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Full text of "Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution"

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43d Congress, ) SENATE. < Mis. Doc. 

1st Session, i i No. 130. 



Al^NUAL REPOET 



BOARD OF EEGEIsTTS 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 



THE OPERATIONS, EXPENDITURES, AND CONDITION OF THE INSTITUTION 
FOR THE YEAR 1873. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1874. 



IN THE Senate of the United States, 

February 13, 1874. 
Ordered, That the annual report of the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 
the year 1673 be printed. 
Attest: GEO. C. GORHAM, 

Sec7'etary of the Senate. 



LE T T EE 

FROM THE 

SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

TRANSMITTING 

The annual report of tlie Smithsonian Institution for the year 1873. 



Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, Febriiary 13, 1874. 

Sir: In behalf of the Board of Eegeuts, I have the honor to submit 
to the Congress of the United States the annual report of the opera- 
tions, expenditures, and condition of the Smithsonian Institution for 
the year 1873. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOSEPH HENRY, 
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 
Hon. M, H. Caepentee, 

President of the Senate. 
Hon. J. G. Blaine, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOR 1873. 



This document contains : 1. The programme of organization of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 2. The annual report of the Secretary, giving 
an account of the operations and condition of the establishment for the 
year 1873, with the statistics of collections, exchanges, meteorology, &c. 

3. The report of the executive committee, exhibiting the financial affairs 
of the Institution, includiug a statement of the Smithson fund, the 
receipts and expenditures for the year 1873, and the estimates for 1874. 

4. The proceedings of the Board of Eegents. 5. A general appendix, 
consisting principally of reports of lectures, translations from foreign 
journals of articles not generally accessible, but of interest to meteor- 
ologists, correspondents of the Institution, teachers, and others inter- 
ested in the promotion of knowledge. 



OFFICERS OF THE I^^STITUTIOX. 



JOSEPH HENRY, SecretxVry, 
Director of the Insiituiion. 



SPENCER F. BAIRD, 

Assistant Sccretarij. 



WILLIAM J. RHEES, 

Chief Clerk. 



DANIEL LEECH, 

Corresponding Cleric. 



CLARENCE B. YOUNG, 

JBook-lceeper. 



HERMANN DIEBITSCH, 

Exchange Clei'Tc. 



JANE A. TURNER, 

Exchange Clerk. 



SOLOMON G. BROWN, 

Transportation Clerk. 



JOSEPH HERRON, 

Janitor, 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



ULYSSES S. GEAl^T President of the United States, ex-officio Presiding Officer 

of the Institution 

MOKEISON K. WAITE.. .Chief- Justice of the United States, Chancellor of the Insti- 
tution, President of the Board of Regents. 

JOSEPH HENRY Secretary (or Director) of the Institution. 



EEGENTS OF THE INSTITUTION. 

MORRISON E. WAITE.. -Chief-Justice of the United States, President offJic Board. 

HENRY WILSON Vice-President of the United States, 

H. HAMLIN Member of the Senate of the United States. 

J. W. STEVENSON Member of the Senate of the United States. 

A. A. SARGENT Member of the Senate of the United States. 

S. S. COX Member of the House of Representatives. 

E. R. HOAR Member of the House of Representatives. 

G. W. HAZELTON Member of the House of Representatives. 

JOHN MACLEAN Citizen of New Jersey. 

PETER PARKER Citizen of Washington. 

WILLIAM T. SHERMAN. . Citizen of Washington. 

ASA GRAY Citizen of Massachusetts. 

J.. D. DANA Citizen of Connecticut. 

HENRY COPPEE Citizen of Pennsylvania. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOAED OF EEGENTS. 
PETER PARKER. JOHN MACLEAN. WILLIAM T. SHERMAN. 



MEMBEES EX-OFFICIO OF THE INSTITUTION. 

U. S. GRANT President of the United States. 

HENRY WILSON Vice-President of the United States. 

M. R. WAITE Chief- Justice of the United States. 

H. FISH Secretary of State. 

B. H. BRISTOW Secretary of the Treasury. 

W. W. BELKNAP Secretary of War. 

G. M. ROBESON Secretary of the Navy. 

J. A.J. CRESWELL Postmaster-General. 

C. DELANO Secretary of the Interior. 

GEO. H. WILLIAMS Attorney- General. 

M. D. LEGGETT Commissioner of Patents-. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY, PROFESSOR HENRY, FOR THE 

YEAR 1873. 



Gentlemen : I have the honor herewith to present a continuation 
of the history of the Smithsonian Institution, comprising au account of 
its operations, condition, and expenditures during the year 1873. No 
change in this time has been made in the general policy of the estab- 
lishment. Congress has continued its appropriations for the support of 
the IsTational Museum under the charge of the Institution, and has thus 
relieved the Smithson fund from a burden the support of which has 
annually absorbed a large portion of the income. Freed from the ex- 
pense of the support of the- museum, at the beginning of 1873 we 
anticipated doing much more than we had previously done in the way 
of advancing science without encroaching on the unexpended balance 
in the Treasury at the close of 1872, but in this we were disappointed 
by the failure of the First National Bank of Washington, which had 
in its possession at the time of its suspension a considerable portion of 
the semi-annual income received on the 1st of July, and which was 
intended to carry on our operations during the remainder of the year. 
Previous to 1867 the interest on the Smithson fund was deposited in 
the private banking house of Riggs & Co., but at the session of the 
Board February 22, 1867, I was directed, by a resolution suggested by 
Chief Justice Chase, to transfer the money to the First National Bank, 
an authorized Government depository. This was accordingly done, 
and the bank faithfully discharged the duty which devolved upon it 
until the 19th of September, 1873, when it failed to honor our drafts. 
The whole sum in the bank at this time was $8,224.87. Ou this sum 
the Institution has since received a dividend of 30 per cent., amounting 
to $2,467.46. In order to meet this unexpected difficulty a reduction 
was made, as far as possible, in the accruing expenses, by stopping the 
printing of various articles, and deferring for a time the prosecution of 
various enterprises in which the Institution had previously embarked. 

For paying the salaries and other urgent claims an application was 
made to the Secretary of the Treasury to advance the quarter-yearly 
interest which had accrued on the 1st of October. To this application 
the Secretary, -Mr. Richardson, gave due attention, and expressed his 
willingness to grant the favor provided it could be done in accordance 
with law. It was, however, decided by the comptroller that the inter- 
est could only be paid semi-annually, as prescribed by the act organiz- 
ing the Institution. W.H.oafJ 



8 EEPOET OF THE SECRETAEY. 

Disappointed in obtaining relief from tMs source, an appeal was made 
to Mr. G. W. Eiggs to advance what might be required to pay the neces- 
sary expenses of the establishment during the remainder of the year. 
This he promptly consented to do at a time when loans of money could 
scarcely be obtained unless at the most exorbitant rates ; and this, too, 
without charge for interest. Such liberality could scarcely have been 
expected, especially after the deposits had previously been withdrawn 
from Mr. Eiggs on the plea of greater security. 

To relieve the Board of Eegents and the secretary in future from all 
anxiety as to the safety of the semi-annual interest, I would advise that 
hereafter it be placed in charge of tlie Treasurer of the United States. 
I am informed that he is authorized to receive on deposit, from officers 
of the Army and Navy, money which has been appropriated by Congress 
to special objects, and as the Smithson income is the proceeds of a sacred 
trust committed to the Government of the United States, the same priv- 
ilege should be, and I doubt not would be, extended to it. 

The Smithson fund since the war has been much dimmished in effi- 
ciency by the inflation of the currency, and the cou sequent high price of 
labor and materials. It is true that the Government pays the Institu- 
tion in gold, but the premium on this is by no means an equivalent for 
the diminution of luu^chasing power of the money received : since 
paper has been substituted as a legal tender, gold itself has become 
an article of commerce, the price of which depends on the supply and 
demand. While the premium on gold is, say, ten per cent., the differ- 
ence of prices due to inflation is, in many cases, a hundred per cent. In 
addition to the effect of the diminution of the value of the Smithson 
fund by the inflation of the Government currency, is that of the gradual 
inflation of the currency of the world by the products of the mines of 
California and Australia. It is estimated that this, during the last 
twenty-five years, has made a difference in prices throughout Europe 
and this country equivalent to twenty per cent. 

To keep up, therefore, the efficiency of the Smithson fund in the way 
of producing new results in intellectual labor, it was necessary that ad- 
ditions should be made to it 5 and from the following financial exhibit, 
and those which have been shown in preceding reports, it is evident 
that this consideration has received proper attention. 

The following is a statement of the condition of the funds at the end 
of 1873 or the beginning of 1874: 

The amount originally received as the bequest of James 
Smithson, of England, deposited in the Treasury of the 
United States, in accordance with the act of Congress of 

August 10, 1846 $515, 169 00 

The residuary legacy of Smithson, received in 1865, de- 
posited in the Treasury of the United States, in accord- 
ance with the act of Congress of February 8, 1867 26, 210 63 

Total bequest of Smithson 541, 379 63 



EEPORT OF THE SECEETARY. 9 

Amount deposited in tlie Treasury of the United States, 
as authorized by act of Congress of February 8, 1867, 
derived from savings of income and increase in value of 
investments $108, 620 37 

Total permanent Smithson fund in the Treasury of 
the United States, bearing interest at 6 per cent., 

payable semi-annually in gold 650, 000 00 

In addition to the above, there remains of the extra fund 
from savings, &c., in Virginia bonds and certificates, 
viz: Consolidated bonds, $58,700; deferred certificates, 

$29,305.07— now valued at 33, 000 00 

Cash balance in United States Treasury at the beginning of 
the year 1874, as a special deposit for current expenses- 12, 226 68 
Amount due from First National Bank, $5, 757.41, (pres- 
ent value unknown.) 

Total Smithson funds January, 1874 695, 226 68 

PUBLICA-TIONS. 

Since the reports of the Institution are separately distributed to indi- 
viduals who have not immediate access to the whole series, it is neces- 
sary in each to repeat certain facts which may serve to give an inde- 
I)endent idea of the general organization of the establishment. For this 
purpose the following statement is repeated in regard to the publications : 

The publications of the Institution are of three classes — the Contribu- 
tions to Knowledge, the Miscellaneous Collections, and the Annual 
Eeports. The first consist of memoirs containing positive additions to 
science resting on original research, and which are generally the result 
of investigations to which the Institution has in some way rendered 
assistance. The miscellaneous collections are composed of works in- 
tended to facilitate the study of branches of natural history, meteor- 
ology, &c., and are designed especially to induce individuals to engage 
in studies as specialties. The annual reports, beside an account of the 
operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution, contain trans- 
lations from works not generally accessible to American students, re- 
ports of lectures, extracts from correspondence, etc. 

The following are the rules vv^hich have been adopted for the distribu- 
tion of the publications of the Smithsonian Institution : 

1st. To learned societies of the first class which present complete 
series of their publications to the Institution. 

2d. To libraries of the first class which give in exchange their cata- 
logues and other publications, or an equivalent from their duplicate 
volumes. 

3d. To colleges of the first class which furnish meteorological ob- 
servations, catalogues of their libraries and of their students, and all 
other publications relative to their organization and history. 



10 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

4th. To States and Territories, provided they give in return copies of 
all documents published under their authority. 

5th. To public libraries in this country, not included in any of the 
foregoing classes, containing 15,000 volumes, esijecially if no other 
copies are given in the same place, and to smaller libraries where a large 
district would be otherwise unsupplied. 

6th. To institutions devoted exclusively to the promotion of particular 
branches of knowledge are given such Smithsonian publications .as 
relate to their respective objects. 

7th. The reports are presented to the meteorological observers, to con- 
tributors of valuable material to the library or collections, and to per- 
sons engaged in special scientific research. 

The distribution of the publications of the Institution is a matter 
which requires much care and, a judicious selection, the great object 
being to make known to the world the truf>hs which may result from 
the expenditure of the Smithson fund. For this purpose the principal 
class of publications, namely, the Contributions, must be so distributed 
as to be accessible to the greatest number of readers, and this will evi- 
dently be to principal libraries. 

The volumes of Contributions are presented to institutions on the ex- 
press condition that, while they are carefully preserved, they shall be 
accessible at all times to students and others who may desire to consult 
them. These works, it must be recollected, are not of a j)opular char- 
acter, but require profound study to fully understand them ; they are, 
however, of immense importance to the teacher and the popular ex- 
pounder of science. They contain materials from which general treat- 
ises on special subjects are elaborated. 

Full sets of the publications cannot be given to all who apply for 
them, since this is impossible with the limited income of the Institution; 
and, indeed, if care be not exercised in the distribution, so large a portion 
of the income will be annually expended on the production of copies for 
distribution of what has already been published that nothing further 
can be done in the way of new publications. It must be recollected 
that every addition to the list of distribution not only involves the 
giving of the publications which have already been made, but also of 
those which are to be made hereafter. 

At the commencement of the operations of the Institution the publi- 
cations were not stereotyped, and consequently the earlier volumes 
have now become scarce, especially the first, of which there are no 
copies for distribution, although it can occasionally be obtained at a 
second-hand book-stall in one of the larger cities. 

E"o copyright has ever been secured on any of the publications of 
the Institution. They are left free to be used by compilers of books, 
without any restrictions except that full credit shall be given to the 
name of .Smithson for any extracts which mi\.y be made from them. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 11 

This condition is especially insisted on, because the credit thus required 
is an important evidence to the world of the proper management of the 
Smithson fund. 

PuUications in 1873. — During the past year the eighteenth volume of 
the quarto series of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge has 
been published. The several parts of this volume have been described 
in previous reports. It contains the following papers : 

I. Tables and results of the precipitation in rain and snow in the 
United States, and at some stations in adjacent parts of North America, 
and in Central and South America. Collected by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, and discussed under direction of Joseph Henry, Secretary. By 
Charles A. Schott, 4to., pp. 178, eight diagrams, five plates and three 
charts. 

II. Memoir on the secular variations of the elements of the orbits of 
the eight principal planets. Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, with tables of the same. Together with 
the obliquity of the ecliptic, and the precession of the equinoxes in both 
longitude and right ascension. B5' John N. Stockwell, M. A., 4to., pp. 
214. 

III. Observations on terrestrial magnetism and on the deviations of 
the compasses of the United States iron-clad Monadnock during her 
cruise from Philadelphia to San Francisco, in 1865 and 1866. By Wm. 
Harkness, M. D., 4to., pp. 225, with two diagrams. 

IV. Converging series expressiug the ratio between the diameter and 
the circumference of a circle. By William Ferrel, 4to., pp. 6. 

This volume consists of 643 pages, and is illustrated by five plates, three 
large double charts, and numerous diagrams. The distribution of this 
volume to foreign societies has been nearly completed. As in the case 
of the preceding volumes, it will tend to perpetuate the name of Smith- 
son conspicuously in the records of the history of science, and will thus 
form a more befitting monument to his memory than one of marble or 
of bronze. 

One of the memoirs accepted for future publication in the Contributions 
is on the Lucernaria, by Professor Henry J. Clark. This memoir relates to 
a class of animals which are more or less octagonal, bell-shaped, or rather 
inverted umbrella-like, with tentacles clustered in groups at the eight 
angles. They were in former times regarded as a group of the polyjis, 
that is, related to the sea-anemones, but in more recent times have been 
associated with the Acalephs or sea-nettles and jelly-fishes, and either 
combined with one of the more comprehensive orders, or regarded as 
the representatives of a peculiar one. Such is the group which has 
been the subject of Professor Clark's latest studies, and which is con- 
sidered by him as entitled to ordinal rank in the class of Acalephs. 

His work is divided into two parts 5 the first devoted to the "general 
and comparative morphology," and the second restricted to the '' anatomy 



12 EEPOKT OF THE SECEETARY. 

aud jihy siolo gy of haUclystusailrictila.''^ In the first part are three chapters; 
the first on "individuality," in which are considered the questions re- 
lating to "polarity and polycephalism" and "the hydroid and medusoid 
cephalisms." In the second the thesis that "the type of form is not ra- 
diate" is defended, and the form is described as "the dorso-ventrally 
repetitive type." The third chapter is devoted to the consideration of 
" antero-posterior (cephalo-caudal) repetition," and under the heads of 
"the scyphostoma and ephyra varieties of the same morph" and "the 
individuality of Pelagia and Lucernarire." 

In the second part are four chapters, the third to seventh of the en- 
tire work. In the first (third of the work) are described the "general 
form and structure," including habitat, habits, form, and size, the pro- 
boscis, the umbella, and the peduncle. In the second is considered the 
" organography, including the walls," " the muscular system," " the tenta- 
cles, the marginal adhesive bodies, or collecystophora," "the caudal ad- 
herent disc," "the digitiform bodies, or digitali," "the digestive system," 
"the nervous system," and "the reproductive system." 

In a third are embraced the results of studies of the " embryology," 
or various stages of growth of the species, including observations on 
" the egg and the spermatozoa ; " on " a young haliclystus auricula, nearly 
one-sixteenth of an inch in diameter;" on "a specimen three thirty- 
seconds of an inch across the umbella;" on "a young specimen one-eighth 
of an inch across;" on the "special development of a tentacle, a coUeto- 
cystophore, and a genital sac;" on the "young one-fifth of an inch 
across;" and on the "young six twenty-fifths of an inch across." 

In a fourth chapter the tissues are considered in a "histology of MU- 
clystvs aiiricuW^ and in the several parts of the body — that is, "the um- 
bellar and peduncular walls;" "histology of the tentacles;" "histology of 
the collectocystophores," (anchors;) "histology of the caudal disc;" 
and "histology of the digitali" and "the prehensile cysts," (nematocysts 
and coUetocysts.) 

This enumeration of the chapters and their sections will furnish to 
the naturalist an adequate idea of the mode of treatment of the subject 
as well as of the different organs and parts represented in the animals. 
It will suffice to add that the several parts are treated of in great 
detail, and are illustrated in eleven quarto plates from drawings by the 
author. 

The plates for this memoir are in the process of being engraved, and 
the Avork will be published as soon as the funds of the Institution will 
permit. We have to regret, since the work was adopted by the Institu- 
tion, that the author has been called from this life in the flower of his 
age and the promise of many days of successful devotion to science. 

The next memoir accepted for publication, and which will probably form 
the whole of the twentieth volume of the Contributions co Knowledge, is 
by Joseph Jones, M. D., professor of chemistry and clinical medicine in 
the University of Louisiana. It gives the results of a very extended in- 



EEPOET OF THE SECEETAEY. 13 

vestigatiou of the military, religious, monumental, and organic remains 
of the ancient inhabitants of Tennessee. An appropriation was made 
to assist Dr. Jones in an exploration of these ancient remains, and to 
this work he has devoted an immense amount of labor. The results are 
presented in a volume which, after considerable abridgment, still con- 
sists of over 600 folio manuscript pages, requiring about two hundred 
wood-cuts and a number of plates for its illustration. The work was 
submitted to Dr. Otis, of the Army Medical Museum, who has given 
special attention to the subject of ethnology, and on his approval it has 
been accepted for publication. We think it is a valuable addition to 
our knowledge of the ancient races which have inhabited this continent, 
and well worthy of a place in the Smithsonian series of Contributions. 
The following extract is made from the preface by the author : 

" The explorations and researches were commenced in the early part 
of 1868, and continued to the close of 1869. In the entire investigation, 
and in presenting an outline of the explorations and researches, I have 
endeavored to accomplish two results, viz : the accurate description of 
the aboriginal remains, and the collection of facts which bear in any 
manner upon the obscure history of the ancient inhabitants of this 
region. With the limited means at my command, and with numerous 
pressing professional duties and cares, I was unable to carry forward 
the explorations upon the scale which their importance appeared to 
demand, but it is earnestly hoped that these investigations, however 
imperfect, will be found an addition to knowledge which may serve as 
a point of departure for future explorers in this interesting field. They 
will not be without practical result if they should serve to form a basis 
for the comparison of the crania and works of art of the races of the 
stone-age of Tennessee and Kentucky with those of other x^arts of our 
country and of foreign climes." 
The following is a brief abstract of the contents of the work : 
Chafer I. — Inquiries regarding the name and history of the ancient 
race which inhabited in past ages the fertile valleys of Tennessee and 
Kentucky, called by early explorers the Chaouanins. 

Chapter II. — Ancient cemeteries. The so-called "mummies" discov- 
ered in caves. Mode of burial practiced. Stone graves. Inquiry into 
burial customs of the Indians. 

Chapter III. — Mounds, fortifications, and earth-works. 
Chapter IV. — Sites of aboriginal towns or encampments surrounded 
by earth-works. Description of contents of mounds. Indian traditions. 
Eelations of early explorers and missionaries to the aborigines. 

Chapter V. — Works of art, religious relics, sculptures, paintings, im- 
plements, weapons, vases, culinary vessels, idols, shell ornaments. 

Chapter YL — Crania of the mound-builders — comparisons with those 
from Mexico, Europe, &c. Discussion of the causes which led to the 
rapid depopulation of the American continent after its discovery by 
Columbus. General conclusions. 



14 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

Another paper intended for the Contributions is on the Haida Indians 
of Queen Charlotte's Islands, by James Q. Swan. These islands con- 
sist of a group in the Pacific Ocean, lying off the northwest coast of 
America, seventy-five miles northwest from Vancouver's Island, and at 
a distance from the main-land varying from sixty to a hundred miles. 
They are inhabited by a tribe of Indians who in manners and customs 
are somewhat different from the neighboring tribes on the main-land 
and from those of Vancouver's Island. In general appearance they 
resemble the natives of the northwest coast of Asia. Their distinctive 
features are apparent to the most casual observer. They are as a gen- 
eral rule of large stature, with better ijroportions and lighter complexion 
than the Selish tribe of Flatheads, inhabiting Washington Territory 
and British Columbia. This difference is particularly marked among 
the females. Those of the Haida tribe are tall and athletic, while the 
Selish women are shorter, with a greater tendency to corpulency. These 
people are especially distinguished for their carvings in stone and wood, 
and also for their tattooing. 

The memoir is illustrated with drawings of specimens of these carvings, 
some of which are colored, and also with samples of tattooing, the lat- 
ter copied by photography from the bodies of the Indians themselves. 
Some of the carvings re}3resent posts or pillars placed in front of the 
houses of the chiefs, and are sometimes from 40 to 50 feet high. They 
are not intended as objects of worship, but as representations of the 
'' toten " or heraldic insignia of the family occupying the house before 
which they are erected. As the house generally contains several fami- 
lies, the carving maybe said to indicate the family names of all the occu- 
pants. It is important to state that these carvings have a general like- 
ness to those found in Central America. 

The paper will be an interesting addition to ethnology, as affbrding 
data for the comparison of the imitative art among the present and ex- 
tinct races along the Pacific coast of America. It is by the author of 
the work on the Makah Indians, of Cape Flattery, i^ublished not long- 
since by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Besides the eighteenth volume of Contributions to Knowledge, the 
tenth volume of Miscellaneous Collections has been published. It con- 
sists of 913 octavo pages, and contains the following articles : 

I. The Mollusks of Western North America ; by Philip P. Carpenter, 
B. A., Ph. D., embracing the second report made to the British Associa- 
tion on this subject, with other papers ; reprinted by permission, with a 
general index ; pp. 446. 

II. Arrangement of the ffwnilies of Mollusks 5 prepared for the Smith- 
sonian Institution by Theodore Gill, M. D., Ph. D., pp. 65. 

III. Instructions for observations of thunder-storms, by Prof. Joseph. 
Henry, p. 1. 

IV. Circular relative to heights ; by Prof. Joseph Henry, pp. 2. 



EEPOET OF THE SECEETAEY. 15 

Y. Directions for constructing lightning-rods ; by Prof. Joseph 
Benry, pp. 3. 

VI. Queries relative to tornadoes ; by Prof. Joseph Henry, pp. 4. 

YII. Questions relative to the food-tishes of the United States ; by 
Prof. S. F. Baird, pp. 7. 

VIII. Memoranda of inquiry relative to the food-fishes of the United 
States ; by Prof. S. F. Baird, pp. 5. 

IX. List of the institutions, libraries, coUeges, and other establish- 
ments in the United States in correspondence with the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, pp. 255. 

X. List of Foreign Correspondents of the Smithsonian Institution, 
corrected to January, 1872, (fourth edition,) pp. 96. 

XL Check-List of Publications of the Smithsonian Institution, pp. 22. 

The first article in this volume having not previously been described, the 
followingaccountof it will here be properly in place. It is one of the series 
published by the Institution for facilitating the study of certain branches 
of the natural history of North America. It may be recollected that 
Mr. Philip P. Carpenter, a distinguished conchologist of England, when 
visiting the United States in 1859-'60, was engaged by the Institution 
to arrange and name the shells collected by the United States exploring 
expedition and those collected by other parties on the Pacific coast of 
North America. Mr. Carpenter had previously i)reseuted to the British 
Association a report on the Mollusks of the west coast of North America. 
On his return to England he made, to the same society, a supplementary 
report on this subject, embracing materials principally derived from the 
Smithsonian Institution. In order to facilitate the study of this class 
of animals by the American student, the reports in question and other 
materials have been reprinted from the stereotype plates of the British 
Association, kindly furnished the Institution for this purpose. 

The propriety of this publication by the Smithson fund will be evi- 
dent when it is Itated that the materials on which it is founded are 
chiefly in the collection of the National Museum, under the charge of the 
Institution, and the report of the British Association forms a series of 
. volumes which cannot be purchased separately, and are therefore inac- 
cessible to the working naturalists of this country, to whom the work is 
more especially important. 

" The principal object in preparing the works," says Mr. Carpenter, 
^'is to collect and compare the writings of previous naturalists, so 
that it might be possible for students to commence where I leave off 
without being obliged to waste so large an amount of time as I have been 
compelled to do in analyzing the works of their predecessors." To render 
this work more useful an index has been prepared at the expense of the 
Institution, which, besides its importance to the general student of con- 
chology, will be of special advantage to those who desire to study the 
specimens in the national museum. This work will be a valuable addi' 



16 EEPOET OP THE SECRETARY. 

tion to the literature of zoology, and will fill a void in the descriptive 
history of the mollusca of this country. One of its chief merits is that 
in it are collected together from many sources notices of the labors of 
all previous investigators, and in many cases extracts of all that is im- 
portant from their works. How much the publication of such mono- 
graphs has tended to the advancement and acceleration of our knowledge 
of any grouj), the past history of zoology amply shows. 

Another article in this volume not previously described is that drawn 
up by Professor Baird relative to inquiries as to the food-fishes of the 
United States. It has been used by him in his capacity of United States 
fish commissioner, but will be useful for reference to all who may be in- 
terested in this subject. The questions relate to the names, distribution, 
abundance, size, migration, relationship, food, reproduction, culture, 
protection, disease, capture, and value of fishes. 

The circular on lightning-rods was prepared to save time in answering 
the frequent inquiries as to the best means of protection from ligiituing. 
On this subject it is proper to remark that the country is overrun with 
patented inventions for alleged improvements in lightning conductors. 
Most of these are founded on misconceptions of established principles of 
electricity, and although they may in most cases, if properly connected 
with the earth, serve to conduct a discharge which would otherwise be 
attended by serious consequences, harmlessly to the ground, yet they do 
not possess the character as to improvements which is claimed for them 
by their vendors. 

The instructions for observations on thunder-storms originated in the 
desire to obtain special information as to the origin, direction of move- 
ment, and other facts relative to these interesting meteors, which are 
intimately connected with tornadoes. The latter phenomenon occurs, 
perhaps, more frequently in the United States than in j^ny other country, 
and from the devastations which attend its progress over the surface of 
the earth, it becomes an object worthy of attention of the public gener- 
ally as well as the professed meteorologist. 

Another publication forming a portiori of the Miscellaneous Collections 
is the third and completing part of a series of monograj)hs of the Diptera, 
or two-winged insects, of North America, by Baron Osten Sacken, late 
of the Eussiaii legation, and Dr. H. Loew, of Prussia. The first part was 
published in 1862, and included the families of TrypetidWj Sciomyzidw, 
IJpliydrinidWj and Ceoidomyidw. The second part appeared in 1866, and 
consists principally of a monograph of fheBolicliopodidcE. The fourth part 
was issued in 1869, and embraces a monograph of part of the Tipulidw. 
The third part, or that in question, includes the families of the Ortalidcs 
and Trypetina}. In variety of forms, says the author, the family of Orta- 
lidce is scarcely surpassed by an 5^ other Diptera; at the same time it is 
hardly equaled by any in the structural differences occurring among the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 17 

individuals. Hence, it may be considered as one of the most interesting 
families of the order. Nevertheless, but little has been done as yet for 
the exact definition of its limits nor for its subdivision into smaller 
groups. It was, therefore, impossible to attempt a satisfactory descrip- 
tion of the North American species of the OrtaUdw without first settling 
the question of the true limits of the family, of the relationship of it to 
other families, and of the character upon which it is established. This 
preliminary work the author thinks he has successfully accomplished, 
and ijresents his reasons for this in an introductory chapter, in which is 
reviewed what has previously been done on this poiut. 

The Trypetidce given in this part of the general work may be con- 
sidered as a supi)lement to that published on the same family in the first 
part of the series. This supplement has been rendered necessary by the 
number of species of the family which have been found since the date 
above mentioned. At that period only twenty-three North American 
species vfere known. Since then the number has reached sixty -one, be- 
sides a number of species of previous authors of which information has- 
since been procured. Theauthor has, therefore, adopted the form of a 
supplement to his previous paper. 

The following remarks in regard to the series, are by Baron Osten. 
Sacken : 

"As this will probably be the last volume of the present series of the^ 
publication of which I have the care, a few words with regartl to the use 
and aim of these volumes may not be out of place here. The dijjtera, 
from the minuteness of their size and the extreme delicacy of the charac- 
ters upon which their classification is based, are without any doubt the 
most difficult to study of all the orders of insects. To the general diiSculty 
of the subject, the North American dij)tera add another one in their analo 
gies with the European fauna on the one side and the South Americaa 
on the other. At the same time the dipterological literature in the Eng- 
lish language is not a rich one. The only eminent English dipterist, Mr. 
Haliday, published so little that his superiority was known to his cor- 
respondents much more than to the public in general. Other English 
publications which exist are utterly insufficient for any scientific pur- 
pose, and more apt to mislead than to teach. Now the volumes of the 
Monographs, although they embrace but an inconsiderable fraction of 
the whole dipterous fauna of this continent, show at least how the sub- 
ject has to be treated, how descriptions are to be drawn, what charac- 
ters have to be noted, what analogies with the European and South: 
American fauna occur, and with what care they have to be studied in 
order to distinguish analogy from identity. Moreover, three of those 
four volumes are the work of the first dipterologist now living, who, 
after Meigen, may be considered as the founder of scientific dipterology. 
For all these reasons, I hope that the labor and expense bestowed upon 
these publications will, after a time, bring its fruit, although it may not 

be immediately." 

2 s 



18 EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 

Another article intended for the Miscellaneous Collections is a synop- 
sis of American vespidse, or wasps, by Professor De Saussure, of Geneva, 
translated from the original manuscript by Mr. Etlward Norton, of 
Farmington, Conn. This work was commenced a number of years 
ago, but owing to the absence of Mr. Norton from the country and 
other causes of delay, it was suspended and has only been resumec' 
during the last year. It will now be completed as rapidly as the cor 
rected proof-sheets can be received from Switzerland. The character 
of the work is given in the following extract from the introduction, 
which also coutains suggestions as to the philosophy of points of natu- 
ral history well worth the attention of the general students of this 
branch of science : 

" I propose in this volume not to give a general history of the wasps 
of America, but only to lay the foundations of the fauna of the 
vespidw, principally of North America. I leave aside whatever con- 
cerns the habits of these insects, on which Ave have but insuflicient in- 
formation, and shall confine myself to speaking of them with respect 
to the genera or species which shall offer me some salient peculiarities. 
This work is not to be taken for a mere catalogue of species, of no fur- 
ther use than to satisfy curiosity. I think that modern zoology ought 
to tend toward another aim. The existence of species, the composition 
of fauna, their relations with the parts of the globe which they inhabit, 
are not merely accidental facts. In my opinion we must therein detect 
the last material and tangible manifestation of physiological forces, the 
study of which belongs to the domain of the highest natural philosophy. 
By him who adopts this view of the subject a far-searching study of 
species ought to be considered as one of the bases from which the 
search after the origin of species may start. 

"It woukl seem that in zoology we ought to take for a starting 
point the actual existing forms in which life manifests itself, to ascend 
thence up to the primitive stock, just as in geology we start from 
the actual existing structure of rocks, and from the external configura- 
tion of the soil follow up the concatenation of the ancient ev^ents which 
have brought about as a last result the present state of the earth's crust. 

" The study of species ought especially to serve as a means of reveal- 
ing to us their variations and the affinities between them. These affini- 
ties point to a common relationship which is to be explained only by a 
direct filiation of the types. The study of forms, combined with that of 
their geographical distribution, comes afterward to throw light on the 
cause of the filiation which the graduated resemblances of the species 
seem to reveal to us. It shows that this filiation obeys laws which have 
also their regularity in so far as they are intimately connected with the 
physical laws which hold sway in every region of our globe. 

" Toward these grand philosophical questions zoology ought in our 
time to tend, and species ought to be studied with a view to the solu- 
tion of such questions. As in geology the study of the actual existing 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 19 

state of the earth's crust and the appreciation of the phenomena that 
there take place, of the intimate transformation of rocks, of the 
mechanical destruction of the layers, of their reconstruction under 
new forms, allows us to draw an inference by analogy as to the more 
ancient transformations and the agents which have produced them] so 
the study of species and of their actual existing transformations seems 
likely to enable us to follow up the chain of these transformations to a 
point more or less close to their origin. The definition of the first di- 
vergences observable in the permanent varieties, which may be consid- 
ered as nascent species, in order to ascend afterward to the relation- 
ship of species separated by the divergences more and more profound, 
such is, we deem, the point of view under which we should never neglect 
to study species. 

"Zoology only when considered from this point of view is philo- 
sophical. It has not its aim in itself; it serves only as a means to sift 
questions of a higher order. Now, entomology is precisely the one of 
the branches of zoology in which the study of the filiation of species 
may become the most fecund in results, either on account of the multi- 
tude of ramifications of general types and of the multiplicity of forms 
under which each type appears, or on account of the smallness of the 
breaks which separate genera and species, or also on account of the 
immense variety of forms and of the facility with which species seem to 
become modified in ijroportion as they spread over the surface of the 
globe in following diverging ways. Thanks to all these causes, it is not 
difficult to find examples of every kind of filiation; not difficult, either, 
to follow over latitudes certain modifications still recent which allow us 
to draw an inference by analogy as to other modifications more profound 
because they are more ancient, and as to others of a degree still more 
advanced. 

" Unfortunately in our times the greater number of entomologists have 
deviated too far from this philosophical path. They have turned ento- 
mology into a sort of amusement, which has for its object the discovery 
of new species; which, loses itself in minutiae, and at the bottom of 
which there exists no thought. Thanks to this tendency, collecting has 
ceased to be the means, and has become the object. In becoming an 
amusement entomology has gradually lost caste ; it has fallen into the 
hands of dawdlers, and thus lost a part of its scientific character. This 
transformation has led men vvho aim at reaching an elevated rank in 
science to be too much inclined to withdraw from the field of entomology. 

"As may be anticipated from what precedes, my intimate purpose in 
l^roducing this work is to study the American fauna with a view to its 
origin. But this is a work of time which cannot be completed off-hand. 
The first thing to be done is to study carefully the species, to arrange 
them according to a good classification, and to describe, Avhile i^roeeed- 
ing, their affinities. That is the fundamental preparatory labor. I 
have not the pretension to overstep those limits in this monograph. 



20 EEPORT or THE SECRETAEY. 

The kDowledge of the American fauna is not yet advanced enough to 
allow us to draw with certainty an inference as to the affinities of the 
species between them so as to prejudge their filiation. However, I 
have made more than one remark on this topic, and I will hazard a few 
words on the matter when speaking of genera and species. But I re- 
serve for another work the statement of comparisons which seem to me 
to cast some light on the dispersion of the vespidse on the surface of tlie 
globe and on the modifications which have been worked off under 
diverse latitudes; in other terms, on the origin of actual existing faunae. 

"The complex affinities of species, and still more the filiations which 
arise from these affinities, become obvious to the eye only when one 
has acquired a perfect knowledge of the species and genera of a fauna. 
To seize them in all their extent, it is necessary to know, as it were, all 
the species of the group by heart in order to be able to take it in at a 
glance, or to examine at pleasure each part in the picture that one has 
formed in one's memory. Only when oue has attained this point in the 
study of the group is it possible from the inspection of a species to feel 
its affinities, for they do not always appear in the more easily appreci- 
able characteristics. They often discover themselves in certain cbarac- 
teristics of appearance which are, at times, of great importance, but 
w^hich. are not seized at a glance, or in certain relationships of form, 
W'hich a loug practice teaches one to distinguish easily, though they can 
scarcelj'^ be defined, 

"The first basis of philosophical zoology is the profound knowledge 
of the detail of faunas. To give an idea as complete as possible of the 
faunae of the vespid^ of America is the purpose of this volume. 

" The plan which I have decided on, in drawing up this work, is the 
following : 

" I give as far as possible the complete description of the species 
which belong to the fauna of jSTorth America, considering as such all 
those which people the new continent to the north of the Isthmus of 
Panama, including likewise the Antilles. This work is, therefore, more 
especiallj^ a monograph of the vespidse of the United States, of Mexico, 
and of the Antilles. Besides, I have added, as a complement, the cata- 
logue of all the species known till now in the rest of America, and I 
have found it a great advantage for the classification, the method becom- 
ing thus more complete. Moreover, this plan allows me to enunciate 
views on the geography of insects, on the dispersion of the species, and 
on the modifications which take place under the influence of diverse 
latitudes. 

" I have confined myself, for the species of South America, to making 
a catalogue of them, not having materials sufficient for a monograph. 
For those, however, of which I had the types under my eyes, I have 
given Latin diagnoses, in order to present them in a comparative 
n||V|iiner with respect to the surrounding species and also to complete 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 21 

my previous studies of these insects, as well as to resume them and 
render their use more easy. 

" I think myself bound to add here that as to my method of descrip- 
tion, I describe as much as possible the species in a relative manner. 
Descriptions made in an absolute sense have always appeared to me less 
useful, because they insist on many noseless characteristics and omit 
often the most important. The reader will not, therefore, l>e surprised 
at my not repeating, with respect to genera, the characteristics proper 
to every species or to the greatest number. In short, there are still 
other characteristics which I pass over, considering them rather useless, 
either on account of their constancy (such as the presence of silky hairs 
on the tibiae) or on account of their variableness, such as the color of 
the lower surface of the abdomen. 

" Descriptions are often made tedious by means of these superfluous 
indications and thus the essential characteristics are drowned in useless 
developments. In this way, precision is impaired instead of being 
increased. Doubtless, here again nothing is absolute. Certain isolated 
species may be sufficiently characterized by some salient traits, while 
others, surrounded by very closely connected species, require minute 
descriptions. 

"Absolute and very detailed descriptions ought, in my opinion, to be 
employed when one describes a species isolatedly without knowing the 
most closely connected types, (for instance in the publications of geo- 
graphical expeditions.) It is the monographers duty to eliminate from 
these descriptions both the common-place and the useless. But in a 
monograph, the species are to be examined in a comparative manner 
and relatively to the adjacent types. 

" The first condition of good comparative diagnoses resides in a wise 
co-ordination of the species which by way of exclusion may lead to 
choosing only between a small number of sj^ecies. Though I do not 
like to find fault, I cannot, however, on this score, help complaining of 
the works in which the species, though described in an absolute manner, 
(that is by themselves and not comparatively with others,) are jumbled 
up together, without order, without division of genera, often in defiance 
ot the most salient characteristics. 

'^ Such works, got up in a hurry, the plans of which are laid down with 
a view to the convenience of the authors and not for that of the readers, 
cause the latter to lose much valuable time with no great result. They 
do not come uj) to the precision now required by the progress of science, 
and they are, therefore, behind their time. The reader cannot occupy 
bis mind with incomplete works, nor can he waste his time in striving 
to. find out species which are not to be found out 5 for there is no doing ' 
impossibilities. - ' 

" In most of my descriptions I have been especially attentive to Wri^ 
forms and characteristics of the form and marking, attributing to the 
color only a secondary importance, on account of its frequent variable- 



22 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

ness. However, there is nothing absolutely fixed in naturej the forms 
and the marking, likewise, vary within certain limits. Therefore, the 
descriptions can only be averages deduced from a certain number of 
individuals. 

" Theoretically, the description ought to represent, as it were, the alge- 
braical formula of the species or its ideal type. It is not required that 
the description sliould tally with the individual, but, on the contrary, 
that it should represent the average of tlie characteristics of the en- 
semble of individuals. But in practice the description can never be so 
perfect, since it is drawn from a certain number of individuals and not 
from the ensembleof the individuals that represent the species. It is for 
the reader to know how to seize the connection that exists between the 
description and the even heterogeneous individuals which lie may have 
beneath his eye. In a word, my method of description aims above all 
at generalizing, and requires that the reader should generalize likewise. 
It cannot suit much the amateur inclined to lose himself in a multi- 
plicity of details, for whom the collection takes the place of nature, and 
for whom the determination of an individual is the final purpose of the 
study of a species. 

"From the principles just laid down it follows that, in the extreme 
subdivisions of genera, I have usually X)referred the characteristics 
taken from the form to those taken from the color. Undoubtedly it is 
less convenientfor the reader, for the natural method is always less easy 
to follow than the empirical system ; nevertheless I think that it is pref- 
erable to proceed in that wise, for whatever may be done to seek the 
natural method a large portion of empiricism is sure to remain, as I shall 
endeavor to show, in the study concerning the filiation of the species. 
We cannot, therefore, eliminate too carelully from classification, empiri- 
cal elements. 

" It is necessary to observe on this head that no absolute rule can be 
laid down as to the insubordination of characteristics. To be sure, 
forms varying less than colors, they offer, in general, characteristics 
more important than the latter ; but there is, however, now and then a 
case in which the colors are more fixed than certain forms, and assume 
a real importance; for instance, as being the stamp j)eculiar to a certain 
geographical zone. Thus, the division Hypodynerus, (genus Odynerus,) 
which depends greatly on the colors and facies, and which comprises the 
most divergent forms. In this case the livery becomes the casket of a 
fauna, and is very important. In the succession of species it is gener- 
ally observed that the colors vary much even when the forms remain, 
fixed (or vary less ;) but there are other cases in which it is color that 
remains stationary while the forms vary." 

In the Smithsonian report for 1858, a paper was published on the 
method of collecting and preserving insects, prepared by Baron Osten 
Sacken, of the Bussian legation, wiih contributions by other eminent 
entomologists, which has rendered valuable service in the way of 



EEPOET OF THE SECEETARY. 23 

awakening an interest in entomology, and in facilitating the collecting 
of specimens. It was, however, not stereotyped; and as the methods 
of gathering and preserving insects have been much improved since the 
date of its preparation, it has been thought advisable to request Dr. A. 
S. Packard, jr., a leading authority on entomology, to furnish a new 
treatise on the same subject. In compliance with this request he has 
prepared a work corresponding with the present state of our knowledge. 
This work was published during the past year, and forms an octavo 
pamphlet of-58 pages, with 55 illustrations. 

Two other articles, which will form parts of the eleventh volume of 
the Miscellaneous Collections, and will constitute a part of the series 
for facilitating the stud}^ of certain branches of natural history, are 
a continuation of works previously prepared by Dr. John Le Conte, 
of Philadelphia, on the North American Coleoptera, and published by 
the Institution. One of these consists of a descrif)tion of new species 
of coleoptera, described since the publication of the first work on the 
same subject, and the other a supplement of the "Classification of the 
coleoptera of North America." The object of these works, as far as they 
relate to the genera of coleoptera, is to enable those who have a desire 
beyond that of merely collecting specimens to acquire sulficient infor- 
mation to enable them to consult with profit the various works in which 
are contained the descriptions of the species. The parts now printed 
comprise one hundred and forty pages, and will be followed by other 
supplements, descriptive of such other species as may be obtained from 
Smithsonian collaborators and other sources. 

In the report for 1856, is given a plan by the late Mr. Charles Babbage, 
of London, of a series of tables to be entitled the " Constants of Nature 
and Art." These tables were to contain all the facts which can be ex- 
pressed by numbers, in the various sciences and arts, such as the atomic 
weight of bodies, specific gravity, elasticity, specific heat, conducting 
power, melting point, weight of different gases, liquids, and solids, 
strength of diiferent materials, velocity of sound, of cannon-balls, of elec- 
tricity, of light, of flight of birds and speed of animals, list of refractive 
indices, dispersive indices, polarizing angles, &c. 

The value of such a work, as an aid to original investigation, as well 
as in the application of science to the useful arts, can scarcely be esti- 
mated. To carry out the idea fully, however, would require much labor 
and perhaps the united effort of different institutions and individuals, 
devoted to special lines of research. Any part of the entire plan, may, 
however, be completed in itself, and will have a proportionate value to 
that of the whole. The Institution commenced about fifteen years ago 
to collect materials on several of the points of this general plan, under 
the direction of Professors John and Joseph Le Conte, then of the Uni- 



24 EEPORT OF THE SECEETAEY. 

versity of South Carolina, now of the University of California. The 
occnrrence of the war, however, interrupted the work, which has not 
since been resumed until the i)resent year, when an offer was made by 
Professor F. W. Clarke, of Boston, of a series of tables on specific gravi- 
ties, boiling-points, and melting-points of bodies, compiled from the 
best authorities. This oiTer was accepted, and the work has been printed. 
It embraces all the reliable material in the English, French, German, and 
Italian languages on the foregoing subjects, with the exception of the 
specific gravity of solutions, for which reference is made to Storer's 
Dictionary of Solubilities, a work which wnll form part of the same gen- 
eral plan and ought to have been published by the Institution, but un- 
fortunately at the time it was offered for this purpose our funds were not 
in a condition to defray the expense of printing. It has since been pub- 
lished as a private enterprise, and is highly prized by the working 
chemist. 

Professor Clarke is still engaged on the same general subject, and 
proposes to extend his compilation of tables to include those of specific 
heat, conductivity of heat, thermal expansibility, and thermo-chemical 
equations for solids and liquids. This, beginning we trust will induce 
other members of the corps of the Smithsonian collaborators to under- 
take other parts of the general plan of the constants of nature and art, 
to be published, from time to time, as they may be prepared. The work 
being stereotyped, the several parts can be finally combined and arranged 
as portions of a whole, whatever may be the order of their publication. 

Among the "miscellaneous" publications during the year was the first 
lecture of the course founded by Dr. J. M. Toner, of Washington, by 
Dr. J. J. Woodward, assistant surgeon. United States Army, " On the 
structure of cancerous tumors, and the mode in which adjacent parts 
are invaded." In the report for 1872 an account was given of this fund 
established by Dr. Toner, the interest to be applied for at least two lec- 
tures or essays annually, relative to some branch of medical science, 
and containing some new truth fully established by exi)eriment or obser- 
vation. As these lectures are intended to increase and diffuse knowledge, 
they have been accepted for publication in the "Smithsonian Miscella- 
neous Collections." 

It was stated in the last report that Congress had adjourned without 
ordering extra copies of the report for 1871. At the beginning of the 
next session, however, a resolution was adopted directing the printing, 
as usual, of 12,500 copies. An equal number of the report for 1872 
was also ordered at the same session ; 2,500 for the use of the Senate, 
5,000 for the House of Representatives, and 5,000 for the Institution. 
This volume contains, besides the report of the secretary on the opera- 
tions of the Institution for the year 1872, the report of the executive 
committee and journal of proceedings of the Board of Regents, the usual 



EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 25 

appendix of scientific papers, communications, translations, &c., of 
special interest to the meteorological observers, teachers, and scientific 
correspondents of the Institution. 

Among these articles is a lecture by Prof. A. P. Peabody, on the 
scientific education of mechanics and artisans ; aboriginal trade and 
JS^orth American stone implements, by Chas. Ran ; optical mineralogy, 
byBrezina; the troglodytes of the Vezere, by Paul de Broca; organic 
bases, by Bauer ; boundary of geology and history, by Suess ; phe- 
nomena observed in telegraphic lines, by Donati ; nitrogen and its 
compounds, by Klefczinski; biographical notice of Lartet, by Fischer ; 
eulogy on ' Ampere, by Arago ; lecture on the meteorology of Eussia, 
by Dr. Woeikof, and a large number of original communications rela- 
tive to antiquities in various parts of the United States, &c. In this 
volume may also be found a full account of the Bache bequestj the 
Tyndall trust-fund for the advance of science, the Corcoran art-gallery, 
the Toner foundation, and the Hamilton bequest. 

EXCHANGrES. 

The system of international exchanges, which has now been in opera- 
tion for upward of twenty years, has been prosecuted during the last 
year with increased efficiency. It now includes 2,145 foreign institu- 
tions to which packages of books or specimens are sent and from which 
others are received. In the case of the system of exchanges, as in all 
the other operations of the Smithsonian establishment, the tendency is to 
an enlargement beyond the means at our command. Although, through 
the liberality of the several steamship companies, the packages are 
transmitted across the Atlantic free of cost, yet the expense of sending 
them to ]^Tew York and from the sea-board to the centers of distribution 
jn Europe, together with the payment of the several agents, has become 
so great that a much further extension of the system cannot be made 
without aid from other sources. 

The system is, however, of so much importance, not only in rendering 
known what is done in the United States in the way of advancing liter- 
ature and science to the world abroad, but also in diffusing a knowledge 
extensively through this country of the ]Drogress of science in the various 
parts of the Old World, that any check in its natural increase would 
be greatly to be deplored. It has, therefore, been suggested that an 
appeal be made to the various parties most interested in the contin- 
uance and enlargement of this system for a small annual contribution 
toward its future support and still more efficient management. Indeed, 
the benefit which the Institution is conferring, through this system, upon 
the parties most interested, appears in many cases to have ceased to be 
properly appreciated. They receive the advantages which flow from it 
as a matter of course, as they do those of the free air, and not as a gratuity 



26 



REPORT OF THE SECEETAEY. 



from the Smithson fand, the importance of which cau only be properly 
appreciated by a deprivation of it for a short time. We infer this from 
the fact of the character of the complaints we frequently receive on ac- 
count of accidental delay in packages reaching their destination, al- 
though in some instances the delay may have been occasioned by a want 
of proper directions on the part of the senders of the packages. 

The centers of reception and distribution of European exchanges still 
continue the same as given in previous reports, viz : London, Paris, 
Leipsic, Amsterdam, St. Petersburg, Milan, with the addition of one at 
Brussels. The agency at London has for many years been in charge of 
Mr. William Wesley, whose fidelity and unremitted attention to the trust 
entitle him to an appreciative acknowledgment of the Board of E,egents, 
and the same may be said of Dr. Felix Fliigel, of Leipsic, and Mr. G. 
Bossange, of Paris. The center at St. Petersburg is under the charge 
of L. Watkins & Co., booksellers, and that at Amsterdam under Mr. 
Fred. Miiller, who have efficiently contributed to the success of the 
enterprise in these countries. The center in Italy is under the charge 
of U. Hoepli, as agent for the Eoyal Institute of Milan. 

The expense of transportation is very much increased by sending single 
packages separately, and therefore, whenever possible, without undue 
dela}^, economy is consulted hy transmitting the exchanges at regular 
periods in larger numbers. Arrangements have been made so that 
invoices of packages are forwarded from this country at least once a 
month, except in the months of August, September, and October. 

The following table exhibits the number of establishments in each 
country with which the Smithsonian is at present in correspondence : 



Sweden . , 25 

Norway 23 

Denmark 29 

Russia 157 

Holland 65 

Germany .... 587 

Switzerland , 68 

Belgium 127 

France . 257 

Italy 167 

Portugal , 21 

Spain 12 

Great Britain and Ireland . . 412 

Greece . . = , . . 7 



Turkey 11 

Africa 18 

Asia 36 

Australia ... 26 

New Zealand 11 

Polynesia 1 

South America 33 

West Indies 11 

Mexico 8 

Central America 1 

British America 27 

General 5 

Total 2,145 



As in previous years, the Institution has received important aid from 
various steamer and railroad lines in the way of free freights, without 
which the expense of carrying on the system would be far beyond the 



EEPOET OF THE SECKETAEY. 



27 



means at command. Acknowledgment is again due for the liberality 
of the following companies : 



Hamburg American Packet Com- 
pany, ^ 
French Transatlantic Company, 
ISTorth Baltic Lloyds Steamship 

Company, 
In man Steamship Company, 
Cunard. Steamship Company, 
Anchor Steamship Company. 



Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 
Panama Eailroad Company, 
Pacific Steam Navigation Comi)'ny, 
Few York and Mexico Steamship 

Company, 
Kew York and Brazil Steamship 

Company, 
North German Lloyds Steamship 

Company, 

We present the foregoing list with much pleasure, not only as an 
acknowledgment of the liberality of the companies mentioned, but also 
as a very gratifying illustration of the high appreciation of the opera- 
tions of the Institution. 

LIBRABY. 

The union of the library of the Institution with that of Congress still 
continues to be productive of important results. The Smithson fund 
is relieved by this arrangement from the maintenance of a separate 
library, while at the same time the Institution has not only the free use 
of its own books, but also those of the library of Congress. On the 
other hand, the collection of books owned by Congress would not be 
worthy the name of a national library were it not for the Smithsonian 
deposit. The books which it receives from this source are eminently 
those which exhibit the progress of the world in civilization, and are 
emphatically those essential to the contemporaneous advance of our 
country in the higher science of the day. The collection of books 
now in the library of Congress is over a quarter of a million, and, with 
the ijresent rate of increase, in less than twenty years will be double 
that number. 

To accommodate this immense collection, Congress has in contempla- 
tion the construction of a new building, and has authorized a commis- 
sion to select plans and to supervise the location and erection of an 
edifice. 

Statement of the hoolcs, maps, and charts received hy exchange in 1873. 

Volumes : 

Quarto, or larger 256 

Octavo, or less , . , . . 633 

889 

Parts of volumes : 

Quarto, or larger = 1, 467 

Octavo, or less » 1, 40X 

2, 874 



28 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

Pamphlets : 

Quarto, or larger. , . 326 

Octavo, or less , , 1^ 154 

1,480 

Maps and charts 454 

Total receipts 5, 697 

Some of the most important donations received in 1873 are as follows : 

From the Emperor of Germany : The fresco paintings of W. von 
Kaulbach in the interior stair-case of the Eoyal Museum at Ber- 
lin; 12 parts; imp. folio ; oblong;. 1853-1871. Schasler, (Dr. M.,) Die 
Waudgemalde Wilhelm v. Kaulbach im neuen museum zu Berlin ; 1 
vol., 4to. Schneider, Der Konigliche Kronen-Orden ; 1871, 4to. 
Schneider, Das Buch vom Schwarzen Adler-Orden ; 1870, 4to. Schnei- 
der, Das Buch vom Eiserraen Kreuze ; 1872, 4to. Schneider, Das Ver- 
dienst Kreuz ; 1872, 4to. Schneider, Die Kriegsdenkmlinze fiir den 
Eeldzug ; 1870, 187 1 , 1872, 4to. Haack, Skizzen aus dem Eeldzuge ge- 
gen Frankreich ; 1870, 1871, 4to. Schneider, Der Kothe Mler-Orden ; 
1868, 4to, Hans BurghmaiersTurnier-Buch, Diirer- Album, Herausge- 
geben von W. v. Kaulbach and A. Kreling ; folio. 

From the Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon: 45 vols, and 12 parts; 
continuation of memoirs and other publications of the academy. 

From the Catholic University of Louvain : "Annales," 10 volumes, 
4to. ; "Annuaire," 3 volumes and 17 theses. 

From the government of Bengal: Descriptive ethnology of Bengal, 
illustrated by lithograph-portraits copied from photographs. Calcutta, 
1872, 4to. 

From the War Department, Vienna : 384 charts. 

From Prof. Edward Morren, Liege: Bulletin de la Federation des So- 
cietes d'Horticulture, 1860-1871, 13 vols. ; Journal d'Agriculture pra- 
tique, vols. I-X; Bulletin de Congres International de Botanique et 
d'Horticulture, 1865 ; La Belgique Horticole, 1871, 1872, &c. 

Frooi His Highness, Ismael I, Khedive of Egypt: Album du Musee 
du Boulaq, comprenant quarante planches photographiees par MM. De- 
lie et Bechard avec un texte explicatif redige par Auguste Mariette 
Bey. Le Caire, 1871 ; folio. 

From the jSTational University, Athens, Greece : Catalogue of Ancient 
Coins ; vol. 1, 4to. (Greek.) 

From the University of Halle: 77 pamphlets; inaugural disserta- 
tions. 

From the University of Greifswald : 70 inaugural dissertations. 

From the University of Erlangen : 27 inaugural dissertations. 

From Prof. K. Koch, Berlin : 50 inaugural dissertations. 

From the Italian government, Rome : 41 volumes, 62 pamphlets, gov- 
ernment publications. 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 29 

From the government of Belgium : 16 volumes and 3 pamphlets, gov- 
ernment publications. 

From the Societe de Geographie, Paris : Voyage d'Exploration in In- 
do-Chine, 1866, 1867, 1868; vols. 1, 2; atlas 1, 2, 1873; folio, and "Bul- 
letin " for 1873. 

From Mr. William Blackmore, London : Portfolio of photographs of 
some of the principal objects in the British Museum. 

From Mr. Charles Harrison, London : Chaldean account of the deluge, 
from terra-cotta tablets found at Nineveh and now in the British Mu- 
seum. 

Among the donations of special interest during the past year is the pho- 
tographic album of the museum at Boulaq, Egypt, containing forty folio 
plates with an explanatory text by Auguste Mariette Bey, printed at 
Cairo in 1871, and presented to the Institution by the Khedive of Egypt, 
through the application of Gen. Stone. This museum is situated on 
the borders of the Mle, near Cairo, and consists of a collection of all the 
antiquities that have been discovered of late years in Egypt. 

After the immense number of antiquities which have been taken from 
that country to enrich all the principal museums of the civilized world, 
it is astonishing to observe how much remains, and how much by the 
enlightened munificence of the present ruler of Egypt has been preserved. 

Ten of the plates of this album exhibit the statues of the Egyptian 
gods, nearly four hundred in number. The next division, consisting of 
seven plates, illustrates the funeral monuments. The next division is 
that of tbe civil monuments ; these relate to their every-day life, their 
manners, customs, and arts. The next illustrates the historical remains. 
The last division is that of the Greek and Eoman monuments. 

Another work of great beauty and interest is that published by Mrs. 
Caroline E. G. Peale, the widow of Franklin Peale, of Philadelphia, as a 
memorial of her lamented husband. It consists of a series of beautiful 
photograph illustrations of specimens of the stone age of the human race, 
collected and arranged by Mr. Peale himself, with a catalogue and intro- 
duction, and a reprint of the various communications made by him to 
the American Philosophical Society. 

This work is a valuable contribution to the ethnology of the United 
States. The photographs are among the best specimens of the art 
which have been produced in this country, and exhibit the specimens 
with such minuteness and fidelity as to serve to the student in archaeol- 
ogy almost as a complete substitute for the specimens themselves. 
This work is truly a refined and intellectual tribute by an affectionate 
wife to the memory of her deceased husband — a tribute far more appro- 
priate, and far more interesting to the public, than an unattesting mon- 
ument of marble or of bronze. As human culture advances, the material 
mementos which only address the eye are replaced by those which are 
almost purely of an intellectual character. 



30 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

METEOROLOGY. 

In 1850 the Smithsonian Institution published an extended series of 
investigations in regard to the tcinds of ITorth America, by Professor J. 
H. Coffin, of Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, In the produc- 
tion of this work Professor Coffin was assisted by the Institution in. 
furnishing materials from its collections, and funds to defray the expense 
of the arithmetical calculations fromthe income of the Smithson bequest, 
the labors of the professor himself being gratuitous. Since the publi- 
cation of this work, which has been largely made use of by the British 
board of trade in constructing its wind charts of the northern oceans, 
and by different authors in compiling and elaborating special treatises 
on meteorology, the Institution has continued to collect new materials 
in regard to the winds of the earth, and instead of elaborating from 
these a supplement to the previous treatise on the winds of the northern 
hemisphere, it was concluded to adopt the plan proposed by Professor 
Coffin of making a discussion of the winds of both hemispheres. The 
materials for this discussion are : First, all the observations reported to 
the Smithsonian Institution from 1856 to 1870 ; second, all those made 
at the United States military posts ; third, all those at sea collected at 
the United States Naval Observatory by Capt. Maury; fourth, all those 
taken at sea in the Arctic and Antarctic regions ; fifth, those at several 
hundred stations in other parts of the globe. 

The greatest labor of the work was principally finished by Professor 
Coffin, when science and humanity were called to mourn the death of 
this most highly esteemed collaborator of the Institution. The continu- 
ation, however, of the tables was undertaken by the son of our lamented 
friend, Prof. S. J. Coffin, who has completed this work with that con- 
scientious sentiment of filial reverence which well becomes the appreci- 
ative successor of so worthy a father. Very little, however, was finished 
by the elder Professor Coffin in the way of expressing, in general proposi- 
tions, the results contained in the vast amount of numerical tables which 
he had elaborated. To supply this deficiency, fortunately, the Institu- 
tion was enabled to avail itself of the assistance of Dr. Woeikof, member 
of the Geographical Society of Eussia and late secretary of its meteoro- 
logical commission, who, visiting this country for the study of its climat- 
ology, cheerfully undertook the required work. This gentleman is now 
engaged in adding the result of some new materials to the tables and in 
preparing the deductions from them for publication. The work, when 
finished, will do honor to the industry and scientific reputation of Pro- 
fessor Coffin and to the policy of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The work of the reduction of temperatures has been prosecuted during 
the past year as rapidly as our means will permit. The labor, however, 
is very great, and consequently the work must be slow, unless a larger 
force be put upon it. The observations are not confined to those which 
have been made immediately under the direction of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, but also include all those relative to Korth America which 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 31 

have ever been published in this country or in Europe. But as these 
are made not only at different hours of the day, but also at different 
numbers of hours, to reduce these all to a fixed number of hours, and to 
deduce from them thus reduced the mean temperatures required, in- 
volves a far greater amount of labor than if the observations had been 
made in accordance with one system. It was to facilitate this reduction 
that the preliminary tables mentioned in the last report were constructed. 

Complete tables have been prepared of temperatures for the following: 
Iceland, Greenland, British North America, Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, 
Arkansas, California, Colorado, Dakota, Delaware, Idaho, Indian Ter- 
ritory, Illinois, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New 
Mexico, New York, Maine, Oregon, Utah, West Virginia, Washington 
Territory, Wyoming. 

In addition to this work, tables showing the latitude, longitude, and 
mean annual temperature of all the stations in the United States were 
prepared for tbe Census Office. 

It has been from the first a part of the policy of this Institution to 
devote its energies to no field of research which can be as well culti- 
vated by other means; and the United States Government having 
established a system of meteorological observations, and having made 
liberal appropriation for its support, it has been thought, as was stated 
in the last report, for the best interest of the science to transfer the 
system of meteorological observations which has been so long continued 
by the Institution to that of the War Department, under the Chief Sig- 
nal-Officer, General Myer. 

The propriety of this transfer will be evident from the fact that the 
Institution has not the means of paying for printing blanks, postage, and 
the calculation and monthly publication of the results, especially since 
the assistance which has heretofore been rendered in this way, by the 
Department of Agriculture, is now discontinued ; furthermore, General 
Myer can combine these observations with those made with standard 
instruments now under his charge, and out of the whole form a more 
extended and harmonious system than any at present in existence. 

This transfer, which has just been made, we trust will meet the appro- 
bation of the observers generally, and we hope they will continue their 
voluntary co-operation, not with the expectation of being fully repaid 
for their unremitted labor, in many cases for a long series of years, but 
from the gratification which must result from the consciousness of hav- 
ing contributed to increase the sum of human knowledge. We trust 
also that the observers will continue to cherish an interest in the welfare 
and i^rogress of the Smithsonian Institution, while, on our part, we shall 
in all cases, and at all times, be pleased to continue to answer any com- 
munication which may be addressed to us by them on scientific subjects. 

We shall retain all the records of observations which have been ac- 
cumulating at the Institution during the last twenty-five years, and 
continue the work of their reduction and discussion up to the end of 
the year 1873. 



32 EEPORT OF THE SECRETAEY. 

TELEGRAPHIC ANNOUNCEMENTS OF ASTRONOMICAL DISCOVERIES, 

During tlie past year a very important arrangement has been con- 
cluded between the Smithsonian Institution and the Atlantic cable com- 
panies, by which is guaranteed the free transmission by telegraph be- 
tween Europe and America of accounts of astronomical discoveries, 
which, for the punjjose of co-operative observation, require immediate 
announcement. 

Among such discoveries are those of planets and comets, or of bodies 
which are generally so faint as not to be seen except through the tele- 
scope ; and which being in motion, their place in the heavens must be 
made known to the distant observer before they so far change their posi- 
tion as not to be readily found. For this purpose the ordinary mail- 
conveyance, requiring at least ten days, is too slow^, since in that time the 
body will have so far changed' its position as not to be found except 
with great difficulty ; and this change will become the greater if the 
body is a very faint one, for in that case it could only be discovered on 
a night free from moonlight, which of necessity, in ten or twelve days, 
must be followed by nights on which the sky is illuminated by the moon, 
and all attempts to discover the object would have to be postponed until 
the recurrence of a dark night. Indeed, even then the search often 
proves in vain ; and it is not, in some cases, until after a set of approxi- 
mate elements are calculated and transmitted, that the astronomers on 
the two sides of the Atlantic are able fully to co-operate with each other. 
These difficulties were discussed by some of the principal astronomers 
of Europe, and an application was made to the Smithsonian Institution, 
through Dr. C. H. F. Peters, of Hamilton College, New York, to remove 
them, by transmitting intelligence immediately through the Atlantic tele- 
graph cable. For this purpose the Institution applied to the Xew York, 
Newfoundland and London Telegraph and to the Western Union Tele- 
graph Companies to be allowed free transmission of this kind of intelli- 
gence, and it has received, through Cyrus W. Field, esq., and William 
Orton, esq., with that liberality which has always attended applications 
of a similar character by the Institution, the free use of all the lines of 
these companies for the object in question. 

Similar privileges have been granted for transmitting the intelligence 
between the principal centers of astronomical research in Europe and 
the eastern ends of the Atlantic cables. 

Although the discovery of planets and comets will probably be the 
principal subject of the cable-telegrams, yet it is not intended to restrict 
the transmission of intelligence solely to that class of observation. 
Any remarkable solar phenomenon presenting itself suddenly in Eu- 
rope, observations of which may be practicable in America several hours 
after the sun has set to the European observer ; the sudden outburst of 
some variable star, similar to that which appeared in Corona horealis 
in 1866; unexpected showers of shooting-stars, &c., would be proper 
subjects for transmission by cable. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 33 

The announcement of this arrangement has called forth the approba- 
tion of the astronomers of the world ; and in regard to it we may quote 
the following passage from the fifty-fourth annual report of the Eoyal 
Astronomical Society of England : 

''The great value of this concession on the part of the Atlantic telegraph 
aiud other companies cannot be too highly prized, and our science must 
certainly be the gainer by this disinterested act of liberality. Already 
planets discovered in America have been observed in Europe on the 
evening following the receipt of the telegram, or within two or three 
days of their discovery." 

To carry out the proposition, the following arrangements have been 
adopted : 

Center of communication in the United States : 

1. The Smithsonian Institution, Joseph Henry, director. 

Centers of communication in Europe : 

1. Greenwich Observatory, Sir George B. Airy, astronomer-roj^al. 

2. Paris Observatory, M. Leverrier. director. 

3. Berlin Observatory, Prof. W. Eoerster, director. 

4. Vienna Observatory, Academy of Sciences, Prof von Littrow, 

director. 

5. Pulliova Observatorj', M. Struve, director. 

Telegrams received at the Smithsonian Institution from observers in 
the United States will be forwarded immediately by Atlantic cable to 
Greenwich, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and Pulkova, and thence by telegraph 
to other observatories in Europe. 

Directions. — Discoveries made in Europe of new comets, planets, &c., 
will be announced without delay from Greenwich, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, 
or Pulkova by Atlantic cable to the Smithsonian Institution, and thence 
by telegraph to American observatories and the Associated Press. 

The telegraphic dispatch announcing a discovery should be as brief 
as possible 5 and, after conference with astronomers, the following form 
has been agreed upon : 

After the single word " i^lanet" (or " comet '-) is given, 

(1st) its right ascension in time, hours and minutes only ; nest, 

separated by the word 
(2d) north or south, is given its 
(3d) declination to the nearest minute. 

In the case of a planet, in addition to the foregoing follows finally the 

magnitude expressed by the nearest ordinal number. In the case of a 

comet follows the word bright ov faint, and it is well to add the direction 

of motion, requiring at the utmost two words combined, of S. W. N. E. : 

and also, if rapid, the quantity of its daily motion, the latter to the 

nearest whole number in degrees. For example, the following dispatch, 

'' Planet twenty-three thirty-five north twenty-one forty-six eleventh, " 

would be interpreted: A new planet is discovered in 23^^ 35"' of right 

ascension and +21° 46' of declination 5 eleventh magnitude. 

Or a dispatch like the following : " Comet twenty-two forty-three nortS 
3 s 



34 



EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



sixty-five thirty-one bright southeast three," would aunounce the discov- 
ery of a bright comet in right asceusiou 22^ 43™ • declination -f 65° 31'"; 
the declination decreasing, right ascension increasing, daily motion about 
three degrees. 

The preceding examples contain the greatest number of words re- 
quired for any one dispatch, if composed according to the rule adopted. 
Usually they will not exceed ten. Sometimes, however, the dispatch 
thus composed would become equivocal, and it has therefore been estab- 
lished as an additional rule that the number expressing the minutes of 
right ascension or declination shall always be expressed in words, even 
when zero occurs. Therefore, 23^ 0°^ should be written " twenty-three 
nought," while "twenty three" will be understood to mean 20^ S"^. In 
a similar way 0^^ of right ascension or 0° of declination are to be dis- 
tinctly expressed by the word "notight." 

The right ascension and declination in the dispatch will be understood 
to give the position (by proper motion approximately reduced) for the 
midnight folloicing the date of the dispatch : Washington time for Amer- 
ican discoveries, Greenwich time for European. 

Since, in conformity with the preceding article, only an approximate 
estimate of a later position, and not that of the first observation itself, 
is given, the dispatch is not to be considered as a document for deciding 
the question of priority of discovery. 

We trust the time is not distant when, with the completion of a tele- 
graphic cable between Japan and the United States, this system will be 
extended to the eastern part of Asia, and the astronomers who are now 
in process of education in the United States, both from China and Japan, 
will be able to participate in the facilities thus offered for co-operation in 
the advance of astronomy. In connection with the publication of this cir- 
cular, the National Academy of Sciences, at its meeting on the 15th of 
April, adopted a resolution recommending that amateur astronomers de- 
vote aportion of their time to sweeping the sky for the discovery of comets. 

The following is a list of the announcements during 1873 : 



Discovery. 


Date of 
telegram. 


Prom whom. 


Place. 


Right 
ascension. 


Declination. 


a 
o 

o 


Magnitude. 


Planet 

Planet 


1B73. 
Feb. 18 
May 26 
July 5 
July 14 
July 27 
Aug. 17 
Aug. 21 
Aug. 22 
Aug. 24 
Sept. 27 
Nov. 11 
Kov. 12 


Peters 

Peters 

Tempel 

Watson 

Borelli 

Watson 

Borelli 


Clinton, K. Y 

Clinton, N.Y 


h. m. 
10 

16 14 

7 

17 16 

1 14 
23 2 

7 27 
7 29 
7 27 
7 
16 23 
16 4 


N. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

s. 

N. 

N. 
N. 

N. 
N. 


1 

13 40 

21 18 

4 34 

21 43 
7 32 
2 40 

33 45 
36 55 
59 30 
7 53 
27 2S 

22 6 


N. 

W. 

isr. 

S. E. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

E. 

s. 

s.w. 
s.w. 


Eleventh. 
Eleventh. 


Planet 

Comet 

Planet 

Comet 

Comet 


Ann Arbor, Mich . 

Marseilles 

Ann Arbor, Mich . 
Marseilles 


Eleventh. 
Eleventh. 




Henry 

Luther 

Coggia 






Planet 

Comet 

Comet 


Diisseldorff 

Marseilles 


Tenth. 











REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 35 

NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The appropriation by Oongress of $15,000 for the support and exhibi- 
tion of the museum was continued last year. This appropriation, how- 
ever, was scarcely sufficient to defray the expenses ; but as Congress 
within the last two years had also granted $12,000 for heating-apparatus, 
and $25,000 for the fitting up with cases of additional rooms for the 
accommodation of the collections, a larger sum than $15,000 was not 
asked for the care of the specimens. During the last year a steam- 
heating apparatus has been introduced under the direction of Lewis 
H. Leeds, of New York, heating and ventilating engineer. The contract 
for the work was awarded to Messrs. Blake & Shot well, of New York, 
who have faithfully carried out the plan adopted. 

We regret to say, however, that the boilers, i)laced as they are in the 
middle of the length of the building, are scarcely sufficient in size to heat 
the extreme ends, and that during the coldest weather additional 
apparatus will be required. In the appendix is given a report of the 
engineer, with a plan of the several stories of the building. 

The contract for making cases for the mineralogical department was 
given to John H. Bird, who has executed the work to the entire satis- 
faction of the Institution. The contract for constructing the cases for 
the large room of the upper story was awarded to John W. McKnight. 
These cases are of pine, veneered with walnut and bird's-eye maple, 
with large panes of English plate-glass, and are covered at the top 
and bottom with zinc to render them dust-proof. They are much more 
elaborately finished than museum-cases usually are, and this too at a much 
less expense than that of the various cases in other i3ublic buildings of this 
city. The plans and specifications of these cases, with a model case, were 
prepared by Prof. H. A. Ward, of Eochester, N. Y., with some modifica- 
tions by Mr. A. Cluss, who has for several years been the architect of the 
Smithsonian building. The construction of the cases by Mr. McKnight 
was completed to the entire satisfaction of Mr. Oluss, the architect, 
not, however, without a complaint on the part of the contractor that 
his estimate of the cost of the work was far from being at a remuner- 
ative rate. The appropriation was sufficient to complete the cases, but 
not to furnish them with shelves. For this, an additional appropriation 
will be required. It is proposed to devote the large room, which is 200 
feet long and 50 wide by 25 in height, entirely to ethnology, this being 
a branch of science attracting perhaps at the present time more attention 
than almost any other^ and of which the illustrations at present in the 
general collection of the National Museum are nearly sufficient to fill the 
entire space and are rapidly increasing in number. 

The appropriation of $15,000 for the care of the museum has provided 
for the employment of an additional assistant to take charge of the 
mineralogical collections. The person appointed to this position is Dr. 
F. M. Endhch, of Eeading, Pa., who has lately completed his scientific 



o6 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

studies in Germany, at tlie Mining Academy of Freiberg, having paid 
special attention to the blow-pipe analysis of minerals. He has rendered 
efficient service not only in the arrangement of all the minerals of the 
museum, but in making up sets from the large number of duplicates for 
distribution to colleges and academies. Previous to the employment of 
Dr. Endlich, the duplicate minerals and geological specimens were sent 
to the School of Mines of Columbia Oojlege, New York, where they were 
examined and made up into sets for distribution, the minerals by Profes- 
sor Egleston, and the rocks by Professor ISTewberry. In this line the 
Institution has done good service to the cause of education, and has 
the capacity of doing much more, provided the small amount of funds 
required for the purpose be granted by Government. 

The appropriation of Congress has also enabled us to add a perma- 
nent taxidermist to the establishment, Joseph Palmer, from England, 
who has not only much improved the condition of the mounted speci- 
mens previously in the Institution, but, under the direction of Professor 
Baird, has added a large number of new specimens, especially a series 
of several hundred plaster casts taken from fresh fish and painted to 
represent the colored appearance of nature. 

Few persons have any idea of the amount of manual labor necessary 
to properly sustain a museum in a condition fit for public exhibition. 
Heretofore, with the limited amount of money which could be expended 
from the Smithsonian fund, in addition to the $4,000 allowed by Con- 
gress, it was impossible to keep the specimens in the best condition 
either for critical study or for popular exhibition. The museum, there- 
fore, although it has been an object of great interest to the public gen- 
erally, has not been what we trust it v/ill be in the future. 

The following report of Professor Baird, of the additions to the 
museum, and the various operations connected with it during the year 
1873, presents satisfactory evidence of j)rosperity. 

Condition, pi'ogress, and operation of the National Museum during the year 
1873. — " The record of the National Museum for 1873 is highly satisfactory, 
showing valuable additions from many parts of the world, and consid- 
erable progress in the way of reducing its contents to order, and making 
them serviceable to the cause of science. In no previous year has the 
number of distinct donations been so great, while the bulk of the parcels 
received has been almost inconveniently large. The total number of 
entries is 441, from 241 donors, and embraces 680 packages of dift'erent 
kinds, the similar figures for 1872 being 315, 203, and 544, respectively. 

A list in the appendix will show in detail what has been actually 
received, including the names of contributors and the nature of their 
donations ; the increase being in large part from the collections of 
different Government exploring expeditions, which by law of Congress 
are transferred to the Smithsonian Institution for safe-keeping, and also 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 37 

from the contributions of special correspondents of the Institution, and 
by exchange. Nothing has been added in the way of direct purchases. 
While most large museums, such as the British Museum and those of 
Paris, Berlin, and Cambridge, Mass., &c., depend principally upon pur- 
chases for increasing their collections, the i^Tational Museum, without 
funds at its disposal for such purpose, has not yet felt the need of them ; 
the collections received from the sources mentioned, free of cost other 
than that of mere transportation, being quite as great as the means of 
preparation and preservation will allow. 

In addition to the number of donations, the entries in the record- 
books of the museum during the year 1873 will indicate approximately 
the extent and nature of the increase; the total number of entries dur- 
ing the year amounting to 10,604, or 33 per cent, more than those 
of 1872; the largest number, that of birds, amounting to 3,232 spec- 
imens; of fishes, 2,756; of ethnological specimens, 1,475; and of min- 
erals, 941. This, however, does not represent accurately the num- 
ber of separate specimens, as many objects of the same kind and from 
the same locality are often included under a single entry. Many addi- 
tions duriug the year, especially of shells, minerals, and fishes, are yet 
unrecorded. 

The total number of entries to the end of the year amounts to 187,453, 
filling thirty large folio ledgers. As might be expected, the principal 
sources of sui)ply have been from American localities, the United States 
especially, although someobjectsof interest have been received from other 
parts of the world. The special object has been to bring together as com- 
plete an exhibition of the natural history and ethnology of America as the 
available means would permit. Should Cougress at any future time de- 
cide to increase the scale of operations so as to enable the establishment 
to vie with such museums as those of London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, &c., 
the framework of the present organization can be readily expanded so 
as to cover a much wider field. At present the available space for 
exhibiting specimens is occupied to its utmost extent, and but a portion 
of the collections actually within the walls of the Institution can be 
exhibited to the public. The remainder, however, are in such a condi- 
tion as to be available for the study of specialists whenever they may 
find it necessary to examine them. 

For the.better understanding of the character of the collections re- 
ceived in 1873, a general sketch is given with reference to the regions 
whence they were derived, to be followed by an enumeration, in syste- 
matic sequefice, of those of the most importance. 

Of comparatively slight extent, yet perhaps of greater interest from 
their historic associations than any others, are the collections made 
during the eventful voyage of the Polaris, under Captain Hall, to 
the northern regions. This expedition, fitted out by the Navy Depart- 



38 EEPORT OF THE SECEETAEY. 

ment in pursuance of an act of CongresSj left the United States in 
the summer of 1871, and succeeded in reaching the latitude of 82° 
16', the most northerly point ever attained by civilized man. Little 
was done in the way of collections until after the expedition went 
iuto winter-quarters in October, 1871 ; and most of the specimens 
gathered were secured during that winter and the following spring and 
summer. The death of Captain Hall interfered, of course, materially 
with the scientific work, but did not interrupt it, and at the time of the 
damage to the vessel by the ice, in October, 1872, very extensive col- 
lections had been made under the direction of Dr. Bessels, the chief of 
the scientific corps. These embraced specimens of the minerals, rocks, 
and fossils of Polaris Bay and other localities, large numbers of skins 
and skeletons of the musk-ox, (a great desideratum in public museums,) 
and other species of mammals, such as lemmings, seals, &c. ; some 
birds aud their eggs; many specimens of marine invertebrates, and a 
complete collection of the insects and plants met with by the party. 
Most of these collections were left on board the Polaris when the party 
rejnaining with the vessel went into quarters on shore during the winter 
of 1872-'73; and when the vessel was found to be unseaworthy, and it 
became necessarj^ to build boats to move southward for the purpose of 
trying to meet the English whalers, it was found impossible to bring away 
more than a small number of the objects that had been gathered. Dr. 
Bessels, however, in the limited amount of space allotted to him, suc- 
ceeded in packing a representative series of the fossils and rocks, aud 
some specimens of insects, as also a few objects preserved in alcohol, all 
of which at present occupy a special case in the mineral-room at the 
west end of the Smithsonian building. 

The absence of fishes in the collections of the Polaris party is very 
remarkable, no specimens of this class of vertebrates having been seen 
by the expedition in the uorthern portion of their journey, with the ex- 
ception of a few small fishes in a fresh-water stream, which could not 
be caught, but were supposed to be young salmon. Cetaceans, too, 
V7ere equally absent, the marine mammals being represented only by 
one or two species of seal. 

Proceeding southward, the next region from which interesting mate- 
rial has been received during the year is that of the Pribylov or fur-seal 
islands of Behriug Sea. Here the collections begun in 1872, on the 
island of Saint Paul, by Mr. Henry W. Elliott, assistant United States 
Treasury jfgent, were continued by him on the adjacent island of Saint 
George, and embraced a complete representation of the birds, especially 
the aquatic species and their eggs, the skeletons and skulls of the seals 
and some marine invertebrates. These are accompanied by very inter- 
esting sketches of the animal life of the island, especially of the seals 
and walruses, adding much to our knowledge of the habits of this inter- 
esting group of mammals. 



EEPORT Oi' THE SECRETARY. 39 

The westernmost portion of tlie cliaiu of the Aleutian Islands was 
thoroughly explored during the year by Mr. William H. Dall, while 
engaged in making a survey of the islands in behalf of the United 
States Coast Survey, his leisure time having been employed in securing 
a wonderfully complete series of specimens for the National Museum. 
These covered all departments of natural history, such as various 
mammals, birds and their eggs, insects and plants, and more es- 
pecially marine invertebrates, of which it is believed that many new 
species have been obtained. A very prominent feature, however, in Mr. 
DalFs collections, consists in the extensive series of pre-historic objects 
obtained by the exploration of certain burial caves in Unalaska, which 
throw much light upon the past relationships of the Aleutians. Includ- 
ing the ethnological collections made by Mr. Dall during previous years, 
it is believed that no better illustration of the anthropology of that part 
of Alaska could be brought together than is now within the walls of the 
Institution. 

A collection of carvings made by the Haidah Indians, of Queen Char- 
lotte's Island, a tribe remarkable for their skill in this branch of art and 
for the variety and grotesqneness of their designs, has been received 
from Mr. J, Gr. Swan, whose contributions also embrace numerous ethno- 
logical and other specimens from Washington Territory, and is accom- 
panied by a memoir, previously noticed in this report. 

From Oregon we have a very remarkable collection of prehistoric 
remains, many of them of exquisite beauty of workmanship, consisting 
of arrow-points and pestles, bone-carvings, &c., presented by Mr. Paul 
E. Schumacher, of the United States Coast Survey. 

Another valued addition from this part of the country consists of a 
number of specimens of the showt'l, both in skins and entire in alcohol, 
furnished by Mr. S. C. VVingard, the United States district attorney at 
Olympia. This mammal, the Aplodontia leporina, is like a muskrat, but 
with a very short tail, and although abundant in a very limited 
locality, is still little known to naturalists; while its peculiarities of 
form render it of great interest as an object of study. After many years 
of special eflbrt directed toward securing a supply of these animals for 
the purpose of meeting some urgent calls, the object was finally accom- 
plished by the aid of Mr. Wingard. 

The coast of California has been well represented by the collections 
of Captain C. M. Scammon, of the United States Revenue Marine. This 
gentleman, an active and efficient ofhcer of the service, has, in the inter- 
est of science, made use of the opportunities furnished by the necessary 
cruises along the coast, devoting himself especially to a careful scien- 
tific and practical study of the marine mammals, including the whales, 
porpoises, seals, sea-otters, &c. With commendable enterprise, he has 
commenced the publication, in California, of a large work on this sub- 
ject, which, with its well-executed illustrations, promises to be a complete 



40 EEPORT OF THE SECEETAEY. 

treatise upou the whale-fisliery and other similar interests on the Pacific 
Ocean, and one that will doubtless be a standard of reference in the 
future. 

The collections made by Captain Scammon for his studies in this de- 
partment have been transmitted by him from time to time to the ^STational 
Museum, where they constitute one of its most unique and important fea- 
tures. Too mucli cannot be said in praise of gentlemen hke Captain 
Scammon, who, in addition to the routine of their official work, labor 
for the advancement of science, and especially where such labor can be 
tui'ned to practical account as in the present instance. 

The United States steamer Tuscarora^ under Commander G.E. Bel- 
knap, has been engaged during the summer in making .soundings in 
the Pacific, from San Francisco toward the Aleutian Islands, with the 
object of determining the proper line for a cable between the United 
States and Japan; and numerous specimens of sea-bottom", with its 
microscopic /aima, were secured, and have been recently transmitted by 
Com. Ammen, of the Bureau of Navigation, in behalf of the Navy De- 
partment, with the request that the Smithsonian Institution would have 
them properly investigated and reported upon. 

From the main-land of California collections have been received from 
Dr. J. C Cooper, of San Francisco, Mr. W. A. Cooper, of Santa Cruz, 
and Dr. Hays, of Santa Barbara, consisting of specimens of birds, 
mammals, «&c., of much interest. 

By far the most extensive collections received by the National Museum 
during the year have been the result of Government expeditions in the 
regions.west of the Missouri. 

The first of these in geographical order, beginning at the north, is that 
of the survey of the boundary between the United States and the British 
territory, prosecuted under the auspices of the State Department, 
and under the direction of Mr. Archibald Campbell as commissioner. 
The proper determination of this boundary, in which Great Britain 
takes part, requires careful astronomical and geodetic work, this being 
conducted by Major Twining in behalf of the United States Engi- 
neer Department. The region traversed is one very little known, 
and the commissioner, therefore, as was the case during his survey of 
the western end of this line, took pains to secure the assistance of a 
competent specialist to make the necessary examination in regard to 
the natural-history resources of the country. - Dr. Elliott Coues, assist- 
ant surgeon, United States Army, who has had much experience hi simi- 
lar duties, and who occupies a high rank as a naturalist, was chosen 
as surgeon to the scientific party, and succeeded, with the assistance 
given him by the commissioner, in making a very large collection of 
specimens in many branches of natural-history, and one especially rich 
in the department of ornithology. 

The liue surveyed during the year extended for several hundred 



EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 41 

miles west of the Lake of t3ie Woods, and will be continued in 1874, it 
is hoped, under the same auspices, to the summit of the Eocky Moun- 
tains or to the junction with the line which, in 1860, had been extended 
from the Pacific Ocean eastward. 

The next Government expedition, in geographical position, was one 
sent out by the War Department to protect the exploring and construc- 
tion parties of the Northern Pacific Eailway, and placed under the com- 
mand of Gen. David S. Stanley. This consisted of a very large force of 
men. some two thousand in all, as being necessary to protect the rail- 
road parties against the threatened attacks of hostile Indians. Eecog- 
nizing the propriety of utilizing so favorable a service in the interest of 
science, when it could be done at so trifling an expense, the Secretarj^ 
of War authorized the appointment of a corps of naturalists for the expe- 
dition, and Mr. J. A. Allen was placed in charge of this, with several as- 
sistants. The expedition proceeded westward from Fort Eice to the 
Upper Missouri, and crossed some distance beyond the Yellowstone. 
The results of this expedition are very interesting, and would have 
been much more extensive but for the necessity of moving in constant 
apprehension of hostile attacks. 

The geographical and geological exploration of the Territories, under 
Professor Hayden, furnished the next source of museum supply, the 
researches of himself and parties having extended over parts of Colorado 
and New Mexico. These furnished very large collections of fossil re- 
mains, of minerals and rocks, and of objects of natural history generally. 

The exploration of the region west of the hundredth meridian, under 
the direction of Lieut. George M. Wheeler, of the United States 
Engineers, has also furnished a large mass of material, equal in extent 
and general character to that of Professor Hayden, the two parties 
together contributing a very large proportion of the general results of 
the year. Thousands of birds and hundreds of mammals, with tons of 
fossil and geological specimens, are counted in the aggregate received 
from these two expeditions. 

From the explorations of Maj. J. W. Powell, in the caiions of the Colo- 
rado, most extensive collections have also been received 5 his survey 
being unique in the great extent and completeness of its ethnological 
representation. In these and the collections of the previous summer, 
the National Museum now owes to Major Powell's exertions a most inter- 
esting and extensive representation of the habits, manners, and customs 
of the Ute Indians, including every form of dress and personal adorn- 
ment, of weapons of war and of the chase, of household and agricultu- 
ral utensils, specimens of their food in different stages of preparation, 
and whatever else may throw light upon the habits and characteristics 
of one of the most primitive people on the American continent. A 
special feature of this collection is the number and variety of stone 
implements used for various purposes, properly mounted, and showing 



42 EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

the mode by which the knives and arrow-points are attached for every- 
day use. 

'New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah, are represented largely in the collec- 
tions of Lieutenant Wheeler, and of Major Powell ; and a collection of 
skins and eggs of birds, gathered in Southern Arizona, and presented 
by Capt. Charles Bendire, of the United States Cavalry, has also proved 
a very important addition to the treasures of the museum. Captain 
Bendire, while stationed near Tucson, embraced the opportunity to make 
complete collections of eggs of the Arizona birds, and among them are 
many previously unknown to naturalists. With commendable liberality, 
he has presented a series of these to the National Museum, which, from 
their beauty of preparation and rarity, constitute a very acceptable 
donation. 

Among the collections received from the West must not be omitted : 
specimens of the salmon, trout, and other fresh-water fishes of the 
Upper Sacramento, gathered by Mr. Livingston Stone, deputy United 
States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. This gentleman has been, 
engaged for two years on the McCload Eiver, near Mount Shasta, in 
obtaining eggs of the Sacramento salmon for supplying the rivers and 
lakes of the United States with this important food-fish, and he com- 
bined with his other duties the securing of material for a complete 
monograph of the salmonidae of the American continent. He has also 
furnished some interesting ethnological specimens. 

The collections in the regions between the Mississippi Eiver and the 
Atlantic, although from no one point of very great extent, have fur- 
nished a considerable aggregate, and are especially rich in objects of 
ethnology, to which special attention has been given during the year. 
The number of donations in this department is very great, and will be 
found recorded in detail in the accompanying list of contributions, the 
principal States represented being Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, 
Ehode Island, Maine, &c. 

Among the additions in other departments, we may specially men- 
tion the collection of fishes by Mr, James W. Milner, also an assistant 
of the United States Fish Commission, who has had special charge of 
ascertaining the character of the fish, and reporting upon the fisheries 
of the great lakes, and of the upper tributaries of the Mississippi. In 
connection with this inquiry, Mr. Milner secured a very complete collec- 
tion of food-fishes of the lakes and of the Ohio Eiver, which, in accord- 
ance with law, have been sent to the jSTational Museum, and, it is hoped, 
will form the basis of a work upon the subject. 

Having referred to the additions to the collections of the National 
Museum from the Pacific coast, we have to record also very important 
contributions from the labors of the United States Commission of Fish 
and Fisheries. 

Of these full series are preserved in the National Museum for investi- 
gation, and the great number of duplicates gathered for that special 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETAEY. '43 

t 
purpose are in tlie process of being made up into sets for distribution 
to colleges and academies throughout the country. Ko greater aid can 
be given to the cause of scientific education than to furnish such series 
as these ; and accompanied as they will be by the report of the com- 
mission, in which these objects are fully and systematically described, 
they will be much sought after by institutions such as those referred to. 

As in previous years, the facilities of the commission were eagerly 
embraced by scientific specialists, who spent a greater or less time with 
the expedition. Among these may be mentioned Mr. G. Brown Goode 
and Professor Eice, of Wesleyan University, Middletown ; Professor 
J. E. Todd, of Taber College, Iowa; Professor Kelson, of Delaware Col- 
lege, Ohio ; Dr. P. P. Carpenter, of Montreal ; Mr. S. J. Smith and Mr. 
Thatcher, of Tale College, and many others on the United States steamer 
Blue Light, furnished by the I:^avy Department. 

In addition to the collections made at Peak's Island, many interesting 
objects were secured under the commissioner's direction, by Dr. A. S. 
Packard, on the United States steamer Bache, which the superintendent 
of the coast-survey kindly supplied to the commission for a month, for 
the purpose of deep-sea exploration at points of the New England coast 
too remote for the services of the Blue Light. Mr. Vinal ^N". Edwards, 
an agent of the commission, at Wood's Hole, Massachusetts, also secured 
great numbers of fishes, several of them previously unknown to our 
waters. 

Other collections of the coast-fishes of great interest were furnished 
by Messrs. Middletou, Carman & Co., of New York, including a species 
of perch, Fromicrops guasu, taken in Saint John's Eiver in Florida., 
weighing 750 pounds. A series of the Virginia coast-fishes was also 
received from -Mr. Sibley, of jSTorfolk. 

Mr. Samuel Powel of Newport, E. L, furnished some very rare species 
of fishes from Narragansett Bay. Others from Staten Island have been 
presented by Mr. Charles Copley. 

In the completion of the account of collections received from the east- 
ern coast of North America, we may mention specimens of the salmon 
family, as salmon, salmon-trout, and white-fish, from the United States 
salmon-hatching establishment, under the charge of Ohas. G. Atkins of 
Bucksport, Me.; from E. M. Stilwell, fish commissioner of Maine; from 
Mr. J. B. Blossom, of Brooklyn ; from Mr. Eutter of Frederickton, New 
Brunswick ; and of capelin, from Mr. Delaney of Newfoundland. Of even 
gTeater interest than any of these, however, were specimens of a gigantic 
cuttle-fish, i)resented by Archibald Muun, of Harbor Grace, Newfound- 
land. Eor some years past there have been traditions of the occurrence 
of giant cuttle-fish, or so called " devil-fish," on our eastern coast, although, 
the stories communicated in regard to them have been considered rather 
fabulous. During the year 1873, however, several well- authenticated cases 
have occurred, and in one instance an animal of this family attacked a 
fishing-boat by throwing two of its arms across it, which, however, the 



44 EEPOKT OF THE SECRETARY. 

occupants of the boat promptly severed with an ax, and the portions thus 
secured were brought into port. One of these pieces of an arm meas- 
ured 18 feet in length, and it was estimated that an equal length 
remained attached to the body. An entire animal was afterward taken 
in a net, with arms about 30 feet in length. Another of a similar size was 
thrown upon the shore, near Harbor Grace in the winter of 1872-'73, the 
beak and suckers of which were forwarded to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. 

The collections from Mexico received during the year have continued 
to be of much importance, especially such as are covered by the contri- 
butions of Professor Sumichrast, who is a resident of the Isthmus of Te- 
huantepec, and has been for many years a valued correspondent of the 
Smithsonian Institution. From this gentleman we have received large 
numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles, the object of most interest 
being the skeleton of the Mexican tapir, an animal until recently but 
very little known. 

From Guatemala an interesting addition consists of a specimen of 
the ocellated turkey, presented by Mr. Sarg, being a species of great 
rarity, and very much superior in beauty to the wild turkey of ]!*forth 
America. 

A very noteworthy addition to the collection of the Institution was re- 
ceived from Prof. William M. Gabb, who has been engaged in exx^loring 
certain regions of Costa Kica, in the service of that goivernment and of 
the Costa Rica Eailway. This contribution contains many specimens 
illustrative of tbe habits and manners of the native tribes of Costa 
Eica, with a large collection of the birds, mammals, reptiles, fishes, &c., 
the whole forming a very full representation of the zoology and ethnol- 
ogy of that country. 

Additional contributions, in the wny of specimens of the natural his- 
tory of the United States of Colombia, have been received from Gen. 
Stephen A. Hurlbut, late United States minister to that country, and 
from his son, Mr. George H. Hurlbut. To these gentlemen tbe National 
Museum previously owed the contribution of a skeleton of the tapir of 
the Andes, a species till then known only by a skull in the Paris Mu- 
seum. The more recent donations consist of birds in great variety, and 
other objects. 

Several collections have been received from more southern portions 
of South America, among them an interesting contribution of Peruvian 
antiquities, presented by Mr. W. W. Evans, and a stuffed specimen of 
the tapir of the Andes, from President Moreno, of Ecuador. 

From the West Indies an important contribution consists in skeletons 
and alcoholic specimens of the fish of Cuba, presented by Prof. F. Poey, 
of Havana. Professor Poey is an eminent naturalist, whose writings 
upon the fishes of the West Indies are standard authority, and he has 
kindly undertaken to supply to the National Museum a complete series 
of Cuban fishes, properly named, to correspond with his own publica- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 45 

tions. Of these, over one hundred species have already been received, 
and others are hereafter expected. 

The fishes of Bermuda are represented in a collection made by Mr. 
G. Brown Goode, in behalf of the Wesleyan University at Middletown, 
by which institution it was presented. 

Other notable additions to the collection of fishes consist in speci- 
mens of the turbot, the sole, and the brill, of Europe, obtained through 
Messrs. Middleton and Carman, of New York, for the purpose of show- 
ing the relationship of these well-known food-fishes with our own. 
These specimens have been cast in plaster, and will shortly be placed 
on exhibition. 

Quite a number of single specimens of various kinds have been re- 
ceived in exchange from European museums, although nothing specially 
noteworthy, with the exception, perhaps, of a collection of minerals 
from the salt-mines near Cracow, in Austria, presented by the Univer- 
sity of Cracow, through Professor Att. Of contributions from other 
regions outside of Korth America, by far the most interesting represen- 
tation is that of ISTew Zealand, as furnished by the Canterbury Museum 
at Christ Church, in charge of Dr. Julius Haast. This embraces sev- 
eral complete skeletons of the giant fossil birds of New Zealand, spe- 
cies, in comparison with which, the ostrich is but as a chick to a hen, a 
height of 15 feet, with other dimensions proportionate, being attained 
by several of the species. There is also in this collection a very good 
series of New Zealand birds and many specimens of ethnology in the 
form of implements of stone and bone, and other objects from the shell- 
heaps of the ancient Maori inhabitants, who were cotemporaries of the 
giant birds, (the moas,) and the remains of whose feasts contain frac- 
tured moa bones in great numbers. 

Systematic summary. — Having thus given an account of the more 
important collections received during the year in their geographical 
relationships, a brief recapitulation by systematic arrangement may not 
be uninteresting. 

The department of ethnology is one which has received the most va- 
ried and extended contributions during the year, due largely to the fact 
that special effort has been directed by the Smithsonian Institution in 
the way of circulars to correspondents, and otherwise, to induce the 
making of such collections, while in preparing instructions to the Gov- 
ernment expeditions this subject has been dwelt upon particularly. 

Eeference has already been made to the prehistoric remains collected 
by Mr. Dall in Alaska, and by Mr. Schumacher in Oregon, and to those 
of more modern times furnished by Mr. Swan from Washington Terri- 
tory and Queen Charlotte's Island, while the objects brought by Major 
Powell from the Colorado Eiver, are of unusually great extent and 
value. Every State in the Union, however, has been represented to a 
greater or less extent in the form of stone-axes, pipes, pottery, &c. The 



46 EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 

shell-heaps of Casco Bay were explored by parties connected with the 
United States Fish Commission, and those of Eastern Maine by Lieu- 
tenant Slamm of the Eeveuue Service. From foreign localities the most 
interesting contribution is that of the remains from the shell-heaps of 
the ancient moa-hunters of Kew Zealand, referred to as contributed by 
Dr. Haast. The interest of these localities is heightened by the fact 
that they embrace remains of the gigantic fossil dinornis, or moa-bird, 
proving that this was hunted and eaten by the Maoris. 

Of the mammalia, a special prize has been acomi)lete skeleton of the 
grizzly bear, killed by Lieutenant Carpenter, of Professor Hayden's ex- 
pedition. Of this animal it is difficult to obtain good skeletons, and 
the one received was therefore especially acceptable, as it enabled the 
Institution to meet an urgent request on the part of the British archae- 
ologists. Among sundry fossil bones of bears found in Great Britain 
and elsewhere in Europe, are remains which cannot be satisfactorily re- 
ferred to any European animal ; and it has been suggested that prob- 
ably the American grizzly was at one time an inhabitant of Europe, 
and since then exterminated. The loan of this specimen to a commit- 
tee of the British Association, charged with the investigation of the 
subject may enable them to determine this point. For its better il- 
lustration, however, the Smithsonian Institution added to the grizzly 
a specimen of the barren ground bear of the Arctic region, a very rare 
animal, and of which the only specimens preserved are in the museum 
at Washington. It is possibly the Arctic species, rather than the griz- 
zly, which will be found to have the closest relation to the European 
fossil, or cave bear, in this respect exhibiting a parallel to the musk- 
ox, which once inhabited Central Europe, and after the glacial period 
was driven back to the northward by the increasing temperature of the 
continent, and finally entirely exterminated from the Old World. It 
is now only found living in America and Greenland. 

Two very complete skins of the musk-ox, from Arctic America, have 
been forwarded to the Institution by Mr. William L. Hardesty, of Fort 
Simpson, and their arrival is expected at an early date. The collections 
of the remains of cetaceans, such as the skulls of whales and the skins 
and skeletons of porpoises, «&c., from the California coast, as contri- 
buted by Captain Scammon, have been already mentioned; as also 
that of the Aplodontia-le])orina, or showt'l, which has been received from 
Mr. S. C. Wingard. 

To Professor Sumichrast, of Telmantepec, the Institution owes the 
contribution of a skeleton of the tapir of Mexico. 

A complete series of the mammals of Costa Rica and their skulls, fur- 
nished by Professor Gabb, is of great value. 

Among the rarest of mammals is included the hairy tapir of the 
Andes, from South America, the only representative of the species 
heretofore being a skull in the Paris Museum. 

To the Hon. S. A. Hurlbut, at the time United States minister to 



REPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 47 

Bogota, and to his sou, George H. Hurlbut, the Institution owes the 
first complete skeleton of this animal ever obtained ; and during the 
year 1873 it received a mounted skin, presented by President Moreno, 
of Ecuador. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge has famished, in 
exchange, casts of several crania of mastodons. 

Among the most important contributions in the way of mammals are 
the specimens received from Mr. P. T. Barnum, consisting of animals 
which have died in his extensive menageries in different parts of the 
country, and transmitted to the National Museum from time to time by 
his agents, in compliance with his instructions. Among these may be 
mentioned a Malayan tapir, a Bactrian camel, a dromedary, an African 
panther, the Florida manatee, the Indian rhinoceros, the mandrill and 
other species, all of them of extreme interest, furnishing both skeletons, 
and skins fit for mounting. 

Of birds the most important collections are those from the Aleutian 
Islands, received from Messrs. Dall & Elliott, and from the region west 
of the Missouri, from the different Government expeditions already 
enumerated. Dr. Haast has also supplied many rarities from New 
Zealand. A special acquisition is that of the ocellated turkey from 
Honduras, presented by Mr. Sarg. This is extremely rare iu public 
museums, with a market- value, for a good skin, of about $200. 

Other notable contributions are the skin of two species of tern or 
mackerel gulls, one the Sterna longqnnnis, from Portland, Me., by Mr. 
Franklin Benner, and the other Sterna leucoptera^ from Wisconsin, pre- 
sented by Dr. T. M. Brewer, both of them the first specimens of their 
respective species hitherto detected in North America. 

A collection of eggs of birds from Arizona, by Captain Bendire, 
has also been referred to, and is of special value. 

Comparatively few reptiles have been received during the year; these 
consisting mainly of specimens brought in by the Government expedi- 
tions. We may, however, mention several valuable species from the 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec, sent on by Professor Sumichrast, and from 
Costa Eica by Professor Gabb. 

The list of fishes is very extensive, composed mainly of those brought 
in by the United States Fish Commission. These embrace a very great 
variety, including specimens of sharks, rays, and many notable fish se- 
cured on the coasts of Maine, Massachusetts, Ehode Island, »&c., as well 
as of sea salmon, lake salmon, white-fish, smelts, capelin, and other va- 
rieties from the waters of California, the Great Lakes, the Eastern 
States, and the provinces. Many fishes were brought iu also by the 
Government expeditions, and some have been received from Costa Eica 
through Professor Gabb, and several interesting species from Europe, 
through Messrs. IMiddleton & Carman, of New York. 

Of special interest in connection with the study of the fishes of the 
United States, is a series from Cuba, contributed by Professor Poey, of 



48 EEPOET OF THE SECEETAEY. 

Havana. This gentleman has contributed more than two hundred spe- 
cies, and others have been promised. 

The iish of Bermuda, collected by Mr. Goode, also tend to complete 
the list of the Atlantic species. Dr. John Edward Gray has presented 
a large number of species of fish, particularly from the Indian Ocean. 

Of the fishes from the interior of of the United States, collections 
have been made of most of the prominent kinds by Mr. James W. Mil- 
ner, of the United States Fish Commission, while Mr. George Spangler, 
of Madison, Indiana, has furnished specimens of the paddle-fish, shovel- 
headed sturgeon, and other conspicuous varieties. 

Of marine invertebrates, such as star-fishes, shells, Crustacea, worms, 
&c., immense numbers were gathered by the fish commission on the 
eastern coast, and extensive series have also been supplied by Mr. Dall 
from the Aleutian Islands. 

Many plants have been received, including a small but very interesting 
collection made by the Polaris party in high northern latitudes. In ac- 
cordance with an arrangement entered into between the Smithsonian 
Institution and the Agricultural Department some years ago, the plants 
and insects received at the IS'ational Museum are turned over to the 
last-mentioned establishment for proper care, as rapidly as is consistent 
with the duty of securing reports upon those collections made by the 
Government expeditions. 

In a similar manner human crania received are turned over to the 
Army Medical Museum, the object in both cases being to avoid dividing 
series, by combining all the specimens of the same general class in some 
one of the various Government establishments in the city. 

The collections in paleontology, mineralogj^, and geology, as already 
mentioned, are of great magnitude, and alone have filled many hundred 
boxes. These represent the most important results of the Government 
exploring expeditions. 

It will be seen, from what has been already mentioned, that the col- 
lections made during the year represent an enormous aggregate of 
material, and one requiring the utmost exertions of the limited force 
connected with the National Museum, for its proper treatment. Of course 
a strict record must be kept of everything received ; and when the 
packages are oi3ened and the contents assorted, the work of registering 
and recording begins. Sometimes this requires the identification of 
the species ; and even the mere manual labor of numbering and label- 
ing every specimen, and marking the corresponding record in the registry- 
book, is one of very great magnitude. 

After the respective collections have been properly investigated, and 
in many cases elaborate reports written concerning them, the selection 
of a reserve series for the Museum begins, which are then either placed 
upon the shelves or packed away for future treatment. The duplicates, 
which constitute a large percentage of the whole, are set aside for ex- 



EEPOET OF THE SECEETARY, 49^ 

change with other museums or for distribution to educational institu- 
tions. 

Special effort is directed on the part of the Smithsonian Institution 
toward carrying out this feature of the plan in the most thorough 
manner 5 and while the distribution thus made in 1873 has been very 
extensive, that for 1874 will be even greater still. 

It is in this particular feature that the National Museum of the United 
States differs from almost any other in the world, excepting, perhaps, 
in a single direction only, the Government Geological Museum at Vienna. 

In most other museums single specimens only of objects are offered 
or accepted, especially of such as are new to the cabinet, the labor of 
digesting the results of great expeditions being accomplished under 
other auspices, no plan being adopted to utilize any surplus, in any 
other interest than that of the establishment itself. The British Mu- 
seum, for instance, which stands at the head of all institutions of this 
kind, never parts with a duplicate, and is oppressed by the weight of its 
surplus material, even though in small proportion to the reserve collec- 
tion. 

It is a question whether any museum in the world is in receipt of so 
great an amount of material as the National Museum at Washington ; 
and were the rule of the British Museum to prevail it would be crushed 
by the weight of its own riches. The constant effort, however, on the 
part of the Smithsonian Institution to utilize this material in the interest 
of science and education, tends to keep down the mass, though it is 
only at the expense of the incessant activity and constant labor of the 
Museum force that this object is in any measure accomplished. 

In most public museums there is a corps of specialists whose business 
it is to supervise all the collections received, the British Museum hav- 
ing a large force of such officers. The fuuds available for the National 
Museum of the United States do not authj^rize the appointment of such 
officers, although some of the present assistants are prominent special- 
ists in certain branches. In order, therefore, to secure the prompt de- 
termination of the material received, and the consequent speedy dis- 
posal of the duplicates, the offers of assistance from eminent scientists, so 
frequently made, are gladly accepted, and the material placed in their 
hands for investigation. During the year this labor has been performed, 
always gratuitously, by a number of gentlemen, among whom may be 
mentioned Prof. B. D. Cope as employed in the investigation of the fos- 
sil mammals; Dr. Coues, Mr. J. A. Allen, and IMr, Ridgway on that of 
the birds; Professor Cope, of the reptiles ; Dr. Gill, Professor Gopde, 
and Mr. J. W. Milner, of the fishes; Mr. P. E. Uhler, Mr. William H. 
Edwards, Dr. A. S. Packard, Mr. Cyrus Thomas, and Dr. L. Le Conte, 
of the insects ; and Mr. William G. Biuney and others, of the shells. 

Professor Verrill has undertaken the determination of the collection 
of marine invertebrates obtained from the waters of the east coast of 

the United States, with the assistmce of Mr. S. J. Smith, Dr. Packard, 

4 8 



50 EEPOET OF THE SECEETARY. 

Professor Hyatt, and other gentlemen, while Prof. D. Baton has identi- 
fied the marine plants. To these gentlemen, the thanks of the Institu- 
tion are due for their extremely valuable services in the connection re- 
ferred to. 

On the transfer of the large number of ethnological objects from the 
lower hall and the connecting range to the new room in the second story, 
much space will be gained for the re-arrangement of the zoological 
collections, and an opportunity will be given for introducing many 
species which are now necessarily kept elsewhere, for the want of accom- 
modations. It may, however, be proper to state that for the exhibition 
of the full series of objects now in possession of the Institution, and not 
including any unnecessary duplicates, much ampler accommodations will 
be needed than can be had in the building, and if these are to be displayed 
as they should be it will be necessary at no distant day to j)rovide 
means for extending the space, either by a transfer of the entire collec- 
tion to new buildings or by making additions to that of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

In illustration of this statement, it may be remarked that, of sixty- 
seven thousand specimens of birds entered in the catalogues of 
the museum, and of which more than forty thousand are on hand, 
(the remainder having been distributed,) less than five thousand are 
mounted and on exhibition, these occupying fully two-fifths of the pres- 
ent hall; the rest are preserved as skins, in chests, drawers, and boxes, 
and of them fifteen thousand, or three times the number at present on 
exhibition, require to be displayed for the proper illustration of even 
American ornithology. 

The urgency for additional room is still greater for the mammals. 
Here, out of some five or six thousand specimens, less than so many hun- 
dred are exhibited, the remainder alone being almost sufficient to occupy 
half of the hall. Of many thousands of skeletons of mammals, birds, rep- 
tiles, and fishes, a very small percentage is shown to the public, while 
exhibition-room to the amount of thousands of square feet is required 
for specimens that now occupy drawers in side apartments. 

Of the very large collection of alcoholic specimens, which constitute 
the most important material in every public museum, scarcely anything 
is on exhibition, although the selection of a single series for this purpose 
is very desirable. 

The new ethnological gallery, already referred to, even now is scarcely 
adequate to accommodate a complete series of the ethnological specimens 
on hand, without taking into consideration the number that the explora- 
tions of the past few years may lead us to expect for the future. 

It is, however, very gratifying to be able to state, that if the proper 
plan of a national museum for the United States should be to make it 
an exponent of the ethnology, and of the animal, vegetable, and mineral 
treasures of America, this can be considered as in a great measure 
already accomplished, especially for North America, and to a very con- 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 51 

siderable degree for the middle and southern portions of the New 
World. All that is now required by the Institution for the presentation 
of such a series is proper accommodations and the means necessary to 
prepare and exhibit the same. 

With the vast number of duplicates on hand it is always easy to 
secure, in the way of exchange with foreign collections, nearly all the 
objects desired from other parts of the world, and it will probably never 
be necessary to ask for funds, to any extent, to secure such articles by 
purchase — an expense which constitutes the principal outlay of most 
foreign museums. 

Mmeralogical Collection. — The following is an account of the mineral- 
ogical department, by Dr. F. M. Endlich, who has charge of this branch 
of the museum : 

The mineralogical department of the United States National Museum 
(placed by Congress under the charge of the Smithsonian Institution) 
comprises four divisions : 

I. Mineralogy. III. Ores. 

11. Lithology. IV. Metallurgy. 

The collection of minerals occupies twelve cases, and numbers upwards 
of 3,000 specimens, belonging to 230 species. These minerals are col- 
lected from all parts of the globe, obtained to a considerable extent from 
the United States Government expeditions, and by exchange and dona- 
tions. Dana's system of mineralogy has been chosen to serve as a basis 
for the arrangement of the different species and groups, and, in order to 
render the collection of use to the visitor or student, a very elaborate 
system of labelling has been adopted. Every specimen, unless too large, 
is placed in a paste-board tray, which contains, at the same time, a label 
giving the name of the mineral, the chemical composition, crystalline 
form, if any, locality, and the name of the donor. At the beginning of 
each species in the continuous row is placed a printed "species-label," 
giving the name and chemical composition, and distinguished from the 
rest by a red border. To the front edge of its tray every specimen has 
attached a printed label with black border, showing the name and lo- 
cality. In case the mineral is not contained in a tray this label is placed 
in some conspicuous position near it. The printed labels are so distrib- 
uted as to be easily read by the visitor, at the same time disposed in 
such a manner as not to obstruct the view of the specimen. Large 
printed " division-labels" are placed at the head of each of the six divi- 
sions adopted by Professor Dana. 

This system of labelling will enable the student to see at once the 
name, composition, and locality of any mineral, and will show him its 
l)osition in the adopted system of classification. Besides these precau- 
tionary measures, to preserve the history of every individual specimen, 
a number is written on every specimen, corresponding to one in the 
mineral record, in which the labels are entered. 



52 EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 

Several very rare and valuable specimens of meteoric iron and other 
minerals are contained in the collection. In the appendix is given an 
alphabetical list of species at present represented in the mnseum. The 
enumeration of the species is based upon the catalogue of minerals pub- 
lished by the Smithsonian Institution in 1863. 

The lithological collection occupies thirteen cases, and comprises 
about 2,300 specimens. Of the various species and variety of rocks 
thus far known and described the greater part is represented. An ar- 
rangement has been temporarily adopted by which the specimens are 
arranged according to their collector, at the same time, however, retain- 
ing a certain lithological classification. A large quantity of these speci- 
mens has been brought in by the expeditions exploring the Western Ter^ 
ritories, and thus a very valuable and unique collection has resulted. 

A full suite of Saeman's (Paris) rocks is contained in the collection, 
besides a suite from Freiberg, Saxony, and other European specimens. 
Eventually the collection is to be arranged according to locality, follow- 
ing, within these bounds, some definite lithological system. A system 
of labeling analogous to that adapted for the minerals will be intro- 
duced. The size of the lithological specimens is that of similar ones in 
a large number of European collections — 3 inches by 4 inches — giving 
the collection a pleasing, uniform appearance, and facilitating the ar- 
rangement. 

Three cases are occupied by the collection of ores, which comprises 
about five hundred specimens. The object of this collection is to present 
a characteristic specimen of ore from every worked lode in the West- 
ern States and Territories. Every year comparatively large additions 
are made. These ores are labeled, giving the name, the value as 
ore, (if known,) the name of the mine, its locality, and the name of 
the donor. If this collection be completed successfully it will prove to 
be a very valuable addition to the mining statistics, and will justly 
illustrate the mineral wealth of the United States. 

A collection of metallurgical products has been organized, proposing 
to show the ores, fluxes, slags, raw and commercial products, illustrating 
the various processes in operation in the United States and other coun- 
tries. As yet this collection is small, but it may be hoped that as soon 
as its existence and object becomes more generally known, the neces- 
sary contributions of specimens will not be wanting. 

Besides these collections, representing typical specimens, the museum 
contains a very complete and handsome series of the geyserites and 
other similar deposits from the United States National Park. Series il- 
lustrating various localities famous for their yield of minerals, such as 
Wieliczka, in Polish Austria, Girgenti, in Sicily, and others, have been 
obtained. The mineralogical and geological material collected and res- 
cued by the North Polar Expedition, under the late Captain Hall, forms 
one of these interesting suites. 



EEPORT OF THE SECEETAEY. 53 

Altogether there are upward of 6,300 specimens on exhibition ; over 
800 are on hand, to be incorporated during the present year, and almost 
daily new material swells the collection. 

In connection with the mineralogical department is the mineral ex- 
change. A large number of mineral duplicates, upwards of 10,000, is 
on hand, and these, having been classified and arranged in series, 
will be distributed to institutions of learning or disposed of in exchange 
in order to increase the main collection. A limited number of good 
duplicates is kept on hand — deposited in drawers — to serve for foreign 
exchange and to afford material for study, should it be required. 

Photographs of antiquities in the British Museum. — Amongthe additions 
to the museum is a series of photographs of the most valuable contents 
of the British Museum, systematically made and arranged with the defi- 
nite object of showing man's gradual advance and the development of 
civilization from pre-historic to mediaeval times. These were made by 
S. Thompson, with the consent of the trustees of the museum, for W. 
A. Man sell & Co., of London, as proprietors, and have in part been pre- 
sented by them to the Institution. The series consists of nearly athousand 
plates and is grouped in seven parts : 

I. Pre-historic and ethnographical series. 
II. Egyptian series. 
HE. Assyrian series. 
IV. Grecian series. 
V. Etruscan and Roman series. 
YI. Antiquities of Britain and foreign mediaeval art. 

YII. Seals of sovereigns, corporations, &c. 

They will be placed on exhibition at the Institution in the large hall 
as soon as the cases are prepared to receive them. These photographs 
are a valuable contribution to the means of diffusing a knowledge of the 
largest ethnological collection in the world, and will serve as original 
materials for the use of the historian, scholar, and art-student. The 
publication of a work of this magnitude has necessarily caused an enor- 
mous outlay, and the proprietors are obliged to seek the support of men 
of culture, for whom it has been prepared. It gives us pleasure to 
recognize the importance to art and science of this new application of 
photography, and to recommend it to public institutions and gentlemen 
of fortune. It is not necessary to point out how valuable such a work 
would be to any library or museum, particularly in a country where but 
few can have the opportunity of seeing and still fewer that of studying 
the originals represented. 

COEEESPONDENCE. 

An immense amount of labor is every year devoted to correspondence, 
which includes subjects relating to almost every branch of human 



54 EEPOKT OF THE SECEETARY. 

thought. Among the communications are many which relate to supposed 
scientific discoveries and proposed new theories of the physical phenom- 
ena of the universe. 

There exists, especially in this country, in which there is a greater 
amount of popular diffusion of scientific knowledge than in any other, 
a class of persons who, without previous scientific training, attempt to 
solve the most difficult prctblems of general physics. Among these are 
men of considerable literary culture and much general reading, but 
wanting in the special kind of logical and mathematical training neces- 
sary for successful scientific investigation, they dissipate a large amount 
of mental energy in unproductive speculations. The correspondence 
with this class of persons is not only very onerous, but difficult to man- 
age, inasmuch as the rejection of their propositions is generally attrib- 
uted to prejudice or a kind of scientific oligarchy. The general 
method which has been adopted for dealing with them is to insist 
upon their deducing from their hypotheses some new results which 
can be immediately verified by experiment and observation, as a test 
of the value of their speculations. This demand is made on the ground 
that any hypothesis of value must not only explain what is alreadj'" 
known, but must also lead to results which have not previously been 
observed. 

Another class of correspondents write for information as to scientific 
principles on which to found inventions for special purposes. Among 
this class we have had within the last few years a large number of gentle 
men of intelligence in the Southern States, who seek to retrieve fortunes 
lost in the war by inventions which may become remunerative through 
the sale of privileges for using them. Unfortunately, in most cases the 
problems they essay are of too expensive a character to be brought to 
the test of experience without the outlay of a large amount of money, 
and frequently of too indefinite a concej)tion to warrant success even 
under the most favorable circumstances. The most remunerative inven- 
tions are those of very simple character, and of general use, such as a 
sewing-machine, rather than a steam-engine. 

Another class of correspondents consists of those who ask for the 
information as to minerals, plants, and other objects of natural history. 
In the answers to these the Institution has done great service in the as- 
sistance of students, and in the diffusion, unostentatiously, of a large 
amount of knowledge. 

In carrying on the correspondence and other parts of the general 
operations of the establishment, much assistance has been rendered by 
the collaborators of the Institution, among whom, during the past year, 
our thanks are due to Prof. S. jSTewcomb, Prof. W. Harkness, and Prof. 
Asaph Hall, of the Naval Observatory ; Prof. J. E. Hilgard, C. A. Schott, 
and Prof. William Ferrel, of the Coast Survey ; Dr. Woodward and Dr. 
Otis, of the Army Medical Museum ; Prof. J. P. Lesley and W. E. 
Dubois, of Philadelphia; Prof. W. D. Whitney and Prof. J. D. Dana, 



EEPOET OF THE SECEETARY. 5^5; 

of ]^ew Haven ; J. H. Trumbull, of Hartford ; Prof. F. L. O. Eoehrig, 
of Ithaca, New York ; Dr. Henry Wurtz and Prof, Eaymond, of New 
York; Dr. L. D. Gale, Edw. Clark, esq., v7. Q. Force, Prof. C. Abbe, 
of Washington, and others, especially in natural history, mentioned in 
connection with the operations of the museum. 

WORK DONE IN THE INSTITUTION AND IN CONNECTION WITH OTHER 

ESTABLISHMENTS. 

The Secretary, in addition to the general direction of the scientific 
operations of the Institution, has continued during the past year his 
investigations in regard to fog-signals and other aids to navigation, and 
has discharged the duties of chairman of the Light-House Board, visitor 
to the Government Hospital for the Insane, president of the National 
Academy of Sciences, and trustee of the Corcoran Art Gallery. 

Professor Baird, the assistant secretary, in addition to the arrange- 
ment of the materials received by the museum, making up duplicates 
for distribution, and the general direction of the system of exchanges, 
has continued the duties with which he was charged by the President of 
the United States in accordance with the law of Congress, namely, that 
of prosecuting an inquiry into the present condition of the fisheries of the 
coast and lakes, and the suggestion of methods for their improvement. 
As in 1871 and 1872, he spent the principal part of the summer season 
in carrying on his mission. He established himself on Peak's Island 
in Portland Harbor, where, with a large force of volunteer naturalists, 
he was engaged from July until October. 

The law of Congress under which his work is carried on directs the 
departments of the Government to render him all the aid in their power, 
and in pursuance of this the Secretary of the Navy placed at his dispo- 
sition the United States steam-tug Blue Light, under Commander L. 
A. Beardslee, United States Navy, properly fitted for her purposes and 
provided with all the apparatus necessary for deep-sea research ; and 
with the co-operation of Prof. A. E. Verrill, an eminent zoologist of 
Yale College, his associate in this work, he succeeded in solving many 
of the problems of the inquiry, as well as in securing at the same time 
a great amount of material in the way of specimens of marine animals 
for the National Museum, embracing a very largfe number of species^ 
among them numerous forms entirely new or previously unknown on- 
our coast. 

In addition to the examination and classification of the minerals w^hicli 
have been received at the Institution, and making up sets for distiribu- 
tion. Dr. Endlich has made a qualitative examination of a large number 
of specimens of minerals which have been submitted for that purpose 
to the Institution. For purposes of education the Institution furnishes 
qualitative determinations of mineralogical specimens, but in no case- 
will it undertake to furnish percentages of the different components ot 



56 REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

specimens, or give certificates for commercial purposes of their value. 
In regard to work of this class, the following rules have been adopted: 

1. All applications for the examination of specimens must be made 
by letter, addressed " Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution." 

2. The specimens examined, or a part of them, will be retained by 
the Institution. 

3. All specimens are to be delivered to the Institution free of expense. 

Mr. Meek, who still retains his connection with the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, has continued during the past year his palseontological inves- 
tigations relative to the specimens collected by various State and Gen- 
eral Government surveys. He spent last summer in Colorado in the in- 
vestigation of the geology of the region, returned to Washington in 
October, but on account of the weak condition of his lungs he thought 
it prudent to spend the present' winter in Florida, carrying with him a 
part of his library and a series of specimens with which to continue his 
work. 

Dr. Theodore Gill, who has special charge of the Smithsonian deposit 
in the Library of Congress, and devotes his extra time in the Institution 
to natural history, has been engaged during the past year in the study 
of the vertebrates generally, the results of which have been partially 
publislied in a memoir on the number of classes of vertebrates and their 
natural relations. He has also revised the nomenclature of the marine 
fishes of our eastern coast from Greenland to Florida, and prepared a 
catalogue of them for the report of the United States Commissioner of 
Fish and Fisheries, and has, at the request of the same officer, investi- 
gated the genus Micropterus, comprising the black-bass, &c., and defi- 
nitely established its species and nomenclature. 

The Institution in 1870, fitted up a photographic apartment, under 
the charge of Mr. T. W. Smillie, in which photographs are taken of 
specimens of archaeology and of natural history for illustrating the pub- 
lications of the Institution, and for distribution to other museums. 
During the past year a large number of food-fishes and prehistoric re- 
mains have been photographed. 

The specimens of the Institution are open to all investigators for 
study, and no work of importance on natural history has been published 
within the last twenty years in this country which has not been in- 
debted to this establishment for the use of materials and other facilities 
in its production. The same privilege has been granted, under certain 
Testrictions, to the officers of the Institution, and Professor Baird has 
availed himself of this by employing his leisure time for several years 
in the production of an extensive work on North American ornithology. 
In this enterprise Professor Baird has associated with himself Dr. Thos. 
M. Brewer, of Boston, and Mr. Eobert Eidgeway, of Illinois. The work 
is published by Messrs. Little & Brown, of Boston, who have printed 



REPOET OF THE SECEETAEY. 57 

three volumes, quarto size, einbraciug the land-birds. A second part, 
that on the water-birds, is in an advanced state of preparation, and the 
whole will be published within the year 1874. The work is fully illus- 
trated by engravings finely executed in wood-cuts and in colored plates, 
and it is believed will meet a want long felt and expressed as to a man- 
ual of American ornithology. 

CONCLQSION. 

From the foregoing statements it will be evident that the Institution 
is still in a prosperous condition 5 that it is continually increasing in 
usefulness and reputation ; that, although the current operations will be 
somewhat impeded during 1874 by the failure of the First National 
Bank, yet the effect of this loss will be but temporary ; and that, with 
the appropriation from Congress for the care of the museum, the 
legitimate objects of the Institution can be prosecuted with more energy 
than heretofore. 

Kespectfully submitted. 

JOSEPH HENRY, 

Secretary, 

Washington, January, 1874. 



APPENDIX TO THE REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



TaMe showing the numher of eniries in the record-books of the Smithsonian Museum at the 
close of the years 1872 and 1873, respectively. 



Class. 



1872. 



187i 



Skeletons aud skulls... 

Mammals 

Birds 

Eeptiles 

Fishes 

Eggs of birds 

Crustaceans 

Mollusks 

Radiates 

Auuelids 

FossiJs. invertebrate .. . 

Minerals 

Ethnological specimens 



12, 450 


13, 290 


11, 195 


11, 625 


62,718 


65, 950 


7,729 


8,222 


9, 758 


12,514 


16, 322 


16,710 


2, 187 


2, 194 


24,792 


24, 792 


3,107 


3,139 


100 


100 


7,715 


7, 725 


7, 167 


8,108 


11, 609 


13, 084 



Total. 



176, 749 



187, 453 



Increase for 1873 10,704 

Approximate table of distribution of duplicate specimens to the end q/"lS73. 



Class. 



Distribution to the 
end of 1872. 



Distribution 
during 1873. 



Total to end of 

1873. 



Skeletons and skulls 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Fishes 

Eggs of birds 

Shells 

Crustaceans 

Radiates 

Other marine invertebrates . . 
Plants and packages of seeds 

Fossils 

Minerals wnd rocks 

Ethnological specimens 

Insects 

Diatomaceous earths 

Total 



344 

963 

24, 069 

1,841 

2,517 

6,627 

84, 617 

1,078 

583 

1,844 

20, 370 

4,112 

5, 313 

1,676 

2,248 

58 



864 

1,890 

37, 095 

2, 970 

5, 398 

16, 720 

187, 192 

2,650 

778 

5,160 

29, 705 

10, 141 

10, 702 

1,739 

4, 294 

662 



45 

75 

511 

134 

200 
49 
20 



250 
1,100 
790 
250 
350 
50 
100 



3, 000 



10, 000 



140 
210 

500 



450 

230 

2, 000 

150 



389 

1,038 

24, 580 

1,975 

2,717 

6, 676 

84,637 

1,078 

583 

1,844 

23, 370 

4,112 

5,453 

1,886 

2,748 

83 



1,114 

2, 990 
37, 885 

3, 220 
5,748 

16,770 

187, 292 

2, 050 

778 

5, 160 

39, 705 

10,141 

11, 152 

1.969 

6, 294 

812 



158, 260 



317,960 



163, 169 



333, 680 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 59 

ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION (UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM) 
IN 1873. 

Abbott, Glias. C. — One bottle specimens, fish, [Hybognathus osmerinus,) 
from Trenton, N. J. 

Addison, Mr. — Skin of x)lover [Gharadrius Azarm) from Brazil. 

Agassiz, Frof. Louis. — (See under Cambridge.) 

Aiken, C. E. — A collection of birds from Colorado. 

Alcorn, Hon. J. L. — One Indian pipe from Coahoma County, Miss. 

Alden, George J. — Skins of blue heron {Florida coerulea) and avocet 
{Becurvirostra americana) from Manatee, Fla. ; one specimen (fcetal) of 
oi^ossum (Fidelphys virginiana) from New Smyrna, Fla. 

Allen, Frof. J. A. — (See under Washington, War Department, U. JS. A., 
Yello wstone Expedition. ) 

Altli, Fr. Alois. — (See under University of Krakau.) 

Ames, James T. — A collection of minerals from the Chester, Mass., 
emery-mines. 

Anderson, H. G. — One box of minerals from Wisconsin. 

Anderson, W. — Indian stone imijlements from Brownsville, Ohio. 

Andreics, Frof E. B. — A meteorite from Concord, Ohio. 

Armitage, J. — (See under W. F. Wheeler.) 

Ashbaugh, Dr. A. — Five Indian skulls, three stone axes, three pipes, 
and one stone pestle, from the Wesc. 

Atkins, G. G. — Four boxes of fresh fish for casting from Bucksport, 
Me. 

Austin, E. F. — Indian stone implements from Michigan. 

Avery, Dr. W. R. — One skin, pigeon hawk, {Falco columbarius,) from 
Greensborough, N. C. 

Baird, Frof Spencer F. — (See under Washington, Interior Department, 
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries.) 

Baker, Isaac G. — One Indian stone implement from Scarborough, Me. 

Ball, J. W. — One stone pestle from Ball's Bluff, Va. 

Barnum, Fhineas T. — Specimens in the flesh of Malayan tapir, {Rhino- 
choerus sumatranus ;) Bactrian camel, {Gamelus bactrianus;) Drome- 
dary, {Gamelus dromedarius ;) African panther, {Felis, sp.;) mandril, 
{Gynocephalus ;) rhinoceros; manatee, {Manatus americanus;) and a 
Shetland pony ten days old. 

Barringer, Faul. — Nest and egg of blue yellow-backed warbler {Farula 
Americana) from Mebanesville, N. C. 

Batty, J. H. — One mounted specimen ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) 
from Bloomtield, N. Y. ; two boxes of birds from New York. (See 
also under Washington, Interior Department, United States Geological 
Survey.) 

Belknap, Gommodore G. E., United States Navy — (See under Washing- 
ton, Navy Department, Bureau of Navigation.) 



^0 ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 

Bendire, Gapt. Chas., United States Cavalry. — One box of birds' nests 

and eggs, from Arizona. 
Bessels, Dr. Until. — (See under Washington, Navy Department, Polaris 

expedition.) 
Bissell, Geo. B. — Specimen of hair-worm {Gordius, sp.) from Irondale, 

Mo. 
Blaine, John IE. — One box of minerals from Montana. 
Blossom, J. B. — One box of salmon from Bathurst, N. S. 
Blunt, Gapt. A. P., Quartermaster'' s Department, United States Army.— 

Head and horns of mountain sheep, {Ovis montnna.) 
Boardman, Geo. A. — Oue box of salmon from Calais, Me. ; one bird- 
skin. 
Boisnuier, Edward. — One box of white-fish from Sandwich,- Ont. 
Bonsall, J. Vincent. — One box of minerals from Eising Sun, Md. 
Booth, H. — Shells from the west coast of North America. 
Boyd, S. S. — Specimens of crude salt from Lincoln, Nebr. 
Bradley, Prof. F. H. — (See under Washington, Interior Department, 

United States Geological Survey.) 
Breed, E. E. — Eggs of duck-hawk [Falco anatmi>i) from Embarrass, 

Wis. 
Brendel, E. — A collection of plants from Peoria, 111. 
Benner, Franklin. — Skins of laughing gull (Larus atricilla) and Tern 

{Sterna hairdii, n. s.) from Portland, Me. 
Brool's, T. B. — One box of minerals from Marquette, Mich. 
Bryan, 0. N. — Human bones from mounds in Iowa ; stone implements 

froin Maryhxnd. 
Cambridge, Mass., Museum of Comparative Zoology, (Prof. Louis Agas- 

siz.) A series of casts of the crania of Mastodon giganteus from the 

Wyman series. 
Campbell, Archibald. — (See Washington, nortliern boundary survey.) 
Carpenter, Capt. W. L., United States Infantry. — (See under Washington, 

Interior Department, United States Geological Survey.) 
Case, J. — Quartz arrow-heads from Troy, Pa. 
Case, E. A. — Oue box of birds' eggs from North Law^rence, Kans. 
Casey, T. L.,jr. — Collections of shells irom Florida and Cuba. 
Calon, Hon. J. D. — Skins of mule-deer, {Cervus macrotis ;) black-tail 

deer, {Cervus Columbianus ;) and hybrid deer, from his park in Ottawa, 

111. ; specimens of petrified wood from California. 
Cheney, Simeon F. — Skeleton of sea-seal [Erignathus barbatus) from Grand 

Man an, N. B. 
Chicago, Academy of Sciences, Dr. J. W. Velie. — Twelve eggs of "man- 
of-war bird,'' {Tachypetes aquila.) 
Christ Church, Neio Zealand, Canterbury Museum, Dr. Julius Haast. — A 

collection of bird-skins ; a collection of stone implements of the Moa 

hunters; a collection of Dinornis bones from Kjoeklcen-moeddings; 
complete skeletons of Dinornis giganteus and Paiapteryx elephantopus. 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 61 

andtlie leg-bones of Dinornis gracilis, Dinornis casuarius, and Binornis 
didiformis, all from New Zealand. 

Clark, Dr. E. J. — One Indian stone maul. 

ClarJc, John M. — Specimens of Indian pottery from Milledgeville, Ga. 

Clarice, Stephen. — One box of minerals from Virginia. 

Clements, Mr., United States surveyor-general for Utah. — One package 
of ores from Utah. 

Coe, W. W. — Nest and skin of warbling fly-catcher ( Vireo gilmis) from 
Portland, Conn. 

Cole, Seward. — One seal-gut coat from Alaska. 

Coleman, Geo. S. — One specimen of clay from Kosse, Tex. 

Cooper, Dr. J. G. — One box of bird-skins from California. 

Cooper, W. A. — Skins of king-bird [Ceryle alcyon) and Cassin's fly- 

■ catcher, {Tyrannus vociferans,) and eggs of Gairdner's woodpecker, 
{Picus Gairdneri,) and chestnut-backed tit, {Parus rufescens,) from 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Copley, Charles L. — Two tanks of fishes in alcohol from Tompkinsville, 
Staten Island, N. T. 

Cones, Br. Elliott, United States Army. — Bird-skins from Arizona; skins, 
skeletons, and skulls of mammals ; birds from Fort Eandail. (See also 
Washington; Department of State; Northern boundary survey.) 

Coiodrey, Dr. S. G., United States Army, (through Army Medical Mu- 
seum.) — Cast skin of black-snake {Bascanion constrictor) and rattles of 
rattlesnake {Caudisona confluenta) from Fort Larned, Kansas. ^ 

Craicford, J. A. — Indian i30ttery from Davenport, Iowa. 

Cushman, Doctor. — Indian stone implements from Wiscasset, Me. 

Dall, ^¥m. H., Coast Survey U. S. A. — Twenty-seven boxes and kegs of 
general zoological and ethnological collections from the Aleutian 
Islands. 

Day, Mr. — Specimens of sandstone and lignite from Maryland. 

Delaney, Hon. John, postmaster-general of Newfoundland. — Bones of 
[Phoca, sp.) and great auk, {Alca impennis ;) two bottles specimens 
of capelin {Mallotus villosus) from St. John's, Newfoundland, 

Dille, I. — Specimens of tourmaline and lignite from Washington, D. C. 

Douglas, Charles. — Two specimens, in the flesh, of evening grosbeak 
{Hesperiphona vespertina) from Waukegan, 111. 

Elsaugli, David. — One box of minerals from Maryland. 

Edmunds, M. C. — Specimens of smelt [Osmerus, sp.) from Lake Cham- 
plain. 

Edwards, VinalN. — [See nndeT Washington; Interior Department ; United 
States Commission of Fish and Fisheries.) 

Elliott, Henry W., special agent Treasury Department United States. — Five 

boxes of bird-skins, nests, and eggs from the Prybilov Islands, Beh- 

ring Sea. 

Elliott, Capt. Jas. — One specimen flying-fish [ExocoBtus, sp.) from Brazil. 

Endlich, Dr. F. M. — A collection of minerals from Europe. (See also 



62 ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 

under Washington ; Interior Department ; United States Geological Sur- 
vey.) 

Evans, ^Y. W. — Oue box of pottery and silver articles from Peru. 

FeucMwanger, Dr. Louis. — One box of minerals. 

Fitzhugh, D. H. — Specimens of grayling [Thymallus tricolor) from Au 
Sable River, Michigan. 

Foreman, Mrs. — Ohipi^ed flints from Hot Springs, Arkansas. 

Fortin, P. — One skin cod-fish {Gadus morrhua) from Canada, (type of 
Gadus ductor, Fortin.) 

Frelliclc, Gapt. John. — One specimen sea-horse {Hippocampus, sj).] from 
Saint George's Banks. 

Fuller, A. N. — Two nests and six eggs Bell's fly-catcher ( F^reo Belli) 
from Lawrence, Kans. 

Gabb, Prof. William M. — Seven boxes general collections from the Tala- 
manca expedition, Costa Rica. 

Garland, William H. — A specimen in the flesh of western red-tailed 
hawk (Buteo calurus) from Amherst County, Virginia. 

Gatch, S. H. — Oue package of plants from Oregon. 

Giles, Norioood. — One box of birds' nests from Wilmington, IST. C. 

Gizer, B. F. — Oue Lepidopterous larva from Stoyestowu, Pa. 

Glover, Lieut. Bussell, United States Revenue-Marine. — Fossil-shells from 
vicinity of Baltimore, Md. 

Goode, G. Broimi. — (See under Middletoivn ; Museum of Middletoum Uni- 
versity ; also under Washington; Interior Department; United States 
Commission of Fish and Fisheries.) 

Gorman, CooTc. — One box of minerals from Talladega County, Alabama. 

Gray, Dr. John Edward, British Museum. — A collection of fishes. 

Green, H. A. — Oue specimen of arragonite from Atco, N. J. 

Green, Seth. — Oue box of fish from Rochester, N. Y. 

Haast, Dr. Julius. — (See under Christ Church, Canterbury Museum.) 

Hale, Dr. J. D. — One Indian arrow-head from Fentress Couuty, Ten- 
nessee. 

Hamlin, Dr. A. C. — One specimen of meteorite from Searsmount, Me. 

Hammond, Dr. John F., United States Army. — Two alleged asses' skulls 
from Texas, 

Hanna, George B. — One box of minerals from North Carolina. 

Hardenburgh, L. B., United States surveyor-general for Califo^'nia. — 
Ten packages of minerals from California. 

Earford, G. H. — One box of ethnological specimens from California. 

Harrington, C. — One egg of blue-tailed kite (Bostrhamus sociabilis) 
from Florida 5 one egg of Allen's towhee, {Pipilo Alleni.) 

Harris, H. H. — Oue jbox of minerals from Claiborne County, Missis- 
sippi. 

Hays, W. W. — One skin of rail {Ballus Virginianus) from San Luis 
Obispo, Cal. 

Hcaton, J. C. — One specimen of beetle from Victoria, Tex. 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 63 

Hensliaw^ H. W. — (See under Washington ; War Department; United 

States Army surveys west of the one hundredth parallel.) 
JIolden,Prof. William. — {See ni\der Marietta ; Marietta College.) 
Holle^ibush, H. W.— One large stalactite from Crystal Cave, Berks 

County, Pennsylvania. 
Hoopes, William A. — Specimens of native silver from Isle iioyale, 

Mich. 
Homer, Br. FredericTc, United States Navy. — A brancli of a tree injured 

by hail. 
Hough, Dr. F. B. — One box of ethnological specimens. 
Hoicard, A. M. — Specimens of Indian pottery from New Mexico. 
Hurlbut, G. H. — One skeleton of pinchacaor danta, {Tapirus pinchaque,) 

one banana in alcohol from Costa Rica; two boxes of bird-skins from 

Bogota. 
leicett, Col. E. — One box of ethnological specimens from Florida. 
Johnston, C. E. — One specimen of horned toad [Phrynosoma^ sp.) from 

Saint George, Utah. 
Kelly, F. X. — One nest of tarantula spider, 
Kelly, Robert. — One specimen of pyrite. 
Krakau University, Dr. Alois Alth. — A series of minerals from the 

Wieliezka salt-mines. 
Lanman, Chas. — A collection of minerals from Virginia. 
Learning, Dr. F. — One cast of Indian stone implement from Jeifersou 

County, Indiana. 
Lee, Mary J. — A collection of minerals from Bremond, Tex. 
Leonard, H. L. — One box of land-locked salmon, {Salmo sebago,) fresh 

specimens, from Lnbec Pond, Maine. 
Lente, W. K. — A collection of bird- skins from the West Indies. 
LocJchart, W. T. — One specimen of cinnabar from Oakville, Cal. 
Ijove, W. C. — Specimens of fossil-shells from Marlborough, Md. 
Ludington, C. — Specimens of oyster {Ostrava Virginiamis) from the Po- 
tomac River. 
Luptoi', S. B. — -A collection of minerals from West Virginia. 
Lyon, Ron. Caleb. — One -package of eggs. 
McFarlane,B., Hudson Bay Compariy. — Skin of foetal eight-legged beaver 

[Castor Canadensis) from Fort Simpson, Hudson Bay Territory. 
McKinley, William. — ^^Aucient Indian funeral-urn from Miiiedgeville, 

Ga. 
McBae, John, Hudson Bay Company. — One skin of black marmot [Arc- 

tomys monax, melauistic) from Athabasca. 
Mains, M. P. — One box of fossils from Bull River, S. C. 
Marietta, 0., Marietta College, Prof. William Holden. — A collection of 

reptiles and fishes from Eastern Ohio, (deposited.) 
Marshall, U. S. — (See under W. F. Wheeler.) 
Marvin, A. B. — (See under Washington, Interior Department, United 

States Geological Survey.) 



64 ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 

Ilaynard, C. J. — Sternum of martin {Progne subis) from Massachusetts. 

Meigs, Gen. M. G. — Spoons made of buflalo-horn from the Yellowstone, 
one package of Indian implements from Arizona, skin and head of 
mule-deer, {Gervus maerotis^) one Indian stone-chisel, a collection of cre- 
taceous fossils from Heart River, Mo., a specimen of terebratula, sp,, 
from Ingleton, Ala., two packages of seeds of the " sujaro," or giant 
cactus, from Arizona. 

Merriam^ G. Hart. — A collection of birds from Florida, six skins of pine- 
creeping warblers, {Bendrceca pinus,) from Florida. (See also 'under 
Washington^ Interior Department, United States Geological Survey.) 

Middleton, Garnian & Go. — (See under Washington, United States Goni- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries.) 

Middletown, Gonn., Museum of Middletoum University, G. Brown Goode. — 
A collection of fishes from the Bermuda Islands, a collection of min- 
erals from Connecticut. (See also under Washington, United States 
Gommission of Fish and Fisheries.) 

Moore, G. E. — A living specimen of salamander [Amblystoma vigrinum) 
from Johnstown, Va. 

Moore, Gol. James M., United States Army. — Skin of puma {Felis con- 
color) from Wyoming Territory. 

Moore, W. H. — A collection of fossils from Topeka, Kans. 

Moses, F. K. — One Indian stone implement, from Bucksport, Me. 

Mann, Archibald. — The jaws of giant cuttle-fish {Octopus) from New- 
foundland. 

Minn, Dr. G. E., United States Army. — Specimens of infusorial earth, 
Fort Wood worth, D. T. 

Moreno, President, (through Hoh.Eumsey Wing.) — Skeleton andmounted 
skin of pinchaca ( Tapirits roalini) from Ecuador. 

Neicman, Joseph, (through Department of Agriculture.) — Arrow-heads, 
from Woodlawn, Md. 

Nichols, Dr. G. H., Government Asylum for the Insane. — A fresh speci- 
men of European tame swan. 

Onden, Mr. — One bottle of insects from New Orleans. 

Ogle, David G. — Minerals and ethnological specimens from Maryland. 

Oudesluys, G. L. — Specimens of asbestos from Virginia and Maryland. 

Owsley, Dr. J. B. — Specimen of fossil- wood from Butler County, Ohio. 

Fackard, Dr. A. S. — (See under United States Gommission of Fish and 
Fisheries.) 

Paine, W. W. — Sword, &c., from the wreck of the British vessel Rose, 
in the Savannah River, Ga. 

Palmer, Fdivard. — [See under United States Gommission of Fish and 
Fisheries.) 

Fattison, H. A. — One box of fossils from Flint River, Ala. 

PaMon, A. — Ethnological specimens from Indiana. 

Paxton, Gapt. J. W., (through J. W. Milner.) — Ethnological specimens 
from Alpena, Mich. 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 65 

Feale, Br. A. C. — (See auder Washington, Interior Department, United 
States Geological Survey.) 

Peck, P. P. — Fossil shark's teeth from Richmond, Ya. 

Peelor, David. — Specimens of stickle-back {Gasterosteus, sp.) from Johns- 
town, Pa. 

Perrine, T. M. — Photographs and casts of Indian implements. 

Pickett, John T. — Cast of fossil {Cucullcea gigantea) from the Eocene of 
Montgomery County, Ala. 

Pike, Capt. Nicholas, United States consul. — A collection of shells from 
Mauritius. 

Plummer, E. J. — Specimens of silver ores from California. 

Poey, Prof. Felipe, University of Havana. — One keg of alcoholic lishes 
and one box of skeletons of fishes from Cuba. 

Powell, Samuel. — One specimen of file-fish {Monacauthus setifer) and 
other fishes, and eggs of Paia, from Narragansett Bay. 

Powell, Maj. J. W. — (See under Washington, Interior Department, Smith- 
sonian Institution.) 

Putnam, J. D. — One box of insects from Iowa. 

Quarles, B. M. — Specimens of calcite from Healing Springs, Bath 
County, Va. 

Bay, G. E. — A collection of minerals from Arkansas. 

Beeder, H. J. — Specimens of fish [Percopsis guttatus) from vicinity of 
Easton, Pa. < 

Beese, J. W. — Specimens of bark from Visalia, Cal. 

Bhees, W. J. — Specimens of lignite from Fourteenth-street road, Wash- 
ington. 

Bhoads, Dr. F. — Two specimens of fish {Dorosonia cepedianum) from 
Shawneetown, 111. 

Bhoads, Thomas. — One box of ethnological specimens from Ohio ; one 
skin of Savannah sparrow {Passerculus savanna) from Florida. 

Bidgway, Bohert. — A collection of birds and a specimen of mole {Scalops 
argentatus) from Mount Carmel, 111. ; specimens of Dermestes, sp. 

Einker, James T. — One insect. 

Bohertson, M. B. — One box of ores from Lynchburgh, Ya. 

Bohertson, B. S. — One box of Indian bones from mounds in Fort Wayne, 
Ind. 

Bockwell, R. E. — Specimens of vermiculite from Millbury, Mass. 

Bothrock, Dr. J. T. — (See under Washington, War Department, United 
States Army surveys west of the one hundredth parallel.) 

Boyal College of Surgeons, London, England. — A mounted skeleton of 
jackal {Ganis aureus.) 

Busk, Hon. T. M. — One box of minerals from Yirginla. 

Butter, H. — One box of fish from Fredericton, N. B. 

Saint Paul, Minn., Academy of Natural Science. — Eggs of marbled god- 
wit {Limosa fedoa) from Saint Paul. 
5 s 



fob ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 

Salisbury Museum, Salisbury , 3ngland. W. Blacl-anore. — Four boomerangs. 
I'rom Australia. 

Sanborn, J. K. — Minerals from Verniont. 

Sarg, F. — One skin of Honduras turkey {Meleagris ocellata) from Hon- 
duras. 

Scammon, Capt. G. M., United States Revenue Marine. — Seven boxes of 
cetacean skeletons from the Pacific. 

Schlottmann, Dr. A. — One package of insects from Fayette County, 
Texas. 

Schliemann, Ih\ Henry. — A plaster-cast of Phoebus Apollo. 

Schuermann, Carl W. — Larva of hickory-moth {Ceratocanvpa imperiaUs) 
from Fairfax, Va. 

Schumacher, Paul. — Ethnological collections from the Kjoekken Moed- 
dings in Oregon. 

Seyboth, Uobert, United States Signal Service, (through United States 
Signal Olfice.) — One specimen of Bohemian wax-wing [Ampelis gar- 
rulus) in the flesh from Pike's Peak. 

Shepard, Prof. C. U. — One box of minerals. 

SMllings, Robert F. — Indian stone implements from Peak's Island, Me. 

■Slamm, Lieut. J. A., United States Revenue Marine. — Collection from 
shell-heai)s, Eogue's Island. 

Smith, Isaac B. — Specimens of Tarantula and nest from Arizona. 

Smith, 8. W. — Specimens of sandstone fr^m Brookville, Pa. 

Smith, W. S. — Specimens of mica from Alabaaia. 

■Snow, A L. — Indian bones from caves in Eastern Tennessee and West 
Virginia. 

Soriano, M. S. — A series of bismuth ores from San Luis Potosi. 

Southwell, J. H. — A collection of arrow-heads from Port Byron, 111. 

Spangler, George. — Three boxes of minerals, fossils, and Indian stone 
implements from Madison, Ind. Four specimens of shovel-nose stur- 
geon {Polyodon folium) from the Ohio River. 

Spencer, Charles W. — One box of birds' eggs. 

Stanley, Col. D. S., United States Army. — A living specimen of kangaroo- 
rat (i)ipo(^omi/s ordii) from the mouth of Powder Eiver. (See also 
under Washington, War Department, Yelloiostone expedition.) 

Stevenson, James. — One skin of Neosorex from Mount Elbert, Colo. 

Stille, Caroline B. — A specimen, in the flesh, of cliff-swallow {Rirundo 
lunifrons) from Washington, D. C. 

Stone, Livingston. — {^0,% under United States Commission of Fish and 
Fisheries.) 

.Stuart, James. — One bottle of alcoholic orthoptera from Winnipeg, 
British America. 

Sumichrast, Prof. F. — One skeleton of Baird's tapir, [Flasmognathus 
Bairdii,) one box of reptiles, and two boxes of skins and skeletons of 
mammals from Tehuantepec. 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 67 

Swan, James G. — One box of ethnological specimens from Port Town- 
send, Wash. Terr. 
Taylor^ Charles M. — One box of minerals from West Virginia ; one per- 
forated stone disk. 
Thayer, Abbot R. — One skin of Traill's fly-catcher {Empidonax trailU) 

from Brooklyn, IST. Y. 
Thompson, A. M. — (See under Washington, Interior Depai'tmcnt, Survey 

of the Colorado.) ■ . 

Toner, Dr. J. M. — Specimen of intestinal worm. 
Townsend, J. L. — One skin of green finch {Pipilo clilorura) from Salt 

Lake City. 
Trefethen, W. S., & Co. — (See under United States Gomm-ission of Msh 

and Fisheries.) 
Turner, Br. S, 8. — One specimen, in the flesh, of American magpie 

{Pica httdsoniea) from Dakota. 
Turner, Samuel. — A deformed head of fox squirrel {Sciurtis ludovlci- 

anus) from Mount Carrael, 111. 
Velie, I)r. J. W. — (See under Chicago Academy of Sciences.) 
Verrill, Frof. A. TJ. — (See under Washmigton, Interior Department, United 

States Commission of Fish and Fisheries.) 
Vetromile, Bev. Eugene. — A collection of Indian stone implements from 

Maine and New Brunswick, (deposited.) 
Ward, Prof. E. A. — One skeleton of moose, {Alee Americanus.) 
Washington, D. C. : 

Department of State, U. S. A., United States survey of the northern 
boundary, (Hon. Archibald Campbell, commissioner.) — Zoological, 
botanical, and ethnological collections, made by Dr. Mliot Coues, 
naturalist of the expedition. 
Treasury Department, U. S. A. — (See under the name of iZ. W. Elliott.) 
United States Revenue Marine. — (See elsevThere, under the names 
of Capt. G. M. Scammon, Lieut. Russell Glover, and Lieut. J. 
A. Slamm.) 
War Department, U. S. A. : 

United States Army. — (See under the names of Gen. 3L G. Meigs, 
Col. D. 8. Stanley, Col. James M. Moore, Capt. A. P. Blunt, 
Capt. Charles Bendire, Capt. W. L. Carpenter.) 
Surgeon- GeneraVs Office: United States Army Medical Museum', 
(Dr. G. A. Otis in charge of division.) — Two Indian jars and 
one arrow-head from Florida; one Indian spear-head from 
Madison Barracks, IST. Y. (See also under the names of 
Drs. J. F. Hammond, James F. Weeds, Elliott Coues, C. E, 
Munn, S. G. Coivdrey, and H. G. Yarroiv, medical officers, 
United States Army.) 
Surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, (Lieut. G. M. Wheeler 
in charge.) — General zoological and botanical collections, 



68 ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 

made by Br. R. G. Tarroiv, 3£r. H. W. Henshaw, and Dr. J. 
T. BothrocJc.) 
Engineer and Quartermaster's Department : Yellowstone Expedi- 
tion^ (Col. D. S. Stanley in charge.) — Eighteen boxes general 
zoological, botanical, and geological collections, made by 
Prof. J. A. Allen. 
Signal Service, U. S. A. — (See under the name of Sergeant Robert 
Seyhotli.) 
'JSfavy Department, U. S. A. : Bureau of Navigation, (Oomraodore.Dan- 
iel Ammen.) — Specimens of deep-sea dredgings and of water from 
oif the coast of California, United States steamer Tuscarora, 
Commander G. Bellmap. 
Polaris Expedition, (Captain C. F. Hall.) — Zoological and geo- 
logical collections from Greenland, made by Dr. Emil Bessels. 
Interior Department, U. S. A. — Specimens of minerals from Cali- 
fornia. 

General Band- Office. — Iron pipe from Cherokee County, Nortli 
Carolina. (See also under the names of Surveyors- General 
Clements, B. E. Hardenhurgh, and John Wasson.) 
United States Geological Survey of the Territories, (Prof. F. Y. 
Hayden in charge.) — Twenty boxes general zoological and 
geological collections from Wyoming, Utal?, and Montana, 
made by Dr. A. C. Peale, Prof. F. R. Bradley, and C. R. Mer- 
riam ; thirty boxes from Colorado, by Dr. A. C. Peale, Dr. F 
M. Endlich, A. B. Marvin, J. R. Batty, and Capt. W. B. Gar 
p enter. 
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, (Prof. S. F. 
Baird commissioner.) — Sixty boxes general zoological col- 
lections from Casco Bay, Me., and vicinity, by Prof. A. E. 
Verrill, G. Brown Goode, and Edward Palmer; nineteen 
boxes of fish, &c., from the great lakes and tbe Ohio River, 
collected by J. W. Ifihier; five boxes of fish from the Sacra- 
mento River, collected by Bivingston Stone ; dredgings from 
the coast of New England, United States steamer Bache, by 
Prof. A. S. Packard ; nine boxes of fishes from Wood's Hole, 
Mass., collected by Vinal N. Edwards; three boxes of fish 
from Norfolk, Va., collected by W. R. ^»&%; specimens of 
groper {Promicrops guasa) from Florida, and of turbot, {Ehom- 
ius maximus,) brill, {Bhomhus la3vis,) and sole, {Solea vul- 
garis,) from England, from Middleton, Carman & Co, ; model 
of fishing-boat (dory) from Portland, Me. 
Smithsonian Bistitution. Survey of the Colorado, (Maj. J. W. 
Powell in charge.) — Seventeen boxes of ethnological and 
geological collections from Southern Utah, made by Maj. J 
W. Poioell and A. R. Thompson. 
Department of Agriculture, (Hon. Frederick Watts, Commis 



ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTIONS. 69 

sioner.) — A collectiou of African implements; afresh speci- 
men of lizard from South America ; one specimen of arrago- 
nite from Suisun, Cal.5 a collection of arrow-heads from 
Charleston, S. 0. (See elsewhere under other entries.) 

Wasson, John, United States surveyor-general for Arizona. — Six pack- 
ages of ores from Arizona. 

Webb, John S. — One box of shells, minerals, and fossils from Virginia; 
fangs of banded rattlesnake {Caudiso7ia horrida) from Kent's Mill, Va. 

Webber, Mrs. F. P., (through Agricultural Department.) One jar of 
alcoholic reptiles from Marietta, Ga. 

Weber, E. — Specimens of minerals. 

Webster, T. S. — Two white eggs of blue-bird {Sialia sialis) from Troy, 
N. Y. 

Weeds, Dr. James F., United States Army. — A collection of lepidoptera 
from Fort Eandall, Dakota. 

Wellborne, W. F. — A collection of minerals from Forest City, Ark. 

Wheeler, Lieut G. M., United States Army. — (See under Washington, 
War Department, U. S. A.) 

Wheeler, W. F., United States marshal, and J. Armitage. — One skin of 
mountain sheep, {Ovis montana.) 

White, If. T. — Minerals from Weldon, N. C. 

White, D. Morgan. — Specimens of bitumen from West Virginia. 

Wing, Hon. Rumsey. — Specimens from Ecuador, 

Wingard, S. C. — Seven specimens of "showtl" {Aplodontia leporifia) 
from Olympia, Wash. Ter. ' 

Wood, E. J. — Specimens of copper ore from La Grange, Ga. 

Woodman, R. T. — One barrel of oolite from Key West, Fia. 

Worth, E. M. — Three bullets from Braddock's battle-ground, Allegheny 
County, Pa. 

Yarrow, Dr. H, C, United States Army. — Three boxes offish, and a col- 
lection of shells, fossil and recent, from Fort Macon, IST. C; Egyptian 
signet-ring ; a necklace of sea-shells from Fillmore, Utah. (See also 
under Washington, War Department, Surveys icest of the one hundredth 
parallel.) 

White, Mrs. — Specimens birds' eggs from Mebanesville, IST. C. 

Whitehand, E. A. — One skin of boa, from South America. 

Whitman, G. P. — One box of fish from Rockport, Mass. 

Witter, D. E. — One box ethnological specimens from Mansfield, Pa. 

Williams, H.C. — Indian arrow-heads from Fairfax County, Va. 

Winans, James.— One specimen insect in alcohol from Xenia, Ohio. 



LIST OF MINERALS IN THE MTIOML MUSEUM, 1873. 



By Dk. F. M. Endlich. 



A 1 bite. 

Allanite. 

Alloi3haiiite. 

Alum aud var. 

Amalgam. 

Amber. 

Ampliibole and 

var. 
Anal cite. 
Auatase. 
Andalusite. 
Anglesite. 
Anhydrite. 
Anorthite. 
Authophyllite. 
Antimony. 
Apatite. 
Apophyllite. 
Aragonite. 
Argentite. 
Arguerite. 
Arsenic. 
ArsenopyritCo 
Atacamite. 
Aurichalcite. 
Azurite. 
Barite. 
Baritocalcite. 
Beryl. 
Biotite. 
Bismuth. 
Bitumen. 
Boracite. 
Borax. 
Bromyrite. 
Brookite. 



Brucite. 

Cacoxene. 

Calamine. 

Oalcite. 

Cancrinite. ' 

Carpholite. 

Cassiterite. 

Celestite. 

Cerite. 

Cerusite. 

Cervantite. 

Chabazite. 

Chalcanthite. 

Ohalcocite. 

Clialcodite. 

Chalcopyrite. 

Cblorastrolite. 

Chlorite. 

Chloritoid. 

Chondrodite. 

Chromite. 

CbrysoberyL 

ChrysocoUa. 

Chrysolite. 

Cinnabarite. 

Clinochlorite, 

Clintonite. 

Cobaltite. 

Columbite. 

Copiapite. 

Coi)per. 

Copperasite. 

Coquimbite. 

Corundum. 

Cryolite 

Cryptomorphite. 



Cuprite. 

Danburite. 

Datholite. 

Deweylite. 

Diamond. 

Diallogite. 

Diasporite. 

Dolomite. 

Domeykite. 

Embolite. 

Eustatite. 

Epidote. 

Epsomite. 

Erubescite. 

Erythrite. 

Euchroite. 

Euphyllite. 

Euxenite. 

Fergusonite. 

Fluorite. 

Eorsterite. 

Eranklinite. 

Gadolinite. 

Galeuite. 

Garnet and var. 

Gehlenite. 

Geyserite. 

Gibbsite. 

Glauberite, 

Gold. 

Gothite. 

Graphite. 

Green ockite. 

Gypsum. 

Halite. 

Harmotome. 



Hauerite. 
Hausmannite. 
Hauijnite. 
Helvinite. 
Hematite aud 

var. 
Hessite. 
Heulandite. 
Hydromagnesite. 
Hydrotalcite. 
Hypersthene. 
Idocrase. 
Ilmenite. 
lodyrite. 
lolite. 

Iron, (meteoric.) 
Iserite. 
Jamesonite. 
LuCrargyrite. 
Krrmesite. 
Keiulite. 
Kyanite. 
Labradorite. 
Lanarkite. 
Lapis lazuli. 
Laumontite. 
Lazulite. 
Leonhardite. 
Lepidolite. 
Leucite. 
Liebethenite. 
Limonite. 
Linnffiite. 
Liroconite. 
Magnesite. 
Magnetite. 



LIST OF MINERALS IN NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



71 



Malachite. 

Manganite. 

Margarite. 

Meerschaum. 

Meiouite. 

Melaconite. 

Millerite. 

Mimeteue. 

Mineral coal and 

var. 
Molybdenite. 
Muscovite and 

var. 
Natrolite. 
I^ephelite. 
Nitre. 
Oligoclase. 
Olivenite. 
Opal and var. 
Orpiment. 
Orthoclase. 
Ozocerite. 
Pectolite. 



Peridot and var. 
Pharmacoside- 

rite. 
Phlogopite. 
Pickeringite. 
Picrophyllite. 
Pitchblende. 
Polybasite. 
Prehnite. 
Psilomelane. 
Pyrargyrite. 
Pyrite. 
Pyrolu.site. 
Pyromorphite. 
Pyroxene and var. 
Pyrrhotite. 
Quartz and var. 
Quicksilver. 
Eealgarite. 
Eetinite. 
Ehodonite. 
Rutile. 
Sal ammoniac. 



Sassolite. 

Scapolite. 

Scheeletine. 

Scheelite. 

Schreibersite. 

Scorodite. 

Serpentine. 

Sillimanite. 

Silver. 

Smaltite. 

Smithsonite. 

Spinel and var. 

Spodumene. 

Stannite. 

Staurolite. 

Stephanite. 

Stercorite. 

Stibnite. 

Stilbite. 

Strontianite. 

Struvite. 

Sulphur. 

Sylvite. 



Tachydrite. 

Talc. 

Teuuantite. 

Tetrahedrite. 

Thomsouite. 

Titauite. 

Topaz. 

Tourmaline. 

Trona. 

Turquois. 

Vivianite. 

Wad. 

Wavellite. 

Whitneyite. 

Willemite. 

Witherite. 

Wolframite. 

Wollastonite. 

Wulfenite. 

Zincite. 

Zircon. 

Zoisite. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 



Tahls shoiving the statistics of the exchanges in 1873. 



Agent and country. 


i 


a 


O 
,=> 

o 

S 


a 


+i o 
Ma 


EOYAL S^VEDiSH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Stockholm: 


30 
28 
35 


45 


3 


22 


710 




KoTAL University of Norway, Ghristiania : 


110 
50 


6 


45 
15 








■ EoYAL Danish Society of Sciences, Copenhagen : 

Denmark and Iceland 


2 


480 






L. Watkins & Co., Saint PeUrsburg : 


100 

60 
120 


260 

180 
220 


8 


60 

60 
3ti 


1 9''0 






Frederick Muller, Amsterdam .- 

Holland 


8 
5 


1 9-"'0 


Belgium 


1 ''16 






Total 


180 

590 

70 


400 

900 
120 








Br. Felix Flugel, Leipsic : 

Germany 


47 
4 


350 
30 


1] ''OO 


Switzerland 


960 






Total 


C60 

250 
3 


1020 

270 
6 


51 


3bO 


12, 160 




Gust AVE Bossange, Paris .- 

France 


16 
1 


120 

7 


3 840 




'210 






JIeale Istituto Lombardi di Scienze e Letteke, Milan : 
Italy 


160 
20 


]80 
25 


8 


60 


1 O'^O 






Eoyal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon : 


2 


15 


480 






Spain 


12 


50 


4 


28 


740 






William "Wesley, London :_ 

Great Britain and Ireland 


350 
3 
4 
3 
6 
2 

4 
19 


470 
8 

12 
9 

15 
7 
9 


34 
1 

2 
1 
3 
1 
1 

38 


255 

7 
13 

7 

18 

6 

7 

230 


8 160 


Ecypt 


210 




400 


Cordova 


210 


Buenos Ayres 

Bra-oil 

Chile 


540 
180 
210 


Government exchanges to German Empire, Prussia, Bavaria, 
"Wiirtemberg, Baden, Austria, Switzerland, Greece, Norway, 
Denmark, Holland, Bijlgium, France, Italy, England, Russia, 
Portugal, Spain, Chile 


7,300 






Grand total 


1,856 


2,735 


196 


1, 476 


44 230 







LITERAKY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 



73 



Packages received hy the Smithsonian Institution from Europe in 1872 and 1873 for distri- 
bution iji America. 



Address. 



ALBANY, N. T. 



Albany Institute 

Dudley Observatory 

Medical Society of the State of New 

York 

New York State Agricultural Society 
New York State Cabinet of Natural 

History 

New York State Library 

New York State University 

Superintendent of Insurance 

Hou. Francis C. Barlow 

Prof. James Hall 

F.B. Hough 

Prof. G. W. Hougb 

C. B. O'Callagban 



ALFKED CENTRE, N. 

Observatory 

ALLEGHENY, PA. 

Alleglieny Observatory 

AMHERST, MASS. 



Agricultural College 

Amherst College 

Geological Survey of Massachusetts. 

Prof. H. J. Clarke 

Prof. B. TL Emerson 

Prof. C. U. Shepard 

Prof. E. Tuckerman 



ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



Saint John's College 

State Library 

United States Naval Academy . 

ANN ARBOR, MICH. 

Geological Survey of Michigan. 

Observatory 

University of Michigan 

Doctor Iloniuser 

Prof. J. C. "Watson 

Prof. A. Winchell 



APPLETON, WIS. 

Lawrence University , 

AUMSTRONG, IXD. T. 

Armstrong Academy 

ASHLAND, KY. 

Agricultural and Mechanical College. 

ATHENS, ILL. 

Prof. Elihu Hall 



ATHENS, OHIO. 

Ohio University 

AUGUSTA, ME. 

Commissioner of Fisheries , 

State Library 

Hon. Walter Wells 



AUSTIN, TEX. 



Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
State Library . ....... 



1873. 



1 
15 

4 i 
1 
14 



Address. 



BALDWIN CITY, KANS. 



Baker University . 



BALTIMORE, SID. 

American Journal of Dental Science 

College of Pharmacy 

Mayor of Baltimore 

Maryland Academy of Science 

Maryland Historical Society 

Maryland Institute 

Mercantile Library 

Peaborty Institute 

State Agricultural Society 

Univei'i^ity of Marvland 

Dr. J. G. Morris- ■ 

Lawrence B. Thomas 

P. K. Uhler 



1872. 



BARNET, VT. 

Vermont Historical and Antiquarian 
Society 



BATON ROUGE, LA. 

Institution for the Deaf ancl Dumb. 

State Library 

State University 

Prof. H. Herzel 



BELLEVILLE, CANADA. 

W. J . Palmer 



BLOOMINGTON, ILL. 

Illinois Natural History Society. 

BLOOMINGTON, IND. 



Indiana University , 

BOISE CITY, IDAHO. 

Territorial Agricultural Society 

BONHAM. TEX. 



State Geological Survey 



BOSTON, MASS. 

American Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences 

American Christian Examiner 

Ameiican Social Science Association. 

American Statistical Association 

American Unitarian Association . . . 
Association for Imijroving the Condi- 
tion of the Poor 

Board of Education 

Board of State Charities 

Boston AthenEBum 

Boston Society ot Natural History.. . 

Bowditch Library 

Bureau of Statistics of Labor 

Christian Register Association 

City Hospital 

Commissioner of Insurance 

Day School for the Deaf and Dumb . . 

Good Health Journal 

GynaBcological Society 

Massachusetts Asylum foi' the Blind 
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy 
Magsachusetts Historical Society 



131 

1 

9 



4 
1 

2 



74 LITEEAEY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 

Packages received ty the Smithsonian Institution from Europe, 4~g. — Cou tinned. 



Address. 



Boston, Mass.— Continued. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy 

Mai; or of the city of Boston 

Medical Gazette 

Mercantile Library 

Kew England Historic G enealogical 
Society 

North American Eeriew 

Perkins's Institution for the Blind . 

Public Library of the City 

_ State Board of Agriculture , 

btate Library 

Dr. T. M. Brewer 

Edward Burgess 

Dr. David W. Cheever 

Aivan Cl9.rke 

J. S. Clarke 

Dr. Samuel Eliot 

Mr. Hovev 

Dr. S. G. Howe 

Prof. T. Sterry Hunt 

Alpheus Hyatt 

C. E. jSTorto'n o 

D. J. C. Nott 

Dr. Albert Ordway 

Professor Pickering 

Alfred P. Kockwell 

Prof. W. B. Rogers 

J. Sandford 

S. H. Scudder 

Dr. H.R. Storer 

H. W. Warren 

Thos. H.Webb 

Eobert C. Winthrop 

W. C. Woodbridge 



BRATTLEBOROUGH, VT. 



State Lunatic Asylum . 



BROOKLINB, MASS. 

Theod Lyman 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

King's County Medical Society.. 
Long Island Historical Society.. 
Mercantile Library Association . 
Statistical Society of Brooklyn . . 
Thomas Bland 



BRUNSWICK, ME. 



Bowdoin College 

Eistorical Society 

Prof P. A. Chadbourne . 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 



Buffalo Historical Society 

Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. 

Medical and Surgical Journal 

Society of Natural History 



BURLINGTON, IOWA. 

Iowa Historical and Genealogical 
Institute 

BURLINGTON, N. J. 

W. G. Binney 

A. Engstrijm 

BURLINGTON, VT. 

Orleans County Society of Natural 

Sciences 

University of Vermont 



Address. 



CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



Cloverden Observatory 

Dana Library 

Harvard College 

Harvard College Observatory 

Herbarium of Harvard College . . - 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Philosophical Society 

Alexander Agassiz 

Prof. L. Ag-assiz 

Dr. T. A. Allen 

J. G. Anthony 

E. Biclinell . .' 

Charles Bryant 

Prof W. Ferrel 

Prof. Asa Gray 

Dr. H. Hagen 

Dr. T. Lyman 

Dr. G. a: Maack 

Prof. Jules Marcou 

Dr. Albert Ordway 

Professor B. Peirce 

Prof. John B. Perry 

L. E. de Pourtales'. 

Prof B. Pumpelly 

Dr. Stoindachner 

Sercno Watson 

Prof. J. D. Whitney 

Piof. J. Winlock 

Prof. Jeffries Wyman 



CARLISLE, PA. 



Dickinson College 

Society of Literature. 



CAESON CITY, NEV. 

State Library 

CAVE SPRING, GA. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

CEDAR SPRING, S. C. 

Institutiou for the Deaf and Dumb . 

CENTRAL CITY, COLO. 

Miners and Mechanics' Institute. . . 

CHAPEL HILL, N. C. 

University of North Carolina 

CHAPPELL HILL, TEX. 

Soule University 

CHARLESTON, S. C. 



C>ti^rleston Library Society 

Euiott Society of Natural History. .. 
South Carolina Historical Society. . . 
W. DeSaussure 



CHARLESTON, N. H. 

Samuel Webber 



CHARLESTON, W. VA. 

State Library 



CHARLOTTE, N. C. 

Eev. Dr. Miller 



CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA. 



University of Virginia 
Prof J. ^V. Mallett 



LITEEARY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 75 

Packages received hy the Smithsonian Institution from Europe, ^-c. — Coutiuned. 



Address. 



CHEYENNE, WYO. 

Territorial Library 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



Cliicafro Academy of Science 

Chicago Astronomical Society 

Chicago Board of Trade 

Chicago College of Pharmacy 

Chicago Historical Society 

Chicago Medical Tiroes 

Dearborn Observatory 

Mayor of the city of Chicago 

Public Library 

State Natural History Society 

Toung Men's Association Library 

H. Babcock 

Prof. T. H. Safford 

Dr. William Stimpson 

J. Q. A. Warren 



CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



Academy of Medicine 

Astronomical Observatory 

Astronomical Society 

College of Pharmacy 

Dental Register 

Historical and Philosophical Society. 

Mechanics' Institute , 

Mercantile Library Association 

Public Library. . .' 

Western Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences 

Dr.P.Taft 



CLIFTON, CANADA. 

TJnited States Consulate 



CLINTON, N. Y. 



Hamilton College 

Litchiield Observatory of Hamilton 

College 

Dr. C. H. E. Peters 



COALBURGH, W. VA. 

W.H.Edwards 



COLUMBIA, MO. 

Agricultural College 

Geological Surveyof Missouri 

University of Missouri 

Dr. G. C. Swallow 



COLUMBIA, PA. 

Prof S. S. Haldemau 



COLUJIBIA, S. C. 

University of South Carolina. 

South Carolina College 

State Library 1 



COLUMBUS, OHIO. 



Bureau of Statistics 

Geological Survey of Ohio 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

Ohio State Board of Agriculture 

State Library 

Prof. L. Lesquereux 

Gov. E. E. Noyes 

W. S. Sullivaiit 



CONCORD, N. H. 

Now Hampshire Historical Society. 



Address. 



Concord, N. H.— Continued. 

New Hampshire State Lunatic Asy- 
lum '. ". . 

State Library. ■- 



COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

CROW WDsG, MINN. 

Eev. Erancis Pierz 

DANVILLE, KY. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

DANVILLE, PA. 

Northern Hospital for the Insane. . . 

DECORAH, IOWA. 



Norwegian Lutheran College. 
Prof. L^Larsen '. . . 



DELAWARE OHIO. 

Wesleyau University 

DELAVAN, WIS. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

DENVER, COLO. 



Territorial Library. 
Gov. W.Gilpin 



DES JIOINES, IOWA. 

Governor of the State of Iowa . 
State Library 



DETROIT, MICH. 



Historical Society of Michigan 

Michigan State Agricultural Society. 

Public Library 

Review of Medicine and Pharmacy. . 
Orlando B. Wheeler 



DORCHESTER, MASS. 

Dr. Edward Jarvis 

DOVER, DEL. 

State Library 

DU LUTH, WIS. 

Scandinavian Library 

EASTON, PA. 



Lafayette College 

Northwestern University 

Prof. J. H. Coflan ■... 

Prof. T. C. Porter 



ELMIRA, N. ,T. 

Elmira Academy of Sciences . 

EVANSTON, ILL. 



Dr. Henrv Bannister . 
Prof. Oliver Marcy . . . 



76 LITEEAEY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 

Packages received by the Smithsonian Institution from Europe, cfc. — Continued. 



Address. 



FARIBAULT, MIN'N. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

FARMINGTON, CONN. 

Edward Norton 

FLINT, MICH. 

Institutien for the Deaf and Dumb. 

FORT EDWARD, N. Y. 

Eev. L. G. Olmstead 

FORT ERIE, CANADA. 

United States Consulate 

FORT RANDALL, DAK. 

Dr. Elliot Coues 

FOUNTAINDALE, ILL. 

M.S.Bebb 

FRANKFORT, KY. 



Geological Survey of Kentucky. 

Public Library 

State Library 



FREDERICK CITY, MD. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

FREDERICTON, NEW BRUNSWICK. 



Legislative Library 

TTuivcTsity of New Brunswick 

Prof. L. W. Bailey 

Hon. W. Bryden Jack 



FULTON, MO. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb . 

GALESEURGH, ILL. 

Lombard University 

GALESVILLE, WIS. 

Galesville University 

GAMBIER, OHIO. 

Kenyon College , 

GENEVA, N. Y. 

Prof. H. L. Smith 

GEORGETOWN, D. C. 



Georgetown College . 
Dr. Arthur Scbott. .. 



GEORGETOWN, PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

United States Consulate 

GLOUCESTER, N. J. 

Col. r. Austin 

GKEENCASTLE, IND. 

Indiana Asbury University 



Address. 



HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA. 

Nova Scotian Institute of Natural 

Sciences , 

United States Consulate 

Lieutenant Bucknell 

Lieut. Gen. Sir Hastings Doyle 

T. Matthew Jones '. 



HAMILTON, CANADA. 

United States Consulate , 

HAMLTON, N. Y. 

Madison University , 

hampden-sydnt;y, va. 
Hampden-Sydney College 

HANOVER, N. H. 



Dartmouth College . . . 

Observatory 

Prof C.H. Hitchcock. 
Prof. C. A. Toung .... 



HAN"rSPORT, NOVA SCOTIA. 

Eev. S. T. Eand 



HARRISBURGH, FA. 

Medical Society of the State of Penn- 
sylvania 

State Agricultural Society 

State Library 

State Lunatic Hospital 



HARTFORD, CONN. 



Connecticut Hospital for Insane . . . 
Historical Society of Connecticut . . 
Institution for tlie Deaf and Dumb 

State Agricultural Society 

State Library "1 

Trinity College ^ . 

Young Men's'Institute 



HELENA, MONT. 

Historical Society of Montana . 

HILLSBOROUGH, N. C. 

Eev. M. A. Curtis 



HOLLY GROVE, ARK. 

Literary Iiistitute 



HOT SPRINGS, ARK. 

Dr. Edw. Eoreman 



HOULTON, ME. 



Forest Club . 



HUDSON, OHIO. 

Western Eeserve College. 



HYATTSVILLE, MD. 

State Agricultural College . 



INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

Geological Survey of Indiana 

Indiana Historical Society 

Institute lor Educating the Blind . . . 
Institutio!] fur tbe Deaf and Dumb .. 
Mclntyre Institution for Deaf Mutes 



LITEEARY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 7T' 

Packages received hy the Smithsonian Institution from Eur-ope, <^'C. — Continued. 



Address. 



Address. 



Indianapolis, Ind. — Continued. 



State Library — 
J H. Bradley ... 
Jolin W. Byrkit . 

E. F. Cox .'. 

J. Maclntyre 

G. M. Levette.... 



INMANSVILLE, WIS. 

"Wiscoasi;i Siiaadinavian Society. . . 

IOWA Cixr, IOWA. 



Geological Survey of Iowa 

Institution for Deaf and Dumb , 

Iowa State University 

State Historical Society 

Prof. G. Hinrichs 

Prof. C. A. White 



ITHACA, N. T. 



Cornell College . . . 
Prof. F. E. Loomis 



JACKSON, MISS. 

Institute for Deaf and Dumb 

State Historical Society 

State Library 



JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 

Young Men's Christian Association . 

JACKSONVILLE, ILL. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.. 
State Hospital for the Insane 



JAMAICA PLAINS, MASS. 

Bussey Institution 

JANESVILLE, WIS. 

Wisconsin Institution for the Edu- 
cation of the Blind 



JEFFERSON CITY, MO. 

Governor of the State of Missouri . 

Historical Society of Missouri 

State Library . .'. 



JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

S. Alossen 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 

Young Men's Chriatian Association 

KEYTESVILLE, MO. 

Charles Veatch 

KINGSTON, CANADA. 



Botanical Society of Canada . 

King's College 

Queen's College 



KNOXVILLE, TENN. 



East Tennessee University 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb . 
Prof. F. H. Bradley , 



LANSING, MICH. 

State Library 

LAWRENCE. KANS. 

Kansas Historical Society.. 
Univeisity of Kansas — . , 



LEBANON, TENN. 

Cumberland University. - 
Prof. James Safford 



LEAVENWORTH, KANS. 



College of Pharmacy 

Kansas Academy of Sciences . . . 
Mercantile I ibrary Association , 



LEWISBURGH, PA. 



University . 



LEWISTON, ME. 

Androscoggin Natural History Soci- 
ety 



LEXIN'GTON, KY. 

Eastern Lunatic Asylum 

Kentucky University and State 

Agricultural Society 

Transylvania University 



LEXINGTON, VA. 

M. F. Maury 

LIBEKTY, VA. 

A. H. Curtiss 

LINCOLN, JJEBR. 

State Library 

LITTLE ROCK, ARK. 

Governor of the State of Arkansas. 
Institution for the Deal and Dumb. 

State Geologist 

State Library 

State University 



LOCKPOET, N. Y. 

Col. E. Jewett 

LONDON, CANADA. 

E.B.Eeea 

LONG VIEW, OHIO. 

Long View Asylum 

LOUISVILLE, KY. 



College of Pharmacy 

Kentucky Historical Society 

Louisville and Eichmo-id Medical 

Journal 

Public Library of Kentucky 

University of Louisville 



LYNCHBUEGH, VA. 

Medical Society of Virginia. 



78 LITERAEY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 

Packages received dy the Smithsonian Institution from Europe, ^c. — Continued. 



Address. 



LXNN, JIASS. 

Society of Natural History 

MADISON, WIS. 



Agricultural Department 

State Historical Society of Wiscon- 
sin 

Geological Survey of Wisconsin 

Ofiicecf Emigration 

State Library 

University of Wisconsin 

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts, and Letters 

Wisconsin State Agricultui'al Soci- 
ety 



MANCHESTEE, N. H. 

City Library 

MANITOBA, BEITISH AMERICA. 

Library of Saint John's College 

MARQUETTE, MICH. 

Bishop Ignatius Maak , 

MIDDLETOWN, CONDf. 

Wesleyan University 

MILLEDGEVILLE, GA. 



State Library 
University . . . 



MILWAUKEE, WIS. 



Natural History Society . 

W. Eugelmann 

Dr. L A. Lapham 



MOBILE, ALA. 

Charles Mohr 



MONTGOMERY, ALA. 



State Library. 



MONTPELIEK, VT. 

Historical Society of Vermont. 
State Library 



MONTREAL, CANADA. 

Agricultural Society of Lower Canada 

Geological Survey of Canada 

McGiil College 

Montreal Observatory 

IJatural History Society 

United States Consulate-General . 

Captain S. C. Bagg 

Prof E. Billings" 

H. Chaveau 

P. P. Carpenter 

Prof J. W. Dawson 

Lord Dufferin 

T. Sterry Hunt 

SirW. E.Logan 

Joseph McKay 

David A. P. Watt 

Dr. F. B. Wheeler 

Prof T. Whiteaves 



MOUNT FOREST, (ONTARIO,) CANADA. 

William Wylie 



Address. 



NASHUA, N. H. 

Dr. B. K. Emerson 



NASHVILLE, TENN. 

Geological Survey of Tennessee. 

State Library 

Tennessee Historical Society 

University 



NEENAH, WIS. 

Scandinavian Library Association . 

NEWARK, N. J. 

Historical Society of ISTew Jersey. . 

KEW ALBANY, IND. 

Society of Natural History 

NEW BEDFORD, MASS. 

J. H. Thomson 



NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J. 

Geological Survey of New Jersey. . 

Rutgers College 

Prof. J. C. Smock 



NEW COELN, WIS. 

Kev. T. A. Bruhm 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

American Journal of Science and 
Art 

Ameiican Oriental Society 

•Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences 

Mercantile Library 

Yale College 

Prof W. P. Blake 

Prof J. G. Brush 

Prof. J. D. Dana 

Prof. Daniel E. Eaton 

Prof. E. Loomis 

Prof. C. S. Lyman 

P ro f O. C . Mar sh 

Prof H. A. Newton 

Prof. B. Silliman 

Prof Sidney Smith 

Prof A. E. Verrill 

Prof W.D. Whitney 

Dr.T.D. Woolsey 

Doctor Young. . 1 



NEWPORT, VT. 

Orleans County Society of Natural 
Sciences 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Mayor of the city of New Orleans - . . 

Mechanics' Society Library 

New Orleans Academy of' Natural 

Sciences 

University of Louisiana 

Dr. J. G. Eichardson 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 



American Bible Society 

American Bureau of Mines 

American Christian Commission... 

American Chemist 

American Druggists' Circular 



1872. 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 

Fackages received hy the Smitlisoman Institution from 'Europe, <f c. — Continued. 



79 



Address. 



New Yoke, N. T.— Continued. 

American Geogtaphical and Statisti- 
cal Society ." 

American Institute 

American Institute of Aroliitects . . 

American Journal of Mining 

American Microscopical Society 

Ameiican Museum of Natural His- 
tory 

American Society of Civil Engineers 

Antlii'opological Institute of New 
York 

Apprentices' Library 

Astor Library 

Christian Inquirer OfEce 

College of Pliarmacy 

Columbia College 

Engineering and Mining Journal 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb . . 

Institution for Improved Instruction 
of the Deaf and Dumb 

Journal of Psychological Medicine 
and Anthropology 

Liberal Christian 

Lyceum of Natural History. 

Mayor of the city of New York 

Medical Gazette 

Medical Journal 

Mercantile Library Association 

Metropolitan Board of Health 

National Board of Underwriters 

New York Academy of Medicine 

New York City Lunatic Asylum... 

New York Historical Society 

New York Hungarian Society. 

New York Medico-Historical Society 

New York Prison Association ' 

Numismatic and Archaeological So- 
ciety 

Office of the Sanitarian 

School of Mines 

Scientific American 

Society for the Protect- on of Animals 

State Commissioner of Public Chari- 
ties 

United States Sanitary Commission 

University of New York 

"William Angermann 

Prof. E. A. P. Barnard 

Dr. Eordyce Barker 

A. S. Bickmore 

Thomas Bland 

Dr. H. C. Bolton 

Rev. Nathan Brown 

Prof. 0. F. Chandler 

Daniel Draper 

Dr. H. Draper 

Prof. T. Egleston 

Anton Eilns 

Capt. John Ericsson 

David Dudley Eield 

George Eolsdm 

H. Flugcl 

Henry Grinnell 

W. A. Haines 

Dr. Elisha Harris 

William B. Hodgson 

Prof. Charles A. Joy 

Dr. James P. Kimball 

Kirschuer & Co 

Dr. H. Knapp 

George N. Lawrence 

Mrs. C. A. Lombard 

Dr. J. S. Newberry 

Dr. J. C. Nott .... 1 

Prof W.G. Peck 

Temple Prime 

Alfred Pell, jr 

Baron Ostensaoken 



1872. 



107 
1 
1 
1 
3 
3 
1 
6 
2 
5 



2 

6 

104 

2 



Address. 



New Yokk. N. Y.— Continued. 



Dr. A. E. M. Purdy 

Prof Charles Rau 

Dr. R. W. Raymond 

Dr. J. Rosing 

R. P. Rothwell 

Samuel B. Ruggles 

L. M. Rutherford 

Julius Sohlliter 

H. M. Scheiffelin 

L.W.Schmidt : 

Charles Stephani 

E. G. Squier 

Dr. John Torrey 

Western & Co., Journal of Mining . 

Gen. Prosper Wetmore 

Dr. E. C. Wines 

Charles E. Wingate 



NILES, CAL. 

Lorenzo G. Yates 

NOKTHASIPTON, JIASS. 

Clarke Institution for Doaf Mutes. 
State Lunatic Hospital 



NORWICH, CONN. 

Hon. David A. Wells 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb . 

OLATHE, KANS. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

OLYMPLi, WASH. 

Territorial Library 

OMAHA, NTLBE. 

Institute for the Deaf and Dumb . . . 
Nebraska Historical Society 



OEONO, MB. 

Maine State College of Agriculture. 

OTTAWA, CANADA. 



United States Consulate. 
Library of Parliament. . . 
Alpheiis Tcdd 



OTTAWA, ILL. 

Ottawa Academy of Natural Sciences 

OWEN SOUND, CANADA. 

Mrs. Jessie D. Roy 

OXFOED, MISS. 



University of Mississippi . 
Eugene W. Hilgard 



OXFOED, OHIO. 

Miami University 

PENN YAN, N. Y. 

Dr. S. H.Wright 



1872. 



80 LITERAEY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 

Paclcar/es received iy the Smithsonian Institution from Europe, tfc. — Continued. 



Address. 



Address. 



PEORIA, ILL. 

Mercantile Library Association . 
Dr. P. Breiidel 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Academy of Natural Sciences 

American Entomological Society — 

Ameiican Journal of Conchology . . 

American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion 

American Philosophical Society 

Central High School 

Central Hisih-School Observatory — 

College of Phaimacy 

Colleg 6 of Physicians 

Dental Cosmos 

Dental Laboratory 

Dental Times 

Franhlin lustitnte 

Giraid College 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

Library Company 

Mayor of the city of Philadelphia . 

Medico-Chii'urgical Review 

Medical and Surgical Reporter 

Medical Times 

Mercantile Library 

Numismatic Society 

Pennsvlvania Institution for the 
Blind 

Pennsylvania Institution for the 
Deaf and Dumb 

Philadelphia Society for Promoting 
Agriculture 

Polytechnic College 

Public Schools 

Society for the Piotection of Animals 

University of Pennsylvania 

Wagner Free Institute of Science 

Rev. Dr. E. R. Beadle 

Lorin Blodget 

W. Brotherhead 

Dr. S. ^Y. Butler 

H.C.Carey - 

Pliny E. Chase 

George W. Childs 

Prof. T. A. Conrad 

Prof. E. D. Cope 

E. T. Cresson 

Israel Dille 

H. Drayton 

Prof W. M. Gabb... 

Dr. Genth 

H. C.Lea 

Dr. Isaac Lea 

Dr. John L. Le Conte 

Dr. Joseph Leidy 

J. P. Lesley .' 

J. L. Luud , 

B. S. Lyman 

Dr. .1. Aitlsen Meigs 

Professor Mitchell. , 

Franklin Peale 

Henry Phillips 

Dr. F. G. Richardson 

Benjamin Smith , 

George W. Tryon, jr , 

W. SrVaux...' 

Prof. W. Wagner 

Dr. Horatio C. Wood, jr 



PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA. 

United States Consulate. .... 



PINE LAKE, WIS. 

Wisconsin Scandinavian Society 



203 
17 
4 

31 
131 



27 
132 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 



.. 1 
30 
1 
11 
5 
1 
2 



PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Pittsburgh Day School for the Deaf 
and D umb 



POMARIA, S. C. 

William Summer 

PORTLAND, MB. 

Portland Society of Natural History. 

POET HOPE, CANADA. 

Rev. C.J. S. Bethune 

PORT SAENIA, CANADA. 

United States Consulate 

PORT TOWNSEND, WASH. 

James G. Swan 

POUGHKEEPSIE, N. T. 



"Vassar. College 

Miss Maria Mitchell. 



43 



PKESCOTT, ARIZONA. 

Territorial Library 

PRESCOTT, CANADA. 

United States Consulate 

PRINCETON, N. J. 



Agricultural Society . . . 
College of New -Jer.-ey. 

Prof. S. Alexander 

A. D. Brown 

Prof. A. Guyot 

Prof. C. Hodge 



PROVIDENCE, E. I. 



Athenaenm 

Brown University 

Rhode Island Historical Society . 

State Library 

John R. Bartlett 

S.T.Olney 

Dr. E. Snow 



QUAKERTOWN, PA. 

Dr. J. S.Moyer 

QUEBEC, CANADA. 



Laval University 

Literary and Historical Society. 
United States Consulate 



EALEIGH, N. C. 



State Library 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb . , 
Prof. W. C. Kerr , 



RICHMOND, VA. 

Medical Society of Virginia. 

State Library 

Virginia Historical Society.. 
Thomas H. Wynne 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. gl 

Packages received iy the Smithsonian Institution from Europe, <^c. — Continued. 



Address. 



ROCHESTER, X. T. 



University 

Prof. Henry A. Ward 



ROMJiEY, W. VA. 

Institution for tbe Deaf and Dumb. 



RUTLAND, VT. 

Vermont Pharmaceutical Association 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 

Geological Survey of California . . . 

State Agricultural Society 

State Library 



SATN'T ANTHONY, injJN. 



Unirersity 

Dr. A. Kobertson. 



SAINT AUGUSTINE, FLA. 

Historical Society of Florida . 

SAINT JOHN, CANADA. 

United States Consulate 



SAINT JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK. 



Mechanics' Institute 

Natural History Society. 
United States Consulate. 

G.F.Matthews. 

Gilbert Murdook 

Prof. AUeyne Nicliolson . 



1872. 



SAINT JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND. 

United States Consulate 



SAINT LOUIS, MO. 



College of Pharmacy 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

Mercantile Library 

Missouri Dental Journal 

Public School Library 

Saint Louis Academy of Sciences 

University of Saint Louis 

Dr. Louis Bauer 

Ernst Von Eugelbrodt 

Dr. G. Engelmann 

N. Holmes , 

Dr. M. L. Linton 

Dr. H. A. Prou t 

Prof E. Pumpelly 

C. V. Pciley 

Maurice Schuster 

Doctor Wisligenus 



SAINT PAUL, MINN. 



Academy of Natural Science 

Chamber of Commerce 

Institution for Deaf and Dumb , 
Minnesota. Historical Society. . 

State Library ' 

J. E. Kloos.' 



SALEM, MASS. 

American Association for Advance- 
ment of Science 

American Naturalist 

Essex Institute, Salem 

Peabody Academy of Science 

6 s 



3 
1 

1-20 
4 



1 ! 

1 

4 

1 

1 
91 

5 

1 

1 
11 

1 



37 


40 


1 




103 


90 


77 


57 



Address. 



Salem, Mass.— Continued. 



E. S. Morse 

Dr. A. S. Packard , 
F.W.Putnam 



SALEM, OREG. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 
State Library 



SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. 

Territorial Library 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

California Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences 

Institution for Deaf and Dumb 

Mayor of the city of San Francisco 

Mercantile Library Association 

Pharmaceutical Society 

Society for the Protection of Animals 

Henry A. Bolander 

Dr. J. G. Cooper 

Doctor Johnson 

E. E. C. Stearns 

Frederick Whymper 

F. Benton 

H. G. Bloomer 



SANTA f£, N. MEX. 

Historical Society of New Mexico. 
Territoiial Library 



SAVANNAH, GA. 

Historical Society of Georgia. 

SCHENECTADY, N. Y. 



Jonathan Brown. 
Union College . . . 



SEAVILLE, N. J. 

E.C.Cole 

SING SING, N. T. 

Dr. G.J. Fisher 

SOUTH BETHLEHEM, FA. 

Lehigh University 

SPRINGFIELD, ILL. 

Illinois State Agricultural Society. . 

State Library 

Prof. A. H. Worthen 



STAUNTON, VA. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

State Lunatic Hospital 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

Prof. A. Winchell 

TALLADEGA, ALA. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.. 



82 LITEEARY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 

Packages received hy the Smithsonian Institution from Europe, ^c. — Continued. 



Address. 



TAKEYTOWN, N. Y. 

General J. C. !Pr6mont 



TAUNTON, MASS. 



State Lunatic Hospital 



TOPEKA, KANS. 



Kansas Natural History Society. 
State Library 



TORONTO, CANADA. 



Canadian Institute 

Chemists' Association , 

Literary and Philosophical Society . 

Observatory 

Phaimaeeutical Society , 

Trinity College 

United States Consulate , 

University of Canada 

Dr. A. Milton Boss 

Kev. Daniel Wilson 



TRENTON, N. J. 



state Library 

State Lunatic Asylum. 



1872. 1873. 



URBANA, OHIO. 

Urbana University 

UTICA, N. Y. 

American Journal of Insanity. 
State Lunatic Asylum 



VANDALIA, ILL. 

Historical and Archfeological Society 

VICTORLA, VANCOUVER'S ISLAND. 

United States Consulate 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

, American Annals of the Deaf and 

Dumb 

, Board of Indian Commissioners 

Bureau of Navigation 

. Bureau of Statistics 

■■ Census Bureau 

Clinico-Pathological Society 

Columbian Institution for the Deaf 

and Dumb 

. Department of Agriculture 

Department of Educatiou 

Engineer Department 

^ General Land-Offloe 

Governor of the District 

Howard University 

. Hydrographic Office 

Library of Congress 

. Light-House Board 

Medical Society of the District of 
Columbia 

National Academy of Science 

National Deaf Mute College 

Nautical Almanac Office 

Navy Department 

Ordnance Bureau 

Pharmaceutical Association 

President of the United States 

Public Schools 

Secretary of the Navy 

Signal-Office ; 

State Department 



5 
156 



1 

2 
5 
9 
5 
1 

1 

140 

1 

3 

2 



Address. 



Washington, D. C— Continued. 



Surgeon-General's Office 

Treasury Department 

United States Coast Survey 

United States Geological Survey. . 
United States Naval Observatory. 

Patent Office 

War Department 

Dr. Cleveland Abbe 

A. W. Angerer 

Prof. A. Ashley 

Prof S. P. Baird 

Dr. H. M. Bannister 

Blacque Bey 

J.C.Bille 

Admiral Boggs 

Dr. Elliott Coues 

Adolf Cluss 

Vincent Colver 

Prof J. H. C: Coffin 

Dr. Edward Curtis 

W. H.Dall 

Maurice Delfosse 

Israel Dille 

Capt. Du Pont 

T. R. Dodge 

Prof. J. R. Eastman 

E. B.Elliott 

General W. H. Emory 

E. A. Fay 

William' Ferrel 

Seaor L. A. de Padua Fleury 

Don Antonio Flores 

Don Manuel Freyre 

Don Manuel R. (Jarcia 

Hon. J. A. Garfield 

Seilor Don Joaguin Godoy. 

B. S. Hedrick 

G.W.Hills 

Prof C. H. Hitchcock 

John Hitz 

Hon. H. R. Hurlbut . . , , 

Baron Charles Lederer 

Chevalier de Lansay Lobo 

Com. Stephen B. Luce 

Prof G. A. Matile 

Hon. H. E. Paine 

Dr. Edw. Palmer 

Capt. Foxhall A. Parker 

Dr. C. C. Parry 

Hon. R. C. Parsons 

Prof. B. Peirce 

Don Antonio Perez 

Count Luigi Porti 

Count L. F. de Pourtales 

Com. W. Reynolds 

Robert Ridgway 

Prof T. Gill 

Prof A. Hall 

Prof W. Harkness 

Dr. F. V. Hayden 

Prof. J. Henry 

Prof J. E Hilgard 

Prof E. S. Holden 

J. C. G. Kennedy 

Miss Emma Mairwedel 

F. B.Meek 

Maj. Gen. M. C. Meigs 

Brig. Gen. A. J. Myer 

Prof J. E. Nourse 

Prof S. Newcomb 

Hon. Peter Parker 

T. PcBsche 

Rear- Admiral B. F. Sands 

Joseph Saxton 

George C. Schaeffer 

Hon. H. von Schlatzel 

Charles A. Schott 

W. H. Seaman 

Hon. John Sherman 



LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGES. 83 

Packages received iy ihe Smithsonian Institution from Europe, ^'C. — Continued. 



Address. 



1872. 



1873. 



Address. 



1872. 



1873. 



"Washington, D. C— Continued. 



Olaf Stenerson 

James Stephenson 

Osmond Stone 

Hon. Charles Sumner . . . 

Prof. Cyrus Thomas 

Sir Edward Thornton . . . 

Dr. J. M. Toner 

Henry Ulke 

Hon. "W. H. Upsoa 

Maj. Gen. G. K. Warren. 

Hon. H. Westenberg 

Dr. J. J. Woodward 

Clarence B. Young 



WATEKYttLE, ME. 

WaterviUe College 

WATEEVILLE, OHIO. 

Otterbein University 

WESTCHESTER, PA. 

W. 3j. Hartmann 

WBSTFOED, CONN. 

Dr. C.C. Parry 



WILLIAMSBUEGH, VA, 

Eastern Lunatic Asylum 

WILMINGTON, DEL. 

Agricultural Society 

WINDSOB, CANADA. 

United States Consulate 

WINDSOE, NOVA SCOTIA. 



Library of King's College 
H. G. Hind 



WOECESTEE, MASS. 



American Antiquarian Society . 
State Lunatic Hospital 



WYANDOTTE, KANS. 

Wyandotte Library Association . 

TONKEES, N. Y. 

H. M. ScMefifelen 



EECAPITULATIOS". 



Packages received, &c. 


1872. 


1873. 


Total addresses of institutions 


300 

287 


463 


Total addresses of individuals 


226 








587 


689 


Total number of parcels to institutions .... ... . . 


3, 694 
941 


3,876 
906 


Total number of parcels to individuals 








4,635 


4, 782 



CLASSIFIED RECORD OF MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS 
PRESERVED IN THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



NOETH AMERICA. 

BRITISH AMERICA. 

Abitibi Post 

Fort Anderson 

Fort George 

Fort Liard 

Fort Nascopee 

Fort Norman 

Fort Rae 

Fort Rae, Great Slave Lake . 

Fort Simpson, Great Slave 
Lake 

Kenoqumissee 

Little Whale River , 

Moose Factory 

Moose Factory to Lake Su- 
perior 

Red River Settlement 

Rigolet, Labrador : . . . 

Victoria, Vancouver's Island. 

Winnipeg , , 

CANADA. 

N-BW JBrunsiviek. 

St. John's 

Nova Scotia. 
Halifax , . . 

Pictou 

Windsor 

Wolfville 



Ontario, 

Clifton 

Hamilton 

Kingston 

Michipicoton 

Mount Forest 

Niagara 

Toronto 



Quebec. 



Montreal , 
Port Neuf 



1868-1869 

1863 

1860 

1863-1865 
1862-1863 
1859-1860 
1861-1864 

1848-1861 
1861-1863 

1862 , 

18.57-1862 

1862 , 

1857-1861 
1859-1860 
1863-1864 

1869-1873 



1859-1873 



1859-1861 

1863-1865 

1854 

1859 

1843-1855 

1857-1862 

1867-1873 

1854 , 

1858-1859 

1855-1858 

1867-1873 

1857-1862 

1859-1860 

1860-1866 

1872-1873 

1861-1863 

1856-1868 

1849, 1851-1852 

1855-1863 , 

1868 



James Lockhart. 

R. Macfarlane. 

R. Kennicott. 
H. Connolly. 
Andrew Fl'ett. 
Lawrence Clark, jr. 
Mrs. Lawrence Clark, jr. 

B. R. Ross. 
Thomas Richards. 
Walter Dickson. 
J. Mackenzie. 

Colin Rankin. 
Donald Gunn. 
H. Connelly. 
Dr. David Walker. 
James Stewart. 



Gilbert Murdock. 



Royal Engineers. 
Col. W. J. Myers. 
Board of Trade. 
R. J. Nelson. 
Henry Poole. 
King's College. 
D. F. Higgins. 
Acadia College. 
C. F. Hart. 
Prof. A. P. S. Stuart. 



W. Martin Jones. 
Dr. W. Craigie. 
J. Williamson. 
Colin Rankin. 
W. Wylie. 
H. Phillips. 

Magnetic Observatory. 
CaiJt. J. H. Lefreoy. 



Dr. A. Hall. 

Observations published in Natu 
raliste Canadien. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 85 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in tJie Smithsonian Institution — Contiuued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



St. Martin 

Staubridge 

Stratford 

NEWFOUNDLAND 

Harbor Grace 

St. John's 



UNITED STATES. 

Alabama. 

Ashville 

Auburn 

Benton 

Bluff Springs 

Boligee 

Bon Secours 

Cahaba 

Carlowville 

Columbiana 

Erie 

Eutaw 

Fish River...- 

Greeusborough 

Havana 

Havana, six miles east of .. . 

Huntsville 

Livingston 

McMaths, Post-Office 

Marion 

Mobile 

Mobile 

Monroeville 

Montgomery 

Moulton 

Opelika 

Orville 

Prairie Bluif 

Selma 

Spring Hill , 

Troy , 

Tuscaloosa , 

Union Springs 



1852-1862 
1857-1865 
1868-1873 
1861-1862 

1871-1872 
1872-1873 
1857-1864 
1871-1873 

1849 

1868-1869 



1857 

1854-1858 •... 

1849-1851 

1872 

I860, 

1866-1867 

1859- 

1856-1860, 1867-1873 

1873 

1849... 

1851-1852... 



1851-1852 

1868-1871 

1856-1862 

1868 

1853,1859-1861,1866- 
1873. 

1868-1871 

1871-1873 

1859-1860 

1854 

1873 

1849 

1859 

1869-1870 

1849,1851-1855 

18.59-1861 

1859-1860 

1866 

1866-1873 

1861 

1859 

1867-1871 

1859-1860 

1860 

1867 

1867 

1858-1859 

1873 

1870-1871 

1872 

1866 

1872-1873 

1853-1854 

1854-1855 

1868 



Dr. Charles Smallwood. 
J. C. Baker. 
A. H. Gilmour. 
C. J. Macgregor. 



Henry A. Clift. 

Archibald Munn. 

John Delany, jr.jE. M. J. Delany. 

John Delany. 

H. B. M. military post. 

Rev. R. C. Caswell. 



Thomas M. Barker. 

Prof. John Darby. 

Dr. Charles F. PercivaL 

W. W. Wilson. 

Col. Horace Harding. 

AV. J. Vaukirk. 

Dr. Matthew Troy. 

Dr. H. L. Alison. 

W. B. Sommerville. 

Dr. Samuel K. Jennings. 

Dr. T. C. Osborne. 

A. Wiuchell. 

W. J. Vaukirk. 

Robert B. Waller. 

N. T. Lupton. 

Prof. H. Tutwiler. 

Dr. S. K. Jennings. 

Dr. E. L. Antony. 

Rev. S. U. Smith. 

R. T. Meriwether. 

D. H. Sumner. 

Dr. S. B. North. 

Rev. J. J. Nicholson. 

Lewis B. Taylor. 

S. J. Gumming. 

Rev. J. A. Shepherd. 

W. L. Foster. 

Andrew J. Harris. 

Thomas J. Peters. 

Prof. J. Shackelford. 

Ashley D. Hunt. 

J. H. Shields. 

Dr. S. K. Jennings. 

T. A. Huston and J. A. Coleman 

William Henderson, 

R. M. Reynolds. 

Dr. S. K. Jennings. 

C.Cadle,jr. 

Dr. C. F. JFahs and Miss Deans. 

Dr. H. S. Hudson. 

A. Cornette. 

D. P. Hurley. 

Prof. M. Tuomey. 

George Benagh. 

J. L. Moultrie. 



86 ' MONTHLY METEOKOLOGICAL EEPOETS. 

Monthly meteorological reports 'preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Uuiontown - . 

Wetokaville 

AlasTca. . 

Fort Youkon 

Nulato 

Saint Paul's Island . 
Sitka 

Saint Micliael's 

Unalakleet 

Arizona. 
Fort Whipple ...... 

Arkansas. 

Arkadelphia 

Benton ville 

Brownsville . . . . 

Buckhorn 

Clarksville . 

Doaksville 

Fayetteville 

Forest City 

Fort Smith 

Gainesville 

Green Grove 

Helena 

Jacksonport 

Little Eock. • 

Micco 

Mineral Springs 

Mountain Home . . . 

Mount Ida 

Perry ville , 

Pocahontas 

Spring Hill 

Waldron 

Washington 

Yellville..... 



California 

Auburn 

Cahta , 

Chico ., 

Clayton 

Columbia 

Crescent City 

Do-wuieville , 



1859-1860...... 

1849,1851-1854. 



1861 

1866-1867. 

1870-1871 . 
1867-1868. 
1868-1870. 
1865-1866. 
1865-1866. 
1866-1867. 



1865. 



1859...-. 

1860 

1859-1861 

1859-1860 

1859 

1871-1872 

1860 

1870-1872 

1872-1873 

1866-1867 

1859 

1860 

1865-1873 

1859-1860 

1849 

1860 

1870-1873 

1873 

1872 

186i 

1872-1873 

1859-1861 

1856 

1871-1872 

1859 

1859-1860 

1860 

1859-1860 

1861 

1849-1861 

1871 

1872 

1859-1860 

1859-1860 



1859-1860. 
1869-1872. 
1869-1872. 
1870...... 

1857-1860. 
1859-1860. 
1860 



Eev. E. A. Cobbs. 
Benjamin F. Holly. 



E. Kennicott. 
W. H. Dall. 
Charles Bryant. 

Dr. Alexander H. Hoff. 
Charles Bryant. 
H. M. Bannister. 
J. W. Bean. 

F. Westdahl. 



Dr. E. Coues. 



Dennis Barlow. 

Female College. 

Paul Graham. 

B. F. Coulter. 

Armistead Younger, 

E. Greene. 

Miss S. McBeth. 

Charles L. McClung. 

William F. Wellborn. 

Eev. Francis Springer, 

James T. Davies. 

Dr. Eobert Burris. 

O. F. Eussell. 

Dr. G. A. Martin. 

Philip L. Anthony. 

Eev. H. F. Buckner. 

Harmon Bishop. 

Prof. D. C. Cowling. 

J. G. P. McLenden. 

J. S. Howard. 

Granville Whittington, 

W. H. Blackwell. 

H. F. Hardy. 

Joseph P. Martin. ' 

P. F. Finley. 

J. Eeynolds. 

P. F. Finley and J. Eeynolds. 

George W. Featherstone, 

Dr. Alexander P. Moore. 

Dr. N. D. Smith. 

Charles White. 

J. E. Borden. 

J. W. Weast. 

W. B. Flippiu. 



Eobert Gordon. 
Doctor Thornton. 
Dr. W. Fitch Cheney. 
Charles L. McCluug. 
Dr. Silas Earle. 
Eobert B. Eandall. 
Dr. T. E. Kibbe. 



MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL EEPOETS. 81 

Monthly meteorological reports iweserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Contiuuecl. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



El Monte 

Folsom 

Fort Yuma 

Honcnt 

Indian Valley 

La Grange ■ 

Mare Island 

Marsh's Eanche ......... 

Martinez 

Marysville 

Meadow Valley 

Mendocino City. - 

Mokeliimne Hill 

Monterey 

Murphy's 

National City 

Paradise City 

Presidio of San Francisco 

Sacramento 

Salinas City , 

San Diego 

San Francisco 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Clara 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Eosa 

Spanish Eanche. 

Stockton 

Stony Point 

Union Eanche 

Vacaville 

Visalia 

Watsonville 

Colorado. 

Canyon City 

Central City 

Coloi'ado City 

Colorado Springs 

Denver City 

Fort Collins 

Fountain 

Golden City 

Las Animas 

Montgomery 



1872-1873 

1861 

1867 

1859 

1860 

1861-1863 

1870-1871 

1872-1873 

1873 

1868-1873 

1867-1868 

1860 

1857-18.59, 1861-1863, 

1860-1862 

1864 

1863-1868 

1872 

1859-18C1 

1859-1860, 1864-1872 

1868-1869 

1872-1873 

1869 

1862 

1863-1864 

1852-1861 

1854 

1855 

1849-1868 

1863.... 

1872-1873 

1871-1872 

1856-1863, 1865-1868 

1854-1855 

1864 

1859-1861 

1859 

1873 

1873 

1862-1863 

1864-1866 

1855-1856 

1867 

18H9 

1858 

1869-1870 

1870-1871 

1869-1872 



George H. Peck. 
Eev. S. V. Blakeslee. 



1869 

1860-1861. 
1871 

1871-1872. 
1872-1873. 

1859 

1869-1873. 
1872-1873. 
1856-1867. 
1871-1873. 

1837 

1871-1873. 

1873 

1883-1865. 



James Slaven. 

J. Slaven and Mrs. E. S. Dunkum. 

Mrs. E. S. Dunkum, 

Miss M. E. Pulsifer. 

Mrs. M. E. P. Ames. 

Joseph Domenici. 

United States navaJ hospital. 

Francis M. Eogers. 

Edwin Howe. 

W. C. Belcher. 

James H. Whitlock. 

Dr. Colbert A. Caniield. 

M. D. Smith. 

Doctor Thornton, 

Wesley K. Boucher. 

Dr. Colbert A. Canfield. 

Ephraim Cutting. 

J. M. Asher. 

W. A. Wright. 

Dr. W. W. Hays. 

D. F. Parkinson. 

Post surgeon. 

Dr. F.W. Hatch. 

Drs. F. W. Hatch and T. M. Logan, 

Dr. T, M. Logan. 

Charles Craft, 

Dr. E. K. Abbott. 

Dr. G. W. Barnes. 

Dr. W. O. A.vres. 

Dr. H. Gibbons. 

Dr. W. W. Hays. 

Prof. O. S. Frombes, 

Lewis A. Gould. 

A. L. Taylor. 

Prof. W. B. Hardy. 

M. D. Smith. 

Mrs. M. D. Smith. 

Dr. Eobert K. Eied. 

Walter M. Trivett. 

Doctor Thornton. 

W. L. Dunkum. 

Prof. J. C. Simmons. 

J. W. Blake. 

Dr. A. J. Compton. 



Thomas Macon. 

W. D. McLain. 

A. M. Merriam, 

E. S. Nettleton, 

E. S. Nettleton and E, Cropley. 

D. C. Collier, 

W. N. Byers and S, Y. Sopris. 

E. Q. Tenney. 
Arthur M. Merriam. 
Clayton J. Croft, 
E. L. Berthoud. 
George W. Davies. 
E. F. Long. 
James Luttrell. 



MONTHLY METEOEOLqGICAL EEPORTS. 

Monthly meteorological rej)orts preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Mountain City. 
Pueblo 



Connecticut. 



Brookfield 

Canton , 

Colebrook , 

Columbia. .... 

East Windsor Hill 
Georgetown ...... 

Groton 

Hartford 

Middletown 



New Haven. 



New London 

North Colebrook. 
North Greenwich 

Norwich 

Plymouth 

Pomfret 

Salisbury 

Saybrook 



Sonthington 

Wallinglord 

Water bury 

West Cornwall. 
Windsor 



Dalcota. 



Bon Homme... 

Cheyenne 

Fargo 

Port Union 

Greenwood 

Ponka Agency . 
Yankton 



Delaivare. 

Delaware City 

Dover 

Georgetown 

Lewes 

Milford , 

Newark 



1860-1862. 
1873 



1868- 
1861- 
1860- 
1856- 
1852, 
1855- 
1866- 
1849- 
1854- 
1849- 
1868- 
1859. 
1862- 
1849- 
1849- 
1849- 
1870- 
1855- 
1862- 
1853- 
1849- 
1853- 
1872. 
1870- 
1856- 
1867- 
1854. 
1851. 



-1870 

-1863 

-1873 

-1873 

■is^i"'.'.'.'.'.'. 

■1868 

-1851 

■1858, 1859-1868 

■1852 

■1873 

■iml'.'.'.'.'.'.V. 
■1851 

1851, 1852-1858 

1851 

■1S73 

•1858 

•1864 

•1869........ 

•1851, 1853-1854 
■1861 

•1873."!!'..'."'.! 

•1862 

•1869 



1872 

1872 

1872 

1857-1858. 
1859-1861 . 

1871 

1865 

1862 



1863. 



1866-1867. 

1854 

1B70-1873. 

1859 

1849 

1857-1858. 
1869-1870. 
1870-1871. 
1871-1873. 

1849 

1852 

1854 

1855 

1856 



1857. 



Dr. William T. Ellis. 
E. S. Nettleton. 



Sauford W. Eoe. 

Jarvis Case. 

Miss C. Eockwell. 

W. G. Yeomans. 

P. A. Chadbourue. 

Aaron B. Hull. 

Eev. E. Dewhurst, 

Charles H. Hoadley. 

Prof. J. Johnston. 

Prof. A. W. Smith. 

Prof. J. Johnston andH. D.A.Ward, 

H. G. Dubois, jr. 

D. C. Leavenworth. 
Prof E. Cutler. 
Eev. Trvon Edwards. 
M. H. Cobb. 

Eev. W. P. Alcotc. 
N. Scholfield. 
Dwight W. Learned. 
Eev. Daniel Hunt. 
Dr. Ovid Plumb. 
James Eankin. 
Aug. Barnes. 
Luman Andrews. 
Benjamin F. Harrison. 
Eev. E. G. Williams. 
T. S. Gold. 

E. H. Phelps. 



H. C. Greene. 
A. E. Baylis. 
Henry Ambrose. 

F. G. Eiter. 
Freeman Norvell. 
Eev. J. Owen Dorsey. 
M. K. Armstrong. 

G. D. Hill, G. W. Lawson, H. G. 
Williams. 

H. G. Williams. 



L. Vankekle. 

J. P. Walker. 

J. H. Bateman. 

Dr. D. W. Mauld. 

John Burton. 

E. A. Martin. 

Mrs. A. C. Whittier. 

Mrs. W. E. Phillips. 

E. H. Oilman. 

Prof W. A. Norton. 

Prof E.D Porter. 

Prof W. A. Crawford. 

Prof W. A. Crawford, E. A. Martin. 

Prof W. A. Crawford, E. A. Martin, 

T. J. Craven. 
Thomas J.Craven, Mrs. E. D. Porter. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPORTS. 89 

Monthly meteorological reports ^preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Newark 

Wilmington 

District of Columbia 

Georgetown 

Washington 

Florida. 

Alligator 

Atsena Otie 

Beiair 

Bicolata 

Biscayne 

Cedar Keys. , 

Chattahoocbie Arsenal . 

Chestnut Hill 

Day tona 

Fernandina 

Fort George 

Gainesville 

Gordon 

Green Cove Spring 

Hibernia 

Jacksonville 

Key West, (Salt Pond) . 
(Mag. obs.) . 

Knox Hill 

Lake City 

Manatee 

Mayport 

Micauopy 

Newport 

New Smyrna 

Ocala ' 

Orange Grove ^ 

Orange Hills 

Peusacola 



Pilatka 

Port Orange... 

Springiield 

Saint Augustin 

Tallahassee 

Tampa 



1858 

1856 

1863-1865 

1860-1863 

1852-1860, 1864-1867 

1857-1858 

1854-1874 

1857-1858 

1859-1861 

1857-1858- 

1871-1872 

1870 

1872-1873 

1851-1858 

1869-1870 

1851 

1870-1873 

1867 

1872-1873 

1855-1861 

1866 

1866-1868 

1868 

1857-1858 

18531-860, 1866-1872 

1854-1864 

1860-1861 

1861-1862 

1852-1853 

1859-1860, 1866-1869 

1867 

1868 

1869-1870 

1873 

1858-1860 

1870-1873 

1873 

1871-1872 

1868-1872 

1870 

1854 

1849,1857-1860... 

1851-1854 

1855 

1856 

18.57 

1858 

1869-1872 

1869 

1867-1870 

1872-1873 

1849 

1856-1860 

1870-1871 

1859-1861 

1852 

1859-1860 

1872 

1871-1873 



Mrs. E. D. Porter. 
Robert Crawford. 
Urban D. Hedges. 



Rev. C. B. McKee. 

United States Naval Observatory. 
J. Wiessner. 
Smithsonian Institution. 



Edward R. Ives. 
Aug. Steele. 
Beujamiu F. Whitney. 
Charles F. Powell. 
W. H. Hunt. 

E. T. Sturtevant. 
Aug. Steele. 

M. Martin. 
John Newton. 
S. N. Chamberliu. 
Henry M. Corey. 
John F. Rollins. 
James B. Bailey. 
Dr. P. C. Garvin. 
H. B. Scott. 
G. A. Boardraan. 

F. L. Bachelder. 
Dr. A. S. Baldwin. 
W. C. Dennis. 
George D.Allen. 

G. F. Ferguson and J. G. Oltmans. 
John Newton. 

Edward R. Ives. 

Galen M. Fisher. 

Rev. W. W. Keep. 

B. A. Coachman. 

W. F. Keeler. 

Dr. James B. Beau. 

Rev. Charles Beecher. 

George J. Alden. 

Edm. K. Lowd. 

Edward Barker. 

W. J. Clarke. 

John Newton. 

United States navy-yard. 

J. Pearson. 

J. Pearson and Jos. Fry. 

Jo^. Fry. 

Jos. Fry and J. W. Hester. 

Lieut. J. W. Hester. 

Gen. George D. Robiuson. 

W. M. L. Fiske. 

Dr. J. M. Hawks. 

Edward Barker. 

Dr. John E. Peck. 

Dr. P. B. Mauran. 

George W. Atwood. 

Benjamin F. Whitner. 

W. S. Bogert. 

Lardner Gibbon. 

Truman S. Betts. 

W. F. White. 



90 MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL EEPORTS. 

Monthly meteorological reports ^preserved in the Smithsonian Inslitution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Uchee Anna 

Warrington 

Welborn . . . . , 

White Springs 

Georgia. 

Athens 

Atlanta 

Augusta 

Berne 

Boston 

Cabaniss 

Clarksville . . 

Covington 

Culloden , 

Cuthbert , 

Dalton , 

Darien 

Factory Mills , 

Gainesville 

Hillsborough 

LaFayette 

Macon 

Madison 

Milledgeville 

Penfield 

Perry . 

Philomath 

PowelltoQ , 

Quitman 

Saint Mary's 

Sandersville 

Savannah 

Sparta 

Summerville 

TheEock 

Thomas ville 

Thomson 

Trader's Hill 

Whitemarsh Island 
Zebulon 

Idaho. 

Cantonment Jordan 

Fort Benton 

FortHalleck 

Fort Laramie 



1849 

1859-1860. 
1871-1873. 
1870 



1857- 
1859 
1865- 
1873 
1854 
1854 
1858- 
1870- 
1865- 
1872- 
1873 
1859- 
1859 
1859- 
1852- 
1860 
1861 
1849 
1857 
1872- 
1872- 
1857- 
1871- 
1868- 
1868 
1868- 
1869 
1854 
1849 
1849 
1852 
1869- 
1851- 
1857 
1852 
1870- 
1870- 
1869 
1871 
1852- 
1859- 
1852 
1868 
1855- 
1860 
1858' 
1872 
1849 
1857- 



■1859. 
■1860. 
■1873. 



-1857. 



■1860. 
•1873. 
■1868. 
■1873 . 



1861. 



■1861. 
■1853. 



■1873 

-1873 

-1859 

-1873 

-1869, 1872. 



■1869. 



1873 . 

•1852. 



-1873. 
-1873 . 
-1870- 
-1873. 
-1859. 
-1861. 
-1861. 



•1860. 



-1859 . 
-1873. 

-1858. 
-1859 . 



1859- 
1863. 
1864. 



John Newton. 
Thayer Abert. 
George E. Thralls. 
E. W. Adams. 



Prof. John D. Easter. 

J. G. Westmoreland. 

Fred. Deckner and son. 

G. W. Walker. 

William Haines. 

William Schley. 

Dr. W. H. Doughty. 

H. L. Hillyer. 

Eev. W. Blewitt. 

A. Colvard. 

James M. Shannon. 

Jarvis Van Bnreu. 

Col. J. R. Stanford. 

Benjamin F. Camp. 

John Darby. 

Charles C. Seavey. 

J. E. McAfee. 

Charles Grant. 

F. T. Simpson. 

Dr. M. F. Stephenson. 

W. T. Grant. 

Eli S. Glover. 

A. E. McCutchen. 

Miss L. J. Whitney. 

John A. Eockwell. 

J. F. Adams. 

Miss S. M. Proctor. 

Prof. William D. Williams. 

J. M. Getting. 

Prof. C. W. Lane. 

Prof. J. E. Willet. 

Prof. Shelton P. Sanford. 

Dr. George F. Cooper. 

James M. Eeed. 

P.C.Pendleton. 

John L. Cutter. 

Ebenezer Barker. 

H. L. Hillyer. 

Horatio N.'Hollifield. 

Dr. John F. Posey. 

E. T. Gibson. 

Dr. E. M. Pendleton. 

S. E. Habersham. 

Dr. James Anderson. 

Eev. W. Blewitt. 

Dr. W. T. Grant. 

Dr. F. M. Smith. 

E. T. Gibson. 

Mrs. J. T. Arnold. 



W. W. Johnson. 
M. C. Eosseau. 
J. H. Finfrock. 



1863-1864 Col. W. O. Collins. 

1865 1 Dr. A. F. Ziegler. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 91 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Illinois. 

Albany 

Albion 

Alton 

Andalusia ...» 

Athens 

Augusta 

Aurora 

Batavia 

Bellville 

Belvidere 

Bloomington 

Erigliton 

Carbon Cliff 

' Carthage 

Centralia 

Champaign 

Channahan 

Charleston 

Chicago 



Clinton 

Decatur . . 

De Kalb 

Dixon 

Dongola 

Dubois 

Du Quoin 

Edgar County 

Edgingtou 

Effingham 

Elgin 

Elmira 

Elmore 

Evanston 



Farmbridge 

Fremont Center. . 



1861-1862 


Warren Olils. 


1857 


Edgar P. Thompson. 
S. Y. McMasters. 


1849 


1849 


Norton Johnson. 


1866-1873 


Dr. E. H. Bowman. 


1851-1858 


Joel Hall. 


1849-1873 


Dr. S.B.Mead. 


1857-1861 


Andrew J. Babcock. 


1865-1868 


Dr. Abiram Spaulding. 

Dr. A. Spaulding and Mrs. E. D. 

Spaulding. 
Prof. William Coffin. 


1868-1873 


1853-1854 


1857-1861 


Dr. Thompson Mead. 
E. Capen. 
Frank C ran don. 


1858-1859 


1861-1862 


1860-1863 


N. T. Baker. 


1861 


Dr. John J. Patrick. 


1862 


Dr. J. J. Patrick and N. T, Baker. 


1868-1872 


G. B. Moss. 


1859-1861 


Jesse Allison. 


1855-1858 


William V. Eldridge. 
Mrs. William S. Thomas. 


1859 


1857 




1859 

1865 


Mrs. E. M. A. Bell and S. J. Wallace, 


1872-1873 


A. P. S. Stuart. 


1860 

1861 


Rev. D. H. Sherman. 
Dr. Joseph Fitch. 
Charles Gramesley. 
Henry Falcott. 
G. D. Hiscox. 


1870-1871 .„. 


1851 


1856-1857 


1859-1873 


Samuel Brookes. 


1860-1861 

1860-1861,1863-.... 
1862 


M. C. Armstrong and J. H. Roe. 

Gustave A. Boettner. 

A. M. Byrne, J. H. Roe, and others. 

John 0. Donoghoe. 

Arthur M. Byrne. 


1862 


1863-1864 


1866 


1867-1873 


John G. Langguth,jr. 
C. H. Moore. 


1864-1866 


1869-1872 


Timothy Dudley, 
John D Parker 


1866 


1859-1863,1867.. .. 

1861-1862 

1865-1873 

1864 


J. Thomas Little. 
Ralph E. Meeker. 
William C. Spencer, 
C. Ziegler. 
J. W. Brown, 


1858 


1857-1861 


Dr E. H Bowman, 


1869-1870 


Dr. Wesley Thompson. 
John B. Newcomb. 
Orestes A. Blanchard. 
W. H. Adams. 


1858-1861 

1862-1863, 1865-1873 
1864-1871 


1858. 

1859-1860 


H. G. Meacbam. 
Charles E. Smith. 


1864 


A. D. Lang worthy. 
W. H. Morrison. 


1864 


1864 


H. W. Scovill. 


1865 


Jos. H. Gill and others. 


1866-1867 


Frederick J. Huse. 


1866,1869-1873 

1860 


Prof, Oliver Marcy. ■ ■ 
Elmer Baldwin. ' 


1857-1858 


Isaac H. Smith. ' 



92 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Galena 

Galesburgh . . 

Geneseo 

Golconda 

Granville 

Havana 

Hazel Dell.,. 
Hennepin ... 

Highland 

Hillsborough 
Hoyltou 

Jacksonville 

Jersey vilie .. 

Lacon 

Lebanon 

Loammi. 

Louisville .., 

Magnolia 

Manchester. 



Marengo 

Mattoon 

Monroe „, 

Mount Sterling , 

Naperville 

Newton , 

North Prairie 

Olney 

Oquawka „ 

Osceola 

Ottawa 

Pana 

Paris 

Pekin 

Peoria 

Plymouth 

Quincy 

Ridge Farm, Vermillion Co 

Riley 

Robinson's Mills 

Rochelle, ( Alta) 

Rockford 



Sandwich 



1859- 
1861- 
1873. 
1866- 
1854. 
1857. 
1870- 
18G3- 
1868. 
1870- 
1860- 
1858. 
1864- 

i8Gr>. 

1849. 
1858, 
1872- 
1867. 
1859- 
1867- 
1869- 
1866- 
1854- 
1862- 
1866- 
1871- 
1871- 
1856- 
1859- 
1868- 
1869- 
1871- 
1869- 
1849. 
1866 
1859 
1859- 
1859 
1862 
1860 
1870- 
1860- 
1852- 
1859- 
1860 
1862- 
1869- 
1868 
1857- 
1855- 
1861 
1852 
1849 
1870. 
1868 
1856 
1860 
1866 
1849 
1872- 
1873 
1872 
1873 
1859- 



1860. 

1872. 



1870. 



1873. 
1865. 



1873 . 
1864. 



1865. 



1861-1864. 
1873 



1861 

1868 

1873 

1869 

1861 

1865 

1870 

1873 

■1873 

1858,1868... 
1863, 1865-1866 

1869 

1873 

■1873 

■1871 



-1873 . 



1860. 



1873. 
1861. 
1861 . 
1860 , 



1870 . 

1871 . 



1865 . 
1873. 

1862. 



1872. 
■i867! 



1871. 
-i873" 



-1873 

-1870,1872-1873 



Emil Hauser. 

Prof. William Livingston. 

W. F. Allan. 

Rev. William V. Eldridge. 

L. G. Edgerly. 

J. L. Jenkins. 

Joseph Cochrane, 

Henry Griffin g. 

Smiley Sheppard. 

Ethan Osborn. 

A. F. Bandelier, jr. 

John S. Titcomb. 

J. Ellsworth. 

O. J. Marsh. 

Prof. William Coffin. 

Timothy Dudley. 

Mrs. Margaret Hamilton. 

A. H. Thompson. 

Prof. N. E. Coblelgh. 

Timothy Dudley. 

D. H. Chase. 
Henry K. Smith. 
John Grant. 

John Grant, Miss Ellen Grant. 

John and C. W. Grant. 

John and Maggie Grant. 

Peter Murray. 

O. P. Rogers. 

O. P. and J. S. Rogers. 

F. Rogers. 

J. W. James. 

A. W. Puffer. 
W. E. Henry. 
Silas Meacham. 

Rev. Alexander Duncan. 

Lewis Ellsworth. 

Milton S. Ellsworth. 

Rev. William V. Eldridge. 

C. H. Bryant. 

Rev. H. H. Brickenstein. 

H. N. Patterson. 

Dr. J. H. Pashley. 

Dr. J. O. Harris. 

Dr. George O. Smith. 

Samuel L. Shotwell. 

Mrs. Emily H. Merwin. 

Dr. Thomas Finley. 

C. Leving. 

J. H. Riblet. 

Dr. Frederick Brendel. 

M. A. Breed. 

Dr. J. B. N. Klinger. 

Rev. G. B. Giddings. 

Frank J. Hearne. 

B. C. Williams. 

E. Babcock. 
Dr.E. Brendel. 
Daniel Carey. 
William Holt. 
James H. Blodgett. 

F. A. Ticknor. 
Thomas D. Robertson. 
W. A. Burdick. 

Dr. Nahum E. Ballou. 



MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL EEPORTS. 93 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smitlisonian Itistitution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



South Pass 



18.57- 
1862- 
1867- 
1865- 
1873 
1859- 
1851- 
1853- 
1857, 
1861- 
1868- 
1872- 
185.5- 
1865, 
1869- 
1872- 
1870- 
1849. 
186.5- 
1858- 
1855- 
1857- 
1858- 
1859- 
1862. 
1858- 
1859- 
1864- 
1865- 
YorkNeck 1864- 



Springfield .. 
Sweetwater . 

Tiskilwa 

Upper Alton. 



Wapella 

Warrensburgli . 

Warsaw 

Waterloo 



Waukegan 

Waverley 

Waynesville 

West Salem 

West Urbana 

Wlieaton 

Willow Creek 

Willow Hill 

Winnebago Depot. 

Woodstock 

Wyanet 



Indiana. 



Annapolis 

Aurora 

Balbec 

Beech Grove . . 
Bloomingdale. 

Bloomiugton . 



Cadiz . 

Canneltou 



Carthage . 
Columbia 



Evansville . . 
Fort Wayne 

Greencastle . 



Harvey sburgh 
Indianapolis . . . 



Jalapa , 



-18.58 

-1866 

-1870 

-1870 

-1863'.!!'" 

-1852 

-1859 

4864!!!!!! 

-1870 

-1873 

-1873 

1867, 1868. 

-1870 

-1873 

-1872 

-1866!!!!!! 

-18.59 

■1860 

-1859 

■1861 

•1863 

1876!!!!!! 

1861 

1873!!!!!! 

1865 



1870- 
1859 
1865- 
1871- 

1864 

1865 

1868-1871 



1873 

1866-1873. 

1866 

1873 



1854- 
1856- 
1869. 
1872- 
1868. 
1865- 

1857- 
1873. 
1849. 

1860- 
1870- 
1851- 
1859- 
1869- 
1864- 
1864- 
1866- 

1866- 
1869- 



■1863. 
1861. 



1873 

1871,' 1873! 
1858 



1861 . 
1873. 

■1854. 
■1863. 
■1870. 
1865. 
1865. 
■18G7. 

■1868. 
•1871 . 



1868-1869. 



Frank Baker. 

S. C. Spaulding. ^ 

H. C. Freeman. 

G. W. Briukerhoff. 

Frank V. Alkire. 

Verry Aldrich. 

Prof. P. P. Brown. 

Dr. John James. 

Anna James. 

Mrs. Anna C. Trible. 

T. Louis Groff. 

Timothy Dudley. 

Benjamin Whitaker. 

H. Kunster. 

Francis Sinn. 

W. H. Houne, sr. 

Dr. C. Jozefe. 

Dr. William Joslyn. 

Timothy Dudley. 

Joshua E. Cantril. 

Henry A. Fitze. 

Dr. John Swain. 

Prof. George H. Collier. 

E. E. Bacon. 

Henry Griffiug. 

J. W. Tolman. 

George R. Bassett. 

E. S. Phelps. 

E. S. Phelps and Miss L. E. Phelps. 

V. P. Gay. 



Mrs. Dr. B. C. Williams. 

Dr. George Sutton. 

Miriam Griest. 

W. S. Clark. 

W. H. Hobbs. ■ 

Miss M. A. Hobbs. 

Prof. C. M. Dodd, T. H. Mallow, and 
others. 

William Dawson. 

Hamilton Smith, jr. 

Palmer Smith. 

Aaron Evans. 

Charles M. Hobbs. 

Dr. F. McCoy and Miss Lizzie Mc- 
Coy. 

John F. Crisp. 

Sebastian Henrich. 

Prof. A. C. Huestis. 

Miss G. Webb. 

E. I. Eobertson. 

Prof. Jos. Tingley. 

William H. Larrabee. 

Mrs. Dr. B. C. Williams. 

Eoyal Mayhew. 

W. W. Butterfiekl. 

W. W. Butterfield and Mrs. Butter- 
field. 

W. J. Elstun. 

G. V. Wooley, E. Hadley, and E. D. 
Craighead, (city hospital.) 

Albert C. Irwin. 



94 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPOETS. 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continuecl. 



Name of station. 




Name of observer. 



Kendallville . . 

Kentland 

Knightstown . 

Laconia 

La Fayette... 

La Porte 

Leo 

Livonia 

Logausport . . . 

Madison 

Merom 

Michigan City 

Milton 

Mistiawaka . . 
Mount Carmel 
Mnncie 

New Albany . . 

New Castle 

New Garden. . 
New Harmony 

Newport 

North Liberty 

Patoka 

Pennville 

Rensselaer 

Richmond.. .. 



Rising Sun 
Rockville . . 

Shelby ville 
South Bend 



South Hanover 

Spiceland 

Sweetser . . 

Valparaiso . . . . 

Vevay 

Walnut Hills . , 
Warsaw 



1854 

1854 

1869-1871 

1868-1873 

1809-1873 

1854 

1854 

1865 

1869-1870 

1849 

1869-1871 

1861 

1871-1872 

1857-1858 

1859-1861 

1863;..... 

1854 

1864 

1865 

1866-1873 

1857-1858 

1859-1860 

1853-1855 

1859 

1869-1873 

1863-1864 

1866-1870 

1855-1858 

1859 

1863-1865,1869 

1849 

1863-1865 

1854 

1852-1873 

1849-1851,1867 

1851 

1872 

1859 

1864 

1864-1865, 1867-1871 

1849-1851 

1851-1855, 1859-1861 

1855-1859 

1859-L863 

1862-1863 

1865-1868 

1871-1873 

1859-1866 

1859 

1859-1862 

1851 

1858-1859..-^ 

1859 

1860-1863 

1863-1865 

1849 

1863-1873 

1872 

1869.. 

1864-1870 

1849 

1870-1871,. 

1871 



W. B. Coventry i 
J. Kuaner. 
Daniel Spitler. 

D. Deem. 
Adam Crosier. 
A. H. Bixby. 
H. Peters. 
Isaac E. Windle. 
J. W. Newton. 
R. M. Newkirk. 
Fred. G. Andre. 
Dr. W. W. Spratt. 
J. R. Howard. 
Charles B. Laselle. 
Isaac Bartlett. 
Thomas B. Helm. 
C. Barnes. 

Rev. Samuel Collins. 

Oliver Mulvey. 

Thomas Holmes. 

C. S. Woodard. 

W. Woodbridge, B. D. Angell, H. 

Blake. 
Dr. V. Kersey. 
George C. Munfield. 
J. A. Applegate and daughter. 

E. J. Rice. 

G. W. H. Kemper. 
C. Barnes. 
Dr. Alex. Martin. 
Dr. E, S. Crozier. 
Prof. Jos. Tingley. 
Thos. B. Redding. 
Dr. H. Roberts. 
John Ohappelsmith. 
Dr. D. D. Owen. 
Daniel H. Roberts. 
E. L. Halleok. 
A. P. Turner. 
John Griest. 
Dr. J. H. Loughridge. 
Dr. John T. Plummer. 
W. W. Austin. 
Joseph Moore. 
John Haines. 
Edward B. Rarobo. 
John Valentine. 
Thomas E. Alden. 
H. H. Anderson. 
J. M. Tenbrock. 
J. T. Bullock. 
Prof. Gardner Jones. 
Prof. Thomas Vagnier. 
Miss G. Webb. 
James H. Dayton. 
Reuben Burroughs. 
Prof. S. H. Thomson. 
Wm. Dawson. 
Albert C. Irwin. 
Rev. Robert Beer. 
Charles G. Boerner. 
W. W. Austin. 
Geo. E. Thralls. 
J. W. Curtis. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPOETS. 95 

MoniTily meieoi'ological reiwrts 'preserved in tlie Smitlisonian Instituiion — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Indian Territory. 

Armstrong Academy ... 

Doaksville 

Talilequah 

loiva. 

Afton 

Algona 

Ames 

Atalissa 

Bangor 

Bellevue 

Boonsborougli 

Border Plains 

Bowen's Pi'airie 

Burlington 

Ceres 

Clariuda 

Clinton .. , , 

Cresco , 

Council Blutr 

Dakota 

Davenport , 



Des Moines. . 
Dubuque. ... 

Durant 

tairbauks . . . 
Fairfield 

Fayette 

Fontanelle . . . 

Forrestville . 
Fort Madison 
Franklin 

Fort Dodge . . 



1849 

1849 

1849....... 

1871-1873 

1860 

1861-1865 

1866-1870 

1867-1873 

1871 

1867 

1872-1873 

1861-1863 

1856-1860 

1867-1873 

1856 

1857-1859 

1868-1871 , 

1859-1660 

1866-1868 

1868 

1865-1868 

1865-1866 

1872-1873 

1856-1858 

1866-1871 

1871-1673 

1871-1873 

1867-1868 

1858 

1859 

1859 

1860 

1861..., 

1861 

1862 

1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867-1872 

1865-1867 

1851-1855, 1857-1858, 

1868-1871 

1854 

1856 

1871-1872 

1856 

1856-1860 

1859 

1859-1860 

1866-1868 

1868-1873 

1859-1863 

1852-1854, 1855-1868 

1857 

1858 

1867-1869 



Prof. A. G. Moffatt. 

P. P. Brown. 

T. B. Van Home. 



M. V. Asbby. 
Dr. F. McCoy. 

F. McCoy and Miss E. McCoy. 
Pbilip Dorweiler. 

James H. Warren. 
Ernest Adams. 

B. Carpenter. 
A. M. Russell. 
Isaac M. Gidley. 
Jobn C. Forey. 

E. Babcock. 

G. C. and W. K. Goss. 
Wm. K. Goss. 
Samuel Woodwortb. 
Jobn M. Corse. 
Louisa P. Love. 
Mrs. James Love. 
Jobn M. Hagensick. 
Dr. S. H. Kridelbaugb. 
Kridelbaugb and Peterson. 
Natban H. Parker. 

P. J. Farnswortb. 

Gregory Marsball. 

Beujamin Talbot. 

William O. Atkinson. 

Natban H. Parker. 

A. J. Finley. 

H. S. Finley. 

H. S. Finley and W. P. Dunwoody. 

J. Cbamberlain, W. P. Dunwoody, 
H. H. Belfield. 

Dr. Ignatius Danger. 

H. H. Belfield and W. P. Dunwoody. 

J. Cbamberlain and W. P. Dun- 
woody. 

J, Cbamberlain. 

George B. Pratt. 

G. B. Pratt and Sydney Smith. 

D. S. Sbeldon. 

Rev. J. A. Nasb. 

Dr. Asa Horr.' 
Rev. .Josbua Pbelps. 
Dr. W. W. Woolsey. 

F. A. Ross. 
Dexter Beal. 
J. M. Sbaffer. 
Miss Sue McBetb. 
Jobn M. McKenzie. 
A. F, Bryant. 

A. F. and Mrs. Julia A. Bryant. 

Daniel Sbeldon. 

Daniel McCready. 

Dexter Beal and W. W. Beal. ,- 

Dexter Beal. V* 

C. N. Jorgensou. 



96 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPORTS. 

Monthly meteorological reports prese7-ved in the Smithsonian Institution — Coutinuecl. 



Name of station. 




Name of observer. 



Fort Madison. 



Grant City 
Grove Hill. 



Guttenbursc 



Harris Grove. 

Hesper 

Hopkinton ... 
Independence 



Iowa City. 



Iowa Falls 
Keokuk 



Kossuth 
Lemans . 



Lizard 
Lyons . 



Manchester 

Maquoketa . .. 
Marble Rock.. 
Mineral Eidge 
Monticello 



Mount Pleasant . 
Mount Vernon.. 



Muscatine . 



Newtou 

Onowa 

Osage 

Pella 

Pleasant Plain.... 
Pleasant Spring .. 
Pluju Spring 

Poultney 

Qnasqueton 

Eed Oak Junction 

Eolfe 

Eossville 

Sac City. 

Sioux City 

Saint Mary's 

Vernon Springs. .. 



1868 

1872 

1869- 

1859- 

1861 

1862 

1864 

18G6- 

1866- 

1860 

1872- 

1861 

1862 

1866- 

1867- 

1856 

1857- 

1861 

1863- 

1853 

1866 

1862 

I860- 

1871 

1869 

1859- 

1862- 

1866 

1805- 

1857 

1867- 

1869- 

1864- 

1866- 

1870- 

1872 

1863- 

1871 

1857, 

1860- 

1849- 

1853- 

1860- 

1860. 

1861- 

1863- 

1869- 

1864. 

1866- 

1854- 

1855- 

1858. 

1855. 

1859. 

1853- 

1853- 

1872. 

1868- 

1857-' 

1870 

1857- 

1861- 

1853 

1861- 



1861. 



1867. 
1865. 



1866. 



1873. 

1870. 
1866. 
1870. 
1872. 



1864 



1873 

1852, 1855-1859 

1354 

1864 



1862. 
1873. 
1870. 



1867. 
1856. 
1865. 



1854. 
1856- 



1870. 
1859. 

1872. 
1858. 
1863. 



1863. 



Daniel McCready. 

Miss Lucy McCready. 

Edwin and Mrs. Eos'iua Miller. 

Dexter Beal. 

Dexter Beal and W. W. Beal. 

Mrs. Celia Beal. 

Philip Dorweiler. 

James P. Dickinson. 

Jacob F. Stern. 

H. B. Williams. 

T. H. McBride. 

D. S. Deering. 
A. C. Wheaton. 
Mrs. D. B. Wheaton. 
Dr. George Warne. 
Hermann H. Fairall. 
W. Reynolds. 

Prof. Theodore S. Parvin. 

Nathan Townsend. 

Dr. J. E. Ball. 

Prof. R. M. Taylor. 

William P. Leonard. 

Isaiah Reed. 

A. P. Gilbert. 

J. J. Bruce. 

Dr. A. T. Hudson. 

P. J. Earns worth. 

Dr. J. Messman. 

Allen Mead. 

Edward F. Hobart. 

H. Wadey. 

J. F. Sullivan. 

Chauncey Mead. 

M. M. Moulton. 

Eufus P. Smith, 

J. E. Janes. 

E. L. Briggs. 
A. A. Mansfield. 
Prof. B. W. Smith. 

Prof. Alouzo Collins- • 

T. S. Parvin. 

P. G. Parvin. 

S. Foster. 

T. S. Parvin and Eev. John Ufford, 

Rev. John Ufiford. 

Josiah P. Walton. 

A. Failor. 
Richard Stebbins. 
Rev. Alva Bush. 
E. H. A. Scheeper. 
Townsend McConnell. 
Rev. B. F. Odell. 

B. F. Odell and Mary G. Odell. 
Rev. B. F. Odell. 

Dr. B. F. Odell. 
Dr. E. C. Bidwell. 
E. A. Harris. 
Oscar L. Strong. 
Carlisle D. Beamau. 
Daniel B. Nelson. 
Dr. J. J. Saville. 
A. J. Millard. 
D. E. Read. 
Gregory Marshall. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 97 

Monihiy meteorolo<jical reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Vinton , 

Washington 
WaterlToo 



VVanbon 

VVebster City. . 
West Branch .. 
Whitesborough 
West Union 



Ames .... 
Atchison 



Avon 

Baxter Springs 
]3axter Springs 
Belleville 



Buffalo Creek. 
Burlingame .. 



Burlington 



Cayuga 

Celestville 

Centreville ... 
Council City . 
Council Grove 
Crawfordville. 

Douglas 

Emporia 

.Fort Riley 



Gardner . 



Hoi ton 

Hutchinson... 
Independence. 
Junction City 
Lawrence 



Leavenwortb 



1869 , 

1861 

1859-1864. 
1864-1870 . 
1869-1870. 
1870-1871 . 
1871-1872 . 
1867-1873. 
1869-1873. 



Lecompton 

Leroy 

Manhattan 



7S 



1869- 
1865- 

1866. 
1867- 
1871- 

1873. 
1872- 
1872- 
1859- 
1871- 
1869- 
1871. 
1858. 
1859- 
1873. 
1857- 
1865- 
1869- 
1870- 
1862. 
1859- 
1862- 
1865. 
1866. 
1860. 
1861- 
1867- 
1872- 
1872 
1862. 
1857- 
1860- 
1862- 
1863- 
1867. 
1868- 
18.57- 
1858- 
1861- 
1866- 
1868. 
1859- 
1860- 
1866. 
1867, 
1857- 
1859- 
1863- 
1864. 
1865 



1870. 
1873. 



■1870- 
■1873. 



1873 

•1873 

1861 

1873 

■1870 



■1860. 



•1858. 
1873. 
1871 . 
1873. 



1860. 
1864. 



1862. 
1873. 



-1873. 



1859. 
1861. 
1864. 

1864. 



1873 

1859, 1868. 

1860 

1862...... 

1872 



1860. 
1861 . 



1869-1873. 

1862 

1860 



i-1873. 



James Wood. 
C. R. Boyle. 
T. H. Doyle. 
T. Steed. 
E. M. Hancock. 
Clayton J. Croft. 
A. M. Russell. 
David K. Witter. 
Frank McClintock. 



John M. Cotton. 

Dr. H. B. Horn and Miss Clotilde 

Horn. 
Allen Crocker. 
Ingraliam &. Hylaud. 
William Hylaud. 

0. A. A. Gardner. 
J. W. Raynolds. 
R. F. Eagle. 
Lucian Fish. 

R. M. Hoskinson. 

Allen Crocker. 

J. D. Parker. 

W^ H. Gilmau. 

Rev. J. H. Drummoud. 

Dr. J. M. G. Beard. 

Edmund Fish. 

Dr. A. Woodworth. 

Percv Daniels. 

Dr. W. M. Lamb. 

C. F. Oaktield. 

Rev. David Clarkson. 

Dr. Fred. P. Drew. 

Post Surgeon. 

J. M. Shaffer and E. P. Camp, 

G. F. Merriam. 

James Scott. 

Di-. James Watters. 

A. M. Hunt. 

Dr. W. E. Henrv. 

Dr. E. W. Seymour. 

G. W. Brown. 

W. J. R. Blackmau. 

A. N. Fuller. 

W. L. G. Soule. 

George W. HoUingworth.. 

Prof.'^F. H. Snow. 

H.D.McCarty. 

E. L. Berthoud. 

M. Shaw. 

Dr. J. Stayman. 

T. B. Stowell. 

Dr. William T. Ellis. 

William A. McCormick. 

David G. Bacon. 

J. G. Shoemaker. 

Isaac T. Goodnow. 

Rev. N. O. Preston. 

1. T. Goodnow and H. L. Denison. 
Henry L. Denison. 
Agricultural College, B. F. Mudge,. 

and others. 



98 MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL EEPORTS, 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Insiilntlon — Continuetl. 



Name of station. 




Name of observer. 



Mapleton. ... 

Moneka 

Neosho Falls , 



North Topeka. 

Olatha , 

Paoli 

Plnm Grove .. 

Ridgeway 

Rural 



Topeka 

Williamsburgh 
Williamstowu . 
Wyaudotte .. . . 



Kentucky. 



Arcadia 

Ballardsville 
Bardstowu .. 



Beech Fork . . . . 

Blandville 

Bowling Green - 

Chilesburgh ... 

Clinton 

Crab Orchard. . 
Danville 



Drennon Springs. 

Georgetown 

Hardinsburgh 



Harrodsburgh 
Lexington 



Loudon ... 
Louisville 



Maysville ... 
Millersburgh 
Millersburirh . 



Newport 

Nicholasville 

Nolin 

Paducah 

Paris , 

Pleasant Valley 

Prospect Plill 

Russellville 

Springdalo, near Louisville 

Taylorsville 

Winchester 



Louisiana. 



1857-1858. 

I8r;9 

1859-1861 . 
1868-1870. 
1872-1873. 
1864-1872. 
1869-1873 . 

1863 

1863 

1872 

1S72 

1838 

1871-1873. 
1870-1872- 
1859-1860. 



1869-1872 

1853-1856, 1860-1862 

1858 

1859 

1860-1861 

1860 

1871-1873 

1849-1852 

1852 

1865-1873 

1868-1869 

1872-1873 

1853-1862, 1865-1873 

1864 

1851 

1873 

1859 



1860-1861 

1872 

1854 

1859,1867-1869 

1865-1866 

1858-1859 

1860-1863 

1869 

18T0 

1852-1854 

1853 

1854 

1855-1862 

1861 

1861-1863 

1858 

1859-1862 

1854-1859 

1853 

1849-1851 

1860 

1849-1855, 1857-1872 

1866 

1872-1873 



Dr. S. O. Himoe. 

J. O. Wattles and Celestia Wattles. 

B. F. Goss. 

Mrs. E. M. Groesbeck. 

W. Neiswender. 

W. Beckwith. 

L. D. Walrad. 

O. H. Brown. 

O. H. Brown. 

John M. Cotton. 

W. H. Cotton. 

F. W. Giles. 

D. Fogle. 

John M. Cotton. 

John H. Miller. 



Howard Shriver. 

D. John Swain. 
John H. Lunemann. 

J. H. Lunemann andThos. H. Niles 

Thomas H. Nileg. 

Dr. C. D. Case. 

Edward W. Horr. 

J. E. Younglove. 

F. C. Herri ck. 

Dr. Samuel D. Martin. 

Rev. T. H. Cleland. 

John F. Tarrant. 

O. Beatty. 

R. H. Caldwell. 

Prof. S. Y. McMasters. 

Rev. J. E. Lettou. 

Mrs. Mary A. Walker and J. C. 

Barbage. 
Joshua C. Barbage. 
Rev. J. E. Letton. 
J. D. Shane. 
Rev. S. R, Williams. 
W. S. Doak. 
Rev. S. R. Williams. 

E. N. Woodruff. 
Dr. S. D. Manly. 
Dr. C. B. Blackburn. 
E. L. Berthoud. 
Rev. J. Miller. 

Rev. J. Miller, Rev. G. S. Savage 

Dr. George S. Savage. 

Prof. M. G. Williams. 

Dr. Jos. McD. Matthews. 

J. Grinuell. 

Andrew Mattisou 

L. G. Ray. 

A. H. Bisby. 

O. Beatty. 

E. M. Murch. 

Mrs L. Young. 

H. C. Mathis. 

James M. Ogden. 



Beutou 1867-1870 



J. H. Carter. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS- 99 

Monthly meieorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Coutinued. 



Name of station. 




Cheueyville . 
Clear Lake . . 

Delhi 

Fall River.... 
Graud Coteau 
Independence 

Jackson 

New Iberia . . 
New Orleans . 



Point Pleasant — 

Ponchatoula 

Shreveport 

Saint Francisville 
Trinity 

Vidalia Plantation 

, Maine. 

Bangor 

Belfast 

Bethel 

Biddeford 

Blue Hill 

Brewer Village 

Brunswick 

Bucksport 

Carmel 

Castiue 

Cornish 

Dexter 

East Exeter 

East Wilton 

Exeter 

Foscroft 

Freedom 

Fryeburg ......... 

Gardiner 

Hartland 

Houlton 

Lee 

Limiugton 

Lincoluville 



1869-1870 

1871 

1871-1373 

1859 

1860 

1859 

18G0 

1854 

1872-1873 

1849-1857 

1856-1857, 1859-1861 

1860 

1861 

1867-1873 

1868.- 

1872-1873 

1872 

1870-1873.. 

1869-1872 

1856 

1856-1859 

1856-1858,1860... 
1867 

1849 

1859-1860 

1859-1864 

1861-1862 

1849-1853 

1854 

1854-1855 

1864 

1871-1872 

1849-1859 

1849-1852 

1871-1873 

1872 

1853-1857 

1851 

1855-1873 

1857-1873 

1860-1863 

1858 

1861-1863 

1871-1873 

1860-1861 

1863-1864 

1859 

1849-1856 

1855-1864 

1864 

1865 

1866-1873 

1859 

1849 

1869-1871 

1866-1867 

1864-1866 

1859-1861 

1873 



Name of observer. 



R. S. Jackson. 
George N. Leoni. 
Rev. T. H. Clelaud. 
Dr. A. W, Jackson. 
B. F. Anthonios. 
Col. C. B. Swasey, 
Mrs. M. J. Mankard. 
Prof. W. P. Riddel 1. 
George N. Leoni. 
Dr. E. H. Barton. 
Lewis B. Taylor. 
Dr. S. P. Moore. 
Harrison Thompson. 
Robert W. Foster. 
E. L. Raulett. 
Isaac Stathem 
Ernest Turner. 
H. C. Collins. 
Dr. J. L. Moore. 
B. R. Gifford. 
Dr. A. K. Kilpatrick. 
Dr. Edward Merrill. 
Rev. A. K. Teele. 



Stephen Oilman. 
C. L. Nichols. 
G. Emerson Brackett. 
Rev. A. G. Gaines. 
J. G. Garland. 

F. A. Small. 
Rev. S. H. Merrill. 
H. H. Osgood. 

E. D. Mayo. 

Prof. Parker Cleavelaud. 

Rufus Buck. 

Willabe Haskell. 

James Colsoa. 

J. J. Bell. 

Dr. J. L. Stevens. 

G. W. Guptill. 
Silas West. 
B. F. Wilbur 
Stephen Oilman. 

Henry Reynolds & Lauriston Rey- 
nolds. 

Dr. Henry Reynolds. 

Dr. J. B. Wilson. 

M. Pitman. 

E. A. Buller. 

G. B. Barrows. 

Hon. R. H. Gardiner. 

Rev. F. Gardiner. 

Rev. F. & R. H. Gardiner. 

R. H. Gardiner. 

E. E. Brown, S. W. Hall, L, S, 
Strickland, and others. 

Milton Welch. 

Charles H. Feruald. 

Benjamin H. Towle. 

E. Pitman. 

W. G. Lord. 

J. S. Crehore. 



100 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPOETS. 

Monthly meteorological rejmis preserved in the Smithsonian Institution— Continxied. 



Name of station. 



Lisbon 

Millbridge. 
Mouson ... 
Moutville . 



New Castle 

New Sharon 

North Belgrade . 
North Bridgeton 
North Prospect . 

Norway 

Oldtown 

Orlaud 

Orono 

Oxford 

Patten 

Pembroke 

Perry 

Portland 



Rnmford Point . . . 

Sebec , 

Sonth Thomaston . 

Standish 

Steuben 

Snrry 

Thomaston 

Topsham 

Vassalborough . . . . 

Warren 

Webster 

West Waterville.. 

Whitehead 

Williamsburgb ... 
Wyndham 



Maryland. 

Agricultural College, Prince 

George's County 

Annapolis 



Baltimore 



Bladensburgh 
Catonsville. .. 
Chestertown . 



Cumberland 



Ellicott's City . 
Ellicott's Mills . 
Emmittsburffh . 



Fallston.. 
Frederick 



Period. 



1859- 
1872 
1856 
1871 
lh71 
1871 
1859 
I860- 
1859 
I860- 
1867 
1859- 
1849- 
1872- 
1870- 
1868- 
1849. 
1862. 
1853- 
1855- 
1859- 
1872- 
1866- 
1864. 
1853- 
1865- 
1849- 
1870- 
1849- 
1859- 
1859- 
1859- 
186.5- 
1863- 
1849- 
1863- 
1849-: 



'-1872. 



1859. 

-1873. 
1872. 
1872 



■1862. 
•1860. 
•1861. 

•1861'. 
1853 . 
-1873. 
1873 . 
1873. 



1865. 
1860. 
1861 . 
1873. 
1869. 



•1854. 
-1873 . 
-1873. 
1873. 
•1852. 
1861. 
1863. 
1860. 
1867 . 
1873 . 
1852. 
1873. 
1856. 



1861-1862 

1851 

1855-1856 

1856-1872 

1871-1873 

1852,1853 

1857-1859 

1854-1864 

1865-1867 

1855-1857 

1858 

1859-1860 

1861-1864 

1849 

1871-1873 

1871-1873 

1864 

1866-1869 

1867-1873 

1870-1873 

1851 

1852-1854, 1856, 1863, 
1869-1872 



Name of observer. 



Asa P. Moore. 
M. S. Piukham. 

B. F. Wilbur. 
J. R. Clifford. 
A. J. Clifford. 
B.C.Wentworth. 

C. L. Mchols. 
Dr. J. F, Pratt. 

A. H. Wyman. 
M. Gould. , 
Virgil G.Eaton. 
G.W.Verril],jr. 
Rev. S. H. Merrill. 
Freetuan H. Chase. 
M. C. Fernald. 
Howard D. Smith. 
S. Eveletb. 

Rev. E. Dewhurst. 
William D. Dana. 
Henry Willis. 
John W. Adams. 
W. H. Ohler. 
Waldo Pettiugill. 
Edwin Pitman. 
Joshua Bartlett. 
John P. Moulton. 
J. D. Parker. 
Oscar H. Tripp. 
George & Chr. Prince. 
Warren Johnson. 
James Van Blascom, 
Calvin Bickford. 
Almon Robinson. 

B. F. Wilbur. 
Joshua Bartlett. 
Edwin Pitman. 
Samuel Ji. Eveleth. 



Dr. Montgomery Johns. 

Prof. W. F. Hopkins. 

Dr. A. Zumbrock. 

W. R. Goodman. 

Naval Hospital. 

Dr. Lewis F. Steiner. 

Prof Alfred M. Mayer. 

Benjamin O. Louudes. 

George S. Grape. 

James A. Pearce, jr. 

Prof. A. W. Clark. 

Rev. A. Sutton. 

Prof. J. Russell Dutton. 

T. C. Atkinson. 

E. T. Shiiver. 

H. M. Shepherd. 

Philip Tabb. 

Eli Smith. 

Prof. C. H. Jourdau, 

G. G. Curtiss, 

Dr. Lewis F. Steiner. 

Henry E. Hanshew. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 101 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smiihsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 




Name of observer. 



Frederick 

Green Spring Furnace 

Hagerstown . „ 

Leitersburgli 

Leonardtown 

Linwood 

Mount Airy 

New Market 

New Windsor 

Nottingham 

Oakland 

Port Deposit 

Reistertsown 

Ridge 

Sandy Hill... 

Sams Creek 

Sykesville 

Saint Inigoes 

Union Bridge 

AValkersville 

Woodlawu 

Woodstock College . . 

Massachusetts. 

Amherst 

Baldwinsville 

Barnstable 

Boston 

Bridge water 

Brookline 

Byfield .. = .... 

Cambridge 



Canton 

Chelsea 

Clinton 

Danvers 

Duxbury 

Fall River.. , 
Fitchburgh. . 
Florida 

Framingham 
Georgetown , 

Grafton . 

Hinsdale 

Kingston. ... 
Lawrence ... 



1865-1866 
lb72-1873 
1852-1854 

1852 

1H58-1S62 
1858-1859 

1871 

1872-1873 

1873 

1852 

1854 

1849 

1857-1858 

1849 

1872-1873 
1856-1857 

1849 

1871-1872 
•1849-1852 
1853-1854 
1855-1865 
1859-1871 
1871-1873 

1864 

1849-1851 
1865-1873 
1870-1873 

1849-1873 
1863-1865 
18£»2-1853 

1857 

1859 

1870 

1854..... 
1856-1857 
1858-1859 
1860-1861 

1868 

1851 

1855-1858 
1859-1860 
1865-1866 
1868-1869 
1869-1871 
1871-1872 
1857-1858 
1861-1864 
1860-1861 
1858-1859 

ia49 , 

1861 , 

1860-1861 

1857-1861 

1873 

1849 

1865-1867 

1867-1872 
1860-1861 

1868-1873 
1866-1873 

1857-1873 



Miss H. M. Baer. 

E. G. Kiusell. 

Rev. J. P. Carter. 

Lewis J. Bell. 

Jacob E. Bell. 

Dr. Alexander McWilliams. 

Charles F. Hanshew. 

E. A. Vannort. 
H. H. Hopkins. 
Prof. J. P. Nelson. 
Prof. J. F. Maguire. 
A. P. Dalrymple. 
L. R. Cofran. 
Henry W. Thorp. 
Rev. R. Heber Murphy. 
T. G. Stagg. 

Isaac Bond. 

F. J. Devilbiss. 
Prof. Wm. Baer. 

Prof. W. Baer and Miss H. M. Baer 

Miss H. M. Baer, 

Rev. James Stephenson. 

Jas. T. EUicott. 

Warrington Gillingham. 

Josiah Jones. 

James O. McCormick. 

A. X. Valente. 



Prof. E. S. Suell. 
Rev. E. Denhurst. 

B. R. Gifford. 
E. L. Smith. 

E. L. Adams. 

F. H. Appleton. 
Marshal Conant. 
L. A. Darling. 

C. W. Felt and others. 
Normal School. 

Rev. John B. Perry. 

Martin N. Root. 

W. C. Bond. 

Harvard College Observatory. 

Augustus Fendler. 

Rev. John B. Perry. 

Mrs. J. B. Perry. 

Mrs. S. H. Perry. 

D. H. Ellis. 
Naval Hospital. 

Dr. George M. Morse. 
A. W. Mack. 
James Ritchie. 
Charles C. Terry. 
George Raymond. 
L. F. Whitcomb. 
Jacob Davis. 
Gnstavus A. Hyde. 
Henry M. Nelson. 
S. Augustus Nelson. 
Rev. William G. Scaudlin. 
Rev. E. Denhurst. 
Guilford S. ISl ewcomb. 
John Fallon. 



102 MONTHLY METEOKOLOGICAL REPOETS. 

Monthly meteorological i-ejjorts preserved in the SmitMonian Institution — CoBtinuecl. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Lowell 

Lnnenburgh. 

Lynn 

Mention 



Milton 

Nantucket.-. 
New Bedford 



Newbury 

Newburyport . 



North Adams,(Hoosac tunnel) 

North Attleborough 

North Billerica 

Plainfield 

Princeton 

Eaudolph 

Richmond 

Eockport 

Roxbury 

Salem 

Sandwich 

Somerset 

South Groton 

Southwick 

Springfield 



Stockbridge 
Taunton ... 
Topstield ... 



Usbridge 

West Dennis . . 

Westiield 

West Newton. 
Weymouth ... 
Williamstown 



Wood's Hole . 
Worcester . . . 



Michigan. 



1849- 
1866- 
1849- 
1849 
1849- 
1867- 
1853- 
1849- 
1853- 
1866- 
1871- 
1865- 
1853- 
1873 
1871- 
1851- 
1866- 
1857 
1853 
1861- 
1849- 
1854 
1849 
1873 
1863- 
1872- 
1859 
1849- 
1853- 
18.59 
1849 
1854- 
I860- 
1863- 
1864- 
1866- 
1854 
1864 
1854- 
1867- 
1856- 
1851- 
1854 
1854 



1851 

-1873 

-1852 

■1873!".'..'!" 

-1873.- 

-1861 

-1851 

-1873 

■1867, 1871-1872 

■1873 

-1873 .. 

-1858 

1873!!!!!!!! 

-1858 

-1873 

-18.57!!!!!!!! 

-1862 

■1863, 1865-1872 



■1865. 
■1873 



■18.57. 
■1856. 



-18.57 . 
-1862. 
-1864 . 
-1866. 
-1873. 



-1866 

-1871 

-1857,1859. 
-1852 



-1857 . 



1857-1859. 



1860-1868 

1868-1872 

1854-1855 

1849-1852 

1853-1856, 1865. 



1854 

1857-1858. 
1859-1864 . 
1866-1868. 
1868-1869. 
1870-1873. 



Adrian 



1870. 
1873. 



Charles J. Gilliss. 
Geo. A. Cunningham. 
Jacob Bachelder. 
Henry Rice. 
Dr. John G. Metcalf. 
Rev. A. K. Teele. 
Hon. Wm. Mitchell. 
Thomas Bailey. 
Samuel Redman. 
Edward T. Tucker, 
George S. Hart. 
John H. Caldwell. 
Dr. H. C. Perkins. 

A. S. and M. C. Jones. 
Beuj. D. Frost. 
Henry Rice. 

Rev. Elias Nason. 

Francis Shaw. 

Hon. John Brooks. 

Orrin A. Reynolds. 

William Bacon. 

E. D. Mussey. 

Benjamin Kent. 

E. S. Cassino. 

Dr. N. Barrows. 

Elisha Slade. 

Alfred Collin. 

Amasa Holcomb. 

Lucius C. Allin. 

Francis A. Brewer. 

Abraham S. Peet. 

Albert Schlegel, 

Nathan W. Brown. 

John H. Caldwell. 

Arthur M. Merriam. 

Sidney A. Merriam. 

Dr. James Robbing. 

Eugene Tappau. 

Rev. Dr. E. Davis, 

John H. Bixby. 

Dr. N. O. Tirrell. 

CM. Freeman. 

Prof. P. A. Chadbourne. 

D. .J. Holmes, Jas. Orton, Lavalette 

Wilson, and others. 
J. McGee, C. J. Lyons, M. L. Ber- 

ger, and others. 
Astronomical Observatory. 
Prof. Albert Hopkins. 

B. R. Giftbrd. 
S. F. Haven. 

Dr. E.A. Smith, T. H. Rice, and 

others. 
Dr. Geo. Chandler. 
John S. Sargent and others. 
Dr. H. C. Prentiss. 
Dr. Joseph Draper. 
Dr. Alfred E. Wtilker. 
D. T. Morrill, M. Bemis, and Daniel 

Lovejoy. 



Miss S. M. Holmes. 
Jacob Breedon. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPOKTS. 103 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsoniau Institution — Contiuued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Alpena 

Ann Arbor . . 

Battle Greet , 

Eenzonia 

Brest 

Brooklyn 

Burr Oak 

Central Mine 

Clifton 

Clinton 

Coldwater ... 

Cooper 

Copper Falls. 

Corunna 

Detroit 



Eagle River . 
East Saginaw 

Flint 

Forestville .. 
Fort Gratiot . 

Garlick 

Grand Haven 
Grand Rapids 



i1 



Grand Traverse 

Holland 

Homestead 

Houghton 

Howell 

Kalamazoo 

Lake George 

Lansing 

Litchfield 

Lower Saginaw 

Macon , 

Manchester 

Marquette , 

Mill Point 

Monroe 



1865-1873 


J. W. Fasten. 


1852 


Dr. H. R. Schetterly. 

L. Woodruff and S. Winchell. 


1855 


1870-1872 


Mrs. N. H. Winchell. 


1849-1860 


Dr. W. M. Campbell. 
L. E. Wells. 


1871 


1870-1873 




1848-1854 


Dr. Thos. Whelpley. 
Dr. M. K. Taylor. 
Charles Betts. 


1852-1854 


1849-1852 


1867-1871 


S. H. Whittlesey. 
Wm. Van Orden, jr. 
Elmore Wainwri^'ht. 


1862-1863 


1851-1852 


1868-1871 


N. C. South worth 


1854-1858, 1860-1862 
1856-1857 


Mrs. Octavia C. Walker. 
Cbas. S.Whittlesey. 
Heber Crane. 


1855 


1849 


W^m. S. Raymond. 


1849-1856 


Rev. Geo. Duffield. 


1858-1860 

'1860-1863 


Dr. Zena Pitcher and L. S. Horton 
United States Engineers. 


1861-1862 


Dr. Zena Pitcher 


1870-1873 


F. W. Higgins. 
Mrs. M. A. Goff 


18.56 


1854 


Dr. S. F. Mitchell. 


1854-1855 


Dr. D. Clark 


18,58 


Lieut. C. N. Turnbull. 


1858-1859 


Lieut. C N. Turnbull. 


1864 


Dr. Edwin Ellis. 


1859-1863 


Heber Sqnier. 
Franklin Everett. 


1849 


1849-1851 


Dr. J. Hollister. 


1854-1858 


Alfred 0. Currier. 


1857-1860,1870-1873 
1860-1861 


L. H. Streug. 
Edwin A. Streng. 
J. B. Parker. 
E. S. Holmes. 


1864 

1865-1872 


1854 


H. R. Schetterly. 
L. H. Streug. 
George E. Steele. 
J. B. Minick. 


1860-1863, 1865-1870 
1^.64-1867, 1869, 1870 
1865,1866 


1849-1852 


Dr. H. B. Schetterly. 


1864-1867 


1865-1867 


MiltoTi Chase. 


1868 


Frank Little. 


1859 




1859 


Cleveland Abbe. 


1859 


J. C. Holmes. 


1863-1873 

1865-1873 


Prof. R. C. Kedzie. 
R Billiard 


1849 


James G. Birney. 
David Howell. 


1870-1871 


1864 


Dr. F. M. Reasner. 


1857 


Peter White. 


1858-1861 


Dr. G. H. Blakerjr. 
Dr. G. H. Blaker, jr., and F. M. Ba- 
con. 
Rev. L. M. S. Smith. 
Thomas Whelpley. 
Capt. A. D. Perkins. 
Miss H. I. Wheloley. 
G. W. Bowlsby.' 

Miss H. I. and Florence Whelpley » 
Miss F. E. Whelpley. 


1862,1863 

1860-1862 

1852,1872,1873 

1854 


1855-1860 


1859-1861 


1861 


1862-1871 



104 MONTflLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPORTS. 

Monthly meteorological reports jjres&nied in tlie Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Monroe Piers 

Muskegon 

New Buffalo 

Northport 

Old Mission 

Olivet 

Ontonagon 

Ottawa Point . 

Otsego 

Oshtemo and elsewher 
Pennsylvania Mine . . . 

Pleasouton 

Pontiac 

Port Huron 

Redford Center ...... 

Romeo 

Saugatuck 

Saint James 

South Haven 

Sugar Island 

Tawas City 

Thunder Bay 

Traverse Citj'. ...... . 

Ypsilanti 



Minnesota. 

Af ton 

Beaver Bay 

Bouniwell's Mills 

Bowles's Creek 

Buchanan 

Burlington 

Cass Lake 

Cass Lake Mission . . . 

Chatfield 

Danville 

Excelsior 

Eond du Lac 

Forest City 

Fort Ripley 

Grand Portage 

Hastings 

Hazelwood 

Hennepin County. ... 
Holding's Ford 

Itasca 

Lac qui Parle. 

Lake Winnebagoshish 
Lapham 



Period. 



1859-1863 , 

1868-1871 

1857-1862 , 

1865-1873 

1869 

1870-1873 

1873 

1859-1863 

1865-1873 

1859-1861 

1859-1862 

1861,1868-1870 

1864-1873 

1868-1869 

1868,1870 

1864. -■- 

1857-1859 

1860,1873 

1861 

1855 

1856 

1855-1857 

1854-1856 

1853-18.56 

1872 

1863 

1861-1H63 

1859-1863 

1872-1873 

1859 

1859-1863.-. . 



1865- 
1871- 

1858- 
1859- 
1860 
1861- 
1872- 
1865- 
1857- 
1858- 
1852 
1856 
1859- 
1868 
1873 
1849- 
1859- 
1862- 
1854 
1867 
1859- 
1855- 
1864- 
1869- 



■1867, 1869-1870 

-1872 

-18.59 

-1860 



•1873 

■1873 

■1866 

■1858 

-1860 



■1861. 



-1851 . 
-1861 . 
-1866 . 



-1861 . 

■1858. 
■1865. 
■1873. 



1860-1861,1863. 

1852-1853 

1854 

1859 

1857 



Name of observer. 



John Lane. 

H. A. Pattison. 

J. B. Crosby. 

Rev. Geo. N. Smith. 

C. P. Avery. 

Prof. A. F. Kemp. 

Prof. 0. Hosford. 

H. Selby. 

Dr. Edwin Ellis. 

John Oliver. 

Matthew Coffin. 

Dr. Milton Chase. 

Henry H. Mapes. 

Richard H.Griffith. 

Joseph D. Millard. 

James A, Weeks. 

James Allen, jr. 

George A. Stockwell. 

Dr. Charles C. Smith. 

Isaac Stone. 

Seth L. and G. P. Andrews. 

Dr. S. L. Andrews. 

L. H. Strong. 

James J. Strong. 

O. C. Lathrop. 

United States Engineers. 

United States Engineers. 

1. 1. Maiden. 

S. E. Wait. 

Miss G. Webb. 

C. S. Woodward. 



Dr. B. F. Babcock. 

A. L. Roe. 

Thomas Clark. 

Henry Wieland. 

Thomas Clark and C. Wieland. 

C. Wieland. 

Solomon Pendergrast. 

Andrew Stouffer. 

Stephen Walsh. 

A. A. Hibbard. 

Alonzo Barnard. 

Rev. B. F. Odell. 

T.F.Thickstun. 

Thomas A. Kellett. 

O. O. and M. E. Jaquith. 

Rev. Joseph W. Holt. 

A.C.Smith. 

Henry L. Smith. 

Rev. S. W. Maundy. 

Richard Bardon. 

T. F. Thickstun. 

S. R. Riggs. 

J. B. Clough. 

Thomas M. Young and Mary H. 

Young. 
O. H. Kelley. 
Rev. S. L. Riggs. 
S. R. and A. L. Riggs. 
Rev. Benjamin F. Odell. 
E. M. Wright. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 105 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Stnithsonian Institution — Contiuued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Lapham 

Leech Lake 

Litchfield 

Madelia 

Maukato 

Minneapolis 

New Ulm 

Oak Lake 

Pajutazee 

Pembina 

Princeton 

Red Lake 

Red Wing 

Rochester 

Sandy Lake 

Sauk Center 

Sibley 

Smithfield 

Stillwater 

Saint Anthony 

Saint Anthony's Falls 

Saint Cloud .- 

Saint Joseph 

Saint Paul 

Tamarack 

Traverse des Sioux. . . 

Wabashaw 

Waterford 

Whitewater 

Mississipj^i- 

Baldwin 

Brookhaven 

Clinton 

Columbus 

Como ' 

Early Grove 

Enterprise 

Fayette 

Gainesville 

Garlaudsville 

Graudville 

Grenada 

Hernando 

Holly Springs - 

Jackson . . . .' 

Kingston 

Maricn 

McLeod's 



1858 

1858 

1871 

1870-1872 

1869-1870 

1864 

1864-1873 

1864-1873 

1869-1873 

1859-1862 

1852 

1856-1860 

1860 

1853-1854 

1856 

1867 

1872-1873 

1869 

1852 

1868-1869 

1865-1867 

1868-1873 

1868 

18.58 

1872-1873 

1854 

1861-1862,1869... 

1853-1855 

1862-1873 

1866-1867 

1863-1864 

1849-1851 

1857-1858 

1873 

1871-1873 

1871-1872 

1867-1873 

1869-1870 

1870-1871 

1855-1859, 1869-1871 

1871-1872 

1S49 

1870 

1869-1873 

1866-1867 

1873 

1849 

1858-1855 

1849 

1854 

1859-1860, 1866-1870 

1870 

1870-1873 

1859,1860 

187-0-1872 

1849-1852 

1854 

1866-1867 

1868- ft73 

1849 



J. F. McMuUen and D. F. Short 

well. 
Samuel Locke. 
H. McMahon. 
H. L. Wadsworth. 
W. W. Murphy. 
W. Kilgore. 
W. Cheney. 
Charles Roos. 
Dr. D. Pyle. 
Rev. S. R. Riggs. 
Charles Cavileer. 
O. E. Garrison. 
S. M. Byers. 
Rev. E. W. Carver. 
Rev. Jabez Brooks. 
Prof. A. M. Stephens. 
Prof. J. AV. Beaman. 
Alfred Milmiue.^ 
Samuel Spates. 
Smith Bloomfield. 
C. W. Woodbury. 
C. W. and C E. Woodbury. 
B. C. Livings. 
A. Van Voorhies. 
Prof, and Mrs. N. H. Winchell. 
C F. Anderson. 
O. E. Garrison. 
Rev. D. B. Spencer. 
Rev. A. B. Paterson. 
John W. Heimstreet. 
Mary A. Grave. 
Rev. R. Hopkins. 
Spencer L. Hillier. 
J. S. Nichols. 
J. K. P. Winters. 



Dr. S. H. Jennings. 

T. J. R. Keenau. 

Thomas B. Moore. 

R. S. Jackson. 

James S. Lull. 

John F. Tarrant. 

E. W. Beck with. 

W. M. Abernethy. 

Rev. E. S. R-obiuson. 

Rev. T. H. Cleland. 

Rev. G. C. Armstrong. 

Charles A. Folsom. 

Rev. E. S. Robinson. 

James H. Vincent. 

William Henry Waddell. 

Prof Albert Moors. 

R. S. Ringgold. 

J. S. Payne. 

William M. Johnston. 

Thomas B. Coleman. 

Thomas Oakley. 

A. R. Green. 

J. Edward Smith. 

Dr. T. W. Florer. 

David Moore. 



106 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPORTS. 

Monthly mefeorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Monti cello. 
Natchez ... 



Oxford , 

Pass Christian. 

Paulding 

Philadelphia .. 
Port Gibson . . . 
Prairie Line. .. 

Vicksburgh 

Wasson 



Westville .. 
Yazoo City. 



Missouri. 



Alleuton . 

Alton 

Athens ... 
Atlanta .. 
Augustus. 
Bethany . 
Bolivar .. 



Booneville. 
Canton 



Cape Girardeau. 
Carrolltou 



Cassville 

Cave Spring. 

Corning 

Dry Ridge... 

Dundee 

Easton 

East Prairie . 
Edinburgh .. 

Ediua 

El Dorado... 

Emerson 

Farmington . 
Fort Pierre. . 

Gallatin . 

Greeniield . . . 
Greenville . . . 
Hannibal 



Harrisonville . 

Hematite 

Hermann 

Hermitage 

High Hill .... 
Horuersville . . 
Jefferson City 
Kansas City.. 
Keytesville ... 



1860-1861 

1849-1851 

1856 

1858-1861. 1864-1866 

1866-1870' 

1854-1856 

1850 

1859-1861 

1870-1871 

18.55-1857 

1859-1861 

1849-1852 

1872 

1873 

1859-1860 

1860-1881.., 



Ivirksvillo 



1865 

1873 

1864- 

1873 

1859 

1859- 

1859- 

1868- 

18.59- 

1861- 

1868 

1856 

1859 

1859 

1860 

1859- 

1871- 

1870- 

1854- 

1859- 

1864- 

1889 

1866- 

1859- 

1873. 

1859. 

1859. 

1854. 

1872- 

1859- 

1859- 

1853. 

1855- 

1859- 

1868- 

1859- 

1867- 

1873. 

1859-: 

J868- 

1870- 

1869. 

1871. 

1873. 

1659. 



.-1871. 



1866. 



1860. 
1861. 
1670. 
1881. 
1869. 



-1858. 



1861 , 
1872. 
1873. 
1855. 
1881. 
1886. 



1867. 
1866. 



1873. 

1862. 
1860. 



1856. 

1870. 
1871. 
1860. 
1869. 



1861. 

1872. 
1873 . 



J. R. Cribbs. 
George L. C. Davis. 
J. Edward Smith. 
R. McCary. 
W. McCary, 
Prof. L. Harper, 
Rev. J. S. Sheppard. 
Rev. E. S. Robinson. 
L. A. Bowden. 
Prof. J. Boyd Elliott. 
Rev. E. S. Robinson. 
A. L. Hatch, 
James S. Fithie. 
Joseph Peake. 
J. R. Cribbs. 
Col, C, B. Swasey. 



Aug. Feudler. 
J. B, Rideout. 
John T. Caldwell. 
Kentuer and Muscott. 
Conrad Mallinckrodt. 
D.J Heaston. 
W. J. Vankirk. 
James A. Race. 
Norris Sutherland. 
George P. Ray. 
Dr. J. M. Parker. 
Rev. James Knoud, 
John Campbell, 
S. J, Huffaker, 
D. J. Kirby. 
M. L. Wyrick, 
T. W. Coltrane. 
Horace Martin. 
O. H. P. Lear, 
S. S. Bailej. 
P. B. Sibley. 
Adam Miller. 
John E. Vertrees. 
J. C. Agnew. 
R. P. Edgiugton. 
W. B. Kizer, 
Nathan P. Force. 
Frederick Behmer. 
Arthur H. Weston. 
Dr. S. B. Bowles. 
O. D. Dalton. 
0. H. P. Lear. 
Dr. Edward Duffield. 
John Christian. 
John M. Smith. 
Philip Weber. 
Miss Belle Moore. 
W. S. Chapin, 
W, H. Horner, 
Nicholas De Wvl. 
S. W. Salisbury". 
Charles Veatch. 
John P. Jones. 
H. H. Maun. 
Dr. Robert Byers. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 107 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonia7i Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Kirksville 

Laborville 

Lancaster 

Lexington 

Luray 

Mount Vernon 

Nevada 

Osborne City. 

Oregon ... 

Paris * — 

RMneland 

Richland 

Richmond 

Rockport 

RoUa .. 

Springiield . . . 
Saint Joseph . . 

Saint Louis . . . 



Stockton 

Stoutland 

Sycamore Springs . . . 

Toronto 

Trenton 

Tuscumbia 

Union.. 

Warren sburgh 

Warrenton 

Waynesville 

Westport 

Wet Glaze 

Willard 

Montana. 

Benton City 

Camp Cooke 

Cantonment Wright 

Deer Lodge City 

Helena City 

Missoula 

Virginia City 

Nel)rasJca. 

Beatiico 

Bellevue 



1859-1863 

1863-1864.. 


J. H. Myers. 
Willinm Muir. 


1859 


John M. Weatherford. 


1859 


Joseph A. Wilson. 


1860 


George W. Wilson, jr. 
B. P.IIanan. 


1859-1861 


1871-1873 


Wyatt Harris. 


1871-1873 


P. J. Bond. 


1873 

1867-1872 


Rev. R. B. Foster. 
William Kaucher. ■ 


1S59-1S62 


W. F. Masey. 
Charles Vogel. 


1859-1860 


1872-1873 


Spencer L. Goodwin. 
R. W. Fiuley. 
Dr. C. Q. Chaadler. 
Homer Rnggles. 


1859-1860 


1855-1856 


1867-1873 


1857-1858 


J. A. Stephens. 
Edward B. Neely. 
Rev. Henry Bullard. 
Dr. George Engelmann. 
Dr. A. Wislizenus. 


1857-1858 


1869-1873 


1853-1857, 1859-1867 
1856-1857 


1858 


Drs. G. Engelmann and A. Wislizc 


1859-1864 


nus. ^ 
Auo-ustus Fendler. 


1860-1862,1864 

1861... 

1865-1868 


J. H. Lunemann. 
Rev. P. W. Koning. 
Rev. F. H. Stuntebeck. 


1868-1869 


Rev. I. Straetmans. 


1870-1872 


A. Averbeck. 


1872 


Bertram D. Kribbin. 


1872-1873 


C. J. B. Leib. 


1859-1881 


William Wells. 


1873 


E. D. Denny. 


1873 


A. T. Hubbard. 


1859-1860 


B.D. Dodsou. 


1859 


Thomas J. Conkling. 
William M. Lumpkin. 
Dr. W. Moore. 


1859 


1866 


1867 


Miss Belle Moore. 


1868-1869 


Rev. J. E. Pollock. 


1870 

1659 


S. K. Hall. 

Marion F. Hamaker. 


1859-1863*. 


Mary A. Tidswell. 
B. G. Lingon. 


1859 


1851 


Rev. N. Scarritt. 


1872-1873 

1870-1872 


A. Y. Carlton. 
R. H. McCord. 


1868 


Dr. H. M. Lehman. 


1869 

1867 


S. V. Clevenger. 
Dr. H. M. Lehman. 


1861-1862 

1869-1873 

1866-1868 


T. Koleski. 
Granville Stuart. 
Alexander CamxJ Wheaton. 
J. P. Eeinhard. 


1870 


1870-1873 

1871 


J.M. Minesinger. 
Edward N, Goddard. 


1873 


W. F. Ware. 


1854.... 


D. E. Reed. 



108 MONTHLY METEOKOLOGICAL EEPOETS. 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Coutinued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Nam© of observer. 



Bellevue 



Blaclcbird Hills 

Blair 

Brownville 

Dakota City 

Decatur 

Deer Creek 

DeSoto ........ 

Elkhorii City ... 



Emerson ... 
Fontanelle . 

Fort Pierre 
Fort Union 
Glendale ... 



Jonin 

Kenosha 

Lincoln 

Nebraska City 



Newcastle . - . 

Norfolk 

Nursery Hill. 
Omaha 



Peru 

Plattsmouth 

Red Cloud 

RockBlufifs 

Santee Agency , 

South Pass Wagon-road ex- 
pedition 



Nevada. 



Neio Hampshire. 



Antrim . . . . 
Claremout . 



Concord . 



Dublin 

Dnubarton 
Exeter 



Farmington . 
Francestovvu 



1857- 

1857. 

1868- 

1867- 

1873. 

1858- 

1867- 

1869. 

1859. 

1867- 

18.'>3- 

1865- 

1871- 

1859, 

1868- 

1860- 

1854. 

1861, 

1868- 

1865. 

18.59 

1870 

1859 

1868. 

1869- 

1870- 

1873 

1865 

1857- 

1859- 

I860- 

1868- 

1867 

1873 

1872- 

1860- 

1871- 



-1867. 



1873. 

1873. 



1860 . 
1869. 



■1873 

■1864 

1870 

1873 

1862,1863- 

1869 

1861 



1866-1867. 
1869 



'-1862. 



1871. 
1871. 

1872. 



1859 . 
1860. 
1861 . 
1869. 
1869. 



1873. 
1861 . 
1873. 



1859-1860. 



Star City 1865 



Gorham 



1866^ 
1857- 
1859- 

1864- 

1867- 

1849- 

1857- 

1858 

1865- 

1868 

1849, 

1868- 

1849, 

1861- 

1860- 

1857 

185' 

1872 



-1868. 
-1858. 
-1868. 
■1867. 
•1868. 
-1857. 
-1858 . 



-1870. 



1851-1852. 

■1873 

1851-1852. 

■1865 

■1861 



-1858. 



Rev. William Hamilton. 

Henry M. Burt. 

Miss E. E. Caldwell. 

Rev. Willam Hamilton. 

P. F. Peterson. 

Charles B. Smith. 

H. H. Brown. 

Dr. G. C. Case. 

Maj. Thomas S. Twiss. 

Charles Seltz. 

Anna M. J. Bowen. 

John S. Bowen. 

William Dunn. 

John Evans. 

Henry Gibson. 

M. C. Rousseau. 

E. T. Denig. 

Dr.A.L. Child. 

Dr. A. C. Child, Miss J. E. Child. 

L. J. Hill. 

Bela White. 

G. A. Goodrich. 

Edgar E. Mason. 

P. Zahner. 

J. M. Pettenger. 

Lewis H. Smith. 

Lewis Sessions. 

R. O. Thompson. 

William N. Bj^ers. 

John G. Rain. 

James P. Allan. 

C. B. Wells. 

J. M. McKenzie. 

A. J. Clark. 

Edward Kellogg. 

H. C. Pardee. 

George S. Truman. 

C. H. Miller. 



R. C. Johnson. 



Rev. William Hurlin. 

F. N. Freeman. 

Arthur Chase. 

Stephen 0. Mead. 

Linus Stevens. 

Dr. William Prescott. 

H. E. Sawyer. 

E. P. Colby. 

John T. Wheeler. 

James C. Knox. 

Rev. L. W. Leonard. 

Alfred Colby. 

Rev. L. W. Leonard. 

Rev. Elias Nasou. 

Louis Bell. 

Dr. Martin N. Root. 

A. H. Bixby. 

E. S. Mason. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 109 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Instituiion — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Great Falls 

Hanover 

Isle of Shoals 

Laconia and Lake Village - 

Littleton 

Londonderry 

Loudon Ridge 

Manchester 

Mount Washington 

North Barnstead 

North Littleton 

Portsmouth 

Saint Thomas 

Salisbury 

Salmon Falls 

Shelbourne 

Stratford 

South Antrim 

Tam worth 

Wentworth 

WestEniield 

Whitfield 

New Jersey. 

Allowaystown 

Atco 

Belleville 

Bloomfield 

Burlington 

Camden 

Cinnaminson 

Cole's Landing 

Dover 

Elwood- 

Freehold 

Greenwich 



Haddonfield , 

Haddonfield . 

Jersey City.. 

Lambertville 
Long Branch 
Morristown . . 



Period. 



1854-1857. 
1853-1854. 

1849 

1857-1861 . 



1863- 
1849- 

1862- 
1852- 
1859- 
1870- 
1855- 
1860- 
1859- 
1849- 
1867- 
1871. 
1870- 
1853- 
1856- 
1872- 
1859- 
1868- 
1867, 
1859. 
1856- 
1869- 



1864 

1857 , 

1865 , 

1857-1859-1861 

mi. '.'.'.'.v.. 

1858 

1869 

1860, 1863-1864 



1873 

1854, 185G. 

1873 

1873 

1873 

1872 

1869-1873. 

1858'.'..'!!! 
1873 



1871-1873 

1871-1873 

1849 

1849-1858, 1862-1863 

1849-18.54 

1855-1858 

1856 

1863-1868 

1870 

1859-1860 

1864-1866 

1866-1869 

1867-1868 

1857-1858 

1859-1862 

1856-1861 

1864 

1865-1867 



1868-1873. 

1849 

1866-1869. 

1869 

1870 

1871-1872. 

1873 

1849 . 

1873 

1861-1863. 

1865 

1849-1861 . 

1859 

1865-1873. 
1865 



Name of observer. 



Henry E. Sawyer. 

Prof. Ira Young and A. S.Young. 

Thomas B. Laighton. 

J. W. French, agent L. W. C. and 

W. M. Co. 
Robert C. Whiting. 
Robert C. Mack. 
Dr. Isaac S. French. 
Hon. S. N. Bell. 
Joseph H. Hall. 
J. H. Huntington. 
R. F. Hausconi, 
Charles H. Pitman. 
Rufus Smith. 
Dr. C. Chase. 
John Hatch. 
Daniel Bonelli. 
E. D. Couch. 
Georgtt B. Sawyer. 
Fletcher Odelf. 
John Collin. 
Branch Brown. 
Rev. William Hurlin. 
Alfred Brewster. 
Peter L. Hoyt. 
Nathaniel-Purmort. 
L. D. Kidder. 



H. C. Perry. 

H. A. Greeu. 

Thomas B. Merrick. 

R. L. Cooke. 

Prof. Adolph Frost. 

Dr. E. R. Schmidt. 

Prof. A. Frost and Dr. E. R. Schmidt, 

John C. Deacon. 

Isaac C. Martindale. 

William Pany. 

James S. Lippincott, 

Howard Shriver. 

J. S. Fritts. 

B. F. Simpson and S. R. Willis. 
O. R. Willis. 

Benjamin Sheppard. 
Clarkson Shei^pard. 

C. Sheppard and Miss R. C. Shep- 
pard. 

Miss R. C. Sheppard. 

John Clement, jr. 

Samuel Wood. 

John Boadle. 

J. L. Lippincott. 

Thomas T. Howard, jr. 

Thos. T. Howard, jr., and wife, 

Jacob S. Gary. 

Geo. H. Larison. 

Howard A. Stokes. 

Arch'd Alexander. 

Dr. S.C.Thornton. 

Miss E. E. Thornton. 

Thos. J. Beans. 

Jos. W. Lippincott. 



110 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPOETS. 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution— Qon^'\n\w(\. 



Name of station. 



Mount Airy 

Mount Holly,.. 

Newark 

New Brunswick 



Newfield 

New German town. . 

Newton 

Orange 

Passaic Valley 

Paterson 

Progress 

Readington 

Eiceville 

Rio Grande 

Salem 

Seaville , 

Sergeantsville 

South Orange 

Trenton 

Vineland 

Woodstown 

Neiv Mexico. 

Pope's expedition ... 

Neio York. 

Adams Center 

Albany , 

Albion 

Alps 

Angelica 

Ardenia 

Auburn 

Baldwiusville 

Bannaville ... . 

Beaver Brook. ,...,. 

Bellport 

Beverly 

Blackwell's Island . . 

Breslau 

Brookhaveu 

Brooklyn ...» 

Bufialo 



Caldwell 
Canton . . 



Period. 



1869-1873 

1861-1868 

1849-1873 

1854,1865-1868... 

1854 

1859 

1860 

1861-1865 

1869-1870 

1867-1870 

1868-1873 

1868-1869 

1872-1873. 

1863-1865 

1866-1871 

1863-1865 

1866-1867, 1869-1873 

1873 

1860-1861 

1868-1873 

1856 

1859 

1865-1867 

1868 

1857-1858 

1870-1873 

1865-1873. 

1867-1873 

1860 



1855-1857. 



1859- 
1865- 
1849- 
1849- 

1854- 
1871- 
1868- 
1860- 
1849- 
1870. 
1853- 
1857- 
1853- 
1855- 
1872- 
1868- 
1870- 
1«72- 
1849- 
1853- 
1854 . 
1854. 
1858- 
1860- 
1870. 
1853- 
1871- 
1873. 



1861... 
■1866... 
1854... 
■1851... 

■1858.... 
1873... 

■1873... 
1865... 
1867... 



■1854 

186-2 

1859 

-1857 

1873 

■1873 

1873 

1873 

■1852 

■1854,1860. 



1862, 1866-1873 
■1863 



■1858. 
1873. 



Name of observer. 



John Fleming. 

Dr. Morgan J. Rhees. 

W. A. Whitehead. 

Prof. Geo. H. Cook. 

Eli T. Mack. 

Edwin Allen. 

Edwin Allen and G. W. Thompson. 

G. W. Thompson. 

Isaac E. Hasbrauck. 

E.D. Couch. 

Arthur B.Noll. 

Dr. Thos. Ryerson, 

Dr. W. Hamilton Stockwell. 

Wm. Brooks. 

Wm. Brooks. 

Thos. J. Beans. 

John Fleming. 

Robins Fleming. 

Prof. L. Harper. 

Jerusha R. Palmer. 

C. M. Dodd. 

George Watson. 

Barker Cole. 

E. C. Cole. 

John T. Sergeant. 

Dr. W. J. Chandler. 

Ephraim R. Cook. 

Dr. John Ingram. 

George Watson. 



James M. Eeade. 



Dr. C. D. Potter. 

Dr. H. M. Paine. 

L. F. Munger. 

James H. Ball. 

E. M. Alba. 

C. P. Arnold. 

Thomas B. Arden. 

John B. Dill. 

John Bowman. 

G. S. France. 

C. S, Woodward. 

H. W. Titus. 

Thos. B. Arden. 

Dr. W. W. Sanger. 

Frank Miller. 

E. A. Smith and daughters 

Isaac P. Mailler. 

R. W. Johnson. 

A. Hosmer. 

Ellas O. Salisbury, 

Dr. S. B. Hunt. 

W. D. Allen. 

William Ives, 

United States Engineers. 

Alex. M. Strong. 

E. W. Johnson, 

Leslie A. Lee. 

J. C. Lee. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS, 111 

MoniMy meteorological i-eports preserved in the Smithsoman Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Carlton 

Cazenovia 

Charlotte 

Chatham 

Clinton 

Clockville 

Clyde , 

Constableville .. 

Constantia , 

Cooperstown 

Dan.sville 

Depauville 

East PYauklin . . 
East Henrietta.. 
Eden 

Fairfield 

Falconer 

Farmer 

Farmingdale ... 
Fishkill Landing 
Flatbush 

Fordham 



Fort Ann 

Fort Edward 

Fort Niagara 

Fredonia 

Friendship 

Garrison's 

Geneva 

German town 

Glasco 

Gouverneur 

Gleu'sFalls 

Great Valley 

Groton 

Havana 

Hector 

Hempstead 

Hermitage 

Homer 

Houseville 

Hudson 

Hungerford College Institute 
Institution for Deaf & Dumb 

Ilion 

Jacksonville 




Name of observer. 



1873. 

1856- 
1865, 
1859- 
1849- 
1853- 
1856. 
1857- 
1849. 
1859- 
1852 
1861 
1869- 
1859- 
1865- 
1854 
1859- 
1855 
1857- 
1871 
1871- 
1853- 
1859 
1868- 
1855- 
1854- 
1856- 
1860 
1862- 
1856 
1.856- 
1858, 
1859- 



1864 

1887-1873. 

1863. 

1851 

1854 



1859, 1862-1865 
1862"..'"!"'.!!! 



1873 . 
1861. 
1873. 



1862.... 
1859! !^! 



■1872. 
1854. 



1872 . . 
■1866.. 
■1855.. 
1860 . . 



1873 

■1857!!!!!! 
■1862," i864! 



1863-1866 

1857-1859 

1869-1871 

1859-1863 

1854-1864 

1866-1867 

1800-1861, 1863-1868 
1855-1857, 1864-1868 

1859 

1859 

1866-1873 

1869-1873 

1852-1854 

1860-1873 

1854 , 

1859-1860 

1872 

1859-1860 

1865-1867 

1871-1873 

1873 

1860-1862........ 

1855-1857 

1849-1854, 1856-1860, 

1865-1872 

1869 

1872-1873 

1849-1868 

1859-1860 

1873 



W. P. Godfrey. 
Prof. Aaron White. 
Prof. Wm. Soule. 
Andrew Mulligan. 
Cornelius Chase. 

C. Thornton Chase. 
Prof. O. Root. 

Dr. H. M. Paine. 

J. P. Chapman. 

Matthew Mackie. 

L. L. Fairchild. 

Sereno Clark. 

G. Pomeroy Keese. 

Rev. John J. Brown. 

Henry Haas. 

Dr. J.' W.Smith. 

A. S. Wads worth. 

Stephen Landou. 

Anna S. Landon. 

W. A. Brownell. 

G. F. Sawyer. 

Laurens A. Langdon. 

A. B. Covert. 

John C. MeiTitt. 

W. H. Denning. 

Rev. Thos. H. Strong. 

Rev.R.D. Vankleck. 

Rev. W. W. Howard. 

Rev. E. T. Mack. 

John Aubier. 

Claudius Fcrnot. 

Dr. H. M. Paine. 

Rev. John Aubier and Prof. A. T 

Monroe. 
P. A. McMore. 
Prof. Solomon Sias. 
J. De Witt Miller, 
L. Leffman. 
Prof. D.J. Pratt. 
George W. Fries. 
Thos. B. Arden. 
Rev.W. D. Wilson,- 
Job Elleston. 
Wm. Tompkins. 
Rev. Sanlord W. Roe, 

D. B. Hendricks. 
Dr. P. O. Williams. 
Cyrus H. Russell. 
Warren P. Adams. 
Kathalo Kelsey. 
Rev. Samuel Johnson, 
Col. E. C. Frost. 
David Trowbridge. 
Chas. E. Adriance. 

J. W. Johnson. 
A. A. Hibbard. 
Edwin C. Reed. 
Walter D. Yale, 

G. P. Hachenberg. 

A. B, Watkins and R. S. Boswortn. 

Prof. Oran W.Morris. 

J. D. Ingersoll. 

F. D. Carman, 



112 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPORTS. 

Monilily meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Coutinned. 



Name of station. 




Name of observer. 



Jamestown , 



Jericho, L.I 

Kensico 

Lake 

Leroy 

Leyclen 

Liberty 

Lima 

Little Genesee. 
Lockport 



Locust Grove. 

Lodi 

Lowville 



Ludlowville . 

Lyons 

Madrid 

Marathon 

M'.Grawville 

Mexico 

Milo 

Miuaville 



Moliawk 

Morristown 

Moriches 

Morley 

Newark Valley. 

Newbnrgb 

New York 



Jfortli Argyle... 
North Hammond 
North Salem 

North Volney. .. 

Nichols 

Nyack , 

Ogdeusburgh . . . 

Oneida 

Oswego .. . 

Otto 

Ovid 

Palermo 

Palisades 



1863-18G6 

1871-1873 

1871-1873 

1849 

1873 

1856-1858 

1854 

1868 

1855-1866 

1861 

1866-1873 

1849 

1870-1873 

1849-1852 

1869-1870 

1849-1858 

1854 

1854-1858 

1871 , 

1871-1872 

1868 , 

1859-1862 

1849-1859 

1863 

1856-1857 

1855-1857 

1869-1872 

1867 

1868-1872 

1861-1868 

1859 

1664-1867 

1849 

1868-1872 

1864-1871 

1849 

1854 

1854-1855 



18.54-1861 

1860-1861 , 

1860-1863 

1860-1872 

186,3-1866 

1865-1867 

1869-1870 

1865-1870 

1868-1873 

1867-1868 

1864,1870-1873... 

1866-1873 

1849-1853 

1855-1856 

1868-1873 

1857-1873 

1869 

1849-1852, 1854-1863 

1864-1873 

1849 

1851-1854 

1854-1872 

1861 

1855-1858. 

1868-1873 

1868 



Eev. Sanford W. Roe. 
S. H. Albro. 
Samuel G. Love. 
Albert G. Carll. 
C. J. Mcllvaine. 
Peter Ried. 
L. F. Munger. 
C. C. Merriam. 
John Felt. 

Prof. S. A. Lattimore. 
Daniel Edwards. 
E. Giddings. 

B. Wheaton Clark. 
James B. Trevor. 

C. C. Merriam. 
John Lefferts. 
Irah R. Adams. 
J. Caroll House. 
A. Judson Barrett. 
Eev. William Irish. 

C. P. Murphy. 

Dr. E. W. Sylvester. 
E. A. Dayton. 
Lewis Swift. 
J. Metcalf Smith. 
John R. French. 
Gilbert D. Baker. 

D. S. Bussing and J. W. Bussing. 
J. W. Bussing. 

James Lewis. 
William Day. 

E. A. Smith and Miss N. Smith. 
Ezra Parmelee. 

Rev. Samuel Johnson. 

James H. Gardiner. 

U. S. Naval Station. 

.T. S. Gibbons. 

S. De Witt Bloodgood. 

Caleb Swann and Dr. J. P. Loines. 

Frederick I. Slade. 

Charles C. Wakely. 

Naval Hospital. 

E. B. Cook. 

Rev. John M. Aubier. 

Mrs. M. M. Marsh. 

Prof. Charles A. Joy. 

Prof Oran W. Morris. 

Haden Patrick Smith. 

George M. Hunt. 

Charles A. Wooster. 

John F. .Jenkins. 

Mrs. M. J. Lobdell. 

J. M. Partrick. 

E. Howell. 

C. de la Verny. 

W. E. Guest. 

Dr. Stillman Spooner. 

C. Strong. 

J. H. Hart. 

Capt. W.S.Malcolm. 

Prof Weston Flint. 

J. W. Chickeriug. 

Erastus B. Bartlett. 

W. S. Gilmau, jr. 



MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL EEPOETS. 113 

Monthly meteorological reports x>reserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Palmyra 

Peekskill 

Penu Yan . . . . 
Perry City . . . 
Pliilipstown . . 

Pine Hill 

Plainville 

Plattsburgli . . 

Pompey 

Pompey Hill . . 

Potsdam 

Pouglikeepsie. 

ilocliester 




Rockville Center 

Eodman 

Sacket's Harbor . 

Sag Harbor. 

Saratoga 

Saugerties 

Schenectady 

Seneca Falls. — 

Sennett 

Sherburne 

Sing Sing 

Skaneateles 

Sloansville 

Smith ville 

Somerville 

South Edmeston 
South Hartford . , 
South Trenton . . . 
Spencertown 

Springville 

Stapleton 

Suffern 

Syracuse 

Theresa 

Throg's Neck 

Troy 

Utica 

Vermillion 

8S 



1864- 
1854 
1854- 
1864. 
1851- 
1859- 
1856- 
1855- 
1857- 
1856. 
1872. 
1849. 
1870. 
1849. 
1855- 
1859- 
1868- 
1871- 
1868- 
1873. 
1873. 
1849 
1851- 
1859- 
1849- 
1856- 
1863- 
1859- 



■1865 

1857-1859". 



1852. 

■1860. 
•1857. 
•1857. 
•1858. 



■1867. 
■1867. 
■1870. 
•1872. 
•1870. 



1852. 
1863. 
•1858. 
1859. 
1866. 
1860. 



1864 

1858-1859. 



1849 

1849^ 
1853 
1861 
1857 
1865 
1849 
1860 
1868- 
1849^ 
1849 
1849- 
1863 
1863 
1855^ 
1858 
1861 
1849 
1851 
1867^ 
1863 
1851- 
1861- 
1864- 
1865^ 
1349^ 
1853- 
1856- 
I860- 
1856 
1860- 



-1852. 
-1854. 
-1864. 



-1852 

-1867 

-1870 

-1852, 1854-1856 

-1851 

•1851 

-1873 

-1873 

-1857 



-1863. 



-1852 

•1868. 

-1866 

•1872 

•1872 

•1854 

•1857 

■1861 

1857, 1868. 
■1868 



Name of observer. 



Stephen Hyde. 

Charles A. Lee. 

Dr. H. P. Sartwell. 

David Trowbridge. 

Thomas B. Ardeu. 

Godfrey Zimmerman. 

J. H.Norton. 

Joseph W. Taylor. 

S. Marshall IngaUs. 

John F. Kendall. 

Hon. J. AVelch. 

Prof. C.B. Waring. 

Miss Swallow. 

Prof. Wetherell. 

Prof. C. Dewey. 

Prof. M. M. Matthews. 

H. Wells Mathews. 

Dr. G. P. Hachenberg. 

W. M. L. Fisk. 

S. P. Probasco. 

Eev. Samuel Johnson. 

U. S. Naval Station. 

Mandrin Linus. 

H. Metcalf. 

E. N. Byram. 

Walter'H. Eiker. 

E. G. Williams. 

James W. Grush, James M. Alex- 
ander, and L. S. Packard. 

Eobert M. Fuller and Haren V. 
Swart. 

Alexis A. Julien and H, A. Schau- 
ber. 

Elisha Foote. 

John P. Fairchikl. 

Charles A. Avery. 

Philo Cowing. 

Henry B. Fellows. 

Rev. James E. Haswell. 

C. F. Maurice. 

W. M. Beauchamp. 

G. W. Potter. 

J. Everett Breed. 

Dr. F. B. Hough. 

L. A. Beardsley. 

G. M. Ingalsbe. 

Capt. Storrs Barrows. 

A. W. Morehouse. 

Irving Magee. 

Levi S. Packard. 

J. W. Earle. 

Moses Lane. 

Spencer L. Hillier. 

James H. Warren. 

Henry L. Diusmore. 

S. 0. Gregory. 

Francis M. Eogers. 

Miss Elizabeth Morris. 

John W. Heim street. 

Prof. E. A. II. Allen. 

Prof. Dascom Greene. 

William L. Haskin. 

Dr. L. Tourtellot. 

E. B. Bartlett. 



114 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 

\ 
Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period- 



Name of observer. 



Virgil 

Wales 

Wampsville 

Warrensburgh 

Warsaw 

Waterburgli 

Waterford 

Watertowu 

Waterville 

Wellsville 

West Concord 

West Day 

West Farms 

West Morrisania 

White Plains 

Wilson 

North Carolina. 

Albemarle 

Auandale 

Asheville 

Attaway Hill 

Bakersville 

Beaufort 

Chapel Hill 

Charlotte 

Davidson College . 

Edenton 

Fayettevillo 

Forest Hill 

Franklin 

Gaston , 

Goldsborongh 

Green Plains 

Greensborongh 

G uilford Mine 

Jackson , 

Keuansville , 

Lake Scuppernong . . . 

Lenoir 

Lincolnton , 

Marlborough 

Mount Airy 

Murfreesborougb 

Murphy 

New Garden 

Oxford 

Raleigh 

Rutlierfordton 

Statesville 

Tarborough 



1873 

1854 

1853-1863 

1871 

1865 

1868-1873 

1856-1863 

1855-1857 

1849-1851 

1857,1858,1860 

1856,1857 

1858-1859, 1871-1873 

1856-1857 

1857-1859 

1862-1873 

1858-1864 

1872 

1870-1872 

1857-1858 

1867-1873 

1868-1873 

1849-1862, 1867-1873 

1871 

1872 

1849-1861 

1869-1870 

1871-1873 

1858-1859 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1871 

1871-1872 

1872-1873 

1872,1873 

1859-1861 

1860-1861, 1872. . . 

1859 

1871-1873 

1867-1869 

1852-1854 

1868-1870 , 

1849-1852 

1851 , 

1871-1873....... 

1854 

1858 

1872 

1856-1861 .... 

1872-1873 

1872-1873 

1866-1867 

1867-1873 

1859 

1860 

1866-1869 

1869 

1849 

1866-1873 

1871 

1871-1873 , 



J. E. Winslow. 
S. 0. Carpenter. 
Dr. Stillman Spooner. 
Randolph McNutt. 
J. P. Morse. 
David Towbridge. 
John C. House. 
Dr. P. O. Williams. 
James M. Tower. 
H. M. Sheerer. 
Lewis Woodward. 
Jude M. Young. 
J. S. Gorton. 
I. Zaepffel. 
O. R. Willis. 
E. S. Holmes. 



S. J. Pemberton. 
W. H. Murdoch. 
W. W. McDowell. 

E. J. Aston. 

Dr. J. F. E. Hardy. 

F. J. Kron. 
J. H. Greene. 
James Rumley. 
Prof. James Phillips. 
David S. Patrick. 
George B. Hauna. 
Prof. W. C. Kerr. 

A. A. Benton. 
Richard N. Hines. 
Margaret A. Hines, 
John M. Sherwood. 

G. W. Lawrence. 
Mrs. D. D. Davis. 
Albert Siler. 

Dr. George F. Moore. 

Prof. E. W. Adams. 

Samuel W. Westbrook. 

S. S. Howard. 

Alexander Wray. 

Rev. Frederick Fitzgerald. 

Prof. N. B. Webster. 

Rev. J. A. Sheppard. 

D. Morrell. 

Dr. L. Beall. 

Dr. J. Bryant Smith. 

Robert H. Drysdale. 

Robert S. Gilmour. 

Rev. A. McDowell. 

William Beal. 

A. E. Kitchen. 

John H. Mills. 

Dr. William R. Hicks. 

T. Carter and W. H. Hamilton. 

W. H. Hamilton. 

Rev. Fisk P. Brewer. 

Miss M. H. Taylor. 

J. W. Calloway. 

Thomas A. Allison. 

Thomas Norfleet. 

Robert H. Austin. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 115 

Monthly meteorological re;ports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Thornbury 

Trinity College . 

Warrenton 

Weldon 

Wilmington 

Wilson 

Ohio 

Adams' Mills 

Amesville 

Andrews 

Athens 

Austinburgh 

Avon 

Belle Center 

Bellefontaine . . . 

Berea 

Berlin Heights . . 

Bethel 

Bowling Green . 

Breckville 

Cardiugton 

Carson 

Carthagena 

Centralia 

Chester Hill.... 

Cheviot 

Cincinnati , 



Cleveland 



College Hill 



1854 

1854 

1860-1861 . 
1869 

1857-1858. 

1870 

1872-1873. 
1871 

1872-1873. 
1867 



Collingwood 

Coshocton . . 
Columbus .. 
Croton 



1870-: 

1869 

1860 

1849- 

1862- 

1864. 

1864. 

1864- 

1858- 

1857- 

1854, 

1855- 

1870- 

1854- 

1871- 

1873- 

1859- 

1857- 

1866- 

1859- 

1863. 

1871- 

1870- 

1864- 

1873. 

1855- 

1849. 

1854, 

1855- 

1859- 

1859- 

1860- 

1865- 

1871- 

1851, 

1852. 

1858- 

1860- 

1862- 

1866- 

1854. 

1853- 

1858- 

1859- 

1865- 

1856- 

1858 

1861- 

1851- 

1860. 

1861. 



1871. 



1861- 
1851. 
1863. 



1866 

1860 

1859 

1860-1861. 

1860 

1873 



1872. 



1873. 

1863. 

1873. 
1361. 



1873. 
1873. 
1866. 



1857. 



1857-1858 

1873 

1863 

1864 

1862 

1872 

1873 

1855-1861, 1868 



1863. 
1863. 
1873. 

1868. 



1857. 
1865. 
1873. 
1867. 

1857. 



1862. 
1852. 



Rev. F. Fitzgerald. 
Daniel Morelle. 
Rev. B. Craven. 
E. D. Pearsall. 
Dr. W. M. Johnson. 
Henry A. Foote. 
T. A. Clarke. 
John A. Harrell. 
Rev. Daniel Morelle. 
E. W. Adams. 



C. A. Stillwell. 

E. W. Brawley. 

Dr. W. Spratt. 

Prof. W. W. Mather. 

J. G. Dole and C. S. S. Griffing. " 

David S. Alvord. 

J. G. Dole. 

E. D. Winchester. 
Rev. L. F. Ward. 

Rev. R. Shields and J. C. Smith. 

Rev. Robert Shields. 

Joseph Shaw. 

W. Barringer. 

Prof. G. M. Barber. 

I. McK. Pettenger. 

J. S. Patterson. 

George W. Crane. 

Dr. W. R. Peck. 

John Clarke. 

Rev. S. L. Hillier. 

Hubert A. Schauber. 

Mrs. M. M. Marsh. 

Dr. R. Miiller. 

Hubert A. Schauber. 

John D. Wright. 

Ebeuezer Hannaford. 

John Lea. 

F. W. Hurtt. 
George W. Harper. 
A. A. Warder. 

R. C. and J. H. Phillips. 
Eli T. Lappan. 
R. C. Phillips. 
J. H. Shields. 
Gustavus A. Hayde. 
Edward Wade. 
Edward Colburn. 
U. S. Engineers. 

G. A. Hyde and Mrs. Hyde. 
Dr. T. A. Smurr. 

G. S. Ormsby. 

Prof. R. S. Bosworth. 

Prof. J. H.Wilson. 

J. W. Hammitt. 

L. B. Tuckerman. 

Henry Bennett. 

Sarah E. Bennett. 

Thomas H. Johnson. 

Theodore G. Wormley. 

Mark Sperry. 

Rev. E. Thompson and Mark Sperry 



116 MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL EEPOETS. 

Monthly meteorological reiwrts presefrved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 




Name of observer. 



Croton • 

Cuyahoga Falls 

Dallasburgh 

Dayton 

East Cleveland 

East Fairfield 

East Eockport 

Eaton 

Edgerton 

Edinburgh. 

Farmer 

Franklin 

Freedom 

Gallipolis 

Gambler, Ken yon College 

Garrettsville 

Germantown 

Gilmore 

Granville 

Groveport 

Harmar 

Hillsborough 

Hiram 

Hockingport 

Homer „ 

Hudson 



1SG2- 
1864- 
1859- 
1856. 
1856. 
1858. 
1873. 
1861- 
1859- 
1854. 
1863- 
1869- 
1857- 
1871- 
1855- 
1859- 
1861. 



18G3. 
1865. 
1863. 



1862. 
•1867. 

1865! 

•1870. 
■1858. 
■1872. 
■1857. 
■1860. 



1862 

1854-1856 

1857-1858, 1864-1873 

1871 

1869-1871.--..... 
1861-1863.... .... 

1852-1856 

1856-1857 

1869-1870 

1849 

1849-1858 

1872-1873 

1860-1861 

1851-1860,1863-1873 

1857 

1863 

1855 

1856 

1856-1860 

1859-1860 

1852 

1858-1859 

1860-1861 



1862. 



Huron 

Iberia 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jacksonburgh 

Jefferson 

Keene 

Kenton 

Kelly's Island 

Kingston 

Lafayette 

Lancaster 



1863 

1871-1873. 
1872-1873. 

1854 

1859 

1849-1854. 

1855 

1855 

1857-1858, 
1868-1873, 
1855-1858. 
1849-1852. 
1853-1854 
1862-1863, 
1859-1870 
1871...... 

1863-1867 , 

1867 

1857 . . 



1866-1873 



Eev. Elias Thompson. 

D. M. Eaukin. 

F. G. Hill. 

Cooper Female Seminary. 
Dr. James C. Fischer. 
Lewis Groneweg. 
Charles Eeeve. 
Mrs. M. A. Pillsburv. 
S. B. McMillan. 
Dr. J. E. Kirtland. 
Thomas J. Larsh. 
S. B. Knight. 
Smith Sanford. 
Dr. S. C. Irwin. 
Dr. W. L. Schenck. 
H. M. Davidson. 

H. M. Davidson and Wilson David- 
son. 
Wilson Davidson. 

G. W. Livesay. 
A. P. Eogers. 

C. D. Leggett and C. A. Stillwell. 

F. K. Dunn and others. 
Warren Pierce. 

L. Groneweg. 

J. S. Binkerd. 

Samuel M. Moore. 

Prof. P. Carter. 

Dr. S. N. Sanford. 

August Bareis. 

W. G. Fuller. 

Eev. J. McD. Mathews. 

C. C. Janes. 

Dr. C. C. Samms. 

S. L. Hillier and S. M. Luther. 

Spencer L. Hillier. 

S. M. Luther. 

Dr. John Ehoades. 

Thomas F. Withrow. 

Prof. C. A. Young and E. W. Childs. 

Prof. C. A. Young and A. C. Bar- 
rows. 

Prof. C. A. Young, E. W. Stuart, J. 
C.Elliott, W. Pettengill, and H. 
E. Watterson. 

Prof. C. A. Youug and J. C. Elliott. 

Charles J. Smith. 

H. L. Keenan and F. W. Taylor. 

Edmund W. West. 

S. T. Boyd. 

George L. Crookham. 

G. L. Crookham and M. Gilmore. 
S. B. Wood. 

M. Gilmore. 
Dr. J. B. Owsley. 
James D. Herrick. 
Dr. E. C. Bid well. 

E. Spooner. 
Dr. C. H. Smith. 
George C. Huntingdon. 

D. K. Huntington. 
Prof. John Haywood. 
Samuel Knoble. 
Lewis M. Dayton. 



MONTHLY METEOKOLOGICAL EEPOETS. 117 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. , 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Lancaster 

Lebanon 

Little Hotjking . . . 
Little Mountain . 
Madison 

Mansfield 

Marietta 

Marion 

Martin's Ferry 

Medina 

Middlebury 

Miluersville 

Monroe County. . 
Mount Auburn . . . 

Mount Gilead. ... 
Mount Pleasant- . 

Mount Tabor 

Mount Union 

Mount Vernon... 
Mount Victory . . . 
Newark 

New Concord 

New Lisbon 

New Westfield... 
North Bass Island 

North Bend 

North Fairfield . . 

North wood 

Norton 

Norwalk 

Oberlin 



Oxford, Miami University 

Penusville 

Perrysburgh 

Portsmouth 

Quaker Eidge.. 

Eepublic 

Eichmond 

Eipley 

Eussell Station 

Sago 

Salem 

Sandusky 

Savannah 



1858 

1859 

I860 

1849 

1862-1863 

1867-1873 

1857-1860 

1859-1863 

1851-1852 

1860-1863 

1849-1855 

1865-1873 

1859 

1867 

1869-1872 

1857-1858 

1858-1863 

1849 

1862-1873 

1859 

1868-1873 

1871 

1859-1860 

1849 

1857-1860 

1853-1855 

1859-1860 

1854-1855 

1859-1863 

1849 

1857-1870 

1862,1863 

1869-1873 .... 

1868-1869 

1867-1873 

1852 

1849 

1854 

1861-1868 

1849-1850 

1851-1852, 1857 

1855-1856 

1860 

1870-1873 

1867 

1868-1873 

1871 

1854-1856, 1858 

1857 

1855-1858 

1859-1863 

1863-1865..,.. 

1870-1872 , 

1851 

1854-1855 

1857-1861 

1864-1867 , 

1867-1870 

1859-1860 

1871 

1870-1873..... 

1859-1873 

1854-1863 



H. W. Jaeger. 
W. E. Davis. 
J. W. Towson. 
Joseph C. Hatfield. 
James Eraser. 

E. J. Ferriss. 
Eev. L. S. Atkins. 
Mrs. Ardelia C. King. 

F. A. Benton. 

D. P. Adams. 

Prof. J. W. Andrews. 

H. A. True. 

T. Chase. 

Charles E. Shreve. 

C. E. and Martha B. Shreve. 

Eev. L. F. Ward. 

William P. Clarke. 

Michael Beecher. 

Eev. D. Thompson. 

Enoch D. Johnson. 

Senior Class Mount Auburn Female 

Institute. 
James McCune. 
David H. Tweedy. 
William Laphauj, 
Newton Anihony. 

F. A. Benton. 
W. C. Hampton. 
LeAvis M. Dayton. 
Israel Dille. 
Prof. S. G. Irvine. 
J. F. Benner. 

A. E. Jerome. 

Dr. George E. Morton. 

E. B. Warder. 
O. Burras. 

Prof. J. E. W. Sloane. 
W. D. Watkins. 

G. A. Hyde. 

Eev. Alfred Newton. 

Professors Fairchild and Dascomb. 

Prof. J. N. Allen. 

Prof. J. H. Fairchild. 

Frederick Allen. 

L. Herrick. 

O. N. Stoddard. 

E. W. McFatland. 
J. P. King. 

F. Hollenbeck. 

F. and D. K. Hollenbeck. 
James H. Poe. 
Dr. D. B. Cotton. 
Lud. Eugelbrecht. 
T. J. Eingman. 
Stephen S. Dorsey. 
Jacob N. Deselleru. 
J. Ammen. 
Dr. G. Bamback. 
Mrs. M. M. Marsh. 
J. W. Gamble. 
William Ballantine. 
Eev. J. E. Pollock. 
Thomas Niell. 
Dr. John Ingram. 



118 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 

Montlily meteorological reports 2>reserved in the Smitlisonian Institution — Coutinued. 



Name of station. 



Savamiali 

Saybrook 

Seville 

Sharon ville. 

Sidney 

Smithfield 

Smithville 

Steuben ville . . . 

Springfield 

Tiffin 

Toledo 

Troy 

Twinsburgh . . , 
Unionville 

Urbana 

West Bedford. . 

Welchfield 

Wellington 

Westerville . . . . 

Western Star . . 
West Elkton . . 
West Union . . . 
Wooster 

Williamsj)ort . . 

Windham 

Yaukeetown 

Yellow Springs 

Zanesfield 

Zanesville 



Oregon. 

Albany 

Astoria 

Auburn 

Corvallis 

Eola , 

Fort Snyder 

Fort Thompson 

Hood River 

Oregon City 

Portland 

Salem 

Pennsylvania 

Abington 

Allegheny City 




Name of observer. 



1871- 

1872- 
1862- 
1864- 
1861- 
1859- 
1857 
1866 
1884- 
1868- 
1849- 
1865- 
1859- 
1870 
1873 
1859. 
1859 
1860- 
1859- 
1860 
1854- 
1858 
1855- 
1856- 
1857- 
1863 
1858- 
1863- 
1861 
1872 
I860- 
1849 
1864- 
1867- 
1857- 
1854 
1868 
1854 
1856 
1859 
1853 



■1866. 
■1870. 
•1863. 
1871 . 
•1861. 



■1870. 
•1-863. 



•1857. 



•1873. 
•1857 . 
•1866. 



1863, 1868-1873 
-1867.. 



■1861. 



-1873. 

■1872. 
■1859 . 



;-1857. 



1865- 

1870- 
1863^ 
1864- 
1866- 
1870- 
1858 
1857- 
1872 
1872- 
1851 
1871^ 
1858^ 
1870 
1871 
1861 
1863 



■1868.. 
■1873.. 
-1865.. 
-1865.. 
-1868.. 
-1873.. 



-1858. 



-1873. 

■1852. 
■1873. 
-1859. 



:-lS65. 



1864-1873. 
1871-1873. 



Dr. W. S. Shaw. 
Peter Bowman. 
Rev. L. S. Atkins. 
James B. Eraser. 
Rev. L. F. Ward. 
William P. Bowen. 
Joseph Shaw. 

D. H. Tweedy. 
John H. Myers. 
William Hoover. 
Roswell Marsh. 
J. B. Doyle. 
Samuel C. Frey. 

Dr. 0. P. Hachenberg. 
C. Hornung. 
Sarah E. Bennett. 

E. B. Raffensperger. 
Dr.J.B.Trembley. 
Charles L. McClung. 
N. A. Chapiuan. 
Miss A. Cunningham. 
Mrs. Ardelia C. King. 
Prof. M. G. Williams. 
H. D. McCarty. 

B. F. Abell. 

Rev. L. F. Ward. 

Prof. John Haywood. 

Prof. H. A. Thompson. 

A. S. Stuver. 

Jesse Stubbs. 

Rev. Wm. Lumsden. 

Eugene Pardee. 

Martin Winger. 

John R. Wilkinson. 

Samuel W. Treat. 

A. Jacque. 

W. A. Anthony. 

John F. Lukins. 

L. M. Dayton. 

Adam Peters. 

Dr. J. G. F. Holston. 



S. M. W. Hindman. 
Louis Wilson. 
R. B. Ironside. 
S. M. W. Hindman. 
A. D. Barnard. 
Thomas Pearce. 
James A. Snyder. 
W. H. Wagner. 
Chas. C. Coe. 
Thomas M. Whitcomb. 
Geo. A. Atkinson. 
Henry A. Oxer. 
Geo. H. Stebbins. 
J. W. Gilhland. 
James S. Reed. 
Thos. H. Crawford. 
P. L. Willis. 



Rodman Sisson. 
B. Feicht. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 119 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Altoona 

Andersville 

Ashland 

AYondell 

Beaver 

Bedford 

Bellefonte 

Bendersville 

Berwick 

Bethlehem 

Blairsville 

Blooming Grove 

Brookville 

Brownsville 

Byberry 

Canousburgh . . . 



Carlisle 

Carpenter 

Ceres 

Chambersburgh 
Chromedale 

Clarksbnrgh 

Couuellsville ... 

Darby 

Dyberry 

Easton 



East Smithfield 

Egypt 

Erie 

Ephratah 

Fallsington. ... 
Franklin 

Freeport 

Fleming 

Fountaiudale . . 
Germautown .. 



Period. 



1859-1860.... 

1863 

1854 

1870 

1870-1873 

1868-1869 

1867-1872 

1852-1858 

1859-1861 

1858-1859 

1859 

1859-1860 

1856-1861 1863-1865 

1849 

1867 

1867-1868 

1861-1865 

1865-1873 

1854 

1869-1873 

1852-1854, 1857-1858 

1860-1861 

1861-1867 

1849 

1849 

1855-1861, 1863-1873 

1860 

1861-1863 

1849 

1855-1859 

1868-1873 

1862 

1849-1854 

1858-1862 

1854-1857 

1858 

1852 

1849-1873 

1849-1852 

1865-1873 

1849 

1851 

1851 

1857-1858 

1859-1860 

1861 

1859 

1870-1873 

1849 

1865-1873 

1865-1873 

1867-1873 

1872-1873 

1849 

1849-1851 

1854 

1860 

1856-1867 

1868-1872 

1859 

1862-1864 

1859-1861, 1865-1873 



Name of observer. 



W. E. Boyers. 
Thomas H. Savery. 
K. Weiser. 

Rev. W. E.Honeyman. 
A. W. Curtis. 
William E. Baker. 
Rev. R, T. Taylor. 
Samuel Brown. 
Rev. H. Heckerman. 
J. I. Burrell. 
Franklin W. Cook. 
T. E. Cook and Sons. 
John Eggert. 
L. R. Huebener. 
Natlian C. Tooker. 
Prof. A. M. Mayer. 
W. R. Boyers. 
Johi5 Grathwohl. 

D. S. Deering. 

Dr. J. Allen Hubbs. 
John Cornly. 
John W. Sanrman. 
Isaac C. Martindale. 
Prof. J. R. Williams. 
F. L. Stewart. 
Rev. Wm. Smith. 
Charles Davis. 
Lvceum Jefferson College. 
Prof. S. F. Baird. 
Prof. W. C. Wilson. 
W. H. Cook. 

E. L. McNett. 
R. P. Stevens. 
Wm. Heyser, jr. 
Joseph Edwards. 

Joseph Edwards and John H. 
Smedley. 

Barnet McElroy. 

John Taylor. 

John Jackson. 

Theodore Day. 

A. R. McCoy. 

Prof. J. H. Coffin. 

E. L. Dodder. 

Selden J. Coffin. 

Selden J. Coffin aud G. S, Hough- 
ton. 

Geo. S. Houghton. 

James E. Tracy. 

Edward Kohler. 

Benjamin Grant. 

W. H. Spera. 

Ebenezer Hance. 

Rev. M. A. Tolman. 

Joseph Bell. 

Dr. A. Alter. 

Andrew Eoulston. 

A. D. Wier. 

John H. Baird. 

Samuel Brugger. 

S. C. Walker. 

S. Ebert. 

Thos. Meehan and J. Meehan. 

Thomas Meehan. 



120 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPORTS. 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution— Continued. 



Name of station. 




Name of observer. 



Germantown .. 
Gettysburg]! . . . 

Grampian Hills 
Greeucastle. ... 
Greensburgh . . . 

Greenville 

Harrisburgh . . . 



Hazleton 

Haverford 

HoU iday sburgh 

Houesdale . 

Horsham 

Huntingdon 

Ickesburgb 

Indiana 

Jobnstown 

Kingsley's 

Lancaster 

Latrobe 

Lewisburgh. 

Lima 

Linden 

Manchester 

Meadville 

Media 

Moorhead 

Morrisville . . . . 

Moss Grove . . . . 
Mount Eock .. . 
Mount Joy 

Murrysville 

Nazareth 



New Castle 

Norristown 

Northeast , . 

North Whitehall 

Oil City 

Oxford 

Paradise 

Parkerville 

Philadeli)hia 



1869-1871 

1849-1860 

1861 

1862-1865 

1864-1873 

1870 

1871-1873 

1873 

1872 

1871-1873 

1849 

1857-1864 

1860-1861 

1869-1870 

1871-1873-.... 

1870-1873 

1853-1863 

1853 

1852 

1864-1873 

1859 

1867-1868 

1849-1851 

1858 

1868-1871,1873 

1852 

1849 

1849-1851 

1860-1862 

1861 

1855-1860, 1865-1873 

1849-1852 

1853 .,..- 

1859 

1858-1859 

1849-1852 

1849-18.51 

1854-1858 

1860 

1863 

1849-1864 

1859 

1853-1857 

1871-1873 

1857-1858 

1860-1873 

1857-1859 

1867-1868 

1851.-- 

1852 

185.5-1857 

1859-1860 

1861- 

1862 

1863-1866 

1866-1873 

18.51-1863 

1867 

1856-1868 

1863-1864 

1865 

1854-1858 

1859-1863,1865 

1849 



Ernest Turner. 

Prof. M. Jacobs. 

Rev. M. Jacobs and D. Eyster. 

Rev. M. Jacobs and H. E. Jacobs. 

Elisha Fentou. 

Samuel N. Rhode. 

J. M. L. Stump. 

G. B. Slattery. 

W. D. Weaver. 

D. P. Packard. 
Dr. J. Heiselv. 
W. O. Hickok. 
K. A. Martin. 
Dr. W. H. Egle. 
S. A. Black. 
John Haworth. 
Dr. Paul Swift. 
J. R. Lowrie. 
M. H. Cobb. 

Miss Anna Spencer. 

Dr. Wm. Brewster. 

Wm. E. Baker. 

David Peelor. 

W.D. Hildebrand and DavidPeelor. 

David Peelor. 

Francis Schreiuer. 

F. A. Muhlenburg, jr. 

John Wise. 

Prof. Rudolph Miiller. 

W. R. Boyers. 

Prof. C. S. James. 

Messrs. Edwards and Miller. 

Joseph Edwards. 

John H. Smedley. 

James Barrett. 

Corydon Marks. 

Prof. L. D. Williams. 

T. H. Thickstun. 

Dr. Isaac N. Kerlin, 

R. L. Walker. 

Ebenezer Hance. 

Mahlon Moore. 

Francis Schreiuer. 

Jacob Lefever. 

Mary E. HofFer. 

Dr. Jacob R. Hoffer. 

Thomas H. Stewart. 

F. L. Stewart. 

E. T. Kluge. 

E. T. Kluge and E. Kummer, 

H. A. Brickenstein. 

J. C. Harvey. 

O. T. Huebner. 

O. T. Huebner and L. E. Ricksecker 

L. E. Ricksecker. 

E. M. McCounell. 

Rev. J. G. Ralston. 

John F. Milliken. 

Edward Kohler. 

James A. Weeks. 

Dr. Henry Dufiield. 

Jacob Frantz. 

Fenelon Darlington. 

United States navy-yard. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPOETS. 121 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the SmUhsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Philadelphia . 



Phcenixville 
Pittsburgh . 



Plymouth Meeting . 

Pocopson 

Pottsville 

Pottsville 

Eaudolph 

Heading -.. 

Eington 

Salem 

Scranton 

Sewickly ville 

Shamokin 

Silver Spring 

Somerset 

Stevensville 

Saint IMary's 

Sugar Grove 

Summit Hill 

Summitville 

Susquehanna Depot 
Tarentum , 

Tioga 

Towanda 

Troy Hill 

Uniontown 

Valley Forge 

Warrior's Mark 

Wayuesborough . . . 

Wellsborough . 

Westchester 



1849 

1849-1852 

1849-1852 

1852-1860, 1862-1873 

1857-1873 

1860-1861 

1863 

1864 

1864-1865 

1867 

1869 

1849-1851 

1849-1854 

1852-1858 

1857 

1855 

1858 



1859- 
1863 

1870- 
1872- 
1868- 
1853- 
1854- 
1855 
1857 
1858 
1851- 
1857- 
1858 
1872 
1869- 
1858 
1859- 
1861 
1862 
1856- 
1863- 
1852 
1856 
1857- 
1866- 
1849. 
1849- 
1852- 
1852. 
1852. 
1863. 
1856- 
1871- 
1863- 
1861. 



'-1861. 



-1871 

-1873 

-1872 

1858, 1866-1873 
-1855 



■1852, 1854-1856 
■1863, 1866-1873 



-1873. 
■i860' 



■1863. 
■1869. 



■1861. 

■1867. 



1851. 

1854. 



1880 . 
1873. 
1873 . 



1855-1856. 

1849 

1849 

1854 

1853-1854. 

1849 

1858-1859. 
1864-1865. 
1868-1873. 
1872...... 



Lieut, Joseph Eeed. 

Dr. Paul Swift. 

J. F. Coorlies. 

Prof. J. A. Kirkpatrick. 

United States Naval Hospital. 

Dr. J. C. Martiudale. 

P. Friel. 

Homer Eachers. 

Pennsylvania Hospital. 

J. M. Ellis. 

Isaac Z. Caffman. 

Edward Fenderich. 

Dr. H. Smyser. 

W. W. Wilson. 

William Martin. 

John Hastings and William Martin. 

William Martin and Dr. Alexander 

M. Speer. 
Dr. Alexander M. Speer. 
Prof. Eudolph Miiller. 
Charles Albree. 
George Albree. 
Marcus H. Corson. 
Fenelon Darlington. 
John Hughes. 
Dr. A. Heger. 
Eev. B. E. Smyser. 
D. Washburn. 
Orrin T. Hobbs. 
John Heyl Easer. 
Dr. J. B. Peale and Charles Hahn. 
N. S. Haines. 
James D. Stacker. 
Dr. A. P. Meybert. 
John I. Travelli. 
J. I. Travelli and G. H. Tracy. 
George H. Tracy. 
P. Friel. 
H. G. Bruckart. 
Eev. David J. Eyler. 

D. F. Chorpenning. 
George Moury. 

J. Eussell Dutton. 
William A. Stokes. 
Lorin Blodget. 
W. O. Blodget. 
M. Abbott. 
Thomas Seabrook. 
H. H. Atwater. 
John H. Baird. 
S. Cummings. 

E. T. Bentley. 

S.J. Coffin, W.H. Dean, and LH. 

Kingsbury. 
Victor Scriba. 
Freman Lewis. 
C. P. Jones. 
J. E. Lowrie. 
Eev. D. J. Eyler. 
Henry W. Thorp. 
Samuel Alsop. 

Prof. A. G. Clark and T. H. Aldrich 
Dr. George Martin. 
W. A. Jefferis. 



122 MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL REPOKTS. 

Monthly meteorological repo7-ts preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Contiuued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



WestSt. Exp. Farm.. 

Whitehall Station 

Williamsport 

Worthington 

York Sulphur Springs 
Youngsville — 

Rhode Island. 

East Greenwich 

Newport 

North Scituate 

Portsmouth 

Providence 

South Carolina. 

Aiken , 

Anderson 

Barrattsville 

Beaufort 

Black Oak 

Bluffton 

Camden 

Charleston 



Columbia. 



1872 

1859-18G0, 1668-1869 
1864, 18(i9-1871... 

1873 

1859-1862 

1871-1873 

1853-1854 



1855-1856. 

1854 

1865-1870 , 
1870-1873. 
1853-1S54. 

1854 

1849-1867. 
1860-1864. 
I 



1854-1856 

1857-1861, 1867-1872 

1872-lh73 

1808-1870 

1849-1851 

1863-1865 

1858-1861 

1870 

1851-1854 

1869-1873 

1849-1851, 1854-1857 

1851 

1855-1857 

1857 

1858-1861 



Edisto Island 

Fort Hill 

Georgetown 

Gowdeysville 

Grahamville 

Hacienda Saluda . . 
Hilton Head 

Mount Pleasant. .. 
Oraugeburgh . . 

Pomaria 

Saint John's 

Waccamaw 

Wilkinsville 

Tennessee. 
Austin 



1851 

1856 

1856 

1858 

1859 

1859 

1855-1857. 
1869-1870. 
1859-1861. 
1868-1873. 

1872 

1871-1873. 

1864 

1865 

1857 

1849 

1849 

1873 

1872 

1849-1852. 
1859-1860. 
1854-1858. 
1866-1867 . 



1860-1861 . 

1868-1873. 



A. J. Hamilton. 
Edward Kohler. 
H. C. Moyer. 
Josiah Emery. 
Samuel Scott. 
Dr. J. PI. Marsden. 
Dr. A. C. Blodget. 



E. G. Arnold, 
Samuel Poprel. 
W. H. Crandall. 
W. A. Barber. 
Henry C. Sheldon. 
George Manchester. 
Prof. A. Caswell. 
H. C. Sheldon. 



PI. W. Ravenel. 
Rev. J. H. Cornish. 
Dr. W. H. Geddings. 

E. S. Earle. 

Dr. John P. Barratt. 

Dr. M. M. Marsh and Mrs. Marsh. 

Thomas P. Ravenel. 

S. Saint J. Guerard. 

T. Carpenter. 

Colin Macrae. 

Dr. J. A. Young. 

Prof. L. R. Gibbes. 

Dr. Jos. Johnson. 

Dr. J. L. Dawson. 

Dr. Jos. Johnson, J. L. Dawson, and 

G. S. Pelzer. 
Col. W. Wallace. 

F. H. Harleston. 
Prof. J. B. White. 
Capt. C. C. Tew. 
Dr. E. H. Barton. 
Superintendent Arsenal Academy. 
E. N. Fuller. 

R. A. S^jrings, jr. 

Rev. Alexander Glennie. 

Charles Petty. 

E. D. Pearsall. 

Lardner Gibbon. 

Maj. J. W. Abert, Capt. C. R. Snter. 

Maj. C. R. Suter. 

Dr. E. N. Fuller. 

Thomas A. Elliott. 

Joseph T. Zealy. 

J. W. Folk. 

D. Benjamin Busby. 

H. W. Ravenel. 

Thomas P. Ravenel. 

Rev. Alexander Glennie. 

Charles Petty. 



Dr. S. K. Jennings. 
P. B. Calhoun. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPORTS. 123 

Monthly meteorological reports ])rese)'ved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Bethel Springs 

Castalian "Springs 

Chattanooga 

Clarksville 

Clearmont 

Cleveland 

Dixon Springs 

Dover 

Elizabethton 

Fayetteville 

Franklin . , 

Friendship 

Greeneville 

Jackson 

Knoxville 



La Grange 

Lebanon 

Lookout Mountain 

McMinnville 

Memphis 



Memphis. 
Nashville. 



Pomona 

Eotherwood 

Smithville 

Trenton 

University Place, Franklin 

County 

Walnut Grove 

Winchester 

Texas. 

Aransas 

Austin 



Bastrop . 

Bellona 

Blue Branch 
Bluff 



Period. 



1872- 
1872- 
1872- 
1864. 
1851- 
1870- 
1873. 
1852. 
1849, 
1868- 
1849- 
1867. 
1854- 
1866- 
1872 
1851- 
1853, 
1854 



■1873. 
1873. 
1873. 



1873. 
1873. 



■1873 
1851 . 



1855. 
■1873. 



■1852. 



1855 
1860 
1869- 
1859- 
1870- 
1851- 
1854 
1866- 
1867- 
1873 
1849- 
1851- 
1857- 
1857 
1859 
I860- 
1867- 
1849 
1849 
1854 
1867- 
1873 
1859 
1872- 
1872- 
1854 
1869 



i-1856 . 



1872. 
1860 . 
1873. 
1854. 



1867. 
1872. 



1853. 

1852. 
1858. 



1861. 

1870 . 



1868. 



-1861. 

-1873. 
1873. 



■1873. 



1859-1861 . 
1856-1857. 

1859-1860. 



1860 

1852-1856. 
1854 

1857 



1858-1864 

1858-1861, 1867-1873 

1859 

1869-1870 

1870 

1870-1873 



Name of observer. 



Dr. S. K. Jennings. 

A. W. Stovall. 

Dr. Thomas J. Kennedy. 
Dr. G. H. Blaker. 
Prof. W. M. Stewart. 
T. P. Wright. 
H. Foster. 
Thomas L. Sawyer. 

B. F. Tavel. 
Charles H. Lewis. 
Dr. W. W. McNulty. 
Dr. Jos. M. Parker. 
Dr. Eobert T. Carter. 
S. S. and W. S. Doak. 
E. W. Amsden. 

O. W. Morris. - 

Prof. George Cooke. 

Prof. George Cooke and L. Gris- 

w^old. 
T. L. Griswold. 
Stephen C. Dodge. 
Prof. J. K. Payne. 
J. E. Blake. 
W. E. Franklin. 
Prof. A. P. Stewart. 
Prof. B. C. Jilson. 
Eward F. Williams. 
Eev. C. F. P. Bancroft. 
Miss Blanche Lewis. 
United States navy-yard. 
E. Harris. 
Dr. W. J. Tuck. 
Dr. Daniel F. Wright. 
Drs. W. Tuck and E. W. Mitchell. 
Dr. E. W. Mitchell. 
Edward Goldsmith. 
Prof. James Hamilton. 
William Eothrock. 
James Higgins. 
Fred. H. French. 
Charles A. Stillwell. 
J. W. Dodge & Son. 
Eev. C. Waterbury. 
P. C. Bluhm. 
Professor Hamilton. 
William T. Grigsby. 

Charles E.Barney. 
James B. Bean. 
S. W. Houghton. 



Frederick Kaler, 

Dr. Samuel K. Jennings. 

J. W. Glenn. 

Dr. S. K. Jennings and J. Van Nos- 

trand. 
Swante Palm. 
J. Van Nostrand. 
J. D. Cunningham. 
Burke Combs. 
W. H. Goode. 
Joseph Fietsam 



124 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 

Montlily meteo)'ological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 


Period. 


Name of observer. 


Boerne 


1872-1873 


William Melchert. 

Prof. Solomon Sias. 

G. Frees. 

John IT. Clark. 

Dr. N. P. West. 

Heunell Stevens. 

W. H. Gantt. 

Rev. John Anderson. 

George N. Leoni. 

Dr. A. C. White. 

Dr. W. G. De Graffenried. 

F. S. Wade. 

John M. Crockett. 

Samuel Davis. 

Dr. C. H. Wilkinson, H. A. 

Comly, and others. 
Dr. A. H. Beazley. 
George G. Shnmard. 
J. M. Glasco. 
John C. Brightman. 
Melvin H. Allis. 
Dr. R. De Jeruett. 
John C. Brightman. 
T. M. Scott." 
Dr. A. M. Potter. 
Miss E. Baxter. 
Miss Jane Connell. 
H. Yoakum. < 
J. H. Browne. 
T. Gibbs. 
James T. Rayal. 
James Brown. 
W.T.Epperson. 
F. L. Yoakum. 
L. D. Heaton. 
L. Woodruff'. 
M. Rutherford. 
F. S. Wade. 

A. Forke and Otto Friedrich. 
Otto Friedrich. 

C. Ruuge. 

T. C. Ervendherg. 

J. L. Forke. 

F. Simpson. 

N. S. Brooks. 

John T. Coit. 

James M. Reade. 

James Gardiner. 

Allen Martin. 

Bruno Shuman. 

Dr. Fred. Pettersen. 

F. S. Wade. 

J. 0. Gaffuey. 

Ernest Kapp. 

T. A. Turner. 

Dr. B. S. D'Spain and J. M. Ev 

William Colman. 

James T. Rayal. 

Dr. William H. Gantt. 

Dr. Edward Merrill. 

B. H. Rucker. 

Prof. C. W. Yellowby. 

F. Kellogg. 

Dr. James E. Moko. 




Bonham 


1S59-1860 

1860-1861 




Boston 




Boundary Sur vev 


1859. 

1859-1881 




Burkeville 




Cedar Grove Plantation 


1867-1869 




Chappell Hill 


1866-1867 




Clarksville 


1870-1873 




Clear Lake 


1871 




Clinton 


1869-1872 




Columhns 


1859 




Cross-Roads 


1859-1860 




Dallas 


1859 

1871-1873 




Deloraine 




Galveston 


1867.... 

1869 

1859 


Mf 






Gilmer 


1859-1861, 1867-1873 

1857-1858 

1859-1861 




Goliad 




Gonzales 




Greenville 


1859-1860 




Helena 


1856-1857 




Highland 


1872-187S 




Houston 


1862-1865 






1867-1872 






1872-1873 




Huutsville 


1849-1851 

1852 










1858-1860 




Kaufman 


1859-1866 






1866 




Jefferson 


1859 




Larissa 


1858-1860 




Lavaca 


1869-1871 




Lockhart 


1869-1870,1872 

1867 '. 

1869-1870 

18.57 

1858-1860 

1872-1873 




Long Point 

Mine Creek 

New Braunfels 




NeAV Ulm 




New Wied 


1849-1854 




Oakland 


1855-1857 

1870-1872 




Palestine 

Pianaz 


1869-1870 

1869 




Pope's Expedition 

Port Lavaca 


185.5-1857 

1859 

1871-1872 




Repose 






1859-1861 




San Antonio 


1870-1873 




Sand Flv 


1870-1873 . . 




San Patricio 


1859-1860 




Sisterdale 


1859-1860 




Springfield 


1H59 




Tarrant 


1859-1860 

1859 

1861 

1857-1861 . . 




Texana 




Turner's Point 




Union Hill 




Waco 


1867-1869 

1856-1860 




Washington 




Wehberville 


1859-1861 




Wheelock 


1859-1861 




Woodborousrh 


1859-1860 





MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL EEPOKTS. 125 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Utah. 



Camp Douglas. 



Coalville 

•Great Salt Lake City . 



Harrisburgh 

Heberville 

Rockvilie 

Saint George 

Saint Mary's 

Vineland .. 

Wauship 

Washington 

Vermont. 

Barnet 

Bradford 

Brandon 

Brattleborough . . . 

Brookfield 

Burlington 

Calais 

Castleton 

Charlotte 

Craftsbury 

East Bethel 

East Montpelier .. 
Lunenburg 

Middlebury 

Montpelier 

Mount Anthony 

Newport 

North Craftsbury . 
Norwich 

Pauton 

Randolph 

Rupert 

Rutland 

Saxe's Mills 

Shelburne 

South Troy 

Springfield 

Saint Johnsbury .. 

Strafford.... 

West Fairlee 

Wilmington 



Period. 



1871 

1871 

18G9-1872 

18.57 

1859-1861, 1863-1871 

1872-1878 

1872-1873 

1867-1873 

1862-1864 

1^66 

1862-1864,1869 

1865-1866 

1870 

1865 

1864 

1866-1869 

1860... 

1866-1867,1869 

1856-1857 

1852-1864 

1864-1867,1869 

1849-1851 

1863 

1849-1854 

1857-1S64 

1861-1864.... „ 

1852-1854 

1869-1873 

1868-1873 

1853-1854 

1855-1867 

1868-1873 

1865 

1855 

1859-1873 

1872-1873 

1849-1852 

1865-1870 

1849-1851 

1863 

1871 

1869-1870 

1867-1868 

1855-1859 

1871-1873 

1869-1872 

1849-1851 

1866-1873 

1857-1863 

1862-1864 

1855 

1855-1857 

1870-1872 

1860-1863 

1853-1855 

1857-1861 

1873 

1858 

1866-1867 



Name of observer. 



A. C. Ford. 

Charles Vieweg. 

Thomas Bullock. 

H. E. Phelps. 

H. E. Phelps and W. W. Phelps. 

E. L. T. Harrison. 

Thomas Bullock. 

James Lewis. 

Harrison Pearce. 

Andrew L. Siber. 

Harrison Pearce. 

H. Pearce and G. A. Burgon. 

C. Johnson. 

Thomas Bullock. 

Andrew L. Siber. 

Thomas Bullock. 

Harrison Pearce. 



Dr. B.F.Eaton. 

L. W. Bliss. 

D. Buckland. 

Harmon Buckland. 

Charles C. Frost. 

T. T. Pollard. 

Prof. Zadock Thompson. 

McK. Petty. 

James K. Toby. 

D. L^uderwood. 

Rev. R. G. Williams. 

M. E. Wing. 

Charles A. J. Marsh. 

James A. Paddock. 

Rev. Edward P. Wild. 

Charles L. Paine. 

B. J. Wheeler. 

Hiram A. Cutting. 

Edward A. Cassino. 

Prof. W. H. Parker. 

Harmon A. Sheldon. 

D. P. Thompson. 
M.M, Marsh. 
George W. Robinson. 

E. MrCurrier. 

Rev. Edward P. Wild. 

A. Jackman. 

Samuel B. Phelps. 

D. C. and Mrs. Barto. 

R. M. Manley. 

Charles S. Paine. 

Joseph Parker. 

S. O. Mead. 

J. C. Baker. 

George Bliss. 

James C. Kennedy. 

Rev. J. W. Chickering. 

J. K. Colby and J. P. Fairbanks. 

Franklin Fairbanks. 

H. F. J. Scribner. 

L. W. Bliss. 

Rev. John B. Perry. 



126 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL EEPORTS. 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Woodstock 



Virginia. 

Anna 

Alexandria 

Ashland 

Berry ville 

Blacksburgh 

Bridgeton 

Bridgewater 

Buffalo 

Burning Springs... 

Cedar Hill 

Cartersville 

Chambers' Valley . . 

Charleston 

Charlottesville . . . . 

Christiansburgh . . . 

Cobham 

Cobham Depot . . . . . 

Crichton's Store 

Diamond Grove. . . . 

Dover Mines 

Fairfax 

Falmouth 

Fredericksburgli . . . 

Fork Union 

Garysville , 

Gosport 

Hampton 

Hartwood 

Heathsville 

Hewlett's 

HoUiday's Cove 

Johnsoutown 

Leesburgh 

Lexington 

Linwood 

Lloyd 

Longwood 

Lynchburgh 

Madison 

Markham Station. . 

Meadow Dale 

Mechanicsville 

Middlesex 

Montcalm 

Montrose 

Montross 

Mossy Creek 



1857-1858 

1867 

1868-1873 

1858-1859 

1849, 1853-1858 
1854, 1856-1857 

1869 

1855-1857 

1858 

1873 

1868 

1852-18.54 

1851-1854 

1855-1858 

1858-1859 

1868 

1871-1873 

1872 

1873 

1856-1857 

1849-1851 

1859-1861 

1851 

1849-1851 

1859-1861 

1852-1861 

1849-1851 

1873 

1870-1871 

1859-1861 

1859-1861 

1849 

1859-1861 

1856 

1859 

1849 

1869-1873 

1858 , 

1849 , 

1867.. ...„<, 

1858 

1868-1873 , 

1849 

1854 

1861 

1867-1870 , 

1870-1871 

1871-1872 

1859 

1857 

1854 

1866-1873 

1851-1852 

1870 

18.57-1859 

1869-1873 

1852 

1854 

1856-1857 

1858-1859 

1856-1858 



Charles Marsh. 

Lester A. Miller. 

H. Doton and L. A. Miller. 



Eev. C. B. McKee. 
Benjamin Hallowell. 
Samuel Couch. 
Prof. E. M. Smith. 
Miss E. Kounslar. 
Dr. E. Kounslar. 
J. L. Haun. 
C. E. Moore. 
Jed. Hotchkiss. 
Prof. G. E. Eossiter. 
Samuel Couch. 
William E. Boyers. 
Rev. Henry Bliven. 
Capt. David B. Home. 
Eaudolph Harrison. 
J. B. Sunbach. 
Jas. E. Kendall. 
Charles J. Meriwether. 
J. Ealls Abell. 
William C. Hagan. 
Charles J. Meriwether. 
George C. Dickinson. 
E. F. Astrop. 
E. F. Astrop. 
Charles A. Harrington. 
Miss L. E. Thrift. 
Abraham Van Doren. 
Charles H. Eoby. 
B. E. Wellford. 
Silas B. Jones. 
Dr. T. A. Beckwith. 
Julian C. EuiBn. 
U. S. navy-yard 
James M. Sherman. 
Abraham Van Doren. 
J. C. Wills. 
J. F. Adams. 

B. D. Sanders. 

C. E. Moore. 

N. F. D. Browne. 
Samuel X. Jackson. 
Wm. K. Park. 
W. H. Eufiner. 
Prof. J. L. Campbell. 

D. Payne. 

George W. Upshaw. 
Thomas J. Wickline. 
A. Nettleton. 
Charles J. Meriwether. 
Dr. A. M. Grinnan. 

L. E. Payne. 
James Slaven. 
William A.Martin. 
L. C. Breckeustein. 
Charles J. Meriwether. 
H. H. Fauntleroy. 
Edward E. Spence. 
Jed. Hotchkiss. 



MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL REPORTS. 127 

Monilili/ meteorological reporis preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Contiiiued. 



Name of station. 




Name of observer. 



Mount Solon 



Mustapha 

New England. 

Norfolk 

Piedmont 

Portsmouth . . 



Powhatan Hill . 
Prince Edward. 
Richmond 



Rose Hill... 
Rougemout. 
Ruthven . . . 

Salem 

Smithfield . . 
Snowville.. 



Staunton 



Stribling Springs 

Surry 

The Plains 

Vienna 



Waterford . . 
Winchester . 
Wocdlawn . 
Wytheville . 



Zinn Station. 



Washington Territory. 



Cathlamet 

Fort Col ville.... 
Fort Steilacoom. 
Fort Vancouver. 
Neeah Bay 



Port Augelos... 
Port Townsend 

Seattle 

Union Ridge 

Walla Waila... 



West Virginia. 



Ashland 

Burning Springs... 

Capon Bridge 

Crackwhip 

Grafton 

Hampshire County. 

Harper's Ferry 

Huntersville 

Huttonsville 

Kanawha 



1856-1856, 1867-1868 

1868-1873 

1857-1858 


James T. Clarke. 

J. T. Clarke and Miss Bell Clarke 

James Eraser. 


1859-1861 


James Eraser. 


1868-1872 


U. S. Naval Hospital. 
Franklin Williams. 


1869-1872 


1852-1860 


N. B. Webster. 


1860-1861 


Naval Hospital. 
Edward T. Tayloe. 
Prof. Francis J. Nuttaner. 


1849-1873 


1849-1852 


1849-1854 


David Turner. 


1859-1861 


Charles J. Meriwether. 


I860 


John Appleyard. 
G. C. Vincent. 


1872-1873 


1857-1858 


George W. Upshaw. 
George C. Dickinson. 


1857-1858 


1856-1858 


Julian C. RnfSn. 


1857-1858 


J. Carson Wells. 


1856-1861 


John R. Purdie. 


1867-1870 


J. W. Stalnaker. 


1872-1873 


E. D. Stenker. 


1849 


J. B. Imboden. 


186'8-1S72 

1859 


J. C. Covell. 
Jedediah Hotchkiss. 


1867-1871 


Reujamin W. Jones. 
John Pickett. 
H. C. Williams. 


1859-1860 

1869-1872 


1870 


J. B. Bowman. 


1870-1873 

1871 


G. A. Bowman. 
Randolph Robey. 
Mrs. S. E. Chamberlain. 
J. W. Marvin. 
Chalkley Gillingham. 
W. D. Roedel. 


1871-1872 

1852-1861,1859-1861 
1870-1873 ..: 


1861 


1865-1866, 1872-1873 
1868-1873 


Howard Shriver. 
Rev. James A. Brown. 


1869-1871 


Robert Binford. 


1870-1873 


Charles McCall. 


1860-1861 


Captain Hague. 
Dr. David Walker. 


1863-1864 


1859 


Dr. Barnes. 


1862-1866 


James G. Swan. 


1867 


Alexander Sampson. 

Alexander M. Sampson. 

S. S. Bulkley. 

Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Whitworth. 


1869-1872 


1867-1868 


1870 


1869-1870 


A. H. Simmons. 


1871-1872., „.o..... 
1865-1872 


Thomas M. Whitcomb. 
Charles L. Roife. 


1867-1868 


Robert H. Bliven. 


1857 


Dr. J. J. Offutt. 


1856-1857 


D. H. Ellis. 


1867-1868 


Dr. W. H. Sharp. 
S. J. Stumps. 
L. J. Bell. 


1868 


I860 


1851-1856 


William Sheen. 


1869 


Jacob I. Hill. 


1856-1857 


David L. Ruffner. 



128 MONTHLY METEOEOLOGICAL EEPORTS. 

Montldy meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Kanawha 

Kauawlia Saliues 
Lewisbumli 



Morgan town 



New Creek Station. 

Point Pleasant 

Eoumey 



Sistersville .-, 
Wardeusville 
Wellsburgh . . , 
Weston 



West Union . 
Wlieeling . . . 
Wirt 



Wisconsin. 



Appleton 



Ashland . 
Andnbon 
Aztalau . . 
Baraboo . 



Bay City. 
Bayfield . 



Bellefontaine 
Beloit 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



1^58, 1860-1861. 

1858-1859 

1851-1852 

1853-1857 

1858 

1859-1861 

1872-1873 



1856-1865 

1858 

1852... 

1866-1870 

1857-1858 

1855,1859-1861-.. 

1859-1860 , 

1868,4870-1871, 1873 

1889 

1873 

1855-1856 

1859-1860. 

1856-1858 



Black Eiver Falls 

Brighton 

Burlington 

Caldwell Prairie. 
Cascade Valley . . . 

Ceresco 

Dartford 

Delafield 

Delavan 

Edgerton 

Elkhorn 

Emerald Grove . . 

Embarrass 

Falls of St. Croix 

Galesville 

Geneva 



1856 

1867 

1867 

186 

1862. 

1873. 

1849- 

1849- 

1864- 

1857- 

1858- 

1867- 

1851- 

1849- 

1854 

1855- 

1861. 

1863- 

1871- 

1859 

186-2- 

1859 

1860 

1881 

I860- 

1856 

1854- 

1861- 

1859- 

1861- 

1864- 

1873 

1867 

1873 

1849 

1884, 

1857 

1858 

1887- 

1863 



1-1861. 



-1871 . 



•1852 . 
-1852. 
-1872. 
-1858. 
-1859. 
1873. 
-1854. 
-1854. 



■1860. 
1862. 
-1867 . 
-1873. 



-1863. 



■1861. 



-1855. 

■1862. 
-1860. 
-1863. 
-1867. 



-1873 . 



-1852 

1866-1873. 



-1868. 
-1873. 



James E. Kendall. 

W. C. Eeynolds. 

Dr. William N.Patton. 

Dr. Thomas Patton. 

Thos. Patton and J. W. Staluaker. 

J. W. Stalnaker. 

Prof. S. G. Stevens and Miss M.T. 

Stevens. 
Hendricks Clark. 
W. E. Boyers. 
Marshall McDonald. 
W. H. McDowell. 
Enoch D. Johnson. 

D. H. Ellis. 
B. D. Sanders. 
Benjamin Owen. 
H. P. Camden. 

E. Ealston. 
W. C. Quincy. 
George P. Lockwood. 
Josiah W. Hoff. 



Prof. E. Z. Mason. 

John Hicks. 

Dr. M. J. E. Hurlburt. 

Prof. J. C. Foye. 

Edwin Ellis. 

A. T. Dearborn. 

James C. Brayton, 

Dr. B. F. Mills. 

M. C. Waite. 

Edwin Ellis- 

Harvey J. Nourse. 

Andrew Tate. 

Thomas Gay. 

Prof. S. P. Lathrop. 

J. McQuigg and W. Porter. 

Prof. William Porter. 

Prof. Henry S. Kelsey. 

Henry D. Porter. 

Beloit College. 

Emil Hauser. 

George Mathews. 

D. Matthews. 

D. and G. Matthews. 

George Matthews. 

S. Armstrong. 

Samuel E. Seibert. 

Miss M. E. Baker. 

M. H. Towers. 

Prof. A. W, Clark. 

Charles W. Kelly. 

Levens Eddy. 

E.N.Lee. 

Henry J. Shintz. 

Geo. W. Hodges. 

Orrin Dinsmore. 

J. Everett Breed. 

M. T. W. Chandler. 

Wm. M. Blanding. 

Wm. Gale. 

W. H. Whiting. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 129 

Montldij meteorological reports lyreserved in the Smithsonian Instiiutlov—Coutinned. 



Name of station. 



Period. 



Name of observer. 



Green Bay 

Green Lake 

Hart lord 

Hingham 

Hudson 

Iiish Settlement 
Jauesville 

Kenosha 

Kilbonrn City .. 

Lake Mills 

Lebanon 

LeRoy 

Lind 

Madison 



1859 

1864-1865 

1851-1852 

1859-1862 

1867-1873 

1854 -. .. 

1870-1872 

1853-1858 

1859 

1860-1861 

1862 

1851-1852, 1857-1863 

1860-1862 

1859-1862..-.=... 

1864 

1872-1873 

1858 

1853 

1854 

1856-1858 

1856-1859, 1863-1865 

1860 

1860 

1861-1862 



ManitoAvoc 

Menasba .. 

Milton 

Mil-wankee 



Mosinee 

Mount Morris 
New Holstein 
New Lisbon . 
New London. 

Norway 

Odanab , 

Otsego 

Pardeeville .. 
Platteville... 

Plymouth 

Prescott 

Eacine 

Eipon 

Rocky Eun .. 

Rolla , 

Rural , 

Sontbport 

Sturgeon Bay 

Summit 

Superior 



1869-1873 

1857-1873 

1857-1858 

1872-1873 

1849-1852, 1854, 1857- 

1871 

1854-1867 

1855-1H.59 

1859-1861 

1859 

1858 

1865 

1867-1873 

1857-1858 

1855-1857 

1863-1866 

1859-1860 

1859-1860 

1851-1859 

1859-1860 

1865-1870 

1857 

1856 

1856-1858 

1860-1861..... 

1865-1866 

18.59-1873 

1868 

1860-1861 

1849 

1870-1871 

1872-1873 

1851-1854 

1855: 



1856. 



1859-1863 

1859-1863 , 



Col. D. Underwood. 

Frederick Deckuer. 

C. F. Pomeroy. 

Judge Hopewell Cox. 

John De Lyser. 

G. F. Livingston. 

John O'Donoghoe. 

J. F. Willard. 

Geo. J. Kellogg. 

Dr. Clark G. Pease. 

Daniel Strunk. 

^ev. John Gridley. 

James H. Bell. 

Isaac Atwood. 

J. C. Hicks. 

Elliott H. Benton. 

R. H. Strutbers. 

Pro£ S. H. Carpenter. 

S. H. Carpenter and J.W. Sterling. 

Dr. A. Schuc. 

Prof. J. W. Sterling. 

J. Jennings. 

Prof. J.W. Sterling and S. P. Clarke. 

Prof. J. W. Sterling and W. Fellows. 

W. W. Daniels. 

Jacob Llips. 

Col. D. Underwood. 

Evan L. Davis. 

I. A. Lapham. 

Dr. Carl Winkler. 

F. C. Pomeroy. 
Prof. E. P. Larkin. 
J. S. Pashley. 
Wm.F. Horsford. 
Ferdinand Hacbez. 
John L. Duuegan. 
J. Everett Breed. 
John E. Himoe. 
Dr. Edwin Ellis. 
L. H. Doyle. 

S. Armstrong. 
Dr. J. L. Pickard. 
A. K. Johnson. 

G. Moeller. 
Spencer L. Hillier. 
ReA'. Roswell Park. 
W. J. Durham. 
Hiland W. Phelps. 
Prof. W. H. Ward. 
W. W. Curtis. 
Homer Ruggles. 

R. H. Strutbers. 

Rev. John Gridley. 

Rufus M. Wright. 

Mrs. C. C. Pinney. 

Edward S. Spencer. 

Wm. H. Newton and L. Washing- 
ton. 

L. & R. Washington and C. Lor- 
ing, jr. 

Wm. Mann. 

G. R. Stuutz and E. H. Bly. 



y s 



130 MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. 

Montlili/ meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 



Walworth . . 
VVaterford .. 
Water town . 
Waukesha . . 

Waupaca . . . 

Wausati 

Wautoma .. 
Weyauwega 



Whittlesey 

Wien 

Wyoming Territory. 

Atlantic 

.Laramie City 

CENTRAL AMERICA 



COSTA EICA. 



Limou .. 
San Jos6 



GUATEMALA. 

Guatemala 

HOKDURAS. 

Belize 

Truxillo 

NEW GRANADA 

Aspinwall 

NICARAGUA. 
MEXICO. 

Chinamaca 

•Cordova 

Frontera Tabasco 

Mexico 

Minititlan 

Mirador 

San Juan Bautiste . . . 

Tusi)au 

Vera Cruz 



Period. 



1873 

1863 

1H52 

1857 

1855-1856, 1858-1859 
1856-1865........ 

1863-1873 

1867 

1859-1860 

1870-1873.. 

1860-1861 

1861-1864 

1866 

1866 

1873 

1859-1860 

1873 

1872 

1871 



1865-1866 

1862-1866 

1866-1867 

1867-1868 

1858-1862 

1862-1868 

1854 

1857-1865 

1865-1866, 1868 
1867 

1855 

1859 , 

1858-1860 , 

1865 , 

1855-1856 

1858-1860 

1858-1871 , 

1861-1864 , 

1867 

1859 



Name of observer. 



N. J. Read. 

S. Armstrong. 

William Ayres. 

Prof. S. A. Bean and Dr. L. C. Slve 

Prof S. A. Bean. 

J. Everett Breed. 

M. C. Mead. 

C. D. Webster. 

Dr. W. A. Gordon. 

Jonathan Spauldiug. 

Mel zar Parker. 

William Woods. 

John C. Hicks. 

Dr. Jas. Matthews. 

H. H. Nicholson. 

Dr. Edwin Ellis. 

Jacob Duerstein. 



George H. Lewis. 
D. J. Pierce. 



Felipe Valentin. 

C. N. Riotte. 

Dr. A. Von Frantzius. 

Oficina Central di Estadistica. 



Antonio Canudas. 



S. Cockburn. 
E. Purdot. 



Dr. W. T. White. 

Dr. J. P. Kluge. 

Drs. J. P. Kluge, G. V. Rucker. 



J. Moses. 



Charles Laszlo. 

J. A. Hieto. 

Charles Laszlo. 

Prof. L. C. Ervendberg. 

Charles Laszlo. 

Dr. Charles Sartorius. 

Charles Laszlo. 

Benjamin Crowther. 

Herman Berendt. 



MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL KEPOKTS. 131 

Monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian Institution — Continued. 



Name of station. 


Period. 


Name of observer. 


ANTILLES. 






Sombrero Island ...... 


1863-1864 


Alexis Jnlien. 




1865 


Milton Braytou. 


BAHAMAS. 




Turk'slslaud 


1859 

1860 

1861 


J. B. Hayne. 

J. C. Crisson, Capt. W. Hamilton. 

A, G Carothers. 




1862-1865.. 




T'-k'g Island, Salt Cay 

NctBPP.UjN. P 


1868 

1861 

1858-1859 


J. C. Crisson. 
S. G. Garland. 
A. M. Smith. 


BERMUDA. 






Hamilton . .... 


1852 


Captain Alexander. 
Royal Gazette. 
James B. Arnold. 




1857 


Shelby Bay 


1857 


St. George's 


1858 


James Crawford. 




1858-1868 


Center Signal Station, 
John G. Calder. 


Ireland Island . - 


1859 


JAMAICA. 






Upper Park Camp . 


1855-1856 


James G. Sawkins. 




1855 


Col. W, B. Marlow. 


• PORTO EIOO. 






Est, San Ysidro 


1868 


George Latimer. 


SAN SALVADOR. 






La Union 


1858 


Dr. Charles Dorat. 


ST. DOMINGO. 








I860 


Jonathan Elliott. 


SOUTH AMERICA. 






DUTCH GUIANA. 






Surinam 


1860-1873 


C. J. Herino". 


ASIA. 






TURKEY. 






Bitlis 


1869-1870 


Rev. George C. Knapp. 


JAPAN. 




Yokoliama 


1873 


Naval Hospital. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 






1872-1873 


United States steamships Alaska 
Narragansett, Shenandoah, Lan 
caster, Monongahela. 







132 METEOROLOGICAL MATERIAL. 

CLASSIFIED LIST OF METEOROLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS, 
AND METEOEOLOGICAL AETICLES IJ^T PERIODICALS, EE- 
CEIVED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION IN 1873, 
AND DEPOSITED IN THE LIBEAEY OF CONGEESS. 

AUEOEAS. 

Die Nordlichter verursacht durch die Stromungen im Luftmeere an den 
Beobachtungen nachgewiesen. Professor Prestel. (Zeitschrift der 
osterreichischen Gesellsehaft fiir Meteorologie, vii, No. 10.) 

Le aurore boreali e i fenomeni meteorulogici di Ottobre 1870. 

Note h, i:>ropos d'uue aurore boreale observee a Orleans le 4 fevrier 1872, 
(Memoires de la Soci6te d'agriculture, etc., d'Orleans, tome xv, 
Nos. 1-2.) 

EARTHQUAKES. 

II tremuoto delle notte da 12 a 13 Dicembre 1869, (Eendiconti della 
Societa dei naturalisti di Modena, No. 1.) 

Note sur le tremblement de terre ressenti le 22 octobre 1873, dans la 
Prusse rb^nane et en Belgique. M. Albert Lancaster. 

Notes sur les tremblements de terre en 1869, avec supplements pour les. 
annees ant6rieures de 1843 a 1867. (Memoires couronnees et autres 
memoires publiees par I'Academie royale des sciences, etc., de Bel- 
gique, tome sxii.) 

Sui terremoti recenti nelli Eomagne. Dottore Jacops Michez. (Effe- 
meridi della Societa de letture e conversazioni scientifiche, anno 2, 
vol. 1, fascioli 1-2.) 

ELECTEICITT. 

Eesultate delle osservazioni sull' elettricismo atmosferico, istitute nel 
Eeale osservatorio di Modena. D. Eagona. 

FOEESTS. 

Der Eiufluss des Waldes auf das Klima. Th. Hartung, 1871. 
GENEEAL METEOEOLOGY. 

Contributions to our knowledge of the antarctic regions. London, 1873. 

La meteorografia del globo studiata a diverse altitudine da terra. F. 
Zantedeschi. (Commentari dell' Ataneo di Bresciti per gli anni 
1868-69.) 

L'umidita. Lettura del Prof. D. Eagona. Milano, 1873. 

Osservazioni su la evaporazione, del Prof. D. Eagona. 

Papers on the cause of rain, storms, tbe aurora, and terrest'i-ial magne- 
tism. G. A. Eowell. London, 1871. 

Soi)ra alcnni fenomeni di fisica terrestre in relazione con alcuni fenorae- 



METEOROLOGICAL, MATERIAL. 133 

ni di fisica solare. A. Palagi. (Memoria dell' Accademia delle 
scienze dell' Istitiito di Bologne, serie 3, tomo 2, fasciolo 2.) 

SiiggestioDS on a uniform system of meteorological observations. (Eoyal 
Dutch Meteorological Institute, Utrecht, 1872.) 

Sur un systeme m6teorographique uuiversel. M. Van Eysselberghe. 
(Bulletin de I'Acad^mie des sciences, des lettres et des beaux arts 
de Belgique, 42e aunee, 2e s6rie, tome 36, Nos. 9-10.) 

Eapports de MM. Gloesener et Liagre sur la notice de M. Van Eyssel- 
berghe, concernant un systeme meteorographique uuiversel. (Bul- 
letin de l'Acad6mie royale des sciences, etc., de Belgique, 42e an- 
n^e, 2e serie, tome 36, No. 8.) 

Ueber die Ursachen des eisfreien Meeres in den jSTordpolargegenden. 
F. y. Kuhn. (Zeitschrift der osterreichischeu Geseilschaft fiir Me-, 
teorologie, vol. 7, No. 10.) 

INSTEUMENTS. 

Descrizione dell' igrotermografo del Eeale osservatorio di Modena del 

Prof. D. Eagona. 
Descrizione della nuova finestra meteorologica del Eeale osservatorio di 

Modena del Prof. D. Eagona. 
Descrizione del barometro registratore del Eeale osservatorio di Modena 

del Prof. D. Eagona. 
Esposizione e discussione dei resultate del barometro registratore del 

Eeale osservatorio di Modena per Panno 1807, del Prof. D. Eagona. 

MAGNETISM. 

Contributions to terrestrial magnetism, No. 13. Gen. Sir Edward Sa- 
bine. 

Magnetiska Observationer under Svenska Polarespeditionen, Ar 1868, 
af Karl Selim Lehmstrom. Stockholm, 1870. 

Sulla possibile connessione fra ie eclisse di sole ed il magnetisrao ter- 
restre. Memoria del Prof. Francesco Denza Barnabita. Eoma, 
1873. 

METEOEITES. 

Bolide observ6 a Bruselles le 21 juillet 1873. (Bulletin de I'Academie 
royale des sciences, etc., de Belgique, 42e annee, 2e serie, tome 36, 
No. 8.) 

Considerazioni sul radiante della pioggia meteorica del 27 Novembre 
1872. Nota del Prof. Domenico Eagona. Firenze, 1873. 

Les 6toiles filantes, les bolides. (De Fastronomie dans I'Academie roy- 
ale de Belgique, rapport seculaire, 1772-1872.) 

Meteorsfallet vid Hessle den Ista Januari 1869, af A. E. Nordenskiold. 

November meteors, 1869. Charles Meldrum, Mauritius. 

Sopra una probabile connessione fra le eclisse di sole ed il magnetismo 
terrestre. J. Michez. (Memoria dell' Accademia delle scienze delP 
Istituto di Bologna, serie 3, tomo 2, fasciolo 1.) 



134 METEOEOLOGICAL MATERIAL. 

Stelle meteoriche di Agosto 1867, osservati nel Eeale osservatorio di 
Modena. D. Eagona. 

Sulla relazione fra le comete, le stelle cadenti, ed meteorite. Schiapa- 
relli. (Memoria del Eeale istituto lombardo di scienze e lettere, 
vol. 12, 3 della serie 3, fasciolo 3.) 

Sur les etoiles filantes de la p6riode de novembre 1871, et sur les aurores 
boreales des 9 et 10 du meme mois. l^ote par M. Ad. Quetelet. 

Sur les 6toiles filantes du mois d'aout 1873, par M. Ad. Quetelet. (Bul- 
letin de I'Academie des sciences, des lettres et des beaux arts de 
Belgique, 42e annee, 2e serie, tome 36, IsTos. 9-10.) 

LOCAL METBOEOLOGT. 

AFRICA. 

JEgijpt. 
Statistique de P^figypte, annee 1873. 

Mauritius. 

Monthly notices of the Meteorological Society. 

Eain-fall of Mauritius, by Charles Meldrum. 

Fort Louis. — Eesults of observations at the observatory, 1870. 

ASIA. 

India. 

Eeport on meteorological observations in the northwestern provinces of 

India, by Murray Thompson. 
Bengal. — Meteorological observations. (Proceeding's of the Asiatic So- 
ciety of Bengal, December, 1872, and January to April, 1873.) 
Keport of the meteorological reporter to the government of Bengal 
for the year 1867-68, with a meteorological abstract for the year 
1867. Calcutta, 1868. 
Eeport of the meteorological reporter to the government of Bengal 

for 1870. Henry T. Blanford. Calcutta, 1872. 
Eeport of the meteorological reporter to the government of Bengal. 
Meteorological abstract for 1872. By Henry Blanford. Calcutta, 
1873.' 
Bomlay. — Magnetical and meteorological observations at the govern- 
ment observatory from 1865 to 1870. 
Water-supply of Bombay. (Professional papers on Indian engineer- 
ing, 2d series, vol. 2, IS'o. 9.) 
Oudh. — Eeport on meteorology in the province of Oudb, for 1871-72. 
Funjdb. — Eeport on the meteorology of the Punjab, for the year 1871, 
by A. l^eil. Lahore, 1872. 



METEOROLOGICAL MATEEIAL. 135 

Japan. 
Meteorology of Japan. Dr. Thomas Antisell. 1872. 

AUSTRALIA. 

litio South Wales. 

Eesiilts of meteorological observations made in New South Wales in 
1872 by H. C. Eussell. Sydney, 1873. 

Meteorological observations made at the government observatory, 
Sydney, in 1871-73, under the direction of H. 0. Eussell. 

Eesults of meteorological observations in 1871. H. 0. Eussell. Syd- 
ney, 1872. 

Brisbane. — Meteorological summaries from about fifty stations. E. 
McDonnell. 

EUROPE. 

Austria. 

Zeitschrift der osterreichischen Gesellschaft fiir Meteorologie. Dr. C. 

Jelinek und 0. Hahn. Vol. 7. Wien. 
Jahrblicher der kaiserlich-konlglichen Centralanstalt fiir Meteorologie 

und Erdmagnetismus, von Dr. C. Jelinek und Carl Fritsch. Wien, 

1873. 
Uebersicht der phauologischen Beobachtungen im Jahre 1870. 
Cracow. — Meteorologische Beobachtungen, angestellt an der kaiserlich- 

kouiglichen Sternwarte in Krakau ira Jahre 1872. 
Pola. — Kaiserlich-konigliches hydrografisches Amt. Witterungsiiber- 

sicht, 1872. 
Fragile. — Magnetische und meteorologische Beobachtungen auf der 

kaiserlich-koniglichen Sternwarte zu Prag in 1871. 

Belgium. 

Observations des phenoni^nes periodiques pendant I'annee 1869. (Me- 
moires de I'Academie royale des sciences de Belgicjue, tome 39.) 

Observations des phenomenes periodiques pendant I'annee 1870. (Ex- 
trait du tome 39 des Memoires de FAcadeniie royale deBelgique.) 

jS"ote sur les orages qui out sevi a Aartselaer le 23, le 26, et le 29 juillet 
1873. (Bulletin de I'Academie royale des sciences, etc., de Bel- 
gique, 42e annee, 2e s6rie, tome 30, No. 8.) 

Antwerp. — Mesures d'altitudes barometriques prises a la tour de la 
cathedrale d Anvers, sous I'influence de vents de vitesses et de direc- 
tions differentes. (Bulletin de I'Academie royale des sciences, etc., 
de Belgique, 42e annee, 2e serie, tome 35, No. 6.) 

Brussels. — Determination de la declinaison et de I'inclinaison mftgne- 
tioue a Bruxelles en 1873. (Bulletin de I'Academie royale des sci- 
ences, etc., de Belgique, 42e annee, 2e serie, tome 36, No. 8.) 

Meclilin. — Observations faites a Malines par M. Doumet. (Annales de 
la Societe d'horticulture de I'Allier.) 



136 METEOEOLOGICAL MATEEIAL. 

Denmark. 

Moutbly meteorological records for Sliagen, Hammershut, and other 

l)laces. 

England. 

Journal of tbe Eoyal Agricultural Society of England. 2d series-, vol. 
8, part 1. 

Meteorology of England during the quarter ending December 31, 1871. 
James Glaisher. 

On the rain-fall of 1873. James Tait. (Proceedings of the Berwick- 
shire Naturalists' Club, vol. 6, No. 7.) 

Quarterly Journals of the Meteorological Society. Edited by James 
Glaisher. 

Qnarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society, vol. 1, 1873. 

Quarterly weather-report of the meteorological office, i3art 4, Octo- 
ber to December, 1870. 

Quarterly weather-reports of the meteorological office, July to Septem- 
ber, 1871, and July to September, 1872. 

Eeport of the meteorological committee of the Eoyal Society for the 
year ending December 31, 1872. 

Symons' Monthly Meteorological Magazine, March, 1873. Loudon. 

Weather-reports, July 1 to December 31, 1872. Meteorological office. 

Weather-reports, January 1 to December 31, 1871. Meteorological 
office. 

Cornwall. — Meteorology of West Cornwall. (Fortieth annual report 
of the Eoyal Cornwall Polytechnic Society.) 

Greenioich. — Eesults of the magnetical and meteorological observations 
made at the Eoyal Observatory, 1870. 
Greenwich magnetical and meteorological observations, 1871. 

Stonyhurst. — Eesults of meteorological and magnetical observations, 
1871. 

France. 

Annuaires de la Soci6t6 met^orologique de France, 18G9-71. 

Annuaire de la Societe m6teorologique de France, tome 18, 1870. 

Sur les grands crues sorvenues dans le bassin de la Loire pendant 
I'hiver 1872-73. (Annales des pouts et chanss6es, avril 1873.) 

Le Mans. — Table resume des observations faites au Mans par M. D. Bon- 
homet pendant le 3e et 4e trimestres de 1871. (Bulletin de la So- 
ciete d'agriculture, sciences et arts de la Sarthe, lie serie, tome 
13.) Le Mans, 1872. 

Lyons. — Observations m6t6orologiques faites a I'observatoire de Lyon du 
ler d^cembre 1869 au ler decembre 1871. (M6moires de l'Acad6- 
mie des sciences de Lyon, tome 19.) 

Montsouris. — Bulletin de I'Observatoire m6teoro]ogique central, 1870-71. 
Bulletin de I'Observatoire meteorologique central de Montsouris, Jan- 
vier, fevrier, 1872« 



METEOROLOGICAL MATERIAL. 1S7 

Supplement, juillet a septembre 1870. 

Supplement, 1871, additions et corrections. 
Paris. — Atlas annuel de Pobservatoire de Paris, 1872. 

Bulletin international, jnin 1873. 

Bulletin, mensuel de I'observatoire de Paris, 1872. 
Toulouse. — E6sum6 annuel des observations meteorologiques faites a 
I'observatoire de Toulouse pendant les annees 1868-70, par M. 
Daguin. (Memoires de I'Academie des sciences, inscriptions et 
belles-lettres de Toulouse, 7e serie, tome 3.) 

Tableaux mensuels de principales observarious meteorologiques faites 
a I'observatoire de Toulouse, pour les quatre dernier mois de I'an- 
nee meteorologique 18G9-70, par M. Daguin. (Memoires de I'Aca- 
demie des sciences, inscriptions et belles-lettres de Toulouse, 7e 
serie, tome 3.) 
Tours. — Observations meteorologiques du mois d'octobre. Observations 
m6teorologiques du mois de novembre. Resume meteorologique de 
I'ann^e 1870-71. M. de Tastes. (Annales de la Societe d'agricul- 
ture, sciences, arts et belles-lettres, 102e aunee, tome 1, No. 5.) 
Tours, 1871. 

Hanover. 

Der Boden, das Klima und die Witterung von Ostfriesland, von M. A. 
F. Prestel. Emden, 1872. 

Holland. 

Eesum^ des observations meteorologiques faites a Luxembourg en 1870, 
M. F. Eeuter. (Publications de I'lustitut royal grand ducal de 
Luxembourg, tome 12, 1872.) 

Hungary. 

Maguetische Ortsbestimmungen im Konigreicbe Uugarn. Wien, 1871. 

Ireland. 

A comparative view of meteorological observations made in Ireland 
since 1788. Eichard Kirwan. Dublin. 

Italy. 

Bolletino meteorologico. (Gioruali agrario italiano.) 

Sul clima dTtalia. Luigi Eolla. (Commentari dell' Ateneo di Brescia 

per gii anni 1868-09.) 
Brescia. — Osservazioni meteorologicbe delF anni 1868-69. (Commentari 

delP Ataneo di Brescia per gli anni 1868-69.) 
Milan. — Eigoledo nel 1871. Isote statistiche d'idroterapia ed climatolo- 

gia del dottore Carlo Zucchi. 
Sul grande commovimento atmosferico avvenuti ill" Agosto 1872, 

nella bassa Lombardia e nella Lomellina. Annotazioue di Giovanni 

Celosia, 1873. (Bolletino del Eeale osservatorio di Brera in Milano.) 



138 METEOEOLOGICAL MATEEIAL. 

Modena. — Le stazioni pluviometriche della provincia di Modena. 
L'umidita. Lettura del Prof. D. Eagona, direttore del Eeale osserva- 

torio di Modena. 
Eesum6 des observations sur la met^orologie faites k I'Observatoire 

royale de Modena, par M. le professeur D. Eagona, ann^e 1867. 
Naples. — Specolareale di Napoli. Osservazioni meteoriclie del Dicembre 

1872, fatte dal astronomo professore F. Brioscbi. 
Turin. — Supplemento al Bolletino annuale 1870 delP osservatorio astro- 

nomico dell' Universita di Torino. 
Bolletino meteorologico ed astronomico del Eeale osservatorio dell' 

Universita di Torino, 1871. 
TJdine. — Osservazioni meteorologicbe istituto in Udine nelF anno 1870. 

(Annali scientiiici del Eeale istituto tecnico di Udine, 1871.) 
Venice. — Bolletino meteorologico con annotazione statistiche e mediche 

I)er Geunaio e Febbraio 1872. (Atti del Eeale istituto veneto di sci- 

enze, lettere ed art! dal Novembre 1872 all' Ottobre 1873, tomo 2o, 

serie 4a, dispensa 2a.) 
Bolletino meteorologico con osservazione statistiche e mediche x)ei 

mesi di Maggio e Giugno 1872. (Atti del Eeale istituto veneto di 

scieuze ed artij tomo 2o, serie 4a, dispensa 5a.) 

Prussia. 

Meteorologische Beobachtongeu aus Miihren und Schlesien in 1870. 
(Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brunu, 9ter 
Band.) 

Franlcfort. — Zwolf Mooatstabellen. Hauj)tergebnisse, Grundwasserbeo- 
bachtuDgeu,Vegetationszeiten, Sternschnuppenbeobachtungen,vom 
Jahre 1871 und 1872. Graphische Darstellung der Witteruugs- und 
Grundwasserbeobachtungen. (Jahresbericht des physikalis chen 
Vereius zu Frankfurt am Main flir das Eechuuugsjahr 1871-72.) 

liussia. 

Eepertorium fiir Meteorologie. Dr. H. Wild. St. Petersburg, 1872, 
DorjMt. — Meteorologische Beobachtungen angestellt in Dorpat im Jahre 
1866. . Doktor Arthur von Oettiugen. 

The same for 1870. 

Meteorologische Beobachtungen in Dorpat, 1871. 

Saxony. 

Monatliche Berichte liber die Eesultate aus den meteorologischen Beo- 
bachtungen in Sachsen in 1871. Dresden, 1872. 

Eesultate aus den meteorologischen Beobachtungen angestellt an 24 
sachsischen Stationen im Jahre 1870, von Dr. 0. Bruhus. Dresden 
und Leipzig, 1873. 

Chemnitz. — Witterungsbeobachtungen aus den Jahren 1870-72. (Vier- 
ter Bericht der naturwisseuschaltlicheu Gesellschaft zu Chemnitz, 
1873.) 



METEOROLOGICAL MATERIAL. 139 

Scotland. 

Journal of tbe Scottish Meteorological Society, January to April, 1872, 
with tables for the half-year ending December 31, 1871. 

Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society, with tables for tbe half- 
year ending December 31, 1872. 

Quarterly reports of the Meteorological Society of Scotland, 1859-'62. 

Sweden. 

Meteorologiska Jaktagelser i Sverige, utgifua af kongl. svenska Ye- 

tenscaps-Akademien, vols. 9-11. 
Zfpsal. — Bulletin m^teorologique mensuel de Tobservatoire de I'uuiver- 

site d'Upsal, vols 1-3. Dr. E. Eulenson. 

Switzerland. 

Monthly meteorological observations at Neuchatel, Cbaumont, and Af- 
foitern. (Bulletin de la Societe des sciences naturelles.) 

Schweizerische meteorologische Beobachtungen, December 1871 und 
Januar und Fehruar 1872. 

Schweizerische meteorologische Beobachtungen, herausgegeben von der 
meteorologischen Ceutralanstaltder schweizerischen naturforschen- 
den Gesellschaft. Prof. Dr. Eudolf Wolt. 7ter Jahrgang. Zii- 
rich, 1870. 

Geneva. — Eesum6 meteorologique de I'annee 1871, pour Geneve et ie 
Grand St. Bernard, par E. Plantamour. 

Lausanne. — Bulletin mensuel des observations meteorologiques de Lau- 
sanne, par J. Marguet, 1871. (Bulletin de la Societe vaudoise des 
sciences naturelles, vol. 11, No. 6Q, 1871.) 

Wiirtemberg. 

Wilrtembergische Jahrbiicher fiir Statistik und Landeskunde. Stutt- 
gart. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Canada. 

Toronto. — Monthly meteorological register and remarks. (Canadian 
Journal of Science, Literature and History.) 

United States. 

Meteorological observations at lake stations. (Annual report of Chief 

of Engineers, Washington.) 
North Carolina. — Western North Carolina, its agricultural resources, 

climate, &c. E. J. Aston. Milwaukee, 1870. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Notes on the climate of the Marauon. Francis L. Gait. (Proceedings 
of the Eoyal Geographical Society, vol. 17, No. 2.) 

Chili. — Eesumen mensual de las observaciones meteorologicas efectua- 
dos en el ano de 1870. 

Venezuela^ Caracas. — Observaciones meteorologicas en Caracas, 18G8-69. 



140 METEOROLOGICAL MATEEIAL. 

WEST INDIES. 

Cuba. — Memoila de la marcha regular, 6 periodica e regular, del barome- 

tro desde 1858 a 1871 inc., por el E. P. H. ViEies, director. 
Observacioues magueticas y meteorologicas del Keal colegio de Be- 

len, 3870-71. 
Observacioues magueticas y meteorologicas per difereutes boras del 

dia. (Auales de la Academia de cieucias, medicas, fisicas y uatu- 

rales de la Habaua.) 

OOEAN-CUERBNTS. 

The sea temperature aud curreuts of the 10° square of the Atlantic 
between the equator and 10° north aud 20^ to 30° west. (Lecture 
by W. E. Nicholsou, in Journal of Eoyal Service Institution, Ko. 72.) 

OZONE. 

Sui coefflcienti ozouometrici delP umidita e della temperatura. ISTota 
del Professore Eagona. 

EAIN. 

Eain-fall and evaporation in its relation to water-supply. Alexander 
Leslie. (Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts, vol. 8, p. 3.) 

Sulla pioggie di Ottobre 1872. Nota del Prof. Domenico Eagona, diret- 
tore del Eegio osservatorio di Modena. 

TBMPEEATUEE. 

CoefQcientetermometrieo per ricovare la temperatura media diurua dsr 
termometri a massima e minima. Calcolati per ogni gioruo dell' 
anno dal Prof. Domenico Eagona, direttore del Eeale osservatorio di 
Modena. 

WIND, 

Air-currents in the Indian Ocean, by Charles Meldrum. 

Eotation of the wind, by Charles Meldrum. 

Die Wirbelstiirme, Tornado, und Wettersauien in der Erd-Atmosphiire. 
Dr. Th. Eeye, Hannover. 

Extraordinary hurling of missiles by the Saint Louis tornado of 1871. 
John H. Tice. (Inland Monthly, July, 1873.) 

La velocita del vento, del Prof. D. Eagona. Milano, 1872. 

Le burrasche di Novembre 1869. (Rendiconti della Societa dei uatu- 
ralisti di Modena, Xo. 1.) 

Note on the form of cyclones in the Southern Indian Ocean. C. Mel- 
drum. Loudon, 1873. 

Vents regnauts de Toc^an atlantique nord entre les Stats-Uuis ct La 
Manche. (Traverses des paquebots entre La Manche et New York, 
Eevue maritime, etc., juillet 1873.) 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



The Executive Committee of the Board of Regents respectful!}' submit 
the following report in relation to the funds of the Institution, the re- 
ceipts and expenditures for the year 1873, and the estimates for the 
year 1874 : 

Statement of the fund at the beginning of the year 1874. 

The amount originally received as the bequest of James 
Smitbsou, of England, deposited in the Treasury of the 
CTnited States, in accordance with the act of Congress 
of 10th August, 1840 8515, 169 00 

The residuary legacy of Smithson, received in 18G5, de- 
posited in the Treasury of the United States, in accord- 
ance vrith the act of Congress of 8th February, 1867. . . 26, 210 03 



Total bequest of Smithson 541, 379 03 

Amount deposited in the Treasury of the United States, 
as authorized by act of Congress of 8th February, 1867, 
derived from savings of income and increase in value of 
investments 108, 620 37 



Total permanent Smithson fund in the Treasury 
of the United States, bearing interest at 6 ver 

cent., payable semi-annually in gold 650, 000 00 

In addition to the above there remains of the extra fund 
from savings, &c., in Virginia bonds and certificates, 
viz, consolidated bonds, $58,700 ; deferred certificates, 
$29,375.07 ; fractional certificate, $50.13, now valued at. 33, 000 00 
Cash balance in United States Treasury at the beginning 
of the year 1874, as a special deposit, for current ex- 
penses - 12, 226 68 

Amount due from the First National Bank, (present value 
unknown) $5, 757 41 

Total Smithson fands, January, 1874 695, 226 6S 



142 REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The V'irginia bonds originally pucbased by tlie Institution were as 
follows : 

Five bonds of $10,000 each, (Nos. 146 to 150;) one bond of $5,000, 
(^o. 201,) ; three bonds of $1,000 each, (Nos. 3497 to 3499 ;) one bond of 
$500, (No, 058;) two bonds of $100 each; making in all $58,700. 

On the 9th December, 1871, the above bonds were exchanged for Vir- 
ginia coupon-bonds, consolidated debt, (see Eeport, 1871, page 105,) as 
follows : 

Fifty-eight bonds, at $1,000 each, (Nos. 11521 to 11578) $58, 000 

One bond, at $500, (No. 1380) 500 

Two bonds, at $100 each, (Nos. 4192 and 4191). . ,. 200 

58, 700 
These bonds are in the cashier's vault of the United States Treasury, 
in charge of General Spinner. Coupons due July 1, 1873, and January 
1, 1874, are still attached to these bonds. 

In addition to the above bonds the institution holds a certificate of 
indebtedness, (No. 4,543,) deposited with Eiggs & Co., from the State of 
Virginia, (dated July 1, 1871,) for one-third of the amount due for prin- 
cipal and interest surrendered under the provisions of an act of the leg- 
islature of 30th March, 1871, this amount having been reserved until an 
adjustment is made between the States of Virginia and West Virginia 
as to the old debt of Virginia, amounting t-o $29,375.07. 

There is also a certificate of indebtedness (No. 2,9G9) for $50.13 for an 
odd amount of interest. 

The uninvested balance in the First National Bank at the beginning 
of 1873 was $17,811.36. This balance would this year have been in- 
creased by a saving of $172.73 had it not been for the suspension of the 
First National Bank in September last, in which $5,757.41 still remain 
unpaid, and will probably be, to a considerable extent, a loss. 

In accordance with the law of Congress, the interest on the Smithson 
fund is payable semi-annually, on the 1st of July and 1st January, and 
from the beginning of the operations of the institution this semi annual 
interest was deposited with Messrs. Eiggs & Co., until at the meeting of 
the Board of Eegents on the 22d February, 1867, a resolution was 
adopted directing the deposit of the income in " a national bank which 
was an authorized Government depository." In accordance with this 
direction of the Board, the money was deposited in the First National 
Bank, which proved, however, to be an unsafe curator of the funds. 
The whole amount on deposit at the time of the suspension of the bank, 
19th September, 1873, was $8,224.87, on which, however, a dividend of 
30 per cent., or $2,467.46 was paid on the 11th November last, leaving, 
as stated above, $5,757.41 still due. 



EEPOET OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 143 

Statement of receipts and expenditures in 1873. 

IlECEIPTS. 

From interest on $650,000, at 6 per cent, in 

gold . - $39, 000 00 

From premium on gold, Jnne and December, 

(15^ and 11^%) 5, 191 87 

From interest on Virginia stock, (sale of 
coupons due January 1, 1873*) 1, 091 83 

Total receipts $45, 283 70 

EXPENDITURES. 

Total expenditures from the Smitlison income during 1873, 
as shown by the detailed statement below 45, 110 97 

Balance unexpended, which is included in the cash 

balance in the Treasury 172 73 

Statement of expenditures in detail from the Smitlison fund for 1873. 

BUILDING-. 

Bepairs of the building $3, 252 23 

Furniture and fixtures 386 26 

$3, 638 49 

G-ENERAL EXPENSES. 

Meetings of the board $300 75 

Lighting the building 322 65 

Heating the building 554 38 

Postage 971 10 

Stationery 394 91 

Incidentals 757 47 

Salaries and clerk hire 12, 429 96 

Purchase of books and periodicals ...... 411 34 

10, 142 56 

PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCHES. 

Smithsonian contributions, quarto. ........ $8, 706 08 

Miscellaneous collections, octavo 4, 514 46 

Eeports, octavo 593 55 

^Interest on $58,700 coupons at 3 per cent $1,761 00 

Deduction of one-third for West Virginia $587 00 

Deduction for State tax 73 37 

Deduction for charge of Eiggs & Co.'s commission 8 80 

ti69 17 

Net amount received...... ..... $1,091 83 



14-4 EEPOET or THE EXECUTIVE COMSTITTEE, 

Meteorology aud researches. $3, 232 81 ■ 

Apparatus 815 09 

Laboratory ... , 109 8S 

Explorations 228 00 

Lectures 600 00 



$18, 799 87 



EXCHANGES. 



Literary and scientific exchanges throngh agencies in Lon- 
don, Paris, Leipsic, Amsterdara, Milan, &g. G, 251 74 

MUSEUM. 

lucidentals in addition to Government appropriation 278 31 



Total expenditure from Smithson fund in 1873 45, 110 97 

Daring the past year the Institution has advanced money for the 
payment on account of the Government for freights on specimens, pur- 
chase of apparatus for Government expeditions, «&c., the repayments 
of which, together with the amount received for sales of publications, 
&c., have been deducted from the several items of the foregoing ex- 
penditures, as follows : 

From museum, for repayments for freight $967 46 

From museum, for repayments for labor, &c 510 (;0 

From exchanges, for repayments for freight 196 05 

From apparatus, for instruments for expeditions , 394 67 

From postage, for repayments . 37 45 

From building, for repayments 1, 258 37 

From heating, for repayments , „ 325 21 

From cost of books, for repayments 33 00 

From Smithsonian contributions, from sales 99 07 

From Smithsonian miscellaneous collections, from sales 119 95 

From Smithsonian reports, from sales 16 00 

From incidentals, from sales old material 35 35 



Total repayments and miscellaneous credits in 1873 . . 3, 993 48 

NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

For several years past Congress has made an annual appropriation 
of $15,000 for the support of the National Museum, under the care of 
the Smithsonian Institution, and it has also in the last two years appro- 
priated $25,000 for the completion and fitting up of the halls required 
for the Government collections, and $12,000 for the introduction of 



EEPOET OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 145 

Bieam-heating apparatus. TLe following is a tabular statement of the 
condition of these funds at the present time : 

Appropriation for preservation of collections 
for fiscal year ending June 30, 1874. (Stat- 
utes at Large, vol. 17, p. 518) $15, 000 00 

Amount expended to 31st December, 1873. 

(See Museum journal A, p. 55) 7, 500 00 

Balance for support of museum to June 

30, 1874 $7, 500 00 

Appropriation for completion of the hall re- 
quired for the Government collections. (Stat- 
utes at Large, vol. 17, p. 361.) 10, 000 00 



(The whole of this has been expended. See 
Museum journal A, p. 509.) 

Appropriation for fitting up the new halls re- 
quired for the Government collections. (Stat- 
utes at Large, vol. 17, p. 518) $15, 000 00 

Amount expended to 2d January, 1874. (See 

Museum journal A, p. 519) 9, 449 08 

Balance unexpended, but due on con- 
tracts 5, 550 92 

Appropriation for steam-heating apparatus. 

(Statutes at Large, vol. 17, p. 518) 12, 000 00 

Amount expended to 31st December, 1873. 

(See Museum journal A, p. 533) 8, 537 07 

Balance unexpended, but due on con- 
tracts 3, 462 03 

Balances, January, 1874 9, 012 95 

Previous to 1873 all the disbursements on account of the appropria- 
tions of Congress for the support of the IN^ational Museum were made 
directly by the Institution and afterward refunded by the Department 
of the Interior; but during the past year as strict a division of the 
accounts as possible has been made, and those relating to the muse- 
um have been paid directly by the disbursing agent of the Department 
of the Interior. 

10 s 



148 EEPOET OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

THE FOLLOWING AEE THE ESTIMATES FOR THE YEAE 

1874 : 

KECEIPTS. 

Interest on the permanent fund, receivable 30th 

June, 1874, in gold $19, 500 

Interest on the permanent fund, receivable 31st 

December, 1874, in gold _ 19, 500 

Probable premium on gold, 10 per cent ...... 3, 900 

Interest on Yirginia bonds ..................... 2, 000 

144,900 



APPROPRIATIONS. 

For building :.................. 2, 000 

For general expenses 14, 000 

For publications and researches , , 20, 000 

For exchanges . . = , 7, 000 

For books and api)aratus = 500 

For contingencies 1, 400 



44, 900 



The executive committee have examined eight hundred and eighty- 
five receipted vouchers for payments made dhring the four quarters of 
the year 1873. In every voucher the approval of the Secretary of the 
Institution is given, and the certificate of an authorized agent of the In- 
stitution is ai)pended, setting forth that the materials and property and 
services rendered were for the Institution, and to be applied to the pur- 
l>oses specified. 

The quarterly accounts-current, bank-book, check-book, and ledger 
have also been examined and found correct, showing a balance in the 
care of the Treasurer of the United States, 13th January, 1874, of 
$12,226.68. 
Eespectfully submitted. 

PETEE PAEKEE, 
JOHN MACLEAN, 
W. T. SHEEMAN, 

Executive Committee, 
January 24, 1874, 



EEPOET ON THE APPEOPEIATIONS AND DISBUESEMENTS FOE THE NA- 
TIONAL MUSEUM. 

Since the foregoing report was presented to the Board of Eegents and 
accepted by them, as authorized by a resolution of the board, January 26, 
1874, the undersigned, members of the executive committee, have exam- 



REPOET OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 147 

ined the accounts of appropriations and disbursements for the National 
Museum for the year 1873, and find for each disbursement a voucher 
approved by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and a certifi- 
cate of an authorized agent of the Institution appended, setting forth 
that the account is correct, the articles or services charged therein were 
required, and furnished on account of the objects specified, and that 
the same were necessary, and the charges reasonable. 

The undersigned have also examined the journal and ledger of the 
jSTational Museum, and find the balances remaining, on the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1874, of the appropriations of Congress for Smithsonian building 
and for jireservation of collections in the National Museum to corres- 
pond with the certificate of the 2d February, 1874, of the disbursing 
clerk of the Interior Department, viz : Smithsonian building, 1874, 
$9,012.95, (see page 518, journal A;) preservation of collections, 1874, 
$7,500, (see page 55, journal A ;) total balance, $16,512.95. 

The other member of the committee (Dr. Maclean) was obliged to 
leave the city previous to this examination. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

PETER PARKEE, 
W. T. SHERMAN, 
Executive Committee. 

Washington, Fedntary 5, 1874c 



JOURNAL OF PEOCEEDmuS 

OF 

THE BOA-RD OF IlEaE]N^TS 

OF THE 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.* 



Washington, Decemder 19, 1873. 

A special meeting of the Board of Eegeiits was held at 7 p. m. at the 
institutioD. Present, Mr. Justice Kathan Clifford, acting Chief Justice 
of the United States, Hon. H. Hamlin, Hon. J. A. Garfield, Hon. L. P. 
Poland, Hon, Peter Parker, General Sherman, and the Secretary, Pro- 
fessor Henry. 

The Secretary stated that the meeting had been called for the pur- 
pose of electing a chancellor in place of Chief Justice Chase, who had 
deceased, and that this was a case of emergency, as the semi-annual 
interest, due on the first of next month, necessary to carry on the opera- 
tions of the Institution, could only be drawn according to law on the 
requisition of the chancellor and secretary of the Institution. 

On motion of General Garfield, Mr. Justice Nathan Clifford was 
elected chancellor. 

The Secretary announced that since the last meeting of the board 
two of its most prominent and valuable members had deceased. Chief 
Justice Chase and Professor Agassiz. 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, a committee was appointed to prepare reso- 
lutions expressing the sentiments of the board in regard to the death 
of Mr. Chase and Professor Agassiz. 

The chancellor appointed Messrs. Hamlin, Sherman, Parker, and 
the Secretary as the committee. 

General Garfield made the following remarks: 

Mr. Chancellor : I rise to second the motion for the appointment 
of a committee to draught resolutions in reference to the death of our 
distinguished brother regents Chief Justice Chase and Professor 
Agassiz. 

Never before in a single year has the Board of Pegents suffered so 
severe a loss. It would be difficult to find, in any organization, two 
men more eminent, and representing a wider range of culture, than the 
two regents who have fallen since the last meeting of this board. 

* Contiuued from page 86, Eeport for 1872. 



JOURNAL OF PEOCEEDINGS. 149 

This is not the occasion to speak at length on the subject ; but as my 
term of service will expire before the next meeting, I ask the indulgence 
of the board while I refer briefly to some of the marked characteristics 
of our late distinguished associates. 

Few Americans have filled so many high places of trust and honor as 
Salmon P. Chase; and few have brought to the discharge of the duties 
of their high station such masterly ability and such rare and varied 
accomplishments. His career adds another to the many illustrations of 
the truth, that he who loses his life for the truth's sake shall find it. 

In his early manhood, following his own conviction of duty, he com- 
mitted himself, without reserve, to a cause which seemed, at the time, to 
shut him out from all hope of public preferment. He stood by his con- 
victions, and lived, not only to see his doctrines prevail, but to be one 
of the honored leaders in the cause he had espoused. 

Whether at the bar, in the practice of his profession ; in the executive 
chair of his own State 5 in the National Senate ; as the great finance 
minister of the republic in the stormy days of war 5 or as Chief-Justice 
of the United States, there ran through his whole life a depth of con- 
viction, a clearness of comprehension, and a force of utterance that made 
his power felt, and marked him as a man who filled and overfilled, hon- 
ored and adorned, the great stations to which he was called. If, in the 
course of his high career, he felt the i^romptings of that ambition which 
has been called " the last infirmity of noble minds," it must be acknowl- 
edged that he aspired to no place beyond his capacity to honor. 

Throughout his long and honpred life the cares and demands of pub- 
lic place did not diminish his ardent love for the pursuits of science 
and the keen enjoyment of literature and art. The great masters of 
song were his daily companions. I was his guest for many weeks, dur- 
ing the stormy and troublous winter of 1862-'63, when to the deep anxie- 
ties of the war were added the gravest financial problems that have 
ever confronted an American Secretary of the Treasury. And many a 
time, at the close of a weary day of anxious care and exhausting labor, I 
have seen him lay aside the heavy load, and, in the qoiet of his study, 
read aloud, or repeat from memory, the rich verse of Tennyson, or of 
some other great master of song. 

It was this life of art and sentiment, within the stormy life of ]Tiublic 
duty, that fed and refreshed his spirit, and kept his heart young, while 
his outer life grew venerable with years and honors. 

As the Chancellor of this Institution, we saw in happy and harmoni- 
ous action his am]3le knowledge of our institutions, his wide experience 
of finance, his reverential love for science and art, and his unshaken 
faith in the- future of his country as the grand theater for the highest 
development of all that is best and greatest in human nature. I^o con- 
tribution to science offered to this board escaped his attention. iNToth- 
ing that was high or worthy in human pursuits failed to elicit his aj)- 
preciative and powerful support. 



150 JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Ill Professor Agassiz we have lost a uian of kindred powers, whose 
life was spent in a different though hardly less conspicuous field of 
action. 

Few lives were ever so sincerely and entirely devoted to the highest 
and best aims of science. I was led to appreciate this by a remark 
which Professor Agassiz made to me several years ago, which is, I 
believe, the key to his own career, and deserves to be remembered by 
all who would follow in his footsteps. His remark was that he had 
made it the rule of Ms life to abmidon any intellectual pursuit the moment 
it became commercially valuable. 

He knew that others would utilize what he discovered ) that when he 
brought down the great truths of science to the level of commercial 
values, a thousand hands would be ready to take them and make them 
valuable in the markets of the world. Since then I have thought of 
him as one of that small but elect company of men who dwell on the 
upj)er heights, above the plane of commercial values, and who love and 
seek truth for its own sake. Such men are indeed the prophets, the 
priests, the interpreters of nature. Few of their number have learned 
more, at first hands, than Professor Agassiz ; and few, if any, have sub- 
mitted their theories to severer tests. 

It was a great risk for the astronomer to announce that the perturba- 
tions of the solar system could only be accounted for by a planet as yet 
unknown, and to predict its size and place in the solar system, trusting 
to the telescope to confirm or explode his theory. But iierhaps Profes- 
sor Agassiz took even a greater risk thiin this. Who does not remem- 
ber the letter he addressed to Professor Peirce, of the Coast Survey, 
just before he set out on the Hassler expedition, predicting in detail 
what evidences of glacial action he expected to find on the continent of 
South America, and what species of marine animals he expected to dis- 
cover in the deep-sea soundings along that coast ? He risked his own 
reputation as a scientific man on the predictions then committed to 
writing. 

What member of this board will forget the lecture he delivered here 
after his return, detailing the discoveries he had made, and showing 
how completely his predictions had been verified? 

While he was the prince of scholars, and a recognized teacher of man- 
kind, yet he alwaj'S preserved that childlike spirit which made him the 
most amiable of men. He studied nature with a reverence born of his 
undoubting faith. He believed that the universe was a cosmos, not a 
Chaos ; and that throughout all its vast domains there were indubitable 
evidences of creative i^ower and supreme wisdom. 

We have special cause for regret that his early death has deprived 
this community and the world of a series of lectures which were to 
have been delivered here this winter, on subjects of the deepest interest 
to science. His death will be deplored in whatever quarter of the globe 



JOUPtNAL OP PEOCEEDINGS. J 51 

genius is admired and science is clierislied. He has left beliind Mm as 
a legacy to mankind a name and a fame which will abide as an everlast- 
ing possession. 

The Secretary stated that prior to February 22, ]867, the money re- 
ceived from the United States, as semi-annual interest on the bequest 
of Smithsou, was deposited with the bankers Corcoran & Eiggs, and 
subsequently with Eiggs & Co., but on that date the regents had adopted 
a resolution directing that all money received by the Institution " be 
deposited in a national bank, which is also an authorized Government 
depository,'' (Eeport for 1866, page 78.) In accordance with this instruc- 
tion and the direction of the chancellor, Chief Justice Chase, the 
income was deposited in the First N^ational Bank of Washington. 
Unfortunately, on the 19th of September, 1873, that bank suspended 
payment, having $8,224.87 to the credit of the Institution. Since that 
time, however, a dividend of 30 per cent. ($2,467.46) has been received 
on this balance, leaving $5,757.41 still due the Institution. 

On motion of General Garfield, it was 

Besolved, That the Secretary of the Institution make arrangements, if 
possible, with the Secretary of the Treasury to deposit the income here- 
after received in the United States Treasury, to be drawn out on checks 
signed by Professor Henry; and that if this course could not be adopted, 
that Congress be requested to pass a law to this effect. 

The board then adjourned sme die. 



Washington, January, 21, 1874. 

In accordance with a resolution of the Board of Eegents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, fixing the time of the beginning of their annual 
meeting on the third Wednesday in January of each year, the board 
met to-day at 7 o'clock p. m. Present : Mr. Associate Justice Clif- 
ford, chancellor, Hon. H. Hamlin, Hon. J. W. Stevenson, Hon. A. A. 
Sargent, Hon. S. S. Cox, Eev. Dr. Maclean, Hon. Peter Parker, Gen- 
eral Sherman, Governor Shepherd, Prof. H. Coppee, and Professor 
Henry, Secretary. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Secretary announced the following appointments as regents : 
By joint resolution of Congress (approved January 19, 1874) Prof. Asa 
Gray, of Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, vice Prof. L. 
Agassiz, deceased ; Prof. J. D. Dana, of Yale College, New Haven, 
Conn., vice Professor Woolsej', declined re-election ; Prof. Henry 
Copp6e, of Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa., vice William B. Astor, 
declined re-election 5 Eev. Dr. John Maclean, of Princeton, K. J., and 
Hon. Peter Parker, of Washington, D. C, re-elected for the term of sis 
years. 



152 JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 

By the President of the Senate Hon. A. A. Sargent, of California, 
as regent for the term of Ms service as Senator, (1879,) \ice Mr, 
Trumbull. 

By the Speaker of the House, Hon. S. S. Cos, of New York, re-ap- 
pointed, aud Hon. E. Eockwood Hoar, of Massachusetts, vice Hon. J. 
A. Garfield, and Hon. G. W. Hazeiton, of Wisconsin, vice Hon. L. P. 
Poland ; for two years from the fourth Wednesday of December, 1873. 

Mr. Hamlin, from the special committee appointed.at the last meet- 
ing, reported the following resolutions : 

Eesolved, That in the death of Chief Justice Chase, the Smithsonian 
Institution has lost a wise counsellor, an efficient friend, and a zealous 
advocate of its policy and operations. 

Eesolved, That in his death, the country has lost an elevated statesman, 
a wise, a just, and an upright judge. 

Resolved, That the cause of civil liberty, of pure Christianity, and the 
advance of higher civilization have lost in the death of Chief Justice 
Chase the co-operation of one of the most prominent and influential minds 
of the day. 

Eesolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted to the 
family of the deceased. 

Mr. Hamlin made the following remarks : 

I did not expect to utter a word on this occasion. I have, however, 
at the solicitation of the Secretary, been induced to make some brie 
remarks upon the subject of the resolutions reported by the committee. 
I first met Mr. Chase at the time when lie entered upon his official 
duties as a Senator of the United States, and from that time to the 
close of his life I knew him well and intimately. This Institution has 
lost an earnest, able, and devoted friend, and that we shall miss him in 
our counsels we well know, much better than the world, for we always 
found him at the post of duty, uniting with a broad and capacious intel- 
lect, good, common, practical sense, and always ready to counsel well and 
wisely. We shall miss him here. In the counsels of the nation he did 
his duty well and nobly. He had what at the time were called his j)ecu- 
liar opinions, and he avowed and maintained them at a time when it 
required moral courage to do so ; but, however others disagreed with him, 
none would say that he ditl not advocate his views with courtesy and em- 
inent ability. In the heat of debate he might sometimes make a quick 
retort, but his bearing was always that of a gentleman, and his position 
that of an elevated statesman. On these occasions he did what he believed 
would subserve the best interests of man and elevate him to a higher and 
nobler civilization. As an executive officer during the war, he administered 
the Treasury Department with great ability, andhis name and fame wilt 
be connected with those times in the history of the country. To him, 
more than any other man, are we indebted for the means by which the 



JOURNAL OF PEOCEEDINGS. 153 

life of tlie nation was saved. I knew less personally of hiin in judicial 
life, but I think it is known and well understood through all the land 
that he wore the judicial ermine with honor and untarnished ; that he 
commanded the respect due to his judicial and legal learning, and that 
his decisions comported well with those of the eminent men who had 
occujiled the same exalted position, and was a worthy successor of those 
who preceded him. 

On motion of General Sherman, the resolutions were unanimously 
adopted. 

Mr. Hamlin, from the same committee, also reported the following 
resolutions : 

Resolved, That the Board of Eegents of the Smithsonian Institution 
record on the minutes of their proceedings their high appreciation of 
the character and labors of their lamented associate, Louis Agassiz, and 
the expression of their profound sorrow on account of his unexpected 
death, in the full exercise of his power, and amidst his unparalleled use- 
fulness. 

Resolved, That Professor Agassiz, by the attraction which he exerted 
on all who came under the magical influence of his genial temperament 
and generous sympathies, nobly advocated the claims of science to high 
popular estimation, private endowments, and liberal public patronage. 

Resolved, That as an instructor in his adopted country, he introduced 
methods of study and directed attention to fields of research in natural 
history far more elevated than those which had been previously in use 5 
that as an original investigator he made additions to human knowledge 
which do honor to the science of the nineteenth century, and associate 
his name with those of the prominent benefactors of his race. 

Resolved, That in the death of Professor Agassiz, the Smithsonian 
Institution has lost a wise adviser in its scientific operations, a power- 
ful supporter of its policy in regard to original research, and an influ- 
ential friend, ready at all times to advocate its claims on Congress for 
the independent support of a national museum. 

Resolved, That the Board of Eegents deeply sympathize with the 
family of the deceased, on account of their sad bereavement, and that a 
copy of these resolutions be transmitted to them. 

Dr. Parker spoke as follows : 

Mr. Chancellor : It may seem presumptuous in me to rise to move 
the adoption of the resolutions submitted. 

To calculate the distance and magnitude of the sun, requires an as- 
tronomer, and to analyze its chemical properties is the province of the 
spectroscopist, but multitudes who are neither astronomers nor spectro- 
scopists can delight in the revelations which are made in regard to 
that luminary. 

I am not a scientist 5 still, I can appreciate, in some degree, the labors 
of one who shone a star of the first magnitudem the firmament of science ! 



154 JOUENAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 

It is sixteen years since I first met Professor Agassiz, whose death the 
Board of Eegents so deeply lament. It was at commencement at Har- 
vard University, in 1858, the first year after my return from a long 
residence in China. The Emperor Napoleon had made tempting offers 
in the way of high position to Professor Agassiz to go to Paris. In 
tense solicitude on the part of his friends in Cambridge and the coun- 
try generally, was felt as to his decision. It was on this occasion that 
their anxious suspense was relieved, as Professor Agassiz, after dinner, 
rose and announced his determination henceforth to be an American 
citizen. This declaration was received with most enthusiastic demon- 
strations of rejoicing. 

I am happy the resolutions now submitted recognize his adopted citi- 
zenship. An incident that has come to my knowledge within the last hour 
has given me great pleasure, as illustrating the patriotism of the man. A 
mutual friend said, '' Professor Agassiz, it fills me with gratitude 
every time I think of your declining the very flattering proposition that 
was made to you from the court of France." To which he replied : " Yes, 
and do you know that proposition was renewed to me after the war be- 
gan, and I replied with more earnestness than before, if I loved my adopted 
country too much to leave it when all was peace, I certainly shall not 
leave it now, when a shadow has come over its prospects." 

In the resolutions adopted by different scientific and literary institu- 
tions throughout the country, much prominence is given, and rightly, 
too, to the irreparable loss sustained by the decease of this pre-eminent 
man of science. 

While we sjTiipathize most fully with that sentiment, there is another 
consideration that should not be overlooked. I refer to the kind Provi- 
dence that has given to the world such a man, preserved his life to ma- 
ture years, and enabled him to accomplish so much as he has done for 
the science, not only of the day and of this country, but of the age and 
world. 

To Louis Agassiz belongs the distinction of having awakened, in a 
remarkable degree, a spirit of scientific inquiry, and of having discovered 
changes our planet has undergone, through the influence of laws he 
was the first to demonstrate, arriving at such a knowledge of their 
operations that it may be truly said of him that the remote consequences 
of these laws, first predicted hy Jiis theory, tvere, in repeated instances, 
most signally verified vpon tico continents by Ids observations. 

In the circumstances of his departure from this life, there were pecu- 
liar mercies that call for grateful recognition. Fears were at one time 
entertained, and not without cause, lest he might linger through years 
of suffering, deprived of reason ; but he and his loving family have been 
spared that affliction, and he has been, as it were, translated, to resume, 
or rather to continue, on a higher j)lane, his advance in the knowledge of 
the works of the Creator, with devout and endlessly increasing adora- 
tion of their Divine Author. 

On motion of Dr. Parker, the resolutions were unanimously adopted. 



JOUENAL OF PEOCEEDINGS. 155 

The Secretary presented a general statement of tire condition of tlie 
fund, and the receipts and expenditures for the year 1873, which was 
referred to the executive committee. 

The Secretary called attention to the liberality of Mr. George W.Eiggs, 
the banker, who, after the suspension of the First ]!!Tational Bank, in Sep- 
tember last, had advanced the funds necessary to carry on the operations 
of the Institution, amounting to upward of $10,000, on which he had 
declined to charge any interest. 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, it was 

Resolved. That the cordial thanks of the Board of Eegents be tendered 
to Mr. Biggs, for his generosity in his financial services to the Institu- 
tion. 

The Secretary stated that, in accordance with the resolution of the 
Board, he had applied to the Treasury Department to take charge of 
the Smithsonian funds for current operations, and that arrangements 
had been made with General Spinner, United States Treasurer, to re- 
ceive deposits from the Institution, and make payments on checks of 
the Secretary, in the same manner as had been done in the First National 
Bank. 

The Institution is indebted to General Spinner for nis prompt acqui- 
escence in the proposition, and his authority for carrying it out in all 
the details necessary to facilitate its operation. 

The Secretary gave an account of the history and operations of the 
Institution, particularly for the information of the new members of the 
board. 

The board adjourned at 9 p. m., to meet on Monday, 26th January, 
at 7 o'clock p. m. 



Januaey 26, 1874. 

A meeting of the Board of Eegents was held this day at 7 o'clock p. 
m. Present Mr. Justice Clifford, chancellor of the Institution, Hon. H. 
Hamlin, Hon. J. W. Stevenson, Hon. A. A. Sargent, Hon. E. E. Hoar, 
Hon. G. W. Hazelton, Hon, P. Parker and the Secretary, Professor 
Henry. 

The minutes of the last meeting were apjjroved. 

Dr. Parker presented the annual report of the executive committee, 
which was read and, on motion of Mr. Stevenson, adopted. 

The Secretary called attention to the bequest of James Hamilton, 
and presented the following letter from one of the executors : 

Carlisle, Pa,, January 23, 1874. 
Deae Sm: Yours of 20th instant received and contents noted. 
The executors will be ready to pay over the legacy (bequeathed by Mr. 



156 JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Hamilton) to the Smithsonian Institution about the first week in Feb- 
ruary. Please inform us who is authorized by the Board of Eegents of 
the Smithsonian Institution- to receive the legacy and release the exe- 
cutors, and we will send the release next week to you to be executed by 
the proper officers of said board, and one of the executors or a repre- 
sentative will be in Washington in the early part of next month to pay 
over the money and get the release. 
Yours, respectfully, 

JOSEPH A. STUAET, 
One of the executors of Jas. Hamilton, deceased. 
Prof. Joseph Henry. 

IST. B. — Below you will notice a copy of the section of the will contain- 
ing said legacy to the Institution. 

Section 8. " I give one thousand dollars to the Board of Eegeuts of the 
Sniithsonian Institution, located at Washington, D. C, to be invested 
by said regents in some safe fund, and the interest to be appro])riated 
biennially by the secretaries, either in money or a medal, for such con- 
tribution, paper, or lecture, on any scientific or useful subject, as said 
secretaries may approve." 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, it was 

Resolved, That the bequest of the late James Hamilton, of Carlisle, 
Pa., be accepted ; that the chancellor and Secretary of the Institution 
be authorized to receipt for the money and that it be deposited with the 
Secretary of the Treasury, on the same terms as the original bequest 
of Smithson, in accordance with the act of Congress approved 8th Feb- 
ruary, 1867.* 

The Secretary gave an account of the correspondence of the Institu- 
tion and spoke of the immense mental activity which existed in this 
country in regard to scientific speculations. In connection with these 
remarks he laid before the Board, at the request of the author, a series 
of manuscripts entitled "Disclosures in Science, etc," by Henry Kor- 
ner, of Powhatan, Ohio, which had been urged upon the Institution for 
publication. In these manuscripts the author states that he has dem- 
onstrated the insufficiency of the theory of gravitation, as propounded 
by Newton, to explain the mechanical phenomena of astronomy, and 
also the inadequacy of the received principles of molecular action to 
account for iho, phenomena of physics and chemistry, and that he has 
himself discovered principles to which all these ma;y be referred. 

The Secretary stated that after examining these manuscripts he had 
informed the author that they could not be published by the Institution, 
since nothing could be accepted for that purpose unless it had previ- 
ously been submitted to a commission for critical examination, and a 
favorable report had been obtained; that these speculations were 
*Statues at Large, vol. 14, page 391. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 157 

either so far in advance of the received scientific principles of the day 
or so far behind them that the two M^ere out of all harmony with each 
other ; that it would be impossible to obtain a favorable report in regard, 
to them from any commission composed of men of scientific reputation ; 
that he would, however, suggest that the mauscripts be deposited in 
the archives of the Institution, free of access to any who might wish 
to consult them with the proviso that no extracts be taken from them 
without full credit being given to the name of the author. This sug- 
gestion was favorably received by the author. 

On motion of Mr. Stevenson, it was 

Besolved, That the action of the Secretary in relation to the Korner 
manuscripts be approved. 

The Secretary stated that, in accordance with the policy of the Insti- 
tution to enter into harmonious relations with other establishments in 
this city, as had already been done by depositing the plants and insects 
in the Department of Agriculture, the skulls in the Army Medical Mu- 
seum, «&c., he desired to enter into friendly relations with the Corcoran 
Art-G-allery, of which he had recently been elected a trustee. He 
thought that, inasmuch as this gallery had been opened to the public, 
and had been established with a permanent endowment, larger even than 
that of the Smithsonian Institution, it was proper that some of the ar- 
ticles of art now in the building should be deposited in the Corcoran 
Gallery, subject, of course, to the order of the regents. 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, it was 

Eesolvedj That the Secretary be authorized to deposit in the Corcoran 
Art-Gallery^ to be reclaimed at anytime, such works of art belonging to 
the Institution as may be approved by the executive committee. 

The Secretary presented his annual report of the operations of the In- 
stitution for the year 1873, which was read j and 

On motion of Mr. Hazelton, 

Eesolved, That the report of the Secretary be accepted and transmit- 
ted to Congress as usual. 

The Secretary stated that during the past year Mr. P. T. Barnum had 
presented the National Museum with the following valuable specimens 
of natural history, viz: A Malayan tapir, a Bactrian camel, a dromedary, 
an African panther, a Florida manatee, an Indian rhinoceros, a man- 
drill, and others, furnishing the means of preparing both their skeletons 
and mounted skins. He had also i)romised to give the Institution the 
bodies of all the animals that die in his menagerie. 

On motion of Dr. Parker, it was 

Eesolved, That the thanks of the Board of Eegents be tendered to P. 
T. Barnum,' esquire, for his liberal donation of the bodies of animals to 
the I^ational Museum, which form a very important addition to the col- 
lection of specimens necessary to illustrate the science of zoology. 



158 JOUENAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Dr. Parker stated tbat i3rior to 1873 all accounts for tlie museum had 
been paid in tlie first instance by tbe Institution and audited with the 
Smithsonian vouchers by the executive committee. Last year, however, 
an arrangement had been made by which bills for the IsTational Museum, 
after approval by Professor Henry, were presented to the disbursing 
agent of the Department of the Interior, who jjaid the parties directly. 
The accounts were audited by the disbursing officer of the Interior De- 
partment, and afterward by the Treasury Department. Inasmuch as 
the regents of the Institution, however, are responsible for all expend- 
itures connected with its operations, he would ask the opinion of the 
board as to the propriety of examining all the vouchers for payments 
made for the National Museum from the Government appropriations. 
Professor Henry had retained a du]3licate set of vouchers for these pay- 
ments, and had the books carefully kept, and had offered them to the 
committee for examination. 

On motion of Mr. Hoar, it was 

Resolved, That the board approve of the examination by the execu- 
tive committee of the vouchers for the expenditures of the I^ational 
Museum, as requested by the committee and desired by the Secretary. 

The Secretary stated that the system of international literary and sci- 
entific exchanges had now become so extensive that he feared the cost 
would be too great for the means of the Institution, and it had been 
suggested that the larger societies and establishments which received 
so much benefit from the system might contribute somethiug annually 
for its support. After some discussion, 

On motion of Mr. Hamlin, it was 

Resolved^ That the Secretary be authorized to receive aid from socie- 
ties and individuals in defraying the heavy expense of the exchange 
system. 

The board then adjourned to meet at the call of the Secretary. 



Apeil 27, 1874. 

A meeting of Board of Regents was held at 10 o'clock a. m. 

Present : The Chief Justice of the United States, Hon. M. R. Waite, 
Hon. Peter Parker, Hon. E. R. Hoar, Hon. G. W. Hazelton, Professor 
Asa Gray, and the Secretary, Professor Henry. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Secretary stated that the object of the meeting was the election 
of a chancellor. 

On motion of Mr. Hoar, Chief Justice Waite was unanimously elected 
chancellor. 

Dr. Parker, from the executive committee, presented a report on the 
examination of the accounts of the National Museum for 1873, and a 



JOUENAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 159 

statemeut relative to tlie accounts of the Institution and of the E'ational 
Museum for the first quarter of 1874 ; which were accepted. 

The Secretary stated that, on the 24th of February, 1874, Mr. Joseph 
A. Stuart, one of the executors of the estate of the late James Hamil- 
ton, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, had paid the legacy of said Hamilton, 
viz, one thousand dollars, into the Treasury of the United States, in ac- 
cordance with the resolution of the Board of Eegents adopted January 
26, 1874. 

The following is a copy of the receipt : 

No. 10,564.] Treastjey of the United States, 

Washington, B. C, February 24, 1874. 

I certify that Prof. Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, has this day deposited to the credit of the United States one 
thousand dollars, on account of amount received by bequest of the late 
James Hamilton, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, accepted by the Board of 
Regents by resolution of January 26, 1874, providing that the amount 
be deposited with the Secretary of the Treasury on same terms as the 
original bequest of Smithson, in accordance with act of February 8, 
1867, * for which I have signed duplicate receipts. 

$1,000. L. E. TUTTLE, 

- Assistant Treasurer United States. 

The Secretary gave an account of the operations of the Institution | 
and after inspecting the building, the board adjourned sine die. 

* Statutes at Large, vol. 14, page 391. 



GENERAL APPENDIX 



SMITHSONIAN REPORT FOR 1873. 



The object of .this appendix is to illustrate the operations of the Institution by 
reports of lectures and extracts from correspondence, as well as to furnish information 
of a character suited especially to the meteorological observers and otlier persons 
interested in the promotion of knowledge. 



11 S 



CHARLES BABBAGE. 



[Compiled for the Smithsonian Institution.] 



Charles Babbage, upon being urged to write his own biography, re- 
plied that he had no desire to do it while he had strength and means to 
do better work. Some men, he said, write their lives to save them- 
selves from ennuij careless of the amount they inflict on their readers ; 
others, lest some kind surviving friend in showing off his own talent in 
writing personal history might show up theirs 5 and others still from 
fear that the vampires of literature might make them a prey. He be- 
longed to no one of these classes. What a man had done for others, not 
what he might say about himself, formed his best life. And so to many 
who asked him to prepare an autobiography he sent a list of his works, 
" which," he naively adds, " no one cared to insert." Still, few persons 
who have made a name while living are insensible to posthumous fame, 
and Babbage was among the number. While professing to treat these 
applications lightly, he nevertheless set about placing on record an ac- 
count of himself, and though he rejects the name of autobiography, he 
has left behind him, in a work which he entitles " Passages from the 
Life of a Philosopher," a memoir which in variety of detail and clear- 
ness of description, liveliness of style and sententious remark, is almost 
without its parallel. Without being confined to this witty and erratic 
narrative, and putting the estimate of the thinking men of the age 
rather than his own upon what he was and what he did, this notice 
will aim to do justice to certainly not the least remarkable man of this 
nineteenth century. 

Of the mere personal history of this eminent philosopher and sci- 
entific mechanist little need be recorded. He was born of gentle blood 
and moderate competence on December 26, 1792. From earliest years 
he showed great desire to inquire into the causes of things that 
astonish childish minds. He eviscerated toys to ascertain their man- 
ner of working ; he sought to prove the reality of the devil by draw- 
ing with his blood a circle on the floor and repeating the Lord's 
prayer backward ; he dissipated toothaches by reading Don Quixote ; 
he bargained with another boy that whoever died first should appear 
to the survivor, and spent a night of sleeplessness when the first event 
of the compact occurred, awaiting in vain his comrade's appearance. 
In college he was perpetually puzzling his tutors by abstruse questions. 
When the circulation of the Bible with or without comment became a 
fierce controversy at Cambridge, he formed, with Herschel, Maule, 



CHARLES BABBAGE, 163 

D'Arblay, and others, an analytical society for tlie translation of La- 
CToix's Differential and Integral Calculus, maintaining that the work 
needed no comment; that the "d's" of Leibnitz were perfect, and con- 
signing to perdition all who supported the heresy of JSTewtou's " dots." 
It being hinted that the society was infidel, the young student replied, 
" No ! We advocate the principles of pure ' D '-ism in 0})position to the 
' Dot '-age of the university." He studied the game of chess and beat 
every expert that was brought against him ; formed a ghost club to col- 
lect all reliable evidence of the supernatural ; joined high players at 
whist in order to show them that, staking only slnllings, he could win at 
guinea-points; embarked in boating not more from the manual labor 
than from the intellectual art of sailing; and by making a collection ol 
examples of mathematical problems, in which the notation of Leibnitz 
was employed, he made it for the interest of tutors of the colleges to 
abandon the symbols of Newton. 

During Babbage's college life the course of his studies led him into a 
critical examination of the logarithmic tables then in use. The value 
of these tables had long been recognized in every part of the civilized 
world. Large sums of money were expended in their preparation, and 
the greatest care produced only proximate accuracy in the calculations. 
The young mathematician set himself to consider whether, in the con- 
struction of these tables, in place of the perturbable processes of the 
intellect, it were not possible to substitute the unerring movements of 
mechanism. The thought was perpetually recurring during the latter 
portion of his college course. He gave up his leisure time to experi- 
ments having this end in view — discussed the subject with Herschel, 
Eyan, Maule, and others of his class who were interested in philsophical 
mechanism, and was no sooner graduated than he visited the various 
centers of machine labor in England and on the continent, that he might 
become familiar with the combinations in use and study their functions. 
Keturning home, he began to sketch arrangements for a machine 
by which all mathematical tables might be computed by one uniform 
process. 

The idea of a calculating machine did not originate with young 
Babbage. Pascal, nearly two hundred years before, had constructed, 
when in his nineteenth year, an ingenious machine for making arithmetical 
calculations, which excited admiration. In his Pensees, alluding to 
this engine, he remarks: "ia. machine arithmetique fait des effets qui aj)- 
prochent plus de la pensee que tout ce que font les animaux ; mais elle ne 
faitrien qui puissef aire direqit'elle a de la volonte conime lesanimauxP Sub- 
sequently, Leibnitz invented a machine by which arithmetical computa- 
tions could be made. Polenus, a learned and ingenious Italian, put to- 
gether wheels by which multiplication was performed; and in the vari- 
ous industrial exhibitions since 1851, contrivances for performing cer- 
tain arithmetical processes have been exhibited. The principle upon 



164 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

which Babbage's engines have been constructed, however, is entirely 
new, and intended to do work of a much more important character. 

On the 1st of April, 1823, a letter was received from the treasury by 
the president of the Eoyal Society, requesting him to ask the council 
to take into consideration a plan which had been submitted to gov- 
ernment by Mr. Babbage for applying machinery to the purposes of 
calculating and printing mathematical tables, and desiring to be favored 
with its opinion on the merits and utility of the invention. This is the 
earliest allusion to the calculating machine on the records of the Eoyal 
Society. The invention, however, had been brought before the mem- 
bers in the previous year by a letter from Mr. Babbage to Sir Hum- 
phry Davy. In that he had given an account of a small model of his 
engine for calculating differences, which produced figures at the rate of 
44 a minute, and performed with rapidity and precision all those calcu- 
lations for which it was designed. He had concluded this letter by 
saying, "that though he had arrived at a point where success was no 
longer doubtful, it could be ^.ttained only at a very considerable expense, 
which would not probablj^ be replaced by the works it might produce 
for a long period of time; and which is an undertaking T should feel 
unwilling to commence, as altogether foreign to my habits and pur- 
suits." 

The council of the Eoyal Society appointed a committee to take Mr. 
Babbage's plan into consideration. It was composed of the following 
gentlemen : Sir H. Davy, Mr. Brande, Mr. Combe, Mr. Baily, Mr. Brunei, 
Mr. Colby, Mr. Davies Gilbert, Sir John Herschel, Captain Kater, Mr. 
Pond, Dr. Wollaston, and Dr. Young. On the 1st of May, 1823, this 
committee reported: "That it appears Mr. Babbage has displayed great 
talents and ingenuity in the construction of his machine for computa- 
tion, which the committee think full^^ adequate to the attainment of the 
objects proposed by the inventor, and that they consider Mr. Babbage 
as highly deserving of public encouragement in the prosecution of his 
arduous undertaking." This report was transmitted to the lords of the 
treasury, by whom it was printed and laid before Parliament. Two 
months after this a letter was sent from the treasury to the Eoyal Soci- 
ety, informing them that the issue of £1,500 had been directed to Mr. 
Babbage "to enable him to bring his invention to perfection in the man- 
ner recommended." 

It is not within the purpose of this memoir to describe the misunder- 
standing which arose between Mr. Babbage and the British government, 
during the following twenty years, in consequence of this letter, received 
by the Eoyal Society from the lords of the treasury. He regarded the 
machine he now undertook to build as the property of the government. 
They understood it to be his. He received the first advanceof money as an 
earnest that all necessarj^ funds would be furnished to complete this 
difference engine No. 1. They seemed to have regarded it in the light of 
a temporary assistance, given to a man of genius for the purpose of en- 



CHARLES BABBAGE. 165 

abling Mm to complete an iuvention which would be of great public 
benefit. He commenced the work, giving his own labors gratuitously, 
according to what he considered to be an order. Government looked 
on, furnished further moneys, consulted the Koyal Society once and 
again as to the progress of the work, but declined committing itself 
further. Mr. Babbage advanced considerable sums, but was not reim- 
bursed; made great improvements upon his original plans, but was not 
encouraged; carried with him the convictions of the scientific men of 
his country and contiuental Europe, but was left behind by the treas- 
ury; and finally, when, in the opinion of such philosophical mechanists 
as Sir John Herschel, Sir Mark Brunei, Mr. Pond, the astronomer 
royal, and others, he was on the eve of results far surpassing in impor- 
tance all that had been contemplated, he was informed that "ultimate 
success appeared so problematical and the expense so large and so 
utterly incapable of being calculated, that the government would not 
be justified in taking upon itself any further liability." 

Thus terminated in 1842 the engagement which had existed more than 
a score of years between Charles Babbage and the British government. 
During this period of time he had made heavy sacrifices, both pecuniary 
and personal, had refused highly honorable and profitable situations ; 
had employed in his own house, at his own expense, the most intelligent 
and skiUed workmen to assist him in making experiments necessary for 
attaining a knowledge of every art which could possibly tend to the 
perfection of his engine; had repeatedly, at his own expense, visited the 
manufactories of England and the continent; had invented incidentally, 
and constructed, mechanical tools and labor-saving machines of great 
public value, not one of which he protected by letters-patent, and had 
gratuitously given the results of his energetic mind to the perfect con- 
struction of the machines which he regarded as the great purpose of his 
life. Whether success would have equaled expectation had his gov- 
ernment rendered him the required aid, can never be known. He has 
left behind him no thinker or philosophical mechanic capable of com- 
pleting his work. 

It was to calculate and print tables of figures connected with various 
sciences; with almost every department of the useful arts; with com- 
merce, astronomy, navigation, surveying, engineering, and everything 
which depends on mathematical measurements. 

To show the immense importance of any method by which these 
numerical tables, absolutely accurate in every individual copy, could be 
produced with facility and cheapness, let the reader revert to what 
European governments have attempted to do in the last hundred years. 
Dodson's Calculator, published in London in 1747, contained a table of 
multiplication extending to 10 times 1,000. In 1775 this table was ex- 
tended to 10 times 10,000. The English board of longitude employed 
Dr. Hutton, in 1781, to calculate numerical tables up to 100 times 1,000;. 
and to add to these, tables of the squares of numbers as far as 25,400 ; 



16G CHARLES BABBAGE. 

aad also tables of cubes of the first ten powers of numbers reacliing to 
100. In 1814, Professor Barlow, of Woolwich, published in an octavo 
volume the squares, cubes, square-roots, cube-roots, and reciprocals of 
all numbers from 1 to 1,000 — a table of the first ten powers from 1 to 
100, and a table of the fourth and fifth powers of all numbers from 100 
to 1,000. 

To a still greater extent were similar tables prepared on the con- 
tinent. In France, in the year 1785, was published an octavo volume 
of the tables of squares, cubes, square-roots, and cube-roots of all num- 
bers from 1 to 10,0005 and in 1824 from 1,000 times to 100. A larger 
table of squares than at that time existing was published in Hanover in 
1810: a larger still in Leipsic in 1812 ; a more perfect one at Berlin in 
1825; and a similar table at Ghent in 1827. 

This class of tables involves only the arithmetical dependence of ab- 
stract numbers upon each other! To express peculiar modes of quantity — 
such as angular, linear, superficial, and solid magnitudes — a larger num- 
ber of computations are required. Volumes without number of these 
tables also have been computed and published at infinite labor and ex- 
pense. Then come tables of a special nature, of importance not inferior, 
of labor more exacting — tables of interest, discount, and exchange; 
tables of annuities and life insurance, and tables of rates in gen- 
eral commerce. And then, above all others, tables of astronomy, 
the multiplicity and complexity of which it is impossible to describe, and 
the importance of which, in the kindred art of navigation, it would be 
difficult to over-estimate. The safety of the tens of thousands of ships 
upon the ocean, the accuracy of coast surveys, the exact position of 
light-houses, the track of every shore from headland to headland, the 
latitude and longitude of mid-sea islands, the course and motion of cur- 
rents, direction and speed of winds, bearing and distance of mountains, 
and, in short, everything which constitutes the chief element of interna- 
tional commerce in modern times, dei^ends ujion the fuUness and accu- 
racy of logarithmic tables. 

Inadequate as is the notion of the importance of these tables that has 
been conveyed, still more inadequate must be any notice of their errors. 
The expedients resorted to for even a limited degree of accuracy have 
been almost innimierable. The first French Republic, aspiring to lead the 
nations in science, undertook, through its mathematicians, by a division of 
labor so admirable that it seemed impossible errors should be committed, 
or, if comiaitted, remain undetected, to produce a system of logarithmic 
and trigonometric tables so accurate that it should form a monument of 
the kind more imposing than had ever been conceived. The attempt 
failed, for one singular reason among others, that the computers who 
committed the fewest errors were those who understood nothing beyond 
the process of addition. Dr. Lardner discovered in forty tables, taken 
at random, no less than 3,700 errata. In the Nautical Almanac Mr. Bally 
detected more than 500 errors of calculation. The " tables requisite to 



CHAKLES B ABB AGE. 167 

be used with the ]N"autical Ephemeris for finding latitude and longitude 
at sea," computed, revised, and rerevised with the utmost care, under 
direction of the British board of longitude, and pubUshed by the govern- 
ment, was found to contain above a thousand errors. The tables of the 
distances of the moon from certain fixed stars, published by the same board, 
is followed by 1,100 erra to, and these themselves contained so many errors 
as to mate errata upon errata necessary. For the special use of the 
national survey of Ireland, the logarithmic tables, most carefully prepared, 
were found to contaui six errors, and these, by comparison, were found to 
exist not only in tables published during more than two hundred years in 
Paris and Gouda, Avignon and Berlin, Florence and London, but also in a 
set printed in China, in Chinese characters, and purporting to be original 
calculations. In fact, absolute correctness in logarithmic tables has 
never been attained. Year after year, through eight generations of 
mathematicians, one set has followed another to correct its predecessor. 
Even the last claims but approximate accuracy. Precautions, compari- 
sons, revisions, and alterations from computers to computers, make ad- 
vances only totcard an end that is never absolutely reached. And no 
wondSr. We need but to consider the nature of a numerical table, where 
a thousand pages are covered with figures alone, where neither note nor 
comment, letters of the alphabet, nor rules of syntax, are permitted to 
intrude, to understand that the law of chance is on the side of error, and 
that for one mistake that may happen to be detected a score may escape 
unnoticed. 

Besides the errors incidental to computation, there are those of trans- 
scribing for the press, and of composition into print. Kor does the liability 
to error stop even here, errors being often produced in the process of 
printing. A remarkable instance of this occurs in one of the six errors 
of the Irish Survey Tables, just mentioned. The last five figures of two 
successive numbers of a logarithmic table were 

35875 
10436 

Both were erroneous. The "8" in the upper line should be "4," and the- 
"4" in the lower line should be "8." It is evident that the types, as- 
first composed, were correct — that two of them, "4" and " 8," became 
loose, adhered to the inking ball, and were drawn out— and that the 
pressman in replacing transposed them. And this inadvertent error in. 
Blacq's tables of 1628, traveled over three continents, and, with more- 
or less of mischief, remained undetected for two hundred years. 

I^umerical correctness in logarithmic tables, is then, and has ever been,, 
the great desideratum. This Mr. Babbage proposed to attain by ma- 
chinery; to calculate the tables unerringly, as if by a law of nature, 
and by the same law to reduce them as unerringly to type. Thus was. 
the single purpose of the difference engine No. 1. 

The difference engine i^o. 1 was only partially competed. Confided' 
to the care of King's College, it remained for twenty years in the mu- 



168 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

seum at Somerset House. In 1862 it was exliibited at the Great Indus- 
trial Exhibition, since which time it has been stored at the South Ken- 
sington Museum. The finished portion of the engine showed itself 
capable of computing any table whose third difference is constant and 
less than 1,000; while at the same time it showed the position in the 
table of each tabular number. In Mr. Babbage's own words: 

"1st. The portion of the machine exhibited can calculate any table 
whose third difference is constant and less than 10. 

"2d. It can show how much more rapidly astronomical tables can be 
calculated in any engine in which there is no constant difference. 

"3d. It can be employed to illustrate those singular laws which might 
continue to be produced through ages, and yet after an enormous inter- 
val of time change into other different laws; each again to exist for 
ages, and then to be superseded by new laws." 

It will be borne in mind that- all work upon difference engine ISTo. 1 was 
stopped in the early part of the year 1833. At the general meeting of 
the Royal Academy at Brussels in May, 1835, a letter received from Mr. 
Babbage was read announcing that he had been engaged for six months 
in making drawings of a new calculating machine of far greater power. 
"I am myself astonished," he wrote, "at the power I have been enabled 
to give to this machine : a year ago I should not have believed this result 
possible. The machine is intended to contain a hundred variables, each 
consisting of twenty-five figures; it will reduce to tables almost all 
equations of finite differences; it will calculate a thousand values (of 6.(7. 

al) c dhj the formula jp= -i- j print them, and reduce them to zero, 

and will then ring a bell to give notice that a new set of constants 
must be inserted." "When there exists," he continues, "a relation 
between any number of successive co-efficients of a series, provided it 
can be expressed, the machine will calculate them and make their 
terms known in succession ; and it may afterward be disposed so as to 
find the value of the series for all the values of the variable." 

This was the first announcement to the scientific world of a machine, 
capable of executing not merely arithmetical calculations, but even those 
of analysis when the laws are known. It was, in fact, the analytical 
engine, never destined to be com}3leted by its inventor in actual fact, 
but so perfect in its drawings, so clear in its descriptions, so certain in 
its sequences, and so logical in aU its principles, that, to the minds of 
men capable of comprehending the details, it became as certainly the 
realization of a gigantic idea as if it had been doing its work in their 
presence. If it be asked, how such a machine could of itself, without 
recourse to thought, assume the successive dispositions necessary, Mr. 
Babbage answers that Jacquard solved the problem when he invented 
his loom. 

In the manufacture of brocade there are two species of threads, the 



CHAELES BABBAGE. 169 

one longitudinal, wMch is the tcarp, the other transverse, which is the 
ivoof. 

Of course the analytical engine could not originate. It would have 
always been the servant — never the master. It could have done what- 
ever its inventor Jcnew Iww to order it to do. No more. It assisted — 
marvelously indeed, but it only assisted — in making the Ictiown available. 
It could hskyefoUouied analysis, never anticipated it. But had it been con- 
structed, it would have achieved three desiderata of science — economy 
of time, economy of intelligence, rigid accuracy. It would have made ob- 
servations fertile that are now barren for lack of computing powers ; 
it would have saved time for contemplation that is now wasted in arid 
calculations by men of genius, and it would have made certain arith- 
metical numbers, without the aid of which the veil that envelopes the 
mysteries of nature can never be raised. 

As illustrative of the estimate put upon the operations of the analytical 
machine, it may not be inappropriate to quote here Mr. Babbage's own 
remarks : " An excellent friend of mine," he wTites, " the late Professor 
MacCullagh, of Dublin, was discussing with me the various powers of 
the analytical engine. After a long conversation he inquired what the 
machine could do, if, in the midst of algebraic operations, it was required 
to perform logarithmic or trigonometric operations. My answer was, that 
whenever the analytical engine should exist, all the developments of 
formula would be directed by this condition, that the machine should, 
be able to compute their numerical value in the shortest possible time; 
I then added that if this answer was not satisfactory, I had provided 
means by which, with equal accuracy, it might comx^ute by logarithmic 
or other tables. 

"I explained that the tables to be used must, of course, be computed 
and punched on cards by the machine, in which case they would un- 
doubtedly be correct. I then added, that when the machine wanted a 
tabular number it would ring a bell and then stop itself. On this the 
attendant would look at a certain part of the machine and find that it 
wanted the logarithm ,of a given number, say of 2303 ; the attendant 
would then go to the drawer, take the required logarithmic-card, and place 
it on the machine. Upon this the engine would first ascertain whether 
the assistant had or had not given it the correct logarithm of the num- 
ber 5 if so, it would use it and continue its work. But if the engine 
found the attendant had given it a wrong logarithm, it would then ring 
a louder bell and stop itself. On the attendant again examining the en- 
gine, he would observe the words, WRONa tabular number, and then 
discover that he really had given the wrong logarithm, and of course 
would have to replace it by the right one." 

As between the two engines, the difference and the analytical, their 
powers and principles of construction, the capabilities of the latter would 
have been immeasurably the more extensive. They hold to each other, 
in fact, the same relationship that analysis holds to arithmetic. The dif- 



y 



170 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

ference engine was intended to effect but one particular series of oper- 
ations. It was not the general expression ev^en of one particular func- 
tion, much less of any and all possible functions of all degrees of gen- 
erality. Indeed, it could do nothing but add. It certainly performed 
the processes of subtraction, multiplication, and division ; but then only 
so far as these could be reduced to a series of additions. The analytical 
machine, on the contrary, would have been able to add or subtract, mul- 
tiply or divide — it could have done either and all with equal facility — 
and it would have performed these operations directly in each case with- 
out the aid of any of the other three. This fact implies everything. 
The one engine merely tabulated but never developed; the other both 
tabulated and developed. 

Mr. Babbage's third invention, which he named " difference engine, 
No. 2," need not be dwelt upon here. It was never built. Its drawings 
even were never quite completed. As an entity it had no existence out 
of his own mind. In laboring to perfect the analytical machine he dis- 
covered the means of simplifying and expediting the mechanical pro- 
cesses of difference engine No. 1. The Earl of Eosse, who was greatly 
interested in the application of mechanism to purposes of calculation, 
and who was well acquainted with the drawings and notations of the 
second difference engine so far as made, proposed that Mr. Babbage 
should perfect and give them to the government, upon condition that 
they would undertake to construct it. To this, with some reluc' ance, he 
consented. It was then proposed to the Earl of Derby, he being prime 
minister, that the government should apply to the president of the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers to ascertain — 

1st. Whether it was possible from Mr. Babbage's drawings and nota- 
tions to make an estimate of the cost of constructing the machine. 

2d. In case this question was answered in the affirmative, then could 
a mechanical engineer be found who would undertake to construct it, 
and at what expense. 

It was explained to Lord Derby that the cessation of work upon the 
first difference engine was owing to no fault of Mr. Babbage; that, being- 
new in design and construction, and requiring the utmost mechanical 
skill for its execution, it had necessarily been costly ; that the necessitj- 
of constructing and, in many instances, inventing tools and machinery of 
great complexity for forming with requisite precision parts of the appa- 
ratus dissimilar to any used in ordinary mechanical works, had produced 
unavoidable delays, and that the foremost men of practical science all 
over Europe who were acquainted with the facts, so far from being sur- 
prised at the time and expense that had been required to bring the 
engine to its then present state, felt much more disposed to wonder that 
it had been possible to accomplish so much. " If this work," Mr. Bab- 
bage wrote to the minister, "upon which I have bestoAved so much time 
and thought were a mere triumph over mechanical difficulties, or simply 
curious, or if the execution of such engines were of doubtful practica- 



N^ 



CHARLES BABBAGE. 171 

bility or utility, some justification might be found for tlie course which 
has been taken ; but I venture to assert that no mathematician who has 
a reputation to lose will ever puhlicly express an opinion that such a 
machine woukl be useless if made, and that no man distinguished as a 
pivil engineer will venture to declare the construction of such machinery 
impracticable." 

It seemed now (1852) as if there were a probability that government 
would order a resumption of the work. The Earl of Derby was a man 
of large gifts and extended views, aud his chancellor of the exchequer, 
himself the son of a philosopher, was known as widely almost by his 
philosophic sentiments as by his great powers of debate. The country 
was at peace. The first exhibition of the whole world's industry had by 
its marvelous success the previous year given a new impulse to the arts. 
Politics, indeed, ran high, but in every other aspect there was encourage- 
ment. The Eoyal Society ; the Society of Civil Engineers ; the Eoyal 
Academy of Sciences, at Brussels ; the principal philosophical mechan- 
ists of the three kingdoms, led by the Earl of Rosse and Sir Benjamin 
Hawes ; the astronomical observers following in the bold path opened 
by Sir John Herschel ; and Prince Albert, the most accomplished, as he 
was the most judicious, of thinking men ; together with Plana, Menabria, 
MacCullagh, Mosotti, Plantamoiu", Dr. Lardner, and Lady Lovelace — 
this last an example, almost equal to that of Mrs. Somerville, of the 
})0wer sometimes possessed by the female mind in dealing with abstract 
truths — all gave the weight of their opinion in favor of the difference 
engine, when completed, as fully adequate to the attainment of the 
objects proposed by the inventor. " ISTo enterprise," said the president 
of the Royal Society, when reciting the history of the engine at their 
anniversary in 1854 — " no enterprise could have had its beginning under 
more auspicious circumstances. The government had taken the initia- 
tive ; they had called for advice, and the adviser was the highest scien- 
tific authority in this country — your council guided by such men as 
Derby, Wollaston, and Herschel. By your council the undertaking was 
inaugurated ; by your council it was watched over in its progress. That 
the first great effort to employ the powers of calculating mechanism, in 
aid of the human intellect should have been sutfered in this great 
country to expire fruitless because there was no tangible evidence of 
immediate profit, as a British subject I deeply regret, and as a fellow 
my regret is accompanied with feelings of bitter disappointment. Where 
a question has once been disposed of, succeeding governments rarely 
re-open it ; still, I thought I should not be doing my duty if I did not 
take some opportunity of briuging the facts once more before govern- 
ment." 

This was accordingly done. It was shown that mechanical engineer- 
ing, tools, trained workmen, the founder's art; and screw-cutting ma- 
chines, had made such progress during the years the difference-engine 
had been laid aside that it was probable persons could be found willing 



172 CHAELES BABBAGE. 

to complete it for a specific sum. l!^ever had a ministry a nobler oppor- 
tunity to illustrate its history by the encouragement of science. It wa^, 
however, all in vain. Art was weighed against gold, and the former, 
touched the beam. The chancellor of the exchequer, to whom Lord 
Derby referred the question, pronounced the project as — 

"1. Indefinitelj^ expensive. 

"2. The ultimate success problematical. 

"3. The expenditure utterly incapable of being calculated." 

"This Herostratus of science,'' Mr, Babbage characteristically remarks, 
"if he escape oblivion, will be linked with the destroyer of the Ephesian 
Temple." 

It would be unjust to the mLcmory of the great philosophical mechanist 
were no reference made to the incidental invention of a mechanical 
notation which Mr. Babbage explained in a paper read before the Eoyal 
Society in 1826. Dr. Lardner entitled it a discovery of " the utmost 
practical value," and it has long been adopted as a topic of lectures in 
institutions all over Europe for the instruction of civil engineers. It 
came up in this wise: Memory has its limit. There cannot be borne 
in mind a great variety of motions propagated simultaneously through 
complicated trains of mechanism. Incompatible motions will encoun- 
ter each other. The memory can neither guard against nor correct them. 
Some expedient which at a glance could exhibit what every moving 
l)iece in the machinery was doing at each instant w^as needed. oSTe- 
cessity, the mother of invention, suggested to Mr. Babbage a system 
of signs, by which the mechanist, simply moving his finger along a cer- 
tain line, could follow out the motion of every piece from effect to cause 
until he arrived at the prime mover. The same sign which indicated 
the source of motion indicated also its species. It also divided time 
into parts, showing what was being done by a machine at any moment. 
By this means the contriver understood the situation mstmiter, saw as 
if by intuition the fault, and discovered the niche in which to place the 
movement required. It also enabled the inventor to dismiss from his 
mind the arrangement of the mechanism. Like algebraic signs, it re- 
duced wheels and valves, rods and levers, to an equation. In fact, 
what algebra is to arithmetic Mr. Babbage's notation was to mechanism. 
During the construction of some parts of the calculating machinery 
a question arose as to the best method of producing and arranging a 
certain series of motions necessary to calculate and print a number. 
Mr. Babbage, with his assistant, an eminent practical engineer, had 
so arranged these motions that they might be performed by twelve revo- 
lutions of the principal axis. It was desirable there should be less. To 
this end each put himself to work, the engineer to a study of the com- 
plicated working machinery, the inventor to a consideration of his 
notation symbols. After a short tiine, by some transposition of these, 
the latter succeeded in producing the series by eight turns of the axis. 
Pushing his inquiries still further, he proceeded to ascertain whether 



CHARLES BABBAGE. 173 

his scbeme of symbols did not admit of a still more compact arrange- 
ment, and whether eight revolutions were not needless waste of power. 
The question was exceedingly abstruse. Finding every effort to keep 
in mind the order and arrangement of wheels and pulleys, levers and 
shafts, claws and bolts, so as to suggest auy improved arrangement, the 
engineer completely broke down. Mr. Babbage, however, with scarcely 
any mental exertion, and merely by sliding a bit of ruled pasteboard 
up and down his plan in search of vacant places, contrived at length to 
reduce the eight motions to six, to five, and to three. This application 
of an almost metaphysical system of abstract signs, by which the mo- 
tion of the hand alternately performs the office of the mind and practi- 
cal mechanics, to the construction of a complicated engine, is regarded 
by many eminent engineers as the most wonderful and useful discovery 
the great inventor ever made. 

Although no one of the principal inventions of the philosophic mech- 
anist has ever been completed, and though, his marvelously compre- 
hensive thoughts of what machinery, working on the border land of 
intellect, might be made to accomplish would seem to have passed from 
the world without good, yet his work was not in vain. Hundreds of 
mechanical appliances in the factories and workshops of Europe and 
America, scores of ingenious expedients in mining and architecture, 
the construction of bridges and boring of tunnels, and a world of tools 
by which labor is benefited and the arts improved — all the overflowings 
of a mind so rich that its very waste became valuable to utilize — came 
from Charles Babbage. He more, perhaps, than any man who ever 
lived, narrowed the chasm that from earliest ages has. separated science 
and practical mechanics. 

This memoir has thus far treated its subject as a mathematician and 
philosophical mechanist. He was both, in a degree that made his name 
famous. But he was more than this. As a scientific man, keeping him- 
self abreast with the progress of modern discovery 5 as a man of intel- 
lect, accepting, analyzing, and suggesting thought that is emancipating 
mind from old traditions ; and as a man of his time, the associate for 
more than half a century of statesmen and poets, chemists, and geogra- 
phers, engineers, and philologists, he is worthy of notice. Upon what- 
ever he spoke or wrote he was always perspicuous. Language was to 
him x)re-eminently the embodiment of ideas. Logical sequence was 
the one essential element of his train of thinking. His estimate of men 
was formed less from what they were than from what they did. He 
was neither tuft-hunter nor cynic. Faults his character possessed, 
grievous and ridiculous, perchance,' when viewed in certain lights, but 
they were never inconsistent with his independent manliness, nor de- 
rogatory to his elevated philosoi)hy. He knew his own worth 5 asserted 
his rightful claims ; kex)t an unquailing aspect in his long single-hand 
fight in behalf of his inventions with jiurblind rulers ; victorious never, 
but never vanquished ; heroic in most that he said and all that he did J 



174 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

above ordinary stature; and, saving perhaps the acceptance of certain 
rules of obedience to law, without which no one can wisely govern him- 
self, played a part in the drama of life that will not be soon forgotten. 

It is proposed now to speak of Charles Babbage in the two characters 
of an observer of Ms time and as a contributor to knowledge. In each, as 
the most certain way to reach the end in view, we shall quote without 
restriction or further acknowledgment from his own writings : 

"My engine," he said to some scientific friends after a friendly break- 
fast, " will count the natural numbers as far as the millionth term. It 
will then commence a new series, following a different law. This it sud- 
denly abandons and calculates another series by another law. This 
again is followed by another, and still another. It may go on through- 
out all time. An observer, seeing a new law coming at certain periods, 
and going out at others, might find in the mechanism a ];)arallel to the 
laws of life. That all men die is the result of a vast induction of in- 
stances. That one or more men at given times shall be restored to life, 
may be as much a consequence of the law of existence appointed for 
man at his creation, as the appearance and re-appearance of the isolated 
cases of apparent exception in the arithmetical machine. Miracles, 
therefore, may not be the breach of established laws, but the very 
circumstances that indicate the existence of higher laws, which, at 
appointed times produce the preintended results. 

" For example, the analytical engine might be so set that at definite 
periods, knovfu only to its maker, a certain lever might become movable 
during the calculations then making. The consequence of moving it 
might be to cause the then existing law to be violated for one or more 
times, after which the original law would resume its reign. Of course, 
the maker of the calculating engine might confide this fact to the person 
using it, who would thus be gifted with the i)Ower of prophecy if he 
foretold the event, or of working a miracle at the proper time if he 
withheld his knowledge from those around until the moment of its taking 
place. Such is the analogy between the construction of machinery to 
calculate, and the occurrence of miracles. A further illustration may 
be taken from geometry ; curves are represented by equations. In cer- 
tain curves there are portions, such as ovals, disconnected from the rest 
of the curve. By properly assigning the values of the constants, these 
ovals may be reduced to single points. These singular points may exist 
upon a branch of a curve, or may be entirely isolated from it ; yet these 
points fulfill by their x)osition the law of the curve as perfectly as any of 
those which, by their juxtaposition and continuity, form any of its 
branches." 

" Miracles," Mr, Babbage adds, " are not therefore the breach of es- 
tablished laws, but the very circumstances that indicate the existence 
of far higher laws which, at the appointed times, i^roduce their prein- 
tended results." 

Now whatever may be thought of the conclusiveness of this reasoning, 



CHAELES BABBAGE. 175 

its originality is obvious, and its ingenuity undeniable. That it was 
satisfactory to a mind whose reach was as wide and whose logic as 
consecutive as that of Charles Babbage, is sufficient to demand for it 
fair consideration-. He evidently believed it ; urged it upon other minds 
upon the same level with his own, and received no answers that detected 
in it a fallacy or showed it to be a sophism. 

There is surpassing interest in watching the workings of a great mind 
in honest search after truth. There are no volumes of the fathers ; no ser- 
mons of Laurin or Bossuet ; no essays of Fenelon or Pascal ; no per- 
sonal narrative of Arnauld, Frangoise de Sales, de Eance, or of the 
saints of Port Eoyal ; no memoirs of the pietists of France, or martyrs of 
England ', no lives of foreign missionaries, Protestant or Catholic, who 
gave their all, even to death, to propagate what to them was Divine that 
in our apprehension can confine the attention or challenge the judg- 
ment of a sincere, intelligent inquirer after truth, like the thirtieth chapter 
in the " Passages from the Life of a Philosopher." On« sees in it no iav- 
orite opinion to be defended ; no peculiar error to be denounced ; no class, 
no creed, no caste to be built up ; no prejudice to be favored nor tradi- 
tion exempted from trial ; nothing, in fact, but the record of the thoughts 
of a great mind in honest pursuit of truth. It would be marred by quo- 
tations, and its life deadened by condensation ; though it does not 
traverse the ground of more modern skepticism, and deals only with 
the old positions of the encyclopedists and Hume, it assumes a position 
in regard to Divine revelation which, if not impregnable, has never yet 
been overturned. 

We cannot easily resist the temptation to quote a few of his clear and 
vigorous remarks from the chajrter in question. Speaking of an ex- 
amination of the Creator's works as one of the sources of our knowledge 
of His existence, Babbage says : 

" Unlike transmitted testimony, which is weakened at every stage, 
its evidence derives confirmation from the progress of the individual 
as well as from the advancement of the knowledge of the race. 

"Almost all thinking men who have studied the laws which govern 
the animate and inanimate world around us, agree that the belief in the 
existence of one Supreme Creator, possessed of infinite wisdom and 
power, is open to far less difficulties than the supposition of the absence 
of au3' cause, or the existence of a plurality of causes. 

" In the works of the Creator, ever open to our examination, we possess a 
firm basis on which to raise the superstructure of an enlightened creed. 
The more man inquires into the laws which regulate the material uni- 
verse, the more he is convinced that all its varied forms arise from the 
action of a few simple principles. These principles themselves converge, 
with accelerating force, toward some still more comprehensive law 
to which all matter seems to be submitted. Simple as that law may 
possibly be, it must be remembered that it is only one among an in- 
finite number of simple laws; that each of these laws has consequences 



176 CHAELES BABBAGE. 

at least as extensive as the existiDg one, and, therefore, that the Creator 
who selected the present law must have foreseen the consequences of all 
other laws. 

"The works of the Creator, ever present to our senses, give a living 
and perpetual testimony of his wisdom and goodness far surpassing 
any evidence transmitted through human testimony. The testimony 
of men becomes fainter at every stage of transmission, while each new 
inquiry into the works of the Almighty gives to us more exalted views 
of his wisdom, his goodness, and his power." 

The true value of the Christian religion in Babbage's estimation rested 
not upon speculative views of the Creator, which must necessarily be 
different in each individual, according to the extent of the finite being 
who employs his own feeble ];)owers in contemplating the infinite, but 
rather upon those doctrines of kindness and benevolence which that re- 
ligion claims and enforces, not merely in favor of man himself but of 
every creature susceptible of pain or of happiness. 

There is something exceedingly refreshing in the original views Mr. 
Baggage takes of every subject that comes within the scope of his 
vision. His autobiography — for such in spite of his disclaimer it really 
is — has the interest of a romance. He is never dull, never tiresome, 
never cloudy. His style is clear as limpid water and natural as a run- 
ning brook. He possesses a rich fund of humor, which flecks and dap- 
ples even his mathematical descriptions like sunshine falling through 
foliage. 

"A curious reflection" he says in the chapter we do not willingly 
leave, "presents itself, when we meditate upon a state of rewards and 
punishments in a future life. We must possess the memory of what we 
did during our existence upon this earth in order to give them those 
characteristics. In fact, memory seems to be the only faculty which 
must, of necessity, be preserved in order to render a future state pos- 
sible. 

" If memory be absolutely destroyed, our personal identity is lost. 

"Further reflection suggests that in a future state we may, as it were, 
awake to the recollection that, previously to this ,our present life, we 
existed in some former state, possibly in many former ones, and that 
the then state of existence may have been the consequences of our con- 
duct in those former stages. 

" It would be a very interesting research if naturalists could devise 
any means of showing that the dragon fly, in its three stages of a grub 
beneath the soil, an animal living in the water, and that of a flying 
insect, had in the last stage any memory of its existence in its first. 

"Another question connected with this subject ofters still greater 
difficulty. Man possesses five sources of knowledge through his senses : 
He proudly thinks himself the highest work of the Almighty Architect, 
but it is quite possible that he may be the very lowest. If other animals 
possess senses of a different nature from ours, it can scarcely be possible 



CHAELES BABBAGE. 177 

that we could ever be aware of the fact. Yet those animals, having 
other sources of information and of pleasure, might, though despised 
by us, yet enjoy a corporeal as well as intellectual existence far higher 
than our own." 

Mr. Babbage's autobiography, relating isolated facts, which, with a 
sort of indifference to the estimate history might put upon his char- 
acter — strongly in contrast with even the best class of journals and 
diaries, say. Sir Walter Scott's, or Dr. Chalmer's, or Edward Payson's, 
or Missionary Judsou's, as if while it was necessary that they should 
take care of th&iv jpost-mortem fame Ms possessed the vitality to care for 
itself — are arranged without order of time or similarity of subject, after 
all divides itself very naturally into the two branches of personal recol- 
lections and personal experiences. He remembers Wollaston, Sogers, 
and Sir Humphrey Davy, and gives pen-outlines of their* characters as 
vivid and living as the portraits of Duow. He has discussed mathe- 
matics with Laplace, compared analysis with Fourier, exhibited and ex- 
plained his inventions to Biot, and lived on terms of intimacy with Hum- 
boldt. He was the frequent companion of the Duke of Wellington; was 
the associate of various branches of the Bonaparte family ; was the friend 
of Mosotti, Menabria, and Prince Albert, and throughout life, from col- 
legiate competitions to the mutual respect of mature years, held firmly 
as his friend the younger Herschel. Of all these his notes are pictures, 
unequalled even by the descriptions which Boswell gives of the asso- 
ciates of the great lexicographer. 

It is the same with his experiences. He risks drowning by water and 
baking by fire, loss of life by railway speed and loss of reputation by 
picking locks, character in exploring the secrets of theatrical displays, 
and purse in traversing the haunts of St. Giles. His thirst for knowl- 
edge knew no bounds. Into an electioneering contest he entered with 
the same indomitable energy that he pursued a mathematical calculus. 
The same keen avidity that detected a logarithmic error was applied to 
suppressing a street nuisance. He vitalized whatever he touched. If 
life gives beauty it might be more truly said of Charles Babbage than 
of most men of mark. Nihil tetigit quod non ornavit. In fact thei-e was 
no secret of nature he hesitated to explore, no enigma of the sphynx 
which he was afraid to question. Impulsiveness, want of patience, and 
hatred of shams have indeed left many of his investigations partial and 
fragmentary^, but about every one of them there is rich compensation in 
striking aphorisms, profound observations, wisdom applicable to human 
need, and wit available for its enjoyment. He says of himself: 

"I have always carefully watched the exercise of my own faculties, 
and I have always endeavored to collect from the light reflected by 
other minds some explanation of the question. 

"I think one of my most important guiding principles has been this: 
That every moment of my waking hours has alwavs been occupied by 
12 s 



lib CHARLES BABBAGE. 

some tram of inquiry. In far the largest number of instances the subject 
might be trivial, but still work of inquiry was always going on. 

" The difficulty consisted in adapting the work to the state of the body. 
The necessary training was difficult. Whenever at night I found my- 
self sleepless and wished to sleep, I took a subject for examination that 
required little mental effort, and which also had little dependence on 
worldly affairs by its success or failure. 

'■ On the other hand, when I wanted to concentrate my whole mind 
upon an important subject, I studied during the day all the minor acces- 
sories and after 2 o'clock in the morning I found that repose which the 
nuisances of the London streets only allow from that hour until 6 in the 
morning. 

" At first I had many a sleepless night before I could thus train myself. 

" I believe my early perception of the immense power of signs in aiding 
the reasoning faculty contributed much to whatever success I may have 
had. Probably a still more important element was the intimate con- 
viction I possessed that the highest object a reasonable being could pur- 
sue was to endeavor to discover those laws of mind by which man's in- 
tellect passes from the known to the discovery of the unknown. " 

In perusing the writings of Mr. Babbage, one is constantly struck 
with the philosophical nature of his mind. His style is not only preg- 
nant with thought, but, like Montaigne's, is perpetually shaping itself 
into ai30thegms. " Men," he writes, when managing an election contest, 
" will always give themselves tenfold more trouble to crush a man 
obnoxious to their hatred, than they will take to serve their most 
favored allj. " 

Again, speaking of Dr. Lardner, who had candidly admitted that 
some of those doctrines he had once supported further information had 
shown him were erroneous, our author says, " Nothing is more injurious 
to the progress of truth than to reproach any man who honestly admits 
he has been in error. " 

In order to put down street organ-grinders, with whom he had life- 
long quarrels, he proposes to himself to act upon this principle: \Ho make 
it more unprofitahle to the offender to do the wrong than the righf^ 

" It requires considerable training to become an accurate witness of 
facts. No two persons, however well trained, ever express in the same 
form of words the series of facts they have both observed." 

" Once, at a large dinner party, Mr. Eogers, author of 'Italy' and 
other poems, was speaking of an inconvenience arising from the custom, 
then commencing, of having windows formed of one large sheet of glass. 
He said that a short time ago he sat at dinner with his back to one of 
these single panes of plate-glass ; it appeared to him that the icindow was 
tcide open^ and such was the force of the imagination that he actually 
caught cold. 

"It so happened that I was sitting just opposite to the poet. Hear- 
ing this remark, I immediately said, Dear me, how odd it is, Mr. Rogers, 



CHARLES BABBAGE. 179 

that you and I should make such a very diiferent use of the faculty of 
imaginatiou. When I go to the house of a friend in the country and 
unexpectedly remain for the night, having no night-cap I should natu- 
rally catch cold. But by tying a piece of pack-thread tightly round my 
head, I go to sleep imagining that I have a night ca^g on; consequently I 
catch no cold at all." 

" I was once asked by an astute and sarcastic magistrate, whether I 
seriously believed that a man's brain would be injured by listening to an 
organ. My reply was. Certainly not, for the obvious reason that no man 
having brains ever listened to street musicians." 

These fragmentary quotations, however, scarcely do Mr. Babbage 
justice. Let us allow him to tell one of the many experiences of his life 
in his own way. 

Under the head of " Hints for travelers," in his " Passages from the 
life of a philosopher," Mr. Babbage says: 

''A man may, without being a proficient in any science, often make 
himself useful to those who are most instructed. However limited the 
path he may himself pursue, he will insensibly acquire other informa- 
tion in return for that which he can communicate. I will illustrate this 
by one of my own pursuits. I possess the smallest possible acquaint- 
ance with the vast fields of animal life, but at an early period I was 
struck by the numerical regularity of the pulsations and the breathings. 
It appeared to me that there must exist some relation between these two 
functions. Accordingly I took every opportunity of counting the num- 
bers of the pulsations and the breathings of various animals. The pig 
fair at Pavia and the book fair at Leipsic equally placed before me 
menageries in which I could collect such facts. Every zoological collec- 
tion of animals which I visited thus became to me a source of facts 
relating to that subject. This led me at another period to generalize the 
subject of inquiry, and to print a skeleton form for the constants of the 
class mammalia. It was reprinted by the British Association at Cam- 
bridge in 1833, and also at Brussels in the Travaux du Congres General 
de Statisque in 1853. 

" One of the most useful accomplishments for a philosophical traveler 
I learned from a workman who taught me how to punch a hole in a 
plate of glass. The process is simple. Two center-punches, a hammer, 
an ordinary bench- vise, and an old file, are all the tools required. Hav- 
ing decided upon the part of the glass, scratch a cross ( x ) upon the spot 
with the point of an old file, turn the glass over and scratch the same 
on the other side corresponding. Fix one of the small center-punches 
with its point upward in the vise. Let an assistant hold the glass with 
its scratched point ( x ) resting upon the point of the punch. Take the 
other punch, place its point in the center of the upper scratch, hit it 
very slightly twice or thrice, turn the glass two or three times, repeat- 
ing the slight blows, and the hole is formed. 

" The principles of this are, that glass is a material breaking in every 



180 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

direction witli a conchoidal fracture, and that tlie vibrations whicli would 
liave caused cracking are checked by the support of the fixed center- 
punch. 

" In the year 1825, during a visit to Devonport, I had apartments in 
the house of a glazier, of whom I inquired one day if he knew this 
secret. He answered that he did not, and expressed great curiosity to 
see it done. Finding that at a short distance there was a blacksmith^ 
we went to his shop, and selecting from his rough tools the center- 
punches and the hammer, I executed the whole process. 

" On the eve of my departure 1 asked for my landlord's account, which 
was sent up correct except the omission of charge for apartments. I 
added the eight guineas for my lodgings ; and the next morning, ha\iiig 
placed the total amount upon the bill, I sent for my host in order to pay 
him, remarking that he had omitted the principal article of his account, 
which I had inserted. 

" He replied that he had intentionally omitted the lodgings, as he 
could not think of taking payment for them from a gentleman who had 
done him so great service. Quite unconscious of having rendered him 
any service, I asked Mm to explain. He replied that he had the con- 
tract for the supply and repair of the lamps of Devonport, and that the 
art in which I had instructed him would save him more than twenty 
pounds a year. I found some difficulty in prevailing on my grateful 
landlord to accept what was justly his due." 

Scarcely at the risk of being tedious — which no passages in the life 
of this extraordinary man can ever be — but at the greater risk of space 
which must be devoted to his contributions to knowledge, we cannot 
forbear a single quotation further, which, like a dash from the brush of 
Kubens, depicts the multifariousness of his character : 

"While I was preparing materials for the 'Economy of manufac- 
tures,' " he writes, " I had occasion frequently to travel through our 
mining and manufacturing districts. On these occasions I found the 
travelers' inn or travelers' room was usually the best adapted to my pur- 
pose, both in regard to economy and to information. As my inquiries 
had a wide range, I found ample assistance in carrying them on. No- 
body doubted that I was one of the craft; but opinions were widely dif- 
ferent as to the department in which I practiced my vocation. 

" In one of my tours I passed a very agreeable week at the Commer- 
cial Hotel in Sheffield. One evening we sat up after supper much later 
than is usual, discussing a variety of commercial subjects. 

" When I came down rather late to breakfast I found only one of my 
acquaintances of the previous evening remaining. He remarked that 
we had had a very agreeable party last night, to which I assented. He 
referred to the intelligent remarks of some of our party, and then added 
that when I left them they began to talk about me. I merely added 
that I felt quite safe in their hands, but should be glad to profit by their 
remarks. It appeared, when I retired for the night, that they debated 



CHARLES B ABB AGE. 181 

about what trade I traveled for. 'The tall .gentleman in the corner,' 
said my informant, 'maintained that you were in the hardware Hne, 
while the fat gentleman, who sat next you at supper, was quite sure 
that you were in the spirit trade. Another of the party declared that 
they were both mistaken ; he said he had met you before, and that you 
were traveUng for a great iron-master.' ' WeU,' said I, ' you, I presume, 
knew my vocation better than our friends.' ' Yes,' said my informant, 
'I knew perfectly well that you were in the Nottingham lace trade!'" 

In the year 1828 Mr. Babbage was nominated to the Lucasian pro- 
fessorship of mathematics in his old university, occupying in that ca- 
pacity a chair which had once been held by no less a man than Sir Isaac 
Newton. This chair he held during eleven years. It was while holding 
this professorship, at the general election of November, 1832, which fol- 
lowed on the passage of the first reform bill, that he w^as put forward 
as a candidate for the representation of Finsbury in Parliament. He 
stood in the advanced liberal interest as a supporter not only of par- 
liamentary, financial, and fiscal reform, but of the ballot, triennial par- 
liaments, and the abolition of all sinecure posts and offices. Bat the 
electors did not care to choose a philosopher ; so he was unsuccessful, 
and never again wooed the suffrages of any constituency. 

Mr. Babbage was the author of published works to the extent of some 
eighty papers. A full list of these, however, would not interest or edify 
the reader. Perhaps the best known of them all is what he styled the 
Ninth Bridgeivater Treatise, (which it was not,) a work designed at once 
to refute the doctrine, supposed to be implied in the first volume of that 
learned series, that an ardent devotion to mathematical studies is un- 
favorable to a real religious faith ,• and also to adduce specimens of the 
defensive aid which the science of numbers may give to the evidences 
of Christianity, if that science bo studied in a proper spirit. As com- 
pared with the eight treatises written by Chalmers, Whewell, Sir 
Charles Bell, Dr. Buckland, and others, so far from discrediting its sup- 
posititious name, it has probably been more generally read than any 
work of the series. 

Mr. Babbage's contributions to political economy were both incidental 
and direct. The tendency of his mind, upon whatever it was engaged, 
was toward the x)ractical. There is scarcely one of his works — nay, there 
is hardly one of the various emiiloyments in which he engaged himself 
with his whole soul during his long life — that in its ultimate reach does 
not lay hold of the industrial condition of mankind. Keen in investiga- 
tion, acute in analysis, subtle in detection of error, and pre-eminently 
logical m conclusions, no matter how purely intelled^ual may be the 
laboratory of his workings, the experiments he makes and the outlooks 
in which he indulges have for their end invariably the material benefit 
of the working classes. Whether it be the solution of "problems relat- 
ing to the calculus of functions" or relating to the "knight's move in 
chess j" whether the "determination of the general term of a new class 



Ig2 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

of infinite series " or tlie '•'■ application of machinery to the computation 
of mathematical tables," the ''^measurement of heights" or the "improve- 
ments of diving-bells," " proportion of letters occurring in various lan- 
guages " or " observations on the Temple of Serapis," " thoughts on 
the principles of taxation " or " statistics of light-houses," his purpose 
in every essay is practical good. He enlivens the dry subject of politi- 
cal economy by the most interesting and pertinent anecdotes ; draws the 
attention of engine-drivers and stokers to his abstruse discussions of 
curves and gauges on railways by maxims and rules that are of constant 
use ; discusses the subject of Greenwich time-signals with a variety of 
illustrations that makes it attractive to every ship-master; mingles his 
I)hilosophical theories on occulting lights with narratives of observations 
and experiences that amuse and instruct the most ordinary minds ; and 
treats the vexed question of glaciers with a liveliness and perspicuity 
which interest if they do not convince. 

The reader will judge whether we have overestimated or misunder- 
stood the real characteristics of Mr. Babbage's mind from the examples 
we now propose to give from some of his contributions to knowledge. 

Mr. Babbage was one of the oldest members of the Eoyal Society at 
the time of his death in October of last year. He was also, more than 
half a century ago, one of the founders of the Astronomical Society, and 
he and Sir John Herschel were the last survivors of those founders. He 
was also an active and zealous member of many of the leading learned 
societies of London and Edinburg, and, in former years at least, an ex- 
tensive contributor to their published transactions. His last important 
publication was the amusing and only too characteristic autobiographi- 
cal work from which we have freely quoted — "Passages from the Life of 
a Philosopher." 

There were methods of action — qualities they might perhaps be more 
properly called — in the mind of Charles Babbage that recall to the 
philosophical peruser of his works in the exact sciences traits not dis- 
similar in kind, however distinct in degree, to those possessed by that 
most original of all thinkers. Sir Isaac IsTewton. He possessed in com- 
mon with Newton extraordinary powers of intellectual introversion. 
What he desired to accomplish he thought out. His mind, like a pho- 
tographic plate, was cleansed by a continued force of will to think 
rightly, and when cleansed received its impressions from the light of 
truth. Not only his contributions to knowledge and his complex and 
intricate calculating-machines, but the scores of lesser inventions which 
he produced from time to time, are illustrative of this. Like Newton, 
he first pondered his facts, illuminated them by persistent thought, and 
then proceeded to the principles on which these facts depend. 

Pestalozzi, the Italian philanthropist, after a long life spent in works 
of benevolence, came at last to the conclusion that no man could be 
much helped or hindered by any one but himself. The remark is appli- 
cable to Charles Babbage more than to most persons. He both made 



CHAELES BABBAGE. 183 

and marred his own fortune. There was not a place which he ever 
sought (the Lucasian chair he did not seek) that he gained. He aspired 
to the professorship of mathematics at the East India College at Har- 
leyburgh ; to Playfair's chair at Edinburgh; to a seat at tbe Board of Lon- 
gitude; to the mastership of the mint; and to the office of registrar- gen- 
eral of births and deaths — and failed in all. On the other hand, there 
was not an invention connected with his name — and in mathematical 
mechanics he ranks among the foremost the world ever produced — which, 
in the opinion of the best-disciplined minds of his day, he could not 
have perfected had sufficient pecuniary means been at his command. 
Unfortunately, he measured everything by his own unaided impressions, 
and judged himself by others instead of judging others by himself. To 
rest all claim to greatness on self-assertion rather than self-denial, thongh 
it may have made the heroes of the classic ages, cannot but be a grave 
fault in the conduct of any modern life. Still, he bore his disappoint- 
ments bravely, possessed his intellect uudimmed up to the verge of his 
fonrth-score year, made his old age a lesson — not unwisely at any time 
enforced — of the philosophy with which the rest of death may be awaited, 
and was to the last ready to contemplate calmly in his own case what 
arose to the thought of Antony — 

I have been sitting longer at life's feast 
Than does me good. I will arise and go. 



Extracts from a notice of Charles Babbage, by A. Quetelet, of Brussels, translated 
from the "Annuaire de I'Observatoire royal de Brnxelles" for 187.3. 

Babbage says, in his passage from the Life of a Philosopher, " From 
my earliest years I had a great desire to inquire into the causes of all 
things and events which astonish the childish mind. At a later period 
I commenced the still more important inquiry into those laws of thought 
and those aids which assist the human mind in passing from received 
knowledge to that other knowledge then unknown to our race." These 
few lines express sufficiently well the character of the distinguished 
savant whose career we shall endeavor rapidly to sketch. Notwith- 
standing his own ardent desire to inquire into everything which could 
interest himself, our author never seems to have dreamed of informing 
others as to his exact age. According to his friends, he was born in 
1792, and was consequently about 80 at the time of his death. 

He did not begin seriously tbe study of mathematics until after 
the age of 22, when he was with his friend Herschel at Trinity College^ 
Cambridge. They soon after published a joint work on matbematicSy, 
which did much toward introducing the continental methods and nota- 
tion of this science into England. Fourteen years after this, while Mr. 
Babbage was in Eome, he accidentally read in an English newspaper the 
following paragraph : " Yesterday the bells of St. Mary rang out a peal; 



184 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

to celebrate the election of Charles Babbage as Lucasian professor of 
mathematics at Cambridge;" or, iu other words, his appointment to the 
chair formerly occupied by Newton. 

It was in Paris, in 1826, at a dinner given by Bouvard, the astronomer, 
that I had an opportunity to become acquainted with Babbage. There 
were at the same time present Poisson and several other of the scientists 
who then made Paris illustrious, with all of whom he was a center of 
interest. He, with truly fraternal kindness, oiiered me his assistance in 
procuring from the English mechanicians, among whom was the cele- 
brated Troughton, the instruments for the Belgian observatory. He also 
proposed my co-operation in a work which he had projected which was 
to contain a register of everything capable of being measured, such as 
the specific gravity of bodies; the linear expansion of metals; tb.eir 
weight; the size of animals; the quantity of air they breathe; the 
nourishment they need, &(;. "The extent of this work," I said, " is too 
vast to be carried out unless by the co-operation of many miuds. The 
outline of what may be necessary for man alone is so great that with the 
help of many friends I could not hope to complete more than a skeleton 
of the whole." The reply was that time is an element of solution which 
overcomes the greatest difficulties of investigation ; and if our eftbrts 
are properly directed our desceudents will finish what we have properly 
begun. 

Nothwithstanding his immense labor connected with the calculating- 
machine, Babbage, in April, 1835, turned his attention to assist his 
friend Herschel, then at the Cape of Good Hope, in carrying out over 
the whole world, on certain days, a system of meteorological observa- 
tions. These days, which were called term-days, were the 21st of 
December, 21st of March, 21st of June, and 21st of September. At 
these times continued observations were to be made at every hour, 
commencing at noon on the days above mentioned and terminating the 
next day at the same hour. These observations, in the introduction of 
which Mr. Babbage took an active part, were continued in Europe, 
America, India, and Africa, and led finally to the establishment of the 
various systems of simultaneous weather-reports of the present day. 

While I was in London, iu 1851, at the great exhibition of indus- 
trial products, Babbage made me acquainted with Lord Lovelace, a 
gentleman of great ability and high reputation, who had married the 
cherished daughter of Lord Byron. This charmijug lady, remarkable 
for her beauty and personal accomplishments, and noted for her in- 
1:ellectual powers, had published a translation of an Italian ac(;ount of 
the calculating-machine. She received me very graciously, and urged 
Mr. Babbage and myself k) visit her frequently for conversation on 
literary and scientific subjects, with which she was familiar. She was 
especially interested in the calculus of probabilities, and so far did we 
carry our discussions on this point that it was agreed that we should 



\ CHARLES BABBAGE. ' ' 185 

compose and publisli a joiut work on this subject. Unfortunately, the 
plan was prevented from being carried out by the premature death of 
this interesting lady. 

I owe it to the friendship which long united me with Mr. Babbage to 
having seen in London, on several occasions and in the greatest detail, 
all the parts of the calculating-machine, and to having been able to 
form for myself a just conception of a labor of which I had often heard 
but of which very few people knew the particulars. The machine is 
certainly very complicated, and extreme attention is needed to follow 
the action of its different parts; hence, I shall not attempt to give a 
description of it, which would unquestionably fill quite a considerable 
volume if we paid respect to the ideas of the inventor, to the extreme 
perfection of the mechanical workmanship, and to all the mathematical 
calculations which the machine can perform. 

Researches into statistics also claimed the attention of Babbage, and 
he was personally instrumental in adding to the committees of the Brit- 
ish Association one on this subject. The attention of the committee on 
statistics was first turned to the need of exact documents in regard to 
population, a want much felt in England, especially as to everything 
relative to births, deaths, &c. Meetings were afterward held in Lon- 
don of persons interested in the subject of statistics, in which Mr. Bab- 
bage took an active part, and to which 1 was admitted. They exam- 
ined, among other questions, that of the labor imposed upon children in 
manufacturies. The following questions were propounded to me in 
regard to Belgium, which I transmitted to the minister of the interior, 
who promised to have collected the necessary data for a satisfactory 
reply. The honorable savants asked — 

" The number of births produced by each marriage during its entire 
length ; 

" The proportional number of children who reach the period of mar- 
riage ; 

" The number of children living by each marriage ; 

" The salaries paid in manufacturies and agriculture in different prov- 
inces, especially the price of an average day's labor in agriculture ; 

" The quantity of wheat which such a day's pay can procure in ordi- 
nary times ; 

" The mean price of different kinds of grain ; 

" The habitual food of the day-laborer ; 

" The proportional number of sterile marriages ; 

" The proportional number of marriages having five or six children 
living." 

As an instance of our friend's singular disposition to enter upon in- 
vestigations of the most out-of the-way character, I may mention that 
for a time he lost sight of the profound speculations of political economy, 
and busied himself with the question as to how many times any letter 



18G 



CHARLES BABBAGE. 



in differeut languages doubles itself in 10,000 words. The following 
table gives the result which he obtained : 

Nwniber of times different letters are doubled in ten thousand words. 



Letters. 


English. 


French. 


Italian. 


German. 


Latin. 


A 








1.5 




B 






10. a 

23.7 
1.] 




C 

D 


9.4 

1.9 

18.9 

14.6 

1.5 


7.2 




8.2 
4.4 


E 


7.2 
8.1 


19.4 

8.2 


F 


12.0 
20.4 


9.4 
1.4 


a 


H 






I 








0.4 
0.8 
38.7 
21.2 
19.7 
0.4 
0.4 


8.9 










K 










L 


io. i 

G.4 
8.3 
12.7 
12.4 


55.5 
25.7 
17.7 


70.6 
12.0 

20.4 


36.5 
5.9 
4.4 


M 


N 





P 


5.7 


12.0 


4.4 

11.2 

41.7 

5.9 

5.2 


Q 




K 


12.7 
13. 9 
13.1 


32.2 
44.2 
12.0 


10 8 
53.7 
64.5 


7.8 

53.5 

9.3 

1.9 


s 


T 


U 


V 


.-, 




2.2 




w 










X 












T 












Z 






7.6 






Total 










141.8 


215. 5 


2.30. 8 


] IGG. 5 


147.7 





[In regard to the question of what use is this, we would remark that 
this question is never asked by the student of nature ; since every item of 
knowledge is. connected in some way with all other knowledge. Noth- 
ing can be said to be useless which tends to exhibit new relations, and 
indeed it is impossible to say a priori that a given fact may not find an 
application even in practice, however remote it may seem from anything 
of this kind. The results given in the foregoing investigation may be 
of importance in determining the casting of doable types. The number 
of occurrences of a given letter in 10,000 words of any language deter- 
mines the number of types of that letter in a font. — J. H.] 

Our physicist always took care, in traveling, to carry with him those 
instruments which would enable him to carry on some investigations. 
He was essentially a man of experiment. He held that the eye and the 
ear were great aids to the judgment, and a demonstration never seemed 
to him complete until he knew how to render it evident to the sense and 
the reason. Toward the end of his life his vivacity was considerably 
moderated, and the mortification which he feU on account of not being- 
able to complete his calculating-machine, and the loss of friends, cast a 
shadow over his latter days. 

[I had myself the pleasure to make the acquaintance of Mr. Babbage 
in 1837, while he was in the zenith of his mental power, and to witness 
the operation of his first calculating-machine. I again visited him in 
1870, after an interval of jus-t one-third of a century. I found him in the 



CHARLES BABBAGE. 187 

same house, still interested in the calculating-machine, with apparently 
but little diminution of mental activity. He informed me that he felt 
himself gradually declining ; that he endeavored to note the change in 
himself; that he found it difficult to enter upon new subjects of thought, 
but that he could reason and mentally act on materials alreadj^ in his 
mind in the way of new computations and new deductions. He regret- 
ted the loss of memory, since with it was the loss of personal identity. — 
J. H.] 



[Extract from writings of Charles Babbage.] 

OF OBSERVATIONS. 

There are several reflections connected with -the art of making obser- 
vations and experiments, which may be conveniently arranged in this 
chapter. 

Of Minute Precision. 

No person will deny that the highest degree of attainable accuracy is 
an object to be desired, and it is generally found that the last advances 
toward precision require a greater devotion of time, labor, and expense 
than those which precede them. The first steps in the path of discov- 
ery and the first approximate measures are those which add most to 
the existing knowledge of mankind. 

The extreme accuracy required in some of our modern inqiiiiies has, 
in some respects, had an unfortunate influence by favoring the opinion 
that no experiments are valuable unless the measures are most minute 
and the accordance among them most perfect. It may, perhaps, be of 
some use to show that even with large instruments and most practiced 
observers this is but rarely the case. The following extract is taken 
from a representation made by the present astronomer-royal to the 
council of the Royal Society, on the advantages to be derived from the 
emplojTiient of two mural ckcles : 

'' That by observing, with two instruments, the same objects at the 
same time, and in the same manner, we should be able to estimate how 
much of that occasional discordance from the mean, which attends even 
the most careful ohservations, ought to be attributed to irregularity of 
refraction, and how much to the imperfections of instruments.^^ 

In confirmation of this may be adduced the opinion of the late M. 
Delambre, which is the more important, from the statement it contains 
relative to the necessity of publishing all the observations which have 
been made : 

" Mais quelque soit le parti que I'on pr^f^re, il me semble qu'on doit 
tout publier. Ces irregularit6s memes sont des faits qu'il importe de 
connoitre. Les soins les plus attentifs n^en sauroient preserver les observa- 
teurs les plus exerces, et celui qui ne produiroit que des angles toujours 
parfaitement d'accord auroit ete singulierement bien servi par les circou- 
stances ou ne seroit pas bien sincere." — Base de Systcme metriqtie^ dis- 
cours preliminaire^ p. 158. 



188 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

This desire for extreme accuracy has called away the attention of ex- 
perimenters from points of far greater importance, and it seems to have 
been too much overlooked in the present day that genius marks its 
track, not by the observation of quantities inappreciable to any but the 
acutest senses, but by placing !N"ature in such circumstances that she is 
forced to record her minutest variations on so magnified a scale that an 
observer, possessing ordinary faculties, shall find them legibly written. 
He who can see portions of matter beyond the ken of the rest of his 
species confers an obligation on them by recording what he sees 5 but 
their knowledge depends both on his testimony and on his judgment. 
He who contrives a method of rendering such atoms visible to ordinary 
observers communicates to mankind an instrument of discovery, and 
stamps his own observations with a character alike independent of tes- 
timony or of judgment. 

On the Art of Observing. 

The remarks in this section are not proposed for the assistance of those 
who are already observers, but are intended to show to persons not 
familiar with the subject that, in observations demanding no unrivaled 
accuracy, the principles of common sense may be safely trusted, and 
that any gentleman of liberal education may, by perseverance and atten- 
tion, ascertain the limits within which he may trust both his instrument 
and himself. 

If the instrument is a divided one, the first thing is to learn to read 
the verniers. If the divisions are so fine that the coincidence is fre- 
quently doubtful, the best plan will be for the learner to get some ac- 
quaintance who is skilled in the use of instruments, and, having set the 
instrument at hazard, to write down the readings of the verniers, and 
then request his friend to do the same. Whenever there is any difference, 
he should carefully examine the doubtful one, and ask his friend to point 
out the minute peculiarities on which he founds his decision. This 
should be repeated frequently, and, after some practice, he should note 
how many times in a hundred his reading differs from his friend's, and 
also how many divisions they usually differ. 

The next point is, to ascertain the precision with which the learner 
can bisect an object with the wires of the telescope. This can be done 
without assistance. It is not necessary even to adjust the instrument, 
but merely to point it at a distant object. When it bisects any remark- 
able point, read off the verniers, and write down the result;- then dis- 
place the telescope a little and adjust it again. A series of such observa- 
tions will show the confidence which is due to the observer's eye in bisect- 
ing an object, and also in reading the verniers; and as the first direc- 
tion gave him some measure of the latter, he may, in a great measure, 
appreciate his skill in the former. He should also, when he finds a de- 
viation in the reading, return to the telescope and satisfy himself if lie 
lias made the bisection as complete as he can. In general, the student 



CHAELES BABRAGE. 189 

should practice each adjustment separately, aud write down the results 
wherever he cau measure its deviations. 

Having thus practiced the adjustments, the next step is to make an 
observation. But in order to try both himself and the instrument, let 
him take the altitude of some fixed object, a terrestrial one, and having 
registered the result, let him derange the adjustment, and repeat the 
process fifty or a hundred times. This will not merely afford him 
excellent practice, but enable him to judge of his own skill. 

The first step in the use of every instrument is to find the limits in 
which its employer can measure the same object under the same circum- 
stances, and, after that, of different objects under different circumstances. 

The principles are applicable to almost all instruments. If a person 
is desirous of ascertaining heights by a mountain-barometer, let him be- 
gin by adjusting the instrument in his own study, and, having made the 
upper contact, let him write down the reading of the vernier, and then let 
him derange the upper adjustment only, re-adjust, and repeat the reading. 
When he is satisfied about the limits within which he cau make that 
adjustment, let him do the same repeatedly with the lower, but let him 
not, until he knows his own errors in reading aud adjusting, pronounce 
upon those -of the instrument. In the case of a barometer, he must also 
be assured that the temperature of the mercury does not change during 
the interval. 

A friend once brought me a beautifully-constructed piece of mechan- 
ism for marking minute portions of time.5 the three hundredth part of 
a second was indicated by it. It was a kind of watch, with a pin for 
stopping one of the hands. I proposed that we should each endeavor 
to stop it twenty times in succession at the same point. We were both 
equally unpracticed, and our first endeavors showed that we could not 
be confident of the twentieth part of a sec(fed. In fact, both the time 
occupied in causing the extremities of the fingers to obey the volition, 
as well as the time employed in compressing the flesh before the fingers 
acted on the stop, appeared to influence the accuracy of our observa- 
tions. From some few exjieriments I made I thought I perceived that 
the rapidity of the transmission of the eft'ects of the will depended on 
the state of fatigue or health of the body. If any one were tO make ex- 
I)eriments on this subject, it might be interesting to compare the rapidity 
of the transmission of volition in different persons with the time occu- 
pied in obliterating an impression made on one of the senses of the 
same persons. For example, by having a mechanism to make a piece 
of ignited charcoal revolve with different degrees of velocity, some 
persons will perceive a continuous circle of light before others, whose 
retina does not retain so long impressions that are made upon it. 

On the Frauds of Observers. 

Scientific inquiries are more exposed than most others to the inroads 
of pretenders 5 aud I feel that I shall deserve the thanks of all who 



190 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

really value truth, by statlug some of the methods of deceiving prac- 
ticed by unworthy claimants for its honors, while the mere circum- 
stance of their arts being known may deter future offenders. 

There are several species of impositions that have been practiced in 
science,- which are but little known, except to the initiated, and which it 
may, perhaps, be possible to render quite intelligible to ordinary under- 
standings. These may be classed under the heads of hoaxing, forging, 
trimming, and cooking. 

Of .Hoaxing. — This, perhaps, will be better explained by an example. 
In the year 1788, M. Gioeni, a knight of Malta, published at E^aples an 
account of a new family of Testacea, of which he described with great 
minuteness one species, the specific name of which has been taken from 
its hahitat, and the generic he took from his own family, calling it Gioe- 
nia sicula. It consisted of two round triangular valves, united by the 
body of the animal to a smaller valve in front. He gave figures of 
the animal, and of its parts ; described its structure, its mode of ad- 
vancing along the sand, the figure of the track it left, and estimated 
the velocity of its course at about two-thirds of an inch per minute. 
He then described the structure of the shell, which he treated with 
nitric acid and found it approached nearer to the nature of bone than 
any other shell. 

The editors of the Uncyclojpedie methodique have copied this descrip- 
tion and have given figures of the Gioenia sicula. The fact, however, 
is, that no such animal exists, but that the knight of Malta, finding on 
the Sicilian shores the three internal bones of one of the species of Bulla, 
of which some are found on the southwestern coast of England,* 
described and figured these bones most accurately, and drew the whole 
of the rest of the description from the stores of his own imagination. 

Such frauds are far from^ustifiable 5 the only excuse which has been 
made for them is, when they have been practiced on scientific academies 
which had reached the period of dotage. 

It should, however, be remembered that the productions of nature are 
so various that mere strEtngeness t is very far from sufficient to render 
doubtful the existence of any creature for which there is evidence 5 and 
that, unless the memoir itself involves principles so contradictory! as to 
outweigh the evidence of a single witness, it can only be regarded as a 
deception without the accompaniment of wit. 

Forging differs from hoaxing, inasmuch as in the latter the deceit is 
intended to last for a time, and then be discovered to the ridicule of 

*jBuUa lignaria. 

tTlie number of vertebrse in the neck of tlie Plesiosaurus is a strange but ascertained 
fact. 

t The kind of contradiction which is here alluded to is that which arises from iveU- 
ascertained final causes ; for instance, the I'uminatiug stomach of the hoofed animals is 
iu no case combined with the claw-shaped form of the extremities, frequent in many 
of the carnivorous animals, and necessary to some of them for the purpose of seizing 
their prey. 



CHARLES BABBAGE. If'l 

those who have credited it; whereas the forger is one who, wishing to 
acquire a reputation for science, records observations which he has never 
made. This is sometimes accomx3lished in astronomical observations 
by calculating the time and circumstances of the phenomenon from 
tables. The observations of the second comet of 1784, which was only 
seen by the Chevalier d'Angos, were long suspected to be a forgery, and 
were at length proved to be so by the calculations and reasoning of 
Eucke. The pretended observations did not accord among each other 
in giving any possible orbit. But M. Encke detected an orbit, belong- 
ing to some of the observations, from which he found that all the rest 
might be almost precisely deduced, provided a mistake of a unit in the 
index of the logarithm of the radius vector were supposed to have been 
made in all the rest of the calculations. {Zach. Gorr. Astro7i., torn, 
iv, p. 456.) 

Fortunately, instances of the occurrence of forging are rare. 

Trimming consists in clipping off little bits here and there from those' 
observations which differ most in excess from the mean, and in sticking 
them on to those which are too small ', a species of " equitable adjust- 
ment," as a radical would term it, which cannot be admitted in science. 

This fraud is not, perhaps, so injurious (except to the character of the 
trimmer) as cooking, which the next paragraph will teach. The reason 
of this is, that the average given by the observations of the trimmer is 
the same, whether they are trimmed or untrimmed. His object is to 
gain a reputation for extreme accuracy in making observations; but 
from respect for truth, or from a prudent foresight, he does not distort 
the position of the fact he gets from nature, and it is usually difficult to 
detect him. He has more sense or less adventure than the cook. 

Of Coolcing. — This is an art of various forms, the object of which is 
to give to ordinary observations the appearance and character of those 
of the highest degree of accuracy. 

One of its numerous processes is to make multitudes of observations, 
and out of these to select those only which agree or very nearly agree. 
If a hundred observations are made, the cook must be very unlucky if 
he cannot pick out fifteen or twenty which will do for serving up. 

Another approved receipt, when the observations to be used will not 
come within the limit of accuracy which it has been resolved they shall 
possess, is to calculate them by two different formulas. The difference 
in the constants employed in those formulas has sometimes a most 
happy effect in promoting unanimity among discordant measures. If 
still greater accuracy is required, three or more formulas can be used. 

It must be admitted that this receipt is in some instances most 
hazardous ; but in the cases where the positions of stars, as given in 
different catalogues, occur, or different tables of specific gravities, spe- 
cific heats, &c., it may safely be employed. As no catalogue con- 
tains all stars, the computer must have recourse to several ; and if he is 
obliged to use his judgment in the selection, it would be cruel to deny 



192 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

Ibim auy little advautage which might result from it. It may, however, 
be necessary to guard against one mistake into which persons might 
fall. 

If an observer calculate particular stars from a catalogue which 
makeS'them accord precisely with the rest of his results, whereas had 
they been computed from other catalogues the difference would have 
been considerable, it is very unfair to accuse him of cooMng ; for those 
catalogues may have been notoriously inaccurate, or they may have 
been superseded by others more recent, or made with better instru- 
ments 5 or the observer may have been totally ignorant of their exist- 
ence. 

It sometimes happens that constant quantities in formulas given by 
the highest authorities, although they differ among themselves, yet 
they will not suit the materials. This is precisely the point in which 
the skill of the artist is shown ; and an accomplished cook will carry 
himself triumphantly through it, provided, happily, some mean value 
of such constants will fit his observations. He will discuss the relative 
merits of formulas he has just knowledge enough to use; and, with 
admirable candor, assigning their proper share of applause to Bessel, 
to Gauss, and to Laplace, he will take that mean value of the constant 
used by three such philosophers which will make his own observations 
accord to a miracle. 

There are some few reflections I would venture to suggest to those 
who cook, although they may not receive the attention which, in my 
opinion, they deserve, from not coming from the pen of an adept. 

In the first place, it must require much time to try different formulas. 
In the next place, it may happen that, in the progress of human knowl- 
edge, more correct formulas may be discovered, and constants may be 
determined with far greater precision. Or it may be found that some 
physical circumstance influences the results, (although unsuspected at 
the time,) the measure of wbicn circumstance may perhaps be recovered 
from other contemporary registers of facts.* Or, if the selection of 
observations has been made with the view of its agreeing precisely with 
the latest determination, there is some little danger that the average of 
the whole may differ from that of the chosen ones, owing to some law of 
nature dependent on the interval between the two sets, which law some 
future philosopher may discover ; and thus the very best observations 
may have been thrown aside. 

In all these, and in numerous other cases, it would most probably hap- 
pen that the cook would procure a temporary reputation for unrivaled 
accuracy at the expense of his permanent fame. It might also have the 
effect of rendering even all his crude observations of no value; for that 
part of the scientific world whose opinion is of most weight is generally 
so unreasonable as to neglect altogether the observations of those in 



Imagine, by way of example, the state of tlie barometer' or thermometer. 



CHARLES BABBAGE. 193 

whom they Lave, on any occasion, discovered traces of the artist. In 
fact, the character of an observer, as of a woman, if doubted, is destroyed. 

The manner in which facts apparently lost are restored to light, even 
after considerable intervals of time, is sometimes very unexpected, and 
a few examples maj^ not be without their use. The thermometers 
employed by the philosophers who composed the Accademia del Ciuiento 
have been lost; and as they did not use the two fixed points of freezing 
and boiling water, the results of a great mass of observations have 
remained useless from our ignorance of the value of a degree on their 
instruments. M. Libri, of Florence, proposed to regain this knowledge 
by comparing their registers of the temperature of the human body and 
of that of some warm springs in Tuscany which have preserved their 
heat uniform during a century, as well as of other things similarly cir- 
cumstanced. 

Another illustration was i)ointed out to me by M. Gazzeri, the pro- 
fessor of chemistry at Florence. A few years ago an important suit in 
one of the legal courts of Tuscany depended on ascertaining whether a 
certain word had been erased by some chemical process from a deed then 
before the court. The party who insisted that an erasure had been made 
availed themselves of the knowledge of M. G dzzeri, who, concluding that 
those who committed the fraud would be satisfied by the disappearance 
of the coloring matter of the ink, suspected (either from some colorless 
matter remaining in the letters, or perhaps from the agency of the sol- 
vent having weakened the fabric of the paper itself beneath the supposed 
letters) that the eft'ect of the slow application of heat would be to render 
some difference of texture or of applied substance evident by some 
variety in the shade of color which heat in such circumstances might be 
expected to produce. Permission having been given to try the experi- 
ment, on the application of heat the important word re-api3eared, to the 
great satisfaction of the court. 

[One of the most noted deceptions of this kind was that called the moon 
hoax, published in New York about thirty years ago, which purported to 
be a series of discoveries made in the moon by Sir John Herschel during 
his residence at the Cape of Good Hope. These discoveries were said to 
be the result of a great improvement in the telescope. It is well known 
that, with a given-sized object-glass, the power of this instrument is 
limited by the degree to which the image in the focus of the glass can 
be magnified; the light remaining the same, the more the size of the 
image is increased the darker it becomes. The alleged improvement 
consisted in the illumination of this image by artificial light. By the 
application of this idea, the telescope employed by the astronomer at the 
(jape of Good Hope admitted of an eye-glass of such magnifying power 
that moving objects on the surface of the moon were observable, and 
men and animals of remarkable forms were actually discovered. 

It is astonishing the effect which the annunciation of these discoveries 

produced. Instead of detecting at once the scientific absurdity of iliu- 
13 s 



194 CHAELES BABBAGE. 

niinating a sbadow in order that it migbt be more liighly magnified, 
many persons, even professors in colleges, gave the announcement 
credence, and tbiis added to the popularity of the hoax. This fraud 
owed its success, in a great measure, to a want, at the time, of precise 
scientific knowledge in this country, and after the absurdity was pointed 
out the invention was cried up as a most extraordinary production, since 
those who had been hoaxed by it attributed their credulity to the inge- 
nuity of the deception rather than to their own want of knowledge. 

The success of this hoax has had an exceedingly bad influence on the 
character of our country for veracity. It was followed immediately 
after, and has been even down to the present time, by a series of con- 
temptible imitations; and, indeed, to such an extent was this imitation 
carried on a few years ago, that scarcely any announcement of phe- 
nomena of unusual occurrence could be accepted as truth. Among 
these imitations within a few' years, the most successful, and one which 
evinced considerable reading as well as ingenuity, vras that of the 
pretended discovery of a series of Eunic inscriptions on the lace of a 
rock in the Potomac Eiver near Washington. This was the invention 
of a young student of law in this city, and excited quite a sensation 
among the archteologists of this and other countries. It was copied in 
various ethnological journals as a truth, and was hailed by the Scandi- 
navians as a new evidence of the early explorations of the Northmen 
in the United States. 

Such inventions must be classed with those practical jokes which have 
been happily termed " gymnastic wit," of which a notable example was 
given in England, where a "society" was founded for "insulting women 
and frightening children." The chronicler naively remarks that the 
members were never discovered, and, what is just as remarkable, the 
w4t was equally a mystery. "Truth," says Dr. Johnson, "is a matter of 
too much importance to be tampered with, even in trifles." — J. H.] 

-On the Permanent Impression of our Words and Actions on the Globe ice 

inhabit. 

The principle of the equality of action and reaction, when traced 
through all its consequences, opens views which will appear to many 
persons most unexpected. The pulsations of the air, once set in motion 
by the human voice, cease not to exist with the sounds to which they 
gave rise. Strong and audible as they may be in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of the speaker, and at the immediate moment of utterance, tlieir 
quickly-attenuated force soon becomes inaudible to the human ears. 
The motions they have impressed on the particles of one portion of our 
;atmosphere are communicated to constantly-increasing numbers, bui 
the total quantity of motion measured in the same direction receives no 
addition. Each atom loses as much as it gives, and regains again from 
other atoms a portion of those motions which they in turn gixo; up. 



CHARLES B ABB AGE. ] 95 

Tlie waves of air tbus raised perambulate the earth and the ocean's 
surface, and in less than twenty hours every atom of its atmosphere 
takes up the altered movement due to that infinitesimal portion of the 
primitive motion which has been conveyed to it through countless 
channels, and which must continue to influence its path throughout its '' 
future existence.* 

But these aerial pulses, unseen by the keenest eye, unheard by the 
acutest ear, unperceived by human senses, are yet demonstrated to 
exist by human reason ; and, in some few and limited instances, by call- 
ing to our aid the most refined and comprehensive instrument of human 
thought, tlicir courses are traced and their intensities are measured. 
If man enjoTed a larger command over mathematical analysis, his knowl- 
edge of these motions would be more extensive ; but a being possessed 
of unbounded knowledge of that science couid trace every the minutest 
consequence of that primary impulse. Such a being, however far 
exalted above our race, would still be immeasurably below even oar 
conception of infinite intelligence. 

But supposing the original conditions of each atom of the earth's 
atmosphere, as well as all the extraneous causes acting on it, to be given, 
and supposing also the interference of no new causes, such a being 
would be able clearly to trace its future but inevitable patn, and he 
would distinctly foresee and might absolutely predict for any, even the 
remotest period of time,t the circumstances and future history of every 
particle of that atmosphere. 

Let us imagine a being, invested with such knowledge, to examine at 
a distant epoch the coincidence of the facts with those which his pro- 
found analysis had enabled him to predict. If any the slightest devia- 
tion existed, he would immediately read in its existence the action of a 
new uause; and, through the aid of the same analysis, tracing this dis- 
cordance back to its source, he would become aware of the time of its 
commencement and the point of space at which it oiiginated. 

Thus considered, what a strange chaos is this wide atmosphere we 
breathe ! Every atom, impressed with good and with ill, retains at 
once the motions which philosophers and sages have imparted to it, 
mixed and combined in ten thousand ways with all that is worthless 
and base. The air itself is one vast library, on whose j)ages are forever 
written all that man has ever said or woman whispcL cd. There, in their 
mutable but unerring characters, mixed with the earliest as well as with 
the latest sighs of mortality, stand forever recorded, vows unredeemed, 
promises unfulfilled, perpetiuating in the united movements of each 
particle, the testimony of man's changeful will. 

But if the air we breathe is the never-failing historian of the sentiments 

* "La courbe ddcrite par une simple mol6cule d'air ou vapeurs est T4g\6e d'une mani^re 
aussi certaiu que les orbites plan^taires ; il n'y a de diif6reiice entre elles que celle 
qu'y met notre ignorance." — La Place, Theorie Analijtique des prohaMUtes, introduction, 
p. iv. 

t See note C in the Appendix. 



196 CHARLES BABBAGE. 

we have uttered, earth, air and ocean are the eternal witnesses of the 
acts we have done. The same principle of the equality of action and 
reaction applies to them ; whatever movement is communicated to any 
of their particles is transmitted to all around it, the share of each being 
diminished by their number, and depending jointly on the number and 
position of those acted upon by the original sources of disturbance. The 
waves of air, although in many instances perceptible to the organs of 
hearing, are only rendered visible to the eye by peculiar contrivances ; 
but those of water offer to the sense of sight the most beautiful illustra- 
tion of transmitted motion. Every one who has thrown a pebble into 
the still waters of a sheltered pool has seen the circles it has raised, 
gradually expanding in size, and as uniformly diminishing in distinct- 
ness. He may have observed the reflection of those waves from the edges 
of the pool. He may have noticed also the perfect distinctness with 
which two, three, or more series of waves each pursues its own unim- 
peded course, when diverging from two, three, or more centers of dis- 
turbance. He may have seen, in such cases, the particles of water 
where the waves intersect each other partake of the movements due to 
each series. 

No motion impressed by natural causes or by human agency is ever 
obliterated. The ripple on the ocean's surface, caused by a gentle breeze, 
or the still water which marks the more immediate track of a ponderous 
vessel gliding with scarcely expanded sails over its bosom, are equally 
indelible. The momentary waves raised by the passing breeze, appa- 
rently born but to die on the spot which saw their birth, leave behind 
them an endless progeny, which, reviving with diminished energy in 
other seas, resisting a thousand shores, reflected from each, and per- 
haps again partially concentrated, will pursue their ceaseless course till 
ocean be itself annihilated. 

The track of every canoe, of every vessel which has yet disturbed the 
surface of the ocean, whether impelled by manual force or elemental 
power, remains forever registered in the future movement of all suc- 
ceeding particles which may occupy its place. The furrow which it 
*eft is, indeed, instantly filled up by the closing waters 5 but they draw 
after them other and larger portions of the surrounding element, and 
these again once moved communicate motion to others in endless suc- 
cession. 

The solid substance of the globe itself, whether we regard the minutest 
movement of the soft clay which receives its impression from the foot of 
animals, or the concussion arising from the fall of mountains rent by 
earthquakes, equally communicates and retains, through all its count- 
less atoms, their apportioned shares of the motions so impressed. 

While the atmosphere we breathe is the ever-living witness of the 
sentinients we have uttered, the waters, and the more solid materials 
of the globe, bear equally enduring testimony of the acts we have com- 
mitted. 



CHARLES B ABB AGE. 197 

If the Almighty stamped on the brow of the earliest murderer the 
indelible and visible mark of his guilt, he has also established laws by 
which every succeeding criminal is not less irrevocably chained to the 
testimony of his crime ; for every atom of his mortal frame, through 
whatever changes its several particles may migrate, will still retain, 
adhering to it through every combination, some movement derived from 
that very muscular effort by which the crime itself was perpetrated. 

The soul of the negro whose fettered body, surviving the living char- 
nel-house of his iufected prisou, was thrown into the sea to lighten the \ 
ship, that his Christian captor might escape the limited justice at length 
assigned by civilized man to crimes whose profit had long gilded their 
atrocity, will need, at the last great day of human account, no living 
witness of his earthly agony. When man and all his race shall have 
disappeared from the face of our planet, ask every particle of air still 
floating over the unpeopled earth, and it will record the cruel mandate 
of the tyrant. 



LOUIS AGASSIZ. 



A DISCOUKSE DELIVEBED BY REV. RUPUS P. STEBBINS, D. D., 
OF ITHACA, NEW YOKK. 



Agassiz is dead! Science weeps, and Eeligion mourns. Nature 
lias lost a friend, and asks, "Who will now read the inscribed leaves of 
my rocky tablets with such loving enthusiasm? Who will now study 
and describe all living things with such sympathetic admiration?" 

Agassiz is dead! No more will he walk the gray cliffs of Nahant, 
lifted into communion with highest themes by the voice of the ocean's 
anthem ! JSTo more will he traverse the coral reefs of Florida to learn 
how promontories and islands are built by the tiniest and frailest of living 
things! No longer will he visit the high Alps, and measure the velocity 
and force of its great rivers of ice, to teach us how the rocks have been 
carved on the mountain-tops, and scattered over the valleys! No longer 
will he dredge the depths of the ocean to astonish the world with the 
living creatures which have their home a thousand fathoms below the 
storms ! No longer will he examine with kindling enthusiasm the ger- 
minating egg under his microscope, and thrill the scientific world with 
delight as he announces some new phenomenon, illustrating some new 
method of the divine order! No more will he be seen in his museum, the 
pride of his heart, the joy of Jiis life ! Never again will he visit Penikese, 
where, with such ardor he last summer opened his new school to study 
living nature and not merely the printed page, and where he, the man 
of science, paid such a memorable tribute to religion ! * No more shall we 
meet that regal form, look into that beaming face, grasp that warm hand, 
hear those wise and cheering words! His personal work here is done. 
But he has inspired thousands to press after the truth 5 he has founded 
an institution which will live after him in ever-increasing efl&ciency and 
usefulness. His praise will be spoken by tongues in all languages, in the 
most ancient and renowned universities of the world. Thousands of 
hearts will mourn his absence in halls of science before whose as- 
semblies of the foremost scholars of two continents he laid the golden 
treasures of his researches with the simplicity and joy of a child. How 
many of his pupils, whose names are even now high authority, will 
forget the stern requirements of the teacher in their admiration of the 
man, and their gratitude for the enthusiasm with which he inspired them, 
the very accuracy of observation to which he compelled them ! Thou- 
sands of intelligent citizens will look in vain for those reported lectures, 
so transparent in style, so clear in description, which have been a joy and 
a revelation to them for the last quarter of a century. 

* See "Prayer of Agassiz," by Whittier. 



LOUIS AGASSIZ. ![}'.) 

Agassiz is dead! Well may the flags of his adopted city fall to half- 
mast I Well may the orator pause in the torrent of his argument and 
drop a tribute to his memory! Well may the bells of our universities 
toll at the hour of his funeral, for he was not of one university but of 
all! Well may tbe academies of science on both continents record his 
worth in memorial resolutions, for he was of both continents; nay, of 
the world! In the midst of this wide appreciation of the wonderful 
labors and discoveries of Agassiz, this universal showering of tributes 
upon his grave, by the learned, the world-renowned; I tremblingly bring 
my single leaf to be lost among the pyramids of flowers, of no im- 
portance to the grateful pile, but of great importance to the promptings, 
the demands of my own heart. 

Louis John Eudolpli Agassiz was born May 28, 1807, in the parish of 
Mottier, near Lake l^eufchatel, in Switzerland. 

And Nature, tlie. dear old nurse, took 

The cliild upon her knee, 
Saying, " Here is a story-book 

Thy Father has written for thee." 
" Come, wander Avith me," she said, 

" Into regions yet untrod, 
And read what is still unread 

In the manuscripts of God." 

He was of Huguenot descent, and his ancestors were driven from Frauoe 
by the revocation of the edict of ISTautes. For six generations his lineal 
ancestors had been clergymen. His mother was a woman of uncommon 
intelligence, aj id had special oversight of Ms early education, and just 
pride in his mature fame; and in after life, Agassiz illustrated the depth of 
his gratitude and jBlial love by laying aside his studies, from which notti- 
ing else could call him, to make the voyage to Europe and the journey 
to Switzerland, that he might once more receive his mother's blessing and 
give her his own. 

At the age of eleven years young Agassiz was sent to school at Bienne 
for four years, where he studied the ancient and modern languages, and 
amused himself by observing the habits of fishes and collecting insects. 
During his vacations, spent at his father's new home under the shadow 
of the Jura, by the influences of a young clergyman named Fivaz, he was 
first inspired with a love of the natural sciences, and he became inter- 
ested in botany. When fifteen years of age, Louis entered college at 
Lausanne, where he remained two years, and having determined to 
study medicine he went to Zurich when he was seventeen years old. 
where lie remained two years. Wishing to avail himself of the best 
educators, he went to Heidelberg when nineteen, devoting himself to 
the study of anatomy and physiology and zoology and botanj^ under 
such professors as Tiedemanu, Leuckart, and Bischoff. But as the uni- 
versity at Munich had then been re-organized, with the most eminent 
scientists on the continent in its faculty, young Agassiz was attracted 



200 LOUIS AGASSIZ. 

tMtlier in his twentieth year ; for his motto thus early in life seems to 
have been, "Of instruction, the best 5 of investigation, perfection." There 
were Oken and Martins and Schelling and Dollinger, each of whom 
was an original investigator and discoverer, founder even of some 
branches of science. He was received to the intimacy of these eminent 
luen — a vast advantage, when there is manhood behind acquisitions, and 
sense behind genius ; otherwise, the sorest misfortune that can befall a 
student. There young Agassiz reveled in all the luxuries of original 
investigations for four years. His fellow-students were delighted with 
the brilliancy of his discussions, and he was the inspiring genius of a 
select society of young men who were engaged in scientific studies, 
which embodied so much talent and made such discoveries that it was 
called the Little Academy, and attracted the presence and participation 
of the professors. During these four years he published a few special 
papers. But he at once placed himself in the foremost rank of natural- 
ists by his discussion and classification of the fishes of Brazil, to which 
work he was assigned by his teacher Martins. It w^as published in 
Latin in folio. This was his first work, his first contribution to natural 
science. 

Agassiz was now twenty-four years of age. His thirst for the study of 
natural science had become so strong that he was diverted from the pro- 
fession of medicine which his parents wished him to adopt, and became 
an interpreter of nature. He lost thereby the paternal allowance, but 
gained mental independence. He took his doctorate of philosophy at 
Erlangen with distinction, after an unusually severe examination. He 
obtained his degree of doctor of medicine in the same year at Munich, 
and maintained in his thesis the superiority of woman to man. 

Agassiz was now a graduate with high honors, and with the world 
before him as an inheritance — the world full of richest fields to be 
explored. For twenty-two years, till his coming to America in 1846, he 
gave himself with most unbounded enthusiasm and herculean labor to 
original investigations 5 spending weeks over his microscope in observing 
the changes in the processes of the growth of animal life from the germ to 
the mature form ; following the courses of rivers and visiting the different 
basins of Europe to determine the distribution of its fishes ; traversing 
the lake-shores and mountains of Switzerland to learn the causes of the 
erosion of the rocks and the transportation of the bowlders; visiting 
England and Scotland to compare the insular with the continental phe- 
nomena; pitching his tent, season after season, upon the Alpine glaciers 
that he might study accurately their movements and force ; making the 
acquaintance of the princes of science and taken joyfully into their inti- 
macy — Humboldt, Cuvier, Baer, Owen, Murchison ; and, calling around 
him the most accomplished artists, in his own study, under his own eye, 
he caused to be drawn from nature and printed an outline of the results 
of all these travels, observations, and acquisitions. First came his great 
Awrk on the "JSTatural History of the Fresh- Water Fishes of Europe," 



LOUIS AGASSIZ. 201 

full of^original suggestions^ and proposing some theories of local crea- 
tions, which startled the scieutific world, and whose discussion has hardly 
yet subsided. Then came his greater work on "Fossil Fishes." He 
devoted seven years to the investigation of the subject before he com- 
menced publishing. He visited all the great collections in Eurox)e and 
England, accompanied by a skillfid artist to malie his drawings. More 
than eighty museums, pubhc and private, \Yere visited by him, and from 
which he was permitted to retain some of the most rare and precious 
specimens for many years that he might make his work as perfect as 
possilde by repeated and rigid comparisons. The last sheets of this 
work came before the public in 1844, having been in the press ten years, 
and containing the results of seventeen years' study, such study as few but 
Agassiz understood and accomi)lished. This work was in five large 
volumes, with a folio atlas, containing four hundred plates. One thou- 
sand species are figured in their natural size with the colors of their beds, 
and seven hundred sjjecies more are partially represented and described. 
New types of fishes were discovered, and a new classification was ren- 
dered necessary by the publication of this work. And hardly less im- 
portant was its influence upon geology than upon ichthyology. The 
relative ages of difierent formations were more accurately determined by 
these fossils. The relations of the other classes of vertebrates were also 
discovered, and some very important general conclusions were drawn 
from these seventeen years' study of paleontology and collateral inves- 
tigations. The indications of purpose, of designed arrangement every- 
where discovered, not onlj^ in the teeth of the fossil shark but also in the 
arm of a polyp, so impressed his mind that he affirmed the ''existence 
of a superior intelligence to have been established by rigid demonstration 
and on a truly scientific hasisP "Have we not," he exclaims at the close 
of his work, after summing up its great facts, "have we not here proof of 
the existence of a mind as iDowerful as prolific ? the acts of an intelligence 
as sublime as provident? the marks of goodness as infinite as wise"? 
The most paJ^jaNe demonstration of the existence of a personal God., Author 
of all things, Buler of the universe, and Dispenser of all goi,d f This, at 
least, is what I read in the works of creation." The great paleontologist 
was led from ISTatui'e up to Nature's God. 

While Agassiz was preparing this great work for the press, a labor 
one would suppose equal to any student's strength, and sufficient to 
gratify any student's ambition, he made most elaborate original investi- 
gations, and published monographs, upon " Fossil and Li^dug Radiates 
and Mollusks," accompanied with full descrij)tions of their habits and 
relations. During the same period, as if his strength was as inex- 
haustible as the fields of science which he cultivated, he i)ublished his 
" Zoological Nomenclature," {Nomenclator Zoologicus,) containing the 
names of all the genera in the animal kingdoin, and the names of the 
students who first proposed them, and the time when they were given. 
And to this he added another and very important work, the " Library 



202 LOUIS AGASSIZ. 

of Zoology and Geology," (Bibliotheca Zoologiw et Geologice,) in which he 
gave a list of the works of the authors named in the former publication, 
with such notices as they seemed to demand. It was published in Eng- 
land in four large octavo volumes. 

But the work of these sev^euteen years is not yet all told. For nine 
years Agassiz spent his summer- vacations among the Alps. He pub- 
lished two very able works containiug the result of his observations, 
and including the germs of his "Glacial Theory," which he afterward 
announced, and which is now one of the greatest objects of interest to 
the geologist. And still more : during fourteen of these seventeen years 
he was x)rofessor of natural history in the College of - Keufchatel ; and 
a most enthusiastic teacher he was. His fame became co-extensive 
with civilization. The scientific societies and learned academies of both 
the old world and the new hastened, in generous rivalship, to do them- 
selves the honor of recognizing his unsurpassed merits as a student of 
nature. The prizes of successful investigations and new discoveries 
were received from kings and emi^erors. Learned degrees were con- 
ferred upon him by the great universities of the continent and of 
England. His name was a synonym for scientific genius, indomitable 
labor, and brilliant achievement. Having become familiar with the 
scenery and the flora and fauna, both fossil and living, which beautified 
and inhabited the old world, or were buried in its sepulchers, a new world 
was given him to conquer. 

In 1846, at the age of thirty -nine years, he received from the King of 
Prussia, at the suggestion of Baron Alexander von Humboldt, a com- 
mission to visit the United States, and make explorations in behalf of 
science, and at the same time he received an invitation to come over and 
deliver a course of lectures before the Lowell Institute in the city of 
Boston. 

At this time there were very few scholars in the United States who 
had given any special attention to the higher problems of zoology. 
Most of the studies in regard to it had been confined to the description 
and classification of new species, and there was not in all our colleges a 
single chair devoted to instruction in this branch of natural history. 
There was, however, an awakening attention to it 5 thestudy of the micro- 
scope had been introduced, and the use of this instrument was beginning 
to be applied to the verification of the discoveries which had been made 
in Europe. Agassiz came at this period of awakening, bringing with him 
a European reputation, miraculous stores of knowledge at perfect com- 
mand, years of experience as teacher and out-door observer, with a most 
winning and commanding presence ; fascinating as a lecturer, though 
pronouncing our language quite imperfectly; magnetic in his influence 
upon hearers, so that those who left his presence knew not which hiKl 
most captivated them, the perfectness of his knowledge, the transparency 
of his descriptions, or the warmth of his heart. 

His lectures were crowded. He took Boston, as it were, by storm. 



LOUIS AGASSIZ. 203 

The lecture of tlie evening was repeated the next afternoon, and stiP 
there was not room; still there were unsatisfied ears; still there were 
longing hearts. He met the little coteries of amateurs, and amazed 
them as he narrated the lengtli and persistency of liis observations of 
some of the changes and transformations of the lower forms of living- 
creatures. One of the most eminent of the microscopists of the city 
stated to a club the results of three or four days' observations of some 
objects under his glass ; and those obtained were so meager that he had 
laid all further inquiry aside. A discussion was started, and after an 
expression of opinion from different members respecting ihepraGticahilitij 
of obtaining any satisfactory results as to the subject under investi- 
gation, Agassiz, their guest, was called upon for his opinion. He amazed 
them all by saying that he had made an investigation of this subject, 
but instead of continuing it only three days, he had continued it for six 
weeks, night and day, at regular intervals, so that no change could take 
place without his notice, and the result was most satisfactory, con- 
firming his conjectures respecting the class in the animal kingdom to 
which the objects should be referred. " Six weeks, night and day V^ 
Our amateurs had not dreamed of such persistent labor. Nor did they 
dream of it in the future, but commenced to practice it in the present, 
and, under the influence of Agassiz, were transformed from mere ama- 
teurs to working zoologists. 

Indeed, such was the efiectof the sympathy and enthusiasm which he 
exerted that, thenceforward and to-day, you will find merchant-j)rinces 
and bankers of Boston hastening, after business-hours, not to club-rooms, 
but to their homes, to seat themselves at the eye-glass of their expensive 
microscopes to continue their observations of the habits and transfor- 
mations of the croAvded population of a drop of sea-water or a spray 
of alga. The spirit of Agassiz took possession of their souls. 

But I am running before my story. The brightness of its termination 
has attracted me from the less brilliancy of its commencement. But to 
trace with any minuteness the labors of Agassiz for the last twenty-six 
years ot his life in this discourse would be impossible. It would be almost 
like writing the history of some branches of science. 

His first course of lectures was fully reported in one of the Boston 
papers, together with the illustrations which he gave on the blackboai'd. 
He w^as at once called ui)on to lecture in the great cities of the country, 
and overwhelmed with invitations to meet with scientific societies and 
social assemblies. The latter he almost invariably declined; the former 
he as uniformly accepted. 

His commission from the King of Prussia introduced him to our Gov- 
ernment, and he was invited as a guest on board the vessels of the Coast 
Survey, and dredged the ocean along our coast, gathering new and 
abundant specimens for future examination. 

The next j^ear, 1847, the Lawrence Scientific School was founded at 
Cambridge in connection with Harvard University, and Agassiz was 



204 LOUIS AGASSIZ, 

appointed in this professor of geology and zoology. He now determined 
to make this country his home, and sent for a discharge from his commis- 
sion given by the King of Prussia. It was granted liim in the assur- 
ance " tha^t wherever he took up his abode, his time would be employed 
to the best advantage of science." 

At this time there was no collection of specimens of zoology in America 
which would compare for a moment with the museums of the Old World ; 
and it uow became with Agassiz an absorbing passion of his life to found 
one which should rival the richest that the ambition and wealth of emper- 
ors and empires had established. His enthusiasm sent collectors to the 
steaming bayous of the Gulf, the frozen coast of Labrador, and around the 
unexplored shores of the northern lakes. He inspired with one purpose 
young and old, on land and on sea. The Pacihc as well as the Atlantic 
coast was his tributary. Every shii3 brought him some contribution. 
Every train paid tribute to his accumulating riches. Traveling from 
city to city, and charming as well as instructing by his lectures, he en- 
listed young and old in his great enterprise till it seemed as if the whole 
population of the country were his agents or assistants. Stored in barns, 
in warehouses, in cellars, and in attics, Cambridge was full of jiackages 
fur the museum. The hour was fully come. He now turned his back 
more promptly and firmly against all temptations to abandon his great 
})urpose. To an offer to give his knowledge and genius to the ad- 
vantage of a great pecuniary undertaking which would have poured a 
fortune into his lap, he simply replied, "Z have no time to malce moneyP 
When I^apoleon, at the recommendation of the academy, invited him to 
the highest scientific position in France, and intimated, not obscurely, 
that as a citizen of France it was hardly right or honorable for him to 
give his transcendent talent and world-wide fame to a new and un- 
scientific country, and not to add to the renown of the institutions of the 
land of his ancestors enriched b}^ imperial bounties and honors, he re- 
plied in substance that he was not a citizen of France, and that his 
family and ancestors owed nothing to France but exile and poverty j 
that he prized more highly the spontaneous gratitude and gifts of a free 
people than the })atronage of emperors and the formal regard of nobles. 

His great work, " Contributions to the E'atural History of the United 
States," had been commenced ; the school which his wife had opened in 
his house for young ladies, to aid in supjiorting his family, was in full 
success and received daily lectures from him ; he was overwhelmed, not 
only with corres{)ondence on scientific subjects from all x)arts of the 
world, but with specimens, so that the neighborhood of his work-room 
often appeared like the storehouse of an importer. The college had 
already pin-chased his earlier collections to enable him to collect more. 
After twelve years of indefatigable labor, the mass of materials had 
become simply enormous; and there was no place to store them in 
security, much less any place where they could be either exhibited 
or studied. What coidd be done % The will of Francis 0. Gray, of- 



LOUIS AGASSIZ. 205 

Boston, i^^as at tMs moment opened, and a bequest of |oO,000 was 
found for the museum. This was the first ray of morning, showing 
that the day was coming from behind the mountains. 

Agassiz seemed filled with a xjrophet's enthusiasm and assurance ; 
his face shone brighter and brighter as the day advanced. Seventy 
thousand dollars were raised by subscrii)tion in Boston and its vicinity in 
a few months, and the next winter the great scientist, with the faith of 
a saint and the prospect of a martyr, went .before the Massachusetts 
legislature of fanners and mechanics to ask for $100,000 to aid him 
in his work! Eem ember this was immediately after the universal 
bankruptcy of 1857. What a hopeless mission, to ask, under such cii'- 
cumstances and of such men, an appropriation of one hundred thousand 
dollars to promote purely scientific inquiries ; to aid in gathering rocks 
and bones and fishes and shells and insects, and erecting a building 
in which to store them ! But Agassiz's enthusiasm was so great that 
there was no room for doubt; he could not disbelieve; he would net 
hesitate. He met the committee of the legislature appointed to hear 
him explain his proposition. The hearing was in the hall of the house of 
representatives, and all the members of both bodies of the legislature, 
allured by his fame, crowded to hear him. Incarnate science stands in 
the presence of incarnate expediency, thrift, and palpabl e economy ! What 
could he say? The great interpreter of nature made no ai)peal to love 
of gain. He could promise no golden treasures in return for their bounty. 
He did not tell them that he could make the crops more abundant, 
the soil more fertile, the fabrics more marketable. He said that he 
would have the wonderful works of nature, of God, better illustrated, 
more carefully studied. He would have Massachusetts — and here with 
consummate adroitness he touched the tenderest spot in the sensibilities 
of the old Bay State — Icee]) the lead in the great educational movements 
of the century. He had determined to give his life to that end if she 
tcould, aid him ! '' My great object," these are his very words, " is to 
have a museum founded here which will be equal to the great museums 
of the Old World. We have a continent before us for exploration, which 
has as yet been only slammed on the surface. My earnest desire has 
always been, and is now, to put our universities on a footing with those 
of Europe or even ahead of them." Science was honored in the presen- 
tation of her representative. Neither party nor pelf soiled the whiteness 
of her robes. But when the question came before the house for con- 
sideration an attempt was made to throw ridicule on the proposition by 
designating tbe establishment where science was to be honored a " Pal- 
ace for Bugs." But this attack was repelled; the appropriation asked 
for was granted, and Agassiz triumphant, with over two hundred thou- 
sand dollars at his command, broke ground for his "Museum of Comx^ar- 
ative Zoology." 

At this period I became personally acquainted with him. His hands, 
his heart, his head, were full. Fortunately he had matured his plan for 



206 LOUIS AGASSIZ. 

his building during previous years: He had introduced into it all the 
excellencies of the best museums of Europe, and added many which his 
own experience had suggested. It was to cover three sides of a square, 
and but half of one of the wings was to be undertaken at this time. He 
would build as he needed, but permanently and perfectly for all coming 
time. And when it was finished and filled with specimens, like the 
widow's cruse of oil, everything was still full -, hundreds of precious 
packages still unopened ; hundreds of capacious casks still untouched. 
For once the great heart of Agassiz faltered 5 his hands fell helplessly 
by his side 5 he stood still. The pause was but for a moment; the em- 
barrassment was one of riches. He saw in vision the walls of the rest 
of the wing arise, and he now set himself to accomplish it. He went to 
the Amazon, sent out by a princely banker of Boston, who gave him a 
carte blanche, to draw on him for what means he required. With an en- 
thusiasm which consumed his- very life, regardless of exposure, shrinking 
from no labor, he navigated and forded rivers, penetrated thickets, and col- 
lected treasures for his future cabinets, which amazed himself and his 
enthusiastic and laborious comi»anions,when they arrived at Cambridge. 

The legislature again aided him. Congress remitted the tariff ou 
the alcohol needed for the preservation of his stores. With lecturing, 
writing, collecting, arranging, his active brain grew dizzy, his broad shoul- 
ders bowed, his firm step trembled. He must close his books ; he must 
leave his laboratory 5 he must not read ; he must not think ; he must take 
himself away from all inquiries, and rest. I met him in his exile at 
the White Mountains when he was convalescing. He greeted me with 
his usual cheerful heartiness, and thanked me with his usual cordiality 
when I expressed a confident expectation of seeing him soon in the mu- 
seum at Cambridge. But he never regained his former health. The work 
at the museum, however, went on under his general supervision. The 
addition to the wing was completed, the shelves, the cases, the jars all 
filled, and still the masses of bis collections were hardly perceptibly 
diminished. 

He was again working too hard. Arrangements were made to allure 
him from his tasks in Cambridge by holding out to him greater attrac- 
tions. He was invited by Professor Pierce to make a voyage in a Coast 
Survey vessel around Cape Horn to San Francisco; and her com- 
mander was instructed to give him such opportunities as he desired 
for dredging in deep water, and making inland excursions when possible. 
Accompanied by his wife and his intimate scientific friend, Rev. Dr. Hill, 
ex-president of Harvard University, and one or two others, he per- 
formed the voyage with his usual success in the line of new discoveries 
and abundant collections. Landing at San Francisco, he was welcomed 
with an ovation worthy of the head of a nation. Here his enthusiasm be- 
came epidemic, and a scientific spirit was awakened which has resulted 
in an endowment for its advancement of a million of dollars. He re- 
turned to Cambridge much improved in health by his voyage, and gave 



LOUIS AGASSIZ. 207 

himself again to tlie examination and arrangement of the great stores 
of his recent collection, with a devotion and enthusiasm which tilled the 
hearts of his friends with fear lest he should again break down. But 
he could not refrain from living among his treasures, and directing the 
orderly and scientific study of everything. And so perfectly was it 
done, that in his last report he says, " The scientific officers of the 
museum have so efficiently carried on the work that the past year has 
X)roved beyond question that it is now so organized (vitalized as it 
were with the spirit of thought and connected with work) that my 
presence or absence is of little importance. It will keep on its course 
without any new or repeated stimulus beyond the necessary ai^pro- 
priations for its maintenance." 

It would seem that there was now nothing left for him to do but to 
fold the robes of half a century's labors and honors around him and 
watch the descending sun. Ino, rest was not for him. He would work 
while his pulse beat, and he planned to open a free school at Xantucket 
for the instruction of all who wished to avail themselves of its privi- 
leges, in the in vestigatiou of livi^ig objects. Mr. Anderson, of Kew York, 
heard of his purpose and generously presented him with the island 
Peuikese for the purpose. Agassiz unhesitatingly accepted the princely 
offer; he could not let the golden opportunity pass. His friends 
were troubled. But his enthusiasm sustained his diseased frame and 
carried it through the exhausting labors and excitements of the work. 
Sometimes his weakness conquered his resolution, and then he said, " I 
want rest; I am ready to go; I am tired!" Great soul! No wonder 
thou wast tired! ISTo wonder thou didst pine for rest ! '■'■ But," he con- 
tinues, " I will work while I live. While I have strength I will labor;" 
and he arranged courses of lectures and series of investigations, and an- 
nounced that he desired to die with the harness all on, the dust on his 
sandals, the word on his lip, the sketch on the blackboard, the object under 
the glass. And his prayer was answered. His first article of a long 
serieswas going through the press ; tickets were sold for his lectures in 
ifew Haven, l^ew York, and Washington. He had just returned to his 
home from his favorite laboratory in his museum, and — the curtain fell; 
not thick and impenetrable, but thin and translucent; and for a few 
days slight communicatious passed, and then all was still. Agassiz 
was dead! Nay, not dead. He was translated to fields whose glory 
and luxuriance will furnish opportunities of research which no gorgeous- 
ness of tro]3ical abundance can rival. Every living thing has lost a 
friend, an interpreter; every student of nature a guide and inspirer. 

Snch is a glim'pse of the gigantic labor which this devoted student per- 
formed ; such is a hint of the success which he achieved. It would be 
difficult to tell which most kindled his enthusiasm, ohtaining or impart- 
ing knowledge. How his face shone, how his whole massive frame 
trembled, when he discovered some new phenomenon ! How his eyes 
beamed when he narrated his discovery ! I have heard him pour out the 



208 LOUIS AGASSIZ. 

stores of knowledge derived from new investigations before tbe 
savants of this continent with the simplicity and self-forgetfulness with 
which a child would pour its toys into your lap; and I have heard him 
talk with apparently equal interest before a company of farmers and 
mechanics, whose knowledge of nature was almost infinitesimal. Yet he 
was most exacting of his students, sometimes even to a discouraging 
severity. He would say, "There is the subject, there are the tools; tell 
me what you can learn about it." Perhaps the severity of his own methods 
prevented his fully sympathizing always with the struggling, discouraged 
student. But one thing is clear, those who survived the fiery ordeal are 
among the foremost in their departments everywhere; and if they carry 
scars of their hard warfare, they are not of shame but of honor. They 
ar3 all in front. 

One of the most marked features of Agassiz's mind was its tendency 
to discover analogies, relations. Severe as was his scrutiny of particu- 
lars, marking the slightest variation from the typical form, things were 
not intlependent and unrelated, but parts of one great whole. His gen- 
eralizations were as comprehensive as his examinations were minute. 
He saw system, provision, adaptation, everywhere. He had so pene- 
trated the divine purpose, he 'had become so imbued with the methods 
and the forms of nature, that he could draw a whole from anyjiart of 
a figure, and predict the image of an inhabitant of an unexamined zone 
or stratum. This ability, partly natural, partly acquired, enabled 
Agassiz to perform marvels in discovery. A solitary scale of a new 
species of fish was found in the fossiliferous rocks of Scotland. As 
no naturalist of the island could determine, and hence delineate, the 
species of fish to which the scale belonged, it was sent to Agassiz, 
then residing in his home in Switzerland, to see if he could con- 
struct the fish from the scale, giving its size, form, and probable 
habits. He examined the scale ; determined what the size and form 
of the fish must have been; made a drawing of it; gave a full 
description of its habits ; and returned the scale with his monograph and 
drawing to Scotland. Now it so happened that while Agassiz in his 
study in the shadow of the Alps was constructing this fish from a single 
scale, and describing its habits, a whole impression was found of a fish 
of the same kind or species as that whose scale had been sent to him. 
The Scotch naturalists were excited with intensest curiosity to learn 
whether he, with a single scale, would be able to correctly draw and 
describe the fish. What was their mingled delight and astonishment on 
opening his communication to find that he had so accurately figured and 
described the fish that hardly a line of his drawing needed to be erased 
or changed that it might conform to the original recently found. 

Not only was his knowledge of the structure of fishes so perfect 
as to enable him, from a single scale, to construct the whole fish, but his 
knowledge of the period in which the different families and species of 
fishes existed upon the earth was such, so accurate, so minute, that he 



LOUIS AGASSIZ. 209 

could predict the kiud of fisli wliose remains would be found in any given 
deposit or stratum should tlie discovery of any such fossil be made. A 
remarkable instance of his sagacity in this respect is related of hioj when, 
in early life, he visited England by invitation of the British Association 
for the Promotion of Science, to attend the annual meeting of its most 
eminent scholars. The students of the natural sciences in the island 
determined to put his knowledge of comparative zoology to the 
test, and to a crucial one. A fossil fish had very recently been found 
in a rock which was so low in the series that it was not supposed that 
any organic remains w^ere deposited in it, and it had been classed with 
the azoic rocks. Agassiz was not aware, of course, that any sucli dis- 
covery had been made. At one of the sessions of the section in ichthy- 
ology, one of the members, in the course of the discussion, asked him 
what the structure and habits of the fish of that period would probably 
be if any remains should ever be discovered in the rocks then de- 
posited. Agassiz was silent for a moment, and then, after a few 
suggestions in regard to the order observed in creation as know^n, he 
stated in a few words what he believed the size and structure of the fish 
would be, and, stepping to the blackboard, and taking the crayon, with a 
few hasty strokes he drew the form and general structure and appearance 
of the fish of that age, should it, indeed, be discovered; the possible Jish 
which the liarmon}^ of nature would demand. After he had finished his 
sketch and taken his seat, what was the mingled surprise and de- 
light of the members of the section not in the secret, when one of 
them stepped forward and removed a screen from the wall, revealing 
the tablet on which was the fossil, of just such proportions, of just such 
form, of just snch structure as the one that Agassiz had drawn upon the 
blackboard. To such an extent had this great scientist advanced in a 
knowledge of the plan of God in nature. 

He was eminently a religious and a devout man. He was ever 
looking for the indications of thought and purpose in nature from 
monad to mastodon. He studied nature as the w^ork of an intelligent 
mind, not of blind forces. The more he discovered of order, the more he 
perceived of intellect. This vast display of a^uimate and inanimate na- 
ture was to him the result and perpetual expression of the divine tJiougJit, 
a revelaiion of God. How I have seen his face glow as he described some 
of the most striking of the evidences of intellectual action in nature! He 
has been accused of weakness for yielding to such impressions, advanc- 
ing such opinions. It was his great glory not to esteem the thing above 
the thought, the j)roduct above the producer. To see behind adapted 
forms a purposing mind i« not a weakness, but a necessity for every 
con![)rehensive mind. The studies of Agassiz did not lead him into the 
mire of materialism nor the deserts of i)antheism nor the drear}' solitudes 
of atheism, but to the sublime ideas of God and. immortality. 

Yes; Agassiz was reverent. Said he to his class at Peuikese, "The 

study of nature is direct intercourse with the highest mind. It is 
14 s 



210 LOUIS AGASSIZ. 

unworthy an intelligent being to trifle with the works of the Creator. A 
laboratory of natural history is a sanctuary, in which nothing improper 
shonld be exhibited. I would tolerate improprieties in a church as soon 
as in a scientific laboratory " and in this spirit he did his work. May the 
same pervade all the investigations of his pupils and compeers ! 

Behind all his eminent attainments in science, Agassiz stood one of 
nature's noblemen, equally at ease in the presence of emperors and 
peasants 5 he could speak a word that would charm a child or delight a 
philosopher. He was too great to be distant from any one. Only little- 
ness is distant, inaccessible. With what pitying sympathy would he listen 
to the story of the jierplexed and discouraged inquirer, and how his 
words of instruction sent him away joyous as the morning ! 

Did he sometimes err ? In the midst of his million cares and crushing 
burdens was he sometimes severe, merciless, if you please, in his exac- 
tions? Eemember that with all his marvelous attainments, and yet 
more marvelous capacities to attain, he was still a man of like pas- 
sions with us. But as a man he was such a one as we shall not soon 
look on his like again. The memory of hours spent with him will be 
evermore precious. The sweet tones of that musical voice will linger 
long in many a hall and laboratory and heart. 

Of the value of many of his theories it does not become me to speak. 
They must be tried in the furnace of freest and fullest investigation. 
But however many of them may be proved to be dross, enough, I doubt 
not, will come out of the trial approved, to place him in the rank of 
the great discoverers of the nineteenth century. And American scien- 
tists will now with one consent proclaim that his instruction and enthu- 
siasm have inspired and guided our students so that from his arrival on 
these shores a new scientific era may be dated. And American theolo- 
gians, those whose blind eyes do not need cleansingin some Siloam, will 
confess with grateful hearts their obligations to one who has opened to 
them the great A^olume of nature, and taught them to read it reverently. 
And finally, when over his grave, amid the fragrance and glories of 
Mount Auburn, his monument is erected, let it be a column entwined 
with wreaths and symbols of his life's work, and on it there be inscribed, 
"The Interpreter op Nature, who looked prom Nature up 
TO Nature's God." 



SKETCH OF THE LIFE AND LABORS OF PROF. JOHN TORREY, 

OF 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE, NEW YORK, UNITED STATES ASSAYEE, AND FOR 
MANY YEARS AN ESTEEMED COLLABORATOR OF THE SMITHSONIAN IN- 
STITUTION. 



By Dr. Asa Gray, of Harvard College.* 



John Torrey, M. D., LL. D., died at New York on the lOtli of March, 
1873,in the seventy-seventh year of his age. Hehas long been thechief of 
American botanists, and was at his death the oldest, with the exception 
of the venerable ex-president of the American Academy, (Dr. Bigelow.) 
who entered the botanical field several years earlier, but left it to gather 
the highest honors and more lucrative rewards of the medical profession 
abont the time when Doctor Torrey determined to devote his life to 
scientific pursuits. 

The latter was of an ©Id New England stock, being, it is thought, a 
descendant of William Torrey, who emigrated from Combe St. Nicholas, 
near Chard, in Somersetshire, and settled at Weymouth, Mass., about 
the year 1640.t 

His grandfather, John Torrey, with his son William, removed from 
Boston to Montreal at the time of the enforcement of the " Boston port 
bill." But neither of them was disposed to be a refugee ; for the son, 
then a lad of seventeen years, ran away from Canada to New York, 
joined his uncle, Joseph Torrey, a major of one of the two light infantry 
regiments of regulars (called Congress's Own) which were raised in that 
city ; was made an ensign, and was in the rear-guard of his regiment 
on the retreat to W^hite Plains ; served in it throughout the war with 

* From tlie proceediugs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

t In some notes fnrnislied by a member of tlie family, the descent is endeavored to 
be traced throngh the eldest of the five sons who survived their parent, namely, Samuel, 
who came with him from England, became a minister of the Gospel, and had the un- 
precedented honor of preaching three election-sermons (in 1674, 1683, and 1695) as 
well as of having three times declined the presidency of Harvard College, (after Hoar, 
after Oakes, and after Rogers.) Although educated at the college, he was not a gradu- 
ate, because he left it in 1650, after three years' residence, just when the term for the 
A. B. degree was lengthened to four years. The tradition has it that, " at the prayer- 
meetings of the students he was generally invited to make the concluding prayer," 
for which an obvious reason suggests itself, for " such was his devotion of spirit that, 
after praying for two hom's, the regret was that he did not continue longer." Students 
of the present day are probably less exacting. 

The desire to claim a descent through so eminent a member of the family is natural. 
But our late venerable associate, Mr. Savage, in his Dictionary of Early New England 
Families, states that he could not ascertain that Samuel had any children. 



212 LIFE AND LABORS OF PROF. JOHN TORREY. 

liouor, and until at the close he re-entered the city upon "Evacuation 
Day," when he retired with the rank of captain. Moreover, the father 
soon followed the son, and became quartermaster of the regiment. 
Captain Torrey, in 1791, married Margaret Nichols, of Isew York. 

The subject of this biographical notice w^as the second of the issue of 
this marriage, and the oldest child who survived to manhood. He was 
born in JSTew York on the 15th of August, 1790. He received suck 
education only as the public schools of his native city then aftbrded, 
and was also sent for a year to a school in Boston. When he was fif- 
teen or sixteen years old, his father was appointed fiscal agent of the 
state-prison at Greenwich, then a suburban village, to which the family 
removed. 

At this early age he chanced to attract the attention of Amos Eaton, 
who soon afterward became a well-known pioneer of natural science, 
and with whom it may be said that popular instruction in natural 
history in this country began. He taught young Torrej' the structure 
of flowers and the rudiments of botany, and thus awakened a taste and 
kindled a zeal which were extinguished only with his jjupil's life. This 
fondness soon extended to mineralogy and chemistry, and ijrobably 
determined the choice of a profession. In the year 1815, Torrey began 
the study of medicine in the otfice of the eminent Dr. Wright Post, and 
in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in which the then famous 
Dr. Mitchell and Dr. Hosack were professbrs of scientific repute, he 
took his medical degree in 1818 5 opened an office in his native city; and 
engaged in the practice of medicine with moderate success, turning the 
Vv'iiile his abundant leisure to scientific pursuits, especially to botany. 
In 1817, while yet a medical student, he reported to the Lyceum of 
TS"atural History — of which he was one of the founders — his Catalogue 
of the Plants growing spontaneously within thirty miles of the city of 
ISTew York, which was published two years later ; and he was already, 
or very soon after, in correspondence with Kurt, Sprengel, and Sir James 
Edward Smith abroad, as well as with Elliott, Nuttall, Schweinitz, and 
other American botanists. Two mineralogical articles were contributed 
by him to the very first volume of the American Journal of Science and 
Arts, (1818-'19,) and several others appeared a few years later in this 
and in other journals. 

Elliott's sketch of the botfiny of South Carolina and Georgia was at 
this time in course of publication, and Dr. Torrey planned a counter- 
part systematic work upon the botany of the Northern States. The 
result of this v>'as his " Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of 
the United States, i. e., North of Virginia," which was issued in parts, 
and the first volume concluded in the summer of 1824. In this work 
Dr. Torrey first developed his remarkable aptitude for descriptive botany, 
and for the kind of investigation and discrimination, the tact and acumen, 
which it calls for, Only tbose few — now, alas ! very few — surviving 
botanists who used this book through the following years can at all 



LIFE AND LABORS OF PEOF. JOHN TORREY. 213 

appreciate its value aud influence. It was tlie fruit of those few but 
precious years which, seasoned with pecuniary privation, are in this 
country not rarely vouchsafed to an investigator, in which to pi^ove his 
quality before he is haply overwhelmed with professional or professorial 
labors aud duties. 

In 1824, the year in which the first volume (or nearly half) of his Flora 
was published, he married Miss Eliza Robinson Shaw, of ISTew York, aud 
was established at West Point, having been chosen professor of chem- 
istry, mineralogy, and geology in the United States Military Academy. 
Three years later he exchanged this chair for that of chemistry and 
botany (practically that of chemistry only, for botany had already been 
allowed to fall out of the medical curriculum in this country) in the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, then in Barclay street. 
The Flora of the Northern States was never carried further, although 
a "Compendium," a pocket-volume for the field, containing brief char- 
acters of the species which were to have been described in the second 
volume, along with an abridgment of the contents of the first, was 
issued in 1826, Moreover, long before Dr. Torrey could find time to go 
on with the work, he foresaw that the natural system was not much 
longer to remain, here and in England, an esoteric doctrine, confined 
to profound botanists, but was destined to come into general use, and to 
change the character of botanical instruction. He was himself the first 
to apply it in this country in any considerable publication. 

The opportunity for this, and for extending his investigations to the 
Great Plains and the Eocky Mountains on their western boundary, was 
furnished by the collections placed in Dr. Torrey's hands by Dr. Edwin 
James, the botanist of Major Long's expedition in 1820. This expedi- 
tion skirted the Eocky Mountains belonging to what is now called 
Colorado Territory, where Dr. James, first and alone, reached the charm- 
ing alpine vegetation, scaling one of the very highest summits, which 
from that time and for many years afterward was api^ropriately named 
James's Peak ; although it is now called Pike's Peak, in honor of Gen- 
eral Pike, who long before had probably seen but had not reached it. 

As early as the year 1823, Dr. Torrey communicated to the Lyceum 
of Natural History descriptions of some new species of James's collection, 
and in 1826 an extended account of all the j)lauts collected, arranged under 
the natural orders. This is the earliest treatise of the sort in this country, 
arranged upon the natural system ; and with it begins the history of the 
botany of the Eocky Mountains, if we except a few plants collected early 
in the century by Lewis and Clark, where they crossed them many de- 
grees farther north, and which, are recorded in Pursh's Flora. The next 
step in the direction he was aiming was made in the year 1831, when he 
superintended an American reprint of the first edition of Lindley's In- 
troduction to the Natiu'al System of Botany, and appended a catalogue 
of the North American genera arranged according to it. 

Dr. Torrey took an early and prominent part in the investigation of 



214 LIFE AND LABORS OF PROF. JOHN TORRE Y. 

the United States species of tbe vast genus Garex, which has ever since 
been a favorite study in this country. His friend, Yon Schweinitz, of 
Bethlehem, Pa., placed in his hands and desired him to edit, during 
the author's absence in Europe, his monograph of North American 
Oarices. It was published in the Annals of the New York Lyceum, in 
1825, much extended, indeed almost wholly rewritten, and so much to 
Schweinitz's satisfaction that he insisted that this classical monograph 
"should be considered and quoted in all respects as the joint production 
of Dr. Torrey and himself." Ten or eleven years later, in the succeed- 
ing volume of the Annals of the New York Lyceum, appeared Dr. Tor- 
rey's elaborate monograph of the other North American Cyperacese, 
with an appended revision of the Carices, which meanwhile had been 
immensely increased by the collections of Eichardson, Drummoud, &c., 
in British and Arctic America. A full set of these was consigned to his 
hands for study (along with other important collections) by his friend, 
Sir William Hooker, upon the occasion of a visit which he made to Europe 
in 1833. But Dr. Torrey generously turned over the Carices to the late 
Professor Dewey, whose rival Caricography is scattered through forty 
or fifty volumes of the American Journal of Science and Arts ; and so 
had only to sum up the results in this regard, and add a few southern 
species at the close of his own monograph of the order. 

About this time, namely, in the year 183G, upon the organization of a 
geological survey of the State of New York upon an extensive plan, Dr. 
Torrey was appointed botanist, and was required to prepare a flora of 
the State. A laborious undertaking it proved to be, involving a heavy 
sacrifice of time, and postponing the realization of long-cherished plans. 
But in 1843, after much discouragement, the Flora of the State of New 
York, the largest if by no means the most important of Dr. Torrey's 
works, was completed and published, in two large quarto volumes, with 
one hundred and sixty-one plates. No other State of the Union has 
produced a flora to compare with this. The only thing to be regretted 
is that it interrupted, at a critical period, the prosecution of a far more 
important work. 

Early in his career, Dr. Torrey had resolved to undertake a general 
flora of North America, or at least of the United States, arranged upon 
the natural system, and had asked Mr. Nuttall to join him, who, how- 
ever, did not consent. At that time, when little was known of the 
regions west of the valley of the Mississippi, the ground to be covered 
and the materials at hand were of comparatively moderate compass ; 
and in aid of the northern part of it, Sir William Hooker's Flora of 
British America — founded u})on the rich collections of the Arctic ex- 
plorers, of the Hudson Bay Company's intelligent officers, and of such 
hardy and enterprising pioneers as Drummond and Douglas — was 
already in progress. At the actual inception of the enterprise, the 
botany of Eastern Texas was opened by Drummond's collections, as 
well as that of the coast of California by those of Douglas, and after- 



LIFE AND LABOES OF PROF. JOHN TORRE Y, 215 

■ward those of ]N^uttall. As tbey clearly belonged to our own phyto- 
geograpMcal province, Texas and California were accordingly annexed 
botanically before they became so politically. 

While the field of botanical operations was thus enlarging, the time 
which could be devoted to it was restricted. In addition to his chair in 
the medical college. Dr. Torrey had felt obliged to accept a similar one 
at Princeton College, and to all was now added, as we have seen, the 
onerous post of State botanist. It was in the year 1836 or 1837 that 
he invited the writer of this notice — then pursuing botanical studies 
under his auspices and direction — ^to become his associate in the Flora 
of North America. In July and in October, 1838, the first two parts, 
making half of the first volume, were published. The great need of a 
full study of the sources and originals of the earlier-published species 
was now apparent; so, during the following year, his associate occupied 
himself with this work in the principal herbaria of Europe. The re 
maining half of the first volume appeared in June, 1840. The first j)art 
of the second volume followed in 1841 ; the second in the spring of 1842 • 
and in February, 1843, came the third and the last ; for Dr. Torrey's asso- 
ciate was now also immersed in professorial duties and in the conse- 
quent preparation of the works and collections which were necessary to 
their prosecution. 

From that time to the present the scientific exploration of the vast 
interior of the continent has been actively carried on, and in consequence 
new plants have poured in year by year in such numbers as to overtask 
the powers of the few working botanists of the country, nearly all of 
them weighted with professional engagements. The most they could do 
has been to put collections into order in special reports, revise here and 
there a family or a genus monographically, and incorporate new materials 
into older parts of the fabric, or rough-hew them for portions of the edi- 
fice yet to be constructed. In all this, Dr. Torrey took a prominent part 
down almost to the last days of his life. Passing by various detached 
and scattered articles upon curious new genera and the like, but not 
forgetting three admirable papers published in the Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Knowledge, {Plantce Fremontiance, and those on Batis and 
Darlmgtonia,) there is a long series of important, and some of them very 
extensive, contributions to the reports of Government explorations of 
the western country, from that of Long's expedition, already referred 
to, in which he first developed his powers, through those of i^icollet, 
Fremont, and Emory, Sitgreaves, Stansbury, and Marcy, and those con- 
tained in the ampler volumes of the surveys for Pacific liailroad routes, 
doAvn to that of the Mexican boundary, the botany of which forms a 
bulky quarto volume of much interest. Even at the last, when he rallied 
transiently from the fatal attack, he took in hand the manuscript of an 
elaborate report on the plants collected along our Pacific coast in Ad- 
miral Wilkes's celebrated expedition, which he had prepared fully a 
dozen years ago, and which (except as to the plates) remains still un- 



216 LIFE AND LABORS OF PROF. JOHN TORRE Y. 

publisbed through no fault of his. There would have been more to add, 
perhapsofequalimportance, if Dr. Torreyhadbeenas ready to complete 
and publish, as he was to investigate, annotate, and sketch. Through 
undue diffidence and a constant desire for a greater peifection than was 
at the time attainable, many interesting observations have from time 
to time been anticipated by other botanists. 

All this botanical work, it may be observed, lias reference to the 
flora of North America, in which, it was hoped, the diverse and sei)a- 
rate materials and component parts, which he and others had wrought 
upon, might some day be brought together in a completed system of 
American botany. 

It remains to be seen whether his surviving associate of nearly forty 
years will be able to coraidete the edifice. To do this will be to supply 
the most pressing want of the science, and to raise the fittest monu- 
ment to Dr. Torrey's memory. 

Intlie estimate of Dr. Torrey's botanical work, it must not be forgotten 
that it was nearly all done in the intervals of a busy |)rofessional life; 
that lie was for more than thirty years an active and distinguished 
teacher, mainly of chemistry, and in more than one institution at the 
same time 5 that he devoted much time and remarkable skill and judg- 
ment to the practical applications of chemistry, in which his counsels 
were constantly sought and too generously given 5 that when, in 1857, 
he exchanged a portion, and a few years later, the whole, of his profes- 
sional duties for the office of United States assayer, these requisitions 
upon his time became more numerous and- urgent.* In addition to the 
ordinary duties of his office, which he fulfilled to the end with punc- 
tilious faithfulness, (signing the last of his daily reports upon the very 
day of his death, and quietly telling his son and assistant that he need 
not bring him any more,) he was frequently requested by the head of 
the Treasury Department to undertake the solution of difficult problems, 
especially those relating to counterfeiting, or to take charge of some 
delicate or confidential commission, the utmost reliance being placed 
upon liis skill, wisdom, and probity. 

In two instances these commissions were made i^ersonally gratifying, 
not by pecuniary payment, which, beyond his simple expenses, he did 
not receive, but by the opportunity they afforded to recruit failing 
health and to gather floral treasures. Eight years ago he was sent by 
the Treasury Department to California by way of the Isthmus; last sum- 
mer he w-eut again across the continent; and in both cases enjoyed the 

*■ It ought to be added that, Avhen the Government assay-office at New York was 
established, the Secretary of the Treasury selected Dr. Torrey to be its superintendent, 
Avhich would have given to the establishment the advantage of a scientific head. 
But Dr. Torrey resolutely declined the less laborious and better ijaid post, and took in 
preference one the emoluments of which Avere much below his worth and the valuable 
extraneous services he rendered to the Government, simply because he was unwilling 
to accex^t the care and resx^onsibility of treasure. 



LIFE AND LABOES OF PROF. JOHN TORREY. 217 

rare pleasure of viewing in their native soil, and plucking with his own 
hands, many a flower which he had himself named and described from 
dried specimens in the herbarium, and in which he felt a kind of pater- 
nal interest. Perhaps this interest culminated last summer, when he 
stood on the flank of the lofty and beautiful snow-clad peak to which a 
grateful former pupil and ardent explorer, ten years before, gave his 
name, and gathered charming alpine plants which he had himself named 
lifty years before, when the botany of the Colorado Eocky Mountains 
was first opened. That age and fast-failing strength had not dimmed 
his enjoyment may be inferred from his remark, when, on his return 
from Florida the x)revious spring, with a grievous cough allayed, he was 
rallied for having gone to seek Ponce de Leon's I ountain of Youth. 
"iSTo," said he, "give me the Fountain of Old Age. The longer I live 
the more I enjoy life." He evideutlj" did so. If never robust, he was 
rarely ill, and his last sickness brought little sufiering and no diminution 
of his characteristic cheerfulness. To him, indeed, never came the " evil 
days" of which he could say, " I have no pleasure in them." 

Evincing in age much of the ardor and all of the ingenuousness of 
youth, he enjoyed the society of young men and students, and was help- 
ful to them long after he ceased to teach, if, indeed, he ever did cease; 
for, as Emeritus Professor in Columbia College, (with which his old 
medical school was united,) he not only opened liis herbarium, but gave 
some lectures almost every j^ear, and as a trustee of the college for many 
years he rendered faithful and important service. His large and truly 
invaluable herbarium, along with a clioice botanical library, he several 
years ago made over to Columbia College, which, charges itself with it's 
safe preservation and maintenance. 

Dr. Torrey leaves three daughters, a son, vvho has been appointed 
United States assayer in his father's })lace, and a grandson. 

This sketch of Dr. Torrey 's public life and works, Ydiich it is our main 
duty to exhibit, would fall short of its object if it did not convey, however 
briefly and incidentally, some just idea of what manner of man he was. 
That he was earnest, indefatigable, and able, it is needless to say. His 
gifts as a teacher were largely proved, and are widely known through a 
long generation of pupils. As an investigator, he was characterized by 
a scrupulous accuracy, a remarkable fertility of mind, especially as shown 
in devising ways and means of research, and perhaps by some excess of 
caution. 

Other biographers will doubtless dwell upon the more personal aspects 
and characteristics of our distinguished and lamented associate. To 
them, indeed, may fittingly be left rhe full delineation and illustration 
of the traits of a singularly transparent, genial, delicate and conscien- 
tious, unselfish character, which beautified and fructiiied a most indus- 
trious and useful life, and won the affection of all who knew him. For 
one thing, they cannot fail to notice his thorough love of truth for its 
own sake, and his entire confidence that the legitim.ate results of sci- 



218 LIFE AND LABORS OF PROF. JOHN TORREY. 

entific inquiry would never be inimical to tlie Cliristian religion, which 
he held with an untroubled faitb, and illustrated most naturally and 
unpretendingly in all his life and conversation. In this, as well as in 
the simplicity of his character, he much resembled Faraday. 

Dr. Torrey was an honorary or corresponding member of a goodly 
number of the scientific societies of Europe, and was naturally connected 
with all prominent institutions of the kind in this country. He was 
chosen into the American Academy in the year 1841. He was one of the 
cori^orate members of the IS'ational Academy at Washington. He pre- 
sided in his turn over the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. He was twice, for considerable periods, president of the 
ISTew York Lyceum of Natural History, which was in those days one of 
the foremost of our scientific societies. It has been said of him that the 
sole distinction on which he prided himself was his membership in the 
Order of the Cincinnati, the only honor in this country which comes by 
inheritance. 

As to the customary testimonial which the botanist receives from his fel- 
lows, it is fortunate that the first attempts were nugatory. Almost in his 
yoiith a genus was dedicated to him by his correspondent Sprengel : this 
proved to be a Clerodendroiij misunderstood. A second, proposed by 
Eafinesque, was founded on an artificial dismemberment of Gypretis. 
The ground was clear, therefore, when, thirty or forty years ago, a new 
and remarkable evergreen tree was discovered in our own Southern 
States, which it was at once determined should bear Dr. Torrey's name. 
More recently a congener was found in the noble forests of California. 
Another species had already been recognized in Japan, and lately a fourth 
in the mountains of Northern China. All four of them have been intro- 
duced, and are greatly prized as ornamental trees in Europe ; so that, all 
round the world, Torreya taxifoUa, Torreya Galifornica^ Torreya nuci- 
fera^ and Torreya grandis — as well as his own important contributions 
to botany, of w^hich they are a memorial — sliould keep our associate's 
memory as green as their own perpetual verdure. 



A MEMORIAL OF GEORGE GIBBS. 



By John Austin Stj:vens, Jr. 



[The subject of the following memorial, George Gibbs, was for mauy years au active 
collaborator of the Sraithsouiau Institution, especially in the line of ethnology. He 
had charge of all the Indian vocabularies which had been collected by the Institution, 
and was preparing them for publication at the time of his death. The valuable and 
laborious service which he rendered to this Institution was entirely gratuitous, and in 
his death this establishment as well as the cause of science lost an ardent friend 
and important contributor to its advancement. The following tribute to his memory, 
by John A. Stevens, jr., read before the New York Historical Society, October 7, 1873, 
finds a proper i)lace for republication in the annual report of this institution to which 
be rendered such signal service. — J. H.] 

George Gibbs, so loDg fariiiliar to the members of tliis society as its 
unwavering and faithful friend, and for many years its librarian and cus- 
todian, has passed from the scenes of his busy and useful life to that 
sphere in which all histories of this finite existence find their sum and 
complement. 

The son of Col. George Gibbs, of the Newport, E. I., family of that 
name, and of Laura Wolcott, he was born on the ITtli July, 1815, at 
Sauswick, Long Island, near the village of Hallett's Cove, now known 
as Astoria. His father was a man of singular culture and talent. Brill- 
iant in conversation, polished in manners, and of large and various 
experience of men and life. Colonel Gibbs was one of the marked men 
of his day, and his large mansion at Sunswick was the seat of a broad 
and elegant hospitality rarely to be met with in this countr}" at that time. 
As an instance of the extent of this hospitality, it may be stated that 
during the cholera-summer of 1832 several families found refuge here 
and at the lodge during the whole time of the pestilence. The beauti- 
ful mansion, with its front upon the East Kiver at one of its most 
picturesque points, and its rear opening upon a broad inward landscape 
of fertile farm-fields, was then one of the landmarks of the river. And its 
stone descent from the terrace to the shore still marks the old house, 
which is now occupied as the Convent of the Sacred Heart. In Colonel 
Gibbs's day, fine horses and dogs were always to be found about a gen- 
tleman's residence. Passionately fond of field-sports, he was constantly 
at the south side of Long Island, where deer and small game were then 
the certain reward of the day's hunt, and his son was often his compan- 
ion. For access to the city, he had for years a small yacht, which he 
styled the Laura. His gardens were celebrated for the character and 
abundance of their splendid crops. To these, as to all that he touched. 



220 MEMORIAL OF GEORGE GIBBS. 

Colonel Gibbs brought the resources of his well-stored mind. Within 
was Ills fine library, abounding in the works of the best authors, and 
ill many tongues; added to this, a mineralogical collection. It may be 
here mentioned that the extensive and valuable collection now in the 
possession of Yale College was made by Colonel Gibbs himself while 
abroad. These incidents in the life of the father are alluded to here as 
having a direct bearing upon the career of the son. 

The mother of George Gibbs was Laura Wolcott, daughter of 
Oliver Wolcott, the Secretary of the Treasury under Washington 
and the elder Adams, one of tlie fathers of the couutry. It is not 
needful in this city, where her true, brave character, her well-stored 
and independent mind are stiirfresh in remembrance, to dwell upon the 
influence of such training upon her rising family. The original purpose 
of Colonel Gibbs was to give his son a West Point education and to fit 
him for an army career; this "and the navy were at that time considered 
as the onl}' true occupations for the sons of gentlemen. As a prelimin- 
ary step he was sent to the Eound Hill School, at Northampton, Mass., 
then kept by Mr. George Bancroft, the historian, and Mr. Cogswell, the 
late learned and distinguished superintendent of the Astor Library. 
At seventeen, it having been found impossible to secure for the youth an 
appointment to the Military Academy — political favor then, as now, 
being mdisi^ensable to success — he was taken to Europe by his maiden 
aunt. Miss Sarah Gibbs, and for two years enjoyed the advantage of 
foreign travel, observation, and study, the influence of which upon Ms 
education and character w^as never lost. Though the family were disap- 
pointed in tlieir wish to enter the eldest son as a military student, their 
efforts were not relaxed ; as the one grew beyond the age at which alone 
the candidate is eligible, the claim for an appointment was transferred 
to tlie next son, and as persistently urged. Those who know the family 
on both sides of the honse know of the unwavering determination with 
which they press to the point in view. The second son, in turn, was 
compelled to give up his ambition, and entered Columbia College, to 
take high rank as a scholar, and is now well known as tlie professor of 
chemistry at Harvard College. Later, a third son, the late Maj. Gen. 
Aided Gibbs, received the long-sought commission, and history has 
already inscribed his gallant deeds on her imperishable scroll. 

On his return from Europe, George Gibbs commenced the reading of 
law, and in 1838 took his degree of bachelor of law at Harvard Univer- 
sity. His first essay in literature w^as here made. In 1834, the very 
year of his entrance, he published, at Cambridge, a work entitled "The 
Judicial Chronicle, being a list of the judges of the courts of common 
law and chancery in England and America, and of the contemporary 
reports irom the earliest period of the reports to the present time,'' in 
octavo. On his return to New York he entered the law-office of the 
late Prescott Hall, and by degrees attached himself to his profession 
and engaged in such practice as he could obtain. With this agreeable 



MEMOEIAL OF GEORGE GIBBS. 221 

and genial gentleman he continued the most friendly and intimate 
relations until liis death. A great part of his time, however, he passed 
in the country. His enrly taste for an out-door life always clung to 
him. Shooting and fishing were his favorite amusements, diversified 
with a practical and useful attention to geology and natural history. 
When the family removed to the cil^^ from Sunsvdck, in 1835, he had 
already made and mounted with his own hands a large collection of 
birds, and he had also gathered together a considerable mineralogical 
cabinet. The latter he sent to New Haven, as a gift to be added to his 
father's collection. These early tastes mark the natural tendency of his 
mind, and his whole career shows how strongly they were implanted in 
his nature; how^ foreign to his general intellectual bias must have been 
the i3lodding and confinement of the study of the law. Earlj^ he seems 
to have mgde his election as between science and law, although the 
crippled condition in which his father's death left the family estates did 
not allow of his deserting that i^rofession which he had adopted and to 
which he looked for his ow^n support. Nor could he ever have contented 
himself with the dry study of Blackstone and Cbitty, or any other of 
the law worthies. His taste for literature was too catholic for this, and 
his intellectual rambles about his fathers library had opened too many 
vistas of charming pasturage for him to stay his appetite with the dry 
food of legal disquisition. He showed this taste even in the practice of 
his profession. He gave himself up with hearty zeal to the historical 
branch of conveyancin-j', and made valuable collections of titles and 
abstracts in this department of law. 

George Gibbs loved literature. He was familiar with all the good 
old books which our fathers w; re wont to read. He loved the strong 
and Saxon language of the earlier day — of Latimer and Hall, of Swift 
and Sterne, of Bolingbroke and Shaftesbury. The cast of his mind 
was puritanic in its stern hatred of new-fangled notions and new fash- 
ioned phrases. He loved with his grand sonorous voice to roll out the 
verses of the old covenanter hymns or the paraphrases of the psalms 
of Sir Philip Sydney, a "pure well of English undefiled." He loved 
politics also. Ardent in all that he engaged in, he soon found himself 
occupied in a history of the times of Washington and Adams, and a 
vindication of the policy of his grandfather as Secretary of the Treasury 
and a member of the cabinet of John Adams. The hot feud between 
the federalists and the republicans had not died out, and the young- 
polemic took up the "burning brand," which in those days was indeed 
passed on from sire to son as thoroughly as ever by Scottish partisan in 
Scottish feud. To use his own words, Mr. Gibbs " felt himself not only 
the vindicator, but in some sort the avenger, of a bygone i^arty and a 
buried race." 

This work occupied a great part of his time. He embraced in it the 
correspondence of Oliver Wolcott, and it stands to-day as a text-book 
of the history of the day — as an unquestioned authority upon the per- 



222 MEMOKIAL OF GEORGE GIBBS. 

sonages and the politics of that stirring period. It is written in strong, 
nervous style, AYith great clearness and simplicity. It is questionable 
whether at the time the publication of these volumes was of benent to 
the young lawyer. The law in those days was supposed to allow of no 
divided suit for her favor, and literary lawyers received few briefs. 
This publication, under the title of " The Memoirs of the Administration 
of Washington and Adams, edited from the papers of Oliver Wolcott, 
Secretary of the Treasury," was printed in 1846, in two volumes octavo. 

In 1848 an event occurred which strangely affected the minds of all 
those restless spirits who chafed under the confinement of city life, and 
yearned for the freedom of nature. Gold-fields were discovered in Cali- 
fornia. The wonders of the fifteenth century were renewed in the very 
current of our daily life, and a new El Dorado opened an inviting field 
for adventurous character. Dissatisfied with the dull routine of a slug- 
gish practice, and urged on by "his unwearied taste for practical scientific 
research, Mr. Gibbs took advantage of an occasion which the march of 
the Mounted Eifles overland from Saint Louis to California afforded him, 
and accompanied them to Oregon, where he established himself at Colum- 
bia. 

Before he left New York he had taken a lively interest in politics, and 
was an active member of the whig party. Not a man to remain quiet 
when his feelings were aroused, he soon became prominent among men 
of the whig opinion, and was a leader in the councils of the young 
men's committee. Wben Mr. Fillmore succeeded to the Presidency of 
the United States, Mr. Gibbs received, in 1854, the appointment of col- 
lector of the port of Astoria, which he held during his administration. 
Later he removed from Oregon to Washington Territory, and settled 
upon a ranch a few miles from Fort Steilacoom, at a small settlement 
called by the same name. Here he had his headquarters for several 
years, devoting himself to the study of the Indian languages, and to the 
collection of voc,.ibularies and traditions of the northwestern tribes. 
During a great part of the time he was attached to the United States 
Government commission in laying the boundary as the geologist or 
botanist of the expedition. Each commission in turn sought eagerly for 
the aid of his practical experience, his varied and extensive acquirements, 
and the comfort of his brave, cheerful, genial nature. He was specially 
attached as geologist to the survey of a railroad-route to the Pacific 
under Major (afterward General) Stevens. His associates on this expe- 
dition were Drs. George Suckley and J. G. Cooper as naturalists, to 
whose reports Mr. Gibbs made large contributions. 

In 1857 he was appointed to the northwest boundary survey, under Mr. 
Archibald Campbell as commissioner, with General J. G. Parke as chief 
engineer, and after the close of the survey prepared an elaborate report 
on the geology and natural history of the country. 

It must not be supposed that the life in Oregon in those days was a 
life of ease or leisure — rather a rude struggle with nature for even exist- 



MEMOKIAL OF GEORGE GIBBS. ' 223 

euce — weeks and months in the cold and heat, amid snows and rain, 
surrounded by the savage beasts of the forest, and exposed at times to 
the treacherous attacks of the wikl Indian or the more dangerous whites, 
who, breaking loose from their frail attachment to society, spread over 
the Territories, and returned practically to the original state of man. Yet 
with all this there was a charm which none who have experienced it 
have ever forgotten ; not alone " the pleasure in the pathless woods," 
nor yet the " society where none intrudes," but that intimate relation of 
man with? man, of mind with mind, that fellowship, in the midst of 
solitude and danger, of a body of cultivated and intellectual men, all 
serving one common cause, and all impelled by one common impulse — 
that cause the prosperity of their nati^e country — that impulse the love 
of science. He who has witnessed the meeting of those friends, most of 
them of West Point education — Army men all — has not failed to note with 
admiration — with which even regret mingled, that such was not his lot — 
the affectionate relations which neither time nor distance, nor the natural 
separation which life always brings, seemed sensibly to affect or weaken. 

Many a one fell face to the foe in the dreadful struggle which brought 
every man home from his distant T)ost. One by one they drop away and 
join the increasing column in that undiscovered country whose boun- 
daries no human eye shall ever survey, and whose wonders no human 
tongue shall ever tell, where the pale-face and the red-man shall meet 
in brotherhood, and speak one common language. To the close of his 
life Mr. Gibbs continued warm friendships contracted amid these wild 
scenes. His intimacies were to a great extent with Army men, but his 
friends were in all ranks of society. Few men had such a large acquaint- 
ance as he, and few lived more loved and died more mourned. During his 
whole life at the West he never failed to write once or twice a week to 
his family. His letters are full of graphic description of life and nature, 
and should be published. No better contribution could be made to the 
history of the early days of these settlements. 

In 1860, Mr. Gibbs returned to Kew York, not intending to remain per- 
manently. Nature still whispered her tender song in his ear, and would 
no doubt have charmed him to her bidding but for the outbreak of the 
war. This brought with it other occupations and other duties. Too 
uncertain in health for continuous service, and even then laboring under 
the painful disease which finally brought him down, he threw himself, 
with his strong character, his great perseverance, and his abundant 
energy, into the service of the Union in another form. He was an early 
and active member of the Loyal National League, which did so much 
to crystallize public opinion in the second year of the war, and also of 
the Loyal Publication Society, which distributed such masses of tracts 
and healthy patriotic literature over the whole country. Of great per- 
sonal bravery, he was always ready to expose life in defense of princi- 
ple. In Washington, during the dark hours of March and April, 1861, 
he took his musket and went upon duty to guard the Capitol at the 



224 MEMOEIAL OF GEORGE GIBBS. 

first sign of danger. And in the New York riots he sought the phice 
of greatest peri!, and vohmteered for the defense of the house of Gen- 
eral E'reinont , when a night attack was threatened. Ho was not a man 
to ask another to do that which he was not ready to do himself. 

Later lie resided in Washington, and was mainly employed in the 
Hudson Bay Claims Commission, to which he was secretary. He was 
also engaged in the arrangement of a large mass of manuscript bearing 
upon the ethnology and philology of the American Indians. His serv- 
ices were nvailed of by the Smithsonian Institution to superintend its 
labors in this (Jelcl, and to his energy and complete knowledge of the 
subject it greatly owes its success in this branch of service. 

He published, some years since, a series of the vocabularies of the 
Clammal, Lummi, and Chinook languages, and of the Chinook jar- 
gon, besides other tracts of a similar kind; and at the time of his 
death was engaged in superintending the printing for the Smithsonian 
Institution of a quarto volume of American Indian vocabularies, and 
had fortunately arranged and carefully criticised many hundred f?eries 
before his death. This publication Vvill continue under the direction of 
Piof. W. D. Whitney, J. H. Trumbull, LL. D., and Prof. Roehrig. 
His large collection of papers on the intlian languages, of translations 
ol many and curious legends, all of incalculable value to science, has 
been bequeathed to the Smithsonian Institution, his numerous maps 
and charts to the Geographical Society, and such of his books as were 
suitable for the purpose to this society. 

In 1871 Mr. Gibbs married his cousin, Miss Mary Kane Gibbs, of 
Newport, E. I., and removed to New Haven, where he died on the 9th 
of April, 1873. Though a great sufferer at times from a chronic disease 
of the most painful character, his last years were happy beyond the 
common lot. His house was celebrated for its simple, unaffected hospi- 
tality, and was the resort of a cbartning circle of refined and cultivated 
people. 

To whatever work Mr. Gibbs was engaged he devoted his whole heart 
and every energy he possessed. This historical society owes its present 
prosperity as much to his aids as to those of any person. Its revival, 
in 1810, was largely owing to his determined efforts; its librarian for 
six years, from 1812 to 1818, and long a leading member of the execu- 
tive committee and library committees, he never wearied in his efforts 
to promote its prosperity. Its frequenters have not forgotten his hale 
and hearty presence, his genial manner,, his cheerfaltemper. Honest to 
the requirement of the ancient philosopher, generous to a fault, though 
in his varied life he had received but small aid from fortune, he was 
one of the warmest-hearted, most charitable of men. Who will soon 
forget his plain, outspoken, manly, and unvarnished speech, his indig- 
nant denunciation of wrong, his hatred of oppression? The edge of 
his speech did not always carry the polish of the scimitar, but its blow 
fell heavy as that of the battle -ax. 



MEMOEIAL OF GEOEGE GIBBS. 225 

He was a man ; truth was his element ; no fraud or humljug throve 
m his society. He was as bold to expose as he was quick to see through 
false pretense. For this he was thought by some as uncompromising 
beyond reason. He had no enemies. He bore no malice. His was not 
a nature to see faults in others which were foreign to itself. His 
friendships were always warm ; his antipathies were rarely i)ersoual. 
His faults were all those of a large, generous nature, such as one may 
look to find in the broad, deep-chested, sbort-statured man, whose large 
play of vital functions keeps him forever harshly busy until the whole 
machine breaks down in one crash. 

How to speak of his domestic character ! A more lovely nature never 
breathed. Many an eye moistened as it met the mournful notice of his 
death. Many a one felt that one of those true friends on whom abso- 
lute, entire reliance might always be placed, had gone and left a void 
there is no filling. One mourned him as a brother. Broth erless him- 
self, he had been wont from early years to attach himself to this frank, 
noble nature. The attachment of the child for the youth streugthened 
into friendship as manhood found both on the same level, and through 
long years of personal intimacy when together and of correspondence 
when separated, that friendship remained unbroken by a word of 
quarrel, unshadowed by a look of unkindness. The survivor may be 
forgiven that, deprived by an ocean's breadth from the fulfillment of the 
last office of friendship) to his more than kin, he pours out here an 
offering of memory and affection to his silent shade. 
« 
15 S 



THE ORIGm AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 



A discourse lefore the Neiv York Academy of Medicine, ivith additions. 
By John C. Dalton, M. D. 



The anniversary meeting of the Academy of Medicine may be regarded 
as a sort of annual conference, in which one of its members is deputed 
to offer to the Academy a short address upon some topic of general pro- 
fessional interest, and more or less appropriate to the time. Perhaps 
we can hardly employ the occasion to-night in a more suitable way than 
by endeavoring to see what, on the whole, is the direction in which 
medical thought is now most active; to cast the professional horoscope, 
so to speak, for the present, and to anticipate, as nearly as may be, what 
we are to expect from it in the immediate future. 

Not that we should be willing to claim the gift of prophecy or to place 
too much confidence in delusive flights of the imagination. Medicine 
is essentially a skeptical science, and very ijroperly regards with dis- 
approval anything which claims her attention without offering, at the 
same time, unmistakable guarantees of respectability. But there may be 
a kind of anticipation which is really a scientific one. Within the past 
two or three years we have seen our own Meteorological Bureau triumijh 
over what was proverbially the most difficult of all popular j)uzzles, and 
foretell the weather of each day with a certainty which has excited our 
surprise and admiration. With telegraph-lines from all over the 
continent converging to the central office at Washington, the chief 
of the Bureau can trace, from hour to hour, the progress of a meteor- 
ological change, moving, with uniform or accelerated speed, from Saint 
Paul to Milwaukee, from Milwaukee to Detroit, from Detroit to Buf- 
falo 5 and he knows that within a given period it will reach ISTew York, 
with almost as much certainty as though he stood on the top of a watch- 
tower and saw it coming. Within such limits as these it may perhaps 
be allowable sometimes to indulge in surmises, even in the strictest and 
most exacting of the natural sciences. 

Is there anything in the aspect and condition of any part of medicine 
to-day that looks like a change in the scientific barometer ? Can we see 
such a tendency in the medical mind at present as woukl suggest what 
may fairly be callecl a new movement — in which successive ideas and 
discoveries are not only accumulating as heretofore, but in which they 
also seem to be taking, or about to take, a new interiDretation ; so as to 



THE OEIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 2 '2 7 

give expression, in definite terms, to a doctrine which has heretofore had 
only a vague and uncertain existence ? 

If there be any one direction in which progress is now so marked as 
to constitute a dominant feature of the present state of medicine, and to 
embrace a practically new medical idea, I should say it was that of the 
origin and propagation of disease hy independent organic germs. Perhaps 
it would be wrong to say that this doctrine is even yet distinctly formu- 
lated. It is certainly far from being definitely established as a general 
truth. Some very wild and reckless statements have been made in regard 
to it by observers possessed of more zeal than knowledge ; and some 
elaborate but baseless theories relating to the^ specific development and 
transformation of organic germs have been tried at the bar of scientific 
investigation, and, being convicted of incomj)etency, have sulfered ac- 
cordingly the just penalty of extermination. Perhaps the doctrine 
itself will also be finally abandoned. It may be that the evidence in its 
favor, which is yet only partial, will hereafter lose its special signifi- 
cance; and the appearances which now seem to sustain it may come to 
be naturally explained in some other way. Still there can be no doubt 
that the idea is at present entertained, and that it is by no means con- 
fined to the minds of careless or irresponsible theorizers. So far, it ex- 
ists in the form rather of a scientific instinct than of a positive belief; 
and its gray light hangs about the edge of the medical horizon like the 
coming dawn of a new period. 

Now, can this instinct of the medical mind be justified in any way ? 
Are there any facts and discoveries, already established beyond the 
possibility of doubt, which have naturally led it in this direction, and 
which point, like the telegraphic reports of successive meteorological 
stations, to a continuous and definite movement of scientific pathology? 

I think it really began many years ago, in the early investigation of 
parasitic diseases. Perhaps we can hardly include under this designa- 
tion the effects produced by ordinary intestinal worms, like taenia or 
ascaris, because the animal and parasitic nature of these worms was 
perfectly palpable, and could not be mistaken by any one. But scabies 
was on a different footing. It was a contagious, eruptive affection, 
capable of spreading over a large portion of the body, and of giving the 
patient great discomfort ; and, when it was found to be due simply to the 
presence and propagation of a parasitic insect, the discovery was a 
great achievement, and for the first time made it possible to have a dis- 
tinct and rational comprehension of the origin of the disease, as well as 
of its propagation and means of cure. A remarkable circumstance in 
the history of our knowledge in regard to Sarcoptes scabiei is, that its 
discovery in the present century was in fact a rediscovery of something 
which had been known centuries before and long forgotten ; or, at least, 
the method of finding the insect having been lost, the most eminent 
dermatologists of forty years ago had never seen it, and were really in 
doubt as to its existence. However, this uncertainty was terminated in 



228 THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

1834, by the Corsican student Eenucci, and the study of its structure 
and development was afterward accoinplished by Easpail and Bour- 
guignon ; so that our knowledge, both of the disease and its parasite, 
was then placed upon a permanent footing. 

Perhaps the most suggestive part of this discovery related to the 
reproduction of the parasite, the manner in which the female lays her 
eggs in galleries excavated in the skin, and the time required for the 
hatching and dispersion of the young, because this showed a direct 
connection between the local spread of the disease and the increase, by 
ordinary sexual generation, of the young brood of the parasite. How- 
ever, there was nothing very remarkable in the mode of this genera- 
tion. The eggs of the female were deposited and hatched in the usual 
way, and the young sarcojjtes came to resemble their parents after a 
very short and regular period of development. 

But ten or fifteen years later a discovery was made with regard to 
some of the internal parasites which had a character of unexpected 
peculiarity; that was, the specific identity of two parasites formerly 
supposed to be distinct, namely, cysticercus and tmnia. These two 
worms — so unlike in their size, their general configuration, and even in 
the species of animal which they inhabit — were shown by the researches 
of Siebold and Kiichenmeister to be only different stages of growth 
of the same creature — one the encysted and quiescent, the other the 
intestinal and reproductive form. The well-known experiments carried 
on in tbis investigation showed furthermore the regular and natural 
conversion of these two forms into each other 5 and thus we came fully 
to understand that the existence of tape-worm in man was owing to his 
having eaten measly pork containing cysticercus^ and that the pig be- 
came contaminated with cysticercus by devouring the eggs or the egg- 
bearing articulations of Timia solium. The knowledge of the alternation 
of generations and of the migration of parasites from one habitat to 
another at different periods of their development became in this way con- 
nected with the i)athology and mode of propagation of certain well- 
known and perfectly distinct morbid affections. 

But so far, perhaps, these morbid affections hardly deserved the name 
of diseases. They were simply local disorders, due to the presence of a 
parasitic intruder in the substance of the skin or in the cavity of the 
intestinal canal. It was another thing to learn, some years later, that 
a microscopic parasite might diffuse itself generally throughout the 
system, and thus give rise to a rapid and fatal train of symptoms hardly 
distinguishable from those of any febrile constitutional disease. No 
doubt ca«es of infection by Trichina spiralis have always occurred as 
frequently as they do now. But previous to the year 1850 the milder 
ones in all probability were supposed to be rheumatic in their origin, 
while the fatal cases passed for fevers of a typhoid character. There 
were even epidemics of the trichinous affection, as there are of typhoid 
fever and influenza; and, w^hen the true character of the disease be- 



THE OEIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 229 

came known, it was perfectly evident liow tliese epidemics originated 
and exactly how far they might extend. Each one was commenced by 
the slaughter and preparation for food of a trichinous pig 5 and the pa- 
tients affected were precisely those who had introduced into their sys- 
tems ever so small a portion of the infectious food. 

In this instance, also, there was found to be an unexpected relation be- 
tween two different forms of the same parasite. Trichina sj)iralis had 
been known since 1830 ; but it had yet been seen only in its quiescent, 
encysted form, embedded in the muscular tissue, without movement or 
reproduction. Consequently, though we were familiar with the worm 
itself, Ave knew nothing of the disease produced by it. Its new growth 
and active reproduction in the intestinal canal, the swarming emigra- 
tion of its innumerable progeny, and the constitutional symptoms which 
followed, were a new revelation, and showed that the whole system, as 
well as a particular organ or tissue, might suffer from the effects of para- 
sitic contamination. 

In all the affections which have now been enumerated, the parasite is 
one of ^n animal nature, with regular generative apparatus and active 
sexual reproduction. But the last thirty years have seen a very remark- 
able advance also in our knowledge of the vegetable parasites. This has 
naturally coincided with a similar activity among scientific botanists 
in the study of the simpler forms of vegetation, the cryptogamic plants in 
general, and particularly of the microscopic fungi and algae. A little over 
a half a century ago the species of flowering plants described by bota- 
.nists were much more numerous than the cryptogams ; but now the pro- 
portions of the two classes are reversed. In 1818, according to Mr. 
Cooke,* an eminent British botanist, '' less than eighty of the more mi- 
nute species of fungi, but few of which deserved the name of micro- 
scopic, were supj)osed to contain all then known of these wonderful 
organisms. Since that x)eriod microscopes have become very different 
instruments ; and one result has been the increase of the 564 species of 
British fungi to 2,479. By far the greater number of the species thus 
added depend for their specific characters upon microscopical exam- 
ination. At the present time the number of British species of flowering 
plants scarcely exceeds three-fourths of the number of fungi alone, not 
to mention ferns, mosses, algse, and lichens." 

A large proportion of these microscopic plants are parasitic upon other 
organisms; and for the earliest study of them, as connected with dis- 
ease in the human subject, we are indebted to the dermatologists. 

The first discovery of parasitic vegetation in cutaneous affections was 
by Schonlein, in 1839,t who found, in the crust oifavus, cryptogamic vege- 
table filaments ramifying in the diseased growth. In 1841 Gruby made 
a similar observation,!: and described accurately both the mycelium fila- 

* " Introduction to the Study of Microscopic Fungi," London, 1870, p. 45. 

t Muller's Archiv for 1839 ; cited in Robin's " V6g6taux parasites," Paris, 1853, p. 477. 

i "Comptes Eendus derAcad6mie des Sciences," 1841, tome xiii, pp. 72, 309. 



230 THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

ments and tlie spores. He asserted tliem to be always present in cases 
of favus, and declared that the malady itself was essentially "nothing 
but a vegetation." The parasite thus described proved to be the same 
with that previously seen by Schonlein, and it was afc last definitely 
known by the name of Achorion Schdnleinii. 

Gruby continued his examinations, and in 1844 discovered a micro- 
scopic vegetation growing upon the skin, in a case of Porrigo decalvans ;* 
and the same parasite, the Tricliophyton tonsurans, has since been recog- 
nized as a constant accompaniment of Tinea sycosis and Tinea circinnata. 

Finally, Microsporoii furfur was discovered by Eichstedt, in 1846,t as 
a parasitic vegetation in Tinea versicolor ; so that within seven or eight 
years three distinct microscoi)ic fungi were discovered and recognized as 
occurring in diseased conditions of the human skin. 

Now, the first question which naturally came up in relation to the dis- 
covery was this : Is the microscopic fungus the cause of the disease, or 
is the disease the cause of the fungus? Either of these two suppositions 
might be the true one. In the first place, the fungus, by its accidental 
presence and growth in the skin, might excite all the irritation aad mor- 
bid discharges characteristic of the malady. On the other hand, its 
presence might be altogether secondary, and a result of the morbid ac- 
tion instead of its cause. Every vegetable requires a soil suited to its 
growth. Tbe fungus-germs might be incapable of fastening themselves 
upon the healthy skin, but might readily flourish in the decomposing 
mixture of inflammatory exudations. This question, in the earlier 
stages of the investigation, presented a real difficulty. Henle, in 1840, 
believed thixt Achorion Bchonleinii-wix^ merely' an incidental formation in 
the crust of favus, while Remak and others regarded it as the cause and 
essential element of the disease. 

1^0 w, how was this difficulty to be settled"^ If Tinea tonsurans is 
always accompanied by trichopliyton^ and if trichophyton is never found 
upon the skin except in some form of tinea, how can we tell which of 
these two is the cause and which the consequence of the other? 

The test of this is twofold: 1. Inoculation of the parasite and repro- 
duction of the disease 5 2. Destruction of the parasite and cure of the 
disease. 

Both of these tests have been successfully carried out. The inocula- 
tion of Achorion Schdnlenii was accomplished by Remak,| in 1840, and 
subsequently by Bennett,§ Hebra, Vogel, Bazin,|| Kobner and Deffisj 
that of Trichophyton by Defifisff and Kobner 5** and, finally, that of 

* " Comptes Reudus de I'Acaddmie des Sciences," tome xviii, p. 583. 
t Cited iu Robia's " Vegetaux parasites," Paris, 1853, p. 438. 
X Cited in Robin; "Vegetanx Parasites," Paris, 1853, p. 477. 
^ "Principles and Practice of Medicine," New York, 1867, p. 850. 
II "Affections cutan6es parasites," Paris, 1858, p. 56. 
% Bazin, "Affections cntanees parasites," j). 147. 
** Sclimidt's " Jajirbiiclier," cxx-si, p. 260. 



THE OEIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 231 

Microsporo7i, by Kobner,* in 1864. The fungus-spores, transplanted upon 
the skin of other individuals, or upon other parts of the skin of the 
patient, after a certain interval germinate and multiply, and so create a 
secondary focus of the disease. The contagious character of the malady 
is thus seen to depend, not upon a virus, in the old sense of the word, 
but upon the actual communication of reproductive germs, which give 
origin in their new location to a vegetative growth similar to the old. 
The vegetable growth, therefore, precedes the disease, and must be 
regarded as its cause rather than its consequence. 

The actual transportation of these germs through the air is also a 
matter of demonstration. Lemairef placed glass jars filled with ice in a 
shallow basin, so that the condensed moisture of the atmosphere, depos- 
ited upon the cold sides of the glass, might trickle down and collect in 
the basin below. He then applied friction to the head of a boy with 
favtis, near by, and found that the spores of achorion were floated by 
the air-currents for a distance of twenty inches into contact with the 
jars; and then, being entangled by the condensed moisture, were carried 
down into the basin. He sometimes found as many as thirty spores in 
a single drop of condensed moisture. 

The second part of the test is equally well established. I presume 
that dermatologists are now fully agreed that, for all cutaneous affections 
known to be characterized by the presence of a microscopic fungus, the 
one essential element of cure is the application of some parasiticide which 
shall destroy the vitality of the fungus. Iodine, sulphurous acid, or mer- 
curial bichloride, by killing the vegetable, as sulphur-ointment kills the 
animal parasite of scabies, in simpler cases absolutely puts an end to the 
disorder, and in the more comx^licated ones leaves behind only secondary 
symptoms, which have no longer any specific or contagious character. 
Of course there are various points relating to these affections which are 
still more or less in doubt. Some microscopic cutaneous fungi have been 
described as distinct species, which have not received general recogni- 
tion, and some observers are disposed to question whether the three 
principal ones may not all be simple varieties or forms of development 
of the same plant. 

But there are similar j)oints of difference still existing among scientific 
botanists with regard to microscopic fungi in general 5 and I believe that 
the three principal facts of (1) specific parasitic vegetation as a cause of 
cutaneous disease; (2) its propagation by the transport and germination 
of spores; and (3) its treatment and cure by parasiticide applications, 
may now be regarded as wholly beyond a reasonable doubt. 

I have alreadj^ alluded to the remarkable activity of botanical research 
of late years in the department of cryptogamic vegetation. The most 
strikmg results have been attained by these investigations, in increased 
knowledge of the modes of development and reproduction of these organ- 

* Cited in Neumann's "Handbook of Skin-Diseases," translated byDr. L. D. Bulkley, 
New York, 1872, p. 434. 

t '•'Coniptes Eeudus de l'Acad6mie des Sciences," 1864, tome lix, p. 127. 



232 THE OEIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

isms. The phenomena of the so-called alternation of generations and of 
migration from one habitat or locality to another, are by no means con- 
fined to animal parasites. On the contrary, the most remarkable instances 
of both are to be found in cryptogamic vegetables. Fungi formerly 
regarded as distinct species, and even as belonging to different genera- 
are seen to be successive forms of the same plant, following each other 
in definite order through the regular cycle of their annual reproduction. 

The three fungi, known as Trichobasis^ Fuccinia, and JEcidium, appear 
in succession, as different members of the same specific generation, upon 
the cereal grains in summer and in autumn, and upon the barberry in 
the spring 5 while corresponding differences are to be seen in their spores 
and mode of germination at these different epochs. 

It would perhaps be difficult to imagine a scientific pursuit less likely 
to produce anything of value for practical medicine than the study of 
microscopic fungi growing as parasites upon other vegetables. And 
yet, if it should finally turn out that these minute researches are prelim- 
inary to the discovery of a means for preventing or controlling an epi- 
demic of scarlatina, we can say with truth that such a result would not 
be more remarkable than many which have actually followed from purely 
scientific investigations in chemistry and physics. 

At all events, it is certain that these botanical discoveries have had 
an important influence in directing medical research in the path which it 
is now following. It could hardly be otherwise, from the moment they 
were found to have a direct connection with certain epidemic diseases 
in the vegetable world, some of which are of great practical conse- 
quence to us as affecting the annual supply of food. 

Let me remind you of the history of our knowledge in regard to the 
disease known as the potato-rot. 

This disease first made its appearance, so far as we know, about 
thirty years ago. The most destructive season of that epidemic in this 
country was was in 1844.* Previously to that time, the annual crop of 
potatoes in the United States amounted to over one hundred million 
bushels ; but, in consequence of the blight, it was reduced in some parts 
of the country to one-half or even to one-quarter of the ordinary yield.f 

In 1845, it showeditself in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and spread 
with great rapidity. This is the account of it given by Mr. Cooke,| one 
of the highest authorities on that subject : 

^'It first apx)eared in the Isle of Wight, in the middle of August; a 
week afterward it had become general in the south of England, and at 
the end of a fortnight there were but few sound samples of potatoes in 
the Loudon market. The course of the disease was this : in the month 
of July or August the leaves of the vines would be suddenly seen to be 
marked with black spots. They then began to wither, and give off an 

* American Quarterly Journal of Agriculture and Science, January, 1845. 

t " Patent-Office Eeports, Department of Agriculture," 1856. 

X "Introduction to the Study of Microscopic Fungi," London, 1870, pp. 144, 146. 



THE OEIGIN AND PEOPAGATION OF DISEASE. 233 

offensive odor, and the disease spread so rapidly that the wliole vine 
would be blighted in a few days, and a field, which had before been cov- 
ered with a luxuriant growth, at the end of a fortnight was merely a 
scene of desolation, and looked as if it had been struck by a severe frost. 
If the potatoes were immediately dug out of the ground, many of them 
were found already partially decayed, or touched with brownish and soft- 
ened spots." 

The disease broke out again in 1854 and 1855, and was destructive in 
the State of New York, in Ehode Island, Massachusetts, Ohio, Illinois, 
and at various other points ;* and about 1865, or ten years later, it made 
its appearance for a third time. I am told by an old and experienced 
farmer of Washington County, iSTew York, that in 1864 and in 1865 the 
230tato-crop in that region was practically destroyed 5 so that often in a 
twenty-acre field there would not be a single good potato. Potatoes 
were usually to be had at that place for seventy-five cents per bushel, 
but in those years they were in some cases sold at eight dollars per 
bushel, for farmers' consumption. 

This destructive malady was at last found to be due to the ravages of 
a microscopic fungus, called, from its mode of fructifi-cation and its in- 
jurious effects, the Fero7iospora infestans. 

The fungus has a mycelium of fine, cylindrical, ramifying tubes. Its 
fructifying part consists of filaments which stand up vertically from the 
mycelium, dividing at the end into four or five branches, and each branch 
bears upon it several successive swellings, making a kind of sausage- 
like chain, whence its name of " PeroriosporaJ^ At the end of each 
chain there is a complete oval spore, and the spore, when ripe, detaches 
itself and germinates, to produce again a new mycelium. 

When the Feronospora is placed in contact with the leaves of a potato 
vine, its filaments j)enetrate into and through the epidermic cells, and 
so reach the intercellular tissue of the leaf and stem ; and there they con- 
tinue to grow, producing a rapid withering and blight. When the parasite 
has attained a certain growth, it begins to fructify. Its upright fila- 
ments burst through the pores of the leaves, and are crowned with 
the characteristic chain of spores. Each spore, when ripe, if supplied 
with moisture, produces six or seven secondary zoospores, armed with 
long vibrating cilia, and capable of a rapid spontaneous motion. After 
moving about for a short time, the zoospore becomes quiescent, throws 
out an elongated filament, and germinates afresh. 

It is no doubt in this way that the germ of the i3arasite reaches the 
tuber of the potato at the root of the vine. For if sound potatoes be 
placed in the ground, and the surface of the soil be sprinkled with the 
spores of Feronospora^ and then watered from time to time, the potatoes 
are found to be infested with the disease in about ten days.t 

* "Patent-Office Eeports, Department of Agriculture," 1856; "Massachusetts State 
Board of Agriculture," 1856. 

i Eobin, "Trait6 du Microscope," Paris, 1871, p. 967. 



234 THE OEIGIN AND PEOPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

So the fructification of tlie fuugtis naturally takes place upon the sur- 
face of the leaves of the potato-vine. The spores fall off, are carried by 
the rain into and through the soil, and so reach the potatoes beneath. 
Next year, when the infected ijotato-eyes are planted, germination begins 
again, the mycelium filaments grow upward through the stem and leaves, 
and in July or August fructification appears on the exterior as before. 

This species affords a good example of the extreme fecundity of the 
parasitic fungi. It has been estimated that, on the under surface of a' 
potato-leaf, one square line is capable of producing over three thousand 
spores. Each spore supplies at least six zoospores ; so that from one 
square line we may have nearly twenty thousand reproductive bodies, 
each capable of originating a new mycelium 5 and a square inch of sur- 
face may yield nearly three million such bodies. 

The mycelium filaments can penetrate the cellular tissue of a leaf in 
twelve hours, and, when established there, may grow and bear fruit in 
eighteen hours longer, while the spores are perfected and ready to ger- 
minate in twenty-four hours after they have been detached and placed in 
water. This fully explains the rapidity with which the disease is known 
to si)read. 

The subject of internal vegetable parasites is of the greater impor- 
tance, because we now know that they may attack animals as well as 
plants. The best illustration of these affections is perhaps the disease 
which, under the name of pebrine, has been so destructive to the silk- 
worm in France. Eight or ten years ago its effects were so serious that, 
in 1865, the annual production of silk in that country was reduced to 
less than one-sixth of its former average, and the loss in money-value 
for that year alone amounted to twenty million dollars.* It was due 
entirely to the influence of a microscopic vegetation, which destroyed 
the silk-worm, and was readily communicated to the neighboring broods. 

It is j)laiu, therefore, that the study of parasitic diseases, for many 
years, has been increasing in development and becoming of greater im- 
portance in general pathology. From being confined, as at first, to a 
few cases of local disorder, it has now come to embrace a great variety 
of morbid affections. It has demonstrated the close connection existing 
between animal and vegetable pathology, and it has shown that severe 
and even fatal constitutional disorders of the animal frame may result 
from the internal growth of microscopic parasites of a vegetable nature. 
And these facts have been ascertained by patient microscopic inves- 
tigation, and laborious experiment on the development of eggs and spores, 
and the phenomena of infection and contagion. It cannot be denied 
that the results, so far, are genuine. 

We now come to a part of the subject which may seem to be less 
directly connected with medical doctrines ; and yet it is one which, if it 
really have a bearing on x)athology, gives to the whole question a char- 
acter of still greater importance. That is, the true nature of the process 
oi fermentation. 

* Tyndall, "Fragments of Science," New York, 1872, p. 288. 



THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 235 

The more essential phenomena of fermentation have beenkuown from 
time immemorial. If we add to a solution of sugar, or to any clear veg- 
etable-juice containing sugar, a small portion of yeast, and keep the 
mixture in a moderately warm place, after a few hours of apparent inac- 
tivity, certain remarkable changes take place in it : 1. The liquid becomes 
uniformly turbid. 2. It is more or less agitated by minute bubbles of 
gas, which are generated in its interior, rise to the surface, and escape 
there. 3. The sugar gradually disappears from the solution, and alco- 
hol takes its place. 4. When all the sugar has been thus consumed, the 
gas-bubbles cease to rise, the liquid again becomes clear and quiescent, 
its turbid contents being slowly deposited in a whitish layer at the bot- 
tom; and, 5. This deposit is found to be itself a layer of yeast, often 
much greater in quantity than that originally added, and capable of 
exciting the same kind of fermentation in another saccharine liquid. 

Besides this, chemical investigation has shown that the gas evolved 
is carbonic acid, and that the weight of the sugar which disappears is 
accounted for, within reasonable limits of accuracy, by that of the car- 
bonic acid and alcohol produced, with a little glycerine and succinic acid 
formed at the same time. It is therefore a chemical transformation, in 
which the elements of the sugar are separated from their combination, 
and re-arranged to form other non-nitrogenous compounds. 

But it is a chemical change which will not take place spontaneously. 
It requires the presence of yeast artificially added, or of a natural fer- 
ment, x)resent in the vegetable-juice. The theory of fermentation for- 
merly in vogue was, that the nitrogenous matter in solution in the yeast 
excited, by its own molecular changes, the decomposition of the sugar; 
taking by itself no direct part in the chemical phenomena, and neither 
absorbing nor discharging any of the materials of the solution. 

In enumerating these facts I do not always follow the exact chrono- 
logical order in which they were discovered, nor do I wish to take up 
your time in alluding to all the details and varieties of fermentation. It 
will be sufficient for our present purpose to bear in mind simply the main 
features of the process, namely, the addition of ferment to a saccha- 
rine liquid, turbidity of the solution, decomposition of the sugar, appear- 
ance of alcohol and carbonic acid, and, finally, reproduction of the 
ferment. 

Two hundred years ago Mr. Anthony Leeuwenhoeck was investigat- 
ing all sorts of natural objects with his newly-constructed microscopes, 
consisting each " of a very small double convex glass, let into a socket 
between two silver plates." He examined the blood-globules, the ca- 
pillary vessels, the spermatic corpuscles, the structure of wood, of hair, 
of teeth ; and with the same instruments he saw in yeast little glob- 
ules collected into groups of three or four together.* But he had too 
many other novelties, all attracting his attention together, to spend 
much time on any one of them, and he did not learn the nature or spe- 

* " Philosoi)liical Transactions/' 1681, p. 507. 



236 THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

ciiic characters of the globules of yeast ; he only determined the bare 
fact of their existence. 

But in 1837 the French chemist Cagniard-Latour* examined the yeast- 
globules with more care. He measured their size, and found them to be 
at most 25^0 o^ ^^ ™*^^ ^^ diameter. He declared that thej' were of a 
vegetable nature, and that they multiplied by the j)rocess of budding. 
He called attention to the fact that during the fermentation of beer the 
ferment increases in quantity, producing at the end of the process six 
or seven times as much yeast as was introduced at the beginning; and 
he first broached the idea that " it is probably by some effect of their 
vegetation that the yeast-globules destroy the equilibrium of the ele- 
ments of the sugar." 

The theory, however, was at that time premature, audit did not meet 
with general acceptance. The existence of the yeast-plant, so far as 
then known, was an isolated fact, confined to the single case of ferment- 
ing beer. The opposite theory, of the catalytic action of an albuminous 
liquid, was maintained by Liebig with all the force of his remarkable 
genius, and was consequently almost universally adopted. The yeast- 
plant was thought to be an incidental growth in the fermenting fluid, 
and not to have any direct or important connection with the process 
itself. 

About fifteen years ago a new epoch was inaugurated in the history 
of fermentation by the brilliant researches of Pasteur. The existence 
and growth of a fungoid vegetation were now found not to be confined 
to the single case of beer-yeast, but to be a general fact common to the 
alcoholic fermentation of beer, wine, and bread, and also to a variety of 
other kinds, such as the viscous, butyric, and acetic fermentations. The 
fungus itself was industriously studied in its different genera and spe- 
cies, with their si^ecific modes of growth and reproduction, like those of 
any other natural family of plants; so that the Saccharomyces cerevisice, 
or the yeast-fungus of beer, can now be distinguished from the other spe- 
cies of alcoholic ferments, as well as from the fungi of other kinds of 
fermentation. 

The different view thus introduced is most distinctly exxDressed by 
Pasteur himself. "According to the old theory," he says, " fermenta- 
tion is a process correlative with death, and depends on the decay of 
albuminous matter; according to the new one, it is correlative with life, 
that is, the active growth and development of the fungous vegetation. * * 
The yeast-globules are actual living vegetable cells, capable of producing 
the transformation of sugar, just as the cells of the mammary gland in a 
living animal transform the ingredients of the blood into the ingredients 
of the milk." 

The discussions on this subject, which lasted for ten years, took a 
very wide range, and especially became connected with the kindred 
topic of " spontaneous generation." The experiments of Pasteur and 
* " Annales de Chimie et cle Physique," 1838, tome Isviii, p. 216. 



THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 237 

others showed that the germs of the yeast-plant maybe disseminated 
by the atmosphere, and that the same precautions which exckide the in- 
troduction of germs from without into a fermentable liquid also exclude 
the process of fermentation itself; so that we can now accept with confi- 
dence the double fact — 1. That the growth and reproduction of the yeast- 
fungus will take place only in a fermentable liquid ; and, 2. That such a 
liquid will ferment only Avheu the yeast-fungus is present and in a state 
of active development. 

The revolution in opinion on this point was so complete that, in regard 
to the alcoholic fermentation at least, its essential results were finally 
accepted by Liebig himself. In his last treatise on fermentation, x^ub- 
lished in 1871, he says: * "There no longer remains any doubt as to the 
nature of the ferment of beer and wine. It is a cryptogamic vegetation, 
more or less fully developed * * * We may conclude that the 
albuminous matters of the yeast take part in its action upon the sugar, 
and it is evident that these albuminous matters acquire their property of 
exciting fermentation by becoming an actual constituent of the yeast 
itself." 

Consequently, the fermentation of a saccharine liquid is the result of 
vegetative activity. We add to the liquid a few cells or spores of the 
yeast-fungus. These grow and multiply, and the turbidity of the liquid 
is due to their increase and dissemination. They decompose its sugar, 
appropriate some of its elements, and leave as a result alcohol and car- 
bonic acid. When all the sources of their nourishment are exhausted, 
fermentation stops, and the liquid becomes clear, the j^east-cells subsid- 
ing to the bottom. But the ferment has in the mean time been repro- 
duced, like so much grain which has been sown, raised, and harvested ; 
and a little of the deposit left at the bottom of the vessel, if introduced 
into another saccharine liquid, vfill in turn reproduce the i^rocess of fer- 
mentation. 

It is impossible not to perceive a certain analogy between the general 
phenomena of fermentation and those of contagious and infectious 
diseases. The period of incubation which intervenes between the ex- 
posure to a contagion and the appearance of the malady — the regular 
course of the symi)toms — their natural termination within a definite time, 
and the evident reproduction of the contagious element — all these facts 
were so many points of resemblance, which could not escape the atten- 
tion of medical observers. The analogy, indeed, has long been recog- 
nized in our nomenclature ; and the term zymotic diseases cannot mean 
anything else than diseases depending upon some cause which acts after 
the manner of a ferment. But this name was adopted only as a matter 
of convenience, and was understood altogether in a symbolical sense. 
Of late we have begun to suspect that after all it may be simjDly the 
expression of a literal fact. 

A similar order of discoveries has recently been made with regard to 

* "Auuales de Chimie et de Physique/' 1871, tome sxiii, pp. 9, 10. 



238 THE ORIGIN AND PEOPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

putrefaction. This lias a more immediate connection with pathology 
than fermentation, because it is a change which takes place in animal 
substances, while fermentation, at least in its simpler forms, relates 
mainly to products of a vegetable origin. 

Putrefaction was formerly regarded as the natural and inevitable de- 
composition of dead animal matter when exposed to the oxygen of 
the atmospheric air. But in reality something else is necessary. In 
every putrefying liquid there are a growth and development of minute 
living organisms. If we take a clear solution of any nitrogenized ani- 
mal or vegetable matter and expose it to the air at a moderate tempera- 
ture, after a short time it becomes turbid. This turbidity is the first 
evidence of commencing putrefaction, and it is exactly analogous to the 
turbidity of a saccharine liquid which is beginning to ferment. Micro- 
scopic examination shows that it is due to the presence of innumerable 
^ac^enitm-oells, g-o^oo ^f an inch long, by 40000 ^^ ^^ ii^ch wide, moving 
in every direction, and multiplying by a rapid process of subdivision. 
As long as putrefaction goes on, so long the Bacteria multiply. When 
it comes to an end the liquid becomes clear, and there is a quiescent 
layer of Bacteria deposited upon the bottom. The least particle of this 
layer added to another albuminous Mquid will excite putrefaction in it, 
and will produce a new development of Bacterium-Gells^ the quantity of 
which is limited only by that of the albuminous matter which serves for 
their nourishment and growth. 

'Now, Bacteria are the smallest and most obscure of living things 
Their minute size alone is a sufficient obstacle, with our present micro- 
scopes, to their complete and satisfactory study in all particulars. Never- 
theless, some important facts have been established with regard to them. 
In the first place, they are undoubtedly vegetable in their nature, and 
consist of cells which multiply by division, not by budding. They 
require for their growth a temperature between the limits of freezing 
and boiling water. They consist of a protoplasmic matter, surrounded 
by an envelope of vegetable cellulose. They live upon nitrogenized 
and carbonaceous organic matters in solution, and, like other colorless 
plants, absorb oxygen and exhale carbonic acid. They present a variety 
of genera and species, which may be distinguished from each other with 
some approach to accuracy ; and, of these. Bacterium termo is the most 
constant and indispensable inhabitant of putrefying infusions. 

As to the true relations between bacteria and putrefaction, almost the 
same course of inquiry has been followed as in the case of the yeast-fungus 
and fermentation. At first regarded simply as an incidental accompani- 
ment of the process, they are now considered as its essential and imme- 
diate cause. This view is distinctly stated by Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, to 
whom we owe more definite information on the natural history and mi- 
croscopic characters of Bacteria than to any other observer. Dr. Oohn 
is a professed scientific and experimental botanist, and director of the 
Institute of Vegetable Physiology at Breslau. He was the first to 



THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. ,2;3:9 

establish, twenty years ago,* the vegetable nature and structural rela- 
tions of Bacteria^ and he has recently contributed largely to our knowl- 
edge of their classification and general physiology.t According to him 
the putrefaction of nitrogenous organic matters is neither a spontaneous 
post-mortem decomposition, nor is it a simple oxidation under the influ- 
ence of the atmosphere. " It is rather a chemical process caused by the 
action of Bacterium termo. Just as sugar is never converted sponta- 
neously into alcohol and carbonic acid, and is brought into fermentation 
only by the yeast-fungus, so nitrogenous organic matters never putrefy 
of themselves, but only by means of the vital activity and multiplication 
of Bacteria. * * * We may therefore," he says, " apply Pasteur's doc- 
trine also to the decomiDosition of animal matters, and may adopt as 
true the seeming paradox that putrefaction is an incidental phenomenon^ 
not of death, but of vitality." 

The proof that living Bacteria are the cause of putrefaction, and not 
merely its accompaniment, is that a putrescible liquid which has been 
sufficiently boiled and received in a snper-heated glass vessel may be 
kept in contact with the atmosphere indefinitely without putrefaction, 
provided the access of Bacteria be prevented by a plug of cotton-wool. 
But, if the minutest portion of any liquid already infected with Bacteria 
be added, putrefaction at once begins. Dr. Burdon- Sanderson, by a 
series of very important experiments in 1871,| has established the fact, 
which is also confirmed by the researches of Cohn,§ that contamination 
by the germs of Bacteria takes place, as a general rule, not directlj^ from 
the atmosphere, but by means of water and unclean moist surfaces ; 
while, on the other hand, the germs of the mold-fungi, like penicilium 
and mucor, are more or less constantly present in the air, and so readily 
gain access to organic substances, even in a dry atmosphere. Conse- 
quently, such substances, if properly protected against Bacteria, do not 
putrefy, but, on the other hand, may become covered with a mold-fungus- 
Dr. Sanderson even cut out the muscular tissue of the thigh of a recently, 
killed Guinea-pig, and hung it up under a bell-glass, using for this pur- 
pose a knife and hooks which had just been subjected to the flame of a 
Bunsen burner, but taking no other precautions 5 and for thirty-one 
days, though the exposed tissues were overgrown with penicilium, there 
was no development of Bacteria, and no evidence of putrefaction. 

The natural history of Bacteria is especially connected with the ques- 
tion of spontaneous generation, because they are the only class of organ- 
isms now remaining in which reproduction by spores has not yet been 
discovered, and because they appear so promptlj^ and abundantly in all 
putrescible liquids under ordinary exposures. 

Whatever may be the difference of opinion, therefore, with regard to 

* "Nova Acta Academise Carolo-Leopoldinie," lib. xxiv, p. 1. 

t "Beitriige zur Biologie der Pflanzen," 1872, No. ii, p. 127. 

t " Thirteenth Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Coxincil," London, 1871. 

j "Beitriige zur Biologie der Pliauzen," No. ii, p. 189. 



240 THE OEIGIN AND PEOPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

the possibility of spontaneous generation within limited and exceptional 
conditions, there is hardly a doubt remaining that as a rule, in the 
regular operations of nature, the Bacteria or their germs are, in point of 
fact, conveyed from one i)utrefying substance to another, and that putre- 
faction is a process excited by contagion, and accomplished only by the 
growth and nutrition of Bacteria. 

It was an important discovery, when it was found, ten years ago, that 
Bacteria might be developed in the interior of the living animal or- 
ganism. In 1863 an d 1864, Davaine* showed that in the disease of sheep, 
khown in France as " cliarhon " or " sang de rate,''' and called by the 
Germans " milzbrand,''^ the blood of the aifected animal, during life, con- 
tained Bacterid. He showed that the disease might be communicated by 
inoculation to other animals, always with a fatal result, and always with 
the development of Bacteria in the blood previous to death. He after-, 
wardt extended the same observation to cases of malignant pustule, 
which he declared to be one form of the ^'■saiig de rate " disease. 

In 1868 Vulpiauf found that a fatal disorder might be produced in 
frogs hj the administration of cyclamine ; that the malady was accom- 
panied by the development of Bacteriam the blood, and that inoculation 
of this blood reproduced the disease in other healthy animals of the same 
species. 

About the same time, Professors Coze and Feltz,§ formerly of the 
University of Strasbourg, had been making researches in a similar direc- 
tion. They ejected putrescent liquids into the veins or subcutaneous 
tissue in dogs and rabbits, producing in this way a fatal artificial sep- 
ticmmia; and they found that Bacteria were developed in the blood of 
the animal simultaneously with the appearance of the febrile' condition. 
But the effect produced did not stop there. The blood of such an animal, 
though not itself putrid, had become uifectious, and would excite septi- 
cwmia in another animal by inoculation. A still further remarkable re- 
sult was obtained from these experiments : " By rei^roducing in this 
manner," the authors say, " several successive inoculations, it becomes 
evident that the infectious element is at last more active than the putres- 
cent matters themselves. Injection of putrescent liquids is not so rapidly 
fatal as inoculation of the blood of an animal ah-eady infected." 

These facts have been confirmed by the observations of Davaine and 
Yulpian, which show the extraordinary activity of infectious blood, even 
at a high degree of dilution. Davaine|| found that putrefied bullock's 
blood, injected into the subcutaneous tissue of the rabbit, was rarely 
fatal in doses of less than yi^ of a drop, and never so in less than ■go'oov 
But a series of twenty-five successive inoculations showed that septi- 
caemia, once established, could be transnaitted to the healthy rabbit by a 

* "Comptes Eendus de l'Acacl6mie des Sciences," tomes Ivi, lis. 

t " Comptes Eendus," 1865, tome Ix, p. 1297. . 

t " ArcMves de physiologic normal e et patliologique," 1868, p. 466. 

§ " Eecherches cliniques et experimentales sur les maladies infectieuses," Paris, 1872. 

II " Bulletin de I'Acaddmie de M6decine," Septembre 17, 1872. 



THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 241 

dose of infectious blood so diluted that it represented only oue-trillionth 
part of a drop. Vulpian* injected a rabbit with infectious serum, and 
produced death in twenty hours. A second rabbit was inoculated with 
the blood of the first, diluted to ^\, aud died in twenty-four hours. A 
third rabbit was inoculated with the blood of the second, diluted to joVo? 
and died in twenty-three hours. A fourth animal, inoculated with the 
blood of the third, diluted to jodoooo? ^^^^ ^^ fifty-two hours; while the 
fifth, inoculated with a dilution of toooooooooj became ill, but finally 
recovered. 

In cases of septiccemia, therefore, the Bacteria really multiply in the 
circulation during life ; and the small quantity of infectious blood neces- 
sary to produce the disease is explained by their singular activity of 
reproduction. 

These experiments certainly bring the study of morbid contagion into 
very close relationship with that of putrefaction and fermentation 5 and 
there is no doubt that the. analogies between them become more distinct 
and suggestive at every step of the investigation. It only remains to 
show that the same results will apply to diseases of more regular type 
and more familiar occurrence. 

If we were to choose any single morbid affection as a fair represent- 
ative of the whole class of contagious disorders, I suppose small-pox 
would be the one selected. Its virulence, the certainty of its communi- 
cation, the abundance of infectious matter generated, the regularity of 
its symptoms, and the definite periods of its incubation and develop- 
ment, all make it, so to speak, a kind of exponent of the essential quali- 
ties of infectious disease. Besides this, its singular relations to vaccine 
give it a peculiar interest; and the vaccine affection also, though 
milder in its symptoms, is hardly less marked as a contagion than small- 
pox itself. Conclusions derived from experiments with either must be 
of great value in regard to the study of contagion as a whole. 

The first definite experiments in regard to the contagion of vaccine 
we owe, I think, to Chauveau.t He endeavored to ascertain whether the 
contagious principle of vaccine lymph is in its liquid or in its solid 
portions. For this purpose he treated vaccine lymph by the process of 
diffusion. The result showed that the contagious property of the lymph 
does not reside in its liquid part, but in its solid corpuscles and granu- 
lations. The liquid withdrawn by diffusion, though always found tO' 
contain abundance of albuminous matter in solution, failed when used 
for vaccination; while that containing the solid granules possessed its 
normal activity and succeeded as fully as the fresh lymph. The residta 
of these diffusion experiments were confirmed by those of Dr. Burdon- 
Sanderson,! jjerformed subsequently. 

Chauveau also adopted a second i)lan for investigating the same point,. 

* Gazette Medicale de Paris, 1873, No. 3, p. 30. ' 

t " Comptes Rendus de l'Acad6inie des Sciences," 1868, tome Ixvi, p. 289. 
t "Twelfth Report of tlie Medical Officer of the Privy Council," London,. 1870, pp^ 
233, 235. 

l(j S 



242 THE ORIGIN AND PEOPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

namely, that by dilution. The significance of this test depends on the 
following consideration: If the real vaccine virus be a fluid, it is of 
course uniformly distributed through all parts of the lymijh 5 and if this 
lymph be diluted to any extent, the fluid virus will still be equally dis- 
seminated throughout the whole. When the dilution becomes so great 
as to extinguish the activity of the virus, this activity ought to dimin- 
ish and disappear at the same time uniformly through all parts of the 
liqnid. On the other hand, if the contagious principle reside in the solid 
particles, each one of which is capable of reproducing its kind, these par- 
ticles will only be separated from each other by the dilution, and made 
less likely to be taken up in the drop used for vaccination. But, if one 
of them should be so taken up, it would still produce its full effect. In 
this case, the number of successful vaccinations would diminish in pro- 
portion to the dilution, and the number of failures would increase. But 
every vaccination which failed would fail completely, and every one 
which succeeded would produce a normal result. 

Chauveau's experiments showed that the latter supposition was cor- 
rect. Vaccine lymph might be diluted with from two to eighteen times 
its weight of water without sensibly losing in efficacy; and in one case 
the experimenter obtained a single pustule from a number of vaccina- 
tions made with lymph diluted to j-i^. He obtained, however, the most 
remarkable results with the lymph of sheep-pox, upon which he experi- 
mented largely.* He inoculated the same animal, by twenty-one punc- 
tures, with pock-lymph diluted to g-Jo ; and of these twenty-one inocu- 
lations eight failed, while thirteen gave origin to full-sized pustules. 
He then diluted the pock-lymph at once to jooo 5 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ diluted 
lymph, out of twenty inoculations he obtained only a single pustule, but 
that pustule presented its normal features, and went through the usual 
stages of development. 

The active properties of the Ijanph of vaccine and variola, therefore, 
do not reside in its liquid ingredients, but in its solid corpuscles. These 
corpuscles, which were already observed by Chauveau and Burdou-Sau- 
derson. have been recentlj^ examined and described with great care by 
Dr. Cohn.t This observer adopted every precaution against the intro- 
duction of foreign elements into the lymph. Some children with healthy 
vaccine vesicles were brought to the Botanical Institute, the vesicles 
opened with a new, unused lancet, the lymph taken up by aspiration in 
a recently-heated capillary glass tube, dropped upon a microscope-slide, 
and fitted with a glass cover, both the slide and cover having just been 
thoroughly cleansed with ammonia and boiling water. The edges of the 
cover were then lacquered down, to exclude the air, and the lymph-cor- 
puscles examined at successive intervals of time. 

According to Dr. Cohn's observations, these corpuscles are single cells 

* " Comptes Eendus," 1868, tome Ixvii, p. 749. 

t " Organismeu in der Pockeulymplie." ArcMv fur pathologisclie Auatomie uud 
Physiologie, 1872, px). 55, 229. 



THE ORIGIN AND PEOPAGATION OF DISEASE. 243 

of a spherical form, not more than j 5^00 of an inch in diameter. Tliey 
belong to the genus Micrococcus, and those of the vaccine lymph are 
designated by the name of Micrococcus vaccince. They increase in num- 
bers if kept at the temperature of the living body, forming chains and 
groups of associated articulations. Dr. Cohn finds similar bodies in 
the fluid of small-pox vesicles, identical in size and appearance with 
those of the vaccine lymph. " We must, therefore," he says, " for the 
present regard the pock-lymph corpuscles as living and independent 
organisms, belonging to the smallest and simplest of all liv^ing things, 
which multiply, without formation of mycelium, by cell-division alone, 
and perhaps also by tbe production of resting spores." 

Fiually, another kind of micrococcus has been described by Dr. Oertel,* 
of Vienna, and by Prof. Ebert,t of Ziirich, as constantly present in cases 
of diphtheria ; and both observers have found that its inoculation in dif- 
ferent parts of the body in healthy animals produces a diphtheritic mal- 
ady, having its starting-point at the place of inoculation. 

The contributions to medical literature on this subject have increased 
of late with unusual rapidity. Since the beginning of 1870 more than 
two hundred distinct publications have made their api3earance, either 
in the medical journals, or as separate volumes, on septicsemia and 
diphtheria, on micrococcus and bacteria, the ferment-corpuscles, ferment- 
ation and putrefaction, their relation to contagion and infection, and 
kindred topics. Many of these essays are extremely important, others 
of more or less doubtful value. I have not attempted to notice them 
all, but only those which seem to have really established some new facts 
relating to the origin and propagation of disease. Should the discov- 
eries of the next ten years continue to lead in the direction now indi- 
cated, it will illustrate more fully than ever the intimate relation which 
exists between all the branches of medicine and natural science ; for it 
will show how large a part of human pathology is connected with the 
general physiology of vegetative life. 

In connection with this subject a considerable degree of interest at- 
taches to the ingenious experiments of Professor Tyndall on the dust- 
particles suspended in the atmosphere. The fact that the atmosphere 
is almost never free from floating molecules, diffused in greater or less 
abundance by the air-currents, has for a long time attracted attention; 
and it is a common observation that these dust-particles, even when in- 
visible by diffused daylight, may at once be rendered evident by admit- 
ting a sunbeam into a darkened apartment. The minute particles then 
reflect the light, and become distinctly visible in the track of the beam 
by contrast with the surrounding non-illuminated space. Professor 
Tyndall, by passing the electric beam through a closed glass tube, has 
shown that the atmospheric air, however transparent it may appear to 
ordinary vision, is never so free from suspended particles that it will not 

* '• Deutsches Archiv f iir kliuisclie Medicin," 1871, B. viii, p. 242. 
t "Zur Kentniss der bacteritisclien Mykosen," Leipzig, 1872. 



244 THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 

betray their presence, under such circumstances, by a luminous track 
l)assing lengthwise through the tube. In following out these investi- 
gations, he arrived at two rather unexpected and somewhat important 
results. 

The first was that the solid corpuscles in suspension in the atmo- 
sphere are to a very great extent of organic origin. As the dust which 
settles upon our shelves and moldings, when collected and examined, 
was known to be largely composed of mineral particles, it was naturally 
thought that the floating impurities of the air were probably of a similar 
character. But when Professor Tyndall allowed the illuminated electric 
beam to pass directly over the flame of a spirit-lami3, he found that a per- 
fectly dark space was cut out of the beam — wreaths of darkness rising up- 
ward from the flame and taking the place, at that point, of the luminous 
particles. A hydrogen flame, a red-hot poker, or a bundle of incandescent 
platinum wires, placed in a similar position, produced the same effect. 
That is, the floating molecules of the air, which have the power of dis- 
persing the light of the electric beam, instead of being rendered incan- 
descent and more luminous than before by a high temperature, are de- 
stroyed by it and resolved into transparent vapors. They are therefore 
combustible and organic. 

This fact is of great importance, because it gives us our first definite 
knowledge with regard to the nature of the greater part of the atmo- 
spheric dust. If this be really the channel by which germs of disease 
are disseminated in the form of distinct corpuscles, we shall never be 
fully satisfied until we have been able to examine and recognize them, 
so as to place the fact bej^ond a doubt. But thus far it has been found 
exceedingly difficult to capture an-d place under the microscope the mi- 
nute ingredients of the atmospheric imparities. This has, it is true, 
been accomplished for a very few of the simpler and well-known fungus 
germs ; but as for the larger portion of the floating particles which a 
sunbeam brings into view, our knowledge has heretofore been limited 
to the mere fact of their existence. It is therefore a great step to learn 
that, whatever may be their remaining characters, they are at all events 
of organic origin. The minute size of these bodies, and especially their, 
lightness, no doubt explain fully the persistence with which they are 
raised and disseminated by the gentlest air-currents, while the heavier 
particles of a mineral nature are more readily deposited in the form of 
dust upon all inclined and horizontal surfaces. 

The second fact brought out by the observations of Professor Tyndall 
is the extreme difficulty of excluding from the air all of its finer dust- 
particles, so as to obtain it absolutely free from suspended matter. The 
electric beam, passing through the glass tube before spoken of, was used 
by the experimenter as a test for the presence of solid impurities in the 
air contained in the tube. As the beam is, of course, invisible by itself, 
and becomes perceptible to the eye only by meeting with bodies capable 
of reflecting its light, any luminosity in its track through the tube would 



THE ORIGIN AND PROPAGATION OF DISEASE. 245 

indicate the existence of floating particles in the contained air. It was 
found by this test that, contrary to expectation, air which had been 
passed in succession through tubes containing fragments of glass wetted 
with concentrated sulphuric acid and with a solution of caustic potash 
immediately before its admission to the tube still contained similar impu- 
rities. Even when it had been allowed to bubble through the liquid sul- 
phuric acid and caustic potash, the electric beam still revealed the pres- 
ence of suspended matter. Either the contact of these liquids could 
not be made sufficiently complete with all parts of the air passing 
through them, or for some other reason they failed to purify it entirely 
of its organic ingredients. 

But a burning temperature succeeded in accomplishing the object. 
A platinum tube, containing a roll of platinum gauze, was placed in a 
small gas-fnrnace, and heated to incandescence. The air was slowly 
drawn through this apparatus, and then, when admitted into the glass 
experimental tube, was found to be absolutely free from suspended ma- 
terial. The electric beam j)assed through it, from end to end, without 
exhibiting any luminosity 5 the interior of the tube being perfectly dark, 
while outside of it the track of the beam was lighted up by floating dust- 
particles, as before. A tube filled with air in this condition was said by 
Professor Tyndall to be optically empty ; that is, it contained only the 
transparent gases of the atmosphere without any admixture of corpuscles 
capable of reflecting light. 

The air may also be freed from its suspended impurities by filtration 
through cotton-wool. A quantity of this substance was packed rather 
tightly in a glass tube, so as to form a thick, porous plug. The air, 
drawn through this tube into the experimental receiver, showed itself to 
be non-luminous, and consequently pure. This property of cotton-wool 
has been often utilized in experiments on the necessary conditions of 
organic development, and it is found that air thus thoroughly filtered 
does not carry ^ith it any germs capable of producing infusorial or veg- 
etative life. 

Finally, Professor Tyndall also demonstrated that air, which has once 
passed through the deeper portion of the respiratory passages, has un- 
dergone a similar filtration. If the expired breath be made to traverse 
a luminous electric beam, it at first produces upon it no visible effect. 
But toward the end of the expiration it makes itself evident by a dimi- 
luitiou in the amount of dispersed light, and at last extinguishes com- 
pletely the luminosity of the beam, cutting out at the point of contact 
a perfectly dark space. Precisely by what mechanism this filtration is 
accomplished it is not easy to say, since the smallest of the pulmonary 
passages in the human lung have a diameter of not less than one-fifth of 
a millimeter; but there can be little doubt, in i)oint of fact, that by the 
time the air reaches the ultimate divisions of the respiratory cavities, it 
is thoroughly freed from the ordinary suspended matter which it con- 
tained on entering the trachea. 



ON LATER VIEWS OF THE CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND 

MAGNETISM, 



EEVIEW OF MATHEMATICAL THEORIES. 
By Professok Helmholz. 



[From the London Academy.] 

The problem of determining tlie primary causes of tbe so-called elec- 
tro-magnetic and electro-dynamic i)lienomena is connected intrinsically 
with some of the most important theoretical questions of natural phi- 
losophy regarding the general character of force and the essential 
attributes to be ascribed to the medium which fills space. The subject, 
therefore, has attracted the . attention of natural philosophers and 
mathematicians since the time of Oersted's first discovery regarding 
the deviation of a magnetic needle by a galvanic current, in 1820, till 
the present moment j and this attention has grown even the more 
intense and concentrated the more our knowledge of the experimental 
facts approached to completeness. The force of gravitation, Newton's 
grand conception, has been hitherto the model for nearly all the scien- 
tific hypotheses by which philosophers have striven to connect and to 
explain the various kinds of physical and chemical phenomena. Hy- 
I>otheses of this kind, based on the assumption of forces acting between 
two material points along the straight line of their junction, either 
attracting or repelling, the intensity of which is independent of time and 
velocity, but dependent on the distance of the two points, have been 
applied with great success, not only to the effects of celestial and ter- 
restrial gravity, but also to those of elasticity in rigid, fluid, and gaseous 
bodies, including the phenomena of sound and light. In the theory of 
heat and chemical actions, it appears highly probable that we have to 
do with forces of the same kind, although of a much more limited 
sphere of activity. In consequence of the extreme complexity of 
causes and conditions, only very small parts of these branches of 
science have been worked out so far that the connection between actual 
phenomena and elementary forces can be traced the whole way and 
deduced by mathematical analysis. The nearest analogy with the laws 
of gravitation we find in the jjhenomena of electricity and magnetism 
as long as these agents are in a state of repose and equilibrium. We 
find the same law of action at a distance, and the inferences derived 
from this law are even more open to controlling experimental measure- 
ments of the highest degree of precision than those of gravitation, or 
of the molecular forces, which keep up the motion of heat, produce 
chemical combinations, and are the alternate cause of elasticity. The 
very existence of the electro-static and magnetic forces must have 
increased a good deal the tendency of natural philosophers to generalize 
this kind of hypothesis, which answered so well to the requirements of 



CONNECTION OF ELECTEICITY AND MAGNETISM. 247 

scieuce, and to consider the attributes of these forces enumerated 
above as the general and necessary attributes of all ultimate forces of 
nature. 

In order to distinguish the forces of this description by a short name, 
I may be allowed to call them forces of the first class. Forces the 
intensity of which depends either on time or on velocity may be dis- 
posed of in a second class. 

Are there really alternate and elementary forces, which are to be 
reckoned into this second class, which cannot be reduced into an aggre- 
gate of forces of the first class, and do not bend under that great gen- 
eralization, like the majority of other physical and chemical forces? 
This is, evidently, a question of the highest theoretical interest, and 
the problem of electro-dynamics turns out so important, because the 
so-called electro-dynamic forces, acting between two electric currents, or 
between one such current and a magnet, seemed really to aJ^brd an 
example of the second class. 

First among them we have the discovery by Oersted of the forces 
mov-ing ponderable matter, [pondero-motor forces, according to Prof. C. 
Neumann's nomenclature,) and the laws of their action were brought 
into a relatively simple, accurate, and comprehensive formula by 
Ampere. These forces are comi)letely latent as long as electricity is in 
a state of rest; they become active when electricity begins to flow 
tbrough conducting bodies. This appears as a first fundamental differ- 
ence between electro-dynamic forces and those of the first class, a gen- 
eral characteristic of which is, that their action is not at all altered 
by any motion of the points between which they act. Secondly, the 
electro-magnetic force of a galvanic wire carries the pole of a magnet 
round the wire without end and without ever leading it to a pla(% of 
equilibrium and rest. All the forces of the first class, on the contrary, 
tend to carry the bodies which they move to a certain final resting- 
l^lace. This relation, moreover, is reciprocal; for just as a magnetic 
pole is carried around an electric current, a galvanic wire can be carried 
around a magnet or around a coil of wire, through which an electric cur- 
rent passes. 

A second class of electro-dynamic phenomena are the induced currents 
discovered by Faraday in 1831. In these cases, the electro-dynamic forces 
do not act on ponderable matter, but they act as electro-motor forces on 
electricity itself. They drive the opposite electric fluids of a wire into 
opposite directions, either when another wire carrying an electric cur- 
rent is in motion relatively to the first wire, or when the intensity of the 
current in the second wire is altered. Instead of the second wire, a 
magnet may be substituted. It produces an induced electro-motoric 
force either when it is moved or when the intensity of its magnetism is 
altered. For all these electro-dynamic actions, a magnet may be con- 
sidered always as a system of electric currents, flowing circularly around 
the magnetic axis of every magnetized particle. 



248 CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

These electro-motor forces, induced by electro-dynamic action, sbow 
the same character as the pondero-motor forces before mentioned. They 
depend on motion, and the lines along which they act are closed lines 
without end; for a magnet, losing its magnetism, induces electro-motor 
forces in circular directions all around its axis. 

In spite of this iundamental difference, it has been proved by the experi- 
ments of Mr. J. Prescott Joule and by the general theoretical deductions 
of Sir W. Thomson and the author of this article, that all the known 
effects of electro-dynamic action are subject to the great principle of con- 
servation of energy, although a theoretical deduction of this universal 
principle of nature can be given only for forces of the first class, which are 
independent of motion, and which tend always to a final positionof equilib- 
rium. It can be proved that when an electric currrent, by moving a mag- 
net, does mechanical work, the current induced by the motion of the mag- 
net alters the relation between the chemical processes going on in the bat- 
tery and the heat evolved in the galvanic circuit, so that a part of the 
chemical forces is not spent in the production of heat, but used for the 
mechanical work of the electro-dynamic forces. 

There are two principal questions which have been discussed: the one 
a question of fact ; the other a question of theory. 

The first is this : hitherto we knew with some degree of accuracy 
the electro-dynamic actions of closed galvanic currents onlj^, viz, of cur- 
rents which circulate along a closed line or a system of closed lines, and 
have no end, where electricity would be obliged to stop and to accumu- 
late. The investigations of A mpere. Gauss, Neumann, (senior,) Kirchoff, 
W. Thomson, &c., have led to a highly-developed mathematical theory 
of closed currents, which enables us to calculate their electro-dynamic 
effi^ts for circuits of any length and form, and which has been compared 
with actual experimental measurements of the highest degree of pre- 
cision. 

But there exist also currents with ends, as for instance those produced 
by the discharge of a Leyden battery in the wire which connects the 
tin-foil coatings of the glass jars. These coatings are the ends of the 
conducting wire, and they are separated by the insulating glass of the 
jars. We know that the wire produces electro-dynamic effects during 
the discharge, like a wire closing together the ends of a galvanic bat- 
tery, and that the currents in such a wire go to and fro, oscillating 
between the two tin-foil coatings; but we do not yet know experiment- 
ally how far these electro-dynamic actions are modified at the place 
where the conducting circuit is interrupted by the insulating glass. 
This question may be of little practical importance, because the actions 
in question cannot but be very feeble, and it will require great experi- 
mental skill to make them visible. On the other hand, in order to define 
the ultimate causes of electro-dynamic actions, it is necessary to know 
with certainty the part which every linear element of a current contrib- 
utes to its general effect, and the linear elements even of a closed 
circuit are not closed lines, but lines with two ends. 



CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM, 249 

Ampere has derived bis well-known law of the attracting or repelling 
force between two linear elements of electric currents, not, however, 
without introducing into his reasoning a hypothesis. He assumed, 
namely, that between every pair of such elements there acts oul3^ one 
force, not a couple of forces, and that the direction oi this force is the 
straight line joining the center of the elements. 

Another elementary law was derived from the phenomena of induced 
currents at first by Gauss, as early as 1835, but not published, and 
afterward by Prof. F. E. Neumann, (senior,) of Konigsberg, in 1845. 
The mathematical expression of this law was based on the value of the 
mechanical work which could be done by Ampere's forces, or, as it was 
called in analogy with the nomenclature applied by Green and Gauss to 
magnetic and electro-static forces, on the value of the electro-dynamic 
potential of two currents. This valae again was determined completely 
only for closed circuits, but its mathematical expression led to a value 
of the same quantity also for linear elements, which is much less com- 
plicated than that of Ampere's forces. To calculate it, take the product, 
1, of the intensities of the two currents; 2, of the length of both the 
linear elements; 3, of the cosine of the angle between the directions of 
the latter, and divide by their distance. 

Taken negatively, this potential expresses the potential energy of the 
pondero motoric forces which is spent when two currents move without 
altering their intensity, and the forces can be calculated from the value 
of this energy by well-known methods. Taken positively, the same, 
potential gives the value of the energy, which is equivalent to the exist- 
ing motion of electricity, and which is spent in induced currents if the 
intensity of the currents or their position in space is altered. In this 
way this whole chapter of physics, containing the greatest variety of 
new and surprising phenomena, has been brought under one most 
simple law. 

As has been said already, the value of the electro-dynamic potential is 
completely determined for closed circuits, but not for linear elements. 
To the latter, certain arbitrary functions may be added without altering 
the potential of closed circuits. Neumann had already remarked this 
ambiguity. In my first paper I have treated this question, and have 
striven to find out such consequences of the theory as might lead 
to an experimental decision of the problematical point. I limited the 
arbitrariness of the unknown function by the assum^jtion that the 
law according to which the unknown part of the potential depends 
on distance is the same as for the known part. Then the Avhole 
uncertainty is reduced to the value of one unknown constant, which 
plays in the theory of electricity nearly the same part as the second 
constant of elasticity in the theory of elastic solids. I was able to 
decide one important point at least, namely, that this new constant 
cannot have a negative value without producing an unstable equilib- 
rium of electricity in conducting bodies. Under such an assumption 



250 CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

certain motions of electricity, as, for instance, radial oscillations in 
a conducting- sphere, ought to grow without end in intensity and to pro- 
duce an infinite quantity of motion and of heat, which, of course, must 
be regarded as impossible. This inference was of some importance for 
our choice between the different theories of electro-dynamics, because it 
showed that the laws of induced currents derived from the hypothesis 
of W. Weber, and in the same way those derived from the different 
hypothesis which Prof. 0. ISFeumaun, jr., has proposed, are inadmis- 
sible, leading, as they do, to unstable equilibrium of electricity. I 
do not think that my objections have been invalidated by the argu- 
ments brought against them by my opponents, but this I must leave 
to the judgment of my mathematical readers. 

I may omit here, perhaps, another i)oint of discussion. Mr. C. Neumann 
believed that the law of the forces derived from the value of the poten- 
tial led to inferences opposed to the results of experiment in those cases 
where one part of the conducting wire slides along the surface of another 
part of the same circuit. I have striven to prove that there is no 
contradiction between the law of the potential, rightly interpreted, and 
the observed facts. 

The potential theory, when applied to the calculation of the pondero- 
motoric forces, produced by and acting on unclosed circuits, gives 
not only forces acting between two linear elements of electric cur- 
rents, according to the law of Ampere, but also other forces acting be- 
tween the end of the current and a linear element of another, and forces 
acting between two ends. At the extremities of an open stream-line, 
quantities of free electricity are either appearing or vanishing. We may 
say, therefore, that those forces are acting between electricity in statu 
nascendi and streaming electricity. 

It was not difficult to prove that the law of the electro-dynamic poten- 
tial was in accordance with the principle of conservation of energy, even 
for currents with open ends. It was to be questioned if the same is the 
case for the original law of Am^Dere. This question has been investi- 
gated by Mr. Neuuiann, jr. He bases his reasoning on the suppo- 
sition that forces, one of which acts between every pair of linear 
elements of currents, are the only pondero-motoric forces existing. Be- 
sides, he supposes that the forces of superimposed currents are sim- 
ply superimposed themselves, and that the principle of conservation 
of energy is valid. He concludes from a very clever and skillful analy- 
sis that these assumptions are sufiicient to determine all the ques- 
tionable points. But the law of induction produced by change of inten- 
sity, which results from his analysis, corresponds to an unstable equilib- 
rium of electricity, and to a negative value of the constant, introduced 
by myself. I infer, therefore, from the results arrived at by Prof. C. 
Neumann that his hypothesis is inadmissible, and that there must exist, 
in reality, other pondero motoric forces at the ends of currents besides 
those of Ampere. I think that the theory based on the existence of an 



CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 251 

electro dynamic potentiiil is the ouly theory hitherto known which gives 
a complete and unobjectionable expression of all the different classes of 
electro-dynamic phenomena. It is recommended, besides, by the extreme 
simplicity of its fundamental law. 

Now we come to the second fundamental question. It must not be 
forgotten that the mathematical laws hitherto spoken of giv^e not aii 
explanation of the ultimate vera causa of electro-dynamic effects, bufe 
only a comprehensive and precise determination of their quantitative 
value. They perform as much for the knowledge of these actions as the 
laws of Kepler did for astronomy. But the work of Newton has also 
to be done for this branch of science. 

In order to find the real elementary causes of electro-dynamic effects, 
two different ways have been followed, the one by Gauss, the other hj 
Faraday. 

Gauss thought that the distinguishing peculiarities of electro dynamic 
forces might depend on the time which they required to reach distant 
points of space. Among the papers published after his death, in the col- 
lection of his works, there are some very remarkable attempts of this 
kind. One of these papers, written in 1834, (Gauss, Werke, bd. v, p. 
617,) contains the nucleus of a theory similar to that published some 
time later by his friend and coUagae, Prof. W. Weber, and perhaps 
even less objectionable. But Gauss did not publish anything about this 
subject. " Nil actum reputaus, si quid superesset agendum," as he says 
himself. 

Among the theories of this kind which have received the most elabo- 
rate development, and have met for a long time with the almost general 
assent of continental philosophers at least, was the theory of Prof. W, 
Weber, of Gottingen. It has played a prominent part as the theoretical 
basis of the highly important experimental measurements by which 
Professor Weber determined the fundamental natural constants of this 
branch of science. According to this hypothesis, every quantum of 
electricity exerts upon every other quantum a force the value of which 
not only dei)ends on the actual distance of the two electric quanta, but 
also on the velocity with which this distance is changed and on the 
acceleration of this velocity. 

Sir W. Thomson and Prof. P. G. Tait were the first who pronounced 
this hypothesis of Weber to be contradictory to the principle of con- 
servation of energy, without specifying their objection. I was led to 
the same inference hj independent investigations, as mentioned above. 

Besides this, the late Professor Eiemann and Prof. C. Neumann, jr., 
have tried to develop the idea of Gauss. The latter has given a rela- 
tively simple mathematical form to the assumptions necessary for this 
end. These assumptions, interpreted iDhysically, are rather startling, 
and, besides, this hypothesis leads to the same contradiction of the law 
of conservation of energy as the law of Weber. Hitherto, therefore, 
the theoretical attempts of this class have not been very successful. 



252 CONNECTION OF ELECTEICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

Another way has been entered upon by Faraday. He objected to all 
forces acting into distance without intermediate links of connection, 
and he endeavored to show that electric forces spread out by contigu- 
ous modifications of the medinm, filling the space between the electri- 
fied bodies. He succeeded, at least, in proving that electric as well as 
magnetic action into distance is not independent of the medium through 
which it is propagated; and the phenomena of diamagnetism, discov- 
ered by him, go on in such a way as if diamagnetic bodies had even 
less magnetic polarity than the ether of a vacuum. Faraday concluded 
from his researches that the molecules of electric insulators (dielectric 
media) are influenced in the same way by electric forces as the molecules 
of magnetizable bodies are influenced by magnetism; that a separation 
of the two electricities, or, as he calls it, dielectric polarisation, goes on, in 
the first case, as there is a separation of the magnetic fluids, or magnetic 
polariisatio7i in the second. Prof. C. Maxwell has brought these concep- 
tions of Faraday into a precise mathematical form. He dispenses com- 
pletely with forces acting at a distance, and assumes actions going on in 
every elementary volume of ether of the same direction and of the same 
kind as the electro-magnetic actions between magnets and galvanic con- 
ductors of common size and distance. According to his opinion, every 
change of magnetic polarization in an elementary volume of ether pro- 
duces in the same element an electric force of a circular direction around 
that of the magnetic momentum, and every change of dielectric polariza- 
tion, which is equivalent to a flow of electricity through the molecule, 
produces magnetic force, acting in a circular direction through the same 
molecule. In the interior of electric conductors he supposes that dielec- 
tric polarization is continually fading away by a certain imperfect elas- 
ticity of the ether. These assumptions give, indeed, a sufficient basis 
for the development of a complete mathematical theory of electro-static, 
electro-dynamic, and magnetic phenomena. It is in perfect accordance 
with the results of experiments hitherto performed, and with the laws 
derived from the existence of an electro-dynamic potential, at least for 
moderate distances, through which light is propagated in a time the 
duration of which may be neglected. But the theory of Maxwell also 
indicates that electro-dynamic action is not proi)agated instantaneously 
into distance, and it is highly remarkable that the velocity of the propa- 
gation, calculated from experimental data which were obtained at first 
by W. Weber, coincides almost perfectly with the velocity of light. 
This coincidence had been remarked before by Kirchotf for the propa- 
gation of electric currents in conductors of infinitely small resistance. 
An ether, indeed, with the faculty of electric and magnetic polarization, 
which Professor Maxwell ascribes to the ether of insulating media, can 
propagate transverse electric and magnetic oscillations with the veloc- 
ity of light. Magnetic and electric oscillations must be combined in 
this case always in such a way that their directions are perpendicular 
to each other and to the direction of propagation. The old uudulatory 



CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 253 

theory of ligbt, in which the mechanical attributes of a rigid elastic solid 
are ascribed to the ether, is beset with many theoretical difficulties. It 
appears that the new electro-magnetic theory of light answers better in 
some cases, as, for instance, in the theory of reflection and refraction ; 
whether it does so everywhere must be decided by its further elabora- 
tion. This natural and unsonght-for connection of the new electro- 
magnetic theory with the theory of light is, indeed, an important suc- 
cess, which gives rise to the greatest hopes for the future. 

In his former papers. Professor Maxwell has already shown that the 
same kind of influence which, according to his electro-dynamic theory, 
neighboring elementary volumes of ether have upon each other, can 
be imitated by a mechanism containing a system of rotatory elastic 
spheres, every oue of which acts on its neighbors by means of a system 
of friction-balls interposed between them. Such a mechanism may 
appear rather too complicated for the structure of the ether ; nevertheless, 
it is a result of great general importance that actions the laws of which 
are congruent with those of electro-dynamic phenomena can be produced 
by the x^lay of common mechanical forces. 

Eecently Prof. Clerk Maxwell has given, in his treatise, (p. Ill, ch. 6,) 
a more general and abstract demonstration of the same result, derived 
from Lagrange's (or Hamilton's) general i)rinciples of mechanics. He 
takes for that end the electro- dynamic potential as expressing the vis 
viva of all the known and unknown motions which are connected neces- 
sarily with the motion of electricity in a conductor. Without any special 
assumption about the nature of these motions, the laws of pondero-mo- 
toric and induced electro-motoric force may be deduced from this con- 
ception in its most general form. This shows again that electro-dynamic 
forces are subject to the same general principles of action as common 
mechanical forces. 

The two volumes lately published by Professor Maxwell contain not 
only this new theory, but a very complete, methodical, and clear expo- 
sition of all those parts of electric science which could be brought under 
precise theoretical conceptions, and be developed mathematically. He 
has done a great service by this work to every student of physics. 
Hitherto we were obliged to search after the papers treating the dif- 
ferent parts of this subject through a great number of scientific period- 
icals and books. Besides, in relation to the original parts of the book, 
principally those treating of the ultimate causes of electro-dynamic 
action, I do not hesitate to say that I consider his method of forming 
new theoretical conceptions, which are at the same time perfectly definite 
in their quantitative determination and yet as general as possible, and 
not more specified than is needed, or more than our present knowledge 
of the facts allows, as really a model of cautious scientific progress. 



254 CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

ACTION AT A DISTANCE. 

By Professor Clerk Maxwell. 

[From the Proceedings of the London Institution.] 

I have no ne.w discovery to bring before you this evening. I must ask 
you to go over very old ground, and to turn your attention to a question 
which has been raised again and again ever since men began to think. 

The question is that of the transmission of force. We see that two 
bodies at a distance from each other exert a mutual influence on each 
other's motion. Does this mutual action depend on the existence of 
some third thing, some medium of communication, occupying the space 
between the bodies, or do the bodies act on each other immediately 
without the intervention of anything else? 

The mode in which Faraday was accustomed to look at phenomena of 
this kind differs from that adopted by many other modern inquirers, 
and my special aim will be to enable you to place yourselves at Fara- 
day's point of view, and to point out the scientific value of that con- 
ception of lines of force which, in his hands, became the key to the 
science of electricity. 

When we observe one body acting on another .at a distance, before 
w^e assume that this action is direct and immediate we generally inquire 
whether there is any material connection between the two bodies ; and 
if we find strings or rods, or mechanism of any kind, capable of account- 
ing for the observed action between the bodies, we prefer to explain the 
action by means of these intermediate connections rather than to admit 
the notion of direct action at a distance. 

Thus, when we ring a bell by means of a wire, the successive parts of 
the wire are first tightened and then moved till at last the bell is rung 
at a distance by a process in which all the intermediate particles of the 
wire have taken part one after the other. We may ring a bell at a dis- 
tance in other ways, as by forcing air into a long tube, at the other end 
of which is a cylinder with a piston which is made to fly out and strike 
the bell. We may also use a wire; but instead of pulling it we may 
connect it at one end with a voltaic battery and at the other with an 
electro-magnet, and thus ring the bell by electricity. 

Here are three different ways of ringing a bell. They all agree, how- 
ever, in the circumstance that betiveen the ringer and the bell there is 
an unbroken line of communication, and that at every point of this line 
some physical process goes on by which the action is transmitted from 
one end to the other. The process of transmission is not instantaneous 
but gradual : so that there is an interval of time after the impulse has 
been given to one extremity of the line of communication, during which 
the impulse is on its way, but has not reached the other end. 

It is clear, therefore, that in many cases the action between bodies at 
a distance may be accounted for by a series of actions between each 
successive pair of a series of bodies which occupy the intermediate space; 



CONNECTION OF ELECTEICITY AND MAGNETISM. 255 

and it is asked^ by tbe advocates of mediate action, whether, in those 
cases in which we cannot perceive the intermediate agency, is it not 
more philosophical to admit the existence of a medium which we cannot 
at present perceive than to assert that a body can act at a place where 
it is not? 

To a person ignorant of the properties of air, the transmission offeree 
by means of that invisible medium would appear as unaccountable as 
any other example of action at a distance, and yet in this case we can 
explain the whole process and determine the rate at which the action is 
passed on from one portion to another of the medium. 

Why, then, should we not admit that the familiar mode of communi- 
cating motion by pushing and pulling with our hands is the type and 
exemplitication of all action between bodies, even in cases in which we 
can observe nothing between the bodies which appears to take part in 
the action ? 

Here, for instance, is a kind of attraction with which Professor Guth- 
rie has made us familiar. A disk is set in vibration, and is then brought 
near a light suspended body, which immediately begins to move toward 
the disk, as if drawn toward it b^^ an invisible cord. What is this cord ? 

Sir W. Thomson has pointed out that in a moving fluid the pressure 
is least where the velocity is greatest. The velocity of the vibratory 
motion of the air is greatest nearest the disk. Hence the pressure of 
the air on the suspended body is less on the side nearest the disk than 
on the opposite side 5 the body yields to the greater pressure, and moves 
toward the disk. 

The disk, therefore, does not act where it is not. It sets the air next 
it in motion by pushing it, this motion is communicated to more and 
more distant portions of the air in turn, and thus the pressures on op- 
posite sides of the suspended body are rendered unequal, and it moves 
toward the disk in consequence of the excess of pressure. The force is, 
therefore, a force of the old school — a case of vis a tergo, a shove from 
behind. 

The advocates of the doctrine of action at a distance, however, have 
not been put to silence by such arguments. What right, say they, have 
we to assert that a body cannot act where it is not? Do we not see an 
instance of action at a distance in the case of a magnet, which acts on 
another magnet not only at a distance, but with the most complete 
indifterence to the nature of the matter which occupies the intervening 
space? If the action depends on something occupying the space between 
the two magnets, it cannot surely be a matter of indifference whether 
this space is filled with air or not, or whether wood, glass, or copper be 
placed between the magnets. 

Besides this, l!«rewton's law of gravitation, which every astronomical 
observation only tends to establish more firmly, asserts not only that 
the heavenly bodies act on one another across immense intervals of 
space, but that two portions of matter, the one buried a thousand miles 



256 CONNECTION OF ELECTETCITY AND MAGNETISM. 

deep m the interior of the earth, and the other a hundred thousand 
miles deep in the body of the sun, act on one another with precisely the 
same force as if the strata beneath which each is buried had been non- 
existent. If any medium takes part in transmitting this action, it must 
surely make some difference whether the space between the bodies con- 
tains nothing but this medium, or whether it is occupied by the dense 
matter of the earth or of the sun. 

But the advocates of direct action at a distance are not content with 
instances of this kind, in which the phenomena, even at first sight, 
appear to favor their doctrine. They push their operations into the 
enemy's camp, and maintain that even when the action is apparently 
the pressure of contiguous portions of matter, the contiguity is only 
apparent — that a space always intervenes between the bodies which act 
on each other. They assert, in short, that so far from action at a 
distance being impossible, it is the only kind of action which ever occurs, 
and that the favorite old vis a tergo of the schools has no existence in 
nature, and exists only in the imagination of schoolmen. 

The best way to prove that when one body pushes another it does not 
touch it is to measure the distance between them. Here are two glass 
lenses, one of which is pressed against the other by means of a weight. 
By means of the electric light we may obtain on the screen an image of 
the place where the one lens presses against the other. A series of 
colored rings is formed on the screen. These rings were first observed 
and first explained by Newton. The particular color of any ring 
depends on the distance between the surfaces of the piece's of glass. 
Newton formed a table of the colors corresponding to different dis- 
tances, so that by comparing the color of any ring with Newton's table 
we may ascertain the distance between the surfaces of that ring. The 
colors are arranged in rings because the surfaces are spherical, and, 
therefore, the interval between the surfaces depends on the distance 
from the line joining the centers^ of the spheres. The central spot of 
the rings indicates the place where the lenses are nearest together, and 
each successive ring corresponds to an increase of about the four thou- 
sandth part of a millimeter in the distance of the surfaces. 

The lenses are now pressed together with a force equal to the weight 
of an ounce ; but there is still a measurable interval between them, 
even at the place where they are nearest together. They are not in 
optical contact. To prove this I apply a greater weight. A new color 
appears at the central spot, and the diameters of all the rings increase. 
This shows that the surfaces are now nearer than at first, but they are 
not yet in optical contact, for, if they were, the central spot would be 
black; 1 therefore increase the weights, so as to press the lenses into 
optical contact. 

But what we call optical contact is not real contact. Optical contact 
indicates only that the distance between the surfaces is much less than 
a wavelength of light. To show that the surfaces are not in real con- 



CONNECTION OF ELECTEICITY AND MAGNETISM. 257 

tact, I remove the weights. The rings contract, and several of them 
vanish at the center. lISTow, it is jjossible to bring two pieces of glass so 
close together that they will not tend to separate at all, but adhere 
together so firmly that, when torn asunder, the glass will break, not at 
the surface of contact, but at some other place. The glasses must then 
be many degrees nearer than when in mere optical contact. 

Thus we have shown that bodies begin to press against each other 
while still at a measurable distance, and that even when pressed 
together with great force they are not in absolute contact, but may be 
brought nearer still, and that by many degrees. 

Why, then, say the advocates of direct action, should we continue to 
maintain the doctrine, founded only on the rough experience of a pre- 
scientiflc age, that matter cannot act where it is not, instead of admit- 
ting that all the facts from which our ancestors concluded that contact, 
is essential to action were in reality cases of action at a distance, the 
distance being too small to be measured by their imperfect means of 
observation ? 

If we are ever to discover the laws of nature, we must do so by 
obtaining the most accurate acquaintance with the facts of nature, and 
not by dressing up in philosophical language the loose opinions of men 
who had no knowledge of the facts which throw most light on these 
laws. And as for those who introduce ethereal or other media, to 
account for these actions, without any direct evidence of the existence 
of such media, or any clear understanding of how the media do their 
work, and who fill all space three and four times over with ethers of 
different sorts, why the less these men talk about their philosophical 
scruples about admitting action at a distance the better. 

If the progress of science were regulated by Newton's first law of 
motion, it would be easy to cultivate opinions in advance of the age. 
We should only have to compare the science of to-day with that of fifty 
years ago ; and by producing, in the geometrical sense, the line of 
progress, we should obtain the science of fifty years hence. 

The progress of science in ISTewton's time consisted in getting rid of 
the celestial machinery with which generations of astronomers had 
incumbered the heavens, and thus " sweeping cobwebs off the sky." 

Though the planets had already got rid of their crystal spheres, they 
were still swimming in the vortices of Descartes. Magnets were sur- 
rounded by effluvia, and electrified bodies by atmospheres, the properties 
of which resembled in no respect those of ordinary effluvia and atmos- 
pheres. 

When Newton demonstrated that the force which acts on each of the 
heavenly bodies depends on its relative position with respect to the 
other bodies, the new theory met with violent opposition from the 
advanced philosophers of the day, who described the doctrine of 
gravitation as a return to the exploded method of explaining every- 
thing by occult causes, attractive virtues, and the like. 
17 s • 



258 CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

Newton himself, with that wise moderation which is characteristic of 
all his speculations, answered that he made no pretense of explainiog 
the mechanism by which the heavenly bodies act on each other. To 
determine the mode in which their mutual action depends on their 
relative position was a great step in science, and this step l^ewton 
asserted that he had made. To explain the process by which this action 
is effected was quite a distinct step, and this step Newton, in his Prin. 
cipia, does not attempt to make. 

But so far was Newton from asserting that bodies really do act on 
one another at a distance, independently of anything between them, 
that in a letter to Bentley, which has been quoted by Faraday in this 
place, he says : 

" It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without the 
mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and 
affect other matter without mutual contact, as it must do if gravitation, 
in the sense of Epicurus, be essential and inherent in it. That gravity 
should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body 
can act upon another at a distance, through a vacuum, without the 
mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and 
force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurd- 
ity that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent 
faculty of thinking can ever fall into it." 

Accordingly, we find, in his Optical Queries and in his letters to 
Boyle, that Newton had very early made the attempt to account for 
gravitation by means of the pressure of a medium, and that the reason 
he did not publish these investigations " proceeded from hence only, 
that he found he was not able, from experiment and observation, to 
give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner of its 
operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature."* 

The doctrine of direct action at a distance cannot claim for its author 
the discoverer of universal gravitation. It was first asserted by Eoger 
Cotes, in his preface to the Principia, which he edited during Newton's 
life. According to Cotes, it is by experience that we learn that all 
bodies gravitate. We do not learn in any other way that they are 
extended, movable, or solid. Gravitation, therefore, has as much right 
to be considered an essential property of matter as extension, mobility, 
or impenetrability. 

And when the Newtonian philosophy gained ground in Europe, it was 
the opinion of Cotes rather than that of Newton that became most 
prevalent, till at last Boscovich propounded his theory, that matter is a 
congeries of mathematical points, each endowed with the power of 
attracting or repelling the others according to fixed laws. In his world, 
matter is unextended and contact impossible. He did not forget, how- 
ever, to endow his mathematical points with inertia. In this some of 
the modern representatives of his school have thought that he " had 

* Maclaurin's Account of Newton's Discoveries. 



CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM, 259 

not quite got so far as the strict modern view of ' matter' as being but 
an expression for modes or manifestations of ' force."^* 

But if we leave oat of account for the present tlie development of the 
ideas of science, and confine our attention to the extension of its bound- 
aries, we shall see that it was most essential that Newton's method 
should be extended to every branch of science to Avhich it was applica- 
ble — that we should investigate the forces with which bodies act on each 
other in the first place, before attempt ing to explain lioic that force is 
transmitted. ISo men could be better fitted to ai^ply themselves exclu- 
sively to the first part of the problem than those who considered the 
second part quite unnecessary. 

Accordingly, Cavendish, Coulomb, and Poisson, the founders of the 
exact sciences of electricity and magnetism, paid no regard to those old 
notions of " magnetic elfluvia" and "electric atmospheres" which had 
been put fortli in the previous century, but turned their undivided atten- 
tion to the determination of the law of force according to which electri- 
fied and magnetized bodies attract or repel each other. In this way the 
true laws of these actions were discovered. And this was done by men 
who never doubted that the action took place at a distance, without the 
intervention of any medium, and who would have regarded the discovery 
of such a medium as complicating rather than as explaining the 
undoubted phenomena of attraction. 

We have now arrived at the great discovery by Oersted of the con- 
nection between electricity and magnetism. Oersted found that an elec- 
tric current acts on a magnetic pole, but that it neither attracts it nor 
repels it, but causes it to move round the current. He expressed this 
by saying that " the electric conflict acts in a revolving manner.'^ 

The most obvious deduction from this new fact was that the action of 
the current on the magnet is not a push-and-pull force, but a rotatory 
force, and accordingly many minds were set a speculating on vortices 
and streams of ether whirling round the current. 

But Ampere, by a combination of mathematical skill with experi- 
mental ingenuity, first proved-that two electric currents act on one 
another, and then analyzed this action into the resultant of a system of 
push-and-j)ull forces between the elementary jjarts of these currents. 

The formula of Ampere, however, is of extreme complexity as com- 
pared with Newton's law of gravitation, and many attempts have been 
made to resolve it into something of greater apparent simplicity. 

I have no wish to lead you into a discussion of any of these attempts 
to improve a mathematical formula. Let us turn to the independent 
method of investigation employed by Faraday in those researches in 
electricity and magnetism which have made this institution one of the 
most venerable shrines of science. 

No man ever more conscientiously and systematically labored to im 
prove all his powers of mind than did Faraday from the very beginning 

* Review of Mrs. Somerville, '•' Saturday Review," February 13, 1869, vol. vii, No. 5S. 



260 CONNECTION OF ELECTEICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

of his scientific career. But whereas the general course of scientific 
method then consisted in the application of the ideas of mathematics 
and astronomy to eacli new investigation in turn, Faraday seems to 
have had no opportunity" of acquiring a technical knowledge of mathe- 
matics, and his knowledge of astronomy was mainly derived from books. 

Hence, though he had a profound respect for the great discovery of 
]!»rewton, he regarded the attraction of gravitation as a sort of sacred 
mystery, which, as he w^as not an astronomer, he had no right to gainsay 
or to doubt, his duty being to believe it in the exact form in which it 
w^as delivered to him. Such a dead faith was not likely to lead him to 
explain new phenomena by means of direct attractions. 

Besides this, the treatises of Poisson and Ampere are of so technical 
a form that to derive any assistance from them the student must have 
been thoroughly trained in mathematics, and it is very doubtful if such 
a training can be begun with" advantage in mature years. 

Thus Faraday, with his penetrating intellect, his devotion to science, 
and his opportunities for experiments, was debarred from following the 
course of thought which had led to the achievements of the French 
X)hilosophers, and was obliged to explain the phenomena to himself by 
means of a symbolism which he could understand, instead of adopting 
what had hitherto been the only tongue of the learned. 

This new symbolism consisted of those lines of force extending them- 
selves in every direction from electrified and magnetic bodies, which 
Faraday in his mind's eye saw as distinctly as the solid bodies from 
which they emanated. 

The idea of lines of force and their exhibition by means of iron filings 
was nothing new. They had been observed repeatedly, and investigated 
mathematically as an interesting curiosity of science. But let us hear 
Faraday himself, as he introduces to his reader the method which in his 
hands became so powerful :* 

"It would be a voluntary and unnecessary abandonment of most 
valuable aid if an experimentalist who chooses to consider magnetic 
j)ower as represented by lines of magnetic force were to deny himself 
the use of iron filings. By their employment he may make many con- 
ditions of the power, even in complicated cases, visible to the eye at 
once; may trace the varying direction of the lines of force and determine 
the relative polarity ; may observe in which direction the power is 
increasing or diminishing; and in complex systems may determine the 
neutral ipoints or places where there is neither polarity nor power, even 
when they occur in the midst of powerful magnets. By their use prob- 
able results may be seen at once, and many a valuable suggestion gained - 
for future leading experiments." 

Experiment on lines of force. 
In tills experiment each filing becomes a little magnet. The poles of 
opposite names belonging to different filings attract each other and 

* Experimental Eesearches, 3284. 



P CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 261 

stick together, and more filings attach themselves to the exposed poles : 
that is, to the ends of the row of filings. In this way the filings, instead 
of forming a confused system of dots over the jjaper, draw together, 
filing to filing, till long fibers of filings are formed, which indicate by 
their direction the lines of force in every part of the field. 

The mathematicians saw in this experiment nothing but a method of 
exhibiting at one view the direction in different places of tbe resultant 
of two forces, one directed to each pole of the magnet, a somewhat com- 
plicated result of the simple law of force. 

But Faraday, by a series of steps as remarkable for their geometrical 
definiteness as for their speculative ingenuity, imparted to his concep- 
tion of these lines of force a clearness and precision far in advance of 
that with which the mathematicians could then invest their own formulas. 

In the first place, Faraday's lines of force are not to be considered 
merely as individuals, but as forming a system, drawn in space in a 
definite manner, so that the number of the lines which pass through an 
area, say of one square inch, indicates the intensity of the force acting 
through the area. Thus the lines of force become definite in number. 
The strength of a magnetic pole is measured by the number of lines 
which proceed from it ; the electro-tonic state of a circuit is measured 
by the number of lines which pass through it. 

In the second place, each individual line has a continuous existence in 
space and time. When a piece of steel becomes a magnet, or when an 
electric current begins to flow, the lines of force do not start into exist- 
ence, each in its own place, but, as the strength increases, new lines are 
developed within the magnet or current, and gradually grow outward, 
so that the whole system expands from within, like Newton's rings in 
our former experiment. Thus, every line of force preserves its identity 
during the whole course of its existence, though its shape and size may 
be altered to any extent. 

I have no time to describe the methods by which every question relat- 
ing to the forces acting on magnets or on currents, or to the induction 
of currents in conducting circuits, may be solved by the consideration 
of Faraday's lines of force. In this place they can never be forgotten. 
By means of this new symbolism, Faraday defined with mathematical 
precision the whole theory of electro -magnetism, in language free from 
mathematical technicalities, and applicable to the most complicated as well 
asthesimplestcases. ButFaraday didnotstop here. He went on from the 
conception of geometrical lines of force to that of physical lines of force. 
He observed that the motion which the magnetic or electric force tends 
to produce is invariably such as to shorten the lines of force, and to 
allow them to spread out laterally from each other. He thus perceived 
in the medium a state of stress, consisting of a tension, like that of a rope. 
in the direction of the lines of force, combined with a pressure in all 
directions at right angles to them. 

This is quite a new conception of action at a distance, reducing it to 



262 CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

a plienomeuoii of the same kiud as that action at a distance whicli is 
exerted by means of the tension of ropes and the pressure of rods. 
When the muscles of oar bodies are excited by that stimulus which we 
are able in some unknown way to apply to them, the fibers tend to 
shorten themselv^es and at the same time to expand laterally. A state 
of stress is produced in the muscle, and the limb moves. This explana- 
tion of muscular action is by no means comi^lete. It gives no account 
of the cause of the excitement of the state of stress, nor does it even 
investigate those forces of cohesion which enable the muscles to support 
this stress. Nevertheless, the simple fact that it substitutes a kind of 
action which extends continuously along a material substance for one 
of which we know only a cause and an effect at a distance from each 
other, induces us to accept it as a real addition to our knowledge of 
animal mechanics. 

For similar reasons we may regard Faraday's conception of a state 
of stress in the electro-magnetic field as a method of explaining action 
at a distance by means of the continuous transmission of force, even 
though we do not know how the state of stress is produced. 

But one of Faraday's most x)regnant discoveries, that of the magnetic 
rotation of polarized light, enables us to ijroceed a step farther. The 
phenomenon, when analyzed into its simplest elements, may be described 
thus: Of two circularly-polarized rays of light, precisely similar 4n con- 
figuration, but rotating in opposite directions, that ray is propagated 
with the greater velocity which rotates in the same direction as the elec- 
tricity of the magnetizing current. 

It follows from this, as Sir W. Thomson has shown by strict dynamical 
reasoning, that the medium, when under the action of magnetic force, 
must be in a state of rotation ; that is to say, that small portions of the 
medium, which we may call molecular vortices, are rotating each on its 
own axis, the direction of this axis being that of the magnetic force. 

Here, then, we have an explanation of the tendency of the lines of 
magnetic force to spread out laterally and to shorten themselves. It 
arises from the centrifugal force of the molecular vortices. 

The mode in which electromotive force acts in starting and stopping 
the vortices is more abstruse, though it is, of course, consistent with 
dynamical principles. 

We have thus found that there are several different kinds of work to 
be done by the electro-magnetic medium if it exists. We have also seen 
that magnetism has an intimate relation to light, and we know that 
there is a theory of light w^hich supposes it to consist of the vibrations 
of a medium. How is this luminiferous medium related to our electro- 
magnetic medium? 

It fortunately happens that electro-magnetic measurements have been 
made, from which we can calculate, by dynamical principles, the velocity 
of propagation of small magnetic disturbances in the supposed electro- 
magnetic medium. 



CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 263 

This velocity is very great, from 175,000 to 200,000 miles per second, 
according to clifiFerent experiments. Now, the velocity of light, accord- 
ing to Foucault's experiments, is 185,000 miles per second. In fact^ the 
different determinations of either velocity differ from each other more 
than the estimated velocity of light does from the estimated velocity of 
propagation of small electro-magnetic disturbance. But if the luminif- 
erous and the electro-magnetic media occupy the same place, and trans- 
mit disturbances with the same velocity, what reason have we to distin- 
guish the one from the other ? By considering them as the same, we 
avoid at least the reproach of filling space twice over with different 
kinds of ether. 

Besides this, the only kind of electro-magnetic disturbances which 
can be propagated through a non-conducting medium is a disturbance 
transverse to the direction of propagation, agreeing in this respect with 
what we know of that disturbance which we call light. Hence, for all 
we know, light also may be an electro-magnetic disturbance in a non- 
conducting medium. If we admit this, the electro-magnetic theory of 
light will agree in every respect with the undtilatory theory, and the 
work of Thomas Young and Fresnel will be established on a firmer 
basis than ever when joined with that of Cavendish and Coulomb by 
the keystone of the combined sciences of light and electricity — Farad^ay's 
great discovery of the electro-magnetic rotation of light. 

The vast interplanetary and interstellar regions will no longer be 
regarded as waste places in the universe, which the Creator has not 
seen fit to fill with the symbols of the' manifold order of his kingdom. 
We shall find them to be already full of this wonderful medium ; so full 
that no human power can remove it from the smallest portion of space, 
or produce the slightest flaw in its infinite continuity. It extends 
unbroken from star to star ; and when a molecule of hydrogen vibrates 
in the Dog-star, the medium receives the impulses of these vibrations ; 
and after carrying them in its immense bosom for three years, delivers 
them in due course, regular order, and full tale into the spectroscope of 
Mr. Huggins, at Tulse Hill. 

But the medium has other functions and operations, besides bearing 
light from man to man, and from world to world, and giving evidence 
of the absolute unity of the metric system of the universe. Its minute 
parts may have rotary as well as vibratory motions, and the axes of rota- 
tion form those lines of magnetic force which extend in unbroken conti- 
nuity into regions which no eye has seen, and which by their action on 
our magnets are telling us, in language not yet interpreted, what is 
going on in the hidden under-world from minute to minute and from 
century to century. 

And these lines must not be regarded as mere mathematical abstrac- 
tions. They are the directions in which the medium is exerting a ten- 
sion like that of a rope, or rather like that of our own muscles. The 
tension of the medium in the direction of the earth's magnetic force is 



264 CONNECTION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 

in this country one grain weight on eight sqnare feet. In some of Dr. 
Joule's experiments, the medium has exerted a tension of 200 pounds 
"weig'ht per square inch. 

But the medium, in virtue of the very same elasticity by which it is 
able to transmit the undulations of light, is also able to act as a spring. 
When properly wound up, it exerts a tension different from the mag- 
netic tension, by which it draws oppositely electrified bodies together, 
produces effects through the length of telegraphic wires, and, when of 
sufficient intensity, leads to the rupture and explosion called lightning. 

These are some of the already" discovered properties of that which has 
often been called vacuum, or nothing at all. They enable us to resolve 
several kinds of action at a distance into actions between contiguous 
parts of a continuous substance. Whether this resolution is of the 
nature of explication or complication, I must leave to the metaphysicians. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY AT COR- 
DOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

An address to citizens of Boston hy Dr. B. A. Gould, the Director. 



More tlian half a century ago the great astronomer Bessel undertook 
the formation of a catalogue which should contain the positions and 
magnitudes of as many stars as possible between the parallels of 45° 
north decliuation and 15° south, down to the ninth magnitude; thus 
including all stars one-fifteenth part as bright as the faintest which 
he could discern with the naked eye. This great work he carried to a 
successful conclusion ; commencing the observations in 1821 and com- 
pleting them in 1833, and securing more than 72,000 observations of 
62,380 different stars. These have since been carefully computed, and 
the resultant catalogues published by the Imperial Observatory of 
Russia, at the jmblic expense, affording a priceless aid to astronomers. 
In France an analogous attempt had been made near the close of the 
last century, by La Lande, who undertook a scrutiny of all the stars 
between the north pole and the southern tropic, and his 47,000 observa- 
tions have been computed and published at the expense of the British 
government; but the superiority of modern instruments and methods 
rendered Bessel's undertaking essentially a new one. 

Later, his pupil and assistant, Argelander, upon whom his mantle 
had fallen, extended his scrutiny by two more series of zone-observa- 
tions — one on the north, reaching from 45° to 80°, the other on the south 
from 15"^ to 31°, the two jointly containing about 50,000 observations. 
The vicinity to the pole upon the one side and to the horizon on the other, 
presented peculiar difficulties, yet the continued improvement of astro- 
nomical instruments and methods, and the rare skill of Argelander, 
enabled him to attain both a somewhat higher degree of accuracy and 
a relatively greater number of observations. Thus, in 1852, the 
heavens had been well studied from 80*^ north of the equator to 31° 
south; and when in that year our lamented countryman, Gilliss, re- 
turned from his expedition to Chile, he brought with him the manuscript 
results of an extensive series of zones, which he had observed around 
the south pole. Soon afterward, the English astronomer, Carrington, 
explored the ten degrees around the north pole; so that for the last 
eighteen years the only region of the heavens which has not been care- 
fully investigated is that which lies between the parallel of 31° south 
and the northern limit of Gilliss's yet unpublished observations. To 
fill this hiatus and complete the survey of the heavens on some plan 



266 OBSERVATOEY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

analogous to that of Bessel and Argelander was naturally an alluring 
problem. 

The singularity and strange beaut^^ of some portions of the southern 
sky has from the first attracted the attention of navigators. At the 
ver}^ beginning of the sixteenth century the luminous patches now 
called the "Magellanic clouds,'' as well as the "Coal-sacks," those dark 
blots upon the brilliant milky-way, had been vividly i)ortrayed; and 
even Amerigo Vespucci boasted that he had looked upon the four stars 
which, according to Dante, had been 

" Ne'er seen before, save by the primal people," 

but which have been now, for more than three centuries and a half, 
renowned in song and story under the name of the "Southern Cross." 
l!^or need we wonder at the poet's fervor when he adds : 

" Rejoicinjif in the liaraelets seemed the heaven. 
O thou septentrional and widowed site, 
In that thou art deprived of seeing these!" 

The glory of the southern sky in the region near the Cross is indescri- 
bable. There, where the Milky Way is crossed by the thick stream of 
bright stars which skirts this river of light, its binlliancy is wondrously 
increased, and it exhibits a magnificence unequaled in any other portion 
of the heavens. There glitter a multitude of bright stars, more thickly 
scattered than in any region within our northern view, while the back- 
ground is gorgeous in its splendor. Often, on some clear night, when 
this region has suddenly been brought to my view in passing some 
edifice, or turning some street-corner, I have stood amazed at the flood 
of light which it diffused ; and often, too, when leaving the observatory 
in the early morning-hours after a night of wearying labor, I have felt 
reluctant to abandon the magnificent spectacle, for the sake of mucii- 
needed repose. In close proximity are the rich constellations of the 
Centaur, the Keel and Sails of the ship Argo, and the Wolf; and the 
glory reaches through the Altar even to the southern portion of the 
Scorpion. There extend large tracts which rival the Pleiades in the 
profusion of their stars, gleaming upon a background of nebula. Else- 
where the southern heavens are not so brilliant as the northern, nor do 
they contain so many stars as bright as the faintest which we can dis- 
cern ; but there is nothing between the two poles comparable in beauty 
with the tract to which I refer. 

Yet the earliest accurate observations of southern stars were those 
of Halley, afterwards Astronomer Royal of England, who visited St. 
Helena for the purpose between the j^ears 1676 and 1678, under the pat- 
ronage of King Charles II and the East India Company, and there 
determined the positions of 341 stars. Seventy -five years later, in 1751, 
the French astronomer Lacaille undertook a similar expedition to 
the Cape of Good Hope, then a Dutch colony, at the expense of the 
French government, and with the official support of the French 



I 



OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 267 

Academy of Sciences, the States-General of Hollaud, and the Prince 
of Orange. With but one assistant, and only eraployiug a little tele- 
scope half an inch in aperture and twenty-eight inches in focal length, 
strapped to the tube of a mural quadrant, he succeeded in determin- 
ing the positions of 9,766 stars, between the tropic aud the pole, in 
the short period of less than eleven months ; but his observations were 
not published until eleven years later, and then in so crude a form that 
they were with difficulty available until about a quarter-century ago, 
when they were computed and published, like those of La Laude, at the 
expense of the British government. These have till now been a prin- 
cipal reliance of astronomers for their knowledge of the southern 
heavens. I may not dilate on what has been done elsewhere; at Para- 
matta, where the observations, though laboriously made, have rendered 
comparatively little service to science ; at Madras, 13° north of the 
equator, where Taylor made excellent observations of some 6,01)0 southern 
stars 5 at the Cape of Good Hope, where observations of great precision 
and value have been made by various eminent men, and where Sir John 
Herschel devoted seven years to forming a catalogue of nebulas and 
double stars; at Saint Helena, where Johnson, one of the most skillful 
and delicate observers of our times, fixed the position of 606 southern 
stars ; or of the observatory established at Melbourne twenty years ago, 
from which have emanated observations of the highest quality, and 
where the director, Mr. Ellery, has commenced a grand study of the 
southern heavens, upon a different plan from mine in Cordoba, aud for 
a difierent purpose. To Gilliss's labors in Chile I have already alluded, 
and at the observatory of Santiago, in that republic, the places of a 
considerable number of stars have been determined by him and his 
successors. 

Such, my friends, were the circumstances as they presented them- 
selves a few years ago. Argelander's explorations reached only to 31° 
south, which is but 8° above his horizon, and where his observations 
were not only difficult, but subject to serious embarrassments from the 
excessive influence of refraction. Beyond this, no systematic series, 
aiming at both accuracy in the positions and tolerable completeness, 
had been attempted since Lacaille's, with poor instruments, a century 
and a quarter ago, unless we except Gilliss's unpublished observations 
around the south pole, which future astronomers may or may not see. 
The only other observations available were the scattered ones already 
mentioned, in which the aim had been not to fix the places of many 
stars, so much as by repeated observations of some principal ones to 
obtain for these the highest accuracy. In all, I scarcely think they 
included more than about 12,000 different stars. 

Information from various sources having led me to believe that the 
climate ot Cordoba, midway between the Atlantic and Pacific, and 
exempt alike from the frequent tornadoes of the one coast and the 
earthquakes of the other, was especially favorable for astronomical 



268 OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

research, I addressed a letter, in October, 1865, to Mr. Sarmiento, then 
Argentine minister t® this country, telling him of my desire to make 
an astronomical expedition thither, and of my bopes of being able to 
secure the necessary pecuniary means from lovers of science. In this 
letter I asked him whether such an expedition would be cordially 
received by the national government and by the people of Cordoba ; 
whether protection would be afforded in case of need; and whether I 
could reasonably hope that on my own departure the establishment 
would be adopted by the government and continued as a national insti- 
tution. His reply was most cordial, answering all ray questions favor- 
ably, and promising even more than I had ventured to ask ; and in due 
time a full ofQcial indorsement was received from the Argentine govern- 
ment, and Doctor Costa, Minister of Public Instruction, in a note dated 
January, 1866, expressed his regret that the heavy sacrifices which 
the nation was making, in its mortal struggle with the tyrant Lopez of 
Paraguay, deprived him of the power of offering yet more effective 
support to the undertaking. My plan failed at that time, owing to my 
want of success in obtaining the necessary pecuniary means, yet Mr. 
Sarmiento's interest in it never flagged ; nor did he, when nominated 
for President eighteen months later, forget the astronomical project 
amid official cares, educational labors, or political excitement. One of 
his earliest acts after assuming the presidency in 1868 was to recommend 
a national observatory. This was voted by the Argentine congress at 
its first subsequent session ; and in the latter half of 1869 I received from 
Doctor Av^ellaneda, then Minister of Public Instruction, an invitation 
to organize a permanent national observatory and provide the needful 
instruments and buildings ; and money-credits were furnished for doing 
this in an adequate, though unpretending, way. I took the necessary 
steps as speedily as possible, and a happy combination of circumstances 
aided the prompt acquisition of instruments, which would else have 
required a long time for their construction. Happily, as it proved, 
although it had cost me some regrets in the interval, I had more than 
three years previously ordered, upon my own responsibility, from the 
celebrated artist Eepsold, of Hamburg, a meridian-circle of dimensions 
and character especially adapted to the proposed work; and this had 
been completed but a few months when the opportunity for its employ- 
ment arrived. 

The ready assistance and encouragement w^hich the undertaking 
received from every side, as soon as it became publicly known, will 
always afford me delightful remembrances. Not only in its private and 
personal, but also in its scientific relations — not only by words that meant 
something, but, likewise, by the most jiractical actions — aid came to it 
from all directions. The Superintendent of the Coast Survey hastened 
to offer the loan of such portable instruments as might be serviceable ; 
an offer which I accepted as freely as it was made. The secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution did the same; and both these institutions, as well 



OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 269 

as the Naval Observatory and the Nautical Almauac office, contributed 
full series of all their publications. Bj some grievous mischance the 
boxes containing these invaluable books never reached their destination, 
but the loss has been repaired to a considerable extent by new gifts. 
The American Academy of this city lent money, from its Rumford fund, 
to purchase apparatus for studying the light of the stars, and gave me 
permission to return either the instruments or the money, and at the 
most convenient time. Four of the scientific societies of England, the 
observatories of Greenwich, Pulkowa, and Leipzig, astronomers in Eng- 
land, France, Germany, Eussia, and Italy, sent such generous gifts of 
valuable books, maps, charts, &c., that the faintest heart could not have 
failed to gather courage. Not to mention my own countrymen and all 
i owe them. Professors Bruhns and Zollner in Leipzig undertook to 
superintend the construction of instruments for the new institution; 
and, during the whole period of my absence, the former has attended to 
all the apparatus and books which I desired from Germany. So, too, 
Professor Auwers in Berlin took charge of extensive computations which 
I needed to have made in some place where professional computers could 
be found. And, from the beginning of my labors to the present time, I 
have been encouraged and aided by the sympathy and counsel of my 
revered friend, Professor Argelander. 

The means available for procuring the necessary assistance were in- 
sufficient to permit the engagement of trained astronomers, and it was 
an especial disappointment that I was unable to secure the companion- 
ship of any of my own former pupils or assistants, whose aid in such an 
enterprise would Tiave been doubly valuable. But I did secure the aid 
of four very capable and well-educated young men, recently graduated, 
three from Pennsylvania and one from New England. These gentlemen 
sailed for Buenos Ayres direct, while I went by way of Europe, and we 
reached our destinations at about the same time. 

It was the 25th August, 1870, when I arrived in Buenos Ayres with 
my family, and from that day until that on which I left the same pleas- 
ant capital just two months ago, our history is a record of private kind- 
ness and public generosity. 

Thence we ascended the La Plata, threading an exquisite maze of 
beautiful and closely crowded islands, decked with the dark-green foliage 
and glowing fruit of the orange ; through narrow channels guarded by 
luxuriant willows, whose trailing branches swept our decks ; amid jungles 
sheltering unnumbered alligators and countless tigers ; and then, enter- 
ing the vast delta of the Parana, moved up that stately river for about 
twenty hours ; now descrying on its western bank the buildings of some 
large pastoral estate, and now touching at some one of the embryo cities 
which are, at no distant day, to become flourishing sea-ports and centers 
of an active commerce. 

In the thriving town of Rosario, 250 miles above Buenos Ayres, we 
found a hospitable welcome at the house of our divStinguished country- 



270 OBSEEVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

man, Mr, Wheelwright, whose energy and enterprise had given to Soiitli 
America her first steamboat, first railroad, first telegraph, first water- 
works, and first gas-illumination : and on the day following we traversed 
the pampa westward for yet another 250 miles, over the railway which 
he had jnst completed, and which had been inaugurated a few weeks 
before. For the second time within two years, we raced with the ante- 
lopes, and saw the prairie dogs and owls amicably seated at the threshold 
of their common dwelling. Ostriches were running at speed across the 
boundless and level expanse; herds with thousands of cattle, and flocks 
with tens of thousands of sheep, roamed at will, ignorant of all restraint. 
The spaise settlements could be seen for a dozen or more miles away, 
their whitewashed walls and their few trees arresting the attention on 
the horizon of this terrestrial ocean, just as a distant sail fixes the gaze 
of a seaman. At intervals the ground was scarlet or white or purple 
with great patches of verbena or portulacea ; the taller shrubs served 
as trellises for the passion-flower or the white bignonia ; and many of 
our most favorite exotics studded the prairie with brilliant colors. 

Sixteen hours brought us to the western limit of the pampa, and to 
the city of Cordoba, the goal of 10,000 miles of journeying, where still 
another cordial welcome awaited us. Here the provincial, or as we call 
it the state, government empowered me to select for the observatory 
whatever site might appear to me most desirable, and I chose one upon 
the high pampa level, at the brink of the precipitous declivity bordering 
the valley in which the city lies, 120 feet below. The floor of the obser- 
vatory is on a level with the crosses upon the high church-towers, 
three-quarters of a mile away. 

Such, portions of the building as could be constructed of wood or 
metal had been made at home, and forwarded by vessel, and it was my 
expectation that all the work of construction would be completed in 
three months, so that the observatious could begin early in 1871. But 
the Cordobese workmen had enjoyed no Yankee apprenticeship, and it 
was not until July that the first dome was completed. We celebrated 
the Fourth by mounting the equatorial — an instrument of American 
construction, the joint work of the optician Fitz and of our neighbor 
Alvan Clark. Meantime the instruments and books from Europe had 
suffered unprecedented delays. Some were on a French ship, and some 
on German vessels, and all were blockaded for many months by the 
war, which had been declared a day or two before we sailed from Liver- 
pool, and the first tidings of which were received after our arrival in 
Cordoba. The war over, the ship with the meridian circle was frozen 
up for the winter in the Elbe. When at last it reached Buenos Ayres, 
the port was practically closed and the city laid waste by the yellow 
fever, and many more months elapsed before the quarantine was re- 
moved which closed the interior against the capital in conformity with 
the yet prevalent traditionary prejudices inherited from Spain, and 
which are so interwoven with all the popular ideas that more than one 



OBSERVATOEY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 271 

generation will probably pass before they disappear. Thus season after 
season passed away, and it was not till May, 1873, that the meridian- 
circle was mounted ready for use, nor until the 9th of September, 1872, 
that the regular observations were commenced for the celestial survey 
which I had planned seven years before. 

But this long delay proved in the end not to have been a misfortune, 
irksome as it was. Within the first mouth it became evident that the 
construction of the building would demand a disproportionate amount 
of time and attention, and that although the large telescope might be 
employed to some extent, a long time must elapse before the work with 
the meridian-circle could begin. Although I little dreamed how great 
would be the delay, I determined to use this opportunity for the con- 
struction of a uranometry, or catalogue of all the visible stars of the 
southern sky, with an exact determination of the brilliancy of each. 
The labor of these first eighteen months was certainly as assiduous and 
fruitful, and I believe it was as serviceable to science, as the later work. 
Thirty years before, Argelander had made such a uranometry, giving 
tiie brightness of each star to the nearest third of a unit of magnitude. 
In Albany, in 1858, we had done the same work, for a portion of the 
heavens, to tenths of a magnitude, while awaiting the mounting of the 
instruments. These observations, although stereotyped at the time, 
have never been published ; but they had given me a good deal of expe- 
rience, which now became very useful. 

Thus the scientific labors of the first year went to the construction of 
star-lists and charts of the visible heavens, as they appeared on the 
clearest nights to the sharpest unassisted eyes, the magnitudes being 
estimated to tenths of a unit. Ifo instruments were used other than 
common opera glasses ; but the purity of the air at Cordoba, and an ele- 
vation of about 1,300 feet above the sea-level, give a remarkable trans- 
parency to the atmosphere on favorable nights. My own near-sighted- 
ness precluded me from taking part in the actual observations, but I 
found more than enough to do in identifying those stars whose places had 
been determined by previous astronomers, in providing for our own 
future observation of those not to be found in the catalogues, in main- 
taining a uniform system of estimates by the four observers, and in the 
general management of the work. Every test in my power was brought 
to bear upon the accuracy of the work as it progressed, and each scrutiny 
served to confirm my confidence in the carefulness of all engaged in 
the observations. After the completion of this undertaking, the results 
were subjected to careful revision by repeating the whole process in a 
somewhat different form, assigning to each of the observers a region 
which in the first scrutiny had been given to some other one. The defi- 
nite results are now available for publication, and the Argentine govern- 
ment has authorized me to make the necessary arrangements. The 
published work will consist of an atlas of the heavens, from 10° north 
of the equator to the south pole, showing every star to the seventh mag- 



272 OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

nitude inclusive, and no others, and accompanied by the corresponding 
catalogues. As a matter of simple justice and proj)riety, I have given 
it the name of Uranometria Argentina. The magnitude of each star 
has been determined on the average by more than four observations, 
and by as many as three different observers. At present, Mr. Thome, 
whom I have left in charge of the observatory, and who is the only one 
of the original corps now remaining in Cordoba, is engaged in a last 
syst'Omatic scrutiny of the finished work, to insure that no star is either 
omitted or wfongly placed. Much more than a quarter part of the 
actual observation has been done by him ; and from his constant and 
assiduous devotion to the undertaking for nearly four years, I am sure 
that he now possesses a greater personal familiarity with the southern- 
sky than any man ever attained before. Nor does this comparison iu 
the least diminish the honor due to his late colleagues, to whom a laige 
portion of the excellence of the work must justly be attributed. Of 
another assistant, not on the observatory's books, but without whose 
untiring and devoted aid my work could scarcely have been accom- 
plished, I may not speak. 

Less than two years ago there was published by Professor Heis a 
new uranometry of the northern sky, precisely on the same plan as 
Argelander's, of which it is, in fact, an enlargement, with the addition 
of fainter stars seen with his unassisted eye, which is of exceptional 
strength. My plan was somewhat ditferent, and we availed ourselves 
of opera-glasses to obtain more accurate estimates; and after I found 
the stars of the seventh magnitude as distinctly visible at Cordoba to 
eyes of average power, I fixed this magnitude as the limit for the uran- 
ometry, a large number of fainter stars being excluded, although their 
magnitudes have been well determined. If we only consider stars as 
bright as the sixth magnitude, Heis found 3,139 of these in the northern 
half of the sky, while we have only three-quarters as many in the southern 
half. Yet while he has in all 4,909 northern stars, we have 7,670 southern 
ones, so great is the difference between the transparency of the sky at Cor- 
doba and at Miinster. The number of stars in the whole sky visible to the 
naked eye has usually been estimated at about 5,500. Heis estimates 
that there are about 6,800 of a brightness not inferior to the faintest 
which he can see. But I now find that if the sky was as transparent 
as that at Cordoba on a good night, even an average eye would probably 
discern not much less than 15,000 in the full circuit of the heavens. 
The Uranometria Argentina contains 8,522 stars, of which 7,670 are 
situated in the southern heavens, and 852, or just one-tenth of the 
whole, ate within the first ten degrees of north declination. 

In connection with the uranometry, an opportunity presented itself 
to introduce, or rather to suggest to astronomers for their acceptance, a 
greatly-needed reform in the arrangement and boundaries of the south- 
ern constellations, which have from the beginning been in a state of 
such confusion as to call forth continual complaints from those who 



OBSEEVATOEY AT COEDOBA, ARGENTINE EEPUBLIC. 273 

have had to deal with them, and which are depicted alike iu no two 
different maps or globes within my knowledge. I have now re-arranged 
the whole system in such a manner that the boundaries of the constella- 
tions shall be formed, so far as possible, by meridians and parallels. of 
declination, and have found it practicable to arrange this with almost 
insignificant disturbance of the nomenclature of the principal stais. 
To this portion of the labor, also, I attach considerable value. 

The meridian circle possesses essentially the same optical power as 
the instruments employed by Bessel and Argelauder, the object-glass 
having an aperture of 4^ Paris inches. But methods of observation 
have made considerable advance in twenty years, and this new iustrumeut 
is supplied with varous conveniences which the others did not possess. 
The principal difference of method, however, is in the employment of 
the chronographic method of observing transits, the instants of these 
being registered by telegraphic signals upon a cylinder revolving at 
a uniform rate. The fundamental plan of all the zone observations of 
which 1 have spoken consists in restricting the vertical motion of the 
telescope to narrow limits proviously assigned, and then determining 
the moment of transit and the declination of every star that traverses 
the field within these limits, which of course regulate the width of a 
strip or "zone" of the heavens, whose length is determined by the du- 
ration of the process. It is manifest that the width of the zone can be so 
chosen that only a small portion of the stars of sufficient magnitude 
can escape detection. Thus, beginning each zone where the adjacent 
one ends, the whole region iu question is gradually explored. 

The most essential point iu which the plan of my undertaking differed 
from that of previous observers, is, that it was my aim to make the 
determinations absolute, instead of relative. The principle adopted more 
or less comx)letely in former series has been, in fact, to observe an entire 
zone in such a way as to determine the differences of the several stars, 
among themselves, and then, identifying those whose positions may be 
found in catalogues already existing, to calculate the places of the new 
stars from those of the others. Such had been my own original plan ; 
but I soon became convinced that a sufficient number of star-places of 
the needful precision was not accessible, and that it was desirable to 
keep the work independent of any previous catalogue, aiming at what 
is called an absolute determination of the stars observed — that is to say, 
an entire independence of the work of all other astronomers, outside 
of the data in the astronomical almanacs. This implied a great 
increase of labor, since it would demand nearly an hour of addi- 
tional observations, before and after every zone, for the sole purpose of 
ascertaining the needful corrections to the indications of the instrument 
and the clock, which vary appreciably from hour to hour. It likewise 
entailed much additional labor in the comj)utations; and it became 
necessary to jjrepare for our use in Cordoba the daily places of funda- 
mental polar stars, which northern observers find calculated to their 
18 s 



274 OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

haudvS in the " jSTaotical Almanac." Still, it was manifestly desirable, 
and thus the work was arranged. Whenever possible, we observed, 
each night, three zones with their belongings, which consumed about 
eight hoars — often more. The zones averaged about a hundred minutes 
in length : more than this strained eye and nerves too much. 

It is an exhausting process to lie for this length of time with the eye 
glued to the telescope — one hand signaling the instants of each star's 
transit over a group of delicate threads, and the other pointing the tele- 
scope by means of a long screw-handle, estimating, at the same time, 
the magnitude, and calling out the data to be recorded — the udgmeut 
being meanwhile kept in active exercise for deciding upon the best 
order in which to observe the various stars which are within view at 
once, and the telescope kept in motion over the whole width of the zone, 
(which is many times wider than the field of view,) in order that as 
few stars as possible shall pass unobserved. In many zones we thus 
observed more than 260 stars ; in one there were 285, an average of one 
star to every twenty-one seconds. S'or is the labor much less for the 
assistant at the microscope. He must be on the alert to measure and 
record the reading of the graduated circle as soon as the telescope is 
pointed ; must record the magnitude and groups for each star, as well 
as the approximate moment from the clock-face, to prevent danger of 
confusion when his record comes to be combined with that upon the 
chronograph. And, what is more, he must watch the various pieces of 
apparatus to see that nothing goes amiss, for chronographs will run 
down, pen-points will clog and cease to mark, and telegraphic connec- 
tions will sometimes give out; and when they do, it is always at some crit- 
ical moment. The quickness and dexterity which the assistants acquired 
was a source of astonishment and delight to me ; and, should our results 
prove to be what I hope and believe they will, there is no one of the 
iive gentlemen who have at different times taken part in this labor, 
who may not feel a just pride, not only in the conscientious fidelity with 
which he performed his part, but also in the skill which he attained in 
most difficult operations. 

A full night's work consisted of three zones, with four series of obser- 
vations for instrumental corrections. All the zones, and the last series 
of determining stars, I observed myself; and, until the last few months, 
the first series also. Between the zones I gave rest to my eyes. The 
remainder of the work was distributed, as well as might be, among 
three assistants, in such a way that each should be able to rest his eyes 
for about an hour and a half on the nights of greatest labor, and also 
have each third night free. But there was a period of six or eight 
weeks when our force was temporarily reduced, so that the aid of 
Messrs. Thome and Bachmann was needed every night. I need not 
add that just at this time we had a spell of exceptionally clear weather, 
with only two cloudy nights in a whole month. But there was not the 
shadow of a complaint, nor was labor ever more cheerfully or cordially 



OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 275 

performed than this, which I should hardly have been justified in ask- 
ing, but was contributed with the readiest good will. 

The climate of Cordoba did not correspond with my expectations- 
Knowing that it was rainless during half the year, and remembering 
the astonishing continuance of favorable weather which Gilliss had 
enjoyed in Santiago, I had counted upon an abundance of unclouded 
sky. But to my sorrow it soon became evident that absence of rain by 
no means implies absence of clouds 5 and judging from my memory, I 
should not estimate the number of good nights in Cordoba as much 
greater than in Boston ; although, to be sure, we should there scarcely 
be favored with our present experience of a four days' northeaster at 
midsummer. The sky has provoking tricks of suddenly clouding over 
just at nightfall, after a magnificent day, or covering itself in a few 
minutes with a thick veil of mist without previous warning. Thus the 
rapidity with which the survey progressed has been by no means pro- 
portional to the labor expended. Still the conclusion of the first year 
of the observations in September last showed the gratifying number of 
429 zones, containing more than 56,000 observations, and, so far as I 
could judge, about two-thirds of the region to be explored were dis- 
posed of. And it was manifest that, with no belter fortune in the 
weather than in the year past, all the remaining work could be accom- 
plished, and all the unsatisfactory zones repeated in less than a year 
more. I have not mentioned that the width of the region to be explored 
had been increased by one-half from ray original i^lan. Instead of 
taking 29° as the northern limit, and thus lapping 2° upon Argelander's 
work, I had, at the earnest instance of Argelander himself, commenced 
at 23°, thus overlapping his zones by 8°, and beginning at a point 16° 
above the horizon of Bonn 5 and instead of going only to Gilliss's 
northern limit at the southern polar circle, the Cordoba zones extend to 
within 10° of the pole itself, thus covering a belt 57° wide, or about 
one-third of the whole heavens as measured from pole to pole. On the 
13th of April, when my last observation was made, the number of zones 
observed had reached 619, and the number of star-places was nearly 
83,000. These were, furthermore, in the full tide of preparation for the 
press, five persons being engaged in transcribing and preparing them 
for computation. 

Although the object of labor is not to conquer difficulties — this part 
of the process being only a means and not an end, and the only proper 
motive being to secure results — it is pardonable to look back upon the 
obstacles and impediments, and I can truly say that these have been 
neither few nor small, nor indeed conquerable, except with the aid of 
such faithful and able co-workers as I have been favored with. I will 
not weary you with the tale of all the mishaps, large and small — instru- 
ments disturbed, apparatus giving out, tornadoes, dust-storms and the 
like; of insects in one's nose and eyes and mouth, when the hands 
could not be used to fight them nor the head moved from the telescope 



276 OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

— but there is one inhabitant of the i)ampas whose memory can never 
fade. This is the vinchuca, an elder brother of that unnameable insect 
whom Birdofredum Sawin found running away with his colonel in Mex- 
ico 5 but it is a dozen times longer and broader and thicker, and far 
more savage. And it has wings. By night this insect comes flying in 
from all the open country round, and it seems to have a special predi- 
lection for astronomers. But for them the observation of the summer 
zones would have been easier. 

The plan of tbe zones was based, as I have said, upon the funda- 
mental idea that the determinations should be absolute in their character; 
still it is by no means certain that one observes under the high nervous 
tension inseparable from such work in the same manner in which he 
would make a leisurely measurement of the position of an isolated star. 
It has, therefore, seemed desirable that the positions of not less than 
SIX or seven stars in each zone should be determined with all possible 
accuracy, and by means of repeated observations. With this view I 
prepared a list of a few thousand stars, whose places were to be meas- 
ured on not less than four nights, as opportunity should offer; and 
the intervals between the transits of the fundamental stars, as well 
those nights or parts of nights on which flying clouds or mists preclude 
the zone work, although the heavens are partially clear, have beeu 
devoted to this class of observations. Already a very considerable 
amount of material of this sort has been collected and computed, and 
this work is now going on in my absence. 

Among my most cherished hopes, when leaving home, was that of 
supplementing in the southern hemisphere the remarkable and import- 
ant results obtained here by our gifted countryman, Mr. Rutherfurd, 
whose ingenious methods and surpassing skill had enabled him, and 
him alone, to obtain photographic impressions of star-clusters with a 
sharpness permitting delicate measurements, as well as to execute these 
measurements with such an accuracy as to yield results rivaling, if? 
indeed, not surpassing, those afforded by direct observation with the 
most elaborate and costly instruments, and with a hundredfold greater 
expenditure of time. It had been my privilege to subject these measure- 
ments for the first time to those numerical computations by which the 
stellar jDositions are reduced to the corresponding astronomical form of 
right-ascensions and declinations, and thus, through the kindness of the 
valued friend to whom both the new method and its sole results were 
due, to connect my name in a slight degree with this great step, by 
determining the relative positions of the principal stars in the Pleiades 
and the Prresepe from his measures of the photographic plates. 

Just before my departure, Mr. Eutherfurd had supplied himself with 
a yet larger telescope, adapted to the same purpose, and I improved this 
fortunate opportunity of securing the identical photographic object glass 
which he had employed in all his previous investigations. And when I 
left home it was not without some ground for hoping that a sufficient 



OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 277 

sum would soon be contributed from private sources to enable me to 
carry out the plan of securiug photographic impressions of the chief 
southern star-clusters without appealing to the Observatory or to any 
other institution. The telescope is adapted for either photographic or 
optical use, since the two object-glasses are easily interchangeable, and a 
camera can readily be substituted for the astronomical eye-piece. Im- 
mediately on arriving in Buenos Ayres 1 explained these plans to the 
President and Minister, and received tlieir cordial promise of all needful 
aid — promises which, like all others from the same source, were more 
than fulfilled. Inasmuch as the direct observations proposed would 
clearly demand all my available time and strength, I naturally desired 
to secure the photographic impressions from my private resources -, not 
only because all of the observatory's funds would be required for the 
regular work, but also that I might be justified in reserving the photo- 
• graphs for measurement and study at my subsequent leisure, and might 
remove them from the country without impropriety, should I desire. 
Consequently, I addressed to the government a formal application for 
leave to use the large telescope for this purpose, at such times as might 
not interfere with the regular work of the observatory, an<l this per- 
mission was at once accorded with great cordiality, and a full under- 
standing of the case. 

The endeavor to secure the requisite funds by private subscription 
met with the same fate as the similar one in 1865, in behalf of the expe- 
dition then proposed. Promises were secured for a portion of the 
necessary means, but the difficulty of obtaining the full sum was found 
too serious to warrant a continuance of the efforts, and the plan was 
therefore abandoned. But this disappointment was alleviated by an 
unexpected and delightful encouragement. My parents, by blood and 
marriage, gave a practical support and token of sympathy by author- 
izing me to draw on them for the means of carrying out my fondly 
cherished jjlan. And although I was fortunately able to go forward 
without availing myself of this generous permission, it was of essential 
service in the justification it afforded me in undertaking this work, upon 
which I might not otherwise have ventured. 

That this undertaking has. thus far been less successful than the rest 
of the work, many of you know : and I will not dwell upon the various 
troubles, mortifications, and disappointments which have attended my 
struggles in this direction. A photographer was engaged in New 
York by the friendly efl'orts of Mr. Rutherfurd, who caused him to be 
instructed in his observatory, and sent him out to me, with all the need- 
ful apparatus and chemicals. But when, after his arrival in Cordoba, I 
unpacked the photographic object-glass, the flint lens was found broken 
in two, and all efforts to restore it to full usefulness proved fruitless. 
Nevertheless, a contrivance was carried into effect by a skillful Swiss 
watchmaker in. Cordoba, by means of which each of the broken pieces 
was supported by three pairs of adjusting screws, thus permitting it to be 



278 OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

brought into position with sufSeient nicety to yield results which, if not 
]^rtect, will be at least very serviceable. Meanwhile, I resolved to 
avail myself of the opportunities at my disposal for i^rocuriug a new 
object glass like the former, and sent the order to Mr. Eitz. But here, 
too, the Argentine government was ready with its support, and not only 
volauteeretl to assume the cost of the new lens, but expressed its desire 
to provide the services of the photographer. This new lens arrived in 
Cordoba many months ago, and although the person originally engaged 
accomplished but little, and proved in the end unworthy, my plan 
is by no means abandoned. The experience and knowledge already 
acquired cannot fail to render essential service in the new attempt, and 
the results of the Uranometry and the Zone-observations have enabled 
me to complete and correct the list of southern clusters well adapted 
for photographic determination. Meanwhile, the stellar photographs 
alreadj^ secured, although by no means what I had hoped, and very 
disproportionate in number to the expense and sacrifices which they 
entailed, certainly possess a high scientific value. Repeated observations 
of the principal stars of each group have been made with the meridian- 
circle, for the purposes of fixing the scale of measurement, and of controll- 
ing the reductions ] and I entertain the confident hope that the relative 
positions of more than a dozen important southern clusters have thus 
been secured in a form which is both very accurate, and as valuable for 
future generations as for the present. 

I have spoken of the liberality of the Argentine government. In 
both its executive and legislative departments there are continual illus- 
trations of the strong desire of the cultivated men of the nation to foster 
the intellectual development and the scientific reputation of the country 
by every means in their power. I have mentioned the readiness of the 
government to aid an astronooiical expedition at the very time when all 
the nation's energies and resources were taxed to the utmost by the 
struggle with the Paraguayan despot, Lopez, one of the most sanguinary 
and ruthless tyrants in all history. At the time of my arrival in Buenos 
Ayres this monster had been overthrown by the allied forces of Brazil 
and La Plata, but internal rebellion, probably in part a consequence of 
that struggle, still remained, and pressed heavily upon the almost ex- 
hausted nation. Still there was not only ready support for the observa- 
tory, but additional provision was made for its maintenance. Thus it 
has been from the beginning to the present time, and the fact of such 
readiness in a young nation to bear its part in scientific investigation 
speaks for itself. Another illustration is afforded by the recently estab- 
lished meteorological office. ^ 

The climatic relations of the vast territory of the Argentine nation 
were a sealed book. Throughout the immense tract from the tropics to 
the Straits of Magellan, and from the Atlantic to the Andes, the mete- 
orological characteristics of the country were almost unknown. Only- 
two or three small series of partial observations had ever been published, 



OBSEEVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 279 

and these were not easily accessible. And although my powers were 
already taxed to their utmost by the astronomical work, it seemed to 
me that it would be disloyal alike to science and to the country to which. 
I owe so much gratitude and affection, did I not make some efibrt to 
remedy this defect. In public communications and j)rivate conferences 
I called the attention of the government to the need of such a national 
meteorological office, and offered such aid as I could give. The mete- 
orological office was thereupon established without opposition ; funds 
being voted for the salary of a secretary, and for the purchase of instru- 
ments, to be distributed to such competent persons as might be willing 
to undertake systematic observations. This is the second year, and 
means have now been provided for computing and publishing the obser- 
vations received, and for purchasing yet more instruments. There seem 
to be persons enough who are able and willing to undertake the neces- 
sary labor, troublesome as' it is, and with no other stimulus than their 
desire to serve science and their country. In three cases I have found, 
gentlemen who have carried on observatiohs of the sort during past 
years, unaided and unencouraged. These have cordially offered all their 
data, gratified at seeijig their labors appreciated at last, and their results 
put in the way of rendering service to science and the country. The 
transportation of delicate instruments in the interior is extremely difficult 
and hazardous. Outside the province of Buenos Ay res few railroads are 
yet completed, and notwithstanding the recent efforts of the govern- 
ment, there are as yet few roads over which a vehicle can safely pass 
for any considerable distance. But I am gradually succeeding in con- 
veying mercurial barometers, thermometers of various sorts, rain-gauges, 
vanes, anemometers, &c., into remote regions, and the monthly reports 
have already begun to flow in from various quarters. The ijriucipal 
objects at first must be to interest and instruct observers, to provide 
them with facilities, and to collect and reduce all possible data, old and 
new, and subject them to careful study. Thus far I feel well satisfied 
with the interest already awakened, and I think that this young nation, 
so long struggling with foreign enemies and internal dissensions, has 
reason to be proud of the number, relatively large, even though intrin- 
sically small, who are ready to work for her welfare and honor, without 
hope of personal glory or emolument. A few years will afford material 
for a knowledge of the climatic relations of various points 5 I shall then 
hope for simultaneous observations in numerous places, and who knows 
but the Argentine Eepublic may yet have an " OldProbabiliities" of her 
own ? 

I cannot close this cursory but, I fear, tedious sketch of the results 
of my undertaking, without referring again to the extreme friendliness 
and kindness of the people. Not to dwell too much upon personal mat- 
ters, let me say, once for all, that from no Argentine, high or low, have 
we had other experience than cordial hospitality, fraternal kindness, or 
respectful consideration. A heartier welcome, a sincerer sympathy in 



280 OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

weal or woe, we could hardly have expected in our own country. I am 
the more anxious to mention this, since I have seen paragraphs circu- 
lating in the public press to the efi'ect that some of our instruments 
have been maliciously broken. If we should say " wantonly," the 
statement would be true to some extent; yet not because the api^aratus 
was oui"s, but because its necessary exposure presents a tempting lure 
for some half civilized gaucho, fortified with a full complement of alco- 
hol, to try the accuracy of his aim. All races have their weak points, 
and our apparatus has fared far better than the new street-lanterns of 
Cordoba ; nor would it be fair to expect from the un breeched and untu- 
tored sons of the pampas, what I am assured could not be reasonably 
expected from the youth of some portions of the United States. 

The fact that the thoughtful men and leaders of opinion in the Argen- 
tine Ilepublic are awake to the educational and social needs of the 
people, furnishes in itself a guarantee that these needs will continue to 
be supplied. All the tendencies are toward progress. The vast terri- 
tory of the nation possesses a population scarcely greater than that of 
Massachusetts, and three-fourths of this is a mixed progeny of the 
African negro, the South American Indian, and the Spanish peasant, 
in which it is difficult to say which element predominates. To a sur- 
passing agilitj' and dexterity in the arts of savage life they join all that 
sleepy indifference to improvement which the southern sun seems to 
engender in the lower classes. With not the slightest lack of what is 
called religion, they have a melancholy want of morality, and discrim- 
inate broadly between the two, which indeed they consider to have little 
to do with each other. Keadiug and writing are a rare accomplishment 
among this class, and not even pecuniary stimulus to labor is of much 
avail. Outside the cities, such elegances as pantaloons are rare, and 
various accessories which we consider absolute necessities of civilized 
life are unknown. Yet in constant intercourse with these people are 
others, their own countrymen, refined, accustomed to opulence, and 
desirous of contributing to the advancement of their native land. From 
this class come the legislators; and happy is that land whose lawgivers 
are taken from among the best educated and most patriotic ! All the 
national energies not requisite for self-defense or self preservation are 
now given to the development of the resources of the country, physical 
and moral. Our four years' observation has exhibited one continuous 
series of essential improvements. Kailroads and telegraphs are spring- 
ing into being with marvelous rapidity, spanning the before limitless 
pampas, and traversing the Andes. Eoads, bridges, schools, and col- 
leges have been almost doubled within my own experience. Mails are 
crossing the almost trackless prairies, steamboats are exploring the 
unnavigated rivers. And, more than all, these advances are not the 
mere policy of a single administration, enlightened as this policy has 
been ; but they represent the spirit and determination of the ruling 
classes, which t-he result of uo election can restricts but in mauifesta- 



OBSERVATORY AT CORDOBA, ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 281 

tions of which all parties vie. An impulse has been given to trade, 
new comforts have been introdnced, and the habits and usages are 
growing more similar to those of other countries. In Cordoba, which 
the residents of other parts of the country love to ridicule as the special 
abode of bigotry and priestcraft, we have never suffered the smallest 
discourtesy for our difference of creed, but a frank and cordial treat- 
ment from clergy and laity alike. Buenos Ayres, like New York, is a 
cosmopolitan rather than a national city, and can just as little be said 
to represent the country of which it is the principal seaport. There we 
find the luxury, the vice, and the strange contrasts which a great capital 
always presents; but there, too, we find as earnest and enlightened a 
patriotism as any country can boast or desire. Both cities will be for- 
ever endeared to us by the memory of successful labors, of continual 
kindness, of cordial aid, and, lastly, of the most tender sympathy. 



RECEiNT ESTIMATE OF THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD. 



By Ed. Mailly. 



[Trauslated from the Freuch'* for the Smitlisonian Institution.] 

Note. — The author has made all his calculations in square kilometers. They have 
Ijeen reduced by the translator to English square miles by the following formula: 
1 square ki]ometer=.38614 square miles. 

Attempts have been made at different periods to estimate the pop- 
ulation of the world. Confining ourselves to recent' times, in 1787 
Biisching estimated the number to be 1,000,000,000, Until about fif- 
teen years ago this number was still admitted as a base in arranging 
the population according to the different races, religious creeds, &c. 
In 1858, M. Dieterici stated the number to be 1,283,000,000; that is, 
not far from l,300,000,000.t MM. Behm and Wagner, however, recently 
estimated the number at 1,377,000,000.| 

The difficulties of arriving at a correct estimate will readily be under- 
stood. The present regularly-organized systems of census do not in- 
clude more than one-fourth of the human race, while the numbers of 
the remaining three-fourths have to be estimated from the reports of 
travelers ; and in using this only resource we are very frequently puzzled, 
by obtaining contradictory results, from amid which nothing but care- 
ful criticism can obtain an approximation to truth. 

The ideal of the statistician would be to have a census taken of the 
population on the same day and on the same general plan in all the 
inhabited parts of the world. 

Probably this can only be attained at a future time, when people 
become naturally precise ; still it should no longer be deemed chimerical. 

A knowledge of the distribution of the population in the different 
parts of the j^-lobe, or over the different countries which compose these 
parts, has comparatively little value, unless accompanied by that of the 
area of these countries, in which case we may calculate the relation 
between the number of inhabitants and the surface of the territory over 
which they are distributed. 

* L'Annuaire de I'Observatoire royal de Bruselles, for 1873, p. 128. 

tin the annual report of the observatory for the year 1859 was given an analysis of 
the memoir on the population of the earth, contributed by M. Dieterici to the Academy 
of Sciences of Berlin in March, 1858. 

t Mictheilungeu aus Justus Perthes' geographischer Anstalt, von Dr. A. Petermanu, 
^o. 33, 1872. 



THE POPULATION OF THE WOELD. 



28: 



The measurement of the surface of the earth is also to a considerable 
degree uncertain ; but it is much easier to approximate the truth in 
this particular than in the case of population. Large triangulatious have 
been extended over considerable parts of the earth, while the form and 
the dimensions of continents, by the determinations of latitudes and 
longitudes, leave not much cause for doubt. After their value has been 
ascertained, by employing a uniform standard of measure, we are finally 
able to determine the superficies with a sufficient exactness. 

In the following work we intend to give a general idea of the late 
researches of MM. Behm and Wagner, of which we previously made 
mention. The authors do not propose to present comparative numbers 
concerning the changes in the population of countries in which the 
census is taken periodically, but have endeavored to obtain the most 
probable actual number of the total poi)ulatiou for each state from 
the latest determinations. The areas are given by MM. Behm and Wag- 
ner in German geographical square miles and in square kilometers, for 
the reductions of which the following formulas have been employed : 
1 German geographical mile, or yL of a degree at the equator = 
7420.43854 meters 5 1 German geographical square mile = 55.0(329081 
square kilometers. We shall here give the areas in square miles; 
but we also give the number of inhabitants per square mile, an element 
which our authors have not calculated, but have reserved for another 
publication. In order to facilitate the comparison of the different states 
of Europe, we add the proportional numbers relating to population and 
to the area of the states, separately considered. 

Population of the earth. 



Parts of the globe. 


Square miles.* 


Population.* 


Inhabitants per 
Stiware mile. 




3, 787, 400 
16, 924, 600 

3, 425, 400 
11, 557, 400 
15, 987, 000 


301, 605, 000 

794, 000, 000 

4, 365, 000 

192, 520, 000 

84, 524, 000 


79 63 


II. Asia 


48 97 




1 "7 


IV. Africa 


16.66 
5 '^9 








Total* 


51, 681, 800 


1, 377, 014, 000 


"6 64 







* In round numbers. 

It must be borne in mind that the num!)ers in tlie fourth column rep- 
resent only ratios ; but if we should desire to reject fractions of inhab- 
itants, it would become necessary to give the number per square league, 
and to obtain this it would be suiScient to multiply the numbers of the 
fourth column by 9. The result of this operation would be 717, 423, 11^ 
150, and 48, respectively, per square league, in Europe, Asia, Australia, 
Africa, and America. For the earth, the number would be 240, We 
might also consider the number of inhabitants per 100 square miles, 
and then the decimals would disappear entirely, giving the results 7,903, 
4,697, 127, 1,666, and 529 ; and by multiplying these numbers by .9, we 
would re-produce those which represent the number of inhabitants per 
square league. 



284 



THE POPULATION OF THE WOELD. 
I.— EUROPE. 



Countries. 



Square miles. 



Population. 



C3 IB 

si 



Proportions. 



German empire 

Austro-HuDgary 

Principality of LiclitensteiQ 

Switzerland 

Denmark 

Faroe Islands and Iceland 

Sweden and Norway 

Netherlands 

Grand Ducli5' of Luxemburg 

Belgium 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Helgoland, Gibraltar, aud Malta 

France 

Spain 

Canary Islands 

Portugal 

Az jres and Madeira 

Republic of Andorra 

Italy 

Principality of Monaco 

Eepublic of San Marino 

Turkey in Europe 

Koumania , 

Servia 

Montenegro 

Eussia 

Greece , 



208. 632 

24j;363 

62 

15, 993 

14, 754 

40, 2e9 

292, 891 

12, 681 

999 

11, 374 

121, 122 

145 

204, 104 

192, 978 

2,808 

34, 504 

1,311 

149 

114,302 

6 

22 

134, 003 

40, 713 

16,818 

1,701 

, 059, 355 

19,354 



41, 058, 139 

35, 904, 435 

8, 320 

2, 669, 147 
1, 784, 741 

79, 755 
5,921,525 

3, 688, 337 
197, 501 

5, 021, 336 

31, 817, 108 

160, 369 

36, 4C9, 836 
16, 374, 844 

267, 036 

3, 99.5, 153 
365, 821 

12, 000 

26, 716, 809 

3,127 

7,303 

10, 510, 000 

4, 500, 000 
1,319,283 

100, 000 

71, 195, 405 

1, 457, 894 



Total. 



3, 787, 413 301, 605, 227 



196.80 

149. 38 

134. 20 

166. 90 

120. 97 

1.98 

20. 22 

290. 85 

197. 00 

441.47 

262. 68 

, 106. 00 

178. 68 

84.86 

95.- 10 

115. 80 

279. 04 

80.54 

233. 74 

521. 00 

332. 00 

78.43 

96.33 

78.45 

58.79 

34.57 

75.33 



5.51 
6.35 



13. 61 
11.91 



79. 63 



0.42 
0.39 
1.06 
7.73 
0.33 
0.03 
0.30 
3.20 



5.39 
5.10 
0.07 
0.91 
0.05 



3.02 



3.54 
1.25 
0.44 
0.05 
54.35 
0.51 



0.89 
0.59 
0.03 
1.96 
1.22 
0.07 
1.67 

10.55 
0.05 

12.09 
5.43 
0.09 
1.32 
0.12 



8.80 



3.49 
1.49 

0.44 

0.03 

23. 61 

0.48 



100. 00 



100.00 



On a mere glance at the foregoing table we are astonished at the 
greatness of tlie Russian empire; it occupies more than half of Europe. 
Arranged in the order of their size, there follow Sweden and Norway, 
Anstro-Hungary, the German empire, France, Spain, Turkey, Great 
Britain and Ireland, and Italy, all of which together do not comprise fonr- 
tenths of the surface. 

Ranged according to population, the above-named states will appear in 
the following order: Russia, Germany, Fi-ance, Austro-Hungary, Great 
Britain and Ireland, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Sweden and Norway. Rus- 
sia retains the first place, but the kingdom of Sweden and Norway 
ranks with the small countries ; it is the least densely populated country 
in Europe, as is evident by examining the column of the preceding- 
table, headed " Inhabitants per square mile." 

Passing over the very small countries whose population does not reacli 
one million, and which would furnish but illusory or excepiional results,* 
we remark that there are two second-rate countries which rank in this 
particular with the great powers, namely, Belgium and the Netherlands, 
which have the greatest number of inhabitants per square mile, that 
is, in the language of statisticians, haA'e the densest population. They 
are followed by Great Britain and Ireland, Italy, Geroiany, France, 

* Thus it is evident that we would not place in tiae front rank Helgoland, Gibraltar, 
and Malta, on one hand, and Monaco, on the other, the densities of whose populations 
reach the following numbers: 427.65 aud 208.4G ]Der square kilometer, or 1,106 aud 521 
per square mile. 



THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD. 



285 



Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Portugal, Eonmania, Spain, Turkey, 
Servia, Greece, Russia, and Sweden and Norway, the two largest countries 
of Europe being reduced to tlie lowest grade in regard to the density of 
the population. 

We shall now consider some of the great countries of Europe in de- 
tail. 

The following table shows the states which, combined, form the Ger- 
man empire : 

(a.) — GERMAN EMPIRE. 



states. 



Square miles. 



Population. 



Inhabitants 
per square 
mile. 



Kin^tloms of — 

Prussia, including Lauenburg 

Bavaria 

Saxony . . . 

"Wiirtemberg 

Total 

Grand duclii-es 

Duchies 

P;incipalities 

Free towns 

EIsass-Lotliringen 



134, 396 

29, 294 
5,780 
7,533 



24,691,203 
4,661,402 
2, 556, 244 
1, 818, 484 



183. 72 
165. C5 
44-2. 26 
241. 42 



177, 003 

18, 942 
4,549 
2,174 
368 
5,596 



33, 927, 333 

3, -57 1, 974 

1,019,414 

476, 262 

513, 6S>7 

1, 549, 459 



191.70 

]8t:.57 
224. 10 
219. 08 
1,395.91 
276. 90 



The above table shows th^it, amon^' the kingdoms which compose the 
German empire, Saxony is the most important in point of density of 
population, the number of inhabitants per square mile even exceeding 
that of Belgium. 

The grand duchies are six in number, namely : Baden, Hessen, Meck- 
lenburg Schwerin, Saxe-Weimar, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and Oldenburg. 
The largest population is found in Baden, (1,401,428 5) but it is most 
dense in Hessen, amounting to 111.10 per square kilometer, or 287. Gl 
per square mile, while in Mecklenburg-Strelitz it is represented by the 
number 35.59 per square kilometer, or 92.17 x)er square mile. 

The duchies are Ave in number, namely: Brunswick, Saxe-Meiningen, 
Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-CoburgGotha, and Anhalt, and the density of 
their population is much more uniform than that of the grand duchies ; 
Saxe-Altenburg, however, excelling, having 107 per square kilometer, 
or 278.53 per square mile. 

The number of principalities is seven, namely: Schwarzburg-Eudol- 
stadt, Schwarzburg-Sjondershausen, Waldeck, Eeuss, (senior branch,) 
Reuss, (junior branch,) Schaumburg-Lippe, and Lippe-Detmold, and 
their combined population does not reach half a million. The least 
dense population is found in the largest of these principalities, Waldeck, 
being 50,14 per square kilometer, or 130 per square mile; while in the 
much smaller Reuss (senior branch) it numbers 164.12 per square kilo- 
meter, or 425 per square mile, thus showing a density of three times 
that of Waldeck. 

The free towns are Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburg. In these the 
density is very considerable, amounting in Hamburg to 827.21 per 
square kilometer, or 2,142.25 per square mile. 



286 



THE POPULATION OF THE WOELD, 

(b.) — austeo-huj^gary. 



states. 



Square miles. 



Population. 



Inhabitants 
per square 
inile. 



Austria . . 
Hungary. 



115,916 
124, 447 



20, 394, 980 
15, 509, 455 



1T5. 95 
124. c:? 



Austria consists of fourteen states, of which the most densely-popu- 
lated are Austria proper, Styria, Bohemia, Moravia, and Galicia ; Hun- 
gary includes Hungary proper, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia, 
the Military Frontier, and the free town of Fiume. 



(C.) — GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 




States. 


Square miles. 


Population. 


. Inhabitants 
per ^qviare 
mile. 


Great Britain : 


50, 926 
7,398 

30, 688 
354 

31, 756 


21, 487, 688 

1, 21G, 420 

3, 358, 613 

144, 43'3 

5, 402, 759 

207, 198 


421 94 


Wales . . . 


164 42 




109. 44 




408. 00 




170. 13 













The foregoing table plainly shows that the density of population per 
square mile in England nearly equals that of Wales, Scotland, and Ire- 
land combined. 

II.— ASIA. 



Countries. 



Russia in Asia 

Turkey in Asia. - 

A rabia 

Per.sia 

Alsbanistan, including Herat 

Beloochistan , 

Kafiristan. .., 

Khiva. 

Bokhara 

Khokhan 

Turoomania 

Other khans and territories of Tourou 

Turkestan ., 

China 

Japan 

Hither India 

Ceylon 

Farther India 

Indian Archipelago 

Total 

Caspian Sea 

Sea of Aral 

Total 



Square miles. 



5, 944, 962 

672, 559 

1, 026, 104 

636, 000 

251, 180 

106,774 

19, 958 

54, 208 

76, 305 

30, 020 

144,189 

134, 550 

595, 428 

3, 742, 083 

149, 408 

1, 558, 845 

24, 706 

752, 131 

799, 408 



16, 718, 818 
178, 882 
26, 947 



16, 924, 647 



Population. 



10, 730, 
16, 463, 

4, 000, 

5, 000, 
4, 000, 
2, 000, 

300, 

1, .500, 

2, 500, 
SOO, 
770, 

2, 000, 

580, 

446, 500, 

34, 785, 

206, 225, 

2, 405, 

21, 018, 

32, 620, 



OOD 

000 

000 

000 

000 

000? 

000 

000 

000 

OCO' 

000 2 

000 

000 

321 

580 

287 

062 

000 



794, 197, 250 



1.81 
24.48 

3.90 

7.86 
1.5. 92 
18.73 
15.00 
27.67 
32. 75 
26.65 

5.34 
14. 87 

0.97 
119.32 
232. 82 
132 29 
97.36 
27.94 
40.80 



*47. 53 



Proportions. 



35.56 
4.02 
6.14 
3.80 
1.50 
0.64 
0.12 
0.33 
0.46 
0.18 
0.86 
0.81 
3.56 

22. 38 
0.89 
9.32 
0.15 
4.150 
4.78 



100. 00 



1.35 

2.07 
0.50 
0.03 
0.50 
0.25 
0.04 
0.19 
0.32 
0. 10 
0.10 
0.25 
0.07 

56. 22 
4.38 

25.97 
0.30 
2.65 
4.11 



100. 00 



* This number differs a little from the one (46.97) given in the first table, in which the Caspian Sea 
and the Sea of Aral were included in the area of Asia. 



THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD. 



287 



From the above we see that the Eussian empire, covering more tbaa 
half of the European continent, occupies also about three-eighths of the 
surface of Asia. China does not extend over much more than two- 
tenths of the total surface ; but, in the arrangement according to popu- 
lation, it is entitled to the first place, followed by British India, Japan, 
and the Indian Archipelago ; these added together, include nine-tenths 
of the entire population, while their total surface does not cover much 
more ground than Eussia in Asia. 

In point of density Japan excels, nearly equaling the Italian king- 
dom. Next, but at a considerable distance, follow English India, 
China, and the island of Ceylon. The density of the Chinese empire 
nearly equals that of Denmark. 

We shall now examine more in detail some of the states presented in 
the foregoing general table. 

(a.) — RUSSIA IN ASIA. 



States. 


Square miles. 


Population.* 


Inhabitants 
per srtuare 
mile. 


Cancasns 


• 169,641 
4,718,283 
1,057,038 


4, 661, 824 
3, 327, 627 
2, 740, 583 


27 48 


Siberia 


75 


Central Asia 


3 59 







■ The total is 10,730,034, while in the general table the round number, 10,730,000, has been given. 
(b.) — HITHER INDIA, INCLUDING BURMAH. 



States. 



English India 

French possessions, (Pondicherry and Chandernagore) 

Portuguese possession», (Goa, Damaun, and Diu) 

Independent States 



Square miles 



910, S09 

196 

1,553 

646, 187 



Population. 



159, 666, 428 

259, 981 

53, 283 

46, 245, 888 



Inhabitants 
per square 
mile. 



175. 28 

1, 326. 43 

34.31 

71.56 



The extraordinary density of population in the French possessions is 
explained by the fact that these possessions are reduced to the cities of 
Pondicherry and Chandernagore. The area of the territories belong- 
ing to England is only double that of the more or less independent 
states, but the population is about three and one-half times as large. 

(C.)— FARTHER INDIA. 



States. 


Square miles. 


Population. 


Inhabitants 
per- square 
mile. 


Bunnan Empire 


190, 529 
309, 043 
198, 055 

21,718 
1,084 

31, 702 


4, 000, 000 
6, 298, 000 
9, COO, 000 
1, 204, 287 
306, 775 
209, 000 


21 00 


Siam 


20 38 


Anam : 


45 44 


Cochiu-China, French 


55 45 


Distrip.t, of NTalsicca, 


283 0) 


Peninsula of Malacca 


6 53 







288 



THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD. 



The relatively large density of population of the Eno'lisli establish- 
ments in the district of Malacca is due to the nature of those establish- 
ments, which contain two important cities. Their populations are, Sing- 
apore, 97,1315 Malacca, 77,755; Penang and Wellesley, 131,889. 



(d. 



-EAST INDIAN ARCHIPELAeO. 



States. 



Sqtiare miles. 



Population. 



Inbabitauts 
per square 
mile. 



Islands of Sunda and Molucca 

Philippines and island of Sooloo 

Groups of islands, (Laccadives, Maldives, &c.) 



678, 512 

114,134 

6,761 



25, 000, 000 

7, 450, 000 

170, 000 



36.84 
65.28 
25.14 



The Dutch possessions iu the Suiida Islands and in the Moluccas have 
23,337,829 inhabitants; the' Spanish j)ossessions in the Philippines, 



4,319,269. 



III.— AUSTPvALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



Countries. 


Square miles. 


Population. 


Inhabitants 
per square 
mile. 




2, 945, 409 
480, Oil 


1, 565, 294 

2, 800, 000 


0.53 




5.83 








Total .. . 


3, 425, 430 


4, 365, 294 


1.27 







(«.)— AUSTRALIAN CONTINENT. 



states. 



Square miles, 



Population. 



Inhabitants 
per square 
mile. 



New South "Wales 

Victoria , 

South Australia 

Queen's Land 

West Australia 

Territory of the IsTorth 



308, 579 
88, 456 
360, 626 
668, 300 
975, 884 
523, 563 



501, 580 
729, 868 
188, 995 
120, 066 
24, 785 



1.62 
8.25 
50 
0.18 
0.02 



(&. 



-POLYNESIAN ISLANDS. 



States. 


Square miles. 


Population. 


Inhabitants 
per square 
mile. 




26, 217 

106, 266 

11, 09H 

274, 535 

7,033 

1,333 

52,929? 


99, 328 
294, 028 

78, 000 
1, 000, 000 

62, 959 

33, 610 
1, 232, 075 


a. 79 




2.77 


Islands belonging to France or under French protection 


7.03 
3.64 




8.25 


Spanish possessions, (Caroline, Palao, and Mariana Islands) - 


25. 21 
23. 28 







THE POPULATION OF THE WOELD. 
lY.— AFRICA. 



280 





Square miles. 


Population. 


1 
1- 


Proportions. 


states. 


<5 


i 

1- 




4, 004, 000- 

fi31, 090 

618, f)17 

1, 594, 758 

1, 9C6, 032 

1,520,356 

2, 723 

233, 885 


20, 420, 000-^- 
38, 800, 000 
38, 500, 000 
29, 700, 000 
16, 000, 000 
43, 000, 000 
99, 145 
6, 000, 000 


5.1 

61.48 
47.03 
18. 02 
8.14 
28.24 
36.41 
25.65 


37.17 

5.86 

7.60 

14.80 

18.25 

14.13 

0.02 

2.17 


10.61 




20.15 




20.00 




15.43 




8.31 




22.33 




0.05 




3.12 






Total . 


10, 773, 440+ 


192, 519, 145 




100. 00 


100. 00 







* Round numbers. 

t From the Senegal to the Lower lIsTiger, including Upper Guinea. 

X The difference between this number and the one given in the general table of the world is due to 
the fact that this table of the principal divisions of Africa does not include the interior lakes, the desert 
of Kalahari, &c. 

From the above table we learu that the northern and southern por- 
tions of Africa, whose territories are proportionally the greatest, have 
the least population. Middle Soudan, West Soudan, and the equatorial 
region, which, combined, occupy only half as much surface, have a pop- 
ulation tjuree and one-third times greater, which is the densest in Middle 
Soudan. 

(a.) — NORTH AFRICA. 



states. 



Morocco 

Algeria 

Tunis ■ 

Tripoli, with Barca and Fezzan 

Egypt 

Sahara 



Square miles. 



259, 601 
258, 328 
45, 719 
344, 437 
659, 141 
2, 436, 621 



Population. 



2, 750, 000 
2, 921, 140 
2, 000, 000 
750, 000 
8, 000, 000 
4, 000, 000 



Inhabitants 
per square 
mile. 



10.59 
11.31 
43.74 

2.18 
12. 14 

1.64 



The density of the population is about the same in Morocco, xilgeria, 
and Egypt, while that of Tunis is about four times as great. 

(&.) — WEST SOUDA.N. 



states. 



Square miles. 



Population. 



Inhabitants 
per square 
mUe. 



Senegambia, (French)* .. 

L'beria t 

Dahomey 

English possessions J 

Portuguese possessions § 



96, 535 

9,576 
3, 985 
17,116 
35, 880 



209, 162 
718, 000 
180, 000 
577, 313 
8,500 



2.17 
74.98 
45.17 
33.73 

0. 24 



* Senegal and dependencies. 

t American colony, founded in 1821, in Upper Guinea. 

J Sierra Leone, colony founded in 1787, Gambia, Cote d'Or, Upper Guinea, and Lagos. 

5> In Senegambia and Guinea. 

19 s 



290 



THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD. 
(C.) — EAST AFRICA. 



States. 


Square miles. 


Populatiou. 


Inhabitants 
per square 
mile. 




158, 395 


3, 000, 000 


19.00 







(cl.) — SOUTH AFRICA. 



States. 



Portuguese territory, (ou tlie east side) * 
Portuguese territory, (on the west side) t 

Colony of Cape of Good Hope 

Natal - 

Free State of Orange Eiver 

liepublio of Transvaal 



Square miles. 



38-2, 279 
312, 542 
221, 325 
17, 803 
42, 475 
114, 365 



Population. 



300, 000 
9, 000, 000 
(i82, 600 
269, 362 
37, 000 
120, 000 



Inhabitants 
per square 
mile. 



0.78 
22.39 

3.08 
15.13 

0.87 

1.05 



' Mozambique, Sofala, &c. t Angola, Benguela, Mossamedes. 

(e.) — ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



Island of Cape Verde* 

Islands of Saint Thomas and Prince* . 
Islands of Fernando Po and Annobon t 

Ascension Island 

Island of Saint Helena I 

Tristan d'Acunha 



Square miles. 



1,650 

454 

489 

33 

47? 

45 



Population. 



67, 347 

19, 295 

5,590 



6,860 
53 



Inhabitants 
per square 
mUe. 



40.81 
42. 50 
■11.43 



145. 94 
1.18 



• To Portugal. t To Spain. | To England. 

(/.) — ISLANDS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 



States. 



Socotra 

Abd-elrCuria 

Zanzibar 

Madagascar 

Comoro Isles, (with Mayotto) 

The Arco Islands, «&c 

Reunion Island * 

Maurice and dep'^ndei^cies f . 



Square miles. 



1,701 

64 

617 

228, 588 

1, 062 

149 

970 

708 



Population. 



3,000 

100 

380, 000 

5, 000, 0, 

64, 600 



209, 737 
322, 924 



To France. 

Y.— AMERICA. 



t To England. 





Square miles. 


Population. 


|1 

a CD 

■w fn 


Proportions. 


States. 


< 


a 
o 

ft 
o 




8, 658, 122 

188, 387 

91, 664 

6, 959, 015 


51, 964, 000 
2, 671, 000 
4, 214, 000 

2.5, 075, 000 


6.00 
14.18 
45.97 

3.69 


54.46 
1.19 
0..58 

43.77 


61.48 


Central America 


3.16 


"West Indies. 


4 99 


South America 


30.37 






Total 


15, 897, 188 


84, 524, 000 


5.31 


100. 00 


100. 00 







THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD. 
(a.) — NORTH AMERICA. 



291 



states. 



Greenland* 

British possessionst 

Bermudas^ 

St. Pierre and Miqaelon 

IJnited States 

Mexico 



Square miles. 



759, 861 

3, 524, 370 

24 

81 

3, 612, 068 

761, 718 



Population. 



10, 000 
3, 888, 557 

11, 796 
3,971 

38, 877, 000 
9,175,052 



10.76 
12.04 



Proportions. 



8.78 
40.71 



41.72 
8.79 



Ph 



0.02 
7.48 
0.02 
0.01 
74.82 
17.65 



* To Denmark. 

f Comprising Canada, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island. 

t To England. 

(&.) — CENTRAL AMERICA. 



States. 



Republic of Guatemala.. 
Republic of San Salvador 
Republic of Honduras. . . 
Republic of Nicaragua . . 
Republic of Costa Rica.., 
British Honduras 



Square miles. 



40, 781 
7,336 
47, 095 
58, 174 
21, 496 
13, 501 



Population. 



, 180, 000 
600, 000 
350, OOO 
350, 000 
165, 000 
25, 635 



28.93 
81.79 
7.43 
6.01 
7.67 
1.90 



Proportions. 



21.65 
3.89 
25.00 
30.88 
11.41 
7.17 



P^ 



44.19 
22. 47 
13.10 
13.10 
6.18 
0.96 



(C.) — WEST INDIES. 



States. 



Square mUes, 



Population. 



Proportions. 



< 



Ph 



Spanish possessions* 

English possessionst 

French possessions! 

Dutch possessions 

Danish possessions 

Swedish possessions 

Republic of Hayti 

Republic of San Domingo 



49, 483 
12, 636 
1,017 

368 

119 

8 

10, 206 

17, 828 



2, 068, 870 

1,054,116 

306, 214 

35, 482 
37, 821 
2,898 
572, 000 
136, 500 



41.81 

63.42 

301. 12 



56.04 
7.66 



53.98 
13.79 
1.11 
0.40 
0.13 
0.01 
11.13 
19.45 



49.10 
25.01 

7:27 

0.84 
0.90 
0.07 
13.57 
3.24 



* Cuba and Porto Rico. 

t Jamaica, Barbadoes, Tabago, Trinidad, &c. 

j Martinique and Guadaloupe and dependencies. 



292 



THE POPULATION OF THE WOELD. 
(^.) — SOUTH AMERICA. 



States. 



Brazil 

French Guiana 

Dutch Guiana 

British Guiana 

Venezuela - 

United States of Colombia 

Ecuador 

Gallapagos Islands 

Peru 

Bolivia 

Chili 

Argentine Confederation 

Patagonia and Terra del Fuega 

Paraguay 

Uruguay 

Falkland Islands 

Aurora Island and Georgia 



Square miles. 



, 253, 230 

35, 081 

59, 802 

99, 933 

368, 262 

357, 180 

218,941 

2, 954 

510, 477 

535, 962 

132, 624 

871, 904 

376, 487 

63, 790 

66, 725 

4,741 

1,786 



Population. 



10, 000, 000 

25, 151 

59, 885 

152, 932 

1, 500, 000 

3, 000, 000 

1, 300, 000 



2, 500, 000 

2, 000, 000 

2, 000, 000 

1, 812, 000 

24, 000 

1,000,000' 

300, 000 

680 



■2 s. 



3.07 
0.71 
1.00 
1.53 

4.08 
8.40 
5.94 



4.90 
3.73 
15.08 
2.08 



15.67 
4.50 



Proportions. 



46.74 
0.50 
0.86 
1.43 
5.29 
5.13 
3.15 
0.04 
7.33 
7.70 
1.91 

12. 53 
5.41 
0.92 
0. 96 
0.07 
0.03 



PM 



38.95 
0.10 
0.23 
0.60 
5.84 

11.69 
5.06 



9.74 
7.79 
7.79 
7.06 
0.09 
3.89 
1.17 



In examining the above tables one will at once be astonished at the 
disproportion between the population of North and South America. 
While their areas are in the proportion of 10 to 8, their populations are 
in the proportion of but 10 to 4.9. 

The population of the United States forms nearly three-fourths of the 
North American and nearly one-half of the entire American population. 
Though its area is about the same as that of the British possessions, it 
has nearly ten times the population. 

While the area of Mexico and that of Greenland are the same, their 
populations differ in the proportion of 917 to 1. 

Among the small republics in Central America, Guatemala has the 
largest population ; but, in regard to density, San Salvador excels. 
They all combined have a miich denser pojiulation than the United 
States and Mexico. 

In the West Indies the Spanish possessions occupy the first place, 
not in regard to extent, but to population. But, with an area of about 
one-fourth that of the former, the English possessions have a popula- 
tion of more than half their number ; that is to say, twice the density. 
The density of population in the French possessions is still greater, 
attaining the number of 116 per square kilometer, or 300 per square 
mile. 

Brazil occupies the first place in South America. Its territory ex- 
tends over nearly as much ground as that of the United States or of the 
British possessions in North America, but its population, though a little 
denser than that of the latter, is much less than that of the former 
country. 

The greatest density is found in Paraguay and in Chili, approaching 
that of the kingdom of Sweden and Norway in Europe. 



ON WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



By Arthur Morin, 
Director of the Conservatory of Arts and Trades, Paris. 



[Translated for the Smithsonian Institution by Clarence B. Young.] 

[General Morin, tlie author of this manual, has long been known as 
one of the most distinguished technologists of the French Academy. 
The translation and publication of his work on warming and ventilation 
will doubtless be considered a valuable addition to the English biblio- 
graphy of the subject. — J. H.] 

1. The means for producing warmth and ventilation are so closely con- 
nected, especially during the cold season, that it is almost impossible 
to treat them separately, even in such a review of the teachings of 
science and experiment as the present, and hence both these subjects 
have been included in the title. 

WARMING. 

GrENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

2. Seating-apparatus. — We may consider forms of heating-apparatus 
in three different respects : 

1. In regard to economy of fuel. 

2. In regard to effect on health. 

3. In regard to comfort. 

For heating places occupied but for short periods, such as the vestibules 
of public buildings, stairways, waiting-rooms, and even churches, the 
first of these considerations should decide the choice of apparatus. 

For occupied buildings, however, the second consideration should 
have more weight; and here we may give as a rule that every heating- 
apparatus or system of heating which does not provide in itself for an ample 
and regular change of air, or which is not connected with suitable arrange- 
m,ents for producing such a change, is injurious to health. 

In regard to the third consideration, while it is often opposed to the 
first, it is closely connected with the second, since there can be no 
method of producing pleasant warmth but such as is also healthful. 

In the rapid review of heating-apparatus which we shall make under 
these three heads we shall distinguish between those used for special 
purposes and those for general heating. 



294 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



OPEN FIKE-PLACES. 

3. At the head of comfortable and healthful forms of heating-appa- 
ratus used within buildings are placed open fire-places, of which two 
different kinds may be distinguished : 

1. Ordinary fire-places. 

2. Ventilating fire-places. 

The remarks which will be made in regard to the first, and the 
proportions suitable for them, will also apply to the second, which, in- 
deed only differ by having some special arrangements. 



COMMON PIRE-PLACES. 

Two distinct types may be considered. The first, 
which is the one most frequently met with, consists 
of a chimney of proper size, connected with the 
hearth at the bottom by means of a more or less 
narrow opening, the lower part of which forms the 
passage which Eumford called the throat of the 
chimney, (Fig. 1.) On the upper part of the flue 
is placed a sort of ajutage, called a chimney-shaft 
when built of bricks or tiles, and chimney-cap when 
Tit 




made of terra-cotta, (Fig. 2.) The opening 




for the escape of the smoke is much smaller 
than the sectional area of the main flue. 
This type is almost the same as that de- 
vised by Eumford, and which bears his 
name; but while he pointed out its advantages 
over the old forms of chimneys in regard to draught, 
he did not determine the correct proportions of the 
several parts. ^ 

In the second type, often met with in the upper stories of houses in 
Paris, the flue, which is usually cylindrical, has the same sectional 
area throughout. It has been recommended by M. Peclet, in his. treatise 
on heat, as proper for every case ; but its use should be restricted to 
very small chimneys, and, in general, to cases where stoves are used for 
heating. 

4. General advantages and disadvantages of ordinary fire-places. — Ordi- 
nary fire-places, which cause the removal of a considerable amount of 
air, and, therefore, the change of that in the apartments, present the 
incontestable advantage of forming a healthful mode of heating. But 
the air which is removed must necessarily be replaced by the external 
air, entering usually through the loose joints of the doors and windows, 
thus causing currents of cold air, which become more unpleasant the 
greater the size of the chimney or the stronger the draught produced by 
the fire. Consequently, as Eumford says, " the draughts chill one part 
of the body, while the rest is roasted by the fire in the fire-place, and 
this cannot but be injurious to health." All have noticed these effects 



WAEMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 295 

Dear a large fire-place in which a strong fire is burning. It is especially 
in the large rooms of country-houses that these effects are most appar- 
ent and unpleasant.* 

In other and frequent cases — especially In Paris, owing to the con- 
fined kitchens, the proximity of water-closets, and the application of 
' weather-strips to the joints of doors and windows — the draught of a 
chimney in which a strong fire is burning is supplied in part by the air 
which has passed through those places, thus introducing into the living- 
rooms unpleasant and unwholesome odors. 

5. Heating-effect of ordinary fire-places. — The hot air from the fire 
passes out of the chimney at a temperature often at 140°, 175°, 212°, or 
more. It carries with it and diffuses in space, without useful effect, the 
greater part of the heat given out by the fuel.t This loss is as great 
as sis-sevenths, seven-eighths, and more, of the heat produced, so that 
what can be called the heating-effect of an ordinary fire-place scarcely 
exceeds 12 or 14 per cent, of the total amount of heat produced by the 
fuel. It is necessary then, while retaining the advantage of a quick 
change of air, to restrict the amount and the temperature of the escaping 
air to that necessarj^ to maintain the healthful condition of the room 
and the force of the draught. 

6. Froportions necessary to secure change of air and draught. — A com- 
mon chimney of the proportions usually adopted at present in Paris 
removes in an hour on an average an amount, which equals and often 
exceeds five times the capacity of the room it is intended to warm, and 
this change of air will be suflBcient in rooms of the usual size to secure 
a ventilation of over 1,000 cubic feet of air an hour for each person, 
supposing there be more than one for everj- 10 square feet of floor-room. 

Again, in order that the draught should be sufQciently strong and 
unaffected by the wind, it is only necessarj^ that the products of conibus- 
tion should escape with a velocity of 10 feet a second in the case of a 
fire of average intensity; but it is unnecessary, and even injurious, to 
have so great a velocity in the main flue, where it should be only from 3 
to 7 feet in a second, which is secured by making the flue sufficiently 
large. 

The theoretical discussion of the conditions of the motion of air in 
chimneys, and the results of experiment, lead to the following rules for 
the proper i)roportions for chimneys in dwelling-houses.t 

7. Proportions of flues and shafts for private houses-. — For dwelling- 
houses in the city or in the country, only a few stories high, where the- 
walls that the flues are built in are of sufficient thickness, the chimneys 
may be made of common bricks, and then the proper dimensions for the 
flues as well as for the shafts at the top, according to the size of the 
room, may be determined by the table given on the next page. 

* Essais i)olitiques, 6coiioniiques et philrsopbiques dn comte de Eumford, t, ler, p. DL. 
t JEtudes sur hi ventUatiou, tome ler, cliap. 5, pp. 295 et suivants. 



296 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



It may be remarked that the dimensions of flues given for rooms 
with an area of 10,000 cubic feet are quite large, and that it would be 
difficult to exceed them without causing the great annoyance which is 
experienced in large flues, that of causing descending currents of smoke 
when the fire is kindled. 

It will, therefore, be better in warming such large rooms to use a 
heater in addition to the fire-place. 





^t 


Mues. 




Shafts. 




a 


Volume of air 
be changed 
ery hour. 










Cm 
O 


O § 


Rectangular. 


1.- 

•as 

1^ 


.2 ® 

a 

m 


Rectangular. 


•§5 
T3 2 


(1 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Length. 


Breadth. 




Cubieft. 


Cubieft. 


Sq. in. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Sq. in. 


Ft. In. 


In. 


Ft. In. 


3, 5:^2 


17, 658 


144 


I. 2, 9-16 


0.- 9, 13-16 


0. 11, 1-2 


72 


1. 1 


5,1-2 


0. 7, 1-2 


4,226 


21, 189 


172 


I. 2, 9-16 


0. 11, 13-16 


0.11,3-16 


86 


1. 2, 9-16 


5, 7-8 


0. 8,1-4 


5, 296 


26, 487 


213 


1. 6,1-8 


0.11,13-16 


1. 1 


108 


1. 1,11-16 


8 


0.9, 7-8 


6,356 


31, 784 


258 


1. 9,5-8 


0. 11, 13-16 


1. 2,1-2 


129 


1. 4,1-8 


8 


0.10, 3-16 


7,769 


38, 847 


316 


1. 10, 13-16 


I. 1, 11-16 


1. 3,3-4 


158 


1. 7,11-16 


8 


0.11, 3-16 


lO, 382 


45, 910 


373 


I. 11, 13-16 


1. 3,3-4 


1. 5,5-16 


186 


1. 11, 5-8 


8 


1. 0, 3-16 


10, 595 


52, 973 


430 


2. 2 


1. 3,3-4 


1. 6,1-2 


215 


1. 11, 5-8 


9 


1. 1 



8. Proportions of flues and chimney caps in apartment-houses .of inany 
Hoors. — In cities where houses are built of many stories to rent in flats, 
especially in Paris, chimneys are built of bricks of special forms or of 
pottery-ware pipes, on the top being usually placed cylindrical caps of 
the following dimensions : 



Number of the pattern. 


Diameter. 


Sectional 
area. 


1 


Inches. 
9, 13-16 

8, 11-16 

7, 1-2 

6, 5-16 


Sq. in. 
76 


2 . 


59 


3 


44 


4 


31 







Three types of pottery-ware pipes may be distinguished : 

9. First type, pipes made in sections called wagons. — (Fig. 3.) — They 











w 



w^^!m 



are placed in the thickness of the partition-walls or in the face of the 
wall and forming part of it. Of these there are five different patterns 
or numbers, the j^roper one to be used depending upon the size of the 
rooms to be warmed and the thickness of the walls in which they are 
to be placed. ' 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED , BUILDINGS. 



297 



The uuaiber of the pattern of pifje and cap to be used may be deter- 
mined by the following table : 

Table of wagon-sliaped pipes and caps to he used according to the ihichness of walls and the 

size of rooms. 



Capacity of room. 




o 
n 

g ft 


Internal dimen- 
sions. 


Sectional 
area of flue, 
A. 


Number of 
correspond- 
ing cap. 


Sectional 
area of cap, 

A'. 


o 




Length. 


Breadth. 




Cubic feet. 
3,532-4,944 


Ft. In. 
1. 7, 11-16 
1. 4, 1-2 
1. 3, 3-4 
1. 1, 3-8 
0. 9, 13-16 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


Ft. In. 
1. 1, 1-4 
0. 11 

0. 10, 3-16 
0. 10, 5-8 
0. 7, 7-8 


Ft. In. 
0. 8, 1-4 
0. 8, 1-4 
0. 8. 1-4 
0. 8, 1-4 
0. 7, 1-16 


Sq. in. 
Ill 
91 
85 
88 
51 


1 
2 
2 
o 

4 


Sq. in. 
76 
59 
59 
59 
31 


1.45 


2,825-3,532 


1.54 


2 825-3,532 


1.43 


2,825-3,532 

1,589-2,119 


1.49 

1.78 








1.54 



10. Second type, pipes made in sections called measures, designed for eJiim- 
neys which project from the wall against which they are built. — (Fig. 4.) — 






/:: 




These pottery pipes are thin and have a mean height of 1 foot 9 inches. 
They are made in six numbers, which may be selected by the particulars 
given in the following table: 

Dimensions of pipes made in the shape of measures and of the corresponding caps to lye used 
according to the size of the place to he warmed. 



Size of place to be 


Number 
of pipe. 


Internal dimensions. 


Area of flue. 
A 


Number 
of corres- 
ponding 
cap. 


Sectional 
area of pas- 
sage, 
A' 


Katio, 
A 


warmed. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


A' 


Cubic feet. 
3, 532-4, 944 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 


Inches. 

11, 13-16 
9, 13-16 
9, 13-16 
8,11-16 
7,1-2 

6, 5-16 


Inches. 
9, 13-16 
8, 11-16 
6, 5-16 
7,1-2 
6, 11-16 

5,1-8 


Sq. inches. 
116 
85 
62 
65 
51 

32 


1 

2 
3 
3 

4 


Sq. inches. 
62 
59 
44 
44 
31 


1.53 


2, 825-3 532 . . 


1.44 


2,119-2,825 

2,119-2,825 


1.42 

1.48 


1,589-2,119 


1.62 








1.50 











!98 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



11. Observation. — It will be seen that these pottery flues are only 
suitable for rooms of ordinary size, and would be entirely insufficient for 
large reception-rooms. p. . 

12. Third type, arch-shaped pipes called Qourlier^s. — (Fig. 5.) — 
This form of pipe is only employed for small chimneys or where 
stoves are used. The sections are molded in the form of v^ous- 
soirs, and four are joined together to form the flue. Their thick- 
ness is usually 2f inches. There are only two patterns, one 



forming a passage of 9i|- inches in diameter, or 76 square inches 



in area, designed for walls 1 



foot 7ii 



inches thick : the other 



having an internal diameter of Sfi inches, or 59 square inches 



in area, used for walls of 



1 foot 3f 



inches in thickness. These 



flues can only secure ventilation in very small rooms, and should 
not have caps placed on them. Their use is generally limited 
to rooms warmed by stoves. 

VENTILATING FIRE-PLACES. 

,13. These fire-places, the main idea of which is not new, are, 
like many other plans proposed by build- 
ers, intended to utilize more effectually 
than the common forms the heat given 
out by the fuel by introducing a consid- 
erable quantity of fresh air, warmed to a moderate 
degree, to replace that which" has passed up the 
chimney, and also to reduce the amount of cold 
air entering from the outside through the cracks 
of the doors and 
windows. But 
while the plans 
at first pro- 
posed drew in 
but a small 
quantity of 

fresh air, scarcely equal to one-tenth of that pas- 
sing out through the chimney, and raised it to 
temperatures of from 200° to 250° and often more, 
the forms devised by the ingenious Capt. Douglas 
Galton for the fire-places of English barracks 
have furnished 

a very satisfac- f" | [ '~'} Eip-. a 

tory solution of 
the problem, as 
has been proved 
by some experi- 
ments made 

with two fire-places of this kind at the Conservatory of Arts and Trades.* 
_ * Auuales du Conservatoire, 6e A''olumej 18t)6. 






WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



299 



Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, show that these fire-places consist of an ordi- 
nary grate for wood or coal, completely separated from the wall behind. 
The flue, as far as to the top of the room to be 
warmed, consists of a cast-iron pipe placed in the 
center of a shaft extending to the ceiling, and 
into the latter passes the external air admitted 
from below, on the side or at the back, according 
to local conditions. 

Near the ceiling the shaft through which the 
J external air has passed and been warmed con- 
tains an opening fitted with inclined slats, wliich 
direct the air toward the top of the room. This 
opening should contain a register, which may be 
easily opened or closed according as the fire is 
bright or dull. 

Observation shows that with 
the dimensions given below 
the amount of air thus intro- 
duced at 80° differs but little 
from that passing off up the 
chimney, so that the admission 
of cold air through the doors 
is almost prevented. This in- 
troduction of warm air, in ad- 
dition to the warmth produced 
by the ordinary radiation from 
the fire, increases its heating- 
effect, which becomes as much as 35 per cent, of the heat produced by 
the fuel, while the common forms of fire-place give but 12 or 14 per cent., 
and those supplied with Fondet's apparatus but about 20 per cent. 

14. In every building where this form of fire-place can be used it is 
evident that it should be preferred to all others, and in its construction 
the proportions given below should be followed. 

It is well to add that most forms of iron grates suitable for burning 
coal or coke are easily adapted to this form, provided that it be possible 
to provide for the admission of the external air. 





Size of room to be 


Amount of air to be 


Sectional area of 


Sectional area of 


Sectional area of 


"warmed. 


cbangerl every hour. 


smoke-pipe. 


shaft. 


fresh-air Hue. 


Cubic feet. 


Cubic feet. 


Square inches. 


Square inches. 


Square inches. 


3, 533 


17, 658 


78 


39 


217 


4,238 


21, 190 


93 


47 


260 


4,297 


26, 487 


116 


58 


326 


6, 357 


31,784 


140 


70 


331 


7,770 


38, 848 


171 


85 


477 


9,182 


45,911 


202 


101 


564 


10, 595 


52, 974 


233 


116 


651 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



Above the room to be warmed, the warm-air shaft is discontinued and 
the flue carried up in the usual way. If, however, it be desired to use 
the shaft for warming rooms above, it may be prolonged ; a register being 
fitted to it at each floor to regulate its action. 

The hearths of these fire-places should be arranged as in common fire- 
places. They should be made of cast iron, and the fire place lined with 
fire-brick if coal or coke is to be used. A movable blower should be 
arranged to be used for kindling the fire. 

15. Observation relative to large rooms. — It is proper to repeat here that 
the dimensions given for these ventilating fire-places cannot be much 
increased, even for the largest rooms. But while two fire-places of the 
usual form, placed in the same room, often interfere with each other, 
the same difficulty is not experienced with ventilating fire-places, which 
supply themselves with the air necessary for draught. 

Still, in such cases, it is better, in addition to the fire-places, to employ 
heaters, arranged according to the principles given further on, to be 
chiefly used in warming vestibules, stairways, corridors, anterooms, 
&c., only introducing into the living-rooms warm air, which has the 
moderate temperature of 94° to 100° in the upper portions. 

STOVES. 

16. Domestic use. — Stoves, usually placed within the room, form the 
most economical method of heating. Those which are made of porce- 
lain, sheet-iron, or cast iron, without hot-air passages, and deriving 
their supply of air from the rooms in which they are placed, give out 
into the rooms they warm 85 to 90 per cent, of the heat produced by the 
fuel. (Fig. 11.) 

But the amount of air which passes through 
the stove and escapes up the chimney is only 
about 80 cubic feet to each pound of wood 
burned, from 96 to 112 cubic feet to each 
pound of coal, and from 160 to 192 cubic feet 
to each pound of coke, even with a brisk fire. 
Stoves of this kind only produce a very slow 
change of air, equal, at most, to one-tenth the 
capacity of the place warmed, the air of which 
consequently would only be completely changed 
by them once in ten hours. 

Warmiug by means of stoves is, then, evi. 
dently iuj urious to health. They have, besides, 
the defect of causing considerable diflerences 
between the temperatures which prevail at 
different heights. These differences may be 
as much as 18° or 20° in rooms 13 to 16 feet 
high. 

17. Injurious effects produced by cast-iron 
stoves. — Cast-iron stoves are much more inju- 
rious than porcelain ones on account of the great and irregular heating of 




WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



301 



their sides. They are usually so badly made that they should not be used 
in dwellings. According to some recent direct and careful experiments* 
made in 1867 by H. Deville and Troost, cast iron, at a red heat, readily 
allows the passage of gas, especially hydrogen and carbonic acid, which 
explains the very injurious and even poisonous effects produced by the 
use of stoves in the rooms of a dwelling. At best, they should only be 
used for warming passages and such rooms in the house as are frequently 
opened, or in which the air may be easily changed. 

Stoves made of porcelain or sheet-iron are far preferable, and are not 
subject to the same defects, but they do not secure a more rapid change 
of air. 

It is proper to add, however, that, for some years back, stove-founders 
have been striving to improve cast-iron 
stoves, the imperfections of which, though 
not at first so well known, were still per- 
ceived. Stoves are often made at present 
so that after the fire is started, the opening 
of movable doors or the removal of blowers 
converts them into grates detached from 
the wall, and able, with sufficiently large 
chimneys, to produce ventilation similar 
to that of ordinary fire-places. In addi- 
tion to these plans, many forms of which 
are made in foundries,if a fire-brick lining, 
which is easily renewed, be placed in the 
stoves, the excessive and sudden over- 
heating of the iron and the rapid destruc- 
tion of the metal will be prevented, and 
the unpleasant effects resulting from the 
use of cast-iron stoves much diminished. 

Similar arrangements might also be in- 
troduced into those little furnaces used at 
the same time for warming the room and 
for cooking; as well as in the construction 
©f hot-air furnaces. 

18. Stoves with circulation of hot air. — When the air which passes 
through the pipes and out through the hot air openings is taken from 
the room itself, the previously-mentioned unpleasant effects continue, 
and, besides, since the air from these openings is at a temperature often 
above 212*^, they injuriously affect the people near them, and are un- 
healthful. 

If the hot-air passages and the draught be supplied from the external 
cold air, a part of the heat given out by the fuel being employed to 
warm this air, the heating- effect of this apparatus will be slightly 
increased, because the escaping gases will be less warm ; but it' will not 

* Comptes rendus del' Acad6mie des sciences, 13 jauyier 1868. 




Tlsm. 




302 WAEMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 

be less unhealthful, beeause the hot air which it furnishes is always at 
au excessively high temperature. 

The removal of the foul air of the room, also, is rather diminished 
than increased, since the temperature of the escaped gases is less. 

19. Stoves with circulation of air made on the model devised by the late 
Rene Duvoir and the General Gas-Light Company. — These stoves, with 
which some schools in Paris are provided, and which are recommended 
to the public by the General Gas-Light Company for coke-burning stoves, 
utilize 67 per cent, of the heat produced by the fuel. 

The escaping products of combustion often have at 13 feet from the 
fire a temperature of 750° or more. The warm air which passes into 
the room is as high as 392°, and its volume is only 800 cubic feet for 
each pound of coal burned, because the passages provided for it are 
much too small. Those of the usual proportions only produce a change 
of air of about 2,119 cubic feet an hour, or 352 cubic feet to the pound 
of coal. They are consequently unhealthful, and do not merit the name 
of ventilating stoves, which some makers give to them. In order 
to make them cheap, most stoves of this kind are made with the 
total heating-surface scarcely equal to twenty times that of the grate, 
while it should be at least three or four times as much. The surface of 
the hot-air passages is scarcely equal to that of the grate. This should 
also be three or four times as much, to increase the amount of air 
introduced and to reduce the temperature. 

The chimney has an area equal to 18 per cent, of that of the stove. 
It would be well to double it to secure at least a more rapid chauge of 
air ; but then the heating-eftect of the apparatus would be materially 
reduced. 

20. Portable heaters — Ghaussenofs and similar models. — (Fig. 13.) — 
This builder has made, for large rooms, hall-ways, &c., stoves with hot- 
air circulation, which are true heaters, because, before escaping into 
the air, the products of combustion pass through many pipes, and a 
considerable amount of warm air may be obtained, drawn, if necessary, 
from the outside of the building. Their heating effect is as much as 
93 per cent, of the heat i^roduced by the fuel. They are capable of in- 
troducing into the places to be warmed about 2,551 cubic feet of air for 
each pound of coal consumed, but the temperature of the air is as high 
as 266"°, or even more, which shows that the passages are not sufflciently 
large. With their present proportions, they only remove 91 cubic feet 
of foul air for each pound of coal burned. They are, consequently, un- 
healthful, and are only suitable for warming passages, such as vestibules, 
stairways, &c., where the external air enters and mixes freely with the 
warmed air. In a stove of this kind experimented upon at the conserva- 
tory, the total heating-surface is more than one hundred times the grate- 
surface, which is a good and large ratio. The surface of the air-passa- 
ges is equal to three times the grate- surface, which is not quite enough. 

The chimney has an area equal to 47 per cent, of the grate-surface. 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



303 



Fiof. 15 . 



wliicli is enough for draught, but does not secure a sufficiently rapid 
removal of foul air. 

21. Improveme^its to he made in tJie construction of stoves. — The princi- 
pal defects of all stoves, without exception, are — 

1. Not carrying off foul air as quickly as necessary for health. 

2. Giving too high a temperature to the air which passes through 
them. 

The means of lessening these faults 
are — 

1. Making separate ventilatin g sh afts, 
.heated directly by the stove and the 
chimney. 

2. Enlarging also the size of the hot- . 
air passages, and always, when not 
mpossible, taking the air from the 
outside of the building in order to pre- 
vent it from entering through the doors 
and windows. 

3. Furnishing the stoves with doors, 
which, being opened after the fire is 
kindled, change them almost into open 
fire-j^laces, and cause a strong draught 
in the chimney, the size of which should 
be enlarged, without fear of increasing 
too much the expense for fuel. 

German stoves and those of some 
French makers have an arrangement 
of this kind, though still imperfect. 

22. Fire-places and stoves with reversed 
draught. — In some cases the want of 
a flue above the fire-place renders it necessary to carry the smoke 
to a horizontal passage below, which conveys it to the bottom of a 
vertical flue, placed some distance off. To obtain in such a case a 
draught at the instant of lighting the fire, it is generally necessary to start 
a small fire in an opening in the horizontal passage at the foot of the 
vertical flue, which causes a momentary draught ; the external supply 
of air to this fire being stopped as soon as it is kindled, in order that, 
taking air from the horizontal passage alone, it may produce a current 
which will extend to the chimney or to the stove. But this arrange- 
ment is often insufiicient, at least unless the extra fire be kept up, which 
would be very troublesome. 

In houses lighted by gas it is preferable to introduce into the chimney 
at the occupied story, and not at the level of the lower horizontal pas- 
sage, gas-jets inclosed in a little metallic chimney 9i| inches to llif 
inches high, with a separate air-supply, in order to prevent it from 
being extinguished -by the smoke. Three or four jets, each consuming 




WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 

4 cubic feet an hour, are usually enough. The heat given out by the 
combustion of gas produces in the flue an increase of temperature, 
which keeps up the draught of the stoves or chimney. After the fire is 
well started, the gas-jets may be put out. An arrangement of this kind 
applied at the conservatory to a stove, the draught of which could not 
be kept up regularly by an extra fire of the usual kind, and which was 
also in very bad condition, succeeded very well, even during strong 
winds. 

STEAM-HEATING. 

24. The rapid circulation of steam even under very slight pressure, 
and the large amount of heat it gives out in condensing, are the princi- 
pal advantages of this mode of heating, which only requires, for the 
passage of the steam, pipes of small dimensions, but it has with the 
forms of apparatus most in use very grave defects. 

Irregularities in the fire affect very sensibly the circulation of steam, 
and want of attention, especially apt to occur during the night, leads to 
condensation. When the fire becomes hot again, the steam, which then 
flows quickly into the pipes, where a partial vacuum has formed, meeting , 
a great deal of condensed water, drives it violently, and the shocks 
occasionally produce explosions, often cracks and leaks, or at least very 
frequent disagreeable noises. 

These great objections have generally led to the abandonment of 
warming by direct steam -circulation, except in factories where the 
escape-steam from the engines is made use of. In that case it flows 
constantly through large exposed pipes, having a slope sufficient to pre- 
vent the accumulation of condensed water. But when it is designed to 
warm dwellings by carrying the steam through thin floors, the difficul- 
ties increase, and all the unpleasant effects become manifest. 

Grouvelle, a skillful civil engineer, has designed and constructed for 
several hospitals an arrangement in which the steam does not directly 
heat the radiators placed in the rooms, but the steam-pipes heat water 
placed in those radiators. This system, in consequence of the great 
density of water and its imperfect conductibility of heat, prevents the 
too sudden checking of the radiation when the flow of steam is dimin- 
ished or stopped. These radiators have, on top, a little opening, which 
prevents the temperature of the water from rising above 212°, and the 
l)ipes which furnish a i^assage for the air coming in from the outside 
do not allow the temperature of that air to exceed 104° or 113°. 

Special arrangements also allow the steam to be carried through the 
radiators, or through external pipes, so as to moderate the temperature 
of the room by using only a few of the radiators. But if this plan 
secures a more regular warmth, it does not prevent trouble from con- 
densation in the pipes passing through the floors, nor from leaks, which 
are always difficult to discover and to stop. Some accidents which have 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 305 

happened at Lariboisiere Hospital have even shown that this system is 
not entirely free from sudden ruptures. 

The advantages of steam-heating may be retained, without its prin- 
cipal defects, by arranging the circulating-pipes vertically in shafts 
formed in the thickness of the walls, or specially built for them, as 
has been done in some wards of the Viucennes Hospital, or as d'Hame- 
lincourt has arranged it for the circulation of water at the company's 
office at the Northern Eailway. 

Some of these pipes may be exposed in the form of columns, and be 
used for warming the hands or the feet, as is done in many establish- 
ments in Germany and Switzerland. 

These arrangements, which agree very well with the condition that 
the fresh air should enter near the ceiling, secure the immediate return 
of the condensed water to the boiler, and, therefore, greatly diminish 
the effect of leaks, which would be more easily prevented than in the 
forms usually adopted at present. 

l!^othing should prevent the adoption, in each ward (ff a hospital, of 
an evaporator warmed by steam on Grouvelle's system, in order to pro- 
mote the comfort of the patients. 

It is proper to add that when the radiators and pipes have a heating- 
surface of 215 to 258 square feet for 35,316 cubic feet capacity of halls, 
an elevation of temperature of 29'^ or 32"=^ may be obtained even in the 
coldest weather. At Lariboisiere Hospital the proportion is 280 square 
feet, and it is evidently greater than necessary. But there remains 
against steam-heating the charge of being too readily affected by irreg- 
ularities in the fire, and particularly by want of attention on the part 
of the firemen, which during the night may- be very much prolonged. 

HOT-WATEE, HEATING-APPARATUS. 

25. This system of warming, which has been known and in use for a 
long time with various modifications, is much less apt to cause sudden 
variations of teu-perature than the preceding, since hot-water vessels 
and pipes of equal capacity always contain a much greater number of 
units of heat than if filled with steam. The great density of water and 
its steady circulation through the heater long after the fire has become 
low, maintain a very regular heat in spite of temporary want of atten- 
tion. 

The temperature of the air warmed by this apparatus is always 
very moderate. It is even difficult to raise it above 100° or 112° with 
large radiating-surfaces. In this respect this method of heating is very 
healthful, provided that ample ventilation be maintained in addition. 

It is not essential to follow L. Duvoir's plan of placing regulating- 
receivers in the upper part of the house to which the warm water 
ascends, in order to secure a sufficiently rapid circulation by the differ- 
ence in the density of the high ascending and descending columns. 
20 s 



306 WARMING AND 'VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS 

Heating-apparatus of tbis kind in use at Guy's Hospital, Loudon, at 
the Sydenham Palace, and all those used in warming green-houses, prove 
that, provided the pipes be sufficiently large, a small difference in height 
between the ascending and descending pipes is sufficient to maintain the 
circulation with even a slight difference of temperature. Another con- 
clusive example is found in the apparatus used in warming some baths. 

The hot-water circulating-i)ipes may be arranged to warm the air 
either in the lower i)Ortions or in vertical shafts built in or against the 
walls, through which the outside air passes and becomes warmed by 
contact with the pipes. 

The iirst arrangement, in which the pipes may be in sight throughout 
their whole length and placed in easily accessible places, renders leaks 
of little consequence, and allows them to be easily found and stopped. 

The second, which is used by d'Hamelincourt, and in which hand-hole 
plates are placed at the top of each section, gives almost the same 
facility and allows of the removal of the leakage- water. 

Both these plans are more cheaply applied than that which has been 
adopted by L. Duvoir-Leblanc, who carries the water in the thickness 
of the floors, and they are free from the somewhat too severe condem- 
nation which has been visited upon the plans of that builder. 

In these systems, radiators may be entirely dispensed with or confined 
to one in each ward for the comfort of the patients. 

26. Proper proportions of heating-surf aces. — A hot-water heating-appa- 
ratus does not give out as much heat as a steam-heating apparatus with 
the same surface. An examination of the results obtained at Lariboi- 
siere Hospital shows that a heating-surface of 291 square feet for rooms 
with a capacity of 35,316 cubic feet is scarcely sufficient in very cold 
weather, and we think that it would be better to give to the radiators 
or receivers placed within the rooms to be warmed at least 323 to 344 
square feet of total heating-surface for that capacity of 35,316 cubic feet 
in places similar to hospitals. 

In regard to apparatus placed in cellars and designed to warm air 
which is carried thence through pipes which may cool it, or into rooms 
not kept constantly warmed, prudence requires that the heating-surface 
should be 538 square feet for warming rooms containing 35,316 cubic 
feet, and it is also necessary that the air should not be carried to a great 
distance. 

lu general, this system has a smaller heating-capacity than that in 
which the water is carried in pipes or through the air-passages. 

But when the heater, the pipes, and the radiators are all contained in 
the room to be warmed, the loss from waste heat is reduced, as in the 
€ase of stoves, to that carried off" by the chimney. Besides, since the 
heat requires to be kept moderate, this system unites the advantage of 
healthfulness to that of economy of fuel, and appears to me as a system 
of general heating preferable to the other systems employed for the same 
purpose. 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 307 

TJDder these conditions, the total heating-surface might be reduced to 
269 square feet for heating rooms of 35,316 cubic feet. 

A regular moderate and coustant temperature being much better 
secured by a circulation of water that can be increased, checked, or even 
Btopped, partially or entirely, as well as in the systems making use of 
steam, we believe that it should generally have the preference, but 
especially in the case of hospitals. 

27. Heating by the circulation of ivater of very high temperature. — In 
regard to that system of heating by the circulation of water of high 
temperature known under the name of Perkins's system, where the water 
often attains a temperature above 572°, it cannot, without danger, be 
carried through pii3es placed in the thickness of the floors or near pieces 
of wood, which would be slowly affected by so high a temperature and 
disposed to spontaneous combustion, as more than one fire has shown. 
Also, at present, in establishments where this system of warming has 
been adopted, all the pipes are in full view, and hung against the walls 
or ceilings, which makes a very unpleasant appearance. It is, besides, 
essential to surround with a grating or case those portions of these 
pipes which are in contact with the building in order to prevent serious 
accidents. On all these accounts we do not think it jjroper in a-ny case 
to make use of this system of heating. 

28. Combination of hot-ioater and hot-air heating-apparatus. — The diffi- 
culty of heating by means of a hot-air furnace to a greater distance 
than 40 or 50 feet horizontally from the heaters may be overcome, as 
we have said before, by placing iu the furnace, either a boiler or tubes, 
called bottles, leading into the hot-water pipes communicating with the 
radiators and the return-pipes. In this way a combined system of 
heating is obtained, one part by warm-air and the other by warm water, 
the latter being capable of useful effect at a great distance. 

29. Combination of tvarming and ventilation. — Apparatus for heating 
by steam, hot water, and by both air- and water may easily be connected 
with arrangements for direct ventilation ; water or steam vessels being 
placed in the pipes or in the chimney to give it the proper activity. 

30. General conclusions from experiments on heating-apparatus made in 
1865-'66. — Experiments, the results of which 1 have given in notes 
appended to the Annals of the Conservatory, together with those which 
I have already jjublished on fire-places, lead to the following classifica- 
tion of the different forms of heating-apparatus examined, made with 
reference to their heating-effect ; that is, the ratio of the heat which 
they give out directly or indirectly in the places for which they are 
intended to that developed by the fuel consumed. The table also 
shows their advantages and defects as regards ventilation and effect on 
health : 



WAEMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



Classification of heating-apparatus in regard to heating effect. 



Forms of apparatus. 



Ordinary flre-places — 
Ventilating fire-places 



Common stoves, j Cast iron, burning j Q°?g' 
without circula-^p^^^gi^^j^ ^j^r^jj^^^oj,^^ 
tionotair. [ slightly healthful ..... . 

Metal stoves, with f Model in use in schools 

circulation of air J in Paris 

taken from the [With vertical pipes, 
outside or inside. I. Chaussenot's model 



Heaters with pipes f Horizontal . 
ho't aS °^ I Vertical ... 



Apparatus for cir- 
culation of hot < 
water. 



When the pipes and radi- 
ators are very numer- 
ous with large suri'ace 
compared with that of 
the heater 

When the boiler, furnace, 
and all the radiators or 
pipes are contained in 
the place to be warmed. 



3 » o 

QJ O O 



10-12 
33-35 



93 



65-75 



Eemarks. 



Carry off foul air but do not directly bring in 
fresh air. Effect of system healthful. 

Carry off foul air and directly introduce mod- 
erately warmed fresh air. Healthful system 
of heating. 

I Produce a very insuflScient change of air. 
I Unheal thful system. 

■j Do Hot produce sufficient change of air and 
heat too much the air they introduce. Very 
injurious system of warming if pipes be of 
cast iron; slightly healthful if of sheet iron. 

] Cannot directly produce a sufficient removal 
of foul air and in general supply over- 

! heated air, but may easily be modified so as 

I to give out air at 86° or 104°. System in- 
jurious when not combined with means of 
ventilation. 



Easily adapted for the establishment of reg 
(' ular direct ventilation. 



VENTILATION 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

31. Properties of air. — Before giving the rules to be followed and tbe 
proportions to be adopted to secure in dwellings a proper change of air, 
it will be useful to state some general principles of physics relative to 
the properties of this gas. 

Air, composed of 21 per cent, of oxygen and 79 of nitrogen, is a pon- 
derable body. At the temperature of 32°, and under the pressure of 
30 inches of mercury, 1,000 cubic feet of air weigh 1-^ ounces. It is subject, 
then, like all other bodies, to the laws of gravity. Its molecules, like 
those of all gases, are but feebly bound to each other by molecular 
attractions; the slightest force, the least elevation of temperature, the 
feeblest reduction of pressure, causing the preponderance of the repul- 
sive forces and separating the elements from each other. On the contrary, 
the slightest depression of temperature unites more closely the mole- 
cules of air, and renders it more dense and heavy. 

Air expands under the action of heat and contracts under that of 
cold, the same as other gases, and its volume varies with the tempera- 
ture, according to Gay-Lussac's law, expressed by the formula — 

Y=[ 1 + 0.002036 (^-32) ] Yo=[ 1 + a {t—32) ] Vo 
in which— 

Vo=its volume at 32°, and at the barometric pressure of 30 inches 
of mercury. 



WAEMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 



309 



Y the volume which it occupies at the temperature to ; and 
«=0.002036=a constant co-efficient obtained by exj)eriment, and 
which expresses the proportion in which the volume increases for 
each degree Fahrenheit. 
This formula shows that, under the same barometric pressure, a vol- 
ume of one cubic foot of air at 32^' becomes — 

[l-\-a {t—S2) ]=[ 1+0.002030 it—32)] cubic feet in passing to the 
temperature of t degrees. 
If the temperature falls instead of rising, the air contracts, its volume 
diminishes in cooling, and it follows in this contraction the same law, 
expressed by the formula — 

V=[l-. 002036 (i-32)] Vo=f 1-a (^-32)] Vq 
which is the same as the preceding formula, if the temperature t is con- 
sidered plus when above and minus when below. 

32. Variation of density. — When the temperature of the air rises and 
its volume increases, its density, or the weight of a cubic foot, diminishes 
according to a law expressed by the following formula, assuming that 
the atmospheric j)ressure remains constantly equal to that of 30 inches 
of mercury : 

d= <^o _ 0.081 

— l + a{t-32) ~ 1+0.002036(^-32) 

The density or the weight of 1,000 cubic feet of air at different tem- 
peratures, calculated by the above formula, is given in the following 
table : 



Temperature by 
Fabreubeit's 
tbermometer. 


o 
o 


Temperature by 
Fabreubeit's 
tbermometer. 


o 
o 


Temperature by 
Fabreubeit's 
tbermoraeter. 


o 
o 
o 

"S.2 


Temperature by 
F a b r e ubeit's 
tbermometer. 


o 
o 

o 

IB o 


c 


Lbs. 


o 


Lbs. 


o 


Lbs. 


o 


Lbs. 


—4.0 


.0875 


64.4 


.0760 


132.8 


.0673 


201.2 


. 0603 


—0.4 


.0868 


68.0 


.0755 


136.4 


.0669 


204.8 


.0600 


3.2 


.0861 


71.6 


.0751 


140.0 


.0665 


208.4 


.0597 


6.8 


.0855 


75.2 


.0748 


143.6 


.0661 


212. 


.0594 


10.4 


.0849 


78.8 


.0741 


147.2 


.0657 


215.6 


,0591 


14.0 


. 0842 


82.4 


.0736 


150.8 


.0653 


219.2 


.0587 


17.6 


.08.36 


86.0 


.0731 


154.4 


.0649 


222. 8 


.0584 


2L2 


. 0829 


89.6 


.0726 


158.0 


.0646 


226. 4 


,0581 


24.8 


.0824 


93.2 


.0721 


161. 6 


.0642 


230. 


.0578 


28.4 


.0819 


96.8 


.0716 


165. 2 


.0638 


233. 6 


. 0575 


32. 


.0811 


100.4 


.0712 


168.8 


.0634 


237.2 


.0572 


35.6 


.0803 


104.0 


.0708 


172.4 


. 0631 


240.8 


.0569 


39.2 


.0799 


107.6 


.0703 


176.0 


. 0628 


244. 4 


. 0566 


42.8 


.0794 


111.2 


. 0699 


179.6 


.0624 


248.0 


.0563 


46,4 


. 0788 


114.8 


.0694 


183. 2 


. 0620 


251. 6 


.0561 


50.0 


.0783 


118.4 


.0690 


186.8 


.0616 


255. 2 


. 0558 


53.6 


.0777 


122. 


.0686 


190. 4 


.0613 


258.8 


. 0555 


57.2 


.0771 


125. 6 


. 0681 


194.0 


.0610 


262.4 


.0552 


60.8 


.0766 


129.2 


.0677 


197.6 


.0606 


266.0 


> .0549 



310 WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 

33. Mariotteh laic. — According to this familiar law, the temperature of 
tlie air remaining constant, its volume varies inversely as the pressure 
to which it is exposed, and its density is proportional to those pressures. 

34. General relation between the ])ressure, volume, temperature, and density 
of air. — Calling — 

do, Vo, Po, ( The density, the volume, and the f 32 degrees, 

d, V, P, } pressure corresponding to the.^(^'— 32) degrees, 

d', Y', P', ( temperatures, ( {t —32) degrees, 

the following relations result from the combination of Mariotte's and Gay- 
Lussac's laws : 

y-y/ [1 + 0.002036 (t-32)] P ^ 
[1 + 0.UU203G (*'— 32)J P 

1 1+0.002030 (^^-32)] P 
d-d ^i^(,.00203(} (f-32)J P' 

If we suppose that t'=0 and P= P'= one atmosphere, d'= 0.081 
pounds, the last formula becomes — 

-, 0.081 

d= 



1+0.002036 (^-32) 

which has been found before. 

35. Frineiple of Archimedes, its effects. — Air, like all fluids, follows that 
elementary principle of physics, according to which a body plunged into 
a fluid loses a part of its weight equal to that of the displaced fluid. 

Thus, at the temperature of 32° and under the pressure of 30 inches, 
every cubic foot of air in the atmosphere weights 0.000081 pounds ; and 
as it occupies exactly the same space as every other volume of air of 
the same weight, it remains wherever it is placed, unless disturbed by an 
external force. 

If, on the contrary, the temperature of this cubic foot of air be reduced, 
for example, in consequence of its contact with some cold body, as a 
window-pane or a wall, it contracts, its volume is reduced, its density 
increases, it becomes heavier than the volume of air which it displaces 
in the mass, which is assumed to remain at about the same temperature. 
Theu the excess of its weight over that of a similar volume tends to 
make it descend. 

Thus, in a ijlace where the general temperature is 68°, if a portion 
which was at first at that temperature, with a density of 0.0000750 pound 
to the cubic foot, becomes cooled by contact with a cooler body, such as a 
window-pane or the walls, at a temperature of 32°, its density will 
become equal to 0.000081, and each cubic foot will tend to fall with a 
force equal to the excess of its new weight over that of a cubic foot of 
the surrounding air, or 0.000081— 0.000076=0.000005 pound. This effect 
is constantly produced in winter, when the surfaces of windows and 
walls are colder than the air of the warmed apartments. 

On the contrary, if the temperature of a part of the air be raised above 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 311 

the mean temperature of the surrounding air, that air expands, its 
density diminishes, and each cubic foot, no longer weighing as much as 
the same volume of the rest of the air, is pressed upward by a force 
equal to the dift'erence of densities. 

Thus, in summer, the air in contact with the window-panes becoming 
warmed, and, in winter, the same eifect being j)roduced by stoves, lights, 
and even by the people in the room, the air, becoming less dense, rises 
toward the ceiling. 

If, for example, tlie mean general temperature of any place is 61°, the 
density of the air is 0.000077 pound, and if owing to the action of the 
sun the air in contact with the windows becomes raised to 79°, its den- 
sity becomes 0.000074, and each cubic foot of that air is forced upward 
by a force equal to 0.000077—0.000074=0.000003 pounds. 

36. Frequency of the preceding effects. — The effects which we have just 
mentioned frequently manifest themselves in a very unpleasant way 
in winter, when a person is seated by a window, in a room where the 
general temperature is high, and still more sensibly in large halls, 
lighted by skylights. In the latter case, it is often necessary, to avoid 
these difficulties, while retaining the lights, to heat the space between 
the roof and the ceiling to 80° or 104° by means of stoves, examples of 
which will be given further on. 

On the contrary, glazed ceilings, recently introduced into some 
theaters and i3alaces to admit the light from a large number of gas jets, 
also heat the room to a very unpleasant degree. 

A similar effect is produced in summer in railroad-stations, courts, 
workshops, and in large buildings covered with glass roofs in which 
sufficient ventilation has not been provided. The temperature in such 
places often rises to 104°, 110°, and more. 

37. Unstable equilibrium of air. — Cooling and warming effects similar 
to those just mentioned are constantly taking place in dwellings, the 
air is never at rest, and the slightest variation in temperature and press- 
ure produces almost endless motion. The air, then, is always in unsta- 
ble equilibrium. 

38. General principles of ventilation.— Gh^uge of air in occupied 
places is only rendered necessary by the alteration produced in it by 
respiration, bodily exhalations, the heat given out by the occupants, by 
the lights, or by these different causes combined. The many observa- 
tions which I have made, and a comparison of experiments made by 
different engineers and by myself, have led me to the following conclu- 
sions, which I regard as proper to serve as fundamental principles in 
the formation of plans for the ventilation of occupied buildings, and 
especially of hospitals: 

1. Ventilation is designed for the removal of foul air and the substi- 
tution of fresh air. 

2. The principal object of ventilation is the immediate withdrawal of 
foul air. It should, in general, act as near as possible to the points 



312 WAEMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 

where the air is contaminated by injurious exhalations, in order to pre- 
vent them from affecting the air of the rooms. Inversely, fresh air 
should be introduced at points removed from the occupants. 

3. The different plans which act by means of a draught, when they 
are properly proportioned and well made, fulfill better and more surely 
the foregoing conditions than those which act exclusively by forcing in 
fresh air. The latter do not, of themselves alone, secure the removal 
of foul air uniformly and constantly under all circumstances and in all 
seasons. 

4. The introduction of fresh air taken at the desired height and in 
sufficient quantity may be obtained in most cases by the action of 
draught alone, and without the help of blowing-apparatus, by making 
the air-shafts and their openings sufficiently large, and having them 
properly arranged. 

5. The draught may be produced, first, by the fire-places or stoves 
with their chimneys, which are used for general heating or by similar 
apparatus; secondly, by the same means, aided, if necessary, by auxihary 
fires at the bottom of ventilating-shafts, 50 to 65 feet high in large 
establishments, when these are needed. The air to be removed should 
flow toward the base of these sliafts; in most cases it should be carried 
there through one or more channels which branch out and terminate in 
openings close to the sources of infection. 

6. Ventilation, by means of draughts produced by grates and chim- 
neys, is easily adapted in most cases to all the modifications rendered 
necessary by the size and arrangement of rooms. It approaches, as 
closely as could be desired, the usual and natural aeration of rooms and 
apartments; it allows the amount and temi^erature of the air-currents 
to be varied as needed. It only requires cheap fire-places and their 
chimneys and pipes or channels, which, once made, cost little to keep in 
order. It needs no other attention than the regular supply of fuel to 
the fires, to which account all the attendance may be charged. 

Ventilation by blowing or by mechanical apparatus requires, besides 
chimneys and ventilatiug-flues, common to both systems, blowing- 
engines and steam-engines, with special channels for the introduction of 
the air-blast. It requires the attention of special laborers, mechanics, 
and firemen, besides involving expense for repairs. 

7. For hospitals or for buildings having several floors, the blowing- 
system does not give the same guarantees as the other system against 
carrying foul air from one room to another, nor against the return of 
foul air through the air-shafts or through cracks in their sides, when an 
accidental circumstance, as the opening of doors or windows, disturbs 
the usual pressure and motion of the air in the rooms. 

8. Draught maintained by simple fire-places and chimneys, with open- 
ings of sufficient size suitably placed for the admission of fresh air, 
carries off" the foul air without the help of any mechanical apparatus, 
and becomes, except under exceptional circumstances, the readiest 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 313 

method of securing liealtbful ventilation as strong as desirable in occu- 
pied buildings, and especially in the wards of large hospitals, or in those 
of small hospitals capable of being warmed by an open grate, 

9. As regards those establishments where it would be necessary, un- 
der special conditions, to employ mechanical methods of forcing in air, 
it would always be well to aid their action by a strong draught, partic- 
ularly affiecting those places from which exhalations are supposed to 
arise. 

The latter case seldom occurs in establishments where ventilation 
must be continually maintained ; the amount of air removed and intro- 
duced remaining almost always constant. When, on the contrary, this 
work must be frequently changed from one place to another in the same 
building, and when the amount of air to be changed differs very greatly 
from one day or hour to another, as is the case, for example, in Saint 
George's Hall, Liverpool, where these amounts vary from 1 to 50, it 
may become necessary, or at least advantageous, to assist the action of 
the draught produced by heat, by that of a mechanical aj)paratus to 
produce a sufficient motion in the air-supply pipes. 

These conclusions, based upon the discussion of a large number of 
experiments made by several observers, have been accepted by the 
hospital consulting committee of hygiene and medical practice, ap- 
pointed by the secretary of the interior, under an imperial decree of 
August 29, 1862. They apijly to ventilation of all occupied places, and 
they serve as foundations for the special rules which we shall present. 

39. Influence of seasons. — It is important not to forget that, in the 
winter, ventilation ma,y be secured directly and at the same time as 
warmth. It is this, in particular, which renders warming by means of 
fire-places in winter so healthful. But it is proper to repeat that this 
natural ventilation, due to differences of temperature, which are usually 
quite small, is essentially inconstant, and, therefore, liable to act alter- 
nately in the reverse direction, which would often cause great trouble. 

The simple difference of internal and external temperature, and, con- 
sequently, of the densities of the external and internal air, are then 
capable of producing sufficient velocity in the receiving and discharging 
channels to maintain the renewal of air in a proper manner. Thus is 
obtained what is called natural ventilation. 

40. Amount of air to he changed every hour to ])reserve the healthful con- 
dition of the room : 

Cubic feet. 
Hospitals : 

For ordinary cases of sickness 2, 119-2, 472 

For surgical and lying-in cases 3, 532 

During epidemics 3, 709 

Prisons 1, 766 

Workshops : 

Ordinary occupations 2, 119 

Unhealthful occuj)ations 3, 532 



314 WAKMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 

Barracks : 

During the day 1, 059 

At night 1, 413-1, 7G6 

Theaters 1, 413-1, 766 

Assembly-rooms and halls for long receptions 2, 119 

Halls for brief recejjtions ; lecture-rooms 1, 059 

Primary schools 42-4, 530 

Adult schools 883-1, 059 

Stables 6, 357-7, 063 

These amounts, much larger than those deemed necessary a few years 
ago, are not at all excessive, and are for the most part based on direct 
observations.* 

In manufactories and other buildings, where the number of persons is 
not very large, but where other causes may affect the air, the amount 
to be withdrawn should be determined by the condition that the air in 
each of these places should be completely changed a certain number of 
times an hour. Thus, for dwelling-rooms, this change should take place 
about four or five times an hoar. 

We will specify further on the proportions to be adopted in some 
other particular cases. 

41. Proper temperature. — In well-ventilated places, with a constant 
change of air, higher temperatures can be easily borne, and even be 
found pleasant, than those which would be found oppressive where the 
air is not changed. Nevertheless, the internal temperature should not 
be kept above the following points : 

Nurseries, asylums, and schools , 59° 

Workshops, barracks, x)risons 59° 

Hospitals 610-640 

Theaters, assembly-rooms, lecture-halls 66°-68° 

The fresh air introduced should generally have about the temi3era- 
ture it is desired to maintain in the room as soon as this is sufficiently 
warmed. 

If, however, the room has large glass surfaces which cool the air, if 
there are not many occupants or lights, the fresh air should be warmer, 
and its temperature may be as much as 86° or 95°. 

If, on the other hand, there are many lights burning and large gath- 
erings, the temperature of the fresh air should be a little less than that 
of the room itself. Trial will readily determine the proper temperature 
in each case. 

42. Means of regulating the temperature of the fresh air. — During the 
period of artificial heating, it is proper to reserve means of mixing with 
the warm air supplied by the heating-apparatus cool air, the amount of 
which mtry be regulated by convenient registers. For this purpose the 
warm air supplied by the heating-apparatus should be received in a 

* Etudes sur la yeutilatiou, 1 er vol. 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 315 

special receiver or mixing-chamber, into which the cold air also enters 
before passing into the distributing-pipes. 

43. General rules, theoretical and ])ractical. — Theory and experiment 
agree in showing that, calling — 

A the sectional area of a chimney or air-shaft; 

H its height ; 

T' the temperature of the external air ; v, 

T the mean temperature in the shaft ; 

y the mean velocity of the air in the shaft ; 

K a numerical co-efficient, constant for each shaft, and depending 
upon its size and position; and 

Q the volume of air passing through in a second, 
we have the equations — 

Y = KV(T-T')H 
and 



Q = KAV(T-T')H 

44. Consequences of these formulas. — It follows from these formulas 
that the velocity, Y, of the air or smoke in a chimney is proportional — 

1. To the square root of the excess of the temperature of the gases 
in the chimney over the temperature of the external air; 

2. To the square root of the height of the chimney, and that the 
volume of air or smoke discharged in a second is proportional to the 
same quantity and also to the sectional area of the flue. 

It follows then — 

1. That the velocity, V, and, consequently, the volume, Q, of the gases 
given off by the chimney are increased, or the draught rendered 
stronger by increasing the height of the chimney. 

2. That the volume of gases or air removed are increased by giving 
a greater sectional area to the chimney. 

3. That having given the height, sectional area, and general arrange- 
ment of a chimney, or any shaft whatever for air or gas, the volume of 
air which it will remove will always be the same if the temperature 
within the shaft always exceeds that of the external air by the same 
number of degrees. 

The latter consequence, perfectly confirmed by observation, renders it 
necessary to proportion the heating-apparatus, which produces the cur- 
rent for the case, when the temperature of the external air is greatest, 
and consequently for the summer-season. 

45. Difference of temperature usually sufficient. — Observations made in 
mines where the circulation of air is the most extended and complicated, 
as well as of ventilating arrangements of the largest hospitals and 
amphitheaters, show that a difference of 36^ to 45° between the temper- 
ature in chimneys and that of the external air is usually sufficient to 
produce, throughout Jihe air-passages, the velocities which will be men- 
tioned further on. 



316 WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 

In theaters, in consequence of tbe great number of passages, tlie 
difference should be 65° to 72° to secure the necessary discharge. 

46. Insufficiency of natural ventilation. — It also follows from what 
precedes that in proportion as the difference of temperatures becomes 
less the velocity of the circulation of air diminishes, which explains 
why, if in winter the natural ventilation produced simply by the exoess 
of the temperature of occupied places — usually kept at about 00° — over 
the external temperature is sufficient in most cases to secure a proper 
change of air when well-proportioned ventilating-flues have been put 
up, it is no longer so in spring and still less in summer. In these 
seasons, natural ventilation becomes inefficient, and, as besides it is not 
always possible to keep the windows open, it becomes necessary to have 
recourse to artificial ventilation whenever it is deemed necessary to 
obtain a regular change of air. 

47. Accidental reversal of the motion of tlie air. — When the shafts are 
not kept at a sufficiently high temperature, it often happens that the 
motion of the air becomes reversed, and the flues introduce the external 
cold air instead of causing the discharge of the foul air. This effect is 
frequently produced in arrangements where, by the introduction and 
discharge of air, natural ventilation cannot be counted upon, notwith- 
standing the difference of height in the entry and discharge shafts. 
This is frequently observed in reception-halls, where, several rooms 
being thrown into one, the chimneys of some, being heated more or less, 
serve as discharge-flues, while others bring in cold air. The same effects 
are also i^roduced in places which are only ventilated a part of the day, 
such as lecture-rooms, theaters, &c. It then often happens that the 
motion of the air is periodically reversed. The cold air enters by the 
discharge-flue, and the warmer air of the places which have been occu- 
pied escapes through the openings for the admission of air. This 
reversal, which produces a useless cooling effect, may be prevented by 
placing in the air-pipes and channels doors or registers, which may be 
shut when the ventilation is to be discontinued. 

Finally, it is also necessary to close the communication with the places 
to be ventilated when starting the fire, mentioned further on, placed at 
the bottom of the ventilating-shaftfor producing draught, so as to avoid 
a down-draught, as in the preceding case, filling the room with smoke. 
A special air- supply should be reserved for this fire. 

48. Insufficiency of tcindoiv -openings. — It is generally believed that 
opening the windows of a large room will produce a com^olete change of 
air, and many physicians think that in hospitals the opening of a cer- 
tain numbers of windows placed on opposite sides, will have that effect. 
This is not as true as supposed; and in summer, when the air is still and 
there is no wind, it often happens that the complete opening of five or 
six windows, on opposite sides of a large reception-room, coach-house, 
railroad-station, or riding-school, produces but a very imperfect change 



WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 317 

of air, and does not at all prevent an excessive increase of temperature. 
Examples of this kind are very numerous. 

49. Position of openings for the admission and discliarge of air. — oSTone of 
these openings should be placed at the level of the floors as builders 
usually, but improperly place them, because the sweepings fall in them, 
and soon choke the corresponding flues. 

Openings arranged to admit warm or cold air should be placed near 
the ceiling, or at such a distance from the occupants of the room that 
they may not perceive any current of air. 

When, on the contrary, the openings are placed near the floor the 
warm air in winter ascends rapidly to the ceiling, while in summer the 
fresh air, which is heavier, remains at the lower j)art. In both these 
cases it is unpleasant to stay near these openings. In public halls and 
lecture-rooms especially, the admission of air under the seats and between 
the feet of the audience is improper. In the Palace of Luxembourg and 
the Chamber of Deputies this mode of introducing air has had to be 
given up entirely. 

Discharge-openings, on the contrary, should, iti general, be arranged 
near the floor, and also in the vertical walls. Some special cases, in 
which this latter rule must be violated, will be mentioned further on, 

50. Proper velocities of the air in the discharge openings. — These veloci- 
ties should increase from the first openings in the room to the chimney, 
which it is well to make common to all the ventilating-flues of the same 
house. They should be governed as far as possible by the following: 

First ventilating-openings, velocity in one second. 1 ft. 4 in. to 2 ft. 4 in., 

First collecting-passages 3 3 3 11 

Second collecting-passages 4 3 4 7 

General discharge-chimney 5 6 6 6 

These velocities are easily obtained in most cases by means of an 
excess of 36° to 45° in the chimney over that of the external air. 

51. Sectional area to be given to openings and flues. — The total volume of 
air to be discharged in a second, being calculated in advance according 
to the number of occupants and the conditions of change of air, dividing 
this volume by the proper velocity for each passage will give in square 
feet the free sectional area. By free sectional area is meant the actual 
passage-way, the gratings which often obstruct it being deducted. 

Example. — Take the case of a hospital-ward of twelve beds, to each 
of which is allowed 2,825 cubic feet of air an hour, making in all 33,900 
cubic feet an hour, or 9.42 cubic feet a second, the mean velocity in 

9 42 
the channels being 2.3 feet a secoud,their total section would be — ^ =4.1 

square feet. If it be necessary to have one to each bed, the pipe behind 

4.1 

each bed should have a section equal to yi)= 0.34 square feet, and its 

dimensions should be 7 by 7 inches. The collecting-pipes, which receive 



318 WARMING AND VENTILATING OCCUPIED BUILDINGS. 

the foul air from the six beds on each side, should discharge 4.715 cubic 
feet in a second, at the velocity of 3^ feet a second. Their greatest sec- 
tional area should be 1.437 square feet, and their dimensions 1 foot by 
1 foot 5 inches; but they should be made smaller at first, and propor- 
tioned at every point to the amount of air to be removed. The sizes of 
the other air-passages should be determined in the same way. If there 
are three stories to each wing, or thirty-six beds in all, the amount of 
air to be removed will be 101.710 cubic feet an hour, or 28 feet a second. 
The velocity in the chimney being given at about 7 feet, the area should 
be 4.3 square feet, and the dimensions 2 feet 1 inch by 2 feet 1 inch. 

52. Proper velocities for tlie air in fresh-air openings. — When the open- 
ings are placed in the ceiling of the places ventilated, and when the air 
descends vertically, the velocity of the fresh air should not exceed If 
feet a second. 

When the air is distributed laterally, and almost parallel with the ceil- 
ing, or at 16 to 20 feet above the heads of the occupants, the velocity 
of the entering air may be 3|- feet without inconvenience. Such enter- 
ing velocities are usually easily produced by the simple effect of the 
draught, which causes the removal of the air. Thus, in the large 
lecture-hall of the Conservatory of Arts and Trades, which often con- 
tains 750 auditors, to each of whom is allowed 1,059 cubic feet of air an 
hour, which requires a change of 794,010 cubic feet an hour, or 227 
cubic feet a second, the total free section of fresh-air openings is about 
129 square feet, and the admission of this large volume of air is scarcely 
perceptible. 

53. Proper area of fresh-air openings. — Although in every case a part 
of the air carried off will be naturally replaced by that which enters 
through the joints of the doors and windows, it will be well to calculate 
the free area of the openings for the admission of fresh air by dividing 
the total amount to be introduced in one second by the fixed velocity 
of entrance. Thus, the currents of air from the doors and windows will 
be diminished. 

54. Means of overcoming the ef-ects of currents of air produced by the 
draught — The system of ventilation by direct draught is rightly charged 
Avith producing currents of air, often very unpleasant, when the out- 
side doors are open; but the effect of these currents may be rendered 
less unpleasant by following the preceding rules, and, besides, they 
may be rendered almost entirely imperceptible by taking care to warm 
the entrances to ventilated buildings, such as corridors, vestibules, 
waiting-rooms, &c., so that the opening of doors will only cause the 
admission of warm air at a temperature at least equal to that of the 
places to be ventilated. We will specify in each case the particular 
arrangements to be adopted for this purpose. 

[To be continued in the next volume.] 



ADDITIONS TO A MEMOIR ON METHODS OF INTERPOLATION AP- 
PLICABLE TO THE GRADUATION OF IRREGULAR SERIES. 



By E. L. De Forest, M. A. 



The memoir referred to may be found at page 275 of the appendix to 
the Smithsonian Eeport of 1871. Its contents need not be repeated 
liere, and the reader will be presumed to have that report before him. 
The formulas and tables we shall now obtain will be numbered consecu- 
tively with the previous ones. 

INTEEPOLATION BY MEANS OF AN ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION. — FIRST 

METHOD. 

The question was left unsettled whether it is best to assume groups 
of equal extent, as in the case of formulas A, B, 0, &c., (pp. 279 to 285,) 
or to make them of unequal extent and in accordance with Tchebicheff's 
system of arrangement, as in formulas (40), (41), and (42). Some further 
investigation has made it seem probable that the latter system, though 
not always the best, is the most likely to give uniformly good results. It 
agrees better with Cauchy's method of interpolation, and compares very 
favorably with that method, so far as can be judged from a few trials 
which have been made. Hence it is desirable to extend the series of 
formulas (40), (41), &c., so as to include the cases of six, seven, eight, and 
nine assumed groups. This has been done, and the numerical co-effl- 
cients involved have been carried out to as many as nine significant 
figures — a larger number than is required in ordinary i^ractice 5 but it 
was thought best to compute them, once for all, with as great accuracy 
as can ever be needed for any purpose. The labor of computation need 
never be undertaken again, for their accuracy can be easily tested, as 
follows. Take, for instance, formula (42), and suppose that the terms of 
the given scries are each equal to unity; then in the equation of this 
series we ought to have A = 1, while all the other constants, B, C, &c., 
should be zero. The sums Si, S2, S3, &c., are equal to Wi, %, %, &c.^ 
respectively, so that we have — 

A = 3.777709 x .3090170 + | x .0954915 - .4111456 x^ = 1.0000001 
This differs from unity by only an unit of the seventh decimal place, 
which is as close an approach to exactness as can be attained without 
carrying out the decimals farther than is done in formula (42). So, too, 
in the cases of the constants C and E, we have — 

1 2SS 1 

C =2^,(55.33375 x ^ - 71.73251 x .3090170 - ^x .0954915) =^^{ ~ .0000004) 

E=?S^(.3090170+2x. 0954915 -*)=0 



320 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

The expressions for the alternate constants B and D cannot be put to 
the same test, because (S4— S2) and (S5— Si) are necessarily zero; so we 
will make another supposition, namely, that the given series consists o.^* 
the natural numbers, the middle term being 0, and the successive terms 
on the right being 1, 2, 3, &c., while those on the left are —1, —2, —3, 
&c. Here we ought to have, in the equation of the series, B = 1, and 
all the other constants equal to 0. The sums of the terms in the several 
groups are- — 

S, = 






S.= 



Hence we have 
B 



A I 13.088544 n, {n, + n,) - ^ n, (2 n, + W3+ n,) | 

D =i-^ I ^ % (2 01, + «3 + n,) - 63.28668 01, {n, + n,) J , 
and substituting the values of 713, n^, and %, we jQnd — 

B = 1.00000007 D = ^2 (- .0000003) 

which are very nearly unity and zero, as they ought to be. 

The accuracy of each of the following formulas can be tested in a 
similar way. The five-group formula (42), when the decimals are car- 
ried out a little further, becomes — 

Formula (79). 
wi = ws = i N ('1 _ COS0 = .0954915028 N 
«3 = "4 = ^- N r COS g — cos ^ J = 1 N 

9 - 

^.3 = ]sr cos "p-= .3090109944 N 

5 

A = 1 { 3.777708764 S3 + i (Si + S5) - .411145018 (S2 + S4) \ 
B = A J 13.08854382 (S4 - S^) - ^| (S5 - Si) | 
C = i-3 1 55.3337474 (S2 + S4) - 71.7325052 S3 ™ ^ (Si + S5) \ 
D = i, I ^ (S5 - Si) - 63.2866805 (S4 - S2) \ 
E = ^ I S3 + (Si + S5) - (S2 + S4) J 
The six-group formula can be expressed without decimals : 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 321 

Formula (80). 

??2 = i?5 = -1 N r cos '. — COS .T J = 1 ]N" ( Vli — 1) 
Wg = W4 = J ]sr cos !4-= ^ N 



^ = 3^ { (^^ - 4 V;5) (S3 + S4) + 3 (Si + Se) - (4 v/3 - 3) (S^ + S5) J 
B = 3^ I 19 (S4 - S3) + 3 (Se - Si) - 5 (S5 - S^) | 

C = J^l (5 73"- 4) (S2 + S5) - 4 (Si + So) - (11 - 5 V3) (S3 + S4) | 
D = |§j I 3 (S5 - S,) - 4 (S4 - S3) - 2 (So - Si) J 

^ = i^ 1^^^ + ®«) + (^ - '^'^^ (^= + S4) - ( V3 - 1) (S2 + S5) } 



F =^| (S4 - S3) + (Se - Si) - (S5 - S,) I 

When seven groups are assumd, we get the following: 

For inula (81). 

ni = n, = i^(^l — cos J J = .0495155660 I^ 

w.^ = «6 = J ]S[ Tcos ^ — cos ^ J = .1387395330 E" 



n^ = W5 = J N r cos ^ - cos -rfj= .2004844340 N 

»i4 = N cos ~ = .2225209340 K 

A 5= ^ I 5.244333412 S4 + .209118318 (S2 + Sg) - .525857833 (S3 + S5) 

-^(Si+S,)| 
B = ^2 1 24.6748182 (S5 - S3) + ^ (S, - Si) - 16.4349544 (S^ - S^) | 
C = ^3 1 138.5583290 (S3 + 85) + ?^ (Si + S,) - 194.1045503 S4 

- 59.2465387 (S^ + So) | 
D = ^^ I 392.527327 (Sg -^,)-^ (S, - Si) - 286.517454 (S5 - S3) | 

E = ^3 I 1685.91223 S4 + 1189.67603 (S2 + Se) - 1533.08214 (S3 + S5) 

(Si + S,) j 



6400 



7 
21 s 



322 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

ip ^ 1 ( 12288 g^ _ g^^ _^ 781.239210 (S5 - S3) - 1407.744414 (So - S^)] 
G = ^ I (S3 + S5) + (Si + S,) - S4 - (S, + Se) I 
The eight-group formula can be expressed without decimals : 
%i = ng = 1 N(^l - cos^^ = I N (2 - V2 + V2) 
M2 = ^i7 = JN^cos^-coS|J =iN ( V2 + V2 - V2) 
%3 = 7i6 =-^lS /cos ^ - COS — - j r= 1 IS" ( -v/2 — ^/2 — 72) 
W4 = ng = ^- N COS ^ = 1 N V2--/2 

_|la.2 72-2V2(2-V3)KS3 + S6)-(Si+S8) ] 
B = ~(ll(S5-S4) + (7-4V2)(S,-S2)-(4V2-3)(Sc-S3)-(S8-S0} 
C=^[|5+9V2-V2^^V2(4 + 7^/2)|(S3+Sc)+5(Sl4-S8) 

-1 V2=^V2(4 + 7V2)-5|(S2+S,)-{V2+V2(6+4V2) 

-(5+9^2)1(84+85)] 
D=^,|3(l+2V2)(86-S3) + 5(S3-Si)-17(S5-S4) 

-3 (5-2 V2) (8,-82) I 

390 r _ 

E = -^[|V2-V2(6+7V2)-6KS2+8,) + 2{V2+V2(l+3V2) 

-(3+4V2)KS4 + 85)-6(8i+S8)-{2(3+4V2) 

-V2^W2(6+7V2)|(S3+S6)] 
F = -^1 5(85-84) + (5- ^/2) (8,-82)-(3+ V2)(8e-S3)-3(8e-8i) ] 
G = ^^[(8i+S8) + (l+ a/2- V2+VI) (S3+Sc)-( a/2+72-1)(S2+8,^ 

-^V2(2+V^)-(l+ V2)| (84+S5)] 
H = I (Se— 83) + (88— 81) — (85- 84) — (S7 — 82) > 

This is SO complicated that, for practical purposes, we will employ 
decimals, as follows: 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 823 

Formula (82). 
wi = wg ^^^(l- cos ^^ = .0380G02337 IsT 
no = n, = m Tcos ^- cos ? 1 =.1083863757 K 



= n-r = ^'N ( cos ^ — cos ^ ) = 
- V. 8 4/ 



«3 = 7ic =^ IS" (^ cos ? - cos ^4^) =.1622116744 X 



cos -r — COS —- ) 

V 4 b J 

n, = n^ = ^N cos ^ =.1913417162 N 

8 

A = 4 I 3.56260914(84+ S5) +1.16478440(82+ 8^)- 1.66364272(83+ 86) 

-(Si+S«)| 
B = A I 44 (85 - 84) + 5.37258300 (87 - 83) - 10.62741700 (Sg - 83) 

- 4 (83 - SO I 

C = i-3 1 170.1530208 (83 + 8g) + 120 (81 + 83) — 135.3171087 (82 + 8,) 

-91.4672651(84+85) I 
D =^4 I 735.058008 (Sg- 83)+ 320 (80- 80-1088 (85- 84) 

- 416.941992 (87 - 82) \ 

E = i. I 1974.062909 (82 + 8,) + 659.380867 (84 + 85) - 1920 (81 + 83) 

-1646.323811 (83 + Sg) [ 
F = i^ I 7680 (85 - 84) + 5507.76797 (8, - 82) - 6780.23203 (83 - S3) 

- 4608 (83 - 81) I 

G = i^ I 7168 (81 + 83) + 4060.34584 (S3 + So) - 6076.73698 (82 + 8,) 

- 1425.80385 (84+ 85) \ 

Lastly, the nine-group formula is — 

Formula (83). 
wi = ^9 = ^^T /'i _ cos l\ = .0301536896 I^ 

112 = ns = ^N Tcos J - cos ^") = .0868240888 N 
M3 = 71^ = ^1^ f cos ^i" - COS ^^ = .1330222216 N 



324 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION 

n, = ne = *N ^cos ^ - cos ^^ = .1631759112 N 

M5 = N cos ~= .1736481777 N 

A = 4 ■! 6.718900297 S5 + .238136413 (S3 + S,) + J (Si + Sg) 

-.650752476 (S4+ Se) - .140549851 (S2+ Ss) \ 
B = i. j 40.1146355 (S6-S4) +19.9343410 (S8-S2) -25.6631423 (S.-Sa) 

C = i- I 283.1606672 (S4-+ So) + 67.0638653 (S2 + S3} - 409.8722695 S5 

- 111.5059994 (S3 + S7) - ^^^ (Si + S9) \ 

D = 1 1 1053.695090 (S, - S3) +^^(89 - Sj) - 923.898793 (Sg - S2) 

- 823.638243 (SG-S4) | 

E = i, ! 6330.21204 S5 + 3859.01970 (S3+ S,) +^ (Si + So) 

- 5527.64697 (S4 + Sg) - 2594.89308 (S2 + Sc) | 

F = ^^ • 9605.23187 (83 - S^) + 5158.73566 (So- S4) -^JJ— (S<, - Si) 

- 8494.59768 (S- - S3) \ 

G = ^, I 33866.1397 (S4 + So) + 25281.7661 (S2 + S^) - 35452.4678 S5 

200704 ) 

-29849.4159 (83 + 8^) — g— (S1+S9) } 

H = 4 i ^^TT^ (S9 - Si) + 19011.3716 ( S, - S3) - 25613.9516 (So - S.) 

- 10115.7395 (S6-S4) I 

I = ^1^ I S5+ (S3+ S,) + (Si+ Sg) - (S4+ Sg) ~ (S2+ So) } ■ 

We have now tlie lueans of representing any given series by an equa- 
tion of a degree not higher tban the eighth, assuming groups of either 
equal or unequal exteut. In constructiiig the graduated series from 
such an equation, it will be most convenient to proceed as stated on 
page 329 of the previous memoir. The work of finding the values of 
C'.r^, B'x\ &c., will be much focilitated by using the accompanying 
table, which shows at once the seveu-figure logarithms of the powers of 
all the values of x which can be required in constructing a series of not 
more than one hundred terms. Increased accuracy, too, will be attained 



METHODS OF INTEEPOLATION. 



325 



by using- this table, for care lias been taken to make the seventh decimal 
tigure always correct to its nearest value. This would not be the case 
if the logarithm were taken in the usual way from a seven-figure table, 
and multiplied by the index of the power required, for then the last 
figure might be in error by an amount not exceeding half the number 
of units in the index. For instance, an ordinary table gives 

log (1.5)«= 8 X .1700913 = 1.4087304 
whereas the true value is 1.4087301. 



Logarithms of poivers of integers and half-integers from to 50. 



X 


loga;2 


log x^ 


loga;^ 


loga;= 


loga;8 


logo;' 


log rcS 


0.5 


1. 3979430 


1.0969100 


2. 7958800 


2. 4948500 


2. 1938200 


3. 8927900 


3. 5917600 


1.0 


. 0000000 


. 0000000 


. 0000000 


. OOOOOCO 


. OOOOOOO 


. OOOOOOO 


. OOOOOOO 


1.5 


. 3521825 


. 5282738 


. 7043650 


. 8804563 


1. 0565476 


1. 2326388 


1. 4087301 


'2.0 


. 6020C00 


. 903'J900 


1.2041200 


1. 5051."00 


1.8061800 


2. 1072100 


2. 4082400 


2.5 


. 79588U0 


1. 1938200 


1. 5917600 


1.9897000 


2. 3876401 


2. 7855801 


3.18.35201 


3.0 


. 9542425 


1. 401 3038 


1. 9084850 


2. 3850063 


2. 8627275 


3. 3398488 


3. 8169700 


3.5 


1.0881361 


1. 6322041 


2. 1762722 


2. 7203402 


3. 2644083 


3. 8!184763 


4. 3525444 


4.0 


1.2041200 


1.8001800 


2. 4C82400 


3. 0103000 


3. 6123599 


4.2144199 


4. 81(!4799 


4.5 


1. 3064250 


1. 9596375 


2. 6128501 


3. 2660626 


3. 9192751 


4. .5724876 


5. 2257001 


5.0 


1.39794C0 


2.0969100 


2. 7958800 


3. 4948500 


4. 1938200 


4. 8927900 


5.5917000 


5. 5 


1. 4807254 


2.2210881 


2. 9614508 


3.7018134 


4. 4421761 


5. 1825388 


5. 92;29015 


CO 


1. 5563025 


2. 3344538 


3. 1126050 


3. 8907563 


4. 6689075 


5. 4470588 


6. 2252100 


6.5 


1. 6258267 


2. 4387401 


3.2516534 


4. 0645668 


4. 8774801 


5. 6903935 


6. 5033069 


7.0 


1. 6901961 


2. 5352941 


3. 3803922 


4. 2254902 


5. 0705882 


5. 9156863 


0. 7607843 


7.5 


1. 7501225 


2. 6251838 


3. 5002451 


4. 3753063 


5. 2503676 


6. 1254288 


7. 0004901 


8.0 


1.8061800 


2. 7092700 


3. 6123599 


4. 5154499 


5. 4I,S5399 


6.3216299 


7.2247199 


8.5 


1. 8588379 


2. 7882568 


3.7176757 


4. 6470946 


5. 5765136 


6. 5059325 


7. 43.53514 


9.0 


1. t'()84e50 


2. 8627275 


3. 8169700 


4. 7712125 


5. 7254551 


6. 6796976 


7. 6339401 


9.5 


1. 9554472 


2. 9331708 


3. 9108944 


4. 8886180 


5.8663416 


C. 8440652 


7. 8217888 


10.0 


2. OOCOOOO 


3. 0000000 


4. OOOOOOO 


5. OOOOOOO 


6. OOOOOOO 


7. OOOGOOO 


8. OOOOOOO 


10.5 


2. 0423786 


3. 0635679 


4.0647572 


5. 1059465 


6. 1271358 


7. 1483251 


8.1695144 


11.0 


2. 0827854 


3. 1241781 


4. 1655707 


5. 2069634 


6. 2483561 


7. 2897488 


8.3311415 


11.5 


2. 1213957 


3. 1820935 


4. 2427914 


5. .3034892 


6. 3641870 


7. 4248849 


8. 4855827 


12.0 


2. 1583G25 


3. 2375437 


4.31672,50 


5. 3959062 


6. 4750875 


7. 5542687 


8. 6334500 


12.5 


2. 1938200 


3. 2907300 


4. 3876401 


5. 4845501 


6.5814601 


7. 6783701 


8.7752801 


13.0 


2. 9.278867 


3. 3418301 


4. 4557734 


.5.5697168 


C. 6836601 


7. 7976035 


8.9115468 


13. 5 


2. 2606675 


3. 3910013 


4. 5213351 


5. 6510688 


6. 7820026 


7. 9123364 


9. 0426701 


14.0 


2. 2922561 


3. 4383841 


4. 5845121 


5. 7306402 


6. 8767683 


8. 0228962 


9. 1690243 


14.5 


2. 3227360 


3.4841040 


4. 6454720 


5. 8068400 


6. 96S20S0 


8. 1295760 


9. 2909440 


15.0 


2. 352182.5 


3. .5282738 


4. 7043650 


5. 8804.563 


7. 0565476 


8. 2326388 


9. 4087301 


15. 5 


2. 3806634 


3. 5709951 


4.7613268 


5. 9516585 


7. 1419902 


8.332.3219 


9. 5226536 


16.0 


2. 4082400 


3.6123599 


4. 8164799 


6. 0205999 


7.2247199 


8. 4288399 


9. 6329599 


If). 5 


2. 4349679 


3. 6524518 


4. 8699358 


6. 0874197 


7. 3049037 


8. 5223876 


9. 739871G 


17.0 


2. 4G08978 


3.0913468 


4. 9217957 


6. 1522446 


7. 3826935 


8. 6131424 


9. 8435914 


17.5 


2. 4860761 


3.7291141 


4. 9721522 


6.2151902 


7. 4582283 


8.7012663 


9. 9443044 


18.0 


2. 5105450 


3. 7658175 


5. 0210900 


6. 2763625 


7. 5316350 


8. 7869075 


10. 0421800 


J8.5 


2. 5343435 


3. 8015152 


5. 0686869 


6. 3358586 


7. 6030304 


8. 8702021 


10. 1373738 


19.0 


2. 5575072 


3. 8362608 


5.1150144 


6. 3937680 


7.072.5216 


8. 9512752 


10. 2300288 


19.5 


2. 5800692 


3.8701038 


.5. 1601384 


C. 4501731 


7. 7402077 


9. 0302423 


10. 3202769 


20.0 


2. G020600 


3. 9030900 


5. 2041200 


G. .5051500 


7. 8061800 


9. 1072100 


10. 4082400 


20.5 


2. 6235077 


3. 9352616 


5.2470154 


6. 5587693 


7. 8705232 


9. 1822770 


10. 4940309 


21.0 


2. 6444386 


3. 9666579 


5. 2888772 


6. 6110965 


7. 9333158 


9. 2555351 


10. 5777544 


21.5 


2.0648:69 


3. 9973154 


5. 3297538 


6. 6621923 


7. 9946308 


9. 3270692 


10. 6595077 


22.0 


2. 68484.'i4 


4. 0272680 


5. 369{iS07 


6.7121134 


8. 0545361 


9. 3969588 


10. 7393814 


22. 5 


2. 7043650 


4. 0565476 


5. 4087301 


6. 7609126 


8. 1130951 


9. 46.52776 


10. 8174601 


23.0 


2. 7234557 


4. 0851835 


5.4469113 


6. 8086392 


8. 1703670 


9. 5320949 


10. 8938227 


23.5 


2.7421357 


4.1132036 


5. 4842714 


6. 8553393 


8. 2-364072 


9. 59747.50 


10. 9685429 


24.0 


2. 7004225 


4. 1406337 


5. 5208450 


6. 9010562 


8. 2812675 


9. 6614787 


11.0416899 


24.5 


2. 7783322 


4. 1674983 


5. 5566643 


6. 9458304 


8. 3349965 


9. 7241626 


11. 1133287 


25.0 


2. 7958800 


4.1938200 


5. 5917600 


6. 9897000 


8. 3876401 


9. 7855801 


11. 1835201 


25.5 


2.8130804 


4. 2196205 


5. 6261607 


7. 0327009 


8.4392411 


9.84.57813 


11. 2.523214 


26.0 


2. 8299467 


4. 2449200 


5. 6598934 


7. 0748667 


8. 4898401 


9. 9048134 


11.3197868 


26.5 


2.8464917 


4. 2697376 


5. 6929835 


7. 1162294 


8. .5394752 


9.9627211 


11. 3859670 


27.0 


2. 8627275 


4. 2940913 


5. 7254551 


7.1568188 


8. 5881826 


10.019.5463 


11. 4509101 


27. 5 


2. 8786654 


4. 3179981 


5. 7573308 


7. 1966635 


8. 0359962 


10. 0753289 


11.5146016 


28.0 


2 8943161 


4. 3414741 


5. 7886321 


7. 2357902 


8. 6829482 


10. 1301062 


11. 5772643 


28.5 


2. 9096897 


4. 3645346 


5. 8193794 


7. 2742243 


8. 7290692 


10. 1839140 


11. 6387589 


29.0 


2. 9247960 


4. 3871940 


5. 8495920 


7.3119900 


8. 7743880 


10. 2367860 


11. 6991840 


29.5 


2. 939G440 


4. 4094660 


5. 8792881 


7.3491101 


8. 8189321 


10. 2887541 


11. 7585761 


30 


2. 9542425 


4. 4313638 


5. 9084850 


7. 3856063 


8. 8627275 


10. 3398488 


11. 8169700 


30.5 


2. 9685997 


4. 4.528995 


5. 9371994 


7. 4214992 


8. 9057990 


10. 3900989 


11. 8743987 



326 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

Logarithms of powers of integers, 4'c. — Contiuued. 



'X 


loga;2 


loga;3 


loga;« 


log x^ 


log x^ 


■ log x^ 


log x^ 


31.0 


2. 9827234 


4. 4740851 


5. 9654468 


7. 45680^5 


8. 9481702 


10. 4395319 


11.9308930 


31.5 


2. 9966211 


4. 4949317 


5. 9932422 


7. 4915528 


8. 9898033 


10. 4881739 


11. 9804844 


32.0 


3.0103000 


4.5154499 


6. 0205999 


7. 5257499 


9. 0308999 


10. 5360498 


12.0411998 


32.5 


3. 0237067 


4. 5356501 


6. 0475334 


7. .5594168 


9.0713002 


10. 5831835 


12. 0950669 


33.0 


3. 0370279 


4. 5555418 


6. 0740538 


7. 5925697 


9.1110836 


10. 6295976 


12.1481115 


33.5 


3. 0500896 


4. 5751344 


6. 1001792 


7. 6252240 


9. 1502688 


10. 6753136 


12. 2003585 


34.0 


3. 0629578 


4. 5944368 


6. 12591.57 


7. 6573946 


9. 1888735 


10. 7203524 


12. 2518311 


34.5 


3. 0756382 


4 6134573 


6. 1512764 


7. 6890955 


9. 2269146 


10. 7G47337 


12. 30255M3 


35.0 


3. -0881361 


4. 6322041 


6. 1762722 


7. 7203402 


9. 2644083 


10. 8084763 


12. 3525444 


35.5 


3.»1004567 


4. 6506851 


6.2009134 


7.7511418 


9. 3013701 


10. 8515985 


12. 4018-^68 


36.0 


3. 1126050 


4. 6689075 


6. 2252100 


7.7815125 


9. 3378150 


10. 8941175 


12. 4504200 


36.5 


3. 1245857 


4. 6868786 


6.2491715 


7.8114643 


9. 3737572 


10.9360501 


12. 4983429 


.37.0 


3. 1364034 


4 7046052 


0. 2728069 


7.8410086 


9.4092103 


10.9774121 


12.5456138 


37.5 


3. 1480625 


4. 7220938 


6.2901251 


7. 8701563 


9.4441876 


11.0182189 


12. 5922591 


38.0 


3. 1595672 


4, 7393508 


6.3191344 


7. 8989180 


9. 4787016 


11. 05848.52 


12. 6382688 


38.5 


3.1709215 


4. 7563822 


6.3418129 


7. 9273036 


9. 5127644 


11. 0982251 


12. 6836858 


39.0 


3.1821292 


4. 7731938 


6. 3042584 


7. 9553230 


9. 546CSi6 


11. 1374522 


12. 7285169 


39.5 


3. 1931942 


4. 7897913 


6. 3883884 


7. 9829855 


9. 5795826 


11. 1761797 


12. 7727768 


40.0 


3. 2041200 


4. 8061800 


6. 4082400 


8.0103000 


9. 6123599 


11.2144199 


12. 8104799 


40.5 


3.2149100 


4. 8223651 


6.4298201 


8. 0372751 


9. 6447301 


11.2521852 


12. 8596402 


41.0 


3. C255677 


4. 8383516 


6. 45U354 


8. 0639193 


9.6767031 


11.2894870 


12. 9022709 


41.5 


3. 2360962 


4. 8541443 


6. 4721924 


8. 0902405 


9. 7082886 


1 1. 3263367 


12. 9443848 


42.0 


3. 2464986 


4. 8697479 


6. 4929972 


8. 1162465 


9. 7394957 


11.3627450 


12. 9859943 


42.5. 


3. 2567779 


4. 8851668 


6. 5135557 


8. 1419447 


9. 7703330 


11. 3987225 


13.0271114 


43.0 


3. 2669369 


4. 9004054 


G. 5.338738 


8. 1673423 


9. 8008107 


11. 4342792 


13. 0677476 


43.5 


3. 2769785 


4. 9154678 


6. 5539570 


8. 1924463 


9. 8309355 


11.4694248 


13. 1079141 


44.0 


'S. 2869054 


4. 930.3580 


6. 5738107 


8. 2172634 


9. 8607161 


11.5041687 


13. 1476214 


44.5 


3. 2967200 


4. 9450800 


6.5934400 


8.2418001 


9. 8901601 


11. .5385201 


13. 1868801 


45.0 


3. 3064250 


4. 959S375 


6. 6128501 


8. 2660626 


9.9192751 


11. .5724876 


13. 2257001 


45.5 


3. 3160228 


4. 9740342 


6. 0320456 


8. 2900570 


9. 9480084 


11. 6060798 


13.2640912 


46.0 


3.3255157 


4. 9882735 


6.6510313 


8. 3137892 


9. 9765470 


11.6393048 


13. 3020627 


46.5 


3. 3349059 


5. 0023589 


6.6698118 


8. 3372648 


10. 0047177 


11. 6721707 


13. 3396236 


47.0 


3. 3441957 


5. 0162936 


6. 6883914 


8. 3604893 


10. 0325871 


1 1. 7040850 


13. 3767829 


47.5 


3. 3533872 


5. 0300808 


6. 7067744 


8. 383468U 


10. 0601617 


11. 7308553 


13.4135489 


48.0 


3. 3624825 


5. 0437237 


6. 7249649 


8. 4002062 


10.0874474 


11.7686887 


13. 4499299 


48.5 


3. 3714835 


5. 0572252 


6. 7429670 


8. 4287087 


10.1144504 


11. 8001922 


13. 4859339 


49.0 


3. 3803922 


5. 0705882 


6. 7607S43 


8. 4509804 


10. 1411765 


11.8313726 


13. 5215686 


49.5 


3. 3892104 


5. 0838156 


6. 7784208 


8. 4730200 


10. 1676312 


11. 8622304 


13. 55084 16 


50.0 


3. 3979400 


5. 0969100 


6. 7958800 


8. 4948500 


10. 1938200 


11. 8927900 


13. 5917000 



Before leaving tlie subject of iuterpolation by the "first method," it 
may be well to notice that the formulas (A), (B), &c., which require that 
the assumed groups should be of equal exteut, can be used for the pur- 
pose of ordinary interpolation from single terms which are equidistant, 
and thus may take the place of the ordinary formula for interpolation 
by finite differences. We have only to regard the single terms as being 
represented by Si, S2, &c., respectively, and to take % and 7^ both equal 
to unity. Suppose, for instance, th:it from the three equidistant terms— 

13 21 35 

we wish to interpolate the value midway between the two last. The 
ordinary formula is — 

and we have — 

a = 13, Ai= 8, A2= 6 

so that the equation of the series becomes — 

■it = 13 + 8a? -f ox {x — 1)' 
and for .r = f we get tt = 27^, the value sought. 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 327 

Kow, to do the same thing by formula (A), we take — 

Si = 13, 82 = 21, 83=35, ni = n = l, 8 = % 

and so get — 

u = 2l + llic + 3^2 

which is the same as the other equation, except that x is reckoned from 
the middle of the series. To obtain the interpolated term sought, we 
take £i? = J, and it gives u = 27|, as before. 

This mode of procedure will sometimes be preferable to the ordinary 
one, because the equation it gives will be arranged according to the 
powers of x instead of according to the successive orders of differences 
of the series. 

SECOND METHOD OF INTERPOLATION WITH AN ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION. 

This method, which gives an adjusted or mean value for the middle 
one of a group of any odd number of terms, by assigning certain "local 
weights'' to the several terms of the group, was at first regarded by the 
writer as chiefly useful in making a rough adjustment of a given series, 
preparatory to the application of the first or third method. It appears 
now, however, that very little can be gained by such preparatory adjust- 
ment; the errors obviated by it being probably smaller than other errors, 
which are almost necessarily incurred by employing the first and third 
methods when the true law of the series is unknown. But the second 
method, in its improved forms, is quite worthy to hold a place of its own 
as an independent system of adjustment. In the previous memoir, (pp. 
334 and 335,) some doubt was expressed as to which system of local 
weights is the best one ; but it now seems clear, from the following consid- 
erations, that the preference should be given to formulas (69), (71), »&c., 
which render the probable value of the fourth differences of the adjusted 
series a minimum. On the assumption that the adjusted series ought 
to be continuous, so that any five consecutive terms in it can be regarded 
as agreeing very nearly with a curve of a degree not higher than the 
third, it is easily shown that a minimum value of the probable fourth 
difference implies a minimum of probable error in the corresponding 
term of the series. Let «fi, th, &c., be any consecutive terms in a series 
of the third or any lower order; then we hnve — 

J4 = 6U3 — 4 {ti2 + ^4) + ("i + W5) = 

But if each term is subject 1:0 a small error of accidental nature, whose 
Ijrobable value is e, then the jirobable value of J4, taken without regard 
to sign, becomes — 



(/J4) = e \/6' + 2 (4'^ + 1) = £ ^/70 = 8.3666 s 
and consequently — 

£ = .11952 (4) . (84) 

We thus see that the probable error of a term bears a fixed ratio to the 



328 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

probable value of the correspouding fourth difference, so that if the 
latter is a minimum, the former will be a minimum also. 

In connection with the least-square formulas, given at top of page 327 
of the previous memoir, it was stated that those formulas render the 
probable error of the adjusted term a minimum, and this property was 
also claimed for them by Schiaparelli, who had obtained them earlier, 
in a different way, as mentioned on j)age 335. Bat these conclusions 
w^ere reached by estimating the probable error £o of the adjusted series 
in a manner which was really defective, since it did not take any account 
of the condition of continuity which that series ought to fulfill. We 
shall see hereafter how the probable error may be estimated on the 
other, and, as it seems, the more correct principle. 

The formulas (69), (71), &c., being definitely fixed upon as the best, it 
became desirable to extend them so as to include as many terms as 
possible, and they have been computed accordingly, for 17, 19, and 21 
terms, as follows: 

«9 = 167X525 { 334323 «9+308308 (?^8+«io)+ 238238 {th+Un) \ 

+ 14523o(«c+«i2)+56056(?(5+M,3)-6664(«4+«i4) (85) 

-32844 (^/34.i/,i5)_28424('W2+Wi6)-11305 (Wi+^^it) \ ) 

Uw = 42010995 { 7^27477 «io+ 7135128 (m9+«(:^) + 5783778 («8+Mi2) 

, +3913728 («,+«!.) + 1979208 (W6+«i4) + 411264 [ih+i^^) 

— 515508 {Ui + Uw) — 767448 [u^ + Wn)— 549423 («. + u^^) 

-198968 (Wi + *fi9) I 



(86) 



«n = 7^^^^^ |l2739727«n +12046320^i.(io+«i2) + 10115820(«g+«i3)\ 

+ 7360320 (Wa+^^l4) + 4351320 (m,+%5) + 1674432 (m6+Wic)( 
-222870 (^5+ Wit) -1149120 (W4+«]8)- 1213245 («3+«i9)f ^^'' 



• 



■769120 (w9+«2o) -259578 (Wi+«2i) \ 



The work of computation need never be repeated, for the accuracy of 
the formulas can be readily tested by the condition that the weights of 
any one of them, taken together with the eight nearest zero weights, 
constitute a series of the tenth order. For practical use, it will be most 
convenient to i)ut the weights in decimal form, and to retain only three 
places of decimals. These are given, for the whole series of formulas, 
in Table III. 



METHODS -OF INTERPOLATION. 



329 



Tablk hi.* 

Local tveifjhts of adjustment-formulas. 





5 


7 


9 


11 


13 


15 


17 


19 


21 


h 
h 
h 
h 
h 
h 
k 
h 
h 
h 


.570 

.287 
— . 072 


. 424 

.293 

.049 

— .054 


.344 

.270 
.109 

— .016 

— .035 


.290 
.245 
.135 
.020 

— .028 

— .023 


. 252 
. 222 
!l45 
.056 

— .007 

— . 027 

— .015 


- 


222 
202 
140 
076 
015 
018 
022 
010 


.200 
.184 
.143 
.087 
.034 

— .004 

— .020 

— .017 

— .007 


.182 
.170 
• . 137 
.093 
.047 
.010 

- .012 

— .018 

- .013 

— .005 


.166 
.157 
. 132 
.096 
.057 
. 022 

— .003 

— .015 

— .016 

— .010 

— .003 


c' 

£ 


.229 


.0822 


.0366 


.0137 


.0104 


. 00042 


. 00422 


. 00273 


. 00185 



* For some additions to this table, see Appendix. 

The upper line shows the number of terms included by each form- 
ula ; the weights of the middle terms are found in the second line, 
those of the terms next to the middle in the third line, and so on. 
Tbe third decimal figure has in some cases been changed by a single 
unit, so as to make the algebraic sum of all the weights in each formula 
exactly unity. (Compare page 324 of the previous memoir.) The lowest 
line of the table shows the ratio, for each formula, which the probable 
error e' of a term in the adjusted series bears to the probable error s of 
the corresponding term in the given series. These ratios are obtained 
in the following manner: 

Let any adjustment- formula whatever, comprising 2 m + 1 terms, be 
represented thus: 

Wo= ?o'«'o+ ?i(«i+ w_i) + 72(^2+ w_,) + .... + Z,,^ (M„^4- M_J (88) 
where Uo is the middle term, '«i, Uo, &c., are the adjacent terms on the 
right, «*_„ u__2, &c., are those on the left, and lo, Zi, h-, &c., are the local 
weights in fractional form. Then, b^^ a process similar to that which 
was followed in demonstrating formulas (G9) and (71), we shall find that 
the fourth difference of any five consecutive terms in the adjusted series 
is — 

J\ = (0 ?o - 8 /i + 2 Z2) «o + 1 7 ^- 4 (/o+ h) + I,} («i + w_0 . 

+ ^G l2-4:{h + h) + {k+h)\ ("2+ «-.) -f ] 

. . . + |0/_,-4 (/,,_,+ /_,) + (/..+ L-,)K''m-3+"M.n-2)) ' 

+ \ij I,^_,- 4 (L+Z,n-2)4-L-3|(Mn.-l + «-(nt-.)) 

+ (6 ?m-4?m-l4-C-2) (■«'m+*em) + (^m-l — 4 ?m)(^<m + l+ "-;m+l 
+ ?m(Min + 2+ W-(mf2)) 

ITow, take the series — 

h, 7i, k, k, h, ?3, Z., 0, 0, 0, 

and let its fourth differences be — 



(89) 



Jo, 



J. 



'm+l? 



330 ' METHODS OF INTERPOLATION, 

then (89) may be written — 



+ ^m+2 (Wni+24-W_(m+2)) ) 



If tlie given series Uo, Ui, Uz, «Scc., is of an order not higher than the 
third, and if the adjustment-formula (88) is one which, as we will suppose, 
expresses the relation between any 2m+l terms in a series of the third 
or any lower order, then the adjusted series will be the same as the orig- 
inal or given one, its fourth differences will be zero, and both members 
of equation (90) will be equal to zero. But if each term of the given 
series is liable to deviate from its normal value by an error of accidental 
nature, whose probable amount is e, then the probable value of the 
fourth difference of the adjusted series becomes — 



(z)'4)=eV^0^+2(Ji^+A'+J3'+ +^m42') (91) 

If now we denote by e' the probable error of a single term in the 
adjusted series, formula (84) gives — 

e' = .11952 (zl'4) 
Consequently we shall have — 

"^ = .11952 V^o^+2(zli2+j/4. +/i„,+2') (92) 

This is the desired expression for the ratio which the probable error 
of a term in the adjusted series bears to that of the corresponding term 
in the given series. Let ns proceed to compute this ratio, when, for 
example, the eleven-term formula (73) is used, the weights being tajien 
3S in Table III. Setting down the series — 

.135, .245, .290, .245, .135, .026, -.028, -.023, 0, 0, 0, 
its fourth differences are found to be — 

.050, .041, -.012, -.050, -.045, .000, .004, -.023 
and we have — 



- =.11952 V.0502+ 2(.04P+.0122-|-.0502+.0452-j-.0642+.0232) =.0187 

e 

which is the value shown in Table III. To illustrate the fact that this 
is a minimum value, that is, less than it would be for any other eleven- 
term formula, we will next take formula (21), in which the weights are 
in arithmetical progression. Here the series — 

23, 34, 45, 34, 23, 12, 1, -10, 0, 0, 0, 
has for its fourth differences — » 

44, - 22, 0, 0, 21, - 52, 41, - 10 
and, consequently, we have — 

p/ iiQo2 

7 = ~[05^ ■^^^^' + ^ (^'■^' + ^'^' + ^^' + "^^^ + ^^'^ ^ '^^^^ 
Again, let us try the improved formula (56). Using only three jflaces 
of decimals, we have the weight-series — 
.144, .238, .274, .238 .144, .038, - .029, - .028, 0, 0, 0, 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 'SSI 

■whose fourth differeaces are — 

.028, 032, .005, -.022, -.070, -.014, .083, -.028 
and consequently — 

i' = .0205 

. Lastly, let us extend the series of least-sqnare formulas at top of page 
327 in the previous memoir, so as to include eleven terms; this gives — 

We = 429 I ^^ ^'6 + 84 (% + «-) + 69 (^(4 + -2(3) + 44 (M3 + Wg) + 9 («3 +«io) 

- 36 («i + un) ] 

and proceeding as in the case of formula (21), we get — 
e' 11952 

7 ^ ^i2<r ^^ ('^^^ + ^^*^'' + ^^^' + ^^'^ "^ '^^^^ • 

l^ow, comparing all these four cases, and considering that the accuracy 
of the adjustments made by any formula is measured by the smallness 

of the ratio -, we see that formula (73) is the best, (56) nearly as good, 

(21) considerably inferior, and the least-square formula the poorest of all. 
It is not to be understood, however, that when the formulas of Table III 
are used, the probable errors of the adjusted terms will be really as 
small as indicated' by the ratios given in that table. In making use of 
these or any other adjustment-formulas under the second method, we 
are obliged to assame, first, that the true law of the given series can be 
regarded, within the limits of the formula, as being of algebraic form 
and of an order not higher than the third ; secondly, that tbe probability^ 
of error, or of deviation from the true law, is the same for one given 
term as for another; and, thirdly, that the number of terms included by 
the adjustment-formula is large enough to make the actual distribution 
of errors agree with that which is assigned by the theory of probabili- 
ties. None of these three assumptions can be regarded as, practically, 
anything move than a rough approximation to the real state of things 

e' 

m any given case. Hence, we must take the values of — not as o-iv- 

e ' ^ 

ing absolute measures of the ratio of the probable errors of adjusted 
and unadjusted terms, but as a means of estimating the relative ac- 
curacy attained by the use of different adjustment-formulas. They will 
also serve to measure the relative smoothness of adjustment, since we 
have, according to formula (84), 

l' = (^ 

that is, the probable value of the fourth difference is diminished by 
adjustment in the same ratio as the probable error.* 

£' 

The numerical values of the ratio — given by formula (92) differ greatly 

* The actual dimiuution of the fonrtli differences, however, is found to be much more 
rapid than that of the probable errors, and is very nearly that which theory requires. 



332 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

from the values wbich would be obtained if we neglected the principle 
of continuity in the adjusted scries. In that case, denoting the proba- 
ble error of an adjusted term by £0? we should have — 

'f = V/o^-f2(ii^+//+/3'+ -\-lJ) 

and the system of weights which renders this ratio a minimum is that 
of the least-square formulas already referred to. 

The first two and last two terms of a given series are not reached by 
any of the formulas of Table III, and it is impossible to adjust them 
with the same accuracy as other terms. The best we can do, perhaps, 
is to apply formulas (60) and (01), or sometimes to use only four given 
terms instead of five, in which case we get by the same method-^ 

Ui= 2^ (19 Wi + 3 % — 3 u-j + Ui) (93) 

t^,2=^(3wi+llM2+9«3-3w4) . (94) 

When the law of the given series varies so rapidly that any five con- 
secutive terms cannot be regarded as approximating closely to the form 
of a curve of the third degree, we may liave recourse to adjustment- 
formulas of the* nature of (22) and (59), which assume that the series is 
of an order not higher than the fifth. Then, by processes precisely 
analogous to those by which formulas (84) and (69) were demonstrated, 
it can be shown that the probable error of a term bears a fixed ratio to 
the j)robable value of the corresponding sixth difference, namely, 

£ = . 032898 (Je) 
that the best adjustment-formula is consequently the one which renders 
the probable sixth difference of the adjusted series a minimum j and that 
to include only seven terms, this formula is — 

u,= g^-^ I 1959M4 + 825 {Us + %)- 330 [u^ -f tic) + 55 («i + u,) | (95) 

or, to three places of decimals, 

Ui = .040 ?f4 + .270 («3 + ^^5) — .108 {V2 + Kg) + -018 {iii + u^) 
The weights of formula (95), taken together with the twelve nearest zero- 
weights, constitute a series of the sixteenth order. It has been found 
that the ratio of the probable errors of the adjusted and unadjusted 
terms is — 

-'= 0.232 

e 

In the case of formula (70), for adjusting a double series, the weights 
of the formula, taken together with the forty nearest zero- weights, con- 
stitute a double series or rectangular table of forty-nine terms, whose 
complete fifth differences zJj+s are equal to zero. The employment of 
such an adjustnient-formula as this involves the assumption that the 
true law of the given double series is such that any rectangular group 
of nine terms will satisfy the condition — 

4+2 = 4 U5— 2 («2+ «4+ Ue+ Us) + («i+ U3+ M7+ Wg) = 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 333 

(See the figure 0(1 page 320 of the previous memoir.) By a process 
strictly analogous to that which we have followed in the case of ordi- 
nary series, it can be shown that the probable error of a term in the 
double series bears a fixed ratio to the probable value of the correspond- 
ing complete second difference, namely, 

that the formula (76), which renders the probable value of J2+2 in the 
adjusted series a minimum, is, therefore, the one which will make the 
most accurate adjustment; and that the probable errors of the adjusted 
and unadjusted terms will, in this case, bear to each other the ratio — 

i'= 0.305 

£ 

If the least-square formula (48) were used, the ratio of error would be 
increased to — 

- = 0.460 

£ 

It was remarked in the previous memoir that formula (48) gives exact 
results when applied to a double series or table constructed from a com- 
plete equation of the third degree. This is also true of (76), and, more- 
over, such formulas will be found exact in the case of a table constructed 
from an entire i)olynomial of auy degree whatever in x and y, provided 
that no term of this i)olynomial shall contain x^ y^ as a factor. This is 
only a particular case under the general theorem that if we denote by 
Juj+n the result of m finite differentiations with respect to x, and n with 
respect to y, we shall always have — 

in a double series constructed from an entire polynomial of any degree 
whatever in x and y, provided that no term of this polynomial shall con- 
tain x^ y^ as a factor. 

TEST OF A GOOD ADJUSTMENT. 

When a table of mortality or other irregular series is to be adjusted, 
for instance, by one of the formulas of Table III, the question presents 
itself, Which formula is most suitable for use in the given case? This 
question cannot be answered definitely in advance, but we can easily 
see that if only the five-term formula is used, the adjustment may be 
insufficient ', that is, some undulations may be retained which are due 
to accidental causes, and do not properly belong to the true law of the 
series. On the other hand, a formula of twenty-one or more terms 
might smooth out the series too much, so as to obliterate some features 
of the natural law. The necessary course of procedure will be, to judge 
as well as we can which formula is most likely to be suitable, and, hav- 
ing adjusted the series by it, to apply some test of its sufficiency. The 
natural test seems to be this : that on taking the differences between 
the adjusted and unadjusted terms throughout the series, the system 



334 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

of residual errors thus obtained should correspond, as nearly as ijossible, 
to the theoretical' errors of the given series. 

To find these theoretical errors, we employ certain known principles 
of the doctrine of chances. Denoting by p the probability that an event 
will happen, (1 — j?) being the probability that it will fail to happen, we 
know that if a large number M of trials are made, the most probable 
result is that the event will happen jp M times ; that is, the number is 
more likely to be p M than to be any other particular number assigned. 
Nevertheless, it will probably be found, on trial, to happen not exactly 
2? M times, but some other, number of times which differs from p M by a 
small quantity or error. If the M trials are repeated a large number of 
times, the square root of the mean of the squares of the various errors 
thus obtained is called the " mean error," and its value, according to the 
theory of j)robabilities, is — 

^/p{l—p)M. 
Hence, denoting by I the number of persons observed to be living at a 
given birthday, and b}' q' the true probability of dying within a year at 
that age, the number of such persons who actually die within the year 
will probably be not exactly g' I, but some other observed number, and 
the mean error of this observed number will be — 

Dividing this by Z, we have for the mean error of the observed probability 
of dying within a year — 

s, = ^SIZ2 (96) 

A demonstration of the foregoing principles may be found in the Assur- 
ance Magazine for October, 1872. 

Now, let us consider the table of mortality for insured lives of healthy 
male persons in England, recently prepared by the Institute of Actu- 
aries, and published by them, in an unadjusted form, in the Mortality 
Experience of Life Assurance Companies, London, 1869, and in an ad- 
justed form, with commutation-tables, &c., in the Institute of Actuaries' 
Life-Tables, 1872. From page 273 of the former work we take the ob- 
served values of the probability of dying within a year, from age 18 to 
91, inclusive, and enter them in column 1 of Table IV, first multiplying 
them by 100 to save space. This is the same series which we used in 
Table II of the previous memoir, with only a few small differences, due 
to the fact that that series was taken from American insurance reports, 
which gave the data in a somewhat imperfect form. For the ages 10 to 
17 and 92 to 99, the defects of the series have been supplied, as in Table 
II. At some of the other earlier and later ages, some places of decimals 
have been neglected as having no real value. 



METHODS OF • INTEEPOLATION. 
■ Table IV, 



835 



Age. 


(1.) 


(2.) 


(3.) 


(4.) 


(5.) 


(«.) 


('•) 


















WOq 


IOOei 


100(7xxi 


lOOw 


(r.)' 


A4 


lOOe.^ 


10 


.44 














11 


.39 














12 


.37 














13 


.37 














14 


.38 














15 


.40 














16 


.44 














17 


.48 










* 




IS 


.61 














19 


.70 














20 


.58 


.132 


.6308 


- .051 


.15 


- .89 


.133 


21 


.70 


.123 


.0510 


.049 


.16 


.87 


.132 


22 


.62 


.098 


.6017 


- .012 


.18 


- .89 


.106 


23 


.77 


.095 


.6061 


.104 


1.19 


.61 


.118 


24 


.686 


.079 


.6683 


.018 


.05 


.29 


.117 


25 


.514 


.061 


. 6725 


— . 158 


6.71 


- 1.01 


.114 


26 


.69-2 


.065 


.6818 


.010 


.02 


.98 


.108 


27 


.647 


.058 


. 69G9 


- .050 


.74 


- .77 


.099 


28 


.783 


.060 


.7170 


.066 


1.21 


.68 


.093 


29 


.736 


.055 


. 7393 


- .003 


.00 


- .64 


.086 


30 


.826 


.055 


. 7624 


.004 


1.55 


.68 


.077 


31 


.736 


.050 


. 7857 


- .O.jO 


1.00 


- .65 


.071 


32 


.832 


.051 


.8091 


.023 


.20 


.42 


.071 


33 


.831 


.050 


.8331 


- .002 


.00 


- .26 


.066 


34 


.869 


.050 


.8582 


.Oil 


.05 


.31 


.057 


35 


.824 


.048 


.8847 


- .001 


1.01 


- .28 


.051 


36 


.885 


.049 


.9130 


- .028 


.32 


.09 


.048 


37 


.956 


.050 


.9418 


.014 


.08 


- .03 


.044 


38 


1. 029 


.052 


.9698 


.059 


1.28 


- .03 


.039 


39 


1.063 


.053 


.9966 


.060 


1.56 


.32 


.038 


40 


.987 


.051 


1. 0228 


- .036 


.50 


- .42 


.039 


41 


1.047 


.052 


1. 0501 


- .003 


.00 


.17 


.041 


42 


1.071 


.053 


1.0814 


- .010 


.04 


.17 


.039 


43 


1.059 


.054 


1. 1203 


- .061 


1.28 


- .37 


.036 


44 


1.180 


.0.57 


1. 1688 


.011 


.04 


.23 


.038 


45 


1.235 


.059 


1. 2267 


.008 


.02 


.16 


.039 


46 


1.251 


.061 


1. 2915 


- .040 


.44 


- ..50 


.039 


47 


1.415 


.066 


1. 3607 


.0.54 


.67 


.61 


.043 


48 


1.409 


.067 


1. 4329 


- .024 


.13 


- .41 


.049 


49 


1. 527 


.071 


1. 50>-3 


.019 


.07 


.08 


.052 


50 


1.650 


.075 


1. 5879 


.062 


.69 


- .06 


.052 


51 


1.741 


.079 


I. 6723 


.009 


.76 


.28 


.0.50 


52 


1.702 


.080 


1.7631 


- .061 


.58 


- .08 


.070 


53 


1.719 


.083 


1. 8626 


- .144 


3.00 


- .04 


.084 


54 


1. 895 


.089 


1. 9731 


- .078 


.77 


- .68 


.084 


55 


2.296 


.101 


2. 0972 


.199 


3.88 


1.07 


.079 


56 


2.309 


.104 


2. 2366 


.072 


.48 


- .48 


.075 


57 


2. 389 


.110 


2. 3935 


- .004 


.00 


- .12 


.076 


58 


2.512 


.116 


2. 5688 


- .057 


.24 


.80 


.076 


59 


2.534 


.121 


2.7617 


- .228 


3.53 


- 1.66 


.078 


60 


3.114 


.139 


2. 9741 


.140 


1.02 


1.51 


.087 


61 


3. 252 


.148 


3. 210 


.042 


.08 


- .52 


.092 


62 


3.461 


.159 


3.467 


- .0(16 


.00 


- .06 


.117 


63 


• 3. 737 


.172 


3.739 


- .002 


.00 


.11 


.128 


64 


4.019 


.187 


4. 020 


- .001 


.00 


- .13 


.153 


65 


4.357 


.204 


4.304 


.053 


.07 


.02 


.228 


66 


4.67 


.222 


4.603 


.067 


.09 


.54 


.331 


67 


4.90 


.240 


4.937 


- .037 


.02 


- .94 


.441 


68 


5.53 


.269 


5.324 


.206 


.58 


- .55 


.520 


69 


6.10 


.300 


5.779 


.321 


1.14 


3.20 


.,569 


70 


5.60 


.307 


6.306 


- .706 


5.29 


- 2.18 


.604 


71 


6.22 


.343 


6. 902 


- .682 


3.96 


- 2.99 


.608 


72 


7.97 


.409 


7. 555 


.415 


1.02 


7.59 


.636 


73 


7.87 


.438 


8.247 


- .377 


.74 


-11.13 


.679 


74 


10.53 


.540 


8.976 


1. ,554 


8.29 


12. 60 


.725 


75 


9.43 


.563 


9. 750 


- .320 


.32 


- 9.40 


.830 


76 


10. 65 


.6.-50 


10. 583 


.067 


.01 


5. 51 


1.03 


77 


10.87 


.724 


11.493 


- .023 


.74 


- 3.47 


1.23 


78 


12. 28 


.839 


12. 486 


- .206 


.06 


.55 


1.34 


79 


13.60 


.907 


13. 572 


.028 


.00 


2. 95 


1.33 


80 


14.1 


1.10 


14. 770 


- .67 


.37 


- 4.3 


1.53 


81 


16.0 


1.31 


16. 044 


- .04 


.00 


5.1 


1.91 


82 


17.2 


1.53 


17. 311 


- .11 


.00 


-11.5 


2.15 


83 


20.7 


1.88 


18.513 


2.19 


1.36 


21.0 


2.31 


84 


18.0 


2.09 


19. 607 


-1.61 


.59 


-22.3 


2.68 


85 


21.6 


2.58 


20. 589 


1.01 


.15 


13.3 


3.15 



336 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 
Table IV — Continued. 



Age. 


(1.) 


(2.) 


(3.) 


(4.) 


(5.) 


(6.) 


(7.) 


















]00g 


IOOe, 


lOOgxxi 


lOOu 


(y 


A4 


lOOSj 


86 


21.7 


3.04 


21.513 


. 19 


.00 


2.C 


3.70 


87 


21.8 


3. C5 


22. 441 


- .04 


.03 


-27. 4 


3.88 


88 


28. 


4.7 


23. 448 


4.6 


,.9G 


49. 


5. 67 


89 


19. 


5.2 


24. 597 


-:,. 6 


1. 17 


-37. 


5. 55 


90 


23. 














91 


31. 














92 


29. 














93 


31. 














94 


33. 














95 


31. 














96 


36. 














97 


38. 














98 


39. 














99 


41. 















In order to estimate the mean errors of this series, we tnrn to page 244 
of the Mortality Experience, and there find the data from wliich it was 
derived, namely, the nnmber of lives exposed to risk and the number of 
deoths occurring within a year at each age. For instance, at age 40 
the number of lives exposed was 38195, the deaths were 377; and the 
observed probability of dying within a year is therefore — 

To obtain the mean error of this from formula (96), it might seem that 
we ought to know in advance the true or adjusted value q' ; but it has 
been found by trial that for the purposes of our present investigation it 
will make no material diiference in the final results whether we use any 
good adjusted value g', or only the observed value q. We have, then, 
approxi m ately — 



=7' 



00987 (1— .00987) 



= .00051 



38195 

and this, multiplied by 100, is entered at age 40 in column (2). Having 
thus found the mean error of q for all the ages from 20 to 89, we can 
find the probable error, if desired, by multiplying the mean error by 
0.6745. 

Now, let us make an adjustment of the given series of values of 100 q 
by means of one of the formulas of Table III, for instance, the twenty- 
one-term formula, and denote the results by 100 q^^^. The adjusted 
series is shown in column (3), for the ages 20 to 89, which are all that can 
be reached by that formula. To ascertain whether this adjustment is a 
good and suflBcient one, let each of the terms be subtracted from the 
corresponding term in column (1). The residual errors thus obtained are 
denoted by 100 v, and are entered in column (4). Assuming that the 
adjusted values in column (3) are the true ones, each residual in columu 
(4) is the actual error of the corresi^onding term in column (1), and, theo- 
retically, the sum of the squares of the mean errors in column (2) ought to 
1)6 equal to the sum of the squares of the actual errors in column (4). But 



METHODS OF INTEEPOLATION. 337 

if we were to add up the squares of the errors ia these columns, we shoukl 
be giving much greater weight to some portions of the series than to 
others, because the liability to error is much greater in some parts than 
ia others, as is evident from an inspection of column (2), where the mean 
errors diminish from age 20 to age 35, or thereabouts, and then increase 
up to the end of the series, being more than ten times larger at age 75 
than they are at age 35. We wish to test the applicability of the ad- 
justment-formula used to all parts of the series alike; and to do this we 
must put the errors on an equality by dividing the terms in column (4) 

bythosein column (2). Each resulting value of — will denote the amount 

of actual error for every unit of mean error. The squares of these values 
are entered in column (5). Jfow, the arithmetical mean of the squares of 
the units of mean error ought to be equal to the arithmetical mean of 
the squares of the proportional actual errors. But the former quantity 
will be unity, therefore the latter ought to be unity also; that is, the 

arithmetical mean of all the values of f — ) ought to be, approximately, 

unity. This is the proposed test of a good adjustment. 

To see how far it is satisfied in the present instance, we compute the 
arithmetical mean of the seventy terms in column (5), and find that it is 
only 0.90. But we cannot expect that such a result will be found exactly 
equal to unity in any given case, for, the number of terms in the series 
being limited, the actual distribution of errors will vary considerably 
from that which theory assumes. What we do require is, that the dif- 
ference from unity should not be greater than the probable error of the 
arithmetical mean. This probable error can be roughly comjDuted in 
the usual way. Subtracting the mean value 0.90 from each of the 
terms in column (5), we find that the sum of the squares of all the remain- 
ders is 164.7, and consequently the probable error sought is — 

0.6745 /J^^M_ = 12 
V 69x70 

It thus appears that the value 0.90 does not differ from unity by more 

than its probable error; so that the series (3) satisfies the proposed test, 

and may be regarded as well adjusted. The mean value of l^\ 

might, however, 'be brought nearer to unity, if desired, by re-adjusting 
series (3) with the same formula or some other one from Table III. 

And here we may observe that when repeated adjustments are made,, 
the order in which the formulas are used is immaterial. For instance, 
if a given series is adjusted by the five term formula of Table III, and 
that result is adjusted again by the seven-term formula, the series thus 
obtained is precisely the same as though we had used the seven: terni 
formula first and then the five-term one. And the ratio of the probable 
error of the final series to that of the original one is, iui both, cases^. 
theoretically, 

22 g .229 X .0822 = .0188 



338 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

Before tlie adjustment in column (3) was made, several others had 
been made with diiferent formulas from Table III, the details of which 
may be omitted here; but the results were that when the five, nine, and 

fifteen term formulas were used, the arithmetical means of ( - j were 

found to be considerably less than unity, namely, 
0.40, 0.5S, 0.80 

the probable errors being about the same as in the other case; so that 

none of these adjustments satisfied the test. The mean value of ( - j 

is here seen to increase as the number of terms included by the adjust- 
ment-formula is increased. 

The test weJiave jjroposed may be satisfied by adjusted series obtained 
in many different ways, the problem of adjustment being really, to some 
extent, indeterminate, as stated at page 301 of the previous memoir. 
When the adjusted series {h) in Table II is tried in the same way, within 

the same limits of age, the arithmetical mean of f - ) is found to be 

1.05, so that that series also satisfies the test. It is believed, however, 
that the present adjustment is the better of the two, the arrangement 
of the weights in the formulas of Table III being such as to make the 
closest possible approximation to the actual form of a given series. 
And the writer would here express the opinion that, for the mere purpose* 
of smoothing down irregularities, the second method of adjustment, as 
perfected in the formulas of Table III, is in most cases preferable to 
either the first or the third method, both on the ground of simplicity 
and of accuracy. 

So long as the true analytical la®' of a series remains unknown, it 
must be considered futile to attempt to fix a precise value for the prob- 
able error of an adjusted term. According to the theoretical ratio in 
Table III, the probable error of a term in series (3) is only .00185 of that 
of the corresponding term in series (1). But the ratio is really not less 
than about i, so far as can be judged from a comparison of several 
different adjustments which satisfy the test proposed. This discrepancy 
is owing to the fact already noticed, that the assumptions we are obliged 
to make regarding the law of the series and the distribution of the errors 
are only a rough approximation to the real state of things. 

MEAN ERRORS ESTIMATED FROM IRREGrULARITIBS OF SERIES. 

When the theoretical mean errors of the terms in a given irregular 
series cannot be estimated as in column (2) of Table IV, either because 
the original data are not given, or from other causes, it may still be pos- 
sible to make a rough approximation to their amount by means of the 
actual irregularities of the series, provided that it has not been tampered 
with, but gives the unaltered results of observation. To illustrate, let 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 339 

US take the fourth differences of the terms in column (1), by means of 
the formula — 

J4 = 6 Us — 4 {U2 + th) + {Ui + ^l5) 
The results are entered in column (6). But equation (84) shows tliatthe 
probable error is approximately equal to the probable fourth difference 
multiplied by 0.11952. Hence, if we multiply eacli of the values of ^4 
by 0.11952, we shall get a system of errors which may be taken to rep- 
resent the actual errors of the given series (1). But as their sequence 
will be very irregular, we must take the average, without regard to 
sign, of a group of adjacent ones numerous enough to get a fair average 
value, and this will represent the " mean of the errors." We know from 
theory that the "mean error" is equal to the "mean of the errors" mul- 
tiplied by 1.2533. Hence, we can get the mean error by taking an av- 
erage value of J4 without regard to sign, and multiplying it by — 

0.11952 X 1.2533 = 0.14979 = 0.15 nearly. 
If the average of fifteen values of /J4 is used, the process amounts sim- 
ply to taking the sum of every fifteen adjacent terms in column (6) with- 
out regard to sign, and dividing it by 100. The results are given in 
column (7), for the ages 27 to 82. For instance, at the age 40 the sum of 
the nearest fifteen terms in column (6) is 3.95, and dividing by 100 we 
have 0.39 as entered in column (7). To get the first seven and last seven 
terms of this series, an average of less than 15 values of J4 was employed.* 
. The mean errors thus obtained are denoted by £2, to distinguish them 
from the theoretical mean errors ei. The differences between the values 
of £1 and £2, though considerable, are sometimes in excess and sometimes 
in defect, and are, perhaps, no greater than we ought to anticipate, from 
the usual discrepancies between theoretical and actual systems of errors. 
It is thought that this method of obtaining the mean error may be use- 
ful, at least for purposes of rough estimation, in those cases where the 
more exact method cannot be applied. 

To find the probable errors directly from the average values of J4, we 
should multiply tne latter by — 

0.14979 X 0.67449 = 0.10103 
that is, the probable error is about one-tenth of the average fourth 
difference. 

INTRINSIC WEIGHTS OF OBSERVED TERMS. 

We have hitherto proceeded on the assumption that the terras in- 
cluded by an adjustment- formula are all equally liable to error, or devi- 
ation from the true law of the series. It is possible, however, to assign 
to each term its own proper liability to error; that is to say, its own 

* It would have been better to have obtained all the averages from only nine or 
eleven values of A4, instead of fifteen. Owing to the general curvature of the series, 
the average of a group of terms differs a little from the normal average of the middle 
term, and this error increases nearly as the square of the number of terms in the group. 



340 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

intrinsic weight. This was attempted in formula (24) of the previous 
memoir. We should now prefer to use one of the formulas of Table III, 
rather than (16), and so write — 

^ _ .570 Cg U3 + .287 (C2 Uz + C4 ^^4) — -072 (ci th + C5 %) (nr,. 

^ .570 C3 + -^^^ (C3 + C4) — .072 (Ci + C5) V ^ 

The numerator here is formed by taking the series of products Ci Wi, C2 %, 
&c., which are obtained by multiplying each given term by its intrinsic 
weight, and adjusting them by formula ( 69). The denominator is formed 
by adjusting the series of intrinsic weights alone with the same formula. 
The aajusxfcd value of U3 is consequently exact whenever the series of 
products and the series of intrinsic weights are both of an order not 
higher than the third. But the product of two algebraic and entire 
polynomials is of a degree equal to the sum of the degrees of the two 
factors. Hence, formula (97)- will give exact results whenever the ob- 
served terms %, th, &c., and their intrinsic weights Ci, C2, &c., form tv^o 
series of such orders that the sum of their indices does not exceed 3. 
Such will be the case, for example, when the former series is of the 
second order, and the latter is of the first order, or an arithmetical pro- 
gression. Generally speaking, there is no necessity that the intrinsic 
weights should follow any sequence at all, but in the case of a table of 
mortality they ordinarily do, the number of lives observed being, in a 
rough way, a function of the age, as can be seen in the column of numbers 
"Exposed to risk." at page 244 of the Mortality Experience already 
referred to, the numbers increasing continuously up to age 40, where 
they are at a maximum, and then diminishing continuously to the close 
of life. If it would be too much to assume that any five consecutive 
numbers in this series are in arithmetical progression, we can more 
safely say that any seven of them form, approximately, a series of the 
second or third order. IsTow, let us employ formula (95), which gives 
exact results when applied to a series of the fifth or any lower order 
Taking the intrinsic weights into account, we shall have — 
^ _ MOCiiii + .270{c3ih+C5U5)— ■'^OSjczth+CeUe) + ^OlS{ClUl-\-c^u^) ,q^. 
' .640c4+.270(C3+C5)-.108(C2 + C6) + .018(Ci + C7) ^ ' 

and this will be exact whenever the observed terms W], 112, &c., and their 
intrinsic weights Ci, C2, &c., form two series the sum of whose indices 
does not exceed 5. Such will be the case, for instance, when the former 
series is of an order not higher than the third, and the latter is of an 
order not higher than the second, or vice versa. 

In applying this or any similar formula to the adjustment of a series, 
such as (1) in Table IV, we can employ the known principle that the 
intrinsic weights are inversely proportional to the squares of the mean 
errors, and so take 

^ = (1001;) 

But there is reason to think that, in most cases, it is not best to take 
the intrinsic weights into account. If the observed terms Ui, t<2, &c., 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 341 

and their weights Ci, C2, &c., form two series the sum of whose indices 
does not exceed 3, then the adjusted value which formula (97) gives is 
not at all different from that which (69) will give when the intrinsic 
weights are neglected. So, too, when the sum of the indices does not 
exceed 5, we get the same result by using formula (95) and neglecting 
the intrinsic weights, as we would get by taking them into account and 
using formula (98). From this we may infer that when the intrinsic 
weights form a regular sequence, it will make no great difference whether 
we take them into account or not. But the more important point to 
notice is, that the intrinsic weights of different terms do not bear to 
each other the same relation as the weights of different observations of 
the same term would do. For instance, in observing the value of Ui in 
formula (98), any m observations, each of whose weights is n, are precisely 
equivalent to any n observations each of whose weights is m; but these 
m or n observations of u^ cannot be fully replaced by any number of 
observations of Ui or W7, because those are quantities differing from 1(4 
in magnitude, and their relation to % is but imperfectly known. This 
consideration indicates that in making adjustments, the intrinsic weights 
should be used ouly to a limited extent, if at all, and that the best we 
can do is to observe the value of each term as accurately as possible, 
and then regard all the terms as of equal weight, or nearly so. 

The same consideration will prevent our assigning different intrinsic 
weights to the several terms combined together to form the sums Si, S2, 
&c., in the first method of interpolation. 

ADJUSTMENT-FORMULAS OF OTHER WRITERS. 

Before quitting the subject of interpolation by the second method, the 
present writer would observe that the process by which the new Insti- 
tute of Actuaries' Life-Tables were adjusted, and which was first pub- 
lished in the London Assurance Magazine for July, 1870, is really a 
special case under this method, and by merely changing its notation, can 
be reduced to the formula — 
^8 = .200 Us+.ld2 {u,-{- Wg) -1- .168 (We-f «io) +.056 (%-}- Un) +.024 (M4+ ^i^) 

+ .000 (1/3 + Uis) — .016 («2 + «i4) — .024 {til + M15) 
Its publication was of later date than my first proposal of formulas of 
this character for adjusting mortality-tables. The earlier portions of 
my memoir, which contained formulas (13), (14), (15), and one or two 
others of similar character, were presented to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, and were sent by it to England for examination, in the summer of 
1868. The formulas (17), (19), (20), &c., in which the weights form arith- 
metical progressions, were presented later in the same year. When 
these are extended so as to include fifteen terms, we get — 

Ws = j^ I 28 Us + 23 (M7 + «9) + 18 («e + -^(10) + 13 («g + Un) +8 (W4 + U12) 

+ 3 (W3 + «13) — 2 («2 + Wl4) — 7 («i + U15) \ 

and this is a better formula than the English one, as can be readily 



342 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

shown by comparing the respective ratios of the probable errors of the 
adjusted and unadjusted terms, computed according to formula (92). 

The adjusted series of probabilities of dying within a year at each 
age, given at page xciv of the Institute of Actuaries' Life-Tables, was 
not obtained directly from the corresponding observed series; but the 
sufficiency of its adjustment can be tested all the same ; and on compar- 
ing it with the observed series, we find that the arithmetical mean of 

{ - ) between the ages 20 and 89, inclusive, is only 0.82. This value 

falls short of unity by more than its probable error, and indicates that 
the series in question has not been smoothed out quite enough to give 
it the greatest accuracy attainable. 

The earliest publication of adjustment-formulas of the kind we have 
been considering, so far as I am aware, is that of Schiaparelli, already 
referred to, (Smithsonian Report of 1871, page 335.) As his work may 
not be generally accessible, it is perhaps well to state what that geceral 
relation is, which he discovered to exist between the numerical co-effi- 
cients which we have called local weights. The notation of formula (88) 
being used, it amounts to this: that if the formula is such as to give 
exact results when applied to a series of the third or any lower order, 
we shall have the two conditions — 

lH, + 2^k + 3H,-{. +mH^ = 

But if the formula is exact in the case of a series of the fifth or any 
lower order, like our formulas (22) and (59), then to the above condi- 
tions this third one is added — 

Vl, + 2U, + 3'h+ +mU,,^0 

If the formula holds good for a series of the seventh or any lower order, 
as in the case of (23), we have a fourth condition — 

lHi + 2U,-^3U3-\- , . . . + m« Z^ = 

and so on for formulas of higher orders. 

INTENSITY OF MORTALITY. 

Writers on the law of mortality have often made use of what is called 
the intensity or force of mortality, meaning thereby the ratio of deaths 
to population at any given instant of age. If we consider a stationary 
population, and denote by y the number of persons who annually attain 
a given year of age or birthday, and denote by x the age in years, then 
y dx will represent the number living at the exact age x, and —dy will 
represent the number dying at that exact age. The intensity of mor- 
tality then is — , 

dji 

^' ~ y dx 
If it were possible to discover the true analytical form of the function 
which expresses the relation between mortality and age, this quantity /x 
would naturally be the essential element in it. But if the hope of dis- 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 343 

covering tbe Irue law is chimerical, as there seems much reason to think, 
it may be doubted whether the quantity [j. can have much practical 
importance. We will proceed, however, to obtain some formulas for lind- 
iug the intensity, which cannot be directly observed, from the observed 
quantities; and, conversely, for finding the latter from given values of 
the intensity. 

Let us consider any five consecutive birthdays, and let the numbers 
of persons annually reaching them be — 

2/b 2/2, 2/3, ?/4, ?/5 

We will assume that the relation of these numbers to the ages may be 
regarded, within the limits of these five years, as being of algebraic 
form and of a degree not higher than the third, so that we have — 

y = A+ B X -\- x^ -[-J) x^ 
We will also suppose, for simplicity, that the age x is reckoned from the 
middle birthday, taken as an origin of co-ordinates. Then assigning to 
V in succession the values —2, —1, 0, +1, and +2, we have — 

2/i = A-2B + 4C-8D 

2/2 = A-B + C-D 

3/3 = A 

2/4=A+B + C + D 

2/5 = A+2B + 4C+8D 

and these equations determine the values of the constants. We find — 

A = 2/3, B= -i-L 18(2/4 -2/2) -(2/5 -2/1) ( 

But when x = 0, we have y =A. and ^ = B, so that the intensity of 
mortality at the middle birthday is — 

and consequently — 



a - ^2/ _ B 

y ax A 



,,= ^^y'^-y^l-^y^-y^) (99) 

which is the formula sought. Thus, if we have found by observation 
the numbers of persons annually attaining any five consecutive birth- 
days, or, what amounts to the same thing, the "numbers living" at 
those five ages out of a. given number of persons born, the above for- 
mula will give the intensity of mortality at the middle birthday. It is 
a little more accurate than the usual formula, 

^?/2 

The numerical value of p. does not differ very greatly from that of the^ 
probability of dying within a year. 

We turn now^ to the converse problem, that of finding the probability 
of living one year, or of dying within a year, from certain given values, 
of the intensity of mortality. Let ,ai, ,v-2, !J-2i ih-, be the intensities at any 



344 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

four consecutive birthdays, and let us assume that they are connected 
with the age by the law — 

;, = _ _^ = A + B .T + C a;-2 + D ^3 
ydx 

Placing the origin of coordinates at the middle, and assigning to x in 

succession the values — f ? — i, + -g^, and + |, we have — 

/^-i = A-f B + f C--y-D 

/.2 = A-iB + iO-i D 

/.3-A + 1.B + 1O + 1 D 

/^-4 = A + f B + f + \M) 
from which the four constants can be found, and we have — 

A = tV |9 (,«2 + P-^) - {!H + ,^4)1 

But integration gives us — , • 

— log' 2/ = A ^ + i B aj2 _|_ ^ Q ^3 _j_ 1 J) ^.4 _f_ constant. 
At the second birthday, taking x = — ^ and y = 2/2, we have — 

- log' 2/2 = - 1 A + i B - J^ C + gL B + constant; 
and at the third birthday, with x — ^ and y = 2/3, we have — 
- log' 2/3 = L A + i B + 2^ C + J^ D + constant. 
Subtraction of the first of these two equations from the second gives — 



-lo§'(|) = A + J,0 



But — is the probability j92 of living one year from the second birthday; 
so that, substituting the values of A and 0, we have — 

- log' V2 = 2V 1 13 (/.2 + !,s) - {!J.i + !h) \ (100) 

and this is the formula sought. If, for example, ,ai, /-/.2» &c., denote the 
.intensities at the ages 39, 40, 41, and 42, then log' p^ will be the Napier- 
ian logarithm of the probability that a person aged 40 will live at least 
one year, and 1 —1)2 is the probability of dying within the year. 

INTERPOLATION BY MEANS OF A CIRCULAR FUNCTION. 

We have already noticed that the algebraic formulas (A), (B), (C), &c. 
of the previous memoir can be employed in place of the usual formula of 
finite differences, for making ordinary interpolations from single terms 
taken as data. In a similar way, the circular formulas (a), (ft), (c), &c., 
given at page 336 of the memoir, are capable of being used for the i>urpose 
of ordinary interpolation, and may thus take the place of sucb formulas 
as are found in the appendix to vol. II of Dove's Repertorium, page 
1575. The given single terms are supposed to be either three, four, six, 
•eight, or twelve in number, and to be situated at equal intervals through- 
out the whole circular period. We have only to regard them as consec- 
utive areas represented by Si, S2, &c., respectively, and take n equal to 
unity. For example, let there be four of these given terms or equidis- 
tant values of the function, namely, 

7, 12, 5, 9 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 34^ 

then the four-term formula (b) gives — 

and substituting these values in formula (78), and taking — 

N 4 
we get the equation — 

u = 8.25 + i sin 45° { — 5 sin {x 6) + cos {x 0)\ — 2.25 sin 2 {x 9) 
which is transformable into — 

u = 8.25 + 1.803 sin {x + 168° 41') - 2.25 sin 2 {x d) 
When the values — |, — ^, + ^, + f , &c., are successively assigned to 
X in this equation, the resulting values of it will be the four given terms 
or data, and for any assumed intermediate values of x intermediate 
values of the function can be interpolated. 

One of the formulas of the Repertorium above mentioned, the one 
which includes twelve given terms, is the same as the formula subse- 
quently demonstrated and used by Everett^ with a different notation, in 
his articles on "Eeducing observations of temperature," in the Amer- 
ican Journal of Science and Arts for January and September, 1863. In 
connection with the remarks made at page 314 of my previous memoir, 
respecting Everett's method of correcting annual equations of tempera- 
ture, it ought perhaps to be said that I have not had access to the Edin- 
burgh ISTew Philosophical Journal for July, 1861, in which his work was 
first published; but the method is presumed to have been essentially 
reproduced by him in the American Journal for January, 1863. (See 
foot-note on page 27 of the latter.) 

INTEEPOLATION BY MEANS OF AN EXPONElfTlAL FUNCTION. 

In the discussion of this subject at page 329 of the previous memoir, 
all the roots of the equation of relation were supposed to be real and 
positive. We shall now consider the general case in which the roots 
may be either real or imaginary, and shall proceed as before, after the 
analogy of Prony's treatment of the subject of ordinary interpolation 
from single terms or ordinates. Instead of placing the origin of co- 
ordinates at the middle of the left-hand group as before, we shall now 
place it at the middle of the series. This is equally convenient, and 
more symmetrical and accordant with the system we have followed in 
the cases of algebraic and circular functions. 

The appearance of imaginary roots in the equation of relation implies 
a change in the form of the function whose equidistant values constitute 
the recurring series. Just as each real and positive root corresponds to 
a term of the form h iS"" in the function, so each pair of imaginary roots 
corresponds to a term of the form — 

\G sin (x 6) + d cos {x 0) \ y'^ 
where c, ^, and y are constant numbers, and ^ is a constant arc. ISToWy 
let us write the equation of the curve as follows: 



346 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

2/= A + B (log' 13) ,3^ + Bi (log' A) A^ + B^ (log' (3,) [i^^ + &c. 

+ {(C log' r - D^) sin {X d) + (D log' y + G 0) cos [x 0) \ f „^ 
■ +KOilog'n-D36'i)sm(a^'^i)+(Dilog'n+Oi^i)cos(£c^i)|n^^^ 



+ &c., &c. 

By integration we get — 

fydx = Kx^^^-\- Bi ^-^ + B2 ;V + &c. 
+ 1 sin (a? (?) -f- D cos (a? (9) ^ ^^ 
+ jCi sin (ip^i) + Di cos (a?6'i)(^i== 
+ {C2 sin {x 0.2) + D2 cos {x 02)1x2' 
4- «&c., &c., + constant; 

and taking this between the limits x — ^n and x -{- ^n, and employing Ic, 
Ici, /i-2, &c., and Z, ^1, k, &c., as auxiliary letters, we have — 

/,- = {yhn — y-in) COS ^ {U 0) ' ■% I z= (j'i» + y-^i) SlU ^^ (U 0) \ -^ 

h = in^'' - ri~^'0 COS ^ (% ^i) V li = (n4« + ri-"») sin ^ (w ^i) ( j 

&c., &c. ) &c., &c. ) f 

S r= A% + B (/?*» - 13-hn) fr + Bi (,AA» - ft-4-«) /5i^ + &c. > (102) 

+ {(0 A; — D Z) sin (a? 6) + (D /t + C Z) cos [x 0)\f I 

+ |(Ci^-i-DiZi)sin(a;6'i) + (Di/.i + Cili)cos(a?^i)}j'i- ] 
+ &c., &c. / 

This is the expression for the sum S of any n terms taken in a group, 
the abscissa of the middle point of the group being x. It is of the same 
form as the expression for y in (101), so far as the variable x is concerned. 
To apply it to the graduation of a given irregular series, we assume 
certain groups of equal extent and equidistant, and denote the number 
of terms in each group by %i, and the constant interval between the 
middle points of the groups by li. If we substitute n^ for n in (102), and 
assign to x in succession the values corresponding to the middle points 
of the assumed groups, we shall obtain expressions for the sums Si, S2, 
S3, &c., of the several groups. These sums will form a recurring series 
of the mth order if the number of groups assumed is the even number 
2 w?, in which case the constant A is to be omitted from the function 
altogether. But if an odd number, 2 m + 1, of groups is assumed, then 
A must be retained, and the differences — 

(Si -Aw,), (S2 — Awi), (S3— Awi), &c., 
will form a recurring series of the mth order. Let the m terms of the 
scale of relation be denoted by — 

— Ai, — A2, - A3, — A,!, 

When the number of groups assumed is even, the numerical values of 
the scale-terms Ai, A2, &c., are found irom the m equations — 
Ai Si + A2 S3 + A3 S3 +......+ A,, S„ + S^+i = ^ 

Ai S2 + A2 S3 + A3 S4 + + Ao, S^+i + S^+2 = ^ 

Ai Sm+ A2 Su,+, + A3 Sm + 2 + + A]^ S2m-1 + S2m = 0. 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 34T 

But if the number of groups assumed is odd, we have the m + 1 equa- 
tions — 

A,(Si-A%) + A2(S2-Awi)+. .+A^(S„, -Awi) + (S^+i-A%)=:0- 
Ai(S2-A%) + A2(S3-A%i)+. .+A^(Sni+i-A%i) + Sm+2-A«i)=0, 

Ai(Sm+i-AMi)+A2(Sm+2— Awi)+. .+A4S2m— AWl)+(S2ra+l— A»i])=0, 
and Awi being eliminated by subtracting each equation from the suc- 
ceeding one, there will be m equations remaining from which the values 
of the scale-terms may be found as before. Whether the number of 
groups assumed is 2 m or 2 m + 1, the equation of relation will be — 

z'^ -f A„, ;2"-i + A„_iS'"-2 + + Aa + Ai ^ 

This numerical equation of the mth degree being solved, its real roots 
are the values of the constants fi^\ /Si^', /Sg^, &c. As for the imaginary 
roots, each pair of them are the roots of a quadratic factor of the equa- 
tion of relation. These factors being found, let us denote them by — 

s^ -f » ^ -{- g, =0 
«^+i?i« + 2i = 
&c., &c. 
Then we shall have — 

q =f^ \ p = —2r'^ cos (7i d) \ 

qi = n'"^ [ i^i = - 2 n'^ cos [h d,) ^ (105) 

&c.,&c. ) &C., «&C. 1 

and thus the values of the constants y, yi, y2, &c., and of the constant 
arcs 0, 01, 0-2, &c., become known. Substituting them and the values of 
/5, '^i, ^2, &c., in the general formula (102), and assigning to n the numerical 
value of Uij and to S the successive numerical values of Si, S2, &c., and 
to X the corresponding values for the middle points of the grouj)s, we 
shall have a system of equations which, besides the constants A, B, Bi, 
B2, &c., 0, Oi, O2, &c., and D, Di, D2, &c., contains only numerical quanti- 
ties. These constants will be m or m -f 1 in number, according as there 
are 2 m or 2 m + 1 assumed groups. We shall only have to form as 
many equations as there are constants, and then the values of the con- 
stants can always be found. 

Having thus completed the determination of all the constants in 
formula (102), we are enabled to interpolate the sum S of any group of 
ji terms in the graduated series; and if we take — 

n = l, S = w 

the equation of the series may be reduced to the simple form — 

« = A + &/3^+&i/?f 4-&2/52^+ &c., ^ 

-\-\c sin {xO) -{- dcos {x 0)\ y'' \cif)a\ 

+ \ci sin {x 0{) + di cos [x Oi) \ yf C 

+ &c., «&c. J 

The sums of the terms in the 2m or 2m-\-l assumed groups will be the 

same as in the given series. If the number of groups assumed was 2??/, 

the graduated series will be recurrent, and of the mth order; if the 



348 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

number of groups was 2m + 1, the series will be of the (»} + l)th order, 
but after the constant A has been subtra.eted from each term, the 
remainders will form a series of the mth order. 

We will now make an application of this method to the graduation 
of series (/) in Table II of the previous memoir, in order to illustrate the 
working of the formulas, but without any design of specially recom- 
mending the method for adjusting mortality-tables. Let us assume six 
consecutive groups of equal extent, so as to have — 

m = 3, Wi = /«, = 15 

The sums of the terms in these six groups are — 

Si= 7.8522 83 = 21.069 85=182.02 

82 = 12.255 84 = 54.573 Sg = 446.84 

Substituting these values in the equations (103), we have three equa- 
tions from which we find the three-scale terms — 

Ai = - 27.799, A2 = 24.863, A3 = - 6.6914 

and the equation of relation therefore is — 

^3 _ 6.6914 z^ + 24.863 z - 27.799 = 
This has only one real root, 

z = ^^^= 1.6960 ; 
and consequently we have /5 = 1.0358. Dividing the equatioa of rela- 
tion by — 

z — 1.6960 = 

we get the quadratic factor — 

«2-4.9954;s-f 16.391 = 

which contains the pair of imaginary roots. Hence, by the formulas 
(105) we have — 

16.391 = f^^ 4.9954 = 2 y^^' cos 15^ 

which give for the values of the two constants — 

J- = 1.0977, ^ = 30 27'37".8 

!N"ow, substituting the values of /3, y^ and e in (102), and taking — 

n=ini = 15, A = 

we find — 

Ti = 1.3623, I = 1.0981 

and assigning to 8 in succession the values of 84, 85, and 85, and to cc 

the corresponding values J^% -Y-, and -^/, we get the three equations — 

54.573= .69599 B+ 3.1862 C + 1.4977 D 

182.02 = 1.1804 B + 12.731 — 6.4117 D 

446.84 =2.0019 B + 11.368 C — 56.579 D 

from which the values of the three remaining constants are found to be — 

B = 57.520, C = 6.6876, D = - 4.5182 

We have thus determined all the constants of formula (102) which are 
required for the case in hand, and are enabled to find by interpolation 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 



349 



the sum S of any group of n terms, the abscissa of whose middle point 
is X. If we take — 



11 



^ = u 



we shall have — 

h = .09321G, I = .060463 

and consequently — 

u = 2.0259 /3^ + \ .89658 sin {x 0) - .01682 cos {x 0)] y'' 
which may be transformed into — 

u = 2.0259 li^ + .89675 sin {xO-lo 4' 29") f 
and this is the equation of the graduated series, the values of P, y] and 
6 being, as already stated, 

)8= 1.0358, ;- = 1.0977, ^ = 3o27'37".8 

When the values — ^, +i, +f? &<''-j are successively assigned to x, the 
resulting values of u will be the adjusted terms for the ages 54, 55, 56, 
&c. The whole series is shown in the accompanying table. The sums 
of the terms in the six assumed groups are equal to those in the given 
series (/). 



Age. 


?{ 


Age. 


u 


Age. 


u 


Age. 


M 


Age. 


u 


10 


.4167 


28 


. 7210 


46 


1. 2958 


64 


3.977 


82 


16. 949 


11 


.4304 


29 


.7421 


47 


1.3531 


65 


4.310 


83 


18. 197 


12 


.4445 


30 


.7637 


48 


1. 4158 


66 


4.676 


84 


19. 497 


13 


. 4589 


31 


.7861 


49 


1. 4846 


67 


5.077 


85 


20.84 


14 


.4737 


32 


. 8092 


50 


1. 5601 


68 


5.516 


86 


22. 23 


15 


.4889 


33 


.8331 


51 


1. 6434 


09 


5.995 


87 


23 61 


16 


.5044 


34 


.8580 


52 


1. 7352 


70 


6.517 


88 


25.07 


17 


. 5202 


35 


.8840 


53 


1. 8366 


■ 71 


7.085 


89 


26.51 


18 


.5365 


36 


.9110 


54 


1. 9486 


72 


7.701 


90 


27.94 


19 


. 5531 


37 


.9395 


55 


2. 073 


73 


8.367 


91 


29.33 


20 


. 5701 


38 


.9695 


56 


2.210 


74 


9.087 


92 


30.67 


21 


. 5875 


39 


1. 0011 


57 


2.362 


75 


9.862 


93 


31.93 


22 


. 6052 


40 


1. 0348 


58 


2.530 


76 


10. 695 


94 


33.07 


23 


. 6234 


41 


1.0706 


59 


2.715 


77 


11. 586 


95 


34.06 


24 


. 6420 


42 


1. 1091 


60 


2.921 


78 


12. 538 


96 


34.86 


25 


.6610 


43 


1. 1503 


61 


3.147 


to 


13. 550 


97 


35.41 


26 


.6805 


44 


1. 1950 


62 


3.397 


80 


14. 624 


98 


35.67 


27 


.7005 


45 


1. 2432 


63 


3. 673 


81 


15. 7.58 


99 


35.57 



When we assume only three groups, Si, S2, and S3, in a given series, 
the three constants will be — 



gh_ / S3 — S2 \ 



.(107) 



B = 



St So 



(/j^-l)(/3^'^i-^-*'^i) 

These are the same as in (67), except that the origin of co-ordinates is « 
now placed at the middle of the series. 

The foregoing processes will serve for the purpose of ordinary inter- 
polation from single terms, if we denote the given terms by Si, S2, &c., 
and take — 

w = Wi = 7i z= 1 
This corresponds to what has already been noticed in connection with 
algebraic and circular functions. 



350 METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 

A great drawback to the utility of this whole method of interpolation 
is that the equation of relation will sometimes be found to have one or 
more negative roots, in which case the method fails, although it may 
succeed if we assume a different set of groups. It is evident that if we 
have, for instance, (3^ negative, then 1^ will be either negative or imagin- 
ary; and when values diifering from each other by unity are successively 
assigned to x in Px, the resulting values will be either alternately posi- 
tive and negative, or some of them will be imaginary, and in either case 
the series becomes useless for purposes of interpolation. 

It should also be observed that in the process we have followed, the 
roots of the equation of relation are all supposed to be unequal. If any 
of them were equal, it would involve a change in the form of the func- 
tion. For instance, if there were m real roots equal to P^, they would 
together correspond to a term in the function of the form — 

1) {1 -[- ai X + az x'^ ■{- + am-ia;™-^),^^ 

while, if there were m equal pairs of imaginary roots, they would be 
represented in the function by a term of the form 

{l + aiX+a2X^+ . . - . . - +am~i^'^~^) Ic sin {x 0) -{■ d ao^ {x e)]^'' 
But the case of equal roots is a special one, which can hardly be expected 
to occur when the equation of relation has been constructed from an 
irregular series of numbers derived from observation ; so that, for X3rac- 
tical purposes, it is not necessary to consider this branch of the subject 
any further. 

We see from the above that an algebraic and entire polynomial is a 
special case under the class of recurrent functions, the case, namely, in 
which all the roots of the equation of relation are equal to unity, so as 
to make /? = 1, and consequently I3x = 1. That any series of algebraic 
form is recurrent, is evident when we consider, for example, a series of 
the third or some lower order. To say that any five consecutive terms 
in it are characterized by the property — 

J4 = 6 % — 4 («3 4- iti) 4- (Ml 4- U5) = 
is merely saying that any term tt^ can be obtained from the four terms 
next preceding it by multiplying them severally by the scale of relation — 

-Ai=-1, -A2 = 4, -As = -6, -A4 = 4 

and adding the products together. Upon this recurrent property 
depends the construction of all the adjustment-formulas of our second 
method. They, however, are not the only ones which can exist under 
the general form (88), for we can assign any real values we please to the 
weights lo, h, h, &c., and the formula will still apply to some transcen- 
dental series. For instance, we have seen that the formula — 

^3 = /t^tg I ^ ^'3 + 4 («2 + th) — (wi 4- 115) I 

in which h is any arbitrary number, will give exact results when applied 
to a series of the third or any lower order; tha,t is, to any equidistant 
values of the function — 

u = A ^B X -\- G x~ + J) x> 



METHODS OF INTERPOL A.TIO]Sr. 351 

Similarly;, the formula — 



^ I 7^1(3 + 5 {1(2 + ^^4) - (wi 4- W5) I 



will give exact results for any series of equidistant values of the func- 
tioii— 

provided that these values are taken at intervals equal to unity. So, 
also — 

^3 = ^^^r4 I ^ "3 + 3 («2 + W4) — (Wi + «5) I 
will be exact for equidistant values of — 

^ 7: X ^ ttX 

u = A 4- Bx -{- C sm ^T- +D cos -rr 

taken at intervals of unity. But these two last adjustment-formulas 
will not apply to series of values of the functions taken at any equal 
intervals other than unity, and therein lies their inferiority to the for- 
mulas of our second method, which apply alike to all equidistant values of 
the algebraic function independently of the magnitude of the interval. 

We may notice further that the circular function — 

u = Bi sin {x0) 4- Ci cos {x6) -f Bo sin 2 {xO) -f C2 cos 2 {x6) -f 

+ Bm sin m (xO) -\- Cm cos m [xO] 

is a recurring function of the 2wth order, whose equation of relation 
has no real roots, but has m pairs of imaginary ones, such as to make y, 
Yi^ Y2-, &c., all equal to unity, the equation of relation being a reciproca) 
equation. The property demonstrated by Airy, in connection with a 
process for smoothing down the irregularities of series of circular form, 
in the Transactions of the Eoyal Society for 1870, is a consequence of 
this recurrent character of the function. If a constant term A were 
added to the function, the series would be raised to the (2 m + l)th order, 
the constant being represented in the equation of relation by a single 
real root equal to unity. 

April, 1874. 



APPENDIX. 
f 

Additions to Table III. 

When these adjustment-formulas are to include a considerable numbei 
of terms, the easiest way to construct them will be to regard the weights, 
in their fractional form, as ordinates to a curve of the tenth degree, and 
to take the weight of the middle term as the axis of Y, so that the curve 
will be symmetrical on either side of this axis, and its equation, con- 
taining only even powers of r», may be written— 

2/ = A + B ^2 _^ C ^4 + D *6 + E x"^ + F i»io 

Suppose, for instance, that we wish to find the 23 term formula. Lei 



352 



METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 



.3he constant interval between the weights be taken as the unit of x, 
Schiaparelli's two conditions give the two equations — 

23 A + 2 { (IP) B + (114) c + (iiG) D + (11«) E + {IW) F} = 1 
(IP) A + (ll-*) B 4- (IP) C + ill') D 4- (ir«) E + (1P2) F :^ 
where the notation used is — 

(11") = 1™ + 2°^ + S'" + + 11"^ 

Since the curve passes through the positions of the eight nearest zero- 
weights, we have also these four equations : 

A + 122 B + 124 C + 126 1) + 128 E + 1210 F = 

A + 132 B + 134 C + IS'' D + 13» E + 131" F = 

A 4- 142 B + 144 C + 14« D + 143 B + 14i« F = 

A + 152 B + 154 C + 15" D + 158 E + 1510 F = 

This makes six equations in all, enabhng us to compute the numerical 

values of the six constants, A,,B, &c., in the equation of the curve, after 

which, by assigning to x in succession the values 0, 1, 2, 3, &c., we get 

values of y which are the weights of the adjustment-formula sought. 

Commencing with the middle term, they are — 

.1534 .1463 .1262 .0969 .0635 .0317 .0065) .,^^. 
—.0092 -.0151 -.0133 -.0077 -.0025) ^^^^' 

In a similar way, the weights of the 25-terra formula have been found 
to be — 
.1424 .1368 .1205 .0962 .0678 .0395 .0151) .^a, 
_.0{)24 —.0119 —.0140 —.0110 —.0080 —.0018 \ ^^""^^ 

If it were desirable, there would be no great difficulty in extending 
the series of formulas still farther. 

In each of the foregoing cases, if the greatest nicety of adjustment is 
required, the weights ought to include as many as four places of deci- 

mals, because, if the fourth figure is neglected, the error-ratios — are 

found to be materially increased. These ratios, as computed by formula 
(92), are respectively .00124 and .00091 when four places are retained, 
but with only three places they are increased to .00191 and .00197 re- 
spectively. 

On the other hand, it is found that the error- ratios for the 5, 7, and 
9-term formulas of Table III are not materially altered by dropping the 
third decimal place, so that the first part of that table might as well 
stand thus : 





5 


7 


9 


7o 


.56 


.42 


.34 


h 


.29 


.29 


.27 


h 


-.07 


.05 


.11 


.h 




-.05 


-.02 


u 






-.03 


e_ 


.23 


.080 


.038 


e 









METHODS OF INTERPOLATION. 353 

To secure the gTeatest iiractical facility in making adjustments, uu 
more figures should be used than are really necessary. 
AUG-UST, 1874. 



EREATA. 

At age 54 of column (a), in Table I, (Smithsonian Report of 1871, p. 
287,) for 1.80 read 1.43. The error occurs in the original table in the 
Massachusetts Report. 

In the foot-note at page 317 of the Smithsonian Report of 1871, for 
Lionville's read Liouville's. 



23 s 



ETHNOLOGY. 



REMARKS OX THE KJOKKEi\-Mi)DDINCtS ON THE lORTHWEST COAST OF 

AMERICA. 

By Paul Schumacher. 

During- iiiy excursions along the coast, from Crescent City (latitude 
41° 44' 30") to Rogue Eiver, (latitude 42° 25',) I found numerous vei- 
dences of Indians of a past time who occupied houses. 

Near a river, or in places on the coast where there are groups of rocks 
stretching out frequently for miles into the ocean, there are almost cer 
tain to be found on every eminence which would serve as a look- out to 
prevent sudden attacks, traces of former dwellings. 

As in certain seasons the rivers yield vast quantities of trout and 
salmon, so also do the rocks supply edible shell-fisb, which principally 
adhere in clusters to the rocks washed by the ocean ; in the shallow 
water on the shores, in the tangled masses of sea-plants, all kind of fish 
deposit their spawn and search for food, while the sea-lion audits relation, 
the seal, disport themselves among the breakers, alternately fishing and 
sunning themselves on the rocks. Shell-heaps, bones of sea-lions, deer, 
and bear, chiefly mark the localities where these ancient dwellings have 
formerly existed. These remains are in layers, which become more and 
more indistinct as their age and depth increase, until the whole is 
reduced to a dark and ash-like earth, in which stone implements alone 
remain distinguishable as evidence of a j)rehistoric population. 

At the suggestion of the Smithsonian Institution, I visited the shell- 
heaps, which to the i3resent Indians are known by the names of Chit, 
(now Chetko;) Nat-e-net, (Lone Eanch ;) Khiist-6-net, (Hustenate ;) 
Chetl-eshin, (Big Eock, now Crook's Point,) and found there many kinds 
of implements, some of which were slightly broken, but most of them 
were only fragments. 
' Arrow and spear heads were found in great numbers and variety, 
I)esides pestles, knives, pipes, wedges, and other articles, the use of 
which I have not yet been able to ascertain. 

In the following statement I give a list of the objects which I have 
presented to the National Museum, adding such remarks as appear to me 
necessary. 



KJOKKElSr-MODDINGS ON NORTHWEST COAST OF AMERICA. 355 
AKROW-HEADS. 

The peculiarity of the shape of the arrow as well as spear heads 
requires a certain classificatiou, and, having divided them into sets, I 
here briefly mention the following kinds : 

Nos. 1 to 32. — With long barbs and with projections. 

Nos. 33 to 45. — With short barbs and with projections. 

jSTos. 46 to 47. — Without barbs and with projections. 

Nos. 48 to 94. — With barbs and without projections. 

(ISfos. 48 to 80.) a. Long arrow-heads. 

(Nos. 81 to 94.) h. Short arrow-heads. 

Nos. 95 to 96. — Of glass 5 were made in my presence by a Klamath 
Indian, to explain the mode of manufacturing them. 

SPEAR-HEADS. 

Xos. 97 to 101. — Of a very clearly-defined shape, without barbs, but 
with a projection. The pointed teeth show them to have been danger- 
ous weapons. 

No. 123. — Same species, but blunt. 

I^Tos. 102 to 122. — With short barbs and with projection. 

]S[os. 124 to 177. — Leaf-shaped, without barbs or projections. 

jSTos. 178 (o 193. — With barbs, but without projections. The circum 
stance that arrow as well as spear heads without projections were 
fastened to the wooden shaft with sinews, holding them only long enough 
to pierce the object, but detaching them when withdrawn, must lead 
us to the conclusion that such implements were only used against 
enemies, as making the most dangerous wounds. The well-fastened 
heads with projections were better suited for hunting ; not only are they 
preserved for future use, but the adhering shaft also impedes the flight 
of the animal. 

KNIVES. 

Nos. 201 to 204. — Serai-oval. 
Nos. 205 to 207. — Lancet-shaped. 

ADZES. 

:^fos. 196 to 200 and 213 to 214.— Of somewhat differing shapes; No. 
198 excelling by its neatly -chipped edge. 

The manufacture of arrow and spear heads, knives, and adzes, and 
in general of all such implements as are made of flint, obsidian, jasper, 
&c., and which have sharp points and edges — if we suppose that the 
ancient people were a kindred race with the present Klamath Indians — 
may be described as follows : A piece of one of the above-mentioned 
stones, which breaks sharp-cornered, and with a conchoidal fracture, is 
heated in the fire, and then rapidly cooled, after which it is struck on 



356 



ETHNOLOGY. 




the break-edge, by whicli means it is split into flakes. To such a flake a 
suitable rough shape is given by striking it with a tool, such as may be 
seen in Nos. 271 to 273, in which state the real manufacture commences. 
For this purpose the tools are used which I have exhibited in the accom- 
panying sketch, (Fig. B.) A j^iece of bone is fastened Fig.B. 
to a wooden shaft IJ feet in length, (a,) the working 
point of which [h) is ci-ooked and raised to an edge. 
The applications to be made of this instrument are 
shown with the two principal angles in cZ, onl^^ a 
pushing force being employed during the time. To 
guide the instrument with a steady hand thg" handle is 
held between the arm and breast, while the point, with 
but little play-room, assisted by the thumb, works on 
the edge of the flake, which again is held, for greater 
safety, in a piece of deerskin. After the two sides 
have been worked down to a point, then another in- 
strument is required, (c,) with which the barbs and 
projections are broken out, (e.) This is a needle or awl, of about three 
inches in length, (Nos. 233 to 235,) and by a pushing motion the desired 
pieces are broken out in the same manner as with the first-mentioned 
tool. 

It would be impossible to produce a more delicately-formed arrow- 
head (as, for instance, No. 1) by hammering; and a short trial of 
the above-described method will prove the advantage of this method of 
operating. 

i^o. 208 — Is an implement of bone, which, together with skull No. 
289, clay-pipe No. 242, and implement No. 269, I found in a grave in 
Chetko. I saw a similar piece (Fig. E) Fig. E. 

in Orescent City, made of dark stone and 
nicely polished, which was found in Happy 
Gamp, at a depth of 40 feet below the 
surface. 

No. 209. — Amulet ; probably worn as an ornament around the neck. 
Although in shape it is similar to a sinker, it is too carefully made and 
ornamented, as well as not heavy enough, to have been used for that 
purpose. 

Nos. 210 to 287.— Wedges. 

Nos. 211 to 212.— Spades. 

Nos. 215 to 223.— Drills. 

No. 224. — Eubbing-pestle. 

Nos. 225 to 226.— Probably drills. 

Nos. 227 to 229.— Uukiaown. 

Nos. 230 to 232.— Drills of bone. 

Nos. 233 to 235. — Awls used to make arrow-heads, (Fig. B, c.) 

No. 236.— Unknown. 




KJOKKEN-MODDINGS ON NORTHWEST COAST OF AMERICA. 357 



No. 237. — Ornament worn through the septum of the nose 5 prettily- 
made and ornamented. 

No. 238.— Unknown. 

No. 239. — A fragment, of which a great number occur on the shell- 
heaps where quarries appear to have existed. 

No. 240. — Unknown. 

No. 241. — Spoon of bone, which was found in a newer layer. 

Nos. 242, 243, 288. — Pipes ; the first one of clay, which I found in a 
grave with Nos. 208, 269, and 289; the second one (No. 243) is of talc; 
probably a failure, and, therefore, not completed, but exhibiting the 
manner of manufacturing. The boring of the tube was evidently done 
with an instrument, and, according to the explanation of an Indian, 



Fig. F. 




this tool is identical with a bow-drill, (Fig. F,) while the 
larger opening, in which it is intended to place the to- 
bacco, was hollowed out in the usual manner. The other 
pipe (No. 288) appears to be an attempt to work in clay. 

Nos. 244 to 249. — Sinkers. I am not positive whether 
No. 209 (also No. 244) was used as a sinker. 

Nos. 250 to 259. — Pestles. These instruments are of 
different shapes, and are frequently found. But, be- 
cause mortars are found but rarely, we must suppose 
that in early times, as at the present, the pestles were 
used mostly to crush acorns on a flat stone, around 
I which was placed a low, bottomless basket, of about 
IJ feet in diameter, into which were thrown the acorns 
to be crushed, (Fig. C.) 

Fig. G. 




The slender pestles (Nos. 250 to 252) I think may also have been 
used as war-clubs, in favor of which supposition is their shape, and also 
the fact that they have been frequently broken by a side-pressure. 

Nos. 260 to 262.— Objects of the uses of which I have no very decidea 
opinion. They may have been used as hammers to break shells of 
acorns. 

No. 263. — Used to rub colors. 

Nos. 264 to 266.— Probably used to rub skins. The latter are not fin. 
nished yet, thus showing the process of making them. But of the use 
of No. 266 I am not sure. 



S58 



ETHNOLOGY. 



Ko. 268. — The handle of a tool for hollowing out canoes, which is 
fully shown in the accompanying drawing, (Fig D.) 

Fig. D. 




No. 269. — The ujjpci ydnu ui a, uauum belonging to a tool like Xo. 268. 
I found it in the excavation with Nos. 208, 242, and 289. 

No. 270. — Approaches in shape to an ax, and appears to have been 
broken in use. 

Nos. 271 to 281. — Stones as shaped by nature, which might easily mis- 
lead the collector. But if tbe undisturbed position is regarded in 
which they were found, we soon come to the conclusion that no Indian 
hand gave them this form, but that it was the sand, driven by heavy 
winds, which polishes all exposed objects. I also found such stones on 
bare sand-hills, but mainly on the hard yellow ground of Crook Point, 
on both sides of which drift-sand is abundant, and where the continual 
northwest wind during summer and violent southwesterly storms in 
the winter drive heavy masses of sand before them. There these stones 
either stick in the loamy soil, their surface only being exposed, (No. 275 ;) 
or they lie in a steep bank, so that only one edge projects out above 
the surface, (No. 276 ;) and again others in such a position that the sand 
can get at them on all sides, (Nos. 274 and 277.) 

Nos. 282 to 283.— Unknown. 

Nos. 284 and 285. — Perhaps spades. 

No. 286. — Evidently a whetstone. 

Nos. 289 to 291. — Skulls, the measurements of which are as follows : 





Distance from root 
of nose over top of 
head to position 
of foramen mag- 
num. 


From orifice of ear — 


til 

P4 




Ifumber of skull. 


Over fore- 
head and 
occiput. 


Over top of 
head. 


Over occi- 
put. 


Found at— 


291 


Centimeters. 
37 
38 
34.5 
35. 25 


Centimeters. 

50 

53 

49 

■ 51 


Centimeters. 
33.5 
35.0 
32.25 
31. '25 


Centimeters. 
29 
3-2 

28 
31 


Centimeters. 
25 
30 

24.75 
27.5 




289 - 


Chetko 


K"ot sent 

290 


Do. 







The following shells, the names of which Mr. Dall kindly ascertained 
and fixed for me, I present as the characteristic species which con- 
stitute and are found in the Kjokken-Moddings. The relative percentage 
I approximate at 0.7 3£ytilus calif ornianus ; 0.2 Tapes staminea ; and 0.1 
of the remaining ones, among which Maclimra patula and Bulimus 
and Purpuca laotuca are predominant. 

REMARKS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DESERTED SETTLEMENTS 
ON WHICH THESE OBJECTS WERE FOUND. 

GJiit, now Chetho, {Map G.) — On the elevated right bank of the Chetko 
Eiver, near its mouth, there are extensive beds of bleached shells, fish- 



KJOKKEN-MODDINGS ON NORTHWEST COAST OF AMERICA. 359' 

bones, and those of animals. The layers reach i)robably to a great 
depth, but I only had opportunity to measure to a depth of 10 feet, 

Map G. 




which was at a place where a settler named Miller was digging a founda- 
tion for a house. My visits to this place were only casual, for my duties 
allowed me but little time to explore this interesting locality. But on 
one occasion I found time to search for graves, and in this was guided by 
the following circumstances : In the first place, I made sure of a local- 
ity on which, in former times, huts had existed, which I soon recog- 
nized by a slight circular depression. In this locality these stretched 
along in a pretty regular line to a point where the otherwise level bank 
rises in a steep ascent. As these graves are found only a few 
steps from the remains of the habitations, I had not long to search, and 
soon found a wooden inclosure which contained a skeleton. I found 
the grave to be 3J feet deep, inclosed on the sides with split redwood 
planks, trees of which are found on the shores and river-banks as drift- 
wood. Between these was laid the skeleton, with legs drawn up 5 the 
latter encircled by the outstretched arms, in sach a manner that the 
bones of the hands were mixed up with those of the feet. It ^vas lying 071 
the l)acl{,face up, and turned toward the southwest, (Fig. G, b.) Over the 

Fig. G, h. 




head was a cross board, resting on the inclosing planks, leaving only one 
inch of clear space between it and the skull. The cross-board was 
weighted with heavy stones, which had been obtained on the sea-shore. 
The other part of the skeleton was unprotected, and closely packed in 
the soil. 



360 ETHNOLOGY, 

About three feet farther on I found a second grave similarly formed 
with also a skeleton in exactly the same position, with tbe exception 
that the drawn-up knees had been pressed toward the right side, and 
that the head-board, being decayed, had fallen down so that the heavy 
stones were resting on the skull. The mouth was wide open, with a 
round stone sticking in. it, which might have been pressed in when the 
head-board fell. Close to the side of the first skeleton lay an implement 
of bone, CNo. 208,) of which some few pieces were lost, either before 
interment or through the hasty manner in which the search was made, 
as I did not wish to awaken the suspicion of the natives, and, further- 
more, time was precious to me. 1 found nothing worth mentioning in 
the soil about the skeletons. It was mixed with broken stones, which 
appeared to have been exposed to fire, such as I have found frequently 
below the surface, mixed also with pieces of flint, bones, shells, &c. 
About one foot above the skeleton I found the handle, No. 269, aud 
about the same distance below the surface the iragment of clay-pipe 
No. 242 5 but it appeared to me that the two last-mentioned ones had 
been deposited in this place accidentally. I do not share the opinion that 
the implements found in the grave of the former owner of the soil had 
been j)urposely broken, as I found in well-preserved graves diiierent objects 
in a sound condition, mingled with the broken implements ; I observed the 
position of the latter, and always found the fitting pieces together, from 
which it became evident that the pressure of the earth or other accident 
had caused their breakage after they had been buried. I think that 
at this place numerous other skeletons might be found with little trouble. 

Here I must further remark that on the Bald Mountain, which is on 
the left bank of the Chetko River, about five miles from its mouth, and 
which is about 3,000 feet high — being the highest mountain in this 
vicinity — there are said to be various kinds of stone implements, among 
which are those which, in former times, are reported to have been used 
by a medicine-man in his superstitious rites. I give the tale for what 
it may be worth. 

Ndte-netm, [Lone Eanch.) — If we follow the coast-trail three miles 
pi a northerly d'.rection, we come to a side-trail where a way-mark 
points to Lone Eanch, which is about six miles from Chetko. Mr. 
Cresswell is the owner of this laud on which the debris of the former 
inhabitants is lying in great quantities. At a measured depth of 28 
feet I saw gigantic bones of different kinds of animals. In the lower 
layers the shells and bones are completely decayed, aud have been 
changed into a dark ash-like soil. There is much of interest here, but 
my two visits were of short duration, and I was prevented from making 
measurements of bones and skulls as I should like to have done. These 
heaps are the oldest that I have seen. The soil is too sandy aud too 
dry for even a shrub to grow on the large hill, which is near the house. 
Opposite the creek are the depressions marking the sites of former huts 
still plainly visible, but the quantity of shells is small. About one mile 



KJOKKEN-MODDINGS ON NORTHWEST COAST OF AMERICA. 361 

southward there are other shell-heaps on a small saud-hill. (This is 
the locality where the fine obsidian knives were found, which are in a 
private collection at this place.) 

Fig. R. 




CMtle-sMn, {Big Bod; now CrooTc's Point, Figure R.) — About 
three miles from the month of Pistol Eiver and six miles from 
the prominent Cape Sebastian southerly, there is a flat point known 
as Crook's Point. Southwest of this is a rock, separated from a group, 
which is made prominent by forming a very picturesque arch. After 
this rock the deserted homestead of the Indians was named. If from 
this point we follow the bluff on the left side, (t. e., northward,) we find 
flint splinters and shell and bone remains in large quantities up to a 
place where a^^mall creek crosses the path; thence the debris is found 
in single heaps along the sands toward Pistol Eiver. In a place where 
the latter makes a strong eddy, there has been an important ranclieria, 
and there I found the finest arrow-heads. A little farther up the river, 
between the sand-hills, there are yet found remains of the "fort" of 
1856, of the time of the Eogue Eiver war. Between Crook's Point and 
this place it was evident that battles had been fought; for along this 
distance the finest assortment of arrow and si)ear heads was found. 

If we now cross the river and mount the plateau of the right bank, 
we find, immediately in the angle formed by the bend of the river, where 
in former times was a settlement, excavations, which stretch for 100 
yards beyond Dolan's house, and of which the remains then suddenly 
cease, appearing again in small numbers at a j^lace near the cape. 

South from Crook's Point lies Khust-e-nete, a deposit of great extent, 
but I had not even time to give it the slightest examination. Eight miles 



362 ETHNOLOGY. 

north of the cape, at the month of Rogue Elver, there is another 
important deposit, which I also could not visit for want of time. 

The skull, No. 290, I found near Big Lagoon, nine miles north from 
Trinidad. Eiding past the nearly deserted camp of the Big Lagoon 
Indians, I saw the skull projecting from the bluff and picked it up. The 
ribs and skull were exposed, and the position of the skeleton was recog- 
nizable. It lay on its back, face upward, and turned northeastward. 
Besides this, I found tbree well-preserved skulls lying on the surface, 
but I had no room for their transportation. 

Had I the means to explore the above-mentioned Kjokken-Moddings 
for say two mouths, following them up as far as Port Orford, I am 
certain that material enough could be foujid to fill a cabinet. 

PLACES WHERE THE DIFFERENT IMPLEMENTS WERE FOUND. 

Chetlco.—^os. 208, 242, 247 to.249, 259, 269, 289. 

Lone jRa%c/i.— Xos. 234, 236, 250 to 252, 255. 

Crooks Point— Nos. 97 to 99, 105 to 107, 190 to 205, 210 to 214, 216 to 
329, 240, 243, 246, 260, 262, 263 to 268, 270 to 287. 

Near Old Fort 0/1856.-^08. 102 to 104, 108 to 112, 118 to 120, 127 to 
135, 209, 215, 230 to 233, 237, 241, 244, 245, 261, 291. 

Bolan.—Nos. 100, 101, 113 to 117, 121 to 126, 136 to 189, 206, 207, 235, 
i38, 288. (Examine 165.) 

Big Lagoon.— Sos. 253, 254, 256 to 258, 290. 

Old Fort and Grooli's Point. — Nos. 1 to 94. 

NAMES OF- SHELLS. 

No. 292. Mytilus calif ornianus, Oonr. 

293. Tapes stayninea. 

294. Cardium NuttaJlii, Conr. 

295. Hinites giganteus, Gray. 

296. Standella Californica. 

297. Pholadidea penita. 

298. Purpura lactuca. 

299. Purpura septentrionalis. 

300. Petricola carditoideSj Conr. 

301 . Maclucra patula. 

302. Bulimus. 

(Pursh, fol. 1, page 141, &c.) 



CARIB OR KARIF LANGUAGE. 363 



OK A GRAMMAR AND BICTIONARI OP THE CARIB OR KARIf LANGUAGE, 
WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THE PEOPLE BY WHOM IT IS SPOKEN. 

By Dr. C. H. Bekbndt. 

The Eev. Alexander Henderson (Belize, British Honduras) has sent 
me the grammar and dictionary of the Oarib, or Karif, language, of 
which I have written you before, and I have the pleasure to present it, 
in the author's name, to the Institution, requesting that your acknowledg- 
ment of receipt may be sent to him. He expects to receive a hundred 
copies for himself, if it is published by the Smithsonian. 

This language is spoken by the descendants of the Indians and half- 
breeds brought by the British government in 1796 from the island of 
Saint Vincent to Eaatan, whence they soon spread over the coast of 
Honduras and the British settlement in Yucatan. Their actual number 
is estimated at about ten thousand, living in larger or smaller commu- 
nities, and working generally in the wood-cuttings of that coast. Though 
nominally Christians, they still retain some of their ancient customs, and 
are particularly adverse to monogamy. 

These Caribs, or Karifs, as Mr. Henderson spells the name, and accord- 
ing to the mode in which they themselves pronounce it, (Karifune,) were 
of the original West Indian Carib stock, but had become mixed with 
negroes from an African slaver, wrecked on the coast of Saint Vincent. 
They afterward were distinguished as red (or yellow) and black Caribs, 
according to their similarity in color to one or the other parental race. 
Their island having been alternately under French and British dominion, 
ihe language of the natives became mixed with many French and some 
English elements. It is asserted that it contains also some African 
admixture. After their arrival on the Honduras coast, these Caribs have 
further adopted a number of Spanish words, and it is likely that a few 
words of their actual language, corresponding with their equivalents in 
Central- American languages, have been introduced in the same manner. 

Of this language, very little has become known. Colonel Galindo has 
given a brief vocabulary (seventeen words, and the numerals from one 
to ten) in the Journal of the Eoyal Geographical Society, (1833,) and the 
author of the present work has printed in Edinburgh (1847) a transla- 
tion of the Gospel of Matthew. His missionary life among those people 
enabled him to compose the grammar and dictionary of that language, 
which is of interest, not only because it is spoken by a useful and numer- 
ous tribe of our continent, but particularly as an object for the study of 
the transitions in languages which are influenced by admixture from 
other languages of an entirely different character. For these reasons 
I believe that the publication of this work will be found advisable, 
though in its present shape it is not exactly fit for that purpose. It is 
but natural that forty years of life in the tropics show their influence in 
a septegenarian. A certain prolixity and some want of order in the 
arrangement must be attributed to this cause, but it does not impair 



364 ETHNOLOGY. 

the intrinsic value of the material. If it were decided to print this 
work, I would suggest a re-arrangement, bringing under the same head- 
ings those articles that naturally belong together, but are scattered here 
through the whole work, and leaving out those numerous grammatical 
forms, which unnecessarily swell the dictionary, as they result from the 
rules and examples given in the grammar. I have made such new 
arrangement for my own use, and shall prepare a copy for the Institu- 
tion, if such be desired. 

With regard to the preface, (pp. 339 and 340 of the eighth volume,) 
I may be permitted to say that the author's conjecture concerning a 
Maya-origin of the Carib-tribe is not borne out, either by history or 
by philological comparison. It is this, a pet-theory of later date, which 
has even induced the author to confound the Maya-population north of 
Belize with the Caribs living southward of the same place. He writes 
to me himself that those Karifs, seventy-five miles north of Belize, 
" speak the Maya-language," and that they discard the name •• Oaribs," 
while his dictionary, which was certainly made among the Oaribs south- 
ward of Belize, has the words Karifune for Carib, and Kariniazu for 
Bed Oaribs. 



THE IWUra-BUIIilEKS AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHWM. 
By Henry Gillman. ' 

Throughout the region of the Great Lakes occur many of the most 
interesting relics of the race known as the "Mouud-builders." Even 
as far north as the State of Michigan, so large a portion of the bound- 
aries along the shore-line of the lakes and rivers of the region abounds 
in the i)resence of those remains as to be a subject of wonder to 
all who have investigated the subject. From the west end of Lake 
Erie, along the banks of the Detroit River, the shores of Lake Saint 
Olair, and the coasts of Lakes Huron and Michigan, through the passage 
of the Saint Mary's River, to Lake Superior, including isolated Isle 
Royal, near its northern limits, the remains of the mysterious people, 
who resided here hundreds of years ago, may be traced. 

Some of those relics may, indeed, be said %o be unique — unlike any- 
thing of the kind in any other part of this country or even in the Old 
World. I reffer, for instance, to those which exhibit the flattening of 
the tibia^ known as platycnemism. 

That these people are identical with the race whose monuments of 
various descriptions are found occurring in such remarkable abundance 
to the westward and to the southward, through Ohio, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee, even to the Gulf of Mexico, admits now of no question ; a 
race whose craniological development and evidently advanced civiliza- 
tion apparently separate it from the ISTorth American Indian and ally it 
to the ancient Brazilian type. 



MOUND-BUILDEES AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 



iG5 



One of tbe most interestiug works of this region, and which, till a 
few years ago, formed a member of a numerous series of mounds in the 
immediate vicinity, is the tumulus which I have named '' The Great 
Mound of the river Eouge." This, in many respects, remarkable work 
is situated on the eastern bank of Eouge River, a tributary of the 
Detroit, and near the point of junction of the former with the latter 
river, or about four and one-half miles from the city-hall in Detroit. 
(See Fig. 1.) 

Tiff. 1 



Great Mound, Kh'-er Rouge, 

aiid 

Cii'cular IMound, Detroit Elver, 

Mich. 




O Is" T A R I O 



The size, shape, and well-defined outlines of the monument could 
hardly fail to attract the attention of even the superficial observer, and 
impress him as to its being the work of man. With a height of 20 
feet, it must originally have measured about 300 feet in length by 200 



S66 ETHNOLOGY. 

feet in width ; but large quantities of sand have been removed from it 
from time to time, greatly reducing its proportions, and scattering or 
destroying a large number of interesting relics. 

The series of smaller mounds, extending from the great mound to the 
eastward, has long since been entirely removed 5 so has the greater 
number of other similar mounds which once stood immediately below 
the southern city limits. Those which remain are fast disappearing 
before the march of civilization, the sand, of which they are principally 
composed, being in demand for building and other purposes. 

ludian tradition says that these mounds were built in ancient times, 
by a people of whom they (the Indians) know nothing, and for whom 
they have no name; that the mounds were occu]3ied by the Tuetle 
Indians, and subsequently by the Wyandotts, but were constructed long 
before their time. These facts were ascertained by me in the year 
1869, when I was further informed that the Tuetle Indians had been 
absorbed by the Six Nations, and that if any survived it is among them 
they must be looked for. 

In this connection it may be proper to state, that I have lately been 
iuformed of the results of some inquiries made at my request, through 
the instrumentality of the Smithsonian Institution, in regard to the 
name Tuetle. The conclusion arrived at is that the word Tuetle is 
probably a corruption of Tutelo, a tribe, "admitted as a younger mem- 
ber of the confederacy of the Six Nations about the middle of the last 
century," and that the Tuteloes "are believed to have migrated from 
Virginia northward, to lands assigned them on the Susquehanna by the 
Six JSTations; but verj' little is kuown of their early history and migra- 
tions." An interesting paper on the Tuteloes, by Eev. J. Anderson, 
was read before the American Philological Association in July, 1871. 
Eeporting Mr. H. Hale's discoveries, this assigns the Tuteloes to the 
Dakotan and not the Iroquois stock, and gives an account of Mr. Hale's 
" visit to Nikungha, the last survivor of the tribe of the Tuteloes," and 
who has since died at the age of one hundred and six years.* 

The establishment of the identity of the Tuetles with the Tuteloes, 
and their residence on these mounds and along the Detroit Eiver, is not 
without value, in view of Mr. Hale's opinion, (opposed to the conclusions 
of others regarding the Dakotan migration,) that "in former times the 
whole of what is now the central portion of the United States, from the 
Mississippi nearly to the Atlantic, was occupied by Dakotan tribes, 
who have been cut up and gradually exterminated by the intrusive and 
more energetic Algonkins and Iroquois." 

The relics exhumed from the great mound (which has not even yet 
been thoroughly explored) consist of stone implements, such as axes, 
scrapers, chisels, arrow-heads, and knives; fragments of pottery of a 
great variety of pattern, including the favorite cord-pattern ; and the 

* Proceedings of American Pliilological Association, July, 1871, pp. 15, IG. 



'• MOUND-BUILDERS AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 367 

bones of man, generally mucli decayed, and exhibiting other indications 
of antiquity. From the fragments of burned bones and charcoal found 
it would appear that in the earlier interments cremation was practiced. 

The UMw present, in an extreme degree, the peculiar flattening or 
compression pertaining to platycnemic men. In the Fourth Annual 
Eeport of the Peabody Museum mention is made of this ; some of the 
relics which I collected from this mound having been given to the 
museum by the Hon. Eobert 0. Winthrop, to whom I had presented 
them. The curator, Professor Wyman, says: "Of the tihiw of forty 
individuals, from the mounds in Kentucky, one-third presented this flat- 
tening to the extent that the transverse did not exceed 0.60 of the fore- 
and-aft diameter. The most extreme case was from the mound on the 
River Eouge, in Michigan, in which the transverse diameter was only 
0.48. In the most marked case mentioned by Broca, viz, in the old man 
from Cro-Magnon, France, it was, as deduced from his figures, 0.60." 
Professor Wyman draws attention to certain resemblances in this bone 
to the same bone in the ape, addiug : " In some of the tihice the amount 
of flattening surpasses that of the gorilla and chimpanzee, in each of 
which we found the short 0.67 of the long diameter, while in the tibia 
from Michigan it was only 0.48."* 

Subsequent to this (iu 1870) I discovered in adjacent mounds several 
instances in which this compression of the tibia was exhibited to even 
a greater extreme. Two remarkable cases of this peculiarity were 
afforded by tibice taken by me from the " Circular Mound " on the Detroit 
River. In one of those unique specimens the transverse diameter of 
the shaft is 0.42, and in the other 0.40, of the antero-;posterior diaoieter ; 
exceeding, I believe, any platycnemism which has been observed before 
or since. In communicating these facts to the American Naturalist, not 
long afterward, I claimed that the last-mentioned case "'may be consid- 
ered as the flattest tibia on record."t Both of the bones are strongly 
marked with the saber-like curvature, as are also many others of the 
tibiw from the vicinity. The majority of the tibim present the flattening, 
which is an exception to the facts as noted in other sections of the 
United States, where it is supposed to pertain to " only about one-third 
of all the individuals observed." 

About three-quarters of a mile to the north and eastward? of the 
Great Rouge Mound, and only a few hundred feet to the westward of 
Fort Wayne, being over a third of a mile from the shore of the Detroit 
River, occurs the monument which I have named for distinction and 
from its originally symmetrical shape " The Great Circular Mound." 
This also appears to have been one of a numerous series, many of which 
bave been removed for various purposes, but the present occupation of 
the land prevents a satisfactory examination of its character. 

* Fourth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum of Americau Arch^e- 
clogy and Ethnology. Boston, 1871. 

t American Naturalist, October, 1871, vol. v, p. 663. 



368 



ETHNOLOGY. 



A few years ago a great part of the mound was removed, and some im- 
portant results were obtained, the relics being of unusual interest. Eleven 
skeletons were exhumed, with a large number of burial vases; stone 
implements in great variety and of superior workmanship, consisting 
chiefly of axes, spears, arrow-heads, chisels, drillers, and sinkers; pipes; 
ornaments of shell aud stone; also, a peculiar implement of unknown 
use formed from an antler; and two articles manufactured from copper, 
one the remains of a necklace, consisting of a number of beads; the 
other a needle several inches in length. 

One of the skulls is noticed by Professor Wyman as remarkable for 
its diminutive size, though adult, its capacity being only 56 cubic inches, 
or less than 67 per cent, of that of the average Indian cranium, which 
is given as 84 cubic inches by Morton and Meigs, the minimum observed 
by them being 69 cubic inches. In speaking of this skull, Professor 
Wyman says : " In ordinary skulls the ridges of the temporal muscles 
on the two sides of the head are separated by a space of from 3 to 4 
inches, seldom less than 2, while in the Detroit-mound skull this space 
measures only three-quarters of an inch; and in this respect it presents 
the same conditions as the skull of a chimpanzee."* 

It is interesting to remark here that " the flattest tihiw on record," 
already referred to, were taken by me from this mound. I regret to 
have to add that in the rude method pursued in opening this mound 
many choice relics were destroyed ; a large number also were carried 
away, scattered, and lost. 

In the following table I give the dimensions of a few of the tibiw, of 
which I was able to obtain measurements, from the great mound on the 
Eouge Eiver and the circular mound on the Detroit Kiver. All these 
bones have more or less saber-like curvature : 



Table I. — Dimensions, i^-c, of tihimfrom the Eouge and Detroit Elvers, Michigan. 



CO 

a 


Length, in inches aud 
decimals. 


Transverse diame- 
ter, proximal end, 
in inches and deci- 
mals. 


II 

tw :x 

a 3 
o " 
■hM 

g.5g 


Antero-posterior di- 
ameter aud traus- 
verFO diameter of 
shaft, iu inches. 


.5 ° 

[. a a 
P-i 


.So 

'S '3 


1 




2.9 
2. 7 


3.5 


167 by 97 
145 by 70 
156 by 73 
117 bv(i8 
148 by 67 
142 by 69 

168 by BO 
l.T2tV64 
154 by 62 




0.580 


2 






0. 4ea 


3 








0.5G0 


4 






2.7 

2.65 

2.8 


o.'ieo'""' 

0.185 


0. 5)r!l 


5 

C 

7 


14.7 

14.9 


2.8 
2.7 


0.452 
0,485 
0.470 


8 


14.6 
15.0 




2! 9 


0.184 
0. 193 


0. 421 


9 




0.402 








Mean 


14.8 


2.73 


2.87 


150 by 72 


0.185 


0.486 



* Sixth Annual Kepoit of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum of American ArchEeol- 
ogy and Ethnology. 1873. American Journal of Science aud Arts, third series, vol 
vii, p. 1, January, 1874. 



MOUND-BUILDEES AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 369 

In tliis table the latitudinal index expresses the amount of the com- 
pression of the shaft, while the perimetral index represents the thick- 
ness. 

In this connection I wish to call attention to the fact that the perfora- 
tion of the humerus is a characteristic which I have observed to pertain 
to the platycnemic specimens from the river Eouge mound. This is of 
great interest, as the peculiarity referred to is most frequently met with 
in the negro race, has also been observed in the Indian, and, though 
not always present, is quite general in the apes, while it is seldom seen 
in the white races. 

The ridge on which Fort Wayne is built, once nearly a mile in length, 
on the bank of the Detroit Eiver, and which occupies a commanding 
position, was, I am satisfied, previously occupied by the ancient people 
we are discussing. Their bones and implements have been dug out at 
that part of the ridge immediately above the fort. The leg-bones from 
this point also exhibited in a remarkable degree the flattening. 

It is to be regretted that various circumstances prevented my obtain- 
ing in many instances the dimensions of the bones ; otherwise I should 
be able to present an array of facts still more valuable. 

Though the stone and other implements from the upper lakes cannot 
in general boast of the high degree of ornamentation observable in 
those relics from the southern portion of the United States, yet there 
are not wanting specimens evincing considerable cultivation in this 
direction. The difficulties of manipulation involved in the material 
used prevented the indulgence of much art. The pottery, therefore, 
seems to have been chosen esi^ecially for a display of such taste as 
those primitive workmen possessed in this field. The objects of this 
material from the lake-mounds present a remarkable variety of devices. 

ma;. 2 




Stone Pipe from Grosse Point, Laiie St. Clair 
MicMgan. Ilsilfsize. 

Figure 2 is an illustration of a stone pipe from Grosse Point, Lake Saint 
Clair, Michigan, which, as an object of this kind, is worthy of some admi- 

Z4: S • 



370 



ETHNOLOGY. 



ration. Though wanting in symmetry in its details, in its general ap- 
pearance it is almost elegant, and even graceful. It is formed of green- 
stone, and is beautifully polished; the workmanship, as a whole, display- 
ing much skill. This singular relic is in perfect preservation, with' 
the exception of that part of the base, the restoration of which is 
attempted to be shown by the dotted lines. Of the bowl, which, in 
shape resembles a half-closed tulip, a small portion is also wanting. 
The date, 1697, inscribed on one side of the base, is of interest. The 
antiquity of the pipe is in my opinion much greater than this would 
imply. Such relics are highly valued by the Indians, and handed down 
from generation to generation. The date of the settlement of Detroit is 
1701 ; but the Jesuits and other white men had already penetrated to 
this region many years before. It is possible that some white person of 
note may have been presented with this pipe by its Indian jjossessor 
as a mark of respect, and that the former cut the date on this already- 
antique object. The four numerals, though distinct, are yet rudely cut, 
and are in marked contrast with the rest of the carving, being evidently 
the work of another hand. 



Tig. 3 




<;_^ 




Sectiou- at Ibase, sliowing oblique Tjorings. &c. 



Stone ornament from. Grosse Point, Lake St. Clair, Michigan. 
Full size. 



A stone ornament from the same place is shown in Fig. 3. This is 
formed from a beautiful piece of variegated slate, of a grayish green, 
interstratifled with veins of a darker shade, and is neatly made and 
finely polished. Similar ornaments have been found throughout the 



MOUND-BUILDERS AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 371 

United States 5 and as there has been considerable discussion as to their 
use, I will here state that I have learned, through an aged Indian, that 
in olden time these ornaments were worn on the heads of Indian 
women, but only after marriage. I have thought that these peculiar 
objects, which are always made of some choice material, resemble the 
figure of a brooding bird; a familiar sight to the "children of the for- 
est ;" that thus they are emblematic of maternity, and as such were 
designed and worn. 
Fiff. 4 



Matuids at tbe Head of St. Clair Hiver, 
aiid on Black IllYer, Micliiean. 



5 XAI^E irUBOJSr 




statute Mites. 



In the year 1872 I made the discovery of one of the most remarkable 
and extensive series of tumuli which are known to exist in this part of 
the lake region. I refer to the mounds situated at the head of the 



372 ETHNCLOGZ. 

Saint Clair Eiver, and which extend from a point sonth of Fort Gratiot 
for about one and one-half miles northward, along the west shore of the 
river and of Lake Huron. [Fig. 4.] A collection of a large number of 
relics was made by me from the location, and were forwarded, accom- 
panied by a report on the subject, to the Peabody Museum. My paper, 
embodying the principal facts, subsequently formed a part of the annual 
report of the trustees,* and was afterward copied into several of the 
leading periodicals of the country, including the American Journal of 
Science.t The general publicity thus given the discoveries precludes 
the necessity of more than a passing notice here. 

Those numerous mounds are, with few exceptions, of similar charac- 
ter, and were largely used for burial purposes. One of them presented 
some features distinctive of the ''refuse-heaps" of our Atlantic coast 
and of the North of Europe, a wide area at one end being covered with 
" a solid crust of black ashes, from eighteen inches to two feet thick, 
containing the bones of various animals used for food, broken pottery, 
and stone implements." 

The relics from the mounds, in addition to those usually found, con- 
sisted of an extraordinarily large number of broken stone-hammers of 
the rudest kind ; a plate of mica five by four inches ; and two necklaces, 
one made of small bones, stained a beautiful green color, resembling 
enamel, the other composed of the teeth of the moose, alternatiug with 
well- wrought beads of copper; and the bones; of birds, staiued green, as 
in the first instance. In the mound containing the last-mentioned 
ornaments several interments had been made, and the decayed stump 
of a scarlet oak,{Quercus coccmeaWang,) two feet in diameter, sur- 
mounted the summit, the roots spreading above the contents in all 
directions. 

The human bones were all very tender from decay, and in most 
instances crumbled to pieces. All the tibiw noticed by me exhibited 
the characteristic platycnemic compression. In dwelling on this cir- 
cumstance, in connection with my previous discoveries in the same 
direction, I may remark that " I cannot but believe, from what I have 
seen, that future investigation will extend the area in which this type 
of bone is predominant to the entire region of the great lakes, if not 
of the great West; or, in other words, that at least the northern 
'mound-builders' will be found to have possessed this trait in the 
degree and to the extent denoted ;" which prediction recent discoveries 
in Wisconsin and Iowa would seem in a fair way to fulfill. 

In the following table I present an exhibit of a few of the tihiw; 
though I am convinced they do not show the extreme cases of com- 
pression occurring here, as most of the flattest bones fell to pieces 
before they could be measuj?ed. But such as it is, even, it is valuable, 

* Sixth Anoual Eeport of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum of Archssology and 
Ethnology. Boston, 1873. 
t American Journal of Science and Arta, M sgries, vol. vii, pp. 1-9. January, 1874. 



MOUND-BUILDEES AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 373 

as a proof of the prevalence of tliis strange peculiarity. The mounds 
here and those on the Eouge Elver are over 60 miles apart. 

Table II. — Dimensions, ^c, ofiibicefrom the head of the Saint Clair Biver, Michigan. 





Ml 

a 

<D 
1-1 


Transverse diame- 
ter, proximal end. 


O 

a 
1 

a 

o 

'3 
1 


Antero-posterior di- 
ameter and trans- 
voise diameter of 
sliaft. 


/ 

M 

Is 
o 

B 

CD 


3 
d 

"S 

1-1 


1 

2 
3 


14.5 
15.0 


2.7 
2.7 


2.9 
2.9 


155 by 83 
155 by 82 
152 by 86 
140 by 77 
135 by 75 


0.200 
0.200 


0. 5;>5 
0. 529 
0.566 


4 






2.5 
2.6 




550 


5 








0. 562 










Mean .... 


14.75 


2.7 


2.75 


147 by 80 


0.200 


0.548 



These tihiw were all taken from mound No. 3 of the report; which see 
for additional Information of interest. ^ 

On the west bank of the Black Eiver, a tributary of the Saint Clair 
Eiver, is a burial-mound, which exhibited some unusual features. 
[Fig. 4.] A road having been cut through the easterly slope of this 
mound, the excavation consequent on grading, &c., revealed a large 
number of human bones, pottery, stone implements, and other relics. 
Stone-lance or spear-heads of great length were taken out, two of them 
being over a foot long, and one sixteen inches in length. But the most 
interesting feature of this repository of relics was a grave, the interior 
of which was described to me as being lined with pottery similar to 
that of which the vases, pots, «&c., are formed. This was so peculiar a 
circuDQstance, no other instance of the kind having come to my knowl- 
edge, that at first I considered the statement rather doubtful. But not 
long after I availed myself of an opportunity of visiting the locality and 
making an examination. 

Though the construction of the road through the mound had destroj^ed 
most of the original features, and scattered a multitude of valuable re- 
mains, further excavation revealed a considerable quantity of fragments of 
the pottery above referred to as having been said to have lined the grave. 
This certainly appeared to confirm the statement. I found this pottery 
to be of rather a coarser description than usual, and marked abundantly 
with the cord pattern, found to be of such frequent employment ; but in 
this, instance made with a large cord or small rope. The side so orna- 
mented was invariably concave, while the other side was convex and 
unsmoothed ; different from any other specimens I have seen elsewhere. 
So rough and unfinished was the unornamented side, that it had every 
appearance of having been pressed upon the ground while yet plastic 
and sand, and even small pebbles, adhering to it sustained this impres- 
sion. After having viewed the evidence, I had no longer any great 
difficulty in receiving the statements previously made. 

My chief informant was perfectly uneducated in such matters, and 



374 



ETHNOLOGY. 



even attributed the peculiar formation lining the sides of the grave 
to the coagulation and final hardening of blood, accounting for its pres- 
ence in such large quantity by presuming a battle to have been fought 
in the vicinity. 

The few fragments of human bones which on this occasion were 
exhumed with the pottery were in the last stages of decay. 

A large mound, which stands near the northwest shore of Chambers 
Island, in Green Bay, Wisconsin, I have thought worthy of mention 
here from having been the burial-place of platycnemic men, and as 
belonging to the lake region, though lying outside of the State of Mich- 
igan. It has been explored by a friend of mine of much experience in 
such operations, and I have had opportunity to examine the contents. 

The accomijanying sketch [Fig. 5] sufficiently shows the location, 
surroundings, &c., of this mound, which unquestionably is of great age. 
Among a large number of relics of the description generally found in 
the burial-mounds, there were exhumed here human remains, mostly in 
the latter stage^of decay; a few rude stone implements; an urn (pro- 
vided with a lid) of the old i3ottery, of uncommon design and curious 
indented pattern, formed largely of curved lines in a sort of scroll-work ; 
and a broad, pointed copper-knife, well wrought, and resembling those 
found in the works of the " ancient miners " of Lake Superior. Frag- 
ments of prepared hide, like rough leather, adhered to the knife; prob- 
ably the remnants of a rude sheath. One of the skulls, in fair condition, 
presented decided indications of artificial flattening, while the tibice aL 
exhibited the peculiar compression already referred to, though not to 
the extent found to i)ertain to the tihiw of the mounds along the 
Detroit, Eouge, and Saint Clair Rivers. The bones of one of the earliest 
of the interments gave unequivocal evidence that cremation had been 
practiced here. Large pieces of charcoal, well preserved, remained in 
the vicinity of the burnt bones. 

The annexed table gives the dimensions of some of the tibice preserved 
from this mound, from measurements which I have carefully made. 
The piatycnemism of those bones is of importance, as still widening the 
area over which the peculiarity prevailed. 

Table III. — Dimensions, ^-c, of iib'uBfrom Chamhers Island, in Green Bay, Wisconsin. 









6 


























11 


a 


^ * ^ 


^■. 


M 






=2 


.2^3.2 






^ 


^ 


o5 

g2 


a 

p 


6 -£ <o 4i 


J 


a 
'5 


a 


■CD 




a 


ntor 
ame 
vera 
sbaf 


3 


1 


!zi 


h^ 


bi^ 


I-; 


■^ 


Ph 


I-) 


1 


15.54 


3.05 


3.00 


153 by 95 


0.190 


0.G20 


2 


15.48 


3.00 


3.07 


155 by 86 


0.198 


0.554 


3 


14.15 


3.15 


3.00 


152 by 8S 


0.212 


0. 579 


4 


13.80 


3.10 


3.04 


155 by 93 


0. 220 


O.COO 


Mean 


14. 74 


3.07 


3.02 


153 by 90 


0.205 


0.588 



MOUND-BUILDERS AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 375 

The mound shown on the southwest side of Chambers Island [Fig. 5] 
was noticed and partially examined by me several years ago. It was 
then much undermined by the waters of Green Bay; the contents, prin- 
cipally human bones, being somewhat exposed by the giving way of the 
high bank. I have lately learned that within the last few years this 
mound has totally disappeared, owing doubtless to the cause just 
referred to. It belonged unquestionably to the larger class of burial- 
mounds, and was probably of like age and origin as the mound at the 
northwest end of the island. 



Fig. 5 

MoTiads, 

Oiiamlbers Island, Green Bay, 

"Wisconsin. 



A, 



cfnijjEir 




BA yr 



=j 



In this connection it is of importance to refer to the late discovery by 
Mr. Dawkins of platycnemic men at PertM-Chwaren, in Denbighshire, 
Wales, and to Prof. G. Busk's valuable notes on those ancient remains.* 
Professor Busk and Dr. Falconer were the first, I believe, to call atten- 
tion, in 1863, to this particular conformation of the leg-bone in the 

* Journal of the Ethnological Society of London, January, 1871. 



376 



ETHNOLOGY. 



human remains from tlie cave on Wind-mill Hill, Gibraltar,* giving to 
it the name of " platycnemic." M. Broea, in May, 1864, independently, 
observed the same condition in tibiw from Chamant and Maintenon, in 
France.t 

Similar bones were noticed at Montmartre, by M. Bertrand. Professor 
Wyman found the same peculiarity in tihice from the Florida mounds, 
in this country, and it was through the last-named gentleman that my 
attention was called to the subject, some bones which I had procured 
from the mound on Rouge Eiver, in Michigan, first establishing the 
fact that this platycnemism was a characteristic of the northern tribes 
of aboriginal man on this continent. Discoveries of flattened tihice have 
also been made in Kentucky and Tennessee ; while the mound I have 
mentioned as occurring on Chambers Island adds Wisconsin to the list; 
and I have lately been informed of like discoveries having recently been 
made at Davenport, Iowa. 

The following table gives the proportions of the UMw from Denbigh- 
shire, as taken by Professor Busk, with slight corrections, which I have 
made in revising the computations : 

Table IV. — Dimensions, ^-c, of txbice from PertJii-CJncaren, Wales. 



7\ 


53 


.2 3 
© 3 

ig 
U 


6 
o 

g 

a 

o 
u 

'3 

i 
1-! 


Antero-posterior di- 
ameter and trans- 
verse diameter of 
sbaft. 


s 

'a 

a 
1 


1 

1-1 


1 

3 
4 

5 
6 


14.9 
13.7 
13.2 
12.9 
12.9 


2.8 
2.7 
3.0 
2.5 
2.5 


3.2 
2.9 
3.0 
2.5 
2.75 


140 by 80 
120 by 75 
135 by 80 
125 by 70 
100 by 70 
135 by 90 
140 by 90 
130 by 70 
135 by 85 


0.214 
0.211 
0. 227 
0.193 
0.213 


0. 571 
0.625 
0.592 
0.541 
0.700 
0.666 


-.7 










0. 642 


8 










0. 538 


9 










0.629 














Mean 


13.5 


2.7 


2.87 


129 by 79 


0.212 


0.612 



As before explained, the latitudinal index designates in each instance 
the amount of flattening of the bone; the perimetral index represent-, 
ing, with some approach to exactness, the thickness or bulk of the shaft ; 
and on a comparison of the preceding table, giving the proportions of 
those ancient tibim from Wales, with the tables in which I have given 
ithe dimensions of the tihim from the mounds on the Detroit and Rouge 
Rivers, the greater i)latycnemism of the latter bones will at once be 
apparent. 

A further comparison with the normal form of the ordinary English 
UMw is aflPorded by the subjoined table, prepared by Professor Busk, 

* Transactious of the International Congress of Prehistoric Archfeology for 1868. p. 
,161. 

tM(5moires sur les oseemens cles Eyzies : Paris, 1868. Reliquiae Aquitanicse, p. 97. 



MOUND-BUILDEES AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 377 

"^hich gives the dimensions of " thirteen leg-bones taken indiscriminately 
irom a drawer in the College of Surgeons, London." I have made a few 
corrections, however, in re-computing from Professor Busk's elements 

Table V. — Dimensions, <^c., of ordinary English tihice. 







i . 




;^ CO Q 










.■^1 


1 


oil 


M 


g 


b 




, c o 


c2 

g 

3 
O 




.3 

i 


■73 


<u 


,d 


> fe 


'a 


6S o-a 


o 


hs 


^ 


-t-L 


m a 




'" ® £ « 


a 

1) 


o 


a 


CD 



ID 


1=1 r- 


05 


cj n !-* ci 
cS km 


1 


il 


IJ 


H^ 


h^ 


<d 


p-( 


h-! 


1 


16.7 


3.15 


3.4 


130 by 100 


0.203 


0.769 


2 


16.4 


3.2 


3.5 


150 bV 115 


0.212 


0.766 


3 


15.8 


2.95 


3.0 


120 by 90 


0.189 


0. 750 


4 


1.5.5 


2.95 


2.9 


140 by 90 


0.187 


0. 642 


5 


15.3 


2.9 


2.8 


130 by 90 


0.183 


0.692 


6 


15.2 


3.0 


3.2 


140 by 90 


0. 210 


0. 642 


7 


15.0 


2.8 


2.8 


140 by 90 


0.187 


0.642 


8 


15.0 


2.6 


2.8 


120 by 85 


0.187 


0.708 


9 


15.0 


2.6 


2.8 


120 by 90 


0.187 


0.750 


10 


15.5 


3.0 


2.9 


120 by 95 


0. 187 


0.791 


11 


13.5 


2.8 


2.9 


120 by 90 


0.214 


0.750 


12 


1.3.4 


2.75 


2.7 


120 by 85 


0.201 


0.708 


13 


12.8 


2.5 


2.4 


100 by 85 


0.187 


0.850 


!Meau .... 


15.0 


2.86 


2.9 


127 by 92 


0.195 


0. 727 



While the tibice from the Detroit and Eouge Elvers show a degree of 
platycnemism somewhat in excess of that of the tihke from the head 
of the Saint Clair Eiver, the latter have more of this peculiarity than 
the Chambers Island specimens, which, in turn, have this compression 
to an extent slightly greater than the bones from other (more southerly) 
parts of the United States, as given by Wyman ; the last mentioned 
being of about the flatness of the Welsh bones from Perthi-Chwaren, 
which, as we have seen, are much flatter than the ordinary English 
tibiae. 

The data for determining the perimetral indices are in some cases 
hardly sufficient for establishing any j)ositive statement ; but, at least 
in the American and Welsh tibice, the slenderness of the bone appears 
to be related in some degree to the flattening; i. e., the more platyc- 
nemic tibiw (taking the means) are the more slender. In individual 
instances, however, this does not hold good. The ordinary English 
tibiw, it will be noticed, are not so thick as the Perthi-Chwaren speci- 
mens, but iu this respect come between the tibiw from the Detroit and 
Eouge Elvers and those from the Saint Clair. Excepting the tibice 
from Chambers Island, a remarkable uniformity, it will be observed, 
exists in the means of the " transverse diameters of the proximal end ;" 
and, the same may be said of the ''least circumferences." In length the 
ordinary English tibice (modern) are in excess; the Michigan and Wis- 
consin specimens come next ; while the ancient Welsh tibice are much 
the shortest. 

For convenience of reference, I append a table exhibiting a compari- 
son of the means of the different tables already given. 



378 



ETHNOLOGY. 



Table VI. — Means of the dimensions, ^c, of tihice. 



Locality. 


"8) 

a 
1-1 


it 
I 


=2 
1 

is 

a 
i-^l 


Antero-posterior 
diameter and 
transverse di- 
ameter of shaft. 


a 

n 

"S 

a 


1 

a 

t 


Detroit and Rouge Eivers, Michigan.. 
Head of Saint Clair River, Michigan.. 
Chambers Island, Wisconsin 


14.80 

14.75 

14.74 

13.5 

15.1 


2.73 

2.70 
3.07 
2.7 
2.86 


2.87 

2.9 

3.02 

2.87 

2.9 


150 by 12 
147 by 80 
153 by 90 
129 by 79 
127 by 92 


0.185 
0.200 
0. 205 
0.212 
0.195 


0.486 

0.548 
f;g8 




612 


Ordinary English, College of Surgeons, 
London. 


0. 727 



I refrain from indulging in any extended deductions which will natu- 
rally be suggested by the comparison of the different tables here given. 
Professor Busk and M. Broca have pointed out so fully the various 
relations of this conformation of the leg-bone as to leave little room for 
general comment. I would simply add, that the platycuemism wliich I 
have observed in Michigan all appears to belong to what is termed 
" anterior ;" that is, this abnormal expansion of the bone is in front of 
the interosseous ridge. In this respect the Michigan specimens resem- 
ble the tiUm from Denbighshire rather than those from Gibraltar and 
from Cro-Magnon ; tn the two latter instances the expansion being pos- 
terior. " The occasional and not infrequent platycnemism observed in 
the shin-bones of negroes," Mr. Busk states, "is what may be termed 
' anterior.'" He is not prepared to discuss what this difference may indi- 
cate, though he considers that, "in all probability, it is connected with 
a difference in the cause of the deformation, (if it be deformation.)" 

As to the ethnological value of this platycnemism, he considers " we 
are as yet very much in the dark," doubting the probability of its being 
a race-character, "though it may undoubtedly be considered a character 
betokening remote antiquity." After referring to certain distinctions 
between the human and the simian foot, he concludes with asking: 
"Would it not, then, be admissible to inquire how far, at any rate, pos- 
terior platycnemism may be connected with the greater freedom of 
motion and general adaptability of the toes enjoyed by those peoples 
whose feet have not been subjected to the confinement of shoes or other 
coverings, and who at the same time have been compelled to lead an 
active existence in a rude and rugged or mountainous and wooded 
country, where the exigencies of the chase would demand the utmost 
agility in climbing and otherwise?" 

Further observations of abundant material from different parts of the 
country, and perhaps of the world, are wanted to afford the requisite 
testimony as to the ethnological significance of this peculiarity. 

In the year 1856, I found a small burial-mound on the west shore of 
Ottawa Point, Michigan, (Lake Huron.) [Fig. 6.] It occupied the bank, 
close to the beach, and the washing of the lake in storms had under- 



MOUND-BUILDERS AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 379 

mined it, causing it to cave away on one side, and partially disclosing 
the contents. 

rig. 6 

Mound at Ottawa Point, IMicMgan. 




On examination, nothing was found establishing for the work any 
great age. The utensils, trinkets, &c., were all of a period subsequent 
to the advent of the white man. There was, in fact, no point of resem- 
blance between this place of sepulture and those of the " mound-build- 
ers." The bones exhumed apparently belonged to one body— probably 
that of a woman. 

On visiting the same point some sixteen years afterward, (June, 1872,) 
all trace of the mound had disappeared, doubtless through the en- 
croachments of the lake. 



380 



ETHNOLOGY. 



A mound similar to this was seen by me at Oqiieoc Eiver, Lake Hu- 
ron, [Fig. 7;] and another at Point La Barbe, in the Straits of Mackinac. 
[Fig. 8.] No opportunity was afforded in either case for a thorough 

Pig. 7 




3IoxiiLd, Oqueoe Biver, JMicMgan. 



^^z 



7 6 



10 Miles. 



examination of the contents. In fact, such mounds are frequent all 
along the lake shore, and seem to be invariably of more recent origin 
than the first-described works. They are generally quite small ', and it 
is observable that they are frequently situated in such places as present 
some features of natural beauty. 

At old Fort Mackinac, opposite Point La Barbe, on the south shore 
of the Straits of Mackinac, occur several interesting mounds, [Fig. 8,] 
which have never to my knowledge been thoroughly examined. Long 
before the European selected this point for a fort, or even the present 



MOUND-BUILDEES AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 381 



Indian race had frequented those shores, man had here takefi up his 
habitation; evidence of which was seen in the usual mounds. 



rig. 8 

JMoTuads at Old Foxt Macls;lq,aC, 

aud 

Pt. La Barlae, nMicliigan. 




y Et. St. Ignace. 



^. XalBarbe, 



'S' t 



^' a i t 



of 



Jf a c Tb * 




7Mil68. 



When the writer, in 1851, visited the site, attractive from its histor- 
ical associations, nothing remained on the bleak, sandy point to denote 
the original works of any of the races who had dwelt there save a few 
mis-shapen mounds and the remnants of the pickets which once had 
formed the sally-port, near which was the stump of the flag-staff, 
projecting about two feet above ground. These last were fast being 
undermined by the waters of the straits, which washed within a few 
feet of them ; and, as in stormy weather the waves must have swept 
clear over them, in all probability they have long since disappeared. The 



382 



ETHNOLOGY. 



great massacre and capture of the fort occurred on June, 1763; and 
till within the last few years the place has not been occupied since ten 
years after that event. 

A remarkable series of mounds occurs at Beaver Harbor, on Beaver 
Island, in Lake Michigan. [Fig. 9.] They are at present chiefly occu- 
pied by the town of Saint James, which w^s built by the Mormons, 
under their leader, James Strang, ("King Strang,") about the year 
1852~'53. The mounds, which overlook the harbor, are extensive ; and 
though, so far as I am aware, they have never been systematically 
investigated, they doubtless present a rich mine for research. 

Tis. 9 



J^jLJCjE 



Moxmds at Beaver Harbor, Beaver Island, 
Michigan. 




MICHIQAIT 



5 Mies. 



A very limited and hurried examination which I made of them in 1871 
sufficiently satisfied me as to their ancient origin. They appear to be of 
the same character as the mounds on the Detroit Eiver and at the foot of 
Lake Huron. They were probably largely used for purposes of sepulture, 
and until a comparatively recent period even the present race of Indians 
has continued to inter the dead, though not perhaps in the same reposi- 
tories, at least in their immediate vicinity. From the success attending 



MOUND-BUILDERS AND PLATYCNEMISM IN MICHIGAN. 383 

my brief labors, it would appear that the more valued relics of the " mound- 
builders" have been here deposited in unusual abundance. Highly- 
wrought stone implements, many of them being of uncommonly skillful 
w^orkmanship, are frequently encountered. These consist of axes, chisels, 
fleshing-tools, sinkers, spear-points, arrow-heads, &c., formed of a great 
variety of stone, such as diorite, sienite, greenstone, shale, and chert, 
many of them being finely polished. 

One of the handsomest stone-axes I have seen was taken out at this 
place. It is made from sienite, a fav