° 160 

Vjatkaat yjatka,5S° 163 

Bjelaja at Ufa, 55° 158 

Ural at Orenburg, 51° 164 

BASIN OF THE ARAL SEA, 

Syr-Daria at Khofljent, 40° 

Syr-Daria at Jt. Porovski, 45° 98 

Syr-Daria at Kasalinsk, 46° 123 

The time of opening and closing of rivers depends not only on tlie 
intensity and duration of frost, but also on many local conditions, as, for 
example, the strength of the current. On this account the Angara at 
Irkutsk is frozen only half the time it would be if its current were not so 
very strong. This river very seldom freezes near Lake Baikal, and at 
Irkutsk the freezing begins at the bottom. Eivers of such an exceptional 
character are seldom met with in Eussia, as the greatest part of the 
country is a level plain, only slightly undulating. There seems not to be 
a very great difference in the time at which large and small rivers are 
frozen ; the former freeze and open a little later. Great and deep bodies 
of water are not so easily cooled as small, and so great rivers freeze later. 
The later opening in spring has a dift'erent cause: The ice of the smaller 
rivers is broken by the inrush of water from melted snow. The channels 
of great rivers do not fill so rapidly and their ice must be more worn 
before it breaks. The Volga at Saratov, where it carries an enormous 
body of water, and the Oka at Orel, where it is a very small river, are 
covered with ice nearly the same number of days. But the Yolga is 
frozen only from the 8th of December to the 19th April, while the Oka 



METEOROLOGY IN RUSSIA. 297 

freezes tlie 25tb of November and opens the 4th of April. It is thus 
closed thirteen days earlier and opened fifteen days earlier than the 
Volga. 

The rivers are frozen a much longer time in Eastern than in Western 
Enssia ; for examiile, at Orenburg the river is one hundred and sixty-four 
days covered with ice; at Turov, in the same latitude, the river is one 
hundred and seven days frozen, and at Warsaw only eighty -five days. 
The duration of cold weather is the principal feature of the climate to 
be considered. Furthermore, extremes of cold seem to have very little 
influence; for example, in the winter of 1870-'71, the coldest of this 
century, the Neva froze seven days later and opened ten days earlier 
than is generally the case. In this winter the cold was restricted to 
the months of December, January-, and February, the months of Novem- 
ber, 1870, and especially March, 1871, being comparatively warm. 

An extensive collection of data relating to the freezing of rivers, 
lakes, and bays is in i>rogress in Eussia. It is the work of Lieutenant 
Eikatschef, who presented his plan to the Geographical Society in the 
beginning of 1870. Circulars asking for such observations were sent 
to every part of the empire, and it was also thought necessary to extend 
the work to foreign countries. I am happy to say that this plan received 
the hearty assistance of the late Professor CofQn, and of Professor 
Henry, who tried to obtain all available data from North America. 

I have now briefly stated the most important facts relating to the 
meteorology and climatology of Eussia, and will end with expressing 
the hope that the practical application of science to weather-forecasts 
may soon extend to my country, and that thus telegraphical weather- 
communications may encircle the globe. Everything that is useful to 
mankind spreads so rapidly in our day that we shall probably see at 
no distant date, difficult as it may seem, the system extend even to 
countries nearly desert, such as Eastern Siberia and Alaska. We shall 
then see our Baltic harbors warned of the approach of Atlantic storms 
many days before their occurrence, while the Eussian stations on the 
Pacific will at the same time render a similar service to California and 
Oregon. 

I mention here some of the principal sources of information relative 
to the meteorology and climatology of Eussia, especially those published 
in German or French, which are more generally known than the Eussian 
language. 

Annuaire mngnetiqiie et meteor ologique^ frcm 1837 to 1848. 

Annalcs de Vohservatoire physique central^ from 1849 to 1864, contain- 
ing the detailed, partly horary, magnetical and meteorological observa- 
tions of the great stations. 

Correspondance meieorologiqifc, from 1850 tol8G4 quarterly, daily means 
of all stations in correspondence with the physical observatory. 

Annalen des physilcaliscJien Central-ObservatoriumSj (Eussian and Ger- 



298 METEOROLOGY IN EUSSIA. 

man,) for 18G5, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1870, and 1871, tri-daily means of the 
meteorological elements. No magnetical observations. 

RepertoHum filr Mcteorologie, edited by the geographical society, re- 
dacteur, Kamtz, 1858 to 1863 ; a very important source of information; 
valuable contributions by Kamtz and other scientific men. 

Repertorium fur Meteorologie, edited by the academy of sciences, re- 
dacteur. Dr. Wild, containing works on the climate of Eussia by him 
and his assistants, appears since 1870 irregularly. 

Wesselovld\s " Mimate Rossie,''^ (on the cliuiate of Russia,) 1857. A 
very important vsource of iuforuuition. 

The works of the geographical society contain a great deal of informa- 
tion, especially some of the older volumes of the memoirs, (Sapiski,) and 
the year 1871 of the " Jsvastia." A new volume of the memoirs now 
in i>rint is devoted entirely to meteorology. The publications of the 
Caucasian and Siberian branches of the society should also be men- 
tioned. The only volume edited by the new Orenburg section, contains 
an important contribution by Mr. Ovodof on the winds of Orenburg. 

The Bulletin de la Sociefe des naturalistes, &c., of Moscow, contains 
meteorological observations of Moscow from 1841 to 1855, and from 1861 
to 1872, as also meteorological contributions of a more general kind. 
Medilio-TopograftscliesM collection, edited by the medical department 
of the interior, two vols,, 1870 to 1872. The " Zeitsclirift der osterrei- 
cMsclien Geselhchaft fur Meteorologie''^ contains many papers relating to 
the climate of Russia. I mention only the tables of temperature in 
the year 1870, Nos. 10, 14, and 15. 

The Bulletin and the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences of St. 
Petersburg contained much information in former times; for example, 
Abich's contributions on the Caucasus, in the years 1849 and 1850. 
Since the foundation of the " Repertorimn fur M€teorologie,''Hu 1870, the 
meteorological contributions appear there. 

The important works of Dove on temperature, of Buchan on mean 
I)ressure and winds, of Coffin, on the winds of the northern hemisphere, 
published by the Smithsonian Institution, as also Hann, " Untersu- 
chungcii ueher die Winde der nordUchen HemispMre,''^ contain valuable 
information about Russia. 

The publications of the universities (Utschenija Sapiski, Jsvastia, 
&c.) contain much information, especially in former times, when the 
centralization of the publications relating to meteorology was not yet 
begun. 

Observations are also often published by newspapers, but it would be 
too much to mention them all here. The same may be said of some 
special and old works. 



PHENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES DURING THE 
GREAT AURORA BOREALIS OF FEBRUARY 4, 18T2 ; AND THE 
ORIGIN OF NORTHERN LIGHTS. 



By Pkofessou G. B. Donati, 
Superhitciidcnt of the Astronomical Observatory at Florence. 



[Trauslated from the Italian for the Smithsonian Institution from the Rivi.ta Scicu- 

tifico-Iudustriale.] 

It is not necessary for me to give a description of the luminous phe- 
nomena manifested during the great aurora of the 4th of February last. 
So many descriptions of these have been published, that it is very easy 
for any one to obtain information on the subject. But it will not be 
unnecessary for scientific purposes to make known the results derived 
from the observations which during that exhibition of northern lights 
were made in the various telegraphic offices of this kingdom, and to 
comijare those observations with others made contemporaneously be^'ond 
Italy. In doing this I am indebted to the ftlvor of Mr. Commendator 
D'Amico, director- general of the Italian telegraphic lines, who furnished 
me with all the observations made by his subordinates on that occa- 
sion. From the aggregate of those observations, the following conclu- 
sions, I think, may safely be drawn : ,: 

The fitful currents and the corresponding perturbations manifested 
along the telegraphic lines, on the occasion of the aurora of February 4, 
were greater on the lines extending from east to west than on those ex- 
tending from north to south. This was the case even when the lines 
running from east to west were much shorter than those from north to 
south. In fact, Inspector-General Masi, who was at the office of Bag- 
nara, Calabria, from his accurate observations concludes that the line 
from Bagnara to Naples, which runs almost entirely along the meridian, 
and which is the longest of all the lines that meet at Bagnara, gave by 
the needle of the galvanometer the least deviation of all other lines. 
And that, on the other hand, the line from Bagnara to St. Euphemia, al- 
though shorter, but running almost exactly from east to west, showed 
the influence of the aurora more than any other line. The same conclu- 
sion is drawn from the observations made in Sardinia. On the lines 
from Cagliari to Iglesias, and from Santa Teresa to Isola Madalena, 
both very short lines and running from east to west, the perturbations 
were greater than on the long lines from Santa Teresa to Cagliari, both 
the latter lines running from north to south. This fact had been noticed 



300 PHENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC. 

by General IMasi and entered in his minutes on the exhibition of the 
aurora on the 24th of October, 1870, and was also observed by Messrs. 
Sureau and H. Tarry along the French lines. * 

The changes, of direction as well as the changes of intensity which 
the currents that ran over the telegraphic wires underwent, were very 
great during the aurora. The i)erturbations produced by the aurora 
began to be noticed on the Italian lines at 4 o'clock 30 minutes p. m. of 
the 4th. The maximum of the ciriTent manifested itself at G o'clock 31 
minutes, and in that moment the current changed its direction suddenly. 
Another maximum somewhat less than the preceding manifested itself at 
6 hours 37 minutes. At 6 hours 52 minutes the needles of the galvanome- 
ters remained stationary for about 3 minutes. Toward 8 p. m. the pertur- 
bations lost much of their intensity, and after this no perturbations took 
place intense enough to obstruct the transmission of dispatches. Not- 
withstanding this, the luminous phenomena, taken as a whole, though 
very variable, were not less splendid from 8 to 10 than they had been 
from 6 to 8. Mr. Masi in his account of the phenomena states as fol- 
lows: " Looking at my compass, and at the same time at the luminous 
phenomena, I observed that the deflection of the compass increased 
with the increase of the luminosity at the northwest and decreased with 
its decrease." Mr. Masi's remark of the correspondence between the 
deflection of the needle of the compass and the luminous variations of 
the aurora in the northwest may be true, but it seems to me, from the 
examination I have been able to make of the various observations, that 
the intensity of the luminous phenomena, considered as a whole, was 
not proportionate to the amount of the perturbations. Indeed, 1 think 
that the magnetic perturbations on the telegraphic lines preceded in 
time the luminous phenomena. 

Mr. Masi was led by his observations to think that, on the telegraphic 
lines which were situatexl much above the level of the sea, the phenom- 
ena produced by the aurora were manifested sooner and with greater 
energy than on lines less elevated. And also that on the latter lines 
the phenomena exhibited themselves later and with less intensity. Mr. 
Masi, however, adds that we have not a suflicient number of observa- 
tions to consider this as an established fact, but that it deserves atten- 
tion in the future. 

The time given above is mean time at Eome, and it would be very im- 
portant to ascertain whether in other lines, differing considerably in 
longitude from the Italian lines, the same phenomena manifested them- 
selves, and exactly at what time. Mr. H. Tarry, who attempted to 
ascertain this circumstance, says that the magnetic perturbations which 
took place on the telegraphic lines manifested themselves at the same 
time in Italy, France, and America, within perhaps one minute's diiier- 
ence.t 

* Comptes-reiulns cle I'Acadi^mie des sciences, Vol. LXXIV, page 484. 
+ Comptes-rendus, Vol. LXXIV, page 519. 



THENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC. 301 

But the facts on wliicb he bases his conclusiou seem to uie too gen- 
eral aud too few, and that we require more particular and more numer- 
ous observations before accepting his statement as that of an estab- 
lished fact. Mr. Tarry also adds that " in the telegraphic line from 
Brest to Paris, from 5h. 55m. to G o'clock p. m. (Paris time) there were 
two very singular waves. The deflection of the needle at first increased 
progressively from 0^ to + GU°. Then there was for one minute a firm 
adherence of the armature of the telegraphic instrument, with per- 
sistent deflection. After this the needle went gradually down to 0, 
then up to + G0°, where it remained one minute. At six it jumped 
suddenly from + GQo to - 60°.* 

I have tried to ascertain whether in the interval of time which cor- 
responds to between 5h. 55m. and G o'clock, mean time of Paris, there 
were any observations made in Italy, in order to compare them with 
those made in France, and I find that from the observations made at 
Eome by Messrs. Perelli and Gotti, on the line from Rome to Milan, and 
from those made at Florence by Messrs. Donalisio, Guidi, and Gabrielli, 
on the line from Florence to Turin, the following table can be con- 
structed : 

Line from Borne to Milan.] 

Mean time of Paris. Tlie needle of the galvanometer, at 1000 tnrns. 

From 5'^ 55*" to 5^ 57", moves gradually from — G2o to + 78^ 

5 57 5 57.5, i)asses rapidly from -f 78 — 50 

5 57.5 5 58, " " " -50 -f 73 

5 58 5 58.5, " " " +73 - G5 

5 58.5 5 59 almost stationary between -[-73 — G5 

5 59 G 00.5, rushes over zero to -|- GO 

Line from Florence to Turin. 

From 5'' 55"^ to 5^ 5G", oscilates and goes rapidly from — 80^ to + 80° 

5 57 moves rapidly from +80 — GO 

5 58 " " " - GO +75 

5 58.5 moves from +75 — G5 

To G 00 . almost stationary towards —70 

then jumi^s violently to +10 

In comparing the preceding observations with those reported by Mr. 
Tarry, it seems as if we may conclude that both in Italy and in France 

^"Comptes-rendns, Vol.LXXIV, page 484. 

tTlie line from Rome to Milan passes through Foligno, Florence, Bologna, and Pia- 
cenza. The line from Florence to Turin jiasses through Empoli, Pisa, Sjiezia, Genoa. 
The time of the Italian observations are reduced to mean Paris time, by subtracting 
40™. from the time indicated by tho observers of Rome and Florence. The observa- 
tions made at Rome are preceded by the following notice. It being known on which 
side the needle is deflected when Rome sends a positive current, the deilectiou ob- 
served on the opposite quarter is luaiked thus, (+) and that on the same quarter ia 
marked thus( — .) The resistance of the galvanometer used in Florence was 101, and 
that used at Rome 104 Tiemens units. 



302 PHENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC. 

from S'^.SS to 5'\57 (mean time of Paris) there was a gradual movement 
of the needle : that after this there occurred sudden leaps, and that at G 
o'clock the needle remained stationary for about one minute ; after this 
rest the needle moved violently. 

Mr. Tarry reports that at 5'\28'^ the needle jumped in France from 

— 40° to + 00<^. At that time the galvanometer had not as yet beeu used 
by the inspectors at the office of Rome, but I fiud that the needle of the 
common compass used by telegraphists jumped in Eome from + 20"^ to 

— 22° at 5'^.27'°. Mr. Tarry also reports that at 5".34™ the needle of the 
galvanometer moved suddenly in France from — 40° to + 50 ; and I 
fiud that the needle of the common compass at Eome moved from -{- 
3QC to — 2GO between 5^.30"^ and Si'-ST-^. 

No comparison can be instituted with the observations made in Florence 
during the the above-mentioned time, for observations in that city com- 
menced later. They are all given in mean Paris time. 

Mr. Coumbary, director of the observatory at Constantinople, says that 
on the lines of Turkey, toward 7''.35™ the current was reversed and be- 
came positive, showing great intensity. Judging from the whole of his 
remarks, it appears that at the above-mentioned time the greatest per- 
turbation occurred, which manifested itself on the Turkish lines.* I have 
already said that the Italian lines had reached their maximum at C'-ol"", 
(mean time of Eome ;) if the time stated by Mr. Coumbary is given in 
mean time of Constantinople, (as is presumable,) then the greatest per- 
turbations on the Turkish lines manifested themselves at G^\29"^ mean 
time of Eome.+ 

Mr. Coumbary says that at 9 o'clock (7^.54™ meantime of Eome) tele- 
graphic communication was resumed in Turkey. It has been already 
mentioned that in Italy perturbations on the lines became much weaker 
toward 8 o'clock, (mean time of Eome.) So that it seems that the great 
perturbations ceased contemporaneously in Italy and in Turkey. From 
what has been stated it appears that we may conclude with Mr. Tarry 
that the perturbations on the telegraphic lines took place, as a general 
rule, simultaneously. On this important point, however, more extensive 
researches are needed, and with more i)articulars than have hitherto 
been given ; inasmuch as the perturbations on the telegraphic wires 
followed each other almost continuously, and errors, however small, in 
the times noted, or in the deflections observed, might make acoincidence 
appear where there was really none. 

To prove the general simultaneomness of the electrical perturbations 
which manifest themselves in the electrical telegraphs in auroral mani- 
festations, would be the much more important, inasmuch as it appears 
sufhciently proved by experience that the luminous i)henomena proceed- 
ing from auroras are not at all simultaneous, but manifest themselves 
first in the more eastern countries, and then in the western. In support 

* Comptes-reDclas, Vol. LXXIV, page 828. 

t Coustantiuople is east from Rome about 1''.06™. 



PHENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC. 303 

of the above view, Professor Olinstead cites many facts in a learned 
essay, published in the contributions of the Smithsonian Institution of 
America. Mr. Tarry also has noted a similar fact in the great aurora of 
February 4, 1872, while comparing the times in which the luminous phe- 
nomena were seen in Europe with the times in which they were seen in 
Duxbury, near Boston.* 

To this I can add that the Italian consul of Cyprus ad(lress3d a letter 
to his excellency our minister of foreign aftairs, which was kindly com- 
municated to me, from which it appears that the luminous phenomena 
of the aurora of February 4 last were very conspicuous at Cyprus, that 
they became feebler toward 10 o'clock, (local time,) and after that disap- 
peared almost entirely. At Paris, also, the luminous phenomena of the 
same aurora were very vivid till 10 o'clock, (local time,) then became 
much weaker, and disappeared almost entirely. Now, as Cyprus is about 
two hours east of Paris, it follows that in absolute time the luminous 
phenomena of the aurora ceased at Cyprus two hours before they dis- 
appeared in Paris. If it were not so, and the light of the aurora borealis 
had been very bright at Cyprus at the same time that it appeared very 
splendid in Paris, instead of beginning to decrease in the latter place 
at 10 o'clock without any further increase of brightness, it ought to have 
continued in its splendor till after midnight. 

iSTow, how can we explain the fact that the luminous phenomena of 
the aurora borealis appear first in the east and after in the west 1 The 
theory that the aurora is nothing else but a slow electrical discharge, 
■which takes place between the upper and the lower strata of our atmos- 
phere, is well known, generally admitted, and confirmed by the beauti- 
ful experiments of De La Eive. On this point there can be very little 
doubt at present. But is this a complete explanation ; that is, does it 
give a reason for all the circumstances which accompany the aurora bo- 
realis ? Besides the circumstance that the luminous phenomena of the 
aurora move, so to speak, from east to west, there is another very im- 
portant one which must not be overlooked when we are seeking for an 
explanation of these phenomena as satisfactory as we can obtain. The 
late researches made by Professor Loomis prove that in latitudes which 
are not very high the number of auroras and their luminous intensity 
has a maximum and a minimum about every ten years ; and this fact is 
also confirmed by an examination which I have undertaken of an ex- 
tensive series of observations existing in this observatory, in which the 
exhibitions of auroras are accurately recorded. Although the theory 
which regards the aurora borealis as the result of slow and prolonged 
discharges of electricity is physicaUij complete, and explains fully the 
electrical and luminous phenomena, it does not seem of itself to give 
a satisfactory reasoii either for the periodicity of the auroras or of 
the successive progress of the phenomena from east to west. That the- 

* Denison Olmstead, Smithsonian Coutributions January, 1835, pp. 44-45 ; H. Tarry, 
Comptes-rcudus, Vol. LXXIV, p. 541). 



304 PHENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC. 

ory may still be adopted as general expositioD of the pbenomeua, al- 
though it may require to be supplemented with additional hypotheses. 
It seems to me that this can be done by admitting, with Sir John Her- 
schel, that between the sun and the planets there may be an interchange 
of electrical currents. In such a case these currents will be at different 
times more or less intense, according to the position and the distance 
which the planets occupy in space with respect to the sun and to each 
other ; and on this account the resulting phenomena will be subject to 
a periodicity. If we admit that between the different bodies of our sys- 
tem there is a continuous exchange of electrical action, that is, if we ad- 
mit that there exists a cosmical electricity, the former may combine with 
the natural electricity of the earth, and produce almost constant auro- 
ras at the poles, whera the terrestrial magnetism is more energetic; then, 
if from any cause whatever the cosmical electricity increases, the north- 
ern lights may increase correspondingly, so as to become visible even in 
places very distant from the poles. 

If the existence of cosmical electrical currents is admitted, we may 
also imagine that in certain cases an electrical discharge takes place 
toward the sun or from it ; in such a case we can conceive that certain 
phenomena can occur only in such places as have a certain direction and 
a certain position with respect to that discharge. Consequently such 
l)henomeua will make themselves visible successively under the differ- 
ent meridians, according as, by the diurnal motion of the earth, they 
come to occupy successively the same position and the same direction 
with respect to the discharge which we have imagined. It is true that 
we have no direct proof of these cosmical electrical currents, but it is a 
very old idea, put forth by Galileo, Kepler, and many other philosophers, 
that the sun and the planets may be magnetic bodies, and why not 
electrical as well as the earth? and if this is the case, (which seems very 
natural,) it may also be admitted that through that ether which is gen- 
erally admitted as filling the universe, there may be an interchange of 
electric currents between planet and planet, and between the planets 
and the sun. 

Sir John Herschel, in a note at the end of the fifth chapter of his 
astronomy published in 1833, writes as follows : 

"Electricity traversing excessively rarefied air or vapors gives out 
light, and, doubtless, also heat. May not a continual current of electric 
matter be constantly circulating in the sun's immediate neighborhood, 
or traversing the planetary spaces, and exciting, in the upper regions of 
its atmosphere, those phenomena of which, on however diminutive a 
scale, we have yet an unequivocal manifestation in our aurora borealis *? 
The possible analogy of the solar light to that of the aurora has been 
distinctly insisted on by my father, in his paper already cited. It would 
be a highly curious subject of experimental inquiry, how far a mere re- 
duplication of sheets of flame, at a distance one behind the other, (by 
which their light might be brought to any required intensity,) would 



PHENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC. 305 

communicate to the heat of the lesnltirig compound ray the penetrating 
character Avhich distinguishes the solar cak)ritic rays. We may also 
observe that the tranquillity of the sun's polar, as compared with its 
equatorial regions, (if its spots be really atmospheric,) cannot be ac- 
counted for by its rotation on its axis only, but miist arise from some 
cause external to the sun, as we see the belts of Jupiter and Saturn, and 
our trade-winds, arise from a cause external to these planets, combining 
itself with their rotation, which alone can produce no motions when 
once the form of equilibrium is attained. 

" The i>rismatic analysis of the solar beam exhibits in the spectrum a 
series of fixed lines, totally unlike those which belong to the light of 
any known terrestrial flame. This may, hereafter, lead us to a clearer 
insight into its origin."* 

Though science cannot prove directly that electrical currents travel 
through the planetary spaces, yet there exist not a few data which 
seem to indicate sufficiently that certain phenomena which take place 
in the sun and the planets depend on the distance and the position of 
the latter with respect to the sun and with respect to themselves. 

Galileo, in one of his letters, says : " The fact that the spots of the 
sun are on that belt of the solar globe which is under that part of the 
heavens through which the planets travel, and nowhere else, is an indi- 
cation that those planets may have something to do with that iesult."t 
This suggestion of Galileo, that the phenomena of the solar spots may 
have some connection with the position of the planets, has remained 
unnoticed for nearly two centuries and a half, until lately new facts 
have come to light which indicate its importance. 

In 1859, Mr. Wolf undertook to investigate whether the phenomena 
of the solar spots varied with the distances of the planets from the sun, 
and he reached results which generally tend to prove that, with the 
change of those distances, and especially with those of Jupiter, the 
number of solar spots also changes within certain limits. Mr. Carring- 
ton, in his work on the solar spots, published in 18G3, presented the 
results of a similar research, and having determined the number of sohir 
spots observed every year from 1750 to 1800, he compared them with 
the distances of Jupiter from the sun, and concludes that according as 
Jupiter moves away from the sun the number of solar spots increases, 
and when Jupiter approaches the sun the number of spots decreases. 

Professor Loomis has lately announced that the decennial period of 
the solar spots, instead of corresponding with the distance of Jupiter 
alone, has a nearer and more regular correspondence with another 
period which can be found by comparing together the movements of 
Jupiter and of Saturn. These two planets, in fact, occupy in space 

* A remarkable prediction, well worthy of atteutiou as au evidence of the sagacity 
of this eminent savant to whom i!? is due. — J. H. 

tLettera seconda di Galilei a Marco Valseri ; uuovamente pnbblicata dal Prof. P. 
Volpicelli. Roma, tipogratia dclle Belle Arti, 18G0. 
20 s 



306 PHEIS'OMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC 



such positions that every ten years Jnpiter is either in conjunction or 
in opposition with Saturn. Other relations seem to exist between the 
solar spots and the positions of the planets. Messrs. DeLaEue, Stewart, 
and Loewy, in a series of essays, which they published together from 
1845 to 1848, concerning the physics of the sun, have shown that the 
spots of this luminary (irrespective of their number) increase in size 
when, by means of the solar rotation, they are carried farthest from the 
l>{ace which Venus occupies in space, and that they diminish in size 
when they aproach that i>lanet. Mars also contributes to the increase and 
decrease of the size of the solar s^iots in the same way that Yenus does, 
but his influence is less powerful than that of Venus, perhaps on ac- 
count of his greater distance from the sun. Mercury seems to possess 
somewhat of a similar influence, which, however, shows itself less dis- 
tinctly on account of the rapidity with which he moves round the sun. 
The position as well as the size of the solar spots depends on the place 
occupied by the planets in space. When Jupiter and Venus, in their 
orbital motions, cross the plane of the solar equator, then the spots 
appear nearer the same equator : and, on the contrary, when these two 
l)lanets occupy positions distant from the sun's equator, then these spots 
also appear ferthest from the same equator. 

From some observations made on the occasion of the solar ecli]ise, 
December 22, 1870, Professor Serpieri concludes that the protuberances 
Avhich emerge from the sun during the eclipses are directed toward the 
planets. In fact, he observed one protuberance bending toward Saturn. 
Serpieri's conclusions seem confirmed by other observations made by 
Professor Tacchini, who, on the 27th May, 1871, saw, while the sun was 
shining, one of those protuberances, which seemed directed toward a 
group of planets. But if the number, the position, and the size of the 
solar spots depend on the positions of the planets, terrestrial magnetism 
must be dependent on the same ; for it is established, with considerable 
certainty, that the phenomena of the variations and perturbations of 
all the magnetic elements are also connected with the solar spots. Con- 
sequently, (to resume the subject which more especially concerns us,) 
the auroras also may somewhat depend on the relative positions of the 
planets, and therefore they are subject to periodicity, and also advance 
from east to west in the way and for reasons already mentioned. 

[The remainder of the paper of Professor Donati is occupied with a 
defense of his claim to the foregoing hypothesis, which, being of no in- 
terest to the readers of this report, is omitted. It is proper, however, to 
remark that, in this translation, the expression electrical currents has 
been substituted for the phrase magnetic currents, used by the author. 
The reasons for this change are, because this is the term used by Sir 
John Herschel in the quotation from his astronomy by Professor Donati, 
and furthermore because there is, strictly speaking, nothing in the phe- 
nomenon of magnetism to which we can apply the term current, or a trans- 
ference of magnetism from one body to another, as is the case in the phe- 



PHENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGEAPHIC LINES, ETC. 307 

nomenon of au electrical discharge. If we rightly understand it, the 
theory give^ in this essay by Professor Donati is, that the sun and the 
])lanets, including the earth, are electrical, and that electrical discharges 
may take place from one to the other. This hypothesis has the support 
of the fact that the earth is known to be a great charged conductor, per- 
manently electrified negatively, and that the intensity of this electrical 
condition is varied from time to time by perturbations produced by ter- 
restrial, and, possibly, by cosmical causes. Theie is another theory ad- 
vanced by the distiugaished physicist Balfour Stewart, professor of 
natural philosophy in Owen's College, Manchester, according to which 
the sun and planets, like the earth, are great magnetic bodies, with op- 
posite poles of greater intensity, subject to perturbations from cosmical 
or special causes, and that these poles, acting b^^ induction on the mag- 
netism of the earth, give rise to the movements of the magnetic needle, 
and to the induced electrical currents to which the appearance of the 
aurora is attributed. 

There is still another hypothesis proposed by M. Becquerel as to the 
origin of the electricity of the atmosphere Jind of the aurora polaris 
which has been modified by M. Faye. This hypothesis, like that of 
Herschel, refers the electricity of our atmosphere to the sun, and founds 
the conception of it on the constitution of that luminary as revealed by 
modern spectroscopic discoveries. From these discoveries the following 
conclusions have been deduced : 

1st. The sun consists of a nucleus, relatively obscure, having a tem- 
perature excessively elevated, and which is in a fluid state at least to a 
certain depth. 

2d. This nucleus, on account of the cooling by radiation, is surrounded 
by a terminated envelope which has the constitution of a gas with par- 
ticles floating in or disseminated through it, of a solid or liquid nature. 
These minute particles radiate energetically as do the particles of car- 
bon in the flame of burning gas, and give to this envelope, which is 
called the photosphere, its name and its luminosity. 

3d. Above the photosphere is found the chromosphere, formed princi- 
pally of a thin layer of incandescent hydrogen. To this stratum appar- 
ently belong the protuberauces which of late years have excited so 
much interest. 

4th. Lastly, above the photosphere is found a fourth atmosphere, 
discovered during the last solar eclipse, which has been named the cor- 
onal. This, which appears to be extremely rare, is very distinct from 
the chromosphere, although formed of the same gas, namely, hydrogen. 

The foregoing propositions are considered as facts immediately de- 
duced from the phenomena and well-established physical principles. 
The hypothesis as to the origin of this condition is that the nucleus of 
the sun, as seen through the spots as a darker mass, is in reality much 
hotter than the photosphere — so hot, indeed, as to prevent the union of 
the oxygen with the hydrogen and the vapor of other substances 



308 PHENOMENA MANIFE&TED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC. 

whose presence is manifest by the spectroscope. That the spots them- 
selves are craters of eruptions through which the dark gases issue into 
the chromosphere, and being reduced in temperature combine, giving rise 
to intense light on account of the vibrations of the solid or liquid parti- 
cles produced by this union. The hydrogen, being the lightest of all the 
gases, will be driven farthest from the center of the sun by its expan- 
sion, and will appear, as it is seen to do, in the form of the protuber- 
ances, which are found to consist of this gas in a pure but highly attenu- 
ated condition. Now, although neither evaporization nor condensation 
of vapor produces electricity, chemical action does in a high degree; and, 
therefore, at every eruption of matter from the lower into the upper 
stratum of the sun, there must be a great development of positive 
electricity, the nucleus being negative. Whatever influence this elec- 
tricity may have on the electricity of the earth and the appearance of 
the aurora must be manifest at the time of the appearance of spots on 
the sun, and hence we have an hypothetical cause for the connection of 
two i)henomena which have been established by Woolf and others. 

But the question occurs, how does the variable electrical condition of 
the sun affect that of the earth ? Two answers may be given to this 
question: First, it may affect it by induction, or action, at a distance. 
The redundant electricity of the surface of the sun, acting- by repulsion 
on the electricity of the earth, thus disturbs its equilibrium. But if 
tne nucleus of the sun is electrified minus to an equal degree as the 
outer spheres are electrified plus, the two resulting actions would neu- 
tralize each other, and the effect at the distance of the earth would be 
nothing. 

M. Faye gives another suggestion as to the means by which the elec- 
tricity of the sun affects the electrical condition of the earth. He claims 
to have found a repulsive force in the sun, of which he considers the 
existence strikingly manifest in the gigantic phenomena of comets. 
This force, unlike that of attraction, is not proportional to the mass but 
to the surface of the bodj' repelled ; it is insensible in the case of dense 
bodies such as the planets, while it exerts very marked effects upon 
bodies which are greatly rarified, such as the nebulosity of comets and the 
outer hydrogen of the sun. A small portion of this latter, according to 
M. Faye, at every eruption is driven off" into space, carrying with it its 
charge of plus electricity, which extends to all the planets, and in unit- 
ing with the ozone in the higher regions of the atmosphere may be con- 
verted into the vapor of water, while the electric charge produces the 
electricity of the higher atmosphere of our earth. The quantity of hy- 
drogen thus lost by the sun is too minute to be sensible by any of our 
measurements during the historic period. There is one phenomenon 
connected with this subject which is not clearly explained by this hypo- 
thesis, and that is the apparent fact that the appearance of the aurora 
and the disturbance of the magnetic needle are almost, if not quite, sim- 
ultaneous with the commotions in the sun. This would indicate an in- 



PHENOMENA MANIFESTED IN TELEGRAPHIC LINES, ETC. 309 

ductive action analogous to attraction in the instantaneonsness of its 
action at a distance. 

A similar liypotliesis luis been proposed by Professor Newton, of Yale 
College. According to this tbe corona is made up of matter in tbe act 
of streaming off from the sun, instead of being a permanent solar at- 
mospbere, or a mass of revolving meteors. Tbe explosive actions, wbicb 
are tbe most probable causes of tbe spots, may, perbaps, furnisb tbe 
luminary matter, wbicb, dispersed at intervals by reason of tbe varying 
action of tbe planets as it Hows away into space, forms tbe corona, 
witb its accompanying radiations and streamers, visible in tbe total 
eclipses. Tbe zodiacal light is also made of tbe streams of particles tlow- 
ing away from the sun under tbe operation of solar repulsion. 

In the American Journal of Science, (March and July, 1855,) Profes- 
sor Newton explains tbe irregular perturbations of tbe magnetic needle 
by electric currents developed in the upper atmosphere (or photosphere) 
of the earth by the arrival of the solar matter, which is probably tbe 
substance of terrestriill auroras. 

Whatever truth may be in these speculations, they indicate a tendency 
in the scientific mind of tbe day to adopt tbe conclusion that many of 
tbe phenomena which have heretofore been considered entirely of a ter- 
restrial character really belong to the solar system ; that not onlj^ are 
disturbances of tbe magnetism of tbe earth connected with commotions 
in the sun, but that cyclones and other violent movements of our atmos- 
phere have a similar relation to the central luminary. — J. H. 



ETHNOLOGY. 



THE TROGLODYTES, OR CAVE-DWEILERS, OF THE VALLEY OF THE YEZERE. 

By M. Paul Broca. 

A:i Address delivered before the French Association for the Adcancement of Science. 

[Translated from "La Eevue Scientifique," November 16, 1872, for the Smithsonian Institution.] 

Ladies and Gentlemen: Impressed by the spleudor wbicb sur- 
rounds me, and by tbe sigbt of tbis large audience, I am impelled to 
render bomage to tbe beauty and intelligence wbicb bave prepared so 
brilliant a reception for tbe Freucb Association. Tbe members of tbe 
society bave reason to congratulate tbemselves upon baving cboseii 
Bordeaux for its first session. 

Our institution is one tbat appeals to general interest. Altbougb it 
bas originated entirely in private enterprise, it rests upon bases wbicb 
assure its continuance, and it cannot fail to survive tbe struggle wbicb 
may be maintained for years against iiublic indifference. Yes, altbougb 
onr debut sbould be greeted witb coldness and neglect, we would persevere, 
for we consider tbe diffusion of knowledge as an important element of 
tbe greatness of nations, and surely tbe necessity of tbis diffusion bas 
been rendered palpable by tbe recent disasters wbicb bave sbown tbe 
danger of extreme intellectual centralization. Convinced of tbe utility 
of our objects, undismayed by obstacles, and undiscouraged by apparent 
defeat, we will renew our sessions year by year, increasing in numbers 
as we gradually enlist recruits, and assured tbat in a country like ours 
success, bowever long deferred, must sooner or later crown our efforts. 

For tbe success of tbe first session, wbicb bas far surpassed our bopes, 
tbauks are due to my esteemed colaborers, MM. Broca and Girondin ; also, 
to tbe distinguisbed gentlemen of tbe local committee, especially Profes- 
sor Azani, tbe intelligent and indefetigable secretary. 

Tbe subject of my discourse is tbe troglodytes, or cave-dwellers, of 
tbe Vezere, tbat fossil population wbose subterraneous dwellings we are 
about to investigate. 

Tbeir existence dates back to a remote antiquity. We do not know 
tbeir names ; no bistoriau bas mentioned tbem, and it is only eigbt 
years since tbe first traces of tbem were discovered, and yet in some re- 
spects we are better acquainted witb tbem tban witb certain celebrated 
nations of classic renown. We know tbeir mode of existence, tbeir arts, 
tbeir industries, many details of tbeir lives. Does not sucb knowledge 
constitute tbe real bistory of nations, a bistory more interesting tban 
tbat of tbeir battles, tbeir conquests, and even tbeir dynasties ? 



ETHNOLOGY. 311 

How does it happen tbat we kuow so much about people who have 
left no trace in the memory of man, and whose existence, even twenty 
years ago, was deemed impossible ? Are they children of romance, like 
the celebrated troglodytes of Montesque ? On the contrary, nothing is 
more real than our troglodytes ; nothing is more authentic than their 
annals. In the caves the\, inhabited, or in which they deposited their 
dead, we liud the residue of their feasts, the products of their indus- 
tries and their arts, and the remains of their bodies. These are the 
books in which we read their history ; these are the documents which 
have resuscitated their past. 

Several savans have taken part in these investigations ; among them 
Christy, the Marquis of Vibrage, M. Falconer, and our two colleagues, 
MM. Louis Lartet and Elie Massenat, deserve respect ; but one name 
eclipses all others — that of the founder of human paleoutology, Edward 
Lartet. 

We with reason admire Cavier, who, in his stud}' of fossil bones, suc- 
ceeded in restoring the successive fauna of the geological periods ; also 
Champollion, who, with so much sagacity and patience, deciphered the 
hieroglyphical monuments of Egypt, but not less admirable in his im- 
portant labors was Edward Lartet. His field of investigation lay be- 
tween that of Uuvier and that of Champollion, and shared in both. He 
revived human associations in those paleontological periods in which 
Cuvier found only extinct brute animals; he discovered the history and 
the chronology of the ancient man, the contemporary of the mammoth, as 
Champollion discovered that of the architects of the great pyramids. 
These three men are the glory of French science. They were initiators ; 
they founded schools. Their disciples and followers have but widened 
the paths they opened, and although foreign savans have made great 
progress, they do not forget that to France belongs the honor of having 
led the way. 

I. — Determination of time. 

Before discnssmg a population it may be well to assign it a place in 
time. But in this case ordinary chronology is not applicable, for we 
have to do with periods of incalculable length. Since the time when 
our troglodytes were in existence great changes have taken i)lace in 
climate and fauna. These were produced Avithout revolution, without 
violent action, hy the gradual influence of insensible causes, which are 
still in exercise at the present day ; and when we think that these causes, 
during the course of the centuries known to us, have produced only 
changes almost inappreciable, we may form some idea of the immense 
duration of what is called a geological period. 

It is not by years, centuries, or thousands of years, that we can meas- 
ure these immense periods ; it is not by figures that we can express these 
dates ; but we can detertnine the order in which these geological periods 
succeeded each other, and the sub-periods of which each was conqsosed. 



312 THE TROGLODYTES. 

Those are tlie dates of the history of our planet, and the elements of 
what Edward Lartet called the chronology of paleontology. 

I need not speak of the Primary and Secondary geological periods, as 
they are foreign to the chronology of man, since he did not then exist ; 
7ior need the Tertiary period scarcely more arrest our attention. It is 
true that the discoveries of M. Desuoyers in the Pliocene chalk-pits of 
Saint Prest, show the existence of man as early as the end of the Ter- 
tiary period in company with the southern elephant, the rhinoceros 
leptorhinus, and the great hippopotamus; he even lived, according to 
the Abbe Bourgeois, during the Miocene period, contemporary with the 
mastodons, the predecessors of the elephants : but the latter fact is 
doubtful ; aTid as to the Tertiary man of Saint Prest, he was so much 
anterior to our troglodytes, that he need not figure in our chronology. 
It is sufficient in the determination of our dates to commence ^vith the 
beginning of the Quaternary period. 

The end of the Tertiary period was distinguished by a remarkable 
phenomenon, the causes of which are still imperfectly known. The 
northern hemisphere was gradually cooled. Immense masses of ice de- 
scended the sides of the mountains, into the valleys and plains, and 
covered a large part of Europe, Asia, and Xorth America, and the tempe- 
rature of our zone, previously torrid, gradually became glacial. This 
cold i:)eriod, called the Glacial period, was excessively long. After reach- 
ing their utmost southern extent the glaciers receded considerably, and 
then advanced again "without attaining their previous limits. This was 
the last phase of the Tertiary epoch. The Glacial period came to an end. 
The gradual increase of temperature melted the ice, and the Quater- 
nary period commenced. 

The masses of snow constituting the glaciers, which had been accu- 
mulating for years, produced, by their melting, immense floods, which 
bore upon their powerful waves the debris of the mountains, inundated 
the plains, plowed the surface of the earth, excavated valleys, and 
left in their passage large deposits of sand, clay, and bowlders. From 
tliis period, called the Diluvian, date our jiresent rivers, which give us, 
however, but a faint idea of their former magnitude. In their now limited 
and unchanging channels they transmit only the water which descends 
day by day from the clouds, while the freshets occasioned by the melt- 
ing of winter snows are of very little moment compared with those im- 
mense inundations formerly i)roduced when the heat of summer melted 
not only the annual snows, but a i)art of the ancient glacier. 

The great power of the floods of water was especially remarkable dur- 
ing the first part of the Quaternary period. It became less and less 
until the glaciers were reduced to their present limits, and the tempera- 
ture to its' present degree. It was at this time that the phenomena of 
great changes ceased, and the Quaternary period came to an end. Since 
then, although mountain torrents carry with them sand and pebbles, 
and sometimes tear from the sides of the valleys masses of considerable 



ETHNOLOGY. 313 

size, tlie rivers and smaller streams bear with tbem only fiue particles 
of earthy matter, which give rise to alluvial deposits. 

The time which has elapsed since the eud of the Quaternary period 
bears the name of the present period, and the strata formed during its 
continuance are called recent de[)osits. They are recent comi)ared with 
those of the Quaternary period, but not so when estimated by our ordi- 
nary chronology, since in most cases their formation has i^equired thou- 
sands of centuries. 

These preliminary ideas enable us to comprehend the essential facts 
which determine the dates of human paleontology. These dates are 
established, in the first place by pure geology, in the second by [)aleont- 
ology, in the third by prehistoric archaeology. 

The geological dates are principally inscribed in the valleys and in 
the plains, where the great floods of water of the Quaternary period 
have left deposits in the form of beds, more or less regularly stratified. 
If these strata have remained undisturbed, they are found superposed 
according to age. The oldest lie lowest, and are called the lowest levels ; 
above them lie the mean levels, which are posterior to them, and which 
in turn are covered by the upper levels, formed during the latter part of 
the Quaternary period, l^'inally a stratum, more or less thick, of recent 
formation, consisting of alluvions, peat, &c., almost always covers the 
Quaternary deposits. 

These different strata are not everywhere found in complete series, 
and the nature of the elements of which they are composed varies more 
or less with the locality ; but I cannot now enter into details. I can 
only give a general idea of the way in which, by the study of the superpo- 
sition of these beds, that is to say, their stratification, the relative age of 
the various deposits, recent or Quaternary, is determined. 

In this determination we first apply to geology. Thanks to the data 
it furnishes, we know the age of the animals whose bones are found in 
the different strata ; these animals in turn serve to establish the periods, 
and also the dates of certain formations or partial deposits which do not 
form a part of a complete and regular stratitication. 

Of the animals living at the commencement of the Quaternary period, 
some, like the mammoth, only exist now as fossils; these are the extinct 
animals; others, like the fox, have disappeared from our locality, but still 
live in other parts of the world; these are migrated animals; and others, 
like the horse, continue with us^o the present day ; these are called per- 
sisting animals. 

Extinct animals abounded in the first part of the Quaternary i)eriod. 
Some of them were immense mammals with terribly powerful limbs, 
beside which man, naked and feeble, was of little account. Such were 
the large bear of the caves, {Ur.sus spekcus ;) the great lion, also of the 
caves, {Fells spelwns ;) the amphibious hippopotamus, {Hip. aniphibius ;) 
the rhinoceros, with chambered nostrils, {Rh. ticliorMims ;) the ancient ele- 
phant, (Eleplias antiquus;) and, above all, the giant king of this fauna, the 



314 THE TROGLODYTES. 

mamraotli, {EJephas primigenms,) Of tbe other extiuct species of the 
period it woukl be sui)erflnous to spealv. The reiucleer and several other 
migrated animals are found in this fauna, but are rare, and a large num- 
ber of persistent species had already made their appearance. 

Of all these animals, the most remarkable, the most powerful in strength 
and numbers, was the mammoth. Protected from the cold by a thick 
covering of fur, and provided with formidable means of defense against 
its enemies, it prospered and multiplied; it spread and dominated over 
all the earth, so that the first part of the Quaternary period, which cor- 
responds with the lower levels of the valleys, may well be called the 
age of the mammoth. At that time every condition was favorable to 
the i>rosperity of this animal. But in time there were changes which 
led to its decadence. An elevation in the temperature allowed the exten- 
sion of numerous herbivorous species hitherto restrained in their devel- 
opment. The reindeer, the horse, the ox, and the bisou multiplied. These, 
his powerful rivals, disputed with the mam moth his vegetable nutrition, 
and with him commenced the struggle for existence. Already he saw 
opposed to him the power of man, which under the ameliorated condi- 
tions of climate was sufficient to declare war against him, and finally 
this same climate which was so favorable to his enemies and rivals became 
directly prejudicial to his organization, intended for a boreal tempera- 
ture. 

Thus the mammoth, once so important in the first part of the Quater- 
nary period, commenced to decline. He ceased to be the predominant 
species of the fauna, and as to the other animals which formed his ancient 
cortege, many yielded with him to the destructiv^e influence of the 
changed temperature, and decreasing in numbers we see them slowly, 
one after the other, disappear. Some, it is true, survive, and may pro- 
long their existence to the end of paleontological time, but their reign 
is over. 

Thus about the middle of the Quaternary period there was an inter- 
mediate age, corresponding with the mean levels of the valleys ; an age 
when several species contemporary with the mammoth had already be- 
come extinct, and others, which had almost disappeared, were repre- 
sented by only a few individuals, while animals better adapted to the 
changed conditions prospered. Prominent among the latter was the 
reindeer, {Cervua tarandus,) but it was not until the following period that 
it attained its full importance. "* 

The fauna of the intermediate age has no especial paleontological 
characteristics. It is distinguished less hx the nature of the species 
than by the relative proportion of their representation. Certain ani- 
mals of the age of the mammoth no longer existed, but others were found 
here and there. The mammoth, although reduced in numbers, liad not 
yet become rare, while the reindeer, the stag, the horse, and the ox had 
become common. 

This intermediate age gradually yielded to the third and last age of 



ETHNOLOGY. 315 

the Quaternary period. When the strata of the upper levels began to 
be formed, the animals we call extinct had almost entirely disappeared. 
A few rare specimens of the mammoth still survived. Still more rare 
was the great Irish stag {Mcgaceros hihernicus) and the large lion of 
the caves. The rest of the tauua had changed but little. The reindeer, 
however, had inci-eased to a most extraordinary extent, and the third 
l^eriod is deservedly called the age of the reindeer. 

It is not only iu the existence of the reindeer that this period diifers 
from that of our day. In company with the reindeer lived in our still 
cold region a number of animals to whom frost and snow were congenial 
elements, and who could not exist in temperate climates. As the tem- 
perature approached its present condition, the individuals which upon 
our plateaus and in our plains represented these species disappeared ; 
but the species themselves, far from perishiug, found iu a colder climate 
a more congenial temperature, aud have been perpetuated to the present 
day. Among these species called migratory, some, like the reindeer, the 
sloth, the musk-ox, have gone toward the north ; others, such as the 
chamois, the goat, the marmot, have not left our zone, but have sought 
greater altitudes, aud have takeu refuge iu the lofty peaks of the Alps 
aud the Pyrenees. 

The disappearance of the reindeer aud other migratory species 
marked the end of the Quaternary period, and of paleoutological time. 
Then commenced the modern period. Our climate, at that time, was 
probably rather colder than at present, but it was already temperate, 
and the slight changes it has since undergone have not been sufficient 
to produce the extiuction of species. It is true that the urus, {Bos 
primigenius,) and the aurochs, {Bi.wn euro])(jeus,) have disappeared 
from, our region, but this must be attributed to the destructive actioi: 
of man rather thau to the effects of climate; and to man, also, is 
attributable the introduction of certain new species, for the most part 
domestic. With these exceptions, we may say that since the end of the 
Quaternary period our fauna has undergone no change, and that the 
recent deposits contain only actual or living species. 

The dates we seek to establish are then determined both by strat- 
ography and paleontology. They also rest upon a certain order of 
facts which to-day constitutes a new science — that of prehistoric archre- 
ology. 

Man lived in all the periods of which we have just spoken. It does 
not concern us whether or not he existed in the latter part of the Ter- 
tiary period. This Tertiary man does not come within the limits of our 
present observations, aud, besides, it is by no means certain that he 
erlsted. But what does concern us, and has been positively proved by 
Boucher de Perthes, is, that the most ancient strata of the Quaternary 
period contain evidences of human industry. The knowledge of the 
use of metals dates, we may say, only from yesterday. But before man 
possessed these powerful auxiliaries he was not without instruments of 



316 THE TROGLODYTES. 

labor or means of dofense. IJo iabricated tools and weapons of war- 
fare, out of various hard materials, such as the bones, teeth, and horns 
of animals, and above all of stone, especially flint, and this is the reason 
why in the history of man the name of Stone age has been given to the 
whole i)eriod which preceded the use of metals. 

This age of stone still continues among certain savage tribes, and it 
came to an end with the most anciently civilized nations at a period 
only a very little anterior to historic times. It therefore includes almost 
the entire duration of the existence of humanity. Now, the mode of 
fabrication, the lorm and nature of these iustruments, necessarily varied 
during this immense period, with the needs, the kind of life, and the so- 
cial state of the men who employed them ; and when we renumiber that 
hard substances like stones may be preserved for an uulimited period in 
the ground, we comprehend that these remains of human industry con- 
stitute iiu>ffaceable records of the past, chronological documents of the 
utmost importance. 

The dates established by prehistoric archa3ology accord very well, and 
sometimes coincide, in a most remarkable manner, with those of paleon 
tology and stratography. Just as certain species of animals have con- 
tinued from the earliest Quaternary times, so certain Ibrms of flint instru- 
ments have been perpetuated through several archivological ages. Such 
are the elongated i)ieces of stone, with their two edges sharpened, and 
one face cut with two sides, while the other has but one, called knives. 
The small knives of obsidian, still in use among the aborigines of Mex- 
ico, and the flint knives, which our ancestors of the Bronze age frequently 
deposited in their sepulchers, are very similar to those of the age of the 
nmnnnoth. l>ut this is an exceptional case ; in general, inehistoric iu- 
struments have from age to age undergone various modifications. 

I cannot attempt here to mention, still less to describe, the numerous 
iustruments of each period : axes, knives, points of lances, or of arrows, 
scrapers, hammers, &c. Geologists frequently, as we have seen, deter- 
mine and designate an entire launa by a single characteristic species. 
JSo arclurologists distinguish tlie difterent periods of the Stone age by 
the instrument the most characteristic of each of them. 

A precise determination of these periods and of their number is not 
possible; for the flint instruments have, during the same period, under- 
gone dilVerent changes in dil'ferent localities, but a general reduction into 
three has been made by M. de ^Mortillet of the archteological divisions of 
the Quaternary period. 

1. The most remarkable type of the first Quaternary division is the 
so-called iSaint Adieul ax. (See Figs. 1 and 2.) It is of flint, of variable 
size, always quite large, longer than wide, thick in the middle, sharp- 
ened at the edges, with one end pointed, or rather orgival, while the other 
is rounded; but its most distinguishing characteristic is that its two 
faces or sides are shaped ; these are more or less convex, and more or 
less symmetrical. This type abounds at Saint Acheul, near Amiens, in 
the valley of the Somme ; hence its name; but it is found in almost all 



ETHNOLOGY. 



!17 



the deposits of the Mammoth age, aud soinetiines, though rarely, in less 
aucieut strata. 





Fiy. 2. ,,.:, I 

The Saiut Acheul type. — Ax Mith both faces shapeil. F'l 
view of etlire. 



1, view of face. Fig. 2, 



2. The seconddivision of the Stone age is characterized by the Moustier 
spear-head. (See Figs. 3, 4, and 5.) This iustrnnient, which was at- 
tached to the end of a long lance, diflers little in contour from the Saint 
Acheul ax — is somewhat more pointed, but is distiuguished by having 
only one of its sides shaped. The other was made at one blow which 
split it from the adjacent stone, and was never retouched. It is there- 
fore not biconvex, like the preceding, but plano-convex, and conse- 
quently only half as thick. 




Fig. 4. 



Fiff. 



Fin;. 3. 



The Moustier type. — Lance-head shaped only npon one side. I'ig. ',\, the side not 
shaped, showing at tlie base the i)oiut of percussion. Fig. 4, the shaped side. Fig. 5, 
side view. 



318 



THE TROGLODYTES. 



The Mou.stier type takes its name from the Moustier cave, M^iere it is 
very common and where it was first discovered by Edward Lartet and 
Christy. A few specimens have been found in more ancient deposits, 
coi-responding- with tlie first Quaternary period, and also in more recent 
deposits corresponding witli the latest; but it properly belongs to the 
intermediate. 

3. In a third period, which corresponds to the age of the reindeer, the 
flint instrument was perfected. The ends are more pointed, tlie contour 
more regular and symmetrical, and the edges have evidently been formed 
with finer touches. This period of the stone age is distinguished- more 
by the character of the manufacture than by the kind of instrument. 
The lance-head of Solutre has been generally taken as a type, because 
only a short time ago the lances from Solutre, in JMilconuais, were the 
best made instruments which had been found in the Quaternary depos- 
its, (see Fig. 6 ;) but since then Dr. Jules Parrot, and his brother, M. 
Philippe Parrot, have found at Saint Martin of Excideuil, (Dordogne,) 
in a cave of the age of the reindeer, numerous flint instruments much 
more perfected. 

Fig. 7. 
Fis. 6. 





The Solutre typo.— Point of Solutrd lance. 



The polished ax. 



We have now come to the end of the age of the reindeer, and to the 
commencement of the present period. We now find an improvement in 
the manufacture of flint instruments, which marks the beginning of a 



ETHNOLOGY. 319 

new arcbffiolog'ical era. Hitherto these iustruments were made by per- 
cussion or by pressure; although, it is true, some implements of sec- 
ondary use were rounded into shape by friction, but the flint tools and 
weapons were always chii)ped. In the era upon which we are now en- 
tering these implements were made in the same way, but the flint was 
j)olished, and the polished ax, too well known to need description, be- 
came the principal auxiliary of man. (See Fig. 7.) 

This ax characterized the period of polished stone or the neolitliic 
period winch terminated the stone age, and consequently lasted until 
the introduction of the metals. 

All the periods which precede the appearance of the polished ax con- 
stitute the period of stone, also called the archa^olithic, or, rather, the 
paleolithic period. 

The various phases of the age of chipped stone succeeded each other 
progressively, and by almost insensible transitions, like the correspond- 
ing geological periods ; but the change to the period of polished stone 
was much more abrupt. Its commencement coincides exactly with the 
disappearance of the reindeer, that is with the end of paleontological 
time, and with the beginning of the present geological era. It coin- 
cides also with a complete change in the social condition of man, with 
the domestication of the dog, with the adoption of pastoral life, marked 
by the domestication of several herbivorous animals, and also with the 
iutrodu<;tion of agriculture. Thus many centuries passed until the 
appearance of the bronze, which put an. end to the stone age. The 
length of the period of polished stone was very great; the entire dura- 
tion of historic time was nothing in comparison, and yet it was immeas- 
urably shorter than any of those v/hich form the age of chipped stone. 

We have thus examined the succession of pr<^-historic ages from the 
commencement of the Quaternary period, under the triple point of view 
of stratigraphy, paleontology, and archaeology, and we have obtained 
three series of dates which, if not altogether i^recise, are sufficiently 
approximate to form the following table, which may serve as a review : 



Stratigrapliical periods. 



Paleontulogical periods. 



Arcbaiological jieriods. 



t? I Lower strata of valleys uudis 

« ,-• 

g o ) tnrbed. 

■^ o I Median strata 

C" [ Upper strata 

^3* }Eece.t deposits 



Age of luarumoth. 

lutenuediate age 
Age of reindeer. . 

Actual fauua 



The St. Achcul as. 

Lance-head of Aloustier. 
Lance-head of Solutre. 

The polished ax. 



II. — Successive ja)CAlities of the troglodytes of the Ye- 

ZERE. 

We now possess the knowledge requisite to assign a place in time 
to the troglodytes of the valley of the Vezere. In their numerous 
localities not a single polished ax has been found; their industrial im- 
plements belong to the age of chipped stone, and are, therefore, anterior 



320 THE TROGLODYTES. 

to the recent period. They were familiar with the mammoth, fought 
with hiui, fed upou him, and even sketched him, and yet in their most", 
ancient locality, at least the most ancient known, the extinct species are 
rare. Therefore, our troglodytes do not date from the first Quaternary 
period, or the age of the mammoth. The Moustier locality incontesta- 
bly belongs to the age we have called intermediate, and which precedes 
the age of the reindeer, while their other localities descend from period 
to ijeriod until the end of the age of the reindeer. They witnessed then 
the extinction of the ancient fauna. They did not, it is true, see disap- 
pear the last survivor — the mammoth — for occasional remains of this 
animal are found in the most recent caves of the Yezere, although a few 
leagues from there, at Excideuil, MM. Jules and Philippe Parrot discov- 
ered a paleolithic cave in which there was no trace of the extinct spe- 
cies, and even the reindeer was rare. 

Thus the troglodytes of Perigord existed during the last two divisions 
of the (Quaternary period, from the decadence of the mammoth to the 
disappearance of the reindeer. It is impossible to calculate the number 
of centuries they lived, but we can form some idea from the relation of 
their localities to the present level of the V(5zere. 

After the Moustier cave ceased to be inhabited it was frequently 
inundated by the Vezere, and gradually filled with alluvium. This 
stratum of earth, which is about Gi feet in thickness, contains no 
osseous or siliceous remains. Below it lies the stratum which formed 
the habitation of man, in which he left traces of his industry and re- 
mains of his feasts. This proves that the opening of the cave was once 
beyond the reach of the waters, and consequently above the level of 
the river, while now it is 30 yards below low-water mark. The bottom 
of the valley has, therefore, been considerably elevated by deposition 
since the time of the troglodytes of Moustier. 

On the other hand, the Madelaine locality, which Is perhaps the most 
recent of the valley, is a little above the level of the highest present 
tide, and we may therefore conclude that the valley at that period was 
very much the same as it is now, the level having become only a little 
lower. 

Thus this deposit of 30 j ards, due to the action of the waters, was 
effected almost entirely under the eyes of our troglodytes, and since 
then, throughout the entire duration of the recent period, that is to say, 
for thousands of centuries, little change appears. Judge, then, what 
countless generations of humanity must have intervened between the 
time of the Moustier locality and that of the Madelaine. 

It is evident that, in this immense lapse of time, the habits and manu- 
factures of these people must have undergone great changes, which we 
find to have been the case in examining their different localities. 

All the localities now known are found in a \evy circumscribed 
district, grouped on both sides of the river Vezere. From that of 
Moustier, the highest up the river, to the Eyzies, the lowest, the distance 



ETHNOLOGY. 321 

is ©Illy about 5 miles in a straight line, but almost double as far if the 
sinuosities of the valley are followed. Between these extreme stations 
lie, upon the right shore, those of the Madelaine, of Upper and Lower 
Laugerie, of the Gorge d'Enfer ; on the left shore that of Cromagnou, 
very near the Eyzies. (See map.) 




Eclidle dc BoTSoo 



Figures. — Map of quaternary localities of the Vdzfere. 1. Cave of Moustier. 2. Hol- 
low rock of Moustier. 3. Hollow rock of Madelaine. 4. Sepulcher of Cromagnon. 5. 
Hollow rock of Upper Laugerie. 6. Hollow rock of Lower Laugerie. 7. Cave of 
Gorge d'Enfer. 8. Cave of the Eyzies. 

Some of these are genuine caves ; others merely hollows in the rocks, 
largely open to the valley. At the Moustier there is both a cave and a 
hollow. The Gorge d'Enfer and the Eyzies are caves; the Madelaine, 
the two Laugerie, and Cromagnon are hollows, but these distinctions 
have no chronological importance. The most ancient troglodytes, as 
well as the more recentj used both the cave and the hollow ; it is not 
from the kind of habitation they occupied, but from the nature of their 
remains, that we judge of their relative age. 
21s 



322 THE TROGLODYTES. 

The Moustier locality evidently preceded all the others ; that of Cro- 
inagDOu is less ancieut, but still belongs, with the Moustier, to the inter- 
mediate age. The Upper Laugerie and Gorge d'Enfer are of the age 
of the reindeer ; and, lastly, the Lower Laugerie, the Eyzies, and the 
Madelaiue form a group which leads us to the end of the Quaternary 
period. 

The troglodytes of the Moustier were completely uncivilized. They 
formed neither bone nor horn, but only stone implements. Tools of 
chipped flint abound in their various localities, but with the exception 
of a single arrow-head, which is carefully fashioned, these are of rude 
manufacture. No delicate objects ; no small instruments ; a few rare 
axes of the Saint Acheul type 5 a few thin i^ieces of stone, which may 
have been used for knives, and a large number of massive hatchets, with 
a single convex edge, to be held in the hand ; such were the only im- 
plements of domestic use ; all their other instruments were for warfare. 
A few arrow-heads prove that they were not ignorant of the use of the 
bow; but this was not their ordinary weapon. The true means of de^ 
fense which characterized this period was the lance, or spear, already 
described. (See Figs. 3, 4, and 5.) This sturdy instrument, with ogi- 
val point, and both sides shaped, large enough to make severe wounds, 
yet small enough to penetrate the flesh easily, constituted a much more 
terrible weapon than the Saint Acheul ax. Fastened at the end of a 
spear it brought death to the largest mammal. Hitherto man, badly 
armed, could not compete with those powerful animals. He maintained 
with them merely a defensive warfare. But now he took the offensive. 
He ceased to fear them ; their gigantic forms were no longer beyond his 
reach. With his long lance in his hand he assayed the conquest of the 
world. 

At Moustier remains of the mammoth, of the great lion, and of the 
great hyena of the caves have been found ; but the principal food of 
man at this period was first the horse, then the urns, and only third in 
importance the reindeer. The instruments of the chase were made 
for attacking game which would resist rather than take flight, and the 
arrow and other instruments for the killing of smaller quadrupeds or 
birds were probably unknown. Not a single bone of a bird or of a fish 
is found in the Moustier locality. These rude hunters cared only for 
violent combats, to which they devoted their entire energy and intelli- 
gence. 

The men of Cromaguon, less ancient than those of Moustier, made notice- 
able progress ; their tools were less massive, more numerous, more varied, 
and, above all, better made. The Moustier lance was superseded by a 
species of flint poignard. They wore ornaments of shells, and the large 
number of scraping-knives seems to indicate that they prepared skins 
for clothing. Their principal food was still the horse, but their larder 
was already varied. We find among the remains of their repasts, beside 
the reindeer, then commencing to be common, the bones and teeth of 



ETHNOLOGY. 323 

the urns, the boar, the stag, the goat, the wolf, the fox, the hare, and 
even of a bird of the crane species. Man hunted then the smaller ani- 
mals, as well as large game, but he had not yet learned how to reach 
the fish. 

Prominent among the animal remains we always find the mammoth 
and the great lion of the caves. There is also a great bear, probably 
the Ursus spelcvns. The reindeer had not yet begun to multiply, and 
appears less frequently than the horse ; so the period is still intermediate, 
while, in the localities we next notice, we enter definitely the age of the 
reindeer, and the remains of this animal are more abundant in them 
alone than in all the other periods taken together. 

We observed at Cromagnon evident improvement in the manufacture 
of flint instruments ; in the generations which followed further prog- 
ress was made in this art, which attained its greatest perfection at 
Upper Laugerie. The most beautiful flint implements of the valley of 
the Vezere belong to this locality. All the industrial instruments and 
weapons found here are of flint. They are innumerable, and very varied 
in form and dimension. It is true, many are in no way remarkable; 
some are even very rude in construction, such as certain lance or spear 
heads, which resemble the Monstier. But side by side with these im- 
perfect objects we find others of elegant form and elaborated contour, 
evidently the result of skillful workmanship. 

These beautiful flint instruments of Upper Laugerie belong to the type 
called Solutr6. Their form is sharply lanceolate ; they have little thick- 
ness, and their sides, chipped into fine edges, are regular and symmetri- 
cal 5 their base is often fashioned so as to be easily inserted in a handle. 
They were evidently intended to be attached to the extremity of a long 
wooden handle. Their dimension varies greatly, but whether large, of 
medium size, or small, they are all very nearly of the same type. It is 
evident that the smallest are the heads of arrows ; the medium size, of 
darts, thrown with the hand. The largest were lance-heads, but their 
want of breadth shows that the handle was not heavy, but quite light. 

For combating the mammoth or great lion weapons such as these 
could not compare with the Moustier spear. But these dangerous ani- 
mals had become rare. The brute creation no longer resisted man, but 
fled at his approach. Arms which were light and easily portable were 
necessary. If the reindeer avoided the lance he might be pierced by the 
dart; but, if too fleet for the dart, he could not escape the swift arrow. 
But the arrow and the dart failed of their end ; they were too rudely 
constructed. The slightest irregularity or want of symmetry in form, 
a single point too heavy, caused them to deviate from their course 
This the men of Upper Laugerie understood, and they improved the 
working of flint in order to perfect their armory. They were guided by 
no artistic sensibility. Art was still a stranger to them ; they had as 
yet only made acquaintance with utility. They gave a more elegant 
form to their arrow-head, only that it might fly with greater precision. 



324 THE TEOGLODYTES. 

They did not take time to form their other implements ivith the same 
care. 

These finely-formed arrow-heads, so common at Upper Laugerie, are 
not met with in the ulterior localities of the Vezere Valley. It would 
seem that the manufacture of flint instruments, after improving until 
the age of Upper Laugerie, then declined. It is astonishing that a people 
so skillful as the troglodytes of the age of the reindeer have proved them- 
selves to be, should thus have allowed to perish their fundamental art. 
But several instruments found in their more recent localities show that 
they had not lost the secrets of this delicate workmanship, and if they 
ceased to form arrow-points like those of Upper Laugerie, it was because 
they no longer needed them. 

A great step had been taken. They had learned to make use of the 
antlers of the reindeer and the bones of animals. Out of these sub- 
stances, more manageable than flint, not so hard undoubtedly, but still 
sufficiently strong, they manufactured imjjlements for the chase of 
longer reach and greater precision ; and having learned the value of 
horn and bone in the construction of such implements, they proceeded 
to form utensils of all kinds out of the same materials. 

But the reign of flint was not over. On the contrary, there never had 
been a greater or more varied assortment of flint instruments; to those 
used as weapons, or utensils, had been added a number of small tools, 
used for working the horns of the reindeer. 

Here was an important evolution in industry. Hitherto the hand 
alone had been used in forming the manufactured substance, but now a 
secondary means was employed. Tools were made to use in constructing 
others. From the earliest times it is true that flint had .been used as a 
means of manufacture. From the commencement of the Stone age it 
had been employed to cut wood, make piles, clubs, stems of lances, and 
arrows. Nor was the idea of substituting the hard parts of animals for 
stone any newer, for, in the ancient station of Cromagnon, several arrow- 
points of deer-horn, and even of ivory, have been found. What was ])e- 
culiar to the period we are entering upon, was the creation of a kind of 
tool, which did not directly minister to the necessities of life, but was 
intended to facilitate and perfect the fabrication of the instruments in 
use. It was the commencement of that division of labor which later 
increased a hundred fold the power of man, and brought nature under 
his subjection. 

The use of deer-horn was far advanced in the locality of Gorge D'Eu- 
fer. We find there a large assortment of lances, darts, arrows, bod- 
kins, needles, &c., very well made, but without ornament, and the weap- 
ons for the chase are of very simple form, merely conical points, without 
barbs. (See Fig. 9.). 

The invention of the barbs is worthy of attention. These recurrent 
points undoubtedly rendered the weapon more dangerous. The pro- 
jectile remained fixed in the flesh, and the wounded animal could not 



ETHNOLOGY. 



325 



get rid of it by brushing through the bushes. But this was probably 
not the principal intention of the barbs. Disposed in regular series on 
each side of the arrow (see Fig. 10) they sustained it in the air like 



■fjf'iH 



Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 9. 

Figure 9. — Horn point without barbs, (Gorge d'Enfer.) 
bilateral barbs. Fig. 11. — Harpoon with unilateral barbs. 



Fig. 10. — Arrow with 



wings, and added to the extent and precision of its flight this improve- 
ment indicates a certain acquaintance with experimental physics. The 
barbs generally have upon one of their faces one or several furrows, sup- 
posed to be intended to receive poison. 

The barb, and more or less artistic ornamentation, are the two distin- 
guishing characteristics of the localities of the last period. These are 
three in number: the Eyzies, Lower Laugerie, and the Madelaine. 
They strongly resemble each other, and were probably almost contem 
porary. In some respects art is in a higher state of perfection at the 
Madelaine, but the difference is not sufficient to establish a chronologi- 
cal distinction. These three localities, remarkable for the number and 
variety of works of art and industry, have furnished the largest part of 
the means we now have of studying the life and habits of the troglo- 
dytes of the Vezere. 

III. — The society of the troglody'tes. 

The caves of the troglodytes were situated at a short distance from 
the river, with no particular orientation, except that they were never 



326 THE TROGLODYTES. 

open to the north. In them these people lived throughout the year, as 
Ave discover by the remains of their rej)asts. We find that the young of 
the deer formed their food at each stage of its development, and by the 
study of the teeth, the bones, and the growth of the horn, we can esti- 
mate their age, and, consequently, at what season of the year thej'were 
killed. We conclude, therefore, that the troglodytes had a fixed \Aace 
of abode ; in other words, that they were not nomads. 

When they started on their fishing or hunting expeditious, they closed 
the mouths of their caves to prevent the incursion of carnivorous ani- 
mals. A bone found at the Madelaine shows the marks of the teeth of 
a hyena, which, probably by accident, had gained admittance. The 
hyena was rare at this i^eriod, but wolves and foxes were numerous, and 
if the bones, scattered freely over the floors of the caves, were undis- 
turbed by them, it was because they were carefully excluded. 

By what means was the entrance to these habitations guarded ? In 
other localities we find sepulchral caves closed by a slab of stone. This 
answered very well for the dead, but the living required a door more 
easily removed, and as no vestige remains in these caves of a defense of 
stone, we conclude that palisades were used for this purpose. 

They lived by hunting and fishing. Did they add to their regime any 
vegetable nutriment ? There is no proof of this. We find, it is true, in the 
three localities of the last period, a certain number of stones of granite, 
sandstone, or quartz, rounded and polished by friction, with a regular 
cuij-shaped depression on one side, which resemble small mortars. It 
has been suggested that these were intended to receive the end of a 
piece of dry wood, which was then turned rapidly with the hands, in 
order to produce fire — a celebrated custom of the ancient Aryans, and 
still observed among savages ; but these vessels are too shallow in pro- 
portion to their width for this purpose. They were evidently mortars, 
and certain rounded stones of the size of the cup seem to have been 
used as pestles. Hence has arisen the supposition that the troglodytes 
j)ouuded or bruised grain to prepare it for food, but everything tends to 
prove that they knew nothing of agriculture, and these mortars were 
probably intended for the preparation of i)oisons or colors. 

Their principal occupation and means of support was the chase. They 
hunted animals of every size, from the little bird to the huge mammoth. 
This old giant of Quaternary times still survived, although he had be- 
come very rare. For a long time it was supposed that he became extinct 
about the middle of the Quaternary i^eriod, and when several teeth of 
the animal, and various pieces of carved ivory were found in the more 
recent troglodytic localities of the Vezere, it was thought by many per- 
sons that these remains belonged to an anterior epoch ; that long after 
the extinction of the mammoth, man collected and used the fossil ivory, 
as is done to-day by the people of Siberia. In that polar region the 
summer heat affects only a superficial stratum of the ground; the lower 
soil has been frozen for centuries, and has preserved the bodies of mam- 



ETHNOLOGY. 



327 



motlis entire, so perfectly tlicat their flesh is still good to eat, or rather 
very had. Que of my friends has tasted it, and found it tough as leather. 
Owing to these favorable circumstances the ivory of Siberia is in such a 








^.-mm 



condition that it can be employed in the arts and in industry, but ordi- 
nary fossil ivory is only of value in the museum. The alternations of 
temperature and humidity to which it has been subjected have altered 
its texture — veined and softened it so that it is of no practical use what- 
ever. 



328 THE TEOGLODYTES. 

i^ow the climate of the Yezere, at the age of the reindeer, although 
still cold, had long ceased to be glacial, aud if the men of the i^eriod had 
dug into the soil, which they did not, the fossil ivory they found would 
have been of no use. The mammoths, then, whose ivory they carved, 
must have been their contemporaries. We have besides a decisive proof 
of this. Here is a cast (see Fig. 12) of an ivory plate discovered in 1864 
at the Madelaine by MM. Ed. Lartet, de Verneuil, aud Falconer. Upon 
this plate is engraved a representation of the mammoth, with his large 
head, concave forehead, his curved tusks, his small eye, his trunk, his 
curledup tail, and his long mane; in fact, exactly such a mammoth as 
perpetual frost has preserved, until our day, ou the shore of the Lena. 

The troglodytes of the age of the reindeer did not often encounter 
the mammoth. They more frequently hunted the boar, the horse, the 
ox. It was undoubtedly for combat with these large animals that they 
still retained some large lances armed with flint, differing little from 
those of Moustier. But their weapons were mostly light, and arrow- 
heads of horn had replaced the flint points of the anterior periods. 

The bow had become the principal weapon. The animal, as we have 
said, no longer defied man, but fled before him, and the combat was 
succeeded by the chase. There were two kinds of arrows. The small- 
pointed arrow, not barbed, for the smaller animals and birds, aud the 
large arrow, with double rows of barbs, which was chiefly used in killing 
the reindeer. Light lances terminated with flattened points, darts with 
conical points, and long and sharp poiguards, completed the equipment 
of the huntsman. 

I was about to forget the rallying whistle. This was a bone of the 
reindeer, at one end i)ierced by an oblique hole, which did not pass 
entirely through the bone, but only to the medullary canal. By blow- 
ing upon this hole as ujion a hollow key, sound can still be produced. 

Fish furnished a means of support for our later troglodytes, unknown 
to their predecessors. Their various localities contain a great many 
bones, and, what is worthy of remark, they all belong to the fishes of the 
salmon species. Now, the salmon of the present day does not come up 
as high as the Vezere, nor even to that part of the Dordogne into which 
that river empties. A few leagues .below the confluence of the two 
streams, not far from Lalinde, there exists in the bed of the Dordogne a 
bank of rocks, which in high water forms a rapid, and at low water a 
regular cascade, called the Saut de la Gratusse. This is the present limit 
of the salmon, and as, in the days of the troglodytes, they did not stop 
here, we must conclude that the level of the Dordogne since then has 
lowered, either by the wearing down of the bed of the river, which uncov- 
ered the rocks, or by loss of a portion of the waters. 

These antique fishermen evidently did not use nets, for with nets all 
kinds of fish are taken. Their sole instrument was the harpoon, with 
which they could only catch the large fish, and among these they chose 
the one whose flesh they preferred. Had they boats for fishing '? There 



ETHNOLOGY. 



329 



1;V. 



H^'' 



is no evidence of it ; besides the river was then sufficiently narrow to 
allow the use of the harpoon from its banks. 

gm The harpoon was a small dart of reindeer horn, very 

like the large barbed arrows, except that the barbs were 
only on one side ; a slight protuberance at the base allowed 
a cord to be attached, which was held in the hand of the 
fisherman. (See Fig. 11.) It has been frequently, and is 
still, confounded with the arrow. It is clear that an ar- 
row barbed only on one side would be very defective in 
§0 flight, as it describes a long curve; its course is uecessa- 
(g rily affected by the resistance of the air which sustains it ; 
« but in the short flight of the harpoon this inconvenience 
rt is much less, and besides the direction of the harpoon is 
® downward, and it does not need to be sustained by the 
^ air. The instrument barbed only on one side is then not 
-2 an arrow, and must be a harpoon. The use of its barbs 
-§ was to catch and retain the fish after it was struck, but 
"% why were they all upon one side "^ To diminish the width 
.a of the dart so that it might penetrate more readily ? I 
J cannot say.* 

° After hunting and fishing the troglodytes resorted to 
g the caves for their meals. They carried with them en- 
C tire the carcasses of the reindeer, and the smaller animals 

o 

d they had killed, but the larger animals, such as the horse 
p, and the ox, were too heavy for transportation ; tbey 
^ were cut uj) where they fell, and only the head and limbs 
were taken. This accounts for the fact that no bones 
of the body of the large mammifers are found among the 
residue of these feasts, while the skeletons of the reindeer 
and of the smaller animals are complete. 

Throughout all these caves, wherever these broken 
bones are found, there is always a large amount of char- 
coal ; and this association is so general, so uniform, that 

* One of my colleagues of the French Association, M. Lecoq, of Boisbeaudran, in a 
comnumication before the anthropological section, makes some very interesting re- 
marks upon the mode of action of the unilateral barbs of the harpoon. While iiassing 
through the air these barbs do not cause the harpoon to deviate perceptibly, but as 
soon as it enters the water the unequal resistance it encounters must necessarily change 
its direction. It would seem, then, that the fisherman who aimed straight for the fish 
would miss it. Now, it is well known that a straight stick appears to be broken when 
plunged obliquely in water ; in like manner, in consequence of the refraction of the 
luminous rays, the image of the fish is displaced, and if direct aim was taken at this 
imago it would also be missed. Here are, then, two causes of error. Now, it is evident 
that if they can be brought to act in opposite directions they will counteract each 
other, and M. Lecoq shows that when the barbed side is turned up the harpoon will reach 
its destination. This arrangement of the harpoon was then intended to rectify its 
course, which indicates great sagacity of observation in our troglodytes. 

The inhabitants of Terre-de-Fcu still use a harpoon barbed on one side onlv. (See 
Fig. 13.) 



m 



330 THE TROGLODYTES. 

ic is difficult to believe that the fires which were lighted, not only 
every day, but at every season of the year, were only for warmth. It is 
much more probable that they were used by the troglodytes for cooking 
their food. 

We do not know how they produced the fire; whether by striking flint, 
or heating wood by friction. Nor do we know anything about their 
arrangements for cooking. They had no pottery, and could not boil 
their meat; neither did they roast it, for onl3' occasionally calcined bones 
are found, and these are calcined evidently by accident. It is possible 
that they used wooden vessels, in which the water was brought to the 
boiling-point by the immersion of red-hot pebbles, but it seems to me 
much more probable that the food was cooked under the ashes, as is 
still the custom among savage people. 

They were very fond of the brain of animals, and of the marrow of the 
long bones, for the heads and the marrow-bones (to the exclusion of all 
others) are uniformly broken. Marrow is considered a great delicacy 
among all savages. They break the bone in a peculiar manner, and the 
head of the tribe is honored with the first suck. Our troglodytes used 
wedge-shaped pieces of flint as a kind of hatchet for brejiking the bones. 
They also had an instrument of horn, which was probably employed in 
extracting the marrow. (See Fig. 14.) Archieologists disagree in regard 
to this instrument. Some' have supposed it to be a dart, because one of 
its extremities, if not pointed, is conical in shape, and that the cavity 
formed in the other was intended to admit the handle ; but, if so, the 
latter extremity would not have been sharpened to an oblique point 
before the cavity was made. On the contrary, the part used for the 
handle, where strength was required, would have been heavier, not 
smaller and weaker. Besides, the elegant ornamentation of the exterior 
surface indicates that it was an object of luxury. The time required 
for such work was not wasted in forming a weapon which might be lost 
in the first thicket encountered. I therefore think, with Edward Lar- 
tet and Christy, that this instrument was for extracting marrow, and 
was only used by persons of distinction. 

The troglodytes, when their repasts were ended, left the bones scat- 
tered upon the ground. In a warm climate these would have exhaled 
frightful odors, but we must remember that the temperature was much 
lower then than now. Moreover, we must admit that cleanliness was 
not the dominant virtue of the men of this period, but their want of 
neatness serves us well, for, in consequence, the floors of their caves 
show us exactly what they had to eat. The flesh of the reindeer was 
their principal food, but they also lived upon the horse, the urus, seve- 
ral species of ox, the chamois, the goat, and even of the carnivorous 
animals. Thus far they but followed the example of their predecessors; 
but they had, in addition, the i)roducts of the fisheries, while the im- 
provement of the bow enriched their larder with a great variety of 
birds, whose bones are found among the remains of the repasts. 



ETHNOLOGY. 



331 



Among all these osseous fragments there is not a single human bone. 
Our good troglodytes were not anthropophagi. They were unacquainted 
with the savage delight of eating a vanquished enemy. I state this 
with satisfaction, although I am not of the number of those who attach 
great importance to cannibalism. In the eyes of a philosopher the 
crime consists not in eating the man, but in killing him. In the latter 
respect we are perhaps more barbarous than they, for our boasted civiliza- 
tion, which ought to put an end to war, has only rendered it more mur- 
derous. I do not suppose the troglodytes always lived in peace ; they 
were obliged sometimes to light in order to defend or increase their 
hunting-grounds, but their weapons are those of men of the chase — 
hunters, rather than warriors. 

Fig. 14. Fig. 18. Fig. 17. Fig. 15. Fig. 10. 




^srKjX 



Fig. 14. Spoon for marrow. Figs. 1.5 aud 16. Needles. Fig. 17. A hunting scorer 
and marker. Fig. 18. Eecord. 

When we review their panoply we find their most formidable weap- 
ons, those which could be used in a hand-to-hand conflict, are few in 
number, so we must conclude that they were pacific in their habits. 

It has been supposed that they wore no clothing, because the figures 
of them drawn by their artists are entirely naked. But this is no proof; 
the Greeks always represented their gods and heroes in a state of nudity. 



332 THE TROGLODYTES. 

We fonud in the caves all the instruments needful for sewing. They 
had needles of bone and horn ; some with only a point like our shoe- 
maker's awl ; others with an eye for carrying* thread. (See Figs. 15 and 
16.) Some are very fine; we have seen a needle-case made of the 
bone of a bird, which contained several needles. Lartet and Christy 
have discovered the mode of manufacture. They found a metacarpus of 
a horse, in which, made with a fine saw, were incisions, longitudinal and 
parallel, isolatiug narrow and regular pieces of bone. The work was 
unfinished, but it is evident that these isolated splinters of bone were to 
be formed into needles. 

The nature of the thread employed varied greatly. Did they use vege- 
table fiber and narrow slips of leather ? It is possible, and even probable. 
It is certain that our troglodytes made thread, or at least cord, out of 
tendons. Several savage tribes at this day use fine tendinous fibers for 
sewing. The large posterior ligament of the herbivora might have fur- 
nished thread and cord of great strength. I have known this part of 
the ox to be used in more recent times by parents, in the moral improve- 
ment of their children. Whether the sinews of the reindeer were used for 
sewing I do not know, but the long tendons of the limbs were detached 
with great care, by means of a peculiar stroke which produced a slight 
but regular abrasion of the bone. This abrasion, always the same, is 
found on difierent bones, but always at the point of insertion of a ten- 
don, and was evidently the result of an operation methodically per- 
formed, probably before the animals were handed over to the cooking 
department, and which had for its object "the preparation of thread for 
sewing. 

The art of sewing implies the existence of clothing, not merely that 
primitive vesture which consists of a single skin thrown over the 
shoulders, but a much more complete raiment, formed, perhaps, of sev- 
eral skins. The abundance of needles, and of scrapers used in the prep- 
aration of skins, shows that the use of clothing was general. 

They also wore ornaments, which, perhaps, served as marks of dis- 
tinction, such as bracelets and necklaces formed of shells, perforated 
and strung together. These are found in almost all the localities, and 
in great numbers in the ancient burial-place of Cromagnon. Some 
plates of ivory, prepared with great care and pierced with two holes, 
seem to have served as fastenings for these necklaces. 

These were not the only manifestations of that spirit of vanity which 
leads man to adorn himself. Almost all savages make use of paint, and 
the barbarous practice of tattooing, in order to embellish their persons, 
and we have no right to look down upon them, for in the most civilized 
countries the tattoo is still in favor, especially among sailors, and the 
fine lady of society has not, it is said, entirely forgotten the use of pig- 
ments. It is therefore not surprising that we find among the troglo- 
dytes similar customs. Their caves contain numerous fragments of a 
species of redstone, called sanguine. The stripes observed upon these 



ETHTS^OLOGY. 333 

show that they have been scraped. A red color was thus formed, which 
was constantly used in personal adornments. It is likely that tattooing 
also was practiced, since among the figures engraved upon various objects 
of reindeer horn, there are several representing the hand and fore-arm 
of a man, and upon the low^er part of the fore-arm are designs in such 
regular patterns they can hardly be anything else than tattooing. 

I have already said our troglodytes w'ere not nomadic ; individuals 
may have undertaken long journeys, but the tribe seldom or never 
wintered far from the cave. They must have obtained, by exchange or 
commerce, certain articles foreign to the locality, such as the perforated 
shells, of which their necklaces and bracelets were made. These were 
mostly of the species Littorina lUtorca, and came from the shores of the 
Atlantic, where they are abundant. They were recent shells, that is, not 
fossils, which is proved by the tints they retain to this day. There are 
others also pierced with a hole for suspension, which belong to five ex- 
tinct species of the Miocene age. They are entirely discolored; and 
their molecular condition and worn appearance prove that they had 
been for a long time in the fossil state before they were unearthed to 
assist in adornment. Now the places where these fossils were found 
were not in the neighborhood of the Vezere ; the nearest were those 
of Touraine, and thence, in all probability, our troglodytes imported this 
addition to their toilet. We also find at these localities, and especially 
at Upper Laugerie, small objects of rock-crystal, which substance must 
have come from the Pyrenees, the Alps, or the mountains of Auvergne. 
The foreign relations of the troglodytes were therefore far extended. 

Had they religious belief? We found in their dwelling-places no 
objects which could serve for worship ; but they wore a talisman, or 
amulet, which consisted of a canine or incisor tooth of the wolf, the 
reindeer, the ox, or the horse ; a hole was carefully i^erforated in one 
end of the tooth to receive the suspending cord. Similar talismans are 
worn at the present day to assist the fortunes of the chase, and M. de 
Mortillet has observed in Italy an analogous custom. To counteract 
the infi.uenceof evil spirits, the tooth of a hog, mounted in silver, is fast- 
ened to the swaddling-clothes of the new-born child; and later, when 
the teeth commence to appear, it is suspended from the neck of the 
infant, and serves as a coral or rattle. 

The perforated teeth of the troglodytes were certainly not rattles; 
they were, perhaps, protective amulets, but more probably talismans 
for hunting. In either case, they were objects of superstitious venera- 
tion. May it not then be said that these people had a religion 1 I am 
no theologian ; I cannot say. It is difficult to know where superstition 
ends and religion begins. 

At the same period of time in other places certain funeral rites were 
observed. The dead were deposited in a cave, the narrow^ opening of 
which was closed with a stone slab. In front of the cave was a small 
esplanade upon which the afflicted relatives comforted themselves with 



334 



THE TROGLODYTES. 



a feast. This mode of consolation has been continued from age to age, 
even down to the present time. 

At present only one burial-place of the troglodytes of the V6zere is 
known — that of Cromagnon. It is a hollow rock, not a cave. Near the 
bodies were placed some flint instruments and ornaments of shells, but 
there is no trace of a closing stone. 

The government of the troglodytes was hierarchically organized. 
There were dignitaries of several degrees of imi)ortance. The proofs of 
such organization are found only in the localities of the latest period : 
the Eyzies, Lower Laugerie, and the Madelaine. They consist of cer- 
tain large pieces of the horn of the reindeer, carefully formed, and gen- 
erally called rulers' staves or batons. They are very numerous, and of 
a uniform type. Their entire surface is richly ornamented "with various 
designs, representing figures of animals, or hunting scenes. The care 
taken to make them as thin as jiossible, in proportion to their width, 
shows that lightness, and not strength, was desired. Most of them, 
not all, have, in one of their extremities, round holes, varying in num- 
ber from one to four. (See Figs. 19 and 20.) The destination of these 

Fig. 21. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. 




Stc^s^tL 



Fig. 19.— Euler's stave or baton, with one bole, reduced to one-tbird. Fig. 20. — Tbe 
same, with four boles, reduced to one-tbird. Fig. 21.— Tbe pogamagan of the Esqui- 
maux, reduced to one-fourth. 



ETHNOLOGY. 335 

remarkable instruments has been, and still is, a subject of discussion. 
They have been considered weapons, and it must be confessed they re- 
semble in form the jjogamagan employed by the Esquimaux of Macken- 
zie's Eiver as a tomahawk, one end of which, formed into a blunt chisel, 
serves to break the ice. The pogamagan, however, are longer, larger, and 
heavier, aud instead of being flattened their cylindrical form has been 
preserved, so that, resistance being equal in every direction, they admit 
of violent blows. They also are not pierced by the large holes which 
rendered the batons of the troglodytes too fragile for any mechanical 
use. These batons may then be considered as the insignia of office. 
They recall the scepter of the ancients, which was carried not only by 
kings, but by chiefs of lower rank. At the present day the dignity of 
a mai\shal is represented by a baton, a similar symbol of office. 

The batons of the troglodytes are too numerous to be marks of royalty. 
They were simply signs of hierarchal distinction, the holes, like the 
gold and silver lace of our officers, indicating the rank of the wearer; 
those with four holes represented the highest office; those without any, 
the lowest. 

The unity of design in the ornamentation, which generally includes 
the holes, shows that the baton was made after the individual for whom 
it was intended Avas invested with his office. But in some cases the 
holes were evidently added afterward, as they cut into and mutilate 
the drawings. For instance, on one baton a horse is represented ; and, 
later, a hole was pierced, which divided the horse into two portions, 
'see Fig. 19,) the possessor having been so fortunate as to receive a 
^/romotion. 

This division into ranks, or grades, a sure sign that the community 
was large, may have arisen out of the necessities of war ; but it is much 
more probable that they originated in the organization of hunting expedi- 
tions, for the chase was the principal element of public prosperity, and it 
was of the utmost importance that it should be properly regulated, since 
upon it depended the sustenance of the whole people. The tempera- 
ture was then much lower than it is now, and the flesh of the game could 
be preserved for a long time, especially during the winter months, so that 
there was constantly a greater or less amount of food stored in the cave, 
and the intervention of a domestic economy was necessary to avoid either 
waste or unjust division of these provisions. Certain rods of horn, with 
ii great number of notches upon them, arranged in regular series, seem 
to have served as account books. These objects, known as kunting regis- 
ters, (see Fig. 17,) resemble the recording sticks used at the present day 
by the bakers of small villages, and in the country, to keep the accounts 
of those, alas too numerous, who can no more read than our troglodytes. 
A wide, thin plate of bone, or ivory, with two rows of notches on the 
sides, and its two faces covered with series of points arranged trans- 
versely, seems also to have been a register of accounts. (See Fig. 18.) 

Thanks to the organization and administration whose indications we 



336 THE TEOGLODYTES. 

have just noticed, the troglodytes, though a Lirge commuuity, lived 
at ease. Food was so abundant that they could select the better jiarts, 
and reject those inferior in quality. Thus they disdained the feet of 
animals, which contain, between the bones and tendons, a considerable 
amount of alimentary matter, and we find in their caves entire feet of 
the deer, with every bone in place, as perfect as those of the skeletons 
of our museums. They were evidently cast aside as undesirable for 
food, a fact which shows that the sources of subsistence more than sup- 
plied actual need. The destruction of the dangerous animals had insured 
safety, and the perfection of the chase secured abundance of food. The 
more urgent necessities of life no longer required an entire consecration 
of the activity, intelligence, and time of the tribe. Leisure hours were 
possible, and leisure, combined with intelligence, engenders the arts. 

IV. — The A'RTS of the tro&lodytes. 

To Egypt no longer belongs the distinction of having originated the 
arts. We learned a few years ago, to our great astonishment, that the 
men of the age of the reindeer practiced dra^^ ing, carving, and even sculp- 
ture. At first their efforts received only our admiration ; but now, the 
excitement of discovery over, we must confess there we're some very 
bad artists among them. Still, although a large number of the draw- 
ings are very crude, resembling the rude sketches made by idle children 
with charcoal upon our walls, there are some truly remarkable, indi- 
cating not only a skillful hand, but an eye accustomed to the observa- 
tion of nature. 

Dravving, v>ith these people, undoubtedly preceded sculpture. Fig- 
ures in relief are much more rare aud less perfect than those made by 
lines. The latter are found quite frequently at the Eyzies, and at Lower 
Laugerie, but are particularly abundant at the Madelaine, where they 
are also much more correct. 

All the drawings are made with indented lines, that is, etched, and for 
the most part ornament various objects of reindeer horn, such as the 
commanders' batons, or the handles of poignards. There are some, 
however, made upon certain plates of ivory or horn, which could have 
been intended for no other purpose than to receive and display the work 
of the artist. (See Fig. 12 and Fig. 22.) 

Almost all the drawings are of natural objects, although there are 
some merely oruamental lines, forming zigzags and festoons of more or 
less elegance; and, with the exception of three rose-like leaves engraved 
upon the handle of deer's horn, which seem intended to represent a poly- 
petal flower, they are principally of animals. The reindeer most fre- 
quently appears, then the horse ; the ox and the urns more seldom. 
These animals are readily recognizable. Their characteristics are repro- 
duced with great accuracy, and often with elegance ; frequently they are 
isolated figures, covering without order, and in great numbers, the entire 
surface of an instrument, but sometimes they are formed into groups, 
and are seen in couibat, or flying before man. 



ETHNOLOGY. 337 

Of all these drawings tlie most iinj)oitant, and also the most rare, 
since, at present there is but one specimen, is a representation of the 
mammoth, to which I have already alluded. It was found at the Made- 
laine in 1804. The execution of the head is remarkably correct. (See 
Fig. VJ.) Since then the Marquis de Vibraye has discovered at Lower 
Laugerie a fragment of a commander's baton, with the head of a mam- 
moth sculptured upon it. These are the only representations of the 
animal transmitted to us by the artists of the Vezere, but they are suffi- 
cient to prove that it was not yet extinct. 




Fig. 22. — Combat of reindeers. 

Eepresentations of fish are quite common, and, with a single exception, 
that of an eel or lamprey, (if it is not a serpent,) they generally resem- 
ble the salmon in form. M. Elie Massenat has discovered at Lower 
Laugerie, upon a fragment of the scapula of an ox, a rude drawing of a 
fishing scene. It represents a man in the act of harpooning an aquatic 
animal. The latter, although it has the form of a fish, is so much larger 
than the man that it has been supposed to be one of the cetacea, probably 
a whale, and that the artist, in consequence, must have found bis way to 
the Gulf of Gascogne. I am not disposed to admit this interpretation. 
It is hardly possible that the men of that time were sufiQciently expert 
navigators to venture upon the ocean to harj)Oon the w^hale. It is said 
the tail and back suggest the form of a cetaceous nnimal ; but may it 
not rather be a porpoise than a whale ? Porpoises sonietimes sport in 
the Gironde, and I saw once, in my childhood, one of these animals car- 
ried by a flood even into the Dordogne, where it was stranded between 
Libourne and Castillon. It was killed by fishermen with boat-hooks, 
and exhibited from village to village. If, as is probable, the tide rose 
higher in those days than now, and particularly if the Dordogne was 
wider and deeper, it is conceivable tliat a porpoise might ascend tlie 
river high enough to come within reach of the harpoons of our troglo- 
dytes, and so unusual an event would naturally inspire the enthusiasm 

of an artist — in this case very unskillful. 

22 s 



THE TROGLODYTES. 



Fie;. 23. 



Bat I am tempted to believe that this preteuded cetacean is only a badly 
drawn fisli. The relative size of the man proves nothing, for the artist 
throngliont the entire sketch has manifested entire contempt for propor- 
tiou. This too diminntive man has a gigantic arm, and the harpoon he 
throws is proportioned to the size of the fish. We are reminded of cer- 
tain jocose drawings of the present day, in which pnuy bodies are supplied 
with enormous heads. The great interest of this particular work of art 
consists in the unanswerable proof it gives that the troglodytes used the 
harpoon in fishing. I have already shown by indirect evidence that 
the darts, barbed only on one side, could only be used as harpoons, and 
this drawing fully confirms that (jonclusion. 

The troglodytes, sometimes so skillful in the representation of animals, 
drew the human form very badly. They very seldom attempted it, and 
oidy a single study of a head has been found. It is in profile, very 
sniMll, and very grotesque. Two other drawings, very similar to each 
other, represent a fore-arm, terminated by a hand with four fingers, the 
thumb hidden from view. Add to these the fisherman with the harpoon, 
and two hunting scenes, in which a man entirely naked, and armed 
with a dart, ov baton, is very rudely drawn, among figures of animals 
very skillfully executed, and you have a complete list of all the repre- 
sentations of man to be found in the gallery of the troglodytes. 

I have already said that the specimens of sculpture 
are much more rare than the drawings. We only 
know of about half a dozen, and they all came from 
Lower Laugerie. One of them, belonging to the Mar- 
quis of Yibraye, represents a woman ; the others the 
following animals : a reindeer, (see Fig. 23,) the head of 
a reiiuleer, the head of a mammoth already mentioned, 
and the head of an animal not yet identified ; lastly, a 
specimen discovered by M. Elie Mass(^nat, called the \ 
twin oxen, representing two animals which may be 
either oxen or uri. 

These sculptures are sometimes unfinished, and al- 
ways badly executed. It is true they ornament the 
handles of poiguards, or commanders' batons, and in 
order to accommodate the animal forms emjjloyed to this 
purpose, the artist was obliged to choose unnatural and 
ungraceful jmsitions; but, in spite of these extenuating 
circumstances, it must be confessed that the troglodytes 
were very j)oor sculptors. 

On the contrary, in the art of drawing they mani- 
fested surprising skill 

son they paid little attention to the human form, and 
failed in its representation, but the characteristics of animals were 
reproduced with such faithfulness, elegance, and spirit, as to denote true 
artistic feeling. 




From I know not what rea- ""Zt r\7'e^i^nt^n 

elongated reindeer. 



ETHNOLOGY. 339 

V. — The race. 

In concluding the study of tbis interesting people we will now deter- 
mine the race to which they belong. The human bones thus far col- 
lected are, unfortunately, not sufficiently numerous to satisfy entirely 
our curiosity. Still, they suffice to prove that their race was very differ- 
ent from those which succeeded it, and that the learned anthropologist 
Ketzius and his disciples were mistaken in supposing that all the popu- 
lations of Southern Europe, before the comparatively recent period of 
the Indo-European migrations, belonged to the type of the .short heads, or 
hrachijcephales. 

]M. Elie Massenat discovered a few mouths ago, at Lower Laugerie, the 
skeleton of a man who appeared to have been killed by an accidental 
fall of earth. But the anatomical description of this valuable specimen 
has not yet been published, which I especially regret, since it is the sole 
representative of the troglodytes of the latest period. The skulls and 
bones in the annexed drawings belong to a very much more ancient 
date. They came from the ancient sepulcher of Cromagnon, of which M. 
Louis Lartet, worthy son of an illustrious father, has determined, with 
great accuracy, the geological, paleontological, and archaeological char- 
acteristics. This burial-place contained the remains of at least five indi- 
viduals ; but only three skulls, two masculine, one feminine, were suffi- 
ciently preserved for examination. One of the men was apparently 
very old ; the other was an adult, as was also the woman. i!»J^ear them 
was a young child. 

They were superior in stature to ourselves. The length of the femur 
of the old man indicates a height of five feet nine inches, while the size 
of the bones, the extent and roughness of the surfaces of muscular in- 
sertion, and the extraordinary development of the maxillary bone, in 
which are inserted the masticatory muscles, manifest a strong constitu- 
tion. 

The tibias, instead of being triangular and prismatic like ours, are 
flattened like those of a gorilla. (See Fig. 24.) The upper part of the 
cubitus is very large and curved, and has a very small sigmoidal cavity, 
which characteristics recall the cubitus of the gorilla. But the cou- 
fomation of the femur differs radically from that of the apes. With the 
anthropomorphous apes the body of the femur is flattened, is much 
wider than it is thick, and has not upon its posterior surfaces the longi- 
tudinal crease which in man is called the sharp line. In existing races 
the thickness of the body of the femur is, in general, greater than its 
width, but the difference is slight. In the specimens of Cromagnon the 
femur is much thicker than wide. The sharp line, enormously devel- 
oped, is no longer a simple ridge, but a thick and prominent osseus col- 
umn, which greatly increases the strength of the bone and the extent 
of the muscular insertions. In this respect the people of Cromagnon 
differed much more from the simian type than the present races. 

The skeletons of these robust troglodytes bear traces of the violence 
of their manners ; in the lower extremity of one of the femurs of the old 



340 



THE TROGLODYTES. 



man is a hollow similar to that sometimes produced in our da^ by a 
spent ball. It is evidently the result of an old wound received, perhaps, 
in the chase; perhaps in war; but a human hand, armed with a flint 
instrument, must have produced a long, deep aperture which appears 



Fig. 26. 



Fiff. 24. 



Fitr. 25. 



mm 



Fi^ 34. — Flattened tibia of the old man of CromagEon. 
26.— Fibula of the same. 



Fig. 25. — Femur of the same in profile. Fig. 



in the skull of the woman ; the width of the opening shows that the brain 
must have been injured, but still the victim was not killed instantly by 
the blow. The vascularization of the bone and the internal surface of 
the skull show that she survived about fifteen days. (See Figs. 27 and 28.) 
This shameful murder of a woman is not to the credit of the people of 
Cromagnon. The study of the industries of these people has already 
shown us that their social condition was not above that of a savage tribe, 
and an examination of their skulls confirms this opinion. With them 
the sutures of the anterior cranial region are very simple, while those 
of the posterior region are quite complicated. Besides, the former have 
a decided tendency to close long before the latter, two characteristics 
always observed in races or individuals leading an entirely material life. 
The troglodytes of Cromagnon were then savages, but savages of intel- 



ETHNOLOGY. 



341 



ligence, and capable of improvement. We find among them certain signs 
of a powerful cerebral organization. The skulls are large in diameter, 
curve, and capacity, and surpass the mean of those of existing races. 
They are very elongated in form, such as are called dolichoc6phales, 
(which means long headed,) but this shape of the head is not due, as with 
the Australian negroes, to narrowness of the skull ; on the contrary, the 

Fig. 27. 




Skull of the ■woman of Cromagnon in profile ; the aperture in the frontal bone is apparent. 

transversal dimensions are well developed ; it is the increase of the 
antero-posterior diameter which gives the elongated form ; the alveolar 
arch of the old man is oblique, but the upper part of the face is vertical, 
and the facial angle very obtuse. The forehead is wide, not receding. 

Fig. 28. 




Skull of the woman of Cromagnon ; front view. 

and describes a beautiful curve. The amplitude of the trontal compart- 
ment denotes a great development of the anterior cerebral lobes, which 
are the seat of the most noble faculties of the mind. 



342 



THE TROGLODYTES. 



If the troglodytes of Cromagnou were in a savage state it was be- 
cause the surroimdiug conditious were unfavorable to their development. 
The conformation of their brains shows that they were capable of 
culture, and, under favorable auspices, would make great and rapid ad- 
Fig. 29. 




Skull of the old man of Croraagnon ; profile view. 

vauces in civilization. These rude hunters of the mammoth, the lion, 
and the bear are the worthy ancestors of the artists of the Madelaine. 

Fig. 30. 




Skull of the old man of Cromagnon ; front view. 

I have now given you the principal facts in the history of the troglo- 



ETHNOLOGY. 



o4ci 



dytes of the Ydzere. For want of time I have been obliged to omit and 
curtail much that wonlu have been interesting to have dwelt upon, but 
hope that you have been enabled to follow from Moustier to Cromagnon, 
from Cromagnon to Upper Laugerie and George d'Enfer, and then to 
the three localities of the Eyzies, Lower Laugerie, and the ^Madelaiue. 
the progressive evolution of an intelligent race who advanced graduall}' 
from the most savage state to the very threshold of civilization; for the 
troglodytes of the last period, with a regularly organized society, and 
possessing industry and the arts — the two great levers of progress — 
were, so to say, within one step of a truly civilized condition. 

Fig. 31. 




Skull of the old man of Cromagnon ; vertical view. 

This interesting people suddenly disappeared, leaving no trace in the 
traditions of men, not gradually, after a period of decadence, but rapidly, 
without transition, perhaps suddenly, and with them the light of the 
arts is extinguished. Then follows a period of darkness, a sort of middle 
age, of unknown duration. The chain of time is broken, and. when we 
would resume it again, we find in the place of the hunters of the rein- 
deer a new society, a new industry, a new race, a people who are 
acquainted with agriculture, who domesticate animals, raise megalithic 
monuments, and have the ax of polished flint. It is the dawn of a 
new day, but the knowledge of the arts has been lost. Sculpture and 
design have entirely disappeared, and it is not until the latest days of 
polished stone that we discover, and then only here and there upon an 
occasional monuaient, some attempts at ornamentation, wbich have 
absolutely nothing in common with the remarkable artistic productions 
of the troglodytes. 

This sudden and complete extinction of the troglodytes suggests the 
occurence of a cataclysm, but such a supposition is contradicted by 



344 THE TROGLODYTES. 

geology, and, in oi'der to explain this phenomenon, it is not necessary to 
introdnce any other influence than that of man. Our hunters of the rein- 
deer, with their peaceable mode of life and their light weapons, were not 
prepared for combat, and not in a condition to resist attack, so that their 
budding civilization yielded immediately when their valleys were in- 
vaded by tribes better equipped for war; perhaps already in possession 
of the polished ax. Then, as now, might was right. 



APPENDIX. 

EXCURSION TO THE EYZIES. 

At 5 o'clock a special train carried seventy-two excursionists ; the 
sun arose in splendor and announced a beautiful day. The road as far 
as Periguex presented little to attract attention, and animated conver- 
sation beguiled the time until at 6 o'clock we entered the celebrated 
valley of the Vezere, and stopped at the station of the Eyzies. 

After partaking of an excellent repast prepared for us, at 11 o'clock 
we climbed the steep sides of the eminence which overlooks the present 
village, on the banks of the Beune, and, surrounding M. Louis Lartet, 
were so fortunate as to hear a detailed account of the discoveries which 
have rendered so illustrious the cave of the Eyzies, where his father, 
our regretted master, with the aid of Ohristj^, commenced his series of 
distinguished explorations. 

The cave still contains numerous osseous fragments, in which are 
mingled pieces of bone, flint implements, rounded or angular pebbles 
and schistose plates of rock, for the most part foreign to the valley. 
Many a museum has been enriched by similar fragments from the 
Eyzies by MM. Ed. Lartet and Christy, and we were each allowed to col- 
lect some specimens. In this cave were found the first drawings of the 
age of the reindeer. (August, 1863.) 

Near the entrance of the cave, upon the lateral and exterior prolonga- 
tion of the platform are traces of artificial constructions, of a relatively 
very recent period. A stable was partly suspended in the air, and 
covered, doubtless, with a pent-house roof supported in holes in the rock 
which still exist. 

We then proceeded to Cromagnon, a place very celebrated in the 
annals of science. In 1868 the construction of the railroad necessitated 
the removal of an enormous talus at the base of the rocks on the left 
shore of the Vezere, and at the bottom of a cave so shallow it might 
rather be called a hollow, some human bones were discovered. M. Louis 
Lartet was immediately sent to the place by the minister of public in- 
struction, and found that there were four superposed strata blackened 
by fire. 

In all these strata were the same industrial implements, flint chiefly 
shaped into scrapers, instruments of bone, bodkins, arrows, »&c., and 



ETHNOLOGY. • 345 

also tlie same auimals — the great bear, Fells spelcea, the wolf, Cmiis 
vulpes. a sperinophile, two Lepus, the Elephas primigenmH, the huh^ the 
horse very abundant, the reindeer, the nrus, some teeth of the com- 
mon deer, and lastly a species of goose. Without a doubt the vestiges 
of successive habitation in the hollow of Cromagnon are traces of the 
same race of hunters. When the accumulation of culinary debris had 
considerably reduced the height of the little cave it became the final 
abode of a few of these ancient people. Five skeletons, a woman, a 
child, an old man, and two young men were found in it, and, with them, 
nearly three hundred marine shells, esj)ecially the LittoHna Uttorea, 
some amulets of ivory-pierced teeth, instruments of reindeer horn, &c. 

From the absence of barbed arrows and of engraving on stone, and 
from the predominance of the horse over the reindeer, Cromagnon dates 
before the last period of the caves, and is very nearly contemporary 
with that of Upper Laugerie, which was visited immediately afterward 
by the association. Each member had been supplied by M. Emile Car- 
tailhac with a map of the valley of the V6zere, on the side of which were 
represented the excavations of Cromagnon and Lower Laugerie. 

In passing to Tayac the association stopped for a few moments to 
examine an interesting Roman church ; a short distance further on thej' 
crossed the Vezere in a ferry-boat, and were charmed with the jiictur- 
esque aspect of the valley. The right branch of the river is not wide, 
and the steep declivities which rise almost vertically are less than 50 
meters from the river. Above the hamlet of Upper Laugerie we ob- 
served a talus with a line of enormous blocks of stone upon it, and were 
told that it was a cornice of rock which had fallen during the last cen- 
tury, destroying human habitations, sheep, and cows in its descent. The 
present occupants of the soil, wuth no fear of a similar accident, have 
rebuilt their miserable cabins upon some of the fallen rocks. It is here 
that MM. de Vibraye and Franchet collected, sometimes below the level 
of the waters of the Vezere, large quantities of those flint instruments 
with oval ends and both sides shaped, which have become characteristic 
of an intermediate period between the age of the locality of the Moustier 
which succeeded thnt of Saint Acheul, and the age of Eyzies, of the 
Madelaine, &c. 

Above this important stratum lie the deposits of the last i^eriod of 
the time of the reindeer, which witnessed the birth of industry and the 
arts, of drawing and of sculpture. These commence at Upper Laugerie, 
and continue for several hundred yards toward Lower Laugerie, where 
they form a talus of 12 meters in thickness. Protected from the damp by 
the overhanging rocks, the bones are admirably preserved, and the 
excavations made have been attended with astonishing results. MM. 
Ed. Lartet and Christy, and the Marquis of Vibraye commenced the work 
which was continued for six years by M. Elie Massenat, (de Brives.) 

Numerous relics of every period have been collected at the surface of 
the talus, but especially of the age of bronze and of polished stone. 



34G • THE TROGLODYTES. 

The superficial strata have been liequently searched for specimens, as 
the.y siill continue to be by the present inliabitants. These poor people 
even (lij>- ii\> the Uoors of their dwellinj^s for this purpose, and we were 
quite astonished to find deep holes under their beds and tables and 
bureaus, excavated for the extraction of these vestiges of ancient life. 

We have especially noticed the avalanche of rocks of the Upper 
Laugerie, but similar occurrences have taken place all alonj? the valley. 
Eocks have constantly fallen. The savages of the age of the reindeer 
were established on the banks of the Vezere when the valley was in its 
present condition. Undismayed by the avalanches of stone which, at 
intervals, destroyed their homes, they fearlessly re-assumed possession 
of the soil and rekindled their extinguished fires in the space between 
the fallen rocks. 

It is between the rocks, therefore, that the excavations have been made, 
but these irregular subterranean passages are difficult and dangerous to 
explore. The day before our visit heavy rain had fallen, the Vezere had 
risen 3 meters, and the modern troglodyte who was in M. Massenat's 
employ had beard ominous cracking sounds. The rocks around which 
the opening had been made had settled down, and at any moment might 
fall. Prudence deterred us, the excursionists, irom venturing into the 
deep passages, through which it would have been necessary to crawl on 
bands and knees ; and, by the light of a candle, we looked into an oi)en- 
iug black as night, in which we could see broken bones and flint instru- 
ments without number. M. Massenat then conducted us to the i)]ace 
where, last March, in company with MM. Lalande and Cartailhac, he 
had exhumed an entire human skeleton, all the bones of which have 
been preserved and cast. 

The members of the association were convinced that these valuable 
remains were contemporary with the great extension of the reindeer in 
the country, but one of their number was doubtful as to the cause of 
their presen(;e position. He supposed that the place in which they 
rested must have been a sepulcher. MM. Massenat, Lalande, and Car- 
tailhac, who had carefully observed every circumstance of the discovery, 
thought that the man had been killed by the descent of an avalanche, 
and Professor Broca and others adoi)ted the latter opinion. 

M. Massenat spoke of the human bones he had frequently found in 
the kitchen remains, which he regarded as a proof of cannibalism, or at 
least that the men of the age of the reindeer paid little respect to their 
dead, a fact which increased his doubts as to the existence of sepul- 
chers at this time, although later the3^ were employed, beyond a doubt. 

But time was passing, and, leaving Lower Laugerie, where each 
member of the association had made anq)le collections of flint instru- 
ments, fossil bones, reindeer-horn, &c., we descerded to the Gorge 
D'Enfer. Here the luxuriance of the vegetation was in strong contrast 
with the somewhat desolate aspect of the declivities of the Vegere. 



ETHNOLOGY. 347 

We entered au immense cave, as lai'iJie as a great theater, dimly lij;lited 
by snch rays of the setting snn as found tlieir way tUrougli the Ibliago 
of a thicket of trees which shaded the entrance. It was empty. Most 
of the fossil bones it once contained had been used to enrich the fields 
it overlooked, and the remainder had been carefully removed by M. 
Lartet. They were especially valuable, for this locality is more ancient 
than that of Lower Laugerie and others of a siuiilar age. 

We had now seen all the prehistoric localities of the Eyzies, with the 
exception of the Moustier cave, which is a type of the most ancient 
deposits made by men in the caves when the valley was only partially 
formed ; but this excursion could not be made on foot, and our time was 
too limited for its accomplishment. 

Thanks to the exertions of M. Laganne, from the Eyzies, head work- 
man of MM. Christy and Lartet, the arrangements for the comfort of 
the excursionists throughout the day were unexceptionable, and as we 
descended tlie Yezere in order to reach the ferry near the railroad 
bridge, we found some ladders i)laced against the declivity, which en- 
abled us to climb into an artifleial cave of several interior stories. In 
these chambers were niches, mangers for the animals, rings, «&c., cut in 
the rather soft rock. These caves are not rare in this neighborhood. In 
Correze, about Brives, at Lamourou an entire hill is cut into five 
stories of stalls, large and small, and very irrregular in form. Similar 
excavations are found all over France, and in certain regions, Aisne, for 
example, are still inhabited. In Dordogne and Correze they must be of 
very ancient date. 

At 5 o'clock we retook the train, and our regret, as we rapidly left 
the valley of the Vezere, was tempered by the pleasant memory of what 
we had seen and heard. Our locomotive saluted the declivities of Lau- 
gerie in passing, and we thought there could not be a more striking 
demonstration of the law of progress than to speed, with the full power of 
steam, under the brows of the mountain which had served our savage 
ancestors as a rendezvous for the chase. See the people of Moustier, 
hunting the mammoth, the rhinoceros, the bear, and the lion with rude 
stone implements, held in the hand or imbedded in a heavy spear. 
Again, long after, when the river had deepened its bed 30 meters, be- 
hold their descendants of Upper Laugerie, the gorge d'Enfer, Cromag- 
non, armed with the bow and arrow. Then civilization commenced ; at 
the Madelaine, the Eyzies, Lower Laugerie, bone was worked into va- 
rious forms and art was generated. Then appeared a new people, with 
pottery, domestic animals, and the polished ax ; w^e know the rest. Upon 
such facts may be based the most happy ansi)ices for the future; a future, 
it is true, not of nations nor of races, but of humanity. 

At Perigueux we dined at the railroad-station, and entered Bordeaux 
at half past 11 o'clock. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 



By Charles Rau. 



The following essay was published in German, Vol. V of the ArcMv fur Anthro- 
pologic (Braunschweig, 1872) ; but as the subject is purely North American in char- 
acter, the author has deemed it proper to prepare a version in the language of the 
country to wliich it refers. The present reproduction, however, is enlarged and im- 
proved. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
1 



Introduction , 

Copper 3 

Galena 8 

Obsidian 10 

Mica Vi 

Slate 15 



Page. 

Flint 18 

Eed Pipestone 21 

Shells 25 

Pearls 36 

Division of Labor 39 

Conclusion 45 



INTRODUCTION. 

ludicatious are uot wantiug that a kind of trade or traflfic of some 
extent existed amoDg the prehistoric inhabitants of Europe, even at a 
time when they stood comparatively low in the scale of human develop- 
ment. The same practice prevailed in i^orth America, before that part 
of the new world was settled by Europeans ; and as the the subject of 
primitive commerce is of particular interest, because it sheds addi- 
tional light on the conditions of life among by-gone races, I have col- 
lected a number of data bearing on the trade-relations of the former 
inhabitants of North America. The fact that such a trade was carried 
on is i:)roved, beyond any doubt, by the frequent occurrence of Indian 
manufactures consisting of materials which were evidently obtained from 
far distant localities. In many cases, however, these manufactures may 
have been brought as booty, and not by trade, to the places where they 
are found in our days. The modern Indians, it is well known, sometimes 
undertook expeditions of a thousand or twelve hundred miles, in order to 
attack their enemies. The warlike Iroquois, for example, who inhabited 
the present State of New York, frequently followed the war-path as far 
as the Mississippi river. Thus, in the year 1680, six hundred warriors 
of the Seneca tribe invaded the territory of the Illinois, among whom La 
Salle sojourned just at that time, preparing to descend the Mississippi 
to the Gulf of Mexico.* More than a hundred years ago, the traveler 

* Morgan, League of the Iroquois, Rochester, 1651, p. 13. More precise information 
couceruing this memorable expedition is to be found in the writings of Hennepin, 
Membrd, Lahoutau, and others. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 349 

Carver learned from the Wiunebagoes (in tile present State of Wiscon- 
sin) that tliey sometimes made war-excursions to the southwestern parts 
inhabited by Spaniards (New Mexico), and that it required months to 
arrive there.* Similar excursions and migrations, of course, took phice 
during the early unknown periods of North American history. In the 
course of such enterprises the property of the vanquished naturally fell 
into the hands of the victors, who appropriated everything that ap- 
j)eared useful or desirable to them. The consequence was an exchange 
by force — if I may call it so — which caused many of the manufactures 
and commodities of the various tribes to be scattered over the ftice of 
the country. This having been the case, it is, of course, impossible to 
draw a line between peaceable barter and appropriation by right of 
war, and, therefore, while employing hereafter frequently the terms 
"trade" or "exchange," I interpose that reservation which is neces- 
sitated by the circumstances just mentioned. 

Of the Indian commerce that has sprung up since the arrival of the 
Europeans I shall say but little, considering that this subject has suffi- 
ciently been treated in ethnological and other works on North America; 
and I shall likewise omit to draw within the sphere of my observations 
that interesting trade which was, and still is, carried on between the tribes 
inhabiting the high north of Asia and America, where Behring's Strait 
separates the two continents. My attention is chiefly directed to the 
more ancient manufactures occurring in Indian mounds and elsewhere ; 
and the distribution of these relics over distant parts of the country, 
in connection with the known or presumed localities which furnished 
the materials composing them, forms the basis of my deductions. Thus, 
my essay will assume an archaeological character, and for this reason I 
shall confine my remarks to that part of the United States concerning 
whose antiquities we possess the most detailed information, namely, the 
area which is bounded by the Mississippi valley (in an extended sense), 
by the Great Lakes, the Atlantic coast, and the Gulf of Mexico. 

A number of archaeologists make a distinction between the builders 
of the extensive mural earthworks and tumuli of North America and 
the tribes whom the whites found in possession of the country, and 
consequently separate the relics of the so-called mound-builders from 
those of the later inhabitants. Such a line of demarcation certainly 
must appear totally obliterated with regard to the relations which I am 
about to discuss, for which reason I shall by no means adhere to this 
vague division in my essay, but shall only advert to the former Indian 
population in general. 

In the following sections I have first treated of a number of materials 
which formed objects of trade, either in an un wrought state or in the 
shape of implements and ornaments ; and subsequently, in conclusion, 
I have made some observations tending to add more completeness to 
my preceding statements. 

* Carver, Travels, «fec., Harper's reprint, New York, 1838, p. 42. 



350 A.NC1ENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

COPPER. 

Every one knows that the region where Lake Superior borders on the 
uortl)eru part of Michigan abounds in copper, which occurs here in a 
native state and in immense masses, the separation of which and rais- 
ing to the surface contribute in no slight degree to the difficulties of 
the mining process. Long before Europeans penetrated to those parts, 
the aborigines already possessed a knowledge of this wealth of copper. 
This fact became known in 1847, at which time the traces of ancient 
aboriginal raining of some extent were pointed out in that district. The 
circumstances of tbis discover}' and the means employed by the natives 
for obtaining the copper being now well known, a repetition of those 
details hardly would be in place, and I merely refer to the writings 
relating to this subject.* 

Cop[)er was, indeed, the only metal which the North American 
tribes employed for some purposes before their territories were colo- 
nized by Europeans. Traces of wrought silver have been found, but 
they are so exceedingly scanty that the technical significance of this 
metal hardly can be taken into consideration. Gold was seen by the 
earliest travelers in small quantities (in grains) among the Florida In- 
dians ;t yet, to my knowledge, no object made of gold, that can with 
certainty be attributed to the North American Indians, has thus far 
been discovered.^ The use of copper, likewise, was comparatively lim- 
ited, and cannot have exerted any marked influence on the material 
development of the natives. The copper articles left b}^ the former in- 
habitants are by no means abundant. As an example I will only 
mention that, during a sojourn of thirteen years in the neighborhood of 
St. Louis, which is ijarticularly rich in tumular structures and other 
tokens of Indian occupancy, I did not succeed in obtaining a single 
specimen belonging to this class. Copper implements, such as axes, 
chisels, gravers, knives, and points of arrows and spears, have been 
found in the Indian mounds and in other places ; but most of the ob- 
jects made of this metal served for ornamental purposes, which circum- 
stance alone would go far to prove that copper played but an indifferent 
part in the industrial advancement of the race. If the ancient inhabit- 
ants had understood the art of melting copper, or, moreover, had na- 
ture furnished them with sufficient supplies of tin ore for producing 

* Squier and Davis, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, Smithsonian In- 
stitution, Washington, 1848. Foster and Whitney, Report on the Geology and Topog- 
raphy of the Lake Superior Land District, Part I, Washington, 1850. Schoolcraft, 
Indian Tribes of the United States, Vol. I, Philadelphia, 1851. Lapham, The Antiqui- 
ties of Wisconsin, Washington, 1855. Whittlesey, Ancient Mining on the Shores of 
Lake Superior, Washington, 1863. Sir John Lubboek, Prehistoric Times, Loudon, 
1805, &c. 

t See : Brinton, Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Philadelphia, 1859, Appendix III. 

t In the Smithsonian Report for 1870, just published, the occurrence of gold beads in 
a mound near Cartersville, in the Etowah valley, Georgia, is recorded. Native gold is 
said to be found in the neighborhood, (p. 380.) 



bronze, that peculiar composition which the Mexicans and Peruvians 
employed, their state of civilization doubtless would have been much 
hij^her when the whites arrived in their country. They lacked, how- 
ever, as far as investigations hitherto have shown, the knowledge of 
rendering copper serviceable to their purposes by the process of incit- 
ing, contenting themselves by hammering purely metallic masses of 
copper with great labor into the shapes of implements or articles of 
decoration. These masses they doubtless obtained principally, if not 
entirely, from the copper districts of Lake Superior.* Owing to the 
arborescent or indented form under which the copper occurs in the 
above-named region, nearly all copper articles of aboriginal origin ex- 
hibit a distinct laminar structure, though quite a considerable degree of 
density has been imparted to the metal by continued hammering. It 
must be admitted, furthermore, that the aborigines had acquired great 
skill in working the copper in a cold state. From an arclu^ological 
13oint of view this peculiar application of natural copper is certainly 
very remarkable, and, therefore, has often been cited, botli by American 
and European writers. To the native population, however, the com- 
paratively sparing use of copper cannot have afforded great material 
aid, and its chief importance doubtless consisted in the promotion of 
intercourse among the various tribes. 

The first travelers who visited North America saw copper ornaments 
and other objects made of this metal in the possession of the natives, 
and very scrupulously mention this fact in their accounts, while they 
often leave matters of greater importance entirely unnoticed. This can- 
not surprise us, considering that the first discoverers were possessed of 
an immoderate greediness for precious metals, and therefore also paid 
particular attention to those of less value. The Florentine navigator, 
Giovanni Yerazzano, who sailed in 1524, by order of Francis the First 
of France, along the Atlantic coast of North America for purposes of 
discovery, noticed, as he states in his letter to the French king, on the 
persons of the natives pieces of wrought copper, "which they esteemed 
more than gold." Many of them wore copper ear-rings.t In the nar- 
rative which the anonymous Portuguese nobleman, called the Knight of 
Elvas, has left of De Soto's ill-la ted expedition (1539-'i;3) it is stated 
that the Spaniards saw, in the province of Cutifachiqui, some copper axes, 
or chopping knives, which apparently contained an admixture of gold. 
The Indians pointed to the province of Chisca as the country where 
the people were familiar with the process of melting copper or another 



* Some of the natives of the noitberumost part of the Uuited States, lately pur- 
chased from Russia, worked copi)cr before the European occupation. Their industry 
was, of course, entirely independent of that here under consideration. (See, for in- 
stance, Von Wrangell, Bussische Besitzungen an dcr NordwestkUsfc von Amcrika, St. Peters- 
burg, 1839.) 

t The "Voyage of John de Verazzano, in Collections of the New York Historical So- 
ciety, Second Series, Vol. I, New York, 1841, pp. 47 and 50. 



352 A.NCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

metal of a lighter color aud inferior harcluess.* It is very natural that 
these gold-seeking adventurers should have anticipated everywhere 
traces of that valuable metal ; and concerning the statements of the 
Indians in relation to the melting, it is well known how apt the crafty 
natives always were to regulate their answers according to the wishes 
of the inquirers. Yet, notwithstanding these improbabilities, the fact 
remains that the natives of the present Southern States used imple- 
ments of copper some centuries ago. Indeed, I have seen in the col- 
lection of Colonel Charles C. Jones, of Brooklyn, copper articles of the 
above description, obtained in the State of Georgia. When Henry 
Hudson discovered, in 1609, the maguilicent river that bears his name, 
he noticed among the Indians of that region pipes and ornaments made 
of copj^er. ''They had red copper tobacco-pipes, and other things of 
copper they did wear about their necks." Eobert Juet, who served un- 
der Hudson asanate in the Half-Moon, relates these details in the jour- 
nal he has left behind.t Additional statements of similar i)urport 
might be cited from the early relations concerning the discovery of 
North America. 

While Messrs. Squier and Davis were engaged, more than twenty 
years ago, in surveying the earthworks of the Mississippi valley, more 
especially those of the State of Ohio, they found in the sepulchral and 
so-called sacrificial mounds a number of copper objects, which they have 
described and figured in the work containing the results of their investi- 
gations.J They also met small pieces of the uuwrought natural metal 
in some of the mounds. The copper specimens obtained during this sur- 
vey were formerly in the possession of Dr. Davis, one of the explorers, 
and I had frequent occasion to examine them. At present they form a 
Ijart of the Blackmore Museum, at Salisbury, England, to which insti- 
tute Dr. Davis sold his valuable collection. They are either implements, 
such as axes, chisels, and gravers; or bracelets, beads, aud other probably 
ornamental objects, exhibiting quite peculiar forms, which were, perhaps, 
owing to the singular methods employed in fashioning the copper into 
detinite shapes. The axes resemble the flat celts of the European bronze 
period, and doubtless were fastened in handles like the latter. Some 
of the bracelets of the better class are of very good workmanship, the 
simple rods w^hich form them being well rounded and smoothed, and 
hi'Ut into a regular circle until their eu-ds meet. I have seen quite simi- 
lar bronze bracelets in European collections. The objects just described 
obviously have been fashioned by hammering; others, however, con- 
sisting of hammered coi)per sheet, received their final shape by j;/'ei'6'?(re. 
To these belong certain circular concavo-convex discs, from one andone- 

* Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto in the Conquest of Florida, as told 
by a Knight of Elvas, aud in a Relation by Luys Hernandez de Biedma, Factor of 
the Expedition. Translated by Buckingham Smith. New York, 1866, p. 7*2. 

tJoniiialof the Voyage of the Half-Moon, in Collections of the New York Historical 
Society, Second Series, Vol. I, 1841, p. 323. 

t Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, pp. 196-207. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TEADE IN NORTH AMERICA. o53 

half iuclies to two iucbes in diameter, Tvliich have been likened to the 
bosses observed on harnesses. Concerning their use, nothing is defin- 
itely known, but it is presumed that they were destined for purposes of 
ornament. The jnanipulation of pressure was likewise employed in mak- 
ing- smaller articles of decoration resembling the convex metal buttons 
still seen on the clothes of the ijeasantry of Germany and other Euro- 
pean countries. However, in minutely describing these remarkable 
products of aboriginal art, I would merely repeat what already has 
been stated, detailed accounts being given in the well-known work of 
Messrs. Squier and Davis. 

Although the fire on the hearths or altars now inclosed by the sacri- 
ficial mounds* was sometimes sufficiently strong to melt the deposited 
copper articles, it does seem that this proceeding induced the ancient 
inhabitants to avail themselves of fire in working copper ; they persisted 
in the tedious practice of hammerhig. Yet one copper axe, evidently 
cast, and resembling those taken from the mounds of Ohio, has been 
ploughed up near Auburn, in Cayuga County, in the State of Xew York.t 
This specimen, which bears no traces of use, may date from the earlier 
times of European colonization. It certainly would be wrong to place 
much stress on such an isolated case. The Indians, moreover, learned 
very soon from the whites the art of casting metals. For this we have 
the authority of Roger Williams, who makes the following statement in 
reference to the New England Indians ; ^'■Tliey have an excellent Art to 
cast our Pewter and Brasse into very neate and artificiall Pipes.^^l 

In the Lake Superior district, resorted to by the aboriginal miners, 
there have been found, besides many grooved stone hammers (sometimes 
of very large size) and rude wooden tools, various copper implements, 
such as chisels, gads, &c., and some spear-heads in which, in lieu of a 
socket, the flat sides at the lower end are partly bent over,§ a feature 
also peculiar to certain European bronze celts, which, on this account, 
are denomiuated "winged" celts. 

The copper-lands of Northern Michigan, it has been stated, were 
visited by the aborigines for the sake of obtaining copper at a period 
anteceding the arrival of the whites. It is probable that small bauds of 
various northern tribes made periodical excursions to that locality, return- 
ing to their homes when they had supplied themselves with sufficient quan- 
tities of the much-desired metal. The indications of i)ermanent settle- 
ments, namely, burial-places, defensive works, traces of cultivatioi] and 

*For a precise description of the remarkable stratified ruonnds denominated "sacri- 
ficial," I must refer to the "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley." Burned 
human bones being often discovered in them in connection with manufactured objects, 
Sir John Lubbock suggests that these mounds are of a sepulchral rather than a sacri- 
ficial character. (Prehistoric Times, first ed., p. 219, &c.) 

t Squier, Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New York, Washington, 1849, p. 78. 

t Roger Williams, A Key into the Language of America ; Providence, 1827, p. 55. (Re« 
print of the London edition of 1643.) 

$ Whittlesey, Ancient Mining, &c. 

2:3 s 



354 ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TEADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

dwellings, &c., are wanting, and the smallnumber of chaseable animals, 
indeed, offered but little inducement to a protracted sojourn. The ques- 
tion, at what time the natives ceased to resort to the mines, has been 
answered in various ways. Mr. Whittlesey is of opinion that from five 
to six hundred years may have elapsed since that time, basing his argu- 
ment on the growth of trees that have sprung- up in the rubbish thrown 
out from the mines ; Mr. Lapham, on the other hand, believes in a con- 
tinuance of the aboriginal mining operations to more recent periods, and 
thinks they were carried on by the progenitors of the Indians still in- 
habiting the neighboring parts, although they possess no traditions 
relative to such labors. Probably as early as the first half of the sev- 
enteenth century the French of Canada entertained with those tribes a 
trade that provided the latter with iron tools, and the ornaments and 
trinkets so much coveted by the red race. Thus, the inducements to 
obtain copper ceased, and the practice of procuring it being once dis- 
continued, a few centuries may have sufficed to efface the tradition from 
the memory of the succeeding generations. Yet, like many other points 
of North American archoeology, this matter is still involved in obscu- 
rity, and it W'Ould be hazardous, at present, to i^ronounce any decided 
opinion on the subject.* 

The occurrence of native copper in the United States is not confined 
to the shore ot Lake Superior. As I am informed by Professor James 
D. Dana, it is also met, in pieces of several pounds' weight, in the valley 
of the Connecticut river, and likewise, in smaller pieces, in the State 
of New Jersey, probably originating in both cases from the red sand- 
stone formation. Near New Haven, Connecticut, a mass was found 
weighing ninety pounds. Such copper finds may have furnished a small 
part of the metal worked by the aboriginal inhabitants ; its real source, 
however, must be sought, in all probability, in the mining district of 
Lake Superior. It is a remarkable circumstance that the native copper 
there occurring sometimes incloses small masses of native silver, a jux- 
taposition which, as I believe, is not to be observed at any other place 
in the United States ; and just such pieces in which the two natural 
metals are combined have been taken from a few of the tumuli of 
Ohio. 

Though copper articles of Indian origin are comparatively scarce in 

*The Indians certainly are a forgetful race. Tlie traveler Stephens, who has exam- 
ined and described the grand ruins of ancient buildings in Yucatan and the neighboring 
states, maintains — and I believe on good grounds — that these erections, at least in 
part, are the work of the same Indian populations with whom the conquistadores 
(Hernandez de C6rdova, Grijalva, Cort(Ss) were brought into contact during tbe six- 
teenth century. The present descendants of the builders of those magnificent works 
have preserved no recollections of their more advanced ancestors. Whenever Stephens 
asked them concerning the origin of the buildings, their answer was, they had been 
erected by the antiguos ; but they could not explain their destination ; they were un- 
acquainted with the meaning of the statues and fresco iiaintings, and manifested in 
general a total ignorance of all that related to their former history. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. doO 

tlie Uuited States,* the field of their distributiou, iievertlieless, is very 
wide, extending from the Great Lakes to the Gulf States, and from the 
Atlantic coast to the Mississippi, and, pei'haps, some distance beyond 
that river. Taking it for granted, as we may do, that the northern part of 
Michigan is the point from which the metal was spread over that area, 
the traf&c in copper presents itself as very extensive as far as distance 
is concerned. The difficulties connected with the labor of obtaining this 
metal doubtless rendered it a valuable object, perhajis no less esteemed 
than bronze in Europe, when the introduction of that comijosition was 
yet of recent date. The copper probably was bartered in the shape of 
raw material. Small pieces of this description, I have already stated, 
were taken from the mounds of Ohio, and larger masses occasionally 
have been met in the neighborhood of these works. One mass weigh- 
ing twenty-three pounds, from which smaller portions evidently had 
been detached, was discovered in the Scioto valley, near Chillicothe, 
Ohio.f Of course, it is impossible at j)resent to demonstrate in what 
manner the copper trade was carried on, and we have to rest satisfied 
with the presumption that the raw or worked copper went from hand to 
hand in exchange for other productions of nature or art, until it reached 
the places where we now find it. Perhaps there were certain persons 
who made it their business to trade in copper. I must not omit to refer 
here to some i^assages bearing, though indirectly, on the latter question, 
which are contained in the old accounts of Hernando de Soto's expedi- 
tion. Garcilasso de la Vega speaks of wandering Indian merchants 
[marchands], who traded in salt-l The Knight of Elvas is still more 
explicit on this point. According to him, the Indians of the province 
of Cayas obtained salt by the evaporation of saline water. The method 
is accurately described. They exported salt into other provinces, and 
took in return skins and other commodities. Biedma, who accompanied 
that memorable expedition as accountant, likewise speaks in various 
places of salt-making among the Indians.§ 

GALENA. 

It has been a common experience of discoverers that the primitive 
peoples with whom they came in contact manifested, like children, a re- 
markable predilection for brightly-colored and brilliant objects, which, 
v/ithout serving for any definite purpose, were valued merely on account 
of their external qualities. The later ISTorth American Indians exhibited 

* The Smithsouiaii Institution has heen receiving for years Indian antiquities from 
all parts of North America, yet possessed in 1870 only seven copper objects ; namely, 
three spearheads, two small rods, a semilunar knife with convex cutting edge, and an 
axe of good shape. Professsor Baird was kind enough to seud me photographs and 
descriptions of these articles. 

t Ancient Monuments, &c., p. 203. 

tConquete de la Floride, Leide, 1731, Vol.II,p. 400. 

§ Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto, &c., ]5. 124. Biedma, pp. 152, 153, 
and 257. 



Sob ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

this tesklcncy in a marked degree, and their predecessors, whose history 
is shronded in darkness, seoni to have been moved by similar impulses. 
Thus the common ore of lead, or galena, was much i>rized by the for- 
mer inhabitants of Korth America, though there is, thus far, no conclu- 
sive evidence of their having understood how to render it serviceable 
by melting. Quite considerable quantities of this shining mineral 
have been met in the mounds of Ohio. On the hearth of one of the 
sacrificial mounds of that State, Messrs. Squier and Davis discovered a 
deposit of galena, in pieces weighing from two. ounces to three pounds, 
the whole quantity amounting perhaps to thirty pounds. The sacrificial 
fire had not been strong enough to convert the ore into j)ure metal, 
though some of the i^ieces showed the beginning of fusion.* As 
stated before, there is uo definite proof that the aborigines were ac- 
quainted with the process of reducing lead from its ore ; for as yet uo 
leaden implements or ornaments have been discovered that can be as- 
scribed with certainty to the former population. The peculiarly shaped 
object of pure lead figured on page 209 of the "Ancient Monuments," 
which came to light while a well was sunk within the ditch of the earth- 
work at Circleville, Ohio, was perhaps made by whites, or by Indians 
at a period when they already had acquired from the former the know- 
ledge of casting lead. This curious relic is in possession of Dr. Davis, 
and I have often examined it. The archaeological collection of the 
Smithsonian Institute contains not a single Indian article of lead, but 
quantities of galena, which were taken from various mounds. Yet, 
supposing the Indians had known the fusibility of galena, the lead ex- 
tracted therefrom could not have afforded them great advantages, con- 
sidering that its very nature hardly admitted of any useful application. 
''Too soft for axes or knives, too fusible for vessels, and too soon tar- 
nished to be valuable for ornament, there was little inducement for its 
manufacture." — (Squier and Davis.) However, in making net-sinkers, it 
would have been preferable to the flat pebbles notched on two opi)osite 
sides, which the natives used as weights for their nets. Pebbles of this 
description abound in the valley of the Susquehanna and in various 
other places of the United States, especially in the neighborhood of 
rivers. 

The frequent occurrence of galena on the altars of the sacrificial 
mouiuls proves, at any rate, that the ancient inhabitants attributed a 
peculiar value to it, deeming it worthy to be offered as a sacrificial 
gift. The pieces of galena found in Ohio were, in all probability, ob- 
tained in Illinois or Missouri, from which regions they were transferred 
by way of barter, as we may presume, to the Ohio valley. No origiiml 
deposits of galena are known in greater proximity that could have 
furnished pieces equal to those taken from the mounds of Ohio. 

*Aucieut Monumeuts, pp. 149 aud 209. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. o.j ( 

OBSIDIAN. 

The peculiar glass-like stoue of volcanic; origin, called obsidian, wliicli 
played such an important part in the household of the ancient Mexi- 
cans, has not been met in situ within that large portion of the United 
States (probably of North America in general) that lies north of iMexico 
and to the east of the Eocky Mountains. Messrs. Squier and Davis, 
nevertheless, have found obsidian in the shape of points for arrows and 
spears and cutting implements, though mostly broken, in five mounds 
of the Scioto valley, in Ohio ; an object made of this material was like- 
wise found in Tennessee,* and the numerous unopened mounds of the 
United States may inclose many more articles of this class. The cop- 
per used by the Indians, it has been seen, occurs as a product of nature 
within the area over which it was spread by human agency ; it is differ- 
ent, however, with regard to obsidian, and the question therefore arises, 
from what region the builders of the large iuclosures and tumuli in 
Ohio obtained the last-named mineral. Obsidian, we know, is found 
in the present territory of the United States on the western side of the 
Rocky Mountains. Captain Bonneville noticed, about forty years ago, 
that the Shoshoneesor Snakelndians in the neighborhood of Snake river 
(or Lewis river) used arrows armed with points of obsidian, which, he 
adds, abounds in that vicinity .t The latter fact is confirmed b^' Samuel 
Parker, who found, some years later (1835), in tie volcanic formations 
of that region, "many large and fine specimens of pure obsidian or vol- 
canic glass,"! According to Wyeth, the Shoshonees also employ sharp 
obsidian flakes of convenient shape as knives, which they sometimes 
provide with handles of wood or horn. The same author mentions the 
frequent occurrence of obsidian in the district inhabited by the Shosho- 
nees.§ It is known that various tribes in New Mexico, Arizona, and 
neighboring parts. Apaches, Mojaves, and others, frequently employ 
obsidian in the manufacture of their arrowheads. 

Mr. John R. Bartlett, from 1850 to 1853 commissioner of the United 
States for determining the boundary line between the latter and Mexico, 
found i)ieces of obsidian and fragments of painted pottery along the 
Gila river, wherever there had been any Indian villages ; and also 
among the ruins of the Casas grandes^ in Chihuahua, as well as those of 
the Gila and Salinas rivers.|| The same observation has been made by 
earlier and later travelers. The natives of Upper California em])loy 
obsidian extensively for making arrowheads. Mr. Caleb Lyon, mIio 

* Troost, Ancient Remains in Tennessee, in : Transactions of the American Etliuologi- 
cal Society, New York, 1845, Vol. I, p. 361. 

t Irving, Adventures of Captain Bonneville, New York, lAjl, p. 255. 

t Parker, Exploring Tour beyond the Rocky Mountains, Ithaca, New York, 1844, 
p. 98. 

§ Wyeth, in Schoocraft's Indian Tribes, Vol. I, p. 213. 

II Bartlett, Personal Narrative, &c.. New York, 1854, Vol. II, p. 50. Compare: Hum- 
boldt, Essai i)olitique sur la Nouvelle-Espagne, Paris, 1825, Vol. II, p. 243, andClavi- 
gero, History of Mexico, Philadelphia, 1817, Voh I, p. 151. 



358 ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH ASIERICA. 

"was, about ten years ago, among tlie Shasta Indians in California, sa^ 
one of the tribe engaged in makiug arrowheads from obsidian as well 
as from the glass of a broken 'porter-bottle. He describes the method 
of mannfactnre in a letter which was published by the American Eth- 
nological Society.* To this letter I shall refer in a succeeding section 
of this essay, when treating of the division of labor among the North 
American Indians. Mr. Bartlett visited, while in California, a locality 
in the Napa vallej^ (north of San Francisco), where obsidian occurs 
in pieces from the size of a pea to that of an ostrich egg, which are 
imbedded in a mass resembling a coarse. mortar of lime, sand, and 
gravel. He found the surface in many places covered, from six to 
twelve inches in depth, with broken pieces and small boulders of this 
volcanic substance. The appearance of these spots reminded him of a 
newly-made macadamized road.t 

The most extensive use of obsidian, however, was formerly made in 
Mexico, before the empire of the Aztecs succumbed to the Spanish in- 
vaders. Old obsidian mines are still seen on the Cerro de Navajas, or 
"Hill of Knives," which is situated in a northeasterly direction from 
the city of Mexico, at some distance from the Indian town Atotouilco el 
Grande. These mines provided the ancient population of Mexico with 
vast quantities of the much-i)rized stone, of which they made those fine 
double-edged knives, arrow and spear-heads, mirrors, very skilfully 
executed masks, and ornaments of various kinds. Humboldt speaks of 
the Hill of Knives in a transient manner ;| for a precise description we 
are indebted to the meritorious English ethnologist, E. B. Tylor, who 
visited that interesting locality in 185G, while traveling through Mexico 
in company with the late Mr. Christy.§ In describing the mines, Mr. 
Tylor says : " Some of the trachytic porphyry which forms the substance 
of the hills had happened to have cooled, under suitable conditions, from 
the molten'state into a sort of slag, or volcanic glass, which is the obsid- 
ian in question ; and, in places, this vitreous lava, from one layer hav- 
ing flowed over another which was already cool, was regularly stratified. 
The mines were mere wells, not very deep, with horizontal workings 
into the obsidian where it was very good and in thick layers. Eouud 
about were heaps of fragments, hundreds of tons of them ; and it was 
clear, from the shape of these, that some of the manufacturing was done 
on the spot. There had been great numbers of pits worked, and it was 
from these minillas, little mines, as they are called, that we first got an 
idea how important an element this obsidian was in the old Aztec civi- 
lization. In excursions made since, we traveled over whole districts in 
the plains where fragments of these arrows and knives were to be found 

* Bulletin of the American Ethnological Society, New York, IrtGl, Vol. I, p. 39. 

t Person al Narrative, Vol. II, p. 49. 

t Essai politique sur la Nouvelle-Espague, Vol. Ill, p. 122. 

§ Tylor, Auahuac : or Mexico and the Mexicans, Ancient and Modern, Lond., 1861. 
This volume contains, hesides many facts relating to the archaeology and ethnology of 
Mexico, the hest observations on obsidian I have found in any work on that country. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TEADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 359 

literally at every step, mixed with morsels of pottery, and here and 
there a little clay idol."* 

From the centre of the State of Ohio to the country of the Sho- 
shonees, as well as to the liio Gila, and the just-described mines in 
Mexico, the straight distances are almost equal, measuring about seven- 
teen hundred English miles; indeed, the Mexican mines are a trifle 
nearer to Ohio than the above-mentioned districts. It would be lost 
labor, therefore, to Indulge in speculations from which of these locali- 
ties the obsidiau found iu Ohio and Tennessee was derived. The num- 
ber of articles of this stone that has been met east of the Mississippi 
is so exceedingly small that its technical significance hardly deserves 
any consideration. Yet, the sole fact of finding worked obsidian at 
such great distances from the nearest places where it occurs either in 

* Anahuac, p. 99. The followiug interesting communication was addressed to me by 
Dr. C. H. Berendt : 

"During one of many excursions "wliicli I made in the years 1853-'56 around the 
Citlaltepetl, or Pico de Orizaba (in the State of Vera Cruz), I saw an obsidiau mine on 
the western slope of that mountain. I had heard of it from my friend the late Mr. C. 
Sartorins ,who had visited the place years ago. I was informed that the ludians of the 
village of Alpatlahna knew the place, but that they did not like to have it visited. 
Some say they have treasures hidden in the caves of the neighborhood ; while others 
believe that they have idols in those lonely places which they still secretly worship. 
The cura of San Juan Coscomatepec, who was of this latter opinion, gave me the name 
of a mestizo farmer in the neighborhood who might be induced to show me the place. 
Our party followed from Coscomatepec the road which leads to the rancho Jacal and the 
pass of La Cuchilla. We did not find the mestizo at home, but his wife, who directed 
her boy to show us the cave. Reaching the bridge of the Jamapa river, we took a 
by-road partiug to the north, which brought us to the village of Alpatlahua, and about 
fuur miles farther north to a branch of the Jamapa river, which we crossed. We then 
left the road and proceeded about half a mile up the river through thick woods, when 
we found ourselves suddenly before the entrance of the cave. It was about fifty feet 
high and of cousiderable width, but obstructed by fallen rocks and shrubs. Heaps of 
obsidian chips of more than a man's height filled the bottom of the grotto, which had 
apparently no cousiderable horizontal depth. To the left the mine was seen, a n excavation 
of from six to eight square yards, the bottom filled up with rubbish and chips. Obsidian, 
evidently, had not only been quarried, but also been made into implements at this 
spot, the latter fact being proved by the occurrence of cores, or nuclei, of all sizes, 
from which flakes or knives had been detached. We were not prepared for digging, 
and it was too late for undertaking explorations that day. So we left, with the purpose 
to return better prepared at another time, hoping to find some relics of the miners 
and workmen, and, perhaps, other antiquities. But it happened that I never had an 
opportunity to visit the place again. Mr. Sartorius saw in this cave three entrances 
walled up with stone aiul mortar, but these I did not discover, having, as stated, no 
time for a careful examination. Future travelers, I hope, will be more successful. 

"Mr. Sartorious mentioned another place, likewise in the State of Vera Cruz, where 
obsidian formerly was (juarried. This place is situated in the chain of mountains ex- 
tending from the Pic© de Orizaba to the Cofre de Perote. One of the intervening 
mountains, called Xalistac, is distinguished by a white spot that can bo seen at the 
distance of many miles, even at Vera Cruz. It is produced by an outcropping of i)umice- 
stone resting on an immense mass of obsidian that has been worked in various places. 
I know the mountain well, but not the road leading to it, never having traveled in that 
direction." 



3 GO ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TEADE IN NOETH AMEEICA. 

situ or iu couseqnence of human agency (as, perhaps, on the Gila), is in 
itself of importance, for it furnishes an additional illustration of the far- 
reaching communications among the aborigines of North America. 

MICA. 

Like the shining galena, mica (commonly called isinglass), was a 
substance held in high estimation by the former inhabitants ; but, while 
the first-named mineral apparently fulfilled no definite purpose, being 
deemed valuable merely for its brilliancy, the latter was often made into 
articles of ornament, a purpose for which it certainly was well fitted on 
account of its metallic lustre. It is also said to have been used for 
mirrors. Mica is found in the tumuli in considerable quantities, some- 
times in bushels, and is often ploughed up in the neighborhood of old 
earthworks. It occurs in sepulchral mounds as well as, though more 
rarely, in those of supposed sacrificial character. In the former the 
plates of mica are placed on the chest or above the head of the skeleton, 
and sometimes they cover it almost entirely. If I speak here of "plates 
of mica," the expression is to be taken literally, it being known 
that this mineral occurs in some of the eastern parts of North America 
in masses of considerable size, as, for instance, iu New Hampshire, 
where pieces of from two to three feet in diameter have been observed. 

The most important archceological finds of mica, as far as I know, 
occurred in Ohio. Of some of them I will give here a brief account. 

Mr. Atwater has left a very accurate description of the earthwork at 
Circleville, Ohio, now mostly obliterated, which consisted of a large cir- 
cular and adjoining quadratic embankment. In the centre of the circle 
there arose a sepulchral mound which contained two skeletons and 
various objects of art, among which was a " mii-ror" of mica, about three 
feet long, one foot and a half wide, and one inch and a half in thickness. 
Atwater found these so-called mirrors at least in fifty different places in 
Ohio, mostly in mounds. " They were common among that people,'" he 
says, " and answered very well the purpose for which they were in- 
tended. These mirrors were very thick, otherwise they would not have 
reflected the light."* It has been doubted, however, whether the objects 
served as mirrors. It is true, every one who has come in contact with 
the modern Indians knows how eager they are, prompted by vanity, to 
obtain from the traders small looking-glasses, which they often carry 
about their persons in order to contemplate their features, or to have 
them on hand when they are about to paint their faces, or to eradicate 
their scanty growth of beard. Yet, after all, I am inclinded to believe 
that Atwater's so-called mirrors were nothing else but those large plates 
of mica, probably of symbolic character (as will be *seen), which have 
frequently been met since the publication of his account. 

In the year 1828, during the digging of a canal near Newark, Ohio, 
one of the low mounds frequent in that neighborhood was removed. It 

* AtwatLT, iu; Archaeologies Ameiicauii, Worcester, 1820, Vol. I, pp. 178,225. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 3G1 

contained fourteen skeletoUvS in a high state of decomposition, -which 
were covered with a regular layer of mica plates. The latter were from 
eight to ten inches in length, four or live inches wide, and from lialf an 
inch to an inch in thickness. The quantity of mica thrown up from this 
mound amounted to fifteen or twenty bushels.* 

During their arch geological investigations, Messrs. Squier and Davis 
frequently found mica in the mounds, and they have given precise ac- 
counts of their discoveries. In one of the sacrificial mounds near Chilli- 
cothe, Ohio, they came upon a layer of round plates of silvery mica, 
measuring from ten to twelve inches in diameter, which overlapped each 
other like the tiles or slates on a roof, and were deposited in the shape 
of a half-moon. The excavation laid bare more than one-half of this 
crescent, which could not have measured less than twenty feet from 
horn to horn. The greatest width (in the middle) was five feet. It has 
been thought that the shape of this curious deposit of mica might be 
suggestive of the religious views of the builders of the mound, and 
imply a tendency to moon-worship. t Another mound not far from the 
preceding one — both belonged to a group of twenty-three within an in- 
closure — likewise contained mica.| The circular cavity of the altar in 
this mound was filled with fine ashes intermixed with fragments of clay 
vessels and some small convex copper discs. Over these contents of 
the basin a layer of mica sheets, overlapping each other, was spread 
like a cover, which, again, served as the basis for a heap of burned 
human bones, probably belonging to a single person. § 

The authors of the ''Ancient Monuments'' also found occasionally in 
the mounds ornaments made of thin sheets of mica, cut out very nently 
and with great regularity in the shapes of scrolls, oval plates, and discs, 
and pierced with small holes for suspension or attachment. They 
doubtless were intended to embellish the dress of persons of distinction. |j 
Dr. Davis has some of these ornaments which, fastened on black vel- 
vet, almost might be taken for silver objects, the nsica of which they 
are made being of the i^erfectly opaque kind. Ornamental plates of 
mica, further, were met in the large Grave-Creek Mound, situated 
twelve miles below Wheeling, in Western Virginia. This burial- 
mound, which is one of the highest in the United States — it is seventy 
feet high — was opened in 1S3S. Near one of the skeletons, one hun- 
dred and fifty rather irregularly-shaped thin sheets of mica, from one 
inch and a half to two inches in size, were collected. They were all 
provided with two or more holes for stringing them together, and had 
evidently formed a scarf or some other article of i)ersonal adornment.^ 

* Ancient Monuments, p. 72. 
+ Ancient Monuments, p. 154. 

t This earthwork, called " Mound City " by Squier and Davis, will be described in a sub- 
sequent section. 

§ Ancient Monuments, p. 145. 

II Ancient Monuments, p. 155; representations on p. 240. 

U Schoolcraft, in: Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, Vol. I, p. 399. 



362 ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

The preceding quotations, to which others of similar purport might 
be added, will suffice to show how much mica was valued by the 
former inhabitants of the Mississippi valley; indeed, the frequent and 
peculiar occurrence of this mineral in the mounds almost might justify 
the conjecture that it was believed to be invested with some mysterious 
significance, and played a part in the superstitious rites of the abori- 
gines. Mica has been found in a worked and raw state in districts 
where it is not furnished by nature, and therefore may be safely classed 
among the aboriginal articles of exchange. In the State of Ohio, to 
which my observations chiefly refer, mica is not found in situ, and it is 
presumed that the mineral discovered in that State was derived from 
the southern spurs of the Alleghany Mountains. Yet, it may have 
been brought from greater distances, and from various points, to its 
present places of occurrence. 

SLATE. 

Various kinds of ancient Indian stone manufactures frequently con. 
sist of a greenish slate, which is often marked with darker parallel oi 
concentric stripes or bands, giving the objects made of it a very pretty 
appearan(;e. This slate is not very hard, but of close grain and therefore 
easily worked and polished. The objects made of this stone, which occur 
on the surface as well as in mounds, are generally executed with great 
care and regularity, and it is much to be regretted that the destination of 
some of them is not quite well known. Among the latter are certain 
straight tubes of cylindrical and other shapes and various lengths, 
which sometimes terminate in a kind of " mouth-piece." While the 
smaller ones, which often measure only a few inches, have been thought 
to represent articles of ornament, or amulets, a difierent purpose has 
been ascribed to the longer specimens. Schoolcraft appears to consider 
these latter as telescopic instruments which the ancient inhabitants 
used for observing the stars. This view, I think, has been generally re- 
jected. It is far more probable that these tubes, in part at least, were 
imi)lements of the sorcerers or medicine-men, who employed them in 
their pretended cures of diseases. They applied one end of the tube to 
the suffering part of the patient and sucked at the other end, in order 
to draw out, as it were, the morbid matter, which they afterwards 
feigned to eject with many gesticulations and contortions of the body. 
Coueal calls the tubes used by the medicine-men of the Florida Indians 
a kind of shepherd's flute {une esp^ce de clialumeau) and the character of 
some of the stone implements in question that have been found cer- 
tainly justifies this comparison.* Kohl saw, as late as 1855, one of the 
above-mentioned cures performed among the Ojibways of Lake Supe- 

* Coreal, Voyages aus Indes Occideutales, Amsterdam, 1122, Vol. I, p. 39. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 363 

rior; iu this instance, however, tlie tube used by the medicine-man was 
a smooth hollow bone, probably of the brant-goose.* 

A far more numerous class of articles often made of the greenish 
striped slate is represented by small, variously-shaped tablets of great 
regularity and finish, which are pierced in the middle with one, two, or 
more round holes. The most frequent shape of these tablets is illus- 
trated by the upper figure on Plate 28 in Vol. I of Schoolcraft's work on 
the Indian tribes. It is that of a rectangle with sides exhibiting a slight 
outward curve. The full-size drawing of this rather large specimen is 
done iu colors, and thus affords the advantage of showing the greenish 
tint and the markings of the stone. Other tablets are lozenge-shaped, 
quadratic with inwardly-curved sides, oval, cruciform, &c.t Most of 
them have two perforations, though specimens with only one are not 
scarce, while those that have more than two holes are of less frequent 
occurrence. The holes are drilled either from one side or from both, 
and, accordingly, of conical or bi-conical shape. They seldom have 
more than one-eighth of an inch in diameter at the narrowest part. 
Concerning the destination of the tablets nothing is definitely known. 
At first sight one might be inclined to consider them as objects of orna- 
ment or as badges of distinction ; but this view is not corroborated by 
the appearance of the i^erforatious, which exhibit no traces of the wear 
produced by continued suspension, being, on the contrary, in most cases 
as perfect as if they had but lately been drilled. The classification of 
the tablets as " gorgets," therefore, may be regarded as erroneous. 
Schoolcraft calls them implements for twine-making. It has been sug- 
gested that they were used in condensing and rounding bow-strings by 
drawing the wet strips of hide, or the sinews employed for that pur- 
I)ose, through the round perforations. The diameter of the latter, it is 
true, corresponds to the thickness of an ordinary Indian bow-string; 
but also iu this case the usually unworn state of the holes rather speaks 
against this supi^osition. 

Being desirous to learn whether Mr. George Catlin had seen, during 
his first sojourn among the western tribes, anything like those tablets 
used by them in making bow-strings, I availed myself of that gentle- 
man's return to the United States, and asked him by letter, among other 
matters, for information concerning this subject. He replied (Decem- 
l)er 24, 1871) as follows : 

" Of the tablets you speak of, I have seen several, but the holes were 
much larger than those you describe. Those that I have seen were 

* Kohl, Kitscbi-Gami, oder Erziihiungeu vora Oberu See, Bremen, 1856, Vol. I, p. 
148. Compare : Veuegas, History of Califoruia, London, 1759, Vol. I, p. 97, and Baegert's 
Account of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Californian Peninsula, Smithsonian Re- 
port for 1864, p. 386. Drawings of the stone tubes are given on pp. 224-27 of the 
"Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley." 

t The various shapes of these tablets, and of other perforated objects, not exactly 
tablets, but probably intended for the same purpose, are represented on pages 236 and 
237 of the "Ancient Monuments." 



364 ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

used by the ludiaus for grooving the shafts of their arrows. All arrows 
of the primitive ludiaus are fouud with three grooves from the arrow's 
shoulder, at the fluke, extending to, and conducting the air between, 
the feathers, to give them steadiness. These grooves, on close exam- 
ination, are foaud to be indented by pressure, and not iu any way cut 
out ; and this pressure is produced, while forcing the arrow, softened 
hy steam, through a hole in the tablet, with the incisor of a bear set 
firmly iu a handle and projecting over the rim of the hole as the arrow- 
shaft is forced downward through the tablet, getting compactness, and 
ou the surface and in the groove a smoothness, which no cutting, filing, 
or scraping can produce. It would be useless to pass the bow-string 
through the tablet, for the evenness and the hardness of the strings are 
l^roduced much more easily and effectually by rolling them, as they do, 
between two flat stones while saturated with heated glue." 

Thus, Mr. Catlin's experience is rather unfavorable to tlie supposition 
that the i)ierced stone tablets mentioned by me were used iu condens- 
ing bow-strings. Yet, after all, they probably served for some similar 
purpose, which may be clearly defined hereafter by continued examina- 
tion and comparison. I regard them as implements, and not as objects 
of ornament or distinction.* 

The greenish slate is frequently the material of another numerous 
class of Indian relics of enigmatical character. I allude to those curious 
articles bearing a distant resemblance to a bird, which are pierced at 
the base with diagonal holes, evidently for suspension, the traces of 
wear being distinctly visible. They probably represent insignia or 
amulets. I liave also heard the suggestion that they were used for 
removing the husk of Indian corn.t 

Of much rarer occurrence than the articles thus far enumerated in this 
section are perforated implements somewhat resembling an axe with 
two cutting edges, or, more often, a double pick-axe, ^Yhich, doubtless, 
were provided with handles and worn as badges of distinction by the 
superiors-l These objects are for the most part elegantly shaped, but 
of small size, and cannot have been applied to any practical use, their 
material, moreover, consisting generally of solt stone, more particularly 
of the greenish slate in question. It is evident, therefore, that they ful- 
filled a symbolical purpose, and were employed in the manner just men- 
tioned. 

* The Smithsonian Report for 1870, which has appeared since the above was written, 
contains, among other ethnological matter, an account of an exploration of mounds iu 
Kentucky, by Mr. Sidney S. Lyon. Among the contents of one of the mounds was "a 
black stone with holes through it." I have seen this kind of an instrument, saj"S Mr. 
Lyon, used by tlte Pah- Utes of Southeastern Nevada, for giving uniform size to their l)otv-strings. 
(p. 404.) 

t A group of these singular objects is represented on page 239 of the " Ancient Monu- 
menta." 

t Schoolcraft gives on Plate 11, Vol. I, of his large work, two colored half-size repre- 
eeutations of such imiilements, which he calls " maces." 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 365 

Having now brieflj' described the most important classes of relics 
made of the striped slate, I pass over to the i^rincipal point of iuqniry, 
namely, the extent of their occurrence. I know from personal expe- 
rience that they are found from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi 
river, a distance about equal to one-third of the whole breadth of 
the United States. It is possible that they are scattered over a far 
greater area. In 1848, when Squier and Davis i)ublished their work, in 
which aboriginal manufactures were for the first time accurately described, 
they could not specify the locality from which the oft-mentioned slate 
was derived. Since that time geological surveys have been made in all 
States of the Union, and the places of its occurrence are no longer un- 
known. It appears, I am informed, as the oldest sedimentary forma- 
tion, in quite considerable masses along the Atlantic coast, and has 
been observed from Rhode Island to Canada. This slate is not believed 
to occur in other parts of the Union, and it may be presumed, therefore, 
that it was brought from the Atlantic coast-districts, either in a rough or 
already worked condition, to the more western regions of the United 
States. 

FLINT. 

The real flint {Feuerstein in German) which is found abundantly, in 
rounded pieces or nodules in the cretaceous formations of the countries 
bordering on the Baltic, of England, France, &c., and which .has played 
such an important part in the prehistoric ages of Europe, does not seem 
to occur within the United States. For this information I am iierson- 
ally indebted to Professor James D. Dana. On the other hand, many 
parts of this country are very rich in various kinds of stones of a sili- 
cious character, which, in consequence of their hardness and conchoidal 
fracture, were well fitted to replace the missing variety in the produc- 
tion of chipped implements. The term " flint," therefore, is used here in a 
rather extensive sense, comprising horustone, jasper, chalcedony, fer- 
ruginous quartz, sweetwater quartz, milky quartz, serai-opalic stones, 
&c., and the numerous transitions from one quartzy variety into another, 
for which the science of mineralogy has no special denominations. The 
common white quartz, also, I may remark in this place, and the trans- 
parent rock-crystal, were used for pointing arrows ; and in districts 
where harder stones were scarce, even slates and greenstones served as 
substitutes for them in the fabrication of arrow and spearheads. 

As in Europe, so also in the United States, i)laces have been discov- 
ered where the manufacture of flint implements was carried on. These 
"open-air workshops" {ateliers en pJein air) are by no means rare in 
Korth America, and they begin to attract considerable attention since 
the successful archaeological researches in Europe have stimulated to 
similar pursuits in this country. As the North American tribes all used 
the bow, and consequently were in constant need of arrowheads, the 
manufacture of the latter took place in many localities, especially in 
such as furnished the stones most proper for that purpose. The KjoeJc- 



3G6 ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

Icenmoedding at Keyport, Kew Jersey, described by me in tlie Smitbson- 
ian Eeport for 1804, evidently was one of tbe places where flint imple- 
ments were made by the natives. I not only saw there among the shell- 
heaps countless chips of flint, but found also a number of unfinished 
arrowheads, which had been thrown aside on account of a wrong crack 
or some other defect in the stone. Tbe necessary material was here fur- 
nished on the spot, in the shape of innumerable water-worn pebbles of 
silicious character, which lie intermixed with the shells. Among the un- 
finished arrowheads picked up by me at this place there are some which 
exhibit a part of the smooth water-worn surface of the pebble from 
which they were made. 

In the middle part of the Mississippi valley, where I lived many 
years, and had occasion to make various observations, the Indians were 
amply provided by nature with the material employed in the fabrication 
of spear and ai-rowheads. The prevailing rock of those regions is a 
limestone in which several of the varieties of the quartz family are 
found, either in layers or in irregular concretions. In the bluff forma- 
tions of the "American Bottom" in Illinois, for instance, I have traced 
myself layers of hornstone, chalcedony, &c., for the distance of miles. 
In the districts under notice, moreover, the surface is covered here and 
there with many silicious pebbles and boulders, which furnished an 
inexhaustible supply of available material. 

An im])ortant locality to which the aborigines resorted, perhaps from 
great distances, for quarrying flint, is in Ohio, on the line of a calcareo- 
silicious deposit, called "Flint liidge," which extends through Muskin- 
gum and Licking Counties of that State. "The compact silicious mate- 
rial of which this ridge is made up,'' says Dr. Eildreth, " seems to have 
attracted the notice of the aborigines, who have manufactured it largely 
into arrow and spearheads, if we may be allowed to judge from the 
numerous circular excavations which have been made in raining the 
rock, and the piles of chipped quartz lying on th€ surface. How exten- 
sively it has been worked for these purposes, may be imagined from the 
countless number of the pits, experience having taught them that the 
rock recently dug from the earth could be split with more freedom 
than that wliich had lain exposed to the weather. These excavations 
ar-e found the whole length of the outcrop, but more abundantly at 
' Flint Ridge,' Avhere it is most compact and diversified with rich 
colors."* 

The Indian working-places of which I spoke are not always met in 
the neighborhood of those spots where flint was quarried or otherwise 
abundant, but also sometimes at considerable distances from the latter, 
in which cases they are, of course, of comparatively small extent. 
Their existence, however, proves that the material was transported from 
place to place, and thus assumed the character of a ware. Colonel 

*Hildreth, in Mather's First Annual Report on the Geological Survey of the State 
of Ohio, Columbus. 1838, p. 31. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AJIERICA. 367 

Charles C. Jones, of Brooklyn, vrho has paid particular attention to the 
former history of his native State Georgia, informed me he had ob- 
served quantities of silicious stone, surrounded by numerous rejected 
fragments and unfinished spear and arrowheads of the same material, 
in districts of that State where far and near no quartz minerals occur 
in situ. He showed me a number of these incomplete flint objects ob- 
tained from such places. 

For the fact that stones for arrowheads formed an object of traffic 
among the natives, even historical evidence is not wanting. I refer to 
a passage in the relation of Cabeca de Vaca, the tirst European who 
has given an account of the interior of iSTorth America. The passage 
in question will be quoted in a subsequent section. 

I am of opinion that flint in a half- worked state, that is, in flatfish 
pieces roughly chipped around their circumference and presenting 
irregular heart-shaped, oval, or round outlines, formed an object of ex- 
change, and as such was transported to places far distant from the sites 
which furnished the raw material. Those who quarried the flint fash- 
ioned it in this manner for the sake of saving space and for easier tran- 
sportation. Smaller or greater quantities of such worked flint frag- 
ments of homogeneous character are sometimes found in the earth, 
where the natives had buried them, believing that flint splits more 
readily when recently taken from tbe ground. These deposits, however, 
are not always composed of pieces which required further chipping in 
order to receive their final shape, but also sometimes of finished imple- 
ments. I have treated of these buried deposits of flint objects in an 
article published in the Smithsonian Eeport for 18G8, to wliich I refer 
in order to avoid repetitious.* The agricultural implements of East 
St. Louis, described in that article, are very skilfully executed 
manufactures of the aborigines ; the large flint discs, on the contrary, 
which, as I mentioned, Messrs. Squier and Davis found in great num- 
ber in a mound of '' Clark's Work"' in Ohio, and the rude flint objects 
of elongated oval outline from the bank of the Mississippi between 
St. Louis and Carondelet, present, in all probability, only rudi- 
mentary forms of implements, and were destined to be finished at a 
future time. It cannot be doubted that the stone of which the discs 
of Clark's Work are made was derived from the quarries of Flint 
Kidge. This fact has been established by careful comparisons. The 
stone in question is designated as hornstone. It is a beautiful ma- 
terial, resembling in color and grain certain varieties of the real 
European flint, and is sometimes marked with darker or lighter con- 
centric bands, the centre of which is formed by a small nucleus of 
blue chalcedony. These bands are particularly observable on the sur- 
faces which have undergone a change of color by exposure. The stone, 
in general, possesses qualities by which it can be recognized at once, 
even when met in a wrought state far from its original place of occur- 

* A Deposit of Agricultural Fliut Implements in Southern Illinois, p. 401, 



368 ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMEBICA. 

rence. According to Mr. Squier, arrowheads made of tliis hornstODe 
have been fouud in Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. That 
they occur in Illinois, I can attest from personal experience. 

A very remarkable find of objects manufactured from the horn stone 
of Fliut Ridge occurred in the summer of 1869 on the farm of Oliver H. 
Mullen, near Fayetteville, in St. Clair County, of the State of Illinois. 
Some children, amusing themselves near the barn of that farm, happened 
to dig into the ground, and came upon a deposit of fifty-two disc-like 
flint imi)lements, which lay closely heaped together. I obtained a num- 
ber of these implements through my indefatigable co-laborer. Dr. Pat- 
rick, of Belleville, Illinois. They coincide in shape with those of Clark's 
Work, but are somewhat smaller, and not, like the latter, superficially 
prepared objects, but highly-finished implements. This fact is shown by 
the careful chipping of the edges, to which sharpness and roundness have 
been imparted by small and carefully measured blows. Unlike the de- 
posit of East St. Louis, which consisted of perfectly new implements, 
that of Fayetteville was made up of such as had already done service. 
To this conclusion I am lead by the character of their edges, which ex- 
hibit a slight wear or polish. I regard these implements as scraping or 
smoothing tools, to which purposes they were well adapted by their 
shape ; and I have but little doubt that the less finished discs of Clark's 
Work were to be converted, by further chipping, into implements of the 
same kind. 

In connection with the object, however, which I have in view in this 
essay, the identity of the stone of Flint Ridge with that of which the 
tools fouud at Fayetteville in Illinois consist, is the point that deserves 
particular consideration. This identity admits of no doubt. I was 
convinced of it at first sight when I received the implements from Fay- 
etteville, and so were Messrs. S(iuier and Davis, to whom I showed my 
specimens. Tbe direct distance from the quarries at Flint Ridge to 
Fayetteville is about four hundred English miles, and thus far, at least, 
the stone was exported, in a rudimentary or finished shape, from its 
original site. So much is certain ; but it is not unlikely that implements 
made of this hornstone will be found hereafter at still greater distances 
fiom the quarries in Ohio. 

RED PIPESTONE. 

The celebrated red pipestone, that highly valued material employed 
by the Indians of past and j^reseut times in the manufacture of their 
calumets, occurs in situ on the Coteau des Prairies, an elevation extend- 
ing between the Missouri and the headwaters of the Mississippi. 
This is the classical ground of the surrounding tribes, and many l€^ 
gends lend a romantic interest to that region. It was here that the 
Great Spirit assembled the various Indian nations and instructed them 
in the art of making pipes of peace, as related by Longfellow in his 



ANCIENT ABOEIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 3G9 

charming "Song of Hiawatha." Even hostile tribes met here in peace, 
tor this district was, by common consent, regarded as neutral ground, 
where strife and feuds were suspended, that all might resort unmolested 
to the quarry and supply themselves with the much-prized red stone. 
This material, though compact, is not hard, and therefore easily worked, 
and, moreover, capable of a high polish. It consists chiefly of silica 
and alumina, with an admixture of iron, which produces the red color. 
American, and probably also European, mineralogists call this stone 
Catlinite, in honor of the zealous ethnologist and painter, Catlin, who 
was the first to give an accurate account of its place of occurrence, and 
to relate the traditions connected with the red pipestone quarry.* This 
locality is the only one in Korth America where this peculiar stone is 
found, and it is doubtful, indeed, whether in any other place on both 
hemispheres a mineral substance is met which corresponds in every re- 
spect to the one in question. 

The enterprising Jesuit missionary, Marquette, whose name is for- 
ever linked with the exploration of the Mississippi, smoked already in 
the year 1673 the pipe of peace with the Illinois Indians, and gives the 
following exact description of that important utensil, the bowl of whicb, 
it will be seen, consisted of the red stone of Coteau des Prairies. "It 
is made of a polished red stone, like marble, so pierced that one end 
serves to hold the tobacco, while the other is fastened on the stem, 
which is a stick two feet long, as thick as a common cane, and i)ierced 
in the middle ; it is ornamented with the head and neck of different 
birds of beautiful plumage; they also add large feathers of red, green 
and other colors, with which it is all covered."t His ecclesiastical suc- 
cessors also frequently mention the red pipes in their writings, but none 
of them, as far as I know, alludes to the locality where the stone was ob- 
tained. The first notice referable to that place, I found in the " History of 
Louisiana" by DuPratz, and even his statement is totally erroneous as far 
as the situation of the quarry is concerned. " On the bank of the Missouri," 
he says, " there is to be seen a pretty higli cliff (ecore), which rises so 
abruptly from the water that the nimblest rat could not climb it. From 
the middle part of this cliff projects a mass of red stone, which is 
marked with white sx)ots like i)orphyry, from which it differs, however, 
by inferior hardness, being almost as soft as tufa. It is covered by an- 
other kind of stone of no value, and rests upon the same sort of earth 
that forms the other hills. The inhabitants of the countrj', knowing 
the appliciibility of that stone, are in the habit of detaching pieces of 
it by arrow-shots, which pieces, falling into the water, are recovered by 
diving. From fragments of sufficient size they make calumets, using 
their knives and awls in manufacturing them. This stone can be 

■* Catlin, North American Indians, London, 1848, Vol II, Letters 54 and 55. 
t Shea, Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley, New York, 1852, p. 35. 
24 s 



370 ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

worked without difficulty and resists the fire very well."* Leaving aside the 
incorrect description of the locality and of the character of occurrence, 
the stone here mentioned corresponds exactly to that of Coteau des Prai- 
ries, the latter being, indeed, very often marked with lighter (though 
not white) spots, which give it a perfectly porphyritic appearance. 
I have seen many raw pieces of the red pi[)estone and have some my- 
self, in which this i)eculiarity is prominently exhibited. The unworked 
atone is usually of a dull pale red, the heightened color appearing only 
after the process of polishing. 

Carver, who explored the region of the Upper Mississippi in 17GG-'G8, 
mentions the red stone, but does not seem to have visited its place of oc- 
currence, which he marks on his map as the "Country of Peace." He 
also states distinctly in his work that even individuals belonging to hos- 
tile tribes met in peace at the " Red Mountain," where they obtained the 
stone for their pipes.t This shows that, at his time, the neutrality of the 
district was still respected. This laudable regulation, it also appears, 
had not yet become obsolete in the beginning of the present century, 
for on the map accompanying the work in which Lewis and Clarke 
describe the territories explored by them in 1804-'6, the locality in ques- 
tion is thus designated : "Here the different Tribes meet in Friendship 
and collect Stone for Pipes." Yet, about forty years ago, when Catlin 
visited the Coteau des Prairies, the warlike Sioux or Dakotahs had 
usurped the exclusive authority over the quarry, not permitting their 
enemies to provide themselves with stone. Catlin and his English 
traveling companion encountered at first difficulties on their way to the 
quarry, a band of those Indians trying to prevent them from going 
there. "As this red stone," the warriors said, "was a part of their 
flesh, it would be sacrilegious for white men to touch or take it away; a 
hole would be made in their flesh and the blood could never be made to 
stop running. "J When, subsequently, after Catlin's return from the 
quarry, an old chief of the Sacs saw some pieces of the red stone in the 
traveler's possession, he observed: "My friend, when I was young I 
used to go with our young men to the Mountain of the Red Pipe and dig 
out pieces for our pipes. We do not go now, and our red i)ipes, as you 
see, are but few. The Dakotahs have spilled the blood of the red men on 
that place and the Great Spirit is oftended."§ 

Mr. Catlin is of opinion that the Indian quarrying operations at 
Coteau des Prairies reach back into far remote times, basing his view 

■ " — — s — "- 

* Du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiane, Paris, 1758, Vol. I, p. 326. Tht) passage in 
question is not quite clear. It remains doubtful whether DuPratz, in speaking of the 
stone resembling porphyry, relates what he has heard himself, or alludes to the jour- 
,nal of M. de Bourgmont, to which he refers on the preceding page. The last-named 
cavalier undertook, in 1724, an expedition to the country of the Padoucas, or Co- 
manches. The erroneous account may be due to the natives, who purposely misplaced 
the locality of the quarry. 

+ Carver, Travels, p. 78. 

t Catlin, Vol. II, p. 166. 

$ Ibid., Vol. II, p. 171, 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 6(1 

chiefly on the traditions of the Indians, which certainly indicate a com- 
paratively long acquaintance with the locality. It appears, however, 
hardly admissible to ascribe a very high antiquity to the quarry, consider- 
ing that thus far no pipes or objects of ornament made of the red stone 
have been discovered in the oldest tumuli of the Mississippi valley, and 
the results of a recent examination of the Coteau des Prairies by Dr. 
r. y. Hayden likewise tend to detract much from the supposed antiquity 
of this aboriginal place of resort. According to Dr. Ilayden, the layer of 
Catliuite, hardly a foot in thickness, rests upon a gray quartzite, and 
there are about five feet of the same gray quartzite above it, which the 
Indians had to remove with great labor before the pipestone could be 
secured. A ditch from four to five feet wide and about five hundred 
yards in length indicates the extent of work done by the Indians. Only 
about one-fourth of the pipestone layer, thin as it is, can be used for the 
manufacture of pipes and other objects, the remainder being too impure, 
slaty, or fragile. Dr. Hayden describes the place as unpicturesque and 
deficient in trees. He found no stone implements in the vicinity, nor 
did he learn that any had ever been found ; rusty iron tools, on the 
other hand, are frequentlj^ discovered. According to his view, the quany 
belongs to a comparatively recent period.t 

Nevertheless the fact seems to be well established that the surround- 
ing tribes resorted for many succeeding generations to this locality, and 
that it formed a neutral ground, which they approached with a kind of 
superstitious awe. The Indians looked upon the red stone as a particu- 
larly valuable gift of the Great Spirit, and Catlin relates from personal 
observation that they humbly sacrificed tobacco before five huge boul- 
ders of granite near the quarry, in order to acquire the privilege, as it 
were, to take away a few pieces of the stone.t At present the settle- 
ments of the whites are advancing toward that interesting spot, which 
lies now, indeed, within the State of Minnesota, close to its western 
border, and in a county to which the name "Pipestone"' has been given. 
A communication from Dr. Hayden informs me that the place is still 
visited by Dakotah Indians, but not verj^ frequently, and without the 
observance of those ceremonies which formerly appeared indispensable. 
Kot much longer, however, will the red man be seen to make his pil- 
grimage to the quarry of Coteau des Prairies. 

Mr. Catlin has published very good drawings of the red pipes, which 
are, moreover, familiar to every one who has paid some attention to 
Indian matters. Some of them bear testimony to the skill and patience 
of their makers, who, in most cases, probably possess no other imple- 
ments than the knives and files obtained from the traders. The cylin- 
drical or conical cavities in the bowl arid neck of these pipes are drilled 
with a hard stick and sharp sand and water.J 

* Hayden, in American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol. XLIII, January, 1867. 
t Catlin, Vol. II, p. 166. 
tCatlin, Vol. I, p. 234. 



.^.79 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 



Not loug ago a small Catliiiite pipe of unusual shape was sent to me, 
which had been ploughed up in a maize-field near Centreville, in Southern 
Illinois (St. Olair County). Such older specimens are even met in 
the New England States, near the Atlantic coast. The collection of the 
Smithsonian Institute contains some pipes and ornaments made of Cat- 
liuite, which were taken from Indian graves in the State of New York, 
or obtained from the Iroquois still inhabiting the same State. The raw 
or worked red pipestoue, therefore, constituted an article of barter, 
which was brought from its original i)lace of occurrence to the present 
Eastern States of the Union. A passage in Loskiel, who chiefly treats 
of the Belawares and Iroquois, refers to this trade. In describing the 
pipes of those Indians, he says: "Some are manufactured from a kind 
of red stone, which is sometimes brought for sale by Intlians who live 
near the Marble river, on the western side of the Mississippi, where they 
extract it {sic) from a mountain."* This passage, it will be noticed, im- 
plies.a direct trade-connection of great extent, the distance between the 
red pipestoue quarry and the Northern Atlantic States being equal to 
twelve or thirteen hundred English miles. 

SHELLS. 

A substance pleasing to the eye, and easily worked, such as is offered 
by nature in the shells of marine and freshwater mollusks, could not 
fail to attract the attention of men in the earliest times. The love of 
personal adornment, moreover, already manifests itself in the lowest 
stages of human developraent,t and shells being, above other natural 
productions, particularly fitted to be made into ornaments, it is not sur- 
prising that they were employed for that purpose in all parts of the 
world. The North American tribes made an extensive use of the shells 
of the sea-coast as well as of those of their rivers, and fossil marine 
shells were also employed as ornaments. The valves of recent marine 
mollusks, indeed, must have been widely circulated by barter, consider- 
ing that they are found, in the shape of ornaments, and sometimes of 
utensils, in the interior of North America, at great distances from the 
shores of the sea. The oldest reference to the shell-trade among the 
aoorigines is contained in the remarkable account of the Spaniard 
Alvar Nuiiez Cabe^a de Vaca, who accompanied in the year 1527, as 
treasurer and alguazil mayor, the unfortunate Pamphilo de Narvaez on 

* Loskiel, Mission der evaugeliscbeu Biiider nnter deu ludiaueru in Nordamerika, 
Barby, 1789, p. 66. 

t It is probable tbat the barbarous manufacturers of the rude flint tools found, asso- 
ciated with the bones of extinct animals, in the diluvial deposits of Northern France, 
used small round i^etre facts of tbe chalk {Coscinopora glohularis, D'Orb.) as beads, by 
stringing them together, those petrified bodies being provided by nature with holes 
passing through their middle (Lyell, Antiquity of Man, p. 119). Personal vanity is a 
prominent feature in tbe character of the North American Indians. Among the mis- 
erable Root-Diggers an old woman has been seen, who "had absolutely nothing on 
her person but a thread /ound her neck, from which was pendent a solitary bead." 
(Irving, Adventures of Captain Bonneville, p. 261.) 



0^'70. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 6i6 

his expedition for the conquest of Florida The leader and nearly all 
his followers having' perished, Cabe9a de Yaca, one of the survivors, 
wandered with his companions for many years through North America, 
until he finally succeeded in reaching the settlements of his country- 
men near Culiacan, in the present Mexican province of Sinaloa, after 
having traversed the whole continent from the Floridian peninsula to the 
Pacific coast. The description of his adventures and snfferings forms 
one of the most remarkable early works on IS'orth America, benig, in- 
deed, the first that treats of the interior of the country and of its na- 
tive population. For the latter reason it is of particular value to the 
ethnologist, presenting, as it does, the Indians as they were seen by the 
first white visitors.* While he sojourned among the Charruco Indians, 
a tribe inhabiting the coast, he carried on the business of a trader, 
which, as he observes, suited him very well, because it protected him at 
least from starvation. The excursions undertaken in the pursuit of his 
trade sometimes extended as far as forty or fifty leagues from the coast into 
the interior of the district. His wares consisted of pieces and " hearts" 
of sea-shells {pedagos de caracoles de la mar y coragones de ellos), of 
shells employed by the Indians as cutting implements, and of a smaller 
kind that was used as money. These objects of trade he transported 
to parts distant from the sea, exchanging them there for other articles 
of which the coast-people were in want, such as hides, a red earth 
for painting their faces, stones for arrowheads, hard reeds for shafting 
the latter, and, finally, tufts of deer's hair dyed of a scarlet color, which 
were worn as head-dresses.t This passage, indeed, is of particular in- 
terest in connection with the subject treated in this essay, because it 
aflbrds not only some insight into the system of Indian trade, but like- 
wise informs us that among the objects of exchange those were con- 
spicuous which served for the gratification of personal vanity. By the 
" hearts" of sea-shells Cabega de Vaca understands the spines or colu- 
mellce of large conchs, which parts were worked by the aborigines into a 
kind of ornament, of which more will be said hereafter. 

Large quantities of shell-ornaments, mostly destined to be strung 
together or to be worn as pendants, have been found in the sepulchral 
mounds and other burial-places of the Indian race. In Ohio, accord- 
ing to Messrs. Squier and Davis, beads made of shell and other mate- 

* The importance of Cabega de Vaca's work, it seems to me, has been undervalued, 
perhaps on account of the marvelous cures which he pretends to have performed 
among the natives. Imbued witli the superstitions of his time, he probably believed 
in his own powers of healing the sick in a supernatural way. When these incredible 
details are taken away, there remains much in the book that deserves the highest ap- 
preciation. According to Arthur Helps, a most careful investigator, his account 
'■bears every mark of truthfulness." See: Helps, The Spanish Conquest in America, 
Harper's edition. Vol. IV, p. 397. 

t Relation et Naufrages d'Alvar NuQez Cabega de Vaca, (Ternaux-Compans Col- 
lection), Paris, 18S7, p. r«il, &.C. The Spanish original ajjpeared in the year 1555 at 
Valladolid. 



374 ANCIENT ABOEIGINAL TEADE IN NOETH AMEEICA. 

rials occur even more frequently in the sacrificial mounds than in those 
of a sepulchral character, a circumstance that may be accounted for by 
the value attached to these objects by their owners, who deemed them 
worthy of being offered in their sacrificial rites. The methods employed 
by the manufacturers doubtless being of the most primitive character, 
each shell-bead was the result of a certain amount of patient labor, and 
consequently was esteemed according to the time and art bestowed on 
its production. 

The Indian shell- ornament in its simplest form consisted of entire 
specimens of small marine univalves, such as species of MargineUa, 
Natica, and OUva, which, after being conveniently pierced, could be 
strung together at once without further preparation, and worn as neck- 
laces, armlets, &c. The above-mentioned kinds were met by Squier and 
Davis in the mounds of Ohio, and in opening the Grave Creek Mound 
fiive hundred specimens of Marginella were obtained near one of the 
skeletons. Some time ago, I received pierced specimens of Marginella, 
recovered in removing a mound at East St. Louis, in Southern Illi- 
nois, which, I believe, contained a great number of them. Small sea- 
shells appear to be particularly abundant in the Indian graves of the 
Gulf States. More than a hundred years ago, it was noticed by Carver 
that sea-shells were much worn by the Indians of the interior parts — 
he chiefly refers to the Dakotahs on the Upper Mississii^pi — and reck- 
oned very ornamental. He could not learn how they procured them, 
but thought they were obtained by trafiSc with other nations nearer the 
sea.* Small /o.9sti marine shells were sometimes used for the same pur- 
pose. In an article published in the Smithsonian Eeport for 1868, 1 
have stated that a large number of such fossil shells were found, asso- 
ciated with agricultural flint implements, under the surface at East 
St. Louis, the place already mentioned.t They belonged almost ex- 
clusively to the genus Conoimlus {Melaminis), and many of them were 
prepared for stringing by a lateral perforation, as shown in the drawing 
(on p. 404) representing one of those shells. My knowledge, however, 
that the Indians used small fossil sea-shells as ornaments is not confined 
to the case in question, and I presume that many of the small marine 
shells taken from the mounds, which are considered as belonging to 
recent species, are, in reality, of fossil origin. Other fossil remains in 
a worked state, it may be mentioned in this connection, were obtained 
from the mounds of Ohio, as, for instance, shark's teeth, and others ol 
considerable size, perhaps belonging to a cetaceous animal. The for- 
mer are notched on both sides, or pierced at the lower end, and may 
have served, respectively, as amulets, arrowheads, or cutting imple- 
ments. 

Yet, the number of entire sea-shells employed as beads by the natives 

* Carver, Travels, p. 151. 

t Their fossil character was first pointed out to me by a competent concliologist, Mr. 
Thomas Bland, of Brooklyn. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 375 

appears insignificant when compared with the enormous quantity of 
objects of the same class, which they manufactured from fragments 
of the valves of marine and fluviatile shells. These wrought beads ex- 
hibit various forms and sizes, but, according to my experience, are 
mostly found in the shape of more or less regular sections of cylinders, 
pierced through the centre. They are often proj^ortionately thick, but 
sometimes rather thin, resembling the small bone buttons of conimerce. 
I have shell-beads from different parts of the United States. Most of 
them are small, not exceeding six or seven millimetres in diameter ; my 
largest specimens, however, have a diameter of no less than twenty- 
eight millimetres. These latter, which were found, some time ago, with 
skeletons in the now leveled " Big Mound" at St. Louis, are very flat 
in proportion to their diameter, and may be called discs rather than 
beads. They are evidently made from the valves of species of Unio of 
the Mississippi valley. These and other shells, which abound in many 
rivers of the United States, frequently may have furnished the material 
for ornaments, especially in districts remote from the sea-coast. The 
holes of Indian shell-beads generally are drilled from both sides, and 
therefore mostly of a bi-conical shape.* The colored glass beads and 
enameled beads often found in Indian graves are, of course, of Euro- 
pean origin, the art of making them being unknown to the aboiigines, 
and their occurrence in Indian burial-places, therefore, indicates that 
the interment took place at a period when an intercourse with the 
whites already had been established. Of the so-called wampum-beads 
I shall speak at the close of this section. 

The largest and therefore the most esteemed beads and pendants, 
however, were made by the Indians from the columellje, or, as Cabega 
de Yaca expresses it, from the "hearts," of large conchs, among which 
the Strombus gigas seems to have been most frequently used. These 
beads are more or less cylindrical, or globular, and always drilled length- 
wise. Some are tapering at both ends, resembling a cigar in shape. I 
have seen specimens of two and one-half inches in length. The aborigines 
also made from the columellse of large marine univalves peculiar pin- 
shaped articles, consisting of a more or less massive stem, which termi- 
nates in a round knob. Professor Wyman mentions, in the Third Annual 
lieport on the Peabody Museum (1870), a specimen of this kind found 
in Tennessee, which is five inches long, with a head an inch in diame- 
ter. In the collection of Colonel Charles C. Jones, of Brooklyn, there 
are quite similar specimens of this class. Their destination is yet unex- 

* Flat shell-beads are among the oldest antiquities of Europe. Lartet found them in 
the grotto of Aurignac, which served as a burial-place at a period, when the cave-bear, 
cave-hyena, mammoth, rhinoceros, &c., still existed. Some small flat beads in my pos- 
session, made of Cardium, which were obtained from a dolmen in Southern France, can- 
not be distinguished from similar productions of the North American Indians. Entire 
sea-shells (mostly Litorina litorea), pierced for stringing, occurred in the cave of Cro- 
Magnon, in the valley of the VeziSre. Pierced valves of fossil sea-shells were found at 
other stations of the reindeer-period in the same valley, &c. 



376 ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 

plained : they were perhaps attached to the head-dress, or worn as orna- 
ments in some other way. The unwrought coluiuellse of large sea-shells 
have been found at considerable distances from the coast, as, for in- 
stance, in Ohio and Tennessee. 

I have seen some very old Indian shell-ornaments, which were worn 
suspended from ^ the »eck, like medals or gorgets. They are round or 
oval plates, from two to four inches in diameter, on which various de- 
signs, sometimes quite tasteful, are engraved or cut through. In some 
instances their ornamentation consists in regularly disposed perfora- 
tions.* 

Very large sea-shells of the univalve kind, either in their natural 
state or more or less changed by art, frequently have been found in In- 
dian burial-places and in localities generally, where the traces of Indian 
occupancy are met. Species of the Pyrula and Cassis occur most fre- 
quently. By the removal of the inner whorls and spines, and other 
modifications, these shells are sometimes prepared to serve as drinking- 
vessels and dishes. Professor Wyman speaks in the before-mentioned 
report of such vessels obtained from Tennessee and Florida, which 
are made from shells of the Pyrula perversa, Lam. One of the vessels 
measures a foot in length, though the pointed end is wanting. Dr. 
Troost gives the description and representation of a large, entirely hol- 
lowed Cassis flammea, Lam., found in Tennessee, which served as the 
receptacle of a kneeling human figure of clay, to which he attributes 
the character of an idol.t I saw in the collection of Colonel Jones, of 
Brooklyn, a Cassis, likewise hollowed, which is eight inches and a half 
long, and has a diameter of seven inches, where its periphery is widest. 
This specimen is one of two which were found near Clarksville, Haber- 
sham County, Georgia, in one of those Indian stone-graves, which are 
met, sometimes many of them together, in various parts of the United 
States.l 

In the State of Ohio, where the former inhabitants have left the most 
conspicuous traces of their occupancy in the shape of numerous earth- 

* "Thoy ofteutiiiies make, of this shell, a sort of gorge, which they wear about their 
neck iu a striug; so it hangs on their collar, whereon sometimes is engraven a cross, 
or some odd sort of figure, which comes next iu their fancy. The gorges will some- 
times sell for three or four buckskins ready dressed." Lawson, History of Carolina, 
London, 1714; reprint, Raleigh, 1860, ]). 315. For drawings see Schoolcraft, Vol.1, 
plate 19, figure 3, and plate 25, figures 29 and 30 ; also, Morgan, League of the Iroquois, 
]). 389. 

t Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, Vol. I, p. 361. 

tThe stone-grave in question contained a skeleton, much decayed, and, besides the 
two Cflssis-shells, stone axes and chisels, some perforated objects of stone, &c. The 
most important piece, however, was a copper axe, which deserves particular mention. 
This axe is very long, but narrow and thin, and shows on both sides very distinctly 
the friction produced by having been inserted into the split end of a wooden handle. 
The objects found in this grave are all iu the possession of Colonel Jones, who intends 
to publish au illustrated description of this find in bis forthcoming work on the an- 
tiquities of Georgia. 



ANCIENT ABORIGINAL TRADE IN NORTH AMERICA. 6 i 7 

works of various descriptions, and sometimes of stupendous extent, these 
large shells of marine mollusks are of frequent occurrence. Atwater 
already mentions them in the first volume of the Archseologia Ameri- 
cana, published in 1820. What Squier and Davis observed in regard 
to sea-shells generally during their investigations in Ohio, I will reca- 
pitulate here in a few words. They found in the moiwids the smaller 
shells already specified, namely, MargineUa, OUva, and Natica, as well 
as entire specimens or fragments of Cassis and Pyrula perversa, and also 
the unwrought columellte of a large species of