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Full text of "Annual report of the Boston Water Board, for the year ending .."

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in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofbo1886boston 



With Compliments of 



Boston Water Board. 



rock 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



BOSTON WATER BOARD 



FOR THE 






TEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1886. 



l\ 




BOSTON: 
ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS, 

No. 39 ARCH STREET. 
1887. 



[Document 27 — 1887.] 



CITY OF 




ELEVENTH ANNUAL RETORT 



BOSTON WATER BOARD, 



YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1886. 



Boston Water Board Office, 

January 1, 1887. 
The Boston Water Board presents its annual report, in. 
accordance with the requirement of the Ordinances. 

The operations of all departments have been satisfactorily 
conducted. The following is a concise summary of the prin- 
cipal expenditures of the year, with some comparisons : — 

1885. 1886. 

Care and maintenance Cochituate 

Department . . . $321,137 26 $336,507 37 

Care and maintenance Mystic 

Department .... 122,858 00 134,439 43 
Extension of mains (paid from 

loans) . . . . 175,061) 46 

Additional supply of water (paid 

from loans) . . . 144,306 04 

New-High Service (paid from 

loans) 141,085 56 

In the Cochituate Department the cost of relaying pipes, 
i.e., replacement of insufficient sizes by larger, and of worn- 
out pipes by new, was $43,580.44, as against $10,784.25 in 



2 City Document No. 27. 

1885. The number of feet relaid in 1886 (including the 
raising of the 48-inch main on Beacon street) was 12,255, as 
against 4,755 in 1885. Excluding this item the ordinary 
running expenses were less in 188(i than in 1885. 

In the Mystic Department the apparent excess of expen- 
ditures is accounted for by the cost of the Shawshine surveys, 
pumping at the lake, and other unusual outlays. 

The expenditures for extension of mains provided for the 
actual laying of 61,768 feet of mains, as against 54,584 in 
1885 ; and also left a surplus of stock on hand with which 
to begin the work of 1887 some $20,000 larger than that on 
hand at the beginning of 1886. 

The expenditures for additional supply include the cost of 
removing shallow flowage in Basin 3 and the completion of 
the Farm-pond conduit. 

The expenditures for new High-Service include the amounts 
expended on Fisher-hill Reservoir, the West Roxbury Ser- 
vice, and some large payments for pipe. 

The work of raising the Beacon-street main, above alluded 
to, was one of importance, requiring careful engineering and 
skilful mechanical treatment, and was accomplished with 
entire success. 

For the first time a method of cleaning pipes has been put 
in operation sufficiently to demonstrate its practicability and 
usefulness. In many cases where the smaller mains have 
been laid so long a time as to become heavily incrusted, re- 
ducing their capacity for delivery one-half or more, it would 
bo necessary to relay with new pipes of the same or larger 
size, unless cleaning could be accomplished. This would 
cost for 6-inch mains about $1.50 per foot, while the clean- 
ing we have done has cost only 17 cents per foot, leaving 
the pipes in good condition for many years' service. The 
machine made use of is known as the " Sweeney " machine, 
and the number of feet cleaned was 15,100. 

NEW CONSTRUCTIONS. 

The new High-Service works are progressing as rapidly as 
circumstances will permit. Fisher-hill Reservoir is in a 
forward state ; the main pipe is nearly all laid ; contracts for 
pumps have been made with the Holly Manufacturing Co. ; 
plans for the pumping-house are drawn, and contracts will be 
made for erecting that house at the earliest possible moment. 
The present High-Service establishment is barely adequate 
to the duty required of it ; and, in view of the urgent demand 
for an extension of the service to important districts, we 
shall use our utmost endeavors to complete the new system 



Report of the Water Board. 3 

during the current year. We are able to state that the en- 
tire work contemplated in the original estimates can be com- 
pleted considerably within the appropriation. 

The special High-Service ordered by the City Council for 
the West Roxbury District is completed, and was put in use 
December 23. A tower around the tank on Bellevue hill 
remains to be erected. The expense of establishing this 
service cannot be fully stated, but the cost of the entire con- 
struction will not exceed the sum appropriated, $45,000. 

The removal of shallow flowage from Basin No. 3 was 
one of the objects included in the general appropriation for 
additional supply made in 1883; and in that year the sum 
of $36,000 was expended. The work could not be resumed 
until 1886. Basin No. 4 having been filled during the 
winter, so that the contingency of a drought need not be 
feared, Basin 3 was emptied ; plans were perfected for re- 
moving the shallow liowage to a depth of ten feet around the 
margin of the entire basin ; contracts w r ere made, and the 
work of the contractors was all completed in October. 
There w r ere some sections of the basin where it was deemed 
desirable to prosecute the work under the direction of the 
Resident Engineer, by day labor, rather than by contract. 
This work was continued until inclement weather prevented 
further progress, and was so far completed that the basin 
could be put into service. There only remains to be done a 
few days work in riprapping a small section, which can be 
finished at convenience, when the water has fallen sufficiently 
during the coming summer. The wdiole work (including that 
done in 1883) will cost about $132,000. It has been done 
in the most thorough manner, and we have great confidence 
that the results in the way of the improvement of the w T ater 
in this basin will amply justify the outlay. 

The Farm-pond conduit was completed in June, and has 
been in use a part of the season. It has been found, how- 
ever, that in the present condition of the pond the water 
takes no harm from passing through it, but is rather im- 
proved than otherwise ; so that, at present, the use of the 
conduit is not required. Should unfavorable conditions, 
such as have in former years pertained to the pond, again 
arise, the conduit will doubtless prove serviceable. 

WATER-RATES. 

Notwithstanding the reduction of water-rates made for 
1886, a considerable surplus of revenue accrued to the Sink- 
ing-Fund. We have, therefore, carefully considered the 
matter of making a further reduction for the vear 1887, and 



4 City Document No. 27. 

find ourselves able, in adopting a new scale of rates, ito re- 
form, as we think, the method of making the dwelling-house 
assessments. Hitherto the tax ha* been based upon a val- 
uation of the real estate, including the land. This plan, 
though administered discreetly with a view of avoiding 
inequality of assessments, was still liable to produce such in- 
equality ; and we have ordered the valuation to be taken of 
buildings only. The general effect of this new scale will 
be to make the average of dwelling-house rates about ten 
per cent, less than the old rates. The operation of the 
scale of meter-rates adopted last year was found to give 
takers by meter a larger proportionate reduction than to 
others, amounting to more than ten per cent, on the aver- 
age. Therefore, meter-rates cannot be further reduced, but 
will stand as established for 1886. 

There is no probability that rates can be further reduced 
at present. There will be a natural increase of consumption 
and revenue, but the yearly outlays for extension and addi- 
tional supply will create additional charges which can hardly 
be much exceeded by the increase of income. 

QUALITY OF THE WATER. 

The quality of the water of our main supply has been good 
throughout the year. It not only has shown by analysis a 
very uniform condition of chemical composition, but it has been 
free from any taste or color suggesting temporary deteriora- 
tion. It has sometimes happened, and may happen again, 
that the color or taste is affected, while the healthfulness 
of the water is not. 

We frequently find in the published reports of water 
commissions of other cities tables of comparison of the quality 
of the water furnished in various places, and in these tables 
Boston generally appears pretty near the foot of the list. 
We do not suppose anybody has intended misrepresentation, 
but the information is customarily quite ancient, and the 
rating of Boston on analysis of water taken from some brook 
specially liable to foulness is certainly a distortion of facts. 
We have thought it well to secure reliable information by 
independent inquiry, and are glad to be able to assure our 
citizens that our water, as tested by the best known methods 
of comparison, is good. The following is a statement of the 
results of analyses recently made : — 



Report of the Water Board. 



Boston (main supply) 
"• (Mystic " ) 

New York 

Buffalo 

Lowell 

Providenco 

Newton 

Shawshino River . . 



C3 

"8 

o 


d 

■e'a 




Residue. 


a 
B 
< 

a 
o 

u 


a 1 

's s 

Z3 


0) 

6 


•a 

s 


> 


o 


0.0000 


0.0230 


0.60 


1.50 


3.60 


5.10 


0.0628 


0.0320 


2.45 


S.45 


5.05 


13.50 


0.0020 


0.0220 


0.55 


4.40 


5.00 


9.40 


0.0000 


0.0126 


0.40 


' 8.50 


6.00 


14.50 


0.0294 


0.013S 


0.30 


5.60 


3.10 


8.70 


0.0334 


0.0204 


0.45 


4.90 


13.90 


1S.80 


0.0002 


0.0062 


060 


2.80 


3.40 


0.20 


0.0004 


0.0144 


0.60 


3.40 


1.20 


4.6J 



(Figures express parts in 100,000. The Lowell water was taken from a filtering gallery ; 
that of the other cities named was taken from the house-service. The Mystic result is ob- 
tained by au average of two analysis, taken nearly simultaneously.) 

To the uri instructed reader it may be explained that, in a 
general way, the purity of water is rated according to the 
paucity of the elements enumerated in the above table ; yet 
there is no common standard by which to judge all waters, on 
account of the varying conditions which affect their quality or 
the water-sheds where they are collected. 1 While this is 

i [Note supplied by Prof. E. S. Wood, Harvard Med. Coll.] The inferences 
to be drawn from the amounts of free and albuminoid ammonia, chlorine, resi- 
due, etc., in a specimen of water, vary very much according' to the sourceof the 
water, as, for instance, whether it is a surface-water from a shallow well, fir an 
artesian well, whether the gathering ground is gravel or limestone, etc., etc. Surface- 
waters differ also according to the nature of tho sub-soil through which the water 
Hows; a notable instance of this is the difference between Fresh-pond water, which 
supplies Cambridge, and the surface-waters supplying neighboring cities and towns. 
The water of Fresh pond comes from the surrounding high land, which is of the 
same general character, as regards soil, etc., as the gathering-ground of Cochituate, or 
other sources of water supply in this vicinity; but the water of Fresh pond, before 
reaching the pond, searches through old sea-beds, which contain a large amount of 
lime and magncsian salts, so that the water of Fresh pond is 6 or S degrees hard, 
while that of Cochituate and other surface-waters in this vicinity are only one or two 
degrees hard. So that no definite rule can be laid down in. regard to the amounts of 
the different ingredients which should lead to the acceptance or rejection of a speci- 
men of water. 

In this region a very pure surface-water, after proper storage and aeration, should not 
contain habitually more than 0.0080 of free ammonia 0.0150 of albuminoid ammonia, and 
1.0 or '2.0 of chlorine per 100,000 of water. A surface-water the gathering-ground of 
which is very near the sea-coast, may have a considerably larger amount of chlorine, on 
account of I he salt in the vapor coining directly from the sea. A large excess of both free 
ammonia and chlorine together usually means sewage contamination, in which case 
the albuminoid ammonia is also usually largely increased. If the ammonias are alone 
increased, the chlorine" being the same as in the pure waters of thai region, the con- 
tamination is probably due to vegetable matter only. In ponds or large basins we 
usually expect to find more vegetable decomposition products iu the fall after the sur- 
face of the pond begins to get decidedly cooled, because the cooling of the water at 
the surface makes the surface-water fall, and the warmer water at the bottom, which 
naturally contains more vegetable decomposition products, rise. This, you may in nice, 
has almost invariably been the case with the ponds and basins of the Boston water- 
supply in October. 

No inferences can be drawn from the amount of residue and hardness, unless we 
know the amount which is natural in waters in the same district aud of the same 
nature (i.e., whether surface, subsoil, or artesian). 



6 City Document No. 27. 

true, it is also true that a definite standard may be adopted 
for any particular class of waters collected under about the 
same conditions. It is thus possible to compare the analysis 
made under the same conditions from year to year and to 
form a correct conclusion as to whether the water is, in a 
general way, improving as a source of domestic supply or 
whether it is deteriorating. 

In 1883 a systematic periodical examination of the waters 
was begun, and has been since continued, so that we have 
at hand a means of observing, from time to time, the changes 
which appear in the several chemical constituents of the 
waters. 

The Board believes that it is fully warranted in the follow- 
ing conclusions : — 

1st. That the Mystic water, originally good, is gradually 
deteriorating. 

2d. That the Cochituate water is a very pure source of 
supply, and that its quality has not materially changed since 
its introduction. 

3d. That the Sudbury water is of excellent quality, and is 
improved in its passage through the storage-basins, both as to 
color and condition, and that the changes already made at 
great expense, and others which are in contemplation, will 
have a still further influence of a beneficial character. 

Any good water, however, is subject to some insidious 
and abnormal groAvth of vegetation at any time, which will 
seriously impair its quality, for the time being. It is only by 
having a large reserve in the way of storage-basins and by 
the exercise of vigilance that a common standard of purity 
can be maintained ; and even then the patience of water-tak- 
ers may be sometimes called upon to tide over souie tempo- 
rary difficulty. 

For the purpose of comparison we have placed in the fore- 
going list the water of Newton, because it is reported to 
be, and is, very good. It is taken from filtering- galleries 
alongside the Charles river, and is said to be water inter- 
cepted on its way to the river, and not the water of the river 
itself. The other extreme is to be found in the water of 
Providence, which is taken from a river supply, w 7 ith little 
opportunity for purification before delivery to the service. 
The Buffalo anatysis indicates, as might be expected from 
the enormous body of water furnishing the supply (Lake 
Erie), a good degree of purity, though showing much 
solid matter. The best comparison for us is with New 
York, the supply for that city being taken and treated in 
much the same manner as our main supply, though on a 
scale much larger, and offering good opportunities for 



Report of the Water Board. 7 

securing original cleanliness and purity. It is well known 
that Philadelphia, Washington, and many of the large cities, 
use water inferior to that supplied to New York and Boston. 
As to the Mystic water the analysis offers opportunity for 
suggestive comparisons, and our remarks in another place 
indicate the reasons why this water cannot be expected to 
improve, but rather to deteriorate. 

In view of the importance of the matter of possible .com- 
munication of disease by means of impure river waters, the 
Board used the occasion of a visit to Philadelphia to make 
inquiries respecting the prevalence there of typhoid, said to 
be traceable to the use of Delaware river-water. To assist 
in their investigation Dr. J. H. McCollum, City Physician 
of Boston, was invited to accompany them. He has made a 
report to us, covering the ground so thoroughly that we 
print it in full as an appendix to this report. The most in- 
teresting fact developed is the great danger to public health 
from the use of well-water obtained in a closely populated 
district, and inferentially the dangers .to river-water when a 
dense population lies near it. Incidentally it is also inter- 
esting to note the remarks upon the comparative freedom 
from typhoid which Boston has enjoyed since the introduc- 
tion of Cochituate water. 

THE REMOVAL OF POLLUTIONS. 

We are unable to report the definite adoption of any plans 
for local systems of sewerage in the neighborhood of our 
sources, but the subject has been discussed and inves- 
tigated by local authorities to a greater extent than ever 
before. This is particularly true of the towns of Fra- 
mingham and Marlboro'. In the latter town both the 
Board of Selectmen and the special town committee have 
met us in a very fair spirit, and we hope to bring nego- 
tiations to an early conclusion. In Framingham the 
problem is more difficult, and the town authorities are 
quite justified in seeking the fullest knowledge of details of 
different schemes, proposed, to determine their merit, both 
on the points of effectiveness and cost. We have under- 
taken to assist them by means of new investigations by 
our engineers, in acquiring all possible information. The 
town-meetings lately held show a lively interest in the 
matter; and when, as we hope may be the case at an early 
day, some plan can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the 
intelligent and public-spirited authorities of this town to be 
the best, we anticipate no serious difficulty in arriving at a 
fair arrangement. 



8 City Document No. 27. 

With' respect to individual cases of direct pollution we 
have exercised all possible diligence, and they have been 
almost wholly obliterated. Those which remain are mostly 
remote from the reservoirs. We have, during the year, 
invoked the law, in several cases, successfully, notably in a 
few obscure cases on Pegan brook, with a result very grati- 
fying, so far as the appearance of that stream goes. 

In this connection we note that the portion of Lake 
Cochituate lying between the outlet of Beaver Dam brook 
and the lake proper is susceptible of decided improvement. 
When the lake is drawn down in summer, the water in the 
section alluded to, from its shallowness and sluggishness, 
and from its deterioration by the waters of Beaver Dam and 
Course brooks, is of a character likely to injure the waters 
of the lake. We have in contemplation a scheme of improve- 
ment which will be presented to the City Council as soon as 
practicable. 

CONSUMPTION OF WATER. 

It would appear j by the tables of consumption, that the 
rate of use per capita has been slightly increased during the 
year. Previous to the year 1883 the average rate of con- 
sumption was over 90 gallons per capita per day. In that 
year the systems of Waste Detection, by the use of the 
Deacon meter and of house-to-house inspection, were estab- 
lished, and the result of six months' work indicated the dis- 
covery and correction of such a number of leaks in mains, 
and of defective house-fixtures, as to reduce the average con- 
sumption per capita to a little over 70 gallons per day. The 
continuance of the detection and inspection, in 1884 and 1885, 
resulted in no further reduction of the average consumption, 
but operated to prevent the increase of wasteful causes, and 
to keep the average consumption about the same. And 
while the past year shows a small apparent increase, we are 
satisfied that there has been no real augmentation of waste 
in the strictly domestic service, and whatever increase is 
shown arises from the growth of the city. in business pros- 
perity, creating demands for the use of water not chargeable 
to " population " as such. 

The question as to what is a legitimate supply for a city 
like Boston has created much discussion, and brought out 
widely varying views. Especially when the city appears 
before the Legislature as an applicant for additional water- 
rights, it is quite customary to quote, as conclusive, examples 
ot cities, American and English, which use less water. 
Without pretending to have exhausted the subject we deem 



Report of the Water Board. 9 

it timely to mention a few considerations which seem to us 
to show that our consumption is not only not wasteful, but 
is quite economical. It must be apparent that in instituting 
comparisons there must be some correspondence in the cir- 
cumstances of the cities compared. In the first place, we 
may well reject all comparisons with foreign examples. If, 
as a whole, they bear against the average results in the 
United States, it would simply indicate that there arc char- 
acteristic national or local causes for the difference. As a 
matter of fact there are strong foreign examples to indicate 
that large cities, with thrifty commercial interests and popu- 
lation, use quantities of water corresponding to those con- 
sumed' by us ; but we may better consider our own country, 
with its multitude of large communities, about which we 
have some knowledge, and from whose surrounding circum- 
stances we can draw reasonable deductions. 

The latest reported returns of consumption in the larger 
cities, with some from cities of a smaller size, are given in 
the accompanying table. [See page 10.] 

We find, at the outset, that but one city in the United States, 
of equal size, uses less water than the city of Boston. That 
fact alone may not be conclusive ; for it may be that, in 
some localities, the source of supply is so abundant that there 
is no occasion for economy ; yet it will be found that in 
these localities there is no known cause of deliberate or ex- 
cessive waste. 

We find further that the experience of the smaller cities 
is,, that as the population increases, the consumption per 
capita is augmented. 

Mr. J. T. Fanning, C.E., whose work on "Water Supply 
for Cities" shows much research, and is regarded as the best 
American authority, epitomizes the requirements of Amer- 
ican cities as follows : — 

a. For ordinary domestic use, not including hose use, twenty gallons 
per capita per day. 

I. For private stables, including carriage washing, when reckoned on the 
basis of inhabitants, three gallons per capita per day. 

c. For commercial and manufacturing purposes, five to fifteen gallons per 
capita per day. 

d. For fountains — drinking and ornamental — three to ten gallons per 
capita per day. 

e. For fire purposes, one to ten gallons per capita per day. 

/. For private hose, sprinkling streets and yards, ten gallons per capita 
per day, during the four driest months of the year. 

g. Waste, to prevent freezing of water in service pipes and house fixtures 
in Northern cities, ten gallons per capita per day, during the three coldest 
months of the year. 

h. Waste by leakage of fixtures and pipes, and use for flushing purposes, 
from five gallons per capita per day, upward. 

Finally, Mr. Fanning gives the following as the approxi- 



10 



City Document No. 27. 






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Keport of the Water Board. 11 

raate estimate of the average daily consumption, basing his 
calculations entirely upon the population : — 

Places of 10,000 population, 35 to 45 gallons per capita. 
" 20,000 " 40 " 50 " 

" 30,000 " 45 " 65 " " 

" 50,000 " 55 " 75 " 

" 75,000 and upwards, 60 " 100 " " 

It has been ascertained by repeated tests that in Boston, 
the dwelling-house consumption is less than fifty, perhaps 
less than forty gallons per capita per day. As an example 
of the other extreme, — the much larger consumption in the 
business districts, necessary to bring up the general average 
to over seventy gallons, — we instance this : In a given section 
of the city, centrally located, there are in round numbers, 
1,200 water-services, one-third of which are metered. The 
population by census is about 2,700. The amount of water 
delivered through meters alone is equivalent to 550 gallons 
per capita per day ; and the amount of the additional deliv- 
eries brings the average up to over 700 gallons. An explana- 
tion of this great consumption is to be found, not in the 
extent of the "manufactures," — as the district contains but 
a limited number of manufacturing establishments, — but in 
the fact that it includes several large hotels, restaurants, and 
places of public resort, and that in one way and another it 
provides every clay for the personal requirements as to water, 
of probably eight or ten times as many persons as have a 
domicile in the territory. The fact that so large an amount 
of the water used is metered, and other attendant circum- 
stances, would indicate that there was very little waste of 
water. 

There are other sections of the city where the consumption, 
as related to population, would be found so much above the 
average of the whole city as to present an equally striking 
contrast with the amounts consumed in districts comprising 
dwellings only. Therefore, if it should be found that all 
residential districts were using even less than forty gallons 
per capita per day, the general average of seventy gallons 
is sufficiently explained by the exceptionally large, but legiti- 
mate, use of water in other parts of the city. 

A thorough study of the causes for the apparently great 
consumption of water in large cities would involve inquiry 
relating to the manufactures, the commerce, the habits 
of the people, the influx of strangers, the methods of distri- 
bution, the extent and age of the pine-system, the use of water 
in connection with sewerage, the extent of private sources of 



12 City Document No. 27. 

supply, the use of meters, the attempts at restriction of waste, 
and many other topics upon which we are but partially ad- 
vised. No doubt, as these cities grow, the general subject will 
become of such importance, in its pecuniary aspect, as to call 
for exhaustive inquiry, and we may then learn such facts and 
be able to draw such conclusions as to form some useful judg- 
ment respecting the means of controlling the consumption. 
At present we find everywhere expressions of inability to 
reduce the consumption. We may thus esteem ourselves 
fortunate that our local conditions produce results so well 
within bounds as compared with those reached in other 
large cities. While seeking to supply our citizens with 
water for all their real wants, we yet are bound, in view of 
the great cost of the supply, and the limited sources at com- 
mand for an increase thereof commensurate with the pro- 
spective growth of the city, to use all wise measures to keep 
the consumption within limits of prudent and necessary use. 
When the much-to-be-desired reliable meter is found, its 
extended use may result in some saving; the enforcement of 
strict regulations governing the style of permissible fixtures 
maybe of service; and when, by and by, we approach a 
threatened poverty of supply, some other restrictive agen- 
cies may be found ; but at present we anticipate no mate- 
rial reduction in our rate of consumption. 

WASTE. 

Our remarks under the head of " Consumption of Water " 
state generally what has been accomplished during the last 
three years in the way of restricting waste. We seem now 
to have reached a point where the most which can be expected 
is to prevent the increase of wasteful causes, and to detect, 
from time to time, the leaks and accidental wastes which will 
inevitably occur, and occasionally to discover cases of wilful 
waste. The system of the "Department of Inspection and 
Waste," adopted in 1883, and substantially continued to 
date, involves two forms of surveillance, viz. : that of detec- 
tion of leaks and waste by the Deacon meters, and that of 
house-to-house inspection. The " Deacon " service proper, 
i.e., the operation of the meters and ascertainment of locality 
of waste, is performed by a force specially appointed therefor, 
and on duty only during the summer (eight months). A 
certain number of the Inspectors Of Waste are detailed to 
investigate the wastes thus ascertained, and enforce the appli- 
cation of remedies. The house-to-house inspection is divided 
into two parts, — that which is performed by inspectors de- 
tailed to act under direction of the Water Eegistrar, to inspect 



Report of the Water Board. 13 

premises for the assessment of water-taxes ; and that which 
performs only house-to-house duty, with the single purpose 
of ascertaining if fixtures are in proper condition. 

Thus it is that of the entire force of thirty inspectors 
on out-door service not more than half of them are habitually 
engaged in independent house-to-house inspection the year 
round. This number, however, is sufficient to bring up the 
average of visits to each house to two per year ; and that, in 
our judgment* is sufficient. The larger part of leaks and 
wastes, found by house-to-house inspection, result from 
defective or worn-out fixtures. But where, during 1883, the 
returns indicated defects in twenty per cent, of the fixtures 
examined, there now appear at each recurring visit to be 
not more than five per cent. 

These minor causes of waste will inevitably be developed 
by every periodical inspection. Fixtures will wear out or 
get out of order, owners will delay repairs, and small wastes 
will occur, which, in the aggregate, reach a considerable 
amount. In the present condition of our supply it is not 
necessary that any new measures in the way of restriction 
should be immediately adopted ; but we feel confident that 
some advantage may be derived by the adoption of strict, 
though not oppressive, regulations respecting the character 
and location of service-pipes and the character of fixtures. 
This is a matter now engaging our attention, and in which 
we shall invite the cooperation of the Department of In- 
spection of Buildings. 

A NEW RESERVOIR. 

If we were certain that no accident could occur to any of 
our basins, or conduits, and that no misfortune could befall 
in respect to the water through any of those manifestations 
of vegetable nature which have hitherto given us occasion 
for alarm, we might now, in view of the fact that our appar- 
ent " safe supply " will exceed the probable demand tor seven 
or eight years to come, rest quietly for a few years without 
moving further in the direction of developing the Sudbury 
supply. But we cannot be sure of these things. The pros- 
perity of the city of Boston, as a whole, and the health and 
comfort of its individual citizens, are too important to permit 
us to take the future for granted. It is the part of wis lorn 
to be prepared for any emergency. And in that direction 
we recommend preparations for building a new r basin. 

At the original taking of the Sudbury plans were formed 
for seven basins. Four have been built, the last one con- 
structed requiring three years for completion. If another 



14 City Document No. 27. 

shall now be begun, an equal length of time will undoubtedly 
be required. Meantime no added burden will fall upon the 
water-takers, as the growth of the city will supply the in- 
crease of revenue necessary to meet the new interest charges 
created. Whether, after building a fifth basin of large size, 
it will be necessary at once to further develop the system 
will be for later years to determine. 

But we take occasion to make one further suggestion in 
this matter of additional supply. Some day the develop- 
ment of the system will require the acquisition of Whitehall 
pond. The reservoir rights in that locality are held by 
parties who derive no material income therefrom, and may 
be disposed to part with them for a reasonable price, and we 
should recommend their purchase. According to our pres- 
ent views the actual adaptation of this pond to the purposes 
of a reservoir, with needed enlargement and improvement, 
may well be among the latest of the features of development 
of the system. Twenty years hence may be amply early 
for that. But if at any time, even now, the owners of these 
rights will sell at a fair price, the city will do well to buy 
and hold till the time arrives for putting to use. 

To indicate as nearly as possible what our future require- 
ments may be, we present estimates of the probable popula- 
tion of Boston (excluding Charlestown), and approximate 
supply required, at the dates mentioned : — 

Year. Population. Daily supply required. 

1895 440,000 33,000,000 gallons. 

1905 550,000 41,000,000 " 

1915 660,000 49,000,000 " 

1925 790,000 59,000,000 " 

As our present daily supply is but 35,000,000 gallons it 
is apparent that in the near future further development of 
present sources will be necessary. 

CHIMERAS. 

In connection with this subject of future additions to the 
supply, we deem it timely to express the most decided 
opinion upon the demerit of the two schemes most often 
brought forward by those who, without knowledge or inves- 
tigation, oppose what they term half-way measures, as 
compared with a plan of getting some " big" supply. One 
of these is that of taking Merrimac river, and the other of 
taking water from Lake Winnipesaukee. The first is con- 
demned at the outset by the bad character of the water ; and 
the other, if it were possible to obtain the consent of New 



Report of the Water Board. 15 

Hampshire, and it were practicable otherwise, by its enormous 
expense. The procurement of Lake Winnipesaukee would, 
to speak within bounds, cost twenty-five or thirty million 
dollars, and at once increase the water-rates to twice their 
present amount. 

We can make a safe forecast of the future to the extent 
of about forty years. As the expiration of that period ap- 
proaches, our successors will, no doubt, be ableto make a choice 
from several opportunities for enlarging existing supplies, at 
a cost not disproportionate to the value of the acquisition, 
nor to the means of the city. But we venture to predict 
that neither the growth of the city nor any other exigency 
will ever produce such a state of things as to take either of 
the two projects alluded to out of the category of " Chimeras." 

METERS. 

It will be observed that we have less meters in use than at 
the beginning of the year. Many have been removed in 
consequence of complaints of stoppage or other failure of 
mechanism, and renewals have been made only in cases where 
it was absolutely necessary. Our investigations and tests 
have failed thus far to satisfy us that any meter in the market 
is wholly reliable. Even some which give little trouble, 
and which appear upon ordinary bench-tests to work with 
reasonable accuracy, are known to be faulty in some par- 
ticulars ; though none, so far as we know, operate to the 
pecuniary disadvantage of the consumer. Meanwhile Ave are 
advised that inventors are constantly seeking methods of 
overcoming the difficulties in the way, and it is not unlikely 
that a meter may yet be produced which will meet all re- 
quirements. Some late inventions have been brought to our 
notice which appear to have great merit. Yet the only test 
of value, actual service for a considerable period of time, 
must be applied to these, as to all others, before they can 
be indorsed. 

No meters have been purchased from the Tremont Meter 
Company since June, 1)585. The facts as to meters pur- 
chased of that company failing to meet the guarantee, and 
of efforts to secure replacement of those rejected by other 
"satisfactory" machines, have been before reported. We 
were able to secure from the Tremont Company a small num- 
ber of meters in the way of "replacement;" but further 
transactions between ourselves and that company were 
brought to a close by a claim on their part that their guaran- 
tee was not applicable to the meters stated by us to be de- 
fective. 



16 City Document No. 27. 

All the records and correspondence were placed in the 
hands of the Corporation Counsel, in order that we might be 
advised as to our duty in the premises. In view of the con- 
flicting claims on both sides, and especially of the claims of 
the company of non-fulfilment of contract by the Water 
Board, it seemed that no settlement could be reached except 
by litigation. Thus far, however, the Tremont Company 
has made no attempt to enforce its alleged claims, and we 
have no apprehension that any such attempt would meet with 
success. 

THE MYSTIC DEPARTMENT. 

The City Council having authorized an extension of the 
Mystic Water Loans (originally issued at higher rates than 
now prevail, and on shorter time than the law permitted), 
such of the loans as matured during the year Avere extended, 
thus reducing materially the amounts annually required for 
the Sinking-Funds, and furnishing a basis for rearranging 
the terms of the contracts with Chelsea, Somerville, and 
Everett on a more equitable footing than those originally 
made. Accordingly new contracts were executed, taking effect 
July 1, and the water-rates collected in these places are 
now equally divided between them and the city of Boston. 
By the terms of these contracts we are bound to supply 
water from the Mystic system as it exists or may be further 
developed, to the extent of the surplus remaining after meet- 
ing the wants of Charlestown, the order of precedence in 
right to a full supply being Chelsea, Somerville, and Everett. 
The old contracts made by the city of Charlestown were, of 
course, based upon the supply owned by that city, and the 
new contracts have simply continued the rights to the 
same supply, but grant no rights to participation in any 
supply obtained by the city of Boston in its own name and 
for its own citizens. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the rainfall of the year was 
larger than the average the supply has been barely sufficient. 
In fact the lake was drawn down in October to a. point 
where pumping was necessary. With the rapid growth of 
the cities of Chelsea and Somerville, and the town of Ever- 
ett, the consumption is steadily increasing, and the recur- 
rence of a dry season would certainly find these communities 
dependent upon some other source of supply to meet their 
wants. 

Reference to the table of analyses elsewhere shows what 
the quality of the water is, as compared with that of 
Boston and other places. We have maintained a constant 



Beport of the Water Board. 17 

inspection of the localities offering opportunity for pollution ; 
and our records now show very few cases where direct pollu- 
tion is imminent. The possibilities of indirect pollution we 
cannot fully control, and these remain in sufficient number 
to threaten serious injury to the quality of the water. 

Referring to previously expressed opinions, we have simply 
to repeat that the time has arrived when, with reference both 
to the quantity and quality of the water, a new supply should 
be obtained. The application of the city of Boston to the 
Legislature of 1886, for the water of the Shawshine, was 
denied. Early in the summer we formally called the atten- 
tion of the authorities of Chelsea, Somerville, and Everett 
to their jeopardy in respect of water supply, and urged them 
to make an independent investigation of the subject. They 
acted upon our suggestion, and as a result appear to be fully 
convinced of the ground taken by us in their behalf before 
the Legislature of 1886. They have consequently joined in 
a renewed petition to the incoming Legislature. It would 
appear that the great, even vital, interest these places have 
in the matter should be presented in such a way as to be 
convincing. To Boston the JNlystic supply is of minor 
consequence. We inherit from the city of Charlestown a 
possible moral obligation to maintain our friendly attitude 
with these communities. But they now aggregate fully 
twice the population of Charlestown, and their ratio of in- 
terest grows larger year by year. If, for any reason, they 
had desired to assume, individually or collectively, the cost, 
care, and responsibility of providing for the demands of the 
future, and to dissolve their association with Boston, we 
should have deemed it wise to place no obstacles in their way. 
Boston could contemplate the contingency of being obliged to 
furnish Charlestown with water (Charlestown holding but 
about 9 per cent, of the population of the city, taken as a 
whole, and having no expectation of future growth in popu- 
lation), without apprehension. But we do not understand 
that these places have any wish to enter unaided upon such 
a serious task. They are satisfied with their relations to 
us, and prefer to continue as our customers, leaving to us 
the management, and content that, so far as Charlestown is 
concerned, we may participate in the advantage of such new 
supply as may be granted for the general benefit of all con- 
cerned. 

It should not be forgotten that, while so long as the Mystic 
supply is used, Boston lies under the moral obligation alluded 
to, we are under neither legal nor moral obligation to supply 
other communities with water from the Cochituatc and Sud- 
bury system. That system was originated and developed 



Population. 


Daily supply required. 


132,000 


10,000,000 gallons 


179,000 


13,500,000 


232,000 


17,500,000 " 


290,000 


22,000,000 » 



18 City Document No. 27. 

for the city of Boston only. Not many years will elapse 
before its capacity will be fully tested by the wants of Boston 
only, and when that city will be in its own behalf searching 
for new means of supply. It, therefore, behooves the com- 
munities interested in the Mystic system to speedily avail 
themselves of an opportunity for securing an adequate safe 
and good supply of water, if one is to be had. Such a 
supply has been pointed out in the Shawshine river. 

The future demands of the Mystic district are approximated 
as follows : — 

Year. 

1895 
1905 
1915 
1925 

THE MYSTIC SEWER. 

This expedient for removing the tannery drainage from the 
influents of the Mystic lake serves its purpose, but leaves upon 
our hands a problem of some difficulty. While we do not 
fully concede the correctness of statements made by some 
of the citizens of Medford and Arlington as to the pernicious 
effects of permitting the liquid part of the sewage to flow into 
the river below our dam, yet it must be admitted that a 
practicable plan of cleansing the effluent is greatly to be 
desired. The use of our settling-basins, and the removal of 
the solid matters before permitting the liquid to flow to the 
sea, accomplishes something ; but there should be some 
means found, if possible, for more complete filtration or 
purification. We have considered several schemes, and have 
made experiments from which we hope to evolve a satis- 
factory plan, setting at rest all questions of alleged nuisance. 

JAMAICA POND. 

As the question of accepting the Act of the Legislature, 
authorizing the city to purchase the property of the Jamaica 
Pond Aqueduct Company, will be considered b}^ the City 
Council, we deem it proper to state the reasons which have 
influenced our judgment in favor of this proposition. 

The rights of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Company are 
derived from a charter granted when Roxbury was little 
more than a village, and when a few detached clusters of 
houses required a greater supply of water than could be 
secured from wells. The available supply was then even 
greater than it is now, as the growth of Jamaica Plain — 



Report of the Water Board. 19 

then a rural territory, favorably situated for the collection 
of water from the natural water-shed — has greatly disturbed 
the natural conditions, and less water is now secured. 
Meantime, while Roxbury grew to be a city, its demands 
for water could not be met ; but one of the most potent facts 
in determining the question of annexation was the procure- 
ment of Cochituate water. So, when Roxbury became a 
part of Boston, the pipes of the Cochituate system were 
extended, not only to all the territory not covered by the 
Jamaica Pond Company, but necessarily through all the 
main avenues where the latter company had previously laid 
its pipes. But the sales of the Jamaica Pond Company are 
to-day not much greater than they were twenty years ago. 
They have no means of increasing their business, unless 
through an agency to be hereafter mentioned. Still, the 
franchise was of such value to the proprietors that they ex- 
pended, since 1874, a large sum of money — between sixty 
and seventy thousand dollars — for new iron mains and for 
other necessary plant, in order to preserve the earning 
capacity of the works. 

It has been said that the company has no property of real 
value to sell, and that if let alone their supply will gradually 
fall to a point below where its sale is profitable. We do 
not esteem this to be true ; for, while the supply may 
become less, we think it quite possible for them to adopt 
methods which would for all time secure them a considerable 
revenue. Their latest project is to make a connection with 
the Dedham Water Company, and not only secure a full 
supply for their present wants, but possibly to enlarge their 
business. 

Now, if the Jamaica Pond Company, or any other private 
corporation, could supply to any given section of the city 
a good quality of water, and all that is required for domestic 
and fire purposes within that section, it might be desirable that 
such a corporation should not only exist, but be encouraged ; 
for, whatever the extent of the supply, it would reduce by 
so much the demands upon our public works. But the fact 
is that in the territory over which the Jamaica Pond water 
is distributed the city of Boston is also obliged to maintain 
practically a full service. So that we have all the plant 
necessary to do all the business, while another party takes 
a considerable part of the revenue. The amount of water 
supplied is so insignificant as not to be worth considering 
in connection with our large requirements; and we suffer 
the disadvantage above-named, besides having in our streets 
— sufficiently burdened otherwise — an unnecessary pipe 



20 City Document No. 27. 

system, subject to all the contingencies of street-openings, 
etc. And in respect to the requirements for fire purposes, 
both the system and the supply are so unreliable that it is 
necessary for us to introduce our water into their pipes 
whenever a fire occurs in a place where only their pipes are 
located. 

As to the project of connecting with Dedham and intro- 
ducing Charles-river water, we assume that it will be 
esteemed very undesirable for many reasons. If the possi- 
bilities in respect to a reduction of our revenue be wholly 
ignored, the plan would simply serve to perpetuate the ob- 
jectionable features of the present double system of 
supply. 

In the correspondence printed in the Appendix may be found 
a statement of the terms on which the Jamaica Pond Company 
will sell ; and also what will be the cost of combining the 
Jamaica Pond distribution with our own. The assessed value 
of the property of the company (not including its mains) is 
$31,000. Its revenue is about $ 15,000 per annum. 1 What its 
net income is we are unable to state ; but, it is known that its 
stock and obligations are held by a few persons, and that in 
some form they obtain a considerable income. The rates for 
water charged by the Jamaica Pond Company have heretofore 
been somewhat less than those of the city ; but, under our new 
scale of assessments, we judge that there would be no ma- 
terial difference. We estimate the income, at our rates, at 
$17,000 ; so that, if the city purchases the property (at, say 
$100,000) , and expends $20,000 for combining the systems of 
distribution, the outgo of the city would be the interest on 
these sums, the loss of taxes, cost of maintenance, and loss of 
occasional revenue from sale of water, — say an average total 
of not more than $8,000 per year. It would, therefore, 
appear that there would accrue a net revenue, for the gen- 
eral benefit of the whole body of water-takers, of $9,000 or 
$10,000 a year. Viewed, then, as a financial operation only, 
it is very much to our advantage. 

If the City Council shall accept the act authorizing the 
purchase, it will be for them to determine which of the offers 
made by the Jamaica Pond Company it is desirable to accept. 
These offers, though made a year ago, and with conditions, 
are still open. 

Accompanying this report will be found a plan showing 
the lines of pipe, both of the city system and of the Jamaica 
Pond Company, in the localities where the latter are laid. 

1 See Appendix. 



Report of the "Water Board. 21 

The letter from the City Engineer sufficiently indicates the 
value of the latter system, both in itself and in its relation to 
our own. 

The reports of the City Engineer, Water Registrar, and 
Division Superintendents are appended. 

HORACE T. ROCKWELL, 
WILLIAM B. SMART. 
THOMAS F. DOHERTY, 

Commissioners. 



22 



City Document No. 27. 



General Statistics. 



Sudbury and Cochituate Works. 



Daily average consumption in gallons .... 

Daily average consumption in gallons per in 
habitant 



Daily average amount used through meters. 



Percentage of total consumption metered 

Number of services 

Number of meters and motors 



Length of supply and distributing mains, in 
miles • . . 



Number of fire-hydrants in use 

Yearly revenue from water-rates ..... 

Yearly revenue from metered water .... 

Percentage of total revenue from metered water, 

Cost of works on May 1,1884, and Jan. 1, 1886, 
1887 



Yearly expense of maintenance 

Mystic Works. 

Daily average consumption in gallons . . . . 

Daily average consumption in gallons per in 
habitant 



Daily average amount used through meters 
gallons 



Percentage of total consumption metered . 

Number of services 

Number of meters and motors 



Length of supply and distributing mains, in 
miles 



Number of fire-hydrants in use 

Yearly revenue from water-rates ...... 

Yearly revenue from metered water 

Percentage of total revenue from metered water, 

Cost of works on May 1, 1884, and Jan. 1, 1886 
and 1887 



Yearly expense of maintenance 



25,090,500 

71.9 

5,171,120 

20.6 

50,632 

4,666 

388.5 

4,573 

$1,203,192 55 

$378,484 75 

31.5 

$17,775,955 68 
$336,578 36 

6,209,700 

64.5 

869,246 

14.0 

14,939 

571 

129.2 

794 

$262,243 50 

$63,627 39 

24.3 

$1,648,452 35 
$128,126 40 



1885. 



25,607,200 

72.4 

6,186,668 

24.2 

51,810 

4,417 

400 

4,681 

$1,239,757 99 

$452,961 60 

36.5 

^18,567,279 19 
$321,137 26 

6,737,350 

67.9 

1,012,755 

15.0 

15,928 

594 

131.0 

781 
$276,557 60 
$74,128 8 
26.8 

$1,656,805 39 
$122,858 00 



26,627,900 

74.3 

6,373,200 

23.9 

53,400 

3,763 

414 

4,806 

$1,206,064 69 

$400,706 85 

33.2 

18,973,616 03 
$336,507 37 

7,399,800 

72.5 

1,117,600 

15.1 

16,110 

469 

133.2 

818 

$249,609 62 

$69,330 48 

27.8 

$1,657,458 97 
$134,439 43 



Report of the Water Board. 23 



Earnings and Expenditures. 

The total receipts of the Cochituate Water- Works from all 
sources for the year ending December 31, 1886, were as 
follows, viz. : — 

Income from sales of water . . . $1,206,064 69 

Income from shutting off and letting on 

water, and fees 3,202 20 

Elevator, fire and service-pipes, sale of old 

materials, etc. ..... 31,296 40 



$1,240,563 29 



The total expenditures of the Cochituate 
Water-Works for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1886, were as follows, viz. : — 

Current expenses . . . $336,507 37 

Refunded water-rates . . 702 69 
Transferred to City Collector's 

Department . . . 2,500 00 

Interest on funded debt . 680,993 51 



1,020,703 57 



Balance Dec. 31, 1886 . . . $219,859 72 

From this apparent balance is to be deducted the amount 
required for Sinking-Fund. 

The total receipts of the Mystic Water-Works, from all 
sources, for the year ending December 31, 1886, were as 
follows, viz. : — 

Income from sales of water . . . $249,609 62 
Income from shutting off and letting on 

water, and fees ..... 767 25 

Service-pipes, repairs, etc. . . . 1,856 59 

Interest on cost of Chelsea pipes ;• . 2,330 42 



!54,563 88 



The total expenditures of the Mystic 
Water-Works for the year ending December 
31, 1886, were as follows : ■ — 
Current expenses . . $134,439 43 

Interest on funded debt . 45,323 75 



Amounts carried forward, $179,763 18 $254,563 88 



24 



City Document No. 27. 



Amounts brought forward, 

Refunded water-rates . 

Amount paid Chelsea, Somer- 
ville, and Everett, under con- 
tract . 



Balance Dec. 31, 1886 



79,763 18 $254,563 88 
177 42 



42,669 63 



222,610 23 
$31,953 65 



From this apparent balance is to be deducted the amount 
required for Sin king-Fund. 

Outstanding Loans. 



The outstanding Cochituate Water Loans at this 




date, 


Jan. ], 1887, exclusive of the Additiona 


Supply, 


are as 


follows : — 






5 per cent. Sterling Loan 






(£399,500) . . $1,947,273 98 


Due Oct. 


1, 1902 


5 per cent. Gold Loans 100,000 00 $100,000 


Due April 


1, 


1906 


5 per cent. Cur. Loan 1,000 00 1,000 


Due Oct. 


1, 


1907 




' 500,000 


Due Dec. 


12 


1897 




450,000 


Due June 16, 


1898 




540,000 


Due Oct. 


3 


1898 




250,000 


Due April 27 


1899 




625,000 


Due Jan. 


1 


1901 




688,000 


Due April 


1 


1901 




330,000 


Due July 


1 


1901 




413,000 


Due April 


1 


1903 




38,000 


Due April 


1 


1904 


6 per cent. Loan . 4,253,000 00 « 


161,000 


Due Jan. 


1 


1905 




142,700 


Due April 


1 


1905 




6,000 


Due Oct. 


1, 


1905 




82,550 


Due Jan. 


1 


1906 




8,750 


Due April 


1 


1906 




4,000 


Due Oct. 


1 


1906 




8,000 


Due Jan. 


1 


1907 




5,000 


Due April 


1 


1907 


* 


^ 1,000 


Due July 


1 


1907 


( 280,000 


Due April 


1 


, 1910 




111,000 


Due July 


1 


1913 




257,000 


Due Jan. 


1 


1914 




23,000 


Due Oct. 


1 


1915 


4 per cent. Loan . 1,188,000 00^ 


50,000 


Due Jan. 


1 


, 1915 




144,200 


Due April 


1 


1915 




58,000 


Due Jan. 


1 


1916 




28,500 


Due April 


1 


, 1916 




236,300 


Due Oct. 


1 


, 1916 


f 50,000 


Due April 


1 


, 1915 


| 50,000 


Due Oct. 


1 


, 1915 


H per cent. Loan . 300,000 00 { 100,000 


Due Jan. 


1 


1916 


| 75,000 


Due July 


1 


, 1916 




[ 25,000 


Due Oct. 


1 


, 1916 


$7,789,273 98 





Report of the Water Board. 



25 



The outstanding Mystic Water Loans at this date, Jan. 1, 
1887, are as follows : — 







r $50,000 


Due Oct. 


1, 


1887 






3,000 


Due April 


1, 


1888 






100,000 


Due July 


1, 


1890 


6 per cent, currency 
Mystic Water Loans 


$491,000 00 ■ 


51,000 
139,000 


Due Jan. 
Due July 


1, 

1, 


1891 
1891 






67,000 


Due Jan. 


1, 


1892 






42,000 


Due July 


1, 


1892 






, 39,000 


Due July 


1, 


1893 


5 per cent, currency 




6,000 


Due Oct. 


1, 


1893 


Mystic Water Loans 


$108,000 00 J 


102,000 


Due April 


1, 


1894 


2>\ per cent. Cur. Loans . 


35,000 00 


35,000 


Due April 


1, 


1896 


3^ per cent. Cur. Loan . 


60,000 00 


60,000 


Due Oct. 


1, 


1896 


3J per cent. Mystic Sewer 












Loan . ... 


$130,000 00 


130,000 


Due April 


1, 


1916 


4 per cent. Loan 


15,000 00 
$839,000 00 


15,000 


Due Oct. 


1, 


1913 



The following statement shows the appropriations by the 
City Council for an additional supply of water, with the 
loans issued to meet them, and tlie amount of expenditures 
to Jan. 1, 1887: — 



APPROPRIATIONS . 

Transfer from Reserved Fund 
Order for Treasurer to borrow 



Oct. 21, 1871.— 
Apr. 12, 1872.— 
Apr. 11, 1873.— 
Feb. 26, 1875.— 
July 1, 1876.— 
Apr. 20, 1878.— 
Apr. 11, 1879.— 
Aug. 17, 1881. — 
June 2, 1883. — 
Oct. 14, 1884.— 



Total appropriations to April 30, 1886 



$10 
100 
500 
1,500 
2,000 
600 
350 
324 
621 
150 



000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
000 00 
,000 00 



$6,155,000 00 



Oct. 1, 1875.— Premium on $1,000,000 bond, under 

order of Feb. 26, 1875 . $83,700 00 
April 1, 1876.— Premium on $452,000 

bonds, under order of 

Feb. 26, 1875 . . 47,786 80 
Oct. 1, 1876.— Premium on $2,000,000 

bonds, under order of 

July 1, 1876 . . . 221,400 00 

Amount carried forward, 



352,886 80 

■86,507,886 80 



26 



City Document No. 27. 



Amount brought forward, 



5,507,886 80 



EXPENDED. 



1871-72 
1872-73 
1873-74 



including $20,897.50, discount 
on bonds sold, January, 

1874 



1874-75 
1875-76 
1876-77 
1877-78 
1878-79 
1879-80 
1880-81 
1881-82 
1882-83 
1883-84 
1884-85 
1885-86 
May 1, 1886, to Jan. 1, 1887 



$2,302 81 
61,278 83 



114,102 77 

224,956 68 

783,613 49 

1,924,060 24 

1,257,715 26 

635,658 08 

213,350 97 

97,406 78 

35,677 98 

167,621 43 

423,625 79 

276,292 13 

139,187 68 

111,330 14 



Balance of appropriations unexpended January 1, 1887, 



6.468,181 06 
$39,705 74 



The outstanding loads on account of Additional Supply of 
Water, on Jan. 1, 1887, are as follows: — 



r 



4 per cent. Loans 



5 per cent. Gold Loans 

5 per cent. Cur. Loan 

6 per cent. Loans . 
4J per cent. Loan. 



$1,725,000 



I 

r 

3,452,000 <! 



I 



12,000 



644,000-1 
i 
I 

268,000 



i, 101,000 



$324,000 

82,000 

588,000 

336,000 

209,000 

18,500 

16,000 

1,500 

100,000 

50,000 

1.000,000 

452,000 

2,000,000 

12,000 

100,000 

492,000 

8,000 

44,000 

268,000 



Due April 1, 
Due July 1, 
Due April 1, 
Due Oct. 1, 
Due Jan, 1, 
Due April 1, 
Due Oct. 1, 
Due April 1, 
Due April 1, 
Due April 1, 
Due Oct. 1, 
Due April 1, 
Due Oct. 1, 
Due April 1, 
Due July 1, 
Due April 1, 
Due Jan. 1, 
Due July 1, 
Due Oct. 1, 



1912 
1908 
1908 
1913 
1914 
1914 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1916 

1905 
1906 
1906 
1908 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1908 



Total Water Debt of the City of Boston January 2, 1887. 

Cochituate . . . . . . $13,890,273 98 

Mystic 839,000 00 



$14,729,273 98 



Report of the Water Board. 



27 



Cost of Construction of the Cochituate Water - Works to 
January 1, 1887. 

Cost of Water- Works to January 1, 1850, as 

per final report of Water Commissioners . $3,998,051 83 
Extension to East Boston . . . 281,065 44 
Jamaica-pond aqueduct . . . . 13,237 50 
New dam at Lake Cochituate . . . 10,940 08 
Raising lake two feet, including damages . 28,002 18 
Dudley pond, lower dam, and making-con- 
nections with lake .... 18,982 23 
New main from Brookline reservoir . . 304,991 83 
Land and water rights and land damages 

since January 1, 1850 .... 49,486 17 

New pipe-yard and repair-shop . . . 25,666 51 

Upper yard, buildings, etc. . . . 9,165 63 

New water-pipes, East Boston . . . 20,999 43 

New main, East Boston .... 24,878 08 

Pumping-works at Lake Cochituate . . 23,577 69 
High-service, stand-pipe, engine-house, and 

engines 103,829 53 

High-service, South Boston . . . 27,860 29 

Chestnut-Hill reservoir, including land . 2,461,232 07 

Parker-Hill reservoir . 228,246 17 

Charles-river siphon ..... 26,532 35 

Keeper's house, Parker Hill . . . 2,764 90 

Temporary high-service, Brighton . . 7,865 86 

New stable at Chestnut-Hill reservoir . . 8,103 55 

Pegan dam, Natick ..... 1,394 06 

Willow dam, Natick 1,567 29 

High-service, East Boston . . . . 22,960 07 

New main from Chestnut-Hill reservoir . 341,702 28 

New high-service works .... 304,115 06 
Cost of laying main pipe for extension in 

Roxbury, Dorchester, Brighton, and West 

Roxbury Districts . . ... . 1,758,512 22 

Additional supply of water, including land 

damages and all expenses . . . 6,468,181 06 
Cost of laying main pipe since January 1, 

1850 2,147,982 35 

Extension of mains, etc. (from loans) . . 251,722 32 

$18,973,616 03 



28 



City Document No. 27. 



Cost of Construction of the Mystic Water- Works to 
January 2, 1887. 



Salaries .... 


. . . 


$17,644 61 


Engineering 


. . 


33,746 87 


Land damages . 


. . 


91,855 38 


Reservoir . . . . 


• . . 


141,856 26 


Dam .... 


. . . 


17,167 26 


Conduit .... 


. . . 


129,714 30 


Engine-house, coal-shed, and chimney 


36,112 99 


Engines .... 


. • 


150,096 70 


Grubbing pond . 


. 


9,393 26 


Iron pipes 


. . • 


108,437 10 


Iron pipes, trenching 


• 


61,029 59 


City distribution 


. . • 


162,335 23 


Hydrants .... 


. 


19,976 21 


Stopcocks 


. 


19,262 52 


Miscellaneous items . 


. . 


14,012 51 


Roadway and bridge . 


. . 


3,529 22 


Lowering Mystic river 


. 


3,012 06 


Inspections 


. 


1,824 79 


Service-pipes and meters . 


. . 


133,858 70 


Hydrants for Somerville and Medford 


2,653 08 


Somerville distribution 


. • • 


2,492 10 


Dwelling-house for engineer 


and firemar 


L 


(pumping-station) . 


. 


4,871 02 


Chelsea extension 


. . 


37,347 8Ci 


Medford extension 


. . 


3,997 41 


Drinking-fountains 


, . 


1,415 05 


New line of supply main . 


. 


203,050 09 


Stable and pipe-yard 


. 


8,964 64 


Extension of engine-house and boiler . 


33,727 43 


New force-main 


. . 


9,875 17 


Mystic sewer 


. . 


136,245 70 


New stable engine-house . 


. . 


1,767 39 


Additional force-main 


, , 


24,882 96 


Temporary pumping-works 


. 


6,905 15 


New work-shop 


. 


3,000 00 


Cost of laying main pipe since 


1873 . 


21,398 36 




$1,657,458 97 



EEPOET OF CITY ENGINEER. 



Office of City Engineer, 
City Hall, Boston, January 21, 1887. 

Col. H.T.Rockwell, Chairman Boston Water Board: — 
Sir, — In accordance with the requirements of the revised 
ordinances I respectfully submit the following report on the 
condition of the Water-Works : — 

Yield of the Sources of Supply. 

The rainfall of the year 1886 was larger than that of any 
previous year since 1878, and the percentage received in the 
storage-reservoirs was above the average. During the sum- 
mer, however, the rainfall was small, and the percentage col- 
lected was less than the average. In consequence of this 
unequal distribution of the rainfall the supply from the Mys- 
tic works was insufficient, and, for a short time, the tempo- 
rary pumps were used to raise the water from the lake into 
the conduit. 

In February occurred the greatest freshet of which we 
have any well-authenticated records. Between February 10 
and 13 the following rainfalls were recorded at different 
points on the water-sheds of our sources of supply : — 

Framingham, 4.64 inches. 
Westborough, 4.63 inches. 
Lake Cochituate, 4.95 inches. 
Mystic Lake, 5.64 inches, 
Winchester, 5.45 inches. 

Previous to the beginning of the rain the ground was 
covered with snow, which has been estimated as equivalent to 
two inches of rain ; and the weather during the freshet a\ ;is 
mild, so that most of the snow was melted and entered the 
streams. 

The following table shows the yield of the different sources 
of supply from February 12 to 18. 



30 



City Document No. 27. 



Feb. 12 . . 
Feb. 13 . . 
Feb. 14 . . 
Feb. 15 . . 
Feb. 16. . 
Feb. 17 . . 
Feb. 18 . . 

Totals 



Sudbury. 
Gallons. 



942,900,000 
2,006,500,000 
1,294,900,000 
841,900,000 
534,800,000 
429,300,000 
357,600,000 



6,407,900,000 



Cocbituate. 
Gallons. 



335,600,000 
509,900,000 
281,400,000 
198,700,000 
144,100,000 
80,700,000 
123,400,000 



1,673,800,000 



Mystic. 
Gallons. 



322,500,000 
687,800,000 
576,700,000 
363,100,000 
239,700,000 
134,600,000 
95,260,000 



2,419,600,000 



The amount collected on each of these water-sheds during 
the week was nearly one-fourth of the amount collected dur- 
ing the entire year. 

On the Sudbury river the yield was equal to 4.88 inches of 
rainfall on the entire water-shed ; on the Cochituate water- 
shed 5.10 inches, and on the Mystic 5.18 inches. This 
freshet was the cause of great damage throughout New Eng- 
land, but no damage was done to any portion of the works 
connected with the water supply. In the report of the Super- 
intendent of the Western Division will be found a record of 
the head of water existing at the different culverts and 
bridges on the line of the Sudbury and Cochituate aqueducts. 



SuDBURY-RlVER EeSERVOIRS AND LAKE COCHITUATE. 

Although Reservoir No. 3 has been empty during the 
greater portion of the year the increase of storage capacity, 
due to the completion of Reservoir No. 4, has enabled these 
works to furnish an ample supply of water of good quality. 
The fluctuations of the different reservoirs are graphically 
shown on Plate, facing page 50. 

Reservoir JVo. 1.— On account of the work being done at 
Reservoir No. 3 the water in this reservoir was kept between 
four and five feet below the level of the flash-boards from 
the middle of April to the latter part of November. Water 
was wasted at Dam No. 1 from January 1st to June 4th, 
from December 2d to 8th, and from December 19th to the 
present time. Water was taken from this reservoir for the 
supply of the city from June 4th to June 9th. 

Reservoir JVo. 2. — Was full and overflowing from January 
1st to June 21st. During July its surface lowered rapidly, 
and on Aug. 5th it was 10.72 feet below the crest of the dam. 



Eeport or the Water Board. 



31 



It then rose about two feet, and remained about grade 157 
until the beginning of October, when it was lowered to 156. 

Copious rains in the latter part of October and during the 
month of November filled the reservoir, so that on November 
23d water was wasted over the crest of the dam. The 
reservoir is now full and overflowing. 

Reservoir JVb. 3. — During the year 1885 surveys and 
estimates were made, with the view of doing by contract the 
greater portion of the excavation required to improve this 
reservoir, and remove the shallow flow r age ; and on December 
10, 1885, the emptying of the reservoir was begun, in 
order that the ground-water might have ample time to drain 
off before beginning the work in the spring. 

On April 6, 1886, proposals were received for the removal 
of about 130,000 cubic yards of mud and gravel in the portion 
of the reservoir north of the Old Colony E.R. The work 
was divided into five sections, as shown in the following 
table, which gives the principal facts relating to each : — 



a 

o 

"© 


Contractor. 


C3 
© 

o 3 


m 
u 

© > 
•« o 

-§2 

o 


Work 
completed. 


Amount 
of contract. 


o 

© . 


Range 
of bids. 


A. 


Neil McBride 


$0.27 


25,331 


Sept. 20 


$6,839 37 


11 


27 to 75c. 


B. 


" 


0.27 


16,640 


July 19 


4,492 80 


11 


27 to 65c. 


C. 


" 


0.24 


15,512 


Aug. 7 


3,722 88 


12 


24 to 75c. 


r>. 


Silas H. Munson 


0.29 


41,542 


Sept. 8 


12,047 18 


12 


27 to 65c. 


E. 


" " 


0.31 


40,637 


Oct. 7 


12,597 47 


11 


27 to 65c. 



While this work was in progress plans and specifications 
were prepared for similar work in the portion of the basin 
south of the Old Colony R.E.. And on June 1st proposals 
were received for work embraced in the following state- 
ment : — 



a 

.2 

© 
CO 


Contractor. 


a 
© " 
P-.S 

© — 

- a 


T3 

U . 

o 


Work 
completed. 


Amount 
of contract. 


o 
u 
o . 

11 


Range 

of bids\ 


F. 


Neil McBride 


$0.23 


19,486 


Sept. 18 


$4,4S1 78 


9 


23 to 33c. 


G. 


J. R. Rooke 


0.24 


13,770 


" 21 


3,304 80 


9 


24 to 34c. 


H. 


Joseph McNamara 


0.257 


12,320 


8 


3,166 24 


9 


25.7 to 34c. 


I. 


" 


0.247 


15,843 


" 5 


3,913 22 


9 


24.7 to 34c. 


.T. 


" " 


0.225 


9,448 


July 29 


2,135 80 


9 


22.6 to 33c. 



32 City Document No. 27. 

About 100 horses and 250 men were employed by the con- 
tractors in executing these contracts, and the work was all 
completed in good season and in a satisfactory manner. The 
result accomplished by this work has been the deepening of 
the shallow portions, so that when the reservoir is full there 
is nowhere around the borders less than 10 feet of water. 

The mud, stumps, and other objectionable materials were 
deposited in the shallow portions of the reservoir, thus rais- 
ing these portions above the water-line ; the gravel excavated 
was placed in front of these deposits, leaving clean gravel 
slopes of about three horizontal to one perpendicular,, ex- 
posed to the water. 

The upper and narrow portion of the reservoir was very 
shallow, composed of meadows, and covered with a rank 
growth of vegetation. The improvement of this section 
was done by day-labor, and consisted in digging a channel 
down to the gravel, and filling up the sides with clean gravel 
to one foot above the highest flow-line. The water now 
varies from eight to fifteen feet in depth for about 3,500 feet 
from the influent end of the reservoir. 

Including some work done in 1883 about 56,000 cubic 
yards of material have been excavated in this section, and 
6,200 square yards of heavy riprap and paving put in 
place. 

In the lower portion of the reservoir, near the dam, was a 
large swamp, which, before the reservoir was built, was cov- 
ered by a heavy growth of trees ; the stumps still remained, 
and it was decided to remove them. 

Some 517 stumps were removed between May 20 and 
June 25 by J. E. Eooke for $1.00 each. On July 8 a 
contract was made with Louis La Fontaine for the removal 
of stumps at $1.98 each. This contract was completed 
about the last of August, — 6,888 stumps having been 
removed at a cost $8,351.82 ; 1,092 stumps have since been 
removed by A. Saucier at $0.97 each. 

The work of improving Reservoirs 2 and 3 in accordance 
with the recommendation of the Sanitary Commission, and 
the appropriation of the City Council, is now practically com- 
pleted. The total cost of work done to date is $203,482.78. 

On October 9 the work was completed and the gates 
closed ; the water at that date standing at grade 155.06 above 
tide marsh level. On December 27 the level of the water 
was at grade 175.51, and water was wasting over the crest of 
the dam. 

Reservoir No. 4. — At the date of the last annual report 
this reservoir was being filled for the first time, and on Jan- 
uary 1, 1886, its surface was at grade 193.65 or 26.65 



Report of the Water Board. 33 

feet above the lower effluent pipe. On February 12 it had 
risen to grade 202.87, and between February 12 and 15 
the freshet raised the reservoir about eight feet ; the waste 
gate was then opened, and the level of the water maintained 
at about grade 210, until the middle of March, when the gates 
were closed, and on April 1 the reservoir was full for the first 
time. 

Until August 4 it remained near high-water mark, at 
Avhich time it was drawn upon for the city's supply, and on 
November 1 its surface had been lowered seventeen feet to 
grade 197.36. During November and December the reser- 
voir has been slowly filling, and on January 1, 1887, it was 
204.93 feet above tide marsh level, or about ten feet below 
the crest of the overflow. 

Considerable work has been done in completing the grading 
of the dam, sodding and sowing the embankments and plant- 
ing trees. 

The leakage from the dam has been collected in tile drains,, 
and conveyed to weirs, for the purpose of keeping a record 
of its amount. 

Farm Pond. — This pond was kept at or near high water- 
mark from January 1 until March 24, 1886, when it was 
drawn down to facilitate the work of building the Farm-pond 
conduit. It was kept about four feet below high water until 
October 27, when it rose slowly to 145.90 on November 
19, and then more rapidly to 149.23 on December 1, near 
which level it still remains. Water for the city's supply 
was drawn from this pond until July 9, when the new con- 
duit was completed, and water run through it to Chestnut- 
Hill reservoir, for a few days, after which the supply was- 
again taken from the pond until September 9, when alga 1 - 
made their appearance in the pond, and the supply was again 
taken through the conduit. On October 4 water was taken 
from the pond, and the supply has since been taken from 
that source, except from November 21 to 29. The Framing- 
ham Water Company have drawn from the pond during the 
year 76,600,000 gallons, — a daily average of 209^,860 
gallons. 

Lake CochiLuate. — On Jan. 1, 1886, the surface of the 
lake was 2.89 feet below high-water mark. On January 29 
waste was commenced at the outlet dam and continued until 
March 5. Also during the greater portion of the time from 
March 22 to April 19. 

The lake surface remained near high-water mark until 
June 1, from which time until October 27 it gradually 
lowered, when it was 127.60 above tide marsh level ; It has 
been slowly raising since December 9, and on January 1, 



34 



City Document No. 27. 



1887, was 129.77 feet above tide marsh level or 1.70 feet 
lower than at the beginning of the year. 

Repairs have been made at the outlet dams, detailed 
reports of which will be found in the report of the Superin- 
tendent of the Western Division. Owing to the efforts 
which have been made to remove all sources of pollution 
from Pegan Brook, the water of that stream is now bright 
and clear, and it is believed that no sewerage now enters 
the brook. No water has been run into Lake Cochituate 
from the Sudbury river during the year. Dudley Pond 
is now nearly full, and no water has been drawn from it. 

The following table shows the heights of the different 
reservoirs on the first of each month : — 





Res. No. 1. 

Top of flash- 
boards, 
159.29. 


Res. No. 2. 

Top of flash- 
boards, 
167.12. 


Res. No. 3. 

Crest of 

Dam, 

175.24. 


Res. No. 4. 

Crest of 

overflow, 

214.21 


Farm Pond. 


Lake 

Cochituate. 

Top of flash- 
boards, 
134.36. 


Jan. 


1, 1886 . 


158.02 


166.11 


158.85 


193.65 


149.33 


131.47 


Feb. 


1. " • 


158.12 


166.23 


158.35 


200.99 


149.26 


132.90 


Mar. 


1, " 


158.15 


166.32 


15S.63 


210.05 


149.24 


133.14 


Apr. 


1. " • 


156.34 


166.45 


156.85 


214.71 


147.64 


134.05 


May 


li " 


155.29 


167.23 


155.35 


214.47 


145.01 


134.20 . 


June 


1. " • 


155.34 


167.08 


155.40 


214.45 


144.91 


133.98 


July 


1. " • 


154.95 


165.50 


154.60 


214.61 


144.97 


132.65 


Aug. 


1, " • 


154.50 


157.40 


154.51 


214.58 


145.11 


131.36 


Sept. 


li " • 


154.33 


157.07 


154.36 


209.14 


145.25 


130.19 


Oct. 


1, " . 


155.06 


157.25 


155.11 


204.13 


145.35 


128.90 


Nov. 


1. " • 


154.29 


158.20 


158.81 


197.36 


145.63 


127.64 


iDec. 


1. " ■ 


157.44 


165.93 


166.83 


200.08 


149.23 


127.84 


Jan. 


1, 1887 . 


157.98 


166.13 


175.54 


204.93 


149.28 


129.77 



Water has been drawn from the Sudbury-river reservoirs 
for the supply of the city as follows : — 



Jan. 


1 to Feb. 


13, 


from Reser 


voir 


No. 


2. 


Feb. 


15 to Feb. 


19, 


c< 


Farm 


Pond. 




Feb. 


19 to March 22, 


1 i 


Reservoir 


No. 


2. 


March 


23 to April 


14, 


( I 


Farm 


Pond. 




April 


14 to June 


4, 


a 


Reservoir 


No. 


2. 


June 


4 to June 


9, 


1 1 


a 




Nos 


1 and 2. 


June 


9 to July 


17, 


a 


< i 




Nos 


2 and 3. 


July 


17 to Nov. 


18, 


a 


a 




No. 


2. 


Nov. 


18 to Nov. 


22, 


a 


a 




Nos. 


2 and 3. 


Nov. 


22 to Jan. 


1,'87, 


t i 


a 




No. 


2. 



FARM POND CONDUIT. 



-JAN. 1887- 



SCALE FOR FIG. I & 2. 



SCALE FOR FIG. 3. 




SECTION OF CONDUIT ACROSS POND 
ON PILE FOUNDATION. 







SECTIOM OF CONDUIT ON SHORE. 






^ 






■■*. lip 
f §||l 

-~- mm 




SECTION AT STATION 31 +25. 
SHOWING RAILROAr TRESTLE AND GRAVEL FILLING. 



Btbttm v- 



Be port of the Water Board. 35 



Farm-Pond Conduit. 

The conduit across Farm Pond, which has been in process 
of construction since the winter of 1883, was completed and 
used for the first time on July 9, 1886. Previous to its 
construction all the water from the Sudbury-river reservoirs 
was obliged to pass through this pond on its way to the city, 
and in 1881 the cucumber taste in the water of the Sudbury 
supply was decided to be caused by the presence of a fresh 
water-sponge, " spongilla lacustius," in Farm Pond. It was 
therefore decided to construct a conduit across the pond, 
which would allow the water from the Sudbury-river reser- 
voirs to be sent to Chestnut-Hill reservoir, without mingling 
with the pond-water. This connection was a part of the 
original design of the system, but it was not expected that 
its construction would be so soon required. The conduit is 
of brick and concrete masonry, built along the shore of the 
pond for a distance of 2,100 feet, thence across the pond for 
a further distance of 1 ,700 feet. The shore section of the con- 
duit, Figure 2, rests upon a foundation of sand or gravel, and 
presented no special difficulties of construction ; across the 
pond, however, the hard bottom was from 11 to 55 feet be- 
low the level of the pond, overlaid by from 1 to 30 feet of 
mud, and in several places by 15 feet of watery quicksand. 

In order to secure a suitable foundation for this section of 
the conduit it was decided by Mr. H. M. Wightman, then 
City Engineer, to drive piles through the mud and quicksand 
into the hard bottom ; and on these piles, which were to be 
used to support the masonry conduit, a trestle to support two 
railroad tracks was built, about four feet above the water 
level. Gravel was then dumped on each side of the trestle, 
displacing the surrounding mud and a solid bank of gravel built 
up from the hard bottom to above the water surface as shown 
by Figure 3. The earth around the pile-trestle was then ex- 
cavated, and the piles cut off about thirteen feet below the top 
of the trestle, and capped with 10 X 10-inch spruce timbers ; 
the caps were then covered by a flooring of 4-inch spruce 
planks upon which the conduit of concrete and brick masonry 
was constructed as shown by Figure 1. The pile-trestle was 
built by George H. Cavanagh, at a cost of $26, 170. GO. This 
contract was awarded in October, 1883, and the work was 
completed in April, 1884. The contract for the filling was 
awarded to Parker & Sylvester, in February, 1884 ; work was 
commenced on March 14, and completed on July 11, — 59,010 
cubic yards of material having been deposited at a cost of 
$0.47 per cubic yard. 

On August 4, 1884, proposals were received for the con- 



36 Citt Document No. 27. 

struction of the masonry conduit, and on August 20 a con- 
tract was made with G. M. Cushing, of New York, for doing 
the work. The work was in process of construction by this 
contractor during 1884 and 1885 ; but, owing to his failure to 
complete his contract, within the specified time, the Water 
Board, on December 1, 1885, took possession of the work. 

On April 13, 1886, the work of completing the conduit by 
clay-labor was begun, and on July 9 the work was finished, 
and the conduit placed in service. The total cost of the 
work was $157,837.97. 

Aqueducts and Distributing Eeservoirs. 

Both the Sudbury-river and Cochituate aqueducts have 
been in service 353 days during the year. The former has 
delivered into Chestnut-Hill reservoir 5,267,600,000 gallons, 
equal to an average daily supply of 14,431,800 gallons, while 
4,432,536,000 gallons, equal to 12,143,900 gallons per day, 
have been drawn from Lake Cochituate. 

Both aqueducts were cleaned twice during the year, and 
the details of the work will be found in the report of the 
Superintendent of the Western Division. From January 1 
to August 3 the water in the Cochituate aqueduct was five 
and one-half feet in depth. From August 3 to 6 the water 
was shut off for the purpose of cleaning the aqueduct, and 
from August 6 to December 23 the depth of water was main- 
tained at five feet. 

The Chestnut-Hill, Brookline, Parker-Hill and East Boston 
reservoirs are in good condition. Improvement has been 
made in the appearance of the grounds at Chestnut Hill and 
Brookline by the removal of fences. 

The average monthly and yearly heights of all the reser- 
voirs is shown by the table on page 50. 

High-Service Pumping-Stations. 

The daily average amount of water pumped at the High- 
land station has been 2,918,400 gallons, an increase of 10.8 
per cent, from that of the year 1885. This is due to 
additions which have been made to the territory supplied by 
these works, both by the laying of new mains and by the 
changing of a section of the Highland District from low to 
high-service supply. The Worthington engine has been in 
use 7,703 hours, 25 minutes, an average of about 21 hours 
per day, and has pumped 1,055,116,000 gallons. The 
Boston Machine Company engine was used for 168 hours to 
assist in filling the Fisher-Hill reservoir, and pumped 
10,105,000 gallons. 



Keport of the Water Board. 37 

Total coal consumed, 1,981,200 lbs., of which 14.9 per 
cent, were ashes and clinkers. 

Average lift, 111.65 feet. 

Quantity pumped per pound of coal, 537.7 gallons. 

Average duty (no deductions), 50,065,200 ft. -lbs. per 
100 lbs. 

Cost of Pumping. 

Salaries . . $4,868 47 

Fuel 4,033 00 

Repairs ........ 350 55 

Oil, waste, and packing ..... 150 49 

Small supplies . . . . . . 171 46 



Total $9,073 97 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high, 7.63 cents. 

The daily average amount pumped at the East Boston 
station, for the supply of the high service of that district, has 
been 310,455 gallons. 

At the Brighton Pumping-station the amount pumped has 
been about 250,000 gallons per day. 

New High-Service Works. 

Messrs. Moulton and O'Mahony, the contractors for the 
Fisher-Hill reservoir, commenced operations for the season 
on April 10. 

The work previously done consisted in the removal of 
loam from the site of the reservoir. The work of construc- 
tion has been carried on during the entire season, and in 
order to protect the work from the action of the frost the 
reservoir has been filled to a depth of about 17 feet. The 
masonry gate-chamber has been completed, with the excep- 
tion of the gates and superstructure ; the excavation and the 
reservoir banks are nearly completed, and about one-half of 
the puddle and concrete on the inner slope is in place. 

The total value of work done to November 27, when work 
ceased for the season, was $52,821.15, or about 70 per cent, 
of the total amount of the contract. The work will probably 
be completed by July 1, 1887. The laying of the force and 
supply mains was commenced by the Superintendent of the 
Eastern Division on April 20, and continued until December 
7. Ten thousand and eighteen feet of 30-inch, and 2,096 
feet of 24-inch pipe have been laid. This work is now 
nearly finished. 

Plans for the pumping-station and connections at Chestnut- 



38 City Document No. 27. 

Hill reservoir are now being prepared, and the work will be 
commenced as soon as possible, in order that the pumping 
machinery, for which a contract has been made with the 
Holly Manufacturing Co., of Lockport, N.Y., may be 
erected, and the works completed and placed in operation 
during the present year. 

West Roxbury High-Service. 

The commission appointed by the mayor to consider the 
subject of the high-service water supply system of the city, 
in their report dated August 31, 1885 (City Document 122, 
1885), recommended the building of a special system for the 
supply of the territory in the West Roxbury District, lying 
above a grade of 170 feet above tide marsh level, which 
could not be supplied from either Parker or Fisher-Hill 
reservoirs. By an order of the City Council, approved June 
10, 1886, the Water Board were authorized to construct 
these works at an expense not exceeding $45,000. Plans 
and specifications were at once prepared for the work, and the 
following contracts were awarded : — 

August 2, Blake Manufacturing Co.. pumps and boilers, 
$2,172. 

August 26, G. L. Eldridge, pumpins'-station and chimney, 
$5,081. 

September 7, E. Hodge & Co., wrought-iron reservoir, 
$2,700. 

The concrete foundation for the reservoir and the laying 
of the 12-inch force and supply-main, 8,000 feet in length, 
were clone by day-labor. On December 23 the works were 
so far completed as to be placed in operation. 

The pumping-station is a brick building, located on the 
corner of Washington street and Metropolitan avenue, and 
contains two duplex high-pressure pumps of the Knowles 
pattern, each of about 400,000 gallons' capacity per twenty- 
four hours, and two upright tubular boilers each 42 inches 
in diameter, containing 85 two-inch tubes six feet long. The 
reservoir or tank is situated on the summit of Bellevuc Hill, 
which is the highest land within the city limits. It is 24 feet 
in diameter, 40 feet high, and contains, when the water is 
within three feet of the top, 125,000 gallons. 

The reservoir is located upon land which was given to the 
city for park purposes, and it is intended to enclose and 
protect the tank by a building designed to serve as an observ- 
atory from which can be obtained a view of the surrounding 
country. 



Report of the Water Board. 39 



Mystic Lake. 

On January 1, 1886, the lake was about one foot below 
high-water mark, and water was wasting over the outlet dam. 
Waste was continued until May 23, with the exception of a 
few days in April. 

The lake surface was gradually lowered during the summer, 
and early in the fall it became evident that the temporary 
pumps at the lake would be needed to furnish a suppl}'' to 
the conduit. On October 20 the lake was 8.38 feet below 
high-water mark or about 2.79 feet above the conduit invert. 
On that date the pumps were started and continued in use 
until November 7, when, the lake having risen about twelve 
inches, their use was discontinued. On December 1 the lake 
had risen to grade 3.02 above tide marsh level, or 3.98 feet 
below high water ; and on December 25 waste be^an at the 
overflow, and has continued to the present time. 

Advantage was taken of the low stasje of the lake to clean 
the shores at the upper end of the lake, and in Wedge Pond 
also to rebuild the northerly abutment of Bacon's bridge. 
In the spring a new and very substantial fish-way was con- 
structed at the dam to replace the old one which was carried 
away by the freshet of Febuary 12-14, 1886. 

Mystic- Valley Sewer. 

The use of the sewer and the treatment of the sewage has 
been continued in the same manner as during the past few 
years. 

Experiments are now being made in purifying the sewage, 
which it is hoped may lead to some practical result. 

Mystic Conduit and Eeservoir. 

The conduit has been twice cleaned during the year and is 
now in a'ood condition. The concreting of the gutters around 
the reservoir has been completed. 

Mystic Pumting-Station. 

The detail of work done by the engines at this station is 
shown by the table on page 52. 

Engine No. 1 was in use 1">5 hours pumping 27.557,500 gallons. 

" 2 " " 830 " 35 min., " 1(13, 080,000 •* 

" 3 " " 8,283 " 15 " " 2,500,132,800 " 

Total amount pumped 2,700,070,300 " 

Total amount of coal consumed 5,8GO,500 lbs. 



40 City Document No. 27. 

Per centage of ashes and clinkers 8.8. 

Average lift, 148.82 feet. 

Quantity pumped per pound of coal, 460.1 gallons. 

Average duty of engines (no deductions), 57,108,200 ft.-lbs. per 100 lbs. of 
coal. 

Daily average amount pumped, 7,399,100 gallons, an increase of 9.8 per 
cent, from that of the year 1885. 



Cost of Pumping. 

Salaries ..... 

Fuel 

Oil, waste, and packing . 
Repairs ..... 

Small supplies . 



$8,465 36 

10,113 24 

1,564 89 

1,306 06 

189 60 



Total ...... $21,639 15 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high, 5.384 cents. 

The low-pressure steam cylinder on Engine No. 2, which 
has been cracked for a number of years, has been replaced 
by a new one, and the air-pumps on both 1 and 2 have been 
repaired. 

Consumption. 

The daily average consumption during the year 1886 was 
as follows : — 

Gallons 

Gallons. per head 

per day. 

Sudbury and Cochituate supply . 26,627,900 74.3 

Mystic supply . . . " . 7,299,800 72.5 



Total 34,027,700 73.9 

The increase in consumption over that of the year 1885 
was 4 per cent, on the Sudbury and Cochituate works, 9.8 
per cent, on the Mystic works, and 5.2 per cent, on the 
combined supplies. These per centages are somewhat larger 
than the probable increase in the population of the city, 
especially on the Mystic works where the need of additional 
means of preventing waste is plainly shown. 

I would recommend that the Deacon meters be used in 
Chelsea and Somerville, in order that the consumption may 
be kept within the safe capacity of the present Mystic works, 
until some additional source of supply can be obtained. 
The table on page 45 and the diagram facing same page show 
the daily average consumption lor each month since the year 
1875. 



Report or the Water Board. 41 



Detection of Waste. 

The operation of the Deacon waste detection system and 
the work of setting stopcocks on the service-pipes through- 
out the city has been under the special charge of Assistant 
Dexter Brackett, who furnishes the following statement of 
the work : — 

"City Engineer's Office, 

"Boston, January 20, 1887. 

"William Jackson, Esq., City Engineer: — 

"Dear Sir, — The detection of waste by means of the 
Deacon meters and sidewalk stopcocks has been continued 
during the year. From April 1, until Nov. 27, a force 
of from 12 to 15 men was employed in operating the meters, 
and making night inspections by means of the Church and 
sidewalk stopcocks. The inspection of the 11,325 sidewalk 
stopcocks, which are now in use, resulted in the detection of 
1,946 cases of waste. These were reported to the Waste 
Detection Department for examination with the following 
results : — 

Service-pipes burst ..... 235 
Defective water-closets (of which 384 were 

of the Hopper pattern) .... 580 

Defective faucets . . . . .518 

ballcocks . . . . . 800 

" stopcocks ..... 12 

Wilful or negligent waste .... 460 

"The advantage of having the sidewalk stopcocks has been 
shown by the fact that in the sections of South Boston, where 
the stopcocks have been set during the past year, the waste 
has been largely reduced, although numerous house-to-house 
inspections had been previously made. The setting of these 
sidewalk cocks was commenced on April 6, and continued 
with some interruptions until October 22. 

" 950 Church stopcocks were set in the city proper, and 
4,491 stopcocks of the ordinary pattern in South Boston. 

"DEXTER BRACKETT, 

" Assistant Engineer.'" 

Distribution. 

A contract for pipes and special castings was made with 
R. D. Wood & Co., on January 9, 1886, "at $29.40 per ton 
for both pipes and specials, and they have furnished 2,482 
tons of pipe, and 104 tons of special castings. 



42 City Document No. 27. 

The distributing mains of the Sudbury and Cochituate 
works have been extended 11.7 miles, and 2.4 miles of force, 
and supply mains have been laid for the new high-service 
works. Two and three-tenths miles of the old tuberculated 
pipes have been replaced with coated pipes of larger diameter. 
The distributing-mains of the Mystic works have been ex- 
tended 10,606 feet, and 3,590 feet of the wrought-iron and 
cement pipe have been replaced by cast-iron pipes. 

The raising of the 48-inch main in Beacon street, at the 
crossing of the Boston & Albany Railroad, has been success- 
fully completed. 

About 1,850 lineal feet of this supply main was raised 
and supported by a pile trestle in the manner shown on 
Plate 1. 

At the bridge the pipe was raised about 18 feet, the 
amount of the raising diminishino- to zero about 900 feet 
either way from that point. Piles were driven on each side 
of the pipe at intervals of 12 feet, and capped 6 inches below 
the raised grade of the street with double girder-caps. 
Between these bents of piles were driven intermediate bents, 
which were to be used to support the pipe when raised. The 
earth was then excavated around the pipe and the chains and 
lifting screws placed in position. 

When these arrangements had been completed the pipe 
was cut on each side of the railroad bridge, and the entire 
length from the bridge to the foot of the grade raised at one 
operation, without breaking the joints. As soon as the pipe 
was raised to its new position the supporting caps were 
placed in position, and wedges driven between the pipe and 
the 12 x 12-inch caps. The pipe was then connected across the 
bridge, all of the joints redriven, and the water turned on. 
The bracing and timbers for the support of the railroad track 
were then placed in position, and the filling of the street is 
now being done. In order to avoid communicating to the 
water-pipe the jar caused by the running and dumping of 
gravel-trains on the trestle, the wedges between the pipe and 
the 6 x 12-inch girder-caps which were bolted to the piles 
carrying the railroad track, were not put in until the filling 
was raised above the top of the pipe. 

The pipe was thus supported independently from the rail- 
road trestle. The w r ater passes over the railroad bridge in 
two wrought-iron pipes, 36 inches in diameter, connecting 
with the 48-inch pipe at each end by means of Y-branches. 

The capacity of the pipes laid previous to the year 1868 
has been greatly reduced by the formation of tubercles on 
their inner surfaces. These tubercles diminish the effective 
area of the pipes, and greatly increase the frictional resistance 



Report of the Water Board. 43 

to the flow of the water by roughening the inner surface of 
the pipes. 

Experiments made in South and East Boston showed that 
4-inch and 6-inch pipes, which had been laid about 35 years, 
would deliver but about one-fourth the quantity that a new pipe 
would furnish, and that many pipes of these sizes would not 
furnish an adequate supply for two steam fire-engines. In 
1884 a number of trials were made in East Boston, of a 
machine, which had been used in Halifax, for removing the 
tuberculations from old pipes. 

These trials were not satisfactory, although Mr. E. H. Keat- 
ing, the City Engineer of Halifax, had used the machine there 
with success, generally, however, in pipes of larger size. In 
the fall of 1885 a single trial was made of a machine, invented 
by D. H. Sweeney, of Fitchburg, Mass., with successful 
result, and further trials were made in May, 1886. The 
results of these trials were so favorable that four of these 
machines were purchased, two for 6-inch and two for 12-inch 
pipe. Between August 18 and October 2, 17,000 feet of 
6-inch pipe were cleaned in the East Boston District. The 
cost of this work was about 17 cents per lineal foot of pipe 
cleaned. 

The machine consists of a flexible central shaft, composed 
of solid steel springs connecting small castings, to which are 
hinged steel scrapers arranged radially around the shaft. 

Coiled springs keep the scrapers against the sides of the 
pipe, and yet admit of the scrapers turning back so as to 
pass taps, or other obstructions. Rubber pistons, just fitting 
the pipe, are attached to the shaft behind the scrapers, and 
the machine, having been introduced into the pipe, is forced 
through by the water-pressure acting on these pistons. 

About 400 feet of the 16-inch main which supplied the 
town of Everett, was frozen on Maiden bridge during 
severe cold and windy weather in the early part of March, 
and the greater portion of the town of Everett Avas without 
a supply for three days. This pipe furnished almost all of 
the town's supply, and it was supposed that there would be 
sufficient current to prevent freezing ; in fact, no trouble had 
been experienced in the eleven years that the pipe had been 
used. 

To prevent freezing in the future the pipe has been boxed 
during the past season. The pile-trestle and boxing of the 
16-inch and 20-inch mains crossing the Mystic river at 
Chelsea bridge, should be repaired or rebuilt during the 
present year. 



44 City Document No. 27. 



General Condition and Eequirements of the Works. 

The Sudbury and Cochituate works may be said to be 
generally in good condition. Some of the shallow portions 
of Lake Cochituate should be deepened and improved by the 
removal of mud and stumps, as has been done at the Sud- 
bury-river reservoirs. 

The building of a new dam at the outlet of Lake Cochit- 
uate has been recommended in previous reports. The signs 
of weakness discovered in the lower dam during the past 
year, and the need of a larger overflow, which was plainly 
shown during the freshet of February last, confirm my opinion 
that this work should not be longer delayed. 

I would also renew my recommendation of last year that a 
portion of the Newton tunnel be lined with brick. 

The condition of the Mystic supply is not satisfactory ; 
the consumption from these works is increasing rapidly, and 
has already exceeded the safe capacity of the supply. Not 
only is the supply insufficient in quantity, but it is only by 
constant and careful attention that it can be kept compara- 
tively pure, and it is certain to constantly deteriorate in 
quality. 

The surveys and investigations necessary for obtaining an 
additional supply from the Shawshine river have been made 
during the year, and it is to be hoped that the requisite 
authority for the construction of the works may be obtained 
from the present Legislature, in order that the works may be 
completed as soon as possible. More work has been done 
during the past year, in improving the distribution system, 
than for several years past, both by relaying and cleaning 
the old tuberculated pipes. This work should be continued, 
and I would recommend that at least $25,000 be expended 
for this purpose during the coming season. 

Appended to this report will be found the usual tables in 
regard to rainfall, consumption, yield of water-sheds, etc. 
Respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM JACKSON, 

City Engineer and Engineer B. W. Board. 



BOSTON WATER WORKS, 

Diagram showing the rainfall and daily average consumption 
for each month. 



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49 



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Boston Water Works. 

Diagram showing the heights of Sudbury River Reservoirs, Farm Pond, and Cochituafe and Mystic 
Lakes, and the Rainfall on the Sudbury River Water Shed during the year 1886. 




January. 


February 


Mat-eft 


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51 



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52 



City Document No. 27. 



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Eeport of the Water Board. 



53 



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54 



City Document No. 27. 



Rainfall in inches and hundredths on the Sudbury-Eiver Water-shed for 

the Year 1886. 



1886. 



10. 

11 . 

12 . 
13. 
14 . 
15. 
16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 

20 . 

21 . 
22. 
23. 
24 . 
25, 
26. 
27, 
28, 
29. 
30 
31 



105 



45 



945 



075 



875 



025 



085 



0.03 
0.21 



0.305 



0.665 



0.1 



0.145 



085 



395 



Totals . 6.365 6.28 3.61 2.225 2.995 1.465 3.265 4.10 2.905 3.235 4.645 4.975 



035 



56 



225 



005 



1.67 



215 



425 



015 



13 



■;o5 



725 
655 



215 



30 



825 



195 



Total rainfall during the year, 46.065 inches. 

Being an average of two gauges located at Framingham and Westboro'. 



Report of the Water Board. 



55 



Rainfall in inches and hundredths on Lake CochUuate Water-shed for 1SS6. 



1886. 


u 

3, 

a 
a 


>> 


a 




(A 


o 

a 

3 


3 


3 
fcj) 
3 
< 


S 
8 

3 

% 

o 
OB 


O 

a 
o 
O 


3 
1 

> 


s 

o 

R 


























0.04 












































































































































1.6S 














1.34 


SI 


































































0.06 




0.43 




0.12 


















































4.95 


0.1S 


0.06 




0.36 






0.22 




1.12 


0.17 




















0.10 


1.54 




. . . 


0.02 






16 ... . 






0.04 




0.04 


0.01 


0.09 




0.27 






0.46 


17 . 


0.03 






0.01 




0.01 




0.54 


0.20 


0.07 






18 ... . 


1.02 


0.94 


19 ... . 


0.79 


0.71 














0.11 










































































































24 ... . 








0.04 


















25. . . . 


0.50 








0.22 


0.11 




0.02 


. . . 




0.45 


1.14 




























27 ... . 








0.11 


0.07 














0.04 






































31 ... . 


0.02 




0.78 




0.06 




0.03 


0.82 




3.00 




1.21 


Totals . 


6.53 


6.80 


3.4G 


2.00 


2.97 


1.21 


3.30 


3.76 


3.20 


3.16 


4.76 


5.77 



Total rainfall during the year, 46.97 inches. 



56 



City Document No. 27. 



Rainfall in inches and hundredths on the Mystic Lake Water-shed for 1886. 



1886. 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7 . 

8 . 

9 . 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17 . 
IS . 
19. 
20, 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26, 
27 
28, 
29 
30 
31 



Totals 



075 



955 



6.315 7.175 3.84 2 



0S5 



305 



40 



355 



005 



945 1.54 3.71 3.24 2.955 2.S5 4.065 4.825 



SO 5 



29 



0.088 



Total rainfall during the 
Being an average of two 



year 



, 45.56 inches. 

es located at Mystic Lake and Mystic Station. 



Report of the Water Board. 



57 



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58 



City Document No. 27. 



Rainfall Received and Collected — 1886. 





Mystic. 


COCHITUATE. 


Sudbury. 


Months. 


a 


■6 
.5 — 

k6 


•£T3 

a a) 

§ a 

■- S 

0) o 


a 

'3 


'3 o 


■g-d 

a o 


a 

'3 
P3 


•d 

a.2 

la 


<Sn3 

a a> 

° S 
u ~ 
o o 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 

cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 

cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 
cent. 


January . . 


6.315 


2.27 


36.03 


6.53 


2.28 


34.96 


6.365 


2.568 


40.35 


February . 


7.175 


7.67 


106.86 


6.S6 


7.93 


115.60 


6.28 


7.623 


121.38 


March . . . 


3.84 


3.88 


101.02 


3.46 


3.51 


101.50 


3.61 


3.619 


100.24 


April . . -. 


2.10 


3.21 


153.05 


2.00 


2.52 


126.13 


2.225 


3.313 


148.87 


May .... 


2.945 


1.24 


42.08 


2.97 


1.09 


36.62 


2.995 


1.266 


42.28 


June . . . 


1.54 


0.52 


33.76 


1.21 


0.18 


15.08 


1.465 


0.346 


23.59 


July .... 


3.71 


0.38 


10.33 


3.30 


0.25 


7.59 


3.265 


0.203 


6.23 


August . . 


3.24 


0.22 


6.91 


3.75 


0.14 


3.58 


4.100 


0.166 


4.04 


September . 


2.955 


0.29 


9.65 


3.20 


0.30 


9.28 


2.905 


0.20 


6.88 


October . 


2.85 


0.36 


12.49 


3.16 


0.42 


13.15 


3.235 


0.256 


7.92 


November . 


4.065 


0.86 


21.07 


4.76 


1.20 


25.21 


4.645 


1.145 


24.65 


December . 


4.825 


1.40 


29.04 


5.77 


2.10 


36.31 


4.975 


1.793 


36.03 


Totals nnd 
Averages. | 


45.560 


22.30 


48.95 


46.97 


21.92 


46.67 


46.065 


22.498 


48.84 



Report of the Water Board. 



59 



Table showing the Temperature of Air and Water at different Stations on 
the Water- Works. 





Temperature of Aih. 


Temperature op 
Water. 


1886. 


Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. 


Framingham. 


Brookline 
Reservoir. 


Mystic 
Engine- 
house. 




a 

a 
2 

*M 

OS 


g 

3 
S 

'3 


a 

i 


5 

3 

B 

H 

a 


a 

3 

a 

a 


a 
oj 

0) 


a 


a 


January . . . 
February . . . 
March .... 

August .... 
September . . . 
October .... 
November . . . 
December . . . 


34.2 
36.4 
41.5 
61.8 
69.4 
75.3 
84.0 
81.1 
73.1 
62.3 
50.6 
36.3 


14.9 
15.9 
24.4 
.38.1 
44.6 
52.2 
57.4 
55.5 
51.9 
39.0 
31.5 
18.1 


24.5 
26.2 
32.9 
50.0 
57.0 
63.7 
70.7 
68.3 
62.5 
50.6 
41.1 
27.2 


33.1 
35.9 
42.7 
62.4 
70.1 
76.1 
84.4 
80.7 
72.4 
61.7 
50.0 
35.0 


15.0 
15.1 
24.9 
38,8 
44.8 
62.1 
57.1 
55.1 
51.0 
37.9 
30.5 
17.5 


24.0 
25.5 
33.8 
50.6 
57.4 
64.1 
70.7 
67.9 
61.7 
23.8 
40.2 
26.2 


35.6 
36.4 
37.9 
47.8 
58.9 
68.0 
72.1 
72.6 
69.2 
57.4 
45.6 
36.4 


33.7 
34.0 
35.2 
45.9 
58.6 
64.3 
72.3 
72.1 
67.9 
57.0 
44.2 
36.3 



WATER REGISTRAR'S REPORT. 

JANUARY 1, 1887. 



Office of the Water Registrar, 

Boston, January 1, 1887. 

Horace T. Rockwell, Esq., Chairman Water Board: — 

Sir, — The annual report of the Water Registrar as required 
by Section 9, Chapter 30, of the Revised Ordinances is here- 
with submitted. 

Cochituate Works. 

The total receipts of the Cochituate Works 
for the year ending December 31, 1886, 
have been $1,235,482 17 



The detail of this amount is as follows : — 




Received from sale of water furnished in '86, 


$1,083,600 70 


" 1885, 


122,463 99 


" " elevator motor and fire pipes, 


4,438 98 


" " service-pipes and repairs, 


4,220 39 


" " sale of old material 


3,163 82 


" " off and on water for repairs, 


2,688 10 


" " fines ..... 


1,904 20 


" " rent of water-posts 


360 00 


" " off and on water for non- 




payment 


1,298 00 


" off and on water for waste . 


26 00 




$1,224,164 18 


Add sundry receipts by Water Board 


11,317 99 


Total 


$1,235,482 17 


Mystic Works. 




The total receipts of the Mystic Works 




during the year 1886 have been 


$254,563 88 



Report of the Water Board. 61 



The detail of this amount is as follows : — 

Received from the sale of water in 1886, 

" " " « " " " 1885, 

" " service and fire pipes 

" " sale of old material . 

" " fines . 

" " off and on water for non- 

payment 

" " off and on water for repairs 

" " sundries .... 



Add sundry receipts by Water Board 



The percentage allowed the cities of Somerville, Chelsea, 
and town of Everett under contract, is as follows : — 

Somerville $23,882 68 

Chelsea 18,940 87 

Everett 3,483 63 



$227,173 37 


22,436 


25 


1,204 


66 


514 


29 


258 


25 


256 


00 


253 


00 


137 


64 


$252,233 


46 


2,330 


42 


$254,563 88 



,307 18 



The expenditures of this department for the year 1886, 
are as follows : — 

For salaries 

Labor 

Printing and stationery 

Travelling expenses 

Postage, telephone, etc. 



The estimated income from all sources from 
the Mystic and Cochituate departments for 
the year 1887, is . 



From water-rates 
" all other sources 

Total .... $282,000 $1,210,000 00 



Mystic. 


Cochituate. 


$7,102 08 


$31,125 


24 




12,924 


29 


839 50 


1,705 


02 


158 95 


1,057 


95 


512 22 


115 


27 


$8,612 75 


$46,927 


77 


*ces from 






ments for 






. $1,492,000 00 


Mystic. 


Cochituate. 




$277,000 $1,180,000 00 


5,000 


30,000 


00 



62 City Document No. 27. 

The total number of takers supplied by Cochitu- 

ate Works is 57,010 

The total number of takers supplied by Mystic 

Works is 19,273 

The total number of meters now applied to 
premises of both Cochituate and Mystic 
Works is 3,884 

The following table represents the size, kind, and location 
of each meter : — 



Keport of the Water Board. 



63 



Size and Kind of Meter. 



J inch Worthington 



f " Crown 



J " Tremont 

1 " «' 

| " Desper 

j ., 

1 " " 

jj " New England 

| " Hereey . . 

I " Ball & Fitz 

I '« 

1 " " 

•2 " " 

S " " 

S " Spooner 

1 " " 

i " Fox . . 

i " Frost . 

1 « " . 

U » " . 

J " Balance Valve 

Total 



S& 



372 

45 

389 

35 

63 

13 

7 

1,054 

109 

160 

31 

23 

16 

9 

1 

959 

70 

17 

1 

2 

1 

6 

11 

7 

6 



3,415 



84 



11 
10 
16 
1 
7 
1 
2 

10 
4 
2 



459 

33 

100 

15 

15 

1,167 

151 

177 

34 

28 

22 

15 

3 

994 

83 

17 

1 

2 

1 



3,884 



64 



City Document No. 27. 



Cochituate Works. 

The following table exhibits the classes of premises to 
which meters are attached, the amount of water consumed, 
and the revenue assessed for the year 1886 : — 



Class op Pkemises. 



Hotels 

Apartment Hotels 

Business Premises 

Steam Railroads 

Sugar Refineries 

Factories and Machinists 

Iron Works and Foundries 

Mills and Engines 

Marble and Stone Works 

Gas Companies 

Breweries 

Oil Works 

Chemical Works 

Laundries 

Restaurants 

Stables 

Theatres and Halls 

Hospitals 

Schools 

City, State, and Government Buildings 

Steamers and Shipping 

Elevators and Motors 

Electric Light Companies 

Miscellaneous 

Total 



1885. 



Quantity 

used. 
Cubic feet. 



21,255,194 

56,513,773 

64,131,173 

23,002,380 

28,594,000 

22,770,098 

4,402,173 

2,672,000 

2,275,700 

9,044,432 

7,626,000 

1,690,000 

2,801,000 

326,000 

5,187,300 

10,028,384 

738,000 

3,610,000 

2,884,893 

7,620,686 

7,526,000 

12,824,833 

3,248,874 

1,116,667 



Amount 



301,889,560 



$31,882 29 

84,770 66 

96,196 76 

34,503 57 

42,891 00 

34,155 13 

6,603 26 

4,008 00 

3,413 55 

13,566 67 

11,439 00 

2,535 00 

4,201 50 

489 00 

7,781 00 

15,042 57 

1,107 00 

5,415 00 

4,327 34 

11,431 00 

11,416 76 

19,237 24 

4,873 30 

1,675 00 



1886. 



Quantity 

used. 
Cubic feet. 



$452,961 60 



23,980,000 

41,425,000 

64,699,000 

26,493,000 

29,973,000 

23,623,000 

5,963,000 

3,093,000 

2,263,000 

12,699,000 

10,409,000 

1,709,000 

2,680,000 

437,000 

4,763,000 

11,257,000 

1,223,000 

1,986,000 

2,814,000 

9,548,000 

7,846,000 

15,222,000 

4,280,000 

1,776,000 



Amount 

Assessed. 



$29,843 90 

56,026 50 

86,856 17 

32,271 40 

36,083 00 

31,153 63 

7,428 10 

4,143 70 

2,922 35 

15,416 90 

12,896 20 

2,158 30 

3,264 00 

577 80 

6,436 40 

15,330 00 

1,602 50 

2,484 60 

3,791 30 

11,956 10 

9,986 60 

20,461 90 

5,248 20 

2,367 30 



310,161,000 



$400,706 85 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



65 



Mystic Works. 

The following table exhibits the Classes of Premises to which Meters are 
applied, the amount of Water consumed, and the Amount assessed for the 
Fears 1885 and 1886 : — 



Class op Premises. 



Steam Railroads 

Horse Railroads 

Hoosac Tunnel Dock and Elevator Co . 
City and Government Buildings . . . . 

Schools • 

Stables 

Factories . . . , 

Chemical Works 

Foundries 

Breweries 

Gas Companies 

Oil Works 

Mills and Engines 

Hotels 

Model Houses • 

McLean Insane Asylum 

Slaughter-houses 

Business Purposes 

Wharves 

Laundries 

Elevators and Motors 

Bakeries 

Restaurants 

Tanneries 

Miscellaneous 



1885. 



Quantity 

used. 

Cubic feet. 



18,108,785 

929,059 

997,200 

5,772,367 

882,862 

1,965;474 

5,311,874 

963,331 

785,480 

932,463 

209,420 

178,174 

835,530 

427,755 

1,557,896 

1,643,610 

2,454,816 

624,254 

749,648 

399,888 

109,758 

425,380 

227,266 

1,077,096 

1,849,815 



Total 49,419,201 



Amount 
Assessed. 



$27,163 17 

1,393 58 

1,495 80 

8,658 53 

1,324 28 

2,948 16 

7,967 82 

1,445 00 

1,178 25 

1,398 69 

314 13 

267 29 

1,253 30 

641 64 

2,336 8-5 

2,465 39 

3.6S2 21 

936 40 

1,124 SO 

599 86 

164 61 

638 09 

340 94 

1,615 62 

2,774 75 



$74,128 87 



1886. 



Quantity 

used. 
Cubic feet. 



21,225,860 

999,353 

1,333,037 

6,523,518 

853,956 

1,945,374 

5,639,307 

1,033,113 

759,946 

816,000 

279,960 

131,575 

760,835 

481,989 

1,910,633 

1,320,780 

2,439,370 

640,703 

429,792 

386,730 

99,144 

454,705 

145,000 

988,458 

2,791,000 



54,390,138 



$25,705 40 
1,333 43 

1.623 64 
8,127 32 
1,189 13 
2,634 91 

7.624 65 
1,409 08 
1,073 75 
1,041 30 

369 97 

179 59 

1,067 39 

657 20 

2,611 47 

1,608 63 

2,975 30 

897 61 

586 76 

548 60 

139 30 

621 64 

203 90 

1,265 68 

3,833 93 



$69,330 48 



66 



City Document No. 27. 



The quantity used through meters in the different districts 
was as follows : — 



Charlestown 
Somerville . 
Chelsea . . 
Everett . . 

Total . . 



Cubic feet. 



34,202,376 

8,209,761 
5,868,046 
1,139,018 



49,419,201 



Amount. 



$51,303 50 

12,314 72 

8,802 11 

1,708 54 



$74,128 87 



1S86. 



Cubic feet. 



38,896,106 
7,864,843 
6,331,974 
1,297,215 



54,390,138 



Amount. 



$48,532 81 

10,118 67 

8,894 97 

1,784 03 



$69,330 48 



The following table exhibits the yearly revenue from the 
sale of Cochituate water since its introduction into the city, 
i October 25, 1848:— , 

.Received by Water Commissioners, as per Auditor's report, 

in 1848 .... 
JTrom January 1, 1849, to January 1, 1850 
" ' 1850, 

1851, 

1852, 

1853, 

1854, 

1855, 

1856, 

1857, 

1858, 

1859, 

1860, </ 

1861, 

1862, 

1863, 

1864, 

1865, 

1866, 

1867, 

1868, 

1869, 

1870, 
• " 1871, 

1872, 
< " 1873, 

1874, " 



. 


$972 


81 


1850 . 


71,657 


79 


1851 . 


99,025 


45 


1852 . 


161,052 


85 


1853 . 


179,567 


39 


1854 . 


196,352 


32 


1855 . 


217,007 


51 


1856 . 


266.302 


77 


1857 . 


282,651 


84 


1858 . 


289,328 


83 


1859 . 


302,409 


73 


1860 . 


314,808 


97 


1861 . 


334,544 


86 


1862 . 


365,323 


96 


1863 . 


373,922 


33 


1864 . 


394,506 


25 


1865 . 


430,710 


76 


1866 . 


450,341 


48 


1867 . 


486,538 


25 


1868 . 


522,130 


93 


1869 . 


553,744 


88 


1870 . 


597,328 


55 


1871 . 


708,783 


68 


1872 . 


774,445 


70 


1873 . 


862,704 


08 


1874 . 


917,415 


92 


1*75 . 


977,020 


48 



Keport of the Water Board. 



67 



From January 1, 1875, to January 1, 1876 . 1,005,120 94 

1877 . 1,029,643 70 

1878 . 1,015,562 89 

1879 . 1,010,584 30 

1880 . 1,025,803 14 

1881 . 1,039,896 17 

1882 . 1,087,528 49 

1883 . 1,127,982 32 

1884 . 1,167,704 17 

1885 . 1,203,192 55 

1886 . 1,239,757 99 

1887 . 1,206,064 69 

The following table exhibits the yearly revenue 
of Mystic water since its introduction, November 

From November 29, 1864, to January 1, 1866 



it a 


1876, 


a a 


1877, 


a a 


1878, 


a a 


1879, 


a u 


1880, 


a a 


1881, 


a ii 


1882, 


(< it 


1883, 


a a 


1884, 


a a 


1885, 


a a 


1886, 



January 1, 1866, to Jar 
1867, 

1868, 
1869, 
1870, 
1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 
1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884, 
1885, 
1886, 



uary 1, 



1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 



from the sale 
29,1864: — 

$27,045 10 
47,247 16 
60,188 83 
72,448 12 
100,490 57 
176,780 22 
201,822 65 
232,674 05 
253,710 10 
276,058 47 
292,058 78 
294,857 
282,915 
279,743 
266,606 
269,979 
235,642 74 
245,981 85 
260,791 
262,243 
279,096 
301,011 



50 
60 
61 
46 
83 



28 
50 
70 
93 

The daily returns from the Service Division represent a 
total of 9,643 orders received during the year, as follows : — 

Application for service-pipes .... 1,734 

" " turning on water for first time . 1,724 

" " repairs in service-pipes . . 854 

" " off and on water for repairs . 3,807 

" . " " " " non-payment 1,475 

" " " waste 49 



Total 



9,643 



68 



City Document No. 27. 



Drinking-Fountains . 

The total number of drinking-fountains established to 
Jan. 1, 1887, is 73, all of which, with the exception of 12, 
have automatic fixtures to prevent the flow of water. 

They are distributed as follows, viz. : — 



City Proper 
East Boston 






21 

4 


South Boston 






9 


Roxbury . 
West Roxbury . 






7 




Dorchester 






5 


Brighton . 






5 


Charlestown 






6 


Chelsea 






4 


Somerville 






6 


Everett 






1 



73 



Hydraulic Motors. 



The total number of hydraulic motors now located is 75, 
being a decrease of 10 during the year 1886. They are 
applied to a variety of business premises, church organs, etc. 

Hydraulic Elevators. 

The total number of hydraulic elevators established to 
date is 273, being an increase of 18 over the previous year. 
They are located principally in business premises and apart- 
ment-houses. 



Water-Posts. 

There are 110 water-posts now located for street-sprink- 
ling purposes, being an increase of 82 during the past year. 
They are located as follows : — 



Boston Proper . 


4 


Brighton . 


16 


South Boston 


4 


Charlestown Dist. 


6 


East Boston 


1 


Chelsea . 


3 


Roxbury 


13 


Somerville 


25 


Dorchester 


15 


Everett . 


6 


West Roxbury . 


. 17 


* 





Report of the Water Board. 



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pq 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
WESTERN DIVISION. 



Chestnut-Hill Reservoir, Jan. 1, 1887. 

Col. H. T. Rockwell, Chairman Boston Water Board: — 

Sir, — The annual report for the Western Division of the 
Boston Water-Works is submitted herewith. 

SUDBURY-RIVER BASINS. 

Basins 1, 2 and 3 are full, and water is now wasting over 
the lowest dam into the river. Basin 3, as a storage-basin, 
has not been in use during the whole year, owing to the 
work which has been going on for the improvement of its 
shallow flowage. 

The quality of the water in Basin 2 has been excellent, ex- 
cept at times when water was drawn from Basin 4. This 
latter basin was drawn upon throughout the summer and 
autumn and it is now filling rapidly. 

Theseare the principal facts in regard to the Sudbury sup- 
ply. A more detailed account will be found under each 
basin. 

Basin 1. 

On Jan. 1, 1886, the water in this basin stood at grade 
158.02 above tide-marsh level in Boston, and water was wast- 
ing over the dam. 

The water as a general rule was of fair quality. On 
March 19 the waste-gates were opened to lower the surface, 
so that Basin 3 might be emptied. On June 4 the gates were 
shut, the basin at that time being at elevation 154.94. This 
height did not vary much until Nov. 24, when a steady rise 
began, and, on Dec. 19, w 7 ater began to waste over the stone 
crest and so continued to the present date. 

The lowest point reached during the year was on Nov. 12, 
viz. : 154.02, and the highest on Feb. 14, viz. : 160.13. The 
flow of one and one-half millions per day has been passed 
into the river every day during the year in accordance with 
the law. The usual amount of care has been given to the 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



71 



maintenance of the works around the basin. In addition to 
this a new barn has been built on the foreman's place, the 
Homer estate sold at public auction, and all the materials 
owned by the city and stored on these grounds have been 
removed. 

On February 10 there was quite a body of snow on the 
ground, probably equivalent to two inches of rainfall. At 
7 P.M., on the above day, rain began to fall, and continued 
until noon of the loth. The total rainfall on the Sudbury- 
river water-shed was 4.64 inches, but adding the snow on 
the ground would increase this amount to over six inches. 
The greatest freshet that I have ever seen on the works fol- 
lowed. The snow melted but slowly at first, or the flow of 
the streams would have been even larger than it was. On 
the 14th the waste over dam 1 was 1,326,300,000 gallons, 
and on the 13th the yield of the river was very nearly two 
billions of gallons in 24 hours. The total waste over the 
lowest dam from the 11th to the 18th, inclusive, was 
5,853,200,000 gallons, and the total yield of the river during 
the same period was 6,504,800,000 gallons. The weather 
during the freshet was mild, and the snow was practically all 
melted from the ground. The maximum rate of yield from 
the river was from 7 A.M. to noon of the 13th, and was at 
the rate of 2,136,000 gallons in 24 hours. 

The following table shows the progress of the freshet 
more in detail : — 



Date. 


Waste over Dam 1 . 
Millions Gallons. 


Yield of River. 
Millions Gallons. 


February 11 . . . 

12 . . . 

13 . . . 

14 . . . 

15 . . . 

16 . . . 

17 . . . 

18 . . . 


105.8 

412.6 

1,174.7 

1,326.3 

1,059.1 

815.3 

521.3 

438.1 


149.6 
918.6 
1,994.7 
1,287.3 
837.8 
531.0 
428.7 
357.4 


Totals 


5,853.2 


6.505.1 



No damage was done to any part of the works, though the 
B. and A. R.R. arch, at Lake Cochituate, was washed away, 
and the trains blocked on that road for several days. 

Attention has already been called in previous reports to 
the defects in the 48-inch pipe-line in Basin 1. It is hoped 
that they may be remedied during the coining season. 



72 City Document No. 27. 



Basin 2. 



On January 1, 1886, this basin stood at grade 166.11, and 
water was wasting over the stone-crest. This continued 
until April 28, when both sets of flash-boards were put upon 
the dam. Water flowed over the top of these flash-boards 
from May 1 until May 31. On June 4 the height of the 
basin was still further raised by means of temporary planks, 
placed on the regular flash-boards so as to bring the surface 
up to 167.50. On June 16 waste over these boards 
stopped, and as the water was used for the city's supply the 
surface fell to 155.15 on August 5, at which time water 
from Basin 4 was drawn into this basin to maintain its 
level. From this time until November 15, Basin 2 was 
kept between the 156. and 157. grade. Under the influence 
of rains the water began to rise, and on November 28 was 
flowing over the stone-crest which continued with slight ex- 
ceptions until the present time. The highest elevation 
reached during the year was 167.53 on June 13, and the 
lowest, 155.15, on August 5. 

No work of any importance has been done at Basin 2 
during the year, with the exception of the ordinary routine 
work attending the maintenance of the dams and gate-house, 
and the management of the water. 

Allusion has been made to the quality of the water when 
Basin 4 was let on to the supply. At a distance of ten 
feet below the surface the water in Bnsin 4 had a bad 
smell, and this was so persistent that it was noticed as far 
down as the Farm-pond gate-house, when water was run 
directly through the Farm-pond conduit, but by allowing the 
water to oxidize in Farm Pond the objectionable smell en- 
tirely disappeared and the water became clearer in color. 

This bad smell in water at certain depths below the surface 
is often noticed in storage reservoirs, and provision should 
always be made to draw from the surface when necessary. 

Basin 3. 

The water from this basin has been drawn off" during the 
entire year, with the exception of a few days when it w T as 
filled by the great freshet in February. A large force of 
men and teams has been employed in removing the shallow 
flknvage from the sides and at the upper end of the basin, 
destroying stumps, etc. Some 280,000 cubic yards of earth 
have been moved in improving the basin, and about 7,000 
square yards of paving and riprap put in place, and about 
twelve thousand stumps removed and destroyed. A detailed 



Report of the Water Board. 73 

report has been submitted to the City Engineer showing the 
amount of work done and its progress. All the sides have 
been deepened, so that there is nowhere less than ten feet of 
water when the basin is full. The exeavated material, muck, 
loam, etc., was used in tilling the shallower portions. It 
does not seem possible that this work could have any other 
effect than to improve the quality of the water stored in this 
basin. During the summer the water which ran down the 
orginal bed of the stream was turned into Farm Pond, and 
then used for the city supply. Advantage was taken of the 
low state of the water to overhaul and paint the gates in the 
gate-house, and to do other work required below the water- 
line. 

On October 9 the gates were shut, and the water allowed 
to accumulate ; and, on December 1, grade 167, which is the 
grade of the limit of shallow flowage, was reached, and by 
the last of the month the basin was full and running: over. 

The highest elevation reached by the water during the 
year was 175.61, on December 29, and the lowest 154.25, 
on August 30. The surface was kept at about 154.75 while 
the work on the shallow flowage was in progress. 

Basin 4. 

On January 1 the water in this basin stood at elevation 
193.65. It gradually rose, and, on February 12, reached 
grade 202.87. After this date the water accumulated rapidly, 
and, on February 15, was wasting over the overflow in the 
gate-house at grade 210.21. On February 17 the water 
rose to 211.65, when the outlet gate was opened and the 
basin maintained at 210 until March 2. 

On March 31 the stop-planks having been put into the 
gate-house and the outlet gate closed, waste began over the 
stone-crest of the overflow, which continued until June 3, 
when temporary stop-planks were added to the stone work, 
and the water carried up to 214.60. On August 4 the first 
use of the basin, as a storage-reservoir, to reinforce the supply 
to the city began, and the gates were opened. On November 
1 the surface had falh n to 197.36, when the gates were closed, 
and the surface allowed to rise to 204.93, which is the level 
at the present date. The highest point reached during the 
year was 215.03, on April 7, and the lowest 193.65, on Janu- 
ary 1, 1<S86. The elevation of the stone-crest of the over- 
flow is at sjnide 214.21, and as high-water mark is at grade 

c7 r* o 

215.21, I recommend that a bridge over the weir lie built, 
and provision be made for raising the water to this level after 
the first of July, when any freshet can be easily handled. 



74 City Document No. 21. 

The total amount of water received from Basin 4 clun'nsr the 
year was 2,710,000,000 gallons, equal to about 56 per cent, ot 
the rainfall. At request of the City Engineer I took charge 
of the work of completing the grading of the dam and the im- 
provement of the grounds at this basin. From the first of 
April until the first of July a force of about 30 men were 
employed. The loam on the embankment of the dam was 
graded, and sown to grass ; about 33,500 sq. feet ol sodding 
placed along the paths and on the south side of the embank- 
ment. About 1,200 cart-loads of additional loam was pur- 
chased, and about 250 trees set out in portions of the grounds, 
that it seemed desirable to treat in this way. About 550 feet 
of 6-inch and 1,050 feet of 4-inch tile drain-pipe was laid, 
besides 270 feet of 6-inch Akron pipe, 800 feet of stone drain, 
and 900 feet of open ditch excavated all for the purpose of 
draining the ground below the dam. Wells, catch-basins, 
and weirs were built at proper places. There is still a certain 
amount of work remaining to be done at the brook channel, 
and it would be very desirable to build a small house for the 
gate-keeper, where he could keep a constant watch of this 
important basin. I therefore recommend that this be done 
at the earliest opportunity. 

Farm Pond. 

On Jan. 1, 1886, this pond stood at elevation 149.33, 
high-watermark. It was kept at this point without mate- 
rial change until March 24, when it was drawn down to 
allow work on the Farm-pond aqueduct to proceed. April 
14 found the water at grade 145.02 which was maintained 
until Oct. 27 when it rose slowly to 145.90, on Nov. 19. 
It was then filled up rapidly from the basins above, and early 
in December had reached high-water mark, where it remained 
for the rest of the year. The highest elevation was 149.91, 
on Feb. 15, and the lowest 144.86, on June 15. 

Early in July the Farm-pond aqueduct was so far com- 
pleted that on the 9th of July water was run through it to 
Chestnut-Hill reservoir ; but owing to trouble in the quality 
of the water from Basin 4, the flow was changed into the 
pond after a few days. On Sept. 9 owing to the presence 
of a small quantity of algas in Farm Pond the flow was again 
turned through the aqueduct. On Oct. 4 all trace of algae 
having disappeared water was again drawn directly from 
Farm Pond. Between Nov. 21 and Nov. 29 water was 
run through the aqueduct to give Basin 3 water an oppor- 
tunity to oxidize and settle before using as a portion of the 
supply. In general the effect of drawing from the lower end 



Report of the Water Board. 75 

of the pond is to improve the color and quality of the Sud- 
bury water. Some repairs have been made to the sluice in 
Farm Pond and to the masonry of the inlet chamber. Dur- 
ing the year the regular force employed at the basin has 
worked very largely on the shallow flowage in Basin 3 and 
also on construction at Basin 4, so that the grounds in the 
immediate vicinity of the gate-houses and dams have not 
been kept up to the usual standard, this part of the regular 
work having been somewhat neglected for more important 
duties. 

The Farm Pond Water Co. have pumped during the year 
76, GOO, 000 gallons from Farm Pond, or a daily average of 
210,000 gallons. 

Lake Cochituate. 

On Jan. 1, 1886, the surface of the lake stood at 131.47, 
2.89 feet below high-water mark. On Jan. 28, the water 
having risen to 132.28, the gate in the upper dam was 
opened and waste into the river began. This continued until 
the middle of April, when the stop-planks were put in the 
dam. The greatest amount of water passed over the lower 
dam daring this time was 1,975 feet, on Feb. 15. On Jan. 
17 the lake had reached high-water mark. The surface fell 
steadily during the summer, and on Nov. 17 it reached the 
lowest point, viz. : 127.47. From this date to the present 
time, under the influence of abundant rains, it rose to 129.77, 
on Jan. 1, 1887. The quality of the water has been excel- 
lent throughout the year. Strenuous efforts have been made 
to keep out all the drainage from Pegan Brook, and I am 
glad to say that the condition of the water has never been so 
good. There is now no sewerage emptying into Pegan 
Brook that can be found by the most minute system of 
inspection. The water is bright and clear in appearance. I 
think it would be an improvement to the water of the lake to 
take away the filter dams, so-called, and also the dam at the 
outlet of the meadows. 

An inspector has been kept at work during the greater 
part of the year on different portions of the Western Division, 
wherever any danger from sewage contamination occurs. 

At Natick, Framingham, Marlboro', Ashland, Woodville, 
Cordaville, and Brookline, 227 cases have been inspected, 
and 120 cases abated. Six injunctions have been served. 

A sewer has been built in Chestnut-Hill avenue, Brook- 
line, mainly through the efforts of the city, and partly at its 
expense, to relieve the sewerage troubles at the Brookline 
tunnel of the Cochituate aqueduct. 



76 City Document No. 27. 

On May 21 the buildings surrounding the boilers at the 
gate-house were burned, and considerable damage done to 
the machinery. The pumps and engines have been removed 
to the other side of the lake, and two of the damaged boilers 
have been disposed of. The others might be sold whenever 
an opportunity offers. 

In September a leak was noticed in the lower of the two 
dams at the outlet of the lake. An excavation was made in 
the centre of the embankment, and it was found that the 
cement was all gone from some portions of the stone-work. 
Certain portions of the sheet piling were found in a decayed 
condition, and after a thorough repair of the masonry a brick 
pier was built to take the place of portions of the rotten 
piling removed. An abundant amount of cement was used 
for plastering the surfaces of the masonry, and it is believed 
that no further trouble will arise from this particular source. 
Some repairs were also made at the same time to the tempo- 
rary portions of the wing-walls of this dam, and the masonry 
of the upper dam was pointed. 

No water from Sudbury river has been run into the lake 
during the year. The condition of the water in the arm of 
the lake running from Beaver Dam Brook was very bad dur- 
ing the summer and autumn. Thick masses of slimy vege- 
tation collected on the surface and were removed from time 
to time ; but they never succeeded in getting beyond a very 
restricted area, and probably had little or no influence on the 
quality of the water in the main portions of the lake. Sur- 
veys will soon be started with reference to improving these 
shallow margins. 

Dudley Pond. 

This pond is now nearly full. We have had no occasion 
to draw water from this source during the year. 

SUDBUEY-RIVER AQUEDUCT. 

This structure has been in service during the entire year, 
with the exception of a few days while undergoing cleaning, 
once in February, during the great freshet, and once in 
November while Farm Pond was being filled from Basin 3. 
It has carried to the city a total of 5,267,600,000 gallons, 
or an average of 14,430,000 gallons daily. 

This average is larger than that of last year. The great- 
est amount run in any one day was 38,900,000 gallons, on 
Dec. 27, and the least 6,600,000 gallons, on Jan. 21. 

On July 27, 28, and 29, the whole length of the Farm-pond 



Report of the Water Board. 77 

and Sudbury aqueducts were cleaned as thoroughly as pos- 
sible by day-labor. From the gate-house to Bacon's waste- 
weir the brick- work was very dirty, being covered with 
many patches of fibrous growth which held mud. On the 
bottom a luxuriant growth of sponge was found in two con- 
tinuous lines on each side of the bottom. The growth was 
generally from three to ten inches in diameter, and it must 
have developed entirely since the last cleaning. From 
Bacon's waste-weir to Waban bridge the spongilla gradu- 
ally diminished. From the East-pipe chamber to Chestnut- 
Hill reservoir the aqueduct was tolerably clean. There was 
some sponge found in the Beacon-street tunnel. Four cart- 
loads of stone were removed near Station 803, which had 
fallen from the roof. Nothing has yet been done towards 
bricking up this portion of the aqueduct, but it should be 
undertaken without delay. 

On Dec. 3 a leak was discovered coming from the Waban 
arches. It appeared in the " tell-tale " pipe in the second 
arch from the west end of the bridge. The water was shut 
off at once, and a crack fifty feet in length found in the bot- 
tom of the aqueduct, through which the water was escaping. 
It w T as thoroughly repaired. It extended from Station 
383+01 to Station 383+48. The iron fences on Charles 
river and Waban bridges were painted during the summer. 
The embankments and other portions of the exterior of the 
aqueduct have received the usual attention in the way of 
loaming, seeding, etc. 

The great freshet in February gave an excellent oppor- 
tunity to test the capacity of the various water-ways along 
the aqueduct to pass the water from their respective water- 
sheds. It was seen that they were all unobstructed, and in 
proper working order at the beginning of the flood. The 
following table shows the head of w T ater existing at the various 
points of interest : — 

Feet. 

Beaver Dam Brook . . . . 2.16 

Course Brook waste-weir . . . 3.1G 

Culvert, No. 14 (near Cottage street) . 0.40 

" " 15 (near Bacon waste-weir) 0.46 

Bacon's waste-weir .... 1.88 

Fuller's " .... 0.16 

Rosemary brook . . . . . 0.50 

Wardwell's culvert (No. 41) . . . 0.04 

The water at Charles-river bridge reached a point 5.75 
feet below the spring of the great arch, and at Waban bridge 
it rose 0.58 feet above the cap stones of the piers. 



78 City Document No. 27. 

Owing to the faithfulness of Mr. J. W. Oldham, foreman 
of the aqueducts, no damage was done at any point on the 
line. 

Fourteen hundred feet of new fencing has been built dur- 
ing the year. 

On Dec. 29, 30, and 31, the second cleaning of the aque- 
duct took place. 

No sponge was found to speak of, but a fibrous vegetable 
growth extended along the sides and bottom which could not 
be entirely removed with twenty strokes of a stiff broom. 
It was generally about two inches thick. 

A small portion of the aqueduct was cleaned by a machine, 
enough to show the practicability of this method of cleaning. 
The machine did the work in a much more thorough manner 
than it could be done by hand, and proceeded at the rate of 
about 100 feet in a minute. Further experimenting in this 
direction will be made. 

The aqueduct force was employed for a considerable por- 
tion of their time at Dam No. 4, under Mr. Oldham, where 
their experience in seeding, sowing, and sodding embank- 
ments came in excellent play. 

The Cochituate Aqueduct. 

On Jan. 1, 1886, a depth of five feet and one-half of water 
was run to the reservoirs, and so maintained until Aug. 3, 
when the water was shut off for cleaning. From Aug. 6 to 
Dec. 23, when the second cleaning took place, five feet of 
water was maintained. 

Spongilla was found at the time of the first cleaning in 
considerable quantity as far as Station 129, but from this point 
to the west-pipe chamber the amount diminished. It was in 
its first stages of growth when it is removed quite easily. 
From Newton Center water-weir to Chestnut-Hill reservoir 
the spongilla increased in quantity, and between Chestnut- 
Hill and Brookline reservoir nearly the whole area of the 
brick-work was covered with it. At the second cleaning, in 
December, very little spongilla was found in any portion of 
the aqueduct, but a black mossy growth of vegetation had 
taken its place. 

In August the bushes growing on the line from Newton 
Center to the lake w r ere removed. 

The following table will show the head of water on the 
different culverts, etc., at the time of the great freshet in 
February : — Feet. 

Stevens' culvert . . . . 0.71 

Dadman's brook . . . . 0.42 



Report of the Water Board. 79 

Morton culvert .... 0.42 

Newton Center waste-weir . . 0.08 

Charles-river bridge . . . 0.66 

At the last-named structure the water reached a level of 
5.42 ft. below the key-stone of the middle arch of the bridge. 
There would have been a much greater head of water on this 
bridge had not the water dammed back by the next bridge 
below, giving a greater cross-section, and consequently a lower 
velocity to the stream. 

Nearly half a mile of new fencing has been built during 
the year and old fences maintained. 

No repairs have been made to the interior. 

Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. 

This reservoir has been in constant use throughout the 
year. The water has been good in quality. The grounds 
are in excellent condition. An improvement has been made 
in the appearance of the drive-ways by taking down the fences 
wherever practicable. Holes have been dug and filled pre- 
paratory to the planting of another row of elms in the spring. 

The stone-crusher has been used very little on account of 
lack of appropriation. The usual meteorological and other 
observations have been made. All of the gate-houses and 
other structures are in good repair with the exception of the 
screens at the efiluent gate-house. 

About 40 tons of hay were cut from the grounds during 
the year. 

Chestnut-Hill Drive-way. 

The maintenance of this drive-way has always been sup- 
ported from an annual appropriation by the City Council. This 
year $1,500 only was appropriated, — a sum entirely insuffi- 
cient to pay for watering and the repairs of the road. 

Whatever has been found actually necessary to be done, 
however, has been taken from the regular income of the 
Water-Works. 

Next year a larger sum than usual must be spent to make 
up for repairs postponed for lack of funds. 

Brookline Reservoir. 

The grounds and structures at this point are in good or- 
der. About half the water used in Boston has been sent 
through this reservoir. The old stone posts and chain fence 



80 



City Document No. 27. 



in front of the gate-house have been removed, some trees 
cut down, and the banks graded and sodded, very much to 
the improvement, of the surroundings. The usual daily 
records have been kept. 

A table of rainfall at Chestnut-Hill reservoir is appended, 
showing the times of beginning and ending of each storm. 
Very respectfully, 

DESMOND FITZGERALD, 

Superintendent. 



Table of Rainfall at Chestnut- Hill Reservoir for year ending Dec. 31, 1886. 



Date. 






Duration. 


1 

1 Date. 


J5 


3 - 

8« 


Duration. 






l-l 


CD O 




1 


M 






Jan. 


5 


1.04 


Rain 


3.30 a.m to 4.00 p.m. 


Mar. 8 


{ 0.07 


Snow 


7.40 p.m. 
to 


" 


9 


1.45 


Snow 
Snow 


1.00 a.m to 4.15 p.m. 


" 9 


) 




11.15 a.m. 


" 


19 


0.79 


and 
Rain 


6.00 a.m to 8.00 p.m. 


" 12 


) 0.37 


Rain 
and 


4.00 p.m. 
to 


" 


21 


\ 0.21 


Rain 


9.00 p.m. 
to 


" 13 


) 


Snow 


10.30 p.m. 


i< 


22 


J 




8.00 p.m. 


" 16 


0.05 


Rain 


8.55 a.m. to 9.15 a.m. 


«i 


24 


) 


Snow 


10.15 a.m. 


" 19 


] 




5.20 p.m. 


■' 


25 


| 0.84 


and 
Rain 


to 
9.30 p.m. 


" 20 
" 21 


.2.02 


Snow 
and 


to 




ii'd 


) 




6.15 p.m. 














\ 1.67 


Rain 


to 


" 22 






3.00 a.m. 


" 


28 


i 




6.45 p.m. 


" 22 


0.03 


Snow 


during night. 


<< 


20 


) 


Rain 


11.30 a.m. 














} 0.66 


and 


to 


« 27 


) 


Rain 


5.30 p.m. 


" 


30 


S 


Snow 


8.15 a.m. 


" 28 


j 0.37 


and 
Snow 


to 
5.00 a.m. 


ii 


30 


0.49 


Snow 


5.00 p.m. to 11.55 p.m. 


" 29 


"j 




6.30 p.m. 


" 


31 


0.02 


" 


6.30 p.m. to 11.45 p.m. 


" 30 
" 31 


i 0.64 


Rain 


to 


Tota 


. 


7.17 






7.00 a.m. 


















Total . 


3.55 








3 


) 




9.00 p.m. 




Feb. 














\ 0.06 


Snow 


to 


April 1 


0.04 


Rain 


12.40 a.m. to 1.00 a.m. 


" 


4 


J 




3.00 a.m. 


" 3 


0.10 


Snow 


6.30 a.m. to 3.30 p. m. 


k 


11 


1 
I 




8.50 a.m. 


1 " 5 


1 




5.45 p.m. 


" 


12 


i- 6.09 

J 


Rain 


to 


" 6 


I 2.36 


Rain 


to 


" 


13 




1.00 p.m. 


" 7 


J 




1.30 a.m. 


II 


19 


0.68 


" 


5.40 p.m. to 11.55 p.m. 


7 


0.02 


" 


12.30 p.m. to 1.30 p.m. 


" 


21 


0.01 


Snow 


during evening. 


1 " 13 


0.08 


Show- 
ers 


10.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m. 


" 


25 


| 1.05 


Rain 
and 


11.15 a.m. 
to 


" 24 


0.04 


" 


4.20 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 


" 


26 


I 


Snow 


4.30 p.m. 


" 27 


0.07 


Rain 


8.15 p.m. to 11.15 p.m. 


Total . 


7.89 






Total . 


2.71 







Report of the Water Board. 81 

Table of Rainfall at Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. — Continued. 







^ 








u 




Date. 


fi3 

o 


o • 

ii 


Duration. 


Date. 




o . 
> .5 


Duration. 




M 


0Q 








M 


02 




May 5 


0.04 


Rain 


1.00 a.m. to 4.00 a.m. 


Aug. 


2 


0.30 


Rain. 


12.05 a.m. to 3.30 a.m. 


" 5 


0.25 


" 


5.10 p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 


" 


5 


( 0.40 


„ 


8.15 p.m. 
to 


8 


| 1.54 


« 


4.20 a.m. 
to 


** 


6 


) 




6.30 a.m. 


9 


) 




2.00 a.m. 


" 


7 


| 1.22 


,< 


5.00 p.m. 
to 


" 10 


) 




7.00 p.m. 


" 


8 


\ 




6.00 a.m. 


" 11 


| 0.31 




to 
7.00 p.m. 


« 


12 


0.23 


Show- 
er. 


3.25 p.m. to 4.10 p.m. 


" 14 


0.02 


" 


2.30 a.m. to 4.45 a.m. 


" 


14. 


0.18 


Rain. 


11.40 a.m. to 1.40 p.m. 


« if 


0.79 


Show- 
er 


5.00 a.m to 11.45 a.m. 


" 


16 


( 0.63 




9.00 p.m. 
to 


" 20 


0.05 


5.50 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. 


" 


17 


) 




1.00 a.m. 


" 25 


{ 0.25 


Rain 


8.35 a.m. 
to 


" 


30 


0.10 


Show- 
ers. 


1.00 p.m. to 9..08.p.m. 


« 26 


) 




4.00 a.m. 


" 


31 


0.46 


Rain. 


1.45 p.m. to T.Q0 p.m. 


" 27 
" 31 


0.05 
0.11 


„ 


4.45 p.m. to 11.30 p.m. 
4.35 a.m. to 5.10 a.m. 












" 


Total . 


3.52 






Total . 


3.41 






Sept. 


10 
12 


0.41 
) 


Rain. 


3.00 a.m. to 9 a.m. 










7.15 p.m. 


June 3 


0.55 


Rain 


6.45 a.m. to 12.15 p.m. 


<i 


13 


S 0.46 


" 


to 
3.00 am. 


" 9 


) 




10.00 p.m. 














J 0.06 


u 


to 


'« 


16 


) 




6.10 a.m. 


" 10 


J 




3.45 a.m. 


ii 


17 


j 0.22 


" 


to 
12.30 a.m. 


" 13 


i 0.31 


„ 


5.25 a.m. 
to 


ii 


17 


0.15 


Show- 


9.15 p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 


" 14 


J 




3.00 a.m. 


., 


19 


0.05 




9.30 p.m. to 10.45 p.m 


" 15 


0.15 


" 


2.00 a.m. to 7.00 a.m. 
















Show- 




" 


23 


1.29 


Rain. 


6.00 a.m. to 6.45 p.m. 


« 17 


0.03 


during day. 




















" 


27 


) 




3.00 a.m. 


" 23 


"1 

1 


Show- 
ers 


11.30 a.m. 


ii 


28 


> 0.45 


" 


to 
7.00 p.m. 


« 24 


}-0.26 


to 














1 
1 


and 
Mist 


4.30 a.m. 













" 25 








" 25 


0.02 


Show- 
ers 


12.30 p.m. to 4.30 p.m. 


Total . 


3.03 








Oct. 


12 


0.02 


Rain. 




Total . 


1.38 




5.15 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. 










It 


IS 
.26 


A AQl 


1.30 a.m to 4.00 a.m. 
10.00 p.m. 


July 15 


1.74 


Rain. 


5.00 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. 


« 


1 




" 15 


j 0-42 


ii 


3.00 p.m. 
to 


" 


27 








" 16 


J 




10.45 a.m. 


" 


28 


S3.10 


„ 


to 


" 27 


0.18 


" 


4.15 a.m. to 3.30 p m. 


" 


29 








" 29 


( 0.25 


„ 


4.45 p.m. to 6.15 p.m. 


" 


30 


1 






" 30 


J 




1.00 a.m. to 3.00 a.m. 




81 


J 




11.55 p.m. 


Total . 


2.59 






Total . 


3.21 







82 



City Document No. 27. 



Table of Rainfall at Chestnut-Hill Reservoir. — Concluded. 







u 
o • 












Date. 


o 

a 

M 


fe.S 

0Q 


Duration. 


Date. 


3 


o & 

art 
m 


Duratian. 


Nov. 6 


) 




11.30 a.m. 


Dec. 2 


0.04 


Snow. 


4.40 a.m. to 6.30 a.m. 


" 7 


[ 0.84 


Rain. 


to 
4.00 a.m. 


" 5 


1.13 


« 


8.15 a.m. to 11.55 p.m. 


" 10 


0.17 


■' 


1.15 p.m. to 4.00 p.m. 


i< 7 


0.40 


ii 


5.00 a.m. to 11.00 p.m. 


" 12 


) 


Rain 


6.20 p.m. 


" 13 


0.21 


Rain. 


7.30 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. 


«■« 13 


1.32 


and 

Snow. 


to 
10.15 p.m. 


" 16 


0.41 


Snow. 


4.00 a.m. to 4.15 p.m. 


«' 17 


) 




8.30 a.m. 


" 18 


1.13 


Rain. 


11.30 a.m. to 11. 50 p.m. 


" 18 


J 0.65 


Rain. 


to 

4.10 p.m. 


" 24 


\ 1.37 


ii 


6.30 a.m. 
to 


•' 23 


0.53 


ii 


3.30 a.m. to 10.30 p.m. 


" 25 


) 




5.40 a.m. 


" 25 
" 26 


| 0.37 
0.15 


it 
ii 


2.40 p.m. 

to 
1.00 a.m. 

10.30 p.m. to 11.40 p.m. 


" 30 
" 31 


| 1.13 


Snow 
and 
Rain. 


1.00 a.m. 

to 
11.50 p.m. 


" 30 


Total . 


5.82 






Total . 


4.03 






Total ra 














MAI* < >F THE 

SHOWING THE DRAINAGE AREAS 
., or the ^ 





AN] > 


Smlliun Kii-tT Hatrr.MiHl . 74. M> 

" C'ochituntr IVuter-Nlipil . . . Iil.7l» 

Mj-lh Wulir-Minl .... 27.76 

Sbnwililne W*tcr-8bea . . . B4.10 


t 


OeiMWAWi &MY3VW LAKES, 


istii.. 




r.:|.ni.Mi..n ..i tiii--iK ImimU. ivn-u- *s,i'., i,;i'_'. 



EEPOET OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
EASTERN DIVISION. 



January 1, 1887. 
Horace T. Rockwell, Esq., Chairman Boston Water 
Board : — 

Sir, — In accordance with the requirements of the Board 
I herewith present my report for the year ending with De- 
cember, 1886. 

The raising of the 48-inch main, on Beacon street, to con- 
form to the new grade, commencing near the junction of 
Brookline avenue, and extending about 1,850 feet, was, dur- 
ing the season, successfully performed, and is, up to date, in 
excellent condition. The laying of the new high-service 
pipes (30 and 24-inch) was resumed last spring, and will be 
completed early this season. 

The laying of the West Roxbury high-service was com- 
menced October 1, completed, and water let into them on 
December 23. There has been but one breakage in the 
large mains during the year. This was on the 48-inch line, 
at the abutment wall of the Boston & Albany Railroad bridge, 
on Beacon street ; and previous to the raising of that line of 
pipes, the water was shut off before any damage was done, 
and repaired very soon after. 

Main Pipe. 

The length of pipes of the different sizes laid and relaid 
during the year is 87,197 feet, or 16.51 miles. 

Whole length laid since the commencement of 

the works ...... 466.56 miles 

Whole length now in service . . . 414.17 miles 



Service-Pipes. 

Whole number put in last year . . . 1,590 

Length in feet 45,867 

Total number to date ..... 53,400 



84 



City Document No. 27. 



Hydrants and Stopcocks. 

194 hydrants and 238 stopcocks established during the 
year. 

Relaying of Enlarged Sizes. 



Street. 



Broad 

Broad ......... 

Milk 

Dock eq. and Union . . 

Chavlestown 

Lowell 

Chambers 

Brighton 

Foundry 

Ninth ......... 

B . 

Hartford ......;. 



Between what streets. 



State and Milk 

State and India sq. .... 
India and Batterymarch . . 
Washington and Hanover . 
Causeway and Stillman . . 
Brighton and Minot .... 

Green and Poplar 

Leverett and Lowell .... 
Dorchester ave. and Ontario 

D and Dorchester 

Seventh and Broadway . . 
Sargent and Howard ave. . 



Size 
now. 


No. of 
feet. 


8 


478 


12 


703 


12 


420 


12 


792 


12 


1,160 


8 


434 


8 


405 


8 


355 


12 


2,037 


10 


1,392 


8 


1,228 


8 


128 



~£ 



Taken up and Abandoned. 

48-inch 150 feet. 

12 " 323 " 

6 " 9,582 " 

4 " ..... 2,723 " 



Changed. 



29 1^-inch out and 29 |-inch put in 



4 

2 
1 

7 
1 

2 
8 
24 
9 
1 
8 



4 2 

1 11 

7 1 
1 2 

2 n 

8 lj 
24 1 

Q 3 

* 4 

1 & 

x 4 



Keport of the Water Board. 



85 



Statement of Location, Size, and Nuniber of Feet of Pipe 
laid in 1886. 

Note. — B. indicates Boston ; 8. B., South Boston; E.B., East Boston; B.H., Boston High- 
lands; D., Doi-chester; W.R., WestRoxbury; Bri., Brighton. 



In what Street. 



Between what Streets. 



Fisher-hill reservoir lot, 
Beacon , 

Brighton 

Fisher ave , 

Dudley , 

Brookline reservoir lot, 

Warren 

Cottage 

Perkins 

Chestnut-hill reservoir 
lot 

Day 

Heath 

Hayden 

Fisher ave 

Parker-hill reservoir lot 
Perkins 



Huntington ave. . 
Chestnut-Hill ave. 



Broad 

Milk 

Dock sq. and Union 
Charlestown . . . . 

Boylston 

West Chester Park . 



From Fisher ave. . . 
Over the R.R. bridge 
Total 36-inch 



Fisher ave and the R.R. bridge 
Brighton and Boylston .... 
Warren and Reservoir lot . . . 
Dudley and Boylston .... 

Dudley and Cottage 

Warren and Boston line . . . 
Brookline line and Prince . . . 



Beacon and the stable 
Total 30-inch . 



Heath and Creighton .... 

Day and Fisher ave 

Heath and Fisher ave .... 

Hayden and Parker 

Fisher ave. and the Reservoir 

Near Prince , 

Total 24-inch . . . . 



Worthington and Wigglesworth 

Beacon and Englewood ave. . . 

Total 16-inch 



Milk and India square .... 
India and Batterymarch . . . 
Devonshire and Hanover . . . 
Causeway and Stillman .... 
West Chester Park and Parker 
Westlaud and Newbury .... 
Carried forward .... 



Bri. 



Bri. 



W.R. 
Bri. 



W.R. 



B.H. 

Bri. 



169 
368 



537 



1,183 

1,951 

860 

979 

1,508 

1,891 

341 

1,300 



10,018 



852 
270 
497 
134 
278 
65 



:,096 



186 
598 



784 

703 
420 
792 

1,160 
400 
816 

4.291 



86 City Document No. 27. 

Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Brookline ave 

Foundry . . 

Boston 

Breed 

Ford 

Lawrence ave 

Elm-Hill ave 

Prospect 

Richfield 

River 

Blue-Hill ave 

East Chester Park . . 

Erie ave 

Blue-Hill ave. . . . . 

Nelson 

Southern ave 

Washington 

Codman 

Centre 

Dudley ave 

Hyde Park ave. . . . 

Gardner 

Neponset ave. . . . . 

Washington 

Corey 

Bellevue and the Field 

Robin 

Park 

Hyde Park ave. . . . 

Walter 

Beacon 

Western ave 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

Beacon and R.R. bridge 

Dorchester ave. and Fourth .... 

Ellery and Stewart , 

Ford and Leyden 

Saratoga and Breed 

Blue Hill ave. and Cedar , 

Howland and Wenonah 

Milton ave. and Norfolk 

Puritan ave. and Olney , 

Blue Hill ave. and Hyde Park line , 
McLellan ave. and Harvard .... 

Boston and Clapp 

New Seaver and Washington ... 

Norfolk and Fremont 

Norfolk and Evans , 

Whitfield and Bernard 

Bailey and Fuller , 

Dorchester ave. and Washington . 

Allston and Carlisle 

Washington and Birch 

Morton and Walkhill , 

Ashland and Mount Hope . . . . . 
Spring and Brookline line . . . . , 
Hyde Park ave and Folsom . . . . , 
Dudley ave. and La Grange . . . , 

Garfield ave. and Weld 

Park and Centre 

Washington and Robin 

Bellevue and Park 

Corey and Robin 

Neponset ave. and Stony Brook . . . 

South and Hewlitt 

Chestnut-Hill ave. and Roxbury ave. 
North Harvard and Cambridge line . 

Total 12 inch 



B. 
S.B. 



E.B. 



B.H. 



Dor. 



12 



W.R 



Keport of the Water Board. 
Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



87 



In what Street. 



Foundry . 
Ninth . . 
Idaho . . 
Spring . . 

Morgan . 
Broad . . 
Lowell . . 
Chambers 
Brighton . 
Thorndike 
Newman . 
Q 

B . . . . 
Curtis . . , 
Leyden . , 
Dimook . 
Mozart . . , 
Homestead , 
Quincy . . , 
Hartford . , 
Alban . . , 
Norfolk . . 
Puritan ave. 
Milton . . . 
Cushing ave 
Torrey . . . 
Gleason . . 
Franklin . . 
Welles ave . 
Sawyer ave . 
Boylston . . 
Symmes . . 
Cass . . . . 
Summer . . 



Between what Streets. 



Dorchester ave. and Fourth , 
D and Dorchester .... 

From River 

Clarence and Franklin ave. , 
Total 10-inch . . . . 



Columbus ave. and Stanhope 

State and Milk 

Brighton and Minot 

Green and Poplar 

Leverett and Lowell .... 
"Washington and Reed . . . 
Dorchester and Lowland . . 
Fourth and Broadway . . . 
Seventh and Broadway . . . 

Saratoga and Pope 

From Breed 

Amory and Washington . . 

Gilbert and Centre 

Nasby and Humboldt ave. . 
Cedar and Magnolia .... 
Sargent and Howard ave. . . 
Ashmont and Welles ave. . . 
Delhi and Cook's court . . . 

From Richfield 

Adam and O.C. R.R 

Jerome and Upham ave. . . 
Washington and Gordon . . 
Harvard and Erie ave. . . . 

Walnut and Taylor 

Harley and Ocean 

Cushing ave. and Pleasant . 

Burr and C 

Fairvicw and Walter .... 

Spring and Summer 

Cass and Autumn 

Carried forward . . . . 



S.B. 



Dor. 
W.R 



B. 



S.B. 



E.B. 



B.H. 



Dor. 



W.R. 



10 



1,325 

1,392 

268 

322 

3,307 

235 

478 

434 

405 

355 

240 

831 

268 

1,228 

300 

1,799 

63 

1,019 

468 

131 

128 

48 

403 

343 

163 

289 

49 

516 

96 

23 

173 

149 

192 

130 

616 

11,572 



88 



City Document No. 27. 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Robeson 

Sycamore .... 
Mt. Vernon . . . 

St. John 

Martin ...... 

Centre ...... 

Perkins ..... 

Proctor . . 
Walter. ..... 

Arlington .... 

Mt. Vernon . . . 
Englewood ave. . 

Batavia ..... 
Hancock ave. . . . 
Isabella ..... 
St. Botolph .... 
North Margin . . 

Ivanhoe 

Cumberland . . . 
Elm ....... 

Fifth. ...... 

Fifth 

Sixth. ...... 

Athens ...... 

Story 

O . 

Chaucer 

Byron 

Cedar Park . . . 
Linden ave. . . . 

Savia 

Waumbeck . . . 
Worthington place 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward . . . 
Forest Hills and Sigourney 
Poplar and Ashland . . . . 

Pleasant and Garfield ave. . 
Centre and Rockview . . . 
Park and Wren ...... 

Bellevue and Vernon . . . . 

Near Prince 

Fairview and Walter . . . . 

Hewlitt and Symes 

Parson and Market 

Rockland and Church . . . 
Roxbury ave. and Beacon . 

Total 8-inch 



Falmouth and Parker , 

Beacon and Mt. Vernon 

Ferdinand and Columbus ave. . . . . 
West Chester Park and Cumberland . 
Thacher and Lafayette ave. . . . . , 
West Canton and Trumbull .... 
St. Botolph and Providence R.R. . . 
Union and Washington ....... 

G and H 

H and I . . . . 

G and H 

C and Second ........... 

From G 

First and the Water . , 

Curtis and Moore . . , 

Bennington and Milton . , 

From Highland Park 

Linden Park and Siegel place ..-.-, 
Blue-Hill ave. and Pupelo ...... 

Warren and Wabon 

From Tremont 

Carried forward ........ 



W.R. 



Br 



B. 



S.B. 



E.B. 



B.H. 



11,572 
80 
484 
6TT 
100 
26 
410 
211 
197 
511 
232 
252 
16.1 

14,913 

360 
109 
215 
26S 
237 
111 
273 

30 

24 
153 

61 
1,360 

73 
435 
585 
204 

58 

28 
142 

55 

134 

4,910 



Eeport of the Water Board. 89 

Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In -what Street. 



Montrose . . . . 
Highland Park . 
Bumstead lane . 
Fellows . . . . 
Ruthven . . . . 
Tyso Park . . . 

Regent 

Rock 

Rowland . . . . 
Thornton . . . 
A (new street) . 
Minden . . . . 
Greenwich . . . 
Armstrong . . . 
Winonah . . . 
Hestia Park . . 
Terrace . . . . 
Elmwood place 
Nasby .... 
Sussex place . . 
Phillips . . . . 
Bromley .... 
Linden .... 
Fairview .... 
Burt ave. . . . 
Cottage place . 
Pilgrim " 
A court .... 

Sidney 

Hooper .... 
Tremlett .... 
Beaumout . . . 
Elm lawn . . . 
Norton .... 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 



Warren and Moreland 

Cedar and Fort ave 

Conant and Longwood ave. . . 
"Webber and Hunueman . . . . 
Nasby and Humboldt ave. . . . 

From Dennis 

Hurlburt and Ray 

Rockland and Regent 

Elm Hill ave. and Warren . . . 

Juniper and Cedar 

From Wyman 

Posen and Bickford . • . . i . 
Westminster and Warwick . . . 

Gilbert and Mozart 

Elm-Hill ave. and Waumbeck . 

From Walnut ave 

Heath and Alleghany 

From Elmwood st 

Ruthven and Homestead .... 

From Hammond 

Tremont and Oriental court . . 

From Bromley Park 

Dorchester ave. and Commercial 

From Train 

Ashmont and Washington . . . 
From Cottage 

" Richfield • 

" Adams 

Harbor View and Crescent ave. 
Mellville ave. and Tremlett . . . 
Hooper and Washington .... 

Carruth and Adam 

From Ccntro 

" Bowdoin 

Carried forward 



Dor. 



4,910 

103 

26 

257 

28 

257 

317 

135 

66 

28 

92 

101 

72 

273 

322 

431 

217 

26 

225 

286 

256 

75 

113 

323 

410 

100 

430 

158 

321 

24 

359 

125 

106 

269 

382 

11,014 



90 City Document No. 27. 

.Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Longmeadow . . 
Whitfield . . . . 

Delhi 

Payson 

Fuller 

Corbett 

Chickatawbut . . 
Humphrey square 

Belden 

Sidney place . . . 
Sanborn ave. . . 
Church place . . 
Leonard " • • 

Leonard 

Duncan 

Brooks 

Gordon 

Victoria 

Minot 

Minot place . . . 

Dorset 

Newhall 

Bushnell 

Virginia 

Granger . . . . . 
Abbott • . . . . 

Evans 

Union ave 

Ocean 

Spencer 

Brookside ave. . , 

Helena , 

Boylston place . , 
Salem , 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward , 



Clifton and Batchelder 

Park and Norfolk 

From Norfolk 

Hancock and Glendale 

Dorchester ave. and "Washington 

Norfolk and Selden 

Plain and Minot 

From Humphrey 

Dudley and Boston 

From Dudley 

" Harvard 

" Washington 

" Leonard 

Duncan and Clayton 

Leonard and Granger 

From Dorchester ave 

Torrey and Dunbar ave 

Dorchester ave. and Pleasant . . 

Carruth and Frederika 

From Minot 

Boston and Dorchester ave. . . . 
Ashmont and Newhall ave. . . . 

" " Fuller 

Bird and Davenport ave 

Clayton and Duncan 

Blue-Hill ave. and Harvard . . . 

Corbett and Forest Hill 

Rossetter and Geneva ave. . . . 

Wells ave. and Roslin 

Park and Talbot ave 

Chemical and Germania ave. . . 
Lamartine and Providence R.R. 

From Boylston 

Albano and Corinth 

Carried forward 



Dor. 



W 



11,614 

72 
1,000 
129 
244 
718 
332 
144 
141 
206 
289 
422 
312 
140 

34 
5 
149 
366 
425 
179 

35 
111 

48 
378 
123 
353 
103 
178 
132 
206 
373 
217 

48 
212 

43 
19,481 



Keport of the Water Board. 91 

Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Nelson 

Alden place . . . 

Meehan 

Conway 

Pine 

Brooks 

Sycamore .... 
Rockview .... 

Allen 

Sigourney .... 
Hawthorne .... 

Clifton , 

Atherton ave. . . , 

Corinth , 

A court 

Sheldon 

Prospect ave 

Baker 

Water 

A (new) 

Garden 

Peter 

Paul Gore 

Ballard 

"Wren 

Lawndale terrace . . 
Franklin ave. . . . 

Carl 

Kirk 

Washington . . . . 
Parley Vale ave. . . 

Herrick 

Orchard 

Saundcr 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 



Boylston and Spring Park . . 

From Green 

Keyes and Williams 

South and Fairview 

Hancock and Sycamore .... 
Florence and Sycamore .... 

Pine and Ashland 

Green and Hazel 

Brown ave. and Rowe .... 
Roheson and Walnut ave. . . 
Florence and Sycamore .... 
Kittridge and Albano .... 
Washington and Albano . . . 

Birch and Salem 

From Carolina ave 

Ashland and Prospect ave. . . 
Hancock and Sheldon .... 

Spring and Gardner 

Keyes and Williams 

From Spring , 

Brown ave. and Hancock . . . , 

Fairview and Walter 

Chestnut ave. and Centre . . . , 

Centre and Custer 

Robin and Martin , 

Lamartine and Providence R.R. . 

Spring and Hamilton 

Corey and Kirk 

From Carl 

Metropolitan ave. and Hemlock 

From Rockview 

Beacon and nichborn 

Guilford and Saunder 

Guilford and Orchard 

Carried forward ... • . . 



W.R. 



Bri. 



19,481 

279 
36 
243 
121 
458 
611 
281 
211 
147 
76 
186 
176 
186 
136 
179 
230 
111 
54 
231 
169 
132 
327 
219 
75 
283 
275 
661 
392 
360 
202 
287 
230 
144 
189 
27,377 



92 City Document No. 27. 

Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Concluded. 



In what Street. 


Between what Streets. 




N 

S3 


a 










27,377 
241 


Waverley place .... 




Bri. 

CI 

it 
(i 

n 

CI 

(I 

(< 


6 
11 

ii 
ii 

ii 




410 

229 






34 






325 




108 






264 




103 


Massachusetts ave. and Brookline line .... 


30 
170 


La Rose place .... 




48 




78 
139 






531 










30,087 






tl 
II 


4 
ii 




135 
55 




17 

104 






311 













Eeport of the Water Board. 



93 



Statement of Location, Size and Number of Feet of Pipe 
Relaid and Abandoned in 1886. 



In what Street. 



Beacon 

Beacon 

Broad 

Milk 

Dock sq. and Union 
Charlestown . • . 

Lowell 

Chambers . . . . 

Brighton 

Elm 

Foundry 

Ninth 

B 

Hartford 

Smith ave 

Hancock ave . . . 
North Margin . . . 

Ivanhoe 

Newman 

Athens 

Beacon 

Brighton ave. . . . 

New Heath . . . . 
Conant 

New Heath . . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Boston & Albany R.R. Bridge . 
Total 48-inch . . . . . 



Brighton ave. and B. & A. R.R. Bridge , 
Total 12-inch 



State and Milk 

State and India square . . . . 
India and Batterymarch . . . 
Washington and Hanover . . 
Causeway and Stillman . . . 

Brighton and Minot 

Green and Poplar , 

Leverett and Lowell 

Across Union and North . . , 
Dorchester ave. and Ontario 

D and Dorchester 

Seventh and Broadway . . . 

Sargent and Howard ave. . . 

Total 6-inch 



From Kendall 

Beacon and Mt. Vernon . . 
Thatcher and Lafayette ave. 
West Canton and Trumbull 
Dorchester and Lowland . 

Second and C 

Total 4-inch .... 



Raised. 

Brook line ave. and St. Mary 

Brookline ave. and Brighton ave. . . 
Beacon and St. Mary 

Lowered. 
Pynchon and B. & P. R.R. Crossing . 
Whitney and Huntington 

Iielaid. 
Pynchon and B. & P. R.R. Crossing , 



S.B. 



Dor. 



B. 



S.B. 



B. 



B.H. 



B.H. 



323 
323 



478 

703 

420 

792 

1,160 

434 

405 

355 

50 

2,037 

1,392 

1,228 

128 

9,582 



\ST3 



75 
109 
237 
111 
831 
1,360 



2,723 



1,848 
112 
300 

50 
104 



94 



City Document No. 27. 



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96 City Document No. 27. 

Repairs of Pipes during the Year 1886. 







Diameter of Pipes in Inches. 




48 
1 

1 


40 
2 

2 


36 
4 

2 
6 


SO 
1 

1 


24 
2 
2 


20 

2 

4 
1 

8 


16 
1 

1 


12 
12 

9 
3 

30 


10 
1 

1 


9 

2 


8 
3 
1 

5 


6 

33 
3 
1 
8 
9 
3 

57 


4 

20 
4 

2 
2 

34 


3 

2 

3 

2 


2 
4 

7 


1* 
31 

3 
31 


1J 
1 

1 


1 

7 

1 
2 
1 

11 


5 

8 
1 

9 


6 
5 


3 

4 

14 

1 

1 

23 


Total. 




269 
91 
55 

124 
71 
26 
5 




East Boston . . . 
Boston Highlands 

West Roxbury . 




103 
78 

155 

90 

33 

6 




641 


875 



150 



Of the leaks that have occurred in pipes of 4 inches 
and upwards : joints, 62 ; settling of earth, 11 ; 
defective pipe, 22 ; defective packing, 38 ; de- 
fective stopcock, 11 ; by frost, 3 ; by blasting, 
2: run onto by tug-boat, 1. Total . 

Of 3-inch and in service-pipes : joints, 27 ; defec- 
tive pipe, 73 ; defective packing, 25 ; defective 
faucet, 15 ; defective coupling, 9 ; settling of 
earth, 149 ; settling of sewer, 6 ; settling of wall, 
2 ; faucet pulled out, 3 ; eat by soil, 2 ; struck by 
pick, 58 ; pipe not in use, 6 ; pipe twisted off 1 ; 
gnawed by rats, 7 ; by frost, 8 ; by blasting, 5. 
Total 

Stoppage by rust, 216 ; by frost, 54 ; by fish, 31 ; 
by dirt, 23. Total ...... 



Total 



396 
329 

875 



Report or the Water Board. 



97 



Statement of Leaks and Stoppages, 1850-1886. 





Diameter. 




Year. 


Four inches and 
upwards. 


Less than four 
inches. 


Total. 




32 
64 
82 
85 
74 
75 
75 
85 
77 
82 
134 
109 
117 
97 
95 
111 
139 
122 
82 
82 
157 
185 
188 
153 
434 
203 
214 
109 
213 
211 
135 
145 
170 
171 
253 
111 
150 


72 

173 

241 

260 

280 

219 

232 

278 

324 

449 

458 

399 

373 

397 

594 

496 

636 

487 

449 

407 

' 707 

1,380 

1,459 

1,076 

2,120 

725 

734 

801 

1,024 

995 

929 

833 

1,248 

782 

1,127 

638 

725 


104 


1851 


237 


1852 


323 


1853 


345 


1854 


354 


1855 


294 


1856 


307 


1857 


363 


1858 


401 


1859 


531 


I860 


592 


1861 


508 


1862 


490 


1863 


494 


1864 


489 


1865 


€07 




675 


1867 


609 


1868 


531 


1869 


489 


1870 


926 


1871 


1,565 
1,647 
1,229 
2,554 
928 


1872 


1873 


1874 


1875 


1876 


948 


1877 


910 




1,237 
1,206 
1,064 
1,028 
1,248 
953 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 


1883 


1884 


1,380 
749 




1886 . 


875 







98 



City Document No. 27. 



Hydrants. 

During the year 194 hydrants have been established and 
G9 abandoned. 





Established. 


Abandoned. 


<u 




>> 

s ° 

pq 


o 


o 


a 

o 

o 
pq 


"a 
o 
Eh 


£ o 

o 

M 


o 

1 
1 


o 
4 


a 

o 

o 

cq 


"3 


a 
-J 

IS 




4 


4 
16 
4 
2 
7 
5 
1 


22 
17 
4 
4 
11 
8 


1 

4 
4 
5 
1 


31 

33 
13 
17 

48 
44 

8 


3 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 


22 
19 
1 
2 
3 
3 
1 


26 
22 
2 
5 
8 
5 
1 


5 




11 




5 

26 

26 

6 


11 

12 
40 




39 

7 














74 


39 


66 


15 


194 


12 


2 


4 


51 


69 


125 



Total Number up to January 1, 1887. 





>> 

at 

w 


a 
o 


o 


>> 

u 

o 

hH 


a 

o 

o 
PQ 


i 

o 
H 




50 
17 
18 
32 
97 
95 
30 


l 


126 

51 

43 

59 

115 

216 

156 

16 


531 
161 
123 
650 
571 
104 
62 


693 

307 

158 

122 

88 

60 

39 


1,400 




537 




342 




863 




871 
475 




287 
16 








5 


3 

7 


8 










7 
















339 


l 


782 


2,207 


1,477 


4,806 



Keport of the Water Board. 99 

105 hydrants have been taken out and replaced by new or 
repaired ones, and 180 boxes have been taken out and re- 
placed by new ones. The hydrants have had the usual 
attention paid them. 

Stopcocks. 

238 new stopcocks have been established this year. 174 
boxes have been taken out and replaced by new ones. The 
stopcocks have had the proper attention paid them. 
Respectfully submitted, 

E. E. JONES, 

Superintendent Eastern Division. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
MYSTIC DEPARTMENT. 



Mystic Department, Boston Water-Works, 

Charlestown District, Jan. 1, 1887. 

Col. Horace T. Rockwell, Chairman Boston Water 
Board : — 

Sir, — The report of this department for the year ending 
December 31, 1886, is herewith submitted. 

Mystic Lake. 

Although the rainfall of the year was above the average, 
the available supply was so reduced, that we were obliged to 
pump from the lake into the conduit from Oct. 20 (the lake 
standing at that time, at 1.35) until Nov. 7 (the lake hav- 
ing risen to .40). The lake has continued to rise since that 
time, and all danger of pumping this season has passed. 
During the low water this season, we cleaned the shores of 
the lake from the railroad bridge to the old canal, rebuilt 
the northerly abutment to Bacon's bridge, and a piece of 
Avail on the river banks, filled up the slough hole next to the 
railroad, and sowed it down to grass. I also took advantage 
of the low course of tides, and rebuilt thefishway, which was 
carried away by the freshet. Daring the summer a gang of 
men was kept in boats at work on Wedge Pond, cleaning the 
surface of the vegetable matter that grows in that pond. We. 
averaged ten cart-loads per working-day for three months. 
I am satisfied that by commencing early in the season and 
following up the cleaning, the quality of the water, both in 
regard to taste and color, may be somewhat improved. 

The cases of pollution have been watched very thoroughly, 
and the reports that have been filed each week show that we 
have succcededin getting most of the filth strained through 
gravel instead of running direct into the streams that feed 
the lake. 

All the buildings, bridges, and machinery are in good con- 
ditition. I would recommend that a larger house be built at 
the lake. 



Eeport of the Water Board. 101 



Mystic-Valley Sewer. 

The work on the sewer and at the pumping-station still con- 
tinues to increase, and in a short time the plant will have to be 
enlarged if the present works are continued. There should be 
built this year a new engine and pump-house. There is 
needed at this place a spare pumping-engine, in case the pres- 
ent one breaks down. The engine has been repaired again 
this year, and begins to show the wear. I would recommend 
that a portable pump with boiler and engine be purchased. 

Conduit. 

The conduit remains in good condition. It was cleaned 
in May and September. At both times I found considerable 
moss and sponge which was thoroughly cleared off, and all 
the dirt was cleaned out of the gate-house. The pump 
asked for under the head of sewer, would be of great help in 
cleaning the conduit, as it is almost an impossibility to pump 
the dirt out with hand-pumps. The gate-house at the river- 
end of the conduit should be rebuilt and enlarged this year. 

Reservoir. 

The west division should be cleaned out this next season, 
and the stone-work pointed ; the gutters have all been paved 
with asphalt the past season ; it has improved the looks, and 
saved labor. The roads are still in poor condition. 

Bo ads and Grounds. 

All the roads are in the same condition as mentioned in 
last report, the recommendations of last year hold good for 
this. The buildings have all been painted. I would recom- 
mend that the gutters and sidewalks around the engine-house 
be paved with asphalt. 

Pumping— Service . 

No. 2 pump has been repaired this winter. The cracked 
cylinder on the low-pressure end gave out, and has been re- 
placed by the one bought three years ago. The air-pumps on 
Nos. 1 and 2 have been repaired. 

Our consumption has almost reached our pumping capacity. 
A modern high-duty pump would result in a saving of coal, 
and put us in better shape for the large consumption of the 
winter months. The roof of the engine-house requires repair, 
or to be replaced with a new one. The coal-bunker needs a 



102 



City Document No. 27. 



new covering, and should be enlarged so as to hold a year's 
supply of coal. 

Distribution-Pipes . 

These have been extended by the addition of 192 ft. 4 in., 
and 252 ft. 6 in. ; 3,705 ft. of cement-lined pipe has been 
replaced with cast-iron. 48 ft. of 16 in. iron pipe, was re- 
quired to replace pipe of the same kind, owing to the freez- 
ing of the 16 in. across Maiden bridge. The box covering this 
pipe has been rebuilt this year, and all danger of freezing has 
been prevented. 

Hydrants and Gates. 

One additional Boston Lowry has been placed this year ; 4 
Post and 1 Flush have been replaced with Boston Lowrys ; 
11 Lowry hydrants opening against the pressure have been 
replaced with others opening with the pressure. 

23 rotten hydrant-boxes have been renewed. I beg leave 
to call the attention of the Board to the abuse of the hydrants 
by other than the Fire Departments, it is almost an impossi- 
bility to keep hydrants in working order unless their use is 
properly regulated. 

Three 4-in. and 1 6-in. gates have been added, 4 4-in., 8 
6-in., 1 8-in., 1 10- in. have been replaced with new ; 13 2-in. 
blow-offs on dead ends have been established ; 72 rotten 
boxes were renewed. 

Service Pipes and Boxes. 

Fifty-one new services were laid, and 164 repaired, in which 
1,089 feet of lead pipe were used, 42^- in. were replaced by 
larger size, 481 wooden service-boxes, were replaced by iron ; 
22 leaks were repaired'; there were 62 stoppages by eels ; 34 
by rust ; 3 by moss ; and 1 by freezing. 

New Services. 



Size. 


§-inch 


3-inch. 


1-inch. 


Total number. 


Total feet. 


Number .... 


43 


3 


6 


57 


1,273 


Summary of Services connected with the Works, January 1, 1S87. 



No. of Services . 
Length in Feet . 



Charlestown. 



5,694 
152,560 



Somerville. 



4,626 
155,891 



Chelsea. 



4,712 
126,683 



Everett. 



1,078 
23,936 



Total. 



16,110 
459,070 



459,070 feet, or 86 miles, 4,990 feet. 



Eeport of the Water Board. 



103 



Breaks and Leaks on Distribution- Pipes. 



Size of Pipes. 


16" 


8" 


6" 


4" 

6 
23 


2" 


Total. 






1 


1 
9 


4 
18 


5 


17 




50 






51 








3 


3 




6 




1 


10 




Totals . - 


25 


32 


5 


124 









Extension of Distribution-Pipe. 







Size of Pipe. 














Total Feet. 




4-inch. 


6-inch. 


8^inch. 






120 






120 




252 




252 




48 
1,025 


48 




4,621 


612 


6,258 ■ 




221 


896 




1,117 




2,501 


310 




2,811 




3,915 


6,079 


612 


10,606 



Distribution- Pipes Relaid. 





Original size. 


4-inch. 


6-incb. 


Location. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Feet. 




4 
4 
4 
6 
2 
2 
2 
4 


156 
156 
168 
120 


660 




516 




384 




1,440 


























600 


2,990 









104 



City Document No. 27. 







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106 City Document No. 27. 

Connected with the works are the necessary tools, horses 
iff t0 d ° ^ ^ ^ of ^ are in °£i 

Yours respectfully, 

J. HENRY BROWN, 

Superintendent. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF 
THE METER DIVISION. 



Office of Superintendent of Meter Division, 

221 Federal St., Boston, Jan. 1, 1887. 

H. T. Rockwell, Esq., Chairman Boston Water Board: — 

Sir, — The annual report of this department for the year 
ending Dec. 31, 1886, is herewith submitted. 

The total number of meters in service to date, 3,891 ; 
Cochituate department, 3,419 ; Mystic department, 472. 

During the year there have been 90 additional meters ap- 
plied, and 749 discontinued, in the Cochituate department ; 
and in the Mystic, 21 additional meters applied, and 146 
discontinued. 

286 new meters have been purchased, viz., 185 Crown; 
74 Worthington ; 23 Ball & Fitts, and 4 Frost. 

325 meters have been sent to the factory for repairs. Of 
this number 123 were Crown; 188 Worthington; 9 
Desper, and 5 Ball & Fitts. 

During the year the following new meters have been tested 
by this department, and recorded at this office, and an 
official report of all has been made of the results of all meter- 
tests ordered by the Board : — 



Name of Meter. 

Hersey 

Fox, No. 1 

Little Giant 

Balance Valve . . . 
Linscott, No. 1 . . . 

Fox, No. 2 

Freeman 

Frost 

Linscott, No. 2 . . . 
Rowbotham . . . . 

Hood 

Kent (English) . . . 
Undine (Improved) . 

Thomson 

Star 



Size. 



i-m. 
3-in. 
3-in. 
f-in. 
£-in. 
3-in. 
3-in. 
1£, 1, 3, |-in. 
3-in. 
3-in. 
3-in. 



1-in. 
3-in. 



Kind. 



Rotary . . . 
Single piston 
Proportional 
Single piston 



Double " 
Single " 

Rotary . . . 
Double piston 
Rotary . . . 

Diaphragm . 
Single piston 



Where Manufactured. 



Boston, Mass. 



Lewiston, Maine. 
Boston, Mass. 

Manchester, England. 
Lewiston, Maine. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Boston, Mass. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Hartford, Conn. 
New York. 
Boston, Mass. 



108 



City Document No. 27. 



Table showing- Meters in Service, Jan. 1, 1887. 





6-in. 


4-in. 


3-in. 


2 -in. 


li-in. 


1-in. 


%-\a. 


f-in. 


i-in. 


Total. 






'Worthington, 

Worthington, 
B.W.W. . 




6 


11 


67 


36 


378 


51 

7 

96 

967 

1 

7 

1 

51 

36 

36 

1 


366 




915 

7 

1,395 

1,045 

19 

24 

14 

227 

190 

50 

5 




G 
o 


Crown . . . 


1 


9 


18 


23 


33 


152 

78 

2 

6 

1 

68 
19 
14 


1,063 






to 














16 
11 
10 
57 
115 


1 






Ball & Fitts . 


























1 

4 

2 


3,419 




'Worthington, 
Crown . . . 


2 


8 
6 


2 
5 


37 
5 












1 


3 








472 




















3 


329 


37 


135 


76 


718 


1,254 


1,638 


1 




3,891 



12 1-inch and 76 -f-inch Worthington Meters have been 
condemned ; worn out in service. 

There have been 685 meters of various sizes taken out for 
test and examination. 

59 new street boxes have been set; 177 removed, and 37 
repaired. 

93 meters of various sizes have been taken out frozen and 
burst, notwithstanding every precaution has been taken to 
protect them from frost. All outside meters have been 
packed with hay ; also meters placed in cellars/ and other 
locations exposed to the cold have been boxed and hayed in 
a like manner. 

Respectfully submitted, 



GEO. S. FOLLANSBEE, 

Superintendent. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
INSPECTION AND WASTE DIVISION. 



Division of Inspection and "Waste, 

City Hall, Jan. 1, 1887. 

To Horace T. Rockwell, Esq., Chairman Boston Water 
Board : — 

Sir, — The following report of this division for the year, 
from January 1, 1886, to January 1, 1887, is respectfully 
submitted : — 

The inspection force, previous to the 1st of January, 1886, 
consisted of 39 inspectors and five chief inspectors, making 
in all 44. The Water Board having decided that this force 
was too large, concluded to reduce it twenty-five per cent. ; 
accordingly, the number was reduced to 34, viz., 31 inspec- 
tors and three chief inspectors. The force of the division 
was further reduced, by the resignation of the Office Clerk, 
Thornton Lewis, and Asst. Supt. M. J. Houghton ; the place 
of the former was filled by the transference of inspector 
John J. McAulifte to the clerkship. The vacancy caused by 
Mr. Houghton's resignation was not filled. 

On January 18, the above force was formed into three 
inspection divisions, under the supervision of three chief 
inspectors; this is the present formation, except that one 
inspector was detailed for special work connected with the 
office. 

Since the 18th of last February, in accordance with the 
order of the Water Board, monthly reports of the work of 
the division have been furnished to the Board. 

Three inspectors were, on April 5, assigned for duty, in 
the Mystic Department, to inspect for assessing the water- 
rates of the present year, under the superintendence of 
the Water Registrar. They remained on that duty until 
Nov. 17. 

Ten inspectors were, on May 1 , detailed for duty under 
the Water Registrar to inspect the Cochituate Division for 
revenue; they finished their labors September 13, being 
engaged four and a half months, and then returned to their 
respective districts, under my supervision, to check waste, 
etc. 

Inspector Joseph B. Neagle was for two months, viz., 



110 City Document No. 27. 

from May 12 to July 14, employed in Framingkam, under 
the supervision of Engineer Desmond FitzGerald. 

Th'e detailing of the inspectors to the Cochituate and 
Mystic Divisions left but half the force during the summer 
months to perform the duties entailed by the Deacon meters, 
Church stopcock work, and general district supervision. 

The division began April 1 to check the waste indicated 
by the Deacon meters and Church stopcocks, and the men 
were kept busy at this work until the 30th of November, 
when the work ended. It being impracticable to use the 
Deacon meters during freezing weather, the inspectors have 
to be solely relied upon to control the waste during the 
winter season. 

As the inspection force was so greatly reduced during 
July, August, September, and October, the Board appointed 
two inspectors for special work during these months, viz. : 
to enforce the regulations relating to the use of hand- 
hose ; the inspectors began July 26, and ended their labors 
Nov. 11, the result being that, from the vigilance exercised, 
fewer breaches of the ordinance were reported, and less fines 
inflicted in this respect than in previous years. 

An additional special inspector was appointed for a month, 
viz., from Oct. 14 to Nov. 11, to enforce the hose rules in the 
Mystic Division. 

The work, begun in November, 1885, of compelling water- 
takers to protect supply-pipes, liable to freeze in cold 
weather, was followed up during the year; 871 premises 
were notified to cover, or otherwise protect the pipes ; in 
most instances the notices were complied with. 



Beport of the Water Board. 



Ill 



The following table of consumption shows that, notwith- 
standing that the population on the Sudbury river and Lake 
Cochituate supply has increased over 18,000 since the report 
was made, a saving of 20.28 per cent, was the result of last 
year's inspection ; or, in other words, an average saving of 
6,831,058 gallons for every day in the year as compared 
with the consumption for the year before inspection to check 
waste was begun : — 



Cochituate Department. 



Month. 


Beeoke 
Inspection. 


After 
Inspection. 


Average 

daily 
Saving. 


Per cent. 


Average daily 
Consumption. 


Average daily 
Consumption. 


Saved. 


January, 18 
February, ' 
March, ' 
April, ' 
May, « 
June, ' 
July, « 
August, ' 
September, ' 
October, 188 
November, " 
December, *' 


33. . . 
2 . . . 


Gallons. 
1882-1883. 
34,715,500 
32,690,700 
34,110,700 
30,617,600 
32,169,500 
33,419,200 
36,774,000 
37,141,000 
33,645,600 
31,563,800 
31,318,700 
32,352,800 


Gallons. 

1886. 
27,435,100 
28,276,800 
26,886,800 
23,470,400 
24,680,100 
26,574,900 
28,987,500 
24,770,600 
25,835,600 
26,713,100 
25,036,200 
29,879,300 


Gallons. 

7,280,400 
4,413,900 
7,223,900 
7,147,200 
7,489,400 
6,844,300 
7,786,500 
12,370,400 
7,810,000 
4,850,700 
6,282,500 
2,473,500 


20.97 
13.50 
21.17 
23.34 
23.28 
20.48 
21.17 
33.30 
23.21 
15.36 
20.05 
7.64 


Averages for each 


1 33,376,591 


26,545,533 


6,831,058 


20.28 



112 



City Document No. 27. 



The consumption in the Mystic Division has not been 
lessened by inspection. On the contrary, it has materially 
increased. All the waste that could be checked by the work 
of four or five inspectors was effected. It is not believed that 
any considerable waste exists in the Charlestown district. 
The increased consumption on this supply is not fully ac- 
counted for by increase of population, which has not in- 
creased probably more than 9,000 since the inspection began. 
The monthly reports of the City Engineer to the Water 
Board, however, accounts for the increased supply for Sep- 
tember and December. 

Mystic Department. 







Before 
Inspection. 


After 
Inspection. 


Average daily 
Saving. 


Per cent. 
Saved. 


a 

"3.2 

% S ' 




Average daily 
Consumption. 


Average daily 
Consumption. 


M § 




Gallons. 
1883. 
8,369,600 
7,714,700 
7,737,300 
6,171,100 
6,319,100 
6,912,500 
7,307,600 
7,261,500 
5,846,300 
1882. 
6,011,300 
5,577,400 
6,877,600 


Gallons. 
1886. 
8,610,300 
9,275,700 
7,780,000 
6,856,600 
6,412,400 
6,941,100 
7,437,500 
7,166,800 
7,585,200 

6,552,000 
6,546,000 
8,043,500 


Gallons. 




Gallons. 
140,700 


February 








1,561,000 






42,700 


April . . 
May . . . 






685,500 






93,300 






28,600 








129,900 


August . 


94,700 


1.30 


1,738,900 








540,700 








968,600 








1,165,900 












6,842,166 


7,259,175 






591,316 













Eeport of the Water Board. 



113 



The following table gives the work performed by each 
inspector in checking w T aste : — 





a 2 

m a 

So 

fin 

O o 
■ B< 
O so 


D 


rfective Fixtures. 


Wilful Waste 
Reports. 




Inspector. 


s > 

S « 

p3 


1* 


|1 

:2.2 


ai o S 
o_ & 

o § g 




EG 

CD 

O T3 

a H 

<v So 


o 
& . 

CJ-O 

S'3 
o « 


Daly, James F. . . . 


4,753 
4,869 
6,860 


343 
374 
535 


396 
348 
487 


670 
390 

447 


2 
6 
9 








Hassett, John B. . . 








Dunn, John J. . . . 






28 


Smith, Lawrence . . 


4,680 

4,903 


691 
261 


603 

246 


616 
208 








25 


Desmond, John F. . 


2 


2 


2 




Rosnosky Raphael . 


4,'201 


292 


265 


220 


8 


2 


2 




Connolly, John A. . 


2,971 
3,034 
5,642 


84 
139 

586 


75 
3J0 
538 


53 
154 
475 


1 








Quigley, John J. . . 








Kilduff, William . . 


19 


5 


5 


4 


McCarty, C F. . . . 


5,105 
2,204 
532 
4,945 
4,196 


478 
127 
83 
2S5 
102 


436 

79 

26 

263 

89 


403 
23 
31 

221 
59 


6 








Sweeney, C. F. . . . 








Quigley, James L. . . 


2 
3 








Cassidy, M. F. J. . . 








Toland, Joseph H. . 








Berran, Joseph . . . 


3,224 

5,031 


127 
481 


120 

431 


144 
' 385 


4 

10 








Ross, George F. . . 


4 


4 


L 


Edmonds, Michael . 


5,521 


396 


364 


499 


3 


2 


o 


1 


McNamara, John J. . 


4,058 
2,351 

6,002 


228 
224 
635 


209 
117 
583 


196 

60 

454 










McCarthy, T., Jr. . 










Finnigan, D. A. . . 


4 


1 


1 


3 


Kane, James J. . . . 


4,316 


657 


711 


349 


57 






2 


Maguire, H. G. . . . 


3,138 
4,633 


127 
610 


118 
571 


125 
530 


1 

46 






1 


Murphy, John J. . . 


10 


10 


4 


Corbett, Johu J. . . 


3,333 


3S3 


342 


3S4 


19 


2 


2 




Murray, Thomas . . 


4,995 


421 


409 


640 


S 


1 


1 


39 


Roth, John H. . . . 


1,292 


850 


739 


224 


69 


2 


2 




Leahan, John W. . . 


3,219 

3,365 

501 

5, lOi 


301 
151 
296 
030 


279 
140 
260 
5S0 


1,525 
113 
122 
650 


6 
3 

25 

47 






4 


Fove, John E. ... 








Neagle, Joseph 15. . 






4 


Wood, Walter B. . . 


4 


4 


4 




119,094 


10,952 


10,134 


10,370 


361 


35 1 


35 


120 



114 City Document No. 27. 

During the year 480 fines were inflicted for non-repairs of 
water-fixtures, wilful waste, and violations of hose regula- 
tions. Of these, 77 were collected, and 403 abated for 
various causes. 

During the same period the water has been cut off for 
non-payment of fines, etc., from 30 premises, and let on 
again to 29. 

The amount of cash received for fines and turned over to 
the City Collector was $164.00, viz. : — 

Cochituate Department . . . . . $132 00 

Mystic " ..... 22 00 

Refunded to persons fined . . . . . 10 00 



$164 00 
Respectfully submitted, 

D. B. CASHMAN, 

Superintendent . 



SUMMAEY OF STATISTICS. 

REPORT OF 1886. 

In Accordance with the Recommendation of the New 
England Water- Works Association. 



Boston Water-Works, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, sup- 
plies also the cities of Soraerville and Chelsea, and the town 
of Everett. 

Population by census of 1886 : — 

Boston 390,393 

Chelsea 25,709 

Somerville 29,971 

Everett 5,825 



Total ........ 451,898 

Date of construction : — 

Cochituate works . . . ... . 1848 

Mystic " . . . . . • 1864 

By whom owned. — City of Boston. 

Sources of supply. — Lake Cochituate, Sudbury River, and 

Mystic Lake. 

Mode of supply. — Seventy per cent, from gravity works. 
Thirty " " pumping '* 

Pumping. 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Builder of pump- C H. R. Worthington, H. R. Worthington. 
ing machinery, \ Boston Machine Co. 

Description of coal used : — 

a Kind, — Anthracite, Bituminous. 

c Size, — Furnace, Broken. 

d Brand. Elk Garden and 

Clearfield. 

e Price per gross ton $4.93 to 5.08 $3.96 and 4.09. 
/ Per cent, of Ash,— 14.9 8.8. 



116 City Document No. 27. 

Cochituate. Mystic. 

Coal consumed tor year in lbs., 1,981,200 5,869,500 
Total pumpage foryear in galls. , 1 ,065,221,000 2,700,676,300 

Average dynamic head in feet, 111.65 148.82 

Gallons pumped per lb. of coal, 537.7 460.1 
Duty in foot lbs. per 100 lbs. of 

coal (no deductions). 50,065,200 57,108,200 

Cost of pumping figured on pump- 

ing-stati on 'expenses, viz: — $9,073 97 $21,639 15 
Cost per million gallons raised to 

reservoir . . . . $8 52 $8 014 

Cost per million gallons raised 

one foot high . . . $0.0763 $0.0538 

Consumption. 

COCHITCTATE. MYSTIC. 

Estimated population . 358,000 102,000 

Estimated population sup- 
plied .... 350,000 100,000 

Total consumption, gallons, 9,719,173,400 2,700,937,400 

Passed through domestic 

meters .... 310,687,500 14,329,750 

Passed through manufactur- 
ing meters' . . . 2,015,520,000 393,596,300 

Average daily consumption, 

gallons . ' . . . 26,627,900 7,399,800 

Grallons per day, each in- 
habitant . . . 74.3 72.5 

Gallons per day, each con- 
sumer . . . 76.1 74.0 

Gallons per day to each tap, 498 459 

Distribution. 

Mains. Cast-iron, Wrought-Iron, 

Cast Iron. and Cement. 

Kind of Pipe used : — 

Size .... 48-in. to 4-in. 30-in. to 3-in. 

Extended, miles . . 14.1 2.0 

Total now in use . . 414.2 133.2 
Distribution pipes less than 

4-in., length, miles . 6.2 

Hydrants added . . 125 37 

Hydrants now in use . 4,806 818 

Stop-gates added . . 205 33 

Stop-gates now in use . 4,418 1,236 



Report or the Water Board. 



117 



Services. 

Kind of Pipe used : 

Size 

Extended, feet . 
Service taps added 
Total now in use 
Meters discontinued 
Meters now in use 
Meters and elevators in use 



Lead. 



Lead and Wrought Iron. 





f-in. to 2-in. ' 


i . 


■in. 


to 2. in. 




45,867 






18,536 




1,590 






182 




53,400 






16,110 




65.9 






1 125 




3,415 






! 469 


in use, 


348 










118 



City Document No. 27. 



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APPENDIX A. 



CORRESPONDENCE RELATING, TO JAMAICA POND 
ACQUEDUCT CORPORATION. 

[Copy.] 

February 11, 1886. 

Messrs. Horace T. Rockwell, William B. Smart, and Thomas 
F. Doherty, Boston Water Board : — 

Gentlemen, — The Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corporation hereby 
offers to sell to the City of Boston all its franchises and property 
for the sum of one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) in cash, 
the city assuming and paying all taxes of the current year. Or, 
the Corporation will sell all its franchises and property to the 
city at such price as may be fixed by three disinterested men, one 
named by The city, one named by the Corporation, and the third 
named by the two so chosen. 

This Corporation reserves the right to withdraw the above offers, 
unless one of them shall be accepted by the city wilhin thirty (30) 
days from this date. 

s Truly yours, 

(Signed), Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corporation, 

By MOSES WILLIAMS, Fresiclnt. 

[Copy.] 

Office of City Engineer, 

Boston, Feb. 20, 1886. 

Col. H. T. Rockwell, Chairman Boston Water Board : — 

Dear Sir, — The accompanying- plan shows the location and 
size of the distribution pipes of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Co. 
in Roxbury, and also the sizes of the Cochituate pipes laid in the 
same streets. 

The total length of the mains of the Jamaica Pond Co in Rox- 
bury is 47,300 feet, or about 9 miles. Of this amount 33,000 
feet are in streets which also contain the pipes of the Cochituate 
works, leaving 14,300 feet in streets where there are no Cochituate 
mains. 

About 8,800 feet of the Jamaica Pond Co.'s mains could prob- 
ably be connected with and made a portion of the Cochituate 



Plan showing th: Water Pipes 

OF TIE 

Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Company 




Appendix A. 



121 



distribution ; the remainder of the 14,300 feet being of smaller 
size or lighter weight than is used on the Cochituate works. 

The cost of the changes necessary in the distribution system to 
connect all of the Jamaica Pond Co.'s water-takers with the 
Cochituate supply will be about $20,000. 

Yours respectfully, 
(Signed), WILLIAM JACKSON, 

City Engineer and Engineer Boston Water Board. 



[Extract from Report of Water Board, City Doc. 173, IS83.} 

The sum paid by the corporation to the City of 

Boston in 1857, for its franchises, was . . $32,000 00 

The property was appraised by City Engineer 
Joseph P. Davis in December, 1874. [See City 
Doc. 108, 1874] . . . . " . . 88,000 00 

Land appraised by Joseph P. Davis. [See City 

Doc. 108, 1874] 15,700 00 

Amount expended in construction since 1874, new 

pipes, additional land, etc. .... G9,943 64 



Total cost to date 



$205,043 64 



Receipts. 

1880, $12,063 50 

1881, 14,068 04 

1882, 14,655 12 

1883, [8 mo.] 13,516 23 



About 



Running 
Expenses. 



$4,500 

4,500 

4,500 

[8 mo.] 3,000 



APPENDIX B. 



CITY PHYSICIAN'S REPORT ON THE CAUSE OF THE 
PREVALENCE OF TYPHOID FEVER IN PHILA- 
DELPHIA. 

Boston, January 1, 1887. 

To The Boston Water Board: — 

Gentlemen, — In compliance with your request to visit Phila- 
delphia with you for the purpose of ascertaining, if possible, the 
cause of the prevalence of t}*phoid fever in that city, I have the 
following report to make : From information received from 
Mr. John L. Ogden, Chief Engineer of the Water Department, it 
has been found that the greatest number of deaths from typhoid 
fever occurred in those localities where the water of the Delaware 
river was used only to a limited extent. In this section, however, 
there are a great number of wells, defective sewers, and privy- 
vaults. An examination of the register of the Water Department 
shows that in the infected district there are 4,578 houses which 
have no connection with the city pipes. Supposing that there are 
five persons in each house, a very small allowance, there must be at 
least 22,890 individuals who depend upon wells for their drinking- 
water. This taken in connection with the fact that the hygienic 
surroundings are of the poorest, and also with the fact that the 
privy- vaults are in close proximity to these wells, would seem to 
be a sufficient explanation of the cause of the epidemic. 

Dr. Henry Leffmann, Port Physician of Philadelphia, in reply 
to a letter says, " I am inclined to blame Delaware water, but I 
also lean strongly to the Pettenkofer view that the subsoil water 
and surroundings have much to do with the continued existence of 
this disease. I have satisfied myself that a considerable propor- 
tion of the cases are either not typhoid, or are contracted out of 
the city, nevertheless, the fact remains that a fatal fever having 
most of the symptoms of true typhoid is almost endemic in the 
north-east section of this city." 

In a pamphlet by this physician, entitled, " Typhoid Fever in 
Philadelphia," the following statements are found. . . 
" An examination of the stat'stics goes to show that the district 
north of Girard avenue, and between Ninth street and Frankford 
Avenue, presents always the most unfavorable showing. It was 
the district that suffered most from cholera in 1866 ; from small- 
pox in 1872-73, and 1881-82 ; its death-rate from all diseases, and 
from especially zymotic diseases, is higher than in most other sec- 
tions. If we look carefully into the conditions which prevail in 



Appendix B. 123 

this section, I think we can discern, if not all causes of the ex- 
cess in mortality, at least many of them. The section is com- 
paratively newly occupied territory. The population is largely 
composed of foreign-born persons, many of them imported espe- 
cially for the manufacturing operations carried on in the district, 
and of about the age at which the fever appears to be most 
frequent. The condition of the drainage, both natural and arti- 
ficial, is of the most objectionable description. The ravines and 
meadows constituting the original water-courses have been filled 
up for street extension, without proper care, and as a large por- 
tion of the material which is used for filling up, is house and mill 
refuse, many of the rows of houses have been built over garbage. 
Dr. Wm. R. Cruice, who has had a large experience with the dis- 
eases of this section, has given me a description of the situation. 
The question of water-supply must, of course, enter largely into 
our thoughts in investigating this subject. There is a large and, 
I think, increasing number of sanitarians and physicians who re- 
gard the disease as strictly a germ disease, that is incapable of 
originating except from a previous case. To these the hypothesis 
of water-carriage is entirely acceptable, and the} 7 would regard the 
above-mentioned soil, climatic and social conditions, as merely 
predisposing. The Kensington district has, for a long while, been 
supplied with Delaware water, and by general consent, the dispro- 
portionate amount of diarrhoeal disease has been ascribed to this 
fact. 

" Yet we cannot overlook the fact that the district of Kensington 
proper, now substantially included within the Eighteenth ward, 
does not show a specially high death-rate from typhoid. The high 
death-rate is seen particularly in the district which has been laid 
out and built up since the war. I am inclined to think that if 
water-carriage is an active factor, in this case, in the distribution 
of zymotic disease, it takes place in a manner different from that 
usually supposed. The consumption of water in mills is an im- 
portant item, and the high taxes imposed by the city for water 
privileges has led to a very extensive sinking of shallow wells for 
general mill supply. I have examined a number of samples so 
obtained, from different parts of the city, and, as might be ex- 
pected, the water generally shows evidence of contamination. It 
is, however, frequently quite clear and cool, and the mineral 
matters and gases contained in it give it a pleasant taste, for 
which reason the operatives prefer it to the river-water ; and I 
know that such well-water is often used even after it has been 
expressly pronounced unsafe. There is reason to believe that 
several slight local epidemics may be traced to such a cause. 
Recently such an outbreak occurred at the Glen Echo carpet mills, 
in the lower end of Germantown, and all the deaths occurring in 
the Twenty-second ward during November and December, 1885, 
were of persons employed in those mills. Dr. J. Howard Taylor, 
Medical Inspector of the Board of Health of this city, and myself, 
investigated the epidemic, and could find no other source but the 
drinking of well-water. 

" Dr. E Frank Ganett writes, in reference to a death occurring 



124 City Document No. 27. 

in Germantown, earlier in the year, that although no other person 
had the disease in the same house, there were several in the same 
square, and all of them used well-water. I think considerable im- 
portance ought to be attached to the nativity of those affected. 
The foreign-born population of the district that suffers most from 
the disease is not only large in proportion, but in many cases 
of the quite recent arrivals. They are the operative class, and 
are, indeed, the actual specimens of the ' pauper labor ' of which 
so much is said in tariff discussion. This class is not certainly in 
the best physical condition, and being new to the district, are all 
the more likely to succumb. I find, by examining the figures for 
six months of 1884, that the proportion of foreign-born persons 
dying of typhoid fever is much larger than the proportion dying of 
all diseases. The statistics, in m}' opinion, entirely negative 
the hypothesis that Schuylkill water is an important factor of 
the disease. This view has, indeed, never been tenable. No 
analysis of the water has justified the wholesale condemnation of 
it which has been so frequent of late years. The distribution of 
the mortality from zymotic disease has been several times exam- 
ined, with a view to show such a connection, but it has failed. 
The report of the Water Department for 1 883 presents an examina- 
tion of this question, and it fails entirely to make out a case against 
the Fairmount supply. It would be impossible to discuss a topic 
like this without saying something about sewer-gas, or rather, as 
it ought to be called, sewer-air. When I was a medical student, 
the sewer theory of infectious diseases was a favorite one. My 
preceptor, the late Dr. Rand, laid much stress upon this agent as 
a cause of disease. We have recovered from this extreme state 
of alarm, and some of our leading sanitarians now teach that it 
can only act as an exciting cause where it carries specific germs. 
As in the case of the Schuylkill water, the topographical study of 
typhoid fever in Philadelphia does not bear out the theory of 
sewer-air as a cause. The districts in which the residences are 
most extensively connected with sewers, through the medium, not 
only of water-closets, but of those much more insidious routes, the 
wash-stand and kitchen-sink, are just the districts in which the 
fever is least prevalent." 

In the discussion of this paper at a meeting of the Philadelphia 
County Medical Society, November 24, 1885, Dr. F. P. Henry 
says :...." Several observers, among them Virchow, 
have shown that typhoid fever is more prevalent during dry seasons, 
which is in strict accord with the celebrated observations of Petten- 
kofer and Buhl, that, in Munich, the number of cases of typhoid 
fever bears a relation to the height of the water springs, being 
most prevalent when these are low. These Munich observers do 
not believe in the propagation of the typhoid poison by means of 
the drinking water, and explain the undoubted coincidence between 
the prevalence of typhoid and a low level of the subsoil water by 
the theory that when the earth is uncovered by the recession of the 
water the air gains access to germs previously submerged, and 
stimulates them to unusual activity. The poison, they say, gains 
access to the body through the medium of the atmospheric air. 



Appendix B. 125 

"Dr. Henry B. Baker, Secretary of the Michigan State Board 
of Health, has recently verified the statements of Pettenkofer and 
Buhl, that the rise and fall of the typhoid fever curve are in in- 
verse ratio to the rise and fall of the subsoil water, with the fol- 
lowing notable exception ; namely, that in winter, when the ground 
is deeply frozen, a low level of subsoil water does not correspond 
with an increased prevalence of typhoid." 

Dr. Cruice remarks : " I wish simply to say that the cases which 
I have treated during the last summer were not among immigrants. 
The majority of them were old residents in the neighborhood, and 
many of them were workers in the mills. A large number of the 
residents along Germantown road use pump-water. I have no 
doubt that much of the trouble has come from that source. These 
cases occurred in newly-built districts. A number of the houses 
were built on ground made from the dumping of ashes and other 
debris. I observed the same condition in 1872, when I treated a 
number of cases of small-pox." 

Dr. Richard A. Cleemann says: "I am glad to see that the 
observations of Dr. Leffinann confirm those which I made in the 
epidemic of 1876. It was at that time very unpopular to say that 
typhoid fever was not caused by contamination of sewer-gas, or 
from the water-supply. Careful examination then showed that 
neither the sewers nor the water-supply could be held responsible 
for the large majority of deaths from typhoid fever in Philadel- 
phia. 

" In the absence of any apparent cause, I was disposed to re- 
fer it to emanations from the number of open cesspools, which 
were often in close proximity to the houses, and to the constant 
pollution of the soil from them, which became very obnoxious, 
from the subsequent turning up of this soil. . . . I do not 
deny that the poison of typhoid fever can be communicated through 
water. On the contrary, J think that it is often carried in that way, 
but that in Philadelphia polluted water is not a prominent cause. 
In all the epidemics from poisoned drinking water, the number 
attacked, among those who drank the water, has been very large, 
a very much larger proportion of the inhabitants than have been 
attacked in Philadelphia by typhoid fever." 

Dr. Edward T. Bruen says : . . . " The modern consensus 
of opinion points to the fact that disease does not arise without the 
presence of the poison. It does not arise de novo. In regard to 
the influence of cesspools, I had an opportunity of observing a 
number of cases of the disease originating near Rosemoud Station. 
Most of these cases occurred from a centre near which a large 
number of the houses had recently been built, some twenty or twenty- 
five, on an acre of ground. These were occupied by the working- 
class. The privy-wells and water-wells had been sunk near by." 

Dr. James C. Wilson remarks : . . . " The second question 
of Dr. Leffmann relates to the relative frequency of typhoid fever 
in this community, among newly-arrived individuals. Such indi- 
viduals are particularly subject to this disease. This was seen 
three or four years ago, in the Paris epidemics. It was observed 
that those who came in from the country were especially liable to 



126 City Document No. 27. 

contract the disease, and to have it in a grave form. This is also the 
case in our own city. I think that this is not only true of localities, 
but also of houses. I have in mind at present two houses in which 
I have seen enteric fever develop in a number of individuals, at 
intervals in the course of a series of years. In one of these houses, 
of three cases, two were individuals who came from a distance, and 
in a few weeks or months developed the disease. These cases 
occurred at intervals of eighteen months or two years. Loc al de- 
fects of plumbing are usually largely concerned in establishing foci 
of infection." 

Dr. S. S. Cohen says: " In regard to the causation of enteric 
fever by the water-supply, I recall two cases that I saw last year 
in one family living in the Nineteenth ward. These persons had 
for three weeks used water from the well of a factory where the 
father worked, having been frightened by the newspaper accounts 
of the pollution of river-water. Two sons were taken with mild 
typhoid, and a daughter with non-febrile diarrhoea. I could find 
no source of infection other than the drinking water. In regard to 
this district, I may say that we see, at the Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege clinic, a good many cases of ' walking typhoid ' in residents 
of the north-eastern part of the city. We also see some few cases 
in residents of the ' Neck' district. It is from these same locali- 
ties that we get the greatest number of our malarial cases." 

Dr. William M. Welch, says: . . . "In seeking for the 
cause of typhoid fever, we must look to the soil and drinking 
water. Whenever soil, especially polluted soil, is upturned to any 
considerable extent, there is pretty sure to be typhoid fever." 

Dr. Charles Claxton, remarks: "In my experience, as resident 
of the Episcopal Hospital, and in private practice in the Nineteenth 
ward, I have seen many cases of typhoid fever. The almost inva- 
riable source of infection I have found to be defective sewerage, 
usually from exposed privy-wells. Such is the condition in some 
of these residences, that during a heavy rain the contents of these 
wells are flooded into the yards, and thence into the cellars, where 
they would remain for long periods. I have now under my care 
four members of one family, whose sickness is undoubtedly due to 
this wretched state of affairs." 

In regard to the subject of the communication of typhoid fever 
through the medium of drinking water, particularly of that supplied 
by wells, it may be of interest to cite two examples. In Ziems- 
sen's Cyclopaedia of the Practice of Medicine, — a work of the 
highest authority — Vol. 1, page 60, is found the following: 
" P^pidemic in the ' Soherenfabrik ' in Basle, 1867. In a collec- 
tion of houses situated at some distance from the city, of which 
the inhabitants numbered about one hundred and fifty, mostly girls, 
of thirteen to seventeen years old, there were no cases of typhoid 
fever during the severe epidemic at Basle, 1865 and 1866. In the 
year 1867, when the epidemic had subsided in the city, a single 
case appeared in January, a second case in February, and in May 
a large number, so that within twent} T -two days thirty-six persons 
were attacked with typhoid fever, and many others with febrile and 
afebrile abdominal catarrh. It was shown that the well from which 



Appendix B. 



127 



the drinking water was drawn, was fed from a canal into which 
emptied the privy. Eighteen days after the use of the water was 
forbidden there were no more new cases. A little later, three 
more cases occurred in persons who had probably disobeyed and 
drunken of the water. After the well was completely closed there 
were no more cases. 

" Epidemic in the barracks at Zurich, 1865. In these barracks 
thirty-three recruits of the infautry school were attacked within 
seven clays. After the dismissal of the recruits twenty-two more 
were seized. All the cases occurred in the infantry school ; the 
members of the artillery school and the police, stationed in the same 
barracks, were exempt from the disease. The cause was found in 
a well, situated in the exercise-ground, only used by the infantry, 
from which they frequently drank. Close to this well was a recep- 
tacle into which were thrown refuse matters from the city. Chemical 
analysis showed the water to contain impurities from this receptacle. 
When the well was closed, and the refuse removed, no more typhoid 
appeared in the barracks." 

In Boston, previous to the introduction of Cochituate water, 
typhoid fever was very prevalent. It is true that during the 
past ten years this disease seems to have increased in frequency. 
This increase is apparent rather than real, however, as an ex- 
amination of the following table, compiled by Dr. Erwin F. 
Smith, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, will show: — 

Table of Deaths from Typhoid Fever, in Boston, from 1846 to 18S4. 





Population (es- 
timated or enu- 
■ merated) . 


Typhoid Fever. 


Tear. 


Total 
Deaths. 


Deaths per 10,000 
living. 


1846 


116,865 
122,346 
127,827 
133,308 
138,(88 
142,693 
146,598 
150,503 
154,408 
158,313 
162,218 
166,123 
170,028 
173,934 
177,840 
180,735 


133 

300 
288 
149 
104 
170 
110 

in 

102 
90 
76 
86 
75 
85 

110 
90 


11.41 

1 
24.5 | 

> 
22.5 | 

11.2 J 

7.51 
11.9 
7.5). 

l\ 

6.6J 
5.71 
4.7 

5.2 J. 
4.4 
4.9 J 
6.2 1 

5.3 J 




1847 




1848 


17.4 


1849 




1850 




1851 




1852 


8 2 






1854 




1855 




1856 




1857 




1858 








1860 




1S61 


5.7 







128 



City Document No. 27. 



Table of Deaths, etc. — Concluded. 



Year. 



1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1S67 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
18S1 
1882 
1883 
1884 



Population (es- 
timated or enu- 
merated) . 



183,630 
186,526 
189,422 
192,318 
195,214 
198,110 
230,911 
236,000 
250,526 
256,000 
254,400 
260,000 
313,745 
360,122 
352,842 
363,000 
363,000 
363,000 
362,839 
397,628 
410,376 
427,940 
427,940 



Typhoid Fever. 



Total 
Deaths. 



74 
130 
117 
137 
101 

91 
120 
148 
168 
176 
229 
243 
202 
227 
145 
156 
120 
119 
154 
207 
212 
198 
216 



Deaths per 10,000 
living. 



4.01 

I 

6.9 y 

I 

6.2 J 

7.11 

5.2 
4.6 } 
5.1 I 
6.2J 
"6.7 
6.8 

9.0 y 
i 

9.3 I 

6.4J 
6.31 

4.1 I 

4.2 > 
3.3 
3.2J 
4.11 
5.2 | 
5.1}- 
4.6 
5.4 J 



5.6 



7.6 



It should be stated that forty years ago physicians, as a rule, 
did not recognize the difference between typhus and typhoid 
fever, and for this reason the tables cannot be considered absolutely 
correct ; but the sources of error are so slight as not to materially 
influence the result. The following extract from a letter from a 
physician, whose professional experience extended over a period 
of fifty-five years, may be of interest^ This extract was pub- 
lished in the report of the State Board of Health, January, 1871, 
page 127: "I have noticed since the time when Cochituate 
water was introduced that typhoid fever has been less frequent, 
in proportion to the population, and generally mitigated in its 

character At the early part of my professional 

life, fever of a severe typo was quite common, much more so than 
a few years later, and the cases were of a more serious character 



Appendix B. 129 

than at any subsequent period Cases of what is 

now recognized as 'typhus' were not then uncommon; they are 
now comparatively rare Mild cases of 'typhoid' fever, such as 
have of late been most common, do not readily arise to the re- 
membrance of the practitioner of that early time 

From the period referred to, down to the time of the introduction 
of Cochituate water, fevers had still been lessening in frequency 
and severity. It has been noticed that since the introduction of 
pure water the diminution of typhoid fever, both in frequency 
and virulence, has been still more marked." 

From a study of the investigations of Dr. Henry Leffmann ; 
from the opinions of many eminent physicians in Philadelphia; 
from the information gained in regard to the number of wells and 
privy-vaults in the infected district ; from the fact that in this 
section of the city there are 4,578 houses, which are not connected 
with the city pipes, it may be considered as proved : — 

1. That the prevalence of typhoid fever in Philadelphia is 
largely due to the contamination of the well-water by privy-vaults. 

2. That the defective sewers, by polluting this well-water, are 
also very important factors in the causation of this disease. 

3. That there is very little proof that the water of the Delaware 
river has caused the prevalence of this disease. 

As a corollary to the foregoing propositions, it may be stated, 
that in Boston, when we take into account the limited number of 
wells, the improved system of sewers, the small number of privy- 
vaults, and the rigid laws in regard to the pollution of the water- 
supply, there is no danger of an epidemic of typhoid fever. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JOHN H. McCOLLOM, 

City Physician. 



130 City Document No. 27. 



CIVIL ORGANIZATION OF THE WATER-WORKS, FROM 
THEIR COMMENCEMENT TO JANUARY 1, 1887. 

Water Commissioners. 

Nathan Hale, James F. Baldwin, Thomas B. Curtis. From May 

4, 1846, to January 4, 1850. 

Engineers for Construction. 

John B. Jervis, of New York, Consulting Engineer. From May, 
1846, to November, 1848. 

E. S. Chesbrough, Chief Engineer of the Western Division. From 
May, 1846, to January 4, 1850. t 

William S. Whitwell, Chief Engineer of the Eastern Division. 
From May. 1846, to January 4, 1850. 

City Engineers having Charge of the Works. 

E. S. Chesbrough, Engineer. From November 18, 1850, to October 
1, 18554 

George H. Bailey, Assistant Engineer. From January 27, 1851, 
to July 19, 1852. 

H. S. McKean, Assistant Engineer. From July 19, 1852, to October 
1, 1855. 

James Slade, Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to April 1, 1863. 

N. Henry Crafts, Assistant Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to 
April 1, 1863. 

N. FIenry Crafts, City Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to November 
25, 1872. 

Thomas W. Davis, Assistant Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to 
December 8, 1866. 

Henry M. Wightman, Resident Engineer at C. H. Reservoir. From 
February 14, 1866, to November, 18704 

A. Fteley, Resident Engineer on construction of Sudbury-river 
works. From May 10, 1873, to April 7, 1880. 

Joseph P. Davis, City Engineer. From Nov. 25, 1872, to March 20, 
1880. 

Henry M. Wightman, City Engineer. From April 5, 1880, to April 
3, 18854 

William Jackson, City Engineer. From April 21, 1885, to present 
time. 

After January 4, 1850, Messrs. E. S. Chesbrough, W. S. Whitwell, 
and J. Avery Richards were elected a Water Board, subject to the 
direction of a Joint Standing Committee of the City Council, by an ordi- 
nance passed December 31, 1849, which was limited to keep in force 
one year; and in 1851 the Cochituate Water Board was established. 

Cochituate Water Board. 

Presidents of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, elected in 1851, and resigned April 

7, 1856 J Five years. 

John H. Wilkins, elected in 1856, and resigned June 

5, 1860$ Four years. 



Civil Organization of the Board. 



131 



Ebenezer Johnson, elected in 1860, term expired April 

3, 1865 $ Five years. 

Otis Norcross, elected in 1865, and resigned January 

15, 1867$ ...... One year and nine months. 

John H. Thorndike, elected in 1867, term expired April 

6, 1868$ ...... One year and three months. 

Nathaniel J. Bradlee, elected April, 6, 1868, and re- 
signed January 4, 1871 . . . Two years and nine months. 

Charles H. Allen, elected January 4, 1871, to May 4, 

1873 Two years and four months. 

John A. Haven, elected May 4, 1873, to Dec. 17, 

1874$ ....... One year and seven months. 

Thomas Gogin, elected Dec. 17, 1874, and resigned May 

31, 1875 Six months. 

L. Miles Standish, elected August 5, 1875, to July 31, 

1876 One year. 



Members of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, 1851, 52, 53, 54, and 55$ . . Five years. 

John H. Wilkins, 1851, 52, 53, *56, 57, 58, and 59$ . Eight years. 

Henry B. Rogers, 1851, 52, 53, *54, and 55 . . . Five years. 

Jonathan Preston, 1851, 62, 53, and 56 Four years. 

James W. Seaver, 1851$ One year. 

Samuel A. Eliot, 1851$. 

John T. Heard, 1851$ One year. 

Adam W. Thaxter, Jr., 1852, 53, 54, and 55$ . . Four years. 

Sampson Reed, 1852 and 1853$ Two years. 

Ezra Lincoln, 1852$ One year. 

Thomas Sprague, 1853, 54, and 55$ .... Three yeai-s. 

Samuel Hatch, 1854, 55, 56, 57, 58, and 61 . . . Six years. 

Charles Stoddard, 1854, 55, 56, and 57$ . . . Four years. 

William Washburn, 1854 and 55 Two years. 

Tisdale Drake, 1856, 57, 58, and 59$ .... Four years. 

Thomas P. Rich, 1856, 57, and 58$ .... Three years. 

John T. Dingley, 1856 and 59$ Two years. 

Joseph Smith, 1856$ Two months. 

Ebenezer Johnson, 1857, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, and 64,$ Eight years. 

Samuel Hall, 1857, 58, 59, 60, and 61$ .... Five years. 

George P. French, 1859, 60, 61, 62, and 63$. . . Five years. 

Ebenezer Atkins, 1859$ One year. 

George Dennie, 1860, 61, 62, 63, 64, and 65 . . . Six years. 

Clement Willis, 1860 One year. 

G. E. Pierce, 1860$ One year. 

Jabez Frederick, 1861, 62, and 63$ .... Three years. 

George Hinman, 1862 and 63 Two years. 

John F. Pray, 1862 One year. 

J. C. J. Brown, 1862 One year. 

Jonas Fitch, 1864, 65, and 66$ Three years. 

Otis Norcross, * 1865 and 66$ Two years. 

John H. Thorndike, 1864, 65, 66, and 67$ . . . Four years. 

Benjamin F. Stevens, 1866, 67, and 68 . . . . Three years. 

William S. Hills, 1867 One year. 

Charles R. Train, 186S$ One year. 

Joseph M. Wightman, 1868 and 69$ .... Two years. 

Benjamin James, * 1858, 68, and 69 .... Three years. 

Francis A. Osborn, 1869 One year. 

Walter E. Hawks, 1870$ One year. 

John O. Poor, 1870 One year. 

Hollis R. Gray, 1870 One year. 



132 



City Document No. 27. 



70, 



68, 69, and 



Nathaniel J. Bradlee, 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 

and 71 

George Lewis, 1868, 69, 70, and 71 

Sidnky Squires, 1871$ . 

Charles H. Hersey, 1872 

Charles H. Allen, 1869, 70, 71, and 7: 

Alexander Wadsworth, *1864, 65, 66, 67, 

72 ....... 

Charles R. McLean, 1867, 73, and 74$ 

Edward P. Wilbur, 1873 and 74 

John A. Haven, 1870, 71, 72, 73, and 74$ 

Thomas Gogin, 1873, 74, and 75* . 

Amos L. Noyes, 1871, 72, and 75 . 

William G. Thacher, 1873, 74, and 75$ 

Charles J. Prescott, 1875 . 

Edward A. White, 1872, 73, 74, 75, and 76f 

Leonard R. Cutter, 1871, 72, 73, 74, 75, and 76f 

L. Miles Standish, I860, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 74, 

and76f 

Charles E. Powers, *1875 and 1876$ 
Solomon B. Stebbins, 1876$. 
Nahum M. Morrison, 1876$ . 
Augustus Parker, 1876$ 



75, 



Nine years. 
Four 3'ears. 
One year. 
One year. 
Four years. 

Seven years. 
Three years. 
Two years. 
Five years. 
Three years. 
Three years. 
Three years. 
One year. 
Five years. 
Six years. 

Ten years. 
Two years. 
One year. 
One year. 
One year. 



*Mi*. John H. Wilkins resigned TsTov. 15, 1855, and Charles Stoddard was elected to 
fill the vacancy. Mr. Henry B. Rogers resigned Oct. 22, 1865. Mr. Wilkins was re- 
elected Feb., 1856, and chosen President of the Board, which office he held until his 
resignation, June 5, 1860, when Mr. Ebenezer Johnson was elected President; and 
July 2 Mr. L. Miles Standish was elected to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resig- 
nation of Mr. Wilkins. Otis Norcross resigned Jan. 15, 1867, having been elected 
Mayor of the City. Benjamin James served one year, in 1858, and was reelected in 
1868. Alexander Wadsworth served six years, 1864-69, and was reelected in 1872. 
Thomas Gogin resigned May 31, 1875. Charles E. Powers was elected July 15, to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Gogin. 

t Served until the organization of the Boston Water Boai-d. 

J Deceased. 



Civil Organization of the Board. 133 



Boston Water Board, Organized July 31, 1876. 

Timothy T. Sawyer, from July 31, 1876, to May 5, 1879; and from 

May 1, 1882, to May 4, 1883. 
Leonard R. Cutter, from July 31, 1876, to May 4, 1883. 
Albert Stanwood, from July 31, 1876, to May 7, 1883. 
Francis Thompson, from May 5, 1879, to Mav 1, 1882. J 
William A. Simmons, from May 7, 1883, to Aug. 18, 1885. 
George M. Hobbs, from May 4, 1883, to May 4, 1885. 
John G. Blake, from May 4, 1883, to Aug. 18, 1885. 
William B. Smart, from'May 4, 1885, to present time. 
Horace T. Rockwell, from Aug. 25, 1885, to present time. 
Thomas F. Doherty, from Aug. 26, 1885, to present time. 



Organization of the Board for Year 1886. 

Chairman. 
Horace T. Rockwell. 

Clerk. 
Walter E. Swan. 

City Engineer and Engineer of the Board. 
William Jackson. 

Water Registrar. 
William F. Davis. 

Deputy Collector and Clerk, Mystic Department. 
Joseph H. Caldwell. 

Superintendent of the Eastern Division of Cochituate Department. 
Ezekiel R. Jones. 

Superintendent of the Western Division of Cochituate Department. 
Desmond FitzGerald. 

Superintendent of Mystic Department. 
J. Henry Brown. 

Superintendent of Meter Division. 
George S. Follansbee. 

Superintendent of Inspection and Waste Division. 
D. B. Cashman. 

\ Deceased. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Report of the Water Board ........ 1-22 

Summary of principal expenditures ...... 1 

New constructions .......... 2 

Water-rates ........... 3 

Quality of the water ......... 4 

Analysis ............ 5 

The removal of pollutions ........ 7 

Consumption of water ......... 8 

" " table 10 

Waste 12 

A new reservoir .......... 13 

Chimeras ........... 14 

Meters ............ 15 

The Mystic department ......... 16 

The Mystic sewer 18 

Jamaica pond (See also Appendix) ...... 18 

General Statistics (See also Summary of statistics, p. 115) . . 22 

Earnings and Expenditures ........ 23 

Outstanding Loans .......... 24 

Cost of Construction 27-28 

Report of the Engineer ......... 29-44 

Yield of sources of supply ........ 29 

Sudbury reservoirs and Lake Cochituate ..... 30 

Farm-pond conduit ......... 35 

Aqueducts and distributing reservoirs ...... 36 

High-service pumping-stations ....... 30 

New high-service works ........ 37 

West Roxbury high-service ........ 38 

Mystic lake, sewer, reservoir, and pumping-station ... 39 

Detection of waste .......... 41 

Distribution ........... 41 

General condition and requirements ...... 44 

Tables of consumption, diversion of Sudbury-river water, amounts 
drawn from Lake Cochituate, rainfall, operations of pumping- 
stations, etc. .......... 45-59 



136 City Document No. 27. 

PAGE 

Report of the Water Registrar . . . . . . 60 

Financial statement ......... 60 

Meters 63-66 

Yearly revenue .......... 66 

Fountains, motors, etc. ......... 68 

Water-fixtures .......... 69 

Report of Superintendent of Western Division .... 70-82 

Suclbury-river basins ......... 70-74 

Farm pond ........... 74 

Lake Cochituate .......... 75 

Aqueducts ........... 77-78 

Chestnut-Hill and Brookline reservoirs 79 

Rainfall 80-82 

Report of Superintendent of Eastern Division .... 83 
Main pipe laid and relaid, location and length of same, total pipe 

in use, repairs, leaks and stoppages, hydrants in use, etc. . 85-99 

Report of the Superintendent of the Mystic Department 100-106 

Report of the Superintendent of the Meter Division . 107-108 

Report of the Superintendent of the Inspection and Waste 

Division 109-114 

Summary of Statistics (arranged per recommendation of New Eng- 
land Water- Works Association) ..... 115-118 

Appendix : — 

Jamaica-pond correspondence ...... 120-121 

Report of city physician on typhoid in Philadelphia . . 122-129 

Civil Organization of the Board, 1845 to 1887 . . . 130-133