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Full text of "Annual report of the Boston Water Board, for the year ending .."

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 9999 06660 962 7 



'M.-'<f>.^>- 'X'T^M-, 




^rs> s'^ 




G-ivEN By 



ANNUAL EEPOET 



WATER-SUPPLY DEPARTMENT, 



FOR THE TEAR 1893. 




BOSTON: 

KOCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS. 
1894. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofbo1893boston 



ANNUAL EEPOET 



WATER-SUPPLY DEPARTMENT, 



FOR THE TEAR 1893. 




BOSTON: 

ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS. 
1894. 






<Ainlc 



^^. o 

t 1 



/k . C^ir 



OrriGE OF THE Boston Water Board, 

City Hall, Boston, February 1, 1894. 

Hon. Nathan Matthews, Jr., 

Mayor of the City of Boston : 

Sir : The Boston Water Board, in charge of the Water- 
Supply Department, herewith submit their annual report 
for the financial year ending January 31, 1894. 

The disbursements by the department for the year were 
as follows : 

Money expenditures, Cochituate Water- 
Works (see page 20) . . . . $895,652 19 

Money expenditures. Mystic Water-Works 

(see page 21) 149,678 79 



$1,045,330 98 
Less increase in stock during year (see 

page 22) 16,492 61 



$1,028,838 37 



Current expenses, Cochituate 

Water-Works . . . $393,154 00 
Current expenses, Mystic 

Water-Works . . . 151,579 90 

Extension of mains, etc. . . 256,193 57 

Additional supply of water . 190,655 62 

High service .... 37,255 28 

$1,028,838 37 



City Document No. 39. 



EARNINGS AND EXPENDITURES. 

The total receipts of the Cochituate Water- Works, from 
all sources, for the year ending January 31, 1894, were as 
follows, viz. : 

Balance of revenue from 1892-93 $15,820 46 

Income from sales of water . . . $1,637,531 94 
Income from shutting off and letting on 

water, and fees 3,088 44 

Elevator, fire and service pipes, sale of 

old materials, etc. .... 36,917 60 

1,677,537 98 

$1,693,358 44 



The total expenditures of the Cochituate 
Water-Works from revenue, for the year end- 
ing January 31, 1894, were as follows, viz. : 

Current expenses, viz. : 

Water-Supply Department . $393,154 00 
Less stock used purchased in 

previous years . . . 10,224 68 



$382,929 32 
Water-Income Department . 60,478 86 

$433,408 18 

Interest on funded debt .... 826,077 88 

Sinking-fund requirement, 1892-93 . . 229,520 00 

Refunded water-rates .... 1,479 18 

Extension of mains, etc 132,925 93 

Balance to Cochituate Water Sinking- 

Fund 69,947 27 



$1,693,358 44 



The total receipts of the Mystic Water- Works from all 
sources, for the year ending January 31, 1894, were as 
follows, viz. : 

Income from sales of water , . . $421,574 18 
Income from shutting off and letting on 

water, and fees 984 40 

Sei"vice-pipes, repairs, etc. . . . 1,204 02 
Sale of portion of Mystic sewer to State 

of Massachusetts . . . . 52,637 00 



$476,399 60 



Water-Supply Department. 

The total expenditures of the M_ystic Water- 
Works from revenue, for the year ending 
January 31, 1894, were as follows, viz. : 



Current expenses, viz. : 
Water-Supply Department . . , $151,579 90 
Less stock used, paid for in previous 

years 1,901 11 



$U9,678 79 
Water-Income Department . . . 10,965 18 



$160,643 97 

Interest on funded debt .... 18,70759 

Refunded water-rates . . . . 151 42 
Amount paid Chelsea, Somerville, and 

Everett, under contracts . . . 144,101 35 
Extension of mains, etc., Cochituate De- 
partment ...... 152,795 27 



$476,399 60 



For further details of the expenditures, the condition of 
the water debts, and the outstanding loans, we refer to the 
tables appended. 



CONSUMPTION OF WATER, RAINFALL, ETC. 

The daily average consumption during the past year wns 
47,453,200 gallons on the Cochituate and Sudbury, and 
10,742,500 gallons on the Mystic, or 58,195,700 gallons on 
the combined supplies, being an increase of 13.8 per cent, 
over the previous year. The consumption per capita was 
102.4 gallons, being larger than any year since the works 
were built. 

Although the rainfall was al)ove the average (A' the last 
twenty years, it was so unequally distributed that the amount 
of water stored was reduced to the smallest quantity since 
the Sudl)ury works have been in use. 

In the month of October the water had fallen to such an 
extent that it was deemed advisable to procure pumps and 
put them in readiness for pumping water into the conduit at 
Lake Cochituate. Notices were issued to the wsiter-takers 
through the newspapers to economize in the use of water, 
and all possible means were taken to prevent waste. For- 
tunately, however, the drought was broken by the late fall 
rains, and pumping was not resorted to on the Cochituate 
supply. The pumps on the Mystic supply were put in con- 
dition, and water was pumped from the Mystic lake into the 



4 City Document No. 39. 

conduit from October 19th until November 4th, at which 
time the water had risen to such a point that further use of 
the pumps was unnecessary. On October 23d the water in 
Mystic lake reached its lowest point, 8.90 feet below high 
water, which was within 1.27 feet of the lowest point ever 
reached. After November 4th the water rose steadily, and 
on January 19th it a^ain wasted over the dam. 



EXTENSION OF MAmS. 

The work of extending mains has been somewhat less than 
for the previous year, for the reason that we were obliged 
to curtail in the expenditures, and only such work as was 
absolutely necessary was done. Some two miles less of 
main pipe was laid than during the previous year. 

The total number of miles of pipe now connected with the 
Cochituate works is 560.06. Payment was made to the Park 
Department for the Jamaica pond aqueduct pipe system, 
consisting of about ten miles of pipe, amounting to 
$75,199.70, which amount, together with $29,527.63 for 
stock purchased but not used, deducted from the total amount 
expended, leaves $180,993.87 for the actual cost of ex- 
tensions during the year, being about $40,000 less than for 
the previous year. 

The whole cost of extension of mains during the year has 
been paid from the surplus revenue. 

We are required to expend quite a large amount of money 
each year for extensions of pipe in advance of its actual need 
in new streets which are continually being laid out under 
the provisions of chapter 323, sections 10 and 12, of the Acts 
of 1891 ; but on all petitions for extensions we require a 
guarantee of 5 per cent, for five years on the cost. Owing 
to the changing and extensions of Commonwealth avenue 
the large mains were raised, relaid, and extended during 
the winter, thereby enabling us to keep quite a large for(;e 
of men emploj^ed that otherwise would have had to be 
suspended. 

The abolishment of the grade crossing at the Old Colony 
Railroad at Dover street has necessitated a large amount of 
work in order to protect the pipes crossing Dover-street 
bridge and in changing the line to conform to the new grade. 
This work is not yet completed. 

We have in contemplation other important work, such as 
the laying of a second force main (36 inches) from the 
Chestnut Hill to the Fisher Hill reservoir, a new main to 
South Boston via Swett street, and the changing and en- 



Water-Supply Department. 5 

larffinof of the main from Charlestown to Chelsea to conform 
to the changes on account of the abolishment ot the grade 
crossino; of the Boston & Maine Railroad. 



HARBOR SERVICE. 

The submerged pipes supplying water to the several 
islands in Boston harbor are a constant source of trouble and 
annoyance to this department, and great expense is incuiTcd 
each year in keeping them in repair. Their liability to 
freeze in exposed places at low tide, as well as the disturbance 
caused by the strong currents in the channels, make it impos- 
sible to ensure an unfailing su{)ply of water to the islands, 
and we deem it most essential that storage reservoirs be con- 
structed on all the islands, of sufficient capacity to supply 
their needs, both for domestic and tire purposes, in cases of 
emergency. 

The cost of extensions and repairs of the water-works sys- 
tem from Neponset to Moon, Thompson's, Long, Rainsford, 
and Gallop's islands to February 1, 1894, is as follows: 

Siphon across Neponset river 
Main from Neponset to end of Moon island, 
Lillie V. Titus, right of way in Squantum, 
Flexible pipe between Moon and Long 
islands ....... 

Main from Long island shore to almshouse. 
Extension to Rainsford island 
Extension to Gallop's island 
Extension to Thompson's island 
Extension of high service to entire system . 



$8,000 


00 


19,741 


93 


3,500 


00 


9,903 


50 


4,986 


28 


3,233 


41 


3,248 


64 


9,965 


29 


3,445 


88 


$66,024 


93 


6,608 


68 


$72,683 


61 



Repairs on the entire line . 

Total cost to February 1, 1894 



In addition to the above the Board of Health expended 
some $1,300 for a temporary pipe between Long and Gal- 
lop's islands. 

The Board have requested the Engineer to devise and 
report some plan, if possible, whereby the harbor system can 
be maintained without such extraordinary expense. Previous 
to September, 1893, the harbor system was supplied from the 
low service, but on the 12th of that month the Board ordered 
the high service to be connected. 



6 City Document No. 39. 

During the past year the supply has been extended to 
Fort Warren, the pipe to that point being laid by the 
United States Government. 



FIRE SERVICE. 

Owing to the many petitions received by the Board for 
connections with the high service to supply automatic sprink- 
lers and fire pipes now so generally in use througliout the 
business district of the city, the Board, after several confer- 
ences with the Board of Fire Underwriters, and many of the 
merchants and owners of buildings, have practically decided 
to equip the business district with a duplicate set of pipes to 
be connected with the high service, and be used exclusively 
for fire protection in supplying water for fire pipes, automatic 
sprinklers, and roof hydrants, the regular street hydrants 
to be retained on the low service, so that in case of a large 
conflagration, if the fire pipes entering the buildings become 
broken by falling walls or otherwise, thereby greatly reduc- 
ing the head of water, the supply for the fire-engines from 
the street hydrants would not be impaired. 

In order to determine as to the necessity for larger mains 
in the streets, the Board have established recording gauijes in 
a number of the fire-engine houses in the various districts of 
the city for the purpose of keeping a continuous record of 
pressures at different points, arrangements having been made 
with the Board of Fire Commissioners to have the gauges 
properly looked after by their men. 



HIGH-SERVICE PUMPING-ENGINE. 

The new 20,000,000 gallons per day high-service pump- 
ing-engine contracted for with N. F. Palmer, Jr., & Co., of 
New York, for the Chestnut Hill Pumping-Station is now 
built and set up in the shops of the Quintard Iron Works. 
It will be taken down and brought to this city immediately, 
and we hope to have it in operation by July 1st. When 
fully completed, it is safe to say that this will be the best 
pumping-engine in the United States. 

In connection with this engine and pump a steel boiler of 
the Belpaire Fire-Box pattern is now in process of construc- 
tion at the Atlantic Works, East Boston. The boiler will 
pi-obably be in [)osition by June 1st. All of this machinery 
is being made from plans and specifications })repared by 
JVIr. E. D. Leavitt, with every improvement that science has 
suo'2:ested. 



Water-Supplt Department. 7 

The saving in coal with this plant will be at least 33^ per 
cent. 

BASIN 6. 

The work on this Basin has been carried on vigorously 
during the year, and it is now practically completed and 
gradually being filled with water, the gates having been 
closed early in January. 

Considerable work yet remains to be done, however, to 
put the basin in a finished condition, but the Board hope to 
be able to complete the work thoroughly with the balance 
of the appropriation on hand. 

The total cost of this basin, including the dam, to Febru- 
ary 1st, is $866,575.65. Its capacity is about the same as 
that of Basin No. 4, ~ 1,400,000,000 gallons. This will 
add 4,500,000 gallons to the daily capacity of the supply. 

WHITEHALL POND CASES. 

Preparations were made in the year 1892 for the trial of 
these cases, which finally took place early in 1893 before 
a commission appointed by the Superior Court, consisting 
of Messrs. Chas. H. Allen, Frederic T. Greenhalge, and 
Sigourney Butler. These cases were actions for damages 
brought by the Dwight Printing Company, represented by 
Eben D. Jordan, owning a two-thirds interest in Whitehall 
pond, and the Wood Brothers and Newhall, owning the other 
one-third. The questions involved were of an intricate char- 
acter, and the greater part of the year passed before the 
commissioners made their award. Several experts were 
emploj^ed to represent the interests of the city. The cases 
still remain unsettled at the date of this report. 

BASIN 5. 

By an order of the City Council approved April 26, 1893, 
the further sum of $2,500,000 was appropriated to extend 
and perfect the water-supply in accordance with the order of 
November 13, 1889, and all other statutes, ordinances, and 
orders relating to the acquisition of land and construction of 
basins and reservoirs upon the Sudbury river water-shed, 
and on May 16th the Engineer was requested to prepare 
plans and specifications for the construction of a new dam 
for Basin No. 5 on Stony brook in the town of Southbor- 
ough and the city of Marlborough. 

As the construction of this basin necessitated the chano-ino: 
of certain roads in Southborough, numerous conferences 
have been held with the County Commissioners of Worces- 
ter County, and also with a Committee of Citizens from 



8 City Document No. 39. 

Southborough, with whom arrangements have practically 
been made. On July 10th the Board requested the Law 
Department to prepare the papers necessary to enable the 
city to take the lands required for this basin, but owing to 
some changes in the plans the taking has been delayed. A 
contract for building the dam was awarded to Moulton & 
O'Mahoney on July 25th, and the work will be commenced 
as soon as the taking of lands is made. When completed 
this basin will be the largest of the series, and will have a 
capacity of 7,438,000,000 gallons and will cover about 1,500 
acres, adding at least 12,000,000 gallons to the daily supply 
in the driest year. 

AEEA AND COST OF BASINS. 

The following table shows the area in acres and storage 
capacity of each of the basins already constructed on the 
Sudbury supply, also the cost of each basin : 





Area 
H. W. 


Area 
Not Flowed. 


Total Area 
Land. 


Storage in 
Million Gals. 


Daily Supply 
Proportional 
to Capacity. 

Million Gals. 


Basin 1 


143 


64 


207 


280 


1. 


" 2 


134 


50 


184 


530 


1.8 


" 3 


253 


90 


343 


1,080 


3.7 


" 4 


167 


94 


261 


1,400 


4.9 


" 6 


185 


270 


455 


1,530 


5.2 







Basin 


1 


it 


2 


(( 


3 


<c 


.4 


* (( 


6 



Dam. 



$144,929 15 
152,982 51 
194,950 13 
521,998 45 
512,636 48 



Basin. 



^4,455 20 
147,957 82 
183,939 98 
265,617 93 
327,062 58 



Land Damages. 



$67,759 46 

165,013 78 

40,512 61 

26,330 00 

26,876 59 



Total Cost. 



#257,143 81 
465,954 11 
419,402 72 
813,846 38 
866,575 <o 



* Construction account not yet closed. 



Water-Supply Department. 9 

FUTURE SUPPLY. 

In the last two reports attention has been called to the 
subject of a future supply for Boston. From the best data 
now at hand the entire development of the Sudbury supply 
will only be sufficient to supply Boston for about eight 
years. The growth of the city is keeping abreast of this 
development, indeed during the latter part of the fall and 
early winter the basins were lower than ever, and much 
anxiety was felt by the Board lest they should be compelled 
to curtail in the use of water. The Legislature of 1892 ap- 
propriated a sum of money for the State Board of Health to 
make some studies looking to a supply sufficient to provide 
for Boston and surrounding cities and towns, or in other 
words a Metropolitan system, and with this end in view the 
State Board have been making soundings and collecting data 
on the Nashua river above Clinton, and there is no doubt 
that if this source of supply should be adopted a sufficient 
quantity of good water could be procured to supply all the 
communities within a radius of ten miles of the State House 
for many years to come. This water could pass through the 
new basin No. 5, which is about to be constructed. 

MYSTIC DEPARTMENT. 

The Mystic works have received the usual care and atten- 
tion during the year and are generally in good condition. 

Early in the year a committee from the town of Winches- 
ter presented to the Board a proposition and plan to take a 
tract of about twenty acres of land located in the central part 
of that town to remove the nuisance therefrom and dedicate 
it to the public for a park. The f>lan contemplates the re- 
moval of an old tannery which has for years endangered the 
purity of the water-supply. After an examination of the 
plans, and consideration of the advantages which the city 
would derive from the scheme as an improvement to the 
Mystic supply, the Board requested the Engineer to investi- 
gate and report the approximate cost of the land along the 
Abajona river included in the scheme which it would be 
desirable for the city to take for the protection of its water- 
supply. Numerous conferences were held with the com- 
mittee, but up to the closing of this report nothing has been 
done on the part of the city towards acquiring any of the 
land. 

By request of the authorities of Medford a connection of 
their system with the Mystic works has been made at 
Boston avenue near the reservoir, for use only in cases of 
emergency. 



10 City Document No. 39. 

On July 12, 1893, the Board engaged Mr. E. D. Leavitt, 
Mechanical Engineer, to furnish a design and specifications 
for a 10,000,000-gallon per diem pumping-engine for the 
Mystic Station, and on December 26, 1893, the contract for 
buildins: and erecting the eno;ine was awarded to the Georo;e 
F. Blake Manufacturing Company, for $38,950, — the work 
to be completed within nine months from the date of execu- 
tion of the contract. 

On July 14, 1893, the Metropolitan Sewerage Commis- 
sioners in behalf of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts took, 
by right of eminent domain, a portion of the Mystic sewer 
in Woburn, in connection with the North Metropolitan 
sewer system, for which the State paid to the city of Bos- 
ton the sum of $52,637. 

The Cochituate high service was turned on to supply the 
residents on the top of Bunker Hill, on June 26, the Mystic 
supply being inadequate to furnish an ample supply at that 
elevation. 

During the month of November, the water in Mystic lake 
being extremely low, it was considered a favorable time to 
improve the shallow portion at the upper end of the lake, 
and a large temporary force was employed until the rise in 
the water necessitated the suspension of the work, some 
14,000 cubic yards of soil being removed. 

ELECTROLYSIS. 

In 1892 the attention of the Board was drawn to the fact 
that the lead service-pipes in the immediate vicinity of the 
power-station of the West End Railroad Company were being- 
destroyed from some cause, and from the best information 
which we could obtain it seemed probable that the destruc- 
tive action was due to the underground currents of elec- 
tricity. 

The subject was at once placed in the hands of the City 
Engineer for investigation, and the detailed results of the 
partial study which has been made under his direction by 
Messrs. Stone and Webster will be found in the City 
Engineer's report. 

Many other cities throughout the country are experiencing 
the same difficulty, and as it is a subject of great importance 
w^e propose to continue the investigation with the purpose of 
finding the best means of preventing the corrosion wdiich, 
although slow in its action, is nevertheless sure in time to 
cause serious trouble to our pipe system. 



Water-Supply Department. 11 



TAXATION OF PROPERTY. 

The following act relating to the taxation of property held 
for purposes of a water-supply was passed by the Legislature 
in 1«93 : 



An Act relating to property held for the purpose of a water 

SUPPLY. 

Be it enacted etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Any city or town holding property, taken by purchase 
or otherwise, for the purposes of its water supply, whether for domestic, 
manufacturing, or other purposes, in another city or town, shall not pay 
any tax on such property, but shall hereafter in the month of September 
annually pay to such other city or town for each lot of land held therein 
for said purposes, an amount of money equal to the rate of taxation per 
thousand dollars in such other city or town, for every one thousand dol- 
lars of the average of the assessed valuations of the land, without build- 
ings or other structures, for the three years next preceding the taking 
tliereof, the said assessed valuation for each year being first reduced by 
the amount of all abatements allowed thereon : provided, hotvever, that 
any land or building from which any revenue in the nature of rent is 
received from any person occupying or using the same shall be subject 
to taxation. 

Sect. 2. The assessors of any city or town in which land is held for 
the aforesaid pui'poses on the day of the passage of this act shall, with- 
in one year after such passage, determine the aforesaid average valua- 
tion of such land and certify the same to the mayor of the city or the 
selectmen of the town holding the same ; and the assessors of any city 
or town in which any land is hereafter taken for the aforesaid purposes 
shall, within one year after such taking, determine and certify as afore- 
said the said average valuation of the land so taken. In determining 
said average valuation the aforesaid assessed valuation for each lot of 
such land shall be taken to be the proportional part of the assessed val- 
uation of the estate of which such lot formed a part, which the value of 
the land thereof, exclusive of buildings and other structures, bore in the 
year of assessment to the entire value of said estate. 

Sect. 3. If the aforesaid mayor of the city or selectmen of the town 
be dissatisfied with said determination, the said average valuation of 
such land shall be determined in the manner provided in the preceding 
section by the superior court for thecounty in which such land is situated 
on appeal of such mayor or selectmen from said determination, filed 
with the clerk of said court within six months after receiving the afore- 
said notice thereof, and the provisions of sections two and four of 
chapter one hundred and twenty-seven of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and ninety, except as is otherwise provided herein, shall apply 
to appeals under this act. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Ajjprovcd 
May 12, 1893.'\ 

In accordance with the provisions of this act the Board 
have had lists made of all the taxable property and the valua- 
tions for the three years previous to the dates of the taking 
of lands in Framingham and Ashland, and these towns have 
also prepared their lists. The lists have been agreed upon 
so fiir as these two towns are concerned, but none of the 



12 City Document No. 39. 

other towns have yet furnished their statements as required 
by the law. 

FILTRATION. 

The Board have been endeavorins: for several years in one 
way or another to purify Pegan brook in Natick, and they 
feel that they have been moderately successful in getting rid 
of all the sources of pollution flowing directly into the 
stream ; but there is always danger in such a situation, and they 
have tried to persuade Natick to adopt a system of sewerage, 
and have oiffered to contribute to any well-devised plan. 
Unnecessary delays, however, in these negotiations have oc- 
curred. Feeling that it would be unwise to postpone this 
work any longer, the Board, a year ago, determined to take 
the matter in hand and put in a system of filter beds on 
Pegan brook. A piece of land adapted to this purpose was 
secured early in the season, and three large natural beds 
were built, into which the water flowing in the brook is 
pumped. After passing through several feet of sand the 
water enters the lake. 

The Board have also secured a piece of land at the head 
of Basin 5, in Marlborough, and intend to build lilter liasins 
modelled after those at Natick. These beds will be used to 
filter the water flowing through Marlborough, and which 
otherwise would discharge into the new basin whenever it is 
built. 

BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY. 

The laboratory established at Chestnut Hill Reservoir has 
proved its value in aiding us to form an opinion as to the 
character of the water in the several sources of supply from 
week to week. It has now become an established portion 
of the work. 

IN gp:neral. 

Early in the spring the Board employed J. N. McClintock 
to prepare a model in relief about (3 feet X 8 feet, and col- 
ored, showing the Cochituate and Sudbury water-sheds, with 
the lakes, ponds, and basins connected with Boston's water- 
supply. This model, together with a number of large 
photographs, was exhibited at the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition in Chicago. Since the close of the Fair the Board have 
received from the Executive Committee on Awards an of- 
ficial copy of the award made by them, viz., "For careful 
and skilful preparation and instructive dis|)lay," which will 
be inscribed in the diploma and forwarded to the Board in 
due time. 



GENERAL STATISTICS. 



SUDBDRT AND COCHITUATE WORKS. 

Daily average consumption in gallons 

Daily average consumption in gallons per inhabitant 
Daily average amount used through meters, gallons 

Percentage of total consumption metered 

Number of services 

Number of meters and motors . 

Length of supply and distributing mains, in miles . . 

Num.ber of fire-hydrants in use ........ 

Yearly revenue from water-rates 

Yearly revenue from metered water. 

Percentage of total revenue from metered water .... 

Cost of works on Feb. 1, 1892, 1893, and 189+ 

Yearly expense of maintenance 

Mystic Works. 

Daily average consumption in gallons 

Daily average consumption in gallons per inhabitant 
Daily average amount used through meters, gallons 

Percentage of total consumption metered 

Number of services 

Number of meters and motors 

Length of supply and distributing mains, in miles . . 

Number of fire-hydrants in use . . 

Yearly revenue from water-rates 

Yearly revenue from metered water 

Percentage of total revenue from metered water . . . 

Cost of works on Feb. 1, 1892, 1893, and 1891 , 

Yearly expense of maintenance 

* Thirteen mouths. 



1891. 



37,686,980 

89.3 

10,186,400 

27.0 

62,877 

4,357 

519 

5,643 

* $1,838,494 30 

t $606,451 00 

33 

" $21,643,526 91 

5,755 92 



9,055,200 

74.7 

1,845,500 

20.4 

20,566 

427 

158 

1,116 

* $406,784 26 
t $102,719 26 

25.2 
$1,710,943 70 

* $174,421 92 



1S93. 



41,312,400 

95.3 

11,225,900 

27.2 

65,074 

4,412 

536 

5,793 

$1,433,413 78 

$649,672 31 

45.3 

122,243,351 56 

$350,743 68 

9,810,800 

78.6 

1,862,200 

19 

21,588 

550 

160 

1,223 

$394,008 75 

$105,685 56 

26.8 

$1,713,227 00 

$117,922 20 



189.t. 



47,453,200 

107.5 

11,651,600 

24.5 

66,586 

4,585 

560 

6,042 

$1,637,531 94 

$683,948 52 

41.8 

$22,727,456 03 

$393,154 00 

10,742,500 

84.4 

1,921,570 

17.9 

22,398 

482 

165 

1,306 

$421,573 48 

$109,367 37 

25.9 

$1,721,609 33 

$147,417 10 



t Twelve months. 



Water-Supply Department. 13 

On July 18, 1893, Commissioner Robert Grant resigned 
his position on the Board to accept the position of Associate 
Justice of the Probate Court, he having served continuously 
since April, 1888. 

On December 13, 1893, Thaddeus C. Dunn, chief engi- 
neer at the Chestnut Hill Pumping-Station, died, after a 
lingering illness, having served tlie city faithfully for the past 
twenty-four years, and the Board appointed Mr. E. C. Nor- 
ris to fill the vacancy. 

The employees of this department generously contributed 
to the fund for the relief of the needy unemployed citizens 
to the amount of $1,253.33, the secretary forwarding a check 
for that amount to the treasurer of the Citizens' Relief Com- 
mittee on January 6th. 

We annex hereto detailed statements of the expenditures, 
etc., also reports of the Superintendents of the several divi- 
sions and the City Engineer. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas F. Doherty, 
John W. Leighton, 
William S. McNary, 
Boston Water Board. 



14 



City Document No. 39. 



MAINTENANCE ACCOUNTS, COCHITUATE WATER- 
WORKS. 

(From Revenue.) 
February Draft, 1893, to February Draft, 1894. 
Boston Water Board: 

Salaries of two Commissioners, Chief 
Clerk and Secretary, Executive 
Clerk, Purchasing Agent, Asst. 
Clerk, Messenger, and Special Agent, $16,o37 85 

Travelling expenses . . . . 2,104 54 

Printing and stationer^' . . . 876 16 

Advertising, postage, and miscellane- 
ous ...... 



Eastern Division : 

Salaries of Superintendents, Clerks, 

and Foremen ..... 

Travelling expenses and transportation 



3,590 26 



1,491 84 



$23,108 81 



of men .... 


. 




1,000 


00 


Printing and stationery 


, 


, 


922 


60 


Miscellaneous . 


. 


, 


142 


85 












18,557 29 


Western Division: 










Salaries of Superintendent, Assistant 








Superintendent, and Clerks 


. 


, 


$25,007 


03 


Travelling expenses . 


. 


. 


885 


98 


Printing and stationery 


. 




394 


15 


Miscellaneous . 


. 


. 


174 


00 












9fi 4fi1 1 fi 








Zu,4Ul ID 


Engineering 


. 


. 






8,162 73 


New meters, and setting 


. 


. 






8,336 90 


Meters, repairing 


. 


. 






20,332 93 


Machine-shop, Alban}^ street 


. 


. 






12,381 23 


Telephones 


. 


, 






1,560 48 


Cochituate Aqueduct . 


, 


. 






1,618 34 


Sudbui-y Aqueduct . 


. 


. 






5,521 74 


Main-pipe relaying (including 


stock 


and labor) 




10,689 69 


" repairing " 


(( 


u 


(b 




19.426 51 


Hydrants " " 


u 


i; 


(( 




21,406 24 


Stopcocks " " 


(( 


(( 


(( 




4,657 50 


Hydrant and stopcock boxes, 


and re 


pairing (includ 




ing stock and labor) . 


, 








7,-267 49 


Tools and repairing (including 


stock 


and 


labor) 




9,007 38 


Streets " " 


(( 


(( 


u 




8,152 13 


Fountains " " 


a 


1,1. 


(( 




2,483 46 


Stables '' " 


a 


a 


u 




20,477 97 


Waste-detection " 


u 


u 


(4 




25,731 04 


Carried forward^ 










$255,341 02 



Watee-Supply Department. 



15 



Brought forivard, 
Basins, Framiogharn and Ashland (including stock 

and labor) ....... 

Service- pipe repairing (including stock and labor) 
Protection of Sudbury and Cochitnate supply . 
High service, Chestnut Hill (including fuel, salaries 

repairs, etc.) ...... 

High service, East Boston (including fuel, salaries 

repairs etc.) . . . . . . 

High service, West Roxbury (including fuel, salaries 

repairs, etc.) ...... 

Albany- street yard . ..... 

Chestnut Hill Reservoir (including stable, care of 

grounds, etc.) ...... 

Parker Hill Reservoir ..... 

Brookline Reservoir ..... 

East Boston and South Boston Reservoirs 
Fisher Hill Reservoir ..... 

Lake Cochituate ...... 

Chestnut Hill driveway ..... 

Taxes ........ 

Damages ....... 

Analyses of water, etc. ..... 

Merchandise sold (pipes and castings, in cases of 

emergency) ...... 

Filtration ....... 

Biological Laboratory ..... 



$255,341 02 

7,794 13 
24,422 43 
16,574 47 

26,338 52 

4,849 66 

3,522 13 
5,544 76 



11,910 64 

1,449 30 

1,191 27 

3,059 05 

1,604 23 

5,289 89 

12,258 38 

782 05 

1,355 24 

280 00 

197 53 
7,324 89 
2,064 41 



$393,154 00 



16 



City Document No. 39. 



MAINTENANCE ACCOUNTS, MYSTIC WATER-WORKS. 
(From Revenue.) 

February Draft, 1893, to February Draft, 1894. 
Boston Water Board: 

Salaries of one Commissioner and one 

Assistant Clerk . . . . $.5,806 40 

Printing and stationery ... 50 79 

Advertising, postage, travelling ex- 
penses and miscellaneous . . . 660 55 



Superintendent's Department : 










<1J)U,UX* < * 


Salaries of Superintendent, Assistant 








Superintendent, and Clerk 


, 


. 


$5,762 


77 




Printing and stationery 


. 


. 


162 


63 




Travelling expenses 


. 


. 


186 


25 




Miscellaneous 


• 


• 


70 


98 


6,182 68 








Engineer's Department 


. 


. 


. 




2,012 50 


Meters, repairing 


. 


. 






3,507 99 


Off and on water (labor) 


. 


. 


, 




3,154 07 


Main-pipe laying (including stock and 


labor) 




4,162 80 


" relaying " 










183 91 


" repairing " 










1,250 69 


Service-pipe laying " 










1,564 55 


repairing " 










1,019 42 


Hydrants, repairing " 










1,957 00 


Gates " " 










787 19 


Streets, repairing " 










476 63 


Lake ..... 










21,781 22 


Conduit .... 










1,152 12 


New meters and setting 










592 24 


Stables .... 










5,644 76 


Reservoir .... 










5,818 05 


Pumping service (salaries, wages 


, fuel 


, repairs, etc 


.)', 


36,401 10 


Repair-shop . . . . 






. 




2,624 63 


Fountains .... 






, 




818 70 


Tools and repairing 






. 




1,155 38 


Mystic Sewer (repairs, and pumping 


anc 


treatment 




of sewage) 


. 




, 


, 


20,717 70 


Waste- Detection Service 


. 




, 


, 


8,597 78 


Protection of water sources (including 


salaries 


of 




three Special Agents on Pollution) 


. 


. 


. 


5,669 80 


Analyses of water 


, 


, 


, 


, 


120 00 


Filtration .... 


, 


. 


. 


, 


2,489 77 


New Pumpiug-engine No. 4 (on 


account) 




%l 


4,219 53 




51,579 90 



Water-Supply Department. 



17 



DETAILED EXPENDITURES UNDER 
APPROPRIATIONS. 



THE SEVERAL 



February Draft, 1893, to February Draft, 1894. 
Extension of Mains ^ etc. {from Cocliituate and Mystic Revenue). 



Labor 
Teaming . 
Blasting 

Water-pipes, contracts 
Stock 

Miscellaneous 

Amount paid to Park Department for 

Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Pipe system. 



$74,990 27 

3,444 99 

8,383 90 

82,171 85 

37,307 72 

4,222 77 

75,199 70 



Additional Supply of Water {from Loans) . 

(Account of Basin No. 6, Whitehall pond. Cedar 
swamp, Protection of Supply, and Surveys and 
Borings for Basin No. 5.) 

Salaries and labor .... $47,594 54 

Materials 11,339 33 

Contract, filling on Dam No. 6, bal- 
ance (total, $54,151.30) . . 31,284 98 
Contract, stripping Section D, Basin 6, 

balance (total, $56,595.80) . . 11,371 30 

Contract, stripping Section E, Basin 6, 

balance (total, $53,632.60) . . 13,959 81 

Contract, excavation in Basin No. 6 

(on account) 5,493 44 

Contract, riprap and paving on Dam 

No. 6 (on account) . . . 7,195 23 

Town of Westboro', balance of con- 
tract for a system of sewage dis- 
posal for the protection of the Boston 
water-supply (total, $20,000) . . 6,666 67 

Engineering and suuplies . . . 21,007 42 
Land damages . ' . . . . 18,420 99 

Teaming 12,493 22 

Travelling expenses .... 842 69 

Printing, stationery, and advertising . 570 19 

Miscellaneous 2,415 81 



,721 20 



$190,655 62 



I stock to the amonnt of $29,52T.63 not used, and carried into the Stock account. 



18 City Document No. 39. 

High Service (from Loans) . 
Account of High-service Pumping- 
engine No. 3 for Chestnut Hill, viz. : 
Contract for engine (on account) . $22,153 90 

Inspection 2,595 92 

Steel plates 2,256 21 

Babbitt metal 1,081 30 

Stock and labor on foundations (day- 
work) (total, $12,123.82) . . 3,707 26 
Contract-work, foundations (balance) 

(total contract, $4,566.05) . . 3,674 74 

Lining air-pump with Tobin bronze . 185 00 

Covering pump rods with brass . . 200 00 

Miscellaneous . . . . . 491 72 



$36,346 05 
High-service Fire Service : 
Stock used, paid for in previous years, 909 23 



$37,255 28 



Water-Supply Department. 19 

COST OF CONSTRUCTION, AND CONDITION OF THE 
WATER DEBTS. 

Cost of construction of Cochituate Works 

to February 1, 1893 .... $22,243,351 56 

Expended from February 1, 1893, to Feb- 
ruary 1, 1894, as follows, viz. : 
Additional Supply of Water . $190,655 62 
Extension of Mains, etc. . 256,193 57 
High Service . . . 37,255 28 

484,104 47 



Cost of construction of Cochituate Water- 
Works to February 1, 1894 . . . $22,727,456 03 

The outstandino; Cochituate Water Loans, 

February l,l893, were . . . $16,758,773 98 

Issued during the year 1893-94, as follows : 

r Additional 

Appropriation, { Water^ ^ 

[ 4% Loans, $221,500 00 
f High Ser- 
" <( vice, 4% 

I Loans . 75,000 00 

296,500 00 



Total Cochituate Debt, February 1, 1894 . $17,055,273 98 

Cochituate Water Sinking-Fund, February 

1, 1893 $7,019,058 38 

Cochituate Water Sinking-Fund, February 

1, 1894 7,649,504 87 

Net Cochituate Water Debt, February 1, 

1893 $9,739,715 60 

Net Cochituate Water Debt, February 1, 

1894 9,405,769 11 

Cost of construction of Mystic Works to 

February 1, 1893 $1,713,227 00 

Cost of construction of Mystic Works to 

February 1, 1894 1,721,609 33 



20 



City Document No. 39. 



The outstanding Mystic Water Loans, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1893, were .... $440,000 00 
Paid during the year 1893-94 . . . 338,000 00 

Total Mystic Debt, February 1, 1894 . $102,000 00 

Mystic Water Sinking-Fund, February 1, 

1893 . $579,254 01 

Mystic Water Sinking-Fund, February 1, 

1894 . 265,210 26 



TOTAL MONEY EXPENDITURES, COCHITUATE WATER- 
WORKS, FROM FEBRUARY 1, 1893, TO FEBRUARY 1, 

1894. 



Stock 

Labor 

Salaries 

Travelling expenses 

Printing 

Stationery . 

Advertising 

Postage 

Freights and express 

Rents 

Gas . . . 

Teaming 

Repairs 

Land damages, etc. 

Taxes 

Miscellaneous 

Inspection of pipes 

Blasting 

Water-pipe contracts 

Coal and wood . 

Pumping Service, salaries 
" " fuel 

" " repairs 

" " oils, etc. 

" " small supplies 

Miscellaneous contracts 

Engineering 

Engineering supplies . 

Hay and grain 

New meters 



Pipe System of Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corpo- 
ration. (Purchased of Park Department.) 



68 
95 
76 
91 
75 



$89,478 06 

273,066 80 

97,828 04 

10,699 21 

2,184 99 

621 19 

633 

238 

942 

2,632 

281 

16,920 82 

19,242 33 

18,520 99 

676 25 

11,598 32 

1,260 17 

8,392 

82.685 

4,923 

11,745 

9,159 

1,986 

593 

88 

110,459 

25,856 40 

262 78 

5,509 08 

11,962 97 



55 
58 
36 
25 
58 
55 
37 
13 
67 



520,452 49 
75,199 70 



^895,652 19 



Water-Supply Department. 



21 



TOTAL MONEY EXPENDITURES, MYSTIC WATER- 
WORKS, FROM FEBRUARY 1, 1893, TO FEBRUARY 1, 

1894. 



Stock . 










$8,519 82 


Labor 










49,467 02 


Salaries 










30,104 54 


Advertising . 










130 17 


Printing 










265 10 


Stationery . 










88 12 


Rents . 










100 00 


Gas . 










36 80 


Postage 










14 00 


Travelling expenses 








3,680 56 


Coal and wood 








239 14 


Freights and express 








52 62 


Teaming 








665 66 


Hay and grain 








1,278 61 


Repairs 








1,453 44 


Miscellaneous 








4,624 55 


Telephones . 








417 40 


Pumping service, salarie 


s 






10,968 70 


" fuel 








18,790 47 


" " repair 


s 






3,608 28 


" " oils, etc. . 






674 50 


" " small supplies . 






187 01 


New machinery, etc. 






315 00 


Mystic Sewerage Station, viz. : 






Salaries and wages . 


$8,970 42 




Fuel 


• 


1,351 07 




Chemicals 


. . . 


2,898 68 




Repairs . . 


. 


255 44 




Small supplies . 


. 


521 67 






— 




13,997 28 










$149,678 79 



22 City Document No. 39. 

STATEMENT OF STOCK ACCOUNTS. 

<^ 1 .. ^ -.rr ,^ , Increase. Decrease. 

Cochituate Water-Works, viz. : 

Stock on hand, February 1, 1893 
" " " February 1, 1894 

Decrease during year 

Mystic Water- Works, viz. : 

Stock on hand, February 1, 1893 
" " " February 1, 1894 

Decrease during year 

Extension of Mains, etc., viz. : 
Stock on hand, February 1, 1893 
" " " February 1, 1894 

Increase during year 

High Service, viz. : 

Stock on hand, February 1, 1893 
" " " February 1, 1894 

Decrease during year 



Total increase in stock during year 
1893-94 



$22,561 14 
12,336 46 


$29,527 63 

129,527 63 
116,492 61 




$10,224 68 

$3,950 18 
2,049 07 


$10,224 68 


$1,901 11 

$97,467 55 
126,995 18 


1,901 11 


$29,527 63 




$4,313 75 
3,404 52 




$909 23 


909 23 








$13,035 02 







Water-Sdpply Department. 



23 



OUTSTANDING LOANS. 



The outstanding Cochituate 
February 1, 1894 (^exclusive 
$7,175,000), are as follows : 

6 per cent. Sterling Loan 

(£399,500) . . $1,947,273 98 

5 per cent. Gold Loans, 100,000 00 

5 per cent. Cur. Loan, 1,000 00 



Water Loans at this date, 
of the Additional Supply, 



6 per cent. Loans 



4,253,000 00^ 



4 per cent. Loans 



2,389,000 00 «! 



3i per cent. Loans 



3 per cent. Loan . 
Total . 



990,000 00 < 



200,000 00 
$9,880,273 98 



450 
540 
250 
625 
688 
330 
413 

38 

161 

142 

6 

82 



6 
1 

280 
111 

257 
50 

144 
23 
58 
28, 

236 
21 

161 
7, 

160 

20, 

6, 

100. 

200, 

250. 

100. 

100. 
75, 
50, 
50. 

100. 
75. 
25. 

240. 

100. 

130, 

220, 



,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,700 
,000 
,550 
,750 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
000 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,200 
,000 
,000 
,500 
,300 
,000 
,000 
,000 
,700 
,000 
300 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
,000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
,000 
000 



Due Oct. 
Due April 
Due Oct. 
Due Dec. 
Due June 
Due Oct. 
Due April 
Due Jan. 
Due April 
Due July 
Due April 
Due April 
Due Jan. 
Due April 
Due Oct. 
Due Jan. 
Due April 
Due Oct 
Due Jan. 
Due Api-il 
Due July 
Due April 
Due July 
Due Jan. 
Due Jan. 
Due April 
Due Oct. 
Due Jan. 
Due April 
Due Oct. 
Due Jan. 
Due April 
Due July 
Due Oct. 
Due Jan. 
Due April 
Due Oct. 
Due April 
Due Oct. 
Due April 
Due Jan. 
Due April 
Due April 
Due Oct. 
Due Jan. 
Due July 
Due Oct. 
Due April 
Due July 
Due Nov. 
Due Jan. 
Due April 



1902 
1906 
1907 
1897 
1898 
1898 
1899 
1901 
1901 
1901 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1910 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1915 
1915 
1916 
1916 
1916 
1917 
1917 
1917 
1917 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1922 
1915 
1915 
1916 
1916 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1917 



24 City Document No. 39. 

The outstanding loans on account of Additional Supply of 
Water on February 1, 1894, are as follows ; 

f 

6 per cent. Loans . . $644,000 ■I 

I 
5 per cent. Gold Loans . 3,452,000 { 

5 per cent. Cur. Loan . 12,000 

Ah per cent. Loan . . 268,000 

3^ per cent. Loans . . 180,000 \ 



4 per cent. Loans . . 2,619,000/ 



$100,000 


Due July 


1902 


492,000 


Due April 


1903 


8,000 


Due Jan. 


1904 


44,000 


Due July 


1905 


1,000.000 


Due Oct. 


1905 


452,000 


Due Api'il 


1906 


2,000,000 


Due Oct. 


1906 




Due April 


1908 




Due Oct. 


1909 


35,000 


Due April 


1917 


145,000 


Due Oct. 


1919 


588,000 


Due April 


1908 


82,000 


Due July 


1909 


324,000 


Due April 


1912 


336,000 


Due Oct. 


1913 


209,000 


Due Jan. 


1914 


18,600 


Due April 


1914 


16,000 


Due Oct. 


1914 


1,500 


Due April 


1915 


100,000 


Due April 


1916 


50,000 


Due Oct. 


1916 


300,000 


Due Oct. 


1919 


134,000 


Due Oct. 


1920 


162,500 


Due Oct. 


, 1921 


283,000 


Due Oct. 


1922 


14,500 


Due Oct. 


1923 



Total . . . $7,175,000 

The outstanding Mystic Water Loan at this date, Febru- 
ary 1, 1894, is as follows: 

5 per cent. Currency Loan, $102,000 Due April 1, 1894. 

The following statement shows the appropriations by the 
City Council for an additional supply of water, and the 
amount of expenditures to February 1, 1894 : 

APPROPRIATIONS . 

Oct. 21, 1871. — Transfer from Reserved 

Fund .... $10,000 00 
Apr. 12, 1872. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 100,000 00 

Apr. 11, 1873. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 500,000 00 
Feb. 26, 1875. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow . . . 1,500,000 00 
Oct. 1, 1875. —Premium on $1,000,000 

bond, under order of 

February 26, 1875 . 83,700 00 

Apr. 1, 1876. —Premium on $452,000 
bonds, under order of 

February 26, 1875 . 47,786 80 

Carried forward, $2,241,486 80 



Water-Supply Department. 



25 



Brought forward, $2,241,486 80 

July 1, 1876.— Order for Treasurer to 

borrow 
Oct. 1, 1876. — Premium on $2,000,000 

bonds, under order of 

July 1, 1876 
Apr. 20, 1878. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow 
Apr. 11, 1879. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow 
Aug. 17, 1881. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow 
June 2, 1883. — Order for Treasurer to 

boiTow 
Oct. 14, 1884. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow 
May 28, 1887. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow 
Nov. 18, 1889. — Order for Treasurer to 

borrow 
Oct. 24, 1891. — Forfeiture of conti-act 

bond 
Dec. 24, 1892. — Transfer 
Apr. 26, 1893.— Order for Treasurer to 

borrow 

Less transfers June 4, 1888, and January 
3, 1890 



EXPENDED. 

1871-72 

1872-73 

1873-74 including $20,897.50 discount 
on bonds sold, January, 1874, 

1874-75 . 

1875-76 . 

1876-77 . 

1877-78 . 

1878-79 . 

1879-80 . 

1880-81 . 

1881-82 . 

1882-83 . 

1883-84 . 

1884-85 . 

1885-86 . 

1886-87 . 

1887-88 . 

1888-89 . 

1889-90 . 

1890-91 . 

1891-92 . 

1892-93 . 

1893-94 . 



Balance unexpended February 1, 1894 



2,000,000 00 






221,400 00 






600,000 00 






350,000 00 






324,000 00 






621,000 00 






150,000 00 






35,000 00 






1,045,000 00 






2,500 00 






20,000 00 






2,-500,000 00 






iCIA 1 in QGfi 


SO 


v 


12,946 


48 


$10,097,440 


32 


$2,302 81 






61,278 83 






114,102 77 






224,956 68 






783,613 49 






1,924,060 24 






1,257,715 26 






635,658 08 






213,350 97 






97,406 78 






35,677 98 






167,621 43 






423,625 79 






276,292 13 






139,187 68 






128,109 32 






30,332 77 






2,398 90 






18,518 01 






233,710 59 






281,271 82 






313,844 53 






190,655 62 








7,555,692 
$2,541,747 


48 


1 


84 



1 $2,506,000 unnegotiated on this date. 



26 



City Document No. 39. 



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27 



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28 



City Document No. 39. 



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30 City Document No. 39. 



KEPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
EASTERN DIVISION. 



Office of Superintendent of Eastern Division, 

710 Albany Street, Boston, February 1, 1894. 

Col. Thomas F. Doherty, 

Chairman Boston Water Board: 

Dear Sir : I herewith respectfully submit the annual re- 
port of the Eastern Division for the year ending January 31, 
1894: 

Distribution or Mains. 

Two hundred and ten petitions for extension of mains 
have been received, and 176, including 20 of 1892, have 
been granted and the mains extended. 

Over 16 miles of main pipe have been laid, and 
10,776 feet of pipe have been abandoned, making a total of 
550.06 miles ; and 10 miles of main pipe bought of the 
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct added to this makes the total 
number of miles now connected with the system 560.06. 

Stop-cocks. 

During the year 296 stop-cocks were established and 24 
were abandoned, making an increase of 272 ; and 50 which 
are on the Jamaica Pond system added to this make a total 
of 6,182 stop-cocks connected with the system. 

Hydrants. 

Two hundred and fifty-six hydrants were established, and 
67 were abandoned, making a net increase of 189, and 6,042 
now connected with the system. 

Service- Pipes. 

One thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine service-pipes 
have been laid, with an aggregate length of 45,393 feet, and 
377 have been abandoned, making the net increase 1,512 
during the year. 

Meters. 

Cochituate Division. — Two hundred and forty-eight 
meters have been set and 110 have been discontinued, 



Water-Supply Department. 



31 



making a net increase of 138, and a total of 4,046 now in 
use. 

Mystic Division. — Forty-six meters have been set and 
14 discontinued, making the net increase 32, and the total 
number in use 461. 

Water-Posts. 

Twenty-four water-posts were erected and 3 abandoned, 
making the number now in use 341. 



Fountains. 

During the year there were 4 fountains erected and 1 
abandoned. 

Waste Detection. 



Premises examined . . . . . 


. 82,501 


Defective fixtures . . . . . . 


12,609 


Reexaminations ...... 


12,827 


Second notice to repair issued 


1,423 


Wilful- waste notices issued . . . . . 


94 



The defective fixtures may be divided into the following 
classes : 



Ball-cocks ...... 

Faucets, sink, bowl, hopper, and bath-tub 
Water-closets ..... 

Services burst inside buildino; 

Services burst outside building 

Wilful waste 



7,314 

5,515 

176 

675 

94 

94 



In connection with the meters, out of 2,718 night exami- 
nations by means of the sidewalk shut-ofis, there were 1,010 
detections of defective fixtures. There were also 479 hand- 
hose reported for non-payment. 



Deacon Waste Meter System. 

There are now in use 83 meters, 76 on the Cochituate, 
and 7 on the Mystic system. The territory supplied by the 
meters is divided into 176 sections. 

For various reasons 10 of the sections were not tested 
during the j^ear. 

Last May 2 meters having been set in the Back Bay dis- 
trict, the entire residential portion of Boston can now be 



32 



City Document No. 39. 



tested by the meters, with the exception of a portion of 
West Roxbury and a small portion of Dorchester. 

Neither of these portions can be advantageously tested 
until the districts are more densely settled. 

On the M^'stic system, Charlestown, which was practically 
covered b}^ meters, has been disarranged owing to the intro- 
duction of the high service to a part of the system. 

The meter at Pearl street will be useless in its present 
location, and 4 sections on the other meters cannot be tested. 
One meter supplies about one-fourth of Chelsea. The 
Somerville meter has not been worked during the year 
owing to a lack of proper connections. 

Everett as yet has no meter. 

The estimated population supplied with water as obtained 
from the Water Registrar's books, and the population that 
is supplied through the Deacon meters in the different 
sections of the city, is us follows : 



City Proper 
Roxbury 
West Roxbury 
Dorchester . 
Brighton 
South Boston 
East Boston 
Charlestown 
Chelsea 
Somerville . 
Everett 



The consolidated results of 
secticms is shown in the following summary, in which is given 
the final readings of the year 1892, and the first and final 
readings of the year 1893 : 





Estimated 


Population 


population. 


on meters. 


1(38,500 


142,650 




128,100 


87,950 




16,800 


5,400 




41,200 


33.800 




15,800 


8,800 




73,000 


67,350 




43,800 


33,500 




48,200 


30,200 




37,000 


9,650 




58,800 






17,800 




the 


readings of the various 





1893. 


1893. 


System. 


.2 

o 

Ph 


2d Reading. 


d 
o 

a 

"3 
p. 
o 


1st Reading. 


2d Reading. 




Daily 
consump- 
tion. 


Night 
rate. 


Daily 
consump- 
tion. 


Night 
rate. 


Daily 
consump- 
tion. 


Night 
ral;e. 


Cochituate . 
Mystic . . . 


337,900 
42,600 


Gallons. 
64.2 
43.0 


Gallons. 
35.0 
27.3 


679,450 
39,850 


Gallons. 
54.48 
44.12 


Gallons, 
36.69 
28.18 


Gallons. 
54.78 
44.12 


Gallons. 

37.88 
28.18 



Water-Supply Department. 



33 



Statement of Location, Size, and Number of Feet of 
Pipe Laid in 1893. 

Note. — B., indicates Boston; S.B., South Boston; E.B., East Boston; Rox., Roxbury; 
Dor., Dorchester; 'Vy.Rox., West Roxbury; Bri., Brighton. 



In what Street. 



Congress 

Ashby 

Commonwealth ave. . 

Roxbury 

Terrace 

Atlautic ave 

Columbus ave 

Deerfield 

Devonshire 

Milk 

Spring lane 

Washington 

East Second 

L 

Sleeper 

Swett 

Audubon road 

Brookline ave 

Bumstead lane . . . . 

Blue Hill ave 

Commonwealth ave. . 

Holborn 

Lawn 

Magazine 

Riverway ....... 

Ritchie 

Tremont-st. entrance 
to Park . 

East Chester park . . . 

Dewey 



Between what Streets. 



B and C 

Commonwealth ave. and St. Mary 

Deerfield and Ashby 

Elmwood and Pynchon 

Heath and Cedar 

Total 16-iBch 



Pearl and Oliver , 

Camden and Davenport 

Commonwealth ave. and Bay State road 

Spring lane and Water 

Oliver and Battery march ....... 

Washington and Devonshire 

Haymarket sq. and Friend 

From Q 

First and Congress . 

Congress and N". Y. & N. E. R.R, . . . 
Boston " " ... 

Boylfeton and B. & A. R.R 

Riverway and Audubon road 

Smith and Tremont 

Otisfield and Warren 

Deerfield and Ashby 

Blue Hill ave. and Holborn park ... 

From Hayden 

Kemble and East Chester park .... 
Huntington ave. and Tremont .... 
Amory and Centre 



Huntington ave. and Riverway , 

Boston and Clapp 

Howard ave. and Danube . . . 
Carried fonoard ..... 



S.B. 
Rox. 



S.B. 



Rox. 



Dor. 



16 in. 



624 

98 

1,883 

98 

92 



2.795 

205 
144 
383 

45 
149 
243 
294 

32 

1,048 

221 

210 

812 

31 
339 
793 

41 
231 
197 
573 
283 
231 

494 
218 
316 

7,533 



34 City Document No. 39. 

Statement of Ijocation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



G-Ien road 

Geneva ave. . . . 

Morton 

Park 

Romsey 

Sydney 

Stockton 

Arbor Way . . . 

Brandon ..... 

Beech 

Baker 

Belle ave 

Bellevue ave. . . . 
Montclair ave. . . 
Neponset ave. . . 

Newberg 

Robinswood . . . 
Vermont ave. . . . 
Commonwealth ave, 
Cambridge .... 

Parsons 

South 

Oliver ..,.,,. 
Mountfort .... 

Bay State road . . 

Bothnia 

Cottage place . . . 

Dalton 

Lincoln 

Thorndike .... 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

Harvard and "White 

Westville and Bowdoin . . . . 
Wildwood and Blue Hill ave. . 
Vinson and Washington . . . 
Sagamore and Dorchester ave. 
Romsey and Harbor View . . 
Washington and Milton ave. . 

Pond and Perkins 

Washington and Forest Hill . 

Aldrich and Arden 

Orange and Newberg .... 
Prospect and Belle ave. . . . 

From Baker 

Brook and Dudley ave. . . . 

Centre and Merlin 

Canterbury and Folsom . . . 

Brandon and Berry 

Centre and Enfield 

Corey and Mt. Vernon .... 
St. Mary and St. Paul .... 
Harvard and Royal road . . . 
Faneuil and North Beacon . . 

Foster and Lake 

Total 12.inch 



Milk and Franklin . . 

Arundel and St. Mary 

Total 10-inch . . . 



Raleigh and Deerfield .... 
Belvidere and Boylston . . . 
Washington and Harrison ave. 

Scotia and Cambria 

Essex and Tufts 

Reed aod Harrison ave. . . . 
Carried forward 



Dor. 



W.R. 



Bri. 



B. 
Rox. 



12 in. 



10 in. 



7,533 

57 

306 

564 

533 

22 

62 

1,190 

715 

],39:i 

1,050 

529 

220 

1,050 

60 

160 

122 

128 

1,002 

249 

2,358 

859 

60 

911 

21,132 

42 
156 
198 

551 
427 
343 
6 
252 
212 
1,791 



Water-Supply Department. 



35 



Statement of Liocation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Turner 

W. Newbury . . 
Rawson .... 
Wormwood . . 
Gladstone . . . 

Avon 

Asbby 

Granby .... 

Island 

Pontine .... 
Sherborn .... 
Bowdoin .... 
Chamblet .... 

Fulton 

Glendale .... 

Holden 

Mt. Vernon . . . 
Mt. Hope ave. , 
Melville ave. . . 

Milton 

Torrey 

Walcott .... 
Waldeck .... 
Arbor Way . . 
Ashland .... 

Aldrich .... 
Clarendon ave. . 
Clement ave. . . 
Forest Hills. . . 

Knoll 

Kenneth .... 
Peter Parley road 
Proctor .... 



Between what Streets. 



Brought fonoard 

From Haviland , 

Charlesgate West and Kenmore . • . , 

Boston and Dorchester ave , 

A and N.T. & N.E. R.R 

Breed and Chelsea , 

Ruggles and Greenleaf 

Bay State road and Commonwealth ave. 



Gerard and Hampden 

From Norfolk ave 

Bay State road and Commonwealth ave. 

Bullard and Mt. Bowdoin ave 

Hartford and Magnolia 

Water and Ericsson 

Columbia and Bird 

From Boston 

Buttonwood and Von Hilleran . . . . 

From Blue Hill ave 

Upland ave. and N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. . 
Adams and N.T., N.H., & H. R.R. . . . 

Learnard and Withington 

Columbia and Erie ave 

Park and Lindsay 

Pond and Centre 

Canterbury and Hyde Park ave. . . . 

Sherwood and Brown ave 

Berry and Beech 

Hilburn and Augustus ave 

Park and Farrington 

Green and Williams 

Selwyn and Centre 

Stratford and Farrington ave 

Forest Hills and Walnut ave 

Walter and Fairview . . . . 

Carried forward 



S.B. 



E.B. 

Rox. 



Dor. 



W.R. 



1,791 
313 

104 

48 

484 

162 

300 

14 

24 

755 

36 

17 

185 

499 

1,029 

300 

200 

124 

190 

269 

228 

204 

701 

495 

2,667 

232 

125 

268 

180 

326 

265 

206 

371 

1,171 

I 192 

1 14,475 



36 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of LiOcation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In -what Street. 



Paine 

Roslindale ave. . 
Rockwood . . . 
Sedgwick . . . 
Stratford .... 
Schuman .... 
Weld Hill . . . 
Chilmark .... 
Chiswick road . 
Eleanor .... 
George ..... 

Hill 

Lincoln .... 
Bidgemont . . . 
Summit ave. . . 

Battery wharf . 
Chauney .... 
Cambria . • . . 
Clarendon . . . 
Devonshire . . . 
Gilbert place . . 
Hathaway . . . 
Kenmore . . . 
McLellan . . . . 
Mystic . . . . . 

Scotia 

Prescott . . . . 

Pope 

Pope-st. court . 
Dunham park . 
East Fifth . . . 

H 

I 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

Canterbury and Walk Hill 

Auburn and Dudley ave 

Pond and Brookline line 

Elm and South 

Clement and Anawan ave 

Washington and Ifikisch , 

From Wenham , 

Commonwealth ave. and Bay State road , 

Selkirk and Fenwick roads 

Cambridge and Ridgemont , 

North Beacon and Spring , 

Murdock and Lucas 

Franklin and Cambridge 

Eleanor and AUston Heights 

AUston and Summer , 

Total 8-inch 

From Commercial .......... 

Essex and Rowe place 

Dalton and Bothnia 

St. James and B. & A. R.R 

Water and State 

Summer and Congress 



W.R. 



Bri. 



Commonwealth ave. and W. Newbury 

From Reed 

E. Canton and Brookline 

Bothnia and Dalton 

Saratoga and Bennington 

Curtis and Pope-st. court 

From Pope 

" Fifth 

H and I 

Fourth and Fifth 

«' " Sixth 

Carried forward 



E.B. 



S.B. 



14,475 

56 
219 
620 
233 
379 
208 
275 

26 
467 
190 

20 
104 
417 
382 
131 
18,202 

33 
238 
190 

24 

73 
257 
376 
239 

66 
106 

72 
251 
109 
163 

28 

68 

323 

147 

2.867 



Water-Supply Department. 
Statement of liocation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



37 



In what Street. 



Btory 

Bay State road . . 

Batavia 

Crestwood terrace 

Dunford 

Dalmatia 

Devon 

Deerfield 

Dacia 

Heath 

Homer place . . . 
Intervale . '. . . . 
Kalada park . . . 

Magazine 

Miner 

Penryth . . . . . 
Sunderland . . . 

Sachem 

Vine 

Wait 

Ashmont 

Auckland . . . . 
Auckland . . . . 

Brook 

Bloomington . . . 

Bicknell 

Buttonwood . . . 

Bowdoin 

Baker court . . . 
Bellows place . . 

Bertram 

Chapman ave. . . 
Columbia terrace . 
Chamberlain . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward . . . . . 

G and H 

Deerfleld and Sherborn . . • . 
St. Stephen and Parker . . . . 

From Townsend 

Cobden and Fenner 

Howard and Blue Hill aves. . 
Warren and Blue Hill itve. . . 
Bay State road and the water . 

Dewey and Dove 

Parker and Blckford ave. . . 
Winthrop and Moreland . . . 
Warren and Blue Hill ave. . . 

From Holborn 

Dunmore and Dudley . . . . 
Beacon and B. & A. R.R. . . 

Centre and Pynchon 

Warren and Blue Hill ave. . . 
Calumet and Hillside . . . . . 

Dudley and Forest ...... 

Tremont and Hillside . . . . 

Newhall and Neponset ave. . 
Elton and Savin Hill ave. . . . 

Belfort and Elton 

Patterson and Dorchester ave. 

Tolman and Eaton 

Harvard and White 

Grafton and Crescent ave. . . 

Hancock and Church 

From Willow court . . . . . 

" Dorchester ave 

" Neponset ave 

Tucker and Birch 

From Richfield 

Harvard and Cook 

Carried forward 



S.B. 
Rox. 



Dor. 



6 in. 



2,867 

150 

785 

504 

254 

187 

244 

48 

153 

290 

578 

150 

42 

131 

77 

373 

162 

65 

149 

24 

137 

809 

306 

140 

82 

94 

255 

378 

209 

36 

140 

19 

94 

84 

60 

10,076 



38 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Crescent ave. . . . 

Glarkson 

Danube 

Dalkeith 

Ditson 

Evansdale terrace 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward . . . , 
Spring Garden and Sydney . 
Barrington and MuUaney . , 
Brookford and Dewey . . . 

From Howard ave 

Leroy and Josephine . . . . 
From Savin Hill ave 



Elmont Waterlow and Washington 



Ellet 

Ericsson 

Fulton 

Freeman 

Greenheys 

Houghton 

Howell 

Harlow 

Hartland 

Harrison park . . . 

Josephine 

Longfellow 

Marshfield 

Mascot 

, Mt. Bowdoin Green 

Mullaney 

Neponset ave. . , . 

Oakley 

Oak ave 

Shelton 

Spencer ... • . . 



Saco .... 

Stratford . . 
Street . . . 
Sidney place 
Sydney . • 



Adams and Dorchester ave. . . . . 

Fulton and High 

Water and Franklin 

Faulkner and Charles 

Cedar and Magnolia 

Mill and Tileston place 

Boston and Dorchester ave. ... 

From Howard ave 

Sydney and Tuttle ave 

From Beach 

Ditson and Geneva ave 

Topliff and Ditson 

Clifton and Batchelder 

From Mountain ave 

Mt. Bowdoin and Mt. Bowdoin . . 

From Clarkson 

Ashmont and Neponset bridge . . 

Bowdoin and Geneva ave 

Adams and Plain 

Adams and Wrentham 

Park and Wheatland ave 

Downer and Cushing ave 

From Neponset ave 

From Waldeck 

Clayton and N.T., N.H., & H. R.R. 

From Waterlow 

Harbor View and Crescent ave. . . 
Carried forward 



Dor. 



10,076 

48 

266 

169 

173 

79 

203 

108 

117 

72 

31 

87 

281 

51 

525 

19 

52 

190 

175 

1,045 

143 

136 

225 

58 

2,996 

830 

615 

365 

156 

202 

48 

331 

92 

60 

117 

20,141 



Water-Supply Department. 



39 



Statement of Jjocation, Size, etc. — Continued. 



In what Street. 



Between what Streets. 



Sagamore 

Train 

Tuttle ave 

Vose 

Virginia 

Warner ave 

Wrentham 

Arbor way 

Austin Farm .... 

Auburn ...... 

Asbury place .... 

Boynton 

Berry 

Clement ave 

Elgin ....... 

Eldridge 

Eugene 

Folsom 

Flora 

Erisno 

Franklin Park terrace 

Garden 

Goldsmith 

Hillburn 

Hadwin way .... 

Hastings 

Hall 

Locksley 

Mozart ave 

Myers 

Newburg 

Newbern 

Norfolk 



Brought forward 

Belford and Romsey 

King and Mill 

Hartland and Savin Hill ave. . . . 

Butler and Crest ave 

Bird and Arion 

Coolidge and Park 

Ashmont and Shelton 

Shelton and Dorchester ave. . . . 

Morton and Forest Hills 

From Canterbury 

Bellevue and Roslindale 

From South 

South and New Call 

Cornell and Brooks 

Stratford and Farrington ave. . . 
Hilcrest and N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. 

From Metropolitan ave 

Forest Hills and Peter Parley road 

Florence and Mt. Hope 

Kenneth and Clement ave 

Alder and Dudley ave 

Eugene and Walnut ave 

Sherwood and Brown ave 

Centre and Jamaica 

Poplar and Clarendon ave 

Hammet road and Hyde Park ave. 

Centre and Carl 

South and New Call 

From Robinswood , 

"Walter and Selwyn 

From Spruce , 

Brandon and Beech 

Elm and Bishop 

Washington and Kittredge . . . . , 
Carried forward 



Dor. 



W.R. 



6 in. 



20,141 

154 

213 

10 

100 

128 

48 

60 

52 

1,032 

211 

243 

246 

182 

120 

12 

75 

183 

630 

628 

163 

95 

573 

136 

225 

248 

175 

17 

153 

377 

242 

48 

1,105 

144 

163 

28,332 



40 City Document No. 39. 

Statement of Location, Size, etc. — Concluded. 



In what Street. 



Pierce Farm 

Perham 

Perbam 

Starr lane 

So. Fairview 

Street 

Taft's place 

Alcott 

Bentley ....... 

Bayard . 

Chestnut Hill reservoir 
Chiswick road . . . . 
Callahan place . . . . 
Cambridge terrace . . 

Garden 

Highland ave 

Leicester 

Linden 

Mansfield 

Quint ave 

Spring 

Windsor road . . . . 

Westford 

Weitz 

Bellevue ave 

Huckins ave. . . . . . 

Long Island 

Long Island 

Street 

Street 

Rainsford Island line 



Between what Streets. 



Brought forward 

From Walk Hill 

Ivory and N.T., N.H., & H. R.R 

Ivory and Winslow 

Centre and Seaverns ave 

South and Brookfield 

Boylston ave. and N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. 

From South 

Franklin and Mansfield 

Sparhawk and Henshaw 

Kenneth and No. Harvard 

From South 

Selkirk road and Commonwealth ave. . 

From Western ave 

From Cambridge 

Murdock and Lucas - • 

From Cambridge 

Bennet and Arlington ......... 

Cambridge and Pratt . 

Cambridge and Alcott 

From Brighton ave. 

George and Market 

From Lanark road 

From Raymond 

Franklin and Bayard < 

From Huckins ave 

Squantum and Bellevue 

Moon and Long Island 

For reservoir 

Total e-inch 

From Dacia 

From Savin Hill ave 

On Long Island 

On Rainsford Island 

Total 4.inch 

Long and Rainsford Islands 



W.R. 



Bri. 



Quincy. 



Rox. 
Dor. 



6 in. 



4 in. 



28,332 

1,935 

115 

205 

126 

42 

130 

239 

191 

529 

239 

442 

74 

270 

214 

60 

117 

339 

226 

216 

359 

445 

70 

72 

110 

67 

15 

1,700 

384 

37,263 

149 

141 

1,300 

2,300 

3,890 



2,200 



Water-Supply Department. 



41 



Statement of Pipes Raised, Lowered, and Abandoned. 



In what Street. 



Tremont 

Tremont 

Commonwealth ave 
Commonwealth ave 

Cambridge 

Mansfield 

Linden 

Peter Parley road • 
Eldora 

Norfolk ave 

Roxbury 

Elmwood 

Commonwealth ave. 

Seaver 

Cambridge . . . . 

Lincoln 

Lincoln ...... 

Fourth 

Terrace 

Washington . . . . 

EuBtis . 

Ericsson 

Neponset ave. . . . 

Mansfield 

Highland ave. . . . 

Linden 

Long Island . . . . 



Between what Streets. 



Raised. 

Brookline line 

Brookline line 

St. Mary and Essex 

Beacon and St. Mary .... 
Harvard and Royal road . . 
Cambridge and Alcott . . . 
Cambridge and Pratt .... 

Lowered. 
Forest Hills and Eugene . . 
Hillside and Sunset 

Relaid. 
Franklin court and Magazine 

Abandoned. 
Gardner and Pynchon . . . 
Roxbury and Texas .... 

St. Paul and Essex 

Total 16-inch 



Humboldt and Walnut aves. 

Harvard and Royal road . . 

Total 12.inch 



Franklin and Cambridge 



Essex and Tufts 

Foundry and N.Y., N.H., & H. R.R. 

Heath and Cedar 

Eustis and Ball 

Washington and Harrison ave. . . . 

Fulton and High 

Neponset bridge and R.R 

Franklin and Cambridge 

From Cambridge 

Pratt and Cambridge 

Long and Moon Islands 

Total 6-inch 



Rox. 

Bri. 
Rox. 
Bri. 



W.R. 
Rox. 



Bri. 



Rox. 
Bri. 



Bri. 

B. 
S.B. 
Rox. 



Dor. 



Bri. 



12 



72 

70 

1,050 

2,400 

241 



275 
165 



90 

135 

960 

1,095 



1,195 

851 

2,046 



136 



252 

425 

75 

610 

365 

45 

130 

216 

117 

320 

1,700 

4,255 



42 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Pipes Abandoned, etc. — Concluded. 



In -what Street. 



Spring lane . 
Essex place . 
Cottage place 
Avon . . . . 

Ball 

Madison . . . 
Webber . . . 

Ambrose . . 
Mall 

Reed's court 
Shawmut ave, 



Between what Streets. 



Washington and Devonshire . 

From Tufts 

Washington and Harrison ave. 
Ruggles and Greenleaf .... 
Washington and Shawmut ave. 
Washington and Shawmut ave. 
Albany and Harrison ave. . . . 
Total 4-inch 



Albany and Orchard . 
Albany and Eustis . . 
Yeoman and Ambrose 
Vernon and Ruggles . 
Total 3-inch . . 



B. 



Rox. 



Rox. 



343 
188 
295 
485 
160 
1,750 

300 
680 
254 
ITO 
1,404 



Water-Supply Department. 



43 



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44 



City Document No. 39. 









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Water-Supply Department. 



45 






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46 



City Document No. 39, 



Meters in Service, January 31, 1894. 



COCHITUATB. 


DiAMETEB IN INCHES. 


Total. 


6 


4 


8 


2 


I5 


1 


3 


i 


Worthington 

Crown 

B W W 


2 
2 


10 

22 


22 
35 


118 
43 


103 
105 


542 
237 


418 
323 
148 
87 
361 
3 

2 


69 
1,199 

21 
4 
4 
6 
2 
1 


1,284 

1,966 

148 






1 


5 


12 


20 


39 

78 


185 






443 


Ball & Fitts 












7 










1 




1 


8 










4 


Nash 














1 






















4 


33 


62 


174 


228 


897 


1,342 


1,306 


4,046 



Meters Purchased. 









DiAMETE 


a IN Inches 






Totals. 




6 


4 


3 


2 


n 


1 


5 


> 








6 


5 


26 


25 


75 




137 






1 
1 


1 












1 
30 


13 
135 




15 












165 


Worthington 


1 




3 


4 


6 


14 












1 


2 


9 


9 


32 


56 


223 


.... 


332 





Meters Sent to Factory 


for 


Repairs. 








Cochituate. 


Diameter in Inches. 


Total. 




3 


2 


n 


1 

21 
1 

32 
54 


i 


' 






1 
1 
4 


2 
1 
3 


12 
1 

1 

14 


106 

1 


142 


Hersey 






5 




1 


41 










1 


6 


6 


107 


188 



Watee-Supplt Department. 
Meters Applied. 



47 







Diameter 


IN Inches. 






Total. 


COCHITUATK. 


6 


4 


3 


2 


H j 1 


1 


s 






4 


3 


6 
3 
6 


20 19 


36 
12 

5 
2 
25 

1 


49 
6 


137 






1 
7 


2 
25 


18 




1 


2 


2 


54 


B W W 


2 














10 


35 


Ball & Fitts 








1 




2 


















1 


6 


5 


16 


28 


56 


81 


55 


248 



Meters Discontinued. 







Diameter in Inche 


s. 




Total. 


COCHITUATK. 


4 


3 


2 


n 


1 


i 


a 


B, W. W 












8 




S 


Ball & Fitt8 






1 






1 




1 


2 


5 


6 


8 
1 
3 
8 
5 


29 

1 


51 




1 








2 


2 


1 
14 


7 








g 




2 


3 


5 


3 


33 








3 


5 


8 


10 


21 


33 


30 


110 



Meters in Service, January 31, 1894. 



Mtstic. 






Diameter 


IN Inches. 






Total. 


6 


4 


3 


2 


n 


1 


i 


s 


Ball & Fitts 






2 
8 

1 












2 




2 


7 
1 


12 
3 


2 
1 


33 

8 

13 

71 


44 


101 


209 




14 






29 
51 


6 


42 






11 


6 


42 


7 


194 










2 


19 


17 


57 


10 


125 


124 


107 


461 



48 



City Document No. 39. 



Meters Applied. 







Diameter 


IN Inches. 






Mystic. 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


Total. 




1 


1 

2 


1 
1 


2 
3 
4 

1 


3 


11 


19 




6 






10 




14 








6 


7 
















1 


3 


8 


10 


13 


11 


46 



Meters Discontinued. 





Mtstic. 




Diameter 


IN Inches. 








4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


s 


Total. 




1 


1 


1 


1 
2 


2 


9 


15 




2 










1 
1 


1 


2 












1 
















1 


1 


1 


3 


4 


10 


20 



Meters Sent to Factory for Repairs. 





Mystic. 


Diameter in Inches. 


Total. 




6 


4 


2 


1 


i 


1 




1 


1 


2 


2 


4 
3 


20 


28 




5 












1 


1 


2 


2 


7 


20 


33 



Water-Supply Department. 



49 



Meters Repaired in Service. 



Leak at coupling . 

" spindle . 

" stop-cock 
Not registering . 
Clock broken . . 

" defaced . . 

Ratchet broken . 

Spindle stuck . . 

Stopped by fish . 

" sand . 



Cause. 



Oochituate. 


Mystic. 


45 


10 


78 


5 


5 




45 


10 


57 


14 


32 


6 



57 



Meters Changed. 



Cause. 



For test 

Not registering . . . . 

Unsatisfactory 

Frozen 

Enlargement of service 

No force 

Leak at coupling . . . . 

" body 

" spindle . . . . 

Clock broken 

" defaced 

Service reduced . . . . 



1,072 



Cochituate. 


Mystic. 


570 


34 


214 


65 


34 


7 


29 


1 


25 


4 • 


100 


11 


16 




24 


3 


18 




31 


2 


H 


2 




1 







130 



50 



City Document No. 39. 



General Statement of Meters for Year ending January 

31, 1894. 



COCHITUATB. 



Meters. Boxes 



Mystic. 



Meters. Boxes 



In service, January 31, 1894 

New set 

Discontinued 

Changed 

Changed location 

Tested at shop 

Repaired at shop 

Repaired at factory .... 
Repaired in service .... 

Purchased 

Lost in service 



4,046 
248 
110 

1,072 
22 

2,192 
503 
188 
270 
332 
4 



46 



461 

46 

20 

57 

1 

202 
56 
33 
57 



Hydrants Established and Abandoned during the Tear, 





Established. 




Abandoned. 












>> 








>, 












u 
















« 




f^ 




o 


§ 


^ 


£» 






a 
o 


^ 


^ 




ii 


"S 


hJ 


"m 




^ 


a 


iJ 


m 




S-i 






o 








o 


O 




O 


o 


a 

M 




hJ 


fM 


n 


PQ 


H 


H-l 


P^ 


P3 


m 


H 




20 
4 


20 
6 


2 
2 




42 
12 


2 

1 


1 


4 

1 


8 
3 


15 
5 


27 


South Boston 


7 


Roxbury 


2 


32 


2 


4 


40 


6 




4 


6 


16 


24 




3 
4 


61 
54 


6 
13 




70 
71 


2 
1 


1 


9 
6 


5 

2 


17 
9 


53 


West Roxbury 


62 




2 


14 


4 


1 


20 

1 




1 


4 


' • 


5 


15 




1 














35 


187 


29 


5 


256 


12 


3 


28 


24 


67 


189 



Water-Supply Department. 



51 



Total Xumber of Hydrants in Use, January 31, 1894, 





>. 

% 

3 


1 


o 

1-3 

pq 


s 
o 

1 


a 

O 

o 

pq 


i 

o 

Eh 




691 
214 
138 
663 
575 
J 22 
79 


246 
93 
84 
195 
423 
468 
269 
16 


66 
21 
24 
63 
184 
166 
59 


1 


510 
259 
138 
95 
67 
48 
36 


1,513 

588 






384 
1,016 








804 




443 
16 






5 






3 

7 


g 










7 
7 
4 






7 

' 4 

2 


























2 










1 


1 
















2,487 


1,807 


583 


] 


1,164 


6,042 



Water-Posts. 



DiSTBICT. 


Put in during 
the year. 


Abandoned 
during the year. 


Number now 
in service. 




3 
5 
2 
6 
3 
2 
3 


2 
1 


45 




28 




27 
64 






75 






41 








24 


3 


341 



Hydrant barrels changed for repairs 
Hydrant boxes renewed 
Stop-cock boxes renewed 
Dead ends blown off . 
Water-posts repaired . 
Fountains repaired 
Hydrants cleaned and oiled 



219 
178 
243 
122 
211 
48 
253 



52 



City Document No. 39. 



Repairs of Pipes during- the Year ending Jan. 31, 1894. 





Diameter or Pipes in Inches. 


Total. 




48 


36 
3 

1 
4 


30 
15 

15 


24 
8 

1 

1 

1 
11 


20 

10 
1 

7 

18 


16 
36 

1 

37 


12 

11 
3 
4 

14 
5 
7 
2 

46 


10 
1 


8 

8 

1 

1 
4 
3 


6 

76 
12 
2 
15 
8 
3 
4 
3 


4 

38 
1 
5 

10 


3 
12 

1 
2 


2 

7 

1 

4 


1| 

5 

1 
1 
1 


2 


1 

18 
1 
3 

8 

30 


1 

7 

1 

7 
1 
2 

18 


1 


5 






567 
150 
141 

273 

188 

64 

29 

1,412 


9 
14 

5 
26 

4 

68 


832 


South Boston 

East Boston 


1 

• 

1 


186 
168 
365 


Dorchester 

West Roxbury 

Brighton 

Long Island 

Chelsea 


210 

82 

35 

3 

1 




1 


17 


123 


54 


15 


12 


8 


2 


1,882 



Causes of repairs tiiat have occurred in 4 inches diameter 
and upwards ; 



Settling of earth 








18 


Blasting 








4 


Defective joints 








141 


" pipes 

* ' stop-cocks 








21 
20 


*' packing . 
" stuffing-box 








78 
4 


Cap blown off. 
Frozen . 








3 
6 


Falling wall (fire) . 








2 


Changed location 








21 


Eaten by soil . 








1 


Broken by gas men . 








1 


" sewer men 








3 


Pierced by pipe 
" drill 








1 
1 


" pick 








2 


Of 3- inch and in service-pipes : 


Settling of earth 260 


" service-box . . . . 3 


Broken by gas men . 








1 



— 327 



Carried forward^ 



264 



327 



Water-Supply Department. 



53 



Brought forward. 






264 


327 


Broken in sewer-trench .... 14 




" by sewer men 






13 




" Tel. Co. 






1 




Gnawed by rats 






4 




Eaten by soil .... 
Broken by blasting . 






18 
8 




Eaten by ashes 






1 




Broken by pile-driver 
Struck by pick 
Pierced by drill 






1 

79 
1 




Changed grade of street . 






15 




" location 






23 




Uprights in way of edgestone . 
In way of manhole . 






238 
3 




Defective joints 






31 




' " packing . 

" coupling . 

Broken by steam-i'oUer 






16 

28 

4 




Defective stop-cocks 






. 40 




" church-cocks 






6 




" pipe 
Nail-hole in pipe 
Dead pipe 
Defective plug 






97 
1 
7 
2 




Building demolished 






1 




Stoppages by dirt . 
" gasket 






. 40 

7 




" solder 






3 




fish . 






. 49 




" rust . 






. 417 




" frost . 






. 120 




Broken by plumbers 






3 


1,555 

1,882 



In addition to the above, 363 service-pipes were shut off 
for repairs inside street line, and notice of the same sent to 
the On and Off Division of the Income Department. 



54 



City Document No. 39. 



Statement of Leaks and Stoppag-es from 1850 to 1893. 





Diameter in Inches. 




Tbab. 


Four inches and 
upwards. 


Less than four 
inches. 


Total. 


1850 


32 

64 

82 

85 

74 

75 

75 

85 

77 

82 

134 

109 

117 

97 

95 

111 

139 

122 

82 

82 

157 

185 

188 

153 

434 

203 

214 

109 

213 

211 

135 

145 

170 

171 

253 

111 


72 
173 
241 
260 
280 
219 
232 
278 
334 
449 
458 
399 
373 
397 
394 
496 
536 
487 
449 
407 
707 
1,380 
1,459 
1,076 
2,120 
725 
734 
801 
1,024 
995 
929 
883 
1,248 
782 
1,127 
638 


104 


1851 


237 


1852 

1853 , 


323 
345 


1854 


354 


1855 

1855 


294 
307 


1857 


363 


1858 ,...,....,... 

1859 


401 
531 


I860 


592 


1861. ............ 

1862 


508 
490 


1863 


494 


1864 


489 


1865 


607 


1866 


675 


1867 ....... 


609 


1868. ............ 

1869. ............ 

1870 


531 

489 
864 


1871 


1,565 


1872. 

1873 


1,647 
1,229 


1874 


2,554 


1875 


928 


1876 


943 


1877 

1878 


910 
1,237 


1879 


1,206 


1880 


1,064 


1881 


1,028 


1882 


1,418 


1883 


953 


1884 


1,380 


1885 


749 







Water-Supply Department. 



55 



Statement of Ijealcs and Stoppages from 1850 to 1893, 

Concluded. 





DiAMBTBB IN INCHES. 




Tbab. 


Four inches and 
upwards. 


Less than four 
inches. 


Total, 


1886 


150 
172 
216 
183 
180 
194 
212 
327 


725 

869 

1,140 

849 

718 

758 

1,232 

1,555 


875 


1887 


1,041 


1888 


1,356 


1889 


1,032 


1890 


898 


1891 


952 


1892 


1,444 


1893 


1,882 








EespectfuUy, 

William J. Welch, 

Superintendent. 



56 City Document No. 39. 



REPORT OF THE RESIDENT ENGINEER AND 
SUPERINTENDENT OF THE WESTERN DIVI- 
SION. 

South Framingham, January 1, 1894. 
Thomas F. Doherty, Esq., 

Chairman Boston Water Board: 
Sir : The annual report for the Western Division of the 
Boston Water-Works is submitted herewith. 

SUDBURY-RlVER BaSINS. 

Water-shed, 76.2 square miles. 

The rainfall for 1893 was 48.9 inches at Framingham, and 
the mean rainfall taken at Framingham and Dam 4 was 48.18 
inches, which is about the average rainfall. The quantity of 
water proved just enough to carry the city through the year 
without any restriction in the corusumption, but with little 
margin. Late in the summer, as the level of Lake Co- 
chituate began to approach the top of the aqueduct, some 
alarm was naturally felt in regard to the abundance of the 
supply, and temporary pumps were erected. 

Basin 4 was drained entirely dry during the summer. 

The construction of Basin 6 has been completed sufficiently 
to allow the basin to be filled, and the gates will probably be 
closed in a few days. 

A large amount of work has been done during the year on 
questions connected with the construction of another Basin, 
No. 5, to be built at Nichols' Mill site on Stony brook. 
Early in the year plans were made for the dam and a con- 
tract awarded for its construction. When built this basin 
will be the largest ever undertaken by the city. Its capacity 
will be 7,438,000,000 gallons. It will cover about 1,500 
acres, will be 70 feet deep at the lower end, and will add at 
least 15,000,000 gallons to the supply in the driest year. 

The dam will be 80 feet high at the highest point and 
2,000 feet long. The greater part of this season has been 
occupied in arriving at an agreement with the town of South- 
boro' in regard to the plans for the roads affected by the 
proposed basin. On June 29 the first conference was held 
with the County Commissioners of Worcester County, and 
since that time a number of public hearings have been held 
and negotiations have been carried on between the Water 



Water-Supply Department. 57 

Board of Boston and a committee of citizens from Southboro'. 
An agreement has been practically reached, but not yet signed. 
Work will probably be begun early in the coming season. 

The color of the water in Boston has been increasing some- 
what during the past two years, for the following reasons : 
The increase in storage at the sources of supply does not 
keep up exactly with the increase of consumption in the city. 
When a new basin is completed the storage suddenly re- 
ceives a large addition and then remains for several years 
without any increase until the growing demands of the city 
call for the building of more works. Before another basin is 
built the resources of the system are taxed to their utmost to 
supply sufficient water, and the basins are perhaps drawn 
down to their lowest levels. It is well known that where 
reservoirs are properly built the quality of the surface water 
stored in them improves the longer it is kept in store : but 
this process requires that the basin should be tolerably full ; 
for where it is drawn down to the natural bed of the stream, 
the water simply passes through it without any improvement 
whatever. The nearer we get to the limit of our resources, 
as far as the quantity of water to be supplied is concerned, 
the less storage we have on hand at the end of the dry 
period, and consequently the water is sent to the city when 
the winter flows first begin, with but little benefits derived 
from storage. This leads me to the conclusion that in order 
to deliver water of approximately uniform quality, the 
storage supplied should not only be sufficient to cover the 
periods of drought, but should also be sufficient to supply 
stored water for a somewhat longer period. 

No excessive growths of algge have visited the basins, and 
no general or serious complaints of the quality of the water 
have been made during the past year. 

Reference was made in the last annual report to studies 
for the drainage of Cedar swamp. Much attention has been 
given to the question whether it would be better to build a 
basin in the swamp by excavating the mud and raising the 
water-line, or whether, all things considered, it would be bet- 
ter to reclaim the swamp. Now that it has been decided to 
build Basin 5 with its enormous storage the question assumes 
a different aspect. With Basin 5 built, the importance of a 
basin in Cedar swamp to reinforce the supply becomes less, 
for the reason that as we rise in the scale of development of 
a given water-shed the advantages of additional basins di- 
minish, as will be seen by an inspection of the following table, 
showing the result of giving up any one basin while all the 
rest remain in service : 



58 



City Document No. 39. 





1 - 

o 
a 
<v 

<5 


bit 

a 
2 


Increase to daily supply of city. 




A.8 successively 
added. 


Proportional to 
capacity. 


Taking each as 
if last on the 
list. 


Whitehall pond .... 

Basin 1 

Basin 3 

Basin 2 

Basin 4 

Basin 6 

Basin 5 

Cedar Swamp basin . 


550 
130 
230 
120 
150 
170 
1,000 
500 


1,257 
288 
1,081 
530 
1,416 
1,530 
7,438 
2,271 


13.7 
2.0 
4.9 
2.2 
6.3 
6.0 

15.8 
3.3 


4.3 
1.0 
3.7 
1.8 
4.9 
5.2 
25.5 
7.8 


1.5 
0.4 
1.5 
0,8 
2.3 
2.6 
11.7 
3.3 


Total 


2,850 


15,811 


54.2 


54.2 





It therefore seems clear to me that it would be better to 
proceed at once with the construction of the drainage scheme 
already perfected. To aid in carrying out this work the 
following act was passed in 1892 : 

[CHAPTER 434.] 
An Act authorizing certain improvements in the Sudbury 

RIVER IN the towns OF WeSTBORO' AND HOPKINTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. For the purpose of protectino^ and preserving the purity 
of the water of the Sudbury river, the city of Boston, by the Boston 
water board, may, wherever said board shall deem necessary within the 
towns of Westboro' and Hopkinton, from time to time, widen, deepen, 
and straighten the existing channels of, or make new channels for, the 
Sudbury river and its tributaries, and may construct ditches connecting 
with said river or its tributaries, and may, from time to time, repair and 
maintain the said channels and ditches as now existing, or as so changed, 
altered, or constructed. 

Sect. 2. Said city, from time to time, before constructing any im- 
provement hereinbefore described, shall file in the registries for the 
districts in which the lands lie, a map or maps, showing thereon as far 
as practicable the existing channels of said river and its tributaries, the 
changes or widenings proposed to be made thereiu, and the locations 
and sizes of any ditches proposed to be made. 

Sect. 3. The said city may by said board, in carrying out the pur- 
poses aforesaid, enter upon and dig up any public way or railroad, and 
conduct any channel of said river or its tributaries, or any ditches across 
the same, and, in case any channel or ditch passes under any existing 
bridge, it shall be left by the city in good condition, and if across any 
highway or railroad a new channel or ditch is constructed, the said city 
shall compensate the town or railroad corporation for constructing and 
maintaining a suitable bridge over the same. 



Water-Supply Department. 59 

Sect. 4. Any person claiming to be injured in property by any act 
done by said city under tlie autliority of this act, if the said water board 
acting for said city fails to make satisfactory compensation therefor, 
may at any time within three years after the said tiling of a map or 
maps by the city petition the superior court for the county of Worcester 
for a jury to determine the amount of his damages, and thereupon after 
such notice as the court shall order, a trial shall be had at the bar of 
said court in the same manner as other cases ai'e tried by jury. In esti- 
mating the damages caused by such acts there shall be allowed by way 
of set-off the benefit, if any. to the property of the petitioner by reason 
thereof, and interest shall be added from the date of filing his petition 
as aforesaid ; costs shall be taxed and execution issued for the prevail- 
ing party as in civil cases. 

Sect. 5. If said city, in carrying out the powers aforesaid, does any 
work or makes any repairs in any public way which is outside its limits, 
it shall do the work and make the repairs in such manner and with such 
care as not to render the way unsafe or unnecessai-ily inconvenient to 
the public travel thereon, and in accordance with such reasonable regu- 
lations as the selectmen of the town in which such way may be located 
shall prescribe, and shall restore the way to as good order and condition 
as it was when siich work or repairs therein commenced. 

Sect. 6. Said city shall at all times indemnify and save harmless any 
town against all damages and costs which may be recovered against 
such town, on account of any defect or want of repair in any of the pub- 
lic ways of such town, caused by any act done under the authority of this 
act or by any negligence of said city and its agents, and shall reimburse 
to such town all reasonable costs and expenses incurred by it in the 
defence of suits for such recoveries, provided that said citj^ has notice of 
any claim or suit for such damages and an opportunity to assume the 
defence thereof. 

Sect. 7. Nothing in this act shall be construed to authorize the city 
of Boston to interfere with the present water-supply of the town of 
Westboro', or with the water-shed of said water-supply above the 
present reservoir dam of such supply. 

Sect. 8. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

l^Approved June 16, 1892.'] 

Basin 1. 

Orades, IT. W., 161.00; Topn of Flash-boards, 139.29 and 158.41;\Grest of Dam, ln7.54. 

Area, Water Surface, 143 acres; Greatest Depth, 14 ft.; Contents, below 161-00, 

376,900,000; below 159.29, 288,400,000 gals. 

On January 1, 18!»3, this basin stood at elevation 157 44 
above tide marsh level in Boston, irom which all heights 
are reckoned. Water was wasting at this time over the 
stone crest, and continued to waste until January 11. The 
surface then gradually fell to 157.27 on February 6, when it 
began to rise, and on February 7 flowed over the dam and 
continued to waste until April 16. On April 14 a waste- 
gate was opened in order to draw off the basin to make 
repairs on the 48-in. main. On May 1 the vvater stood at 
147.83, rising to 157.18 on May 5, and falling to 14(i.97 on 
May 29. The surface then rose slowly, and on June 6 the 
waste-gate was shut. 

On July 6 the vvater reached 156.54, and remained at 
about this level until September 11, after which it fluctuated 



60 City Document No. 39. 

between 155.00 and 156.00 for the remainder of the year. 
No flash-boards have been placed on the dam during the 
year. 

The highest elevation was 159.20 on March 15, and the 
lowest 146.88 on June 2. 

Water was drawn wholly from this basin for the supply of 
the city from February 10 to April 14, and from December 2 
to the end of the year. 

For several years past trouble has been experienced with 
the 48-in. mains in the bottom of this basin, connecting- 
Basins 2 and 3 with the gate-house. These troubles arose 
from leaks in the pipes. Two of these leaks, one on the 
Basin 3 branch and one on the Basin 2 branch, were very 
bad, and limited the quantity of water that could be run 
through the mains, for if the head was increased the water 
escaped into Basin 1 . During the latter part of May and 
the tirst part of June, water was drawn out of the basin and 
the more dangerous leaks were repaired. This involved 
digging around the joints. In many cases the lead was 
found to be loose all around the pipe. 

No other repairs of importance have been made. The 
gate-house is in good condition. 

A flow of at least one and one-half millions of gallons has 
been passed into the river daily in accordance with the law. 

Basin 2. 

Grades, E W., 16S.00; Tops of Flaah-boards, 167 .12 and 166.49; Crest of Dam, 165.87. 

Area, Water Surface, 134 acres; Greatest Depth, 17 ft.; Conteyits, below 168.00, 

'668,300,000; below 167.72, 629,860,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1893, the surface of the water was at ele- 
vation 163.04, and it rose to 164 96 on January 10, from 
which point it gradually fell to 158.72 on February 7. After 
this date the water rose rapidly, and on February 11 waste 
over the stone crest began. This overflow continued until 
March 8, when the gates having been opened itfell to 16U.54 
on March 10, but again rose, and on March 23 was flowing 
over the dam, and so continued until May 27, when both sets 
of flash-boards and also an additional temporary set were 
placed in position. The w^ater then rose and was kept at 
about 167.00 until June 30, when the surface began to fall 
gradually, reaching 159.65 on August 4, at which time it re- 
ceived water from Basin 4. The water remained between 
161.00 and 163.00 until October 7, after which the basin 
gradually fell to 155.53 on November 28, and then gradually 
rose with slight fluctuations to 160.00 on December 31. On 
September 16 all flash-boards were removed. The highest 
water during the year was 167.23 on June 24, and the lowest, 
155.30 on December 1. 



Water-Supply Department. 61 

Water for the supply of the city was drawn wholly from 
this basin from May 23 to May 24, and from August 3 to 
September 26. The supply was drawn partially from this 
source and from Basin 3 from January 1 to February 10, 
April 14 to May 21, May 24 to August 3, and from Septem- 
ber 26 to December 2. 

The following repairs have been made : the upper gates 
scraped and painted; slope paving near dam extending 125 
feet ; house and barn on the Le Baron place shingled and 
repaired ; and wooden culvert at upper end of basin re- 
placed by stonework, 

Orsanisms were not abundant during 1893, and those 
present were found in the summer and autumn. Cyclotella 
and Synedra among the diatoms, and Raphidium of the 
Chlorophyceae, and Miscrocystis of the Cyanophyceffi have 
been the most important growths. There was a slight 
growth of Uroglena in October. The amorphous matter has 
been more abundant than usual, especially in October and 
November. 

The mean temperature of the water has been 51.2° 
Fahrenheit, based on weekly observations. 

The mean color of the water has been 1.00. Last year it 
was 1.01. 

Basin 3. 

Grades, II. W., 177,00; Crest of Dam {no flash-hoard! s) , 175.24. 
Area at 177.00, 253 acres; Contents, below 177.00, 1,224,600,000 gals. 
Area at 175.24, 248 acres; Contents, beloio 175.24, 1,081,500,000 gals. 
Greatest Depth, 21 feet. 

On January 1, 1893, this basin stood at grade 171.58 and 
the surfttce gradually fell to 166.76 on February 7. From 
this date the water rose, and on February 13 was flowing- 
over the crest of the dam. Waste continued until March 5, 
when one of the gates was opened, and on March 10 the 
water had fallen to 169.50, and on March 23 was again 
wasting, and so continued until June 7. The surface then 
fell to 167.72 (m August 2. It remained at about this level 
until September 29. On October 25 the water had fallen 
to 157.81, remainingat about 158.60 until December 4, from 
which date it rose to 168.20 on December 31. The highest 
point reached was 176.20 on May 4, and the lowest 157.81 
on October 23. No w^ater has been drawn solely from this 
source : it has been drawn partly from this basin and partly 
from Basin 2, on dates already given. 

The water in Basin 3 has been generally better during 
the past year than in 1892. The organisms were not as 
numerous and the chemical results were better. The spring 
growth of diatoms (Synedra and Tabellaria) was small, and 



62 City Document No. 39. 

the autumn growth of Tabellaria and Asterionella was of 
short duration and not as vigorous as last year. Protoc(H;c-us 
was quite abundant during the summer and autumn ; so 
also was Ccelospherium. During October and November 
Synura was quite abundant, especially at the upper end. It 
was found that in Nichols' and Rice's mill ponds, just above 
Basin 3, the Synura was developed in large numbers, fre- 
quently reaching 1,000 standard units per c.c. In Basin 3, 
as in the other basins, the amorphous matter has been 
higher than usual. The average number of living organ- 
isms in Basin 3 water has been 332 per c.c. 

The mean temperature of the water, based on weekly 
observations, has been 50.8° Fahrenheit. 

The mean color of the water has been 0.94. 

The lilter-basins on the brook flowing from Marlboro' 
have not yet been built. The plans and specifications are 
ready, and I recommend their construction as soon as the 
frost is out of the ground. The " takings" along the line 
of the brook in Marlboro' have not yet been settled. The 
damages asked are so excessive that it seems probable 
that in many cases the land will be released back to the 
original owners. A legislative act to ratify this action will 
be asked for at the present Leislature. 

With the exception of the scraping and painting of the 
upper gates, no repairs have been made at Basin 3 during 
the past year. 

Basin 4. 

Grades, H.W., 215.21; Tops of Flash-boards, 213.21+ and 214.89 ■{■; Crest of Dam, 

214.23. 

Area, Water Surface, 167 acres; Greatest Depth, 49 feet; Contents, below 215.21, 

1,416,400,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1893, the surface stood at 194.22, after 
which the water gradually rose, and on March 23 was flowing 
over the overfall. On May 27 a set of flash-boards was placed 
in position and waste ceased. On June 2 the water began 
to overflow, and on June 5 another set of planks was added, 
and (m June 10 waste began over the second set of planks 
and continued until June 22, when one set was removed, 
but again placed in position on June 29. The basin was 
kept just above elevation 215.00 until August 3, when an 
outlet gate was opened and water drawn for the supply of 
the city. On September 2G the water was at 179.44. At 
this time the gate was closed and the water rose to 181.40, 
October 27, when the gate was again opened and all the water 
drawn out of the basin for the supply of the city. It was 
entirel}^ empty on November 17. On November 27 the 
gate was shut sufficiently to allow the water to rise high 
enough to measure the flow through the gate. On December 



Water-Supply Department. 63 

20 the gate was shut to allow the basin to fill, and on 
December 31 the water had risen to 178.42. 

The highest elevation reached was 215.37 on June 16, and 
the lowest 169.00, basin empty November 18. 

While the basin was empty all the gates were overhauled, 
scraped, and painted. Some improvements were made to the 
channel of Cold Spring brook by depositing about 193 cubic 
yards of gravel on the slopes near the dam. The channel 
was also gravelled for a distance of 150 feet from the end of 
the slope paving. The boundary lines to city property along 
Cold Spring brook have been run out and stone bounds set. 
The new channel for the brook has been excavated between 
Stations 13 and 17, and 21+50, and 23. 

The water chemically has been of almost exactly the same 
quality as in 1892. The number of organisms has averaged 
87 per c.c. 

The heavy draughts made upon this basin during the last 
two seasons have had a considerable influence on the color. 
In 1891 the mean color at the gate-house was 0.63 ; in 1892 
it was 0.74, and in 1893 it was 0.93, and this, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that in 1892 the mean color of the intluent 
stream was higher than in 1893, 1.43 against 1.19. 

The temperature of the water has averaged 50.9° at the 
surface, 48.3° at mid depth, and 45.6° at the bottom. 

There have been few diatoms, mostly Cyclotella ; Protococ- 
cus was present in June and August, and Raphidium in Sep- 
tember and October. Microcystis was somewhat abundant 
in October. 

Basin 6. 

Grades, H. Tf., 296.00; Top of Flash-boards, 295.00; Crest of Dam, 294.00. 
Estimated Area, 183 acres; Estimated Contents, 1,630,300,000 gals. 

This basin has just been completed after five years of 
work. No water has yet been stored in it. 

Whitehall Pond. 

Elevation, H. W., 327.91 ; Bottom of Gates, 317.78. 
Area at 327.91, 601 acres ; Contents, between 327.97 and 317.78, 1,266,900,000 

gals. 

On January 1, 1893, the water in this pond stood at 
323.04. It gradually rose to 323.30 on January 6, but fell 
to 322.88 on February 5. It then rose to 324.00 on Feb- 
ruary 27 and kept at about this level until March 8, after 
which it rose to 326.00 April 11, and to 327.00 on May 4, 
remaining at this point until May 17. The surface then fell 
to 325.17 on August 16. On September 12 the pond stood 
at 325.00 and on October 22 at 324.43, remaining at about 
this height until November 27, when it began to rise steadily, 



64 City Document No. 39. 

and on December 31 it had reached 324.94. The highest 
point reached during the year was 327.07, May 4, and the 
lowest, 322.88, February 4. 

Measurements of the yield from this source have been 
made daily at the weir at the outlet. The gates at the dam 
have been, as heretofore, under the control of the mill-owners. 

Nothing has been done with the dredging plant otherwise 
than to inspect it daily and to wet down the decks in the 
hot weather. 

Farm Pond. 

Grades, H. W., J49.25 ; Low Water, 146.00. 
Area at 149.25, 159 acres ; Contents, between 149.25 and 146.00, 166,500,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1893, the water of Farm pond stood at 
148.63. The water has been kept at about high- water mark 
during the whole year. The highest elevation reached was 
149.92 on May 19, and the lowe'st, 148.18 on October 22 

No water has been drawn from this source for the supply 
of the city. 

The Framingham Water Company have pumped 103,000,- 
000 gallons from the pond, or 282,192 gallons daily. The 
total amount of water wasted has been 96,400,000 gallons, 
all of which, with the exception of 4,500,000 gallons, was 
turned into Sudbury river. 

Lake Cochituate. 

Grades, H. W., 134.36 ; Invert of Aqueduct, 121.03 ; Top of Aqueduct, 127.36. 

Area, Water Surface at 134.36, 785 acres. 

Contents, between 134.36 and 127.36, 1,513,180,000 ; between 134.36 and 125.03, 

1,910,280,000 gals. 

Approximate Contents, between 134.36and 121.03,2,447,000,000 gals.; between 134.36 

and 117.03, 2,907 ,000,000 gala. 

On January 1, 1893, the surface of the lake stood at 
128.41, or 5.95 feet below high water, but it gradually rose 
to 128.94 on January 9, when flow in aqueduct having been 
started it fell to 127.34 on February 6. On February 18 it 
had risen to 129.50, remaining at about this height until 
March 7, after which it rose to 134.36 on April 2i. With 
slight fluctuations it remained full until May 22, when it be- 
gan to fall steadily during the summer, reaching 127.73 on 
October 27. At that date the Dudley pond connection was 
opened and the stop-planks taken out of the circular dam, 
which raised the lake to 128.31 on October 28. On Novem- 
ber 7 the surface began to fall again, and on December 3 
it stood at 127.55. After this it rose slightly, and kept on 
the average at about 127.60 until December 25, when it be- 
gan to rise slowly, and on December 31 it stood at 127.93. 
The amount of water wasted during the year was 255,300,- 
000 gallons. 

Advantaije was taken of this overflow to make some exper- 



"Water-Supply Department. 65 

iraents at the new dam at the outlet for the purpose of ob- 
taining coeflScients for the waste -gates and for the openings 
under the bridge forming the roll-way. The water was 
passed over a weir 20 feet long, erected for this purpose. 

In October the amount of storage on hand, both in the 
basins of the Sudbury river and in the lake, was so small that 
it was feared the supply to the city might not be maintained, 
so two engines were purchased and erected near the gate- 
house. Pumps were made ready to place on the old plat- 
forms in the lake in order to pump up 20,000,000 gallons 
daily from the lake into the aqueduct ; but the water re- 
mained at about the right height to keep up the flow without 
pumping, and the machinery was not used. A different 
arrangement of the plant was planned from any heretofore 
used. Both engines were placed together on the northerly 
side of the gate-house and the plans contemplated belting 
down to the pumps, which were to be located on platforms 
and placed one behind the other with long shafts, terminat- 
ing in pulleys at convenient points for the belts. On De- 
cember 20 work on this machinery ceased, it having been 
partially tested, housed, and put in perfect readiness for 
operation. 

The water in the lake has been very satisfactory in qual- 
ity. In January Asterionella and Stephanodiscus were quite 
abundant. In February and March the organisms were few. 
In April we had the usual spring growth of diatoms, Melo- 
sira, Asterionella, and Stephanodiscus appeared successively. 
By July they had practically disappeared. In November, 
after the turning over, Tabellaria and Melosira developed 
again, but the autumn growth was not so extensive as usual. 
Chlorophycese were present in small numbers from June 
to November. Microcystis appeared in June and increased 
gradually until September. During September and October 
it was quite abundant. Clathrocystis vvas present in Octo- 
ber. From November 1 to the end of the year the Cyano- 
phycege decreased. Infusoria were present during the 
summer at all times, but not abundant. Crenothrix was 
found in March, April, July, and August. The amorphous 
matter was more abundant than during 1892, especially in 
October, November, and December. 

The period of stagnation extended from April 18 to No- 
vember 21. The maximum color at the bottom was 2.00 
and the mean temperature 45. 0'* Fahrenheit at the bottom 
during this period. The mean color of the surface of Lake 
Cochituate has been 0.23 during the year, and at mid depth 
0.25. 

Some negotiations were entered into by your Board with 



66 City Document No. 39. 

the Sewerage Committee of Natick early in January, but 
nothing has come of them, and the town has taken no fur- 
ther action so far as I can learn. The necessity for the ex- 
penditure of a large amount of money on the part of the cit}^ 
of Boston towards the construction of sewers in Natick is 
not as great as it was before the filter-beds were built. The 
plan submitted by the town was to run a force main, convey- 
inof all its sewage across the willow bridge. In case of a 
break on this line all the sewage would be discharged into 
the lake. 

Filter- Beds. 

Probably the first filter-beds ever constructed for the fil- 
tration of a feeder to a lake by means of a natural filter-bed 
were designed in the early part of 1893, and let by contract 
on May 1 to Auguste Saucier. The prices per cubic yard 
were, earth excavation 22 cents, rubble-stone masonry $5, 
concrete $6, and riprap $1.08 per square yard. 
The amount of Saucier's contract was . . $5,013 69 

Day labor on completing works . . . 4,568 16 

Supplies, drains, carpenter-work, etc. . . 1,553 88 

Engineering ...... 1,449 38 



Total $12,585 11 

The above was the cost of construction, exclusive of land 
damages, which have not yet been settled. 

Although all the drains that can be found in Natick have 
been taken out of the brook, these filters were constructed as 
an additional safeguard to the water of the lake. It is not 
intended to take all the water, particularly of freshet flows, 
upon the beds, but with the exception of a few days in the 
year the whole flow can be handled by the pumps. 

The principal features of the scheme besides the filter-beds 
are a dam across the brook at its outlet and pumps to lift 
the water intercepted by the dam onto the beds. 

The filter-beds are on the south side of Pegan brook, near 
its mouth, and extend from the Boston & Albany Railroad 
to the brook and the lake. They were constructed by re- 
moving the soil and putting it into embankments 5 feet high 
around and between the beds. The latter were formed by 
simply levelling the sand. There are three beds at eleva- 
tions 140, 144, and 146.8 above water-works datum, 134.36 
being the elevation of high water in the lake. The areas of 
the beds are about 2 acres, | of an acre and 1^ acres re- 
spectively. The material of the beds to a depth of 8 
feet or so is mostly sand, about as fine as is used for making 



Natick Pilter-Beds. Analyses of Applied Water, Thomas M. Drown, M.D. 

Pakts ra 100,000. i 





Date of 




Residde on 
Evaporation. 






Nitrogen. 




























S^ 


■ 










^ 










































Color. 


,' -5 




~ s 


■5 




= 






P 




Kemarks 




































1 Collection. 


Examination. 




! 1 i 


i 


< 




5 


1 


O 


!■ ' 


1 


1 


.= 
























>^ 






















■o o 


^ 




Unfil- 


? 






^ 


3 1 3 




3 


i 












H 1 fJ 




o 


teretl. 


h 


<! 


"^ 


d 




O 


"^ 


- 






1S93. 


1,S93. 






























Tcgan Braol; 


... .Tiih- -10 . . 


Jnly 20 . . 


.10 


29..n0 1 10.10 


19.40 


8.10 


.0170 


.3600 


.0090 


.3300 


.31 


7.86 ' . . . 


138 


1090 


511. U 






... ■■ 27 . . 


2S. . 


.14 


32.30 8.90 


23.40 


7.58 


.0280 


.3040 


.0140 


.4250 


.36 


8.00 










Applied W;itev 


... " 20. . 
9.30 A.M. 


20 . . 


..30 


20.40 .i.90 


14.50 


3.60 


.0526 


.1440 


.0140 


.2000 


.70 


4.86 i . . . 


32 


3460 


2000 






... " 27 . . 


28 . . 


.iS 


30.90 9.00 


21.90 


6.08 


.0280 


.3136 


.OlSO 


.4300 


.37 


8.29 . . . 


509 


280 


1600 






1 9 A.M. 














1 ' 


















... 1 August 11 . . 


Augnst 12 . . 


JO 


23.90 7.00 


16.90 


4.65 


.0180 


.2380 j .0210 1 


.5000 


.46 


7.21 .03 










" 


. . . September 8 . . 


September 9 . . 


.GO 


29.60 S.r.O 


21.10 


4,63 


.0490 


.1600 


.0140 


.5000 


1.14 


7.29 




4009 


8776 


































107.5 












, 

















Meaus of 4 Aiwlvses '• A 


pplied 














1 




















.46 


26.20 1 7.60 18.60 


4.75 


.0369 


.2139 .0168 1 


.4123 


.67 


6.91 . . . 






2690 














1 





Means of filtered water 



Angiist 1' 
9 A.M. 
September 



Analyses of Filtered Water. 



.00 


21.90 


6.80 


15.10 


3.35 


.0044 


:0160 


.0400 


j .00 


21.00 


7.10 


13.90 


4.85 


.0052 


.0320 


.0800 


i .01 


24.00 


8.00 


16.00 


3.40 


.00.56 


.0122 


.0070 


1 .00 


22.30 


8.20 


14.10 


4.95 


.0066 


.0094 


.01,50 


i .01 


17.30 


7.30 


10.00 


4.15 


.0014 


.0006 


.0033 


.00 


23.4 


8.50 


14.90 


4.55 


.0076 


.0032 


.0005 


.00 


21.7 


7.30 


13.90 


4.65 


.0044 


.0020 


.0050 

• • 1 


.00 


21.66 


7.67 


13.98 


4.84 


.00.50 


.0108 


.0219 



.4r)0Q. 
.4000 



; I •Protorocciis £ri> 



Note. — July 20. Water has been .ippIitKl to Bed No. 1 since June 24. 
\reii of bed, 1.14 acres. Average rate, June 24 to July 28, 4fi7.4.^0 gallons per 
hiv on bed, or about 374,000 (lallons per acre pev day. Rate when samples were 
■' per day. Water :ill applied in 



July 27. Water applied to Bed No. 1 . 

August 11. "Wiiter applied to Bed No. 2. Pumps started at 7.30 A.M. 
Samples taken at 9 A.A[. No water pumped on previous day. 

September 8. Water applied to Beds No8. 3 and 3. Samples collected 3i Imurri 
after pump was started. Approximate rate, Drain 2,78,750 saltona pt-r hour; 
Drain 5, 72,000 aaDons per hour. 



Novumlier 17. Water applied to Bed No. 3. 
Creiiothrix grows abundaully in Dmin Xo. 1. Cunfei 
in phaiiiieN leading from all tbe drains. 



Water-Supply Department. 67 

plaster. Watei* percolates through it freely, and it is excel- 
lent for the purpose of filtration. There are no underdrains 
beneath the greater portion of the lowest bed, which com- 
prises nearly one-half of the whole filtration area. Under- 
drains about 100 feet apart and 8 feet deep have been laid 
beneath the upper beds. They consist of about 1,150 feet 
of 8-inch vitrified clay pipe, laid with open joints, having 
canvas wrapped around them. These underdrains, though 
not necessary for the passage of the water through the 
ground, enable a part of the effluent water to be got at for 
examination. 

The dam is of earth, about 8 feet in height above the 
general level of the ground upon which it is built. Under 
the middle line of the dam 4-inch tongued and grooved sheet 
piling was driven. Waling pieces were bolted to the sheet 
piling, and upon this foundation a concrete wall was built. 
The embankment was made of such gravel or other material as 
was found on the premises. It was 10 feet wide on top and 
had slopes of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical. The up-stream 
slope was paved. A masonry overflow, 10 feet wide, was 
provided at elevation 139, but stop-planks were put into it, 
so that the water can be raised much nearer to the top 
of the dam, which is at elevation 144. The underdrains 
were laid by day labor, and also the iron pipes, which are 
laid under the embankments so as to deliver the water of 
Pegan brook at different places upon any of the beds as 
desired. The iron pipe, 6, 8, and 12 inches in diameter, 
has a total length of nearly 1,000 feet, and it is provided 
with seven gates. 

To pump the water on to the beds there is a portable Hoad- 
ley engine, made by McLaughlin, of 25-h()rse power driving 
two (i-inch centrifugal pumps, which have been set up at the 
south end of the dam and protected by a wooden shed. 
The lift is about 9 feet. Pumping began June 24, 1893. 
It was stopped from September 11 to November 3, while the 
flow of the brook was so small that it percolated through the 
ground or evaporated. The amount pumped in a day has 
varied very much ; it may be estimated at about 500,000 
gallons. The capacity of each pump is about 1,800,000 
gallons per day. A slight deposit has at times accumulated 
upon the beds, which have been raked over occasionally and 
kept in good condition. Chemical and biological examina- 
tions of the water of the brook as it goes onto the beds, and 
of the effluent from the underdrains, have been made from 
time to time. An inspection of the following table will 
show the puriticatiou obtained by filtration : 



§8 City Document No. 39. 



Dudley Pond. 

(ffrades, H. W. 146.46; 18-inch Pipe, 130.36 and 127.36. 
Area, Water Surface, 81 acres; Greatest Depth, 27 feet; Contents, above 130.86, 

250,000,000 gals. 

On January 1, 1893, the water stood at 139.80, 6.65 feet 
below high water. The water rose to 141.10 on October 28, 
when the stop-planks were removed and the water drawn off 
to reinforce the lake. The pond was emptied on November 
20, and so remained during the rest of the year. 

SUDBURY-RlVER AqUEDUCT. 

Grades, 141.352 at Farm Pond; 124.051 at Terminal Gate-House. 
Length, 15.89 miles; Sise, 7 ft. 8 in. X 9 ft.; Capacity, 109,000,000 gals. 24 hours. 

The three portions of this aqueduct are in good condition. 
The supply and Farm-pond aqueducts were cleaned by 
machine on May 12 and September 15. The main aqueduct 
was cleaned by machine between Farm pond and the West 
Siphon Chamber on May 22 and 23, and by hand from the 
East Siphon Chamber to Chestnut Hill reservoir on August 
21 and 22. The 48-inch pipes in Basin L have been flushed 
out twice during the year. The aqueducts have been in use 
for 357.66 days, the flow having been stopped for cleaning 
only. The amount of water carried to the city was 
11,737,900,000 gallons, or a daily average of 32,159,000 
gallons for the year. 

Owing to the scarcity of water in the autumn, the aque • 
duct was not cleaned, and the usual spring cleaning was 
prevented on account of the work going on in Newton. No 
water could be let out at Clark's waste weir. 

The only rock that has fallen in the Beacon-street tunnel 
during the year was 20 pounds at Station 778+06 and 50 
pounds at 779+60, in both cases from the roof. 

The culverts and other structures have received the usual 
amount of attention and are all in good condition. In 
October the culvert in Walnut street, Newton, which takes 
the surface water from the Sudbury aqueduct and carries it 
under the Cochituate aqueduct, was rebuilt by the city of 
Newton under my direction and at the expense of the city 
of Boston. This work was done to remedy the flooding of 
Coleman's and O'Connell's land. I have had a full descrip- 
tion of all the questions entering into this matter written 
out and filed in my office, together with a description of the 
details of the work. 

Early in 1893 plans were made for carrying one of the deep 
sewers of Newton under the Sudbury aqueduct in a quicksand 
formation in Summer street, Newton Centre. Foreseeing 
that this would endanger the stability of so large an aque- 



Water-Supply Department. 69 

duct, I determined to support it upon piles before beginning 
the excavation. Work of pile- driving was begun on April 
24, and the work was safely finished and backfilled on June 
21. Twenty -five piles were driven adjoining the aqueduct. 
The bents were 6 feet apart on centres, lengthwise of the 
aqueduct. The piles nearest to the structure were only 16 
inches from the side walls. All the piles were sunk by 
means of a water-jet and a 1,170-pound hammer. The pipe 
for jet was 1^ inch diameter, stapled onto Lhe side of the pile. 
The piles were driven through 281^ feet of quicksand. The 
footing of the piles was 11 feet below the bottom of the sewer 
trench and 35 feet below the street level. The wisdom of 
driving the piles so deep was shown when the pumps for 
the sewer work were put in operation. Settlements and 
cracks occurred in the neighborhood, but the aqueduct re- 
m.imed firmly supported and the flow was not shut ofi" for a 
single day. The caps on tops of tiie piles were doubled and 
a 6-inch space allowed for wedging up to the concrete bed 
forming the bottom of the aqueduct. The span between 
the piles at right angles to the aqueduct was 16 j feet. The 
wedges were driven so as to deflect the timbers in the centre 
1- inch, which was the calculated amount they would deflect 
under the distributed load. Concrete foundations with brick 
piers were carried up from the sewer, when built, to the 
under side of the aqueduct before the temporary work was 
removed. Owing to the care and supervision shown by the 
Assistant Superintendent, Mr. J. W. Oldham, this difficult 
and tedious work was safely carried out without so much as 
a crack to the masonry of the aqueduct. 

The fences that were built along the roads having become 
decayed, 1,767 feet of new fencing were built at various points 
during the year. This work was done by the regular aque- 
duct force. 

It is ten years since the concrete walk on Waban bridge 
"was resurfaced, and on August 10 and 11 this work was 
again undertaken. All the crackvS in the concrete were 
first filled with fine dry sand, jarring the surface of the con- 
crete with light blows to compact the sand. A ridge of 
sand was then formed on each side of the bridge, and a coat 
of boiling tar, which had been boiled for two hours previ- 
ously and then reboiled at the time of application, was then 
passed over the walk as hot as it was possible to put it on. 
This first coat was sanded, scraped, and swept, and a second 
coat of tar put on, sanded, scraped, and swept as before, 
and lastly, a coat of sand was put on to remain. 

When the aqueduct was built, the owners of adjoining 
land were anxious for the privilege of mowing the embank- 



70 City Document No. 39. 

inents, and it is needless to say they were allowed to do so, 
but as the work is difficult, they have nearly all given it up, 
so that we are now obliged to mow the whole line in order 
to. prevent weeds and briars from killing out the grass. 

CocHiTUATE Aqueduct. 

Grnden, 121.03 at Lake; 116.77 at Brookline Reservoir. 
Length, 14.60 miles; Size, 6 ft. X 6 ft. 4 in.; Capacity, 20,000,000 gals, per 24 hours. 

This aqueduct has been in service, with the exception of 
the first eight days in January, during the entire year. The 
flow was stopped for these eight days to build a sewer under 
the aqueduct for the city of Newton. A depth of 6.5 feet 
of water has been maintained in the aqueduct excepting fronj 
February 2 to February 8, when the lake was not high 
enough to furnish this flow. The aqueduct has not been 
cleaned. In the spring the cleaning was prevented by the 
work in Newton, and in the autumn by the scarcity of water. 

The structures along the line are all in good order and the 
bushes have been mowed. The work of building the arch at 
Hammond's brook near Pleasant street, Newton Centre, 
which was in progress on January 1, 1893, was completed 
on January 21. The excavation was 18 feet wide and 26 feet 
deep from the top of the embankment. The material at this 
point was principally gravel, and the only trouble arose from 
the shaky conditions of the aqueduct. Beginning at the 
bottom of the work, there is first a 1-foot sub-drain, over this 
a brick sewer of e^^ form 3 feet X 2 feet, and over this an 
archway for the brook water 10 feet span by 7 feet high, of 
brickwork. The whole of these structures were encased in 
concrete where they pass under the aqueduct. The latter 
was supported by brick piers built upon the masonry under- 
neath. 

In November an arrangement was made with the city of 
Newton b}' which the city of Boston agreed to allow the con- 
struction of a portion of a boulevard, proposed on the part 
of Newton, upon and over the Cochituate aqueduct in New- 
ton Centre, west of Grant avenue. The city of Newton 
agrees to take up the tracks of the electric or other railways 
whenever required, and to bear all extra expense that may 
arise in the future to the city of Boston by reason of said 
boulevard, either in maintaining or repairing the aqueduct. 






mfl 



\ 



Staurastrum (Desmidie^e) X 570. 



I^p 



I 





COSMARIUM (DESMIDIEyE) X 285. 



Water-Supply Department. 71 



Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 

E. W., 126.00; Dam, 128.00; Effluent pipes, 99.80. 

Area, Lawrence Basin, 87.5 acres; Contents, 166,000,000 gals.; Bradley/ Basin, 87. S 

acres; Contents, 391,000,000 gals. 

Total Contents above grade 100.00, 557,000,000 gals. 

There has been very little work done at this reservoir dur- 
ing the past year except in the way of maintenance. 

A pipe line was laid on South street, running across the 
o-rounds and terminating on the driveway with a watering- 
cart hydrant. This greatly facilitates the work of watering 
the driveway. 

A section of Beacon street was repaired by the Street 
Department. 

The grounds and structures are in excellent condition. 

Brookline Reservoir. 

H. W., 125.00; Area, 23 acres; Greatest Depth, 24 feet; Contents, 119,583,960 gals. 

Everything in connection with the Brookline reservoir is 
in good order. No work other than that pertaining to main- 
tenance has been done on this reservoir during the year. 

Fisher Hill Reservoir. 

H. W., 241.00; Pipe Inverts, 220.00; Depth, 21 feet; Contents, 15,400,000 gals, above 

223. 

The reservoir is in good condition. In October a soft and 
springy spot appeared in the emi)ankment a few feet south 
of the gate-house and on the berm. A deep excavation was 
made in the walk and the puddle backfilled and rammed 
solid. No hole was found, but the puddle was not very 
good. 

The grounds have been maintained as usual by the force at 
Chestnut Hill reservoir. 

Biological Laboratory. 

This laboratory has turned out excellent work throughout 
the year, and proved a valuable adjunct to the proper man- 
agement of the different sources of supply. Weekly exam- 
inations are still made of all the Boston waters and results 
recorded. Mr. G. C. Whipple is the assistant in charge of 
all the laboratory work. 

During the year 2,505 microscopical and 1,725 bacterio- 
logical examinations have been made in the laboratory. 
Twenty-five different species of bacteria have been isolated 
and studied. Investigations have also been made of some 
of the micro-organisms with regard to their power of pro- 
ducing tastes and odors. 



72 City Document No. 39. 

The standard unit referred to in last year's report has 
been used during the year with satisfactory results. This 
unit is used in stating the results of the microscopical exam- 
inations, and is believed to be an improvement over the old 
method of giving the results in "number per c.c," as it 
takes into account the size of the oroanisms. The unit is a 
unit of area, a square, 20 microns on aside {i.e., 400 square 
microns), and is the same unit which has previously been 
used in estimating the amorphous matter. A unit of area 
was selected instead of a unit of volume, on account of the 
difficulty of using the latter; but if proper judgment is used 
in estimating organisms which are either very thin or very 
thick, the unit will have substantially the same value as a 
unit of volume. 

In order to use this unit it is convenient to have the mi- 
crometer in the eye-piece divided as follows : The square 
should first be divided into four equal squares, and each of 
these quarters subdivided into twenty-five smaller squares, 
each of which is equivalent to twenty-five standard units. 
The eye will readily divide the side of the small squares into 
fifths, and this division will be the side of the square which 
is the standard unit. The size of the unit is thus continually 
before the observer. There is little additional labor in ap- 
plying this unit. Many of the organisms are quite constant 
in size ; these may be counted and then reduced to the stand- 
ard by multiplying by a previously determined factor. 
Other organisms are so variable in size that each speci- 
men must be estimated by itself. In case of filaments of 
constant width, the length may be estimated and a factor ap- 
plied. These operations can be performed easily and quickly 
by an experienced observer. 

On account of using this unit the results of the past year 
should not be compared with those of previous year;*, with- 
out making allowance for the difi<erent standards. The unit 
system gives more weight to the summer organisms, i.e., to 
the Cyanoph3'^ceae and Chlorophyceae, whose value is under- 
rated by the old method. It has been found that in many 
cases the curve drawn by plotting the number of " standard 
units per c.c." corresponds more closely with the curve of 
the suspended albuminoid ammonia than does the curve of 
the " number of organisms per c.c." The method also has 
this advantage, that organisms and amorphous matter are 
expressed in terms of the same unit. 

The study of the color in the Boston water has assumed 
im{)ortant proportions, and much time and thought have 
been given to the subject. The weekly color examinations 
throughout the system, from the brooks feeding the basins 




Tabellaria (Diatomace^) X 285. 



^'■ 



J^^ 




^ 



Clathrocystis (Cyanophyce^) X 175. 



Water-Supply Department. 73 

at the sources of supply to the tap water in the city at its 
centre, and as far out as Mattapan, liave now extended over 
a period of three and one-half years. During the greater part 
of that time the "Natural Water Standard" has been used, 
the readings being taken in Nessler tubes holding 50 c.c. 
and the depth of the water being 200 mm. Since May, 
1893, the colors have been determined by the colorimeter 
elsewhere described and using the platinum standard, after 
which they have been reduced by a table to the natural 
water standard. The results undoubtedly give a fairly good 
idea of the color in the different seasons. 

As has been already stated in my reports, the water ac- 
quires its color principally from the swamps on the Sudhury- 
river water-shed. Some i)lans have been made for draining 
the most extensive of these swamps, which it is hoped may 
be carried out in the near future. In Cedar swamp the color 
varies from 1.00 to 7.00. In July the color is a rich red- 
dish brown, and in the autumn after the leaves have fallen 
the color has more of a greenish cast. Indian brook has 
swamps just above the nevvly constructed Basin 6, and 
hence the water flowing into that basin is sure to be highly 
colored. The cohn" of the water in the swamps on Cold 
Spring brook at the head of Basin 4 varies from 1.00 to 
3.70, There are also swamps on Stony and Angle brooks 
givins: colors of from 1.00 to 3.00. The color of the water 
in the swamps varies constantly during the year. In the 
winter the color is naturally low. In the spring we have 
a high color, reaching its maximum in June. In the summer 
the swamps are often dry, and though the standing w^ater be 
highly colored, the flow of the brooks is so small that the 
efiect on the reservoirs is slight. If, however, there are 
heavy rains during the summer the brooks become highly 
colored. The observations made on the Boston Water- 
Works under my direction have been plotted, and I will now 
give a brief summary of some of the results noted. From a 
profile of the colors of Cold Spring brook and the amount 
of water flowing over a weir erected at the head of Basin 4 a 
general agreement can be traced between the colors and the 
flow, and the effect of such storms as those in August and 
September, 1892, are clearly shown. There are two high 
points found in almost all the studies on the Sudbury-river 
water-shed, and these occur in the months of June and De- 
cember, and their influence is felt even in the tap water, for 
the color is highest in the city in these two months, although 
the difference is not as marked as in the case of the sources 
of supply. In the autumn the leaves and decaying vegeta- 



74 City Document No. 39. 

tion again cause an increase in the colors of the brook 
waters. 

In Lake Cochituate the two maxima occur in April and 
November, and the color is much more uniform than the 
Sudbury throughout the year, and of course much lower. 
During the winter, when the surface is frozen, the color of 
the lake-water increases, reaching its maximum in April. 
During this month the ice has disappeared, and the sun again 
begins its work of bleaching and the color decreases. In 
November, when the period of stagnation at the bottom 
ceases and this highly colored water comes to the surface, we 
have a second maximum. The profiles of the influents to 
the lake are based on monthly observations upon four of 
the principal brooks, and these values are weighted accord- 
ing to the extent of their respective water-sheds. The pro- 
files which have aided graphically in this study of color 
have consisted of separate lines for each of the years and of 
lines formed by combining the three years. These have 
been taken : 1st, for the tap water ; 2d, for the effluent gate- 
house at Chestnut Hill reservoir; 3d, for the Brookline reser- 
voir gate-house ; 4th, for the termini of the aqueducts ; 5th, 
by taking the averages of all the basins and then combining 
them into one line ; and 6th, by plotting the averages of all 
the influent streams at the heads of the basins. The same 
course has been followed with the Cochituate supply. 

Other profiles have been plotted, showing the combined 
colors for each year at all of the stations. The gradual in- 
crease of color is thus brought out, if w^e except the lake, 
where there has been a decrease. There is an apparent ex- 
ception in the case of the influents of Basins 2, 3, and 4, 
which, however, disappears when the values are weighted by 
the quantity of water flowing when the observations were 
made. In the case of Lake Cochituate, the colors at the 
bottom averaged during the seven months of stagnation as 
follows: 1.84 in 1«91, 1.61 in 1892, and 1.02"in 1893. 
Exactly why the color has improved, it is difficult to say, 
but it may be partly on account of the work done in improv- 
ing the sanitary condition of the brooks, notably Beaver 
Dam and Pegan brooks. 

The increase in color in the basins of the Sudbury supply 
and in the tap water in Boston is largely due, however, to a 
very different cause, and one which is brought out graphi- 
cally on another set of profiles, viz., increased consumption 
— and in consequence, decreased storage. In a general way, 
storage reduces the color of water, and the amount of the re- 
duction depends upon the length of time the water is stored, 
the condition and depth of the basin itself in which the water 



Water-Supply Department. 75 

is stored, the effect of the seasons (for when the water is 
covered with ice there is no material improvement in color), 
and the amount of sunlight existing during the period of 
storage. 

The extent to which the color is reduced in the several 
basins is shown by the following figures: In 1891, Basin 2 
reduced the coh)r of its induent 11 per cent. ; in 1892, 8 
per cent. ; and in 1893, 3 per cent. Basin 3, for the same 
periods, reduced its influent 23 per cent., 14 per cent., and 
0. This effect is clearly due to the heavy draughts made on 
the storage and the consequent lowering of the water or 
emptying of the basins. When this is done the water 
passes thi'ough them without change. 

Another set of profiles has been made to show the effect of 
colors of the feeders of a basin when combined with the flow 
of water. These bring out the great effect of the spring flows 
on the colors of the waters of the basins at their outlets or at 
the gate-houses for the whole of the remainder of the year. 
If the colors of the feeders alone are plotted, there is no cor- 
respondence with the profile of colors at the gate-house, but 
when the product of the color and yield is taken, there is a 
good agreement. In plain terms, the basins are filled with 
the whiter water of the melted snows, and the darker water 
which follows in the summer is not of sufficient quantity to 
make its effect felt at the outlet ends of the basins. 

The four subjects reproduced on the heliotype plates ac- 
companying this report were photographed in the laborator}'. 

The following description of the Syimra uvella, anorganism 
sometimes found in the Boston water, has been prepared by 
Mr. Whipple : 

Of" the thirty or more genera of infusoria which are found 
in the water-supplies of Massachusetts, there are but fifteen 
which may be said to be commonly found in large numbers. 
Eight of these common forms belong to one oi-der, and six 
of them belong to one family of that order, if we adopt the 
classification of' Mr. W. Saville Kent. (See "A Manual of 
the Infusoria," vol. 1, page 212.) 

"This order, Flagellata-Eustomata, includes such of the 
flagellate infusoria as have an ingestive area constituting a 
true and distinct mouth, the flagella of the organism not 
being supplemented by cilia. The special characteristic of the 
family Chrysomonadidse is the presence of lateral pigment 
bands. These color bands, in addition to their distinctive 
tint, are apparently of firmer consistency than the surround- 
ing transparent protoplasm, and bear a very considerable 
resemblance to the coloring matter of the Diatomaceas." 

But the most important fact about the Chrysornonadidee, 



76 City Document No. 39. 

from a sanitary point of view, is that almost every one of 
them has given rise to very disaojreeahle and sometimes 
extremely offensive tastes and odors in the waters in which 
they have been found. Uroglena, Cryptomonas, and Chlo- 
romonas have already acquired quite unenviable reputations. 
To these may be added Synura uvella and Dinobryon. It is 
noticed also that there is a simihirity between the tastes pro- 
duced by some of the organisms of this group and those 
produced by certain diatoms. Cryptomonas, for instance, 
produces a sweetish, aromatic taste, very much like that of 
the violet. The diatom Asterionella also produces a sweetish, 
aromatic taste and odor resembling that of a rose geranium, 
although at times the Asterionella odor is decidedly fishy and 
oily. Uroglena volvox has a strong oily taste, very much 
like cod-liver oil. Synura uvella has, at times, a somewhat 
oily taste, often resembling that of a cucumber, but generally 
more spicy or bitter. The taste is a very persistent one. 
" It stays in the mouth." It is strongest at the base of the 
tongue, where the nerves are most sensitive to bitter sub- 
stances. The taste of Dinobryon is similar to that of Synura, 
but is not as strong. In all of the above-mentioned 
organisms oil-globules have been observed. In some of 
them the amount of oil has been estimated, and in at least 
one of them, Uroglena Americana, the oil has been isolated. 
It remains to be determined if there is any connection be- 
tween the presence of the pigment bands and the amount of 
oil production. 

It should be stated that these organisms do not always 
contain oil-o;lobules. In the younoer forms thev are fre- 
quently absent. The oil may be said to be a reserve prod- 
uct, produced by the organism during its growth, and stored 
up in the cell, — hence it is most common in the older speci- 
mens. It is by the disintegration of the cells and the con- 
sequent liberation of the oil that the tastes are brought about. 

"The Synura animalcules are free-swimming, united in 
sub-spherical, elongated, social clusters, each zooid contained 
in a separate membranous sheath or lorica, the posterior 
extremities of which are confluent. The contained anin\al- 
cules ahnost entirely fill the cavities of the lorica^, their 
posterior extremities being produced towards and adherent 
to the bottom of the same. The two flagella are sub-equal. 
Minute eye-like pigment-specks are sometimes present, 
though generally absent. A large vacuolar space, appar- 
ently representing a pharyngeal dilatation, is developed at the 
anterior extremity. The yellowish-i)rown color Iiands are 
produced equally throughout the length of the two lateral 
borders. The contractile vesicles are two or three in num- 



Water-Supply Department. 77 

ber, posteriorly located." (See Kent, loc. cit , vol. 1, page 
412.) 

The size of the colonies varies from 30 to 75 microns in 
diameter. Generally there are about twenty zooids in a 
colony, though sometimes there are as many as forty. The 
spherical colonies are often seen moving briskly through the 
water with a rolling motion. The elongated forms generally 
move more slowly. At a certain stage in its life history. 
Synura becomes encysted. In this condition it is smaller 
in size, and the zooids are crowded together and surrounded 
by a sheath. It is also somewhat darker in color, and is 
entirely without motion. 

Synura in its maturer condition contains oil-globules. 
They are especially numerous just before encystment. 

At times the amount of oil has been ap'proximately de- 
termined. On December 9, 1893, a sample from Basin 3 
contained 100 colonies of Synura per c.c. It had a strong, 
bitter taste. Each colony had about 20 zooids, and each 
zooid contained about 20 oil-globules. The oil-globules 
had an average size of about one cubic micron. Calcula- 
tion showed that oil was present approximately in the pro- 
portion of one part of oil to 25,000,000 parts of water. 
This seems to be a very small quantity of oil to produce so 
stronir a taste, but some experiments on a few of the essen- 
tial oils prove that it is easily within the range of possibility. 

The following table shows the degree of dilution at which 
some of the essential oils can be recognized by taste. 

Oil of peppermint 1 : 50,000,000 

Oil of cloves l:y,00(',000 

Oil of checkerberrv .... 1:7,000,000 

Oil of cassia " 1 : 6,250,000 

Oil of bergamot 1 : 6,250,000 

Cod-liver oil 1:1,000,000 

Kerosene oil 1 : 800,000 

In some cases where dilution was greater than the above 
figures indicate, the odor was perceptible, but quite different 
from the real odor of the substance. For instance, kerosene 
oil diluted 1 : 1,500,000 was described by three persons as 
smelling " like cologne." This fact may account for the differ- 
ences in descriptions of tastes and odors produced by the 
same micro-organism. 

Synura is generally found in surface waters where there 
is a considerable quantity of organic matter. It does not 
thrive at high temperatures, and is almost always absent from 
the water during the summer months ; or, in other words, it 



78 City Document No. 39. 

is almost never found in water having a temperature above 
55" F. Only once in the last four years has a growth ot" 
Synura been found in Boston water between May and 
October. The exception was in September, 1891, in LaKe 
Cochituate, where there was a considerable growth at the 
mid-depth ; but even there the temperature was below 55° 
F. There are, however, rare instances in which Synura has 
been found in hot weather, as for instance in Walden pond, 
Lynn, in August, 1891. 

In winter the Synura is often found under the ice. Some 
quite extensive growths have been thus found, as for in- 
stance in Lake Cochituate in 1892, and in Basins 3 and 1 
in 1893. 

While Synura cannot be said to be a very common organism 
in Boston water, it has frequently been found in Lake 
Cochituate and Basin 3 during the winter months. In only 
one or two instances, however, has it been found in numbers 
sufficient to cause any trouble. 

In September, 1891, it was present at the mid-depth of 
Lake Cochituate, where it imparted a slight taste to the 
water. Its distribution at this time was something peculiar. 
The growth was confined to the vicinity of the dee|) hole 
near the gate-house, and, moreover, was found only in a 
stratum about 10 feet thick, about 35 feet below the surface. 
The temperature of this stratum was between 48° and 50° F. 
The layer of water immediately below the Synura bad a 
decided cloudiness and contained considerable Crenothrix. 
These conditions prevailed for about a month, during which 
the Synura varied from 20 to 70 standard units per c.c. 
(One standard unit equals 400 square microns.) The fol- 
lowing table shows the state of thino:s on September 28, 
1891 : 



Depth in 
feet. 


Color. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


Crenothrix 
per c c. 


Synura 
per c.c. 


CloudiQess. 


Taste. 


35 


0.50 


49° 














40 


0.55 


48° 


10 


25 


Slight 


Slight 


45 


■ 0.95 


45° 


156 





Distinct 


6 


50 


2.40 


44° 


32 












In January and Fei>ruary, 1892, Synura was again present 
in Lake Cochituate immediately under the ice. While the 
numbers were not large, the conditions for the production of 
oil were probably at their best, for the taste was strong. 
This taste and the Synura themselves could be traced 
through Chestnut Hill reservoir into the service-pipes, 
where in certain parts of the city the taste was quite strong, 
and complaints were made by the consumers. It is likely, 



Water-Supply Department. 79 

however, that other infusoria than Synura helped in the pro- 
duction of this taste. That the taste was not due to the 
decay of the organisms in the pipes is shown by the fact that 
the bacteria at that time were quite low, the average of 14 
tap samples being only 61 per c.c. 

The most extensive growth of Synura which has been 
found in Boston water occurred in the ponds on Stony 
brook just above basin 3 in November and December, 1893. 
Both in Rice's and in Nichols' mill ponds the number of 
colonies frequently reached 200 per c.c. (equal to about 
1,000 standard units). These were gradually washed down 
into Basin 3. At one time 2,000 standard units were found 
in the influent stream. They soon became numerous in 
Basin 3 and in Basin 1. They were present in the Sudbury 
gate-house at the Chestnut Hill reservoir, in almost every 
sample during November and December. A few were seen 
in the effluent gate-house, and even in the service laps, but 
not in numbers sufficient to impart much of a taste to the 
water. 

There is no question but that the Synura uvella is a very 
objectionable organism. Mr. F. F. Forbes, Superintendent 
of Brookline Water- Works, has stated that 10 colonies per 
c.c. will render a water unfit to drink. From our expe- 
rience it is certain that 10 colonies of Synura per c.c, if 
they are in the right condition, will cause a taste sure to be 
noticed by the consumers. 

Inspection of Water Sources. 

The following is a digest of the report of Mr. J. S. Con- 
cannon, Chief Inspector : 

Total number of cases inspected .... 941 

Old cases ........ 836 

New 105 

Of the above, 368 are reported as remedied, 387 safe at 
present, 40 seem safe, 41 suspected, 105 unsatisfactory. 
Thirty-five legal notices were sent. 

No legal injunctions were found necessary during the 
year. 

Filtration Experiments. 

Filtration experiments were continued during the year with 
six large tanks one one-thousandth of an acre in area, and 
four small tanks one forty-thousandth of an acre in area. Of 
the six large tanks, four were used for experiments on con- 
tinuous sand filtration, one for intermittent sand filtration 
from March to December, and the remainder of the year for 



80 City Document No. 39. 

continuous sand filtration ; the remaining tank for experi- 
ments with dried alumina. All of these tanks were run at 
rate of 1,500,000 gallons per acre per day. The four small 
tanks were used for experiments with dried alumina and 
bone charcoal at rates of flow of from 1,000,000 to 5,000,000 
gallons per acre per day. 

Analyses of the applied water and the etHuents from all of 
the tanks were made each week during the year. Mr. Will- 
iam E. Foss is the assistant in charge of these experiments. 
The following description of the investigations into the mat- 
ter of color has been prepared with the assistance of Mr. 
Foss. 

As the color of the Boston water indicates, to a large ex- 
tent, the quantity of organic matter which it contains, much 
attenti<m has been given to finding a correct scale to indicate 
the color. 

Solar light is a mixture of many component colors, from 
the violet and blue, through the greens and yellows, to the 
red. 

When solar light is transmitted through a water containing 
foreign matter, some of its components are wholly or par- 
tially absorbed and the transmitted light is more or less col- 
ored in consequence. The color depends on the nature of 
the missing rays, or is the resultant of the rays which have 
been transmitted. The greater the depth of the water 
throuoh which the light is transmitted, the greater will be 
the effect on the components, and the more marked the color. 

Light which has traversed a depth of two meters of dis- 
tilled water has only a very slight blue color; hence it can be 
said that in pure water all of the component colors are trans- 
mitted with almost equal facility. 

In order that any change in the color of a water from a 
given source can be detected, and that the colors of waters 
from different sources can be compared, color standards are 
employed. The standards at first used at the filter station 
were prepared by diluting a highly colored water with dis- 
tilled water until the colors matched those produced by ness- 
lerizing varying amounts of an ammonia solution (0.01 Mg 
N Hg per c.c.) in 50 c.c. of distilled water; the color being 
recorded as the number of cubic centimeters of the ammonia 
solution used. These water standards are, therefore, as near 
as possible, duplicates of the nesslerized ammonia standards 
employed for reading the color of water. They are much 
more convenient to use, because their color does not change 
as rapidly as that of the nesslerized ammonia solutions, which 
have to be mixed fresh at every observation. A set of 
standards having been prepared in this manner, the color of 




SCALE 

CCNTIM^TERS. 



I I I I M l-r-l 



=r=J 



COLORIMETER 

roR 

[XPERIMENT Filter Station 

BOSTON WATER WORKS 

Western Division. 

Aug. 1892. 













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Platte: 2. 



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3.50 



3- 00 



o.S'o 



200 180 fGa /fC) /SO 100 80 so <to 2o 
DEPTH or \A/ATE-R IN M I L L I f^ ET E R S . 



UNirORM SCALE. 

O O./O " 0.2.0 0.30 O.-^O Q.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 I.OO 



NATURAL. WATER OR NE55LERIZED- AMMONIA SCy^LES. 

O O.IO .ZO .30ffG .SO .60 .70.80 .so /.OO 



O./O .20 .30 .40 .SO .6G .70 .80 .9o /.OO 



Water-Supply Department. 81 

a water .s determined in Nessler tubes, which are of glass, 
about 15 to 20 millimeters in diameter and 300 millimeters in 
length and closed at one end. The tubes are filled with the 
different standards, to a depth of 200 millimeters. A similar 
tube filled to the same depth with the water to be examined is 
moved along the scale until a point is reached where its color 
matches that of one of the standards. All of the tubes are 
viewed against a white background. When the color of the 
water falls between two consecutive standards, the color is 
estimated by the observer. 

The colorimeter, shown on Plate 1, was designed for 
reading the colors of waters with greater convenience and 
accuracy. Plate 1 shows an isometric projection of the 
complete instrument and a section of the eye-piece. The 
latter consists of two totally reflecting prisms A and B and 
a magnifying lens C. The lens is free' to slide in the bi-ass 
tube D, so that it can be focused on the upper faces of the 
prisms. The field of view is cut down to a circle by a dia- 
phragm E, at the lower end of the tube D. 
. ■ Rays of solar light from some uniform source, after pass- 
ing through the water placed in tube F, which has a plate- 
glass end, enter the prism A, and emerging, illuminate 
one-half of the circular field of view. Rays of light from 
the same source, after passing through the standard solution 
in tube G, enter prism B, and are totally reflected at its sur- 
faces, and emerging illuminate the other half of the field of 
view. The colors produced by the absorption of the two 
liquids can then be readily compared and brought to the 
same value, as follows : The standard solution is held in 
a glass jar and is connected by means of a glass tube with 
the standard tube. The top of the jar is furnished with a 
piece ot flexible rubber tubing terminating in an inflating 
bulb. By means of the latter the; observer increases the 
depth of the standard solution in the standard tube until 
the color produced on the field of view matches that of the 
water in the other tube ; he then closes the pinch-cock on 
the tubing and reads the color of the water from the scale 
on the standard tube. i 

Before the present form of the colorimeter was finally de- 
termined upon, two methods were suggested by which the 
colors produced by the absorption of the standard solution 
and the water could be; made to match. The first was to 
vary the depth of the water under examination, while the 
depth of the standard remained constant. The second was 
to vary the depth of the standard solution, while the depth 
of the water remained constant. 

A study of the first method showed that the depth of 



82 



City Document No. 39. 



water could only be varied between certain limits, and that 
it was better, for accurate results, to keep the water under 
examination of a definite depth. As the bottom of the tube 
is approached the change in color, corresponding to any 
. given decrease in depth of water, increases rapidly. It was 
decided that 200 millimeters would be the most convenient 
length for the tube, and that the scale divisions should not 
be less than 2 millimeters to be read accurately ; also that a 
difierence in reading of one scale division should not make 
an error in the resulting color of more than four per cent. 
It was also assumed for purposes of calculation that the 
color of the water and standard varied directly with the 
depth ; that is, if the color of a water in a depth of 100 
millimeters equals that of the standard in depth of 200 
millimeters, then the color of the water would be twice that 
of the standard. If the color of the water in depth of 20 
millimeters equals that of the standard in depth of 200 milli- 
meters, then the color of the water would be ten times that 
of the standard. 

The following table shows the increase of color correspond- 
ing to equal variations in depth of the water when a stand- 
ard of 0.50 is used. It can be seen from the last column of 
this table how rapidly the differences of color, due to a de- 
crease in depth of 10 scale divisions, increases in the lower 
portion of the tube. It is thus evident that the readings of 
color in the upper portion of the tube will be of much 
greater accuracy than those in the lower portion : 



Standard. 


Depth of 
Standard. M.M. 


Depth of Water. 
M.M. 


Calculated Color 
of Water. 


DiffereDt color 
for 10 Scale 
Divisions. 


0.50 


200 


200 


0.50 




0.50 


200 


180 


0.55 


.05 


0.50 


200 


160 


0.69 


.07 


0.50 


200 


140 


0.71 


.09 


0.50 


200 


120 


0,83 


.12 


0..50 


200 


100 


1.00 


.17 


0.50 


200 


80 


1.25 


.25 


0.50 


200 


60 


1.67 


.42 


0.50 


200 


40 


2.50 


.83 


0.50 


200 


20 


5.00 


2.50 



In the upper diagram, Plate 2, the colors obtained by cal- 
culation have been plotted for several different standards ; 
the abscissas represent the depth of water in the tube and 



Water-Supply Department. 



83 



the ordinates the calculated color when usino; the standard 
marked on each curve. The cross on each of the curves 
shows the point at which the error in a color reading, result- 
ing from an error of one scale division in reading, would 
equal four per cent. For all waters having colors darker 
than this, a new standard must be employed. 

In this way it was found that where waters having colors 
ranging from 0. to 1.00 are common, at least three standards 
are necessary. For quick practical work this method would 
be very inconvenient. 

The second method, however, was found to have none of 
these objections ; it gave readings of equal value in all parts 
of the tube, and readings from 0. to 1.00 could be obtained 
with a single standard, as shown by the following table : 



Standard. 


Depth of Water. 
M.M. 


Depth of Stand- 
ard. M.M. 


Calculated Color 
of Water. 


Different Color 
for 10 Scale 
Divisions. 


1.00 


200 


200 


1.00 




1.00 


200 


180 


.90 


.10 


1.00 


200 


160 


.80 


.10 


» 1.00 


200 


140 


.70 


.10 


1.00 


200 


120 


.60 


.10 


1.00 


200 


100 


.50 


.10 


1.00 


200 


80 


.40 


.10 


1.00 


200 


60 


.30 


.10 


1.00 


200 


40 


.20 


.10 


1.00 


200 


20 


.10 


.10 












.10 



If it were true, as was assumed for these calculations, 
that the color of the standard varied directly with the depth, 
then if a depth of 200 millimeters of the 1.00 standard solu- 
tion gave a color of 1.00 on an adopted scale of color, a 
depth of 100 millimeters would equal a color of 0.50 on the 
same scale. 

It was known before the instrument was constructed 
that this would not be the case with the nesslerized am- 
monia standards or the natural Avater duplicates, but it was 
thought that a scale could be graduated on the standard tube 
by filling the sample tube with various Nessler standards 
olio, 0.20, 0.30, . . . 1.00 and marking the points on the 
standard tube to which it was necessary to fill it with the 
1.00 standard to match them. It was not expected, how- 



84 City Document No. 39. 

ever, that a scale marked on the tube in this way would be 
as irregular as it was found to be. 

The irregularities of the nesslerized ammonia and nat- 
ural water scales are illustrated graphically on Plate 2. 
The upper scale represents a uniform graduation, and the 
middle one the graduation corresponding to the nesslerized 
ammonia and natural water scales. It is an average of 
determinations made by two independent observers with 
the colorimeter having the 1.00 natural water standard 
in the jar. The lower scale shows the graduation of the 
nesslerized ammonia or natural water scales as determined 
from the average of the observations on 15 sets of natural 
water standards in Nessler tubes and in colorimeter com- 
})ared with the platinum standard, which was also used in 
Nessler tubes and in colorimeter (hereinafter described). 
The observations were made by three independent observers. 

The ditferences between the two natural water scales are 
probably due to changes having taken place in the natural 
water standards, after their comparison with the nesslerized 
ammonia standards, or to differences arising in the prepara- 
tion of the nesslerized ammonia standards. 

The following experiment showed that the natural water 
standards are subject to change. A set of the standards 
kept in the dark from April 16 to May 16, 1892, and then 
compared with a new set had changed on an average 0.07. 

The irregularities of the nesslerized ammonia and natural 
water scales are due to the method of preparation and not 
to any cause introduced by varying the depth of the stand- 
ard ; for, by preparing a set of colors by diluting the 1.00 
natural water standard with distilled water, and then read- 
ing these colors on the colorimeter, having some of the 
original 1.00 standard in the jar, gave the following uni- 
form readings. They are an average of the readings of two 
observers : 



Dilution of 


Reading on 


1.00 Standard. 


Colorimeter. 


.10 


.095 


.20 


.21 


.30 


.295 


•40 


.405 


.50 


.52 


.60 


.60 


.80 


.80 


1.00 


1.00 



From these investigations it was learned that the nessler- 
ized ammonia and natural w^ater standards were of very little 
value for accurate color readings. 



Watek-tSupply Department. 85 

; To illustrate the misleading results obtained by using these 
standards the following example may be taken. Water 
having a color of 0.40 on the Nessler scales before filtration 
was found to have a color of 0.10 after filtration, showing 
a reduction of 75 per cent. By the uniform scale, however, 
shown on the diagram, Plate 2, this reduction will be found 
to be only about 50 per cent. 

By the platinum standard, a new color standard recently 
suggested by Dr. Allen Hazen,' " the color of a water is the 
amount of platinum, in parts per ten thousand, which in acid 
solution, with so much cobalt as will match the hue, pro- 
duces an equal color in distilled water." In preparing a 
set of standards, a standard solution having a color of 5.00 
is usually prepared, and from this the lower standards are 
prepared by dilution with distilled water. 

This standard, from the method of its preparation, can be 
used in the colorimeter with a uniformly graduated scale. 
It has also been found to keep without change for months if 
protected from dust. 

The color of a water determined by comparison in the colori- 
meter should differ slightly from the color obtained by com- 
ymrison in Nessler tubes and using the platinum standard ; due 
to the fact previously mentioned that distilled water has a 
slight blue color. In the colorimeter the portion of the tube 
above the standard is not filled with distilled water, while in 
Nessler tubes }t is filled. 

The following readings of a set of platinum standards in 
the colorimeter having the 1.00 platinum standard in the jar, 
are the average of two sets of readings by independent ob- 
servers. They show that the maximum error does not 
exceed 0.02. In cases where greater accuracy is required 
for water having a low color, a 0.50 standard can be sub- 
stituted for the 1.00 in the jar. 

Platinum Colorimeter 

Standard. Reading. 

0.10 0.115 

0.20 0.22 

0.30 0.32 

0.40 0.40 

0.50 0.50 

0.60 0.595 

0.70 0.70 

0.80 0.80 

0.90 0.895 

1.00 1.00 

lAmer. Chem. Journal, Vol. XIV., No. 4. 



86 



City Document No. 39. 



The platinum standard has now been adopted for use in 
the Boston filtration experiments. 

For converting any former readings on the Nessler or 
natural water scale to the platinum, the following table can 
be used. It was prepared from the average of the fifteen 
observations by three independent observers mentioned on 
page 84: 

Table for Converting Colors on the Nesslerized 
Ammonia and Natural Water Scales, to Equiva- 
lent Values on the Platinum Scale. 



Natural Water Scale 


.18 


.20 
.26 


.30 
.33 


.40 
.39 


.50 
.46 


.60 

.52 


.70 


.80 


.90 


1.00 


Equivalent on Platinum Scale 


.58 


.63 


.70 


.81 



For standards darker than 1 .00 no satisfactory compari- 
sons have yet been made. For reading colors darker than 
1.00 it has been found best either to read in shorter depths 
or else dilute with distilled w^ater in order to bring the color 
within the range of the 1.00 standard. The latter method 
has been adopted at the filter station. The reason for 
this is that it is often difficult to compare the dark waters 
with the standard, owing to a diff'erence of hue. It has been 
found that the amount of light which passes through a num- 
ber of equal layers of an absorbing solution diminishes in 
geometrical progression as the number of layers increase in 
arithmetical progression. Thus if /denotes tlie intensity of 
the incident light, la will be the intensity after transmission 
through unit thickness, where a is a proper fraction, and 
depends upon the nature of the substance and the refrangi- 
bility of the light employed. For a given wave length, a 
will be difterent for diiferent substances ; and for a given 
substance, a will vary with the wave length. The quantity 
a is termed the coefficient of transmission.^ 

It is because of the fact that the coefficient of transmission 
for the different rays varies with different solutions that we 
sometimes find a water matches the standard very closely in 
hue in a short depth, but appears of quite a diflerent hue in a 
greater depth. This can be represented by a diagram as 
follows: Let the ordinates of the curve ahem diagram 
Plate 3 represent the intensities of the incident rays of light 
from the red to the violet, which fall upon a water and the 
standard with which it is being compared. Then assuming 



' Thos. Preston — " The Modern Theory of Light." 



Plate 3. 



LUMINOSITY 




y 

h 
u 



.0 

O 



I 
h 


z 
u 

-J 

> 
< 



o 

D 
X 



LUMINOSITY 



Water-Supply Department. 



87 



the following coefficients of transmission for a depth of 100 
millimeters : 







standard. 


Water 


Red . 




.1 


.9 


Orange 




.5 


.8 


Yellow 




.6 


.6 


Green 




.9 


.5 


Blue 




.9 


.1 


Violet 




.9 


.1 



the intensities of the different rays after traversing 100 mil- 
limeters would equal their original intensity multiplied by 
their respective coefficients. 

The intensities after traversing a depth of 300 millimeters 
would equal the original intensity multiplied by the third 
power of their respective coefficients, giving the following : 





standard. 


Water 


Eed . . . 


. .001 


.729 


Orange .... 


. .125 


.512 


Yellow . . 


. .216 


.216 


Green .... 


. .729 


.125 


Blue .... 


. .729 


.001 


Violet .... 


. .729 


.001 



Plotting these values gives the curves in the diagram. 
The upper curve shows the intensity of the different colors 
in the incident light, and the four other curves show the 
intensities after having passed through 100 and 300 milli- 
meters of the standard and water respectively. Comparing 
the intensities after passing 100 millimeters of the water with 
those of the standard for the same depth, it is noticed that 
they do not differ much in hue or luminosity. Comparing 
the intensities after passing 300 millimeters of standard and 
water it is noticed that the hue of the water has approached 
the red, while that of the standard has approached the blue. 

These hues would, therefore, be quite different, and could 
not be accurately compared. The relative luminosity has 
also changed, the standard having become somewhat brighter 
than the water. 

The platinum standard which has been found to match the 
Boston water best contains twenty-five parts of cobalt to 
fifty parts of platinum. 

The water in summer is usually redder than the standard, 
while in winter it is greener. 

Color readings made by different observers have been 
found to agree to within .02. Occasionally differences of 
.05 or more are found. These differences are usually found 



8'8 City Document No. 39. 

in cases where the water, from turbidity or other causes, dif- 
fers from the standard in hue. This renders the comparison 
difficult, and the result depends largely upon the judgment 
of the observer. 

The accuracy at present attained in color readings is prob- 
ably quite sufficient for practical purposes. 

From the reduction of color of a water by filtration at the 
filter station, it is possible to judge of the probable reduc- 
tion of the organic matter. 

The principal difficulty in the way of greater accuracy in 
color readings is the difierence in hue between the prepared 
standard and tire water, Maxw^ell, Young, and Holmholtz 
claim that all color perceptions are due to the simultaneous 
excitation of three sets of nerve ends in the eye, and that all 
colors can be produced by a combination of three colors, red, 
green and blue, in the proper proportion. 

It is possible that a colorimeter might be constructed on 
this principle by employing standard red, green, and blue 
solutions, so arranged that they could be combined in all 
proportions. A solution would also probably have to be 
employed to give the effect of turbidity to the standard. 

With a colorimeter of this kind much more time would be 
required to make the comparisons. 

Prof. Ogden N. Rood ^ has employed these three constants 
to define completely a color : 

1st. Purity, or freedom from white light. 

2d. Luminosity or brightness. 

3d. Hue or wave length. 

To measure the color produced by the absorption of a 
water it could be arranged so that the measurement of the 
first constant would not be necessary. The light after pass- 
ing through the water would consist of several components. 
It would be necessary to separate these by means of a prism 
or grating, and compare the spectrum thus obtained with the 
spectrum of the original light. The measurement of the hues 
could then be accurately made, and the luminosity would 
remain as a photometric problem. It appears, therefore, 
that in order to obtain much greater accuracy in color readings 
than is at present possible, more time and expensive appa- 
ratus must be employed. 

With the colorimeter herein described and the platinum 
standards, it is, however, possible to read the colors of 
waters quickly, and generally with a probable error of but 
.01 or .02, which is sufficiently near for all practical pur- 
poses. 

1 Text-Book of Color, by Ogden N. Eood, 1892. 



Water-Supply Department. 89 

It would tend to uniformity of results and facilitate com- 
parisons if all color readings were made on the uniform 
depth herein described, all waters darker than 1.00 being 
diluted as set forth on page 86. 

Quality or the Water. 

The quality of the water has on the whole been very good 
throughout the year. 

The following tables give, first, the average condition of 
the water as delivered at a tap in Boston during 1893 ; and, 
secondly, means of monthly analyses in 1893 of different 
parts of the supply. They afford a ready means of com- 
parison with the condition of the water as given in the last 
annual report. 

The succeeding tables contain the average results of bio- 
logical examinations made during the past year, together 
with temperature observations and rainfall records. 

Very truly yours, 

Desmond FitzGerald, 

Res't Eng'r Adcfl Supply and Supt. Wesfn Div. 



90 



City Document No. 39. 



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a 

o 




a 

o 


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"a 




2 
















X ■" >)J5 >a^ >jJ= >5J5 x '^::C'^ ^3 

fl Oqooooooo P OCqOm 










5 




5 
















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a 

3 


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n 


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13 


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00 to 




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to 
































c 


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QQ 








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r-t T-t 


















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rt 


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m 


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tH 






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CO 




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r-( 


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o 






S 


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(M 1-1 in CO Oi OJ IN 


CO 








t- 


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to 


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r-l 






s 


IM 


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00 












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. 






::::::::: : : : i 








• • 


• 


Si * ^' u 












>a 




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a 








>, 


►? 




May . 

June . 
July . 

August 
Beptemb 

October 

Novemb 
Decemb; 


a 








IS 


1 -s 




V 



Water-Supply Department. 



95 



w 

OS 
X 



■* 































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K 


























■< 


























a 


























B) 


























P3 










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8 


8 












8 








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a 


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<D 








« »,« >, 


« 


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>. 


a) >.ap m 












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a 








«ft«a 

a&ao 


a 


c o 


P. 

o 


omac 
roph 
omac 
iporei 












o 








O fc; o !- 


o 


O !- 


^ 












•*^ 








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■S 


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o 


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c3 








53_ n-— 


a 


CS— • 




e«— • a o 




















•=• fl -r -q 




.« ja 


ia 


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5 








fioOo 


5 


Po 


o 


fiOfiN 










a 


m 


to 


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tK 


00 5i 




o 


to 


oo (M 


IT 


vO 








CO 


to 


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00 


to 00 


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-9 








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M 


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-* 




a 




















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<1 
























































■6 


« 


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CO 


CO 


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^ 


in 


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c 


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1 




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^ 


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^ 


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IN 






3 




























« 




























a 




























M 


























g 


05 


CO 


CO 


to 


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CO 


o 


t- 


lO to 


c 


^ 






CS 


■rt 








(M 0> 


iffl 




•* 


O (M 




00 






^ 


















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IR 


a 


























S 




























!« 




























^ 


^ 


CO 


en 






lO o> 


<N 






fH O 




to 






o 


US 








fH C^ 


(M 


rf 


IH 


(N IM 




CO 




K 




























o 
























































-a 


c<> 


>o 


<N 


lO 


O 00 


la 


00 


O 


(M 00 




■^ 














CO t~ 


■* 


m 


>ra 


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00 






s 
















fH 


CO <M 












51 


tH 


y-l 


t- 


^ g 


Ol 


o 

CO 


S! 


t- O 


o 


2 


















cq 


iH 


CO (N 




fH 




b 






























& 






























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c 


1 




























12 


S 
















t4 


h 


h 












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b 












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g 1 








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C3 
g 






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^ 




a 

1 

IB 


t 1 
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96 



City Document No. 39. 







d 


(M 


^ 


to 


C<) 


oo 


o 


lO 


CO 


^ 


^ 


U5 


^ 








































ft. 
















tH 
















C3 
































































































C3 






























* 


S 






























A 
































































02 


00 








to 




IM 


00 




^ 


t_ 




































<! 








r-( 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




^ 


tH 


1-1 


<M 


>< 


/«l 
































(S 




























?; 






























































)-i 
































OQ 




13 




a> 


t_ 


to 


CO 


to 


to 


Ol 


lO 


o 


^ 


00 




P^ 






iC 






T)( 


o 


to 


OJ 




o 


CO 


00 


Tjl 






P. 




























H 


1 


d 
^ 






























































^ 
































tD 


W 


to 


■« 


lO 


to 


C-l 


00 


to 


a> 




o 




UO 


eo 


































o 


a 










04 


CO 


CO 




CO 


to 


CO 







!5 P 



(M OCW CO 



to ^ i-l 



oi to »n 05 CO t- 



CO CO CO to to to 



C^ lO to CO 



Ci ICO iO c^ 



rH T-1 1-1 r-i CO 04 rH 



oi as oi CO 



CO i-( -^ 



1-11-1^ 



iO 1-1 04 r- 



Ol U5 OI Ol 

to >o Ol Ol 






rH O) r- 0> 



•flax 


- 








^ a 1 1 



la <!■ a 



O. liq ft 



Water-Supply Department. 



97 






c3 







t- 


CO 


o 


o 


CO 


o» 


oo 


CO 


■* 


oo 


00 






to 




o 


<» 








00 




o 




CD 








lO 




CO 








■<* 




lO 


o 


O 








•* 


•>* 




■* 


o 


o 


00 


03 


(» 


•* 


^ 


^ 


t- 


us 




CO 


iz; 


-d 


^ 


00 


to 




,_4 




,_( 


,_( 


^ 










00 


;^ 


c<5 


CO 


eo 




o 




to 


CD 


CO 


lO 








M 
































t- 


CO 


CO 


to 


^ 


o 


^ 


o 


Tj< 


^ 


oo 


00 


o> 




;-< 






CO 


^_, 


tJ 


o 


iO 


CO 


















CO 


CO 


•* 


■o 






t- 














02 
































lO 


to 


o 


IM 


^ 


^ 


CO 


^ 


CO 


1^ 


CO 


^ 


00 




O 


t-C 


t^ 


to 


CO 


-* 


CO 


o 


o 


-* 




oo 








CO 


CO 


CO 


■* 


>o 


CO 






CO 


lO 


CO 






CO 




■* 


^ 


o 


^ 


00 


CO 


•* 


o 


00 


oo 


lO 


-* 


oo 




•a 


»o 




lO 


CO 


lo 








'^ 




oo 






<1 


a 


CO 


M 


CO 


■* 


>o 


to 










CO 


CJ 


lO 


P3 
































^ 


<N 


US 


o 


1-1 


■<* 


l- 


t- 


1-1 


o 


■* 


<M 


05 






CO 




























OQ 






CO 


■* 


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t- 


t- 


CO 


lO 


CO 


CO 


o 






o 


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in 


o 


^ 


o 


o 


o> 


in 


rf 


o 


lO 


^ 




o 
M 


CD 




i£3 






t^ 












^ 


^ 






CO 








to 






CO 


o 


CO 


CO 




IN 

15 




a> 


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CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


Ol 


us 


^ 


00 


(M 


^3 


-* 


■!* 


•* 




tr- 


OS 




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^ 




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CO 


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CD 




tr- 


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CO 


CO 


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M 
































in 


o 


J_ 


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b- 


^ 


en 


ee 


e-i 


t- 


IM 


CO 


■* 




3 


CO 


CO 


CO 


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OQ 
































CO 


T* 


to 


to 


Ol 


tH 


o 


03 


OJ 


rH 


tf) 


to 


to 




O 


00 


00 


CO 


f-H 
















o 




H 








^ 


■* 


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■* 


-* 


■* 


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CO 


-* 


&< 
























































































El 






























g 
O 

O 




to 


CO 


-* 


00 


CO 


e> 


I— I 


CO 


lO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


eo 


•d 


to 


t^ 


J^ 


,_( 


to 


t^ 


00 


o 












S 


CO 




CO 


^ 


•* 


■* 


M< 








-* 


CO 


■<* 


^ 


























































hJ 




oo 


o 


U5 


^ 


tr- 


t- 


a> 


o 


o> 


00 


lO 


•* 


w 


a 

OQ 


"* 


»o 


ia 




























CO 


-* 


io 


co 




t- 


CO 




-* 


CO 


US 


w 
































H 
































a 
































o 
































Ig 




















b 


















t^ 


















CD 


<1) 


fl i-l 


























x> 










CJ 

a 

C8 






ft. 

< 


^ 
a 


a 


>. 
3 
•^ 


3 
3 
<1 


a 


s 

O 


B 

1 


a 

o 
V 

Q 


^ 





98 



City Document No. 39. 



Table IV. — Temperatures (Fahrenheit), 1893. 



Months. 



January . 

February . 
March . . 
April , . • 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 



Mean 51.4 52.3 51.! 



Chestnut Hill 

Reservoir 
g-ate-houses. 



37.1 
34.8 
34.6 
43.7 
55.0 
66.1 
72.4 
70.8 
65.8 
57.9 
42.1 
36.4 



36.5 
36.6 
37.1 
41.5 
53.4 
66.0 
73.1 
71.9 
66.4 
58.3 
47.9 
39.0 



35.7 
34.9 
35.0 
43.0 
54.8 
67.0 
72.3 
73.3 
66.6 
58.1 
45.1 
37.0 



Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir. 



<0 

1 

u 

3 

m 


.2 
■a 


34.4 


35.6 


33.9 


35.2 


32.9 


34.7 


42.8 


42.8 


57.5 


54.7 


71.9 


66.3 


75.1 


72.0 


72.5 


70.6 


66.6 


66.7 


59.1 


58.4 


45.8 


45.5 


38.0 


39.5 


52.5 


51.8 



35.9 
35.4 
35.0 
42.9 
51.4 
56.6 
60.6 
65.3 
66.0 
58.1 
45.6 
39.0 






36.7 
36.1 
35.8 
42.8 
54.2 
66.7 
72.7 
72.1 
66.3 
58.2 
46.3 
37.7 



Taps. 



36.7 
36.1 
35.8 
41.7 
53.7 
65.7 
71.7 
71.1 
65.5 
57.5 
47.0 
42.1 



38.5 
35.9 
36.0 
39.6 
47.9 
57.2 
62.7 
64.5 
62.4 
57.3 
50.2 
42.8 



The above figures are based on weekly observations. 



Water-Supply Department. 



99 





, 


S 






^ 




eq 


-* 


cq 


CO 


o 


to 


•* 


1 








^ ^ 


O 


O 


rH 






CO 


rH 






to 


1^ 








"3 a 


r-* 


I-H 


I-i 


"^ 


'"' 


•^ 




'"' 






*"* 


'"' 


"^ 














f_ 




.ra 


OO 


00 


Ol 


OO 


^ 


CO 






=3 


O 


03 


a. 


Ol 


Ol 


































,^ 










r^ 


,_( 






■^ 


a 






































































Ol 






^ 


to 


cq 


Ol 








3! 








O 


Ol 


o> 


Ol 


Ol 




















m 


P3 


r-i 




















rH 










P5 




































__l 








ro 




.n 




<r) 


00 


(M 






IM 


;-, 






O 


Ol 


OJ 


Ol 


Ol 


o 


*^ 


t- 




lO 














a 


'-' 










'"' 










'"' 








^ 




^ 
















.o 


Ol 


^ 


,_ 


CO 


60 




3 

m 


o> 


Ol 


CT- 


Ol 


o 








to 


o 


CJ 


















■H 


rH 












r-\ 




O- 


































— tc 
































ixi 
















00 


CO 






00 


>o 


to 


tH 


a 




"? 


05 


o 




o 










■* 




t-; 


CO 




■73 










1—1 


tH 


rH 














































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^ 






^ 


^ 


o 


T* 


CO 


t^ 


to 


CO 


•* 






iS 


o 


Ol 






r~t 


<M 


o 


Ol 




00 








CO 


a 


^ 








'-' 


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r-< 














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>a 


o 


vn 


OJ 


uo 








Iz; 




05 




00 




03 


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n 


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rH 


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rH 












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-4 






























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00 


^ 




fM 


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CO 


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00 


CO 


OO 


^ 


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CO 


o 




02 


o> 




00 


O 


(M 


Ol 








00 






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S 










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" 
















to 












































o 


00 






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CO 




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cn 


05 




00 






C» 


00 






00 




Ol 


a 












fH 


rH 
















at 
































■a 














1-1 


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^ 


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to 


ir> 


o 


to 


CO 


ea 




t-H 




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Ol 




CO 


Ol 






to 


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« 




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o 


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« 




t^ 






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cS 




o 


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rH 






00 






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h 




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m 


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rH 


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M 
































■a 






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^ 








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03 


Ol 






o 






to 












a 


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tH 






rH 


rH 


rH 








rH 


rH 




































































Lh 




■* 








(O 












^^ 




o 








Ol 


Ol 




CI 


O 










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Ol 




CE 


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g 








3-'. 




to 


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to 


















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1-1 


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g; 


»' 
































d 


OO 


.O 


^ 






t- 


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-H 


'M 




S 
































< 
































P 


2 






























n 
































_j 






<si 


^ 


f_ 














in 


t- 


1 




o 














o 


CO 


(N 


to 


to 


IM 




o 


W 














r-i 


T— 1 


1-1 


1-1 








o 






























£ 


Q 


■a 


^ 






^ 




.o 


^ 








^ 


^ 


Il- 


_o 


(4 


















IM 


(M 


<M 


en 


ly 




^ 


a 




























c; 

a 




































o 




^ 




(M 


















•a 




3 














rM 


7-1 




rH 


IM 




IM 




OQ 


























































































































o 
































































ei 
































a 
















^ 
















s 






















































• 










H 
















• 
















- 




H 












• 






• 




• 










H 
































a 












, 




















5 
































^ 




t>» 








• 






U 




IH 












3 
3 
OS 
1-5 


3 


.a 

a 

a 


p. 




a 

3 


3 


3 
60 

3 

<5 


a 

o 

a. 


o 
o 
O 


a 


a 
§ 

a) 
Q 


< 





100 



City Document No. 39. 



Table V. — Colors, 1S93.— Concluded. 



Month. 



January 
February 
March . , 
April . . , 
May . • , 
June . . , 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December , 

Mean , 



Chestnut Hill 

Reservoir 
Gate-Houses. 



1.15 
.91 
.85 
.85 
1.03 
1.24 
.92 
.82 
.63 



.91 



1.05 
.83 
.75 



.61 
.53 
.40 
.37 
.44 
.61 



Chestnut Hill 
Rbseevoik. 







.f1 


^ 




-a 


3 
QQ 


S 


1.03 


1.03 


.80 


.81 


.78 


.78 


.63 


.63 


.65 


.67 


.87 


.87 


.61 


.64 


.51 


.51 


.40 


.41 


.39 


.40 


.46 


.44 


.53 


.51 


.64 


.64 



1.04 
.81 
.78 
.63 
.65 
.66 
.51 
.53 
.42 
.41 
.44 
.51 



u 



Taps. 



1.04 
.82 
.69 
.59 
.70 
,92 
.62 
.51 
-41 
.40 
.47 
.64 



.97 
.75 
.67 
.53 
.62 
.65 
.53 
.42 
.32 
.31 
.37 
55 



Water-Supply Department. 
Bacteria, 1893. 



101 



Month. 



January . 
February . 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 

Mean . 



Chestnut Hill 

Reservoir 
g-ate-housbs. 



446 

1,440 

912 

85 
179 
279 
287 
339 
108 

43 
252 
109 



76 

446 

1,189 

134 

119 

281 

434 

123 

195 

67 

40 

55 



263 



273 

758 

622 

178 

253 

573 

205 

523 

447 

86 

63 

60 



280 



Chestnut Hill 
Rbservoib. 



338 

763 

87 

59 

48 

52 

150 

142 

36 

26 

18 

18 



145 



279 
738 
175 
242 
323 
326 
382 
360 
533 
101 
192 
205 



321 



383 
772 
328 
262 
359 
484 
352 
413 
422 
99 
306 
285 



372 



5 » 



199 
694 
746 
70 
81 
49 
65 
71 
89 
44 
30 
5S 



183 



Taps. 


<u 








03 




3 


a 


o< 


ca 


m 


P. 


M 


i? 






C3 

Ph 


■S 


257 


58 


690 


178 


110 


52 


54 


73 


63 


155 


64 


171 


97 


229 


103 


76 


75 


51 


68 


84 


59 


53 


79 


84 


143 


97 



102 



City Document No. 39. 







^ 


O 


-* 


to 


o 


CO 


lO 


(M 


o 


(3 


CD 


CO 


tr~ 


1 






oo 


o 








CD 


CO 


00 


o 


CO 


IM 


CO 


CO 




• 


<o 


■^ 


CO 


CO 


,_^ 


Ol 


00 


t. 


c-l 


oo 


o 


CO 


CD 






•* 


CO 






(N 


-^ 


o 






CI 


S 








rt 


o 




o_ 


00 






o^ 


co^ 


t^ 


co^ 


CO 


rH^ 


■^ 




"o 


c-T 


CO* 


co" 


t-T 


t^ 


^ 


^ 


t~r 


t-T 


oo" 


tC 


uo" 


oo" 




H 


«>■ 
























Ol 










o 


-* 






CO 


^ 


CO 


oo 






CD 






O) 


t- 


o 


to 


Oi 


I-H 






>--5 


-cC 


•a 


CD 


Ol 






o 


N 


^^ 


IM 


zo 


Ol 


f_l 


CO 


o 


Ol 


(M 


22 


CO 




•uoiiEain,a; 




e 


CD 


CO 




■» 


CO 


CO 


CO 


Ol 
CO 


lO 


o 

Ol 


CO 

Si. 






o 


•* 


,_ 


00 


CD 


^ 


CO 


J-t 


y-^ 


rH 


o 


IM 


^ 






CO 




o 




T-H 


t- 


lO 


o- 


>o 


^ 


tH 


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CO 




ndocr 


o 


C5 


^^ 


^ 


O 


IM 


00 


lo 


Ol 


lO 


O 


CO 


•* 




00 


o> 


CO 








t-l 










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o 




uoipadsni 


«■ 


w 


CO 


T)l 


CO 


-* 




CO 


CO 


■^ 


■^ 




^ 

€& 






^^ 


(HQ 


CO 


Ol 


lO 


Ol 


o 


Ol 


CD 


CO 


CO 


IM 


» 






o 


»o 




^ 


!>• 


OO 


CO 


CO 


o 






CD 






•?d8(i 




CO 


o 


J^ 


IM 


00 


Ol 


CO 


00 


CO 

CO 


<M 


O 


o 

s 




XBoiSoiota 


S 




CO 


■b 


Ol 


s 


IM 


s 


IM 


CO 


CO 




CO 






o 


lO 


o 


o 


1— 


CD 


m 


o 


o 


CI 


o 


O 


CO 






o 




o 




Ol 


CO 




o 


o 


o 




o 


IM 




•jtoAaesa'ji 


;^ 


:S 


s 


U5 


s 


Ol 


s 


CO 


o 


CO 


iM 


-cti 


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UIH -laqsja 


€& 


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i-H 






CM 






s 






O 


tH 


ta 


»o 




CO 


O 


o 


lO 


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o 


>o 








00 


O 


CO 


cq 


IM 


Ol 


o 


o 




o 


CO 




IM 




•aiOAjassa 


t; 


(M 


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CO 


CD 
CO 


o 


o 


s 


£ 


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CO 


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Ol 




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^ 


IM 


Ol 


IM 


t-. 


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Ol 




00 


IM 






CO 






IM 










•ifBAi3AU(T 


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"* 


(M 


CO 


IM 


lO 


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S3 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CD 


IM 






t- 






C-l 


CO 






o 






CO 


Ol 


-.* 




IliH 


s 




o 
1-^ 




Ol 


Ol 






Ol 






CO 


CO 






OS 


CC 


■^ 








IM 




•^ 




IM 


o 


U3 






Ol 


CO 


c^ 


t— 


IM 


o 




oo 




IM 


*^ 


r-t 


O 




•jTOAjasaa 


CO 


^ 


Ol 


Ol 


CO 


t. 


CD 


CO 


rH 


ira 


t. 


IM 


IM 






m 


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CO 


CO 


00 


O 


T-H 


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CO 


Ol 


Ol 




lUH 

^naisgqo 


s 




Ol 




Ol 




"* 


Ol 


IM_ 


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- 


IM 


rH 








CO 


00 


o 


o 


t<. 


Ol 


CD 


IM 


~co~ 


r— 


O 


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rH 


CO 






IM 




IM 


i~l 


^ 


CO 


o 


b~ 




■SM%\m 




rH 


^^ 


OD 


CO 


Ol 


00 


b- 


00 


00 


00 


oo 


00 






Ol 






-* 


IM 








o 




CO 


CD 




nuSad 




» 


IM 


CO 


oi_ 

T-T 


oi_ 


oi_ 
co" 




CO_ 


IM 


CO 




Ol^ 






o 


C-l 


Ol 


CO 


-* 


OO 


CO 


IM 


00 


■o 


C<1 


00 


o 






o 


CO 






en 


r-1 


rH 


Ol 






CO 


00 


t~ 




•a;Bn}tqooo 


s 


s 


-* 


Ol 


IM 

CO 


CO 


'S' 


CO 

CO 


s 


s 


o 


I-H 


CO 




95l«T[ 


«■ 


c^ 


IM 


IM 


IM 




IM 


!M 


IM 


IM 


CM 


Ol^ 
IM 


co^ 






00 


p_, 


lO 


CO 


00 


o 


O 


»o 


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S2 


ira 


IM 






^ 


cq 


t— 


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CO 






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t- 


(M 


o 


^"* 


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•^oTipanliY 


00 


U5 

Ol 


o 


t; 


Ol 


CO 


^ 


CO 


-* 


Ol 


IM 


Ol 


■.* 




91Bn^iqooo 


s 


(M 


C-l 


r-i 










rH 




IM 


rH 


C-f 






»o 


j_^ 


tra 


^ 


o 


t- 


CO 


lO 


CO 


CO 


-^ 


rti 


^ 






o 


Ol 


»rt 


O 




CO 


(M 


■» 


O 


lO 


in 


OO 


^^ 




•■jonpanfev 




'5 


■* 


S 


CO 


s 


■y 


CO 


IM 


Ol 


? 


Ol 


o 




jSinqpug 




^ 


« 


^ 


>» 


CO 


CO 


CO 










CO^ 
CO 






r^ 


CO 


■^ 


in 


lO 


•a 


r~l 


o 


CO 


I-H 


t- 


o 


CO 






IM 


oo 


lO 


o 


CO 


-* 


00 


•^ 


o 


■* 


o 


o 


o 






"* 


1^ 


t— 


lO 


IH 


\a 


IM 


CO 


u^ 


o 


lO 


00 


b- 




•sntsea 


«» 


CO 


o 

CO 


CC 


(M 




Ol 


Ol 
CO 


o 


i-T 


IM 


" 


IM_ 

oT 






CD 


in 


00 


■^ 


CO 


CO 


•* 


CO 


CO 


Ol 


CO 


c^ 


■^ 






Tjl 




Ol 


CO 


Ol 






CO 




CO 


lO 


CD 


00 




•aoisiAio: 




o 
o 


IM 


s 


o 


CO 




o 


'it 


IM 


b- 

00 


s 


CD 




HJ3?B3^ 


CO 






r-T 




- 


s 




I-H 


o 


o_ 


I-H 


CO^ 
IM 
























^ 




^ 






























•c* 
































Ol 










































































CO 
OS 
00 


; 


I 


J 


5 


S 


s 


s 


: 


r 


S 


CO 








K 
ft 


D 


1 


< 


"J 


P 


"3 

1-5 


p 


p. 

tJQ 


lU 

O 
o 
O 


01 

a 

o 

15 


a 
ft 


<4S 

a 

3 

a 
a 
>-> 







Water-Supply Department. 



103 



Table of Rainfall at Chestnut Hill Reservoir for Year ending 
December 31, 1893. 



Da 


DB. 

1 
2 


« 

a 
(-1 


<=> a 


Duration. 


Date. 


o 

a 


u 

a"^ 
m 


Duration. 


Jan. 


1 1.04 


Snow and 
Rain. 


9.45 a.m. to 

3.00 a.m. 


Apr. 4 
" 6 


0.07 
0.23 


Rain. 

Snow. 


8.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. 
1.45 a.m. to 9.30 a.m. 


« 


5 
6 


1 0.63 


Snow. 


6.00 a.m. to 

5.15 p.m. 


7 
8 


1 0.53 


Snow and 
Rain. 


1.15 p.m. to 

4.30 a.m. 


" 


9 


0.54 


" 


1.15 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. 


" 8 


0.18 


Rain. 


12.55 p.m. to 2.45 p.m. 


" 


15 


0.10 


" 


5.00 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. 


8 


0.10 


Rain. 


4.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 


" 


29 


0.43 


Rain. 


2.00 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. 


« 14 
" 15 


0.73 


" 


4.40 p.m. to 


Total. 


2.74 






6.30 p.m. 












" 20 


!:.„ 


„ 


3.15 p.m. to 














Feb. 


3 


0.50 


Rain. 


8.10 a.m. to 3.00 p.m. 


« 21 


) 




12.30 p.m. 


.. 


6 
7 
9 
10 
13 
17 
18 


1 0.54 

1 1.08 

1.44 

1 1.55 


Snow and 
Kain. 

Snow and 
Raiu. 

Snow and 
Rain. 

Snow. 


9.30 a.m. to 

5.00 a.m. 
10.30 p.m. to 

3.00 p.m. 
8.30 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. 
8.30 p.m. to 

8.00 p.m. 


" 25 
" 27 


0.14 
0.17 


«■ 


7.45 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. 
7.15 a.m. to 5.15 p.m. 


„ 


Total. 


3.32 


Rain. 




" 


May 1 
<< 2 
" 3 


5- 3.36 


12.45 a.m. 
to 


« 


22 
24 


2.25 
0.23 


Snow and 
Rain. 
Snow. 


12.30 a.m. to 10.30 p.m. 
2.30 a.m. to 9.30 a.m. 


" 4 
'« 13 


0.50 




12.15 p.m. 
7.50 a.m. to 11.30 p.m. 


" 


25 


0.28 


" 


4.45 p.m. to 11.15 p.m. 


" 16 


) 




4.00 p.m. to 


" 


28 


0.22 


" 


7.00 p.m. to midnight. 


" 17 
" 26 


1 1.40 

0.03 
0.48 


<< 


8.00 a.m. 


Total. 


8.09 






6.00 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 
7.50 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 


Mar. 


1 
4 
9 
10 
11 


0.22 
0.20 

i 1.55 


Snow. 
Rain. 


midnight Feb. 28 to 

7.15 a.m. 
4.00 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. 

3.00 a.m. to 

7.45 a.m. 

9.30 p.m. to 


" 27 






Total. 


5.77 






<• 


June 13 
" 14 


I 0.55 


Rain. 


5.00 p.m. to 

11.30 a.m. 


" 


12 


1 0.30 




4.00 p.m. 


« 17 


0.24 


" 


7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. 


" 


14 
15 


1.00 


Rain and 
Snow. 


11.00 p.m. to 

7.50 a.m. 


" 22 
" 23 


- 1.50 


» 


7,30 a.m. 

to 


" 


22 
23 


1 0.10 


Snow. 


5.00 p.m. to 

3.00 p.m. 


" 24 
•' 24 


J 

0.04 


« 


6.00 a.m. 
9.00 p.m. to 9.30 p.m. 


Total. 


3.37 






Total. 


2.33 







104 



City Document No. 39. 



Table of Rainfall at Chestnut Hill Keservoir. — Concluded. 



Date. 




u 

m 


Duration. 


Date. 
Oct. 13 


0) 

.a 
o 
a 


m 


Duration. 


July 5 


0.24 


Rain. 


9.45 p.m. to 11.30 p.m. 


) 




11.00 p.m. to 












\ 1.39 


Rain. 




•• 8 


0.07 


« 


8.00 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 


" 14 


) 




10.45 a.m. 


« 12 


0.10 


" 


4.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 


" 23 


2.02 


„ 


7.00 a.m. to 


" 18 


0.73 


« 


7.45 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 


" 24 






10.00 a.m. 


" 22 


0.67 


" 


6.55 p.m. to 11.15 p.m. 


" 27 


1 0.29 




10.00 p.m. to 


" 23 


0.16 
0.10 


« 


2.15 p.m. to 2.55 p.m. 
6.30 p.m. to 8.00 p.m. 


" 28 




10.00 a.m. 


" 25 


















Total. 


8.70 






" 26 


0.03 




8.00 p.m. to 8.30 p.m. 












Nov. 4 
" 5 
" 15 


0.71 
0.19 


Rain. 


11.30 a.m. to 

2.00 a.m. 


Total. 


2.10 














5.30 a.m. lo 3.00 p.m. 


Aug. 4 


) 




8.00 p.m. to 












J 1.99 


Rain. 




" 20 


0.02 


Snow. 


7.00 a.m. to 9.30 a.m. 


" 6 


) 




4.30 p.m. 


















" 22 


0.65 


Rain. 


12.30 a.m. to 11.00 a.m. 


•• 6 


) 




5.40 p.m. to 












\ 1.48 


" 




" 28 


0.43 


<• 


2.20 a.m. to 11.30 a.m. 


" 7 


0.03 
0.33 


.. 


2.00 a.m. 
11.20 a.m. to 11.40 a.m. 
4.50 p.m. to 6.10 p.m. 










« 7 


Total. 


2.00 






« y 


















Dec. 1 


0.39 


Rain. 


7.30 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. 


" 17 


0.09 


" 


1.00 p.m. to 6.30 p.m. 


" 3 






3.00 a.m. to 


" 18 


0.04 


" 


12.30 p.m. to 3.00 p.m. 


" 4 


1.56 


Snow and 
Rain. 


9.00 a.m. 


" 20 


) 




8.15 p.m. to 












\ 1.84 


it 




" 5 


0.67 


Snow. 


11.15 a.m. to 11.45 p.m. 


" 21 


i 




2.30 p.m. 


" 9 


) 




2.40 p.m. to 


.. 24 


0.35 


" 


6.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. 


" 10 


1 0.35 


Snow and 
Rain. 


7.15 a.m. 


'« 29 


0.38 


** 


6.40 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. 


" 14 
" 15 


1 




7.45 p.m. to 


Total. 


6.53 
















" 16 


J- 1.54 


Snow and 
Rain. 














Sept. 1 


) 




8.00 p.m. to 












\ 0.36 


Rain. 




« 17 






2.00 a.m. 


•• 2 


I 




5.30 a.m. 


















" 19 


0.03 


Snow. 


5.00 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. 


•< 7 


0.46 


(> 


7.50 p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 


















" 23 


0.07 


Rain. 


3.30 a.m. to 6.00 a.m. 


" 15 


0.02 


" 


6.30 a.m. to 7.00 a.m. 


" 23 


0.01 


<. 


12.30 p.m. to 2.00 p.m. 


" 16 


0.56 


" 


1.00 p.m. to 4.00 p.m. 


'< 29 


0.05 


« 


11.45 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 


" 19 


0.23 


" 


12.05 p.m. to 3.15 p.m. 


" 30 


) 




1.15 p.m. to 


" 23 


0.05 


II 


6.30 p.m. to 7.15 p.m. 


<• 31 


1 0.24 


Snow. 


3.00 p.m. 


«• 25 


0.12 
0.05 


" 


9.30 a.m. to 8.30 p.m. 
4.15 p.m. to 8.00 p.m. 










« 29 


Total. 


4.91 






Total. 


1.85 






T 


otal Bai 


nfall for yt 


ar, 46.71 inches. 



Water-Supply Department. 105 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE 
MYSTIC DIVISION. 



Office of Superintendent, 
Corner of Medford and Tufts Streets, 

Boston, February 1, 1894. 

Col. Thomas F. Dohertt, 

Ohairman Boston Water Board: 

Sir : The report of the Mystic Division of the Boston 
Water-Works from February 1, 1893, to February 1, 1894, 
is herewith submitted. 

Mystic Lake. 

The water in the lake was lower last fall than it has been 
since* 1880, and it was necessary to pump into the conduit. 
Water was wastins; over the dam until June 7, then s^radu- 
ally lowered, and as it drew near the pumping point, the 
temporary engines were overhauled and repacked. 

The centrifugal pumps were lowered into place, the 
strainers enlarged ; a new and larger flume built, 20 feet long 
by 9^ feet wide by 31- feet deep, from the discharge pipes 
to the conduit ; the coal-bunkers were rearranged, and 
another feed-pump set up. It required a few days' testing to 
get the engines and pumps into working order. 

On October 19 the surface of the lake was at 8.50 below 
high water, or 2.67 above the conduit invert. The pumps 
were started and were worked constantly until November 4, 
when the water had risen sufficiently to gravitate to the 
pumping-station. On October 23 the lake was at its 
lowest, 8.90 feet below high water, or 2.27 feet above the 
conduit invert. This was within 1.27 feet of the lowest point 
ever reached, which was on October 25, 1880. After 
November 4 the lake regained very slowly, but about the 
middle of December the water began to rise rapidly, and 
continued until January 19, when water again overflowed the 
dam. In the upper portion of Mystic lake, the lowness of 
the water already referred to exposed about 20 acres of 
a black vegetable mould, favorable to the growth of algse. 

This section, locally known as "Bacon's pond," had been 
a meadow previous to the construction of the dam, but is 
now overflowed the greater part of the year. To remove the 



106 City Document No. 39. 

objectionable matter a large additional force of men and 
teams were employed. A great many tree stumps and 
about 14,000 cubic yards of soil were removed, and the 
refuse was disposed of by grading the land bordering the 
east side of the lake, and by filling the nooks and shallow 
parts along the banks. Two large inlets, especially, were 
filled in and the bank slopes surfaced with gravel. The 
work was continued about three weeks, but it was suspended 
because of the rise of the water. 

Reservoie. 

The customary care was taken of the banks, walks, and 
roads surrounding the reservoir, and a number of minor 
repairs attended to. Each year for several years past sec- 
tions of the roads about the banks have been macadamized ; 
the past year about 14,000 square feet of the work was done. 
The brickwork at the gate-house was repointed, and the old 
fence on the north side was taken down. I respectfully call 
the attention of the Board to the necessity of having the 
bottom of the reservoir puddled and concreted, and to the 
need of laying a 12-inch drain-pipe to the river for use when 
draming the reservoir. 

Conduit. 

The conduit was cleaned and inspected twice during the 
year and some repointing and repairing done. Part of the 
brick air-chamber was rebuilt and a new top put on. The 
conduit and the force-mains are in good condition. 

The improvements proposed in my last report — the 
construction of a 36-inch gate and pipe on the blow-off", 
the renewing of the sills and grooves for the screens in the 
screen-chamber, and the raising of the roof of the chamber 
— I postponed, as more important and unexpected repairs 
necessitated the total expenditure of the appropriation. 

Pumping-Station. 

The daily average amount of water pumped during the 
past year was 11,163,000 gallons, and the daily average 
consumed was 11,161,600 gallons, an increase in consump- 
tion of 13.8 per cent, over the preceding year. In May, 
Engine No. 1 was disconnected, and found to be 7-16 of an 
inch out of line, and all the anchor bolts on the water 
cylinders badly decayed. After relining the engine and sub- 
stituting a new set of anchor bolts, the steam cylinders were 
bedded in sulphur and the water cylinders in Portland 
cement. 



WATER-SuprLT Department. 107 

Then the engine was bolted to the bed, the four cylinders 
were rebored and St. John's packing put on the pistons. 
The United States metallic packing on the piston-rods, in use 
for nineteen years, was overhauled, and after some remedying 
was replaced as good as new. Two new steel piston-rods 
were placed in the low-pressure cylinders, and the stuffing- 
boxes for the pump-rods on the water cylinders were 
rebushed with composition. The internal heads were re- 
modelled with new rod-rings. 

In the steam-chests, the valves were reset and the four 
balance-pistons replaced by new ones, and new steel pins 
put in the balance-valve links. 

The throttle valves were repaired and the domes on the 
high-pressure steam-chests were each lengthened thirteen 
inches. Engine No. 1 is now running very smoothly, and 
will need no repairs of notice for several years to come. 
Engine No. 2 required but a few minor repairs the past year, 
and is in fair order. Engine No. 3 will be overhauled the 
coming spring and some needed repairs made. As the steel 
piston-rods in the independent air-pump for engines Nos. 1 
and 2 are worn from corrosion, new bronze metal or com- 
position ones will be substituted. Boilers Nos. 4, 5, and 6 
were last inspected September 28, 1893, and boilers 1, 2, and 
3 on January 31, 1894, and all pronounced in good condition. 
Boilers Nos. 1, 2, and 3 had received some slight repairs, 
and No. 4 had a new blow-off pii)e put in. Owing to inter- 
ference with the draught, the smoke consumers that were 
placed in the furnaces a few years ago were removed. 

As the covering on boilers Nos. 1, 2, and 3 is badly worn, 
it will soon be renewed, and about 150 feet of 2-inch pipe 
will be covered. A 250-incandescent light dynamo and an 
Armington and Symmes' 18 horse-power engine were placed 
between engines Nos. 2 and 3, — the dynamo in the engine- 
room and the engine on a solid brick foundation in the 
basement. For the engine a 2-inch connection was made 
with both sets of boilers and a 2J-inch exhaust to the rear of 
the building. 

About 150 feet of 16-inch drain-pipe with 3 six-inch con- 
nections were laid in front of the engine-house, and about 
150 feet of the blow-off 12-inch drain relaid. The interior 
of the engineers' residences were painted, and when the gut- 
ters and the conductors are renewed, the exterior and the 
barn will be painted. 

My STIC- Valley Sewer. 

The quantity of sewage pumped during the past year 
was 123,569,531 gallons, to which 304,010 pounds of crude 



108 CiTT Document No. 39. 

sulphate of alumina were applied as a precipitant, thereby 
throwing down 3,291,701 gallons of sludge, which was 
pumped into the settling basins on the adjoining grounds. 
The solid sludge was removed for the most part by a neigli- 
boring farmer for agricultural purposes. 

The amount of coal used was 231 tons. The engine was 
thoroughly overhauled last fall and is now running well. 
The tanks are apparently sound, but show signs of age, and 
the chemical vats, though rehooped and repaired, are nearing 
the end of their usefulness. Owing to the dryness of the 
season, the well that supplied the water for the boiler was 
running dry, so it was dug several feet deeper and plenty of 
water obtained. 

Many improvements could be made at this station, but in 
view of its abandonment in the near future, I deem it inad- 
visable to expend any money upon it, except for essential 
purposes. 

Sewage Treatment at Stoneham. 

The chemical treatment of sewage at Tidd's Tannery, 
Stoneham, is progressing satisfactorily. After the tanks 
and the tilter-beds were constructed and the sewage and 
sludge pumps set up, some delay was occasioned through 
insufficient power furnished by the tannery engine, but 
everything was finally adjusted and the chemical treatment 
commenced on March 28, 1893. The quantity of sewage 
pumped to February 1, 1894, was 5,226,184 gallons, an aver- 
age of 22,000 gallons daily. The quantity of sludge pumped 
during the same time was 714,000 gallons, or 13 per cent, 
of the sewage. The amount of crude sulphate of alumina, 
applied as a precipitant, was 85,286 pounds, or at the rate 
of 1 part of precipitant to 511 parts of sewage. 

Inspection of Water-Sources Department. 

A summary of the inspection work for the past year as 
reported by Mr. John S. Concannon, Chief Inspector, is 
as follows : Total number of cases inspected, 678 ; of these 
there are, " Old Cases, 625 ; " "New Cases, 53." The present 
condition of all inspected cases is: "Present Safe," 447; 
"Seem Safe," 78; "Unsatisfactory," 46; " Suspected," 71 ; 
"Remedied," 36. Twenty-six legal notices were sent. 

Intelligent and frequent inspections have produced good 
results. The authorities in the towns and city on the sup- 
ply are willing and generous in every legal work tending 
towards the purity of the water. 

This year Woburn will probably complete a large part of 



Water-Supply Department. 109 

its local sewer (system), consequently, as more than 50 per 
cent, of our pollution cases are in that city, considerable 
benefit will be derived. 

Filtration Experiments. 

The two experimental filters at West Medford were in 
continuous operation for two years and a half, and weekly 
chemical and biological examinations were made of the 
Mystic water and of the efiluents of these filters during 
this time. Prof. T. M. Drown, of the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, reports that the results of the experi- 
ments were in all respects satisfactorj'-, the effluent water 
being clear and practically colorless and of a satisfactory 
degree of purity. 

The average purification of the water during the last six 
weeks, while filtering at the rate of 2,500,000 gallons per 
acre daily, was as follows : 

Per cent. 

1. Removal of color ...... 60.00 

2. " organic matter as determined by the 

albuminoid ammonia . . . 57.00 

3. " organic matter as determined by the 

" oxygen consumed " . . . 40.00 

4. " free ammonia .... 86.00 

5. '« nitrites 100.00 

6. " microscopic organisms . . . 99.85 

7. " bacteria 99.76 

8. Increase of nitrates showing oxidation of organic 

matter 26.00 

The sand in these filters was scraped from time to time as 
they became clogged, and for one foot in depth the sand was 
twice renewed during the thirty months. 

The experiments show conclusively that the filtration of 
the Mystic supply through sand would furnish a water of 
attractive appearance and almost perfectly free from living 
organisms. 

Distribution Pipes. 

The distribution pipes were extended by the addition of 
290 feet of 2-inch pipe, 772 feet of 4-inch pipe, 11,770 feet 
of 6-inch pipe, 5,355 feet of 8-inch pipe, 3,354 feet of 10- 
inch pipe, 328 feet of 12-inch pipe, and 876 feet of 16-inch 
pipe. Twenty-eight thousand three hundred and twenty- 
nine feet of pipe have been relaid. 

There are remaining in Charlestown 6,139 feet of cement- 
lined pipe, varying in size from 2 to 20 inches. 



110 



City Document No. 39. 



Hydeants and Gates. 

Eighty-three new hydrants, 4 street Lowry hydrants, 
and 79 Post hydrants were established ; 21 Post hydrants 
were abandoned, and 20 replaced ; 146 additional gates were 
established: one 20-inch, eight 12-inch, two lb-inch, four- 
teen 10-inch, twenty-one 8-inch, seventy-eight 6-inch, eight 
4-incb, and fourteen 3-inch gates. Eight 4-inch gates were 
abandoned. Twenty-six gate-boxes and eight hydrant-boxes 
were replaced by new ones. 

Fountains and Stand-Pipes. 

Two drinking-fountains were abandoned, and one new 
stand-pipe was erected for street-watering purposes. 

Service-Pipes and Boxes. 

Eight hundred and ten new services were laid, distributed 
as follows: Charlestown, 49 ; Chelsea, 105 ; Everett, 284; 
Somerville, 372 ; for which 23,100 feet of lead pipe and 139 
feet of iron pipe were required. One hundred and thirty- 
seven services were repaired. Eleven service-pipes were 
removed and larger ones substituted. Twenty-four service- 
boxes were repaired. 

Sixty-six stoppages by eels, twenty-two by rust, and one 
by moss were forced out. 

Twenty-one leaking services were repaired and two frozen 
ones thawed out. 

New Services. 



Size 


l-in. 


i-in. 


I-in. 


lin. 


IJ-in. 


l|-in. 


2.in. 


4-in. 


Total No. 


Total ft. 


Charlestown . . 


1 
39 


20 

62 

280 

372 


14 
4 
2 


3 


3 


2 


4 


2 


49 
105 

284 
372 


1,332 
2,704 


Everett . . . . 


2 










5,629 














13,435 




















Totals .... 


40 


734 


20 


5 


3 


2 


4 


2 


810 


23,100 



Water-Supply Department. 



Ill 



Summary of Services connected with Works, February 1, 

1894. 



Number of services 
Number of feet . . . 



Charlestown. Chelsea. Everett. Somerville. Totals. 



6,083 
162,796 



5,487 
147,217 



2,974 
59,707 



7,854 
266,339 



22,398 
636,059 



Breaks and Leaks on Distribution-Pipes. 



Size 


2-in. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


lO-in. 


12-in. 


16-in. 


20.in. 


SO-in. 


Totals. 




3 






1 

1 
4 








1 


1 


6 


Chelsea 


19 

7 
26 


6 
2 

18 


4 
1 






29 




1 

2 










12 




1 


1 






52 











112 



City Document No. 39. 
Distribution-Pipes Relaid. 



Location. 



Charlestown, Bunker Hill ct 
Chelsea, Fourth st. . 

" Ash St. . . 

" Washington ave 

" Gardiner st. 

" Clark ave. . 

" Eleanor st. . 

it (( « 

" Spencer ave. 

" Lynn st. . . 

" Watts St. . . 

" Winthrop st. 

" Webster ave. 

" Franklin st. 

" Hawthorn st. 

" Willard st. . 

*' Parker st. . 

" Lafayette ave 

" Clark St. . . 

" Second st. . 

Everett, Oakland ave. 

" Corey st. . . 

" Second st. . 
Somerville, Albion st. 

" Aldersey st. 

" Appleton St. 

" Bonner ave 

" Boston St. . 

" Cameron ave 

" Chester st. 

" Clark St. . 

" Clifton 8t. . 

" Cottage ave. 

" Cutter ave. 

" Dane st. . . 



Carried forward 



Original 
Size. 



2-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6 -in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
4-iii. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in, 
4-in. 
6-in. 
6-iii. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
2-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
6-in. 
6-in. 
4-in. 
4-in. 
1-iu. 
4-in. 
4-iD. 
4-in. 
6.in. 



4-in. 



304 
66 

1,100 

89 

34 

310 

233 

1,076 

490 

28 

355 

24 

460 



517 
12 

3 

502 
563 

20 

4 

641 

213 

384 

19 



8,315 



1,178 

90 

1,550 



3,008 



10-in. 



12-iii. 



709 



568 



2,592 



568 



Total. 

149 

304 

66 

1,100 

89 

34 

310 

233 

1,076 

490 

28 

355 

24 

460 

868 

477 

1,178 

90 

1,550 

1,883 

517 

12 

709 

3 

502 

563 

20 

20 

4 

641 

170 

213 

384 

19 

568 

12,517 



"Water-Supply Department. 
Distribution -Pipes Relaid. — Concluded. 



113 



Location. 


Origin a 
Size. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12-in. 


20.in. 


Total. 


Brought forward .... 


. . . . 


626 


8,315 


3,008 


2,592 


568 




12,517 


Somerville, Day st 


4-in. 




14 


768 








782 


" Dover st 


4-in. 




18 




877 






895 


" Elm st 


4-in. > 
6-in. \ 




42 






1,990 




2„032 


" Franklin ave 


3-in. 


485 












485 


" Frost ave 


4.in. 




272 










272 


" Grand View ave. . . 


4in. 




2 










2 


" Grove st 


4-in. 




18 










18 


'• Harrison st 


D-in. 




30 










30 


" Heath st 


Sin. 




5 










5 


" Hillside ave 


4- in. 


149 


. . . 










149 


" Herbert ave 


4-in. 




376 










376 


" London st 


4-in. 




4 










4 


" Meacham st 


4-in. 




284 


485 








769 


" Medford st 


4-in. 


30 


. . . 










30 


" No. "Union st 


4-in. 




442 










442 


" Oliver st 


4-in. 




. . . 


390 




. . . 




390 


" Orchard st 


4-in. 








529 






529 


" Pleasant ave 


4-in. 




552 










552 


" Poplar st 


4-in. 


17 












17 


" Sacramento st. ... 


6-in. 




142 










142 


" Summer st. ..... 


6-in. 








62 






62 


" Summit ave 


4-in. 




532 










532 


" Spring st 


4.in. 


10 












10 


" Tenney ct. • . . . . 


4.in. 


5 


433 










438 


" Tower ct 


4-in. 


173 












173 


«' Tyler st 


4-in. 




435 










435 


" Vinal ave 


6-in. 




11 




751 






762 


" Washington st. . . . 


8-in. 




20 






23 


1,063 


1,106 


" "Warren ave 


6-in. 




673 






. . • 




673 


" Willow ave 


6-in. 










1,108 




1,108 


Total 




1,495 


12,620 


4,651 


1,811 


3,689 


1,063 


28,329 













114 



City Document No. 39. 
Extension of Distribution-Pipes. 



Location. 


2-in. 


4-in. 


6.in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12.in. 


16-in. 


Totals. 


Charlestown : 








545 








645 








211 








211 


Bartlett street and Monu- 








1,457 






1,457 
24 








24 








Chelsea : 




18 










18 






80 
243 
238 
702 










80 
















243 
















238 
















702 


Everett : 




264 










264 




133 


768 
620 
160 
300 
217 
572 
490 










901 












620 
















160 
















300 
















217 
















572 
















490 








2,400 








2,400 
470 








470 
396 
255 
475 
459 
13 
575 
160 
250 
205 






















396 
















255 
















475 
















459 
















13 
















575 
















160 
















250 
















205 






168 










168 










1,388 






1,388 
















Carried forward .... 


133 


450 


7,883 


2,945 


2,S45 






14,256 







Water-Supply Department. 115 

Extension of Distribution-Pipes. — Coniinued. 



Location. 


2-in. 


4-in. 


6-in. 


8-in. 


10-in. 


12.in. 


16-in. 


rotals. 


Brought forward .... 
Russell court 


133 
157 


450 


7,883 


2,945 


2,845 






14,256 
157 












276 






276 


Somerville : 






30 
36 








30 
















36 








298 
106 
133 








298 
















106 
















133 








30 








30 






21 






128 




149 








313 




313 








634 
224 
207 
18 
132 








634 






262 










486 














207 
















18 
















132 








13 








13 












200 




200 










48 




48 








320 
106 
118 
212 








320 
















106 
















118 
















212 








200 
339 
185 








200 








6 

6 

382 

26 

120 








345 














191 














382 


Hawthorne street 














26 












120 






16 










16 






13 








710 


723 








171 






171 






8 










g 






12 










12 


















Carried forward . . . . 


290 


757 


10,515 


1,816 


3,121 


328 


710 


20,372 



116 City Document No. 39. 

Extension of Distribution-Pipes. — Concluded. 



Location. 


2-in. 


4-in. 


6.in. 


S-in. 


10-in. 


12.in. 


16-in. 


Totals. 


Brought forward .... 


290 


757 

5 

10 


10,515 


1,816 


3,121 


328 


710 


20,372 
5 






334 










344 






43 








43 








10 








10 














166 


166 








42 
260 








42 


Russell street 














260 










233 






233 








164 
10 

20 
223 

188 
14 








154 


Talbot street 






561 








571 


Washington street 












20 
















223 
















188 
















14 


















Totals 


290 


772 


11,770 


5,355 


3,354 


328 


876 


22,745 





Water-Supply Department. 



117 



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118 



City Document No. 39. 



Hydrants Established. 





Established. 






o 




1 




6 

a 

o 

a 




4 








4 






10 
36 
33 




10 








36 








33 










Totals 


4 




79 




83 







Total Number of Hydrants in use February 1, 1894, 





202 


33 


58 
198 
201 
560 
2 
2 


38 
2 

6 

1 


331 




200 


Everett 


1 

2 




202 




562 




8 








3 










Totals 


205 


33 


1,021 


47 


1,306 







Respectfully submitted, 

Eugene S. Sullivan, 

Suj) erintendent. 



Water-Supply Department. 119 



KEPORT OF THE ENGINEER. 



Engineering Department, 
50 City Hall, February 1, 1894. 

Col. Thomas F. Doherty. 

Chairman Boston Water Board: 
Sir: I hereby submit the following report of the work 
done and records kept during the past year, for your Board : 

Corrosion of Pipes by Electrolysis. 

During the year 1892 a number of leaks in lead service- 
pipes were found which were caused by electrolytic action 
due to underground currents of electricity induced by the 
street-railway system. 

The pipes were decomposed on the exterior surface and 
presented a pitted appearance. Most of the cases were dis- 
covered in the immediate vicinity of the power-station of the 
West End Railroad Company, where the quantity of current 
is naturally largest. 

As the use of electricity for motor power is constantly 
increasing, and as the destruction of our water mains and 
services would be of incalculable injury to our city, an 
investio-ation has been besun into the causes and extent of 
the difficulty, with the view of taking the necessary measures 
to preserve the pipes, both lead and iron, from further 
injury. This investigation has been placed in the hands of 
Messrs. Stone & VVebster, electrical engineers, and the 
results of their preliminary study indicate that decomposi- 
tion of the pipes is going on, but that, generally, it may not 
be apparent for some years. 

The cases which have so far been discovered have been 
where the quantity of electricity in the ground was large ; but 
we have no proof that the same action is not taking place 
more slowly all over the city. The investigations show that 
there is a constant current of electricity flowing through the 
earth toward the power-station, and that the intensity of the 
current varies continually with the amount of power used. 
As these currents must unavoidably pass into and out of the 
water-pipes by way of the earth, and as electrolytic action 
follows in a greater or less degree, it is more than probable 
that the gradual decomposition of our pipes is taking place. 



120 City Document No. 39. 

Whether this corrosion of decomposition is sufficient to 
seriously affect the pipe system has not yet been determined, 
and I recommend that the investigations be continued during 
the present year. I would also recommend that test-pits be 
dug for the examination of the pipes in difierent parts of the 
city, particularly in the immediate vicinity of the West End 
power-station, and if evidence of corrosion of the pipes is 
discovered I would recommend that the pipes be drained by 
means of heavy copper conductors connected with the power- 
station. 

The following is a preliminary report from Messrs. Stone 
& Webster ; 

Boston, January 31, 1894. 
William Jackson, Esq., City Engineer : 

Sir : In accordance with your request we have entered upon a care- 
ful investigation of the subject of the corrosion of water pipes and 
mains by electrolysis, and beg to submit the following preliminary 
report : 

A longer time for experimental work, and a season of the year at 
which the pipes are more freely accessible, are necessaiy to place us in 
a position to report fully on the extent of the difficulty, and to make 
definite recommendations as to its remedy. 

This report presents briefly to your consideration the following 
points, and contains an appendix which includes various data obtained 
hj us, together with a somewhat detailed discussion of the same. 

The points considei'ed in this report are as follows : 

First. The evidence showing injury by corrosive electrolysis to 
underground iron and lead piping for water, gas, and telephone cables 
in Bost(m and elsewhere. 

Second. The nature of this injury to pipes as developed by experi- 
mental tests in the laboratory. 

Third. The existence of the necessary conditions, electric and other- 
wise, in the soil of Boston, to produce electrolysis in pipes laid therein. 

Fourth. The proof that these electric conditions are due to the 
return currents by way of the earth, arlshig from the electric service of 
the West End Street Railway Company. 

From these we shall show that the inference that serious corrosion 
may be proceeding from this cause is almost unavoidable, Avhile, how- 
ever, distinctly pointing out that the evidence is still insufficient for 
decisive judgment. 

Finally, while we are not yet prepared to suggest a practicable and 
complete remedy, we shall point out methods by which the trouble has 
been somewhat lessened in certain instances. 

Tlie Evidence of Injury. 

The action of electrolysis is to corrode the pipes, chiefly at the sur- 
faces where the electric current leaves them. This corrosion is not 
uniformly distributed over the surface, but is quite irregular, usually 
producing deep pits. Its tendency Is, therefore, to accelerate the nat- 
ural rate of decay of the pipes, the rate of corrosion being greater as 
the current flowing oi;t of the pipe is greater. 

The evidence of injury to Avater and gas mains by electric action 
would, therefore, naturally be expected to take two forms: one. the 



Water-Supply Department. 121 

very premature giving out of pipes in localities where the conditions 
were such that especially large currents flowed out from the surface of 
the i^ipes ; the other, the increase of rate of renewals and repairs in 
the entire system, so far as exposed to the electric currents. 

Evidence of the first sort would presumably be the earliest to develop 
itself, and we shall quote some instances. Evidence of the second sort 
would appear onl}' in the course of years, and the evil might have as- 
sumed serious proportions before this class of evidence became convinc- 
ing. We have been able to secure very little such evidence. 

It should be clearly apprehended that the injury to the pipes, if going 
on at all, is of a very insidious character, consisting, as stated, merely 
in an acceleration of the natural decay of the pipes. This acceleration 
might be seriously large and yet not become apparent for a term of 
some years, when the trouble would suddenly begin to assume very 
lai-ge i^roportions. The absence of extensive direct evidence of de- 
struction must not, therefore, be interpreted as proving the absence of 
the action. The amount of direct evidence, although not yet large, is 
sufficiently disquieting. 

Of actual giving out of water-pipes in Boston, apparently through 
electrolysis, the only instances which we are able to cite are those of 
lead service-pipes in the vicinity of the power-station of the West End 
Street Railway Comj^any on Albany street. At the time that these 
pipes Avere discovered, the subject was not under careful investigation, 
and the reasonable supposition that electric currents played a consider- 
able part in their destruction was not put to test by critical inspections. 

Of the destruction of lead piping in general by electrolytic action 
underground, we have abundant and indisputable evidence in the cor- 
rosion of the lead sheaths of telephone cables. In one case, the sheath 
of a new cable was destroyed within six weeks of laying. The amount 
of the injury, its nature, and the methods successfully adopted for its 
partial removal, show conclusively that it was due to electric currents 
traversing and escaping from the lead covering on their way between 
the electric cars and the power-station of the West End Street Rail- 
way Company, in the same way that they presumably do from water- 
pipes. 

From several cities other than Boston, owing possibly to more 
favorable conditions for the development of trouble, injury of a serious 
nature has been reported respecting water and gas mains. We have 
information, reliable in character, showing electrolytic injury of water- 
pipes in Peoria, 111., and Cambridge, Mass., and of iron mains in Nor- 
walk, Conn., — the trouble being serious in all cases. 

Pipe-Tests. 

In order to get an idea of the probable character of the electrolytic 
action upon the water-j^ipes and the rapidity with which it might be 
taking place, a number of tests were made at our laboratory upon com- 
mercial specimens of pipe, under conditions similar to those to which the 
city piping is exposed. 

The pipes were grouped in pairs as shown by the table of pipe-tests, 
and each pair in a separate box of moist sand sprinkled with a small 
quantity of common salt. 

In this respect they were pi'actically under the conditions of pipes 
buried in the streets, since the moist earth usually contains common 
salt and other salts either from the tide water or from the surface 
drainage. 

Measured currents of electricity at constant pressure were then caused 
to flow for noted times from one pipe to the other of a pair. Thus one 
pipe would show the action when the current flowed out of the pipe 
into the earth (i.e., when the pipe was electrically positive with respect to 



122 



City Document No. 39. 



the earth around it) ; the other would show the effects when the current 
flowed from the earth into the pipe (i.e., when the pipe was negative 
relatively to its surroundings). 

The common salt in the water by its electi'olysis yields chlorine at the 
surface where the cui'rent of electricity leaves the pipe. This corrodes 
the pij^e rapidly. At the surface where the current enters the pipe th 
product formed by the electrolysis has but little corrosive action. 

This well-known fact was "borne oat by these experiments, which 
developed, moreover, a point of great practical importance ; namely, 
that the corrosion took place largely in a localized manner. That is, 
the pipes became deeply pitted in spots instead of corroding uniformly 
over the surface. 

Although the difference of potential between every pair was the same, 
the currents were of various magnitudes corresponding to the degree of 
moisture and quantity of salt in solution. 

Consequently, this inust be taken into consideration, in comparing the 
effect of electrolysis on pipes in different boxes ; for with pipes of the 
same material, the losses are directly proportional to the magnitudes of 
the currents. After reweighing at the end of 100 hours, the tests were 
continued for 50 hours more on all the specimens except Nos. 13 and 14. 

The positive pipes were all badly pitted, so that the amount lost as 
determined by weighing before and after the run is not a true measure 
of their deterioration. 

To make this more evident, pipe No. 13, which had lost but 7.6 per 
cent, in weight, was turned down for half its length, to the bottom of 
the deepest pit, and the loss in weight was then found to be, for the 
whole pipe, 63 per cent. This shows, of course, that owing to the for- 
mation of pits the corrosion has gone in spots to about eight times 
the depth that it would have gone if it had been uniform over the 
surface. 

This is a true measure of the electrolytic action, for the strength of a 
pipe is determined by the strength at its thinnest part, which leaves the 
pipe but 37 per cent, of its original value. 



Tarred Wrought-Iron Pipe No 

Length 

Diameter 

Original weight . . ... 

Loss of weight after 100 hours 
Average current .... 

Average voltage .... 

Weight of iron turned off in h length 
Weight of iron pipe equivalent to pipe in p 
dition ...... 

Present value in per cent, of original . 



esent 



13. 



1 foot 
1 inch 
694.7 grams 
53.2 

0.739 amp. 

12.96 volts 

191.9 grams 

257.7 grams 
37 per cent. 



After running one hundred and fifty hours, four other iron pipes, Nos. 
1, 5, 9, and 11, were similarly treated, and the i-esults tabulated below. 
The positive lead pipes were all so deeply pitted that it was impossible 
to turn them down. They showed even more marked deterioration, 
however, than the wrought-iron pipes. 




Water-Supply Department. 123 

Table showing True Extent of Deterioration caused by Electrolysis. 



Number of pipe 

Length 

Diameter 

Original weight in grams 

Loss of weight in 150 hours 

Average current 

Average voltage 

Weight of pipe equivalent to pipe 
in present condition 

Present value in per cent, of origi- 
nal 



In these tests data have been accumulated which may prove of further 
value later in a discussion of the relative merits of different kinds of 
piping;, but which we are not now prepared to enter upon. 

In the experiments, in order to save time, it was necessary to use cur- 
rents of electricity larger than could be expected to occur, except under 
unusual conditions, in practice. This, however, does not affect the gen- 
eral character of the electrolytic action, but only its rate, the amount of 
electrolysis being proportional to the current. 

The corrosion and disintegration of the sheaths of the telephone cables 
by electrolysis underground was of the same general character as that 
in the lead pipes tested in the laboratory. 

Existe7ice of Necessary Condition for Electrolysis. 

If we could ascertain by direct means whether currents of electricity 
were flowing from the earth into the pipes or from pipes to earth, how 
large these currents were, and how they wei'e distributed over the pipe 
surface, we should then have a direct means of estimating the injury 
done to the pipes ; but these three points are fi'om the nature of the 
ease very difficult, if not impossible, of even rough determination. It 
is essential, therefore, to proceed indirectly by showing that the under- 
ground electrical conditions in the city are such as either to render 
destructive electrolysis likely, or to render it unlikely. We have done 
so as follows : 

By extended tests we have shown that the distribution of electrical 
pressure in the eai'th in Boston is such that there must be a continual 
and at times strong flow of electricity through the earth from nearly all 
parts of the city toward the West End Power-Station on Albany street. 

Inasmuch as iron water and gas mains are imbedded broadcast in 
the soil, and are relatively much better conductors than the soil, bulk 
for bulk, a portion of these currents must traverse the pipes ; and since 
there is no metallic connection between the pipes and the railway 
returns, the current must enter and leave the pipes by way of the earth. 
Wherever the current thus enters or leaves a pipe it is accompanied by 
electrolysis at that point, the amount of the electrolysis being jjropor- 
tional to the current. This produces corrosion, but chiefly where the 
current leaves the pipe. 

Admitting, then, the conclusion just drawn that currents must enter 
and leave the pii3es, and since this process is nearly continuous 
throughout the day, the inference is unavoidable that corrosion is con- 
tinually going on, and in the same measure as the current. This infer- 
ence is confirmed by multiplied tests, which show that the piping is 
almost everywhere at a potential different from the earth around it, and 
from the nearest railway tracks. 

Under such conditions currents must be flowing either to or from the 



124 City Document No. 39. 

pipes. These diiferences are, moreover, not constant, but subject to 
continual momentary fluctuation, which add to the certainty of tlie flow 
of currents. 

The demonstration of the continual flow of current through the eartli 
to the power-station was made by measuring the difi'erence between the 
electrical pressure in the water-pi[)ing at a point near the station, and 
at other distributed points. These outlying points showed always 
higher j^ressures than the one near the station. The difference amounted 
in one case to more than 15 volts in 4,000 feet. Similar measurements 
were made between the outlying points themselves. 

It is evident that by taking a sufficient number of jjoints and of 
pressure observations between them, an equipotential map — that is, 
a map showing lines of equal pressure difference relatively to the 
l^ower-station — might be drawn ; but while such a map would possess 
some value, we have not yet thought ourselves justified in incurring 
the expense of running the necessary number of overhead lines in the 
city. 

It is, perhaps, not superfluous to add that the substances which give 
the soil its conductivity are chiefly the various salts which are in solu- 
tion in the water of the soil. Earth itself, when perfectly dry, is a very 
poor conductor; water when pure is also an exceedingly bad conductor. 
Moist earth is usually a comparatively good conductor, not, however, 
because of the conductivity of the water itself, but because the water 
holds in solution common salt and other salts which make it a conductor, 
these being derived either from the soil, from surface drainage, or from 
the sea, much of the soil beneath Boston being moistened by tide water. 

There are, therefore, present in the soil of Boston not only the elec- 
tric current necessary to produce electrolysis, but the materials which 
will upon electrolysis i^roduce corrosion of iron and lead. 

Cause of the Underground Electric Current. 

The above-mentioned measurements of pressure-difference between 
A^arious points afford convincing proof that these pressures are due al- 
most exclusively to the return currents of the West End Street Railway. 
For not only are the pressures found to be distributed about the pi)wer- 
station in the way which would be anticipated, but they show iiuctua- 
tions from hour to hour, and even minute to minute throughout the day, 
which, when plotted as curves, show the characteristic form of the 
power load at the station, being neai'ly zei'oin the early morning hours, 
and having four maxima: namely, at about 8 A.M., 6, 8, and 11 P.M. 
This point is very clearly illustrated by tests made on January od and 
4th, 1894, to show the difference of potential between the water-pipes at 
different points in the city. By means of rubber-covered copper wires 
the water-pipes afc Foster's wharf and Summer street were connected 
with the water-pipes at the corner of Harrison avenue and Bristol 
street, near the power-station of the We^P^nd Street Railway. 

Continuous readings of the difference in potentials were taken for 24 
hours, and the results show admirably the periodic fluctuations corre- 
sponding to the amount of travel on the raih'oad. (See plates 1 and 2.) 

If any evidence of the source of these currents and pressures were 
necessary, this would be incontestible. 

Summarij . 

It seems from the preceding discussion that the direct evidence is 
good, although not yet ample; that injur^^ has been wrought upon iron 
and lead pipes buried in the earth; this injury being the direct result of 
corrosion arising from the passage of the return currents of an electric 
street-railway into or out of the pipes. 



P.M. 



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Water-Supply Department. 125 

It seems further to be almost incontestably shown that the under- 
ground conditions in Boston are such that electric ctirrents, presumably 
of considerable magnitude, pass into and out of the pipes by way of the 
earth, and with the unavoidable accompaniment of electrolysis and cor- 
rosion. 

It remains to be shown whether this corrosion is or is not, under ex- 
isting conditions, a serious factor in lessening the life of the piping 
system as a whole or of any part of it in particular. 

Upon this most important subject we feel that the points previously 
made in this report would certainly not warrant a hopeful view. They 
would rather incline one toward the opinion that serious corrosion may 
be now proceeding ; but we must strongly call attention to the fact that 
it has been impossible, thus far, to acquire sufficient reliable informa- 
tion to warrant a decision. 

The matter is under further investig:ation. 



RcTnedy. 

As to remedy it is clear, of course, that were the return railway cir- 
cuit to be confined to channels pi'ovided for it, the trouble would cease. 
This it is impossible to do with a railway system in which the cars give 
up their return current to the uninsulated rails as now. However good 
the conductivity of the cojjper return lines provided, the current will 
divide between them and the earth, the fraction going back by earth 
being to that going back by the copper lines as the earth conductivity is 
to that of the lines. Now, the earth conductivit}' is at least fairly good, 
so that the amount of copper required in returns becomes enormous to 
reduce the earth currents to small amounts. Railway systems which do 
not ground the return have not proved successful for various reasons. 

To remove the difficulty with telephone cables, the New England 
Telephone & Telegra^jh Company has laid a special copper return along 
the affected part of the cable, and thence by a heavy overhead line back 
to the power-house. This, together with the practice by the West End 
Street Railway Company of making the trolley-wire positive, has 
proved lai-gely successful. 

It is feasible because the number of these cases to be dealt with is 
comparatively small, so that the expense is not intolerable. 

A similar suggestion respecting certain portions of the water-main 
system was offered by us in February, 1893. 

The larger and better distributed such a system of special copper re- 
turn from the water-pipes is, the less danger from electrolysis ; but the 
great outlay for copper involved is pi"ohibitive beyond ascertain limit. 
Whether within this limit the electrolysis can be reduced to an unimpor- 
tant amount is by no means yet demonstrated. The data is still so 
incomplete as not to warrant a positive inference. 

(Signed) Stone & Webster. 



Sources of Supply. 

The rainfall during the year 1893 was above the average 
of the last twenty years, but on account of the unequal dis- 
tribution of the rainfall the amount of water in store in the 
reservoirs was reduced to a smaller amount than during any 
year since the Sudbury-river works have been in use. 



126 City Document No. 39. 

The rainfall and quantities collected on the several water- 
sheds were as follows : 





Sudbury. 


Cochituate. 


Mystic. 


Rainfall in inches . 


48.225 


45.28 


44.20 


" collected in 








inches 


21.774 


17.65 


19.687 


Daily average yield 








of water-shed in 








gallons 


77,963,300 


15,862,000 


25,192,500 



The quality of the water has continued to be good, the 
only noticeable change being in an increase in color of the 
water of the Sudbury and Cochituate supply. This has been 
caused by the use of a larger proportion of Sudbury-river 
water. 

Reservoir JSfo. 1. — With the exception of a few days dur- 
ing the first week of January, no water was wasted over the 
dam until February 8. 

Water flowed over the crest of the dam continuously from 
this time until June 6, when waste ceased and the amount 
passing the dam from the latter date to January 1, 1894, has 
been only the daily flow of one and one-half million gallons 
required by law. 

The lowest point reached by the reservoir was 155.11, or 
4.18 feet below the top of the flash-boards on November 27, 
1893. 

Reservoir JSfo. 2. — The water in this reservoir remained 
at or near high-water mark until the first of July. During 
the month of July the water surface was lowered nearly 
seven feet, and in the months of August and September it 
was from five to six feet below high-water mark. In Octo- 
ber and November the quantity in store was still further re- 
duced, and on December 1 the water was 12.7 feet below 
high water, the lowest point reached during the year. 

Reservoir JSfo. 3. — This reservoir was drawn down to 8 
feet below the crest of the dam during the mouth of January, 
but on February 13 water began to waste over the dam and 
continued until the first of June. 

Water was taken from this reservoir for the supply of the 
city from May 24 to August 3, and at the latter date the sur- 
face of the reservoir was 17.89 feet below the crest of the 
dam. 

It was again drawn upon on September 26, and on October 
23 the reservoir was practically empty. It remained empty 
until December 1, when it began to till, and on Februar^'^ 1 
the water-surface was 2.68 feet below the crest of the dam. 



Water-Supply Department. 127 

Heservoir' JSTo . 4. — On January 1, 1893, the water in Res- 
ervoir No. 4 was 20.99 feet below high-water mark. On 
March 23 the reservoir was full and water began to waste 
at the overflow. 

The reservoir was kept full until August 3, when the 
gates were opened, and during August and September 
1,293,800,000 gallons were drawn from the reservoir for 
the supplj' of the city, lowering the water in the reservoir 
35 feet. The outlet gates were closed from September 26 
to October 27, when they were again opened, and on 
November 17 the reservoir was emptied. 

The outlet gates have been closed since December 6, and 
at the })resent time, February 1, the water surface is 29.45 
feet below high-water mark. 

Far7n Pond. — The average height of the water in this 
pond has been 148.82 feet above tide-marsh level, and the 
surface has not varied more than 11 inches from that 
height during the year. 

The Framingham Water Company has drawn from the 
pond 103,000,000 gallons. 

Lake Cochituate. — Lake Cochituate was about six feet 
below high-water mark on January 1, 1893, and did not fill 
until April 22. 

A small quantity of water was wasted at the outlet dam in 
May, and about June 1 the lake began to fall. There was a 
gradual lowering of the water surface from June 1 to Octo- 
ber 27, when it was 6.6 feet below high- water mark, and it 
remained at about the same level during the months of No- 
vember and December. 

In October the water in the lake was but little above the 
top of the aqueduct, and for the purpose of maintaining the 
supply to the city in case of a continued drought, a temporary 
pumping plant was erected at the gate-house capable of 
pumi)ing 20,000,000 gallons per day into the aqueduct. 
The engines and pumps were placed in position, housed, 
and put in readiness for use, but the lake did not fall so as 
to require their use. 

For the purpose of purifying the water of Pegan brook 
before it enters the lake, three filter-beds have been built 
near the mouth of the brook, into which the water of the 
brook is pumped and allowed to percolate through the sand 
into the lake. The beds have a combined area of about 4 
acres, and are from 6 to 12 feet above the surface of the 
lake. They are surrounded by banks 5 feet high, and the 
two upper beds have underdrains of 8-inch vitrified pipe, 
laid ahowi 100 feet ap;irt, at a depth of 8 feet below the 
surface of the beds. 



128 City Document No. 3J). 

For the purpose of retaining the water of the brook, a dam 
8 feet in height was built, having a centre of 4-inch tongued 
and grooved sheet piling, upon which a centre wall of concrete 
was built. 

The embankment is of gravel 10 feet wide on top, with 
slopes of two horizontal to one vertical. The water is 
pumped on to the beds by means of a 25-horse power 
Hoadly engine, and two 6-inch centrifugal pumps delivering 
the water through about 1,000 feet of 12, 8, and 6 inch pipe. 
The cost of construction exclusive of land damages was 
$12,585.11. The works have been in operation since 
June 25, but from September 11 to November 3 no water 
was pumped, as the flow of the brook was so small that it 
percolated through the dam or evaporated. 

Dudley pond was drawn off to reinforce the lake during the 
month of November. 

No water has been received in the lake from the Sudbury 
river during the year. 

Water has been drawn from the difierent reservoirs as 
follows : 

Reservoir No. 1. 

February 10 to April 13, December 2 to 31. 

inclusive. 



Reservoir No. 2. 



May 23. 
August 4 to 20. 



August 22 to September 14. 
September 16 to 25. 



Reservoirs Nos. 2 and 3. 



January 1 to February 9. 
April 14 to May 11. 
May 13 to 21. 



May 25 to August 3. 
September 26 to December 1. 



The heights of water in the various storage reservoirs on 
the first day of each month are given below. 



"Water-Supply Department. 



129 





Reservoirs. 


Farm 
Pond. 


Lake 

COCHITU- 
ATE. 




No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 




Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

159.29 


Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

167.12 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 

175.24 


Crest 

of 
Dam. 

215.21 


High 
Water. 

149.25 


Top of 
Flash- 
boards. 

134.36 


January], 1893 

February 1, " 

March 1, " 

April 1, " 

May 1, " 

June 1, " 

Julyl, " 

August 1, " 

September 1, " 

October 1, " 

November 1, " 

December 1, " 

January 1, 1894 


157.44 
157.31 
157.76 
158.15 
147.83 
146.93 
156.40 
156.43 
156.20 
155.57 
155.40 
155.16 
155.55 


163.04 

159.46 ' 

166.08 

166.12 

166.11 

167.17 

166.46 

160.17 

161.55 

161.45 

157.50 

155.30 

160.17 


171.58 
167.05 
175.50 
175.52 
175.54 
175.37 
174.02 
168.02 
167.79 
166.21 
158.65 
158.20 
168.53 


194.22 
197.04 
204.64 
214.62 
214.44 
214.81 
215.05 
215.07 
201.42 
179.72 
179.77 
170.51 
178.83 


148.63 
148.75 
149.28 
149.31 
149.50 
148.89 
148.85 
348.50 
148.53 
148.31 
148.39 
148.39 
148.74 


128.41 
127.58 
129.50 
133.38 
134.51 
134.12 
133.24 
131.68 
130.60 
128.95 
128.30 
127.58 
127.94 



Aqueducts and Distributing Reservoirs. 

The Sudbury-river aqueduct has been used 361 days, and 
has delivered 11,737,900,000 gallons into the Chestnut Hill 
and Brookline reservoirs. The Cochituate aqueduct has 
been used 356 days, and delivered 5,623,532,500 gallons. 

The distributing reservoirs are in good order. The over- 
flow at the East Boston reservoir, which was constructed of 
flagging and brick, and was badly cracked by settlement or 
frost, has been replaced by a 12-inch pipe thoroughly em- 
bedded in Portland cement concrete. 



Reservoir No. 6. 

This reservoir, which has been in process of construction 
during the past four years, has been practically completed, 
and is now being filled. It is situated on Indian brook in 
the towns of Ashland and Hopkinton, and has a capacity of 
about 1,500,000,000 gallons. 

The dam across the valley is about 1,500 feet in length, 
and consists of an earth embankment with a centre core wall 
of concrete extending to the bed rock. This core wall is 8 



130 City Document No. 39. 

feet in thickness at the base, and 3 feet at the top, and is plas- 
tered on its upstream side with a very carefully applied coat- 
\ns of Portland cement one-half inch in thickness. A thick 
coating of Portland cement mortar, mixed in the proportion 
of one part cement to one part of sand, was put on to the 
concrete, rubbed to a uniform thickness and left rouofh. 
Over this was smoothly spread with trowels a coat of neat 
Portland cement, which was thoroughly worked in order to 
make a perfectly water-tight surface. 

The embankment is 20 feet wide on top. The inner or 
reservoir slope is two horizontal to one vertical, with a berme 
6 feet in width 13 feet below the top of the embankment. 
This slope is riprapped below the berme, and from the berme 
to the top of the embankment is paved. The outer slope is 
covered with loam, and has a gutter running longitudinally 
about half-way down its face to prevent washing of the banks 
by rain. Above this gutter the slope is 2 to 1, and below 
2^tol. 

The body of the embankment is composed of sand and 
gravel, deposited in thin layers, watered, and well compacted 
by rolling. Next the core wall, on the upstream side, the 
material was selected so as to aid in securino- a water-tio;ht 
dam. 

Two gate-houses have been constructed in the dam in 
which the delivery pipes are so arranged that the water can 
be drawn from different levels, and if desired discharged into 
filter beds. 

For further information concerning work on this reservoir 
and other work in connection with additional supply, see the 
following report of Desmond FitzGerald, Resident Engineer : 

South Feamingham, Mass., January 1, 1894. 
William Jackson, Esq., Citi/ Engineer: 

Dear Sir : I submit herewith a brief report of engineer- 
ing work accomplished during the past year by the Addi- 
tional Supply force. 

At Basin No. 6 the building of the core wall was resumed 
on May 1, and on May 10 the first gravel was delivered. 
The dam was built up from grade 270 to the top, b}^ the end 
of the year, and is practically completed, although the paving 
is not yet done. The riprap extending from the berme to 
the inner toe is in place, and the broken stone above the 
berme, forming the footing-course for the paving, has been 
placed so that the basin can now be filled. The contract for 
laying the riprap and paving was awarded to John Berry 
on September 19. The removal of the loam from the basin 



Water-Supply Department. 131 

and the treatment for shallow flowage were completed before 
the end of the season. October 2 a small section of strip- 
ping, remaining near the dam, was let to A. Saucier. 

The loam for the Boston Park Department was all re- 
moved, and the tracks taken out of the basin. 

Mr. N. S. Brock, Assistant Engineer, has had charge of 
Basin 6. 



Work 


DONE 


AT Basin 6 in 1893. 


5,564 


cubic 


yards 


concrete. 


4,196 


square 




cement plaster. 


04,170 


cubic 




embankment. 


20,000 


i ( 




stripping. 


3,670 


i 1, 




stone crushed. 


1,574 


i i 




sand screened. 


4,522 


i i 




riprap. 


1,504 


i i 




ballast. 


12,000 


t i 




loam hauled. 



Gravel for the embankment was taken this year from a 
new gravel pit on the westerly side of the basin. 

Survej'^s in connection with Basin No. 5 have been con- 
tinued. Property and seizure lines have been run out, and 
plans have been made in connection with changes in the 
roads. Early in the year plans and specifications were com- 
pleted for the dam, and on July 17 a contract was awarded 
to Moulton O'Mahoney for building the dam for $454,729.90. 
Since that time the plans have been modified to harmonize 
with the work contemplated by the State for a metropolitan 
system. Owing to delays caused by negotiating with South- 
boro', in regard to changes in roads, no work has yet been 
done. 

Early in January, 1893, some studies and surveys were 
made in connection with the proposed Natick Sewerage 
plans. In February a filter scheme for Pegan brook, Na- 
tick, was devised, which was carried out in June, and is now 
in successful operation. The water of the brook is pumped 
on to shallow beds, and is filtered before passing into the lake. 

Studies have been continued during the year on many 
matters connected with the Sudbury supply, such as drain- 
age of the swamps, and the possible construction of other 
basins. 

Plans and specifications have been prepared for construct- 
ing filter beds on the brooks drainins; Marlboroush. 
Very truly yours, 
(Signed) Desmond FitzGerald, 

Resident Engineer. 



132 



CiTT Document No. 39. 



High-Service Pumping- Stations. 

The engines and boilers at the Chestnut Hill station are 
in good condition. The daily average quantity pumped was 
15.4 per cent, more than in 1892. During the month of 
July Engine No. 1 pumped 10,451,500 gallons per day, and 
for the entire year the pumps delivered about 21 per cent, 
above their rated capacity. 

The foundations for Engine No. 3 were completed in 
April. The engine is now being shipped from the works in 
New York and will soon be erected by the contractor. A 
contract was made on April 18 with the Atlantic Works to 
furnish a Belpaire fire-box boiler for use with the new engine. 
The table on page 145 shows in detail the work done by the 
pumping-engines and boilers during the year. 



Engine No. 1 was run 4,512 hours, 
pumping ..... 

Engine No. 2 was run 4, 162 J hours, 
pumping . . . . . 

Total amount pumped . 
" " coal us ed . 

Percentage, ashes and clinkers 

Average lift in feet 

Quantity pumped per lb. of coal 

Daily average amount pumped 



1,860,811,915 gallons. 

1,649,918,185 " 

3,510,730,100 " 

4,210,241 lbs. 
7.6 
126.71 

859.6 gallons. 

9,618,400 " 



On account of the large increase in the quantity pumped 
one boiler was not sufficient to easily supply steam for 
pumping, lighting, and heating the buildings, and a tempo- 
rary boiler has been placed in the boiler-house for use in 
connection with the two old boilers. 



Cost of Pumping 

Salaries 

Fuel .... 

Kepairs 

Oil, waste, and packing 

Small supplies . 

Total . . . . . 

Cost per million gallons raisek one foot high, 
Cost per million gallons pumped to reservoir, 



$11,745.25 

9,159.58 

814.97 

593.37 

88.13 

122,401.30 

$0.05 

$6.38 



At the West Roxbury pumping-station the daily average 
quantity pumped was 96,900 gallons, an increase of 5.5 per 
cent, over the amount pumped in 1892. 



Water-Supply Department. 133 

At the East Boston station 402,400 gallons per day have 
been pumped for the supply of the high-service district, and 
24,000 gallons per day for the Breed's island high service. 

The pump used for the Breed's island service is in poor 
condition, and should be replaced by a new pump. 

Mystic Lake. 

On January 1, 1893, the surface of the lake was 1.50 feet 
below high-water mark. During the month of January the 
water-surface gradually fell, and on February 7 was 4.15 feet 
below high water. Copious rain and melting snow quickly 
filled the lake, and from February 9 to June 7 water was 
wasted over the dam. During the summer and fall the lake 
surface fell, and on October 23 it was 8.90 feet below high 
water. The temporary pumps were used at the lake to raise 
the water into the conduit from October 19 to November 4. 

During November and December the lake filled slowly, and 
on January 1, 1894, was 3.15 feet below high water. 

Advantage was taken of the low water in the lake to remove 
about 14,000 cubic yards of loam from the section of the 
lake near the mouth of the Abbajona river, and depositing it 
in the shallow coves. 

Mystic-Valley Sewer. 

The quantity of sewage pumped and chemically treated 
during the year was 126,226,000 gallons, an average of 
361,700 gallons per day. 

The table on page 147 gives the monthly quantities of sew- 
age pumped, aluminum used, coal burned, etc. 

Mystic Conduit and Reservoir. 

The conduit has been cleaned and is now in good condition. 

Recommendations made in previous reports in regard to 
repairs at conduit screen chamber and at reservoir have not 
been carried out and are now renewed. 

Mystic Pdmping-Station. 

There has been a large increase during the past year in the 
quantity pumped, and it has been necessary to run all of the 
pumps at times to maintain the supply. 

Engine No. 1 was, used 1,070| hours 

pumping 223,963,200 gallons. 

Engine No. 2 was used 4,323|- hours 

pumping . . . . . 968,212,000 



134 



City Document No. 39. 



Engine No. 3 was used 8,358^ hours 

pumping . . 

Total amount pumped 
Total amount coal consumed . 
Percentage, ashes and clinkers 
Average lift in feet 
Quantity pumped per lb. of coal 
Average duty of engines per 100 lbs. 

coal, no deductions 
Daily average amount pumped 



2,882,304,000 gallons. 
4,074,479,200 

9,188,000 lbs. 
10.5 
149.36 
443.5 gallons. 

55,239,700 ft. lbs. 
11,163,000 gallons. 



Cost of Pumping. 

Salaries . $10,968 70 

Fuel 18,790 47 

Repairs 3,608 28 

Oil, waste, and packing .... 674 50 

Small supplies 187 01 

Total $34,228 96 

Cost per million gallons raised one foot high . $0,056 

Cost per million gallons pumped to reservoir . $8 40 

The table on page 146 shows in detail the work done by the 
engines during the year. 

Engine No. 1, which was the first of the w^ell-known type 
of Worthington compound duplex pumping-engine ever built, 
has been thoroughly overhauled and put in repair during the 
year. 

The steam cylinders were rebored and the pistons fitfed 
with St. John's packing. The United States metallic pack- 
ing, which had been in use on the piston-rods for nineteen 
years, was after some small repairs replaced as good as new. 
New piston-rods were placed in the low-pressure cylinders, 
the steam- valves reset, and other repairs made, for details of 
which see report of Superintendent. 

A 250-light dynamo and 18-horse power Armington and 
Sims engine have been placed in the engine-house. 

On December 30 a contract w^as made with the Blake 
Manufacturing Company for an additional engine to be 
placed in this station. 

It is to be built from designs of Mr. E. D. Leavitt, and is a 
compound beam and fly-wheel engine operating two ditteren- 
tial plunger-pumps. The capacity of the pumps will be 
about 10,^500,000 gallons per 24 hours. It is expected that 
this engine will be ready for service before the end of the 
present year. 



WATER-SUPPLY Department. 



135 



Consumption. 

The daily average consamptiou for the j^ear was as fol- 
lows : 



Sudbury and Cochituate Works . 
Mystic Works .... 

Total combined supplies 



47,453,200 gallons. 
10,742,500 



58,195,700 



an increase of 13.8 per cent, from that of the previous year. 

The consumption during each month for the past seven 
years is given by the table on page 138. 

The following table shows the consumption per capita for 
the past two years : 

Cousumption. 



Month. 



January 
February 
March . 
April . . 
May . . 
June . . 
July . . 
August . , 
September 
October . 
November 
December 

Average 



Cochituate. 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 



1892. 



86.4 

91.3 

89.9 

86.9 

86.5 

96.8 

106.3 

104.5 

104.8 

103.1 

95.4 

100.7 



96.1 



J89». 



123.7 
117.6 
111.4 
104.1 

99.0 
100.4 
110.6 
108.3 
105.5 
104.2 

99.3 
106.9 



107.5 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Capita. 



1S93. 



80.4 
84.0 
80.8 
73.9 
74.2 
81.6 
85.8 
77.9 
76.2 
74.3 
73.3 
82.9 



78.8 



111.5 
103.7 
91.9 
76.9 
76.7 
81.5 
80.6 
77.6 
71.8 
75.7 
75.0 
90.9 



84.4 



Combined 
Supplies. 



Consumption in 
Gallons per Cajjita. 



189S. 1893 



85.1 

89.7 
87.9 
84.0 
83.7 
93.4 
101.7 
98.5 
98.4 



120.9 
114.5 
107.0 
98.1 
94.0 
96.1 
104.0 
101.5 
98.0 
97.8 
93,9 
103.3 



102.4 



On June 29 a small section of the Charlestown district, 
containing a population of about 2,400, was connected with 
the Cochituate high service. 

The consumption per capita was larger than in any year 
since the works were built. 



13Q City Document No. 39. 

Loss OF Head. 

In order to have a continuous record of the water press- 
ures in the mains at different points throughout the city, six 
recording pressure gauges have been placed in fire-engine 
houses. 

These, with four gauges previously established, furnish a 
record which is of great value in determining the necessity 
for larger mains, and in case of excessive draft upon the 
supply for fires or other causes the available pressure at all 
times is accurately recorded. 

The table on page 144 gives the results shown by these 
gauges. 

Distribution. 

On the Cochituate works 15.96 miles of pipe were laid, and 
10 miles purchased of the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Company 
were connected with our system. About two miles of pipe 
have been abandoned, and the total now connected with the 
system is 560 miles. 

No large mains have been laid during the year, and noth- 
ing has been done in the improvement of the supply for fire- 
service by the replacing of old mains with new ones of larger 
size. 

Seventeen hundred feet of the 6-inch flexible pipe crossing 
the channel between Moon and Long islands has been 
relaid, it having been frozen and burst during the winter. 
Pipes have been laid from Long island to Rainsford island, 
3,600 feet of 4-inch pipe on the islands, and 2,200 feet of 
3-inch wrought-iron pipe across the channel. 

The distribution system of the Mystic works has been ex- 
tended 4.3 miles and 5.36 miles have been relaid, generally 
with pipe of larger size. The length of mains now con- 
nected with these works is 164.8 miles, of which 39.1 miles 
are maintained by the city of Boston, the remainder being 
under the control of other municipalities. 

Two hundred and forty-nine hydrants have been estab- 
lished in the Cochituate and 83 in the Mystic works, making 
the total number now in use on the combined supplies 7,348. 

Contracts have been made for pipes for an additional 30- 
inch main in Dorchester avenue and D street from Swett 
street to Congress street for the improvement of the supply 
in South Boston, and for an additional main to reinforce the 
present supply for the Brighton district. 

Pipes for an additional force main, 36 inches in diameter, 
between the Chestnut Hill Pumping-station and Fisher Hill 
reservoir, and for the extension of the 24-inch low service 



Boston Water Works. 

©iagi-^n-j SfjowirTg +tpe l^elgb-t^ of§udbui^ l^ivfei-'l^eseiVoii'lj Fai'i-r, Pbrjd, 3170! Cocl7l+ua'fe 3170! 
Mystic Lal^es, aiTcl ^7e I^ai7fall 017 +[76 ^udbui^ l^ivei' VVafei' .gl^ad c/urn7g +^72 year /S33. 




KV- 



\' 



■oiic,! 



b-tis .C.'S>I.'=; J .-'i+JvM 



3^ 












i: 



Water-Supply Department. 137 

miiin in Dorchester are on hand and the mains will be hiid 
during the coming season. 

Twenty-five contracts for rock excavation were made dur- 
ing the year. Two hundred and sixteen petitions for main 
pipe extensions were reported upon in regard to grade of 
street, size of main, and cost of laying. 

The pipe laid during the year has been measured, the 
gates and hydrants located and plotted on the plans. 

The records from the four pumping-stations, the lakes, 
reservoirs, the Mystic sewer, and the returns from the pipe 
foundries, etc., have been carefully recorded. 

Appended to this report will be found the usual tables of 
rainfall, consumption, yield of water-sheds, etc. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William Jackson, 

Oity Engineer. 



138 



City Document No. 39. 



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BOSTON WATER WORKS. 

Diagl^am showing the rainfall and dally avei-&ge Consumption 
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Yearly Averages Shov^n fhu% 




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2 >> 

C5 U O 

III 

<1 



140 



City Document No. 39. 






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142 



City Document No. 89. 
























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Water-Supply Department. 



143 



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144 



City Docibient No. 39. 






Ki 



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No. 32, 
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street, 
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Mystic 
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04 






Engine-ho 

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Paris stre 

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146 



City Document No. 39. 



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CO 




CO 













































""S 


Co 







































5* 


(N__ 


^. 


IM_ 










s_ 


CO 


to__ 


00 


cq_ 


cq_ 




Si 



































<m" 


CO 


•*" 










eo" 


CO 


oo" 


oT 




eo 






CO 


10 












oa 


CO 




CO 


t*» 


to 




e 


vn 














& 


"*. 




to 


cn_ 


t» 






























o 


03 





to 


00 












00* 


CO 


lO 


cf 


eo" 




CO 














1-1 


:q 




cq 


CO 


cq 
cq 




s 


l« 
















in 


m 


in 


in 





in 


t-< 


in 


IH 


eo 


CO 












rH 






CO 


T)l 




c3-g 0) 


S 




























W 


o a " 






























1 


in 


^ 


to 










00 





o> 


^ 


CO 







10 


CO 


eo 










t- 


eo 




CO 









ft 


rH 


















eo 


rH 


'""' 




















• 




• 


• 




■O aa 


M 

at) 

H 


a 
1 




3 


ja 










3 
3 


(S 

J= 

i 


u 


i 


u 


i 


a a 
c3 bo 

3^ 








3 
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JO 





p 


> 


F; 


> 

1 


ft 







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0. 



Watee-Supply Department. 



147 



Table showing Work done at Mystic Sewage Pumping- Station during the 

Tear 1893. 



1S93. 



Hrs. Min. 






Gallons. 



Lbs. 



Lbs. 



« ■" p 

C3 CS P.« 



Gallons^ 



January . 
February . 
March . . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December . 

Totals 



517 

485 
582 
502 
517 
517 
501 
1409 
468 
485 
459 
532 



135,000 
,336,000 
371,000 
,573,000 
,746,000 
,244,000 
,966,000 
,224,000 
,212,000 
,493,000 
,490,000 
,436,000 



31,210 
29,610 
36,030 
29,300 
31,395 
27,800 
24,050 
18,845 
20,495 
23,155 
n4,220 
23.025 



40,250 
37,470 
43,680 
39,980 
43,150 
41,960 
39,060 
32,320 
33,000 
31,920 
36,800 
40,374 



5,979 



55 126,226,000 



309,135 



459,964 



391,500 
440,600 
528,100 
413,300 
405,000. 
341,500 
298,900 
314,100 
283,200 
274,000 
292,800 
347,900 



361,700 



1 August 20th to 27th repairing engine. 

2 November 5th to 14th no sulphate of alumina used. Supply-pipe being repaired. 



148 



CiTr Document No. 39. 



Statement of Operations at the West Roxhury Puvnping- Station for the 

Year 1893. 



1893. 


60 

a 

3 *^ 

o 


c 
s . 

^ 


552 
a o 


«_: 

P<ea 

as 

>, . 


a a 

gg 

i| 

S'S 
o o 


o a 

p " 
ffl-a 
« a 


o 

IS 

> 


Month. 


Hours. 


Min. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Pounds. 


Per cent. 


Feet. 


January . . 
February . 
March . . . 
April . . . 
May .... 
June . . . 
July .... 
August . . 
September . 
October . . 
November . 
December . 


218 
195 
170 
139 
175 
214 
310 
290 
242 
257 
225 
217 


00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
30 
00 
00 
00 


3,265,950 
3,002,550 
2,401,875 
1,931,700 
2,502,675 
3,049,425 
4,150,950 
3,830,775 
2,994,825 
3,132,450 
2,562,975 
2,531,700 


105,400 

107,200 

77,500 

64,400 

80,700 

101,600 

133,900 

123,600 

99,800 

101,100 

85,400 

81,700 


136.2 
142.0 
134.4 
135.8 
153.3 
158.0 
159.0 
162.0 
158.7 
159.0 
148.1 
134.1 


23,975 
21,150 
17,875 
14,225 
16,325 
19,300 
26,100 
23,650 
18,875 
19,700 
17,300 
18,875 


19.7 
19.3 
19.5 
18.7 
19.1 
20.6 
21.4 
20.8 
20.2 
20.1 
20.6 
20.7 


135.85 
134.15 
133.50 
134.23 
137.05 
137.34 
138.45 
138.72 
138.52 
139.05 
139.40 
138.02 


Totals and 
averages, 


2,652 


30 


35,357,850 


96,900 


149.0 


237,350 


20.1 


137.02 



Watee-Supply Department. 



149 



statement of Operations at the East Boston Pumping- Station for the Year 

1898. 





Engines Nos. 1 and 2. 




Engine No. C 


. 


"3 
o 


•a 






1 










O 

pa 




1S93. 


S 6 
!= a 

■S.9 


« s s 




C 

a 


O 

3s^ 


a3 

I 


.a 
o • 

(2" 


Month. 


Hrs. 


M. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 


Hrs. 


M. 


Gallons. 


Gallons 


Pounds, 


Pe*- c«. 


Jan. . 


437 


55 


19,280,100 


621,900 


61 


50 


967,020 


31,200 


57,910 


19.8 


Feb. , 


3i8 


15 


14,774,620 


527,600 


54 


10 


828,900 


29,600 


43,520 


20.4 


March, 


343 


45 


13,588,120 


438,300 


40 


05 


625,380 


20,200 


40,260 


20,0 


April . 


290 


30 


10,978,940 


366,000 


36 


20 


541,140 


18,000 


30,310 


19.5 


May . 


274 


15 


10,727,220 


346,000 


40 


40 


582,180 


18,800 


29,910 


18,5 


June . 


266 


40 


10,777,060 


359,200 


50 


20 


722,760 


24,100 


30,130 


18.5 


July . 


277 


15 


11,656,260 


376,000 


67 


00 


944,700 


30,500 


31,827 


18.5 


Aug. . 


272 


35 


11,260,420 


363,200 


57 


35 


795,180 


25,600 


30,030 


18.6 


Sept. . 


264 


00 


10,986,640 


366,200 


48 


15 


685,680 


22,900 


27,260 


18.5 


Oct. . 


264 


45 


11,043,060 


356,200 


50 


25 


690,660 


22,300 


26,760 


18.1 


Nov. . 


239 


15 


9,903,460 


330,100 


45 


35 


625,080 


20,800 


25,070 


18.3 


Dec. . 


284 


15 


11,894,260 


383,700 


54 


05 


761,340 


24,600 


31,520 


17.7 


Totals, 


3,563 


25 


146,870,160 


402,400 


606 


20 


8,770,020 


24,000 


404,507 


19.0 



150 



City Document No. 39. 



Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths on the Sudbury River Water-shed for 

the Year 1893. 



1893. 


ca 


IS 




ft 




a 


>> 

1 




1 

ft 

o 

m 


u 

1 

o 

o 


si 

1 


u 

(0 
S 


1 


0.930 


0.295 














0.270 






0.370 


2 






















3 




0.335 






3.950 
















4 




0.415 


0.130 










0.060 


0.755 


1.430 


5 










0.425 


1.615 
0.430 
0.115 




0.680 


6 

7 


0.935 


0.590 




0.360 
0.520 


0.050 


0.275 


0.515 


0.095 




8 








0.340 






0.040 








9 

10 


0.490 


1.170 


1.390 










0.005 




0.410 


11 .... 


























12 


0.015 
0.010 


1.610 


0.625 








0.145 


0.035 








0.020 


13 


0.025 


0.505 


0.880 










14 . . 








0.790 






15 .... 


0.120 




0.980 


0.670 












0.185 




16 ... 


1.570 








0.625 






17 










0.230 


0.060 
0.865 


0.030 






1.640 


18 

19 ... 




1.190 
0.055 






0.055 


0.175 




0.005 


0.040 


20. 






















21 






0.040 
0.220 


1.140 








1.770 
0.925 










22 

2a 

24 . . . 


0.040 


1.840 

0.205 
0.310 


0.050 


0.985 


0.385 
0.065 


0.035 
0.035 


2.260 


0.695 


0.065 


25 

26 

27 


O.0S5 




0.120 
0.210 

0.090 


0.065 


0.010 


0.205 
0.275 






28 

29 


e.280 


0.595 




0.365 




0.095 


0.495 


0.080 


0.855 


0.555 


0.055 


30 








31 


0.020 










0.010 










0.150 














Totals . 


2.925 


8.195 


3.670 


3.605 


6.610 


2.3S0 


2.570 


5.415 


1.735 


4.065 


2.195 


4.860 



Total rainf.in during the year, 48.225 inches, being an average of two gauges, located at 
Framiirghani and Ashland. 



"Water-Supply Department. 



151 



Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths at Lake CocMtuate for the Tear 1893. 



1893. 



10, 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15 , 
16. 
17, 
18, 
19, 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23, 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 



0.79 



0.26 



0.57 



1.33 



0.88 



1.57 



0.37 
0.29 



0.45 



,09 



2.94 



Totals . 2.61 7.26 3.13 3.21 5.45 2.75 2.40 5.86 1.76 3.74 2.08 5,03 



04 



,08 



18 



0.33 



1.41 
0.90 



0.38 



0.05 



0.08 



0.07 



0.13 



Total rainfall during the year, 45.28 inches. 



152 



City Document No. 39. 



Rainfall in Inches and Hundredths at Mystic Lake for the Year 1893. 



1893. 


p 

1-5 


3 


1 

S 




03 


p 

p 


"p 


B 
SJ) 
P 
< 


u 

o 

a 
ft 

a 


o 

B 

o 
O 


S 

a 
ffi 
> 

o 


a 
§ 

a ■ 
O 


1 . . . . . 


0.99 


0.23 














0.37 






0.44 


2 






















3 




0.35 








0.07 


. . . 


. . . 








. . . 


4 


. . . 


. . . 


0.13 


0.04 


3.68 




. . . 




. . . 


0.10 




1.42 


5 














0.22 


1.63 
1.21 


. . . 


0.05 


0.70 




6 


0.30 


0.52 




0.19 


0.04 


0.20 


0.33 


7 








0.53 








0.19 


0.68 








8 








0.24 






0.03 








9 


0.50 




1.05 






• • . 












. . . 


10 .... . 




0.85 




















0.37 


11 


























12 




1.27 


0.27 


0.01 
0.45 


0.48 


0.28 


0.06 


0.03 








0.06 


13 






0,03 




14 




. . . 


. . . 


1.20 


. . . 


15 


0.08 


. . . 


0.89 


0.33 










0.02 
0.52 


0.05 


0.18 




16 


1.60 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 


17 




. . . 








0.28 




. . . 


0.03 






1.36 


18 




1.40 
0.20 




. . . 


0.05 




0.36 
0.18 


0.18 










19 


0.14 






0.07 


20 
















0.04 






0.03 




21 






0.03 


1.20 
0.02 








1 50 










22 




1.75 


. . . 




0.94 




0.03 




0.86 


. . . 


23 


0.02 




0.17 


. . . 


0.03 


1.27 


0.07 


. . . 


0.05 






0.11 


24 




0.29 




. . . 




. . . 




0.25 




2.25 




• . . 


25 


0.07 


0.30 




0.15 






0.14 


. . . 


0.06 






. . . 


26 




. . . 






0.03 


. . . 


0.02 


. . . 








. . . 


27 








0.19 


0.35 
















28 




0.34 












0.45 


0.45 




29 . . . . . 


0.27 




0.01 


0.02 




♦ 


0.02 


0.38 


0.11 


0.10 


30 








31 


0.03 


















0.09 




























Totals. . 


2.26 


7.50 


2.55 


3.37 


6.26 


2.10 


2.04 


5.41 


2.01 


4.10 


2.25 


4.35 



Total rainfall during the year, 44.20 inches. 



Water-Supply Department. 



153 



Rainfall Received and Collected, 1893. 





Sudbury. 


COCHITUATB. 


Mystic. 


Month. 


"a 
a 

"3 


.9 "3 
3 « 


13 


"3 

<4-l 

d 

"3 


-d 
3 « 


-a 
. o 

II 


"3 
a 

1 


= 1 

5 o 


■6 

Ph 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 

cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 
cent. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Per 
cent. 


January . . 
February . 
March . . . 
April . . . 
May .... 
June . . . 
July .... 
August . . 
September . 
October . . 
November . 
December . 


2.925 
8.195 
3.670 
3.605 
6.610 
2.380 
2.570 
5.415 
1.735 
4.065 
2.195 
4.860 


0.773 
2.485 
5.789 
3.668 
5.143 
0.759 
0.282 
0.322 
0.187 
0.395 
0.550 
1.421 


26.44 

30.32 

157.74 

101.75 

77.81 

31.88 

10.96 

5.95 

10.75 

9.72 

25.07 

29.23 


2.61 
7.26 
3.13 
3.21 
5.45 
2.75 
2.40 
5.86 
1.76 
3.74 
2.08 
5.03 


0.64 
2.55 
4.12 
2.42 
1.83 
0.75 
0.38 
0.77 
0.42 
1.09 
1.00 
1.68 


24.53 
35.14 
131.74 
75.65 
33.52 
27.22 
15.85 
13.16 
23.93 
28.78 
48.36 
33.42 


2.26 
7.50 
2.55 
3.37 
6.26 
2.10 
2.04 
5.41 
2.01 
4.10 
2.25 
4.35 


0.752 
2.143 
4.521 
2.718 
4.420 
1.040 
0.473 
0.684 
0.411 
0.551 
0.709 
1.265 


33.27 
28.58 
177.31 
80.66 
70.61 
49.52 
23.17 
12.64 
20.45 
13.43 
31.53 
29.07 


Totals and 
averages, 


48.225 


21.774 1 45.15 


45.28 


17.65 


38.99 


44.20 


19.687 


44.54 



154 



City Document No. 39. 



ti 



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c 
c 




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■• I 


c 

ct 


1 
C9 


















c 






















ct 


1 


C 


0. 


















» 


•c 


fl 
















T 


t~ 




c 








1 


4 






b 


n fc 


a 


c 


ct 






E 


1 


g 


a. 


c 


tt 


■" C 

1. d 


1 








1 




e 
1 C 




a 


£ 


b 

X 


' I 


•- 


2 

4> 




c 

1 




- c 

1- 


> 1 


1 


c 

- 1 


£ 


> ^ 




< 





Water-Supply Department. 



155 



Talle showing the Temperature of Air and Water at Various Stations 
on the Water- Works. 













Tempkbatuee of Air. 




Tempeeatttbe of 
Water. 


1893. 


Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 


Framingham. 


Brookline 
Reservoir. 


Mystic 
Engine- 
House. 




a 

03 


S 

a 

'3 


i 


a 

3 

a 


a 

"a 






03 


January . 








54.0 


-7.0 


18.8 


52.0 


-11.0 


16.5 


37.0 


34.4 


February 








49.5 


-2.0 


26.0 


50.0 


-4.0 


24.5 


36.3 


35.0 


March . . 








54.5 


7.0 


32.9 


55.0 


3.0 


31.3 


35.9 


34.6 


April . . 








69.0 


19.0 


44.6 


71.0 


16.0 


43.8 


43.7 


42.3 


May . . . 








90.5 


36.0 


57.7 


89.0 


31.0 


56.8 


54.9 


54.4 


June . . 








93.0 


44.0 


67.3 


93.0 


42.0 


66.5 


66.7 


67.6 


July . . . 








93.5 


50.0 


71.7 


93.0 


49.0 


70.0 


72.3 


72.1 


August . 








94.0 


49.5 


70.4 


93.0 


46.0 


69.3 


72.3 


72.9 


September 








84.5 


40.0 


59.2 


79.0 


36.0 


57.8 


66.2 


66.4 


October . 








80.0 


27.5 


54.2 


77.0 


24.0 


52.6 


58.0 


57.8 


November 








68.0 


12.0 


40.6 


64.0 


9.0 


38.8 


43.7 


48.3 


December 








54.0 


-7.0 


29.0 


54.0 


-8.0 


27.2 


37.0 


36.4 



City Document No. 39. 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. 
REPORT FOR 1893. 



Boston Water-Works, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 
supplies also the cities of Somerville, Chelsea, and Everett. 

Population by census of 1890 : 

Boston . " 448,477 

Chelsea . . '. 27,909 

Somerville 40,152 

Everett . 11,068 



Total 527,606 

Date of construction ; 

Cochituate Works 1848 

Mystic " 1864 

By whom owned. — City of Boston. 

Sources of supply. — Lake Cochituate, Sudbury river, and 

Mystic lake. 
Mode of supply. — Sixty-five per cent, from gravity works. 
Thirty-five *' " pumping " 





Pumping. 






COCHITDATE. 


Mtstic. 


Builder of pumping 






machinery . 


Holly Co. 


H. E. Worthington. 


Description of coal used 


: 




a Kind 


Bituminous. 


Bituminous. 


c Size . 


Broken. 


Broken. 


e Price per gross 






ton, in bins 


$5.30, $5.00, 


$4.45, $4.35, 




$4.75 


$4.12, $4.20, $4.36 


f Per cent, of ash, 


7.6 


10.5 




Cochituate. Mystic. 



Coal consumed for year, in 

lbs 4,210,241 9,188,000 

Total pumpage for year, in 

gallons . " . . 3,510,730,100 4,074,479,200 

Average dynamic head, in 

feet .... 126.71 149.36 

Gallons pumped per lb. of 

coal .... 834.3 443.5 

Duty in foot- lbs. per 100 

lbs. of coal . . . 88,118,600 55,239,700 

Cost of pumping figured on 

pumping-station expenses, 

viz. ; . . . . $22,401.30 $34,228.96 



Water-Supply Department. 



157 



Cost per million gallons 
raised to reservoir 

Cost per million gallons 
raised one foot hio;h 



COCHITUATB. 



$6.38 
$0.05 



Consumption. 



Estimated population . 441,400 

Estimated No. of consumers, 435,000 

Total consumption, srallons, 17,320,427,300 
Passed through meters . 4,252,830,000 
Percentage metered . . 24.5 

Average daily consumption, 

gallons .... 47,453,200 

Gallons per day, each in- 
habitant . . . 107.4 
Gallons per day, each con- 
sumer .... 109.1 
Gallons per day to each tap, 712.6 



Mystic. 

$8.40 
10.056 

127,300 

126,000 

3,921,019,200 

701,372,910 

17.9 

10,742,500 

84.4 

85.3 
479.6 



Kind of pipe used. 

Sizes . 

Extended, miles . 
Total now in use . 
Distribution-pipes 



Distribution. 

Mains. 

COCHITUATE. 

Cast-Iron. 

48 in. to 4 in. 
17 



Mystic. 

Cast-Iron, W rough t- 

Iron, and Cement. 

30 in. to 3 in. 

4.3 



less 



than 4-in., length, 

miles 
Hydrants added . 
Hydrants now in use 
Stop-gates added . 
Stop-gates now in use 



Kind of pipe used, 

Sizes . 
Extended, feet 
Service-taps added 
Total now in use . 
Meters added 
Meters now in use 
Motors and elevators in 
use . . . . 



560.04 



2.11 

189 
6,042 

296 
6,206 



Services. 
Lead. 



m. 



to 6 in. 

37,881 
1,512 

66,586 

134 

4,046 

539 



164.8 



5.5 

83 

1,306 

138 
1,937 



Lead and 

Wrought-Iron. 

^ in. to 4 in. 

23,100 

810 

22,398 

26 

461 

21 



158 City Document No. 39. 



CIVIL ORGANIZATION OF THE WATER-WORKS, FROM 
THEIR COMMENCEMENT TO FEBRUARY 1, 1894. 

Water Commissioneks. 

Nathan Hale,^ James F. Baldwin, J Thomas B. Curtis. From 
May 4, 1846, to January 4, 1850. 

Engineers for Construction. 

John B. Jervis, of New York, Consulting Engineer. From Mav, 
1846, to November, 1848. t 

E. S. Chesbrough, Chief Engineer of the Western Division. From 
May, 1846, to January 4, 1850. | 

William S. Whitwell, Chief Engineer of the Eastern Division. 
From May, 1846, to January 4, 1850. 

Engineers having Charge of the Works. 

E. S. Chesbrough, Engineer. From November 18, 1850, to Octo- 
ber 1, 1855.t 

George H. Bailey, Assistant Engineer. From January 27, 1851, 
to July 19, 1852. 

H. S. McKean, Assistant Engineer. From July 19, 1852, to October 
1, 18554 

James Slade, Engineer. From October 1, 1855, to April 1, 1863. J 

N. Henry Crafts, Assistant Engineer. Fi'om October 1, 1855, to 
April 1, 1863. 

N. Henry Crafts, City Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to November 
25, 1872. 

Thomas W. Davis, Assistant Engineer. From April 1, 1863, to 
December 8, 1866. t 

Henry M. Wightman, Resident Engineer at C. H. Reservoir. From 
February 14, 1866, to November, 1870.$ 

A. Fteley, Resident Engineer on construction of Sudbury-river 
works. From May 10, 1873, to April 7, 1880. 

Joseph P. Davis, City Engineer. From November 25, 1872, to 
March 20, 1880. 

Henry M. Wightman, City Engineer. From April 5, 1880, to April 
3, 1885. t 

William Jackson, City Engineer. From April 21, 1885, to present 
time. 

Desmond FitzGerald, Resident Engineer on Additional Supply. 
From February 20, 1889, to present time. 

After January 4, 1850, Messrs. E. S. Chesbrough, W. S. Whitwell, 
and J. Avery Richards were elected a Water Board, subject to the 
direction of a Joint Standing Committee of the City Council, by an ordi- 
nance passed December 31, 1849, which was limited to keep in force 
one year ; and in 1851 the Cochituate Water Board was established. 

CocHiTUATE Water Board. 

Presidents of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, elected in 1851, and resigned April 
7, 1856J Five years. 



Water-Supply Department. 



159 



John H. Wilkins, elected in 1856, and resigned June 
0, 1850^ Four years. 

Ebenezer Johnson, elected in 1860, term expired April 

3, 1865t Five years. 

Otis Norcross, elected in 1865, and resigned January 

15, 1867t One year and nine months. 

John H. Thorndike, elected in 1867, term expired April 

6, 1868$ One year and thi-ee months. 

Nathaniel J. Bradlee, elected April 6, 1868, and re- 
signed January 4, 1871{ . . . Two years and nine months. 

Charles H. Allen, elected January 4, 1871, to May 4, 

1873 Two years and four months. 

John A. Haven, elected May 4, 1873, to Dec. 17, 

1874J . . . . . . . One year and seven months. 

Thomas Gogin, elected December 17, 1874, and resigned 

May 31, 1875 Six months. 

L. Miles Standish, elected August 5, 1875, to July 31, 

1876J One year. 



Members of the Board. 

Thomas Wetmore, 1851, 52, 53, 54, and bb% . . Five years. 

John H. Wilkins, 1851, 52, 53, *56, 57, 58, and 59J . Eight years. 

Henry B. Rogers, 1851, 52, 53, *54, and 55% . . Five years. 

Jonathan Preston, 1851, 52, 53, and 56J . . . Four years. 

James W. Seaver, 1851$ One year. 

Samuel A. Eliot, 1851.$ 

John T. Heard, 1851$ One year. 

Adam W. Thaxter, Jr., 1852, 53, 54, and 55$ . . Four years. 

Sampson Reed, 1852 and 1853$ Two years. 

Ezra Lincoln, 1852$ One year. 

Thomas Sprague, 1853, 54, and 55$ .... Three years. 

Samuel Hatch, 1854, 55, 56, 57, 58, and 61$ . . Six years. 

Charles Stoddard, 1854, 55, 56, and 57$ . . . Four years. 

William Washburn, 1854 and 55$ .... Two years. 

TiSDALE Drake, 1856, 67, 58, and 59$ .... Four years. 

Thomas P. Rich, 1856, 67, and 58$ .... Three years. 

John T. Dingley, 1856 and 59$ Two years. 

Joseph Smith, 1856$ Two months. 

Ebenezer Johnson, 1857, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, and 64$ Eight years. 

Samuel Hall, 1867, 58, 69, 60, and 61$ . . . . Five years. 

George P. French, 1859, 60, 61, 62, and 63$. . . Five years. 

Ebenezer Atkins, 1869$ One year. 

George Dennie, 1860, 61, 62, 63, 64, and-65 . . .Six years. 

Clement Willis, 1860$ One year. 

G. E. Pierce, 1860$ One year. 

Jabez Frederick, 1861, 62, and 63$ .... Three years. 

George Hinman, 1862 and 63 Two years. 

John F. Pray, 1862$ One year. 

J. C. J. Brown, 1862 One year. 

Jonas Fitch, 1864, 65, and 66$ Three years. 

Otis Norcross, * 1865 and 66$ Two years. 

John H. Thorndike, 1864, 65, 66, and 67$ . . . Four years. 

Benjamin F. Stevens, 1866, 67, and 68 . . . . Three years. 

William S. Hills, 1867 One year. 

Charles R. Train, 1868$ One year. 

Joseph M. AVightman, 1868 and 69$ .... Two years. 

Benjamin James, * 1858, 68, and 69 .... Three years. 

Francis A. Osborn, 1869 One year. 

Walter E. Hawes, 1870$ ...... One year. 



160 



City Document No. 39. 



68, 69, 70, 



68, 69, and 



John O- Poor, 1870 .... 
HoLLis R. Gray, 1870 .... 
Nathaniel J. Bradlke, 1863, 64, 65, 66, 67, 

and 71t . . . 
George Lewis, 1868, 69, 70, and 71$ . 
Sidney Squires, 1871 J . 
Charles H. Hersey, 1872 
Charles H. Allen, 1869, 70, 71, and 72 
Alexander Wadsworth, *1864, 65, 66, 67, 

72 

Charles R. McLean, 1867, 73, and 74$ 

Edward P. Wilbur, 1873 and 74 

John A. Haven, 1870, 71, 72, 73, and 74$ 

Thomas Gogin, 1873, 74, and 75* . 

Amos L. Noyes, 1871, 72, and 75 . 

William G. Thacher, 1873, 74, and 75$ 

Charles J. Prescott, 1875 . 

Edward A. White, 1872, 73, 74, 75, and 76t $ 

Leonard R. Cutter, 1871, 72, 73, 74, 75, and 76t 

L. Miles Standish, 1860, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 74, 75, 

and76t$ 

Charles E. Powers, *1875 and 1876t $ 
Solomon B. Stebbins, 1876t. 
Nahum M. Morrison, 1876t . 
Augustus Parker, 1876t 



One year. 
One year. 

Nine years. 
Four years. 
One year. 
One year. 
Four years. 

Seven years. 
Three years. 
Two years. 
Five yeai's. 
Three years. 
Three years. 
Three years. 
One year. 
Five j-ears. 
Six years. 

Ten years. 
Two years. 
One year. 
One year. 
One year. 



*Mr. John H. Wilkins resigned November 15, 1855, and Charles Stoddard was 
elected to till the vacancy. Mr. Hemy B. Rogers resigned October 22, 1865. Mr. 
Wilkins was rei^lected February, 1856, and chosen President of the Board, which 
office he held until his resignation, June 5, 1860, when Mr. Ebenezer Johnson was 
elected President; and July 2 Mr. L. Miles Standish was elected to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Wilkins. Otis Norcross resigned January 15, 
1867, having been elected Mayor of the city. Benjamin James served one year, in 
1858, and was reelected in 1868. Alexander Wadsworth served six years, 1864-69, 
and was reelected in 1872. Thomas Gogin resigned May 31, 1875. Charles E. 
Powers was elected July 15, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. 
Gogin. 

t Served until the organization of the Boston Water Board. 

j Deceased. 



WaTER-SuPPLY DEPAPtTMENT. 161 



Boston Water Board, 

Organized July 31, 1876. 

Timothy T. Sawyer, from July 31, 1876, to May 5, 1879 ; and from 

May ], 1882, to May 4, 1883. 
Leonard R. Cutter, from July 31, 1876, to May 4, 1883. 
Albert Stanwood, from July 31, 1876, to May 7, 1883. 
Francis Thompson, from May 5, 1879, to May 1, 1882. j 
William A. Simmons, from May 7, 1883, to August 18, 1885. 
(George M. Hobbs, from JNIay 4, 1883, to May 4, 1885. 
John G. Blake, from May 4, 1883, to August 18, 1885. 
William B. Smart, from'May 4, 1885, to March 18, 1889. 
Horace T. Rockwell, from August 25, 1885, to April 25, 1888. 
Philip J. Doherty, from March 18, 1889, to May 4, 1891. 
Thomas F. Doherty, from August 26, 1885, to May 5, 1890; and 

from May 4, 1891, to present time. 
Robert Grant, from April 25, 1888, to July 18, 1893. 
John W. Leighton, from May 5, 1890, to present time. 
William S. McNary, fi'om August 15, 1893, to present time. 

Organization of the Board for Y^ar 1893. 
Chdirman. 
Robert Grant, to July 18, 1893. 
Thos. F. Doherty, from August 15, 1893. 

Secretary and Chief Clerk. 
Walter E. Swan. 

City Engineer and Engineer of the Board. 
William Jackson. 

Sujyeriniendent of the Eastern Division of Cochituate Department. 
William J. Welch. 

Superintendent of the Western Division and Resident Engineer of 
Additional Supply. 

Desmond FitzGerald. 

Siqjerintendejit of Mystic Division. 
Eugene S. Sullivan. 

t Deceased. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Report of the Water Board 

Di>bursements . 

Earnings and expenditures 

Consumption of water, rainfall, etc. 

Extension of mains, etc. . 

Harbor service . 

Fire service 

High-service pumping-engine 

Basin No. 6 

Whitehall pond cases 

Basin No. 5 . . • 

Area and cost of basins 

Future supply . 
Mystic Department 

Electrolysis 

Taxation of property 

Filtration .... 

Biological laboratory 

In general 

General Statistics. (See also Summary of Statistics, pp. 156-7), 
Maintenance Accottnts 
Expenditure Accounts in Detail 
Cost or Construction and Condition of the Debt 
Money Expenditures 
Stock Accounts 
Outstanding Loans, etc. 
List of Contracts 
Report of Superintendent of Eastern Division 

Distribution mains, hydrants, etc. 

Waste detection and Deacon meter-system 

Tables of pipe laid, hydrants established, etc. . 
Report of Superintendent of Western Division 

Sudbury-river basins 

Whitehall pond . 

Farm pond 

Lake Cochituate 

Filter-beds 

Dudley pond 



1-2 

2-3 

3-4 

4-5 

5-6 

6 

6 

7 

7 

7-8 

8 

9 

9-10 

10 

11 

12 

12 

12-13 

m 

14-16 
17-18 
19-20 
20-21 

22 
23-25 
26-29 
30-55 
30-31 
31-32 
33-55 
56-104 
56-63 
63-64 

64' 
64-66 
(;(;-()7 

68 



164 



Table of Contents. 



Aqueducts . . . 

Cliestuut-hill, Brookline, and Fisher-hill reservoirs 

Biological laboratory . 

Pollution ..... 

Filtration ..... 

Quality of water 

Analyses and rainfall tables, etc 
Report of Superintendent of Mystic Division 

Mystic lake, reservoir, condifit, and puniping-station 

Mystic sewer and inspection 

Filtration .... 

Distribution pipes, etc., etc. 
Report of the Engineer 

Electrolysis 

Yield of sources of supply 

Sudbury reservoirs and Lake Cochituate . 

Aqueducts and distributing reservoirs 

High-service pumping- stations . 

Mystic lake . . . . . 

Mystic sewer ...... 

Mystic conduit, reservoir, and puniping-station 

Consumption ...... 

Loss of head ...... 

Distribution ...... 

Tables of consumption, diversion of Sudbury-river water, amount: 
drawn from Lake Cochituate, rainfall, operations of pumping 
stations, etc. ......... 

Summary op Statistics ....... 

Civil Organization of the Board, 1845-1893 . 



PAGE 

08-70 

71 

71-79 

79 

79-88 

89 

90-104 

105-118 

ln5-107 

107-108 

109 

' 109-118 

119-137 

]l!i-125 

12.5-1 2(5 

126-129 

129-131 

132-133 

133 

133 

133-134 

1 35 

13(i 

13« 



138 
156-157 
158-161 



i