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Full text of "Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution"

rf 'i-MJI 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
BOARD OF REGENTS OF 

THE SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION 

SHOWING THE 

OPERATIONS, EXPENDITURES, AND 
CONDITION OF THE INSTITUTION 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30 

1916 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1917 



LETTER 

FEOM THE 

SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

StJBMITTING 

THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE 
INSTITUTION FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1916. 



Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, December 21, 1916. 
To the Congress of the United States : 

In accordance with section 5593 of tlie Revised Statutes of the 
United States, I have the honor, in behalf of the Board of Regents, 
to submit to Congress the annual report of the operations, expendi- 
tures, and condition of the Smithsonian Institution for the year end- 
ing June 30, 1916. I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles D. Walcott, Secretary. 



ni 



CONTENTS. 



Letter from the Secretary submitting the Anuual Report of the Regents to 

Congi'ess iii 

Contents of the report v 

List of plates vii 

General subjects of the annual report ix 

Officials of the Institution and its branches xi 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

The Smithsonian Institution 1 

The Establishment 1 

The Board of Regents 1 

Finances 2 

The Freer Art Gallery 4 

Researches and explorations — 

Geological explorations in the Rocky Mountains 5 

Mastodon from Indiana 7 

Paleontological and stratigraphic studies in the Paleozoic rocks 7 

Explorations in Siberia 8 

Collecting fossil echinoderms in the Ohio Valley 9 

Geological work in Pennsylvania and Virginia 9 

Expedition to Borneo and Celebes 10 

Explorations in China and Manchuria 10 

Explorations in eastern Siberia 10 

Expedition to St. Thomas, Danish West Indies 11 

Cactus investigations in Brazil and Argentina 11 

Fog-clearing investigations 13 

Explorations of ancient Maya cities in Guatemala and Honduras 13 

Study of nocturnal radiation 14 

Researches under Harriman trust fund 16 

Research Corporation , 16 

National Research Council 16 

Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory 18 

Publications 19 

Library 21 

International congresses and expositions: 

Second Pan American Scientific Congress 22 

Nineteenth International Congress of Americanists 23 

Panama- Pacific International Exposition 24 

Panama-California Exposition at San Diego 26 

National Museum 26 

v 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Bureau of American Ethnology 28 

International Exchanges 30 

National Zoological Park 30 

Astrophysical Observatory 31 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literatui'e 32 

Necrology 33 

Appendix 1. Report on the United States National Museum 35 

2. Report on the Bureau of American Ethnology 49 

3. Report on the International Exchanges 73 

4. Report on the National Zoological Park 83 

5. Report on the Astrophysical Observatory 99 

6. Report on the library 104 

7. Report on the International Catalogue of Scieutitic Literature 109 

8. Report on publications 112 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND REGENTS. 

Report of Executive Committee 119 

Proceedings of Board of Regents 124 

GENERAL APPENDIX. 

Administration and activities of the Smithsonian Institution, by A. Howard 

Clark 13 

News from the stars, by C. G. Abbot 157 

The distances of the heavenly bodies, by W. S. Eichelberger 169 

A census of the sky, by R. A. Sampson 181 

Gun-report noise, by Hiram P. Maxim 193 

Molecular structure and life, by Ame Pictet 199 

Ideals of chemical investigation, by Theodore W. Richards 213 

The earth: Its figure, dimensions, and the constitution of its interior, by T. C. 

Chamberlin, Harry Fielding Reid, John F. Hayford, and Frank Schlesinger. 225 

Dry land in geology, by Arthur P. Coleman 255 

The petroleum resources of the United States, by Ralph Arnold 273 

The outlook for iron, by James Furman Kemp 289 

The origin of meteorites, by Fr. Berwerth 311 

The present state of the problem of evolution, by M. Caullery 321 

Some considerations on sight in birds, by J. C. Lewis 337 

Pirates of the deep: Stories of the squid and octopus, by Paul Bartsch 347 

The economic importance of the diatoms, by Albert Mann 877 

Narcotic plants and stimulants of the ancient Americans, by W. E. Safford. . . 387 
New archeological lights on the origins of civilization in Europe, by Arthur. 

Evans 425 

The great dragon of Quirigua, by W. H. Holmes 447 

A prehistoric Mesa Verde Pueblo and its people, by J. W. Fewkes 461 

The art of the great earthwork builders of Ohio, by Charles C. Willoughby 489 

A half century of geographical progress, by J. Scott Keltie 501 

The relation of pure science to industrial research, by J. J. Carty 523 

Mine safety devices developed by the United States Bureau of Jkfines, by 

Van H. Manning 533 

Natural waterways in the United States, by W. W. Harts 545 

Theodore N. Gill, by William H. Ball. 579 

The life and work of Fabre, by E. L. Bouvier 587 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Page. 

Smithsonian Institution (Clark) : 

Plates 1^ 138 

Plates 5-8 140 

Plates 9,10 142 

Plates 11-14 148 

Plates 15-18 150 

Plates 19-22 152 

News from the Stars (Al)l)ot) : 

Plates 1,2 158 

Plates 3,4 160 

Plate 5 163 

Census of the Sky (Sampson) : 

Plates 1-6 192 

Gun Report Noise (Maxim) : 

Plates 1-7 198 

Sight in Birds (Lewis) : 

Plates 1-4 338 

Pirates of the Deep (Bartscli) : 

Plates 1, 2 348 

Plates 3, 4 350 

Plates 5, 6 352 

Plates 7, 8 354 

Plates 9, 10 356 

Plates 11, 12 358 

Plates 13, 14 360 

Plates 15, 16 368 

Plates 17, 18 372 

Plate 19 374 

Diatoms (Mann) : 

Plates 1-6 380 

Narcotic Plants (Safford) : 

Plates 1-17 424 



Page. 

Great Dragon (Holmes) : 

Plates 1, 2 448 

Plates 3, 4 450 

Plates 5, 6 452 

Plates 7, 8 454 

Plates 9, 10 456 

Mesa Verde Pueblo (Fewkes) : 

Plate 1 464 

Plates 2-5 466 

Plates 6-9 470 

Plates 10, 11 472 

Plates 12-15 476 

Earthwork Builders (Willoughby) : 

Plates 1-4 490 

Plates 5, 6 494 

Plates 7, 8 496 

Plates 9-12 498 

Plate 13 500 

Geographic Progress (Keltie) : 

Plates 1, 2 512 

Mine Safety Devices (Manning) : 

Plates 1, 2 538 

Plates 3, 4 540 

Plates 5, 6 542 

Plate 7 544 

Natural Waterways (Harts) : 

Plates 1, 2 552 

Plates 3, 4 554 

Plates 5, 6 558 

Plates 7, 8 562 

Plate 9 568 

Theodore N. Gill (Dall) : 

Plate 1 579 

vn 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1916. 



SUBJECTS. 



1. Annual report of the secretary, giving an account of the opera- 
tions and condition of the Institution for the year ending June 30, 
1916, with statistics of exchanges, etc. 

2. Eeport of the executive committee of the Board of Regents, 
exhibiting the financial affairs of the Institution, including a state- 
ment of the Smithsonian fund, and receipts and expenditures for the 
year ending June 30, 1916. 

3. Proceedings of the Board of Eegents for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1916. 

4. General appendix, comprising a selection of miscellaneous mem- 
oirs of interest to collaborators and correspondents of the Institution, 
teachers, and others engaged in the promotion of knowledge. These 
memoirs relate chiefly to the calendar year 1916. 

IX 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



June 30, 1916. 

Presiding officer ex officio. — Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States. 
Chancellor. — Edward Douglass White, Chief Justice of tlie United States. 
Members of the Institution: 

WooDKOw Wilson, President of the United States. 

Thomas R. Marshall, Vice President of the United States. 

Edward Douglass White, Chief Justice of the United States. 

Robert Lansing, Secretary of State. 

William Gibbs McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Newton Diehl Baker, Secretary of War. 

Thomas Watt Gregory, Attorney General. 

Albert Sidney Burleson, Postmaster General. 

JosEPHus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy. 

Franklin Knight Lane, Secretary of the Interior. 

David Franklin Houston, Secretary of Agriculture. 

William Cox Redfield, Secretary of Commerce. 

William Bauchop Wilson, Secretary of Labor. 
Regents of the Institution: 

Edward Douglass White, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor. 

Thomas R. Marshall. Vice President of the United States. 

Henry Cabot Lodge, Member of the Senate. 

William J. Stone, Member of the Senate. 

Henry French Hollis, Member of the Senate. 

Scott Ferris, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Ernest W. Roberts, Member of the House of Representatives. 

James T. Lloyd, Member of the House of Represenattives. 

Andrew D. White, citizen of New York. 

Alexander Graham Bell, citizen of Washington, D. C. 

George Gray, citizen of Delaware. 

Charles F. Choate, Jr., citizen of Massachusetts. 

John B. Henderson, .Jr., citizen of Washington, D. G. 

Charles W. Fairbanks, citizen of Indiana. 
Executive cmnmittee. — George Gray, Alexander Graham Bell, Ernest W. 

Roberts. 
Secretary of the Institution. — Charles D. Walcott. 
Assistant secretary. — Richard Rathbun. 
Chief Clerk. — Harry W. Dorsey. 
Accountant and disbursing agent. — W. I. Adams. 
Editor. — A. Howard Clark. 
Assistant librarian. — Paul Brockett. 
Property clerk. — J. H. Hill. 

XI 



XrX THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION". 

THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Keeper ex officio.— Cn a-ri.es D. Wajlcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. 

Assistant secretary in charge. — Richard Rathbun. 

Administrative assistant. — W. de C. Ra\^nel. 

Head curators. — ^Wili-iam H. Holmes, Leonhabd Stejnegee, G. P. Merbjxl. 

Curators. — Paul Bartsch, R. S. Bassler, A. Howard Clark, F. W. Clarke. 
F. V. Coville, W. H. Dall, Chester G. Ghlbert, Walter Hough, L. O. Howard. 
AleS Hrdli6ka, Frederick L. Lewton, George C. Maynard, Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., 
Robert Ridgway. 

Associate curators. — J. C. Crawford, W. R. Maxon, David White. 

Curator, National Gallery of Art. — W. H. Holmes. 

Chief of correspondence and documents. — Randolph I. Geare. 

Disbursing agent. — W. I. Adams. 

Chief of exhibits (Biology). — James E. Benedict. 

Superintendent of hiiildings and labor. — J. S. Goldsmith. 

Editor. — Marcus Benjamin. 

Assistant librarian. — N. P. Scudder. 

Photographer. — T. W. Smillie. 

Registrar. — S. C. Brown. 

Property clerk. — W. A. Knowles. 

Engineer. — C. R. Denmark. 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

Ethnologist-in-chargc. — F. W. Hodge. 

Ethnologists. — J. Walter Fewkes, John P. Harrington, J. N. B. Hewitt, 
Francis La Flesche, Truman Michelson, James Mooney, John R. Swanton. 
Special ethnologist. — Leo J. Frachtenberg. 
Honorary philologist. — Franz Boas. 
Editor. — Joseph G. Gubley. 
Librarian. — ^Ella Leary. 
Illustrator. — De Lancey Gill. 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES. 

Chief clerk. — C. W. Shoemaker. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 

Superintendent. — Frank Baker. 
Assistant Superintendent. — A. B. Baker. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY. 

Director. — C. G. Abbot. 
Aid. — F. E. FowLE, Jr. 
Bolometric assistant. — L. B. Aldrich. 

REGIONAL BUREAU FOR THE UNITED STATES, INTERNATIONAL 
CATALOGUE OP SCIENTIFC LITERATURE. 

Assistant in charge. — IjEONArd C. Gunnell. 



REPORT 

OF THE 

SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

CHARLES D. WALCOTT, 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30. 1916. 

To the Board of Regents of the Sinithsonian Institution: 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to submit herewith the customar}'' 
annual report on the operations of the Smithsonian Institution and 
its branches during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, including 
■work placed by Congress under the direction of the Board of Regents 
in the United States National Museum, the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, the International Exchanges, the National Zoological 
Park, the Astrophysical Observatory, and the United States Bureau 
of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. 

The general report reviews the affairs of the Institution proper and 
briefly summarizes the operations of its several branches, while the ap- 
pendices contain detailed reports by the assistant secretary and others 
directly in charge of various activities. The reports on operations of 
the National Museum and the Bureau of American Ethnolog^'^ will 
also be published as independent volumes. 

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT. 

The Smithsonian Institution was created an establishment by act 
of Congress approved August 10, 1846. Its statutory members are 
the President of the United States, the Vice President, the Chief 
Justice, and the heads of the executive departments. 

THE BOARD OF REGENTS. 

The Board of Regents, which is charged with the administration of 
the Institution, consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of 
the United States as ex officio members, three Members of the Senate, 
three Members of the House of Representatives, and six citizens, " two 
of whom shall be residents in the city of Washington and the other 
four shall be inhabitants of some State, but no two of them from the 

same State." 

1 



2 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

In regard to the personnel of the board the only change during 
the fiscal year was the appointment of James T. Lloyd, Kepresenta- 
tive from Missouri. The roll of Kegents on June 30, 1916, was as 
follows: Edward D. White, Chief Justice of the United States, 
Chancellor; Thomas K. Marshall, Vice President of the United 
States; Henry Cabot Lodge, Member of the Senate; William J. 
Stone, Member of the Senate ; Henry French Hollis, Member of the 
Senate; Scott Ferris, Member of the House of Representatives; 
Ernest W. Roberts, Member of the House of Representatives ; James 
T, Lloyd, Member of the House of Representatives; Andrew D. 
White, citizen of New York; Alexander Graham Bell, citizen of 
Wasliington, D. C. ; George Gray, citizen of Delaware; Charles F. 
Choate, jr., citizen of Massachusetts; John B. Henderson, jr., citizen 
of Washington, D. C. ; and Charles W. Fairbanks, citizen of Indiana. 

The board held its annual meeting on December 9, 1915. The pro- 
ceedings of that meeting, as also the annual financial report of the 
executive committee, have been printed, as usual, for the use of the 
Regents, while such important matters acted upon as are of public 
interest are reviewed under appropriate heads in the present report 
of the Secretary. A detailed statement of disbursements from Gov- 
einment appropriations, under the direction of the Institution for 
the maintenance of the National Museum, the National Zoological 
Park, and other branches, will be submitted to Congress by the 
Secretary in the usual manner in compliance with the law. 

FINANCES. 

The permanent fund of the Institution and the sources from which 
it was derived are as follows : 

Deposited in the Treasury of the United States. 

Bequest of James Smithson, 1846 $515, 169. 00 

Residuary^ legacy of .Tames Smithson, 18G7 26,210.63 

Deposit of savings of income, 1867 108,620.37 

Bequest of James Hamilton, 1875 $1,000 

Accumulated interest on Hamilton fund, 1895 1, 000 

2, 000. 00 

Bequest of Simeon Habel, 1880 500.00 

Deposits from proceeds of sale of bonds, 1881 . 51, 500. 00 

Gift of Thomas G. Hodgkins, 1891 200, 000. 00 

Part of residuary legacy of Thomas G. Hodgkins, 1894 8, 000. 00 

Deposit from savings of income, 1903 25, 000. 00 

Residuary legacy of Thomas G. Hodgkins, 1907 7,918.69 

Deposit from savings of income, 1913 636. 94 

Part of bequest of William Jones Rhees, 1913 251. 95 

Deposit of proceeds from sale of real estate (gift of Robert Stan- 
ton Avery), 1913 9^ 692.42 

Bequest of Addison T. Reid, 1914 4,795.91 

Deposit of savings from income, Avery bequest, 1914 , 204. 09 



KEPOET OF THE SECEETARY. 3 

Deposit of savings from income, Avery fund, 1915 $1, 862. 60 

Deposit of savings from income, Reid fund, 1915 426. 04 

Deposit of balance of principal, $248.05, and income, $28.39, Rhees 

fund, 1915 276. 44 

Deposit of first payment of Lucy T. and George W. Poore fund, 

1915 24, 534. 92 

Deposit of part of principal of Addison T. Reid fund, 191G 4, 698. 59 

Deposit of principal of George H. Sanford fund, 1916 1, 020. 00 

Deposit of savings from income, 1916 2, 681. 41 

Total of fund deposited in the United States Treasury 996, 000. 00 

Other resources. 

Registered and guaranteed 4 per cent bonds of the West Shore 
Railroad Co., part of legacy of Thomas G. Hodgkins (par 
value) 42,000. 00 

Coupon 5 per cent bonds of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., due 

July 1, 1918 (cost) 5,040.63 

Coupon 6 per cent bonds of the Argentine Nation, due Dec. 15, 

1917 (cost) 5.093.75 

Total permanent fund 1, 048, 134. 38 

The second installment to the Addison T. Reid fund, amounting 
to $4,698.59, and a bequest to be known as the George H. Sanford 
fund, amounting to $1,020, were added during the year to the per- 
manent fund deposited in the Treasury of the United States, which, 
together with incomes of several specific funds amounting to 
$2,681.41, now aggregates the total sum of $996,000, which bears 
interest at the rate of 6 per cent per annum. 

The sum of $10,000, being a part of the bequest designated as the 
Frances Lea Chamberlain fund, the income of which is to be applied 
to the maintenance of the Isaac Lea collection of gems and mollusks 
in the National collections, was received by the Institution in 
October, 1915, and on the advice of the executive committee was in- 
vested in gold notes maturing on December 15, 1917, and July 1, 
1918. These investments form a nucelus of what will hereafter be 
known as the consolidated fund. The income account of each specific 
fund will be credited with the proportion of income which each in- 
vested fund bears to the whole fund. 

The income of the Institution during the year, amounting to 
$107,670.26, was derived as follows: Interest on the permanent 
foundation, $60,751.23 ; contributions from various sources for specific 
purposes, $22,954.99 ; first payment of the Frances Lea Chamberlain 
fund, $10,000; second payment on account of the Addison T. Eeid 
fund, $4,698.59 ; and from other miscellaneous sources, $9,265.45. 

Adding the cash balance of $42,165.86 on July 1, 1915, the total 
resources for the fiscal year amounted to $149,836.12. Th.e disburse- 
ments, which are given in detail in the annual report of the executive 



4 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

committee, amounted to $105,125.10, leaving a balance of $44,711.02 
on deposit June 30, 1916, in the United States Treasury and in cash. 
The Institution was charged by Congress with the disbursement of 
the following appropriations for the year ending June 30, 1916 : 

International exchanges $32, 000 

American ethnology 42, 000 

Astrophysical Observatory 13, 000 

National Museum : 

Furniture and fixtures 25, 000 

Heating and lighting 46, 000 

Preservation of collections 300, 000 

Books 2, 000 

Postage 500 

Building repairs 15, 000 

Bookstacks for Government bureau libraries 6, 500 

National Zoological Park 100, 000 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 7, 500 

Total 589,500 

In addition to the aboA^e specific amounts to be disbursed by the 
Institution there was included under the general appropriation for 
printing and binding an allotment of $76,200 to cover the cost of 
printing and binding the Smithsonian annual report, and reports 
and miscellaneous printing for the Government branches of the 
Institution. 

THE FREER ART GALLERY. 

One of the most important events since the foundation of the In- 
stitution was consummated in December last. In my last report it was 
mentioned that Mr. Charles L. Freer was considering the question 
of erecting a suitable building for the permanent preservation of 
the splendid collection of objects of art which he presented to the 
Institution in 1906 and has since augmented by many further gifts. 
It is exceedingly gratifying here to record the gift by Mr. Freer of 
$1,000,000 in cash for the immediate erection of a building and 
that the site and preliminary plans have been agreed upon, so that 
the actual construction work will soon begin. The building will be 
of granite and located at the southwest corner of the Smithsonian 
reservation at Twelfth and B Streets. 

The munificent donation by Mr. Freer of his collection and pro- 
vision for its preservation is unsurpassed in this country, and is one 
of the most notable gifts of its character in the world's history. 

Mr. Freer describes his collection as follows: 

These several collections include specimens of very widely separated periods 
of artistic development, beginning before the birth of Christ and ending to-day. 
No attempt has been made to secure specimens from unsympathetic sources, my 
collecting having been confined to American and Asiatic schools. My great 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 5 

desire has been to unite modern work with masterpieces of certain periods of 
high civilization harmonious in spiritual and physical suggestion, having tlie 
power to broaden esthetic culture and the grace to elevate the human mind. 

The original collection consisted of about 2,300 paintings and other 
objects of art, and has since been increased to 5,346 items, including 
American paintings and sculptures, the "Whistler collection, and 
oriental paintings, pottery, bronzes, and jades from China, Korea, 
Japan, and other Asiatic countries. 

A full catalogue of items is given by Mr. Rathbun in his Museum 
Bulletin on the National Gallery of Art. 

EXPLORATIONS AND RESEARCHES. 

The usual activities were continued during the past year in ad- 
vancing one of the fundamental objects of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, the increase of knowledge. In this work various explorations 
and researches were inaugurated or participated in by the Institution 
and its branches, covering practically all divisions of astronomical, 
anthropological, biological, and geological science. The extent of 
these explorations and researches during the history of the Institu- 
tion covers a wide range, although a great deal more of most impor- 
tant Avork could have been accomplished had adequate funds been 
available. Friends of the Institution have generously aided this 
work, particularly during the last few years, through the contribu- 
tion of funds for specific purposes, but much yet remains undone, and 
opportunities for undertaking important lines of investigation are 
constantly being lost through lack of means to carry them into 
execution. 

Several proposed expeditions to various parts of the world have 
been temporarily delayed by the war in Europe. 

I will here mention only briefly some of the recent activities of the 
Institution in these directions and for details of other investigations 
may refer to the appendices containing the reports of those directly 
in charge of the several branches of the Institution. 

GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN THE ROCKY 3I0UNTAINS. 

In continuation of my previous work in the Rocky Mountain re- 
gion, I was engaged during the season of 1915 in field investigation 
in the Yellowstone Park area and from there north into the Belt 
Mountains east of Helena, Mont. The work in the Yellowstone Park 
was carried on with two objects in view : 

First. To determine, if possible, the extent to which the lower forms 
of algse and possibly bacteria contributed, through their activities, 
to the deposition from the geyser and hot spring waters of the con- 
tained carbonate of lime and silica. 
73839°— SM 1916 2 



6 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Second. The securing for the National Museum of a series of 
geyser and hot spring deposits, also silicified wood from the petrified 
forests and certain types of volcanic rocks. 

During the investigation and collecting, numerous photographs 
were taken of geysers and hot springs and of deposits made from the 
waters through evaporation and organic agencies. 

The collections were brought to the camps by pack horses and 
buckboard and subsequently packed for shipment at Fort Yellow- 
stone and Yellowstone. Material assistance was afforded by the co- 
operation of the acting superintendent of the park. Col. L. M. Brett, 
United States Army, and officers of the United States Engineer Corps 
in charge of the maintenance and development of the park roads and 
trails. 

Upward of 5 tons of specimens were collected and shipped to 
the National Museum. This collection permits of the preparation of 
a special Yellowstone Park exhibit of-great beauty and interest. 

It was found that algal growth was everywhere present when the 
temperature of the waters was from 70° to not much above 180° F., 
and that this growth had a marked effect upon the amount and charac- 
ter of both calcareous and siliceous deposits. 

After completing the investigation of the geyser and hot spring 
deposits, a trip was made to the Fossil Forest in the northeastern 
section of the park, in the Lamar Eiver Valley. Large collections 
were made here of silicified wood and various minerals, one of the 
latter being a remarkable and beautiful form of calcite rosettes, 
which were illustrated and technically described in the pamphlet on 
Smithsonian explorations in 1915.^ 

The camp site in the Lamar Valley was one of unusual interest 
and beauty. The high hills to the south showed the rock cliffs con- 
taining silicified woods, calcite rosettes, and beautiful specimens of 
chalcedony. A little way from the camp the party met with a 
large herd of bison grazing freely in the broad open valley; also 
herds of elk, bands of antelope, a few black bear, and an occasional 
wolf. 

On leaving the park, after 675 miles of travel with the camp out- 
fit, the party proceeded down the West Gallatin River Canyon, stop- 
ping to examine the section of Cambrian rocks at the mouth of 
Squaw Creek. The next permanent camp was made in Deep Creek 
Canyon, 17 miles east of Townsend, Mont., where the extensive pre- 
Cambrian sections of the Big Belt Mountains are beautifully shown. 
About 2 tons of pre- Cambrian specimens were collected in this 
vicinity before the storms of late September (1915) closed the sea- 
son's field work. 

1 Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1916. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 7 

MASTODON FROM INDIANA. 

Many finds of mastodon and mammoth remains, especially from 
different localities in States bordering on the Great Lakes, are con- 
stantly being reported to the Institution. These " finds," chiefly in 
swamp deposits of the Pleistocene, generally consist of a few isolated 
bones or teeth, but afford evidence of an abundance of these great 
creatures during the geological age just preceding the present. Com- 
pared, however, with the great number of remains found, complete 
skeletons are rare, principall}^ because the finds are generally brought 
to light by workmen who have little or no knowledge of the scien- 
tific value of the remains. The National Museum was therefore 
fortunate during the past year in the acquisition of a fine, nearly 
complete adult male mastodon skeleton from a swamp deposit in 
northwestern Indiana. 

A part of the skull, four limb bones, a few ribs and vertebrae 
were unearthed bj^ a dredge crew while excavating a drainage canal 
and shipped to the Institution. Mr. J. W. Gidley, of the National 
Museum, later succeeded in finding the lower jaws, most of the re- 
maining vertebrae and ribs, parts of the pelvis, and a few more limb 
and foot bones, and on a second visit found the missing sections of 
the vertebral column, several more foot bones, and other important 
fragments. On assembling all the bones recovered it has been found 
that, with comparatively little artificial restoration, aji unusually fine 
and complete specimen of the American mastodon can be prepared 
for exhibition. 

PALEONTOLOGICAL AND STRATIGRAPHIC STUDIES IN THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS. 

Dr. E. O. Ulrich of the National Museum, was occupied for sev- 
eral months during the field season of 1915, under the auspices of 
the United States Geological Survey, in a study of the lower 
Paleozoic deposits of the Mississippi Valley. He was engaged 
chiefly in seeking evidence respecting the boundary line between the 
Cambrian and Ozarkian systems. For this purpose many of the 
outcrops of these rocks were visited, but the most important evidence 
was found in the upper Mississippi Valley and in the Missouri where 
the Upper Cambrian rocks are particularly well displayed, and the 
succeeding deposits of the Ozarkian sj^stem are more commonly 
fossiliferous than elsewhere. The relative abundance of fossils in 
these areas permitted the actual boundary between the two systems 
to be accurately determined after considerable study. This boun- 
dary was found to coincide with the uneven plane formed at the 
junction of the deposits laid down by the retreating Cambrian sea 
with those formed by the return of the waters in the succeeding 
Ozarkian time. During the progress of these stratigraphic studies 



8 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

numerous collections of fossils were secured for the museum series, 
and incidentally the investigations resulted in the proper placement 
of many fossils whose stratigraphic position had hitherto been un- 
certain. 

In the latter part of the season Dr. Ulrich worked out the held 
relations of some insufficiently located collections of Paleozoic fossils 
made in southwest Virginia at various times in the past. The most 
important result of these investigations is the proof that a large 
coral fauna, exceedingly like that which marks the horizon of the 
Onondaga limestone throughout the extent of this well known and 
widely distributed Middle Devonian formation, had already in- 
vaded the continental basins as far as southwest Virginia during the 
closing stages of the preceding Lower Devonian. This instance of 
recurring fossil faunas is regarded as one of the most important of 
the many similar instances that have been established through the 
field studies of Dr. Ulrich during the past 25 years. All have served 
in correcting erroneous correlations of formations that had arisen 
through the confusion of earlier or later appearances of faunas with 
the one recognized in the standardized sequence of stratigraphic 

units. 

Mr. E. D. Mesler, under the supervision of Dr. Ulrich, spent the 
summer of 1915 in making collections of Ordovician and Silurian 
fossils from formations and localities in the Appalachian and Missis- 
sippi Valleys which had hitherto been little represented in the 
museum collections. A large number of fossils resulted from his 
trip, particularly from the Middle Ordovician rocks of east Tennes- 
see, which will form the basis of a future monograph on the paleon- 
tology of that region. 

EXPLORATIONS IN SIBERIA. 

Through the liberality of the Telluride Association the Institution 
was enabled to send Mr. B. Alexander with the Koren Expedition 
to the Kolyma River region of northern Siberia. The expedition left 
Seattle, Wash., in June, 1914, and returned in September, 1915. The 
immediate purpose of the trip was to obtain remains of large extinct 
animals, particularly of the mammoth for which the region is noted. 
The results were not all that were hoped for, but a considerable quan- 
tity of material was obtained, though no complete skeleton. A re- 
port, with photographs taken by the party, was published in the 
pamphlet on Smithsonian explorations and field work in 1915. The 
collection of bones sent in by the expedition contains a few fine speci- 
mens, together with a considerable number of isolated bones, which 
are valuable for study and comparison. They all indicate a late 
Pleistocene nge, as the bones of many of the forms represented can 
with difficulty be distinguished from those of species still living in 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 9 

that region. The annnals represented include the mammoth, bison, 
caraboii, horse (two or more species) , rhinoceros, musk-ox, wolverine, 
and wolf. The prize specimen is a finely preserved, almost complete 
skull of Elephas primigeniue. It is of especial interest as being the 
only skull of the Siberian mammoth in any of our American 
museums. 

COLLECTING FOSSIL ECHINODERMS IN THE OHIO VALLEY. 

Explorations for fossil echinoclerms were conducted during the 
summer of 1915, under the supervision of Mr. Frank Springer, asso- 
ciate in paleontology in the United States National Museum. The 
work was limited to two areas of Silurian rocks in the Ohio Valley 
from each of which much valuable material was procured for the 
study of certain definite problems. In southern Indiana Mr. Her- 
rick E. Wilson, under Mr. Springer's direction, spent a number of 
weeks quarrying for Niagaran echinoderms, particularlj^ crinoids, in 
the vicinity of St. Paul where numerous outcrops of the Laurel lime- 
stone occur. The object of this work was to secure as many speci- 
mens as possible for comparisons of this peculiar fauna with those 
from European Silurian rocks. Not only was much material ob- 
tained by the quarrying operations, but all of the local collections of 
fossils were purchased for Mr. Springer, so that the Museum, which 
hitherto had practically no fossils from the Laurel limestone, is now 
in possession of a splendid general collection of fossils from this 
particular formation. 

The second area of exploration was in west Tennessee along the 
Tennessee Eiver, where Mr. W. F. Pate spent some weeks in search- 
ing for the peculiar crinoidal bulb, Camarocrinus, and the associ- 
ated crinoid, Scyphocrinus, both of which Mr. Springer has proved 
to belong to the same organism. Mr. Pate was successful in finding 
several localities where excellent specimens of the Camarocrinus and 
Scyphocrinus were associated. Much material was secured and the 
specimens will be used in the preparation of Mr. Springer's mono- 
graph upon this group of crinoids. 

GEOLOGICAL WORK IN PENNSYLVANIA AND VIRGINIA. 

By arrangement with the United States Geological Survey, Dr. 
Edgar T. Wherry, of the National Museum, continued his studies 
of the geology of the Reading quadrangle in eastern Pennsylvania 
for a month during the summer of 1915. He completed the areal 
mapping of the Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of the region, and 
has transmitted to the Survey the manuscript of a report upon 
his work. He also mapped Cambrian and Triassic formations on 



10 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

the Quakertown and Doylestown quadrangles, which lie to the east 
of the Reading. 

A brief visit was made to a newly discovered cave near Lurich, 
Va., where the cave marble was reported to be of economic im- 
portance. This view proved to be unjustified, but some unusual 
stalactitic formations were found, two specimens of which were 
obtained for the Museum collections. 

EXPEDITION TO BORNEO AND CELEBES. 

As the result of zoological explorations carried on by Mr. PI. C. 
Raven in Celebes, through the generosity of Dr. W. L. Abbott, the 
Museum has received 464 mammals, 870 birds, 50 reptiles, and some 
miscellaneous specimens. The mammals and birds are of great 
value as the first adequate representation of a fauna that has par- 
ticular interest in connection with previous work in other parts 
of the Malay Archipelago. Early in the summer of 1915 Mr. Raven 
returned to America and spent several months on vacation and in 
preparing for further explorations in Celebes and other parts of the 
East Indies. Dr. Abbott has offered his continued support to this 
work. Mr. Raven left Washington for the East by way of Japan 
and Singapore, about the middle of October. Two months later 
he reported from Buitenzorg, Java, that he was making good prog- 
ress toward the collecting ground. 

EXPLORATIONS IN CHINA AND MANCHURIA. 

Zoological explorations, mentioned in previous reports, have been 
continued in China and Manchuria by Mr. Sowerby through the 
generosity of a friend of the Institution who desires to remain un- 
known. During July, August, and September, he made an expedi- 
tion to the lower reaches of the Sungari River and the I-mien-po 
district in north Manchuria, where he succeeded in collecting some 
interesting specimens of mammals, birds, and fishes to be for- 
warded to the Institution. 

EXPLORATIONS IN EASTERN SIBERIA. 

In the summer of 1915 Mr. Copley Amorj", jr., returned from the 
northeast coast of Siberia, where for about a j^ear he had been 
gathering zoological material in connection with a party under 
Capt. John Koren. As his part of the results of the expedition Mr. 
Amory turned over to the National Museum 365 mammals, 264 birds, 
and various miscellaneous specimens principally of plants, fish, and 
birds' eggs. Most of this material was prepared by Mr. Amory him- 
self, though various members of the expedition contributed to the 
collections of both mammals and birds. Among the mammals, about 



REPOET OF THE SECEETAEY. 11 

25 wild species are represented and are of interest for comparing 
the Alaskan species with their nearest Asiatic relatives. 

EXPEDITION TO ST. THOMAS, DANISH WEST INDIES. 

Mr. C. R. Shoemaker, of the division of marine invertebrates in 
the National Museum, spent the two months from the middle of 
June to the middle of August, 1915, in the Danish West Indies, 
under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of "Washington, D. C, 
securing collections of corals and other marine invertebrates. This 
expedition has enriched the collections of the National Museum by 
about 5,000 specimens, which it is hoped will throw considerable 
light on the correlation of these islands in the West Indian complex. 

The collecting was done in the open water, bays, and channels at 
St. Thomas, St. John, and St. James. The deeper waters were ex- 
plored by means of dredging from a motor boat, while native divers, 
working from the heavy West Indian row boats, were used for 
collecting in the shallow waters. In addition to this, much shore 
collecting was done. Owing to the very strong and constant trade 
wind, work on exposed reefs was in manj'^ cases made impossible by 
the heavy surf. Collecting in the protected bays, however, was most 
successful, as a great variety of bottom was to be found in many 
of them. 

"WTiile the chief aim of the expedition was to seeUre as complete 
a representation of the coral fauna as possible — and this aim met 
with considerable success — fine collections of other marine inverte- 
brates were also obtained, including protozoa, sponges, hydroids, 
medusae, alcyonarians, anemones, bryozoans, starfish, sea urchins, holo- 
thurians, annelids, crustaceans, moUusks, and ascidians. Collections 
were also made on land whenever ox^portunities offered, including 
insects, mollusks, reptiles, and batrachians. 

CACTUS INVESTIGATIONS IN BRAZIL AND ARGENTINA. 

Dr. J. N. Rose, associate in Botany, United States National 
Museum (at present connected with the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington in the preparation of a. monograph of the Cactaceaj of 
America), accompanied by Mr. Paul G. Russell, of the United States 
National Museum, continued the botanical exploration of South 
America during the summer of 1915, spending over five months in 
travel and field work in Brazil and Argentina. 

In addition to the good-sized collections of cactuses, consisting of 
living, herbarium, and formalin specimens, moderately large collec- 
tions of insects, shells, diatoms, and other natural-history specimens 
were obtained. In all about 8,000 herbarium specimens were ob- 
tained and over 90 cases, large and small, of living plants were sent 



12 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

back to the United States. The living collection is now on exhibition 
at the New York Botanical Garden. 

Bahia, Brazil, was the first place visited, which city served as a base for 
collecting trips into the interior of the State of Bahia. One of these was to the 
town of Joazeiro, located about 300 miles north-northwest of Bahia, and lying 
in a typical cactus desert, although this region is traversed by the large Rio 
Sao Francisco. Notwithstanding the fact that this stream is full the entire 
year, little or no attempt is being made to use the water for ii-rigation purposes. 
The country is of that type known as " catinga," and resembles in a remarkable 
way the deserts of the West Indies ; indeed, the genera of plants are in many 
cases the same, though the species are distinct. Here was seen the " carnuba," 
or wax palm, from which is obtained the wax utilized in making records for 
phonographs. Near Joazeiro is the Horto Florestal, or " forest garden," a 
Government experiment station in charge of Dr. Leo Zehntner, who rendered 
great assistance in the study and collection of the cactuses of the region. 

After making shoi't stops at various stations in returning to Bahia, a trip 
was made to Machado Portella, a small town about 175 miles west and a little 
south of Bahia, the terminus of a little narrow-gauge railway. This is also 
a semiarid region and proved exceedingly interesting botanically. The next 
side trip was to Toca da Onca, still farther south, on the edge of a thick 
tropical forest and in a region much more humid than the northern part of the 
State. 

About six weeks were then spent in beautiful Rio de Janeiro and vicinity. 
Here, even in the city itself, a botanist finds a great deal to interest him, for 
the trees are covered with epiphytic cactuses, mostly of the genus Rhipsalis, 
and within the city itself rises the picturesque Corcovado, a thickly wooded 
mountain on whose slopes are found many rare ferns and tree-inhabiting 
cactuses. The Jardin Botanico in this city is one of the finest in the world. 
Over 200 species of palms from all parts of the tropics are here grown in the 
open, besides many other rare tropical plants. In another section of the city, 
in a fine large park called the Quinta Boa Vista, is the Museo Nacional, where 
a number of rare cactuses were found in the herbarium. 

From Rio de Janeiro an ascent of Itatiaya, the highest mountain in Brazil, 
was made, and on the very top, 10,000 feet above the sea, was found a small 
cactus with beautiful rose-colored flowers. Excursions were also made to 
Cabo Frio, to Ilha Grande, and to the islands in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro. A 
few days were spent in the Organ Mountains, near Petropolis, the summer home 
of the wealthiest classes of Rio de Janeiro. This range of mountains mei'its a 
more thorough biological exploration than has been hitherto undertaken. 

Proceeding southward, a day was spent at Santos, Brazil, the world's greatest 
coffee center. Buenos Aires was visited next, although but little time was spent 
in the city. Several visits were made to the fine suburb of La Plata, where 
resides Dr. Carlos Spegazzini, the leading authority on Argentine cactuses. 

From Buenos Aires a trip was taken across Argentina to Mendoza, a city 
situated near the foot of the Andes, in a region favorable to the growth of suc- 
culent plants. From there a short excursion was made to Portrerillos, Argen- 
tina, on the railway which leads to Valparaiso, Chile. Many very interesting 
plants were found In both these places. 

In the city of Cordova, Argentina, northwest of Buenos Aires, the cactus col- 
lection of Dr. Frederick Kurtz was found to contain some rare types, which were 
very kindly submitted for examination and study. In this vicinity, as well as 
in the neighboring town of Cosquin, many cactuses were collected on the semi- 
arid peneplain. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 13 



FOG-CLEAEING INVESTIGATIONS. 



Aided by a grant of $2,000 from the' Smithsonian Institution and a 
grant from the Research Corporation, a committee of electrical engi- 
neering experts, under the general direction of Mr. F. G. Cottrell, 
continued during 1915 the investigations begim at San Francisco by 
the University of California, in cooperation with the United States 
Lighthouse Service, relative to the clearing of fog by means of elec- 
trical precipitation. In a preliminary report read at the first meet- 
ing of the committee, Prof. Ryan, of Stanford University, says : 

Science lias established the fact that all dust and fog particles in the open 
atmosphere are electrified and siil)ject to dispersion or precipitation. It is ap- 
parent, therefore, that a source of very high direct voltage, Vvith facilities for 
control and application, may be of inestimable value in certain quarters and 
seasons for clearing fog away from a street, from along a passenger railway, from 
around the landing stages of a ferry, or, possibly, about or in advance of a ship 
under headway at sea. 

The clearing of fog differs from the treatment of smoke and fumes 
in several respects, principally in that the smoke particles must be 
actually deposited on the electrodes to bring about the desired effect, 
whereas in treating fog it is only necessary to cause coalescence of 
the minute particles into larger ones to give much greater transpar- 
ency, even disregarding the more rapid settling of the larger drops. 
However, other difficulties are to be expected in the problem of 
clearing fog, such as the conditions arising from the continual 
unmersion in the wet atmosphere. What is chiefly needed for an 
intelligent conception of the problem is actual first-hand experience 
in handling these and other unusual conditions. 

The most striking features of the apparatus used in these experi- 
ments are the Thordarson 350,000 to 1,000,000 volt transformers, 
which I saw while visiting the San Francisco Exposition. 

A great deal was learned during the year about the electrical 
technique of the problem, and although days of suitable fog condi- 
tions were extremely scarce, on the rare occasions of actual trial very 
perceptible clearing for a short distance around the high-tension 
wires was obtained as the fog swept past. 

EXPLORATIONS OF ANCIENT JIAYA CITIES IN GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. 

Through the courtesy of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
the Smithsonian Institution has been enabled to participate in some 
very interesting explorations in Central America. Prof. W. H. 
Holmes, head curator of anthropology in the National Museum, 
gives the following general account of his work in that country : 

In February, 1916, owing to a generous grant of funds by the Smithsonian 
Institution, the writer had the good fortune to become a member of the Car- 



14 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

iiegie Institution's archeological expedition to Central America under the able 
direction of Sylvanus G. Morley. Tlie worli of exploring and studying in detail 
the remarliable remains of the ancient Mayan culture was vigorously carried 
forward. An especial object of the expedition was tlie discovery of additional 
inscriptions embodying glyphic dates, for it is the dates, now read with facility, 
which furnish the skeleton of Maya history. 

Among the ancient cities visited while the writer was associated with the 
expedition were Antigua, the ancient Spanish capital of the kingdom of 
Guatemala, built on the site of a prehistoric city ; the extensive ruins of the 
ancient city of Iximache, near the site occupied to-day by the capital of 
Guatemala, Guatemala City ; the ruined city of Quirigua in eastern Guatemala, 
the subject of much scientific interest during recent years; and the ruins of 
Copan, in Honduras, perhaps the most remarkable of all the American monu- 
ments of antiquity. 

Especial attention was given by the writer to the ^ collection of data and 
drawings to be utilized in preparing panoramic views of the several cities 
visited, and every effort was made to obtain information regarding the techni- 
cal methods employed by the ancient builders. The quarries from which the 
stone was obtained were too deeply buried in tropical vegetation to yield up 
their story without extensive excavation and the methods employed in dressing 
and carving the stone remain in large part undetermined. Certain chipped and 
ground stone implements that could have served in dressing the stones used in 
building were found in numbers, but the story of the carving, especially of the 
very deep carving of the monuments of Copan, remains unrevealed. Although 
it is thought that stone tools may have been equal to the great task, it is 
believed by some that without bronze the work could not have been done. 
There are, however, no traces of the use of bronze by the Central Americans. 

The monuments are on a grand scale and great skill and excellent taste are 
manifest in their embellishment, the whole giving evidence of a state of 
culture advancement unsurpassed in any other part of aboriginal America. 

STUDY OF NOCTURNAL, RADIATION. 

Several grants from the Hodgkins fund have been made to Prof. 
Anders Angstrom during the past few years to enable him to carry- 
on researches on the radiation of the atmosphere, particularly noc- 
turnal radiation. The results of observations made by him in 
Algeria in 1912 and in California in 1913 were embodied in a 
pamphlet published by the Institution in 1915. In this pamphlet he 
summarizes his work as follows: 

The main results and conclusions that will be found in this paper are the 
following. They relate to the radiation emitted by the atmosphere to a radiat- 
ing surface at a lower altitude, and to the loss of heat of a surface by radiation 
toward space and toward the atmosphere at higher altitudes. 

I. The variations of the total temperature radiation of the atmosphere are 
at low altitudes (less than 4,500 m.) principally caused by variations in tem- 
perature and humidity. 

II. The total radiation received from the atmosphere is very nearly propor- 
tional to the fourth power of the temperature at the place of observation. 

III. The radiation is dependent on the humidity in such a way that an in- 
crease in the water-vapor content of the atmosphere will increase its radiation. 
The dependence of tbe ve^HXiUon on the water content has been expressed by 
an exponential law. 



EEPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 15 

IV. An increase in tlie water-vapor pressure will cause a decrease in the 
effective radiation from tlie earth to every point of the sky. The fractional 
decrease is much larger for large zenith angles than for small ones. 

V. The total radiation which would be received from a perfectly dry atmos- 
phere would be about 0.28 Zp.;^ with a temperature of 20° C. at the place of 
observation. 

VI. The radiation of the upper, dry atmosphere would be aboHt 50 per cent 
of that of a black body at the temperature of the place of observation. 

VII. There is no evidence of maxima or minima of atmospheric radiation dur- 
ing the night that can not be explained by the influence of temperature and 
humidity conditions. 

VIII. There are indications tbat the radiation during the daytime is subject 
to the same laws that hold for the radiation during the nighttime. 

IX. An increase in altitude causes a decrease or an increase in the value of 
the effective radiation of a blackened body toward the sky, dependent upon the 
value of the temperature gradient and of the humidity gradient of the atmos- 
phere. At about 3,000 meters altitude of the radiating body the elTective radia- 
tion generally has a maximum. An increase of the humidity or a decrease of 
the temperature gradient of the atmosphere tends to shift this maximum to 
higher altitudes. 

X. The effect of clouds is very variable. Low and dense cloud banks cut 
down the outgoing effective radiation of a blackened surface to about 0.015 
calorie per cm.^ per minute ; in the case of high and thin clouds the radiation is 
reduced by only 10 to 20 per cent. 

XI. The effect of haze upon the effective radiation to the sky is almost in- 
appreciable when no clouds or real fog are formed. Observations in Algeria 
in 1912 and in California in 1913 show that the great atmospheric disturbance 
caused by the eruption of Mount Katmai in Alaska, in the former year, can only 
have reduced the nocturnal radiation bj' less than 3.0 per cent. 

XII. Conclusions are drawn in regard to the radiation from large water sur- 
faces, and the probability is indicated that this radiation is almost constant at 
different temperatures, and consequently in different latitudes also. 

Another grant was made to Prof. Angstrom in October, 1915, for a 
study of nocturnal radiation in the far north during the long 
Arctic night. Concerning this study he wrote to the Institution on 
February 16, 1916, as follows : 

Through this grant I have been able to make observations on nocturnal 
radiation during the Arctic night in the north of Sweden, at a place named 
Abisko, at about 68° 30' latitude. The observations were extended during 
about a month (Jan. 1-26) and were obtained under various atmospheric con- 
ditions. One night observations were taken at a temperature of — 30° C. 
(—20° F.), when consequently the absolute humidity must have been very low. 
In general, these observations confirm the views expressed in my paper ^ in 
regard to the influence of temperature and humidity upon the nocturnal radia- 
tion and the radiation of the atmosphere. 

In connection with the named measurements observations were also made on 
the cooling of snow surfaces under the temperature of the surrounding air as a 
consequence of nocturnal radiation. As was to be expected, a linear relation 
was found to exist between the radiation and the named temperature difference. 

1 Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 65, No. 3, 1915. 



16 ' ANNUAL BEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 1916. 

I hope in the near future to get an opportunity to extend these important 
observations on the connection existing between radiation and the cooling of 
various materials existing on the earth's surface. The question is one of 
scientific as well as of practical agricultural interest. 

HARRIMAN TRUST FUND. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, research associate of the Institution, aided 
by the income of a trust fund established for the purpose by Mrs. 
E. H. Harriman, has continued his zoological investigations, par- 
ticularly the study of the big bears of North America. 

RESEARCH CORPORATION. 

The Eesearch Corporation was established in 1912 under the New 
York State laws with the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
as one of the directors and a member of the executive committee. 
The primary object of the organization was to develop certain pat- 
ents described in previous reports which had been offered to the 
Institution by Dr. F. G. Cottrell but which could not be administered 
directly by the Institution. Other inventions and patents have since 
been acquired by the corporation, and through royalties from the 
installation and utilization of these patents a considerable fund has 
been created and the income therefrom will be devoted to the ad- 
vancement of technical and scientific investigation and experimenta- 
tion through the agency of the Smithsonian Institution and such 
other scientific and educational institutions and societies as may be 
selected by the directors. 

The Cottrell patents relate to the precipitation of dust, smoke, 
and chemical fumes by the use of electrical currents. Successful 
commercial installations have already been made on the following 
fumes : 

(a) Silver fumes from electrolytic slimes of copper refinery; {h) 
tin fumes from detinning process residues; (c) hydrochloric acid 
fumes from cleaning vats in electrogalvanizing plant; (d) tin and 
zinc fumes from waste metal recovery plant; (e) "low bleach" from 
electrolytic plant; (/) sulphuric acid mist from contact acid plant; 
(g) lead fumes from copper converters; (A) fumes from roasting of 
zinc ores; and (^) dust from buffing wheels and from machines for 
powdering slate. 

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. 

At its annual meeting in Washington in April, 1916, the National 
Academy of Sciences voted unanimously to offer its services to the 
President of the United States in the interest of national prepared- 
ness, and it was suggested that the academy " might advantageously 



EEPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 17 

organize the scientific resources of educational and research institu- 
tions in the interest of national security and welfare." The President 
accepted the offer and requested the academy to proceed with the 
organization. An organizing committee was accordingly appointed, 
and on June 19 the council of the academy, acting upon recommenda- 
tions of that committee, voted — 

That there be forrcGd a National Research Council whose purpose shall be to 
bring into cooperation existing governmental, educational, industrial, and other 
research organizations with the object of encouraging the investigation of 
natural phenomena, the increased use of scientific research in the development 
of American industries, the employment of scientific methods in strengthening 
the national defense, and such other applications of science as will promote the 
national security and welfare. 

That the council be composed of leading American investigators and engineers, 
representing the Army, Navy, Smithsonian Institution, and various scientific 
bureaus of the Government ; educational institutions and research endowments ; 
and the research divisions of industrial and manufacturing establishments. 

After the close of the fiscal year the National Eesearch Council 
was fully organized, the President of the United States appointing 
the representatives of the Government and authorizing the appoint- 
ment of other members by the president of the National Academy of 
Sciences. 

OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Chairman, George E. Hale; vice chairmen, Charles D. Walcott and Gano 
Dunn ; secretary, Gary T. Hutchinson ; executive committee, John J. Carty 
(chairman), William H. Welch (ex officio), George E. Hale (ex officio), Edwin 
G. Conklin, Gano Dunn, Arthur A. Noyes, Raymond Pearl, Michael I. Pupin, 
S. W. Stratton, V. C. Vaughan (others to be appointed). 

MEMBERS OF NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. 

Dr. L. H. Baekeland, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Dr. Marston T. Bogert, professor of organic chemistry, Columbia University. 

Dr. John A. Brashear, Allegheny, Pa. 

Dr. John J. Carty, chief engineer, American Telephone & Telegraph Co. 

Dr. Russell H. Chittenden, director, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale Uni- 
versity. 

Dr. Edwin G. Conklin, professor of zoology, Princeton University. 

Dr. John M. Coulter, professor of botany, University of Chicago. 

Brigadier General William Crozier, Chief of Ordnance, U. S. Army. 

Mr. Gano Dunn, president The J. G. White Engineering Corporation. 

Dr. Simon Flexner, director. Rockefeller Medical Institute. 

Ma.ior General William Crawford Gorgas, Surgeon General, U. S. Army. 

Dr. W. F. M. Goss, dean of engineering. University of Illinois. 

Dr. George E. Hale, director, Mount Wilson Solar Observatory. 

Mr. Clemens Herschel, president American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Prof. William H. Holmes, head curator of anthropology. United States Na- 
tional Museum. 

Dr. W. W. Keen, president American Philosophical Society. 

Mr. Van H. Manning, Director U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

Prof. Charles F. Marvin, Chief United States Weather Bureau. 



18 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Prof. A. A. Michelson, director, Ryerson Physical Laboratory, University of 

Cliicago. 

Dr. Robert A. Millilcan, professor of physics, University of Chicago. 

Dr. Arthur A. Noyes, director, research laboratory of physical chemistry, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Dr. Raymond Pearl, director, IMaine Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Prof. E. C. Pickering, director. Harvard College Observatory. 

Dr. Michael I. Pupin, professor of electro-mechanics, Columbia University. 

Mr. Charles F. Rand, president United Engineering Society. 

Prof. Theodore W. Richards, director of the Wolcott Gibbs Memorial Labora- 
tory, Harvard University. 

Mr. C. E. Skinner, director, research laboratory, Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Co. 

Lieutenant Colonel George O. Squier, Chief of Aviation, U. S. Army. 

Dr. S. W. Stratton, Director U. S. Bureau of Standards. 

Mr. Ambrose Swasey, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Rear Admiral David W. Taylor, Chief Constructor U. S. Navy. 

Dr. Elihu Thomson, Swampscott, Mass. 

Dr. C. R. Van Hise, president of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

Dr. Victor Clarence Vaughan, director, medical research laboratory, Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. William H. Welch, president of the National Academy of Sciences. 

Dr. W. R. Whitney, director of the research laboratory. General Electric Co. 

The council will be gradually enlarged by the addition of new 
members who are to serve as chairmen of important committees or 
who are otherwise to engage in some special work. 

To carry out the work of the council committees are being ap- 
pointed, including {a) committee on rules and procedure; (5) com- 
mittee on publication; (c) committee on research in educational 
institutions to consider general plans for the promotion of research 
in educational institutions and to arrange for local committees in 
each institution; {d) committee on promotion of industrial research 
with functions in the field somewhat similar to those of the preceding 
committee; {e) committee on a national census of research to pre- 
pare a national census of equipment for research, of the men engaged 
in it, and of lines of investigation pursued in cooperating Govern- 
ment bureaus, educational institutions, research foundations, and in- 
dustrial research laboratories. It has also been decided to form joint 
committees in various branches of science in cooperation with the 
corresponding national scientific societies. 

THE LANGLEY AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORY. 

In view of the organization of the National Advisory Committee 
for Aeronautics, provided for by act of Congress approved March 
3, 1915, it has appeared unnecessary at present to proceed further 
toward the permanent establishment of the proposed Langley labora- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 19 

tory. As secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, I was appointed 
a member of the National Advisory Committee and elected chairman 
of its executive committee, and in this connection I have been able 
to cooperate toward the solution of many important problems per- 
taining to the science and art of aviation. One of the chief advan- 
tages already being realized by the establishment of the advisory 
committee is a closer cooperation between the Army and Navy and 
other Federal departments and coordination of work in the general 
advancement of aviation. The Institution published during the j^ear 
two pamphlets on aeronautics, one, a series of reports on wind 
tunnel experiments, and the other on "Dj^namical stability of aero- 
planes," both of them by J. C. Hunsaker and associates. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The publications of the Institution proper include three series: 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge; Smithsonian Miscellan- 
eous Collections; and Smithsonian Annual Reports. Under the di- 
rection of the Institution there are also issued the Annual Reports, 
Proceedings, and Bulletins of the Ignited States National Museum, 
including the Contributions from the National Herbarium; Annual 
Reports and Bulletins of the Bureau of American Ethnology; and 
the Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory. All of these series 
except the " Contributions " and " Collections " are printed through 
annual Congressional allotments. In all of these series there was pub- 
lished during the year a total of 8,498 pages and 623 plates of illus- 
trations. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. — This series is intended 
to show results of original research constituting important contribu- 
tions to knowledge. One memoir of the series was in press at the 
close of the year giving "the results of an extended study on the com- 
parative histology of the femur. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. — ^Twenty-two papers, 
forming parts of five volumes of this series, were issued, among them 
three papers on Cambrian geology by your secretary. In this series 
the annual exploration pamphlet was issued, giving brief accounts 
of the explorations and field work of the Institution in geology, 
biology, and anthropology, covering every continent on the globe, 
and illustrated by 141 photographs taken in the field by the scien- 
tists themselves. The Smithsonian Physical Tables, which together 
with the Mathematical and Geographical Tables have become stand- 
ard works of reference in educationaLand research institutions, are 
published in this series. The sixth revised edition of the Physical 
Tables, issued during the preceding year, was quickly exhausted, 
making it necessary to print additional copies. Still another edition 
is now in press, indicating the constant demand for this work. 



20 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Smithsonian report. — The complete volume of the 1914 report was 
received from the printer and distributed at the beginning of the 
year. Material for the 1915 report was sent to press in December, 
and was completed just before the fiscal year closed. In the general 
appendix are 22 papers showing recent progress in various branches 
of science, including "The utilization of solar energy," "Evidences 
of primitive life," by your secretary, " Heredity," " Linguistic areas 
in Europe," and " Eecent developments in telephony and telegraphy." 
The custom of printing special editions in pamphlet form of papers 
in the general appendix has proved of great advantage; in several 
cases there has been a demand for a veiy large number of copies, 
which was especially noticeable in connection with an article on " The 
value of birds to man " in the 1913 report. 

Special publications. — Opinion 67 of the Opinions of the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature was issued as a 
special publication. A special paper by Chester G. Gilbert of the 
National Museum, on " Sources of nitrogen compounds in the United 
States" attracted considerable attention. Among other conclusions, 
he states: 

The evolution of a practicable process for the oxidation of by-product 
ammonia to render present resources available, with the development of an 
atmosplieric nitrogen fixation output by the Cyanamide process carefully timed 
to meet growing demands following a reduction in the retail price of nitro- 
genous fertilizer, would appear to be the desirable governmental procedure as 
being the one least liable to disastrous consequences. 

National MiMseum publicatioTis. — The National Museum issued an 
annual report, 2 volumes of the proceedings, 52 separate papers form- 
ing parts of these and other volumes, and 4 bulletins. 

Bureau of Ethnology publications. — The Bureau of American 
Ethnology published 2 annual reports, separates of 4 accompanying 
papers in these reports, and 2 bulletins. 

Reports of historical and patriotic societies. — The annual reports 
of the American Historical Association and the National Society of 
the Daughters of the American Kevolution were submitted to the 
Institution and communicated to Congress in accordance with the 
charters of these organizations. 

Allotments for printing. — Most of the allotment to the Institution 
and its branches for printing was used during the year, though it 
Avas impracticable to complete a large amount of material in press 
at the close of the year in the National Museum and Bureau of 
American Ethnology series. - 

The allotments for the year ending June 30, 1917, are as follows : 

For the Smithsonian Institution : For printing and binding the annual 
reports of the Board of Regents, with general appendices, the edi- 
tions of which shall not exceed 10,000 copies $10,000 



KEPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 21 

For the annual reports of the National Museum, with general appen- 
dices, and for printing labels and blanks, and for the Bulletins and 
Proceedings of the National Museum, the editions of which shall not 
exceed 4,000 copies, and binding, in half morocco or material not more 
expensive, scientific books, and pamphlets presented to or acquired 

by the National Museum library $37, 500 

For the annual reports and Bulletins of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology and for miscellaneous printing and binding for the bureau 21, 000 

For miscellaneous printing and binding: 

International Exchanges 200 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 100 

National Zoological Park 200 

Astrophysical Observatory 200 

For the annual report of the American Historical Association 7, 000 

Total 76,200 

CoTnmittee on printing and publication. — All manuscripts submit- 
ted for publication by the Institution or its branches have, as usual, 
been referred to the Smithsonian advisory committee on printing and 
publication. During the year 18 meetings were held and 96 manu- 
scripts examined and passed upon. The personnel of the committee 
was as follows: Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, head curator of biology, 
National Museum, acting chairman ; Dr. C. G. Abbot, director of the 
Astrophysical Observatory ; Dr. Frank Baker, superintendent of the 
National Zoological Park; Mr. A. Howard Clark, editor of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, secretary of the committee; Mr. F. W. Hodge, 
ethnologist in charge of the Bureau of American ethnology; and 
Dr. George P. Merrill, head curator of geology. United States 
National Museum. 

LIBRARY. 

The accumulation of a scientific library has always been an im- 
portant phase of the Institution's work in the " increase and diffusion 
of knowledge," and the collection has increased in size from year to 
year until at present it numbers well over half a million titles. The 
accessions of the year aggregated about 13,000 books and pamphlets. 

The main Smithsonian library is assembled in the Library of Con- 
gress and is known as the Smithsonian deposit. In addition the 
Institution maintains the Smithsonian office library, the National 
Museum library, the library of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
the Astrophysical Observatory library, and the National Zoological 
Park library, besides some 35 specialized sectional libraries main- 
tained in various offices for the use of the scientific staff of the Insti- 
tution and its branches. The Smithsonian office library contains a 
collection of books relating to art, the employees' libraiy, and an exten- 
sive aeronautical library. This collection of aeronautical works has 
been notably increased by additional gifts from Dr. Alexander 
73839°— SM 1916 3 



22 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Graham Bell, consisting of 33 books and 37 portfolios of periodicals, 
and by a number of reference works from the library of Major 
Baden-Powell. 

The National Museum library received 4,840 accessions, among 
them 207 titles contributed by Dr. William Healey Dall to his col- 
lection of works relating to mollusks; and the scientific library of 
Dr. Theodore Nicholas Gill, numbering about 3,000 volumes, pre- 
sented to the Institution by his brother, Mr. Herbert A. Gill, which 
is a valuable addition to the natural history series, especially in 
ichthyology. 

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESSES AND EXPOSITIONS. 
SECOND PAN AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC CONGRESS. 

The Second Pan American Scientific Congress, which held its ses- 
sions in Washington from December 27, 1915, to January 8, 1916, 
was the fifth of a series of scientific congresses, the first three of 
which included only the Latin American countries. At the first 
strictly Pan American Congress, held in Peru in 1908, in which the 
United States was invited to participate, it was unanimously voted 
to hold the next meeting in Washington. The congress held its 
inaugural session at 10 a. m., December 27, at Memorial Continental 
Hall, and business sessions and social affairs were arranged for every 
day thereafter until January 8. The following are the sections into 
which the congress was divided: 

I. Anthropology. 

II. Astronomy, Meteorologj% and Seismology. 

III. Conservation of Natural Resources, Agriculture, Irrigation, and Forestry. 

IV. Education. 

V. Engineering. 

Yl. International Law, Public Law, and Jurisprudence. 

VII. Mining and Jletallurgy, Economic Geology, and Applied Chemistry. 

VIII. Public Health and Medical Science. 

IX. Transportation, Commerce, Finance, and Taxation. 

At the meetings of these sections a great number of papers of 
scientific and economic importance were read. 

The Institution proper was represented in the congress by your 
secretary and Prof. W. H. Holmes, head curator of anthropology, 
United States National Museum, as delegates. Of the branches of 
the Institution, the Bureau of American Ethnology was represented 
by the ethnologist in charge, Mr. F. W. Hodge, and Dr. J. W. 
Fewkes, delegates; and the Astrophysical Observatory by Dr. C. G. 
Abbot, delegate, and Mr. F. E. Fowle, alternate. A reception was 
held for the Latin American delegates by the Board of Regents and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 23 

the Secretary of the Institution in the new building of the National 
Museum on the evening of December 29. 

This highly successful and important congress was attended by 
approximately 100 official delegates from the 21 American Eepublics, 
and 60 by special invitation, or representing societies or universities. 
The United States was represented by approximately 1,000 unofficial 
delegates or members. 

NINETEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF AMERICANISTS. 

The Nineteenth International Congress of Americanists, which 
was to have been held at Washington on the invitation of the Smith- 
sonian Institution in October, 1914, w^as postponed on account of 
the war in Europe until a more favorable time for an international 
gathering. When it became evident that a fully attended meeting 
would be out of the question in the near future, it was decided to 
hold the congress in affiliation with the section of anthropology of 
the Second Pan American Scientific Congress and jointly with the 
American Anthropological Association, the American Folk-Lore 
Society, the American Historical Association, and the Archaeologi- 
cal Institute of America. In consequence the date of the meeting 
was definitely fixed for December 27-31, 1915. 

Mr. John W. Foster, ex-Secretary of State, former minister to 
Mexico and Eussia, ex-president of the Washington Society of the 
Archaeological Institute, etc., served as president of the congress. 
The honorary presidents were the Secretary of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution; Mr. Clarence B. Moore, of Philadelphia; and Prof. 
William H. Holmes, of the National Museum. Mr. Clarence F. 
Norment, of Washington, served as treasurer, and Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, 
of the National Museum, as secretary of the Congress. There was 
a long list of honorary vice presidents, a general (honorary) com- 
mittee, associate foreign secretaries, and an organizing committee 
(with the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution as chairman). 

Official representatives of foreign Governments were in attendance 
from Austria, Chile, Cuba, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guate- 
mala, Nicaragua, Peru, Russia, Sweden, and Uruguay, and about 
100 official delegates from various learned societies and universities 
in the United States and foreign countries. 

The headquarters of the congress were at the National Museum, 
and most of the sessions were held there. 

Nearly 100 papers relating to the study of somatology, arche- 
ology, ethnology, folklore, history, and linguistics were read at the 
sessions of the congress, among them papers by several members of 
the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology and of the National 
Museum. 



24 ANNUAL EEPOKT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION. 

Only a very small allotment was allowed the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion and its branches from the congressional appropriation for Gov- 
ernment exhibits at San Francisco in 1915. It was possible, how- 
ever, to make a small display showing in a general way the scope and 
activities of the Institution, and an ethnological exhibit illustrating 
the characteristics and culture status of typical primitive peoples. 
The exhibits were located in the Liberal Arts Palace, covering a floor 
space of about 6,000 square feet. 

The exhibit of the Institution proper consisted of a series of photo- 
graphs of its founder, James Smithson, the four secretaries, pictures 
of the building and departments, and a complete set of its publica- 
tions. There was also displayed an exact reproduction of the 
Langley experimental steam flying machine which performed the 
epoch-making flights over the Potomac Eiver, May 6, 1896, together 
with photographs taken at the time. Langley's success as a pioneer 
in aviation was commemorated on the Column of Progress at the 
exposition (pi. 1) by a tablet with the following inscription: 

To commemorate science's gift of aviation to the world through Samuel Pier- 
pont Laugley, an American. 

The principal exhibit by the National Museum dealt with eth- 
nology, or the scientific study of the races of men, their origin, distri- 
bution, relations, and culture. It included four family lay-figure 
groups, the Eskimo of Alaska, the Dyak of the East Indies, the 
Zulu-Kaffir of South Africa, and the Carib of South America ; also 
village groups in miniature illustrating the houses and house life of 
various peoples, together with cases of specimens relating to the 
primitive arts and industries. 

The remaining departments or branches of the Institution, includ- 
ing the International Exchange Service, the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, the Astrophysical Observatory, the Zoological Park, the 
Hodgkins fund, the Aerodynamical Laboratory, and the Regional 
Bureau of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, were 
represented by charts, photographs, maps, instruments, and publi- 
cations illustrative of their various functions. 

Mr. W. de C. Ravenel, administrative assistant of the United 
States National Museum and secretary to the exposition board, acted 
as the representative of the Smithsonian Institution and its branches, 
with the assistance of Dr. Walter Hough, curator of ethnology, 
United States National Museum. 

The exhibits were enumerated in detail in a descriptive catalogue 
of 120 pages. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 25 

The family groups illustrated the most effective museum method 
of presenting ethnological material. The catalogue describes the 
groups as follows: 

The Eskimo family group comprises seven life-size figures clad in the native 
costumes and colored according to life, engaged in the usual summer vocations 
and amusements. At the left a woman is cooking meat in a primitive pottery 
vessel, and anotlier woman is putting dried fish in the storehouse. In the back- 
ground a man with a sinew-backed bow is watching a youth practicing with his 
sling. On the right another man is seated on the ground carving a wooden 
dish with a curved knife, and two little girls are playing witli their native toys. 
The structure in the back of the case is a representation of tlie storehouse 
commonly used by the western Eskimo. The dwelling groups sliow the houses 
to be dome-shaped, made of earth piled over a cobwork of timbers erected in 
an excavation in the ground. In the summer a passageway gives entrance, but 
in the winter a tunnel is built. A bench on which the people sleep runs around 
the wall on the inside of the house. The cooking within the dwelling is done 
in a pottery vessel suspended over a lamp. 

The group representing the Zulu-Kaffir and Bantu tribes, which live in the 
semiarid southern extremity of the African continent, depicts the natives as 
physically strong and energetic and not so dark as the true negro. This race is 
superior in military and social organizations and compares favorably in tlie 
arts and industries with other African families. The group sliows a section of 
a house with a doorway, a fireplace on which a woman is cooking mush, a 
woman dipping beer from a large pottery jar, a woman from the field with a 
hoe, a water carrier with a jar on her head, a man playing a marimba or 
xylophone, and a boy driving a goat. The natives are represented as they 
existed some years ago, before they were affected by contact with the white 
man. Other cases include models of the native African dwellings and examples 
of the handiwork of these people, an interesting feature of which is the primi- 
tive ironwork in which many African tribes were highly skilled. 

The next group takes the exposition visitor from Africa across the Atlantic 
to northern South America, where dwells the Carib in the forested tropical 
interior of British Guiana. Some of the tribes of this great race have only 
recently been visited by white men. Here is to be seen a Carib warrior with 
his blowgun, a woman and a child squeezing cassava in a primitive lever 
press, another woman decorating a tree gourd with characteristic interlocking 
designs, and a cliild playing with a pet parrot. A hammock swung between two 
house posts represents the form of bed in general use in ancient as well as 
modern Latin America. Among the articles manufactured by these natives 
examples of ceremonial objects and articles of personal adornment are ex- 
hibited, including headdresses, earrings, belts, arm bands, necklaces, and capes. 

A fourth family group represents the Dyaks of the island of Borneo. They 
are expert house and boat builders and skilled in the use of the blowgun. 
Rice, sago, tropical fruits, monkeys, wild pigs, and other game, yield them 
subsistence. The men are warlike, and are still, to some extent, head-huntei"s, 
their weapons being spears, short swords, and blowguns v/ith poison-tipped 
darts. The Dyak family group is represented on the porch of a communal 
house, carrying on various occupations. A woman is pounding rice in a wooden 
mortar, while another is represented as bringing in a basket of rice on her 
back, a third is making a basket, a man armed with a bayoneted blowgun is 
approaching with a freshly killed monkey, and two children are shown playing 
cat's cradle, a popular native game. 



26 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The museum exhibits also included a series of objects illustrating 
the development of six kinds of implements and appliances of the 
arts — apparatus for fire making, the jackknife, the saw, the spindle, 
the shuttle, and the ax. Pictures of other exhibits in biology, geol- 
ogy, and anthropology in the National Museum were shown by a 
" stereomotorgraph " machine. 

The Smithsonian Institution was awarded a grand prize, under 
the head of scientific investigation, for the collective exhibit by the 
Institution proper, the Bureau of American Ethnology, the Museum, 
the Astrophysical Observatory, and the Bureau of International 
Catalogue of Scientific Literature; a grand prize for the balloon 
pyrheliometer designed and exhibited by the Astrophysical Observa- 
tory ; a gold medal for the " Group of elk " shown by the Museum ; 
and a silver medal for investigations for the betterment of social 
and economic conditions. The balloon pyrheliometer, as its name 
implies, is an instrument for measuring the heat of the sun. It is 
carried aloft by a pair of rubber balloons until one of them bursts, 
when it gradually descends to the earth, supported by the other. 
Records have thus been obtained at heights of over 9 miles. 

PANAMA-CALIFOKNIA EXPOSITION AT SAN DIEGO. 

Although no appropriation was made by Congress for exhibits 
at San Diego in 1915, it was possible for the Institution, through 
cooperation with the exposition authorities, to arrange an interesting 
exhibit of physical anthropology and one illustrating American 
aboriginal industries. These exhibits were described in my report 
of last year. 

At the close of the San Francisco Exposition a number of the 
Smithsonian exhibits were transferred to San Diego, this fair having 
been extended over another jenr. These exhibits were located in the 
Science of Man Building, and included four large cases containing 
the famil}^ groups of natives from different quarters of the globe, as 
described above, and some cases containing specimens of their arts 
and industries, together with several small family dwelling groups. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The report of Assistant Secretary Rathbun, appended hereto, re- 
views in detail the operations of the National Museum. The total 
number of new specimens acquired was 243,733 ; about one-half per- 
tained to the department of zoology, about one-third were botanical 
and paleontological, and the rest were additions to the anthropo- 
logical and other collections. Among the ethnological additions 
of special interest may be noted a series of costumes, weapons, 
and utensils from British Guiana; many objects from Celebes, 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 27 

Borneo, and the Philippines; and a large collection from aboriginal 
mounds and ruin sites in Utah. To the division of American his- 
tory the additions included china and glassware and other objects 
once the property of General and Martha Washington. The memor- 
ials of Gen. Sherman, which had long been in the custody of the 
Museum, have now been presented by his son, Hon. P. Tecumseh 
Sherman, and the Cromwell collection of 20,000 domestic and for- 
eign postage stamps, deposited some years ago, became the absolute 
property of the Museum on the death of Mr. Cromwell in Septem- 
ber, 1915. 

To the interesting collection of historical costumes there have been 
added costumed figures representing four hostesses of the White 
House, Mrs. James Monroe, Mrs. John Quincy Adams, Mrs. Abraham 
Lincoln, and Mrs. James R. McKee. 

By the will of Dr. Shepard there was bequeathed an important 
collection of meteorites which had been in the possession of the 
Museum for a number of years. 

In the department of biology the additions were representative of 
many parts of the world, including mammals, birds, and reptiles 
from Celebes and Borneo, collected through the long-continued gen- 
erosity of Dr. W. L. Abbott; and like collections from Siam, Kash- 
mir, northern China, and Manchuria. Part of the results of the 
Smithsonian biological survey of the Panama Canal Zone was a 
collection of about 18,000 fishes. The Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington deposited some 8,000 botanical specimens gathered by Dr. 
J. N. Rose in Brazil and Argentina. 

Mr. Rathbun enumerates many other interesting objects recently 
received, particularly those pertaining to the industrial arts, a depart- 
ment which has been very greatly developed since the removal of the 
natural history exhibits to the new building, yet the proper installa- 
tion of series illustrating the many branches of the arts and indus- 
tries is already seriously hindered through lack of space. It is in 
this department in particular that the Museum manifests one of its 
principal functions. The exhibits are so selected and so installed as 
to teach visitors how things are made and what they are made of, 
and not so much who makes the best articles or how they should be 
packed to meet the demands of trade. And yet while these collec- 
tions first of all educate the public they also teach the manufacturer 
and therefore are of decided economic importance. One of the lead- 
ing New England manufacturers not long since, while examining 
the exhibits in his own industrial line, remarked, "this helps 
business." 

I can not too strongly urge the need of still greater advancement 
in this department of Smithsonian activities. The time is fast ap- 



28 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916, 

proacliing when there sliould be constructed in the Smithsonian 
reservation another new building, a Museum of Industrial Arts. 
The collections are here and in many respects they surpass similar 
collections in Europe or elsewhere. The splendid new building in 
which the natural history collections are now so adequately housed 
has offered opportunity for the development of that department 
beyond the highest expectations. Like progress could be made with a 
Museum of Industrial Arts. European countries have such struc- 
tures, one is needed here in Washington. It is an economic question. 
Commercial museums have their place for developing trade and 
commerce, and are of much value for such purpose, but the develop- 
ment of the artistic taste of the public through an educational 
Museum of Industrial Arts is of even greater importance. It would 
stimulate inventive skill and advance every art and every industry. 
The exhibits illustrating textile industry and mineral technology in 
particular are verj^ complete, consisting of specimens of raw mate- 
rials, machinery used in manufacture, and the finished products. 

To the National Gallery of Art there has been added a collection 
of 82 drawings in pencil, pen, etc., by contemporary French artists, 
a gift from citizens of France to the people of the United States; 
also an oil painting of Abraham Lincoln, by Story, the gift of Mrs. 
E. H. Harriman. The paintings in the National Gallery collection 
are of much popular interest and of great artistic and intrinsic value, 
but they are crowded in temporary quarters in a building designed 
for purposes other than a gallery of art. 

During the last year Mr. Freer made 535 additions to his collection, 
including 23 paintings and sculptures by American artists, and over 
500 oriental objects consisting of paintings, pottery, bronzes, and 
jades. The entire collection now aggregates about 5,346 items. 

The auditorium in the new building has been the meeting place of 
a number of scientific bodies and of international congresses ; and in 
the foyer opportunity was offered for several special exhibitions. 

In cooperating with schools and colleges there v.ere distributed 
some 7,000 duplicate specimens of minerals, fossils, mollusks, and 
other objects, classified and labeled for teaching purposes. 

The number of visitors to the new building averaged 1,012 on week 
days and 1,240 on Sundays. 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology is under the direct charge of 
Mr. F. W. Hodge, whose detailed report is appended hereto. The 
operations of the bureau include field work and special researches 
pertaining to the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii. 

With the cooperation of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye 
Foundation, the Nacoochee mound in Georgia was excavated and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 29 

proved to have been used both for domicile and for burial purposes. 
In the mound were found a large number of smoking pipes and a 
great amount of broken pottery. In New Mexico, also in cooperation 
with the ]\Iuseum of the American Indian, plans were made for 
excavating the historic pueblo of Hawikuh in the Zuiii Valley south- 
west of Zuili pueblo. Among the most interesting field operations 
during the year were those by Dr. Fewkes in the Mesa Verde 
National Park, Colo., where he unearthed a type of structure archi- 
tecturally dijEferent from an}^ hitherto found in the Southwest. The 
excavation was carried on under the joint auspices of the bureau 
and the Department of the Interior, and the building, which Dr. 
Fewkes has named the Sun Temple, is described in a pamphlet 
published by that department. The Sun Temple is a large D-shaped 
structure, the longest wall of which measures 131 feet 7 inches. The 
walls are 2 to 5 feet in thickness and show structural qualities that 
compare favorably with any building of this type north of Mexico. 
Dr. Fewkes is of the opinion that though the building was used j)ri- 
marily as a place of worship, it was intended also for a place of 
refuge in case of attack. 

In the Northwest, investigations were continued by Dr. Frach- 
tenberg on the languages, history, and traditions of tlie various 
Indian tribes of Oregon and Washington. In connection with this 
work it is interesting to note that in revising some manuscript mate- 
rial Dr. Frachtenberg secured the assistance of the last surviving 
member of the Atfalati tribe of the Kalapuya Indians. 

A number of special researches have been in progress during the 
year, among them research work by Dr. Franz Boas in connection 
with the completion of part 2 of the Handbook of American Indian 
Languages. Through the liberality of Mr. Homer E. Sargent, of 
Chicago, work has been well advanced on an extended study of the 
Salish dialects, as well as on a study of Salish basketry, which it is 
intended to describe in an illustrated memoir. Part 1 of the Hand- 
book of American Antiquities by Prof. W. H. Holmes was in type 
at the close of the year, and the preparation of part 2 was well under 
way. 

The study of Indian music by Miss Frances Densmore, which has 
attracted considerable attention among musicians, has been continued 
during the year, chiefly among the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians in 
North Dakota. A number of ceremonial and war songs were re- 
corded phonographically and a new phase of the work was under- 
taken, consisting of testing the pitch discrimination of the Indians 
by means of tuning forks. There was in press at the close of the year 
a bulletin by Miss Densmore entitled " Teton Sioux music." 



30 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The publications of the bureau issued during the year comprise 
two annual reports with their accompanying papers, and two bulle- 
tins. In press or in preparation at the close of the year were three 
annual reports and five bulletins. The bureau library was enriched 
by the addition of 1,078 volumes, among them 20 volumes of Bibles 
and portions of the Bible in American Indian languages. 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES. 

The total number of packages of governmental and other docu- 
ments handled by the International Exchange Service during the 
year was 301,625, an increase of 25,869 over the previous year. This 
figure, however, still shows a decrease as compared with the total 
handled in 1914, owing to the suspension of shipments to 10 countries 
involved in the European w^ar. Efforts have been made to resume 
shipments to certain of these countries, which have met with some 
degree of success in the case of Germany and Eussia. 

The Exchange Service has continued its policy of international 
helpfulness by assisting governmental and scientific establishments 
to procure publications especially desired both in this country and 
abroad. One instance showing the value of this policy may be cited. 
The Pan American division of the American Association for Inter- 
national Conciliation, of New York, wished to assemble a collection 
of several thousand volumes of North American origin for presen- 
tation to the Museo Social Argentino at Buenos Aires. Through the 
Exchange Service the matter was brought to the attention of the 
proper establishments and several hundred governmental and other 
publications were received for the proposed collection. 

The number of sets of United States governmental documents sent 
through the Exchange Service to foreign countries has been reduced 
from 92 to 91, owing to the discontinuance of shipments to the gov- 
ernment of Bombay at the request of that government. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 

The National Zoological Park is becoming each year a greater and 
greater attraction to the public, and as its collections increase so does 
its value become of more importance as a source of information to 
the zoologist in his stucl}^ of animal life. 

There is now in the park a total of 1,383 individual animals, rep- 
resenting 360 species, as shown by the detailed census in the report 
of the superintendent. 

Among the recent accessions may be mentioned a pair of young 
lions, a pair of Siberian tigers, a great red kangaroo, several mon- 
keys, and a number of interesting birds, but the newly acquired ani- 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 31 

mal that seems most popular is a male chimpanzee, about 4^ years 
old, from the forests of French Congo. 

The number of visitors during the past year was 1,157,110, as com- 
pared with 794,530 in the year preceding. This included 161 schools, 
classes, etc., numbering 8,679 individuals. 

Recent improvements include the construction of a hospital and 
laboratorj'^ building and the grading of some ridges and gullies to 
secure additional building sites and paddocks for the deer and other 
large animals. 

As mentioned in previous reports an appropriation was made in 
1913 for the purchase of several acres as an extension to the western 
boundary of the park, but legal proceedings and complications inci- 
dent to adjustment of values and benefit assessments caused such 
dalnj that the appropriation, not being a continuing one, lapsed on 
June 30, 1915, and Congress has failed to renew the allotment for this 
much desired improvement. 

Many important needs are urged by the superintendent, some of 
which I have mentioned year after year. One of these is an aviary 
building for the' birds now being housed in temporary quarters 
greatly deleterious to their health. Other needs are a building for the 
elephants, hippopotami, and similar animals ; an ape house ; a reptile 
house ; a pheasantry ; an ostrich house ; an aquarium ; and an insect- 
ary ; also a gatehouse and a permanent boundary fence. 

THE ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY. 

Observations of the solar constant were continued at Mount Wil- 
son, CaL, from July to October, 1915, and were begun again in 1916. 

During the year there was published the results of solar-constant 
observations made under Prof. Pickering's direction at Arequipa, 
Peru, since August, 1912, with a silver-disk pyrheliometer lent by 
the Smithsonian Institution. These observations confirm the vari- 
ations of the sun observed at Mount Wilson. An interesting feature 
of the Arequipa observations was the fact that the volcanic eruption 
of Mount Katmai in 1912, which produced a great deal of dust over 
the northern hemisphere, apparently had no effect on the atmosphere 
south of the equator. 

The results of observations at Mount Wilson in 1913 and 1914 on 
the distribution of radiation along the diameter of the sun's disk 
were published during the year. It is thus shown that the average 
distribution over the disk varies from year to year as well as from 
day to day. 

Observations have been continued on the transmission of rays of 
great wave length through long columns of air, which it is expected 
will be of much interest in studying the earth's temperature as 
dependent on radiation toward space. 



32 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

After several years of experimenting the Astropliysical Observa- 
tory has constructed an instrument called the pyranometer, designed 
for measuring the intensity of sky light by day and of radiation 
outward toward the sky by night. A full account of this instrument 
has been published in pamphlet form. The pyranometer may prove 
of advantage in botanical investigations in forests and greenhouses, 
since it can measure radiation in deep shade as well as in the full sun. 

The Institution has made an allotment from the Hodgkins fund 
for carrying on solar-constant work at some suitable place in South 
America. Throughout the year, for several years, it is intended to 
continue observations at Mount Wilson in California and at the 
South American station with a view to determine the dependence of 
the earth's climatic conditions on the sun's variation of radiation. In 
addition to his solar-constant work the director of the observatory 
has given considerable attention to experiments at Jiount Wilson 
with solar cooking apparatus " comprising ovens iieated by oil under 
gravity circulation maintained by heat collected by a concave cylin- 
dric mirror of about 100 square feet surface." These experiments 
were not concluded at the close of the year. 

INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE OF SCIENTIFIC 
LITERATURE. 

The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, the United 
States bureau of which is administered by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, was organized in 1901, and since that date 17 volumes of refer- 
ences to scientific literature, one for each of 17 branches of science, 
have been published each year. During the past year 24,160 classi- 
fied references to American scientific literature were prepared by the 
United States bureau, bringing the total number of references to the 
literature of this country since the inception of the catalogue up to 
369,509. 

As stated in last year's report, the war in Europe caused consid- 
erable financial embarrassment to the publication of the catalogue 
owing to the impossibility of collecting subscriptions from several of 
the countries involved. The generosity of the Royal Society of Lon- 
don in making up this loss of income made possible the publication 
of the thirteenth annual issue, and this year a request was made for 
assistance from the United States. Your secretary succeeded in in- 
teresting the Carnegie Corporation, of New York, in the project 
and through the generous assistance of that establishment it was 
made possible to publish the fourteenth annual issue. 

The value to science of this catalogue is universally recognized, and 
it is the opinion of scientists everywhere that any lapse in its publi- 
cation would be a real calamity, as shown by the action of the Inter- 



EEPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 33 

national Council of the Catalogue in voting to extend the work to at 
least 1920. 

NECROLOGY. 

James Burrill Angell, doctor of laws, died April 1, 1916. He had 
been a regent of the Institution for a quarter of a century, from Janu- 
ary 19, 1887, to January 15, 1912, when he resigned on account of 
age and inability longer to attend meetings of the board. He was 
born at Scituate, R. I., January 7, 1829, and through his long life as 
a journalist, an educator, and a diplomat he served his country faith- 
fully in many positions of honor and trust. 

He began his career as a professor of modern languages at Brown 
University, was a journalist during the period of the Civil War, 
president of the Universitj^ of Vermont 1866-1871, president of the 
University of Michigan 1871-1909, United States minister to China 
1880-1882, and minister to Turkey 1897-98, and served on several 
important treaty commissions. In accepting his resignation as a 
regent in 1912 the board recorded its appreciation of his long and 
faithful service to the Smithsonian Institution. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Charles D. Walcott, Secretary. 



Appendix 1. 

REPORT ON THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the United States National Museum for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1916 : 

INTRODUCTORY. 

Seventy years ago Congress first definitely recognized the national 
collections and directed their segregation and preservation under 
the custody and supervision of the Smithsonian Institution in the 
building to be erected for that establishment. By 1850 arrange- 
ments had been sufficiently perfected to justify the appointment of an 
assistant in charge of museum matters and to begin the acquisition 
of natural-history specimens, but it was not until 1858 that the 
extensive collections which had previously accumulated at the 
Patent Office could be accepted. With an influx of material rela- 
tively as phenomenal as in more recent years, the Museum rapidly 
spread beyond the boundaries originally assigned to it and by 1875 
was practically in possession of all parts of the Smithsonian building 
not required for the offices of the parent institution. But even so, 
there was a condition of great congestion from which relief was 
only obtained in 1881, the year of the completion of the second 
building. Though specially designed for displaying the many im- 
portant donations in numerous branches of the industrial arts from 
the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, the latter had also to serve for 
the overflow in natural history, a combination which fully taxed 
its capacity in less than three years. Then followed nearly three 
decades during which about as much material was assembled in 
outside storage as found lodgement within the two structures. 

The problem as regards the departments of natural history was 
solved when the new large granite building was made ready for 
occupancy in 1911, except that it lacked accommodations for the 
division of plants, or National Herbarium. As the depository for the 
Department of Agriculture and other establishments conducting 
extensive botanical explorations, this branch of the Museum has 
about outgrown its provisional quarters in the Smithsonian building, 
and its future requirements should not long go unheeded. 

35 



36 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The most serious phase of the situation now confronting the Mu- 
seum, however, results from the wholly inadequate facilities for sys- 
tematically developing the collections illustrative of the industrial 
arts. Comprehended under the fundamental act, partly organized in 
1880, greatly enriched from the Philadelphia exhibition of 1876, and 
with a steady growth through all subsequent years, this important 
department, whose principal aim is popular education on technical 
lines by means of exhibits visualizing conditions and processes as 
well as products, is filling to such an extent every foot of available 
space that the halls present rather the appearance of gross storage 
than of orderly and classified arrangement. Public sentunent, ex- 
pressed through many channels, demands better progress than here- 
tofore in carrying out the purposes of this department, but the 
difficulties in the way are by no means confined to limitations of 
space, since the more immediate embarrassments arise from an 
insufficiency of funds for employing the necessary skilled assistants 
required for working up and preparing the exhibits, which includes 
the construction of many models. 

The department of the fine arts is even more poorly provided for 
than any of the other Museum branches, as it is occupying borrowed 
space which is already so crowded as seemingly to forbid further 
contributions, and while this condition lasts there can be little 
hope for advancement. There is, however, one bright feature to 
mention in this connection — the decision to immediately begin the 
erection of the building for the Charles L. Freer collections of 
American and oriental art, the plans showing a beautiful granite 
structure, the completion of which will bring to the Institution much 
the largest donation it has ever had, one of the most notable gifts 
of its character in the world's history. Put to no expense for either 
building or collections, it is hoped that the example set by Mr. Freer 
will lead to more liberal consideration on the part of the Govern- 
ment of the needs of the National Gallery of Art, for which no ap- 
propriations of any kind have ever yet been made. 

During the past year many valuable additions were made to the 
collections generally, new and instructive features were incorporated 
in the exhibition halls, and a wider public interest was stimulated 
through an exceptional number of meetings and of special exposi- 
tions of scientific and art objects held at frequent intervals in th^ 
convenient quarters provided for such purposes. 

COLLECTIONS. 

The total number of specimens acquired during the year was ap- 
proximately 243,733. Received in 1,525 separate accessions, they were 
classified and assigned as follows: Department of anthropology, 
29,493; zoology, 120,303; botany, 40,631; geology and mineralogy, 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 37 

1,700; paleontology, 48,403; textiles, woods, and other animal and 
vegetable products, 2,304 ; mineral technology, 280 ; and the National 
Gallery of Art, 619. As loans for exhibition, 1,960 articles were also 
obtained, mainly for the Gallery of Art and the divisions of history 
and ethnology. Material for examination and report, consisting 
chiefly of rocks, ores, fossils, and recent animals and plants, was 
received to the extent of 1,036 lots. 

Anthropology. — One of the most desirable ethnological additions 
vras a series of costumes, weapons, and utensils — excellent illustra- 
tions of the arts and industries of recently discovered tribes in the 
interior of British Guiana, collected by Mr. John Ogilvie. The 
aborigines of Celebes and Borneo were represented by many import- 
ant objects assembled by Mr. H. C. Raven and presented by Dr. W. 
L. Abbott; and those of the Philippine Islands by extensive and 
varied contributions, including weapons, musical instruments, 
basliets, costumes, etc., received from Mrs. Caroline E. Bates, Mr. 
E. H. Haimnond, and the following officers of the United States 
Army, namely, Maj. Edgar Eussel, Maj. W. T. Johnston, and Capt. 
J. R. Harris. Baskets, ornaments, and other articles of various 
Indian tribes of North America, were also given by Mrs. Bates; a 
number of rare and valuable objects from the Osage Indians were 
deposited by the Bureau of American Ethnology; interesting ex- 
amples of art and ethnologica from various parts of the world were 
presented by Miss Louise Salter Codwise; and costumes and imple- 
ments from the Blackfeet Indians and the Greenland Eskimo were 
likewise obtained. 

An extensive collection of archeological material from mounds and 
ruin sites in Utah, resulting from explorations by ]SIr. Neil M. Judd 
for the Bureau of Etlinology, is of particular value in aiding to 
determine the distribution of Pueblo culture toward the north. 
Other accessions from America consisted mainly of artifacts, includ- 
ing many rare specimens, from several of the States, and of woven 
fabrics and pottery from Peru. A gift of Old World antiquities 
from Miss Codwise was composed principally of Egyptian scarabs, 
necklaces, and figurines, and Palestinian amulets, while a collection 
of prehistoric stone implements from Great Britain contained some 
choice specimens. 

The division of physical anthropology received many skeletons and 
skulls, in very complete condition, from Mr. Clarence B. Moore, who 
obtained them at " The Indian Knoll," on the Green River, Ky. ; 
and a similar collection from Mr. George G. Heye, secured during 
an exploration of old burial sites in Georgia and Tennessee. Es- 
pecially noteworthy was an excellent series of skulls and numerous 
other bones belonging to the period before the advent of the whites, 
procured in old burial caves in Hawaii by Mr. August Busck. 

73839°— SM 1916 4 



38 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

THe'inore notable accessions in mechanical technology bore upon 
the subjects of the telephone and firearms. The American Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Co. contributed a set of instruments and of load- 
ing coils, with examples of line wire and glass insulators, used at the 
opening of the first telephone line between New York and San Fran- 
cisco on January 25, 1915, and also a duplicate of the first instrument 
through which speech was transmitted electrically in Boston in 1875 ; 
while Dr. Alexander Graham Bell deposited his diplomas, certificates 
of award, and announcements of election to scientific societies, an 
interesting series of documents indicative of the many honors which 
have been conferred upon him. A gift from Mrs. Bates of much 
historical value included old military guns of European and Ameri- 
can manufacture, pistols and revolvers, a gun made in the Philip- 
pine Islands, two very fine bronze swivel cannon, and several Toledo 
blades and other swords. 

Mr. Hugo Worch added three old American pianos to his munifi- 
cent donation of the previous year, and made a provisional deposit of 
four other instruments, three American and one of London make. 
The permanent acquisitions in ceramics consisted mainly of examples 
from some of the prominent potteries of the United States, but 
among the loans were specimens of porcelains from abroad and also 
of glassware, bronze, and brass, which are now exhibited in the 
ceramic gallery. 

Among the accessions in graphic arts were experimental apparatus 
and pictures illustrating progress and the several steps in the elec- 
trical transmission of photographs from one place to another, as 
also the development of the engraving machine called the akro- 
graph; a "Wells printing press; examples of the art of overlay in 
printing; samples of poster stamps and lithographs; and a number 
of fourteenth and fifteenth century manuscripts. The additions in 
photography included daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and tintypes; a 
sepia print of a painting on carved wood by Rosselimo ; and a series 
of prints of astronomical subjects from the Yerkes Observatory. 

American history. — The historical collections were increased to an 
exceptional extent by both gifts and deposits. Most prominent was 
a loan by Mr. Walter G. Peter, a descendant of Martha Washington, 
of many objects of artistic and domestic interest once the property 
of General and Mrs. Washington at Mount Vernon, which richly 
supplement the Lewis collection long in the possession of the 
Museum. Mention can here be made of only a few of the articles, 
among which were a china portrait plaque of Washington designed 
by Kichard Champion; a water-color portrait of him by William 
Thornton; two gold lockets containing locks of his hair; a gold 
watch of Mrs. Washington, the cover engraved with the Washington 
coat of arms; a child's French dressing table of exquisite workman- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 39 

ship presented by Lafayette to the granddaughter of Mrs. Washing- 
ton, JMartha Ciistis, who became Mrs. Thomas Peter; letters written 
to Mrs. Washington on the death of her husband ; documents relat- 
ing to the settlement of her estate; and a number of fine examples 
of eighteenth century china and glassware. 

It is pleasing to note that the valuable loan collection of memorials 
of Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, United States Army, with 
some additions, was given into the permanent keeping of the Museum 
during the year by his son, Hon. P. Tecumseh Sherman. From the 
widow and children of Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton, United States 
Volunteers, there was acquired as a gift an extensive series of objects, 
including a medal of honor from Congress, forming a significant 
reminder of the distinguished career of this officer in the Civil War, 
several Indian wars, and the Philippines. Important relics of Capt. 
Edward Trenchard, United States Navy (1784-1824), and of his son, 
Eear Admiral Stephen Decatur Trenchard, United States Navy, 
including two presents awarded to the former by acts of Congress, 
were received on deposit. There were also many other gifts and 
loans of notable personal and period relics, and the national societies 
of the Colonial Dames of America and the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution made interesting additions to their already extensive 
loan collections. 

By the death of Mr. David W. Cromwell, of New York, on Sep- 
tember 11, 1915, the splendid collection of nearly 20,000 domestic 
and foreign postage stamps, which he placed on permanent deposit 
in 1908, became the absolute property of the Museum. Among other 
additions in philately, including stamps, stamped envelopes, and post 
cards, were 1,565 new foreign and 269 new domestic issues, received 
from the Post Office Department. 

The collection of historical costumes was enriched to the extent of 
562 articles, nearly all of which Tv^re loans. To the series of cos- 
tumed figures representing hostesses of the White House four were 
added, namely, Mrs. James Monroe, Mrs. John Quincy Adams, Mrs. 
Abraham Lincoln, and Mrs. James R. McKee. 

Biology. — In the accessions of vertebrate animals the Asiatic 
region was especially well represented, and many genera and species 
new to the collection were obtained. The name of Dr. W. L. Abbott 
remains conspicuous in this connection through three contributions. 
The first, composed of material gathered under his direction and at 
his expense in Celebes and Borneo by Mr. H. C. Raven, consisted of 
465 mammals, 869 birds, and a number of reptiles and batrachians. 
The second, presented jointly with Mr. C. B. Kloss, contained 197 
mammals and 133 birds, besides reptiles and batrachians from Siam ; 
while the third was a series of 183 mammals from Kashmir, British 
India. The Celebes and Siam specimens are especially important, 



40 AN-NUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

both as coming from localities not hitherto represented in the Mu- 
seum and as supplementing the existing large collections from the 
related faunal regions of the Malay Peninsula, the Philippine 
Islands, and Borneo. From northern China and Manchuria was re- 
ceived a valuable series of mammals, birds, and reptiles, the results 
of further field work by Mr. Arthur de C. Sowerby. Obtained by 
Mr. Copley Amory, jr., during a collecting trip to the little-known 
Kolyma River region of northeastern Siberia and presented by him, 
were 365 mammals and 2J:3 birds, besides a number of nests and eggs 
of the latter. 

Additional mammals were received from Baluchistan through ex- 
change with the McMahon Museum at Quetta and from East Africa 
as a gift from Mr. Elton Clark. The most important accessions of 
reptiles, batrachians, and fishes consisted of the specimens obtained 
in connection with the Smithsonian biological survey of the Canal 
Zone by Mr. S. F. Hildebrand, Prof. S. E. Meek, and Mr. E. A. Gold- 
man, the number of fishes amounting to about 18,000. An extensive 
collection of Peruvian fishes made by Dr. R. E. Coker in 1907 and 
1908 was presented by the Government of Peru, and another from 
South American localities was received from Indiana University in 
exchange. The Bureau of Fisheries deposited 1,242 specimens from 
Albatross explorations in the Pacific Ocean. 

The receipts by the division of marine invertebrates were excep- 
tionally extensive. Twenty-seven separate collections were trans- 
ferred b}^ the Bureau of Fisheries, a part of which had been worked 
up and described. They represented investigations by the steamer 
Albatross in the Pacific Ocean, by the steamers Fish Hawh and 
Boxlie and the schooner Gimmpus in the Atlantic Ocean and con- 
tiguous waters, and certain other inquiries. Of crustaceans there 
were about 15,000 specimens, of annelids about 1,000 specimens, of 
pteropod mollusks about 3,200 specimens, of starfishes nearly 150 
types, and of fresh- water mollusks about 1,000 specimens from the 
Mississippi River, besides ver}^ many unassorted lots of crustaceans, 
salpa, pyrosoma, and other groups. 

A very large number of miscellaneous invertebrates from the Dan- 
ish West Indies and about 5,000 specimens of land and marine mol- 
lusks from the Florida Ke^'s were deposited by the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington, while over 3,000 miscellaneous specimens from 
dredgings off the coast of Florida and about 7,000 land and fresh- 
water shells from Cuba were presented b}' Mr. John B. Henderson. 
An accumulation of samples of ocean bottom, filling nearly 11,000 
bottles, obtained by vessels of the Coast and Geodetic Survey dur- 
ing hydrographic investigations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 
and the Gulf of Mexico, were transferred to the custody of the 
Museum. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 41 

The principal accessions of insects consisted of Lepidoptera and 
Diptera deposited by the Bureau of Entomology, of named species 
of beetles and Hymenoptera from Australia, and of types of new 
species presented by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell. 

The division of plants received several large and important col- 
lections. The Department of Agriculture transferred over 6,600 
specimens, of which a considerable proportion were grasses. Some 
8,000 specimens, representing the field work of Dr. J. N. Rose in 
connection with his cactus investigations in Brazil and Argentina 
during the summer of 1915, were deposited by the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington ; and about 2,000 specimens secured by the Peruvian 
expedition of 1914-15 were presented by the National Geographic So- 
ciety and Yale University. Among other important accessions were 
specimens from the Philippines, Amboina, China, and Panama. 

Geology. — During explorations in the Rocky Mountain region in 
the summer of 1915, Dr. Charles D. Walcott procured for the Museum 
in the Yellowstone National Park a large and well-selected series of 
the siliceous and calcareous sinters, including some masses of excep- 
tional size, native sulphur, silicified wood, sundry mineral specimens, 
and an extensive representation of volcanic rocks, intended in part 
for an exhibition of the geological features of that park. Among 
other important acquisitions were illustrations of the geology and 
mineral associations of the pegmatite deposits of southern California, 
and of the emerald mines at Muzo, Colombia ; a number of scheelite 
specimens of more than ordinary interest from Utah ; and an miusu- 
ally fine large specimen of secondary copper sulphate from the Sil- 
ver Bow Mine, Mont. The Geological Survey transferred examples 
of the nitrate deposits in Idaho and Oregon, and of potash-bearmg 
salts and associated rocks from the vicinit}^ of Tonopah, Nev. ; and 
Dr. Joseph P. Iddings presented some fine specimens of the peculiar 
problematic bodies known as obsidianites and Darwin glass from 
Borneo and Tasmania, and an important series of phosphate rocks 
from Ocean and Makatea Islands. 

By the will of Dr. Charles Upham Shepard, who died early in 
July, 1915, the very important collection of meteorites belonging to 
him, which has been on deposit for a number of years, was bequeathed 
to the Museum ; while from several other sources material represent- 
ing 32 distinct falls of meteorites in many different parts of the 
world was also acquired. 

The mineral collection received many additions, including excep- 
tionally fine specimens, examples of recent finds and several rare 
species, the largest accession, a deposit from the Geological Survey, 
consisting of about 300 specimens mostly illustrative of a report by 
Dr. W. T. Schaller on the gem minerals of the pegmatites of Cali- 
fornia. From the same Survey was also transferred a large amount 



42 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

of petrological material, mainly rocks illustrating the geology and 
ore deposits of several districts and localities, described in recent 
papers. 

Of fossil invertebrates the Geological Survey made extensive con- 
tributions from the Tertiary of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain, 
the Cretaceous of New Mexico, and other formations and localities. 
Other important accessions were several thousand specimens of 
bryozoa and ostracoda from various parts of the world, a collection 
of Upper Cretaceous forms of special interest as containing types 
described long ago by Prof. T. A. Conrad, insects from the Floris- 
sant beds of Colorado, and types of new species of crabs. 

Most prominent of the additions in vertebrate paleontology was a 
nearly complete skeleton of a large mastodon found near Winamac, 
Ind., which has already been mounted and placed in the exhibition 
hall. From the Koren expedition to the Kolyma River region of 
northeastern Siberia were received nearly 200 specimens, of which 
the most valuable is a fine skull of the Siberian mammoth, the only 
one of this northern form now in any American museum. Two col- 
lections of fossil plants, recently described, including the type and 
figured specimens, were transferred by the Geological Survey. One 
was from the San Juan Basin, N. Mex., the other from the Fox Hills 
formation, Colo. 

Textiles. — In the division of textiles excellent progress was made 
in the acquisition and installation of new exhibits. Probably the 
most important was an extensive series of specimens, and of models, 
sections, and photographs of machinery from the American Thread 
Co., showing the manufacture of cotton thread in all its details. 
Other noteworthy accessions were two additional Jacquard machines 
for decorating textiles; further illustrations of the operation and 
work of the embroidery automats, of the manufacture of silk fabrics, 
and of the designing, weaving, and printing of silk upholstery and 
drapery materials; examples of Javanese batik work on cotton and 
silk, and of various patterns of moire silks; a demonstration of the 
successive stages in the production of painted cut velvet, called 
" Yuzen Birodo " by the Japanese ; and samples of silk skein-dj^eing 
and silk piece-dyeing and printing. 

The Japanese Commission to the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition contributed 100 commercial fabrics, including many kinds - 
not produced in this country. The representation of American up- 
holstery and drapery fabrics and allied textiles of various materials 
and character of decoration was greatly increased and improved, and 
manufacturers continued to keep the collection supplied with novel- 
ties and new types and designs of dress fabrics as soon as they were 
brought out. Numerous excellent examples of the handicraft work 
done in the schools of the Philippine Islands were also obtained. 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 43 

Wood technology. — In the recently organized section of wood 
technology there were many accessions of samples of important com- 
mercial woods and of illustrations of wood utilization, the public 
installation of which was about to be taken up at the close of the 
year. While the wood specimens, mostly in the form of large boards, 
were intended primarily for practical educational purposes, a large 
proportion had been determined botanically, insuring for them a 
proper technical designation. 

The principal collection of wood samples, from the Philippine 
Islands, consisted of 110 pieces, representing 85 species, the dupli- 
cates showing different characteristics as to grain and figure. In 
addition there were 16 pieces and 15 species from Argentina; 32 
specimens of various foreign woods highly prized for veneers and 
for cabinet and furniture work, including the several important 
varieties which are imported into this country under the trade name 
of mahogany ; 38 specimens of redwood from the Pacific coast, repre- 
senting a large range of patterns produced by the manufacturers and 
some of their better grades of plain lumber; and also examples of 
koa and ohia woods from Hawaii, Honduran mahoganj^, red gum, 
yellow poplar, white oak, and black cherry. 

Material received as part of an exhibit of the turpentine industry 
included three butt sections of longleaf pine from a commercial tur- 
pentine orchard, illustrating the manner in which gum for the dis- 
tillation of turpentine is obtained by the box, the cup and gutter, and 
the Forest Service methods, clearly showing the progressive improve- 
ment from the former wasteful to the modern economical processes. 
These were accompanied by samples of the gum, scrape, turpentine, 
and resin, and examples of the tools used, and, in addition, there 
was a model of a turpentine still of a pattern common to the long- 
leaf pine belt, in a setting typical of the region, some of the trees 
being boxed and others provided with cups and gutters. The utiliza- 
tion of wood was also illustrated by samples of dyewoods in the 
log, and a series of extracts from them, including logwood, Brazil 
wood, fustic, and quebracho; and by several series of specimens 
showing the materials and successive stages in the manufacture of a 
number of articles of common use, such as matches, tool handles, 
brushes, and sporting goods. 

Of subjects other than textiles and woods, while no special efforts 
were made in their behalf, much desirable material was received, in- 
cluding agricultural products generally, foods, medicines, resins, 
models of fishing methods and boats, fishery products, etc. 

Mineral technology. — A very realistic model of Trinidad Asphalt 
Lake and its environs, a series of colored transparencies and photo- 
graphic enlargements, and a complement of specimens typifying the 



44 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

different forms of asphalt occurrence as well as the useful products 
prepared therefrom, constituted the most striking addition to the 
exhibits in the division of mineral technology. Next may be men- 
tioned a complete ore stope removed bodily, ore faces, timbering, 
chute, manway, and all accessories, from the Copper Queen Mine 
at Bisbee, Ariz. 

Among other important acquisitions were a model representing 
the layout of a Portland cement plant and the sequence of operations 
connected with the manufacture of cement; an industrial series of 
specimens covering the occurrence and uses of natural graphite, in- 
cluding a remarkable block of pure graphite weighing 250 pounds; 
a model reproducing the unique method of mining placer gravel for 
gold in the frozen north by a system of underground drifting or 
tunneling bedrock, with the ground thawed out in immediate advance 
of the tunnel by means of steam ; and a model of a cyanide leaching 
plant showing admirably the method commonly employed in the 
extraction of gold from its ores where the metal does not lend itself 
to simpler and more direct processes for its segregation. 

NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART. 

It is very gratifying to note that early in the year Mr. Charles L. 
Freer waived the condition attending his munificent gift of American 
and oriental art to the effect that the collection remain in his pos- 
session during his life, and expressed a desire that the erection of 
the building be taken up at the earliest possible moment. The sum 
required for this purpose, $1,000,000, also a donation from Mr. Freer, 
was turned over to the Institution in December, and the site and 
preliminary plans, both satisfactory to the benefactor, received later 
the approval of the Board of Regents of the Institution, and of the 
Federal Commission of Fine Arts. The site is the southwestern part 
of the Smithsonian reservation, at the corner of Twelfth and B 
Streets, S. W., and approximately two years will be required for the 
completion of the building, at the end of which time the transfer 
of the many precious objects to Washington may be expected to take 
place. The fact that the planning and the execution of the work of 
construction is in the hands of Mr. Charles A. Piatt, of New York, 
insures their being carried out in an eminently satisfactory manner. 

Since the last report Mr. Freer has increased the extent of his 
collection to about 5,346 items by 535 additions, of which 23 are 
paintings and sculptures by the American artists Tryon, Thayer, 
Metcalf, Murphy, and Saint-Gaudens ; while the oriental objects, 
numbering 512, consist mainly of paintings, pottery, bronzes, and 
jades from China, Korea, and Japan. Mr. Freer announces con- 
siderable headway in the preparation of the final catalogues, on 
which a number of experts of wide rej^ut© are at work. 



EEPOET OP THE SECRETARY. 45 

The National Gallery of Art also receiA^ed during the year from 
the Department of State a most interesting collection of 82 draw- 
ings in pencil, pen, charcoal, chalk, crayon, and water color, executed 
b}^ eminent contemporary French artists and presenfed to the people 
of the United States by the citizens of the French Eepiiblic as a token 
of their appreciation of the sj^mpathetic efforts of American citizens 
toward relieving the distress occasioned by the European war. There 
should likewise be mentioned an oil portrait of Abraham Lincoln, by 
George H. Story, presented by Mrs. E. H. Harriman. 

MEETINGS AND CONGRESSES. 

The auditorium and committee rooms in the new building were 
utilized to a much greater extent than in any previous year for 
scientific and art meetings, lectures, and other functions. Three of 
the local societies made the Museum their regular meeting place, 
among these being the Washington Society of the Fine Arts, which 
presented its customary three courses of lectures. Annual or special 
meetings were held b}^ the National Academy of Sciences, the Mining 
and Metallurgical Society of America, the Society of American 
Foresters, the American Oriental Societj^, and the American Surgical 
Association. Lectures, singly or in short series, were given under 
the auspices of 10 of the science and art societies, and 6 receptions 
were held in connection with large gatherings of national and inter- 
national bodies. 

Among the special meetings there were several which merit dis- 
tinctive mention. The most important of these was the Nineteenth 
International Congress of Americanists which met from December 
27 to 31, in affiliation with Section I of the Second Pan American 
Scientific Congress, then also in session in "Washington, the American 
Anthropological Association, the American Folk-Lore Societ}^, the 
American Historical Association, and the Archaeological Institute 
of America. On the afternoon of February 9 a bronze tablet in 
memory of Prof. S. F. Baird as the instigator of the Federal fishery 
service, a contribution to the Bureau of Fisheries by 47 subscribers, 
was dedicated in the auditorium with appropriate ceremonies in the 
presence of a large assemblage. 

During the week of the safety-first exhibition, February 21-28, the 
auditorium was occupied on five daj^s for lectures and discourses on 
the subjects comprehended by this notable display, nearly all of 
them being profusely illustrated, both motion pictures and lantern 
slides being used. The speakers, besides the Secretary of Labor and 
several assistant secretaries of departments, were all experts in the 
several bureaus represented. The exercises attending the centenary 
celebration of the organization of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 



46 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

held in the auditorium on April 5 and 6, consisted of an exposition 
of the work of this, the fii-st scientific service of the Government, by 
eminent authorities who had been invited to speak upon those phases 
of the Survey's activities with which they are best acquainted. 

The American Association of Museums held its eleventh annual 
meeting in Washington from May 15 to 18, and the American Federa- 
tion of Arts its seventh annual convention from the I7th to the 19th 
of the same month. While only one session of the former and none of 
the latter was held in the Museum, a reception was tendered to both 
on the evening of May 17, when an important loan exhibition of the 
industrial arts was opened with a special view. 

SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS. 

The educational efforts of the Museum Avere most notably served 
by several large and important special exhibitions. Supplementing 
the arrangements for the meetings of the Congress of Americanists 
and affiliated societies during convocation week, an interesting 
installation was made of material relating to pertinent subjects. 

During the week of February 21-27 the foyer, with three of its 
communicating rooms, was occupied by one of the most remarkable 
and interesting Government exhibitions that has ever been assembled. 
Having as its theme the " safety-first " idea, it was participated in by 
20 bureaus, the American National Red Cross Society, and the Metro- 
politan police department, the activities of all of which are primarily 
for or comprehend in a marked degree the safeguarding of life and 
property, as well as the prevention and care of disease. Although the 
available area was restricted the display proved most effective and 
satisfactory, as it was also comprehensive, probably nothing in the 
Government service relating to " safety first " having escaped some 
representation. Attention was widely called to the exhibition in ad- 
vance. The governors of States were notified of the nation-wide 
aspect of the exposition, one of the results of which was to bring 
about a meeting of State mine inspectors in the Museum, and manu- 
facturers and operators from all over the country were invited to be 
present. The total attendance of visitors during the week was 
35,447. 

The exercises commemorating the centenary of the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, held on April 5 and 6, were supplemented by an 
exhibition in the foyer, the purpose of which was to illustrate the 
appliances and methods used and the results obtained in both its 
marine and geodetic work during the 100 years of its existence. The 
material was admirably selected and arranged, constituting one of 
the most complete and instructive special displays ever installed in 
the Museum. 



BEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 47 

The models and drawings submitted in competition for the monu- 
ment at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, in memory of Francis Scott Key, 
author of the " Star-Spangled Banner," and the soldiers and sailors 
who participated in the battle of North Point and the attack on 
Fort McHenry in the War of 1812, were arranged in the rotunda 
of the new building, where, after having been passed upon by the 
jury of awards, they were exhibited to the public from May 17 to 
June 17. 

The exhibition of American industrial art, held during the spring 
and summer of 1915 under the auspices of the American Federation 
of Arts, was repeated as a feature of the seventh convention of this 
association, being opened on May 17, 1916, and continuing for one 
month. The foyer and five of its communicating rooms were occu- 
pied. The exposition was designed to bring together examples of 
art on industrial lines, both hand and machine made, to show what is 
being produced in this country, and though not exhaustive in any 
particular, some of the best-known art workers of the country par- 
ticipated, and it was felt that a fairly high standard had been 
maintained. 

Following the close of the Panama-Pacific International Exposi- 
tion on December 4, and in accordance with an act of Congress, a 
large part of the Museum's ethnological exhibit was transferred from 
San Francisco to the Panama-California International Exposition 
at San Diego, to be shown there until the end of the calendar year 
1916. The selection made for this purpose consisted of four large 
family groups of Eskimo, Zulu-Kaffirs, Caribs, and Dyaks; miniature 
dwelling groups of aboriginal peoples in man}^ parts of the world; 
four cases of artifacts ; and a set of lithographs from Catlin's North 
American Indian paintings. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Duplicate material to the extent of over 7,000 specimens, classified 
and labeled for teaching purposes and arranged in 96 sets, was dis- 
tributed to schools and colleges, the subjects principally represented 
being rocks, minerals, ores, fossils, and recent mollusks. For obtain- 
ing additions to the collections through the medium of exchange, 
about 9,400 duplicates, chiefly from the natural-history divisions, 
were utilized. A large number of specimens were sent for study to 
collaborators of the Museum and other specialists. They consisted 
mainly of plants, recent animals, and fossils, and were contained in 
114 lots. 

The attendance of visitors at the new building aggregated 316,707 
for week days and 64,521 for Sundays, being a daily average of 1,012 
for the former and of 1,240 for the latter. For the older Museum 
building, which is only open on week days, the total was 146,956 and 



48 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

the daily average 469. The halls in the Smithsonian building, which 
were closed for renovation during about five months, received 48,517 
visitors. 

The publications of the year comprised 2 volumes of Proceedings 
and 4 Bulletins, besides the annual report and 52 separate papers 
belonging to the series of Proceedings and Contributions from the 
National Herbarium. The total distribution of Museum publications 
aggregated 73,798 copies. 

Through the addition of 1,895 volumes, 72 parts of volumes, and 
2,873 pamphlets, the number of volumes in the Museum library was 
increased to 47,713, and of pamphlets and unbound papers to 79,241. 
Respectfully submitted, 

ElCHAKD RaTHBUN, 

Assistant Secretary in Charge^ 
United States National Museum. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 
October 30, 1916. 



APPEJfDIX 2. 

REPORT ON THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the Bureau of American Etlinology during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1916, conducted in accordance with the provision of 
the act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, making appropriations 
for the sundry civil expenses of the Government, and with a plan of 
operations submitted by the ethnologist in charge and approved by 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. The provision of the 
act authorizing the researches of the bureau is as follows : 

Amei'ican ethnology : For continuing ethnological researches among the Amer- 
ican Indians and the natives of Hawaii, including the excavation and preserva- 
tion of archfeologic remains, under tlie direction of the Smithsonian Institution, 
including necessary employees and the purchase of necessary books and periodi- 
cals, $42,000. 

Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist in charge, devoted most of his ener- 
gies, as usual, to administrative affairs. However, in pursuance of a 
plan for cooperative archeological research by the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology and the Museum of the American Indian (Heye 
Foundation) of New York, Mr. Hodge early in July joined Mr. 
George G. Heye, of the museum mentioned, in the excavation of the 
Nacoochee mound in ^^^lite County, northeastern Georgia, permis- 
sion to investigate which was accorded by the owner. Dr. L. G. 
Hardman. 

The Nacoochee mound is an earthwork occupied by the Cherokee 
Indians until early in the nineteenth century. The name " Nacoo- 
chee," however, is not of Cherokee origin ; at least, it is not identifi- 
able by the Cherokee as belonging to their language, and by no means 
does the word signify " the evening star " in any Indian tongue, as 
one writer has claimed. 

The summit of the mound, which had been leveled for cultivation 
about 30 years ago, measured 83 feet in maximum and about 67 feet 
in minimum diameter; the height of the mound above the adjacent 
field was 17 feet 3 inches, and the circumference of the base 410 feet. 
These measurements are doubtless less than they were at the time 
the mound was abandoned by the Cherokee, as all the dimensions 

49 



50 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

have been more or less reduced by cultivation, the slope at the base 
particularly having been plowed away for several feet. The mound 
was reared both for domicile and for cemetery purposes and was 
composed of rich alluvial soil from the surrounding field. Excava- 
tion determined that the mound was not built at one time, but evi- 
dently at different periods, as circumstances demanded. This was 
shown plainly by the stratification of the mound soil, the occurrence 
of graves at different depths with undisturbed earth above them, the 
presence of fire pits or of evidences of fires throughout the mound 
at varying levels, and by the finding of a few objects derived from 
the white man in the upper part and in the slopes of the mound, but 
not in the lower levels. From this last observation it is evident that 
the occupancy of the mound extended well into the historical period, 
a fact supported by the memory of the grandparents of present resi- 
dents of the Nacoochee Valley, who recalled the mound when the 
Cherokee Indians still occupied it and the surrounding area. 

The fact that the mound was used for burial purposes is attested 
by the finding of the remains of 75 individuals during the course of 
the excavations, the graves occurring from slightly beneath the 
summit to a depth of about 19 feet, or below the original base of 
the mound. These graves, with few exceptions, were unmarked, and 
in most instances were not accompanied with objects of ceremony or 
utility. The exceptions were those remains with which were buried 
stone implements, shells or shell ornaments, a smoking pipe, a pot- 
tery vessel, or the like. The skeletons were found usually with the 
head pointed in an eastwardly direction, and were all so greatly de- 
composed that it was impossible to preserve any of them for measure- 
ment and study, the bones in most cases consisting of only a pasty 
mass. 

As mentioned above, most of the burials were unmarked. The 
exceptions consisted of two graves incased and covered with slabs 
of stone, both unearthed near the very base of the mound. One of 
these stone graves contained a skeleton the bones of which were 
largely of the consistency of corn meal, owing to the ravages of 
insects, but what was lacldng in the remains themselves was more 
than compensated by the finding near the skull of a beautiful effigy 
vase of painted potterj'-, the only piece of painted ware, whole or 
fragmentary, found in the entire mound. The occurrence of this 
type of vessel and the presence of the stone graves at the bottom of 
the mound suggest the possible original occupancy of the site by 
Indians other than the Cherokee. 

Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the mound was the large 
number of smoking pipes of pottery, mostly broken, but in many 
forms and of varying degrees of worlananship. Some of the pipes 
are of excellent texture and are highly ornamented with conven- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 51 

tionalized figures of birds, etc., or marked with incised designs. An- 
other feature of the mound was the presence of a great amount of 
broken pottery, especially in the refuse at the base and covering the 
slopes. This pottery is chiefly of fine texture, although some of the 
cooldng vessels are of coarse ware. With the exception of the 
painted vessel above noted, the only ornamentation applied by the 
makers of the pottery consists of incised and impressed designs, the 
latter made usually with a paddle of clay or wood, or worked out 
in the moist ware before firing by means of a pointed tool, a spatula, 
a piece of cane, or a shell. 

In pursuance of another plan of cooperative archeological research, 
Mr. Hodge, in October, visited Zuiii, N". Mex., with Mr. Heye, for the 
purpose of examining the ruins of the historic pueblo of Hawikuh, 
in the Zuhi Valley southwest of Zuni pueblo, and of making the nec- 
essary arrangements with the Indians for its excavation. This site is 
of great archeological and historical interest, as the pueblo was in- 
habited when first seen by Fray Marcos de Niza in 1539, and when 
visited and stormed by Coronado in the following year. It became 
the site of an important Franciscan mission in 1629, and was finally 
abandoned in 1670 on account of depredations by hostile Indians. 
By reason of the fact that Hawikuh was inhabited continuously from 
prehistoric times until 130 years after the opening of the historical 
period, it is expected that a thorough study of its ruins will shed 
important information on the effect of the earliest Spanish contact 
with the Zmii people and will supplement archeological work con- 
ducted in other village sites of that tribe. Owing to unforeseen cir- 
cumstances, active work was not commenced before the close of the 
fiscal year, but it is hoped that its initiation will not be long delayed. 
A permit therefor has been granted by the Secretary of the Interior. 

By provisional agreement with the School of American Archae- 
ology at Santa Fe, N. Mex., and the Royal Ontario Museum of 
Archaeology at Toronto, plans were perfected whereb}^ the Smith- 
sonian Institution, in conjunction with those establishments, was to 
conduct archeological researches of an intensive character in the 
Chaco Canyon of northern New Mexico, one of the most important 
culture areas north of Mexico. Although every effort was made to 
obtain from Congress the necessary appropriation for meeting the 
Institution's share of the expense (a permit for the excavations hav- 
ing been issued by the Secretary of the Interior), the project was 
presented too late for action, hence the work, so far as the Smith- 
sonian Institution is concerned, has been necessarily postponed. 

As opportunity offered, the preparation of the bibliography^ of the 
Pueblo Indians was continued by Mr. Hodge, who also represented 
the Smithsonian Institution as a member of the United States Geo- 
graphic Board, and the Bureau of American Ethnology at the meet- 



52 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

ings of the Smithsonian advisory committee on printing and publi- 
cation. 

Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, having been detailed to con- 
tinue the excavation and repair of prehistoric ruins in the Mesa 
Verde National Park, Colo., under the joint auspices of this Bureau 
and the Department of the Interior, left Washington for that locality 
in August, 1915, and remained in the park continuous!}'- until the 
close of October. Dr. Fewkes devoted his attention mainly to a large 
mound of stones and earth situated near the point of a promontory 
opposite Cliff Palace, across Cliff Canyon, the excavation of which 
revealed a type of structure hitherto unknown in the Mesa Verde 
National Park, and architecturally different from any that had been 
previously excavated in the Southwest. The rooms of this building, 
which Dr. Fewkes designates as " Sun Temple," were thoroughly 
cleared out, the debris removed, and the walls v/ere repaired in such 
manner that they will not be likely to deteriorate for many years. A 
report on the work of excavation and on the structural features of 
this interesting building forms the subject of an illustrated pamphlet 
published by the Department of the Interior in June, 1916, under the 
title " Excavation and repair of Sun Temple, Mesa Verde National 
Park." 

Structurally the Sun Temple consists of two parts — an original 
building, to which an annex is so united as to give the two a D- 
shape ground plan, the southern or straight wall of which extends 
almost exactly east-west. This wall measures 131 feet 7 inches in 
length ; the highest wall of the structure is 11 feet 7 inches, the lowest 
5 feet. The walls are massive, varying in thickness from 2 to 5 
feet, and are composed of a core of rubble faced on both sides, 
the exposed stones ha^dng been carefully fashioned by hand and 
accurately fitted, although, as in the case of pueblo masonry gen- 
erally, the stones are usually neither "broken" at the joints nor 
bonded at the corners. Nevertheless the walls of the Sun Temple 
display excellent structural qualities that will compare favorably 
with any of its class north of Mexico. Architectually the annex re- 
sembles certain tower-like structures in the ancient pueblo region, 
and in plan the whole ruin bears resemblance also to Pueblo Bonito 
in Chaco Canyon, N. Mex. 

The building contains three circular rooms resembling kivas, 
or ceremonial chambers, still used by some of the Pueblo Indians, 
and many other rooms of unusual shape and doubtful significance. 
There was no indication that the Sun Temple had been roofed; 
indeed, there is strong evidence that the construction of the buildings 
was never finished. Dr. Fewkes was not able to determine the age 
of the Sun Temple, but he is of the opinion that it was built later 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 53 

than Cliff Palace. One evidence of its antiquity, however, was 
observed, namely, a cedar tree growing from the top of the highest 
walls was found to have 360 annual rings of growth, indicating that 
it sprouted a few years after Coronado led his expedition into the 
Southwest in 1540. 

The builders of the Sun Temple are supposed by Dr. Fewkes to 
have been the former cliff dwellers of the neighboring canyons. 
As to its purpose, he is of the opinion that the building was used pri- 
marily for worship, but that like other temples among primitive 
peoples it was intended secondarily as a place of refuge in case of 
attack, and for the storage of provisions. The impression of a fossil 
palm leaf on the corner stone at the southwestern angle is believed to 
mark a shrine where rites to the sky or sun god were performed long 
before the temple was built. It is this supposed shrine that sug- 
gested the name for the edifice. 

On the completion of the excavation and repair of the Sun Temple, 
Dr. Fewkes similarly treated Oak-tree House, a cliff dwelling in the 
precipice of Fewkes Canyon above which stands the Sun Temple. 
A collection of artifacts found in this dwelling was gathered in the 
course of the excavation and later deposited in the National Museum, 

En route to Washington, Dr. Fewkes visited the so-called " Buried 
City of the Panhandle," on Wolf Creek in Ochiltree County, Tex., 
which had been reported to the bureau by residents of the neighbor- 
hood and had become locally celebrated. The remains examined 
hardly justify the name given to the site, which in former days was 
used as an encampment by wandering Indians rather than by sed- 
entary people. Dr. Fewkes's attention was drawn also to a supposed 
artificial wall which gave name to Eockwall, not far from Dallas, 
Tex., but on examination this was found to be a natural sandstone 
formation. 

Dr. Fewkes returned to Washington in November and immedi- 
ately prepared a report on his sunmier's work in the Mesa Verde 
National Park for the use of the Department of the Interior, an 
advance summary of which, issued by the department, was widely 
published in the newspapers. An account of the excavation and 
repair of Oak-tree House and Painted House, the largest cliff ruins 
in Fewkes Canyon, was also prepared for publication. On the com- 
pletion of these tasks Dr. Fewkes devoted the remainder of his lim- 
ited time to the preparation of the extended memoir on The Abo- 
rigines of the West Indies for publication in a report of the bureau. 
In June he again departed for the field with the view of initiating, 
before the close of the fiscal year, an inquiry into the archaeological 
evidences bearing on Hopi legends that ancestors of the clans of the 
ancient pueblo of Sikyatki lived at Tebungki, or Beshbito, an oval 
ruin 15 miles east of Keams Canyon, Ariz. Dr. Fewkes visited and 
73839°— SM 1916 5 



54 AliTNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

surveyed the ruin and made photographs and notes thereof. He 
likewise investigated certain large ruins east of Tebungki, on the 
ancient trail of migration from Chaco Canyon, and traced for some 
distance the prehistoric trail running from San Juan Valley south- 
ward past the great ruins, as yet undescribed, near Crownpoint, 
N. Mex. 

During the months of July to December, 1915, Mr. James Mooney, 
ethnologist, continued to devote most of his attention to the prepar- 
ation for publication of the Cherokee Sacred Formulas, including 
transliteration, translation, and explanation of each formula, with 
complete glossary and botanic index. These formulas, collected by 
Mr. Mooney on the East Cherokee Reservation in North Carolina, 
are written in the Cherokee language and alphabet and held for 
their own secret use by priests of the tribe, most of them long since 
dead. They consist of prayers, songs, and prescriptions, dealing 
with medicine, love, hunting, fishing, agriculture, war, the ball play, 
self-protection, etc. They number in all between 600 and 550, con- 
tained in several manuscripts, as follows: 

1. Gadlgwanasti ("Belt," died 1888). — 186 in a large blank book of foolscap 
size, and 94 others on separate sheets of the same size, closely written ; 280 in 
all. Obtained from his son. 

2. A'yuFiini (" Swimmer," died 1899). — Written in an unpaged blank book of 
242 pages, 3i by 12 inches, only partially filled ; 137 in all. Obtained from him- 
self and transliterated and translated with full explanation from his distation 
in 1888. 

3. A'wanita (" Young Deer," died about 1892), — 24 written on separate sheets 
and obtained fi-om him in 1888. Transcribed later into No 4, 

4. Tsiskiva ("Bird," died 1889). — 22, dictated from deathbed and with other 
formulas written out in regular fashion, with index, in a blank book of 200 
pages, 8 by 10 inches, by his nephew, W. W. Long (Wiliwesti), in 1889, 

5. DagwaWii ( " Catawba Killer," died about 1890. — "Written out from his 
dictation by W. W, Long, in No. 4, in 1889 ; 11 in all. 

6. Gahuni (died 1866). — 10 in all, together with a Cherokee-English vocabu- 
lary in Cherokee characters and other miscellany, contained in an unpaged 
blank book, 6 by 14 inches. Obtained in 1889 from his widow, Ayfista, mother 
of W. W. Long. 

7. Other formulas originally written by Inali (" Black Fox," died about 
1880), Tanflgfilegi ("Climbing Bear," died 1904, Dflninaii ("Tracker," still 
living), Ayasta ("Spoiler," died 1916), Aganstata ("Groundhog Meat," still 
living), and others; mostly transcribed into No. 4. 

8. A large number of dance songs, ceremonial addresses. Civil War letters 
from Cherokee in the Confederate service, council records, etc., all in the 
Cherokee language and characters, contained in various original blank book 
manuscripts and letter sheets. Some of these have been transcribed into No. 4, 
and many of them might properly appear with the Sacred Formulas. 

Of all this material, about 150 formulas, including the entire 
Swimmer book. No. 2, were transliterated, translated, and anno- 
tated and glossarized, with Swimmer's assistance, in 1888-89. Of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 55 

these, 28 specimen formulas were published in 1891 in " Sacred 
Formulas of the Cherokees," in the Seventh Annual Report of the 
bureau. The manuscript glossary for the whole 150 formulas num- 
bers about 2,000 words. 

All the other formulas, together with the more important miscel- 
lany noted under No. 8, were transliterated and translated with inter- 
linear translation in the summers of 1911-14, together with such 
additional explanation as might be furnished by surviving experts. 
Also some 500 or 600 plants noted in the medical prescriptions have 
been collected in the field, with their Cherokee names and uses, and 
the botanic identification made by assistance of the botanists of the 
National Museum. This entire body, exclusive of No. 2 completed, is 
now in process of final transcription and elaboration, with explana- 
tion, botanic appendix, and glossary-. Most of the work at present is 
being devoted to the Gadigwanasti manuscript, but the interdepend- 
ence of the formulas necessitates frequent shifting from one to 
another. The glossary proceeds incidentally with the final transla- 
tion, but more slowly as the full import of the w^ords becomes mani- 
fest. Many of the words and expressions are technical, symbolic, and 
in archaic and unusual dialectic forms, wdth corresponding difficulty 
of interpretation. The complete glossary will probably comprise at 
least 4,000 words. 

The botanic section will consist of a list of all the plants used in 
the formulas, as stated, and of some others of special importance, 
with their Indian names and meanings, botanic identification, and 
Cherokee uses as deduced from the various formulas and from direct 
information. 

An explanation of the method and significance of the ceremony, 
the preparation of the medicine and the manner of its application 
will accompany each formula, but this work is deferred to the end, 
to insure symmetrical treatment without unnecessary repetition. 

It is planned to have one or more introductory chapters explana- 
tory of the Cherokee mythology, beliefs relating to the spiritual and 
occult world, ceremonial observances, initiation of hunters, and other 
matters illustrative of the formulas, together with parallels from 
other tribal systems, and also a chapter explanatory of the peculiar 
linguistic forms. 

More than 200 formulas have received final form. The finished 
work will fill at least one large report volume and require a year for 
completion. 

In July and August, 1915, Mr. Mooney gave considerable time to 
furnishing information and suggestions for the proposed Sequoj'^a 
statue intended to constitute Oklahoma's contribution to the Capitol 
gallery. The usual number of letter requests for miscellaneous in- 
formation also received attention. 



56 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

On May 27 Mr. Mooney proceeded to western North Carolina for 
the purpose of continuing his Cherokee studies, and at the close of 
the fiscal year was still in the field. 

Dr. John K. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted the greater part of the 
year to his memoirs pertaining to the Creek and associated tribes, to 
which reference was made in the last report. The first of these, 
dealing with the habitat and classification of the former Southeastern 
Indians, their history and population, is nearly completed ; it consists 
of upward of 750 typewritten pages, exclusive of the bibliography, 
all of which has been put in order and annotated. Some new manu- 
script sources of information have recently been discovered which 
will make further additions necessary, but with this exception the 
text is now complete. Six maps are to be used in illustration; two 
of these, which are entirely new, are now being made, and the others 
are to be reproductions. The second paper, to cover the social organi- 
zation and social customs of the Creeks and their neighbors, has 
likewise been arranged and annotated, but it is being held in order 
to incorporate the results of further field research. 

From the end of September until the latter part of November, 
1915, Dr. Swanton was in Oklahoma, where he collected 113 pages of 
Natchez text from one of the three surviving speakers of the lan- 
guage; he also spent about three weeks among the Creek Indians, 
where about 80 pages of myths in English were procured. Further 
ethnological material was also obtained from the Creeks and from 
the Chickasaw, to whom a preliminary visit was made. While with 
the former people Dr. Swanton perfected arrangements with a young 
man to furnish texts in the native language, which he is able to 
write fluently, and in this way 173 pages have been submitted, not 
including translation. From Judge G. W. Grayson, of Eufaula, 
Okla., to whom the bureau has been constantly indebted in many 
ways, was obtained in Creek and English, and also in the form of a 
dictaphone record, a speech of the kind formerly delivered at the 
annual poshita^ or busk, ceremony of the Creeks. From an Alibamu 
correspondent, referred to in previous reports, some additions to the 
Alibamu vocabulary and a few pages of Alibamu text were procured. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnolo- 
gist, transcribed and edited the Seneca text " Dooii'dane'ge''' and 
Plotkwisdadege'^'a ; making 45 pages, to which he added a literal 
interlinear translation that required more than twice as many Eng- 
lish words as Indian, the whole being equivalent to about 130 pages. 
This text is a part of the Seneca material now in press for the 
Thirty-second Annual Report of the bureau. Mr. Hewitt also read 
for correction, emendation, and expansion, the galley proofs of Cur- 
tin's Seneca material, and prepared more than 50 pages of notes and 
additions for the introduction and also for the text ; he also has ready 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 57 

notes and corrections for the proofs still to come. From unedited 
text Mr. Hewitt completed a free translation of 32 pages of the Onon- 
daga version of the " requickening address " of the Ritual of Con- 
dolence of the League of the Iroquois, being a part of the material 
for his projected memoir on the Iroquois League. 

After the material of the Seneca legends had been submitted for 
printing, ]\Ir. Curtin's field records and notes, made while recording 
this material, came into possession of the bureau. Mr. Hewitt de- 
voted much time to reading and examining this undigested material, 
some 4,000 pages, for the purpose of ascertaining whether part of it 
should be utilized for printing or for illustrative purposes in what 
was already in type. This examination yielded some good material 
for notes and interpretations, but only small return as to new ma- 
terial for printing. 

In the early autumn Mr. Hewitt made special preparations for the 
prosecution of field work on his projected memoir on the League of 
the Iroquois, by tentative editing and copying of a number of 
Mohawk and Onondaga texts recorded hastily in the field in pre- 
vious years. The following parts of the Ritual of the Condolence 
Council were thus typewritten: The fore part of the Ceremony of 
Condolence, called " Beside-The- Forest," or " Beside-The-Thicket," 
in Mohawk ; the so-called " Requickening Address," in the Onondaga 
version, and also the explanatory " introduction " and the " reply " 
in Onondaga to the " Beside-The-Forest " address already noted; 
and the installation address in Onondaga, made by Dekanawida to 
the last two Seneca leaders to join the League, was likewise edited 
and typewritten. Mr. Hewitt also devoted much study to other 
parts of the League material, for the purpose of being able to dis- 
cuss it intelligently and critically with native informants. Some of 
the most striking results of this year's field work are due to this 
preparatory study of the material already in hand. Mr. Hewitt spent 
many days in the office in searching out and preparing data for 
replies to correspondents of the bureau. 

On April 17, 1916, Mr. Hewitt left Washington for the Six Nations 
reserve near Brantford, Ontario, for the purpose of resuming field 
work, having in view primarily the putting into final form of the 
Onondaga and Mohawk texts pertaining to the League of the Iro- 
quois, recorded in former years. These texts cover a wide range of 
subjects and represent the first serious attempt to record in these 
languages very technical and highly figurative language from per- 
sons unaccustomed to dictate connected texts for recording. These 
text embody laws, decisions, rituals, ceremonies, and constitutional 
principles; hence it is essential that correct verbal and grammatic 
forms be given. 



58 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

One of the most important results of Mr. Hewitt's field studies is 
the demonstration that, contrary to all available written records and 
various printed accounts, there were never more than 49 federal 
civil chiefs of the League of the Iroquois, and that the number 50, 
due to misconception of the meaning of ordinary terms by Thomas 
Webster of the New York Onondaga, who died about 30 years ago, 
is modern and unhistorical. This false teaching has gained credence 
because it arose only after the dissolution of the integrity of the 
League of the Iroquois in the years following its wars with the 
United States, when most of the tribes became divided, some remov- 
ing to Canada and some remaining in New York State, a condition 
which naturally fostered new interpretations and newer versions of 
older legends and traditions. 

Mr. Hewitt also recorded a Cayuga version of the so-called Dekan- 
awida tradition, comprising 130 pages of text, dictated by Chief 
John H. Gibson, which purports to relate the events that led to the 
founding of the League or Confederation of the Five Iroquois tribes 
and the part taken therein by the principal actors. In this inter- 
esting version Dekanawida is known only by the epithet " The 
Fatherless," or literally " He Who is Fatherless," which emphasizes 
the prophecy that he would be born of a virgin. In this version 
"The Fatherless" is represented as establishing among the 
Cayuga tribesmen the exact form of government that later he 
founded among the Five Iroquois tribes. It is said that the Cayuga 
selfishly limited the scope of that form of government, and therefore 
its benefits, to the Cayuga people alone, for the Cayuga statesmen did 
not conceive of its applicability to the affairs and welfare of all men. 
And so, this tradition affirms, it became needful that " The Father- 
less " return to the neighbor tribes of the Cayuga to establish among 
them the League of the Five Tribes of the Iroquois, which was de- 
signed to be shared by all the tribes of men. This event is men- 
tioned in the other Dekanawida versions. 

This Cayuga version also purports to explain the origin of the 
dualism lying at the foundation of all public institutions of Iroquois 
peoples, by attributing the first such organization among the Cayuga 
to two persons who were related to each other as " Father and Son," 
or "Mother and Daughter," and who agreed to conduct public 
affairs jointly. This statement of course is somewhat wide of the 
mark, because it does not explain the existence of similar dualisms 
among other tribes such dualisms resting commonly, in the social 
organization, on the dramatization of the relation of the male and 
female principles in nature. 

Mr. Hewitt was also able to confirm another radical exegesis of a 
part of the installation ceremony of the League of the Iroquois 
as first proposed by himself. This deals with the significance and 



REPORT OP^ THE SECRETARY. 59 

the correct translation of the words of the famous " Six Songs " of 
this ceremony. All other interpreters who have attempted to trans- 
late these words have assumed that these songs are " songs of greeting 
and welcome," but Mr. Hewitt, solely on grammatic grounds and the 
position of these songs, regards them rather as "songs of parting," 
or " songs of farewell," which are dramatically sung by an imperson- 
ator for the dead chief or chiefs. 

Mr. Hewitt also recorded, in the Onondaga dialect, a short legend 
descriptive of the three Air or Wind Beings or Gods, the so-called 
Hoiidu"i, the patrons of the Wooden-mask or " False-face" Society, 
whose chief function is the exorcism of disease out of the community 
and out of the bodies of ill persons ; another on the Medicine Flute ; 
another on the Husk-mask Society; and another on the moccasin 
game used at the wake for a dead chief : in all more than 100 pages of 
text not related to the material dealing with the Iroquois League. 

While in the field Mr. Hewitt purchased a number of fine specimens 
illustrating Iroquois culture, exhibiting art of a liigh order; these 
consist of a wooden mask, colored black; a husk-mask; two small 
drums ; a " medicine " flute ; a moccasin game used at a chief's wake ; 
a pair of deer-hoof rattles; a horn rattle; and a squash rattle. 
During the time he was in the field, until the close of the fiscal year, 
Mr. Hewitt read, studied, corrected, and annotated about 8,000 lines 
of text other than that mentioned above, and also made a number of 
photographs of Indians. 

Mr. Fi'ancis La Flesche, ethnologist, was engaged in assembling his 
notes on the rites of the Osage tribe. Up to the month of February, 
280 pages of the ritual of the Fasting degree of the war rites were 
finished, completing that degree, which comprises 492 pages. The 
^athadse, or Rush-mat degree, was next taken up and completed; 
tliis degree covers 104 pages. The Child-naming ritual was then 
commenced, and 21 pages have been finished. 

In September, while on leave of absence, Mr. La Flesche was visited 
on the Omaha reservation by Xutha Wato"i" of the Tsizhu Wano" 
gens, who gave a description of the Washabe Athi°, or war ceremony, 
as he remembered it. With this description he gave 5 wigie and 14 
songs. The wigie and the words of the songs have been tran- 
scribed from the dictaphone but are not yet typewritten, and the 
music of the songs has not yet been transcribed. A number of 
stories also Avere obtained from Xutha Wato'^i", among them that 
of the Osage traditional story of the separation of the Omaha and 
Osage tribes. Xutha Wato°i° died soon after his return home, his 
death being regarded by many as confirming the old-time belief that 
anyone who recites informally the rituals associated with these cere- 
monies will inevitably suffer dire punishment. The death of this old 



60 ANNUAL BEiPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

man shortly after giving the rituals has therefore added to the diffi- 
culties attending the task of recording these ancient rites. 

Notwithstanding these obstacles, Mr. La Flesche succeeded, during 
his visit to the Osage Reservation in April and May, in securing 
from old Sho'^'gemo^i" the version of the Fasting ritual belonging to 
the Tsizhu Peace gens, of which he is a member. The wigie and 
the words of the songs have been transcribed from the dictaphone, 
but are not yet typewritten, and the music of the songs is also to be 
transcribed. Sho^'gemo^i" likewise gave the Child-naming ritual 
belonging to his gens, in which there are two wigie, one containing 
227 lines and the other 94. In addition to these rituals, Sho"^'- 
gemo^i"^, after considerable hesitancj^, recounted the " Seven and 
Six " (13) coups he is always called on to recount when any 
No"'ho°zhi"ga of the Ho°'ga division performs the ceremonies of 
some of the war rites. For this service he is paid a horse and 
goods amounting in value from $125 to $150. 

Mr. La Flesche also secured from Waxthizhi information concern- 
ing the duties of the two hereditary chiefs of the Osage tribe, the 
gentes from which they were chosen, and how their orders were 
enforced. He also obtained from Watsemo"i" two wigie, one recited 
by him at the ceremonies of the war rites, and the other by the 
N"6"ho"zhi"ga of the H6"ga Ahiuto° gens. 

In these studies Mr. La Flesche was materially assisted by 
Washoshe and his wife, who have both overcome their aversion to 
telling of the rites. Washoshe resigned from the N6°ho"zhi°ga 
order because of the injustice of its members toward a woman whom 
he selected to weave ceremonially the rush -mat shrine for a waxobe 
when he was taking the Qathadse degree. This man presented to 
Mr. La Flesche a mnemonic stick owned by his father and gave the 
titles of the groups of lines marked on the stick, each of which 
represents a group of songs. This mnemonic stick will be placed in 
the National Museum with the Osage collection. 

Mr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, spent the entire fiscal year in 
making an exhaustive study of the Indians of the Chumashan lin- 
guistic stock of southern California. Three different bases have 
been established for working with informants and elaborating the 
notes. The period from July to October, inclusive, was spent at 
San Diego, Cal., where every facility for the work was granted by 
the courtesy of the Panama-California Exposition; November to 
March, inclusive, at the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles ; and April 
to June, inclusive, at Santa Ynez. The month of January, 1916, was 
spent at Berkeley, Cal., where, through the courtesy of the Ban- 
croft Library of the University of California, various linguistic 
manuscripts and historical archives pertaining to the Chumashan 
stock were studies and copied. During the period named more than 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 61 

300,000 words of manuscript material were obtained and elab- 
orated. In addition to the grammatical and ethnological material 
an exhaustive dictionary of the Ventureno is well under way, which, 
comprises some 8,000 cards. This is to be followed by similar dic- 
tionaries for the other dialects. The most satisfactory feature of 
the work was the collection of material on the supposedly extinct 
dialects of San Luis Obispo and La Purisima. The Purisimeiio 
material consists mainly of words and corrected vocabularies, while 
on the Obispeiio important grammatical material was also obtained. 
A large part of the material which still remains to be obtained de- 
pends on the life of two very old informants, consequently it is most 
important that Mr. Harrington continue his work in this immediate 
field until the opportunities are exhausted. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Dr. Tnmian Michelson, eth- 
nologist, at Tama, Iowa, engaged in continuing his researches among 
the Fox Indians, which consisted mainly of recording sociological 
data and ritualistic origin myths. In August, Dr. Michelson pro- 
ceeded to Oklahoma for the purpose of investigating the sociology 
and phonetics of the Sauk Indians, as well as of obtaining transla- 
tions of Fox texts pertaining especially to ritualistic origin myths. 
After successfully concluding this work. Dr. Michelson returned to 
Washington in October, when he commenced the translation of the 
textual material gathered in the field. Advantage was taken of the 
presence in Washington of a deputation of Piegan in obtaining a de- 
tailed knowledge of Piegan terms of relationship. From these 
studies Dr. Michelson determined that the lists of relationship terms 
recorded by Lewis PI. Morgan, as well as by other investigators, re- 
quire revision. He also commenced to arrange the material gathered 
by the late Dr. William Jones pertaining to the ethnology of the 
Ojibwa Tribe, with a view of its publication as a bulletin of the 
bureau. Toward the close of the year Dr. Michelson undertook to 
restore phonetically the text of the White Buffalo dance of the Fox 
Indians, which likewise is intended for bulletin publication. It is 
believed that the results of this task will be ready for the printer 
before the close of the calendar year. 

Dr. Leo J. Frachtenberg, special ethnologist, divided his time, as 
in previous j^ears, between field research and office work. On July 8 
he left his winter headquarters at the United States training school 
at Chemawa, Oreg., and proceeded to the Yakima Keservation, Wash., 
where he revised, with the aid of the last Atfalati Indian, the 
Kalapuya manuscript material collected in 1877 by the late Dr. A. S. 
Gatschet of the bureau. This material, comprising 421 manuscript 
pages, consists of vocables, stems, grammatical forms, and ethno- 
logical and historical narratives, and its revision marked the comple- 



62 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

tion of the work on the Kalapnya linguistic family commenced two 
summers ago. This work lasted until the latter part of July. In 
. conjunction with this particular phase of field work, Dr. Frachten- 
berg corrected the second revision of the galley proofs of his Siuslaw 
grammatical sketch to appear in the second part of Bulletin 40. 

On returning to Chemawa, Dr. Frachtenberg took up the editing 
and typewriting of his grammatical sketch of the Alsea language, 
the compilation of which was completed during the previous winter; 
this was finished in the early part of October, and the complete sketch, 
consisting of 158 sections and 421 typewritten pages, w^as submitted 
for publication in the second part of the Handbook of American 
Indian Languages (Bulletin 40). Dr. Frachtenberg interrupted this 
work on August 22 and took a short trip to the Siletz Reservation, 
where he collected 52 Athapascan and Shastan songs, which were 
transmitted to the bureau for future analysis. 

On October 7 he proceeded to the Quileute Reservation, where he 
enlisted the services of a Quileute informant, with whom he returned 
to Chemawa and brought to a successful completion the study of the 
grammar and mythology of the Quileute Tribe. This investigation 
extended from October until the latter part of March. The material 
collected by Dr. Frachtenberg during this period consists of 30 
native myths and traditions fully translated, a large body of notes to 
these texts, voluminous grammatical forms, and vocables. In Janu- 
ary Dr. Frachtenberg left Chemawa for a short trip to the Grand 
Ronde Reservation, Oreg., where he recorded 19 Kalapuya songs 
on the dictaphone. 

As Dr. Frachtenberg's allotment for field work among the Quileute 
was then exhausted, he was obliged to remain at Chemawa until the 
close of the fiscal year. He therefore undertook the correction of the 
page proofs of his grammatical sketch of the Siuslaw language 
(pp. 431-629), and on its completion engaged in translating, editing, 
and typewriting the Alsea texts collected in 1910. The editing of 
these texts involved much labor, since it was deemed advisable to 
present in the introduction a complete discussion of Alsea mythology, 
and a concordance beween the folklore of this tribe and the myths of 
the other tribes of the Pacific coast. For that purpose all the pub- 
lished works on the folklore of the tribes of the northwestern area 
were consulted, including that of the Maidu, Shasta, Yana, Klamath, 
Takelma, Coos, Lower Umpqua, Tillamook, Chinook, Kathlamet, 
Wishram, Quinault, Chilcotjn, Shuswap, Thompson River, Lillooet, 
Haida, Tlingit, Kwakiutl, Tsimshian, Bellacoola, and the Athapascan 
Tribes of the north. This work was practically completed by the 
close of the fiscal year. The collection consists of 8 creation myths, 
13 miscellaneous tales, 3 ethnological and historical narratives, 4 
statements as to religious beliefs, and 3 tales collected in English (31 



REPOKT OF THE SECRETARY. 63 

traditions in all). It comprises, in addition to the introdution, 392 
typewritten pages, and will be submitted for publication as a bulletin 
of the bureau. 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES. 

Dr. Franz Boas, honorary philologist, continued his researches con- 
nected with the preparation of the remainder of part 2 of the Hand- 
book of American Indian Languages, assisted hj Dr. Hermann K. 
Haeberlin, Miss H. A. Andrews, and Miss Mildred Downs, and also 
devoted attention to the completion of the report on Tsimshian 
mythology. 

The bulletin on " Kutenai Tales," for which galleys were received in 
July, 1915, has been revised twice and is nearing completion. The 
page proof is being extracted preparatory to the accompanying 
grammatical sketch and vocabulary. 

Through the liberality of Mr. Homer E. Sargent, of Chicago, it 
has been possible to do much work on the preparation of an extended 
paper on the Salish dialects, now comprising about 500 pages of 
manuscript. The material has been collected since 188G, partly by 
Dr. Boas himself and partly by Mr. James Teit, the considerable 
expense of the field work of Mr. Teit having been generously met 
by Mr. Sargent. In the course of the last 30 years it has been pos- 
sible to collect vocabularies of all the Salish dialects, sufficient to 
afford a clear insight into the fundamental relations of these dialects, 
a preliminary work necessary to a more thorough study of the lan- 
guage. At the same time Mr. Teit gathered ethnological notes which 
are to be included in this work. The preparation of the vocabularies 
and of the detailed comparison that had been begun in previous 
years by Dr. Boas has been continued by Dr. Haeberlin, the basis of 
this study being their manuscript material and the published sources. 
Also through the liberality of Mr. Sargent and in cooperation with 
Columbia University in the city of New York, Dr. Haeberlin will 
be able to supplement his material by an investigation of one of the 
tribes of Puget Sound. 

The interest of Mr. Sargent has also made possible a detailed study 
of the Salish basketry of the interior plateau and the preparation of 
the illustrations for a memoir on this subject. For the latter purpose 
there have been utilized the collections of the United States National 
Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, the University 
Museum of Philadelphia, the Museum of the American Indian (Heye 
Foundation) , and the private collections of Mr. Sargent and others. 

The preparation of a manuscript on the Ethnology of the Kwaldutl 
Indians has been well advanced. The material for the first volume, 
which is to contain data collected by Mr. George Hunt, has been 
completed, excluding a number of translations which remain to be 



64 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

elaborated. According to the plan, the work is to consist of two 
parts, the first a collection of data furnished by Mr. Hunt in answer 
to specific questions asked by Dr. Boas; the second a discussion of 
them, and other data collected on previous journeys to British Colum- 
bia. This volume is to consist of an account of the material culture, 
social organization, religion, and kindred subjects. Most of the 
illustrations for this volume have been completed, and about 1,600 
pages of manuscript have been prepared. Miss Downs has made 
detailed extracts from Kwakiutl myths required for a discussion of 
this subject. 

Miss Downs has also compared the proofs of Dr. Frachtenberg's 
Siuslaw grammar with published texts, and these proofs have been 
compared and passed on by Dr. Frachtenberg. This work completes 
the revision of the Siuslaw grammar, the publication of which has 
been delayed owing to various reasons. 

No progress has been made toward the final publication of the 
Chukchee grammar, as it has been impossible to communicate with 
the author, Mr. W. Bogoras, who is in Russia. 

Some progress has been made with the contributions to Mexican 
archeology and ethnology, to be edited by Prof. Alfred M. Tozzer, 
of Harvard University, with a view of their publication by the 
bureau as a bulletin. Dr. Paul Eadin has furnished a manuscript on 
Huave; Dr. Haeberlin has nearlj?^ completed the study of modern 
Mexican tales, collected by Dr. Boas and by Miss Isabel Eamirez 
Castaiieda ; and Dr. Boas has been engaged in the preparation of 
material on certain types of Mexican pottery and on an account of a 
journey to Teul, Zacatecas. 

Prof. W. H. Holmes, of the National Museum, completed for the 
bureau the preparation of part 1 of the Handbook of American 
Antiquities (Bulletin 60), and at the close of the year galley proofs 
of the entire work had been received and were in process of revision. 
On account of the pressure of more urgent work in connection with 
his official duties, only limited progress was made in the preparation 
of part 2. On April 21 Mr, Holmes made a brief visit to the 
museums of Philadelphia and New York for the purpose of conduct- 
ing studies required in the preparation of this handbook. 

Miss Frances Densmore's field trip during the summer of 1915 for 
the purpose of continuing her studies of Indian music, comprised 
"visits to three reservations and occupied two and one-half months. 
Most of the time was spent among the Mandan and Hidatsa, at Fort 
Berthold, N. Dak., and during part of her sojourn Miss Densmore 
camped near what is recognized as the last Mandan settlement, 
where she was enabled to record many interesting data that could 
not have been obtained in any other wa}^ The Indians felt more 
free to sing there than at the agency, and Miss Densmore also had an 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 65 

opportunity to observe and photograph native customs, notably those 
of tanning a hide and preparing corn. The study of music on the 
Fort Berthold Reservation included that pertaining to the ceremony 
connected with eagle catching. An old eagle trap was visited and 
photographed, and the songs of the leader in the eagle camp were 
recorded by the only Mandan who had the hereditary right to sing 
them. The songs of the Goose Women Society and the Creek Women 
Society were also sung by those who inherited them and were re- 
corded phonographically. Among these are the ceremonial songs 
sung by the "corn priest" in the spring to fructify the seed corn. 
Songs of war and of the various men's societies were also recorded. 
The total number of songs from this reservation now transcribed 
exceeds 100. 

A new phase of the work was that of ascertaining the pitch dis- 
crimination of the Indians by means of tuning forks. This was be- 
gun at Fort Berthold and continued for comparative purposes at 
the Standing Rock and Wliite Earth Reservations. Data from four 
tribes are now available on this subject of research. 

Miss Densmore read all the gallej^ and part of the page proofs 
of the bulletin on Teton Sioux Music. Important additions were 
made to this book in the form of graphic representations, original 
plots of 240 songs and 18 diagrams having been made to exhibit 
the results obtained through mathematical analyses. Of these 
graphic representations 63 will appear in the bulletin. One hundred 
and fifty pages of manuscript were submitted during the year, in 
addition to the descriptive analyses of the songs. 

In the preparation of the Handbook of Aboriginal Remains East 
of the Mississippi, Mr. D. I. Bushnell, jr., added much new material. 
Many letters were sent to county officials in New England requesting 
information regarding the location of ancient village sites, burial 
places, and other traces of aboriginal occupancy in their respective 
areas. Many of the replies contained valuable and interesting infor- 
mation. Letters of like nature were addressed to officials in the 
Southern States, and the replies were equally satisfactory. Numer- 
ous photographs have been received from various sources, which will 
serve as illustrations for the handbook, but it is desired to increase 
the number if possible. The manuscript of the handbook will prob- 
ably be completed during the next fiscal year. 

Dr. Walter Hough, of the National Museum, was detailed to the 
bureau in June for the purpose of conducting archeological investi- 
gations in western central New Mexico. Proceeding to Luna, So- 
corro County, Dr. Hough commenced the excavation of a ruin pre- 
viously located .by him, as described in Bulletin 35 of the bureau 
(p. 59). This site was thought to contain evidence of pit dwellings 
exclusively, but excavations showed that an area of about 40 acres 



66 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

contained circular, semisubterranean houses in which no stone was 
used for construction. Seven of the pits were cleared, and it was 
ascertained that many more existed beneath the surface, dug in the 
sandy substratum of the region. Burnt sections of roofing clay 
showed that these houses were roofed with beams, poles, brush, and 
mud, as in present pueblo construction. The roof was supported 
by wooden posts, charred remains of which were found. Nothing 
was ascertained respecting the construction of the sides of the dwell- 
ings or in regard to the height of the roofs. On the floor of each 
of the pits uncovered were a rude metate, grinding stones, slabs of 
stone, and the outline of an otherwise undefined fireplace not quite 
in the center of the chamber. A bench about a foot high and a few 
feet in length was cut in the wall of some of the pits, and in one of 
the pits, against the wall, was a fireplace with raised sides of clay. 

Another type of structures adjoined the pits; these were rectan- 
gular, open-air houses with mud roofs, in which mealing and culinary 
work was carried on. Here were numerous metates, manos, rubbing 
stones, pottery, etc. ; some of the metates were set up on three round 
stones. Near the pit was a cemetery in which infants were buried, 
the burials being associated with clay hearths and much charcoal, and 
near the bodies were placed small pottery vessels. Scrapers of flint 
and bones of deer were also found among the burials. So far as as- 
certained, the people who used the circular semisubterranean houses 
had a limited range. Traces of their culture have not been found 
below an elevation of 7,000 feet in the mountain valley, and it appears 
probable that their culture was associated with an environment of 
lakes which once existed in these valleys. It is evident in some cases 
that the pit dwellings were displaced by houses of stone. In most 
instances artifacts are different from those of the stone-house build- 
ers, and the latter have more points of resemblance to, than of differ- 
ence from, the ancient inhabitants of Blue River. It is probable that 
the range of the pit-house people would be found to be more exten- 
sive by excavation around the sides of stone houses in other locali- 
ties, the remains of pit structures being easily obliterated by natural 
filling. At this time the pit-dweller culture can be affiliated only 
with uncertainty with that of the ancient Pueblos. At the present 
stage of the investigation the lack of skeletal material is severely felt, 
but further work may overcome this difficulty. 

In continuation of his preliminary examination of archeological 
remains in western Utah, summarized in the last annual report of 
the bureau (pp. 51-53), Mr. Neil M. Judd, of the National Museum, 
returned to Utah in June, 1916, and excavated one of the large 
mounds near Paragonah, in Iron County. Limited in time and 
handicapped by unfavorable weather, the results obtained were less 
than those anticipated ; nevertheless they show the similarity existing 



KEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 67 

between the ancient Paragonah dwellings and those near Beaver 
City and neighboring settlements, and warrant the belief that the 
builders of these structures were more closely related to the house- 
building peoples of Arizona and New Mexico than has been suspected. 

In the report following his reconnoissance of last year, Mr. Judd 
drew attention to the fact that the mounds still existing near Para- 
gonah comprise a mere remnant of the large group formerly at that 
place and predicted the early razing of those remaining. The hurried 
investigation of this year was undertaken for the purpose of gaining 
information regarding these ruins before their destruction. 

One of the largest and, at the same time, one of the least disturbed 
mounds was selected as a type for excavation. Its dimensions were 
approximately 100 by 300 feet ; its average height was 4^ feet. Two 
great gashes had been made through the opposite ends of the mound 
by diggings of many years ago, each cut partially exposing the 
walls of a single long room. Including these two dwellings, which 
were reexcavated only with considerable difficulty, Mr. Judd suc- 
cessfully revealed and measured the walls of 14 rectangular houses, 
11 of which are entirely cleared of fallen debris and earth accumula- 
tion. The walls of these ancient habitations, like those previously 
examined near Beaver City, had been constructed entirely of adobe 
mud; in their present condition they exhibited no evidence of the 
use of angular bricks or blocks similar to those employed in Pueblo 
structures subsequent to the Spanish conquest. On the contrary, 
close examination showed that the walls were invariably formed by 
the union of innumerable masses of plastic clay, forced together by 
the hands of the builders and surfaced inside and out during the 
process of construction. Careful inspection of the ruins showed that 
the dwellings were originally roofed in the manner typical of cliff 
houses and of modern Pueblo structures throughout the Southwest. 
No certain evidence could be found that doors or other wall openings 
were utilized by the primitive artisans — each house invariably con- 
sisted of a single room that apparently had been entered from the 
roof. One of the most important discoveries made during the 
course of the Paragonah excavations was that of a circular, semi- 
subterranean room which, with similar wall fragments previously 
discovered in the Beaver City mounds, tends to establish the use of 
the kiva, or ceremonial chamber, by the ancient house-building 
peoples of western Utah. 

On the conclusion of his studies at Paragonah, Mr. Judd proceeded 
to Fillmore, Willard Count}^, for the purpose of investigating cer- 
tain mounds reported in that neighborhood. These and similar ele- 
vations near the villages of Meadow, Deseret, and Hinckley, were all 
superficially identified as of the same type and representing the same 



68 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

degree of culture as those above described. In all a collection of 
more than 500 objects was gathered during the course of the season's 
work. 

A pleasing coincidence resulting from Mr. Judd's Fillmore investi- 
gation was the fact that the guide he engaged had been employed in 
the same capacity by Dr. Edward Palmer, one of the National 
Museum's most indefatigable collectors, during the latter's expedi- 
tion of 1872. 

The archeological data collected by Mr. Judd during his two brief 
expeditions to western Utah are suificient to warrant the extension 
of the northern limits of the area known to have been occupied by 
the ancient Pueblo peoples. Further work, however, is urgent, since 
that already accomplished has not only contributed certain valuable 
facts to Southwestern archeology, but it has shown also the proba- 
bility of finding, in the unknown desert regions of that section, a solu- 
tion of some of the vital questions with which American anthropology 
has labored for many years. 

By reason of the fact that Mr. James E.. Murie has been engaged 
by the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, in 
connection with its ethnologic researches pertaining to the Plains 
Indians, his work of recording the rites and ceremonies of the Pawnee 
Tribe came to a cLase, and tentative arrangements have been made 
whereby the American Museum will complete the investigation and 
the results published by the bureau. Dr. Clark Wissler, curator of 
anthropology of the American Museum, has undertaken this task. 

Dr A. L. Kroeber, of the University of California, continued the 
preparation of the Handbook of the Indians of California for pub- 
lication by the bureau, and at this writing it is believed that the 
manuscript, with the accompanying maps and illustrations, will be 
submitted for publication before the close of the calendar year. 

MANUSCRIPTS. 

The large collection of manuscripts in possession of the bureau 
was augmented by the following principal items, which do not in- 
clude manuscripts in process of preparation by members of the 
bureau's staff for publication: 

Miami-French dictionary; photostat copy of the original in the 
John Carter Brown Library at Providence, E. I. 

A number of notebooks from Dr. A. L. Kroeber, on Gros Ventre 
and Cheyenne- Arapaho linguistics and texts. These consist of: (a) 
Gros Ventre, 41-47, 49; (h) Arapaho and Cheyenne, 1-14, 21-22, 
2^28, and also a catalogue of this material recorded on 3,500 cards ; 
(c) 110 pages of manuscript on the same subjects. 

First draft of Gatschet's Klamath Dictionary, 177 pages. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 69 

Copies of the following manuscripts, made by photostat in the 
bureau by the courtesy of Eev. George Worpenberg, S. J., librarian 
of St. Mary's College, St. Marys, Kans. : 

Catechism dans la langue Potewatemi, A. D. 1847. 
Petit Catechism en Langue Potewatemi, A. D. 1848. 

Evangelia Dom, and Evangelia in Festis, and portions of the Gospels read 
on Sundays and certain Festivals of the Saints. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The task of editing the publications of the bureau has continued 
in charge of Mr. J. G. Gurley, editor, assisted from time to time by 
Mrs. Frances S. Nichols. P^ollowing is a summary for the year: 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED. 

Twenty-ninth Annual Report (1907-08). Accompanying paper: The Ethno- 
geography of the Tewa Indians, by John Peabody Harrington. 

Thirtieth Annual Report (1908-09). Accompanying papers : Ethnobotany of the 
Zuiii Indians (Stevenson) ; An Inquiry into the Animism and Folk-lore of the 
Guiana Indians (Roth). 

Bulletin 57. An Introduction to the Study of the Maya Hieroglyphs (Mor- 
ley). 

Bulletin 62. Physical Anthropology of the Lenape or Delawares, and of the 
Eastern Indians in General (Hrdlicka). 

PUBLICATIONS IN PRESS OB IN PBEPAKATION. 

Thirty-first Annual Report (1909-10). Accompanying paper: Tsimshian 
Mythology (Boas). 

Thirty-second Annual Report (1910-11). Accompanying paper: Seneca Fiction, 
Legends, and Myths (collected by Jeremiah Curtin and J. N. B. Hewitt; edited 
by J. N. B. Hewitt). 

Thirty-third Annual Report (1911-12). Accompanying papers: Designs on Pre- 
historic Hopi Pottery (Fewkes) ; Preliminary Account of the Antiquities of the 
Region between the Mancos and La Plata Rivers in Southwestern Colorado 
(Morris) ; Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Nebraska Region (Gllmore) ; 
Mound Excavation in the Eastern Maya Area, with an Introduction dealing 
with the General Culture of the Natives (Gann). 

Bulletin 40. Handbook of American Indian Languages (Boas). Part 2. 

Bulletin 55. Ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians (Robbins, Harrington, Freire- 
Marreco ) . 

Bulletin 59. Kutenai Tales (Boas). 

Bulletin 60. Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities, Part 1. Intro- 
ductory. The Lithic Industries: INIining, Quarrying, Manufacture (Holmes). 

Bulletin 61. Teton Sioux Music (Densmore). 

The distribution of the publications of the bureau has continued 
in immediate charge of Miss Helen Munroe, of the Smithsonian 
Institution, and at times by Mr. E. L. Springer, assisted from the 
beginning of the fiscal year until his resignation on April 15 by Mr. 
W. A. Humphrey, and subsequently by Miss Lana V. Schelski. Not- 
withstanding conditions in Europe and the impossibility of sending 
publications abroad except to a very limited extent, 2,235 more pub- 

73839°— SM 1916 '6 



70 ANNUAL EEPOKT SMITHSONIAN INSTTTUTTON, 1916. 

lications were distributed than during the previous fiscal year. This 
distribution may be classified as follows: 

Series. Copies. 

Annual reports and separates 2, 036 

Bulletins and separates 9,990 

Contributions to North American Ethnology — volumes and separates 18 

Introductions 9 

Miscellaneous publications 367 



12,420 
ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Mr. DeLancey Gill, illustrator, has continued in charge of the 
preparation of the illustrations for the publications of the bureau and 
of photographing the members of visiting Indian deputations to 
Washington, in which work he has been assisted by Mr. Albert E. 
Sweeney. The results accomplished in this direction are as follows : 

Number. 

Photographic prints for distribution and office use 1, 137 

Negatives of ethnologic and archeologic subjects 126 

Negative films developed from field exposures 188 

Photostat prints from books and manuscripts 1, 125 

Mounts used 78 

Proofs examined 251 

Photographs retouched 43 

Drawings made : 187 

Portrait negatives of visiting delegations (Pawnee, Sauk and Fox, 
Winnebago, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Chippewa) 25 

The complete editions of three colored plates, aggregating 20,000 
prints, were examined at the Government Printing Office. Illustra- 
tive material for three bulletins was completed for reproduction, and 
progress was made on similar work for the Thirty-third Annual 
Eeport. 

LIBRARY. 

The library of the bureau continued in charge of Miss Ella Leary, 
librarian, assisted by Charles B, Newman, messenger boy. During 
the year 1,078 volumes were accessioned; of these 214 were pur- 
chased, 135 were acquired by gift and exchange, and 729 are vol- 
umes of serials which were entered after having been bound for the 
first time. The library also procured 272 pamphlets, chiefly by gift. 
The periodicals currently received number about 750, of which 12 
are acquired by subscription and 738 by exchange. Among the 
more noteworthy accessions of books are 20 volumes of Bibles, Testa- 
ments, and portions of the Bible in American Indian languages. 
The library now contains about 21,315 volumes, 13,460 pamphlets, 
and several thousand unbound periodicals. There were sent to the 
Government Printing Office for binding, 1,338 books, pamphlets, and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 71 

serial publications, and of these all but 20 had been returned to the 
bureau before the close of the year. 

In addition to the cataloguing of current accessions the efforts of 
the librarian were deA^oted to making a subject, author, and analyti- 
cal catalogue of the books represented in the old catalogue by an 
imperfect author catalogue alone. In this connection special atten- 
tion was given to linguistic works. From time to time Mrs. F, S. 
Nichols has assisted in this work, and satisfactory progress has been 
made. 

Although maintained primarily for the use of the staff, the library 
is consulted more and more by students not members of the bureau, 
as well as by officials of the Library of Congress and of the Govern- 
ment departments. 

COLLECTIONS. 

The following collections were acquired by the bureau, by members 
of its staff, or by those detailed in connection with its researches, and 
have been transferred to the National Museum : 

704 arclieological objects gathered in Utah and Wyoming by Mr. Neil M. 
Judd. (5S757.) 

Collection of potsherds showing types of ornamentation, from the Nacoochee 
Mound, White County, Georgia, being a part of the objects gathered by the 
joint expedition of the Bureau of American Ethnology and Museum of the 
American Indian (Heye Foundation). (58819.) 

170 arclieological specimens collected by Mr. Gerard Fowke at the flint quarry 
shop sites at Crescent, St. Louis County, Missouri. (59015.) 

Collection of nonhuman bones from the Nacoochee Mound, Georgia. (59017.) 

A small collection of prayer-sticks from a Pueblo shrine on the summit of 
Langley Peak, west of the Rio Grande and south of the Rio Chama, New 
Mexico, presented by Mr. Robert H. Chapman. (59112.) 

53 Indian potsherds and arrow points presented by Mr. Arthur L. Norman, 
Troup, Texas. (592.52.) 

Stone " collar " from Porto Rico, received by purchase from Mr. K. A. Behne, 
San German, Porto Rico. (59280.) 

A point and tackle of a salmon spear ; a halibut hook, and five small fish- 
hooks, the gift of Sir. Robert H. Chapman. (59288.) 

Set of ear perforators formerly owned by Wathuxage of the Tsizhu Wasli- 
tage gens of the Osage, presented through Mr. Francis La Flesche by Mrs. Fred 
Lookout. (59782.) 

Sacred hawk bundle, or waxobe, of the Buffalo-face People of the Osage 
tribe, collected by Mr. Francis La Flesche. (59792.) 

Osage war shield, collected by Mr. Francis La Flesche. (59934.) 

PROPERTY. 

In regard to the property of the bureau there is nothing to add 
to the statements presented in recent reports. The cost of necessary 
furniture, typewriters, and photographic and other apparatus ac- 
quired during the fiscal year was $238.54. 



72 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Quarters. — One of the rooms in the north tower occupied by the 
bureau force was repaired and painted, a new electric fixture in- 
stalled, and the wooden casing under the exposed stairway removed 
and fireproofing substituted. 

Personnel. — The only change in the personnel of the bureau was 
the resignation of Mr. William A. Humphrey, stenographer and 
typewriter, on April 15, 1916, and the appointment of Miss Lana V. 
Schelsld on May 15 to fill the vacancy. 

The correspondence and other clerical work of the office, in addition 
to that above mentioned, has been conducted by Miss Florence M. 
Poast, clerk to the ethnologist in charge; Miss May S. Clark, who 
particularly aided Mr. Bushnell in correspondence connected with 
the preparation of the Handbook of Aboriginal Remains; and Mrs. 
F, S. Nichols, who has aided the editor. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

F. W. Hodge, 
Ethnologist in Charge. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington^ D. C. 



Appendix 3. 
EEPOET ON THE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the International Exchange Service during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1916. 

The congressional appropriation for the support of the service 
during the year, including the allotment for printing and binding, 
was $32,200 (the same amount as appropriated for the past eight 
years) , and the repayments from departmental and other establish- 
ments aggregated $3,678.25, making the total available resources for 
carrying on the system of exchanges $35,878.25. 

During the year 1916 the total number of packages handled was 
301,625, an increase of 25,869, as compared with the preceding year. 
The weight of these packages was 399,695 pounds, an increase of 
31,84:1 pounds. 

Although these figures show an increase in the amount of work 
carried on by the service over that for last year, both the number and 
weight of the packages handled are lower than for the year 1914. 
This reduction, however, is accounted for by the suspension of ship- 
ments to a number of countries, owing to the European war, as ex- 
plained in the last report. 

The number and weight of the packages of different classes are 
indicated in the following table : 





Packages. 


Weight. 




Sent. 


Received. 


Sent. 


Received. 


United States parliamentary documents sent abroad 


161,265 




Pounds. 
93,458 


Pounds. 


3,073 


16, 938 


United States departmental documents sent abroad 


72,766 


142,415 






4,352 


8,911 


Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications sent abroad. . 

Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications received from 

abroad for distribution in the United States 


42,862 


84,196 




17,307 


53,777 










Total 


276, 893 


24.732 


320,069 


79. 626 




301,625 


399, 695 













73 



74 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

In connection with the above statistics, attention should be called 
to the fact that many returns for publications sent abroad reach 
their destinations direct by mail and not through the Exchange 
Service. 

Of the 1,758 boxes used in forwarding exchanges to foreign 
agencies for distribution, 319 contained full sets of United States 
official documents for authorized depositories, and 1,439 were filled 
with departmental and other publications for depositories of partial 
sets and for miscellaneous correspondents. The total number of 
boxes sent abroad during 1916 was 105 more than the preceding year. 

As referred to last year, the interruption to transportation facili- 
ties caused by the European war made it necessary for the Inter- 
national Exchange Service in August, 1914, to suspend the shipment 
of consignments to Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, 
Montenegro, Eoumania, Russia, Serbia, and Turkey. With the ex- 
ception of Germany, exchange relations with these countries are still 
suspended. It has been possible to arrange for the sending of several 
consignments to Germany through the American consul general at 
Rotterdam, but the Institution has not yet undertaken the regular 
transmission of boxes to that country. One shipment has been re- 
ceived from Germany, and the Institution, through the Department 
of State, has arranged with the British Government for the sending 
of consignments from Germany to this country at bimonthly in- 
tervals. 

In May, 1915, as mentioned in the last report, the Institution en- 
deavored to arrange with the Commission of International Exchanges 
at Petrograd for the resumption of shipments to Russia by way of 
Archangel, but the commission then expressed a desire to postpone 
the renewal of operations until after the close of the war. The 
commission now writes that it has been found possible to resume 
the forwarding of consignments either by way of Vladivostok, Rus- 
sia, or Bergen, Norway. The Institution has signified its preference 
for the latter route, at the same time asking if shipments can be 
forwarded to Russia through the same port. 

Through the burning at sea of the steamship Mount Eagle^ box 
125, containing publications from various governmental and scien- 
tific establishments in this country for distribution in Korea, was 
destroyed. Owing to a similar accident to the steamship Athenai, 
box 231, for Greece, was lost. In almost every instance the Insti- 
tution was able to procure from the senders duplicate copies of the 
lost publications, which were duly forwarded to their destinations. 
In this connection it should be stated that the destruction of the 
above-mentioned vessels was not due to the war. Thus far only two 
exchange packages — each containing 12 publications — ^have been lost 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 



75 



through the sinking of steamers by war vessels, reference to which 
was made in the last report. 

In continuation of a policy of international helpfulness, the Insti- 
tution has rendered aid to governmental and scientific establish- 
ments, both in this and foreign countries, in procuring especially 
desired publications. One instance in particular in which the Insti- 
tution extended aid during the year in procuring publications may 
be referred to in this connection. The Pan American Division of 
the American Association for International Conciliation in New 
York City, which was assembling a library to consist of some seven 
or eight thousand volumes of works of North American origin for 
presentation to the Museo Social Argentino at Buenos Aires, applied, 
through the Department of State, for a selection of publications of 
the United States Government and of certain scientific institutions 
in this country. The matter was brought to the attention of the 
proper establishments, and several hundred publications were re- 
ceived for the proposed library. The Department of State, in 
bringing this matter to the attention of the Institution, stated that 
the department attached considerable importance to the request as a 
potent means of furthering the best ideals of Pan Americanism. 

It may be stated in this connection that it is the custom of the 
Government of India to refer any requests from establishments in 
this country for Indian official documents to the Exchange Service 
for indorsement before acting thereon. In such instances statistics 
and other information relative to the society or establishment making 
the request is furnished, and a proper recommendation is made in 
regard to the application. 

The number of boxes sent to each foreign country and the dates 
of transmission are shown in the following table : 



Consignments of exchanges for foreign countries. 



Country. 



Number 
of boxes. 



Date of transmission. 



Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

British Colonies 

British Guiana.. 

Canada 

Chile 

China 



23 



July 21, Aug. 19, Sept. 30, Oct. 21, Nov. 26, 1915; Jan. 17, Feb. 18, 

Apr. 25, May 26, 1916. 
July 16, Oct. 2, Nov. 12, Dec. 14, 1915; Feb. 3, Apr. 6, 1916. 
July 21, Aug. 19, Sept. 30, Oct. 21, Nov. 26, 1915; Jan. 17, Feb. 

18, Mar. 25, May 26, 1916. 
July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, Aug. 7, 14, 21, 28, Sept. 4, 11, 18, 25, Oct. 9, 

16, 23, 30, Nov. 6, 13, 20, 30, Dec. 4, 11, 18, 1915; Jan. 28, Feb. 

8, 16, 25, Mar. 8, 20, Apr. 1, 10, 18, May 2, June 5, 16, 1916. 
July 20, Aug. 20, Nov. 19, 1915; Feb. 5, Mar. 24, 1916. 
Aug. 10, Oct. 23, Dec. 10, 1915; Feb. 25, Mar. 28, June 2, 1916. 
July 21, Aug. 20, Oct. 4, Nov. 4, Dec. 3, 1915; Feb. 1, Mar. 2, Apr. 

4, May 4, 1916. 
July 14, Aug. 12, Sept. 24, Oct. 19, Nov. 27, Dec. 15, 1915; Jan. 8, 

31, Feb. 23, Mar. 8, 24, Apr. 4, 7, 13, May 6, 1916. 



76 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Consignments of exchanges for foreign countries — Continued. 



Country. 



Number 
of boxes. 



Colombia... 
Costa Rica. 

Cuba 

Denmark... 



Ecuador. 

Egypt 

France... 



Germany 

GREAT Britain and Ireland 



Greece 

Guatemala. 

Haiti 

Honduras.. 
Indlv 



Italy . 



Jamaica . 
Japan . . . 



Korea 

Liberl\. 

LouRENgo Marquez. 

Mexico 

Netherlands 



New South Wales. 
New Zealand 



Nicaragua. 
Norway 



Paraguay. 
Peru 



Portugal 

Queensland. 



Salvador 

SlAM 

South Australia. 

Spain 



33 



137 
392 



20 



Date of transmission. 



July 16, Oct. 1, Nov. 12, Dec. 13, 1915. 

July 16, Oct. 2, Nov. 12, Dec. 13, 1915; Feb. 2, Mar. 3, Apr. 5, 1916. 
Aug. 10, Oct. 23, Dec. 10, 1915; Feb. 25, Mar. 28, June 2, 1916. 
July 2, Aug. 3, Sept. 9, Oct. 9, 28, Nov. 16, 30, 1915; Jan. 16, Mar. 

17, June 10, 1916. 
July 16, Aug. 17, Oct. 2, Nov. 12, Dec. 14, 1915; Mar. 4, Apr. 7, 

1916. 
July 28, Aug. 24, Oct. 6, Nov. 9, Dec. 8, 1915; Feb. 5, May 26. 

1916. 
July 14, 29, Aug. 16, 25, Sept. 25, Oct. 14, Nov. 2, 19, Dec. 4, 1915; 

Jan. 28, Feb. 12, Mar. 14, Apr. 14, May 25, 1916. 
Aug. 14, 1915; Jan. 19, June 9, 1916. 
July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, Aug. 7, 14, 21, 28, Sept. 4, 11, 18, 25, Oct. 9, 

16, 23, Nov. 6, 13, 20, 30, Dec. 4, 11, 18, 1915; Jan. 20,28, Feb. 8, 

16, 25, Mar. 8, 20, Apr. 1, 10, 17, May 2, June 5, 1916. 
July 28, Aug. 28, Oct. 6, Nov. 12, Dec. 11, 1915; Jan. 25, 1916. 
July 20, Oct. 6, Nov. 16, Dec. 14, 1915; Mar. 4, Apr. 6, 1916. 
Aug. 10, Oct. 23, Dec. 10, 1915; Feb. 25, Mar. 28, June 2, 1916. 
July 20, Oct. 6, 1915; Feb. 3, Apr. 6, 1916. 
July 10, 17, 24, 31, Aug. 7, 14, 21, 28, Sept. 4, 11, 25, Oct. 9, 16, 23, 

30, Nov. 6, 13, 20, 30, Dec. 4, 11, 18, 1915; Jan. 28, Feb. 8, 16, 25, 

Mar. 8, 20, Apr. 1, 10, 17, May 2, June 5, 16, 1916. 
July 13, Aug. 25, Sept. 25, Oct. 13, Nov. 2, 18, Dec. 6, 1915; Jan. 

21, Feb. 12, Mar. 14, Apr. 12, May 25, 1916. 
July 29, Sept. 28, Nov. 5, Dec. 15, 1915; Feb. 4, Apr. 7, 1916. 
July 5, Aug. 3, Sept. 11, Oct. 9, Nov. 9, Dec. 9, 1915; Jan. 29, 

Feb. 29, Mar. 29, Apr. 29, 1916. 
July 28, Sept. 28, Oct. 23, 1915. 
July 29, Sept. 28, Dec. 15, 1915. 
July 28, 1915. 

Aug. 10, Oct. 23, Dec. 10, 1915; Feb. 25, Mar. 28, June 2, 1916. 
July 15, 27, Aug. 14, 17, 25, Sept. 28, Oct. 13, Nov. 3, Dec. 2, 1915; 

Jan. 21, Feb. 21, Apr. 1, May 2, 1916. 
July 8, Aug. 10, Sept. 23, Oct. 20, Nov. 23, 1915; Jan. 14, Feb. 14, 

Mar. 15, Apr. 20, 1916. 
July 13, Aug. 12, Sept. 24, Oct. 20, Nov. 23, 1915; Jan. 15, Feb. 14, 

Mar. 15, Apr. 21, 1916. 
July 20, Oct. 6, Nov. 16, 1915; Apr. 6, 1916. 
July 2, Aug. 3, Sept. 9, Oct. 9, Nov. 9, Dec. 8, 1915; Jan. 25, 

Mar. 7, Apr. 17, 1916. 
July 29, Oct. 2, Nov. 16, Dee. 14, 1915; Feb. 3, Apr. 7, 1916. 
July 21, Aug. 20, Oct. 4, Dec. 3, 1915; Feb. 1, Mar. 2, Apr. 4, 

May 4, 1916. 
July 2, Aug. 3, Sept. 9, Oct. 9, Nov. 9, Dec. 8, 1915; Jan. 25, Mar. 7, 

Apr. 11, JimelG, 1916. 
July 2, Aug. 12, Sept. 24. Oct. 20, Nov. 23, 1915; Jan. 15, Feb. 14, 

Mar. 15, Apr. 21, 1916. 
July 20, Oct. 6, Nov. 16, Dec. 14, 1915; Mar. 4, Apr. 6, 1916. 
July 28, Sept. 28, Dec. 7, 1915; Apr. 7, Feb. 4, 1916. 
July 8, Aug. 10, Sept. 23, Oct. 20, Nov. 23, 1915; Jan. 14, Feb. 14, 

Mar. 15, Apr. 20, 1916. 
July 7, Aug. 10, Sept. 22, Oct. 19, Dec. 2, 1915; Jan. 21, Feb. 21, 
Mar. 29, Apr, 28, June 10, 1916. 



EEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 
Consignments of exchanges for foreign countries — Continued. 



77 



Country. 


Number 
of boxes. 


Date of transmission. 


Sweden 


49 
50 
20 

3 
34 

17 

13 
35 

20 
2 


July 27, Aug. 24, Sept. 15, Oct. 18, Nov. 24, 1915; Jan. 15, Feb. 17, 

Mar. 17, Apr. 22, 1916. 
Sept. 24, Oct. 13, Nov. 3, Dec. 3, 1915; Jan. 15, Feb. 18, Mar. 24, 

Apr. 24, June 8, 1916. 
July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, Aug. 7, 14, 21, 28, Sept. 4, 11, 18, 25, Oct. 9, 

16, 30, Nov. 6, 13, 20, 30, Dec. 4, 11, 18 1915; Jan, 28, Feb. 8, 16, 

25, Mar. 8, 20, Apr. 1, 10, 18, May 2, June 5, 16, 1916. 
July 29, Sept. 28, Dec. 15, 1915. 

July 27, Aug. 25, Nov. 5, Dec. 0, 1915; Feb. 5, Mar. 8, Apr. 11, 1916, 
July 21, Aug. 20, Oct. 4, Nov. 12, Dec. 13, 1915; Feb. 2, Mar. 3. 

Apr. 5, 1916. 
July 16, Oct. 2, Nov. 12, Dec. 13, 1915; Feb. 2, Mar. 8, Apr. 5, 1916. 
July 8, Aag. 10, 19, Sept. 23, Oct. 20, Nov. 23, 1915; Jan. 14, 

Feb. 14, Mar. 15, Apr. 20, 1916. 
July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31 , Aug. 7, 14, 21, 28, Sept. 4, 11, 18, 25, Oct. 9, 

16, 23, 30, Nov. 6, 13, 20, 30, Dec. 4, 11, 18, 1915; Jan. 28, Feb. 8, 

16, 25, Mar. 8, 20, Apr. 1, 10, 18, May 2, June 5, 16, 1916. 
July 29, Sept. 28, 1915, 


Switzerland 


Tasmania 


Trdstdad 


Union of South Africa 


Venezuela 


Victoria 


Western Australia 


Islands. 



FOREIGN DEPOSITORIES OF UNITED STATES GOVERNMENTAL DOCU- 
MENTS. 

The number of sets of the United States official publications regu- 
larly forwarded to foreign countries in accordance with treaty stipu- 
lations and under the authority of the congressional resolutions of 
March 2, 1867, and March 2, 1901, has been reduced from 92 to 91— 
the series sent to the Government of Bombay having been discon- 
tinued at the latter's request. In asking that these shipments be dis- 
continued, the secretary to the Government of Bombay stated that 
it would in no way affect the transmission of the reports of his 
Government for deposit in the Library of Congress. 

The recipients of the 55 full and 36 partial sets are as follows : 

DEPOSITORIES OF FULL SETS. 

Argentina : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Buenos Aires. 

Australia : Library of the Commonwealtli Parliament, Melbourne. 

Austria : K. K. Statistische Zentral-Kommission, Vienna. 

Baden : Universitats-Bibliothek, Freiburg. (Depository of the Grand Duchy 
of Baden.) 

Bavaria : Konigliche Hof- und Staats-Bibliothek, Munich. 

Belgium : Bibliotheque Royale, Brussels. 

Brazil: Bibliotheca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 

Buenos Aires: Biblioteca de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata. (Deposi- 
tory of the Pi'ovince of Buenos Aires.) 

Canada : Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 



78 ANNUAL BEPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Chile: Biblioteca del Oongreso Nacional, Santiago. 

China : American-Chinese Publication Exchange Department, Shanghai Bureau 

of Foreign Affairs, Shanghai. 
Colombia: Biblioteca Nacional, Bogota. 
Costa Rica : Oficina de Dep6sito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 

Jos§. 
Cxxba: Secretaria de Estado (Asuntos Generales y Canje Internacional), 

Habana. 
Denmark : Kongelige Bibliotheket, Copenhagen. 
England : British Museum, London. 
Feance : Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
Geemany : Deutsche Reichstags-Bibliothek, Berlin. 
Glasgow : City Librarian, Mitchell Library, Glasgow. 
Greece: Bibliotheque Nationale, Athens. 

Haiti : Secretaire d'Etat des Relations Exterieures, Port au Prince. 
HuNGAEY : Hungarian House of Delegates, Budapest. 

India: Department of Education (Books), Government of India, Calcutta. 
Ieeland: National Library of Ireland, Dublin. 
Italy : Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele, Rome. 
Japan : Imperial Library of Japan, Tokyo. 
London: London School of Economics and Political Science. (Depository of 

the London County Council.) 
Manitoba : Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 
Mexico: Institute Bibliografico, Biblioteca Nacional, Mexico. 
Netherlands : Library of the States General, The Hague. 
New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway: Storthingets Bibliothek, Christiania. 
Ontario: Legislative Library, Toronto. 
Paris : Prefecture de la Seine. 
Peru: Biblioteca Nacional, Lima. 
Portugal: Bibliotheca Nacional, Lisbon. 
Prussia : Konigliche Bibliothek, Berlin. 

Quebec : Library of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec, Quebec. 
Queensland : Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 
Russia: Imperial Public Library, Petrograd. 
Saxony: Konigliche Oeffentliche Bibliothek, Dresden. 

Serbia : Section Administrative du Ministgre des Affaires ]6trang$res, Belgrade. 
South Australia: Parliamentary Library, Adelaide. 
Spain : Servicio del Cambio Internacional de Publicaciones, Cuerpo Facultative 

de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios y Arqueologos, Madrid. 
Sweden: Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
Switzerland: Bibliotheque Ffiderale, Berne. 
Tasmania: Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 
Turkey : Department of Public Instruction, Constantinople. 
Union of South Africa : State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Uruguay : Oficina de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 
Venezuela: Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 
"Victoria: Public Library, Melbourne. 

Western Australia : Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 
WtJETTEMBEEQ : Kouigliche Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart. 



REPOET OF THE SECEETARY. 79 

DEPOSITORIES OF PAKTIAL SETS. 

Alberta: Provincial Library, Edmonton. 

Alsace-Lorraine: K. Miuisterium fiir Elsass-Lotliringen, Strassburg. 

Bolivia : Ministerio de Colonizacion y Agricultura, La Paz. 

Bremen : Senatsliommission fiir Reiclis- und Auswiirtige Angelegenlieiten. 

British Columbia: Legislative Library, Victoria. 

British Guiana : Government Secretary's Office, Georgetown, Demerara. 

Bulgaria: Minister of Foreign Affairs, Sofia. 

Ceylon: Colonial Secretary's Office (Record Department of the Library), Co- 
lombo. 

Ecuador : Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 

Egypt: Biblioth&que Kliediviale, Cairo. 

Finland: Chancery of Governor, Helsingfors. 

Guatemala : Secretary of the Government, Guatemala. 

Hamburg : Senatskommission fiir die Reichs- und Auswartigen Angelegenlieiten. 

Hesse : Grossherzogliche Hof-Bibliothek, Darmstadt. 

Honduras : Secretary of the Government, Tegucigalpa. 

Jamaica: Colonial Secretary, Kingston. 

Liberia: Department of State, Monrovia. 

Louren^o Marquez : Government Library, Lourenco Marquez. 

Ltjbeck: President of the Senate. 

Madras, Province of : Chief Secretary to the Government of Madras, Public 
Department, Madras. 

Malta : Lieutenant Governor, Valetta. 

Montenegro : Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Cetinje. 

New Brunswick : Legislative Library, Fredericton. 

Newfoundland : Colonial Secretary, St. Johns. 

Nicaragua: Superintendente de Archivos Nacionales, Managua. 

Northwest Territories : Government Library, Regina. 

Nova Scotia: Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 

Panama: Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Panama. 

Paraguay : Oficina General de Inmigracion, Asuncion. 

Prince Edward Island : Legislative Library, Charlottetown. 

Roumania: Academia Romana, Bucharest. 

Salvador : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 

SiAM : Department of Foreign Affairs, Bangkok. 

Straits Settlements : Colonial Secretary, Singapore. 

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh : Under Secretary to Government, Alla- 
habad. 

Vienna: Biirgermeister der Haupt- und Residenz-Stadt. 

INTERPARLIAMENTRY EXCHANGE OF OFFICIAL JOURNALS. 

The Governments of Bolivia, Peru, and Venezuela were added to 
those countries with which the immediate exchange of official parlia- 
mentary journals is carried on. Following is a complete list of the 
Governments to which the Congressional Record is now sent : 



Argentine Republic. 

Australia. 

Austria. 

Baden. 

Belgium. 



Bolivia. 

Brazil. 

Buenos Aires, Province of. 

Canada. 

Costa Rica. 



80 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



Cuba. 

Denmark. 

Prance. 

Great Britain. 

Greece, 

Guatemala. 

Honduras. 

Hungary. 

Italy. 

Liberia. 

New South Wales. 

New Zealand. 

Peru. 



Portugal. 

Prussia. 

Queensland. 

Roumania. 

Russia. 

Serbia. 

Spain. 

Switzerland. 

Transvaal. 

Union of South Africa. 

Uruguay. 

Venezuela. 

Western Australia. 



It will therefore be seen that there are now 36 countries with 
which this exchange is conducted. To some of these countries two 
copies of the Congressional Record 'are sent — one to the Upper and 
one to the Lower House of Parliament — the total number trans- 
mitted being 41. 

LIST OF BUREAUS OR AGENCIES THROUGH WHICH EXCHANGES ARE 

TRANSMITTED. 

The following is a list of the bureaus or agencies through which exchanges 
are transmitted : 
Algeria, via France. 
Angola, via Portugal. 
Argentina: Comision Protectora de Bibliotecas Populares, Santa Fe 880, 

Buenos Aires. 
Austria : K. K. Statistische Zentral-Kommission, Vienna. 
Azores, via Portugal. 
Belgium : Service Beige des Echanges Internationaux, Rue des Longs-Chariots 

46, Brussels. 
Bolivia: Oficina Nacional de Estadlstica, La Paz. 
Brazil: Servigo de Permutagoes Internaciouaes, Bibliotheca Nacional, Rio de 

Janeiro. 
British Colonies : Crown Agents for the Colonies, London. 
British Guiana : Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society, Georgetown. 
British Honduras : Colonial Secretary, Belize. 

Bulgaria : Institutions Scientifiques de S. M. le Roi de Bulgarie, Sofia. 
Canary Islands, via Spain. 

Chile : Servicio de Canjes Internacionales, Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 
China : American-Chinese Publication Exchange Department, Shanghai Bureau 

of Foreign Affairs, Shanghai. 
Colombia: Oficina de Canjes Internacionales y Reparto, Biblioteca Nacional, 

Bogota. 
Costa Rica: Oficina de Deposito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 

Jos§. 
Denmark : Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen. 
Dutch Guiana : Surinaamsche Koloniale Bibliotheek, Paramaribo. 
Ecuador: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Quito. 
Egypt: Government Publications Office, Printing Department, Cairo. 
France: Service Frangais des ^changes Internationaux, 110 Rue de Grenelle, 

Paris. 



EEPORT OF THE SECEETARY. 81 

Germany: Amerika-Institut, Berlin, N. W. 7. 

Great Britain and Ireland : Messrs. William Wesley & Sou, 28 Essex Street, 
Strand, London. 

Greece: Bibliotheque Nationale, Athens. 

Greenland, via Denmark. 

Guadeloupe, via France. 

Guatemala : Instituto Nacional de Varones, Guatemala. 

Guinea, via Portugal. 

Haiti: Secretaire d'Etat des Relations Ext§rieures, Port au Prince. 

Honduras : Biblioteca Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 

Hungary: Dr. Julius Pikler, Municipal Office of Statistics, Vaci-utca 80, Buda- 
pest. 

Iceland, via Denmark. 

India : India Store Department, India Office, London. 

Italy: Ufficio degli Scambi Internazionali, Biblioteca Nazionale Yittorio Eman- 
uele, Rome. 

Jamaica : Institute of Jamaica, Kingston. 

Japan : Imperial Library of Japan, Tokyo. 

Java, via Netherlands. 

Korea : <3rOvernment General, Keijo. 

Liberia: Bureau of Exchanges, Department of State, Monrovia. 

LouRENgo Makquez ! Government Library, Lourengo Marquez. 

Luxemburg, via Germany. 

Madagascar, via France. 

Madeira, via Portugal. 

Montenegro: Ministere des Affaires liltranggres, Cetinje. 

Mozambique, via Portugal. 

Netherlands : Bureau Scientifique Central Neerlandais, Bibliotheque de I'Uni- 
versite, Leyden. 

New Guinea, via Netherlands. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

New Zealand: Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Nicaragua : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Managua. 

Norway: Kongelige Norske Frederiks Universitet Bibliotheket, Christiania. 

Panama: Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Panama. 

Paraguay : Servicio de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Seccion Consular 
y de Comercio, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Asuncion. 

Persia : Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, New York City. 

Peru: Oficina de Reparto, Deposito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, 
Ministerio de Fomento, Lima. 

Portugal: Servigo de Permutagoes Internacionaes, Inspecgao Geral das Biblio- 
thecas e Archivos Publicos, Lisbon. 

Queensland : Bureau of Exchanges of International Publications, Chief Sec- 
retary's Office, Brisbane. 

RouMANiA : Academia Romana, Bucharest. 

Russia: Commission Russe des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque Im- 
periale Publique, Petrograd. 

Salvador: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 

Serbia : Section Administrative du Ministere des Affaires ifitranggres, Belgrade. 

Siam : Department of Foreign Affairs, Bangkok. 

South Australia: Public Library of South Australia, Adelaide. 

Spain : Servicio del Cambio Internacional de Publicaciones, Cuerpo Facultative 
de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios y Arqueologos, Madrid, 



82 ANNUAL BEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Sumatra, via Netherlands. 

Sweden : Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien, Stockholm. 

Switzerland: Service des :6changes luternationaux, Bibliotheque Fed6rale 
Centrale, Berne. 

Syria : Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, New York. 

Tasmania: Secretai-y to the Premier, Hobart. 

Trinidad : Royal Victoria Institute of Trinidad and Tobago, Port-of-Spain. 

Tunis, via France. 

Turkey: American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Boston. 

Union of South Africa: Government Printing Works, Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Uruguay: Oficina de Canje Internacional, Montevideo. 

Venezuela: Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 

Victoria: Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia : Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 

Windward and Leeward Islands : Imperial Department of Agriculture, Bridge- 
town, Barbados. 

Kespectfully submitted. 

C. W. Shoemaker, 

Chief Clerk, International Exchange Service. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian iTistitution. 
August 23, 1916. 



Appendix 4. 
REPOKT ON THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 

Sir: I have the honor to present below a report concerning the 
operations of the National Zoological Park for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1916. 

There was allowed by Congress the sum of $100,000 for all pur- 
poses, except printing, for which $200 additional was granted. 

The European war has had a marked effect upon the cost of living 
animals. Not only are the prices higher, but transportation is more 
difficult and therefore more expensive. Many of the regular dealers 
have been obliged to withdraw from the business. Notwithstanding 
these difficulties the National Zoological Park has maintained its col- 
lection fairly well, and remains at about the same level in numbers 
as last year. There are, indeed, some 15 species in the park not pre- 
viously exhibited here. A careful estimate of the value of the ani- 
mals in the collection shows that it must be at least $90,000, at the 
prevailing market prices. The value of the buildings is estimated 
at $210,000. 

ACCESSIONS. 

Births, 101 in number, included 5 American bison, deer of 11 species, 
a yak, a South American tapir, a Bactrian camel, 2 monkeys, some 
other mammals, and a few birds. 

Gifts. — The most important of these was four elands and four 
Kashmir deer received from the Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey, 
England. Three fawns were born from the deer during their transit. 
The complete list of the donors and gifts is as follows: 

Mr. Edward Anderson, jr., Tucson, Ariz., a desert lynx. 
Migs Maude Anderson, Washington, D. C, a common canary. 
Miss Marian Asliby, Wastiington, D. C, a barred owl. 
Mr. O. E. Baynard, Clearwater, Fla., two barred owls. 

The Duke of Bedford, Woburn Abbey, England, four elands and four Kash- 
mir deer. 

Bureau of Biological Survey, an American marten. 
Mr. Robert Burrows, Washington, D. C, two alligators. 
Miss Argine Carusi, Washington, D. C, an alligator. 
Mr. Austin M. Cooper, Washington, D. C, a tarantula. 
Mr. E. J. Court, Washington, D. C, a great horned owl. 
Mr. Blaine Elkins, Washington, D. C, two raccoons. 
Mr. W. C. Emery, Washington, D. C, a copperhead snake. 

83 



84 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Mr. Victor J. Evans, Washington, D. C, tliree marmosettes. 

Mr. George Field, Wasliington, D. C, a Texan armadillo. 

Mr. Marcus A. Hanna, Washington, D. C, a copperhead snake. 

Mr. G. M. Haynes, Washington, D. C, an alligator. 

Mr. Ross Hazeltine, United States Consular Service, an ocelot. 

Mrs. Mary F. Henderson, Washington, D. C, two grass parrakeets and a 
canary. 

Mrs. Robert Hitt, Washington, D. C, a bare-eyed cockatoo. 

Mr, G. C. Hogan, Comorn, Va., a gray fox. 

Mr. George Howell, Washington, D. C, two alligators. 

Mr. R. C. Huey, Hot Springs, Ark., a dusky wolf. 

Miss Juergens, Washington, D. C, an alligator. 

Miss Annie Lee Knight, Washington, D. C, a gray fox. 

Mr. J. C. Lamon, Knoxville, Tenn., a black snake. 

Mr. T. P. Lovering, Washington, D. C, a king snake. 

Mr. S. Lyons, Washington, D. C, two alligatoi's. 

Mr. Vinson McLean, Washington, D. C, a gray parrot, a macaw, and a great 
red-crested cockatoo. 

Mr. Lee S. Page, Washington, D. C, an alligator. 

Hon. Frank Park, M. C, Sylvester, Ga., at request of late Senator Bacon, 
three fox squirrels. 

Mr. Robert Portner, Washington, D. C, an alligator. 

Mr. C. S. Rockwood, Washington, D. C, an alligator. 

Mr. Baynard Schindel, Washington, D. C, an alligator. 

Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, Washington, D. C, a black snake. 

Mr. J. H. Steig, Washington, D. C, a black snake. 

Dr. J. R. Stewart, Washington, D. C, a woodchuck. 

Mrs. F. H. Talkes, Washington, D. C, a parrot. 

Mrs. R. B. Tingsley, Washington, D. C, an alligator. 

Mr. C. V. R. Townsend, Muni sing, Mich., a coyote. 

Hon. Woodrow Wilson, Washington, D. C, two bald eagles. 

Unknovni donor, an alligator. 

Unknown donor, two cardinals, one common mocking bird, one brown thrasher. 

Exchanges. — The possession of a considerable number of surplus 
animals made it possible for the park to profit by 187 exchanges. 
Among the important acquisitions were a pair of young lions from 
the Department of Parks, New York City, a male guanaco from the 
Philadelphia Zoological Garden, a chimpanzee, a fine pair of Siberian 
tigers, a nilgai, a pair of mule deer, a pair of Columbian black-tailed 
deer, a great red kangaroo, several monkeys and other mammals, a 
secretary vulture, and a considerable number of other birds. 

The chimpanzee was new to the collection and is a very intelligent 
and interesting male about 4^ years old, from the forests of French 
Congo. He is an object of great interest to the public and attracts 
much attention every day, especially when at his meals, as he has 
been taught to sit in a chair at a table, eat with a fork and drink 
out of a glass. As there was no conveniently available cage for him 
in the monkey house, special quarters have been provided in the lion 
house, in a corner where he is shielded from drafts of air. In 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 85 

order to preA^ent feeding by visitors a glass screen was erected be- 
tween this cage and the public space. Pure air is provided by a duct 
leading from the outside of the building suitably warmed by a heat- 
ing coil. He has made himself entirely at home there, appears happy, 
contented, and quite healthy. A larger, more spacious cage will be 
constructed for occupation during hot weather, where he can be more 
satisfactorily seen. 

From YelloiDstone National Park. — Two black timber wolves, in- 
teresting from their rarity, were transferred from the Yellowstone 
Park. 

Captured. — A raccoon, possibly a wild one, but more probably one 
that had escaped, was caught in a trap. 

Loaned. — 3 mink and 7 martens were temporarily loaned, also 1 
monkey and a parrot. 

LOSSES. 

Among the most important losses was that of the young male 
African elephant, Jumbo II, a beautiful, active animal that was 
bought from the Government Zoological Garden at Giza, Egypt, in 
1913. He was then about 4 years old. The death of this valuable 
animal was entirely unexpected, as he had always seemed in ex- 
cellent health. A post-mortem examination, made by veterinarians 
from the Bureau of Animal Industr}^, revealed a rupture of the 
stomach, a tear 7 inches in length occurring along the great 
curvature. Escape of the stomach contents had caused an acute 
peritonitis. The cause of this rupture is quite obscure. The diet of 
the animal had not been changed either in quantity or quality, and 
the stomach had not been overdistended by food. Nor did an ex- 
amination of the discharged material reveal any substances that 
might have occasioned an active fermentation with considerable evolu- 
tion of gas. The other viscera showed no gross pathologic changes. 

Other losses were a male lion, from softening of the brain, a fur 
seal, a male California sea lion, a black leopard, from old age, a male 
American bison, from pneumonia, a male and female nilgai, from 
generalized tuberculosis; 38 animals were lost from attacks by cage 
mates, by dogs (directly or indirectly), or through other accidents. 
Amebic dysentery attacked some spider monkeys, recently received, 
and caused the death of six of these animals. Post-mortem examina- 
tions were made, as usual, by the Pathological Division of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture.^ 

1 The causes of death were reported to be as follows : Enteritis, 24 ; gastroenteritis, 4 ; 
amebic dysentery, 6 ; fermentation colic, 1 ; Intestinal coccidiosis, 1 ; cercomoniasls, 1 ; 
pneumonia, 15 ; tuberculosis, 14 ; congestion of lungs, 3 ; pulmonary edema, 1 ; asthma, 
1 ; aspergillosis, 4 ; pyemia, 3 ; septicemia, 1 ; toxemia, 1 ; pericarditis, 1 ; hepatitis, 3 ; 
fatty degeneration of kidneys, 1 ; gangrene of cecum, 1 ; necrosis of rectum, 1 ; softening 
of brain, 1 ; hematoma of liver, 1 ; tumor, 1 ; anemia, 2 ; rupture of stomach, 1 ; no suffi- 
cient cause found, 17 ; not fit for examination, 3. 

73839°— SM 1916 7 



86 



AITNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



AISriMALS IN THE COLLECTION JUNE 30, 1916. 



MAMMALS. 



Chimpanzee {Pan troglodytes) 1 

Mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) _ 3 

Patas monkey (Cercopithecus patas) - 2 

Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) ^ 1 

Bonnet monkey (Macacus sinicus) 1 

Macaque monkey (Macacus cynomol- 

(jus) 2 

Pig-tailed monkey (Macacus nemes- 

trinus) 3 

Rhesus monkey (Macacus rhesus) 29 

Brown macaque (Macacus arctoides)- 2 

Japanese monkey (Macacus fuscatus) - ?. 

Moor macaque (Macacus maurus) 1 

Chacma (Papio porcarius) 1 

Guinea baboon (Papio papio) 4 

Yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) ^ 1 
Hamadryas baboon (Papio hama- 

dryas) 2 

Mandrill (Papio sphinx) 1 

White-throated capuchin (Cel)us hy- 

poleucus) 2 

Brown capuchin (Cebus fatucUus) 1 

Gray spider-monkey (Atcles geof- 

froyi) 5 

Marmosette (Hapale jacchus) '-i 

Mongoose lemur (Lemur niongoz) 1 

Black lemur (Lemur macaco) 1 

Polar bear (Thalarctos maritimiis) 2 

European brown bear (Vrsus arctos) - 2 

Kadiak bear (Ursus middendorfp) 1 

Yakutat bear (Ursus dalli) 1 

Alaskan brown bear (Ursus gyas) 2 

Kidder's bear (Ursus kidderi) 2 

Hybrid bear (Ursus kidderi-arctos) 2 

Himalayan bear (Ursus thibctanus) — 1 

Japanese bear (Ursus japoniciis) 1 

Grizzly bear (Ursus fiorrihilis) 3 

Black bear (Ursus americanus) 6 

Cinnamon bear (Ursus americanus) — 2 

Sloth bear (Melursus ursi7ius) 1 

Kinkajou (Cercoleptes caiidivoJvulus) - 1 

Cacomistle (Bassariscus astutO') 1 

Gray coatimundi (Nasua narica) 4 

Raccoon (Procynn lotor) 13 

American badger (Tnxidea taxus) 2 

European badger (Tylelrs taxus) 2 

Common skunk (Mephitis putida) 2 

Tayra (GaJictis harhara) 1 

American marten (Mustela ameri- 

cana) 9 

Fisher (Mustela pennantii) 1 

Mink (Putorius vison) 8 

Common ferret (Putorius putorius) -- 1 
North American otter (Luira cana- 
densis'^) 5 

Eskimo dog (Canis familiaris) 4 

Dingo (Canis dingo) 1 

Gray wolf (Canis occidentaUs) 6 

Dusky wolf (Canis nubiliis) 1 

Coyote (Canis latrans) 3 

Woodhouse's coyote (Canis frtistror) - 2 

Red fox (Vulpes pennsylvanicus) 4 

Swift fox (Vulpes relox) 1 

Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) 1 

Gray fox (Urocyon cinrreo-argenteus) - 5 

Spotted hyena (Hywna crocutn) 1 

African civet (Viverra civctta^ 1 

Common genet (Oenetta ncnetta) 1 

Cheetah (CynaUwds juhutas) 2 

Sudan lion (Felis leo) 5 

Bengal tiger (Felis tigris) ;_- 2 

Siberian tiger (Felis tigris longipilis) - 2 

Puma (Felis wegonensis hippolestes) - 4 

Jaguar (Felis onca) 1 

Leopard (Fells pardus) 3 

Ocelot (Felis par dalis) 1 

Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) 3 

Bay lynx (Lynx rufus) 7 

Spotted lynx (Lynx rufus texensls)-- 2 
California lynx (Lynx rufus caiiforni- 

cus) 1 



Florida lynx (Lynx rufus fioridanus)- 1 
Steller's sea lion (Eumetopias stel- 

leri) ; 1 

California sea lion (Zalophus calif or- 

nianus) 1 

Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) 1 

Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) 9 

Western fox squirrel (iicturus ludo- 

vicianus) 11 

Gray squirrel (l^ciurns cniolinensis)-- 40 

Black squirrel (t-'ciurus carol inciis-is')- 20 

Albino squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) - 1 
Thir teen-lined spermophile (Sper- 

mophihis tridecimlincatus) 2 

Prairie dog (Cyomys ludovicianus) 9 

Woodchuck (Marmota tnonax) 1 

American beaver (Castor canadensis)- 2 

Coypu (Myocastor coypus) 2 

European porcupine (Hystrix cristata) _ 3 

Indian porcupine (Hystrix leucura) 1 

Viscacha (Lagostomus trichodactylus) - 1 
Mexican agouti (Dasyprocta mexi- 

cana) 1 

Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azaia) 1 

Crested agouti (Dasyprocta crislala) - 2 
Ilairy-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta 

prymnolopha) 4 

Paca (Cwlogenys paca) 2 

Guinea pig (Cavia cutleri) 13 

Patagonian cavy (Dolichotis pata- 

gonica) 2 

Cottontail rabbit (Lepus sylvaticus) 2 

Domestic rabbit (Lepus cunicuhis) 15 

African elephant (Elephas oxyotis) --. 1 

Indian elephant (Elephas maxiinus) -- 1 

Brazilian tapir (Tapirus americanus)- 4 

Mongolian horse (Equiis prsewalskii) - 1 

Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyt) 2 

Zobra-horse hybrid (Equus grevyi- 

caballits) 1 

Zebra-donkey hybrid (Equus grevyi- 

atsinus) 1 

Grant's zebra (Eqtiiis burchelU granti) - 1 

Collared peccary (Dicotyles ajigulatus) - 2 

Wild boar (l^iis scrofa) 1 

Northern wart-hog (Phacochcerus afri- 

caviis) 2 

Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus am- 

phibius) 2 

Gunnaco (Lama huanachus) 3 

Llama (Lama glama) 8 

Alpaca (Lama pacos) 2 

Vicugna (Lama vicugna) 1 

Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) - 3 

Arabian camel (Camelus dromeda/r^ius) - 4 

Sambar deer (Cervus iinicolor) 2 

Philippine deer (Cervus philippinus) - 1 

Hog deer (Cervus porcinus) 9 

Barasingha deer (Cervus duvaucelii) - 13 

Axis deer (Cervus axis) 8 

Japanese deer (Cervus sika) 6 

Kashmir deer (Cervus cashmirlanus) - 7 

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) 10 

American elk (Cervus canadensis) R 

Fallow deer (Cervus dama) 7 

"Virginia deer (Odocoileus vtrginianus) - 13 

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemtonus) 4 

Columbian black-tniled deer (Odocoi- 
leus columbianus) 5 

Cuban deer (Odocoileus sp.) 1 

Blessbok (DamaUscus albifrons) 1 

White-tailed gnu (Connochwtes gnu) _ 1 

Defassa water buck (Cobus defassa) 1 

Indian antelope (Antilope cervicapra) - 4 

Arabian gazelle (Clazella arabica) 2 

Sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) — 1 

Nilgai (Boseluphus tragocnmelus) 2 

Congo harnessed antelope (Tragelaphus 

gratua) 2 

Eland (Ta/urotragus oryx living- 

atonii) « 4 



KEPORT OF THE SECEETARY. 



87 



Tahr (Hemitragus jcmlaicus) 3 

Circassian goat iCapra hircus) 4 

Barbary shoep {Oris tragclaphus) 12 

Barbados sheep (Oins aries-tragela- 

phus) 8 

Anoa (Anoa depre.>isicorni-'i) 1 

Zebu (Bihos indicua) 2 

Yak (Pocphagus grunnicns) 4 

American bison (Bison americanus) 17 

Hairy armadillo (Dasypus villosus) 3 



Great gray kangaroo (Macropus gigan- 

tciid) 1 

Wallaroo {Maoropus robustuc) 2 

Red kangaroo {Macropus ruf us) 3 

Bennett's wallaby (Macropus ruficoUis 

henneiti) 1 

Phalanger (Trichosiirus riupecula) 2 

Virginia opossum (Didelphys marsu- 

pialis) 1 



BIRDS. 



Mocking bird (Mimus polyglottos) 1 

Catbird (Dumetclla- carol incnsis) 1 

Brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) ^ 1 

Japanese robin (Liotlirix luteus) 5 

Laughing thrush (Gamilax Icuco- 

loplius) 2 

Australian gray jumper (Struthidea 

cinerca) 2 

Bishop finch (Tanagra episcopus) 4 

Cut-throat finch (Aniadina fasciata) 2 

Zebra finch (Amadina castanotis) 4 

Black-headed finch (Munia atrica- 

pilla) 4 

Three-colored finch (Munia mcdacea)- 6 

White-headed finch (Munia maja) 9 

Nutmeg fiuch (Munia punctularia) 6 

Java sparrow (Munia oryzivora) 12 

White Java sparrow (Munia ory- 

zivora) 14 

Black-faced Gouldian finch (Pocphila 

gouldicr) 2 

Red-faced Gouldian fiuch (Pocphila 

tniraMlis) 2 

Sharp-tailed grass finch (.Pocphila 

acuticauda) 1 

Chestnut-breasted finch (Donacola 

casiancothoraw) 6 

Napolean weaver (Pyromelana afra) 4 

Madagascar weaver (Foudia madagas- 

caricnsis) 4 

Red-billed weaver (Quelca quelea) 8 

I'aradise weaver (Vidua paradisea) 8 

Red-crested cardinal (Paroaria cucul- 

lata) 2 

Common cardinal (Cardlnalis cardi- 

nnlis) 4 

Saffron flnch (Sycalis fiaveola) 15 

Yellow hammer (Emheriza citrinella) _ 1 

Common canary (tierinus canarius)-^ 7 

Cowbird (Molothrus ater) 1 

Glossy starling (Lamprotornis cauda- 

tus) 1 

European raven (Curitis cora^) 1 

Australian crow (Corvus coronoides) ^ 1 
White-throated jay (Garnilus leuco- 

tis) 1 

Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) 1 

American magpie (Pica pica hud- 

sonica) 3 

Red-billed magpie (Urocissa occipi- 
talis) 1 

Y'ellow tyrant (Pitangus sulphuratus 

rufipcnni-s) 1 

Giant kingfisher (Dacelo gigas) 2 

Concave-casqued hornbiU (Dichocrros 

bicomis) 1 

Reddish motmot (Momotus sub7-u.fcs- 

ccns) 1 

I'ellow-breasted lory 1 

Blue Mountain lory (Trichoglossus 

novw-hoUan dice) 8 

Scaly-breasted lorikeet (Psitteuteles 

chlorolepidotus) 7 

Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua 

galerita) 3 

White cockatoo iOacatua alba) 3 

Great red-crested cockatoo (Cacatua 

molucce7isis) 1 

Leadbeater's cockatoo (Cacatua Icad- 

beateri) 1 

Bare-eyed cockatoo (Cacatua gym- 

nopis) 3 



Roseate cockatoo (Cacatua roseicor- 

pillu) 12 

Yellow and blue macaw (Ara ararau- 

na) 2 

Red and yellow and blue macaw (Ara 

■macao) 7 

Red and blue macaw (Ara chlorop- 

tcra) 2 

Gray-breasted parrakeet (Myopsitta- 

cus monachus) 1 

Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala) ^ 1 

Festive amazon (Ainazona f estiva) 1 

Porto Rican amazon (Amazona vit- 

tata) 1 

Y'ellow-shouldered amazon (Amazuna. 

ochroptcra) 2 

Yellow - fronted amazon (Amazona 

ochrocephala) 2 

Yellow-naped amazon (Amazona auri- 

palliata) 2 

Yellow-headed amazon (Amazona Ic- 

vaillanti) 2 

Blue-fronted amazon (Amazona ws- 

tiva) 1 

Gray parrot (Psittucus eryihaciis) 1 

Lesser vasa parrot (Coracopsis nigra) - 1 
Banded parrakeet (Pulceornis fasci- 
ata) 1 

Love bird (Agapornis pullaria) 1 

Shell parrakeet (Melopsittacus un- 

dulatus) 6 

Great horned ov/1 (Bubo virginianus) - 14 
Arctic horned owl (Bubo virginianus 

subarcticiis) 1 

Barred owl (Strix varia) 4 

Sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius) 2 

Bald eagle (Haliwetus leucocephalus) ^ 15 
Alaskan bald eagle (Haliieetus leuco- 

cephalus alascamis) 1 

Golden eagle (Aquila chrysactos) 2 

Australian eagle 2 

Harpy eagle (Thra-saeius harpyia) 1 

Crowned hawk-eagle (Spizaetus coro- 

natus) 1 

Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperi) 1 

Venezuelan hawk 1 

Caracara (Polyborus cheriv^ay) 3 

Lammergeyer (Oypaetus barbatus)^^ 1 
Secretary vulture (Gypogeranus secre- 

tarvus) 1 

South American condor (Sarcorhani- 

phus gryphus) 1 

California condor (Gymnogyps cali- 

fnrnianus) 3 

Griffon vulture (Gyps fulviis) 2 

Cinereous vulture (Vultnr monachus) ^ 2 
Egyptian vulture (Neophron pcrcnop- 

ierus) 1 

Turkey vulture (Cathartcs aura) 4 

Black vulture (Catharista urubi) 2 

King vulture (Gypagus papa) 2 

Snow pigeon (Columba Iruconota) 2 

Red-billed pigeon (Columba flaviros- 

tris) ' 4 

White-crowned pigeon (Columba leuco- 

cepha-la) 2 

Band-tailed pigeon (Coluvtba fasciata) ^ 4 

Mourning dove (Zenaidura macro ara) - 7 

Peaceful dove (Gcopelia tranquilla) 2 

Zebra dove (Geopdlia striata) ^ 22 

Collared turtl&-dove (Turtur risorius) . 16 

Cape masiied dove (CEna capensis)-^- 4 



88 



ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



Australian crested pigeon (Ocyphaps 

lophotes) 16 

Wonga-wonga pigeon (Lcucosarcia 

picata) *- 12 

Blue-heaaed quail-dove (Starticenas 

cyanocephala) 4 

Eed-billed curassow (Crax caruncu- 

lata) 1 

Mexican curassow (Craw globicera) — 2 
Daubenton's curassow (Crax dauben- 

toni) 2 

Wild turkey (Meleai/ris yallopavo 

silvcstris) 17 

Peafowl (Pavo cristata) 69 

Peacock pheasant (Polylectron chin- 

qwifi) 1 

Silver pheasant (Euplocamus nycthe- 

incriis) 1 

Bobwhite {Colinus virginianus) 1 

Curacao crested quail {Eupnychortyx 

cristatus) 3 

Scaled quail {Callipepla squamata) 1 

Valley quail (Lophortyx californica 

vallicola) 2 

Gambol's quail (Lophortyx gamheli) — 1 

Massena quail (Cyrtonyx montczumai) ^ 1 

American coot (Fulica americana) 5 

Great bustard {Otis tarda) 1 

Common cariama (Cariama cristata)- 1 

Demoiselle crane (Anthropoldes virgo) - 7 

Crowned crane (Balearica pavonina)- 2 

Whooping crane (Orus americana) 1 

Sand-hill crane (Orus mexicana) 4 

Australian crane (Orus australasiana) - 1 

European crane (Orus cincrca) 1 

Lilford's crane (Orus lilfordi) 4 

Indian white crane (Orus leuco- 

geranus) 2 

White-necked crane (Orus leucauchen) - 1 

Ruff (Machetes pugnax) 1 

Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax 

nycticorax nwvius) 12 

Snowy egret (Egretta candidissima) - 3 

Great blue heron (Ardea herodia-s) 1 

Great black-crowned heron (Ardea 

cncoi) 1 

Boatbill (Gancroma cochleaHa) 2 

Black stork (Ciconia nigra) 1 

Marabou stork (Leptoptilus duhius) 1 

Wood ibis (Myctcria americana) 1 

Sacred ibis (Ibis wthiopica) 3 

White ibis (Ouara alba) 12 

Boseate spoonbill (Ajaja ajaja) 2 

European flamingo (Phwnicopterus 

roseus) 2 

Black - necked screamer (Channa 

chavaria<) 3 

Horned screamer (Palamedea cor- 

nuta) 1 

Whistling swan (Olor columbiamts) - 4 

Trumpeter swan (Olor buccinator) 2 

Mute swan (Cygnus gibbus) 5 

Black swan (Chenopis atrata) 3 

Spur- winged goose (Plectropterus 

gambensis) 1 

White muscovy duck (Cairina mo»- 

chata-) 1 



Wood duck (Aix sponsa) 6 

Mandarin duck (Dendronessa galeric- 

ulata) 27 

Cape Barren goose (Cereopsis novce 

hollandia:) 2 

Lesser snow goose (Chen hyper- 

boreus) 3 

Greater snow goose (Chen hyper- 

boreus nivalis) 1 

Blue goose (Chen cwrulescen-s) 2 

Ross's goose [Chen rossi) 1 

American white-fronted goose (Anser 

albifrons gambeli) 5 

Barred-head goose (Anscr indicus) 2 

Chinese goose (An.i,cr cygnoides) 2 

Canada goose (Branta canadensis) 17 

Hutchins's goose (Branta canadensis 

hutchinsii) 6 

Cackling goose (Branta canadensis 

minima.) 2 

Bernlcle goose (Branta leucopsis) 2 

Upland goose (ChloHphaga magel- 

lanica) 1 

White-faced tree duck (Dendrocygna 

viduata) 3 

Fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bi- 

color) 2 

Wandering tree duck (Dendrocygna 

arcuata) 4 

Ruddy sheldrake (Casarraferruginea)- 1 

Mallard (Anas platyrltynchos) 5 

East Indian black duck (Anas sp.) 4 

Black duck (Anas rubripes) 1 

European widgeon (Mareca penelope) - 1 

Pintail (Daflla acuta) 2 

Blue-winged teal (Querquedula dis- 

cors) 11 

Rosy-billed pochard (Metopiana pc- 

posaca) 1 

Red-headed duck (Marila americana) _ 1 
American white pelican (Pelecanus 

erythrorhynchos) 9 

European white pelican (Pelecanus 

onocrotalus) 2 

Roseate pelican (Pelecanus roseus) 2 

Brown pelican (Pelecanus occiden- 

talis) 5 

Australian pelican (Pelecanus con- 

spicillatus) 2 

Florida cormorant (Phalacrocorax au- 

ritus /loridanus) 17 

Water turkey (Anhinga anhinga) 3 

Great black-backed gull (Larus ma- 

rinus) 1 

American herring gull (Larus argen- 

tatus s^nithsonianus) 2 

Laughing gull (Larus atricilla) 2 

South African ostrich (^truthio aus- 

tralis) 4 

Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdo- 

phanes) 1 

Common cassowary (Casuarius galea- 

tus) 1 

Common rhea (Rhea americana) 2 

Emu (DronicEus novw hollandice) 2 



REPTILES, 



Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) . 27 

Painted box tortoise (Cistudo ornata) - 2 
Duncan Island tortoise (Testudo 

ephippiiim) 2 

Albemarle Island tortoise (Testudo 

vicina) ._ 1 

Gila monster (Hclodcrma suspectum) - 3 

Regal python (Python reticulatus) 3 

Common boa (Boa constrictor) 4 

Anaconda (Eunectes murinus) 1 



Black snake (Zametiis constrictor) 3 

Coach-whip snake (Zamenis ffagci- 

lum) 1 

Water snake (Natrix sipedon) 5 

Common garter snake (Eutwnia sir- 

talis) 1 

Texas water snake ( EiiUBn ia proxima) _ 1 

King snake (Ophibolus getulus) 3 

Copperhead (Ancistrodon contortricc) _ 1 



REPORT OF THE SECEETARY. 89 

STATEMENT OF THE COLLECTION. 

ACCESSIONS DURING THE YEAR. 

Presented qq 

Purchased 105 

Born and hatched in the National Zoological Park 101 

Received in exchange 187 

Received from Yellowstone National Park 2 

Captured in National Zoological Park 1 

Deposited in National Zoological Park 12 



Total 474 

SUMMARY. 

Animals on hand July 1, 1915 1,397 

Accesssions during the year 474 



1,871 
Deduct loss (by exchange, death, return of animals, etc.) 488 



On hand June 30, 191G 1,383 



Class. 


Species. 


Indi- 
viduals. 


Mammals 


liio 

189 

10 


574 


Birds 


751 


Reptiles - - 


£8 








Total 


3G0 


1,383 







VISITORS. 

The number of visitors to the park during the year, as determined 
by count and estimate, was 1,157,110, a daily average of 3,162. This 
was the largest j^ear's attendance in the history of the park. The 
greatest number in any one month was 248,080, in April, 191G, an 
average per day of 8,269. The attendance by months was as follows: 

1D15.— July, 71,900; August, 79,100; September, 100,200; October, 121,000; 
November, 90,300; December, 34,050. 

19 10. —January, 55,200; February, 58,380; March, 95,800; April, 248,080; 
May, 128,200; June, 74,300. 

One hundred and sixty-one schools, classes, etc., visited the park, 
with a total of 8,679 individuals. 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

The hospital and laboratory building which was mentioned in last 
year's report has been nearly completed, lacking only the interior 
fittings and the necessarj^ outside yards. It is a pleasing structure, 
built, after the designs of the municipal architect, of blue gneiss of 
this neighborhood, warmly colored by infiltration of iron oxide. A 
retaining wall was built and some grading done to provide sufficient 



90 AlsTlSrUAL EEt'OET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

area near the building for quarantine quarters for such animals as 
do not require artificial heat. Many of the chestnut trees surround- 
ing the building became blasted by the " chestnut blight " and had to 
be cut down. A roadway of tar-bound macadam was constructed 
about the building connecting with the nearest main driveway. Con- 
nection with the nearest sewer (in Klingle Road) has been effected. 
Preparation should now be made to put the laboratory into effective 
operation. A modest supply of the necessary apparatus should be 
furnished in order that suitable facilities may be available for post 
mortem examination by the Government bureaus cooperating with 
the Zoological Park. 

xittention has previously been called to the fact that the topog- 
raphy of the park is so irregular that it is difficult to find building 
sites with attached yards in convenient situations without extensive 
grading. A case in point occurs at the site of the barn which has 
been used for bison and other hoofed animals. The building here, 
made of logs with bark on, has become unsightly by decay and re- 
quires extensive repairs. It is situated on a hill of small elevation, 
but the slopes of which are sufficiently steep to cause continual 
erosion when it is worn by the hoofs of the animals. It was there- 
fore thought best to grade down this hill and fill up the adjoining 
gullies, much enlarging the area of the 7/ards. In order to do this 
effectively, it was necessary to borrow earth from the prominent ridge 
that extends from the zebu house northwesterly to the camel yards. 
About 25,000 square feet will be added to the level ground previously 
available. Only a portion of this work will be defrayed from the 
current appropriation, the remainder from next year's appropriation. 
The work was let out by contract, very favorable terms being se- 
cured. The additional paddocks thus obtained will be used, in part, 
for the exhibition of the beautiful ruminants presented to the park 
by the Duke of Bedford. 

New sheds were built in the property yard for temporarily housing 
these animals and others displaced during the alteration of their 
regular quarters. 

A needed convenience was provided at the elephant's quarters by 
installing, at small cost, hydraulic lifts to raise the heavy doors which 
give access to the outside yards. 

The inclosure for ducks near the flight cage was reconstructed to 
make it safe from raccoons, etc. 

A concrete driveway was constructed in the rear of the bear yards 
to provide for convenient transfer of animals and care of the 
quarters. 

A motor truck was purchased during the year to haul food sup- 
plies, for which a trip is made every day except Sunday to the market 



REPORT OP THE SECBETARY. 91 

and the fish wharf. A shelter house for the truck was built near the 
food house. 

Preparcations were begTin near the close of the year for building an 
additional toilet room for women, to be located in the valley a little 
below the large flight cage. 

ALTERATION OF WESTERN BOUNDARY. 

It appears desirable to recapitulate for future reference the various 
stages through which this matter has passed. 

The following appropriation was made by the act approved June 
23, 1913: 

Readjustment of boundaries : For acquiring, by condemnation, all the lots, 
pieces, or parcels of land, other than the one hereinafter excepted, that lie 
between the present western boundary of the National Zoological Park and 
Connecticut Avenue from Cathedral Avenue to Klingle Road, ?107,200, or such 
portion thereof as may be necessary, said land when acquired, together with 
the included highways, to be added to and become a part of the National Zoologi- 
cal Park. The proceedings for the condemnation of said land shall be insti- 
tuted by the Secretary of the Treasury under and in accordance with the terms 
and provisions of subchapter 1 of chapter 15 of the Code of Law for the 
District of Columbia. 

As the act requires that the proceedings be instituted by the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, the attention of that official was called to 
the matter in a letter from the Secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, dated June 28, 1913. A special survey and plat of the land 
required was necessary, but this plat was not forwarded to the 
Department of Justice until November 5, 1913. Other delays en- 
sued; the title of the various owners of the land had to be investi- 
gated, and it was not until March 11, 1914, that the District court 
ordered a jury to be summoned. A hearing was set for April 10, 
1914, and a final hearing of the case was heard by the jury on July 
2 following. The verdict of the jury was not filed until December 
11, 1914. The hearing of objections to the verdict much delayed 
a final conclusion, especially as the time of the court was almost 
wholly occupied by a contest in an important will case. It was not 
until June 28, 1915, over two years from the passage of the appro- 
priation act, that the court confirmed the verdict as regards the 
awards for damages for the land to be taken. The benefits assessed 
against the neighboring property were set aside by this and by a 
subsequent decision of January 28, 1916. The decree of the court 
fixed the amount required for the purchase of the land at $194,438.08, 
The cost of the proceedings for condemnation was $2,203.35. 

The great delay caused by these legal proceedings occasioned an- 
other complication. The appropriation made by the act of June 23, 
1913, was not a continuing one, but lapsed at the end of one year. 



92 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Consequently after June 30, 1915, there was nothing available to 
defray the purchase of the land. 

An item for an additional appropriation and for a reappropria- 
tion of the original sum appropriated by the act of June 23, 1913, 
was submitted to Congress, but was not favorabl.y considered by the 
House of Eepresentatives. It was introduced in the Senate as an 
amendment to the sundry civil bill, but was dropped by the confer- 
ence committee. 

A similar item was offered in the Senate as an amendment to the 
District of Columbia appropriation bill, was accepted in Committee 
of the Whole, but thrown out finally in consequence of an appeal 
for retrenchment. 

It is greatly to be regretted that this appropriation failed, as it is 
exceedingly desirable that the anomalous and inconvenient situation 
of the park should be remedied as soon as possible. It now fronts 
on no principal thoroughfare and attains none of the dignity which 
an institution controlled by the Government should have. 

IMPORTANT NEEDS. 

Aviary 'building. — Attention has been called to the need for this 
building in almost every annual report since 1908. The following is 
an extract from that document : 

The temporary bird house is crowded during the winter far beyond its 
proper capacity, and it is impossible to care for tlie birds satisfactorily. When 
it was built, and also at the time that additions were made, the funds available 
for -the purpose were so small that it was necessary to build in the cheapest 
manner possible, so that the house has already required considerable repair 
and will very soon have to be largely rebuilt. The park has a good collection 
of birds, Including a number of rare, interesting, and valuable specimens, 
sufficient to fill at once a large aviary and make one of the most important 
and attractive features of the park. 

In the report for 1909 will be found the following : 

The need for a structure of this character is evident to any Intelligent visitor 
to the park. Only a part of the collection can now be exhibited to the public, 
because of lack of room. A number of outdoor shelters and cages should also 
be provided for the exhibition of hardy birds. 

Again, in the report for 1912 will be found : 

In spite of all efforts the fine collection of birds in the park is very far from 
being adequately housed. The wooden building in which the larger number 
are kept is too small, too low, insanitary, and really unworthy of a national 
institution. It was built in the cheapest manner to meet an emergency, and, 
although considerable sums have been spent on it for repairs, it is far from 
satisfactory. It is desired to build a suitable aviary in the western part of the 
park and to group about this the cages for the eagles, vultures, condors, and 
owls, now scattered somewhat irregularly about the grounds. It is believed 
that a suitable structure can be built for about $80,000. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 93 

It was again urged in 1914 as follows : 

Attention has been called for several years past to the importance of erecting 
a suitable house for the care and preservation of the birds of the collection, 
most of which are now housed in a low wooden temporary structure which is 
by no means suitable for the purpose and has to be constantly renewed by 
repairs. The matter has been repeatedly urged upon Congress and an appro- 
priation of $S0,000 asked for a new structure. This is by no means an extrava- 
gant SUM, as the aviaries of most zoological collections cost considerably more 
than this. 

Also, in 1915 : 

Progressive deterioration of the temporary bird house again made repairs 
necessary there. The wooden floor, which had already been rebuilt twice, was 
replaced with concrete, as was also a part of the wooden foundation. The cost 
of this work was $700. This building is an example of the ultimate costliness 
of cheap temporary construction. 



An aviary building is still a most urgent need, and repeated efforts have been 
made to secure an appropriation for this purpose. 

It has been with great difficulty that the collection of birds has 
been kept in a fairly presentable condition. The building in which 
they are housed is a very common frame structure that has been 
repaired several times. The birds are crowded and not exhibited to 
advantage. In view of the fact that fine aviaries have been built at 
New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Chicago, it seems most unfor- 
tunate that the national collection should have to be housed in this 
manner. It has been most unfavorably criticised by visitors. 

The urgent needs of the park will be by no means satisfied bj^ the 
construction of an aviary only. There are other buildings urgently 
needed for the proper housing and exhibition of the animals and the 
comfort of the public. Among these are the following mentioned in 
the report of last year : 

A building for elephants, hippopotami, and similar animals. — The 
park has at present several interesting animals belonging to this 
group, including two species of elephants, two fine hippopotami, 
four tapirs, and other specimens. Some of these animals are large and 
powerful, and it is difficult to keep them safely in the insecure quar- 
ters to which it has been necessary to assign them. It is also reason- 
ably certain that other similar animals wdll be added to the collection 
within a short time. A house for this group should be substantially 
constructed and occupy a space of at least 170 by 88 feet, with cages 
on both sides, 80 feet deep on one side and 60 feet on the other. 

A public comfort building and restaurant. — This should be a 
building about 80 feet b}^ CO feet, including porches and a rest room 
for ladies. It is urgently needed, as the park is a considerable dis- 



94 ANKUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

tance from town and is annually visited by over 1,000,000 people, 
including many young children. The present restaurant is so only 
in name, it being a makeshift affair, open on all sides, established on 
a temporary platform and affording no shelter during the driving 
and violent rainstorms that are so common here in summer. It fre- 
quentl}^ occurs that large numbers of- people are drenched with rain 
before they can traverse the considerable distance between the deep 
valley in which the park is situated and a place of shelter. Most 
zoological parks are provided with spacious and commodious quar- 
ters of this kind. 

Gatehouses. — Suitable gatehouses should be erected at the principal 
entrances to the park, viz : Those near Connecticut Avenue, at Quarry 
Road (Harvard Street), and at Adams Mill Eoad. It is sometimes 
necessary to close the entrances promptly, as in the case of the escape 
of an animal or for arrest of some offender. Besides this, the present 
entrance gates are far from dignified or suitable for a Government 
institution. They are properly merely temporary, awaiting the time 
when the boundaries of the park are definitely fixed. Each gate- 
house should have not only quarters for the watchman but also toilet 
facilities. 

Boundary fence. — In connection with this the inclosing boundary 
fence of the park should be considered. The present fence is of the 
type known as the " Page woven-wire fence." 

It is believed that it would be more economical and efficient to con- 
struct a practically permanent iron fence than to replace the present 
nearly worn-out structure by another of similar character. It is sug- 
gested that the matter be referred to several iron-fence builders with 
a request for designs and prices. While the first cost of such a fence 
would undoubtedly be much greater, it would many times outlast the 
present structure and could be absolutely depended on to stop animals 
and men. Certain animals and game birds could be allowed to run 
at large within the park were it entirely certain that the fence would 
prevent their escape. We alreacty have at large peacocks, wild tur- 
keys, and squirrels, and it would be easy to considerably increase this 
list. It should be remembered that on several rare occasions caged 
animals have become loose within the park, and it is by no means 
certain that such accidents will not again occur. A few years ago 
the superintendent of the park was sued for damages alleged to be 
due to the escape of a wolf. The park is well wooded and a sudden 
heavy gale may throw tree trunks across the paddock fences, break- 
ing them down and thus leading to the escape of the animals. Should 
this occur during the darkness of a stormy night it would be practi- 
cally impossible for the keepers and watchmen to confine the animals 
again until daylight. 



HEPORT OF THE SECBETARY. 95 

These improvements were urged in the last year's report. There 
are others perhaps equally important which are needed to bring the 
establishment up to the modern standard of what a zoological park 
ought to be. Most of these have been mentioned from time to time 
in other reports or have been urged upon the appropriation com- 
mittees of Congress. They are briefly as follows: 

Administration building. — The present ofiice of the park is in an old 
dwelling house situated rather remotely from the buildings for the 
animals and inconveniently for the prompt and constant supervision 
of the operations of the park, as is the general practice in the foreign 
zoological gardens. A modest office building should now be erected 
in a central location. This would greatly expedite the general work 
of the park and improve the discipline of the working force. It is 
estimated that a building 50 by 36 feet, to contain office rooms, a 
drafting room, and a room for specimens would be sufficient. 

/Sta.hle and forage barn. — There should be a stable and garage 
where the work horses and automobiles of the park could be stored. 
These should be on the ground floor, a storage loft for forage above. 
The dimensions should be at least 100 by 40 feet. 

Shop. — The present shop is not large enough to accommodate 
conveniently the carpenters employed at the park. The woodwork- 
ing plant is now dangerously near the blacksmith shop and the cen- 
tral heating plant. A separate building 100 by 46 feet should be 
erected. 

Ape house. — Special quarters should be provided for the large 
anthropoid apes. These are probably the most interesting animals 
that can be exhibited and require special treatment and care. The 
group comprises the gorilla, the orang, several species of chimpanzee 
and of gibbon. They are so nearly related to man that observation 
and study of them is of the highest importance. The park has now 
only a chimpanzee, and it has been necessary to provide special quar- 
ters for him. It would be quite proper to place in the same building 
some of the larger species of baboons, as they require nearly the same 
treatment. A house for these animals should have a main building 
150 by 60 feet, cages on both sides, and a wing 90 by 60 feet also, 
with similar cages. Outside cages should be erected along the 150 
feet of the main building 18 feet deep, along the sides and end of 
wing 16 feet deep. 

Lion house. — The house now occupied by the cat tribe is quite too 
small for the purpose, and it has always been intended to increase its 
capacity both by replacing the wooden extension by a masonry 
structure and by building an addition 120 feet long across the north 
end of the present building. This, of course, would be fitted with 
cages both within and without. 



96 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Reptile house. — ^No properly appointed house for reptiles now 
exists here, and the few specimens we have are inconveniently and 
unsuitably exhibited in the lion house. There should be a house 120 
by 50 feet, Avith properly fitted cases on both sides and having a wing 
20 by 50 feet with table exhibits. This would enable the park to 
exhibit all the important snakes of the United States and the prin- 
cipal ones of the western hemisphere, as well as the cobras and others 
of tropical East India; also the extremely varied group of lizards, 
the different species of crocodiles, etc. 

Tortoise house. — Almost at the inception of the park a group of 
giant tortoises from the Galapagos Islands was obtained from Hon. 
Walter Rothschild. These still remain and might well form the 
nucleus of a collection of the tortoises of the world. A house 80 by 
45 feet, with cages on both sides and yards 16 feet deep, would accom- 
modate such a collection. 

House for zehras., wild asses, and others of the horse family. — 
The park has already an interesting exhibit of this family including 
the Mongolian wild horse and two species of zebra. This should 
be enlarged and suitable quarters provided in a house 120 by 44 
feet. The stalls should be on one side only and yards 50 feet deep 
be arranged. 

House for tropical antelopes. — The teeming African fauna should 
be represented much more fully. It Avould require a house at least 
175 feet by 75 with stalls on both sides and with commodious yards 
arranged about it in an elliptical form ranging in depth from 40 
feet to 80 feet. Some of the stalls should be fitted up for giraffes. 

House for tropical deer and sioine. — A few specimens are already 
found in the collection. An adequate exhibit would require a house 
100 feet by 45 feet with cages on both sides, the yards 30 feet deep 
an one side and 50 feet on the other. 

House for marsupials. — The group of pouched animals, such as 
kangaroos, wallabies, opossums, wombats, Tasmanian wolves, etc., 
should be exhibited apart from the other mammals. These animals 
are dying out, rapidly diminishing in number year by year. They 
should have a house 120 feet by 40 feet with cages on both sides, 
the yards being 60 feet deep on one side, 20 feet on the other. 

Pheasantry. — Besides the general aviary building, which it is hoped 
may soon be erected, separate quarters should be provided for cer- 
tain groups of birds. Among these are the pheasants, comparatively 
hardy birds of very showy plumage, offering great variety. An 
exhibit can be secured at a reasonable expense. A house for them 
should be a low structure 140 by 18 feet. Visitors should not be 
admitted to this house ; the birds would be seen in the outside yards 
which should be about 25 feet deep. A small appropriation will be 
asked of the present Congress for the establishment of a pheasantry. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 97 

Ostrich house. — The ostriches and their near relatives the emus, 
the rheas, and the cassowaries are so large and important that they 
should have a h(iuse to themselves. This should be 120 feet b)^ 35 
feet, with cages on one side only and yards giving plenty of room 
for exercise from 30 to 100 feet deep. 

Tropical 'waterfowl. — These birds require heat during the cold 
season and the house would be really their winter quarters. During 
the summer they would be in the large " flight cage " or in some other 
outdoor inclosure. A house 120 by 50 feet, with cages on one side 
and one end, would be required. 

Trofical hirds of prey. — These require similar treatment but could 
not, of course, be housed with the waterfoAvl. A house 80 by 45 feet 
with cages on both sides and outside cages 18 feet deep would be 
needed. 

A quarium. — An exhibit of fish and other aquatic creatures is neces- 
sary to a complete survey of the domain of zoology. Such an exhibit 
was for a few years shown at the park and was one of the most popu- 
lar features of the collection. It was installed in a rude frame struc- 
ture erected for temporar}'- use as a carpenters' shop. The tanks and 
other apparatus were furnished by the United States Fish Commis- 
sion, having been used at the Atlanta Exposition. The building be- 
came quite unsafe and in 1901 Congress was asked to appropriate 
$25,000 toward the construction of a permanent structure. As this 
was not granted it became necessary to abandon the exhibit until such 
time as Congress may enable it to be properly housed. A building 
about 130 by 50 feet would be sufficient for the present. 

Insectary. — In several European gardens an exhibit under glass is 
made of social and other interesting insects, such as ants, bees, wasps, 
butterflies, moths, etc. These have proved very attractive and are 
inexpensive. A house 60 feet by 30 feet with wall cases and table 
cases would accommodate such an exhibit. 

The foregoing list merely recapitulates the needs of a fairly com- 
plete establishment such as may be seen in the European capitals. It 
would be well if the municipal architect, to whom the park is required 
to go for plans and specifications for buildings, could be asked to 
prepare estimates of cost for all of the above improvements to pre- 
sent to Congress. 

In order to accommodate the buildings a considerable amount of 
grading should be done. The park is already cramped for space for 
convenient parking of vehicles upon crowded days. Over 50 automo- 
biles and sight-seeing cars are sometimes assembled here at once, and 
there is gi-eat difficulty in managing them. A request for an appro- 
priation of $4,000 for grading banks and filling ravines which was 
asked of Congress last year will be renewed. 



'98 AliTNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1&16. 

Automobile. — The office of the park very much needs to have a 
small automobile for use in attending to the public business. The 
distances within the park itself are so considerable that it is a great 
waste of time and energy to traverse them on foot, or by horse 
vehicle, and the use of an automobile would greatly increase effi- 
ciency in the business of the park. The purchase does not involve any 
increase of the appropriation for the park, but merely the insertion 
of a clause in the appropriation act authorizing the purchase of a 
motor-propelled vehicle. 

Roads. — The ordinary thoroughfares in the park were, at the close 
of the fiscal year, in fair condition. Nothing has been done, how- 
ever, toward the repairing of the injury done by the construction by 
the District of the main trunk sewer knoAvn as the Rock Creek Main 
Interceptor. Attempts were made to get an appropriation to repair 
this defacement of the natural beauty of the park, but as yet v/ithout 
avail. The remarks then made were as follows : 

By authority of Congress a large sewer has been constructed on the right 
bank of Rock Creek through the entire length of the park, part of it being laid 
in a deep open cut, and part of it in a tunnel. A very large amount of rock has 
been excavated by blasting and this has been piled along the bank of the stream, 
destroying the natural beauty of the park by large piles of fragments of stone. 
While the contractor Vv'as required to " restore the surface as nearly as possible 
to the condition in which he found it," yet the amount of disturbance is so 
great that it is practically impossible to do this. It is proposed to cover these 
stone heaps with earth and to plant upon them, trees and shrubs which will 
modify the unsightly appearance. A narrow road can be formed upon the top of 
the open cut sewer which will be a convenience to the public entering the park 
from the southern end. 

The general appropriation for the park has remained at $100,000 
per annum for six years past. This has had to suffice for the repairs 
and construction of buildings, the care of grounds, and the mainte- 
nance of roads and walks. In the meantime the cost of supplies, ma- 
terials of all kinds, and labor has steadily increased so that there has 
been no opportunity to make even the most necessary improvements. 
The appropriations should be markedly increased, since a well- 
equipped zoological park is something of which the nation may well 
be proud. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank Baker, 
Superintendent. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution., 

Washington^ D. C. 



Appendix 5. 

EEPOET ON THE ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY. 

Sir : I liaA^e the honor to present the following report on the opera- 
tions of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the year 
ending June 30, 1916. 

EQUIPMENT. 

The equipment of the observatory is as f ollovt^s : 

(a) At Washington there is an inclosure of about 16,000 square 
feet, containing five small frame buildings used for observing and 
computing purposes, three movable frame shelters covering several 
out-of-door pieces of apparatus, and also one small brick building 
containing a storage battery and electrical distribution apparatus. 

(5) At Mount Wilson, Cal., upon a leased plat of ground 100 feet 
square, in horizontal projection, are located a one-story cement ob- 
serving structure, designed especially for solar-constant measure- 
ments, and also a little frame cottage, 21 feet by 25 feet, for observer's 
quarters. Upon the observing shelter at Mount Wilson there is a 
tovrer 40 feet high above the 12-foot piers which had been prepared 
in the original construction of the building. This tower is equipped 
with a tower telescope for use when observing (with the spectrobo- 
lometer) the distribution of radiation over the sun's disk. 

During the year apparatus for research has been purchased or con- 
structed at the observatory shop. The value of these additions to 
the instrumental equipment is estimated at $1,500. 

WORK OF THE YEAR. 
1. AT WASHINGTON. 

Some years ago the Institution lent the Harvard College Observa- 
tory a silver-disk pyrheliometer for use at Arequipa, Peru. By re- 
quest of Prof. Pickering the observations which had accumulated 
since August, 1912, were reduced at the Astrophysical Observatory 
and published by the Smithsonian Institution during the past year.^ 
Owing to the high altitude of Arequipa the variations of solar radia- 
tion observed at a fixed zenith distance of the sun (as, for instance, 

1 Arequipa Pyrhellometry, Smitlasonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 65, No. 9, 1916. 

99 



100 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

that whose secant is 1.2) were found to be ahnost wholly governed 
by three things — the atmospheric humidity, the distance of the sun, 
and the variations of the sun's emission. Hence from measurements 
of the humidity by the psychrometer it was possible to compute from 
the observed radiation the probable intensity of the solar radiation 
outside the atmosphere for each day. These empirical solar-constant 
values from Arequipa observations confirm the variations of the sun 
observed at Mount Wilson by the complete spectrobolometric process. 
Indeed, it appears that if eight or ten well-separated stations at high 
altitudes should be equipped with the pyrheliometer and psychrome- 
ter their combined results might well be expected to determine closely 
enough the sun's variations. A most interesting feature of Arequipa 
observations is that there is nothing anomalous about the observations 
of 1912 to suggest that the volcanic eruption of Mount Katmai (of 
June 6, 1912), which produced a great deal of dust all over the 
northern hemisphere, produced any turbidity of the atmosphere 
whatever south of the Equator. 

Results of Mount Wilson solar-constant observations have been 
furnished in advance of publication to Dr. Bauer of the Carnegie 
Institution for comparison with magnetic data. He finds a close 
correlation between certain fluctuations of the earth's magnetic field 
and the variations of solar radiation. 

The tower-telescope observations of the distribution of radiation 
along the diameter of the sun's disk, made at Mount Wilson in 1913 
and 1914, having been fully reduced, a preliminary publication of 
them has been made by the Smithsonian Institution.^ These results 
show distinctly that the average distribution of solar radiation over 
the solar disk varies from year to year. Greater contrast of bright- 
ness between the center and limb of the sun prevailed in 1907 and 
1914 than in 1913. The change is greater for short wave lengths 
than for longer ones. Changes also occur from day to day. Both 
of these kinds of changes are found correlated with changes of the 
solar constant of radiation, but in opposite senses. High values of 
the solar radiation attend periods of greater solar activity and are 
associated with increased contrast of brightness between the center 
and edge of the solar disk. For short-period fluctuations of solar 
radiation, however, low values of solar radiation are associated with 
increased contrast. It seems reasonable to suppose that the first kind 
of phenomena is caused by increased convection in the sun, bringing 
fresh radiating surfaces forward more rapidly, thus increasing the 
effective solar temperature. The second kind of phenomena may be 
caused by temporary increases of the turbidity of the outer solar 
envelopes, restricting the solar emission especially at the limb. 

1 On the distribution of radiation over the sun's disk and new evidence of the solar 
variability, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 66, No. 5, May, 1916. 



KEPORT OF THE SECEETARY. 101 

Mount Wilson observations of 1915, including both the solar-con- 
stant work and the tower work, have been almost all reduced. 

Mr. Fowle has continued at intervals between other work the re- 
duction of his numerous observations of the transmission of rays of 
great wave length through long columns of air of known humidity. 
Many sources of error have required to be considered and eliminated, 
and the reading and reduction of the curves of observation was ex- 
tremely tedious. The results are at length reaching such a stage that 
it can be seen that they fall into excellent agreement and will be of 
high interest in connection with studies of the earth's temperature 
as dependent on its radiation outward toward space. In fact, the 
results of Mr. Fowle's work are expected to be ready for publication 
within a short time. 

For some years we have endeavored to design and construct an in- 
strument capable of measuring accurately the intensity of sky light 
by day and of radiation outward toward the whole sky by night. 
At last success seems to be reached in an instrument devised by 
Messrs. Abbot and Aldrich and constructed by IMr. Kramer. The 
instrument is called the p3a'anometer, from the Greek words TrOp, 
fire, ava, up, (xtTpov, a measure; thus designating an instrument 
adapted to measure heat coming from or going to space above. 
The pyranometer is somewhat after the principle of the Angstrom 
pyrheliometer, in that the intensity of radiation is measured by 
electrical compensating currents, whose strength is adjusted with 
reference to the indications of a delicate thermocouple. A full ac- 
count of the instrument has been published by the Smithsonian 
Institution,^ including the tests which have been made to determine 
its accuracy by comparisons in solar measurements with the pyrheli- 
ometer. Complete accord between the two instruments is found at all 
altitudes of the sun when due regard is paid to the fact that the 
pyranometer presents a horizontal surface. The pyranometer seems 
to be suitable for botanical investigations, for it is capable of measur- 
ing the radiation even in deep shade, as in forests and greenhouses, 
as well as in full sun. In short, it can measure radiation in all situa- 
tions where plants are accustomed to grow, except under water. 

The consideration of the pyranometer has led us to undertake 
the determination of the constant ordinarily called " sigma " of 
Stefan's formula of radiation, according to which the emission of 
a perfect radiator per square centimeter per second is equal to the 
fourth power of the absolute temperature multiplied by " sigma." 
In recent years a good deal of disagreement has arisen as to the 
value of " sigma." We require to use it for certain tests of the py- 

^ The pyranometer — an instrument for measuring sky radiation : Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 
Vol. CO, No. 7, May, 1916. 

73839°— SM 1916 S 



102 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

ranometer and have devised a new method which seems very free 
from error for making its determination. The apparatus has been 
constructed and is now set up practically ready for use. 

2. AT MOUNT WILSON. 

Messrs. Abbot and i^ldrich continued observations at Mount Wil- 
son of the solar constant of radiation from July 1 to October 22, 
1915, and renewed the expedition early in June, 1916. Besides con- 
ducting solar-constant observations and determinations of the dis- 
tribution of light over the sun's disk in seven different wave lengths 
on each favorable day, comparisons of the pyrheliometers used or- 
dinarily on Mount Wilson were made in both 1915 and 1916 with 
standard water-flow pyrheliometer No. 3. The comparisons showed 
no change to have occurred in the sensitiveness of secondary pyrheli- 
ometers Nos. IV and VII, on whose readings rest the solar-constant 
determinations made at Mount Wilson since 1906. 

A good deal of attention was also given to the installation and 
trial of a solar cooking apparatus comprising ovens heated by oil 
under gravity circulation maintained by heat collected by a concave 
cylindric mirror of about 100 square feet surface. The apparatus 
seems highly promising, but owing to a couple of defects was not 
in satisfactory operation until after the close of the period covered 
by this report. 

3. PROPOSED SOLAE-CONSTANT EXPEDITION. 

On recommendation of the writer an allotment was made from 
the Hodgkins fund of the Smithsonian Institution for the purpose 
of duplicating the solar-constant work of Mount Wilson at the most 
favorable station on the earth. The expedition is being prepared 
and will go forward, probably to South America, in the summer of 
1917. It is intended to continue solar-constant determinations by the 
spectro-bolometric method on every favorable day in every month 
of the year for several years at both Mount Wilson and the station 
in South America, with a view to determining the dependence of 
the earth's climatic conditions on the sun's variations of radiation. 

SUMMARY. 

Observations of several kinds have been made, reduced, and pub- 
lished which support one another in confirming the variability of 
the sun, and some of which tend to indicate dual causes of it. An 
expedition is proposed to occupy the most favorable station in South 
America for several years, beginning in 1917, for the purpose of 
making, in connection with the Mount Wilson observations, a full 



REPORT OF THE SECKETAEY. 103 

and accurate determination of the solar variation for comparison 
with climatic changes. Measurements of the transmission of long- 
wave rays through long columns of moist air are almost ready for 
publication and appear to be resulting very satisfactorily. A new 
instrument, called the pyranometer, for measuring skylight and 
nocturnal radiation has been tested and found accurate. 
Eespectfully submitted. 

C. G. Abbot, 
Director Astrophysical Observatory. 
Dr. C. D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Appendix 6. 
EEPORT ON THE LIBRARY. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the library of the Smithsonian Institution during the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1916 : 

The number of packages of books received during the year was 
31,017, as compared with 29,928 packages in the year preceding. 
Of these 29,619 were received by mail and 1,400 through the Inter- 
national Exchange Service. Correspondence in connection with these 
included 1,241 letters and 3,997 acknowledgments on the regular 
printed form. The total accessions of books, pamphlets, and parts 
of sets aggi-egated 11,755. 

SMITHSONIAN MAIN LIBRARY. 

Publications for the main Smithsonian library are forwarded each 
day, after entering, to the Smithsonian deposit in the Library of Con- 
gress. Those catalogued and accessioned during the fiscal year num- 
bered in all 18,637, which may be further described as 3,101 volumes, 
739 parts of volumes, 383 pamphlets, 13,155 periodicals, 211 charts 
and 1,038 parts of serials to complete sets; extending the numbers 
in the accession book from 521,617 to 525,255. 

The cataloguing included 5,045 volumes, 200 charts, and the adding 
of 738 new titles and the making of 5,329 typewritten cards; 3,480 
printed cards from the Library of Congress for publications de- 
posited by the Institution were filed in the catalogue. In addition, 
3,596 volumes were recatalog-ued on standard size cards, from the old 
catalogue for inclusion in the new catalogue. 

Documents relating to public matters and statistics of foreign 
countries, presented to the Smithsonian Institution largely in return 
for its own publications, were forwarded to the Library of Congress 
without stamping or recording, continuing a policy of some years 
standing. The publications sent in this way numbered 4,642. 

Dissertations were received from Utrecht, Toulouse, Lund, Upsala, 
Leiden, Leipzig, Giessen, Paris, Bern, Pennsylvania, and Johns Hop- 
kins, and from the Technical Hochschules of Berlin and Stuttgart. 
104 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 105 

Mr. Herbert A. Gill, administrator of the estate of Dr. Theodore 
Nicholas Gill, has presented his brother's scientific library to the 
Smithsonian Institution with the understanding that it is to be 
credited to the estate and that such publications as relate to the work 
of the Museum shall be placed in that library. 

The securing of exchanges in return for Smithsonian publications 
and missing parts to complete the sets have been continued, notwith- 
standing war conditions abroad, and the results have added new titles 
and completed sets and series. In response to the requests for missing 
parts in the Smithsonian deposit in the Library of Congress 50 sets 
were completed and 1,038 parts supplied. These numbers include 
the completing of 30 sets in the series of publications of learned in- 
stitutions and scientific societies, and the supplying of 821 parts and 
the completing of 20 volumes of periodicals, and the supplying of 212 
separate numbers. 

SMITHSONIAN OFFICE LIBRARY. 

The office library includes a collection of books relating to art, the 
employees library, and various works of reference, besides quite an 
extensive aeronautical library. 

In the reference room the transactions of scientific societies, and in 
the reading room the current foreign and domestic periodicals, have 
been in constant use. In the latter there are now 189 titles on the 
shelves. 

In addition to the use of the library by the scientific staff of the 
Institution, almost all of the bureaus of the Government have availed 
themseh'es of the privileges of consulting and using the publications 
in the libraries. 

From the reference and reading rooms in the Institution 3,330 
publications were circulated during the year. Of these 473 were 
bound volumes and 2,857 were single periodicals. 

Additions have been made to the aeronautical collection by way 
of exchange and by purchase of a few of the important works recently 
published. An acquisition of special value was a number of refer- 
ence w^orks formerly in the library of Maj. Baden-Powell. 

A scrap book of articles from the older magazines is of interest, 
as describing early inventions in the arts, brought together and 
arranged in chronological order. 

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell has continued to add to his collection 
of works relating to aeronautics by contributing 33 books and 37 
portfolios and periodicals. This working library, which Dr. Bell 
used constantly while carrying on his experiments in aeronautics, 
will be of great value to students in the future. In addition to Dr. 
Bell's gift a total of 58 volumes were added during the year. 



106 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM LIBRARY. 

The library of the National Museum has been handicapped, as has 
almost every library in the country, by the nonreceipt of many 
European publications on account of the war, 

Accessiotis. — There are now in the Museum library 47,713 volumes, 
79,241 pamphlets and unbound papers, and 124 manuscripts. During 
the year just closed the accessions numbered 1,895 volumes, 2,873 
pamphlets, and 72 parts of volumes. 

Cataloguing. — New material was entered as received and sent out 
to the shelves or to the sectional libraries, so that it would be avail- 
able at once to those interested. The recataloguing from the larger 
cards to the standard size, and the identification of the publications 
has been continued. 

The new publications catalogued numbered 914 books, 3,157 pam- 
phlets, and the total number of cards made was 4,669. The periodi- 
cals and parts of publications catalogued numbered 9,674, and peri- 
odical cards were made for 25 new publications; 2,025 section cards 
were made for periodicals assigned to sectional libraries, and 460 
new periodical cards were written for the Museum library record. 

There were recatalogued 135 books, 275 pamphlets, necessitating 
the making of 415 cards. 

Exchanges. — Notwithstanding the conditions abroad, the efforts to 
secure missing parts and new exchanges have been ccHitinued. In 
connection with this work 257 letters wei'e written, with the result 
that many parts that Avere lacking were supplied and many new 
titles were secured. 

Loans. — During the year the loans from the general library num- 
bered 12,085 publications, which includes books assigned to the sec- 
tional libraries, 4,978; 3,228 books borrowed from the Library of 
Congress, which included those from the Smithsonian collection; 
207 from the Department of Agriculture library; 100 from the 
United States Geological Survey; 50 from the Army Medical 
Museum library; and 11 from other places. From the Museum 
shelves there were borrowed 3,511 volumes, and 1,899 section cards 
were made. 

Binding. — The binding of the publications that have come to the 
Museum in parts, or paper covers, in order that they may be prop- 
erly cared for and saved from destruction, is still a serious matter, 
as many remain unbound. It was possible this year to bind more 
than last year, which has relieved the situation; but it will take 
several years, at the present rate, to catch up with the needs of the 
library in this direction. 



REPORT OP THE SECRETARY. 107 

There were 799 volumes prepared and sent to the Government 
binder. Of this number 625 were returned to the Museum before 
the close of the year. 

Gifts. — The following persons have contributed to the collection 
in the building: Dr. William Healey Dall, Dr. Edgar A. Mearns, 
Dr. Charles Doolittle Walcott, Dr. Oliver Perry Hay, Dr. F. Alex- 
ander ]\IcDermott, Dr. F. P. Dewey, Dr. Walter Hough, ^Mr. William 
R. Maxon, Dr. A. C. Peale estate, and the estate of Dr. Theodore 
Nicholas Gill. 

Dall Collection. — Dr. William Healey Dall has continued to con- 
tribute to his collection of books relating to mollusks which he pre- 
sented some years ago for the sectional library of the division of 
mollusks. Since July 1, 1915, he has added 207 titles. 

Gill collection. — All the books and pamphlets from the estate of 
Dr. Theodore Nicholas Gill are being classified and arranged so 
that they can be properly distributed. From the hasty examination 
made in looking over the collection as it was being transferred it 
appears that the Museum library will have a valuable addition to 
its series of works relating to natural history, especially in ich- 
thyology. 

Technological series. — In this branch of the library there have 
been catalogued 1,052 volumes and 2,125 pamphlets, making a total 
of 3,177. The cards typewritten and filed in connection with this 
work numbered 3,505, the periodicals entered 3,631. 

The books and pamphlets withdrawn for consultation in connection 
with the work of the Museum from this part of the library num- 
bered 537. This is in addition to those borrowed from the central 
library. 

The filing of cards in the scientific depository set of printed cards 
from the Library of Congress has been continued. Two thousand 
and thirtj^-three author cards and 4,031 subjects cards were placed 
in the alphabetical series. 

Sectional libraries. — The checking of publications assigned to the 
sectional libraries has been continued as the other work would allow, 
and while some progress has been made the work is not near com- 
pletion. 

The following is a complete list of the sectional libraries: 



Administration. 

Administrative assistant's office. 

Antliropology. 

Biology. 

Birds. 

Botany. 

Comparative anatomy. 



Editor's office. 

Ethnology. 

Fishes. 

Geology. 

Graphic arts. 

History. 

Insects, 



108 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



Invertebrate paleontology. 

Mammals. 

Marine invertebrates. 

Materia medica. 

Mechanical technology. 

Mesozoic fossils. 

Mineral technology. 

Minerals. 

Mollusks. 

Oriental archeology. 

Paleobotany. 



Parasites. 

Photography. 

Physical anthropology. 

Prehistoric archeology. 

Property clerk. 

Reptiles and batrachians. 

Superintendent's office. 

Taxidermy. 

Textiles. 

Vertebrate paleontology. 



LIBRARY OF BUREAU OF AMERICAL ETHNOLOGY. 

The collection of works relating to ethnology is administered by 
the ethnologist-in-charge, and an account of its operations will be 
found in the report of that bureau. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY LIBRARY. 

The collection of reference works relating to astrophysics is in con- 
stant use, and during the year there were added 61 volumes, 20 parts 
of volumes, and 18 pamphlets. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK LIBRARY. 

This library contains publications relating to the work of the park 
and the care of the animals, reports of other zoological parks, and 
works on landscape gardening. The number of publications added 
was 21 volumes and 5 pamphlets. 

SUMMARY OF ACCESSIONS. 

The accessions during the year, with the exception of the library of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology, may be summarized as follows : 
To the Smithsonian deposit in the Library of Congress, including parts 

to complete sets 5, 472 

To the Smithsonian office, Astrophysical Observatory, and National Zoo- 
logical Park 1, 443 

To the United States National Museum 4, 840 



Total 11,755 

Respectfully submitted. 

Paul, Brockett, 
Assistant Librarian. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

/Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Appendix 7. 

REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE OF 
SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the United States Bureau of the International Catalogue of 
Scientific Literature for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916: 

Each year 17 volumes of the catalogue are published by the Central 
Bureau in London, one volume for each of the following named 
sciences: Mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, 
meteorology, mineralogy, geology, geography, palaeontology, gen- 
eral biology, botany, zoology, anatomy, anthropology, physiology, 
and bacteriology. 

The publication was begun in 1901, and since then all of the first 
11 annual issues have been published, together with 14 volumes of 
the twelfth issue, 10 volumes of the thirteenth issue, and 1 volume 
of the fourteenth, a total of 212 regular volumes, in addition to 
several special volumes of schedules, lists of journals, etc. 

The 14 volumes of the twelfth issue published are mathematics, 
mechanics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, mineralogy, 
geography, palaeontology, general biology, botany, zoology, anatomy, 
and anthropology. 

The 10 volumes of the thirteenth issue published are mathematics, 
mechanics, physics, astronomy, meteorology, mineralogy, geography, 
palaeontology, general biology, and zoology. 

The one volume of the fourteenth issue published is zoology. 

During the year there were 24,160 classified references to American 
scientific literature prepared by this bureau as follows: 

Literature of — 

1908 6 

1909 2 

1910 75 

1911 369 

1912 835 

1913 3. 948 

1914 8, 750 

1915 10, 175 

Total 24, 160 

It was, of course, inevitable that an international cooperative enter- 
prise such as the International Catalogue should be affected by the 

109 



110 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

war in Europe, but it is a matter of congratulation that the prepara- 
tion and publication has been continued with comparatively little 
change. As was pointed out in the last report the finances of the 
catalogue had been seriousl}^ affected on account of the inability to 
collect the subscriptions from Germany, Austria, Hungary, Belgium, 
and Poland. 

Before the beginning of the war the receipts and expenditures of 
the London Central Bureau approximately balanced and therefore 
as the delinquent remittances from the five subscribing countries 
above mentioned amounted to almost $G,000 a year it was necessary 
to obtain this sum in order to continue the publication. 

The Royal Society of London very generously offered to make 
good this loss of income and made a grant of £1,100 to enable the 
thirteenth annual issue to be published. The Royal Society has sub- 
sequently granted additional sums aggregating £3,750 to enable the 
Central Bureau to continue the publication of the catalogue without 
interruption. 

A request having been made for assistance from the United States 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution became so interested in 
the subject that he was enabled to obtain a grant of $6,000 from the 
Carnegie Corporation of New York for the purpose of aiding 
American students by making it possible for the Central Bureau to 
publish the fourteenth annual issue of the catalogue. 

The value and service to science of the work done by the catalogue 
is so universally recognized that any lapse in its regular publication 
would be a serious calamity. 

The great need for a Catalogue of Scientific Literature was felt as 
far back as 1855 when Prof. Joseph Henry brought the subject to 
the attention of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science. The idea resulted in the Royal Society's Catalogue of 
Scientific Papers which will, when completed, be a catalogue of 
periodical scientific literature from 1800 to 1900. 

Though this catalogue is simply a list of titles by authors' names, 
including only periodical literature, it soon became evident that its 
production was too great a task for one society or even one nation 
to continue; therefore in 1893 a council of the Roj^al Society was 
held and a committee was appointed to consider the question. It 
was agreed that international cooperation should be obtained for the 
production of a complete subject and author catalogue of science 
beginning with 1901. 

The value of such a catalogue as then proposed may be estimated 
when it is considered that some of the most eminent scientific men 
of the day were members of the committee. Among the members 
were Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Sir Michael Foster, Sir Joseph 
Lister, and Dr. Ludwig Mond. At the first meeting Prof. Armstrong 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETAEY. HI 

was elected chairman and he has ever since been prominently identi- 
fied with the affairs of the catalogue. 

To obtain international cooperation the committee caused over 
200 letters to be sent to institutions and societies throughout the 
world and in 1895 a special meeting was called to confer with Prof. 
Alexander Agassiz, who advised that an international conference be 
called in 1896. 

In the report of the committee it was stated " that in no single 
case was any doubt expressed as to the extreme value of the work 
contemplated," and " that the matter had been taken up in a most 
cordial manner by the Smithsonian Institution, the secretary of 
which, in his reply, refers to the desirability of a catalogue of the 
kind suggested as being so obvious that the work commends itself 
at once.'" 

Three international conferences were held in London (189G, 1898, 
and 1900), and as a result the publication of the catalogue was under- 
taken. 

It may be noted that among the prominent delegates attending 
these conferences (not including those before mentioned as members 
of the Committee of the Royal Society) were Sir Norman Lockyer, 
Prof. H. Poincare, Prof. Simon Newcomb, Dr. John S. Billings, 
Right Hon. Sir. John E. Gorst, and Prof. Van't Hoff. On the ad- 
vice of these and other prominent men the catalogue was begun. 

The value of the catalogue is shown by the following resolution 
adopted 10 years after the publication was begun b}'^ the represen- 
tatives of the countries participating in the work : 

That in view of the success already achieved by the International Catalogue 
of Scientific Literature and the great importance of the objects promoted by 
it, it is imperative to continue tlie publication of tlie catalogue at least dur- 
ing the period 1911-15 and on recommendation of the International Council 
during the subsequent five years 1916-20. (The International Council of the 
catalogue has subsequently voted to extend the work during the period 1916-20.) 

This convention was presided over by Sir Archibald Geikie, then 
president of the Royal Society, and had among its members repre- 
sentatives from all of the principal countries of the world. 

These men were thoroughly familiar with the service of the cata- 
logue to the scientific men in their respective countries and voted 
unanimously to continue the work on account of the value and 
success achieved by it. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Leonard C. Gunnell, 

Assistant in Charge. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Appendix 8. 
EEPORT ON THE PUBLICATIONS. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the pub- 
lications of the Smithsonian Institution and its branches during 
the year ending June 30, 1916 : 

The Institution proper published during the year 22 papers in 
the series of Miscellaneous Collections, 2 annual reports, pamphlet 
copies of 54 papers from the general appendices of these reports, and 
8 special publications. The Bureau of American Ethnology pub- 
lished 2 annual reports, separates of 4 accompanying papers in these 
reports, and 2 bulletins. The United States National Museum issued 
1 annual report, 2 volumes of the proceedings, and 52 separate papers 
forming parts of these and other volumes, and 4 bulletins. 

The total number of copies of publications distributed by the 
Institution and its branches was 153,262, which includes 249 volumes 
and separate memoirs of Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 
32,397 volumes and separate pamphlets of Smithsonian Miscel- 
laneous Collections, 25,718 volumes and separate pamphlets of Smith- 
sonian Annual Reports, 73,798 volumes and separates of National 
Museum publications, 12,420 publications of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, 7,696 special publications, 47 volumes of the Annals of 
Astrophysical Observatory, 83 reports of the Harriman Alaska Expe- 
dition, and 647 reports of the American Historical Association. 

SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE. 

QUARTO. 

The title-page, table of contents, and cover for volume 27 were 
issued, and there was in press at the close of the year a memoir by 
Dr. J. S. Foote, of Creighton Medical College, on " The comparative 
histology of the femur," the result of extended original research. 

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. 
OCTAVO. 

Of the Miscellaneous Collections, volume 62, 2 papers were pub- 
lished; of volume 63, 1 paper; of volume 64, 3 papers; of volume 65, 
8 papers and title-page and table of contents; of volume 66, 8 papers; 
in all, 22 papers, as follows : 
112 



EEPOET OF THE SECRETARY. 113 

Volume 62. 

No. 4. Reports on wind tunnel experiments in aerodynamics. By J. C. Hunsaker, 
E. Buckingham, H. B. Rossell, D. W. Douglas, C. L. Brand, and E. B. 
Wilson. Hodgkins Fund. January 15, 1916. 92 pp., 5 pis. (Publ. 
2368.) 

No. 5. Dynamical stability of aeroplanes. By Jerome C. Hunsaker, assisted by 
T. H. Pluff, D. W. Douglas, H. K. Chow, and V. E. Clark. Hodgkins 
Fund. June 30, 1916. 78 pp., 3 pis. (Publ. 2414.) 

Volume 63. 

No. 6. Smithsonian Physical Tables. Reprint of sixth revised edition. By F. E. 
Fowle. February 18, 1916. xxxvi+355 pp. (Publ. 2269.) 

Volume 6^f. 

No. 3. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology. Ill, No. 3. Cambrian trilobites. By 
Charles D. Walcott. January 14, 1916. Pp. 157-258, pis. 24-38. 
(Publ. 2370.) 

No. 4. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology. Ill, No. 4. Relations between the 
Cambrian and pre-Cambrian formations in the vicinity of Helena, 
Montana. By Charles D. Walcott. June 24, 1916. Pp. 259-301, pis. 
39-44. (Publ. 2416.) 

No. 5. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology. Ill, No. 5. Cambrian trilobites. By 
Charles D. Walcott. In press. 

Volume 65. 

No. 3. A study of the radiation of the atmosphere. Based upon observations of 
the nocturnal radiation during expeditions to Algeria and to Cali- 
fornia. By Anders Angstrom. Hodgkins Fund. August 27, 1915. 
159 pp. (Publ. 2354.) 

No. 6. Explorations and field work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1914. July 
1, 1915. 95 pp., 1 pi. (Publ. 23G3.) 

No. 9. Arequipa pyrheliometry. By C. G. Abbot. Hodgkins Fund. March 1, 
1916. 24 pp. (Publ. 2367.) 

No. 10. A phylogenetic study of the recent crinoids, with special reference to the 
question of specialization through the partial or complete suppression 
of structural characters. By Austin H. Clark. August 19, 1915. 67 pp. 
(Publ. 2369.) 

No. 11. A magneton theory of the structure of the atom. By A. L, Parson. 
November 29, 1915. 80 pp., 2 pis. (Publ. 2371.) 

No. 12. The jaw of the Piltdown Man. By Gerrit S. Miller, jr. November 24, 
1915. 31 pp., 5 pis. (Publ. 2.376.) 

No. 13. Descriptions of seven new subspecies and one new species of African 
birds (Plantain-Eater, Courser, and Rail). By Edgar A. Mearns. 
November 26, 1915. 9 pp. (Publ. 2378.) 

No. 14. The sense organs on the mouth parts of the honey bee. By N. E. Mclndoo. 
January 12, 1916. 55 pp. (Publ. 2381.) 

Title-page and table of contents. June 17, 1916. v pp. (Publ. 2419.) 

Volume 66. 

No. 1. Descriptions of a new genus and eight new species and subspecies of 
African mammals. By N. Hollister. February 10, 1916. 8 pp. 
(Publ. 2416.) 



114 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

No. 2. A ILst of the birds observed in Alaska and Nortlieastern Siberia during 

the summer of 1914. By F. Seymour Hersey. March 31, 1916. 33 

pp. (Publ. 2408.) 
No. 3. Explorations and field work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1915. May 

27, 1916. 119 pp. (Publ. 2407.) 
No. 4. The Ordaz and Dortal expeditions in search of El Dorado, as described 

on sixteenth century maps. By Rudolf Schuller. April 27, 1916. 

15 pp., 2 maps. (Publ. 2411.) 
No. 5. On the distribution of radiation over the sun's disk and new evidences of 

the solar variability. By C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich. 

Hodgkins Fund. May 23, 1916. 24 pp., 1 pi. (Publ. 2412.) 
No. 6. Phonetic transcription of Indian languages. In press. 
No. 7. The Pyranometer — an instrument for measuring sky radiation. By C. G. 

Abbot and L. B. Aldrich. Hodgkins Fund. May 23, 1916. 9 pp. 

(Publ. 2417.) 
No. 8. Three new African shrews of the genus Crocidura. By N. Hollister. 

May 23, 1916. 3 pp. (Publ. 2418.) 

SMITHSONIAN ANNUAL REPORTS. 

Report for 1914. 

The completed volume of the Annual Report of the Board of 
Regents for 1914 was received from the Public Printer in August, 
1915. 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution showing 
operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for the year ending 
June 30, 1914. xi+729 pp., 155 pis. (Publ. 2321.) 

The general appendix contained the following papers, small edi- 
tions of which were printed in pamphlet form : 

The radiation of the sun. By C. G. Abbot. 16 pp., 4 pis. (Publ. 2322.) 
Modern theories of the sun. By Jean Bosler. 8 pp., 2 pis. (Publ. 2323.) 
The form and constitution of the earth. By Louis B. Stewart. 14 pp. (Publ. 

2324.) 
Some remarks on logarithms apropos to their tercentenary. By M. d'Ocagne. 

7 pp., 2 pis. (Publ. 2325.) 
Modern views on the constitution of the atom. By A. S. Eve. 9 pp. (Publ. 

2326.) 
Gyrostats and gj'rostatic action. By Andrew Gray. 16 pp., 10 pis. (Publ. 

2327.) 
Stability of aeroplanes. By Orville Wright. 8 pp. (Publ. 2328.) 
The first man-carrying aeroplane capable of sustained free flight — Langley's 

success as a pioneer in aviation. By A. F. Zahm. 6 pp., 8 pis. (Publ. 2329.) 
Some aspects of industrial chemistry. By L. H. Baekeland. 25 pp. (Publ. 

2330.) 
Explosives. By Edward P. O'Hern. 27 pp., 7 pLs. (Publ. 2331.) 
Climates of geologic time. By Charles Schuchert. 35 pp. (Publ. 2332.) 
Pleochroic haloes. By J. Joly. 15 pp., 3 pis. (Publ. 2333.) 
The geology of the bottom of the seas. By L. de Launay. 24 pp. (Publ. 

2334.) 
Recent oceanographic researches. By Ch. Gravier. 10 pp. (Publ. 2335.) 
The Klondike and Yukon goldfield in 1913. By H. M. Cadell. 20 pp., 6 pis. 

(Publ. 2336.) 



BEPORT OF THE SECEETARY. 115 

The history of the discovery of sexuality in plants. By Duncan S. Johnson. 

24 pp. (Publ. 2337.) 
Problems and progress in plant pathologj-. By L. R. Jones. 13 pp. (Publ. 

2338.) 
Plant autographs and their revelations. By Jagadis Chunder Bose. 23 pp. 

(Publ. 2339.) 
The National Zoological Park and its inhabitants. By Frank Baker. 34 pp., 

41 pis. (Publ. 2340.) 
On the habits and behavior of the herring gull. By R. M. Strong. 31 pp., 10 

pis. (Publ. 2341.) 
Notes on some effects of extreme drought in Waterberg, South Africa. By 

Eugene N. Marais. 12 pp. (Publ. -2342.) 
Homcpotic regeneration of the antennae in a Phasmid or walking-stick. By 

H. O. Schmit- Jensen. 14 pp., 2 pis. (Publ. 2343.) 
Latent life : Its nature and its relations to certain theories of contemporary 

biology. By Paul Becquerel. 15 pp. (Publ. 2344.) 
The early inhabitants of western Asia. By Felix v. Luschan. 25 pp., 12 pis. 

(Publ. 2345.) 
Excavations at Abydos. By Edouard Naville. 7 pp., 3 pis. (Publ. 2346.) 
An examination of Chinese bronzes. By John C Ferguson. 6 pp., 14 pis. 

(Publ. 2347.) 
The role of depopulation, deforestation, and malaria in the decadence of certain 

nations. By Felix Regnault. 5 pp. (Publ. 2348.) 
The story of the chin. By Louis Robinson. 11 pp., 12 pis. (Publ. 2349.) 
Recent developments in the art of illumination. By Preston S. Millar. 18 

pp., 2 pis. (Publ. 2350.) 
The loom and spindle : Past, present, and future. By Luther Hooper. 49 pp., 

11 pis. (Publ. 235L) 
The demonstration play school of 1913. By Clark W. Hetherington. 29 pp. 

(Publ. 2352.) 
Sketch of the life of Eduard Suess (1831-1914). By Pierre Termier. 10 pp. 

(Publ. 2353.) 

Report for 1915. 

The report of the executive committee and proceedings of the 
Board of Regents of the Institution, and the report of the Secretary, 
botli forming part of the Annual Report of the Board of Regents to 
Congress, were issued in pamphlet form in December, 1915 : 

Report of the executive committee and proceedings of the Board of Regents of 
the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30, 1915. 21 pp. 
(Publ. 2380.) 

Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 
30, 1915. 110 pp. (Publ. 2379.) 

Small editions of the following papers, forming the general appen- 
dix of the report for 1915, were issued in May, 1916, and the complete 
volume was received from the printer in June: 

Review of astronomy for the year 1913, by P. Puiseux. 9 pp. (Publ. 2383.) 
The utilization of solar energy, by A. S. E. Ackermann. 26 pp., pis. (Publ. 

2384.) 
The constitution of matter and the evolution of the elements, by Ernest Ruther- 
ford. 36 pp., 5 pis. (Publ. 2385.) 



116 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Submarine Signalling, by R. F. Blake. 11pp. (Publ. 23S6.) 

The earthquake in the Marsica, Central Italy, by Ernesto Mancini. 4 pp., 1 pi. 

(Publ. 2387.) 
Atlantis, by Pierre Termier. 16 pp. (Publ. 2388.) 

Evidences of primitive life, by Charles D. Walcott. 21 pp., 18 pis. (Publ. 2389.) 
The place of forestry among natural sciences, by Henry S. Graves. 13 pp. (Publ. 

2390.) 
Lignum Nephriticum, by W. E. Safford. 28 pp., 7 pis. (Publ. 2391.) 
Impressions of the voices of tropical birds, by Louis Agassiz Fuertes. 25 pp., 

16 pis. (Publ. 2392.) 
The Eskimo Curlew and its disappearance, by Myron H. Swenk. 16 pp., 1 pi. 

(Publ. 2393.) 
Construction of insect nests, by Y. Sjostedt. 7 pp., 3 pis. (Publ. 2394.) 
Olden time knowledge of Hippocampus, by C. R. Eastman. 9 pp., 4 pis. (Publ. 

2395.) 
Heredity, by William Bateson. 36 pp. (Publ. 2396.) 
Some aspects of progress in modern zoology, by Edmund B. Wilson. 14 pp. 

(Publ. 2397.) 
Linguistic ai'eas in Europe : Their boundaries and political significance, by Leon 

Dominian. 35 pp., 5 maps. (Publ. 2.398.) 
Excavations at Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, in 1913-14, by Ludwig Borchardt. 18 

pp., 13 pis. (Publ. 2399.) 
Vaccines, by L. Roger. 8 pp. (Publ. 2400.) 
Progress in reclamation of arid, lands in the Western United States, by John B. 

Beadle. 22 pp., 13 pis. (Publ. 2401.) 
Some recent developments in telephony and telegraphy, by Frank B. Jewett. 

21 pp. (Publ. 2402.) 
Sir David Gill, by A. S. Eddington. 12 pp. (Publ. 2403.) 
Walter Holbrook Gaskell, by J. N. Langley. 10 pp. (Publ. 2404.) 

Special publications. 

The following special publications were issued in octavo form: 
Publications of the Smithsonian Institution issued between January 1 and 

June 30, 1915. Published July 20, 1915. 2 pp. (Publ. 2372.) 
Publications of the Smithsonian Institution issued between January 1 and 

September 30, 1915. October 25, 1915. 2 pp. (Publ. 2377.) 
Publications of the Smithsonian Institution issued between January 1 and 

December 31, 1915. January 27, 1916. 3 pp. (Publ. 2405.) 
Publications of the Smithsonian Institution issued between January 1 and 

March 31, 1916. Ajn-il 20, 1910. 1 p. (Publ. 2413.) 
Classified list of Smithsonian publications available for distribution, October 

15, 1915. November 4, 1915. iv+32 pp. (Publ. 2375.) 
Opinions rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 

Opinion .67. April 27, 1916. Pp. 177-182. (Publ. 2409.) 
Rules and regulations for the conduct of the work of the National Advisory 

Committee for Aeronautics. July 16, 1915. 5 pp. 
Sources of nitrogen compounds in the United States. By Chester G. Gilbert. 

June 30, 1916. 12 pp. (Publ. 2421.) 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The publications of the National Museum are: (a) The annual 
report to Congress; (6) the Proceedings of the United States Na- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 117 

tional Museum; and (c) the Bulletin of the United States National 
Museum, which includes the Contributions from the United States 
National Herbarium, The editorship of these publications is vested 
in Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 

During the year the Museum published an annual rejDort, 2 
volumes of the Proceedings and 52 separate papers forming parts 
of these and other volumes, and 4 bulletins. 

The issues of the Proceedings were as follows : Volume 48 ; volume 
49, papers 2092, 2094 to 2130, and the complete volume; volume 50, 
papers 2131 to 2138. The Annual Report of the United States 
National Museum for 1915 was also published. 

The bulletins were as follows: 

Bulletin 50, The Birds of North and Middle America, part 7, by Robert Ridgway. 
Bulletin 91, Report on the Turton collection of South African marine mollusks, 

with additional notes on other South African shells contained in the United 

States National Museum, by Paul Bartsch, 
Bulletin 92, Bibliographic index of American Ordovician and Silurian fossils 

(two volumes), by Ray S. Bassler. 
Bulletin 94, Handbook and descriptive catalogue of the meteorite collections 

in the United States National Museum, by George P. Merrill. 

PUB]^ICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

The publications of the bureau are discussed in appendix 2 of the 
Secretary's report. The editorial work of the bureau has continued 
in charge of Mr. J. G. Gurley, editor. 

During the year, 2 annual reports and 2 bulletins were issued, as 
follows : 

29th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (containing an ac- 
companying paper, " The Ethnogeography of the Tewa Indians," by John 
Peabody Harrington). 

30th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (containing two ac- 
companying papers, " Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians," by Matilda Coxe 
Stevenson, and " An Inquiry into the animism and folklore of the Guiana 
Indians," by Walter E. Roth), and a "List of publications of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology." 

Bulletin 57. An Introduction to the Study of the Maya Hieroglyphs, by Sylvanus 
Griswold Morley. 

Bulletin 62. Physical anthropology of the Lenape or Delawares, and of the 
Eastern Indians in general, by Ales Hrdlicka. In press. 

REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The annual reports of the American Historical Association are 
transmitted by the association to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution and are communicated to Congress under the provisions 
of the act of incorporation of the association. 

73839°— SM 1916 9 



118 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTTTUTTON, 1916. 

The annual report for 1913 (2 volumes) was published during the 
year, and the first volume of the 1914 report was in press at the 
close of the fiscal year. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY OF THE DAUGHTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REA^OLUTION. 

The manuscript of the Eighteenth Annual Report of the National 
Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution for the year 
ending October 11, 1915, was communicated to Congress on March 
28, 1916. 

THE SMITHSONIAN ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON PRINTING AND 

PUBLICATION. 

The editor has continued to serve as secretary of the Smithsonian 
advisory committee on printing and publication. This committee 
passes on all manuscripts offered for publication by the Institution 
or its branches, and considers forms of routine, blanks, and various 
other matters pertaining to printing and publication. Eighteen meet- 
ings were held during the year and 96 manuscripts were acted upon. 

Respectfully submitted. 

A. Howard Clark, 'Editor. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF 

REGENTS OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOR THE 

YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1916. 



To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following re- 
port in relation to the funds, receipts, and disbursements of the In- 
stitution, and a statement of the appropriations by Congress for the 
National Museum, the International Exchanges, the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, the National Zoological Park, the Astrophysi- 
cal Observatory, and the International Catalogue of Scientific Litera- 
ture for the year ending June 30, 1916, together with balances of 
previous appropriations : 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

Condition of the fund July i, 1916. 

The permanent fund of the Institution and the sources from which 
it has been derived are as follows : 

DEPOSITED IN THE TREASURY OF THE United STATES. 

Bequest of Smithson, 1846 $515,169.00 

Residuary legacy of. Smithson, 1867 26,210.63 

Deposit from savings of income, 1867 108, 620. 37 

Bequest of James Hamilton, 1875 $1, 000. 00 

Accumulated interest on Hamilton fund, 1895 1, 000. 00 

2, 000. 00 

Bequest of Simeon Habel, 1880 500. 00 

Deposits from proceeds of sale of bonds, 1881 51, 500. 00 

Gift of Thomas G. Hodgkius, 1891 200, 000. 00 

Part of residuary legacy of Thomas G. Hodgkins, 1894 8, 000. 00 

Deposit from savings of income, 1903 25, 000. 00 

Re.'iiduary legacy of Thomas G. Hodgkins, 1907 7, 918. 69 

Deposit from savings of income, 1913 636. 94 

Part of bequest of William Jones Rhees, 1913 251. 95 

Deposit of proceeds from sale of real estate (gift of Robert Stan- 
ton Avery ) , 1913 9, 692. 42 

Bequest of Addison T. Reid, 1914 4, 795. 91 

Deposit of savings from income of Avery bequest, 1914 204. 09 

Balance of bequest of William Jones Rhees, 1915 248. 05 

Deposit of savings from income of Rhees bequest, 1915 28. 39 

Deposit of savings from income of Avery fund, 1915 1, 862. 60 

Deposit of savings from income of Reid fund, 1915 426, 04 

Deposit of first payment of Lucy T. and George W. Poore fund, 

1915 24, 534. 92 

119 



120 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Deposit of part of principal of Addison T. Reid fund. 1916 $4, 698. 59 

Deposit of principal of George H. Sanford fund, 1916 1, 020. 00 

Deposit of savings from income, 1916 2, 681. 41 

Total amount of fund in United States Treasury 996, 000. 00 

OTHER KESOURCES. 

Registered and guaranteed 4 per cent bonds of the West Shore 

Railroad Co., part of legacy of Thomas G. Hodgkins (par value) _ 42, 000. 00 

Coupon 5 per cent bonds of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., due 
July 1, 1918 (cost) 5,040.63 

Coupon 6 per cent bonds of the Argentine Nation, due Dec. 15, 

1917 (cost) 5, 093. 75 

1,048,134.38 
Also three small pieces of real estate located in the District of Columbia and 
bequeathed by the late Robert Stanton Avery, of Washington, D. 0. 

That part of the fund deposited in the Treasury of the United 
States, now amounting to $996,000, bears interest at 6 per cent per 
annum, under the provisions of the act of Congress of August 10, 
1846, organizing the Institution, and the act approved March 12, 1894. 

The real estate bequeathed to the Institution by the late Eobert 
Stanton Avery is exempt from taxation and yields only a nominal 
revenue from rentals. 

Statement of receipts and disMirsements from July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916. 

RECEIPTS. 

Cash on deposit and in safe July 1, 1915 $42, 165.86 

Interest on fund deposited in United States Treasury 
due July 1, 1915, and Jan. 1, 1916 $59, 071. 23 

Interest on West Shore Railroad bonds, due July 1, 1915, 

and Jan. 1, 1916 1, 680. 00 

Repayments, rentals, publications, etc 9, 265. 45 

Contributions from various sources for specific pur- 
poses 22,954.99 

Frances Lea Chamberlain fund 10,000.00 

Addison T. Reid fund 4, 698. 59 

107, 670. 26 

149, 836. 12 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Buildings, care and repairs 5, 718. 46 

Furniture and fixtures 1, 451. 61 

General expenses : 

Salaries 18, 783. 21 

Meetings 163. 25 

Stationery 830. 39 

Postage, telegraph, and telephone 599. 12 

Freight 86.82 

Incidentals, fuel, and lights 1,165.92 

Garage 1, 950. 16 

23,578.87 



REPORT OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 121 

Library $2, 545. 91 

Publications and their distribution: 

Miscellaneous collections $4, 218. 26 

Contributions to knowledge 139. 75 

Reports 324. 58 

Special publications 209. 82 

Publication supplies 221. 05 

Salaries 6, S62. 90 

11, 976. 86 

Explorations, researches, and collections 5, 441. 85 

Hodgkins specific fund, researches, and publications 3, 068. 57 

International exchanges 4, 043. 31 

Gallery of Art 21.88 

Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory 70. 95 

Deposited to credit of permanent fund 8, 400. 00 

Consolidated fund, purchase of bonds 10,134.38 

Advances for field expenses, etc 28,672. 95 

Balance June 30, 1916: 

Deposited with the Treasurer of the United States 44, 511. 02 

Cash on hand 200. 00 

44, 711. 02 

149, 836. 12 
Your executive committee again employed the Capital Audit Co. 
of this city to audit the receipts and expenditures of the Smith- 
sonian Institution during the period covered by this report. An 
itemized report has been submitted, but the following certificate of 
examination supports the foregoing statement and is hereby ap- 
proved : 

auditok's statement. 

Capital Audit Co., Metropolitan Bank Building, 

Washinyton, D. C, August U/, 1916. 
Executive Committee, Board of Regetits, Smithsonian Institution. 

SiKS : We have examined the accounts and vouchers of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, and certify the following to 
be a correct statement : 

Total receipts ' $107, 662. 46 

Total disbursements '105, 117. 30 

Excess of receipts over disbursements 2, 545. 16 

Amount from July 1, 1915 42,165.86 

Balance on hand June 30, 1916 44, 711. 02 

Balance as shown by Treasury statement as of June 30, 1916 47, 831. 11 

Less outstanding checks 3,320.09 

Balance 44, 511.02 

Cash on hand 200. 00 

Balance June 30, 1916 44,711.02 

iDoes not include $7.80 Eastman Kodak Co. voucher No. 5638, entry and counter 
entry. 



122 



ANNUAL REPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



The vouchers representing payments from the Smithsonian income during 
the year, each of which bears the approval of the secretary, or in his absence, 
of the acting secretary, and a certificate that the materials and services charged 
were applied to the purposes of the Institution, have been examined in con- 
nection with the books of the Institution and agree with them. 

Capital Audit Co., 
By William L. Yaeger, President. 

All moneys received by the Smithsonian Institution from in- 
terest, sales, and refunding of moneys temporarily advanced are de- 
posited with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit of the 
Institution, and all payments are made by checks signed by the 
secretary. 

The expenditures made by the disbursing agent of the Institution 
and audited by the Auditor for the State and Other Departments are 
reported in detail to Congress and will be found in the printed docu- 
ment. 

Your committee also presents the following summary of appro- 
priations for the fiscal year 1916 intrusted by Congress to the care 
of the Smithsonian Institution, balances of previous appropriations 
at the beginning of the fiscal year, and amounts unexpended on 
June 30, 1916: 



International Exchanges, 1914 

International Exchanges, 1915 

International Exchanges, 1916 

American Ethnology, 1914 

American Ethnologj', 1915 

American Ethnologj', 1916 

International Catalogue, 1914 

International Catalogue, 1915 

International Catalogue, 1916 

Astrophysical Observatory, 1914 

Astrophysical Observatory ,1915 

Astrophysical Observatory, 1916 

Bookstacks, Government "bureau libraries, 1914 

Bookstacks, Government bureau libraries, 1915 

Bookstacks, Government bureau libraries, 1915-16, 

Tower telescope on Mount Wilson, 1915 

Repairs to Smithsonian Building, 1915 

National Museum: 

Eumiture and fixtures, 1914 

Eurniture and fixtures, 1915 

Furniture and fixtures, 1916 

Heating and lighting, 1914 

Heating and lighting, 1915 

Heating and lighting, 1916 

Preservation of collections, 1914 

Preservation of collections, 1915 

Preservation of collections, 1916 

Books, 1914 

Books, 1915 

Books, 1916 

Postage, 1916 

Building repairs, 1914 

Building repairs, 1915 

Building repairs, 1916 

National Zoological Park, 1914 

National Zoological Park, 1915 

National Zoological Park, 1916 

Bridge over Rock Creek, National Zoological Park 



Available 


Balance 


after July 


June 30, 


1,1915. 


1916. 


$0.01 


i$0.01 


3,453.79 


.20 


32,000.00 


3,584.17 


185.30 


1 176. 59 


3,854.52 


1,119.04 


42,000.00 


2,897.78 


2L50 


121.50 


864. 45 


198. 39 


7, 500. 00 


549. 81 


62.36 


162.30 


1,263.57 


46.35 


13,000.00 


1,522.31 


33.61 


1 33. 61 


35.36 


1.09 


2 6,500.00 


64.16 


1,284.17 


410. 23 


452. 13 


176.88 


56.85 


156.85 


1,048.83 


13.34 


25,000.00 


1,941.95 


242. 62 


I 242. 62 


4,473.33 


109. 63 


46,000.00 


5,852.65 


573. 75 


1 509. 15 


8,774.88 


1,278.34 


300,000.00 


7,695.91 


25.83 


1 10. 30 


1,389.73 


115. 60 


2,000.00 


1,157.49 


500. 00 
5.03 




15.03 


487. 15 


1.32 


15,000.00 


2,298.58 


3.94 


13.94 


6, 261. 07 


.83 


100,000.00 


5,653.99 


1,830.90 


11,830.90 



1 Carried to credit of surplus fund. 



2 Immediately available, 



REPORT OP EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 123 

Statement of estimated income from the Smithsonian fund and from other 
sources, accrued and prospective, to be available during the fiscal year ending 
June SO, 1917. 

Balance June 30, 1916 $44, 711. 02 

Interest on fund deposited in United States Treasury 

due July 1, 1916, and Jan. 1, 1917 $60, 451. 00 

Interest on West Shore Railroad bonds due July 1, 1916, 

and Jan. 1, 1917 1,680.00 

Exchange repayments, sale of publications, refund of 

advances, etc 7, 526. 04 

Deposits for specific purposes 12, 000. 00 

81, 657. 04 

Total available for year ending June 30, 1917 126, 368. 06 

Respectfully submitted. 

George Gray, 
Alexander Graham Bell, 
Ernest W. Roberts, 

Executive Committee. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE SMITH- 
SONIAN INSTITUTION FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 
ENDING JUNE 30, 1916. 



AN3SrUAL MEETING, DECEMBER 9, 1915. 

The Board of Regents met at the Smithsonian Institution in regu- 
lar annual session at 10 o'clock a. m. December 9, 1915. 

Present : The Hon. Edward D. White, Chief Justice of the United 
States, chancellor, in the chair; Senator Henry Cabot Lodge; Senator 
"William J. Stone; Senator Henry F. HoUis; Representative Scott 
Ferris; Representative Ernest W. Roberts; the Hon. Maurice Con- 
nolly ; Dr. Andrew D. White, Dr. A. Graham Bell ; the Hon. George 
Gray ; Mr. John B. Henderson ; the Hon. Charles W. Fairbanks ; and 
the secretary, Dr. Charles D. Walcott. 

APPOINTMENT OF REGENT. 

It was announced that William J. Stone, Senator from Missouri, 
had been reappointed a Regent by the Vice President on February 
18, 1915. 

RESOLUTION RELATIVE TO INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

On motion by Judge Gray, chairman of the executive committee, 
the following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved, That the income of the Institution for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1917, be appropriated for the service of the Institution, to be expended hj 
tlie secretary with the advice of the executive committee, with full discretion 
on the part of the secretary as to items. 

VACANCY IN EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

On motion it was — 

Resolved, That Mr. Ernest W. Roberts be elected to the executive committee 
to fill the vacancy caused by the retirement of Mr. Maurice Connolly. 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The annual report of the executive committee reviewing the finan- 
cial condition of the Institution for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1915, was presetited in printed form and adopted. 

124 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS, 125 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PERMANENT COMMITTEE. 

The permanent committee presented the following statement : 

EodgMns fund.—K third allotment of $5,000 was made from the 
income of this fund for the purpose of continuing the work of the 
Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory. 

Poore hequest. — Mr. John J. Pickman, executor of the estate of 
George W. Poore, was given an indemnity bond to guarantee him 
from loss, and he thereupon paid to the Institution the sum of 
$24,534.92, the net proceeds of the estate, exclusive of certain parcels 
of land, which are estimated to have a value of $10,000. 

The Addison T. Reid hequest was made for the purpose of found- 
ing a chair in biology as a memorial to the testator's grandfather, 
Asher Tunis, subject to the condition that the income be paid in 
three shares to certain enumerated beneficiaries until their death, 
when the principal of the estate, with accumulations, was to come to 
the Institution. As previously reported, one of the beneficiaries 
died in 1913, and the amount of her share, $4,795.91, was duly re- 
ceived by the Institution. A second beneficiary died during the 
summer of 1915, and her share, amounting to $4,698.59, was also 
received. 

Rhees hequest. — Mr. William Jones Ehees, chief clerk of the In- 
stitution for nearly 40 years, died March 18, 1907, bequeathing to 
the Institution the sum of $500. This bequest has been received and 
will be allowed to increase by the addition of its earnings to the 
principal until a sufficient sum shall have been realized to make 
possible the provision of a suitable work of some kind to serve as a 
memorial to this able and faithful official. 

Chamberlain hequests. — The board was informed at a previous 
meeting that Dr. Leander T. Chamberlain had made two bequests to 
the Institution, each to be known as " the Frances Lea Chamberlain 
Fund." 

The first bequest was $25,000, the income of which was to be used 
" for promoting the increase and the scientific value and usefulness 
of the collection of gems and gem material known as the ' Isaac Lea 
Collection' in the department of minerals in the United States 
National Museum." 

The second bequest was $10,000, the income to be used " for pro- 
moting the scientific value and usefulness of the collection of mol- 
lusks known as the ' Isaac Lea Collection,' " also in the National 
Museum. This second bequest has been received. 

Sanford hequest. — A bequest of $1,020 has been received by the 
Institution imder the will of Mrs. Helen B. Sanford for the purpose 
of founding "the George H. Sanford fund," as a memorial to her 
husband. The income of this fund is to be used for the increase and 



126 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1&16. 

diffusion of knowledge on such subjects as the Institution may decide 
upon. 

On motion the report of the permanent committee was accepted. 

secretary's annual report. 

The secretary presented his annual report in printed form and 
made statements thereon as follows : 

The Smithsonian Institution and its branches since the last annual 
meeting of the Eegents have issued a total of 93 publications aggre- 
gating about 8,000 pages and 650 plates. Twenty-four of these 
publications (1,595 pages and 180 plates) were issued by the Institu- 
tion proper; 66 of them (5,370 pages and 380 plates) by the National 
Museum; and 3 (1^03 pages and 6 plates) by the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Etlinology. The total number of all publications distributed 
during the year was 145,272. In addition, the annual report of the 
American Historical Association and of the National Society of the 
Daughters of the American Eevolution were examined by the Institu- 
tion and transmitted to the Congress. 

From among valuable contributions to nearly every branch of 
science covered in these various publications, may be mentioned as 
of special interest two papers issued by the Institution proper under 
the Hodgkins fund, one, an extended study of the radiation of the 
atmosphere, the other, a paper on the intensity of solar radiation 
outside the atmosphere. In the course of experiments covered by 
the latter, free balloons with recording apparatus reached altitudes 
up to 15 miles and were recovered with the records in good condi- 
tion. Another paper of considerable interest to physicists and 
chemists is entitled "A magneton theory of the structure of the 
atom,'' by A. L. Parson. 

Among National Museum publications there was issued from the 
United States National Herbarium a Flora of New Mexico, which 
describes some 3,000 species of plants from that State. 

There was also printed the usual pamphlet on explorations and 
researches by the Smithsonian Institution and its branches, written 
in a semipopular style and containing numerous illustrations. 

Last year there was published a work giving some results of the 
secretary's studies in Pre-cambrian Algonkian algal flora, and there 
has been prepared for the current annual report a general review of 
the secretary's field and laboratory work in Cambrian geology dur- 
ing several years past. 

The Annual Report of the Institution for 1914 was completed con- 
siderably earlier than for any previous year. The general appendix 
contains 30 papers relating as usual to all branches of science. The 
public demand for the Smithsonian Report has become so great 



PROCEEDINGS OP THE REGENTS. 127 

that Congress authorized the edition to be increased from 7,000 to 
10,000 copies. 

THE LAKGLEY AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORY. 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Regents, held December 
10, 1914, a resolution was adopted providing for the appointment by 
the chancellor of a committee of four members of the board and the 
secretary " to consider questions relative to the Langley Aerody- 
namical Laboratory." The following committee was appointed: 
Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, chairman; Hon. William J. Stone, 
Hon. Ernest "W. Roberts, Mr. John B. Henderson, and the secretary. 

This committee presented a report to the board on the history of 
the organization of the laboratory under the authority of the Re- 
gents and on the need of a National Advisory Committee on Aero- 
nautics; also a statement of American agencies, resources, and facili- 
ties for the work, and of the progress made by other nations in this 
subject. In addition a report was made on the action taken by Con- 
gress authorizing the appointment of an advisory committee by the 
President of the United States, who subsequently selected such com- 
mittee as follows : 

Gen. George P. Scriven, United States Army, and Lieut. Col. 
Samuel Reber, United States Army, representing the Army; Capt. 
Mark L. Bristol, United States Navy, and Naval Constructor H. C. 
Richardson, United States Navy, representing the Navy ; Mr. Charles 
F. Marvin, Chief United States Weather Bureau; Dr. S. W. Strat- 
ton, Director United States Bureau of Standards; Mr. Byron R. 
Newton, Assistant Secretary United States Treasury; Prof. W. F. 
Durand, Stanford University of California ; Prof. Michael I. Pupin, 
Columbia University, New York City; Prof. John F. Hay ford, 
Northwestern University, Illinois; Prof. Joseph S. Ames, Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. ; Dr. Charles D. Walcott, Secre- 
tary Smithsonian Institution. 

The committee's report stated further that it was not deemed prob- 
able, in view of the organization and scope of the National Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics, that the Smithsonian Institution would 
find it necessary to establish an aerodynamical laboratory for experi- 
mental purposes. Its function would now be more in the direction 
of aiding in such studies and experiments as could not well be other- 
wise provided for and in publishing such material as might be of 
value in the development of the art. 

On motion, the report was accepted. 

In this connection the secretary stated that the experiments being 
conducted with the Langley aerodrome on Lake Keuka, New York, 
were successfully continued during the year 1915 and that a report 



128 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

thereon had been filed in the office by Dr. A. F. Zahm; tliat the 
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had approved of the 
cooperation between the Smithsonian Institution and the United 
States Weather Bureau in connection with the investigations of the 
atmosphere having a bearing upon aeronautics, and that this coopera- 
tion had met with the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture and 
of the Chief of the Weather Bureau. To carry this into effect, $2,500 
had been set aside from the allotment for the Langley Aerodynamical 
Laboratory for the purchase of necessary instruments, sounding bal- 
loons, etc., and for conducting such experiments as could not be pro- 
vided for from funds of the Weather Bureau. 

Site for Freer Gallery of Art. — At the last meeting of the board a 
resolution was adopted authorizing the chancellor to appoint a com- 
mittee to consider the matter of a site for the proposed Freer Build- 
ing, and the following were appointed on said committee: Senator 
Lodge, Senator HoUis, Judge Gray, Mr. Connolly, and the secretary. 

The committee presented a report recommending that the building 
be erected on a site in the southwest corner of the Smithsonian 
grounds, west of the Smithsonian building, and south of the line 
recommended by the National Park Commission in 1906 for future 
buildings on the Mall. 

The committee's recommendation was approved by the board. 

In this connection the secretary read an extract from Mr. Freer's 
letter of December 4, stating that if the board took favorable action 
he would at once place at the Institution's disposal the $1,000,000 he 
had already set aside for this purpose. 

The secretary referred to the Widener art collection and to the 
newspaper comments as to the possibility of securing the collection 
for Washington City. These art objects were left to Mr, Widener's 
son with discretion as to donating them to Philadelphia, Washington, 
or New York. The collection is now handsomely housed, and the 
secretary very much doubted that any action would be taken toward 
its being placed elsewhere for many years to come. 

Speaking on the subject of the National Gallery of Art, the secre- 
tary mentioned the art collections already in the custody of the Insti- 
tution and said that the time will soon be here when definite action 
must be taken looking to their proper housing. 

Bi7'd and animal refuges. — The secretary stated that he had given 
considerable attention to the development of the movement for the 
creation of bird refuges, and that he had called the attention of the 
executive committee to an inquiry that had been made as to whether 
the Smithsonian Institution would consider the acceptance of a large 
tract of land on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico for the administra- 
tion of a great bird and wild animal refuge. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE EEGENTS. 129 

The board decided that gifts of lands, buildings, or funds to estab- 
lish bird or wild animal refuges might be accepted and administered, 
on condition that adequate provision for their proper maintenance 
be made by the donor or donors or other agencies. 

secretary's statement. . .., 

The secretary also made the following statements : 

The National Gallery of Art received in July, 1915, a collection of 
pictures which, though not of an elaborate nature, is remarkable for 
the long list of eminent artists represented. The collection consists 
of 82 drawings executed with various mediums, principally water 
color, ci'ayon, charcoal, pencil, chalk, and pen, by as many of the 
most prominent contemporary painters, sculptors, and engravers of 
the French Eepublic. It came as a testimonial from the people of 
France to the people of the United States in recognition of their 
sympathetic efforts toward relieving the distress and suffering in 
France occasioned by the war in Europe and is the result of action 
by an organizing committee in Paris begim in March, 1915. The 
collection was delivered to the American ambassador at the French 
capital early in July, and immediately upon its receipt at the Depart- 
ment of State in "Washington it was deposited in the National 
Gallery. 

A catalogue of the collection has been printed and widely circu- 
lated, and it constitutes a most distinguished honor roll. Of added 
interest is the fact that the pictures are all signed, and, with very 
few exceptions, each is also inscribed by the artist with an expression 
of friendly feeling and gratitude. 

Bureau of American Ethnology. — During the summer and autumn 
of 1915 important archeological excavations were conducted in the 
historic Nacoochee Mound in "V^Tiite County, Ga., as well as in the 
Mesa Verde National Park of southern Colorado, where a large ruin 
exhibiting remarkable masonry was thoroughly excavated and re- 
paired. 

Ethnologic investigations among the Creek and Natchez Indians 
of Oklahoma, the Fox Indians of Iowa and Oklahoma, and the Chu- 
mash and Mohave Indians of California, were prosecuted in the field 
with excellent results, and equally successful efforts were made in 
studying the languages of some of the tribes of Oregon that are 
threatened with extinction. 

A reconnaisance of the ruins of pueblos in the Zuni Valley, New 
Mexico, was made with a view to their excavation during the summer 
of 1916. 

Addition of land to the National Zoological ParJc. — The sundry 
civil act for the fiscal year ending Jime 30, 1914, appropriated 



130 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

$107,200 for the purchase, as an addition to the National Zoological 
Park, of land lying between the present western boundary of the 
park and Connecticut A^^enue, between Cathedral Avenue and Klin- 
gle Road. 

After many delays in the legal steps to acquire this land, the jury 
of condemnation presented its findings to the court on December 
11, 1914, as follows: 

Damages appraised .$194, 438. 08 

Expenses of jury 2, 203. 85 

Total 196, 641. 43 

Benefits assessed at 66, 013. 50 

Excess of damages over benefits 130, 627. 93 

This sum exceeds the appropriation by 23, 427. 93 

On January 12, 1915, the motion of the Secretary of the Treasury 
to confirm the verdict was received by the court and filed. From 
time to time exceptions to the verdict were filed by various property 
owners interested, and on June 28, 1915, the court set aside the ver- 
dict of the assessment of benefits and costs as regards exceptors and 
confirmed the remainder of the assessments and the awards of 
damages. 

A recent statement from the Assistant United States Attorney for 
the District shows that the benefits assessed by the jury that have 
been set aside by the court amount to approximately $48,000, and 
that, according to his figures, the total amount that will be required 
to secure the land will be approximately $179,000 instead of the 
$107,200 as appropriated. 

The land in question has a frontage on Connecticut Avenue of 1,750 
feet and covers about 10 acres, which if obtained will bring the 
park area to an aggregate of 180 acres. 

Notes on the recent work of tlie Astro physical Ohservatorij. — 
Dr. Charles G. Abbot, director, and Mr. L. B. Aldrich, assistant, 
have continued at Mount Wilson, Cal., their observations on the in- 
tensity of solar radiation. 

Complete reductions of the Mount Wilson work of 1914 show that 
the return of solar activity in that year — after the passage of the 
minimum epoch of 1913 (in which sun spots had become fewer than 
at any time for a century) — was attended by a very considerable rise 
in the intensity of solar radiation. Work with the tower telescope 
on Mount Whitney was continued, and this also confirmed the 
variability of the sun. 

It is greatly regretted that no other observing station had been 
equipped to share with the Institution these observations on the varia- 
tion of the sun. Only when several observatories, widely scattered 
in favorable regions as regards weather conditions, shall unite to 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS. 131 

follow these observations from da}^ to da}'- for several years can the 
results be of much value to meteorologists as evidence whether or not 
the sun's variability influences terrestrial climate. The Institution 
is looking forward to establishing and operating a station in Argen- 
tina or some other favorable situation in South America, the expense 
to be provided for from the income of the Hodgkins fund. 

A new vacuum bolometer h^s been devised which in actual trial 
developed 20 times the sensitiveness of the bolometer heretofore 
used on Mount Wilson for these researches. With this new bolo- 
meter at least one ten-millionth of a degree rise of temperature 
could be detected and measured, and it seems not impossible that a 
bolometric outfit could be constructed capable of detecting and 
measuring even a billionth of a degree rise of temperature. 

The Research C oryorat'ion. — The Eesearch Corporation has suc- 
cessfully continued its w^ork during the year and is now on a sound 
financial basis. On October 31, 1915, the assets of the corporation 
were $166,004.23. In these a&sets the Cottrell process patents are 
valued at the nominal sum of $1,000. 

It will be recollected that the Research Corporation was organized 
in February, 1912, with a capital of $10,000 and a salary roll of less 
than $3,000. The salary roll for the ensuing year, owing to the great 
increase in the scope of the work, will be in the neighborhood of 
$38,000. 

The energies of the corporation have been almost entirely applied 
m connection with the experimental precipitation processes which, 
it will be recalled, were offered to the Smithsonian Institution by 
Dr. Cottrell, and by it in turn offered to the Eesearch Corporation 
for commercial development. If the successful development of the 
organization continues other lines of research will be entered upon. 

Electrical 'precipitation of fog. — Under a grant of $2,000 made by 
the Institution from the Hodgkins fund Dr. F. G. Cottrell has con- 
ducted experiments at the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Fran- 
cisco in relation to the electrical precipitation of fog. The secre- 
tary, while visiting the exposition, saw something of the experi- 
ments and examined the apparatus used. The most striking features 
of the apparatus are the Thordarson 350,000 and 1,000,000 volt 
transformers placed at the service of Dr. Cottrell. These experi- 
ments involved the cooperation of the Panama-Pacific Exposition 
officials, the Research Corporation, Mr. C. H. Thordarson, the Uni- 
versity of California, the General Electric Co., and the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

The problem of clearing fog differs from other precipitation prob- 
lems in several respects. For instance, in the latter cases it is mani- 
festly necessary to actually deposit the suspended matter on the elec- 
trodes in order to accomplish the effect sought, while in the case of 



132 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

fog, if even a considerable coalescence of the minute particles into 
large ones could be effected, it would become much more transparent, 
even aside from the more rapid settling of the drops. New difficul- 
ties are to be expected, however, such as the matter of insulation, 
for the reason that the whole apparatus is of necessity continuously 
immersed in the wet atmosphere. 

Harrimnn trust fund. — Dr. C. Hart Merriam, operating under the 
trust fund established by Mrs. E. H. Harriman, has continued the 
study of the Big Bears of North America, and the preparation of 
manuscript and illustrations for the press. Owing to the scarcity 
of specimens of some of the less known species, final effort was 
made to obtain additional skulls, and more than 50 were secured 
which have j)roved of value in clearing up points previously in doubt 
as to the characters of several of the species. 

The labor of searching the literature relating to early explora- 
tion, hunting, and travel for records of bear and other animals, has 
been continued, and large additions have been made to the files of 
material relating to North American mammals and to the Indian 
tribes of California and Nevada. 

Borneo and Celebes expedition. — As previously stated. Dr. W. L. 
Abbott, a collaborator of the National Museum, contributed $11,000 
in money and between $500 and $1,000 in ammunition and supplies 
for the purpose of conducting a collecting expedition in Borneo and 
Celebes. Mr. Henry C. Eaven, Dr. Abbott's personal representative 
in this enterprise, spent about two years in Borneo and nearly a year 
in Celebes. He returned to Washington during the summer of 1915. 
The expedition has been briefly described in a pamphlet recently is- 
sued by the Institution. Its main results include a collection of 465 
mammals, 870 birds, 50 reptiles, and a miscellaneous series of ethno- 
logical and zoological material. 

Dr. Abbott has recently added to his generous gifts a donation of 
$2,000 to provide for a second expedition to make natural history col- 
lections and explorations in the Dutch East Indies, particularly 
in Celebes. Mr. Raven was selected for this new expedition, and 
after outfitting at Washington, he sailed October 19, 1915, from 
Seattle for the field of his new operations via Singapore. The 
expedition is expected to last about three years, and the results will 
be presented to the National Museum. 

Siberian Expedition. — As previously reported, an expedition to 
Siberia was financed by the Telluride Association, of Ithaca, N. Y., 
which generously donated $3,500 for the purpose. The expedition 
was under the direction of Capt. John Koren, who was accompanied 
by Mr. Copley Amory, jr., a collaborator of the National Museum, 
and by Mr. Benno Alexander, who specially represented the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE REGENTS. 133 

The party sailed from Seattle on June 26, 1914, and after an ex- 
jiloration of the territory about the Kolyma Eiver region, Mr. 
Amory returned during the summer of 1915 bringing 365 mammals 
and 264 birds. This collection was obtained at the nominal cost of 
an outfit and the transportation from Nome, Alaska, to Washington, 
and is a very important contribution to the National Museum. 

Biological vjork in North ChiTia. — Mr. A. de C. Sowerby is con- 
tinuing his work in Manchuria and northeastern China through the 
generosity of a friend of the Smithsonian, whose identity, as here- 
tofore reported, is withheld. Tavo wapiti bucks and a roe deer have 
been received, but the main collections have been *^elayed in transit. 

Montana and Wyoming. — The secretarj'' continued his work of 
exploration among the fossil beds of Montana in connection with 
his studies of the early life of the earth. In the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park he observed the character and method of deposition 
of the hot spring and geyser deposits by the primitive blue-green 
alga?, and supervised the collecting of siliceous geyserite, silicified 
wood, and volcanic rocks. Over 5 tons of material were shipped 
to the National Museum during the summer of 1915. 

On leaving the park the canyon of the West Gallatin Kiver was 
followed for a distance of 30 miles, and the valley of the upper 
Missouri River was crossed at Townsend, Mont., en route to the Belt 
Mountains. A collection of very ancient fossil algal remains was 
made there, of which one and a half tons of specimens were selected 
for study in connection with the material obtained during the field 
season of 1914. These specimens contain the oldest fossil bacteria 
known, as well as deposits similar to those made by the blue-green 
algne in the Yellowstone National Park hot springs. 

Throughout the trip Dr. Walcott was assisted by Mrs. Walcott, 
who is an enthusiastic photographer and collector. 

Dr. Hrdlicka^s yro^posed Asiatic expedition. — The object of the 
contemplated expedition is to trace in eastern Asia, as far as may be 
possible, the origin of the American aborigines, which is now one of 
the foremost problems before the anthropologists of the world. A 
preliminary survey of parts of Siberia and Mongolia, made by 
Dr. Hrdlicka under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution in 
1912, yielded results of the most interesting nature, and the evidence, 
ethnological and archeological, encouraged the belief that further 
research would lead to determinations of great scientific value. The 
primitive tribes visited by Dr. Hrdlicka are, in their physical 
characteristics, hardly to be distinguished from the typical American 
Indian and the traces of prehistoric culture give almost equally close 
analogies, and it seems most desirable that further explorations 
should be undertaken. 

73830°— SM 1916 10 



134 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The great group of peoples concerned and to be studied are dis- 
tributed over Tibet, western China, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea, 
Japan, and a large part of Siberia, and extend in varying degrees 
of relationship to Polynesia, Malaysia, and the Philippine Islands. 
The special object of Dr. Hrdlicka's proposed expedition is to defi- 
nitely trace this distribution in its relation to the peopling of the 
American Continent. It is anticipated that the proposed survey 
should extend over four or five years. 

Mr. Warn£r''s proposed expedition to eastern Asia. — An expedition 
which is expected to cooperate in important ways with that of Dr. 
Hrdlicka, but which will devote its main attention to the prehistoric 
and early historic archeology and art of eastern Asia, is contem- 
plated by Mr. Langdon Warner. Mr. Warner plans to explore cer- 
tain districts of southern China, excavating mounds and ruined 
cities which are confidently expected to yield archeological and art 
treasures of exceptional value. Doubtless these excavations will re- 
sult in the recovery of large quantities of skeletal remains and of 
objects of primitive art, which placed in the hands of specialists in 
these branches will serve to throw much light on the ancient peoples 
of Asia. 

This expedition is undertaken under the auspices of the new Cleve- 
land Museum of Art. 



GENERAL APPENDIX 

TO THE 

SMITHSONIAN REPORT FOR 1916. 



135 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The object of the General Appendix to the Annual Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution is to furnish brief accounts of scientific dis- 
covery in particular directions; reports of investigations made by 
collaborators of the Institution ; and memoirs of a general character 
or on special topics that are of interest or value to the numerous 
correspondents of the Institution. 

It has been a prominent object of the Board of Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution, from a very early date, to enrich the annual 
report required of them b}^ law with memoirs illustrating the more 
remarkable and important developments in physical and biological 
discovery, as well as showing the general character of the operations 
of the Institution ; and this purpose has, during the greater part of 
its histor}'', been carried out largely by tlie publication of such papers 
as would possess an interest to all attracted by scientific progress. 

In 1880 the secretary, induced in part by the discontinuance of an 
annual summary of progress which for 30 years previous had been 
issued by well-lmown private publishing firms, had prepared by 
competent collaborators a series of abstracts, showing concisely the 
prominent features of recent scientific progress in astronomy, geol- 
ogy, meteorology, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, botany, zoology, 
and anthropology. This latter plan was continued, though not alto- 
gether satisfactorily, down to and including the year 1888. 

In the report for 1889 a return was made to the earlier method of 
presenting a miscellaneous selection of papers (some of them origi- 
nal) embracing a considerable range of scientific investigation and 
discussion. This method has been continued in the present reiDort 
for 1916. 
136 



ADMINISTRATION AND ACTIVITIES OF THE SMITH- 
SONIAN INSTITUTION. 



By A. Howard Clark, 
Editor, SmWisonian Institution. 



[Witli 22 plates.] 
THE ESTABLISHMENT— BOARD OF REGENTS. 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress, in 
1846, according to the terms of the will of James Smithson, of 
England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States 
of America "to found at Washington, under the name of the 
Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and dif- 
fusion of knowledge among men." In receiving the property and 
accepting the trust, Congress determined that the Federal Govern- 
ment was without authority to administer the trust directly, and 
therefore constituted an " establishment," whose statutory members 
are "the President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the 
heads of the executive departments." The business of the Institution 
is conducted by a Board of Eegents composed of " the Vice President, 
the Chief Justice of the United States, and three Members of the 
Senate and three Members of the House of Representatives, together 
with six other persons other than Members of Congress, two of whom 
shall be resident in the city of Washington and the other four shall 
be inhabitants of some State, but no two of them of the same State." 
The Regents elect one of their number as chancellor, usually the 
Chief Justice, who is the presiding officer of the board, and elect a 
suitable person as secretary of the Institution, who is also secretary 
of the board and the executive officer and director of the Institution's 
activities. 

RESOURCES. 

The annual income of the Institution is about $100,000, derived 
from interest on the permanent fund (in the United States Treas- 
ury) and on special fujids, and contributions from various sources, 
which is applied to operations of the Institution proper, besides 
annual congressional appropriations of about $600,000 for the main- 

137 



138 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

tenance of the bureaus or branches of the Institution developed 
through its early activities, including the United States National 
Museum and the National Gallery of Art, the International Ex- 
change Service, the Bureau of American Ethnology, the National 
Zoological Park, the Astrophysical Observatory, and the United 
States Bureau of the International Catalogue of Scientific Litera- 
ture. The Eegents are empowered to accept gifts without action of 
Congress in furtherance of the purposes of the Institution, and to 
administer trusts in accord therewith. Many important researches 
and expeditions, particularly during recent years, have also been 
aided by special trusts provided by j)atrons of the Institution. 
Among the most notable of these explorations, financed through pri- 
vate donations, was the African expedition under Theodore Eoose- 
velt, and explorations in the Far East continued for several years 
past through the liberality of Dr. William L. Abbott. The income 
of certain trust funds is set aside for specific purposes, as that of 
the Frances Lea Chamberlain fund for the maintenance of the Isaac 
Lea collections of gems and mollusks, and that of a fund established 
by Mrs. E. H. Harriman for carrying on certain biological studies; 
also the income of a portion of the Hodgkins fund, devoted to the 
study of atmospheric air. 

SMITHSONIAN BUILDINGS. 

The buildings occupied by the Institution and the National 
Museum are in the Smithsonian Park, an area of 38 acres about mid- 
way between the Capitol and the Washington Monument. The origi- 
nal Smithsonian building is of brownstone in twelfth century Nor- 
man or Lombard style of architecture, 447 feet front and covering 
about 60,000 square feet. It was completed in 1855. The adminis- 
trative offices are here, as also several sections of the library, the 
Museum division of plants or National Herbarium, and the divi- 
sion of graphic arts, also the offices and library of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology. 

Adjacent to the administrative building on the east is the Museum 
of Industrial Arts, built of brick in modernized Romanesque style of 
architecture, covering about 2^^ acres, and completed in 1881. Here 
are exhibited objects relating chiefly to the arts and industries and 
American history. 

On the north side of the park is the Museum of Natural History, 
completed in 1911. This fine structure is of granite in modern classic 
style with dome and columned portico. It covers an area of about 
4 acres and in its ground floor and the three stories there are 468,118 
square feet of floor space, one-half of which is devoted to exhibition 
purposes, the other half being utilized for storage rooms, offices, 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Clark. 



Plate 1. 




James Smithson. 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLARK. 139 

laboratories, and other purposes. As the latest of the great museum 
buildings of the world it embodies many new and important features. 
Here are displayed the collections pertaining to anthropology, bi- 
ology, and geology, and the National Gallery of Art. 

The number of visitors to the original Smithsonian building from 
1881 to 1916 was 4,580,932; and to the industrial arts building 
7,727,732; while the visitors to the natural history building from 
1910 to 1916 numbered 1,835,529. 

Through the generosity of Mr. Charles L. Freer there was begun 
in the summer of 1916 in connection with the National Gallery of 
Art, the construction of a beautiful edifice to house the splendid col- 
lection of American and oriental works of art presented to the Insti- 
tution by Mr, Freer, who has placed at the disposal of the Institution 
more than a million dollars to defray the cost of the building. 

The Astrophysical Observatory is housed in a group of small 
wooden structures south of the Smithsonian administrative building. 

PURPOSES AND OBJECTS. 

The Smithsonian plan of organization embraces the two objects 
named by the testator; one, the increase of knowledge by the addi- 
tion of new truths to the existing stock; the other, the diffusion of 
knowledge, thus increased, among men. No restriction is made in 
favor of any kind of knowledge, and hence each branch is entitled to 
and receives a share of attention. Part of the plan has included the 
formation of a library of science and art, a museum, a gallery of art, 
and provisions for physical research and popular lectures. 

The activities of the Institution embrace all branches of natural 
science, the fine arts, and industrial arts. It has at all times fostered 
progressive scientific research. Since its establishment the Institu- 
tion has inaugurated and maintained or has participated in a great 
number of astronomical, anthropological, biological, and geological 
expeditions and explorations in every portion of the world, resulting 
in largely increasing our knowledge of the geography, the meteor- 
ology, the fauna and flora, and the ethnology of all lands, and in the 
acquisition of a vast amount of valuable material for the National 
ISluseum. 

The Smithsonian is not an educational institution of the nature of 
a university with a corps of professors and students, and yet its 
educational functions are of the highest rank, for the members of 
its scientific staff and its many collaborators are constantly engaged 
in investigations in which students of science in all its branches 
participate; and the museum collections and the collection of ani- 
mals in the Zoological Park are a constant source of original infor- 



140 ANNUAL HEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

mation to specialists and to groups of pupils from public and private 
schools in Washington and elsewhere. 

The Institution aids investigators by maldng limited grants for 
research and exploration. It advises the Government in matters of 
scientific importance. It cooperates with all departments of the 
Government and with many scientific and historical national organ- 
izations. 

ACTIVITIES AND ACHIEVEMENTS. 

The Eegents controlling the policy and conducting the operations 
of the Institution have always been men well known in public life 
and in the educational and scientific world. 

Among the more than 150 eminent Americans who have guided 
Smithsonian activities in past years may be mentioned Louis Agassiz, 
the naturalist; Alexander Dallas Bache; George Bancroft, the his- 
torian ; Salmon Portland Chase ; Euf us Choate ; James Dwight Dana, 
the eminent geologist and mineralogist ; Asa Gray, the botanist ; Gen. 
Montgomeiy C. Meigs, engineer; President Noah Porter, of Yale 
University; Lieut. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman; and many 
other men prominent in science and art and in public affairs in more 
recent years who are still active as Regents or patrons or otherwise 
vitally interested in the work of the Institution. 

Under such leadership the achievements in every branch of knowl- 
edge have been notable and numerous. The Institution is practically 
the parent of many of the scientific bureaus of the Government. Here 
were begun researches in astronomy, physics, meteorology, geology, 
botany, fisheries, aviation, and other lines, some of which, having out- 
grown facilities and means immediately available to the Institution, 
have been developed into separate Government bureaus, including the 
United States Weather Bureau, the United States Geological Survey, 
the Fisheries Bureau, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronau- 
tics, and other Federal bureaus, with all of which the Institution con- 
tinues in close and constant cooperation. To some of these bureaus 
now belong the more economic phases of scientific work, Avhile the 
Institution devotes its energies largely to the fundamental work, 
researches in the domain of pure science, keeping in view, however, 
the bearing of these researches on the welfare of mankind. 

To Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Institution, 1846 to 1878, emi- 
nent as a physicist, the world of science and industry owes a lasting 
debt, for it was he who in great measure made possible the electrical 
achievements of the present day. " He married the intensity magnet 
to the intensity battery, the quantity magnet to the quantity battery, 
discovered the law by which their union was effected, and rendered 
their divorce impossible." The intensity magnet is that which is to- 



Smithsonian Report, 1916.— Clark. 



Plate 6. 




Joseph Henry, 
Secretary of Sinillisoiiiuu luslilution, 1S46-1878. 



SmUhsonian Report, 1916. — Clark. 



Plate 7. 




Spencer Fullerton Baird, 

Secretary of Smithaoiiiau Inslilutiuu, 187S-1SS7. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916.— Clark. 



Plate 8. 




Samuel Pierpont Langley, 
Secretary of Smithsonian Institution, lS87-190ti. 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION — CLARK. 141 

day in use in every telegraph system, " Henry's oscillating machine 
was the forerunner of all our modern electrical motors. The rotary 
motor of to-day is the direct outgrowth of his improvements in 
magnets." His name is perpetuated in the term "henry," the unit 
of electric inductance. 

Henry also inaugurated the system of daily meteorological observa- 
tions, out of which grew the United States Weather Bureau, and, 
as head of the Lighthouse Board, he revolutionized the methods of 
lighthouse operation and signaling. 

In 1847 the Institution made an appropriation "for instruments 
and other expenses connected with meteorological observations." 
The instruments thus secured w^ere distributed throughout the 
country, and within two years the volunteer observers reporting to 
the Institution numbered about 400. In 1849 Henry realized the 
value of the electric telegraph as " a ready means of warning the 
more northern and southern observers to be on the watcli for the 
first appearance of an advancing storm," and there was inaugurated 
a system of daily telegraphic w'eather reports, a system whi-ch was 
continued under the direction of the Institution until the beginning 
of the Civil War. On a large map in the Smithsonian building the 
weather over a considerable part of the country, according to re- 
ports received at 10 o'clock each day, was indicated by suitable 
symbols. 

Spencer FuUerton Baird, Secretary, 1878 to 1887, noted as a biolo- 
gist, during his administration bent his energies to increase man's 
knowledge of animal life. He established the United States Com- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries, now known as the Bureau of Fisheries, 
for the study of food fishes and river and ocean fauna. Secretary 
Baird, as keeper of the Museum, took a deep interest in the national 
collections in natural history and other objects, and under his direc- 
tion there was erected the Museum building for the exhibition of the 
valuable collections acquired from the International Exhibition at 
Philadelphia in 1876. During his administration the National 
Museum was rapidly developed under the direction of Assistant 
Secretary G. Brown Goode, and the need for more adequate quarters 
soon became evident. 

Samuel Pierpont Langley, Secretary, 1887 to 1906, won eminence 
by his achievements as an astronomer, especially by his astrophysical 
observations and discoveries, and he became Imown to the world at 
large through his 18 years of administrative service as Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution. His fame will also become increasingly 
greater as the new science of aviation is further developed, for to 
Langley belongs the honor of being the first to demonstrate to the 
world, in 1896, the practicability of mechanical flight with machines 
heavier than the air, sustained and propelled by their own power. 



142 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

and he later developed *and built the first man-carrying aeroplane 
capable of sustained free flight. Langley's success as a pioneer in 
aviation was commemorated on the Column of Progress at the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition by a tablet bearing the 
inscription : " To commemorate science's gift of aviation to the world 
through Samuel Pierpont Langley, an American." 

It was Prof. Langley who, in 1869, inaugurated a general system of 
standard-time distribution to various cities and railroads, a sj^stem 
which in 1885 had extended to 4,713 miles of railroad and is now 
universal throughout the country. 

He devised that most delicate instrument — the bolometer or elec- 
trical thermometer — by which changes of temperature of less than 
the hundred-millionth of a degree centigrade are measured, and by 
special installation differences in temperature amounting to one- 
billionth of a degree can be detected. Langley's investigations in 
radiation include {a) the distribution of radiation over the sun's 
surface and in sun spots, (&) the solar energy spectrum and its 
extension toward the infra red, {c) the lunar energy spectrum and 
the temperature of the moon, {d) spectra of terrestrial sources and 
determination of hitherto unmeasured wave lengths, and {e) the 
absorption by the earth's atmosphere of the radiation of the sun and 
the determination of the solar constant of radiation. In each of 
these lines of research important discoveries were made by Langley, 
and since his death the work has been greatly advanced through the 
present director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Dr. 
Charles Greeley Abbot. 

It was during the administration of Secretary Langley that the 
National Zoological Park, largely the outgrowth of investigations 
on living animals under the direction of Assistant Secretary G. 
Brown Goode, was founded, and during this period there was begun 
the erection of the present great structure for the natural history 
collections of the National Museum, a building planned under the 
direction of Assistant Secretary Eichard Rathbun, who had made 
careful studies of the principal museums of the world. 

Charles Doolittle Walcott, the present Secretary, a geologist and 
paleontologist, began his administration as Secretary of the Institu- 
tion in 1907, having been connected with the Museum as an honorary 
officer of the department of paleontology since 1882. From 1888 
to 1907 he held various positions in the United States Geological 
Survey, being its director from 1894 to 1907. His special study has 
been Cambrian geology and paleontology, and he has recently suc- 
ceeded in bringing to light evidences of algal life in the pre-Cam- 
brian Algonkian sediments, as also the discovery of most delicate 
examples of fossil holothurians and meduste in Middle Cambrian 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Clark. 



Plate 9. 




Charles Doolittle Walcott, 
Present Secretary of Smithsonian Institution. 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLARK. 143 

time. His publications have been voluminous in all phases of his 
specialty. 

During his administration the natural history and fine-arts collec- 
tions have been brought to a high status. The Institution has come 
into very close afliliation with a number of research corporations 
and scientific bodies through his official relation in their director- 
ship. He has taken deep interest in the promotion of the art of 
aviation, being largely instrumental in the establishment by Con- 
gress of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, having 
as one of its primary objects the bringing into close coordination 
of the Army and Navy and other branches of the Government and 
private interests engaged in various lines of aeronautical research. 

A prominent department of activity throughout the history of the 
Institution has been the scientific exploration of regions imperfectly 
known, particularly in North America. Expeditions have been 
fitted out under the Institution's immediate direction and others 
organized by private enterprise or by Government departments 
have been aided by counsel and instructions. The geological work of 
the Mexican Boundary Survey, the Colorado expeditions of Lieut. 
Ives, explorations to the Yellowstone, and many expieditions and 
explorations in Alaska, in the Arctic, in Africa, in Siberia, in South 
America, in China, in Tibet, and elsewhere have been more or less 
intimately related with the Smithsonian Institution. 

The numerous and important services rendered to botanical science 
have greatly increased knowledge of the flora of little-known regions, 
especially in the south and west of this country and in Mexico, and, 
as a result of numerous investigations and surveys, there has been 
brought together in the Institution the great National Herbarium of 
more than 1,000,000 specimens of the flora of the United States and 
foreign lands. 

Recently the Institution has acquired a three years' lease of the 
Cinchona Botanical Station at Jamaica, comprising about 10 acres 
of land, with offices, laboratories, and other buildings, for the fur- 
therance of our knowledge of West Indian botany. Assignment of 
botanists who desire to prosecute studies there are made on the recom- 
mendation of organizations which have cooperated with the Institu- 
tion in securing the use of this important field for botanical investi- 
gations. 

Under the auspices of the Institution and in cooperation with 
several departments of the Government, there has been a most thor- 
ough biological and geological survey of the Panama Canal Zone, 
resulting in a great addition to the Iniowledge of the fauna and flora 
and the geological history of that region. 



144 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

As an aid to students of marine life, the Institution for several 
years has maintained a table at the Naples Zoological Station. The 
use of the table for stated periods has been accorded to a large num- 
ber of investigators on the recommendation of a committee appointed 
to advise the Institution as to the qualifications of appilicants for the 
privilege of using the facilities thus ajfforded for carrying on their 
researches. 

Many zoological explorations have likewise been carried on or 
aided by the Institution. Through the influence of the Institution 
naturalists or collectors were attached to practically all the impor- 
tant early surveys by the engineers of the United States Army, and 
the vast collections thus brought together have, in the main, been 
studied within the walls of the Smithsonian buildings and the 
natural history results made known through Smithsonian publi- 
cations. 

An important feature of the Institution's activities has been its 
participation in the many international expositions held during the 
last forty years in the United States and Europe and numerous 
medals and diplomas of commendatory nature have been received for 
the exhibits displayed on these occasions, illustrative of the work of 
the Institution and of the resources and industries of the country and 
the customs of its people. 

In the interest of general education, particularly in natural his- 
tory and mineralogy, it has been the custom of the Institution to 
distribute to schools and colleges throughout the country such dupli- 
cate material as could be spared from the National collections. These 
specimens are fully labeled and have aided instruction by supple- 
menting textbook information. 

A large addition to the Smithsonian fund was made in 1891 when 
Thomas G. Hodgkins, of Setauket, N. Y., presented $200,000 to 
the Institution. The donor was deeply impressed with the im- 
portance of a careful study of atmospheric air, and stipulated that 
the income of $100,000 of his gift should be devoted to the increase 
and diii'usion of more exact knowledge in regard to the nature and 
properties of atmospheric air in connection with the welfare of man. 
He indicated his desire that researches be not limited to sanitary 
science, but that the atmosphere be considered in its widest relation- 
ship to all branches of science, referring to the experiments of 
Franklin in atmospheric electricity and the discovery of Paul Bert 
in regard to the influence of oxygen on the phenomena of vitality 
as germane to his foundation. To stimulate researches in these 
directions the Institution offered a prize of $10,000 for a paper 
embodying some new and important discovery in regard to the 
nature and properties of atmospheric air, Avhich w^as awarded in 
1895 to Lord Eayleigh and Prof. William Eamsay, of London, for 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAEK. 145 

the discovery of argon, a new element in the atmosphere. Another 
prize of $1,000 for the best popular treatise on atmospheric air was 
awarded to Dr. Henry de Varigny, of Paris, from among 229 com- 
petitors in the United States, France, Germany, England, Scotland, 
Ireland, Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Norway, Denmark, Fin- 
land, Bohemia, Bavaria, Servia, Switzerland, Spain, India, Canada, 
Mexico, and Argentina. Numerous investigations on the " composi- 
tion of expired air and its effects upon animal life," in " atmospheric 
actinometry," the " air of towns," " animal resistance to disease," 
" experiments with ionized air," " the ratio of specific heats," and 
kindred topics have been carried on with the aid of grants from 
the Hodgkins fund. Researches have likewise been aided in con- 
nection with the temperature, pressure, radiation, and other features 
of the atmosphere at very high altitudes, and many other lines of 
investigation have been carried on, through all of which it is believed 
that valuable knowledge has been acquired by which the welfare 
of man has been advanced. 

HODGKINS AND LANGLEY MEDALS. 

The Hodgkins gold medal was established by the Smithsonian In- 
stitution to be awarded for important contributions to the knowledge 
of the nature and properties of atmospheric air, or for practical ap- 
plications of existing knowledge to the welfare of mankind. It was 
first bestowed April 3, 1899, on Prof. James Dewar, F, R. S., and 
second, October 28, 1902, on Prof. J. J. Thomson, F. R. S. 

The Langley medal was established in memory of the late Secre- 
tary Samuel Pierpont Langley and his contributions to the science 
of aerodromics, "to be awarded for specially meritorious investiga- 
tions in connection with the science of aerodromics and its applica- 
tion to aviation." This medal was presented in 1910 to the brothers 
Wilbur and Orville Wright, and in 1913, to Mr, Glenn H. Curtiss and 
Mons. Gustave Eiffel. 

PUBLICATIONS AND EXCHANGES. 

The " diffusion of knowledge," which, next to its " increase," was 
so prominently in the mind of the founder of the Institution, was 
provided for in the program of organization, submitted by Secre- 
tary Henry to the Board of Regents in 1847, by a system of several 
series of publications constituting original contributions to knowl- 
edge, accounts of scientific explorations and investigations, and 
papers recording the annual progress in the field of science, which 
are distributed gratuitously to important libraries throughout the 
world. 



146 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The publications have been numerous and include many important 
and authoritative works. There is no restriction as to subject; they 
consist of memoirs upon aeronautics, archeology, astronomy, astro- 
physics, ethnology, botany, zoology, geology, paleontology, meteor- 
ology, magnetism, physics, physiology, philology, and many other 
subjects. The several series comprise (1) The Annual Report of the 
Board of Regents to Congress with a general appendix of papers 
illustrating progress in a wide range of scientific branches; (2) 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, begun in 1850, in quarto 
form; (3) Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, in octavo; (4) 
Harriman Alaska Series, on the results of the scientific expedition 
to Alaska in 1899; (5) Bulletin of the National Museum, including 
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium; (6) 
Proceedings of the National Museum; (7) Annual Report of the 
National Museum; (8) Annual Report of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology; (9) Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology; 
(10) Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory; and (11) a number 
of special publications independent of the above series. 

There is also communicated to Congress through the Secretary of 
the Institution the annual report of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation and of the National Society of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. 

The complete collection of Smithsonian publications numbers 
about 450 volumes, aggregating more than 200,000 printed pages. 

Since it would be impossible through the limited funds of the 
Institution and printing allotments by Congress to meet the great 
popular demand for Smithsonian publications, they are necessarily 
almost entirely distributed to learned institutions and important 
public libraries, where they are available for general reference. 
Through this distribution there developed a system of exchange of 
Smithsonian publications with those of scientific and literary socie- 
ties of the United States and of other parts of the world and a 
general interchange of publications of American and foreign institu- 
tions, which has come to be known as The Smithsonian International 
Exchange Service. In 1886 a treaty was made in Brussels betAveen 
the United States and a number of foreign countries providing for 
the interchange of their governmental, scientific, and literary publi- 
cations, and the work of carrying out its provisions in the United 
States was intrusted by Congress to the Smithsonian Institution. 

Under certain regulations the Institution accepts from correspond- 
ents in this country publications intended as exchanges and donations, 
and they are shipped by freight, at intervals not exceeding a monthj 
to about 60 distributing bureaus or agencies abroad, which in turn 
receive from correspondents in their countries and forward to the 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLARK. 147 

Smithsonian Institution, under certain rules, publications addressed 
to institutions in the United States and territory subject to its juris- 
diction. This service handles annually from 300,000 to 350,000 pack- 
ages, weighing upward of half a million pounds. Through its 
operation the national collection of books in the Library of Con- 
gress has been greatly increased. 

SMITHSONIAN LIBRARY. 

The accumulation of a, scientific library has been an important 
phase of the Institution's work in the " diffusion of knoAvledge," and 
the collection has increased in size from year to year, until at present 
it numbers well over half a million titles. 

The main Smithsonian library is assembled in the Library of 
Congress, and is known as the Smithsonian deposit. This collection 
consists chiefly of transactions and memoirs of learned institutions 
and scientific societies and periodicals relating to science in general 
brought together from all parts of the world on a sj^stematic plan 
since the middle of the last century. The National Museum and the 
library of the Bureau of American Ethnology also maintain large 
special libraries, and there are libraries connected with the Astro- 
physical Observatory and the National Zoological Park, besides some 
35 specialized sectional collections located in various offices for the 
use of the scientific staff of the Institution and its branches. The 
Smithsonian office library contains a collection of books relating to 
art, the employees' library, and an extensive aeronautical library. 

INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 

The Smithsonian Institution directs the work of the L^nited States 
Bureau of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, 
which is one of 33 regional bureaus in various countries engaged in 
the collecting, indexing, and classifying of scientific publications of 
the year. The classified references are forwarded to the central 
bureau in London, where they are collated and published in a series 
of 17 annual volumes covering each branch of science and aggregat- 
ing about 8,000 printed pages. These volumes are sold at an annual 
subscription price of $85, chiefly to large reference libraries and im- 
portant scientific institutions, the proceeds covering in part the cost 
of publication. From 1901 to 1916 the bureau at the Smithsonian 
Institution forwarded to London about 350,000 reference cards to 
publications issued in the United States during that period. 

A plan for a work of this character was proposed as early as 1855, 
when Secretary Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, called the 
attention of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
to the great need of an international catalogue of scientific works. 



148 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

In 1867 the Royal Society of London published its well-known 
"Catalogue of Scientific Papers," and the Smithsonian Institution 
has from time to time issued catalogues of the literature of special 
branches of science. In 1894 the Royal Society invited the Govern- 
ments of the world to send delegates to a conference to be held in 
London in 1896. At this and the following conferences in 1898 and 
1900 a plan was formulated to start the work with a classified sub- 
ject and author catalogue of all original scientific literature, begin- 
ning with January 1, 1901. 

THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSUEM. 

By the act of 1846 the Smithsonian Institution was made the cus- 
todian of the national collections in both nature and art. The 
Museum branch was definitely organized in 1850, the title "U. S. 
National Museum" being authoritatively given by Congress in 1875. 
During the first few years expenses of the Museum were wholly met 
from the Smithsonian fimd, and it was not until 1878 that the Gov- 
ernment began to provide entirely for its maintenance, this being 
done through annual appropriations by Congress. 

The Museum staff includes the Secretary of the Institution as 
keeper ex-officio, the assistant secretary in immediate charge, the 
administrative assistant, three head curators, and about 50 curators, 
assistant curators, custodians, and aids, besides many clerks and 
other employees. 

Four general divisions are recognized: (1) Natural history, in- 
cluding ethnology and archeology; (2) the fine ai-ts; (3) the indus- 
trial arts; (4) history. 

The division of natural history is divided into three departments, 
biology, geology, and anthropology. The collections of natural his- 
tory have been received in greater part from Government surveys 
and explorations, and are richest in material from North America. 
Many other parts of the world are also well represented in one sub- 
ject or another, especially Central America, the Philippines, Ma- 
laysia, and some portions of Europe, Africa, and South America. 
The deep-water zoological collections from both the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans are the most extensive and important in existence. 

Among important early sources of collections may be mentioned 
the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838 to 1842, the Perry 
Expedition to Japan, the North Pacific Exploring Expedition of 
the Navy, the railroad and wagon-road surveys by the Army in 
connection with the opening up of the far West, the Canadian and 
Mexican boundary surveys, certain geological explorations, and the 
work of the coast survey in Alaskan waters, besides many expedi- 
tions organized or assisted by the Smithsonian Institution. Of more 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAKK. 149 

recent date are the investigations of tiie Bureau of Fisheries, the 
Geological Survey, the Bureau of American Ethnology, and the 
Bureaus of Plant Industry, Entomology, and Biological Survey of 
the Department of Agriculture. Of private donors, some of whom 
have made gifts of great extent and value, the list is very long. 

The total number of specimens in all branches of natural history 
recorded to the present time amounts to several millions, the annual 
accretion during several years past having averaged a quarter of a 
million specimens. 

Of arts and industries there are on exhibition extensive collections 
of firearms, the most complete in this country; boat and railroad 
models, electrical apparatus, time-keeping and measuring devices, 
musical instruments, ceramics, graphic arts, textiles, laces, em- 
broideries, and collections in mineral technolog}'^ and in photography. 

The growth of the National Museum has heretofore been greatest 
in natural history lines, including primitive man. The develop- 
ment of the natural resources of the country and the study of the 
American aborigines through Government surveys and explorations 
have contributed toward building up collections illustrative of nature 
and earl}" man that equal if not actually surpass those of any other 
country. The millions of specimens and hundreds of thousands of 
distinct species and forms here preserved serve as the basis for 
extended researches and discoveries. Through cooperation with the 
executive departments of the Government the Museum collections 
constantly render aid in solving many broad economic problems in 
agriculture, in mining, in fisheries, and in Indian affairs. Unri- 
valed conditions are here afforded for the arrangement, care, and 
safety of the Nation's treasures, for their unrestricted study in the 
advancement of knowledge, and for their use in promoting the 
interests of public education. 

In recent years great advance has been made in the development 
of the department of technology — a Museum of Industrial Arts. 
It is in this department in particular that the Museum manifests 
one of its principal functions. The exhibits are so selected and so 
installed as to teach visitors how things are made and what they 
are made of, and not so much who makes the best articles or how 
they should be packed to meet the demands of trade. And yet while 
these collections first of all educate the public they also teach the 
manufacturer and therefore are of decided economic importance- 
While commercial museums have their place for developing trade 
and commerce, and are of much value for such purpose, the develop- 
ment of the artistic taste of the public through an educational 
Museum of Industrial Arts seems of even greater general importance. 
It stimulates inventive skill and advances every art and everj'^ 

73839°— SM 1916 -11 



150 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

industry. The exhibits illustrating textile industry and mineral 
technology in particular are very complete, consisting of specimens 
of raw materials, machinery used in manufacture, and the finished 
products. 

The division of history has likewise greatly broadened in recent 
years. Here are displayed memorials of many leading American 
soldiers and sailors, inventors, explorers, and men of science, and 
memorials of important events in American history. A collection 
of costumes worn by ladies of the White House during each admin- 
istration since 1789 is of much popular interest. Among other 
objects of historic value are large collections of postage stamps, 
coins, and medals. 

The Museum has been defined as one of record, of research, and of 
education. As a Museum of record it preserves the very foundations 
of an enormous amount of scientific knowledge in the many thou- 
sands of type specimens from numerous natural-history investiga- 
tions, and these are increasing rapidly as the results of new re- 
searches and explorations are here permanently deposited. As a 
Museum of research the collections serve as a stimulus to inquiry 
and the foundation for further investigation. The installation of 
exhibits is carefully planned to make the Museum an aid to public 
education. Every kind of natural object and every manifestation 
of human thought and activity are illustrated by specimens accom- 
panied by general and descriptive labels. Races of men are illus- 
trated by groups of figures in their native costumes, many of them 
represented in their daily occupations; mammals, birds, and other 
zoological specimens are each assembled in groups with natural sur- 
roundings. In every exhibition hall the educational feature is con- 
stantly kept in mind. 

It is " a consultative library of objects," an agency for the instruc- 
tion of all the people of the country, " and it keeps in mind the needs 
of those whose lives are not occupied in the study of science as well 
as those of the professional investigator and teacher." 

THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART. 

The foundation of a National Gallery of Art was contemplated 
and directed in the act of organization of the Institution in 1816 
and in the program of operation adopted by the Board of Re- 
gents in 1817. It was several years, however, before the gallery Avas 
in active operation. The national gallery received very great stimu- 
lus in 1906 through the bequest of Harriet Lane Johnston, niece of 
President Buchanan; the munificent gift of Mr. Charles L. Freer, 
and the gift of Mr. William T. Evans, thus bringing into national 
ownership a very rich collection of paintings and other objects of 



Smithsonian Report, 191 6.— Clark. 



Plate 17. 




Jacquard Machines, U. S. National Museum. 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAKK. 151 

art. The gallery is now administered as the department of fine arts 
of the National Museum. 

The collections of the gallery include (a) paintings and other 
objects Avhich had long been in the custody of the Institution; (b) 
the Harriet Lane Johnston bequest, including a number of highly 
interesting and valuable paintings and sculptures; (c) the William 
T. Evans gift of more than 150 carefully selected works by modern 
American painters; (d) the Charles L. Freer collection, numbering 
more than 5,000 items of paintings, sculptures, pottery, bronzes, 
jades, and other works of art; (e) a collection of 82 drawings in 
pencil, pen, charcoal, chalk, crayon, and water color executed by 
eminent contemporary French artists. 

The munificent donation by Mr. Freer of his collection and pro- 
vision for its preservation is unsurpassed in this country and is one 
of the most notable gifts of its character in the world's history. 
Mr. Freer describes his collection as follows : 

These several collections include specimens of very widely separated periods 
of artistic development, beginning before the birth of Christ and ending to-day. 
No attempt has been made to secure specimens from unsympathetic sources, 
my collecting having been confined to American and Asiatic schools. My 
great desire has been to unite modern work with masterpieces of certain 
periods of high civilization harmonious in spiritual and physical suggestion, 
having the power to broaden esthetic culture and the grace to elevate the 
human mind. 

The original collection consisted of about 2,300 paintings and 
other objects of art and has since been increased to 5,346 items, 
including American paintings and sculptures, the Whistler collec- 
tion, and oriental paintings, pottery, bronzes, and jades from China, 
Korea, Japan, and other Asiatic countries. 

Mr. Freer retains his collection in his home city until the com- 
pletion of the building now under construction in the Smithsonian 
Park, for which he has placed in the hands of the Institution the 
sum of $1,000,000. 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology is an outgrowth of early 
ethnological and archeological researches of the Institution, and of 
later investigations conducted in behalf of the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs to determine the affinities of the various tribes of 
Indians to serve as a guide in grouping them on reservations, as it 
Avas believed that an effective classification of the tribes materially 
reduced the danger of warlike outbreaks. A vast amount of lin- 
guistic and bibliographical information relative to the American 
Indians has been published by the Bureau, and great collections of 



152 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

ethnological material have been gathered for the anthropological 
department of the Museum. 

Several years ago there was begun a series of handbooks on the 
American Indians. The first of these, in two volumes, was the 
Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, containing a de- 
scriptive list of the stocks, confederacies, tribes, tribal divisions, 
and settlements, with sketches of their history, archeology, man- 
ners, arts, customs, and institutions. The second series. Handbook 
of American Indian Languages, discusses the characteristics and 
classification of the 55 linguistic families north of Mexico and their 
relation to ethnolog3\ Further series, inchiding a Handbook of 
American xintiquities, a Handbook of Aboriginal Remains East of 
the Mississippi, and handbooks of the Indians of the several States, 
are in preparation. Since 1879 the Bureau has published 34 volumes 
of annual reports and G2 bulletins, covering every phase of American 
Indian life and history. It has surveyed, excavated, and put in con- 
dition for permanent preservation a number of aboriginal ruins in 
the southwestern portion of the country, and is constantlj'' cooperat- 
ing with the Department of the Interior and with archeological 
societies in the work of saving these interesting sites for the benefit 
of future generations. Field operations by the Bureau during recent 
years in New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming have brought 
to light exceedingly interesting aboriginal remains that have been set 
apart as national monuments. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 

In 1890 the Congress set apart 1G7 acres in the beautiful Rock 
Creek Valley on the northwestern borders of Washington City as the 
National Zoological Park, which w^as founded " for the advancement 
of science and the instruction and recreation of the people," and Con- 
gress placed its administration in the Board of Regents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. The collection of mammals, birds, and reptiles 
numbers about 1,400 individuals, representing some 360 species. Its 
visitors now average about 1,000,000 each year, including many 
groups of public and private school students accompanied b}^ their 
teachers. 

Among the buildings in the park are the lion house, containing the 
large cats and other animals, the monkey house, the bird house, 
houses of the elephants, and the antelope house. There are also 
inclosures for bears, pumas, wolves, and foxes; pools for sea lions 
and other water-loving animals, and paddocks for deer, lama, yak, 
and other ruminants; also many cages for small animals. Wild 
turkeys, partridges, peacocks, squirrels, and wild rabbits wander in 
perfect freedom throughout the park. 



Smithsonian Report, 191 6.— Clark. 



Plate 20. 




View in National Zoological Park. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Clark. 



Plate 21. 




1. Flight Cage, National Zoological Park. 




2. Swan in National Zoological Park. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916.— Clark. 



Plate 22. 




1. Ford in National Zoological Park. 




2. Polar Bear Cage, National Zoological Park. 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAEK. 153 

One of the principal aims in establishing the park was to promote 
the preservation of races of animals threatened with extinction, such 
as the American bison, which once roamed in vast herds over the 
western plains and was rapidly disappearing before the advance of 
railroads and the rapacity of hmiters. Several bison were secured 
for the park and have thrived here, and through the efforts of the 
Smithsonian Institution and others the Government was aroused to 
establish preserves in the West where the bison breeds freely. 

There are several large cages for birds in the park. The great 
" flight cage," 158 feet long by 50 feet in width and height, is built 
over several full-grown trees and has a running stream of water sup- 
plying pools for the convenience of the birds, which are mainly 
herons, stolks, cranes, cormorants, gulls, and pelicans. 

Among the particularly important exhibits is a fine collection of 
ungulates, or hoofed animals, no less than 50 species of wild cattle, 
deer, sheep, goats, antelopes, horses, and their Idndred being repre- 
sented, many of them by breeding herds. There is also a valuable 
collection of North American water fowl, a specially prepared breed- 
ing lake being set aside for the wild ducks, geese, and swans of this 
continent. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY. 

The Astrophysical Observatory, founded in 1890, investigates solar 
radiation, and in general, solar phenomena, and has produced a 
complete chart, made by automatic processes, which shows in detail 
the so-called invisible spectrum. The work of this Observatory is 
especially directed to thuse .portions of the energy of the sun that 
affect through its radiation the climate and the crops. 

Through the use of speciallv designed pyrheliometers attached 
to free balloons, observations liave been made of the intensity of 
solar radiation at various elevations up to a height of more than 
80,000 feet above sea level. Special studies have been made of 
the solar constant and of the distribution of radiation over the 
sun's disk. The principal astrophysical w^ork is carried on at the 
observatory in the Smithsonian Park in Washington and at Mount 
Wilson and Mount Whitney in California. On the summit of 
Mount Whitney the Institution has constructed a shelter for the 
general use of obser^ ers. Expeditions to various parts of the world 
have been made for observation of eclipses of the sun and other 
special studies. 

As the result of researches made by the observatory during the 
period from 1900 to 1915 it is found that the average value of heat 
emitted by the sun is 1.932 calories per minute per square centi- 
meter, and that the heat emitted in a year equals that obtained by 



154 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

burning four hundred sextillion (400,000,000,000,000.000,000,000) 
tons of anthracite coal. It is found that there is a variability in the 
sun's radiation, with a range about 7 per cent irregularly in periods 
of a week to 10 days. The sun's radiation is generally greater, par- 
ticularly toward the center of the solar disk, at sun-spot maximum, 
though the temperature of the earth is generally greater at sun-spot 
minimum. Standard pyrheliometers have been recently devised by 
the Astrophysical Observatory for measuring solar heat and are in 
use at observatories in several parts of the world, and also a pyran- 
ometer for measuring the intensity of skylight by day and radiation 
outward toward the sky at night. These studies are of economic 
agricultural importance as well as of scientific interest. 

ORIGIN OF THE INSTITUTION. 

James Smithson, of England, a graduate of Oxford University, 
Master of Arts, Fellow of the Royal Society, a chemist and mineral- 
ogist, made his will in 1826 bequeathing his property to the United 
States of America to found the Smithsonian Institution at Wash- 
ington for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. He 
died in Italy in 1829. In July, 1835, the Secretary of State was 
officially informed of the bequest, and on December 27, President 
Andrew Jackson communicated the papers to Congi'ess. The mes- 
sage of the President was referred to the Senate Committee on the 
Judiciary and to a select committee of the House of Representatives. 
After deliberate discussion of the authority and propriety of the 
United States Government to accept such a trust for the purpose 
stated, there was approved by the President, on July 1, 1836, an act 
of Congress to authorize and enable the President to assert and 
prosecute with effect the claim of the United States to the Smithson 
legacy, and Mr. Richard Rush was appointed agent of the United 
States for that purpose. 

On December 3, 1838, the Secretary of the Treasury reported to 
the President that the bequest, amounting to $508,318.46, had been 
paid into the Treasury of the United States. 

In a message to Congress on December 6, 1838, President Van 
Buren invited attention to the obligation devolving upon the United 
States to fulfill the object of the Smithson bequest. For eight years 
thereafter the subject was under consideration in the Senate and 
House, resulting in the founding of the Institution by an act of Con- 
gress of August 10, 1846, and by law the Smithsonian fund was made 
perpetually entitled to an annual income of 6 per cent interest, and 
definite resources were thus assured for carrying out the purposes 
and objects of the founder of the trust. Since the original bequest 
by Smithson, other bequests and gifts have come to the Institution 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION — CLAEK. 155 

from generous benefactors, varying in amounts from a quarter of 
a million to the modest, but none the less acceptable, sums of a 
thousand dollars or less, until the total invested permanent fund now 
aggregates more than a million dollars, and is gradually increasing 
from year to year. 

In discussing the acceptance of the Smithson bequest in 183G, John 
Quincy Adams, in the House of Representatives, said : 

Of all the foundations of establishments for pious or charitable uses, which 
ever signalized the spirit of the age, or the comprehensive beneficence of the 
founder, none can be named more deserving of the approbation of mankind 
than this. Should it be faithfully carried into effect, with an earnestness and 
sagacity of application, and a steady perseverance of pursuit, proportioned to the 
means furnished by the will of the founder and to the greatness and simplicity 
of his design as by himself declared " the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men^" it is no extravagance of anticipation to declare that his name 
will be hereafter enrolled among the eminent benefactors of mankind. 

Eighty years have passed since Mr. Adams spoke those prophetic 
words. The name of James Smithson, and the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, which he founded, are to-day known to all men of science, 
and everywhere are held in the highest esteem. 



NEWS FROM THE STAES. 



By C. G. Abbot, 
Director, A!iiroi)hijsic(il Ohscrvatori/, f^mithsoniari rnstitution. 



[With 5 plates.] 



Light is the messenger that brings the news. The message is in 
cipher, very long, faint, and hard to read. It tells of the materials, 
classification, temperatures, motions, distance, grouping, brightness, 
variability, mass, size, and number of the stars. 

IIATERIALS. 

Starlight collected by a telescope is passed through a spectroscope. 
This forms a narrow band, called the spectrum, violet at one end, 
red at the other. A photograph of the spectrum is made, and for 
most stars this shows the band of colors crossed by dark lines. 

Suppose an electric arc is made to play between iron poles, and 
its light is sent through the spectroscope. Instead of a bright con- 
tinuous spectrum with darJc lines, as given by a star, there appears 
its exact opposite — a very faint spectrum crossed by hright lines, 
especially numerous where the green occurs in the spectrum of star- 
light. 

Matched together, one spectrum above the other, the bright iron 
lines occur where the dark lines cross the star spectrum. So unmis- 
takably is one the reversal of the other that the coincidence seems 
to give proof of the presence of iron in the star. Probability be- 
comes assurance when it is laiown that under some circumstances 
iron vapor can produce darh lines on bright spectrum ground, just 
as usually foimd in starlight, and that some stars, on the other hand, 
show hright lines on a faint spectrum background. 

Hydrogen, helium, oxygen, calcium, and many other elements are 
similarly shown to exist in the stars by spectroscopic examination of 
starlight. But not all the stars show all these elements. Great dif- 
ferences are found in the stellar spectra, and stars are classified 
accordingly. 

157 



158 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

As proposed at Harvard College Observatory, the following classi- 
fication of stellar spectra has been generally adopted: Class O 
( Wolf-Eayet type) . The spectrum consists of hright lines on a faint 
continuous background. Class B (Orion type). Dark lines of 
helium are sparsely set on a bright ground. Class A (Sirian type). 
Plydrogen lines are most conspicuous. Class F (calcium type). 
Hydrogen lines are still conspicuous, but many lines of metals 
appear faintly, and notably two great lines of calcium in the violet. 
Class G (solar t^qoe). Numerous strong metallic lines occur as in 
sunlight. Class K (sun-spot type). The lines are darker and sun- 
spot flutings occur. Hydrogen lines are faint. Type M (fluted 
type). Titanium oxide flutings are strong, and carbon flutings also 
well marked. Several other classes are noted by specialists, but 
those above named are the chief ones (pi. 1). 

The classification of the stellar spectra is a very important aid to 
research. It is found that motions, position in the heavens with 
reference to the Millvy Way, size, temperature, distance, and other 
characteristics of stars, vary with spectral class. Director Picker- 
ing, of Harvard College Observatory, has already done a work of 
high value in securing the spectra and publishing the classification 
of about G,000 stars covering both the northern and southern hemis- 
pheres. Now a new publication is about to be made by Harvard 
College Observatory, giving the classification of the spectra of above 
200,000 stars, all observed by the Harvard staff, and all examined by 
Miss A. J. Cannon within the last four years. 

TEMPERATURES. 

Cold iron does not shine in the dark, but let the smith heat it in 
his forge and soon it glows red, then yellow, then white hot. The 
hotter the body is the more its spectrum is enriched toward the violet 
end as compared with the red. Exact mathematical relations are 
known to connect temperature and distribution of light in the spec- 
trum. Working on this basis, it is found that our sun's surface 
appears to be at about 6,000° centigrade (10,800° Fahrenheit) above 
the melting temperature of ice. (See pi. 2.) 

By photographic methods Wilsing and Scheiner, of the Astro- 
physical Observatory at Potsdam, in Germany, have assigned tem- 
peratures to about 100 of the brighter stars. The results run from 
9,000° C. for class B down to 3,000° C. for class M, varying in fairly 
regular progression. 

Very recently Coblentz, of the National Bureau of Standards, 
working temporarily at Lick Observatory in California, has suc- 
ceeded in measuring the heat caused by the rays of stars so faint that 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Abbot. 



Plate 2. 




Prismatic Spectrum (Langley). 
From Proc. Amer. Asso. Adv. Sci., Vol. 34, 1S85. 



NEWS PROM THE STARS — ABBOT. 



159 



the eye can scarcely see them. For this purpose the rays were col- 
lected by a concave mirror of 3 feet diameter and focused on the 
surface of a very delicate electrical thermopile (pi. 3 and pi. 4, fig. 2). 
This instrument acts on the principle that a difference of temperature 
between the junctions of two metals made up into a closed wire cir- 
cuit, produces an electric current. The apparatus used was so deli- 
cate that if the experiment could be made in a vacuum the heat from 
rays of a candle at 53 miles could be observed. Further work along 
similar lines is proposed. 

DISTANCE. 




When a surveyor measures the distance of an inaccessible object 
he selects two convenient stations and measures their distance apart. 
This is called the base line. 
At each end of the base 
line he observes the angle 
the base line makes with a 
line sighted toward the 
inaccessible object. The 
angles and the base of his 
triangle being thus meas- 
ured, the two remaining 
sides can be calculated. 
By such a process, using 
the earth's diameter, or a 
large part of it, as the 
base line, the distance of 
the moon is readily de- 
termined, and comes out 
243,000 miles. 

Even the length of a diameter of the earth is too small a base line 
from which to triangulate for the distances of the stars. Astrono- 
mers use the diameter of the earth's orbit round the sun, 186,000,000 
miles, for this. Astronomers also take advantage of the fact that 
very faint stars are usually much farther away (though not invari- 
ably so) than bright ones. Thus it comes about that if photographs 
of a bright star are made with the same telescope at two dates six 
months apart, and exact measurements of the distance of the bright 
star from its faint neighbors are made on both photographs, a slight 
displacement of the bright star will often be found to have occurred. 
The angular measure of displacement gives the vertical angle of 
the isosceles triangle of which the base line is the diameter of the 
earth's orbit, and from these data the star's distance is easilj'^ found. 
Seen from the nearest star, a Centauri, the radius of the earth's 



Fig. 1. — Method of triangulating for distances of 
heavenly bodies. Prom " The Sun," by C. G. 
Abbot. Published by Appleton & Co., 1911. 



160 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

orbit, 93,000,000 miles, subtends an angle of only 0.75 seconds. This 
is called the star's parallax. 

Up until very recently the parallax determinations of Elkin and 
Chase at Yale University Observatory, by direct eye observations 
with the heliometer, were regarded as of the highest accuracy. But 
now the photographic method as worked out at Yerkes Observatory^ 
by Prof. Schlesinger, now director at Allegheny Observatory, -has 
come to be preferred. This work is being pushed by Director 
Mitchell, of Leander McCormick Observatory, and is also occupying 
a prominent place on the program at several other observatories 
where large telescopes are available. 

Altogether less than 1,000 star distances have been measured. It 
is a slow, tedious work, often disappointing, a Centauri, the nearest 
star, except the sun, is at 25,000,000,000,000 miles, while the sun is at 
only 93,000,000 miles. 

When a measurement indicates that a. star is at 2,000,000,000,- 
000,000 miles or more (parallax 0.01 seconds) it is the same as saying 
that the sbar is too far away for its distance to be determined. It 
may be ten or a hundred times as far as the measurements indicate. 
This is about the average distance of the faintest stars visible to the 
naked eye. The great majority of telescopic stars lie beyond this 
distance. If observers did not choose stars expected to be relatively 
near, most of their i*esults would come out thus indeterminately. 
Even as it is, a great number of measurements do come out in this 
disappointing fashion. Unless some better method of investigation is 
discovered, measurements of individual star distances must ever be 
in this unsatisfactory state. In treating of star motions we shall see 
how our knowledge of the average distances of certain groups of 
stars has been extended.^ 

MOTIONS. 

About the year 1750 the English astronomer royal, Bradley, ob- 
served the positions in the heavens of 3,222 stars. Bradley's stars 
and many others have been observed often in more recent years. All 
the best work relating to about 6,000 of the brighter stars was com- 
pared and reduced to a homogeneous system about the year 1910 by 
the late Prof. Lewis Boss, of the Dudley Observatory and Carnegie 
Institution. 

From Boss's work the proper motions (so called) of these stars 
were accurately determined. All stars, including our sun, move 

1 Since this paragrapti was written Dr. Adams, of Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, has 
discovered a spectroscopic method of determining parallaxes, which is applicable to stars 
of classes P, G, K, and M, and is independent in accuracy of the distance of the star, if 
it is sufficiently bright to permit a good spectrum photograph to be made. 



I 



o -2 





I ^'*'***'^/.../ ,.._' 


I 




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1^- 


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M 



05 :E< 



O =i 

o a 



CO CO 




NEWS FROM THE STAES — ABBOT. 161 

each with his own rate and direction, so that at the end of a century 
the configuration of the heavens is not quite the same as at its begin- 
ning. These " proper motions " range from 870 seconds of arc per 
century down. (A second of arc is about the angular width of a 
telegraph wire as seen at a distance of a half mile.) The vast ma- 
jority of stars have a less proper motion than 20 seconds per century. 

Proper motions are observed as angles and can not be expressed 
in miles per second without other information. We see only the 
component of motion at right angles to the line from the earth to 
the star. If a star is coming directly toward us, it has no proper mo- 
tion, though its real speed may be very great. Near stars have 
greater average proper motions than distant ones, just as men walk- 
ing on the other side of the street apparently outdistance those a 
block away. Two things besides proper motion are therefore needed 
to determine the real motion of a star, namely, its distance and the 
angle its real motion makes to the line of sight. 

Fortunately, the spectroscope can help in this matter. Although, 
as stated above, the chemical elements are discovered in stars by the 
reversal of their spectrum lines, careful measurement shows that 
the positions of the stellar lines are slightly shifted, either toward 
the red or toward the violet, with respect to the bright lines of the 
comparison spectrum of a metal. Doppler predicted this effect nearly 
a half century before it was observed in stai-light. It depends on the 
motion of the star in the line of sight. 

Light travels by waves. Violet light has more waves per second 
tlian red. If a star is approaching, its light seems to have more waves 
per second because the star's motion is added to that of light, and 
hence all the spectrum lines are shifted toward the violet. The lines 
are shifted toward the red for stars that are receding. From the 
amount of the shift the actual rate of approach or recession of the 
star may be found. Naturally, a small correction must be made for 
the motion of the earth on its axis and its motion round the sun. 
We then have the actual rate of motion of the star to or from the 
sun. It is a very valuable thing about this kind of measurement that 
if only a star is bright enough it makes no difference at all in the 
accuracy of the determination hovx- distant the star may be. This 
unfortunately is not so with proper motions. 

As the sun has a motion of its own, which Sir William Herschel 
rightly concluded in the year 1783 is toward the northern constella- 
tion Hercules and not far from the bright star Vega, all the stellar 
motions, of course, appear to be affected by an equal motion to that 
of the sun but in the opposite direction. 

Director Campbell, of Lick Observatory, has rexiently published 
a collection of the so-called " radial motions " of nearly 2,000 stars, 



162 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1'J16, 

resulting from his campaign of spectroscopic observing in both the 
Northern and Southern Hemispheres, begun about the year 1898. 
From this work he finds the sun to be moving at about 19.5 kilome- 
ters (12 miles) per second in its course among the stars. 

Eapid progress is being made in measuring the radial motions of 
the fainter stars at Mount Wilson Solar Observatory. The 60-inch 
reflecting telescope there has been employed, under the direction of 
Dr. W. S. Adams, for this purpose since 1910, and the new 100-inch 
reflecting telescope also will soon be available. Other great reflectors 
are being prepared for Canada and for Argentina, and will doubtless 
be joined in this work. As it is a slow business at best, observers of 
the radial motions of the fainter stars will generally confine their 
measurements to what are termed Kapteyn's selected areas. 

Prof. Kapteyn, of Groningen, Holland (who has just been deco- 
rated for his astronomical work by the Emperor of Germany with 
the Prussian order Pour le Merite, at the same time with a group 
of generals, marshals, and kings), has been engaged for many years 
in a general study of the motions and distances of the stars. His 
studies are continually thwarted by lack of information about the 
fainter stars, which are so numerous that they will never be all 
observed individually. Hence Kapteyn has proposed that attention 
be devoted to 206 selected areas all over the sky, each about 1| 
degrees square, so that samples of the stars so chosen may have 
their positions, motions, brightness, distances, and spectral classes 
determined within a reasonable time. The distances will always be 
the weak point, but progress will be rapid along the other lines. 

Now, let us see how knowledge of proper motions, radial motions, 
and distances can be combined when all three are known, as in the 
case of a few individual stars. FroiA the distance and proper 
motion together we learn that the star appears to move at right 
angles to the line of sight at a certain rate in miles per second. 
The proper motion also indicates in which direction this cross motion 
is taking the star. The spectroscope indicates that the star is 
approaching or receding at a certain rate. By combining the two 
components — the apparent cross and radial motions — the actual speed 
and direction of the star's motion becomes fully determined. Apply- 
ing next a correction for the known motion of the solar system, the 
star's own peculiar motion with respect to the whole system of stars 
is at length found. 

STAR GROUPING. 

As the distance is so weak a link in this chain, several devices have 
been employed to strengthen it, and these depend in one way or an- 
other on star grouping. First of all, there are a good many pairs 
of stars which have been shown by telescopic observations to be 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Abbot. 



Plate 5. 




The Pleiades. (G. W. Ritchey.) 

Photographed with the 2-foot reflector of the Yerkcs Observatory . 1901, October 19. 
Exposure S'^ hours. Cramer Crown plate. From "The Suu," by G. C. Abbot. 
Published by Appleton & Co., 1911. 



NEWS FROM THE STARS ABBOT. 163 

revolving about their common center of gravity. Spectroscopic de- 
terminations of radial motion for such telescopic double stars give 
sufficient additional information to yield us their distances. 

Secondly, there are a number of large groups of stars, each of 
which have been found to have their peculiar motions all toward a 
single converging point. If the reader will stand at one end of a 
long corridor and look down the four corners of it as they stretch 
away from him, or, still better, will look from the back of a train 
at a long, straight stretch of railway, he will see at once that this 
convergence really means for these stars that their motions are all 
parallel. This could only happen if the stars were all of a single 
flock, moved by some common cause in the same direction. Finally, 
as these stars have been moving since a time imnieasurahly long ago, 
they would not now have been seen in the same part of the sky if 
their speeds Avere unequal. Such a group, therefore, consists of stars 
moving at equal speeds in parallel paths. 

Yet their proper motions are unequal. This is because their dis- 
tances are unequal. If now the distance of a single one of these stars 
can be determined in some way, the distance of every one of them 
whose proper motion is known follows at once. 

But the great extension of knowledge as to star distances comes 
when stars are classified according to proper motion. Consider a 
large number of stars of equal proper motion. It is to be supposed 
that generally (apart from special groups like those just mentioned) 
their real motions will be at random in space, and though some will 
be moving squarely across the line of sight and showing all of their 
real motion, others moving nearly along the line of sight showing 
but little of it, the average of all proper motions will be approxi- 
mately two-thirds of the average real motion. The same is of course 
true for large groups at two, four, or any number of times smaller 
average proper motion than the group first considered. Their aver- 
age real motions will also be approximately 3/2 their average proper 
motions. 

It is further to be supposed that the average of all the real mo- 
tions in each of these large groups of stars is the same, whatever 
their distance from us. We may at least adopt this hypothesis for 
lack of knowledge to the contrary. If so, it follows at once that a 
large group of stars whose mean proper motion is one second is twice 
as far away on the whole as a large group of stars whose mean 
proper motion is two seconds. 

Prof. Kapteyn has carefully compared all the known distances of 
individual stars with their proper motions, and has considered also 
in this comparison certain other data, especially brightness. In this 
way he has worked out a formula by which one can determine the 
average distances of stars of different mean proper motions, and thus 



164 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

we escape from the limitations imposed by the comparative meager- 
ness of our knowledge of individual stellar distances. According 
to Kapteyn's formulae, the vast majority of the stars are so far away 
that it takes light thousands of years to come to the earth from them, 
though light travels 186,000 miles per second. 

Eeturning now for a moment to the consideration of star motions, 
w^e understand at once that, just as the mean proper motion of a 
large group of stars corresponds to two-thirds of the average real 
motion of these stars, so the mean radial motion of the group is 
actually approximately two-thirds of the average real motion. 
Director Campbell has in this way worked out the average real 
motions of stars of different spectral classes,* and Prof. Boss also 
has done the same, basing his result on the mean proper motions and 
mean probable distances. Their results are in very close agreement. 
Both find our sun to be moving a very little slower than the average 
of all stars in their lists. 

When, however, the stellar motions are arranged by spectral 
classes they find the B stars moving slower, other classes faster and 
faster in a somewhat regular progression up to the M class stars. 
Quite recently Adams has extended this investigation to fainter 
stars. He finds these differences of speed between spectral classes 
not so gi"eat as found by Boss and Campbell, and the average speed 
of the fainter stars also less. It may be that the brighter stars, 
being relatively near us, form a special group, not quite representa- 
tive of all the stars in the universe. 

The greatest conception in regard to star grouping is that of 
"star streaming," recently worked out by Kapteyn and by Edding- 
ton, of the University of Cambridge, England. They find that 
when the proper motions of the stars are cleared of the effects of 
solar motion the remaining so-called " peculiar motions " of the in- 
dividual stai's, while they go to some extent at random, plainly in- 
dicate the governing influence of two great streams moving oppo- 
sitely. If we could collect all the stars at one point and endow each 
of them with its " peculiar motion " just as it has been observed, then 
at the end of a century the stars would have stretched out, not into a 
sphere but into an ellipsoid, owing to the influence of the two star- 
streams. This grand phenomenon is attracting deep attention from 
astronomers to-day, and will undoubtedly play a great part in future 
studies. 

BRIGHTNESS AND VARIABILITY. 

Stars look hardly as bright as the fireflies of a summer night, but 
in reality they glow like the sun, and seem faint only because far 
away. Astronomers speak of " magnitudes " and of " absolute mag- 
nitudes." The first gives the relative brightness of the stars as 



NEWS FEOM THE STAES — ABBOT. 



165 



they seem to us to be, and the second as they would seem if all were 
equally distant. A difference of a magnitude means about 2^ fold 
in brightness, and five magnitudes 100 fold. Thus a star of sixth 
magnitude, which can just barely be seen by the naked eye, under 
best conditions, is 100 times fainter than stars of first magnitude, 
like Aldebaran, which is among the brightest. On this scale our 
sun is of — 26.5 magnitude. 

But on the scale of absolute magnitudes our sun is only an aver- 
age star. If removed to Aldebaran's distance the sun would seem 
a fifth magnitude star. Some bright stars like Rigel, Canopus, and 
Deneb give thousands, perhaps himdreds of thousands or millions, 



^^ 


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5. 


*^~^ 


^'*==5-^ 


■"^"t-.^ 


""*** 


^S 


\ 


^ 


J^ 


nt 


T 





Fig. 2. — Light-curve of R R Draconis at eclipse (Sears). From Astrophysical Journal, 
vol. 36. Vertical scale, days ; horizontal scale, magnitudes. 

of times as much light as does the sun. On the other hand a vast 
number of stars give less light than the sun. 

Measurement of brightness is called photometry. A very large pro- 
gram of stellar photometry has been done under Director Pickering at 
Harvard College Observatory. Many stars are found to be of vari- 
able brightness. It has been shown lately by the Smithsonian observ- 
ers that even the sun is variable through a range of about 10 per cent. 
But most of the known variable stars vary much more widely than 
this. The cause of the variation is now known to be, in many but not 
all cases, the presence of a companion star so near the primary star 
as to be indistinguishable by the telescope, but discoverable by spec- 

73839°— SM 1916 12 



166 ANNUAL KEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

troscopic studies of motion in the line of sight. As the two stars re- 
volve about their common center of gravity they alternately eclipse 
each other as seen from the earth. Of course the eclipse may be 
either total or partial, according to the relative sizes of the two stars 
and the inclination of their orbit to our line of sight. By a careful 
study of the variation of brightness of these objects it is possible to 
fix the period of revolution, the relative size of the two stars, the in- 
clination of their orbit, and other data. This branch of astronomy 
has been much investigated at the Observatory of Princeton Univer- 
sity under Director Russell, and a most interesting publication of the 
results has just been made by his pupil Shapley, now at Mount Wil- 
son Solar Observatory. 

MASS AND SIZE OF STARS. 

The spectroscope shows, by noting the periodic variability of ve- 
locities of stars in the line of sight, that about one-fourth of all the 
visible stars are really double or multiple, though apparently single to 
the telescope. So, for instance, Campbell found that the polar star is 
probably triple. In cases where the stars are so wide apart that the 
telescope can perceive them as separated, not only can the distance 
of the stars from each other and from the earth be determined, but 
also the combined mass of the pair in terms of the mass of the sun. 
When there is no visible separation, the mass can be determined for 
some cases in which the plane of the orbit is known. For a Centauri, 
the nearest star to the sun, there is visible separation of two compo- 
nents, which revolve in 81 years. The total mass is twice that of the 
sun, and the two components being nearly equal, each is of about the 
sun's mass. The two are separated about 23.6 times as far as the 
earth is from the sun. The periods of revolution of double stars thus 
far determined spectroscopically range from 4| hours to 90 years. 

From the photometric study of eclipsing binary stars it has been 
shown by Roberts and by Russell that the average densities of these 
stars is small, no more than one-eighth of that of the sun. On this 
and other grounds astronomers are of the opinion that stars are gen- 
erally less dense than the sun, that is that they occupy a larger 
volume when of equal mass. The sun is only 1.4 times as dense as 
water, or half as dense as glass, while our earth is 5.5 times as dense 
as water, or 4 times as dense as the sun. 

THE NUMBER OF THE STARS. 

Stars are divided according to brightness in classes called magni- 
tudes. First magnitude stars like Aldebaran are rare. A good ex- 
ample of the second magnitude is Polaris. Stars as faint as the fifth 




NEWS FEOM THE STARS ABBOT. 167 

or sixth magnitude can be seen with the unaided eye, according to 
the clearness of the sky and its freedom from the glare of cities. A 
diiference of five magnitudes means a difference of a hundredfold in 
brightness. Thus sixth, eleventh, sixteenth, and twenty-first magni- 
tude stars are respectively a hundred, ten thousand, a million, and a 
hundred million times fainter than first-magnitude stars. Our sim 
is about twenty-six magnitudes, or twenty-five billion times brighter 
than zero magnitude stars like Vega. 

Do the stars increase in number without limit as we consider fainter 
and fainter ones revealed by larger and larger telescopes? To 
answer this question counts have been made of the actual numbers 
in the whole sky for the brighter magnitudes, and then of numerous 
patches of sky sufficient to give a fair average sample for the fainter 
magnitudes. In this way it has been found that up to the tenth 
magnitude the num- 
ber of stars brighter 
than a given mag:ni- t^ " v////Mmm/////mi *" C^-^ 

times as great as 

the number brighter (j 

than the magnitude ^— ^ 

next preceding. ^UN 

From this point on 

the increase grows « - 

less and less rapid, ~ - 

so that of s t a r s 

brighter than the Fig. 3. — The system of R R Draconis. Diagram by Shapley. 
seventeenth magni- ^^""'^ Astrophysical Journal, vol. 37. 

tude, the estimated number according to Chapman and Melotte, is 
only 55,000,000 instead of 1,800,000,000 as it would be if this constant 
ratio of increase prevailed. Up to the present time no thorough 
counts have been finished beyond the 17.5 magnitude, although by 
the aid of j)botography it is possible to observe stars as faint as 
the twenty-first magnitude with the great 60-inch reflector of Mount 
Wilson Solar Observatory. Arranging the information given by the 
counts in mathematical fashion, it appears that it is unlikely that 
any very considerable increase in the number of the stars will be 
found by observing stars fainter than the twenty-sixth magnitude, 
however large the telescope available. 

Stars at this limit are about as much fainter than those of zero 
magnitude as our sun is brighter, so that the brightest star (our 
sun) is twenty-five billion times twenty-five billion (25X10^X25X10^) 
times as bright as the stars of the faintest class which are probably 
shining upon us in any considerable numbers. The total estimated 




168 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

number of stars including this supposed limiting magnitude is 
probably between one and two thousand millions. 

But why is it that there is a limit of numbers? Are we to suj)- 
pose that there are no more stars, and that if our telescopes were 
sufficiently powerful to perceive those of twenty-sixth magnitude 
we could see all, little or big, that exist ? Or are we rather to sup- 
pose that there is a limit of distance beyond which no star can be 
seen, however bright, so that though myriads without limit may 
exist, no single station in the universe is able to receive light from 
those beyond this limiting distance? It seems probable that the 
latter hypothesis is the true one, although astronomers would not 
be unanimous in saying so. 

In recent years one bit after another of evidence has come out, 
tending to show that there is a light-absorbing medium in space. 
It is very rare. Dr. L. V. King has recently computed that the most 
probable measures of its effects on star brightness would be satisfied 
by assuming a density of the supposed absorbing medium in space 
less than one-trillionth part of that of the air. But even at this 
rate, space is so vast that the quantity of the supposed medium 
within a sphere whose radius is the average distance of the nearest 
star (a Centauri) is about 10,000 times the mass of the sun, which 
is startling if true. 

There figures are of course very uncertain. But that there is in 
space here a particle, there another, yonder a hydrogen molecule, 
beyond still others, and that in the well-nigh endless path extend- 
ing to stars of the twenty-sixth magnitude, whose light traveling 
186,000 miles per second takes tens of thousands of years to travel 
to us, there would be found enough such particles to bar the doors 
of light, as a fog shuts out the sun — this seems reasonable. 



THE DISTANCES OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 



By W. S. ElCHELBEEGEE. 

[/. /S. Naval Oiserratory. 



Before any attempt was made by the ancients to determine the 
distance from the earth of any celestial body we find them arrang- 
ing these bodies in order of distance very much as we know them 
to-day, assummg that the more rapid the motion of a body among 
the stars the less its distance from the earth; the stars, that were 
supposed to have no relative motions, Avere assumed to be the most 
distant objects. 

The first attempt to assigii definite relative distances to any two 
of the bodies was probably that of Eudoxus of Cnidus, who, about 
370 B. C, supposed, according to Archimedes, that the diameter of 
the sun was nine times greater than that of the moon, which is equiva- 
lent to saying that, since the sun and the moon have approximately 
the same apparent diameter, the distance of the sun from the earth 
is nine times greater than that of the moon. 

A century later, about 275 B. C, Aristarchus of Samos gave a 
method of determining the relative distances of the sun and moon 
from the earth, as follows: When the moon is at the phase first* 
quarter or last quarter the earth is in the plane of the circle which 
separates the portion of the moon illuminated by the sun from the 
nonilluminated part, and the line from the observer to the center of 
the moon is perpendicular to the line from the center of the moon 
to the sun. If at this instant the angular separation of the sun and 
moon is determined, one of the acute angles of a right-angle tri- 
angle — sun, moon, and earth — is known, from which can be deduced 
the ratio of any two of the sides, as, for instance, the ratio of the 
distance from the earth to the moon to that from the earth to the sun. 
Aristarchus gives the value of this angle as differing from a right 
angle by only one-thirtieth of that angle, i. e., it is an angle of 87°, 
from which it follows that the distance from the earth to the sun is 

I Presidential address before tbe Philosopliieal Society of Washington on Mar. 4, 1916. 

169 



170 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

nineteen times that from the earth to the moon. This method of 
Aristarchus is theoretically correct, but in determining the angle at 
the earth as being 3° less than a right angle he made an error of 
about 2° 50'. 

Hipparchus, who lived about 150 B. C. and was called by Delambre 
the true father of astronomy, attacked the problem of the distances 
of the sun and moon through a study of ecli]:)ses. Assuming in 
accordance with the result of Aristarchus that the sun is 19 times 
as far from the earth as the moon, having determined the diameter 
of the earth's shadow at the distance of the moon and knowing 
the angidar diameter of the moon he found 3' as the sun's horizontal 
parallax. By the sun's parallax is meant the angle at the sun sub- 
tended by the earth's semidiameter and if a = the semidiameter of 
the earth, A = the distance to the sun, and 11 = sun's horizontal 
parallax, the relation between these quantities is expressed by the 
equation : 

a 
Sin II = — 

A 

The next attempt to determine the distance of a heavenly body 
was made about 150 A. D. by Claudius Ptolemy, the last of the 
ancient astronomers and one whose writings were considered the 
standard in things astronomical for 15 centuries. To determine 
the lunar parallax he resorted to direct observations of the zenith 
distance of the moon on the meridian, comparing the result of his 
observations with the position obtained from the lunar theory. He 
determined the j^arallax when the moon was nearest the zenith, and 
also when it crossed his meridian at its farthest distance from the 
zenith. From his observations he obtained results varying from less 
than 50 per cent of the true parallax (57'.0) to more than 150' per 
cent of that value. According to Houzeau the definitive result of 
Ptolemy's work is 58'. 7. 

It is thus seen that the astronomers of 2,000 years ago had a 
fairly accurate knowledge of the distance of the moon from the 
earth, but an entirely erroneous one of the distance of the sun, the 
true distance being something like 20 times that assumed by them. 
This value of the distance of the sun from the earth was accepted for 
19 centuries from Aristarchus to Kepler, having been deduced anew 
by such men as Copernicus and Tycho Brahe. 

With the announcement by Kepler, early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, of his laws of planetary motion it became possible to deduce 
from the periodic times of revolution of the planets around the sun 
their relative distances from that body, and thus to determine the 



DISTANCES OF HEAVENLY BODIES EICHELBEEGEE. 171 

distance of the sun from the earth by determining the distance or 
parallax of one of the planets. 

From observations of Mars, Kepler obtained the distance of the 
sun from the earth as about three times that accepted up to his time. 
His value, however, was but one-seventh of the true distance. About 
50 years later Flamsteed and Cassini, working independently and 
using the same method as that employed by Kepler, obtained for 
the first time approximately the correct value of the distance of the 
sun from the earth. In a letter dated November 16, 1672, to the 
publisher of the Philosophical Transactions, Flamsteed says : 

September last I went to Townley. The first week that I intended to have 
observed $ there with Mr. Townley, I twice observ'd him, but could not make 
two Observations, as I intended, in one night. The first night after my return, 
T had tlie good hap to measure his distances from two Stars the same night; 
whereby I find, that the Parallax was very small ; certainly not 30 seconds : 
So that I believe the Sun's Parallax is not more than 10 seconds. Of this 
trtbservation I intend to write a small Tract, when I shall gain leisure; in which 
I shall demonstrate both the Diameter and Distances of all the Planets by 
observations ; for which I am now pretty well fitted. 

During the two and a half centuries since Flamsteed's determina- 
tion there have been more than a bundled determinations of the 
solar parallax by various methods. In the method used by Flam- 
steed the rotation of the earth is depended upon to change the rela- 
tive position of the observer, the center of the earth, and Mars. 
Another method is to establish two stations widely separated in lati- 
tude and in approximately the same longitude. At one station the 
zenith distance of Mars will be determined as it crosses the meridian 
north of the zenith; at the other station the zenith distance will be 
determined as it crosses the meridian south of the zenith. The sum 
of the two zenith distances minus the diiference in latitude between 
the two stations will give the displacement of Mars due to parallax. 
These two methods have been successfully applied to several of the 
asteroids whose distances from the sun are very nearly that of Mars. 

The nearest approach of Venus to the earth is during her transit 
across the face of the sun, and these occasions — four during the 
last two centuries — have been utilized to determine the solar paral- 
lax. Here, as in the case of Mars, two different methods may be 
used, either by combining observations at two stations widely sepa- 
rated in latitude or at two stations widely separated in longitude. 

The methods just described for obtaining the solar parallax, the 
geometrical methods, were made available, as has been said, by 
the discovery of Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Newton's dis- 
covery of the law of gravitation gave rise to another group of 
methods, designated as gravitational methods. The best of these 
is probably that in which the distance of the sun from the earth 
is determined from the mass of the earth, which in turn is deter- 



172 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 1916. 

mined from the perturbative effect of the earth upon Venus and 
Mars. This method is long and laborious, but its importance lies 
in the fact that the accuracy of the result increases with the time. 
Prof. C. A. Young says 

this is the " method of the future," and two or three hundred years hence will 
have superseded all the others, unless, indeed, it should appear that bodies at 
present unlj;nown are interfering with the inoveraents of our neighboring 
planets, or unless it should turn out that the law of gravitation is not quite 
so simple as it is now supposed to be. 

A third group of methods of determining the distance of the sun 
from the earth, called the physical methods, depends upon the de- 
termination of the velocity of light in conjunction either with the 
time it takes light to travel from the sun to the earth obtained 
from observations of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites or with the 
constant of aberration derived from observations of the stars. 

In August, 1898, Dr. Witt, of Berlin, discovered an asteroid^ 
since named Eros, which was soon seen to offer exceptional oppor- 
tunity for the determination of the solar parallax, as at the very 
next opposition, in November, 1900, it would approach to within 
30,000,000 miles of the earth. At the meeting of the Astrographic 
Chart Congress in Paris in July, 1900, it was resolved to seize this 
o^Dportunity and organize an international parallax campaign. 
Fifty-eight observatories took part in the various observations called 
for by the general plan. The meridian instruments determined the 
absolute position of Eros from night to night as it crossed the 
meridians of the various observatories; the large visual refractors 
measured the distance of Eros from the faint stars near it, at times 
continuing the measures throughout the entire night ; and the photo- 
graphic equatorials obtained permanent records of the position of 
Eros among the surrounding stars. In addition long series of obser- 
vations had to be made to determine the positions of the stars to 
which Eros was referred. 

When several years had elapsed after the completion of the obser- 
A'ations, and no general discussion of all the material had been 
provided for. Prof. Arthur K. Hinks, of Cambridge, England, vol- 
unteered for the work. The undertaking was truly monumental. 
He first formed a catalogue of the 671 stars which had been selected 
by the Paris congress for observation as marking out the path of 
Eros from a discussion of the results obtained by the meridian 
instruments and from the photographic plates. This done, with 
these results as a basis, a larger catalogue of about G,000 stars had 
to be formed from measures on the photographic plates. He was 
then ready to commence the discussion of the observations of Eros 
itself. From 1901 to 1910 there appeared in the Monthly Notices of 



DISTANCES OF HEAVENLY BODIES EICHELBERGEE. 173 

the Royal Astronomical Society eight articles covering 135 pages 
giving the results of his labors. 

From a discussion of all the photographic observations he obtained 
a solar parallax of 

8''.807±0''.0027 

a probable error equivalent to an uncertainty of about 3O5OOO miles 
in the distance to the sun. 

From a discussion of all the micrometric observations he obtained 

8''.806rt0''.004 

The observations with the meridian instruments gave 

8".837±0".0185 

a determination relatively much weaker than either of the others. 
A parallax of 8". 80, the value adopted for all the national alma- 
nacs 20 years ago, corresponds to a distance of 92,900,000 miles. At 
present it seems improbable that another parallax campaign will be 
undertaken before 1931, when Eros approaches still nearer to the 
earth, its least distance at that time being about 15,000,000 miles. 

Table I. — Approximate distance from earth to sun as accepted at various times. 



Date. 



275B.C.tol620A. D. 

1620 Kepler 

1672 Flamsteed 

1916 



Distance. 



Mnes. 

4,500,000 
13,500,000 
81,500,000 
92.900,000 



"\¥hen Copernicus pro])osed that the sun is the center of the solar 
system and that all the planets, including the earth, revolve around 
the sun, it was at once seen that such a motion of the earth must 
produce an annual parallax of the stars. Tycho Brahe rejected the 
Copernican system because he could not find from his observations 
any such parallax. How^ever, the system was generally accepted as 
the true one, and the determination of stellar parallax or the dis- 
tance of the stars became a live subject. Picard in the latter half of 
the seventeenth century, using a telescope and a micrometer in con- 
nection with his di\dded circle, showed an annual variation in the 
declination of the pole star amounting to 40". In 1674 Hooke 
announced a parallax of 15" for 7 Draconis. About this same time 
Flamsteed announced a parallax of 20" for a Ursae Minoris, but 
J. Cassini showed that the variations in the declination did not 
follow the law of the parallax. 



174 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The period which we have now reached is so admirably treated 
by Sir Frank W. Dyson, Astronomer Koyal, in his Halley lecture 
delivered at Oxford on May 20, 1915, that I ask your indulgence 
while I quote rather freely from that source : 

Thus in Halley's time it was fairly well established that the stars were at 
least 20,000 or 30.000 times as distant as the sun. Halley did not succeed in 
finding their range, but he made an important discovery which showefl that 
three of the stars were at sensible distances. In 1718 he contributed to the 
Royal Society a paper entitled " Considerations of the Change of the Latitude 
of Some of the Principal Bright Stars." While pursuing researches on another 
subject he found that the three bright stars — Aldebaran, Sirius, and Arcturus — 
occupied positions among the other stars differing considerably from those 
assigned to them in the Almagest of Ptolemy. He showed that the possibility 
of an error in the transcription of the manuscript could be safely excluded, and 
that the southward movement of these stars to the extent of 37', 42', and 33' — 
i. e., angles larger than the apparent diameter of the sun in the sky — were 
established. * * * 

This is the first good evidence — i. e.. evidence which we now know to be 
true — that the so-called fixed stars are not fixed relatively to one another. It 
is the first iiositive proof that the distances of the stars are sensibly less than 
infinite. 

At the time of the appearance of Halley's paper there was coming 
into notice a young astronomer, James Bradley, then 26 years old. 
He was admitted to membership in the Royal Society the same year 
that Halley's paper was presented. He was exceedingly eager to 
attack the problem of the distances of the stars. At length the 
opportunity presented itself. To quote again from Sir Frank 
Dyson : 

Bradley designed an instrument for measuring the angular distance from the 
zenith, at which a certain star. 7 Draconis, crossed the meridian. Tliis in- 
strument is called a zenith sector. The direction of the vertical is given by a 
plumb line, and he measured from day to day the angular distance of the 
star from the direction of the vertical. From December, 1725, to March, 1726, 
the star gradually moved farther south; then it remained stationary for a 
little time ; then moved northwards until, by the middle of June, it was in 
the same position as in December. It continued to move northwards until the 
beginning of September, then turned again and re:iched its old position in 
December, The movement was very regular and evidently not due to any 
errors in Bradley's observations. But it was most unexpected. The effect of 
parallax — which Bradley was looking for — would have brought the star 
farthest south in December, not in March. The times were all three months 
wrong. Bradley examined other stars, thinking first that this might be due to 
a movement of the earth's pole. But this woiild not explain the phenomena. 
The true explanation, it is said, although I do not know how truly, occurred 
to Bradley when he was sailing on the Thames and noticed that tlie direction 
of the wind, as indicated by a vane on the masthead, varied slightly witli the 
course on which the boat was sailing. An account vf the observations in the 



DISTANCES OF HEAVENLY BODIES EICHELBERGER. 175 

form of a letter from Bradley to Halley is published in the Philosophical 
Transactions for December, 1 728 : 

When the year was completed, I began to examine and compare my obser- 
vations, and having pretty well satisfied myself as to the general laws of the 
phenomena, I then endeavored to find out the cause of them. I was already 
convinced that the apparent motion of the stars was not owing to the nutation 
of the earth's axis. The next thing that offered itself was an alteration in the 
direction of the plumb line with which the instrument was constantly rectified ; 
but this upon trial proved insufficient. Then I considered what refraction 
might do, but there also nothing satisfactory occurred. At length I conjectured 
that all the jjhenomena hitherto mentioned, proceeded from the progressive 
motion of light and the earth's annual motion in its orbit. For I perceived 
that, if light was propagated in time, the apparent place of a fixed object would 
not be the same when the eye is at rest, as when it is moving in any other 
direction than that of the line passing through the eye and the object ; and that, 
when the eye is moving in different directions, the apparent place of the object 
would be different. 

Wlien Bradley's observations of y Draconis were corrected for 
aberration, they showed, according to himself, that the parallax of 
that star conld not be as much as 1".0, or that the star was more than 
200,000 times as distant from the earth as the smi. 

On December G, 1781, there was read before the Royal Society a 
paper by Mr. Herschel, afterwards Sir William, on the Parallax 
of the Fixed Stars. We read : 

The method pointed out by Galileo, and first attempted by Hook. Flamstead, • 
Mollneaux, and Bradley, of taking distances of stars frcmi the zenith that pass 
very near it, though it failed with regard to parallax, has been productive of 
the most noble discovei-ies of another nature. At the same time it has given 
us a much juster idea of the immense distance of the stars, and furnished us 
with an approximation to the knowledge of their parallax that is much nearer 
the truth than we ever had before * * *, 

In general, the method of zenith distances labors under the following con- 
siderable difficulties. In the first place, all these distances, though they should 
not exceed a few degrees, are liable to refractions ; and I hope to be pardoned 
when I say that the real quantities of these refractions, and their differences, 
are very far from being perfectly known. Secondly, the change of position of 
the earth's axis arising from nutation, precession of the equinoxes, and other 
causes, is so far from being completely settled, that it would not be very easy 
to say what it exactly is at any given time. In the thii'd place, the aberration 
of light, though best known of all, may also be liable to some small errors, 
since the observations from which it was deduced labored under all the 
foregoing difficulties. I do not mean to say, that our theories of all these causes 
of error are defective ; on the contrary, I grant that we are for most astronomical 
purposes sufficiently furnished with excellent tables to correct our observations 
from the above mentioned eri'ors. But when we are upon so delicate a point 
as the parallax of the stars; when we are investigating angles that may. per- 
haps, not amount to a single second, we must endeavor to keep clear of every 
possibility of being involved in uncertainties ; even the hundredth part of a 
second becomes a quantity to be taken into consideration. 

Herschel then proceeds to advocate selecting pairs of stars of very 
unequal magnitude and whose distance apart is less than 5" and 
making very accurate niicrometric measures of this distance from 



176 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

time to time. The first condition should give, in general, stars very 
unequally distant from the earth, so that the changing perspective 
as the earth revolves in her orbit would give a variation of the 
apparent distance between the stars, while the small distance, less 
than 5", would eliminate from consideration entirely any effect 
upon this distance of the uncertainties in refraction, precession, 
nutation, aberration, etc. Herschel had already commenced the 
cataloguing of such double stars and in January, 1782, submitted to 
the Royal Society a catalogue of 269. This work did not enable 
Herschel to determine the distances of the stars but did enable 
him to demonstrate that there exist pairs of stars in which the two 
components revolve the one around the other. In 20 years he had 
found 50 such pairs. 

Coming forward another generation — that is, to a time a little less 
than a hundred years ago — we find Pond, then astronomer royal, 
writing : 

The history of annual pax*allax appears to me to be this: In proportion as 
instruments have been imperfect in their construction they have misled ob- 
servers into the belief of the existence of sensible parallax. This has happened 
in Italy to astronomers of the very first reputation. The Dublin instrument 
is superior to any of a similar construction on the Continent, and accordingly 
it shows a much less parallax than the Italian astronomers imagined they had 
detected. Conceiving that I have established beyond a doubt that the Green- 
wich instrument approaches still nearer to perfection, I can come to no other 
conclusion than that this is the reason why it discovers no parallax at all. 

Within 15 years after this statement by Pond observations had 
been obtained which showed a measurable parallax of three different 
stars. The announcements of these results, each by a different 
astronomer, were practically simultaneous. 

W. Striive, using a filar micrometer, determined the distance of 
a Lyrae from a small star about 40" distant on 60 different days 
over a period of nearly three years. He obtained a parallax of 
0".262±:0'^025. Bessel, using his heliometer, determined the dis- 
tances of 61 Cygni from two small stars distant about 500" and 700", 
respectively. He obtained for this star a parallax of 0".314d::0'".020. 
Henderson, using determinations of the position of a Centauri by 
meridian instruments, deduced a parallax of l".16±0".ll. All 
three of these results were announced in the winter of 1838-39 and 
indicate that the three stars are distant from the earth about 750,000, 
650,000, and 200,000 times the distance of the sun from the earth. 



DISTANCES OF HEAVENLY BODIES— EICHELBERGER. 
Table II. — Parallaoa of 61 Cygni. 



177 



Mean date. 



Observed 
displace- 
ment. 



Computed 
from 
0".314. 



1837. 

August 23 

September It 

October 12 

November 22 

December 21 

1838- 

January 14 

February 5 

May 14 

June 19 

July 13 

August 19 

September 19 



+0.20 
+0.10 
+0.04 
-0.21 
-0.32 

-0.38 
-0.22 
+0.24 
+0.36 
+0.22 
+0.15 
+0.04 



+0.18 
+0.08 
-0.05 
-0.22 
-0.27 

-0.27 
-0.23 
+0.20 
+0.28 
+0.28 
+0.19 
+0.06 



Table II exhibits the observed displacement of 61 Cygni by 

'monthly means as given by Main from Bessel's observations. The 

last column gives the computed displacement on the assumption 

of a parallax of 0".314. The reality of the parallax is seen at a 

glance. 

In 1888, 60 years after the first determination of what we now 
know to be a true stellar parallax, Young, in his General Astronomy, 
gives, in a list of known stellar parallaxes, 28 stars and 55 separate 
determinations. Within the next 10 years the number of stars whose 
parallaxes had been determined about doubled, due principally to 
the^work of Gill and Elkin. 

Probably the most extensive piece of stellar parallax work in 
existence is tliat with the Yale heliometer. The results to date 
were published in 1912, and contained the parallaxes of 245 stars, 
the observations extending over a quarter of a century, the entire 
work having been done by three men — Elkin, Chase, and Smith. 
In selecting a list of stars for parallax work, an effort is made to 
obtain stars which give promise of being nearer than the mass of 
stars. At first the brighter stars were selected, and then those with 
large proper motions. The Yale list of 245 stars contains all stars 
in the northern heajt^ens whose annual proper motion is known to 
be as much as 0".5. Of these 245 stars, 54 are given a negative 
parallax. A negative parallax does not mean, as some one has 
expressed it, that the star is " somewhere on the other side of 
nowhere," but such a result may be attributed to the errors of 
observation or to the fact that the comparison stars are nearer than 
the one under investigation. It is safe to say, however, that some- 
what more than half of the 245 stars have a measurable parallax. 

Another series of stellar parallax observations, comparable in 
extent with the one just mentioned, is that of Flint, at the Washburn 
Observatory. This series includes 203 stars and extended from 1893 
to 1905. These observations were made with a meridian circle, but 



178 



ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



not after the method of a century ago. The observations were 
strictly differential, the general plan being to selett two faint com- 
parison stars, one immediately preceding and the other immediately 
following the parallax star, and to determine the difference in right 
ascension, the observation of the three stars occupying about five 
minutes. Here, as in the case of the Yale heliometer work, a large 
proportion of the resulting parallaxes are negative ; somewhat more 
than half, however, were found to have a measurable parallax. The 
average probable error of a parallax was the same in each of these 
two pieces of work — about 0".03. The progress of the work during 
the last two or three generations is given in Table III, which con- 
tains also a brief statement of the discoveries made during the 
jjreceding century, due chiefly to efforts to measure stellar parallaxes. 

Table III. — Apin-oximate number of known stellar parallaxes. 



Date. 


Astronomer. 


Number of 
stars with 

known 
parallaxes. 


Discoveries. 


1718 


Halley 

Bradley 

do 


(') 
(') 
(') 
0) 

3 

28 

50 to CO 

200 to 300 


Proper motion. 


1728 


Aberration. 


1750 


Nutation. 


1790 


Herschel 


True binary systems. 


1838 




1888 






1898 






1916 













1 No parallax. 

A generation ago photography entered the field of stellar parallax 
work, and has outdistanced all the previously employed methods for 
efficiency. In 1911 two publications appeared giving the results of 
photographic stellar parallax work, one b}^ Russell, giving the paral- 
laxes of 1:0 stars from photographs taken by Hinks and himself at 
Cambridge, England, the other by Schlesinger, giving the parallaxes 
of 25 stars from photographs taken mostly by himself at the Yerkes 
Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis. In speaking of these two series 
of observations. Sir David Gill said: 

On tlie whole, the Cambridge results, wheu a sufficient number of plates have 
been taken and when the comparison stars are symmetrically arranged, give 
results of an accuracy which, but for the wonderful precision of the Yerkes 
observations, would have been regarded as of the highest class. 

Schlesinger has shown that with a telescope of the size and char- 
acter of the Yerkes instrument "the number of stellar parallaxes 
that can be determined per annum, with an average probable error 
of 0".013, will in the long run be about equal to the number of clear 
nights available for the work." 



DISTANCES OF HEAVENLY BODIES EICHELBERGER. 



179 



In other words, the Yerkes iO-inch equatorial used photographi- 
cally determines stellar parallaxes with one-tenth the labor required 
with a heliometer and with twice the accuracy. 

In July, 1913, stellar parallax work was undertaken with the 
60-inch reflector of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, and at the 
meeting of the American Astronomical Society at San Francisco in 
August, 1915, a report on that work was made. The parallaxes of 
13 stars have been determined, with a maximum probable error of 
0".010 and an average probable error of less than 0",006, giving 
twice the accuracy of the Schlesinger results with the Yerkes 40-inch 
and from three to five times that obtained 15 years ago. What may 
we not expect when the 100-inch reflector gets to work on Mount 
Wilson? 

At the meeting of the American Astronomical Society, to which 
reference has just been made, two other observatories reported upon 
their stellar parallax work. Lee and Joy, of the Yerkes Observatory, 
reported the parallaxes of 9 stars with a maximum probable error 
of 0".014 and an average probable error of 0".010 ; and Mitchell, of 
Leander McCormick Observatory, reported the parallaxes of 11 stars 
with a maximum probable error of 0''.012 and an average probable 
error of 0".009. 

The progress made in the accuracy of parallax results is shown at 
a glance in Table IV. 

Table IV. — The accuracy of stellar paraUax determinations. 



Date. 


Instrument. 


Probable 
error. 


Observers. 


1838 


Micrometric: 

Dorpat refractor . 


0".025 
.02 
.017 
.03 
.03 

.013 
.010 
.009 
.006 


Struve. 


1838 




Bessel. 


1880-1898 


Cape nelionieter 


Gill and assistants. 


1888-1912 




F.llHn, rha.<!o, anH Rnrifth. 


1893-1905 


Washburn meridian circle 

Photographic: 

Yerkes refractor 


Flint. 


1910 


Schlesinger. 


1915 


do 


Lee and Joy. 


1915 


Leander McCormick refractor 

Moimt Wilson 60-inch reflector 


Mitchell. 


1915 


Van Maanan. 







From these results it appears that any star whose parallax is as 
much as 0".02, i. e., whose distance from the earth is less than 
10,000,000 times that from the earth to the sun, should give a positive 
result when subjected to the treatment now employed in parallax 
investigations, and as 8 or 10 observatories are devoting their ener- 
gies to stellar parallax work at present, the combined programs 
containing over 1,000 different stars, we ought soon to have lists of 
at least a few thousand stars whose parallaxes are known, where 
our present lists contain but a few hundred. 



A CENSUS OF THE SKY.^ 



By R. A. Sampson, M. A., F. R. S., 

Astronomer Royal for Scotland. 



[With 6 plates.] 



It might seem to call for some rfemark, even some apology, that 
at a period like the present one, when all the ordinary interests of 
life disappear or are transformed, that we should meet as we had 
arranged to meet, and exchange with one another the different 
truisms of science. 

There occurs to me a passage in a book by a celebrated private in 
the French Army, Anatole France's " Isle of Penguins "" ; one of his 
characters, deeply depressed by the perversity of the world, reflects 
somewhat as follows : " Since riches and civilization bring as many 
occasions for war as barbarism and poverty, since the folly and ill 
will of mankind are incurable, there remains one good deed to do, 
some wise man shall collect enough dynamite to blow this planet up. 
Then when it whirls in fragments across space some imperceptible 
alleviation will be felt in the universe and some satisfaction will be 
given to the universal conscience, which, indeed, does not exist." 

While we feel as much as any this same savage indignation— - 
Swift's sceva indignatio — that folly and ill will have still the power 
to throw the whole world off its bearings, and while we are all of 
us busily engaged in collecting enough djmamite to blow some partis 
of it to pieces, it is wise to remind ourselves that there are other things 
besides folly and ill will that are indestructible, and among these is 
the desire to increase natural knowledge. We are at no loss for 
precedents. Our Royal Society was initiated in the midst of civil 
war. The " Principia " was published a year before the Great 
Revolution. Kepler found in the Thirty Years' War no reason to 

1 Evening discourse delivered before the British Association Sept. 11, 1915. Reprinted, 
by author's permission, from The Observatory, a monthly review of astronomy, vol. 38, 
No. 493, Nov., 1915. 

73839°— SM 1916 13 181 



182 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

interi'upt his study of the planetary motions, nor did Gauss in the 
invasion of Napoleon. Successive volumes of Mecanique Celeste 
came out, and bear evidence in their title-pages of the political 
changes of the French Revolution. Hevelius and Gassendi corre- 
sponded across a Europe in turmoil, and Newcomb worked with De- 
launay at the theory of the moon while the Paris Commune raged 
almost to the doors of the observatory. Had science always waited 
to advance till times were quiet, it would have remained to this day 
uncommonly near to its starting point. 

The subject to which I ask your attention for an hour to-night 
is not a small one. It is nothing less than the simplest compre- 
hensive view of the whole universe. Indeed, it is a subject so vast 
that some have felt that in the study of it human interests would 
shrivel away and that as we looked steadily upon its extension we 
should be gripped with a kind of nightmare and feel ourselves shrink- 
ing and shrinking, and unless by violent effort we could throw it 
off we should seem in risk of vanishing altogether. But somehow 
that is not the case. Those who most study the matter and those 
who have lately contributed most to our knowledge are men well 
known to us, very human beings. Certainly a correct conception of 
the universe must govern the scale of ultimate values of all we do; 
but in the history of ideas it is remarkable that interest in it has for 
the most part of the time been satisfied with obvious fairy tales, has, 
in fact, been limited to the very narrow outlook of what we might 
immediately expect to accomplish, and has often combined in indi- 
viduals an intense interest in the question, Avith a total disregard of 
any but the individual's point of view, as if even the " vasty halls " 
of cosmogony were an arena of sport, where the attempt Avas not so 
much to reach the goal as to gain a place for self-expression. As 
president for the time being of the Royal Astronomical Society, I 
keep a certain amount of involuntary touch with such people. " I 
should like to know, sir," one of these wrote to me severely the other 
day, " what steps are being taken to spread the true chronology and 
the truth about the deluge." 

Well, perhaps that gentleman was a paradoxer; but it is interest- 
ing to bestow a side glance upon the way astronomy has been viewed 
by acute and catholic minds before the era when the commonplaces 
of diffused education had blunted a good many first-hand judgments. 
I shall not take you on a long excursion into history. Tavo or three 
pregnant examples will suffice. 

Take Bacon's New Atlantis. In that remarkable country, Avhich 
had flying men and submarines and scientific stockbreeding for the 
production of definite variations, it is true that they had a statue to 
" the inventor of observations of astronomy," but the systematic con- 



CENSUS OF THE SKY SAMPSON* 183 

templation of the heavens does not appear to have formed a part of 
their national scheme of study : 

We have high towers, the highest about half a mile in height ; and some of 
them likewise set upon high mountains, so that the vantage of the hill with the 
tower is in the highest of them 3 miles at least. * * * We use these towers, 
according to their several heights and situations, for insolation, refrigeration, 
conservation, and for the view of divers meteors ; as winds, rain, snow, hail, 
and some of the fiery meteors also. And upon them in some places are dwellings 
of hermits, whom we visit sometimes and instruct what to observe. 

This passage is very disappointing to an astronomer. These her- 
mits, with their magnificent equipment, state support, and boards 
of visitors, were nothing more than meteorologists. 

Or, again, take Shakespeare. It is admittedly difficult to make out 
what views, if any, Shakespeare held on any subject, and I shall 
have to quote words put into the mouth of the light-minded Biron 
in order to make my point; but we know that the farcical figures 
of his plays are chiefly pedants and j)olicemen; in particular, the 
pedant moved him to a school-boy ribaldry, and from two or three 
references I surmise that astronomy, as a science and apart from its 
poetic incrustations, struck him as yet another field for the preci- 
osities of his ineffable pedants. " Stud}'," says Biron — 

Study is like the heaven's glorious sun. 

That will not be deep searched with saucy looks. 
Small have continual plodders ever won. 

Save base authority from others' books. 
Those earthly godfathers of heaven's lights 

That give a name to every fixed star 
Have no more profit of their shining nights 

Than those that walk and wot not what they are. 
Too much to know is to know naught but fame ; 
And every godfather can give a name. 

That is all there is in it — giving names; science is nominalism. 
We may brush it aside, but, after all, it is a painfully shrewd hit 
against science. 

Now, there was a very considerable and extended astronomy in 
Shakespeare's and Bacon's days. Copemicus's work De Revolu- 
tionibus was 50 years old. It was perhaps not much read, but for a 
century before de\dous voyages, lasting for months or years, to North 
and South America, to South Africa, and to India had made indis- 
pensable a working knowledge and command of its practice, and 
with the practice grew up a scientific interest. 

In 1578 Mr. John Winter passed through the Straits of Magellan 
" in a good and newe shippe called the ' Elizabeth,' of 80 tonnes in 
burthen," as one of Sir Francis Drake's consorts. Neither the place 
nor the vessel can have been favorable to scientific abstraction, jet he 
determined his longitude there from an eclipse of the moon. The 



184 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITTJTION, 1916. 

])assage (Hakluyt, Vol. VIII) is a gem of accurate astronomy, and 
I shall read it to you, for every point mentioned is relevant and the 
conclusion quite justified and near the truth : 

The 15 of September the moone was there eclipsed, and began to be darkened 
presently after the setting of the sunne, about sixe of the clocke at night, being 
then Equinoctial vernal in that country. The said eclipse happened the 
16 day in the morning before one of the clocke in England, which Is about 
sixe houres difference, agreeing to one quarter of the V^^orld from the IMeridian 
of England, towards the West. 

Now, take a long step from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. 
Passing by a fastidious and academic writer like Tennyson, we fi^nd 
a mind as careless of fact and untrammeled by convention as Mark 
Twain deriving perpetual delight from the mere scope and scale of 
things astronomical in its revelation of the very size of the world 
as measured in millions upon millions of any units we can tell off. 
It may be hard to say exactly what this proves, but we may allow it 
to suffuse the continual plodder with a gentle glow of satisfaction, 
for without his continual plodding it would never have come to pass. 

Undoubtedly the last word of astronomy must be heard before we 
can solve the problem of the philosophers upon its material side and 
jDlace man in true relation to the universe. 

I suppose it is evolution that has made us feel responsible for the 
universe, incurring thereby, it must be confessed, a very heavy 
responsibility with fate — a debt that would cause serious anxiety 
had not philosophy long since become reconciled to permanent bank- 
ruptcy. I mean that before evolution became one of our fixed ideas 
"man's place in nature" was an expression to which only an arbi- 
trary meaning could be attached. There was no obligation to con- 
nect the phenomena of the universe in one long chain. Nothing is 
more illuminating as to our change of view than to read the words 
of one of the lesser lights of the eighteenth century — for example, 
Thomas Wright, of Durham, is an author who is often mentioned 
alongside Immanuel Kant as having foresight of the nebular hy- 
pothesis, the great evolutionary scheme of astronomy. Without 
depreciating the insight and the breadth of Wright's views on ex- 
tended stellar systems the defect — ^the perfect defect of any evolu- 
tionary glimpse in them — strikes one now as an almost painful 
incompetence. We are sensible of the necessity of connecting all the 
parts of our system. That is the general interest in a sur^'ey of the 
sky, outside of professional interest in a difficulty overcome and of 
curiosity — which, indeed, is soon bored by mere magnitude — and 
that is the reason why we come back to it again and again, especially 
row that we are beginning from more than one avenue to approach 
some reliable, and one hopes some permanent, point of view. 



CENSUS OF THE SKY SAMPSON. 185 

That avenue which I would ask you to follow this evening is the 
most direct, the least artificial, and one would say the driest of all — 
mere enumeration, a census of the sky. But it is not dull. As I 
ehall show you in a few minutes, the material de^ilt with is of com- 
pelling beauty, and, as scientific people, I hope it may interest you 
to have in brief review the considerable difficulties, instrumental and 
of organization ; the many collateral questions that must be answered 
before any confident, or even approximate, reply can be given to the 
main question of how many stars there are and how they are dis- 
tributed. And, finally, as British people, I think you feel a legiti- 
mate pride to know that this great and unobtrusive work, of central 
interest to astronomy, that I wish specially to describe to you is all 
British (including therein the Transvaal Colony) in design and 
execution; the plans made, cost provided, and very many of the 
photographs taken by an amateur, the late Mr. Franklin-Adams, a 
business man of London; the instrument designed by Mr. Dennis 
Taylor, and constructed by him at Cooke's works at York ; the series 
of photographs completed at the Union Observatory at Johannes- 
burg; and the counts performed and discussion made at Greenwich 
Observatory by Mr. Chapman and Mr. Melotte, two members of the 
staff. [Specimens of the Franklin-Adams chart were shown (pis. 
1-6).] 

You now see, more or less, the problem before you. To "give a 
name to every fixed star " is a task that we are not likely to under- 
take. The Arabs gave many of them proper names, which no doubt 
had some meaning, more or less substantial, but now passed on to the 
westerns with meaning, pronunciation, and accent alike in corrup- 
tion, uncertainty, and disrepair, form a somewhat trying detail to 
the conscientious astronomer. Ptolemy adopted in his list a crude 
and picturesque description with reference to the asterism. Thus, in 
Leo : " The one on his muzzle," " the one in his throat," " the one at 
the tip of his front right claw," " the western one of the three on 
his belly," " the one at his heart named Regulus." It is a troublesome 
plan, even for the 1,000 stars of which he gives the places. Tycho, 
who was only incidentally a stellar observer, using the stars to fix 
his planets, carried on the method of Ptolemy. Not till the middle 
of the seventeenth century did Bayer in his Uranometria, introduce 
the device of attaching the Greek letters to stars in each asterism. 
The advent of the telescope, with Hevelius and our own Flamsteed, 
utterly outran any method except that of numbering. Lalande's 
Histoire Celeste in 1801 contained 50,000; Argelander's Durchmus- 
terung in 1847, upward of 300,000 in zones from the pole to Dec. 
—10°. At each effort the object, if completeness was its aim, showed 
more mountainlike. In 1879, at the instance of the Astronomische 
Gesellschaft, Argelander's zones were revised by the cooperation of 



186 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

many observatories in upward of 20 years. It hardly requires proof 
that with such resources as astronomy has ever commanded, or is 
likely to command, a complete enumeration upon these lines will 
never be attained. 

If we are to attain a conspectus of the whole, now or ever, we must 
make a radical reduction in the demands of our problem. Now, in 
all these catalogues the places of the stars are recorded in their two 
coordinates, and the calculations made in each individual case which 
are necessary to allow for precessional change in the axes of refer- 
ence. We can not dispense with knowing where the stars are, but 
if our interest is in their numbers and regional distribution, we can 
dispense with recording it precisely. And if we can take an elevated 
standpoint and eliminate the earth, like the Blessed Damozel, leaning 
on the gold bar of heaven, and see far below 

this earth 
Spin like a fretful midge — 

why, then, we may dispense with the troublesome calculation of pre- 
cession. There is almost nothing left then except to count. 

But let nobody think lightly of the importance or the difficulty of 
mere counting. When the White Queen put to Alice the question : 

How many are one and one and one and one and one and one and one and 
one and one and one? 

Alice does not appear to have been able to answer. Counting 
correctly is very difficult, because, so to put it, it requires from the 
mind a simultaneous hold upon the past, present, and future. Count- 
ing, on the other hand, done carefully is the only region of knowl- 
edge, even of mathematics, in which we can be perfectly sure we are 
not talking nonsense. Much that was formerly classed as geometry 
is now classed as nonsense. A circle has no properties until we 
say how it is generated, and we can not say how it is generated 
until we make up our minds about continuity; and continuity, to 
make it intelligible, is now explained in terms of discontinuity — 
that is, of counting. By counting infinity is made comprehensible, 
like an infinite perspective collected upon the narrow space of the 
retina, as a sequence of converging increments — countless in their 
number but countable in their sum or effect. 

Counting by samples is another name for the theory of statistics, 
of averages, with their ramifications of probability, without which 
matters so disparate as life insurance and the kinetic theory of gases 
would be equally unmanageable. 

I need not labor my point. In counting the stars you have to 
count a sum of which you can not tell in advance whether it will 
prove infinite or finite; you have to count by samples; you have 
to count by receding steps or grades as far as ,you can and then 



Census op the sky — Sampson. 187 

infer the continuation ; and, if these grades are incorrectly or debat- 
ably demarcated from one another, your results are liable to such 
enormous uncertainties that they can hardly be held to add anything 
to knowledge. To have performed this counting, as I believe it 
has been effectively and securely performed, is, in my judgment, 
a vei-y great feat, one that would appropriately be taken as a land- 
mark in the history of the mind; and I do not think I detract 
from this at all if 1 say that those who have actually done the work 
would not lay claim to more than to have well and truly performed 
a straightforward task by established methods. None the less, it 
marks a stage, a fact among many surmises, an achievement among 
many attempts. 

Counting the stars is nothing else than the method of Herschel's 
star gauges supplemented by a due consideration of all the diffi- 
culties which he overstepped by intrepid assumptions. AYlien Her- 
schel set up his 20-foot reflector of 18-inch aperture it was mounted 
vertically in the meridian with a sweep of a little more than 2^°, 
and he surveyed the sl^ in zones of declination, taking everything 
that came by, and, in particular, counting the density of the fields. 
These counts were the bases of his papers on the " Construction of 
the heavens," which showed that the sun was roughly in the center 
of an irregular disk-shaped universe of stars, researches that I have 
heard Sir David Gill describe as " almost inspired." But, if he was 
inspired, like other prophetic writers, we have to repose upon his 
genius, for criticism spoils him. It will not do now to tell us that 
a seventh-magnitude star may be generally taken as seven times as 
distant as a first-magnitude star. In the first place, calculation is 
astray — 25 times would be more defensible — ^but, in the second, 
though we know that distance must raise magnitude, generally speak- 
ing, we are quite unable to verify the connection. But, most of 
all, though Herschel " looked farther into heaven than any man 
before him," for this purpose he did not look nearly far enough. 
His statement that in a field of 15' diameter he counted some TO 
or 80 stars, with occasional fields very much denser^ would indicate 
that he reached to the thirteenth or fourteenth magnitude. The 
fifteenth magnitude more than doubles the fourteenth, the sixteenth 
nearly doubles the fifteenth, the seventeenth nearly doubles the six- 
teenth. How does the progression continue? Does it go on forever? 
Does it go on even as far as we can see ? 

No real advance upon Herschel's gauges could be made without 
photography, both because the record is permanent and so leaves 
you time to count and also because the faintness of the stars that 
you can reach is almost unlimited. 

Let me now leave generalities and give you, as succinctly as pos- 
sible, some details of the work I am describing. 



188 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The instrument consisted of a 10-inch lens of 45-inch focus, with 
a 6-inch lens of 27-inch focus, mounted, together with guiding tele- 
scopes, upon an equatorial mounting of the English pattern. 

With the lO-inch lens, 17° by 17° upon the sky are depicted upon a 
plate 15 inches square, and to cover the whole sky upon this scale 206 
plates were requisite. The exposure of each plate was 2 hours or 2 
hours 20 minutes, so as to reach the faint stars. Northern platen 
were taken at Mervel Hill, near London; the southern at the Cape 
and afterwards retaken at Johannesburg. 

There are certain defects in every lens which are practically in- 
curable when a wide-angle field is desired, namely, curvature of the 
field and astigmatism or replacement of a point-image by two line 
condensations at different distances from the lens. It is the art of 
the lens maker and of the lens user to split the residual errors in the 
least harmful manner. 

I show two slides taken from the same plate. The first shows the 
center, with images perfectly round, small, and defined. The second 
shows the corner. You see the elongations in two perpendicular di- 
rections succeeding one another separated by forais that suggest 
flights of beetles. That these forms are so little pronounced at some 
10° from the center is the proof of the excellence of lens, focussing, 
and guiding. It is the practice to suppress them somewhat by sac- 
rificing almost imperceptibly the definition at the center, so that the 
smallest images are actually not at the center, but half or two-third 
the radius away. 

But this enlargement of image means diffusion of light, so that the 
instrument is less sensitive and the stars recorded are less numerous 
at the margin of the field than at the best focus. In matters of count- 
ing this is very important, because it would produce a systematic 
deviation. Accordingly, the average amount of this deviation was 
determined and allowed for. 

It was proposed to count a sufficient number of plates to determine 
the number of stars, zone by zone, in each of eight zones of galactic 
latitude. Actually 30 plates were employed. They are all in the 
northern hemisphere, but lie both north and south of the galactic 
equator. In each count it was proposed to detennine the number of 
stars of each separate magnitude, and here arose one of the most cru- 
cial, as well as difficult, points. The magnitudes recorded ranged down 
to the seventeenth, or nearly to the ten-millionth of the brightness of 
a first magnitude star. It was necessary to have the scale of magni- 
tude correct over this wide space, because any deviation would here 
again become systematic, and, altering the number of stars in each 
grade, would altogether distort the estimated total of the vast num- 
ber of those beyond the reach of counting. You will understand how 
difficult it was to establish an absolute magnitude scale when the 



CENSUS OF THE SKY SAMPSON. 189 

limiting brightness of stars recorded varies upon each plate with the 
purit}^ of sky and the elevation above the horizon. I will only allude 
to this difficulty and say that a scale was determined and w^as applied 
to each plate in a way that is practically beyond criticism. Standard 
specimens of the results were photographed within the eyepiece of 
the measuring microscope for comparison with the plates and were 
used for the estimation of tl-we magnitudes of all the stars. The count- 
ing then proceeded. Two computei"s were employed on the work and 
it occupied them for two years. Success depended yerj much on 
skill. After the counting had proceeded for a few weeks one of the 
earlier plates was recounted and the number of stars detected was in- 
creased by 50 per cent. The whole of these early plates were there- 
fore repeated and, fortunately for finality, subsequent practice did 
not increase the numbers any more. Only the magnitudes from the 
twelfth to the seventeenth were counted, as the maternal was already 
available for stars brighter than the twelfth. These were found 
partly in some counts made at Harvard of stars from magnitude 2 to 
4.5, partly in some counts of Schwarzschild for magnitude 5 to 7.5, but 
chiefly from the Greenwich Astrographic Catalogue from magnitude 
9 to 12.5, and a special Greenwich photometry with the Franklin- 
Adams 6-inch lens for magnitude 6.5 to 9.0. The standard bases of 
all these, I need hardly say, were most carefully brought into adjust- 
ment. The results of this laborious work are contained in a table. 
(A diagram representing the table Avas shown on the screen.) Bm is 
the number of stars of magnitude m and brighter in each zone; its 
logarithm is charted here in place of the number in order to make the 
diagram more compact. In this diagram is contained the net out- 
come of the counts, the distribution of stars, zone by zone, for every 
magnitude. 

All the eight curves, representing the eight zones, are independent, 
and their similarity, which strikes us at once, is convincing proof 
of their reliability. The}^ tell us that in every zone the proportion 
of stars of the various magnitudes is the same, as far as the eye can 
follow. If we look closely into the numbere it appears that there 
is perceptible a slight gradual increase of the proportion of the 
fainter stars as the galaxy is approached. Beyond this there is a 
gradual increase in density in the whole number of stars in the zones, 
so that at the equator of the galaxy it is three times as dense as at the 
poles. The progress is quite gradual over the whole sky. The 
galaxy does not produce a sudden rise in the numbers, and simply 
drops into the statistical register of the whole. Statistically, in spite 
of the striking contrasts you have seen, the " divine disorder " of the 
heavens, there are no other features than this, a gradual condensation 
amounting at the limit to threefold toward the galaxy accompanied 



190 



ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



by a slight relative increase of the proportion of the fainter stars. 
That is, the statistical description of the distribution of the stars 
when attention is diverted from their random features. 

Passing now from the distribution in zones to the question of the 
total nimiber of stars, the table below exhibits the data before us : 

We see that as we take in successively the second, third, down to 
the seventeenth magnitude, the proportionate increase of numbers, 
which is at first three per magnitude, falls progressively until at the 
seventeenth it is less than two. 

Beyond this it is almost wholly a matter of inference, but the 
jDrogTession is so steady that Mr. Chapman and Mr. Melotte have 
reduced it to a formula which, within the ascertained range, admits 
of very little latitude, and shows that at about the twenty-third or 
twenty-fourth magnitude we should have reached one-half of the 
total, and that this total would lie between one and two thousand 
millions. 

I say it is a matter of inference, because hardly any material was 
available to carry on the counts. Two plates, however, were forth- 
coming, one by that keen observer, Mr. D'Esterre, and one from 
Mount Wilson, and these when counted confirmed the forecast num- 
bers in reassuring fashion beyond the twentieth magnitude— that 
is to say, down to stars 100 million times as faint as those of the 
first magnitude. 



Numbers and equivalent light of the stars. 



Magnitude. 


Number. 


Equivalent 
number 
of first 

magnitude 
stars. 


Totals to 

magnitude 

m. 


-1.6 


Sirius. 

a Carinfe. 

a C'entauri. 

8 

27 

73 

189 

650 

2,200 

6,600 

22, 550 

65,000 

174,000 

426,000 

961, 000 

2, 020, 000 

3, 960, 000 

7, 820, 000 

14,040,000 

25, 400, 000 

38, 400, 000 

54, 600, 000 

76, 000, 000 


11 
6 
2 
14 
17 
18 
19 
26 
35 
42 
56 
65 
69 
68 
60 
51 
40 
31 
22 
16 
10 
6 
3 
3 




- 0. 9 




0.0 




0. 0- 1. 


33 


1.0-2.0 


50 


2.0-3.0 


68 


3.0-4.0 ,_ 


87 


4.0-5.0 


113 


5.0-6.0 


148 


6.0-7.0 


190 


7.0-8.0 


246 


8.0-9.0 


311 


9.0-10.0 


380 


10. 0-11. 


448 


11.0-12.0 


608 


12.0-13.0 


559 


13.0-14.0 


59s) 


14.0-15.0 


630 


15.0-16.0 


652 


16.0-17.0 


668 


17.0-18.0 •. 


678 


18. 0-19. 


684 


19.0-20.0 . . 


687 


All stars fainter than 20. 


690 









There is the result, between one and two thousand millions — I sup- 
pose somewhere about as many as the people on the globe. I confess 



CENSUS OF THE SKY SAMPSON. 191 

to a feeling of a kind of relief in finding that the total is measurable 
and, comparatively speaking, moderate. 

It may be well to add a few sentences in consideration of the 
validity of the conclusion, which is and must remain, an extrapola- 
tion beyond knowledge, a summation to infinity of a series not com- 
pletely known. 

We begin by admitting that we are dealing only with the sensible 
universe. There may be dark stars; in fact, we know that there are, 
because some of them have been detected in occulting the bright ones, 
as in the case of Algol. Naturally these are not counted. Nor do we 
reckon with the possible presence of absorbent matter in space, by 
which the magnitudes of all the stars seen would recede progressively, 
so that at the end of the series their light would be extinguished. 
Nor do we profess to unravel the details of globular clusters — we 
can not do everything. For that matter, there is infinite detail in a 
drop of blood or an atom of gas. We take the stars as we find them. 
The relevant question is the possibility of a sudden break or a gradual 
change in the progression after the 20 terms that have been so care- 
fully examined. 

There would seem to be a certain kind of control in the total light 
received, but this proves illusory. 

The total of starlight is a sensible amount, but it is very small. 
The table shown above is taken from a paper by Mr. Chapman. It 
shows that for the ascertained magnitude up to the twentieth the 
total light emitted is equivalent to 687 first-magnitude stars, which 
again has been put as equal to the hundredth part of full moonlight. 
If we include all the remaining stars, following the formula, the 
equivalent addition would be only three more first-magnitude stars. 
But this tells us very little, for if the progression were so altered 
that the total number were infinite the total light could easily still 
be finite, owing to the reducing effect of higher magnitude. 

We leave off our summation at a point where each additional mag- 
nitude is adding more stars than the last. If this went on the number 
would be infinite. But, according to the formula, between the twenty- 
third and twenty-fourth magnitudes there is a turning point, after 
which each new magnitude adds less than before. The actual counts 
have been carried so near this turning point that there is no reason- 
able doubt of its existence. Given its existence, the number of stars 
is at least finite. That is a conclusion that I regard as open to very 
little doubt. As to the value of the sum, naturally we can be less 
positive. But all the indications of the earlier terms must be mis- 
leading if the margin between one and two thousand millions is not 
enough to cover the whole. 

It is sometimes said that the British amateur astronomer, to 
whom in the past so much enterprising construction and so much 



192 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

sound and brilliant observation is due, has disappeared. No doubt 
the growth of organization continues to add strength proportionately 
to the gTeat observatories. I imagine that the number of excellent 
amateurs to be found at any one time was never large. While we can 
produce men like Mr. George Higgs or Mr. Franklin- Adams, whom 
unhappily we have lately lost, or Mr. D'Esterre, who happily is with 
us, we need not be anxious. Prof. Hale — himself, like Herschel and 
Gill, an amateur turned professional — once defined an amateur as a 
man who pureued astronomy because he could not help it. Mr. 
Franklin-Adams satisfied this test. Sir David Gill tells how, in 
1903, he came to the Cape with the " incongruous double purpose " 
of curing the rheumatism and neuritis, which at that time almost 
incapacitated him, and of photographing the southern heavens. 
"While the moon shone he retired to the sanatorium at Caledon, and 
at the end of a fortnight, against the best advice, he would emerge 
to sit up at nights and expose his plates. He has left the world a 
great gift and happily has jjlaced it in trust with the best possible 
hands, those of Greenwich Observatory, and it has been dealt with 
there as it deserves, with the unassuming mastery that so well be- 
comes that great house, by the astronomer royal, Mr. Chapman, and 
Mr. Melotte. We can not dispense with discussion and with theory, 
and I would be the last to depreciate them, but I think you Avill feel 
we always owe a special debt of gratitude and affection to the inde- 
fatigable, the truth-loving race of observers. 



GUN EEPOET NOISE i— ACTION OF THE MAXIM SI- 
LENCER AND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REPORT 
NOISE AND BULLET-FLIGHT NOISE EXPLAINED. 



By HiKAM Percy Maxim. 



[With 7 plates.] 



When a gim is discharged it is the common idea that there is a 
single noise heard — the report noise. That such is not the case, and 
that there are two entirely separate and distinct noises has been 
proved in a very interesting manner by the advent of the Maxim 
silencer. The history of the research work which led np to this 
device is very instructive and well worth recording. 

Wlien the work was undertaken, at the beginning the object was 
to annul report noise so that concealment of position, partly attained 
by smokeless powder, would be completed. When the firing line be- 
came invisible there was only left the report noise to indicate its 
position and also its strength or number of guns. 

To attain this object, it was thought only necessary to check the 
suddemiess of the release of the high pressure powder gases into the 
atmosphere. This pressure, in the caliber 30 United States service 
Springfield rifle, wag approximately 10,000 pounds per square inch, 
when the base of the bullet emerged from the barrel muzzle. A de- 
vice must be found which would present an unobstructed path for the 
bullet, but this path must not be available to the gas, at least easily. 

The search for a path which would give a bullet an absolutely un- 
impaired passage, and yet would check gas at 10,000 pounds pressure 
per square inch, was a long one. For a year it persisted without 
results. Its successful ending came in a very interesting though 
extremely prosaic manner. The essential element was a hole which 
would be pervious to a rifle bullet but impervious to high-pressure 
gas. One morning, after taking a bath and pulling the plug in the 
tub drain hole, the water was given an accidental twist and the 

1 Reprinted by permission from Science Conspectus, vol. 6, No. 2, 1916. 

193 



194 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

familiar little whirlpool was created. It attracted the eye and 
finally the mind, since there was a hole through which water was 
passing but slowly, notwithstanding the fact that the drain plug 
was removed. In a flash the analogy was apparent. It was obvious 
that centrifugal force prevented the water from passing through the 
hole rapidly. If the powder gases in a gun were given the same 
vigorous Avhirling action, they would also acquire centrifugal force, 
and, if their outlet hole were located at or approximately at the 
center, they would exit relatively gradually. The}^ simply could not 
exit until they had slowed down at least a little. The search was 
ended. 

A little gas whirling device was quickly made and adjusted to the 
barrel of a rifle and the first shot fired was the first quiet rifle shot 
ever discharged from a high-power rifle. 

Wlien shooting was done in several different places, it began to 
be apparent that the noise depended upon the place, at least when a 
high-power rifle w^as used. It seemed to be impossible to eliminate a 
certain sharp " crack." The character of this crack was similar to a 
whiplash crack. It was entirely different from the more dull boom 
of the report. By accident it was found one day that this " crack " 
noise existed a long way down the range. A listener located at the 
500-yard mark on a 1,000-yard range, detected the crack noise ap- 
parently overhead. This indicated immediately that it was con- 
nected wdth the bullet flight in some manner and was entirely sepa- 
rate and apart from the report noise. 

Tests were made to bring out additional facts, and some of these 
are instructive. It was suspected that the bullet flight created a 
bow wave, creating a little zone of compressed air which moved out 
from the trajectory, and that this wave was heard by reflection. The 
person shooting the gun always heard a different noise from the per- 
son located at a distant point down the range. A terrain was selected 
on the extensive meadows on the Connecticut Eiver bank below 
Hartford, where a series of clumps of bushes and small trees existed. 
There were three separate clumps in front of which the bullet from 
a Springfield service rifle could be made to pass. AVlien the gun was 
fired, the listener at the gun heard three separate sharp cracks, and 
a low rattle of many minor cracks. This pointed fairly conclusively 
to the fact that the bow wave was reflected back from each of these 
clumps, and separate noises were heard from each, because they were 
separated by enough distance to give a distinguishable interval. 

It was then thought that firing down a railroad track which ran 
along the open meadow, and had telegraph poles at regular intervals, 
would giA-e a good test. This was done, and the result was a rapid 
succession of cracks, just as had been anticipated. 



GUN EEPORT NOISE MAXIM. 195 

Then it occurred to the writer that if he could find a place to 
shoot where there would be no object from which reflection could 
occur, he ought to secure quiet shooting. It seemed a difficult condi- 
tion to find until he bethought himself of getting up on a knoll away 
from trees and other objects and shooting straight up into the air. 
There would be no objects up in the air to reflect back the bow wave, 
and, if the theory were correct, such shooting should be almost en- 
tirely quiet. It was with much interest that a suitable place was 
searched out. One was finally found, and the first firings were felt to 
be of great moment. The first shot told the story, for the only noise 
was the puff of gas from the silencer, which sounded very soft and 
low. There was absolutely no bullet flight sound heard. The bow 
wave went on and on and never returned. 

The next thing was to locate the limits of this bullet flight noise. 
It evidently persisted in certain guns while in others it never oc- 
curred, while in still others it occasionally occurred. Bullets from 
various cartridges were fired and it very soon developed that when 
the bullet velocity reached the velocity of a sound wave, the crack 
became noticeable. AVhen the bullet velocity fell below the velocity 
of sound, there was no crack noise. The velocity of sound then ap- 
peared to be the critical point above which the ordinary bullet could 
never be fired quietly. It developed that the .22 caliber smokeless 
cartridges, except in the case of the long, gave quiet shooting, be- 
cause their velocity was below 1,085 feet per second. The long 
cartridge appeared in some cases to be above this velocity though 
not always. There was evidently un-uniformity. The long rifle 
cartridge was always beautifully quiet, as was of course also the 
short cartridge. The .22 W. K. F. cartridge, which is a special 
high power, seemed to be just on the critical line. For example, in 
a box of 50 cartridges, about half would shoot without bullet flight 
noise, whereas the other half w^ould make a loud crack. With all the 
larger caliber regular cartridges bullet flight noise occurred. By 
using special loads, they all gave quiet shooting. In some cases 
very heavy bullets were used, and the striking energy maintained in 
spite of the lower velocity. The reduced velocity of course reduced 
the distance at which accurate shooting could be accomplished. Two 
hundred yards always was possible, however, with bullet velocity of 
1,000 feet per second, which is well inside of the critical point. 

Before the question was considered settled, it was thought neces- 
sary to make various shaped bullets. Some were made of approxi- 
mately perfect stream line shape. Others were made with a central 
hole all the way through the bullet. A copper gas check was used 
over the base when firing, and this fell off as soon as a bullet left the 
gun barrel. There never was a single piece of evidence upon which 
to hang a theory that the noise was in the slightest degree altered. 



196 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Then came the desire to actually see this peculiar manifestation 
and, incidentally, to conclusively prove the silencer. It was always 
a bit difficult to prove to the ordinary mind that the noise heard when 
shooting a rifle equipped with a silencer was made out in the air 
beyond the silencer and that the latter should not be held accountable. 

The United States Navy, through their Ordnance Department, 
produced the best photographs which have been taken. These were 
made by mounting the gun in a dark room and setting up the camera 
with an open shutter along the line ©f bullet flight. Two wires lead- 
ing from an electric condenser were dropped down directly beside 
the trajectory so that the bullet would short circuit these wires when 
it passed and create a spark, the duration of which was of radio 
frequencj^, possibly something approximately one five hundred 
thousandths of a second. This almost infinitely short exposure gave 
a clear photogi'aph of the bullet and the variation in density of the 
air in the bow wave caused a variation in the refraction of the light, 
causing less light to fall where the pressure was high and more light 
where the pressure was low. Beautiful pictures of the noises made 
when the gun is discharged were obtained. Some of these are shown 
herewith. A series were taken showing the noises when the service 
rifle without silencer was fired and another series with the silencer. 
In the former, the report noise is shown, the birth of the bullet flight 
noise, and the bullet itself. In the latter the entire absence of report 
noise is shown and the very high efficiency of the silencer dem- 
ontrated. 

Plate 1 (photo I) represents tke condition existing immediately 
following the emerging of the bullet at the muzzle of the Springfield 
rifle without silencer. The two vertical wires are shown and the 
bullet is enveloped in the mass of powder gases and can not be seen. 
The first wave appears to be made from a rush of air out of the 
muzzle and the main report noise wave is shown just back of it, 
being the broad dark line, irregular in places. 

Plate 2 (photo J) represents conditions just a bit later. The bullet 
has emerged from a cloud of powder gases and has just begun the 
creation of its bow wave. It is shown puncturing the main report 
noise which shows particularly strong in this picture. By looking 
carefully the noise waves set up by flying particles of unburned 
smokeless powder can be seen. 

Plate 3 (photo N) represents conditions still later and out beyond 
the disturbance of the blast of gas from the muzzle. The bullet flight 
bow wave has developed further and the greater velocity of the 
bullet over the report noise wave is very well shown. It is not plain 
at this time why the main report wave should be divided at the rear 
of the bullet. This completes the series of photographs taken with- 
out silencer. 



GUN REPORT NOISE MAXIM. 197 

Plate 4 (photo A) represents the first picture with silencer on the 
rifle. The bullet is shown emerging from the muzzle of the silencer, 
the bow wave of bullet flight noise is shown and there is absolutely 
no sign of any report noise. Indeed, there seems to be no disturbance 
created at all except the bow wave from the bullet. 

Plate 5 (photo B) represents the conditions just a bit later. The 
bow wave and also a stern wave from the bullet is shown, the dis- 
charge from the silencer, but absolutely no report wave. 

Plate 6 (photo E) represents a still later period, the bow wave 
being distinctly shown and the wake of the bullet. The stern wave 
has begun to disappear, for what reason it is not quite plain. 

Plate 7 (photo F) represents a still later time and the wake of 
the bullet is the principle point of interest. This seems to partake 
of a spiral motion. The bow wave and the remnants of the stern 
wave are shoAvn, but no report wave. 

Having now shown the conditions existing at the muzzle of a fire- 
arm, equipped with a Maxim silencer, and proving as conclusively as 
seems possible that the noise of the gun is eliminated and that the 
only noise remaining is the bullet flight, we may ask the practical 
results. These have been very carefully studied from every imagin- 
able angle. Field tests, accuracy tests, and tests at night have been 
conducted officially by war departments with bodies of troops 
equipped with silencers. Briefly summarized, these amount to the 
following : 

1. The most important advantage on a shoulder rifle seems to be 
the diminution of sound on one's own firing line, which permits 
officers's commands to be heard during periods of the most rapid and 
concentrated fire. Without the silencer the human voice can not be 
heard. 

2. The concealment of position of the firing line and the conceal- 
ment of the number of gims comprising it. This is a natural advan- 
tage which might be imagined. 

3. Improvement in marksmanship because of reducing the tend- 
ency to flinch. The elimination of the concussion entirely and the 
reduction of the recoil by 50 per cent makes the modern military 
rifle a much more gentle gun, and the rank and file in innumerable 
military tests always make higher scores than with the bare rifle. 

4. Elimination of muzzle flash at night makes location of the 
shooter invisible. This is supposed to constitute an important mili- 
tary advantage. 

The aspects of a quiet shooting firearm in the case of assassins is 

of interest. We have seen that we can not secure quiet shooting 

unless we have bullet velocity below 1,085 feet per second. Except 

in 22-caliber this requires specially loaded cartridges for all calibers. 

73839°— 8M 1916 14 



198 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Furthermore, the silencer, being a gas check deA^ce purely and sim- 
ply and applicable only to the muzzle, the ordinary revolver can not 
be silenced because of the joint between the cylinder and the barrel 
allowing the gas to escape if it is checked at the muzzle by the 
silencer. Thus the assassin's favorite arm is unsilenceable, to coin a 
word. 

In the case of the automatic pistol it is almost an impossibility to 
attach the silencer and moreover the almost instantaneous opening 
of the breech permits a back blow and usually upsets the ejection of 
the empty shell enough to cause a jam. So w^e can not expect to see 
the automatic pistol silenced as things stand to-day. The assassin 
will have to design a small arm with a breech mechanism constructed 
on the lines of a rifle if he is to take advantage of any silencing 
device. Such a weapon does not exist at the present time. 



MOLECULAE STRUCTUEE AND LIFE.^ 



By Aui. PicTET, 
Professor of Vlicinistry at the Univcrsiiij of Geneva. 



Of all the problems of nature the one deserving the most intense 
interest is undoubtedly that of life. Its solution concerns at the 
same time the whole range of natural and physical sciences, and it 
deserves to become the objective of all the exhaustive methods of 
research now at their disposal. And yet among the sciences bio- 
chemistry is the principal one upon which falls the task of this re- 
search. In fact, it is not at all doubtful that, if not life itself, at 
least the phenomena that it manifests in living things may be en- 
tirely of chemical origin. 

But biochemistry itself is based on pure organic chemistry. In 
fact the fundamental condition for intelligently interj^reting a 
phenomenon is to have exact knowledge of the agency by which it 
is unfolded. Now, it is the function of organic chemistry to supply 
us in this particular case with this knowledge by establishing the 
nature of the materials of which living things are composed. 

To separate, to purify, to characterize, to analyze the innumer- 
able compounds derived from animals and plants have been the pri- 
mary objects of organic chemistry. But it has not stopped there; 
it has pushed on further to learn what may be called the constitution 
of these bodies ; that is to say, the actual architecture of their mole- 
cules, the exact place that each of their atoms occupies, and the rela- 
tions that those atoms bear to one another. It has succeeded in the 
great majority of cases, thereby accomplishing an immense task that 
may rightly be regarded as one of the most remarkable achievements 
of human intelligence up to the present time. 

I hasten to add that the enormous amount of labor that these 
researches have required has not had its source alone in that specu- 
lative interest connected with all new knowledge. Chemists who 

^Address at the opening meeting of the ninety-seventh session of the Soci^t^ helv^tique 
des Sciences naturelles, held at Geneva, September 12 to 15, 1915. Translated, by per- 
mission, from Revue Scientifique, Paris, November 13—20, 19] 5, and from author's revised 
pamphlet : " Extrait des Archives des Sciences physiques et naturelles, Geneva, 1915." 

199 



200 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

have broken up all the organic molecules, who have identifiod the 
constructive plan of these minute edifices, have been urged on by two 
other motives of a far more immediate import. 

The first motive is the attractiveness of synthesis. It is acknowl- 
edged that the artificial reproduction of a natural compound can 
be brought about only when the composition of that natural com- 
pound is known in its minutest details. Whenever an attempt is 
made to proceed in any other way, to put the cart before the horse, 
as they say, and to work haphazard, the result is invariably a failure. 
The latest example of this is the fruitless attempts to make artificial 
rubber. 

In the second place chemists have given their close attention to 
(questions of composition because they are not slow to recognize the 
fundamental fact that all the properties of organic compounds — 
physical, chemical, and physiological — stand in intimate relation 
to this composition. It is not the quantity nor the nature of the 
materials employed in the construction of a building that makers of 
it a church, a theater, or a railway station. In the siime way it is 
neither the specific kind nor the number of the atoms of a molecule 
that makes of an organic compound a coloring material, an anti- 
septic, or a perfume; it is simply the way in which the atoms are 
grouped one with the other. To know this method of grouping will 
be to possess the means of preparing at will and at one stroke any 
given new compound with predetermined properties. 

A mass of relations of the highest interest between the composi- 
tion and certain properties of substances have thus been established, 
such as their color, their staining quality, their density, their flavor, 
their polarization, their therapeutic action, etc. But all branches 
of this study have not been explored; in particular, no attempt has 
yet been made to connect their biological properties with the struc- 
ture of molecules. 

This is the subject that I should like to discuss at this time, and I 
begin by limiting it to the three following questions : 

(1) Is there a relation between the chemical composition of a 
substance and the part it plays in the interior of a living organism ? 

(2) Is there a condition of molecular structure which makes a 
substance useful, inactive, or harmful in sustaining life, which 
makes it a food or a poison? 

(3) Is there a like condition by which the material of a living 
cell is distinguished from that of the same cell when dead ; in other 
words, does death result in changing the architecture of the mole- 
cules? 

Before answering these questions it seems desirable to specify 
clearly with what particular phase of the theory of constitution my 
discussion will have to do and be assured I shall limit myself to 



MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND LIFE — PIOTET. 201 

what is strictly necessary. It will be sufficient for the purpose of 
my demonstration to bring to your attention the principle of organic 
classification. 

As the result of 50 years of patient researches it has been ascer- 
tained that the approximately 200,000 organic compounds now 
known, however great their diversity, belong, from the viewpoint 
of their molecular structure, to only two types. 

In the first type, the atoms of which they are formed, whether 
saturated or unsaturated compomids, are joined in a nearly recti- 
linear chain of greater or less length. The central part of the mole- 
cule forms a sort of vertebral column to which in turn other atomic 
groups are joined laterally. 

In the second type these same atoms are joined under the influence 
of similar attractive forces, but form closed chains. The structure 
of the molecule is now not a string of atoms but a ring. And on this 
ring similar circular groups are applied just as the tissues of a fruit 
are built up on its stone or kernel. 

Hence we have the distinction between compounds with open 
chains and those with cyclic radicals. This distinction lies at the 
very foundation of organic classification. It corresponds, for ex- 
ample, to what in zoology is the division between vertebrates and 
invertebrates, and is not without analogy to it, for it is founded on 
the conformation of the structure and on the symmetry of the being, 
whether it be an animal or a molecule. 

From a theoretic point of view the two great classes of organic 
compounds are separated by a great gap. But this is not insupera- 
ble. In many cases, by suitable reactions, it is possible to act on the 
molecules of substances in such a way as to close an open chain 
(cyclisation) or to break a closed chain (cyclolyse). Thus it is possi- 
ble to pass experimentally from one type to the other. 

It is true that this transition is incomparably easier in one case 
than in the other. One of the characteristics of the closed chains is 
their stability, considerable chemical energy being always required 
to disorganize them. On the other hand, cyclisation is more easily 
effected, although it demands a certain degree of energy, required 
for the bending of the rectilinear chain and the welding of its ter- 
minal atoms. What are the forms of energy needed to produce this 
result? 

In the first place is heat. Berthelot first showed this by passing 
through red-hot tubes an. entire series of open-chain substances. 
He thus obtained numerous cyclic compounds, and in particular the 
greater part of those that in combination constitute coal tar, a by- 
product of gas manufacture fiom which the modem chemist has ob- 
tained so many valuable derivatives. On the basis of these experi- 
ments, Berthelot likewise founded his well-known theory of the 



202 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

formation of coal tar. According to this theory, coal in course of 
distillation is decomposed into very simple gaseous products with 
open-chain molecules, and these products by impact with the sides 
of the heated retort undergo cyclisation. We shall see hereafter what 
estimate should be given to this explanation. 

But the cyclic compounds are found not in coal tar alone; they 
are met with in substances which have never been subjected to the 
action of great heat, such as petroleum. They are found above all 
in abundance in living organisms and, in particular, in plants. Here 
the agent causing the cyclisation is no longer heat energy, and a 
further search will be necessary to determine what it is. 

First, however, permit me to make an observation. From what I 
said awhile ago it might appear that the properties of an organic 
compound must differ completely according to whether that com- 
pound belongs to the class of bodies with open chains or to those of 
cyclic form. But investigations so far recorded show this is not 
always the case. In both groups are found alcohols, acids and bases, 
substances having taste or odor and others not, substances that are 
poisons, and others that are harmless. Chemical industry draws in- 
differently from either gi'oup its perfumes and its explosives, and 
also its therapeutic medicines. Color alone seems to be found in 
connection with cyclic structure, and yet only to a limited extent. 

It might be concluded that these properties are but slightly or not 
at all influenced by the architectural structure of the molecule ; that 
they depend essentially on the nature of the external groupings 
which encircle this structure and which appear to be the same in both 
cases. This would be a strange fact. It is hard to understand how 
so essential a thing, from the theoretic viewpoint, as the structure of 
the molecule is not reflected in the fundamental properties of the 
material. But according to my personal observations this anomaly, 
which would be inexplicable, does not really exist. I believe I may, 
in a measure, affirm, on the contrary, that there is always a harmonj'' 
in the fundamental properties of the material which are regulated 
by the nature, either cyclic or linear, of the molecular structure. 
These properties are the ones whicli come into play in all manifesta- 
tions of life. It is this which I shall try to prove. 

In order to study vital phenomena in their greatest simplicity, 
they must be observed not only in animals but also in plants. Con- 
sider then the green plant, the organism upon which devolves the 
task of transforming the mineral substances it contains into organic 
materials, and finally into living matter, which the animal needs only 
to decompose and oxidize in order to utilize the energy that they 
contain in a potential state. 

What is the mechanism of this marvelous synthesis ? Our present 
knowledge is very imperfect ; but we do Imow the intermediary prod- 



MOLECULAR STEUCTUEE AND LIFE — PICTET. 203 

ucts through which this takes place. These are the formic and 
glycolic aldehydes, sugars and starch, numerous vegetable acids, 
asparagin, glycerin, fats, lecithins. These substances exist in all 
plants. They are found in each living cell, together with the pro- 
teins which are essential constituents of protoplasm. They rightly 
appear then as the foods of this cell. 

However, if the constitution of these bodies be considered, the fact 
is striking that their molecules are made up only of open chains of 
atoms. None of them shows the cyclic structure. There is thus ob- 
served a fundamental relation between the constitution and the role 
of vegetable substances. All those that may be legitimately consid- 
ered as the direct and successive products of assimilation, all those 
that contribute to the building up and nourishment of living proto- 
plasms, belong to the first class of organic compounds. 

But these substances are far from being the only ones that the 
vegetable kingdom furnishes us. Besides these the plant produces 
an infinite variety of others which human industry constantly 
searches for, not only to utilize them as foods, but also to profit by 
any of their other properties. Thus, for example, the great group 
of essential oils, turpentines, and camphors, many representatives of 
which constitute our perfumes or our highest prized condiments. 
There is also the long series of colorants and vegetable pigments, 
from chlorophyl to that interesting group of anthocyanins, or flower- 
pigments, the systematic study of which is being taken up by our 
former colleague, Willstatter. There are the various resins, the 
rubbers, the tannins, the glucosides, the various bitter or astringent 
principles. Finally, there are all those numerous nitrogenous and 
basic compounds grouped under the name of alkaloids and which, 
chiefly, because of their remarkable physiological action in the ani- 
mal organism, have furnished our most valuable medicines. Is 
the part that these substances play in the plant the same as that 
of compounds of the first category? It is generally believed other- 
wise. And yet many physiologists still accept it to-day and see in 
these substances reserve food materials that the plant will utilize 
when the time comes to build up its tissues. 

I do not at all share this view and for the following reasons : 
These substances seem to me not at all like the first, that is, indis- 
pensable to the development of plants, since many plants do not have 
them. They are not found, as are the others, inclosed in the seeds 
or in the roots. They are never met with in the li\ing cell, from 
which they seem to be excluded, but are mainly in the tissues or in 
special receptacles where they are localized and stored separate from 
the great tract of protein formation. They do not disappear but 
on the contrary are accumulated during the life of the plant. They 



204 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

are, then, certainly not intermediary products in the building up of 
the living protoplasm. Search must be made elsewhere than in a 
process of assimilation for the origin of these compounds which, 
without nutritive value for the plant are, however, often produced 
by it in considerable quantities. What then is their origin and their 
signification ? 

Some years ago in connection with this subject I advanced an 
hypothesis relating specially to alkaloids. 

This hypothesis having been accepted w^ith some favor, I extend 
it to-day to all compounds of the same character. I admit that, far 
from being products of assimilation, they are products of denutri- 
tion. They represent the losses of vegetal metabolism. They cor- 
respond to what among animals are urea, uric acid, glycocoll, biliary 
pigments, etc. It is, in fact, not conceivable that the biological syn- 
thesis of proteins, any more than synthetic operations in vitro gen- 
erally, could be made with a theoretical yield, without leaving some 
secondary products, some residues which could no longer be utilized. 
Conversely, using the tissues, all the phenomena of assimilation and 
of combustion must produce in plants as well as in animals some 
corresponding losses, nitrogenous or otherwise. 

All these i3roducts are not simply useless, but they are injurious 
to the maintenance of life. They represent poisons from which the 
organisms of both kingdoms must be freed at any cost under penalty 
of toxication. The animal can do this by expelling them; but the 
plant, deprived of excretory organs, can do this only very imper- 
fectly. It must be content to retain them and is restricted to render- 
ing them inoffensive by keei^ing them outside of the vital circulation 
and preventing them from reentering the living cell from which they 
have been expelled and from exercising their toxic influence on the 
protoplasm. And we find that it does this, for the compounds in 
question are never found actually present in the interior of such cells. 
The cell wall thus becomes a sorting place of useful and poisonous 
substances; it is permeable to the first, impermeable to the second. 
Can an explanation be given of the mechanism that regulates this 
sorting? 

No physical characteristic (such as solubility, ionization, the col- 
loidal or crystalline state) distinguishes the two kinds of substances 
from each other. No difference in chemical composition exists be- 
tween them ; they are formed of the same elements, which are those of 
protoplasm itself. It clearly follows, then, in my opinion, that only 
a difference of molecular structure can explain their opposite be- 
havior. Let us now see what is loiown of their constitution. 

Eesearches in this subject have led to the remarkable result, the 
final consequences of which are not yet known, that all these products 
are cyclic compounds. The carbon atoms of the turpentines, of 



MOLECULAR STRUCTUEE AND LIFE — PTCTET. 205 

camphors, and of tannins, the carbon and oxygen atoms of the 
anthocyanins, the carbon and nitrogen atoms of chlorophyll and of 
all the alkaloids, are uniformly joined in closed chains. 

We have seen that it is exactly the reverse with the nutritive sub- 
stances of the cell. I see plainly in this different disposition of the 
atoms the reason why the molecules of one group should penetrate 
the living cell, and why those of another group would be excluded. 
A straight wire will penetrate a narrow opening if introduced end- 
wise, but will not pass if made into a ring. Likewise the inter- 
molecular passages of the cellular walls permit the passage of the 
flexible strings of open chains while they oppose the entrance of the 
massive and rigid rings which form the cyclic molecules. 

Moreover the waste products of metabolism are primarily bodies 
with open chains, like the substances from which they are derived. It 
is therefore only after an impact that they acquire the cyclic structure 
which renders them inoffensive. There is here a reaction of the 
living plant against the toxic substances that it produces, and this 
reaction consists in a modification of the internal structure of these 
substances; the plant is defended against these poisons by cyclising 
them. There are therefore in the vegetal organism two parallel 
processes of synthesis, one which, reuniting the atoms by simple 
juxtaposition, forms the long open chains that will result in the 
formation of the complex molecule of the proteins, the other, carrying 
on a veritable street inspection, cleans the organism of all the detritus 
left over from the first synthesis, isolating all particles no longer 
available for constructive metabolism as well as those thrown off by 
destructive metabolism. 

This hypothesis, being announced, it remains to verify it by ex- 
periment and to show how cyclisation operates in the plant. This 
is what I now proceed to do, at least so far as it applies to the alka- 
loids. Starting with the idea that, in organic synthesis, the best 
way to attain the end is to imitate nature, I have always sought in 
my attempts to artificially reproduce vegetable alkaloids to work 
under conditions as nearly as possible identical with those of the 
living plant. This idea has been followed in recent work in my 
laboratory by MM. Gams, Spengler, Kay, and Malinowski, and by 
Mile. Finkelstein work has been carried on upon the synthesis of 
berberine and a number of the alkaloids of opium. 

We have uniformly chosen as the starting point of our operations, 
on the one hand, such substances as are known to be formed in 
plants by the decomposition of the proteins, and, on the other hand, 
compounds, such as formaldehyde, which are derived in part from 
the carbonic acid of the air. In the condensation of these with each 
other we obtain certain cyclic alkaloids identical with those pro- 
duced in vegetable tissues. I have thus succeeded, in collaboration 



206 ANNUAL BEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

with M. Cliou, in directly obtaining certain alkaloids, hydrolyzing 
in vitro the albumens themselves in the presence of formaldehyde. 

It therefore seems well proved that the alkaloids have their origin 
in the plant by cyclisation of the products of decomposition of the 
proteins; and, by analogy, it is justifiable to attribute the same 
origin to all similar compounds. 

In resume, we observe a complete parallelism in the two gi'and 
divisions of organic compounds, between the form of their molecular 
structure and the role they play in the plant organism. Only com- 
pounds with open chains are capable of maintaining life in this 
organism, while compounds with closed chains, found in abundance 
in certain plants, are merely waste products, without nutritive 
value, rendered inactive by the fact of their cyclisation. An ideal 
plant ought to contain none at all. But a serious objection is at 
once raised to this conclusion. Any chemist or botanist will make it. 
He will say: In the list of substances which, in the plant, do not 
contribute to the formation of its protoplasm, you have omitted the 
most important, cellulose, that material, morphologically indispen- 
sable, which, in all plants, forms the cell walls and ducts and plays 
a fundamental role in the mechanical protection of the protoplasm 
by affording the covering needed for its organization into more or 
less rigid and resistant tissues. 

It seems indispensable, continues my opponent, that the substance 
upon which this function devolves should possess a chemical sta- 
bility sufficient to resist the multiple activities carried on within the 
plant. It must be independent of the general action of metabolism. 
If the ideas that you have developed are correct, they say, this 
independence would result from its molecular structure, and cellu- 
lose, like every other compound that the plant excludes from its 
vital activities, would possess the cyclic structure. But all chemical 
treatises place cellulose, as well as starch, among the open-chain 
compounds; and this fact alone is enough to overthrow the entire 
basis of your theory. 

I recognize that this objection would be unanswerable if it rested 
on solid ground; that is to say, on an exact knowledge of the con- 
stitution of cellulose. But this constitution has not yet been de- 
termined, and the analogy with starch is not enough to establish 
it. I believe, on tlie contrary, that cellulose should be far removed 
from starch in the classification and be placed among the com- 
pounds of cyclic structure. A series of experiments that I have 
carried on with MM. Ramseyer and Bouvier offer proof of what 
I advance. These experiments bring out the following consider- 
ations: 

The chemical phenomena which cause tlie decomposition of the 
plant after its death vary according to the conditions in which 



MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND LIFE PICTET. 207 

they take place. If the plant be left to itself in the open air its 
nitrogenous materials at once undergo rapid putrefaction with the 
formation of ammonia, which is restored to the soil, and carbonic 
acid, which returns to the atmosphere. The nonnitrpgenous mate- 
rials, and in particular cellulose, resist much longer, but they also 
finally disappear, due to a slow combustion of which the agent, 
either direct or indirect, is the oxygen of the air. 

If the dead plant, instead of being left in the open air, is more 
or less covered with earth, this action of the oxygen is retarded, 
and the formation of earth molds are aided, substances very little 
known from the viewpoint of chemistry but concerning which we 
do know they are products of the incomplete oxidation of cellu- 
lose and present some characteristics of phenol, that is, of cyclic 
compounds. 

If, finally, these same vegetable materials are entirely protected 
from the action of the air, either by submersion in water or by being 
buried deep in the earth, as occurs in great geological displacements, 
they undergo none the less a slow transformation. But this is no 
longer an oxidation, it is a decomposition of a special character, the 
principles and agencies of which we do not Imow, although we do 
know perfectly the final products. These are our fossil fuels of 
various ages, as lignite and bituminous and anthracite coals. There 
is no doubt that in this instance it is cellulose which furnishes the 
essential material of coals. In this transformation the cellulose 
loses a part of its oxygen and hydrogen, and is consequently enriched 
in carbon. But this decomposition taking place at low temperature, 
Liffects only the periphery of the molecule; the carbon nucleus is not 
affected. It must therefore be admitted that the fundamental struc- 
ture is the same in coal as in cellulose, and that detemiining it in the 
former establishes it at the same time in the latter. 

Unfortunately, though coal has been used for two centuries as a 
fuel, though for a hundred years there have been obtained from it by 
distillation three products of such great industrial importance as 
illuminating gas, coal tar, and coke, yet there remains an almost total 
ignorance of its chemical nature. Can you infer its nature from the 
products of this distillation? It is known, as I have said, that coal 
tar is formed exclusively of cyclic compounds. It is the same with 
coke. The fact that it furnishes aromatic acids by distillation as- 
sures us that the atoms of carbon which compose it are united in 
closed chains. Can it be said that the same structure may be at- 
tributed to the materials as to their derivatives? Such an inference 
would seem to be absolutely unjustified, because during the distilla- 
tion of coal these materials have been subjected to temperatures of 
800° to 1,000°, and we are told by Berthelot's experiments that these 
temperatures are the cause of the cyclisation of all the open chains. 



208 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,' 1916. 

To avoid the force of this objection, it would be necessary to elimi- 
nate the cyclising action of heat during the decomposition of coal. 
This is what I have attempted to do with the assistance of my two 
expert collaborators. In operating the distillation of coal in vacuo, 
so as not to admit of an increase in temperature above 450°, we ob- 
tained a special coal tar and a new kind of coke. But in studying 
this vacuum coal tar and coke we have assured ourselves that each 
of them, like ordinary coal tar and coke, are exclusively of cyclic 
nature. We conclude from this that the cyclic compounds pre- 
exist in coal and certainly form its major part. From these ex- 
perimental results there follow, in our opinion, the three following 
conclusions : 

(1) Berthelot's theory of the formation of coal tar can not be con- 
sidered as accurately interpreting the facts. All the derivatives of 
coal tar which chemical industry has utilized in such a brilliant man- 
ner, are no longer believed, as formerly, products of heat action. It 
is not at all to the heat of the gas jets that is due their well-lmown 
aromatic radical so rich in valuable properties. This radical al- 
ready existed though in a more hydrogenated condition, in the 
plants of the carboniferous age. All chemistry of the aromatic com- 
pounds thus owes a dependence on plant chemistry. 

(2) Vacuum coal tar is in reality nothing more than petroleum, 
having its odor, density, fluorescence, and weak rotatory power. All 
the definite compounds that we have derived from it are found to be 
identical, with those other compounds isolated from the petroleums 
of Canada, California, and Galicia. We therefore verify for the first 
time, a relation of a chemical order between these two natural i^rod- 
ucts of such high importance, coal and petroleum. Does this rela- 
tion imply a common origin, and can it serve as an argument for those 
who claim that petroleum, like coal, is of plant origin ? For my part 
I believe so, but to enter into a discussion of that point would be too 
far from my subject. 

(3) If coal, as we believe we have demonstrated, is formed of a 
mixture of cyclic substances, one could hardly fail to attribute the 
same structure to cellulose, which, of all the substances contained in 
plants, is the one that plays the greatest part in the formation of 
coal. The objection that my opponents would make in this respect 
therefore falls and my hypothesis conversely finds a new example for 
its support. 

With one span we will now bridge the entire distance separating 
the first products of plant assimilation from its final product, 
namely, living matter. And it should be understood at the outset 
that I employ this term "living matter" only as an abbreviation, 
and to avoid long circumlocution. You should not, in reality, attribute 



MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND LIFE — PICTET. 209 

life to the matter itself ; it has not, it can not have both living mole- 
cules and dead molecules. Life requires an organization, which is 
that of cellular structure, but it remains, in contradistinction to it, 
outside the domain of strict chemistry. 

It is none the less true that the content of a living cell must differ 
in its chemical nature from the content of a dead cell. It is entirely 
from this point of view that the phenomenon of life pertains to my 
subject. It is therefore from this view point that it remains for me 
to examine whether the ideas I have presented can be used for its 
interpretation. 

A living cell, both in its chemical composition and in its morpho- 
logical structure, is an organism of extraordinary complexity. The 
protoplasm that it incloses is a mixture of very diverse substances. 
But if there be set aside on the one hand those substances which are 
in process of assimilation and on the other those which are the by- 
products of nutrition, and which are in process of elimination, there 
remains only the protein or albuminous substances, and these must 
be considered, if not the essential factor of life, at least the theater 
of its manifestations. These alone, in fact, possess those two emi- 
nently vital faculties of building up their molecules within the cell 
itself and of reacting to the slightest influences of a physical, chemi- 
cal, or mechanical nature. They are therefore classified among the 
most reactive organic compounds that we know, and it is their very 
reactivity which makes them the supporters of vital phenomena. 
During the life of the cell they are in a state of perpetual transfor- 
mation, and are found in a state of stable equilibrium only upon the 
death of the cell ; or, better to say, this death is only the result of the 
stabilization of the protein molecules. 

Is this stabilization a chemical process, in the sense that it brings 
about a modification of the molecular structure? To ascertain if 
such be the case, and what this modification is, it is necessary to 
know the constitution of both living albumen and dead albumen. 
Chemistry, however, is totally ignorant, or nearly so, of the consti- 
tution of living albumen, for chemical methods of investigation at 
the very outset kill the living cell. The slightest rise in temperature, 
contact with the solvent, the very powerful effect of even the mildest 
reactions cause the transformation that needs to be prevented, and 
the chemist has nothing left but dead albumen. 

It is therefore only dead albumen that chemistry has been able to 
study. Thanks to the investigations of a host of eminent men of 
science, we now know, if not in all its details, at least in great part, 
the constitution of the albumens. It is Imown in particular from the 
special point of view that occupies our attention, that the extremely 
complex molecule of these bodies is formed of an assemblage of a 



210 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

very great number of chains, some of which are formed wholly of 
carl3on atoms, others of atoms of carbon and of nitrogen, but which 
for the most part are of closed chains. The albumens obtained from 
dead tissues are therefore of cyclic structure. 

Is it the same with those albumens which still form an integral 
part of living protoplasm ; and how do we know this? A very inter- 
esting observation of Loew will be offered as a beginning of my 
answer to these questions. Loew has stated that all those chemical 
reactions which in ^dtro are susceptible of attacking the aldehydes 
and the primary bases, or which act on the aldehyde and aminogen 
groups which characterize them, that all these reactions, are inva- 
riably poisonous to living protoplasm. These same reactions are, 
on the other hand, without any influence on dead albumen. Loew 
logically concludes from this that the molecule of living albumen 
incloses the said groups, while the molecule of dead albumen no 
longer possesses them. 

These two groups of atoms, throughout the whole extent of or- 
ganic chemistry, possess some very active though opposite character- 
istics which tend to react upon one another by an interchange of 
their elements. This exchange does not take place in living albumen, 
since the two groups are here in a coexistent state; this becomes 
effective on the death of the cell, for neither of the two groups can 
any longer be discovered in dead albumen. 

The stabilization of the protein molecule would therefore be due, 
according to Loew, to the saturation of the one by the other of these 
two groups. This observation appears capital to me; but its author 
has not at all, it seems to me, followed the conclusions to their end. 
I will try to do this for him. 

On account of their very nature these groups of atoms of which 
I speak could not in any case form an integral part of a closed 
chain. Both being monovalents they could form part only of open 
chains. Their existence in living albumen, therefore, necessarily 
implies the presence of these chains. But the union of two atomic 
groupings forming part of an open chain could not be made unless 
there was a closing of this chain ; at the same time the disappearance 
of two active groups necessarily also involves the loss of a part of 
the activity of the resultant complex, just as a man who joins his 
hands or crosses his arms loses to a great extent his means of action. 

The stabilization of living albumen, therefore, involves a cyclisa- 
tion. In closing the open chains in themselves the albumen of the 
cellular protoplasm enters into equilibrium and repose. Its period 
of activity is ended in the same way as that of all the substances 
which have contributed to its maintenance. For those and the 
others cyclisation is death. 



MOLECULAR STEUCTURE AND LIFE PICTET. 211 

In this case it is a momentary death, understand, and destined to 
be followed after more or le&s delay by a resurrection which brings 
back into circulation the temporarily inert atoms. It is clear, in 
fact, that if all cyclised molecules should indeJBnitely persist in that 
state all life would soon disappear from the surface of our globe, 
but then all that I have said applies only to organic compounds 
which form part of the living plant. When a plant dies other 
agents intervene which proceed more or less rapidly to the destruc- 
tion of all the molecules and to a general decyclisation. The dead 
plant forthwith becomes a prize of the microbes of putrefaction, 
which attack its albumens, and of the oxydizing ferments which 
bura its cellulose. Or we may substitute the digestive ferments of 
herbiverous animals, which are equally cyclolitic. Here, as else- 
where, the vegetable and animal kingdoms are complements one of 
the other and interdependent, and these same atoms, passing from 
one to the other in the aggregate of diverse structures, sustain the 
eternal existence of both. 

Such are the considerations that I proposed to submit to you on 
the relations existing between molecular structure and life. I have 
raised only a small corner of the veil that hides the m3'^stery, but 
I believe I have answered the three questions with which I began, 
by showing: (1) That the phenomena of life are dependent upon 
a special structure of the organic molecule; (2) that only the dis- 
position of atoms in open chains permits the maintenance and the 
fhanifestations of life; (3) that the cyclic structure is that of the 
substances which have lost this faculty; and (4) finally that death 
results, from the chemical point of view, by a cyclisation of the 
elements of the protoplasm. The serpent which bites its tail, the 
symbol of eternity among the ancients, might well become, to the 
modern biological chemist, the symbol of death. 

I have spoken only of plant chemistry. It remains to examine 
whether my interpretation can apply likewise to the phenomena 
which take place in the animal organism. But I can not, nor do 
I wish to, longer tax your patience, for I have already taken too 
long a time in testing it. 



IDEALS OF CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION/ 



By Theodoke William Richakds. 



In the present address I shall try to put before you some of the 
ideals of chemical investigation. Our present efforts and our hopes 
for the future are founded upon past acquisitions ; therefore I shall 
call your attention first to the gradual development of chemistry. 

Less than three centuries ago an outspoken student of nature some- 
times faced the grim alternatives of excommunication, imprisonment, 
or death. To-day he no longer needs to conceal his thoughts in 
cryptic speech or mystic symbolism. Although the shadow of in- 
comprehensibility may still darken the langauge of science, mystery 
is no longer necessary to protect the scientific investigator from per- 
secution. The generally recognized value of the truth within his 
domain gives him the right to exist. 

The courage needful for the task of addressing this august assem- 
bly on a topic concerning chemistry is, therefore, of a different order 
from the courage required for such a task in the days of Galileo. 
The problem to-day is not how to obscure the thought, but, rather, 
how to elucidate its inevitable complications. 

Modern chemistry has had a manifold origin and tends toward a 
many-sided destiny. Into the fabric of this science men have woven 
the thought of ancient Greek philosophers, the magic of Arabian 
alchemists, the practical discoveries of artisans and ingenious chemi- 
cal experimenters, the doctrine of physicists, the stern and uncompro- 
mising logic of mathematicians, and the vision of metaphysical 
dreamers seeking to grasp truths far beyond the reach of mortal 
sense. The complex fabric enfolds the earth — indeed, the universe — 
with its far-reaching threads. 

The history of the complicated evolution of chemistry is pro- 
foundly significant to the student of human thought. Long ago, at 
the very dawn of civilization, Hindu and Greek philosophers were 
deeply interested in the problems presented by the nature of the uni- 

1 Oration delivered before tlie Harvard Chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa in Sanders The- 
ater, Cambridge, Mass., on June 19, 1916. Reprinted from Science, N. S., vol. 44, pp. 37-45, 
July 14, 1916, and Harvard Graduates' Magazine, vol. 25, pp. 1-10, Sept., 1916. 

73839°— SM 1916 15 213 



214 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

verse. They speculated intelligently, although often with childlike 
naivete, concerning energy and the structure of matter, but they 
forebore to test their speculations by experiment. They builded 
better than they knew ; their ancient atomic hypothesis, ardently sup- 
ported but inadequately applied two thousand years ago, now finds 
itself installed in the innermost recesses of chemical theory. Inde- 
pendently, ancient artisans and medieval alchemists, dealing with the 
mysterious actual behavior of things, acquired valuable acquaintance 
with simple chemical processes. After much chemical knowledge of 
facts had been gained alchemy sought the aid of philosophy. Thus 
little by little order was brought into the chaos of scattered expe- 
rience. But strictly chemical knowledge alone was inadequate to 
solve the cosmic riddle ; it had to be supplemented by knowledge of 
heat and electricity — agencies which produce profound alterations in 
the chemical nature of substances. Thus the study of physics was 
combined with that of chemistry. Again, since mathematical gen- 
eralization is essential to the study of physics, this discipline also 
was of necessity added to the others. All these powerful tools taken 
together having failed to penetrate to the ultimate essence of things, 
imagination is invoked, and physiochemical dreams to-day conceive 
a mechanism of infinitesimal entities far beyond our most searching 
powers of direct observation. 

Chemistry has not grown spontaneously to its present estate ; it is 
a product of human mentality. The science which we know to-day 
is but an echo of the eternal and incomprehensible "music of the 
spheres " as heard and recorded by the minds of individual men. Im- 
personal and objective although matter and energy may be, their 
appreciation by man involves much that is subjective. The history 
of science, like all the rest of human history, is, as Emerson said, 
" the biography of a few stout and earnest persons." 

Robert Boyle, self-styled " the skeptical chymist," a gentle spirit 
skeptical Only of the false and vain, pure-minded aristocrat in an age 
of corruption; Mildiail Lomonosoff, poet, philosopher, philologist, 
and scientific seer, far outstripping contemporary understanding; 
Antoine Lavoisier, whose clear mind first taught man to compre- 
hend, after thousands of years, the mighty stolen gift of Prome- 
theus ; John Dalton, Quaker peasant, who found convincing chemical 
evidence for the ancient atomic hypothesis; Michael Faraday, a 
blacksmith's son, whose peerless insight and extraordinary genius 
in experiment yielded theoretical and practical fruits beyond the 
world's most daring dreams — these men and a few score others are 
the basis of the history of chemistry. The science has not come into 
being, Minerva-like, full-grown from the brain of Jove; she has 
been bom of human travail, nursed and nourished from feeble in- 



CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS BICHAKDS. 215 

fancy by human caretakers, and she sees the universe to-day through 
human eyes. 

The diversified orig:in of chemistry has shaped the varied con- 
temporary aj)plication of the science and its many-sided destiny in 
the years to come. Chemistry has wide theoretical bearings, but at 
the same time is concerned with the ciiidest and most obvious affairs 
of manufacture and everyday life. Chemical knowledge must form 
an essential part of any intelligent philosophy of the nature of the 
universe, and alone can satisfy one manifestation of that intense in- 
tellectual curiosity wliich to-day, no less than of old, yearns to 
understand more of the fundamental nature of things. On the other 
hand, rational applied science to-day must follow in the footsteps of 
the swiftly advancing strides of theory. The laws of chemistry can 
not be adequately applied until they have been discovered. Chemi- 
cal insight, concerned with the intimate changes of the substances 
which are all about us as well as within our bodies, furnishes us with 
the only means for employing material things to the best advantage. 
Chemical processes appertain in large degree to medicine, hygiene, 
agriculture, and manufacture; these processes depend upon laws of 
which the perfect understanding is essential to the full development 
of most of the activities of civilized life. 

However oblivious we may be of the inexorable laws of chemistry, 
we are ever under their sway. Our consciousness is housed in a 
mortal shell, consisting primarily of compounds of less than a score 
of chemical elements. The physiological behavior of our bodies is 
inevitably associated with the chemical changes or reactions among 
highly intricate chemical unions of these few elements. The driving 
tendency or immediate cause of the reactions which support life is 
to be found in the chemical affinities and respective concentrations 
of the several substances. Our bodies are chemical machines, from 
which we can not escape except by quitting our earthly life. The 
nature of the chemical elements and their compounds therefore pre- 
sents one of the most interesting and important of all problems of- 
fered to mankind. That the study of chemical problems of life is 
consistent with the study of man in a biological, a psychological, or 
a spiritual sense is obvious. To-day the epigram " The proper study 
of mankind is man " must be greatly broadened in order to corre- 
spond with modem knowledge. 

These words regarding the origin and significance of chemistry- 
serve as an introduction. Your committee has honored me by the 
request that I should tell you something about the object and out- 
come of my own endeavors, and these could be made clear only by 
reviewing the peculiar nature of chemistry. In my case the in- 
centive to the pursuit of science was primarily that intense, curiosity 



216 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

concerning the nature of things which echoes down the ages from 
the time of the ancient philosophers. To the feehng of curiosity, as 
time went on, was added the perception that only through a knowl- 
edge of the fundamental laws of chemistry can men use the re- 
sources of the world to the best advantage. Any further gain in 
this knowledge must, sooner or later, directly or indirectly, give 
mankind more power. Even an abstract chemical generalization 
must ultimately be of priceless service to humanity, because of the 
extraordinarily intimate relation between theory and practice. 

The field is wide and it is traversed by many paths. Among these 
one must be chosen and persistently followed if progress is to be 
made; and in my case that one was the study of the fundamental 
attributes or properties of the chemical elements and the relation of 
these properties to one another. The work was undertaken with the 
hope of helping a little to lay a solid foundation for our under- 
standing of the human environment. 

What, now, are the fundamental attributes of the elements? First 
and foremost among these stands weight — the manifestation of the 
all-pervading and mysterious force of gravitation possessed by all 
forms of matter. Hand in hand with this attribute of weight goes 
the equally inscrutable property of inertia — that tendency which 
causes a body once in motion to keep on moving forever in the same 
straight line, if not acted upon by some new force. The idea of 
inertia, conceived by Galileo and amplified by Newton, was one of 
the starting points of both modern philosophy and modern physics. 
So far as we know weight and inertia run parallel to each other. Of 
any two adjacent bodies, that having greater weight has also greater 
inertia. Hence they may be determined at one and the same time, 
and this Siamese- twinlike conjunction of properties establishes 
itself at once as perhaps the most fundamental of all the attributes 
of matter. Next perhaps comes volume, the attribute which enables 
matter to occupy space, with the corollaries dealing with the changes 
of volume caused by changes of temperature and pressure. Other 
fundamental properties are the tendency to cohere (which has to 
do with the freezing and boiling points of the liquids) and the 
mutual tendency of the elements to combine, almost infinite in its 
diversity, which may be measured by the energy changes manifest- 
ing themselves during the reaction of one substance with another. 

These are only a few of the important properties of the elements, 
but they present an endless prospect of further investigation, in spite 
of all that has been done during the past hundred years. For as 
yet we know only the surface of these things, and comprehend but 
little as to the underlying connections between them and the reasons 
for their several magnitudes. Why, for example, should oxygen be 
a gas, having an atomic weight just four times as great as that of 



CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS — RICHARDS. 217 

helium, cand why should it have an intense affinity for sodium and no 
affinity whatever for argon or fluorine? No man can answer these 
questions; he can discover the facts, but can not yet account for 
them. The reasons are as obscure and elusive as the mechanism of 
gravitation. But we shall not really understand the material basis 
upon which our life is built until we have found answers to questions 
of this sort. 

In order to correlate the properties of the elements, and to attain 
any comprehension of their significance, one must first exactly ascer- 
tain the facts. Therefore, my endeavor has been to institute sys- 
tematic series of experiments to fill the gaps in our knowledge of the 
actual phenomena. In much of this work I have had the invaluable 
aid of efficient collaborators, for which I am grateful. 

The atomic weights were the first of the fundamental properties of 
the elements to receive attention in carrying out this plan. These, 
as everyone who has studied elementary chemistry knows, represent 
the relative weights in which substances combine with one another. 
They are called atomic weights rather than merely combining pro- 
portions, because they can be explained satisfactorily only by the 
assumption of definite particles which remain indivisible during 
chemical change. Even if some of these particles or so-called 
" atoms " suffer disintegration in the mysterious processes of radio- 
active transformation, the atomic theory remains the best interpre- 
tation of the weight-relations of all ordinary chemical reaction. In- 
deed, it is entrenched to-day as never before in man's history. 

The determination of atomic weights is primarily a question of 
analytical chemistry — a question of weighing the amount of one 
substance combined with another in a definite compound — ^but its 
successful prosecution involves a much wider field. First, the sub- 
stances must be prepared and weighed in the pure state, and, next, 
they must be subjected to suitable reactions and again weighed with 
proof that in the process nothing has been lost and nothing acci- 
dentally garnered into the material to be placed on the scale pan. 
These requirements involve many of the principles of the new 
physical chemistry, so that the accurate determination of atomic 
weights really belongs as much in that field as in the field of ana- 
lytical chemistry. 

At Harvard during the last thirty years the values of the atomic 
weights of thirty of the most frequently occurring among the eighty 
or more chemical elements have been redetermined. From data 
secured here and elsewhere is compiled an international table of 
atomic weights, revised from year to year by an authoritative com- 
mittee composed of representatives of various nations. The values 
thus recorded are in daily use in every chemical laboratory through- 
out the world, serving as the basis for the computation of count- 



218 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1016. 

less analyses performed by the analytical chemist, whether for tech- 
nical or for scientific purposes. 

This practical utility of atomic weights, although not forgotten, 
was not the prime incentive in the work under discussion. The 
real inspiration leading to the protracted labor of revising these 
fundamental quantities was the hope of finding some clue as to 
the reasons for their several magnitudes and for the manifest but 
incomprehensible relationships of the elements to one another. 

The unsolved cosmic riddle of the meaning of the atomic weights 
may have far-reaching significance in another direction, because the 
atomic weights may be supposed to hold one of the keys to the dis- 
covery of the mechanism of gi-avitation. The mutual attraction of 
the earth and sun, for example, must be due to the countless myriads 
of atoms which compose them, each atom possessing, because of its 
own appointed relative atomic weight, a definite if infinitesimal gi'avi- 
tational force attracting other atoms. If we could discover the rea- 
sons for the individual atomic weights we should probably gain a 
far better understanding of the all-embracing force built up of the 
infinitesimal effects represented by their individual magnitudes. 

Among the striking facts to be considered is the constancy of 
gravity (and therefore of the sum total of the weights of all the atoms 
concerned) as shown in many ways. Moreover, not only is the sum 
total of the weights of the atoms remarkably constant, but also in 
many cases the values for the individual elements are found to be 
numbers of amazing constancy. Silver from all parts of the world 
and from many different ores yields always the same value ; copper 
from Europe has the same atomic weight as the native metal mined 
under the bottom of Lake Superior; and yet more wonderful, the 
iron which falls from the slcy in meteorites having their birth far 
beyond the terrestrial orbit has precisely the same atomic weight 
as that smelted in Norway. Many atomic weights therefore must 
be supposed to be constant, whatever the source of the elements. 

Although thus we Imow only one kind of copper and iron and 
silver, evidence has recently been discovered which points toward 
the existence of at least two kinds of metallic lead. Every sample 
of ordinary lead always has exactly the same atomic weight as every 
other sample: but lead from radioactive minerals— lead which seems 
to have come from the decomposition of radium — has neither the 
same atomic weight nor the same density as ordinary lead, although 
in many properties, including their spectra, they seem to be iden- 
tical. This recent conclusion, reached only two years ago at Har- 
vard, has been confirmed in other laboratories, and it now seems 
to be beyond question. Whatever irnxj be the ultimate interpretation 
of the anomaly, the solution of this cosmic conundrum must surely 
give us a new idea of the essential nature of matter. Indeed, the 



CHEMICAL IXVESTIGATTONS RICHARDS. 219 

fascinating subject of radioactivity bids fair to give us in many 
ways an entirely new insight into the innermost structure of the 
atom. 

During the progress of the study of the combining proportions of 
the elements, it became more and more evident to me that the atomic 
weights should be considered not only in relation to one another 
but also in relation to many other essential distinguishing properties 
of the elements. This wider problem involved a great extension of 
the experimental field. 

Among other attributes of the various forms of matter, compressi- 
bilities, surface tensions, densities, dielectric constants, heats of re- 
action, and electromotive forces have begun to receive attention, and 
already many new data have been accumulated. The explanation 
of the nature of these researches would take us far beyond the scope 
of this present address, but their object deserves attention. This 
object is the correlation of the various properties into a consistent 
whole, in the hope of tracing the unknown physical influences which 
determine the nature of the elements. 

The rigorous science of thermodynamics enable^s us to predict in 
logical and precise fashion some of the relations between physical 
properties. My hope is not only to aid in providing accurate experi- 
mental basis for calculations of this kind, but also to achieve the 
correlation of different properties, apparently independent of one 
another from a thermodynamic point of view, thus, perhaps, enabling 
one by inductive reasoning to penetrate further into the causes 
which lie back of all the attributes of matter. 

In attempting to follow this inductive path comparisons of the 
properties of the elements have been made in two different ways. 

On the one hand, a given property of one element has been com- 
pared with the same property of another. For example, the ques- 
tion, " WTiich of the two elements, cobalt or nickel, has the heavier 
atom?" was answered by parallel determinations, using the same 
methods, conducted side by side in the laboratory. Cobalt was 
found to possess the higher atomic weight. 

On the other hand, the attempt has been made to discover a rela- 
tion between the different, apparently quite distinct, properties of a 
single element. For example, one may ask : " Have the low melting 
and boiling points of phosphorus any connection with its small 
density and its large compressibility?" Here one compares various 
properties of the same element, and one seeks to discover if all are 
based upon some common, ultimate characteristic of phosphorus, of 
which the properties are merely symptoms. 

The inductive methods used in comparisons of this sort can not 
be explained here. They are partly statistical, partly mathematical. 



220 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

and partly graphical. From the nature of the problem, which in- 
volves many unknown variables, perfect mathematical exactness is 
not to be expected. Nevertheless, little by little, one may hope to 
trace the conflicting tendencies and ascribe them to a few common 
causes. 

With the help of these methods the tentative conclusion has been 
reached that the space occupied by the atom and molecule in solids 
and liquids is highly significant. The actual atomic bulk or volume 
is diminished but slightly by moderate mechanical pressures and 
by cooling even to the absolute zero ; but it is very greatly affected, 
apparently, by the mutual attractions of the atoms, called cohesion 
and chemical affinity. Usually the less volatile a substance (that is 
to say, the more firmly it is held together by cohesion) the gi^eater 
is its density and the less is its compressibility, other things being 
equal. Greater cohesion is associated with greater compactness. 
Likewise, the existence of powerful chemical affinity between ele- 
ments forming a compound is usually associated with great decrease 
in volume during the act of combination, and consequent increase in 
the density of the product in relation to the average density of the 
constituents. Thus, we can hardly escape the inference that both 
cohesion and affinity, by i)ulling the atoms together with enormous 
pressiu-e, actually exert a compressing effect upon the atoms, or at 
least upon the space which they demand for their occupation. The 
result of each of these compressing agencies is found to be greater 
the greater the compressibility of the substances concerned — a new 
evidence of the reasonableness of the inference. Not always are 
these effects easily traced, because the situation is often complicated, 
and the several effects are superposed. Nevertheless, enough evi- 
dence has been obtained to leave but little doubt, at least in 
my mind, as to the manner of working of the essential agencies 
concerned. 

But we need not dwell upon this tentative hypothesis. Many 
more data and much more thought are necessary to establish it in an 
impregnable position, although no important inconsistency has thus 
far been pointed out in it. At present it may be looked upon as 
valuable because it, like other hypotheses of this type, has stimu- 
lated thought and experiment concerning the fundamental facts 
with which it deals. 

As the years go on, the recent contributions to the study of atomic 
weights and volumes and other properties will be sifted and tested ; 
and such contributions as may stand the test of time will take their 
places among the multifarious array of accepted chemical facts, 
laws, and interpretations accumulated by many workers all over the 
world. 



CHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS — RICHARDS. 221 

But we may well ask: What use in the years to come will man- 
kind make of this knowledge gained step by step through the eager 
study of many investigators? 

Chemistry has, indeed, a many-sided destiny. A mere catalogue 
of the countless applications of the science, which underlies many 
other sciences and arts, would demand time far exceeding the limits 
of this brief discourse. Some of the more obvious uses of chemistry 
have become daily topics in the public press. America is gradually 
awakening to the consciousness that, because every material object 
is composed of chemical elements and possesses its properties by 
virtue of the nature of these elements, chemistiy enters more or less 
into everything. We perceive that chemical manufactures must be 
fostered, and also that chemical knowledge must be applied in many 
other industries not primarily of a chemical nature. Although 
chemistry plays so prominent and ghastly a role in war, her gi'eatest 
and most significant contributions are toward the arts of peace. 
Even explosives may be highly beneficent; they may open tunnels 
and destroy reefs, furthering friendly communication between men; 
dig ditches for irrigation; help the farmer in his planting; and 
in many other ways advance the constructive activities of mankind. 
Again, poisonous gases, confined and harnessed within safe limits, 
may render valuable aid to humanity in preparing precious sub- 
stances otherwise unattainable. 

Such obvious and well-recognized offices of chemistry need no 
further presentation to this intelligent company. Neither is it 
necessary for me to call your attention to the services which science 
may render to agriculture through the chemical study and enrich- 
ment of the soil in preparing it for the development of those subtle 
chemical mechanisms called plants, upon which we depend for our 
very existence. 

There is a further beneficent possibility worthy of more than pass- 
ing mention — namely, that which arises from the relation of modern 
chemistry to hygiene and medicine. Already your attention has been 
called to the indisputable fact that the human body is, physiologi- 
cally considered, a chemical machine. For this reason, future knowl- 
edge of chemical structure and of organic reaction may perhaps 
revolutionize medicine as completely as it was revolutionized by 
the devoted labors of Pasteur — not by doing away with his price- 
less acquisitions of knowledge, but rather by amplifying them. 
Chemistry may show how germs of disease do their deadly work 
through the production of subtle organic poisons, and how these 
poisons may be combated by antitoxins; for both poisons and anti- 
toxins are complex chemical substances of a nature not beyond the 
possible reach of chemical methods already known. In that far-off 



222 ANNUAL EEPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

but not inconceivable day when the human body may be understood 
from a chemical standpoint we shall no longer be unable to solve 
the inscrutable problems which to-day puzzle even the most learned 
hygienist and physician. Is not a part, at least, of the tragedy of 
disease a relic of barbarism? A race which could have put as much 
energy and ingenuity into the study of physiological chemistry as 
mankind has put into aggressive warfare might have long ago 
banished many diseases by discovering the chemical abnormalities 
which cause them. 

May not the study of subtler questions, such as the nature of 
heredity, also lead us finally into the field of chemistry in our search 
for the ultimate answer? Even psychology may some time need 
chemical assistance, since the process of thinking and the transmis- 
sion of nervous impulse are both inextricably associated with chemi- 
cal changes in nervous tissue ; and even memory may be due to some 
subtle chemical effect. In the realm of thought there can be no 
question of the blessed service already performed by science in dis- 
pelling grim superstitions which haunted older generations with 
deadly fear. 

In brief, more power is given mankind through the discoveries of 
chemistry. This power has many beneficent possibilities, but it may 
be used for ill as well as for good. Science has recently been blamed 
by superficial critics, but she is not at fault if her great potentialities 
are distorted to sei^e malignant ends. Is not this calamity due 
rather to the fact that the spiritual enlightenment of humanity has 
not kept pace with the progress of science? The study of nature 
can lead an upright and humane civilization ever higher and higher 
to greater health and comfort and a sounder philosophy, but that 
same study can teach the ruthless and selfish how to destroy more 
efficiently than to create. The false attitude toward war, fostered 
by tradition and by the glamor of ancient strife, is doubtless one of 
the influences which have held back mankind from a wider applica- 
tion of the Golden Eule. 

There is, in truth, no conflict between the ideals of science and 
other high ideals of human life. With deep insight, a poetic thinker 
on life's problems, in the opening lines of a sonnet, has said : 

Fear not to go where fearless Science leads, 

Who holds the keys of God. What reigning light 

Thine eyes discern in that surrounding night 

Whence we have come, . . . 

Thy soul will never find that Wrong is Right. 

Our limited minds are confined in a limited world, with immeasur- 
able space on all sides of us. Our brief days are as nothing com- 
pared with the inconceivable seons of the past and the prospect of 
illimitable ages to come. Both infinity and eternity are beyond our 



CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION'S — RICHARDS. 223 

mental grasp. We know that we can not hope to understand all the 
wonders of the universe; but, nevertheless, we may be full of hope 
for the future. Step by step we gain in knowledge, and with each 
step we acquire better opportunity for improving the lot of man- 
kind and for illuminating the dark places in our philosophy of 
nature. Although we shall none of us live to see the full develop- 
ment of the help which science may render to the world, we rejoice 
in the belief that chemistry has boundless service still in reserve for 
the good of the human race. 



THE EARTH: ITS FIGURE, DIMENSIONS, AND THE 
CONSTITUTION OF ITS INTERIOR.^ 



By T. C. Chambeblin, Habky Fielding Reid, John F. Hayford, and Fkank 

SCHLESINGER. 



I. 

THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GEOLOGY. 

By T. C. Chambeklin. 

For some time past there has been a marked drift of geologic 
opinion from tlie older tenet of a molten earth toward the conviction 
that the earth is essentially solid. This trend has been quite as much 
due to the contributions of kindred sciences as to the growth of 
geologic evidence, but geology has made its important and concurrent 
contributions to it. 

The great granitic embossments that constitute the most dis- 
tinctive feature of the oldest known terranes were formerly regarded 
as solidified portions of a primitive molten earth and thus seemed to 
serve as witnesses to the verity of the former liquid state. A few 
years ago, however, it was determined — almost simultaneously in 
several countries where critical studies on these formations were in 
progress — that these granitic masses are intrusive in older formations 
that had previously been formed at the swface of the earth. These 
surface formations have thus come to stand as the most ancient ter- 
ranes now laiown. These earliest accessible deposits imply the pre- 
existence of a suitable foundation formed at a still earlier date. 
Neither the surface sediments nor the intrusives give any clear 
intimation that formations beneath them are different in origin from 
themselves. So far, then, as the record runs, it testifies to substantial 
solidity in the outer part of the globe. 

The record implies, indeed, that some molten matter was present, 
but gives no certain measure of the ratio of the molten to the solid 
part. At no stage covered by the lithographic record, indeed, is there 

1 Reprinted, by permission, from Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 
September and October-December, 1915. 

225 



226 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

determinate evidence that a molten condition was preponderant 
even in the interior. The interior conditions of the earliest as well 
as the later stages are to be reached only by indirect rather than 
immediate inference. Under the influence of inherited presump- 
tions, it may seem to many still probable that the interior of the 
mature earth was once dominated by a molten condition at some 
remote stage, but the evidence of powerful inthrusting of the igneous 
element into even the earliest terranes, so often shown in the oldest 
intrusions, seems to imply that the molten element was ever in the 
strong grasp of stresses of the type normal to a rigid globe. This 
harmonizes with the belief that the liquid matter was then only a 
minor and passive factor, not a controlling one. 

If the earth were once wholly molten, the material for all the 
stratified rocks of later ages must have been derived from the primi- 
tive crus-t after it was formed and forced into positions of erosion, 
or else from matter extruded through it. This primitive feeding 
ground should, it would seem, be a notable feature on the geological 
map. The absence, according to present knowledge, of any great area 
of rocks bearing the distinctive characteristics of the supposed con- 
gealed surface greatly weakens the assumption that the postulated 
molten state ever obtained, at least in the mature earth. 

A study of the stress conditions of the interior of the earth seems 
to call for a similar reversal of the inferences once drawn from the 
igneous rocks. From the earliest well-recorded ages, the exterior of 
the earth has given evidence of broad topographic reliefs taking the 
form of great embossm.ents and broad basins. These surface con- 
figurations must have conditioned the localization of extrusions and 
the deployment of the effusive material. If the lavas arose from a 
general and abundant source of supply which was responsive to gen- 
eral and poAverful stresses, vestiges of these conditions should be 
found in vast volumes and broad deployments of the lava floods. 
If, on the other hand, the molten material formed but a fraction of 
the whole mass, and was variously distributed through it, the result 
should be a multitude of driblets squeezed out here and there in such 
special situations as the controlling stresses required, or else a multi- 
tude of limited intrusions forced into weak portions of the earth 
body where the stresses were less imperative. The latter rather than 
the former seems to accord with the testimony of the record. 

Now there is abundant geological evidence that the earth body 
has been subjected at repeated intervals to strong compressive 
stresses, by which its outer portion has been folded into mountainous 
ranges or pushed up into great plateaus, while masses of con- 
tinental dimensions have been raised, relatively, to notable heights, 
and the bottoms of basins and deeps have sunk reciprocally to even 
greater relative depths. The internal stresses which these deforma- 



THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH. 227 

tions imply should have made themseh^es felt proportionately on 
any great mass of liquid in the interior, if it were in existence, 
and extrusions proportionate to the greatness of the deformations 
should have accompanied such diastrophism. But, while liquid ex- 
trusions took place somewhat freely at the times of great dias- 
trophism, it was not, at least in my judgment, at all commensurate 
with the deformative stresses implied by the diastrophic results 
shown in the solid material. 

Nor was the topographical concentration of the extrusions indica- 
tive of their origin from a molten interior or from really great 
residual reservoirs of liquid rock. If such ample sources of liquid had 
existed, they might naturally have been expected to have given forth, 
under the great stresses then seeldng easement, correspondingly great 
floods of lava which would have gone far to fill the great basins into 
which they must chiefly have flowed. Yet no single lava flood seems 
to have attained more than an extremely small fraction of the mass of 
the earth, or even of the known solid matter of the immediate region 
of the outflow. Even when the sum total of the most massive series 
of successive floods in a given region are taken together — though the 
successive issues stretched over a considerable period — they rarely 
rise above a most insignificant fraction of earth mass, or even of the 
regional segment of it with which they are associated. Instead of 
really massive flows, implying ample sources of supply and great 
forces of extrusion, the record shows rather a multitude of little 
ejections or injections of more or less sporadic distribution. The 
logical implication of these is the preexistence of a multitude of 
small liquid spots, or liquifiable spots, scattered widely through the 
stressed earth masses and yielding to stress as local conditions re- 
quired and where local conditions required. 

This inference is pointedly supported by the great variations in 
altitude at which lavas are now given forth and seem to have always 
been given forth so far as the record goes. The most impressive 
illustrations of this are found in current volcanic action where the 
relations in altitude are precisely loiown. So far as ancient condi- 
tions can be restored, they appear to fall into the same general class 
as existing conditions. Current outpourings of lava range from the 
sea bottom to altitudes of many thousands of feet above sea level, a 
vertical range of several miles. Extrusions occur at these signifi- 
cantly diverse altitudes simultaneously or alternately or in almost 
any time relations, and sometimes in the most marked independence 
of one another, in spite of the natural sympathy which such events 
might naturally manifest in a common stressed body. A multitude 
of facts of detail, some of which are singularly cogent, imply that 
the lava sources of present volcanoes are disconnected from one an- 
other in the interior, and are hence independent in action, as a rule, 



228 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

though sometimes they show sympathy without showing evidence of 
liquid connection. The sources of lava seem to be meager in general, 
and the eruptive agencies seem to be controlled by narrowly local 
conditions. There is an absence of evidence that the lavas in the 
craters or in the necks of volcanoes are parts of great liquid masses 
below, responsive to the common stresses of a large region. 

Thus geological evidence, when critically scrutinized, seems to be 
distinctly adverse to the existence of even large reservoirs of molten 
matter within the earth ; it points rather to the presence of scattered 
spots, very small relatively, on the verge of liquefaction, which pass 
by stages into the liquid form and are then forced out by the dif- 
ferential stresses that abound in the earth body, or are embodied in 
the liquid itself, each such local liquefying center commonly giving 
forth driblets of lava and gas at intervals, none of which often rise 
to more than an extremely minute fraction of the earth mass or even 
of the subterranean mass contiguous to the volcano. 

A revised view of the nature and location of earth stresses seems 
also to be required by what is now know of earth conditions. Under 
the former dominance of the tenet of a molten globe it was natural 
to assign to the stress differences of the earth a distinctly superficial 
localization and limitation; they were thought to be affections of 
" the crust " almost solely. Hydrostatic pressures were of course 
recognized as affecting the deep interior, but these were obviously 
balanced stresses, and were ineffective in deformation. The stresses 
supposed to give rise to the great reliefs of the earth's surface were 
thought to be very superficial. But the stresses imposed by known 
deformative agencies are not all superficial, nor are their intensities 
always greatest at the surface. According to Sir George Darwin, 
the stress differences generated in the earth by the tidal forces of 
the moon are from three to eight times as great at the center of the 
earth as at the surface. So, also, according to the same authority, the 
stresses engendered by changes in the rotation of the earth are from 
three to eight times as great at the center as at the surface and are 
graded between center and surface. The tidal stress differences are 
relatively feeble but are perpetually reneAved in pulsatory fashion. 
Those that arise from rotation belong to the highest order of com- 
petency. The stress difference that would arise at the center of the 
earth from a stoppage of the earth's rotation would, according to 
Darwin, reach 32 tons per square inch. Changes of the rate of rota- 
tion are almost inevitable when great diastrophic readjustments take 
place. Such periods are to be regarded as critical times at which 
great floods of lava should be poured forth from the interior if liquid 
material were there in great volume ready to respond to the changes 
of capacity which the deformations of the earth's sectors and the 
changes in the spheroidal form would inevitably impose. 



THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH. 229 

Not to detain you with other considerations, the foregoing seem 
best to comport with an essentially solid state of the earth's interior, 
if they do not point rather definitely to such a state. Even if they 
stood alone, they would seem to make a prevailing solid state the 
most tenable working hypothesis. 

But they are far from standing alone ; the geological evidences are 
strongly supported by considerations that spring from several 
kindred lines of inquiry. The testimony of astronomic evidence 
is given below by Dr. Schlesinger. The import of seismic studies, 
the subject of Dr. Eeid's contribution, lends very special support to 
the view that the interior of the earth is elastico-rigid at least to the 
extent that distortional waves pass through its interior. It seems 
certain already that this condition prevails throughout much more 
than half the volume of the earth; concerning the rest, the deep 
interior, the seismic evidence is perhaps still to be regarded as indeter- 
minate. But on the seismic evidence it does not fall to me to dAvell. 

The tidal studies of Hecker, Orloff, and others lend support to 
the tenet of a rigid earth but they fall somewhat short of con- 
clusiveness. The brilliant experimental determinations of Michelson 
and Gale, correlated with the computations of Moulton, have carried 
the evidence to the point of preliminary demonstration. They need 
only to be adequately repeated and verified to become final, so far 
at least as elastic rigidity can be indicated by the response of the 
earth body to solar and lunar attractions. The special feature of 
most critical value in the demonstrations of Michelson and his col- 
leagues is the high degree of elasticity shown by the almost instan- 
taneous response of the earth to the distorting pull of the tide- 
producing bodies. This cuts at the very base of concepts founded on 
the supposed properties of a viscous earth. These tidal determi- 
nations of elasticity are in close accord with the seismic evidences. 
The tw^o are happily complementary to one another. The one 
deals with the earth as a whole under a rhytlmiical series of in- 
creasing and diminishing stress differences springing from exter- 
nal attractions; the other deals in an intensive vibratory way with 
earth substance by sharp short stresses that call into action its most 
intimate structural qualities. While it is wise, no doubt, to refrain 
from resting too much on these early results of relatively new and 
radical lines of inquiry, until their results shall be more mature, 
their prospective import is radical and decisive in favor of a solid 
earth not only, but of an elastico-rigid earth. Assuming that the 
present import of these inquiries will be amply justified by more 
mature research, it is pertinent to bring into consideration the 
corollary they so distinctly imply, viz, that the molten and viscous 
material in the earth, or at least in its outer half, if not throughout 
its deep interior, is a negligible factor in general studies, and enters 
73839°— SM 1916 16 



230 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

into general terrestrial mechanics only as a subsidiary feature. It 
seems necessary to limit liquid and viscous lacunae — if there are lacunae 
in any proper sense at all — to such moderate dimensions that they do 
not seriously kill out distortional waves passing through the outer 
half of the globe in various directions, for seismic instruments show 
that these waves retain their integrity with surprising tenacity 
through long traverses. It seems equally necessary to limit the 
liquid and viscous factor rather severely if the interior structure is 
to be susceptible of so prompt a response to twelve-hour stress pulses 
as is implied by its almost complete elastic fidelity. 

In the light of these determinations, strengthened not a little by 
their concurrence with the later geological determinations, the work- 
ing hypotheses of the earth student can scarcely fail to take shape 
according to the dynamic tenets implied by a rigid earth. 

The limitation of liquid and viscous matter thus imposed quite 
radically conditions all tenable views of magmas and of vulcanisra, 
and thus bears upon the origin of igneous matter. No small part 
of petrologic effort in past decades has been spent on the differentia- 
tion of magmas. To a notable degree these efforts have proceeded 
on the assumption, conscious or unconscious, that differentiation took 
its departure from an original homogeneous magma such as might 
arise from residual portions of a molten earth. Indefinite lapses of 
time, and such conditions of quiescence as are naturally assignable 
to residual reservoirs of lava, have been freely assumed as working 
conditions without much question as to their reality. Under the 
hypothesis of a molten earth passing slowly into a partially solid 
earth and retaining residual lacunae of molten matter as an incident 
of the change, these assumptions are quite natural. On the other 
hand, under the hypothesis of a pervasively rigid earth, affected by 
stress conditions that are constantly varying in intensity and in dis- 
tribution — and subject to more radical changes at times of periodic 
readjustment — the existence of such residual magmas becomes at least 
questionable, perhaps improbable. Still more questionable is the 
assumption that the multitude of little liquid spots supposed to arise 
within the elastico-rigid mass always have conformed to one type oi- 
to one set of types. The inherent probabilities of the case seem to 
point strongly to a wide variation in nature of these local bodies due 
to selective solution or to differential fusion. The liquefying action 
that brings magmas into being under this view is presumably con- 
trolled by the same chemical and physical principles as the solidifying 
phases of the same cycle. The logical presvimption is that at all 
stages of a magma's career from its inception through its growth, 
climax, and decline to its final solidification, selective action will be 
in progress more or less and that no stage Avill be entitled to be 
regarded as original or parental in a special sense, such a sense, for 



THE INTEEIOR OF THE EARTH. 231 

example, as might be appropriate if the lava were the residue of an 
inherited original state and were merely differentiated by fractional 
crystallization as it passed toward solidification. 

While these contrasted views of the history of magmas are nat- 
urally connected with views of the genesis of the earth, they are not 
limited to this connection. They are inherent in the very relations of 
solid and liquid matter; they have a more or less important place 
irrespective of the earth's genesis ; they would raise even keener ques- 
tions than they do if the earth were supposed never to have had a 
genesis, but to have always existed. 

An element of no small importance to a revised concept of the 
interior of the earth has arisen from geodetic studies on the dis- 
tribution of densities within the earth. As the geodetic point of view 
is to be presented by its foremost exponent, Dr. Hayford, it is per- 
missible for me merely to refer to certain geologic bearings. 

On the assumption that the earth was once in a molten state, the 
inference is unavoidable that a perfect state of isostatic equilibrium 
Avas originally assumed by the surface, and that its primitive con- 
figuration was strictly spheroidal. The material must have been ar- 
ranged in concentric layers according to specific gravity, and each 
layer should have had the same density at every point. All such 
reliefs of the earth's surface as have since arisen as well as all such 
differences of specific gravity as now exist in the same horizon must 
have been superinduced upon this originally perfect isostatic state. 
With good reason therefore these inequalities have heretofore been 
supposed to be relatively shallow. It is difficult to account for them, 
then, even hypothetically. On the hypothesis that the earth grcAV up 
by heterogeneous accretions, it is an equally natural inference that 
differences of specific gravity extend to great depths. In an en- 
deavor to find out the bearings of geodetic data on the distribution 
of densities. Dr. Hayford tested four assumptions, all of which he 
found measurably compatible w^ith his geodetic data. From these he 
derived the respective compensation depths of 37, 76, 109, and 179 
miles, these being the horizons to which differences of density ex- 
tended and below Avhich they vanished or became negligible. Now 
all these depths are notably greater than had been assigned as prob- 
able depths of differentiation in the traditional molten earth. On the 
other hand, the highest figure, 179 miles, was derived from a curve 
drawn specifically to represent the probable distribution of densities 
in an earth of planetesimal growth. The distribution represented by 
this highest figure fits the geodetic data quite as well as either of the 
other assumptions of distribution, though drawn on a strictly natu- 
ralistic basis. If it could be said that geodetic data demonstrate that 
the actual differentiation of specific gravities extends to dejiths of ^ 



232 AT^NUAL KEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTirUTION, 1916. 

the order named, such considerable depths would distinctly favor an 
accretionary origin as against a molten origin. But the determina- 
tion is inconclusive. 

While it is possible, within the broad terms of the planetesimal 
hypothesis, to suppose that the rate of accretion was so fast as to 
give rise to a molten planet, such a result seems to me extremely 
improbable under the actual conditions of the case. The growing 
planet should have become capable of holding a considerable atmos- 
phere by the time it attained one-tenth of its present mass, i. e., about 
the mass of Mars. After this the protective cushion of the atmos- 
phere should have greatly checked the plunge of the planetesimals 
and thus have largely dissipated them into dust in the upper atmos- 
phere where the inevitable heat of impact would be promptly radiated 
away. The dust presumably floated long and came gently to earth, 
so that, while the total heat generated by impact was large, the mean 
temperature of the earth body was probably never above the local 
solution or fusion point of the more refractory material during the 
later stages of growth, and perhaps not at any stage of growth. Fol- 
lowing out as well as may be the probable rates and conditions of 
growth, the most tenable concept of the state of the earth's interior 
under the planetesimal hypothesis is as follows : 

The condition of the nuclear portion supposed to be formed from 
one of the knots of the parent spiral nebula and constituting a minor 
fraction of the mass of the earth, say 30 or 40 per cent, is left in- 
determinate by present lack of knowledge of the physical state of 
the knots of spiral nebulae. If these are gaseous — which is rendered 
doubtful by their lack of strict sphericity — the nucleus was doubt- 
less originally molten. If the constituents of the laiot were held in 
orbital relations, their aggregation might have been slow enough 
to permit a solid state of even this portion. The matter added to 
the nucleus as planetesimal dust, or as planetesimals reduced in 
mass and speed by the atmosphere, probably retained its solid con- 
dition, with negligible exceptions, throughout the process of ac- 
cretion^ except as selected portions passed into the liquid state and 
became subject to extrusive action. An intimate heterogeneity nat- 
urally prevailed throughout the whole mass so aggregated. A se- 
lective process, however, probably brought in the heavier matter 
faster and earlier than the lighter matter, for the magnetism of the 
earth should have aided gravity in gathering in the magnetic metals, 
while the inelastic planetesimals, predominantly'^ the heavy basic 
ones, when in collision destroyed the opposing components of their 
motions and hence yielded to the earth's gravity sooner than the 
more elastic ones. Relatively high specific gravity in the material of 
the deep interior is thus thought to have arisen at the outset and to 
have been increased by the selective vulcanism that came into action 



THE INTEEIOR OF THE EARTH. 233 

as growth proceeded. Special emphasis is laid on the selective 
nature of vulcanism under this hypothesis. The intimate mixture 
of planetesimals and planetesimal dust gave rise to a multitude of 
minute contacts between particles of different chemical and physical 
properties, and hence there arose wide differences in the solution 
points. As the temperature in the growing planet rose, the more 
soluble portions passed into the liquid state by stages long before 
the remaining larger portion reached the temperature of solution. 
In a stressed globe certain of whose stresses are more intense to- 
ward the center than toward the surface, the solutions were forced 
to work in the direction of least resistance — for them generally out- 
ward — carrying out heat of liquefaction and leaving behind tiie less 
soluble larger portion whose temperatures were inadequate for fur- 
ther liquefaction until there was a renewed accession of heat. The 
mechanism thus automatically tended to remove the most soluble con- 
stituents by progressive stages, while it tended to preserve the solid 
condition of the remaining mass. The hypothesis thus supplies a 
working mechanism whose results fall into full accord with the states 
of the interior implied by tidal investigations and by seismic data, 
while the distribution of specific gravities naturally assignable under 
it accords well with the best geodetic determination thus far made. 

The adaptation of such an earth to isostatic adjustment can 
scarcely be more than hinted at here. The growth of the earth 
should have given it a concentric structure, while its highly distribu- 
tive vulcanism, together with some of its deformative processes, 
should have given a vertical or radial structure, the two conjoining 
to give a natural tendency to prismatic or pyramidal divisions con- 
verging toward the center. The most powerful of all the deforma- 
tive agencies — rotation — required for the adaptation of the earth to 
its changes of rate such divisions of the earth body as would re- 
spond most readily to depression in the polar and bulging in the 
equatorial tracts reciprocally or their opposites. As urged else- 
where, this accommodation seems best met by three pyramidal sec- 
tors in each hemisphere, with apices at the center and bases at the 
surface, the sectors in opposite hemispheres arranged alternately 
with one another. Very simple motions within these sectors 
would satisfy the larger demands of rotational distortion, while the 
subsectors into which these major sectors would naturally divide, 
as stresses required, would easily accommodate the nicer phases of 
adjustment. This primitive segmentation to meet rotational de- 
mands — which were most urgent during the stages of infall — fur- 
nished a mechanism suitable for the easement also of a portion of the 
deformational stresses that arose from other sources, among them 
gravitative stresses arising from loading and unloading by erosion 



234 ANNUAL KEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

and sedimentation. A gravitational adjustment by the wedging up 
and down and laterally of such sectors is thus offered tentatively as 
a working competitor to theories of adjustment by fluidal or quasi 
fluidal undertow. The necessary brevity of this statement leaves 
this new hypothesis little more than a crude suggestion that gravi- 
tative adjustment (=isostasy) may perhaps take place as fully as 
the case requires in a highly rigid elastic earth, affected by vertical 
schistosity and an adaptability in wedging action, without resort to 
flowage or even quasi flowage. 

II. 

CONSTITUTION OF THE INTERIOR OP THE EARTH, AS INDICATED 
BY SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

By Harry Fielding Reid. 

In 1883 Milne predicted that earthquake disturbances would be 
registered by seismographs at great distances from their origin, a 
prediction first verified when the earthquake of April 18, 1889, 
whose origin lay off the coast of Japan, affected the horizontal 
pendulum which von Rebeur-Paschwitz had set up at Potsdam to 
study the attraction of the moon. Milne was so convinced of the 
correctness of his idea and of the importance of the results to be 
obtained that in 1893 he established an observatory on the Isle of 
Wight to record earthquakes from distant regions; and he also suc- 
ceeded in having instruments of similar model set up at observatories 
very widely scattered in various parts of the world. 

Wertheim in 1851 showed that a disturbance in the interior of 
an elastic solid would break up into two groups of waves, longitu- 
dinal and transversal, which would be propagated at different rates, 
and as their velocities are so great that they can not be separated 
from each other in the laboratory he suggested with rare insight 
that their separation might first be noticed in connection with the 
propagation of earthquake disturbances.^ A few years later Lord 
Rayleigh showed that a third kind of wave could be propagated 
along the surface of the earth. ^ Seismologists naturally looked for 
indications of these three groups of waves in their seismograms, 
but it was not until 1900 that Oldham succeeded in showing definitely 
that the seismograms of a number of Milne instruments gave clear 
evidence of the existence of three groups of waves. Oldham also 
published a diagram, which was an extension of Seebach's so-called 
" hodograph," showing the relation between the time of transmission 
of each group and the distance from the earthquake origin, measured 

1 " Sur la propagation du movement dans les corps solides et liquides," Ann. de Chimie 
et Phys., 1851, vol. 21, p. 19. 

2 " On Waves PropaRated Along the riane Surface of an Elastic Solid," Proc. London 
Math. Soc, 1855, vols. 47, 50. 



THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH. 235 

along the surface of the earth. Mihie soon improved these curves 
by adding observations of a large number of recorded shocks.^ The 
curves of the first and second " preliminary tremors," as Milne called 
the first two groups of waves, are curved, indicating that the velocity 
of transmission increases with the distance from the origin ; a conclu- 
sion which had already been drawn from earlier, but less accurate, 
observations. Milne attempted to explain this by assuming that the 
path of the seismic disturbance lay along the chord and not along the 
earth's surface ; this practically shortens the distance to the observing 
stations, and if the curves are plotted, with distances measured 
along the chord, the curvature is considerably diminished ; but later 
and more accurate observations show that even under this assump- 
tion the velocity still increases with the distance. The conclusion 
is unavoidable that as the path of the disturbance sinks deeper into 
the earth the velocity increases. The interior of the earth then is not 
a homogeneous but a refractive medium, and the path of the dis- 
turbance can not be straight but must be curved with the concavity 
turned upward. This condition had been described by A. Schmidt 
as early as 1888.- Seismologists now believe that the three groups 
discovered by Oldham are respectively the longitudinal, the trans- 
verse, and the surface waves. The transmission curve of the latter 
is a straight line indicating that the waves are transmitted with 
uniform velocity along the surface of the earth. They have affected 
seismographs after having passed completely around the earth. It 
can not be said that the evidence, that the first two groups are re- 
spectively longitudinal and transverse, is complete; but it is suffi- 
cient, in connection with theory, to make seismologists fairly con- 
fident that the conclusion is correct; and the passage of transverse 
waves through the earth to great depths is proof that, to those 
depths, the earth is solid; for transverse waves can not exsit in a 
liquid. Further, since the velocity of transmission depends on the 
ratio of the elasticity to the density of the medium, and since both 
the longitudinal and transverse waves increase in velocity with the 
depth below the surface, both the elasticity of volume and the elas- 
ticity of figure of the earth, not only increase, but increase more 
rapidly than the density as we penetrate below the surface. The 
earth therefore is not only rigid, but its rigidity increases toward its 
center; though seismological evidence does not yet prove that this 
characteristic extends to the very center itself. 

The next step was to determine the path of the waves in the earth 
and their velocity at different depths; the data for these determi- 
nations were the times of arrival of the earthquake waves at various 

1 Rep. of Com. on Seismol. Investig., B. A. A. S., 1902, p. 7. 

2 " Wellenbewegung und Erdbeben," Jahreshefte fiir Vaterlands Naturkunde in Wiirt- 
temberg. 1888, p. 248. 



236 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

distances from the origin ; these times are collected in the transmis- 
sion curves. At first sight this seems an insoluble problem; but, 
thanks to a remarkable mathematical theorem of Abel, it is not. It 
is clear that the time of arrival of an earthquake disturbance at a 
distant station will depend on the path followed and the velocity in 
different parts of the path, and if we make the reasonable assump- 
tion, which is borne out by observation, that the velocity is every- 
where the same at the same depth, then it is evident, if the velocity 
increases continuously with the depth, that the transmission curves 
will be continuous without breaks, and their curvatures will no- 
where make a sudden change. The mathematical solution of the 
problem has been obtained by Wiechert, Bateman, and others; and 
concrete results have been obtained by Wiechert and his assistants, 
so that we now know the paths of the waves and their velocities with 
a fair degi*ee of accuracy, at least to a considerable distance below 
the surface. But the questions arise. Do the velocities increase con- 
tinuously with the depth; and if so, How? questions which could 
be answered by the study of perfect transmission curves; but even 
imperfect curves yield some information ; which, however, may be so 
faulty that it must be received with great caution. Milne, who has 
done such excellent pioneer work in seismology, was the first to pro- 
pose and attempt to answer these questions.^ He thought the trans- 
mission curve could be satisfied by supposing the earth to consist of 
a solid core having a radius of nineteen twentieths of the earth's 
radius, and surrounded by a thin shell. The core was of uniform 
density and elasticity, so that the velocity of propagation in it was 
uniform, and the paths of the rays would be straight lines. The 
velocity in the shell was much less than in the core. These condi- 
tions satisfied fairly well the very imperfect transmission curve of 
1902, but they may be dismissed without further consideration, for 
such an earth could not satisfy the astronomic requirements, which 
exact, at the same time, the proper mean density and moment of 
inertia. 

Benndorff in 1906 thought he found evidence of a central core 
of about four-fifths the earth's radius, surrounded by two shells, 
the outer one having the same thickness as Milne's.- In the same 
year Oldham deduced from the transmission curves a central core 
of not more than four-tenths the earth's radius in which the velocity 
was distinctly less than in the surrounding shell.^ Neither of these 
arrangements have been shown to conform to the astronomic require- 
ments. Oldham's conclusions are based on what he considers a 

1 Rep. of the Com. on Seismol. Investigation, B. A. A. S., 1903, p. 7. 

" " Ueber die Art der Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigheit der Erdbebenwellen in Erdinnern," 
Mitt. d. Erdheben Com. k. Akad. Wiss. in Wien, 1905, Nos. 29 and 31. 

s Constitution of the Interior of the Earth, Quart. Jour. Oeol. Soc, 1906, vol. 62, 
p. 456. 



THE INTEEIOR OF THE EARTH. 



237 



distinct break in the transmission curve of the transverse waves at 
distances between 120° and 150° from the origin; but when we re- 
member that fully 95 per cent of the energy of an earthquake shock 
com.es to the surface within the hemisphere having the origin as its 
pole, we see that the data for great distances must be too imperfect 
to yield very reliable deductions. 

Many years ago Roche showed that it was quite possible to deter- 
mine a distribution of density in the earth which would be discon- 
tinuous at several levels, but which would still be astronomically 
satisfactory. Weichert, in 1897,^ showed that such a system might 
consist of a central core of radius about 4,900 km. or three-fourths 
of the earth's radius, consisting of iron with a density of about 8.3, 
surrounded by a stony shell about 1,500 km. thick and with density 
varying from 3 to 3.4. It was natural that he should examine the 
transmission curves to see if they supported his ideas; and at The 
Hague meeting of the International Seismological Association in 
1907 he announced that they did. At the Manchester meeting of 
the same association in 1911 he announced the existence of two shells 
around the central core. In 1914 Gutenberg (one of Wiechert's 
assistants) amiounced the existence of three shells.^ In addition to 
ordinary times of transmission, Gutenberg also used the times of 
waves reflected at the earth's surface and the variations m the 
amplitude; it is evident that a wave which crosses the boundary of 
the core will experience reflection and refraction ; and whichever 
part is later observed at the surface of the earth will have a distinctly 
smaller amplitude than the wave which just missed penetrating 
' into the core. The following table shows the positions of the boun- 
daries of the shells and of the core, and the velocities of the longi- 
tudinal waves P and of the transverse waves S; it will be noticed 
that it is only at the boundary of the central core that any marked 
sudden change in velocity occurs. 



Depth, 
kilome- 
ters. 


Velocity, kilometor- 
seconds. 




1,200 
1,700 

2,450 

2,900 
6,370 


P. 

7.17 
11.80 
12.22 
n3. 29 
lis. 15 
h3. 15 
t 8.50 
11.10 


S. 
4.01 
6.59 
6.86 
7.32 
7.20 
7.20 
4.72 
6.J.5 



1 Ueber die Massenvertheilung im Innern der Erde," Nadir, k. Oesells. Wiss. OUttingen, 
1897 ; Math.-phys. Kl., p. 221. 

2 Ueber Erdbebenwelleu," VIIA. Nach. k. Oesells. Wiss. Odttingen; Math.-phys. Kl., 
1914, p. 1 ; references to the earlier numbers of the series are given in this paper. 



238 ANNUAL REPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The remark regarding Oldham's results applies also here, namely 
that it is questionable whether the observations at distances greater 
than 100° or 120° are sufficiently accurate to justify such definite 
conclusions. Gutenberg had the advantage, however, of more accu- 
rate observations than Oldham, and also of measures of amplitudes. 
There is no a priori reason w^hy the earth might not be made up of 
a number of shells, but there should be satisfactory evidence for any 
proposed system; and it must be shown to satisfy the astronomic 
requirements; or, at least, not to contradict them. Gutenberg's 
system does not correspond with Wiechert's system of 1897. In the 
latter a marked change in physical properties occurs at a depth of 
1,500 km. ; in the former, at a depth of 2,900 km. ; and in crossing 
into the core, the ratio of the elasticity to the density, according to 
Gutenberg, rapidly loses six-tenths of its value. This change might 
be the result of a great increase in density or a great decrease in 
elasticity; it may be questioned whether the former is compatible 
with the astronomic requirements, and whether the latter is com- 
patible with the high rigidity which we know the earth, as a whole, 
has. So far no answer has been given to these questions. 

In 1879 George and Horace Darwin attempted to determine the 
rigidity of the earth by measuring the deviation of the vertical under 
the attraction of the moon. If the earth yielded like a fluid, its 
surface would always remain at right angles to the vertical, and a 
pendulum would remain relatively stationary for all positions of the 
moon ; if the earth were absolutely rigid, the moon's attraction would 
deflect the pendulum an extremely small amount, but an amount 
capable of being measured. The Darwins did not obtain definite 
results because the disturbances of their pendulum were greater than 
the deflections they attempted to determine. 

A little later von Rebeur-Paschwitz attacked the same problem 
with better success, using a horizontal pendulum. 

Hecker, in Potsdam, and OrlofF, in Dorpat, have repeated von 
Rebeur-Paschwitz 's experiment; and both found values for the 
average rigidity of the earth comparable with that of steel. But, 
what was most remarkable, and what is still unexplained, the rigidity 
was apparently greater in an east-west than in a north-south direc- 
tion. Orloff, experimenting at a gi-eater distance from the ocean, 
found a smaller difference than Hecker did, and it has been sug- 
gested that the tides of the ocean are the cause of the difference. 
The International Seismological Association, at its Manchester 
meeting in 1911, made plans to repeat the experiments in Paris, in 
central Canada, in the middle of Southern Africa, and in the middle 
of Russia ; but no reports have yet come from these stations. 

In the autumn of 1913 Michelson attacked the same problem by 
a new method, which seems capable of yielding more accurate 



THE INTERIOR OP THE EARTH. 239 

results than the horizontal pendulum. He measured the deflection 
of the vertical under the influence of the moon by what was prac- 
tically a water level 500 feet long, sunk G feet in the earth.^ Michel- 
son's results for the east-west rigidity do not differ greatly from 
those of Orloff; but his north-south rigidity is somewhat less than 
Orloff's. Michelson's experiments also show that the viscosity of 
the earth must be as great as that of steel. These experiments are 
of great interest; they should be repeated at various places, and 
especially at places symmetrically situated with respect to the great 
oceans, and on midoceanic islands, in order to determine how far 
they are affected by the oceanic tides. 

We can say in conclusion that the transmission of transverse 
earthquake waves shows that the earth is solid, at least to a great 
depth below the surface; and that experiments on the deflection of 
the vertical show that it is quite as rigid and as viscous as steel. 
There are still difficulties in the interpretation of the observations, 
but their elucidation can not alter the general character of the 
conclusions. 

III. 

THE EARTH FROM THE GEOPHYSICAL STANDPOINT. 
By John F. Hayfokd. 

This is a broad topic on which much intensive thinking has been 
done by many men. It is impossible to treat it adequately or com- 
prehensively in the short time available. 

In this address an attempt will be made to so concentrate atten- 
tion on a certain few points as to tend to clarify existing ideas and to 
correlate them. An attempt will also be made to help in locating the 
lines of least resistance to future progress in the study of the earth. 

The size of the earth, as well as its shape, is now known with such 
a high degree of accuracy that the errors are negligible in compari- 
son with the errors in other parts of our knowledge of the earth. 
The probable error of the equatorial radius is less than 1/300000 part, 
and of the polar semidiameter is about the same. 

The three physical constants of the earth, and of its different parts, 
on which you are now asked to concentrate your attention are the 
density, the modulus of elasticity, and the strength. 

It is important to know as much as possible about the density. The 
more one knows about the density in all parts of the earth the more 
surely and safely one may proceed in learning other things about the 
earth. 

1 " Preliminary Results of Measurements of the Rigidity of the Earth," The Astro- 
physical Journal, 1914, vol. 39, p. 97. 



240 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The modulus of elasticity at each point in the earth controls the 
behavior of the earth under relatively small applied forces. 

The strength of the earth, at each point, as measured by the stress- 
difference at that point necessary to produce either slow continuous 
change of shape or rupture, decides the behavior of the earth under 
the greater forces applied to it. 

As to density we laiow that the earth's surface density is about 
2.7, that the density probably increases continuously with increase of 
depth, that the density at the center is probably about 11, that the 
mean density is about 5.6, and that within a film at the surface of a 
thickness of about one fiftieth of the radius of the earth there is 
isostatic compensation which is nearly complete and perfect as be- 
tween areas of large extent. 

The manner of distribution of the isostatic compensation with 
respect to depth, and the limiting depth to which it extends are but 
imperfectly known. Nevertheless it appears that above the depth, 
122 Idlometers, the compensation is nearly complete even though 
there may be some compensation extending beyond that depth. 

Two general lines of evidence are available in determining the 
modulus of elasticity of the earth, that from earthquake waves, and 
that from earth tides. 

There are many inherent and extreme difficulties in the way of 
securing reliable evidence as to the modulus of elasticity from earth- 
quake waves. 

To 1913 the accuracy of available observations of tides in the solid 
earth was insufficient to furnish a basis for reliable conclusions. 
Nevertheless the estimates of the modulus derived from these early 
observations were a fair approximation to that given by the very 
recent and much more accurate observations. 

Dr. Michelson and those associated with him in the observation of 
earth tides at the Yerkes Observatory since 1913 have developed a 
method of observing which is of a new order of accuracy such that 
the minute changes of inclination at a given point due to earth tides 
may be determined with an error of less than 1 per cent. 

These observations make the modulus of elasticity of the earth as 
a whole about like that of solid steel, namely, (8.6) (10" C.G.S.). 

It is the modulus of elasticity of the earth as a whole which is 
measured in this case. 

It is eminently desirable to determine if possible whether the 
modulus of elasticity varies with increase of depth. The Michelson 
apparatus possibly opens the way to such a determination. Suppose 
that the apparatus is used on the shore of the Bay of Fundy. Twice 
a day a large excess load of water is placed in the bay by the tidal 
oscillation and as frequently the water load is reduced below normal. 
The stresses produced in the body of the earth by these changes of 



THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH. 241 

load applied over an area only about 30 miles wide are probably con- 
fined almost entirely to the first 100 miles of depth. The magnitude 
of changes of inclination produced at an observing station on the 
shore by the changing water load would, therefore, be dependent pri- 
marily on the modulus of elasticity of the material below and around 
the bay to a depth of less than 100 miles. The observations might 
serve, therefore, to determine a modulus of elasticity of the surface 
portion of the earth rather than of the whole earth. 

Turn now to the third of the physical constants, which it was pro- 
posed to examine, namely, the strength. 

Among the forces which we may consider as furnishing tests of 
strength are: (1) The forces involved in earthquakes, (2) the 
weight of continents, and (3) the weight of mountains. 

The forces which produce the more intense earthquakes evidently 
cause stress differences locally, which are beyond the breaking 
strengih of the material. However, from earthquakes we may obtain 
but little information as to the strength of the earth material, be- 
cause the intensity of the stress differences can not be reliably de- 
termined. We know simply that the intensity exceeds the breaking 
strength of the material at the points of rupture. 

It is uncertain how great are the maximum stress differences pro- 
duced by the weight of continents. One great difficulty in computing 
these stress differences arises from the fact that the isostatic com- 
pensation of continents, now loiown to exist, reduces the stress differ- 
ences much below what they would otherwise be. Love computed the 
maximum stress differences thus reduced as 0.07 ton per square inch. 
Darwin computed the greatest stress difference due to the weight of 
the continents, without isostatic compensation, as 4 tons per square 
inch. If each of these computations were based upon assumptions, 
which correspond closely with the facts, one should be warranted in 
drawing the conclusion that the maximum stress difference caused by 
the actual continents, supported in part by the actual isostatic com- 
pensation, is between 0.07 and 4 tons per square inch, and that it is 
much nearer to the smaller than to the larger value. But a close 
examination of either of these computations shows that it is based 
upon assumptions made to simplify and shorten the computations, 
which a&sumptions depart widely from the facts and tend strongly to 
make the computed stress differences much smaller than the actual. 
For example, both Darwin and Love used in their computations 
hypothetical continents, represented by regular mathematical forms, 
in the place of the actual continents with their many irregularities. 
The maximum stress difference caused by the actual continents is 
necessarily much greater than would be produced by the assumed 
smoothed out, regular, symmetrical continents. 



242 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Similarly no adequate computations have been made to determine 
the maximum stress difference due to the mountains. Darwin com- 
puted the maximum stress difference produced by two parallel 
mountain ranges, of density 2.8, rising 13,000 feet above the inter- 
mediate valley bottom, to be 2.6 tons per square inch. Love, for the 
same mountain ranges, but with isostatic compensation taken into 
account, computed the maximum stress difference to be 1.6 tons per 
square inch. In this case the computation indicates that the isostatic 
compensation reduced the maximum stress difference to but little 
more than one-half what it would otherwise be. Here, again, both 
the computed maximum stress differences have been greatly reduced 
by substituting hypothetical smoothed-out mountains in the place 
of the actual, irregular, unsymmetrical mountains. 

To the person who is trying to get a true picture of the present 
state of stress in the earth, two very import<ant facts are made evi- 
dent by a comparison of the Love and the Darwin computations. 
First, the existence of isostatic computation greatly reduces the stress 
differences which would otherwise be produced by the weight of the 
continents and mountains. Second, the depth at which the maximum 
stress difference tends to occur is evidently very much less with iso- 
static compensation than without it. These two conclusions, based 
upon the differences between the two computations, are apparently 
reasonably safe even in spite of the same wild assumptions on which 
both the computations were based. 

Note that even a little information as to the distribution of densi- 
ties — a little information about isostatic compensation — profoundly 
modifies the conclusions as to the state of stress in the earth. It 
should, therefore, be clear why it was so emphatically stated in an 
earlier part of this address that information as to the distribution of 
density in the earth is necessary in order to make safe progress in 
learning other things about the earth. 

Is the earth competent to withstand without slow yielding the 
stress differences due to the weight of continents and mountains, 
the isostatic compensations being considered? From the computa- 
tions by Darwin and Love, considered in the light of the assumptions 
made by them to simplify the computations, I estimate that it is 
probable that the actual mountains and continents with all their 
irregularities of shape and elevation possibly produce stress differ- 
ences in some few places as great as 4 tons per square inch, and 
certainly produce stress differences at many places as great as two- 
tenths of a ton per square inch. The material would certainly yield 
slowly under such stress differences especially when they persist 
continuously over long periods of time and throughout large regions. 
Four tons per inch is the breaking or rupture load for good granite, 



THE INTEEIOR OF THE EARTH. 243 

one of the strongest materials existing in the earth in large quantities. 
Two-tenths of a ton per square inch is the safe working load used by 
engineers for good granite. There is abundant evidence from 
laboratory tests that the so-called yield point on which the engineer 
bases his estimate of safe working load for a given material is a 
function of the length of time the load is applied and the delicacy 
of the test. The longer the time of application and the more refined 
the test to determine the permanent yield the lower the observed 
yield point. In the case of the test in progress in the earth the time 
of application is indefinitely long and the test is extremely refined 
inasmuch as the minimum rate of yielding which may be detected 
is exceedingly small. 

If an engineer wishes to know whether a bridge, or foundation, 
or building, or railroad rail is yielding under stress differences which 
have been brought to bear upon it he looks for evidence of distress, 
for rivet heads popped off, scaling from the surface, settling, cracks, 
or even changes in microscopic structure. The geologists have made 
very extensive corresponding examinations of the earth. Everywhere 
they find evidence that the earth has yielded. On the one-fourth of 
the earth's surface exposed to examination, the land, there is no part 
for which the evidence does not indicate past uplift, or subsidence, 
or horizontal thrust, or cracking under tension, or cracking produced 
by shear, or microscopic yielding in detail such as produces schis- 
tosity, for example, or some other form of past yielding to stress 
differences. The physicist studying the earth must take this over- 
whelming mass of evidence into account and must conclude that the 
earth habitually yields slowly to the stress differences brought to bear 
upon it. Please note that I do not assert that the stress differences 
are all due to gravity. 

I propose now to state what are in my opinion probably the lines 
of least resistance to future progress in studying the earth from the 
physical standpoint. I propose to outline what I believe to be the 
most effective methods of attack, and to indicate some of the con- 
clusions which will probably be reached. I am led to this procedure 
by two considerations. First, I find it possible to state certain of my 
opinions as to the net outcome of past investigations most clearly 
in that form — and time presses. Second, I indulge the hope that 
such an outline which is frankly an expression of judgment based on 
evidence much too weak and conflicting to be proof, may possibly 
kindle the imagination of some man or men, and so lead to vigorous 
attacks upon the problem and to future progress. 

In attacking the problems of the earth one should assume at the 
outset that the phenomena exhibited are very complicated, that they 
are probably due to various simultaneous actions, and that the vari- 
ous actions are probably closely interlocked, modifying each other. 



244 ANNUAL REPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

though some are probably primary in importance and others sec- 
ondary. Hence the most effective method of attack is probably one 
which includes a general correlation of apparently widely separated 
ideas and facts gathered from physicists, engineers, geologists, 
chemists, etc., and at the same time includes intensive attacks in 
detail on one after the other of single features of the problems which 
arise and an intensive working out of the possible consequences of 
said features. 

It should be recognized at the outset that no observed behavior 
of the earth clearly warrants the assumption that the material of 
which it is composed differs radically in any way from that acces- 
sible at the surface. It should be assumed, therefore, that through- 
out the earth the materials are a mixture differing from the mixture 
found at the surface only as the extreme pressure and temperature 
conditions at great depths directly and indirectly produce differences. 

It should be kept clearly in mind that the geodetic evidence from 
observations of the direction and intensity of gravity indicates 
simply the present location of attracting masses, the present distri- 
dution of density. It furnishes no direct evidence whatever as to 
past distributions of density or as to changes in density now in 
progress. But an understanding of the present distribution of 
density within the earth, especially near the surface, is so necessary 
to a true understanding of the present state of stress and of viscous 
flow in the earth that an understanding of the geodetic evidence is 
fundamental to progress. 

Computations should be made in extension of those which have 
been made by Darwin and Love. The new computations should, 
however, deal with the actual irregular continents and mountains, 
not with regular substitutes. The computations should also take 
into account the bulk modulus of the materials composing the earth ; 
that is, these materials should be assumed to be compressible. Such 
computations will no doubt be both difficult and long. I believe 
that even a moderately vigorous attack along this line will shoAv con- 
clusively that the earth does not behave as an elastic body under 
the large loads superimposed upon it by the continents and moun- 
tains. I believe that the computed stress differences will be found 
to be so large that the computation will be essentially a proof of 
viscous yielding. 

Next make the contrasting assumption that the material compos- 
ing the earth is competent to withstand but little shearing stress, 
and that the pressure at any point is that due to gravitation acting 
on the mass in the column extending from the point vertically to the 
surface. Let it be assumed that isostatic compensation exists, is 
uniformly distributed with respect to depth, and is complete at depth 
122 kilometers. Consider the actual topography and form a mental 



THE INTEEIOR OF THE EARTH. 245 

picture as accurately as possible of the viscous flows which would 
take place on the assumption that at each level the material would 
flow horizontally from regions of greater pressure to regions of less 
pressure along lines of maximum rate of change of pressure, and 
that the time rate of such viscous flows would tend to be propor- 
tional to the space rate of change of pressure. The flows would all 
be found to be away from beneath high regions toward low regions, 
from continents toward oceans, from mountains toward valleys. 

After such a picture has been clearly formed assume that the iso- 
static condition is disturbed by long-continued erosion and deposition, 
producing changes in the surface elevations and surface loads. On 
the same assumptions as to the nature of the viscous flows as before, 
form a new picture of the viscous flows which would now be in prog- 
ress. It will be found that under the new conditions the viscous 
flows near the surface would still be away from high areas and 
toward low areas, but in general they would be slower than before. 
At greater depths, however, it will be found that the viscous flows 
would be undertows from regions of recent deposition toward re- 
gions of recent erosion. These undertow flows would in general tend 
to be in the direction opposite to recent surface transportation of 
material. This picture would serve as a first approximation to an 
understanding of the mechanism of isostatic readjustment. The 
undertows would be found on these assumptions to extend to a con- 
siderable depth, certainly more than 122 kilometers. 

Next one should picture the changes in density which would be 
produced by the viscous flows. The density should be pictured as 
decreasing in regions from which material is being carried away by 
the flow and increasing in regions to which the material is being 
carried. It will be noticed as soon as such a picture is formed that 
every undertow flow at any level tends to equalize pressures at lower 
levels. This will have a strong tendency to make the prevailing 
undertows occur at much higher levels than they otherwise would. 

Let it be assumed that the viscous material offers some small re- 
sistance to shear and still have elastic properties to a slight degree. 
The condition assumed originally that the pressure at a point de- 
pends simply upon the weight of the material above that point will 
be disturbed thereby. Form as clear a conception as possible of these 
disturbances and the modifications of the flows produced b}'- them. I 
believe the modifications will be found to be important and that they 
will be found to be such as tend to confine the effects of surface 
changes of load to a depth which is a small fraction of the radius. 

So much for the direct effects of gravity which it seems im- 
portant to picture clearly. Next study other effects, some of which 
are inclirecth^ produced by gravity. 
73839°— SM 1916 17 



246 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

First study the modifying effects of changes of temperature. 
Wherever viscous flov^^ takes place in the quasisolid portions of the 
earth there heat is necessarily developed in amount equivalent to the 
mechanical energy expended in overcoming the resistance to flow. 
This will tend to increase the volume of the material, to increase 
the pressure, and to raise the surface above the region of viscous 
flow. It is probable also that the increase of temperature will tend 
to weaken the material, thus emphasizing the Aveakening produced 
by the damaging mechanical effects of the flow. 

This temperature effect is probably locally important. 

Beneath areas of recent deposition the temperature of a given 
part of the buried material will slowly increase for long periods of 
time, on account of heat conducted up from below and prevented by 
the new blanket of deposited material from rising to the surface so 
freely as before. Conversely, beneath the areas of recent erosion 
the temperature of a given portion of material will decrease. The 
ultimate limit of change will tend to be in each case not greater 
that about 1° C. for each 32 meters of depth of erosion or 
deposition. These temperature changes tend ultimately to 
lower areas of recent erosion and to raise areas of recent deposi- 
tion, possibly as much as one-thirtieth of the thickness of the erosion 
or deposition, the temperature effect taking place much later than 
the erosion or deposition which initiated it. 

Study next the effects which may be computed from the bulk 
modulus of elasticity. Beneath areas of erosion a given particle of 
matter tends to rise by an amount which may be computed from the 
bulk modulus of material, and similarly a particle tends to fall be- 
neath an area of deposition. If the depth to which the elastic phe- 
nomena extend is as great as 122 kilometers and the bulk modulus 
is 500,000 kilograms per square centimeter (corresponding to granite) 
the rise or fall of a particle near the surface will tend to be at least 
one-fiftieth part as great as the thickness of the material eroded or 
deposited. This is a change so large as to have considerable effects 
in modifying or magnifying the actions which would otherwise 
occur. Possibly this elastic change is much larger than the esti- 
mate here given. Of course if the erosion or deposition takes place 
in a small area only, such elastic response will be largely inhibited 
by surrounding material on which the load has not been directly 
changed. But under large areas of erosion or deposition such action 
must take place and extend to depths possibly as great as 122 
kilometers. 

Study next the modifying effects, on the phenomena already pic- 
tured, of chemical changes which are probably produced in the earth 
by changes of pressure. The expression " chemical changes " is 
here used in the broadest possible sense. A relief of pressure at 



THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH. 247 

any given point in the earth necessarily favors such chemical changes 
as are accompanied by increase in volmne and reduction of density. 
Increase of pressure tends to have the reverse effect. Such changes 
tend to reenforce and extend in time the effects just referred to 
which may be computed from the bulk modulus of elasticity. It is 
important to estimate such changes as well as possible from all 
available evidence, such for example as that furnished by chemists, 
by geologists, and by such investigations of rock formation as have 
been conducted at the geophysical laboratory in Washington. I 
believe the possible effects of this kind will be found to be so large 
as to be of primary importance. 

Evidence has accumulated during the past few years which 
makes it reasonably certain that with increased pressure, as at the 
great depths in the earth, the rigidity and the viscosity of the ma- 
terial also necessarily increases. This tends to cause the viscous 
flows to take place at higher levels than they otherwise would. This 
should be taken into account. 

Next a reexamination of the conceptions so far formed should 
be made to ascertain to what extent and how they would be modified 
if one started with some other reasonable assumption as to the limit- 
ing depth of present isostatic compensation or some other reason- 
able assumption as to the law of distribution of the compensation 
with regard to depth. 

Next full and extensive comparisons should be made between 
the hypothetical phenomena on the one hand pictured as made up 
primarily of viscous flows, modified by some elastic effects, initiated 
in part by surface transfers of load, modified by changes of tempera- 
ture, modified by chemical changes and in the other ways, and on 
the other hand the facts of the past as to the behavior of the earth 
recorded in the rocks and read by geologists and others. This com- 
parison should be used to the fullest possible extent to evaluate the 
relative importance of the various elements in the actions. 

In making this comparison of various hypothetical phenomena 
with the great accumulated mass of geological facts it should be 
recognized at once that it is false logic to reason that if a given 
hypothesis does not account for all the observed facts the hypothesis 
is necessarily erroneous. On the contrary it is true logic in dealing 
Avith such a problem as the earth seen from a physical standpoint 
to reason that the more facts are accounted for by a given hypothesis 
the more certain it is that said hypothesis is a statement of a con- 
trolling element in the complex phenomena and then to study the 
facts which appear neutral, or conflicting, with reference to the 
hypothesis, considering them as indicators of other elements of the 



248 ANNUAL REPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

phenomena which one should attempt to embody in other supple- 
mentary hypotheses. 

I submit that in studying the earth it is a mistake to think that 
there is any necessary conflict between the idea that the earth be- 
haves as an elastic body and the idea that it is yieldiing in a viscous 
manner. A body may behave in both ways at once. The earth is 
probably acting largely as an elastic body under small forces which 
change rapidly and at the same time is yielding in a viscous manner 
to forces of larger intensity which are applied in one sense con- 
tinuously for long periods. 

The object of this address will have been accomplished if it serves 
in time to arouse the imagination and interest of some one and to 
guide him to greater effectiveness in attacking the problems presented 
by the earth as seen from the geophysical standpoint. 

IV. 

VARIATIONS OF LATITUDE: THEIR BEARING UPON OUR KNOWL- 
EDGE OF THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH. 

By Frank Schlesingeb. 

To review even hastily the contributions that astronomy has made 
to our Imowledge of the figure and dimensions of the earth and the 
constitution of its interior would consume more time than I can 
fairly claim as my share. Let me therefore pass over those points 
that are on accepted ground and are matters of general agreement 
from the different points of view represented in this symposium; 
and let me dwell instead upon certain recent developments espe- 
cially in need of consideration, concerning which the astronomer 
desires the criticism and help of the geologist, the seismologist, the 
physicist, and the meteorologist. These developments have come to 
us directly or indirectly through a study of latitude variations, so 
that most of what I shall have to say will deal with this subject. 

Although variations of latitude are in a sense a very recent addi- 
tion to our knowledge, yet, on the theoretical side, at least, we find 
the beginning more than a century and a half ago. In 1755 Euler 
considered "the rotation of solid and rigid bodies" in a memoir 
that is now recognized as the foundation stone for our edifice. He 
showed that if such a body is projected into space it will exhibit tAvo 
kinds of rotation; the first of these is the familiar one that corre- 
sponds to the day in the case of the earth ; the other is more subtle 
and corresponds to the variation of latitude. By reason of this the 
axis of the diurnal rotation is continually changing within the body, 
progressing in a regular way, and coming back after a time to its 
earlier positions. .An ordinary top gives us a simple example of this 



THE INTEKIOR OP THE EARTH. 249 

kind of rotation. The spinner imparts to the top a motion of trans- 
hition as well as a rotation, and if we wish to study the rotation we 
must arrest the translation in some way. This we can do by letting 
the top fall upon a hard surface, in which the iron peg soon wears a 
minute hole for itself, and the effect is to stop the translation of the 
top without modifying seriously the rotation. Then we can see that, 
while the top is turning very rapidly around an axis, this axis is 
itself rotating in a comparatively leisurely way. Just the same thing 
is occurring with the earth — the point (or pole) at which the axis of 
the daily rotation pierces the surface of the earth is continually in 
motion. If we could take to the neighborhood of the pole a modern 
instrument and if we could observe there at leisure and in comfort, 
we should have no particular difficulty in finding the position of the 
pole within a meter. But if we should repeat these observations a 
few months later, we should find that the pole had wandered away to 
some distance. To be sure, this distance would not be great, and all 
the wanderings of the pole that have thus far been observed could 
be plotted to true scale on the floor of a room not much larger than 
the one we are in. Of course, if the pole is moving, so, too, is the 
earth's Equator ; and thus the latitudes of all points on the earth are 
varying. Such wanderings as these need not disturb the peace of 
mind of those gentlemen who like to discover the Arctic or the Ant- 
arctic Pole. Under the circumstances that the polar explorer must 
work and with the meager instruments he can transport, he is glad 
to determine his latitude within half a mile of the truth. 

We must understand that it is only in our time, and only after the 
lapse of many years since Euler published his memoir, that latitude 
variations have actually been observed. There w^as nothing in 
Euler's theory to indicate how large a variation to look for, since 
this is a matter that depends upon the whole complex of " initial 
conditions," of which our knowledge is the very vaguest. But this 
theory does tell us what the period of variation should be, since 
this depends upon the shape of the earth and the distribution of the 
material within it, and precisely the information that is here needed 
is afforded by a study of precession. Applying this information, 
Euler was able to say that the period of the latitude variation should 
be 10 months. Bessel at Konigsberg, in 1842, later Peters at Pul- 
kova, Nyren also at Pulkova, Downing at Greenwich, and Newcomb 
at Washington, all searched their observations for evidence of a 
latitude variation having a period of 10 months, but all in vain. 
Astronomers concluded that if latitude variations existed at all, their 
extent was too small to be detected by instruments of the precision 
that had then been attained. 

Toward the end of the nineteenth century vague whisperings that 
this conclusion might be ineorrect seem to have been in the air. 



250 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

But the first clear word to this effect came in 1888 from the lips of 
Kiistner, at Berlin. He had invented and applied a method for deter- 
mining the amount of the aberration of light; but he found that his 
observations gave well nigh impossible resoilts, agreeing neither 
among themselves nor with earlier reliable observations. By a nice 
chain of logic he was able to exclude one possible explanation after 
another until there was left only the supposition that the latitude of 
his station had changed while his obsexvations were in progress. 
Next he examined nearly contemporaneous observations made at 
other places, and when he found that he could account for certain 
puzzling discrepancies he no longer hesitated to announce that lati- 
tudes were variable after all. 

This announcement awoke the liveliest interest and encountered 
no little skepticism. Special observations were at once set on foot 
at various observatories in Europe and America, as well as at a 
station near Honolulu in the Sandwich Islands. These islands are 
about opposite in longitude to the European stations, and this was 
the reason for establishing a station there. For obviously if the 
pole is really changing its place, then the changes in latitude for two 
opposite stations will be the reverse of each other. T\nien in 1893 
this was found actually to be the case, other possible explanations 
for the observed phenomena at once fell down, and latitude varia- 
tions became for the first time a universally accepted fact. 

Much time and effort have since been expended in attempting to 
formulate the " laws " of latitude variations and to give them a 
mechanical interpretation. But observation has shown that the 
variations are of unexpected complicity, and as a consequence we 
are still very far from having satisfactory knowledge of this subject. 
By the same token it is probable that an intensive study of these 
variations, particularly from points of view other than the astro- 
nomical, will teach us much concerning the interior of the earth as 
well as some of its surface phenomena. 

It was the late Dr. Chandler, of Cambridge, Mass., who took the 
lead in investigating the nature of latitude variations. By over- 
hauling ancient observations (made of course without any reference 
to the present subject) he was able to trace the presence of the varia- 
tions back to the time of Bradley in the middle of the eighteenth 
century. Thus it happens that at the very time that Euler was 
writing the first theoretical paper on the subject, Bradley had already 
begun making the observations from which the actual existence of 
latitude variations might have been proven at once. Chandler was 
able to gather similar evidence from other miscellaneous series of 
observations and thus to set down a tolerably continuous record of 
the variations during a century and a half. However interesting a 
fact this may be from an historical point of view, it does not help 



THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH. 251 

very much in a practical study of the subject. There are two reasons 
for this: first, it is only for European stations (and for the most part 
only for Greenwich) that we have any knowledge of these earlier 
variations; the other component of the wanderings of the pole, 
namely that in the meridian at right angles to the meridian of 
Greenwich, did not begin to be known until very recently. Again, 
these ancient observations were undertaken for certain definite pur- 
poses that they served as well as could be expected for their time; 
but they were not intended and are not well suited for precise deter- 
minations of the latitude. Close acquaintance with the subject has 
taught us that exceedingly delicate observations are necessary to 
define the variations with adequate accuracy. If I held in my hands 
two plumb lines half a meter apart, they would not be quite parallel 
to each other, though both are exactly vertical; if they were pro- 
longed they would meet somewhere near the center of the earth, 
4,000 miles below. The angle between them is a little less than 
0".02 and represents approximately the accuracy that is demanded 
and that has recently been attained in latitude observations. This 
success is due chiefly to the International Geodetic Association which 
has organized an " international latitude service " of high efficiency, 
and to whose efforts and experience are due the improvements in 
instruments and methods that have made possible this extraordinary 
degree of precision. Since 1899, the association has maintained six 
observing stations for this sole purpose, two of these being in our 
own country. One of the minor effects of the war that is now raging 
in Europe will be the discontinuance of some of these stations. 
One of the American stations has already been abandoned, and the 
same fate will overtake the other in June, 1916, unless some inde- 
pendent means of maintaining it, at least temporarily, presents itself 
soon.* An interruption of these observations would be a great pity, 
for this is one of the cases where a continuous record is highly 
desirable. 

To return to Chandler and his work on these variations, perhaps, 
the most important of his achievements was to show that the prin- 
cipal term in the variations, instead of having a period of 10 months 
in accordance with Euler's theory, has in reality a period of 14 
months. This difference explains the failure of Bessel and all the 
others, who preceded Kiistner, to find a latitude variation in their 
observations, for, relying upon Euler's results, they had all tested 
their observations for the 10-month variation and had sought for 
no other variation. For the same reason. Chandler's announcement 
of the longer period was received with incredulity in some quarters, 

» since this sentence was spoken the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey has 
secured legislation that guarantees the continuation of this station. 



252 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

and this feeling did not vanish until Newcomb pointed out that 
Euler had made a certain assumption regarding the interior of the 
earth that had in the meantime been universally discarded. His 
period of 10 months applies in fact only to a perfectly rigid and 
unyielding earth. Newcomb showed that if the earth yields to defor- 
mation to the same extent as though it were composed throughout of 
steel, then Euler's period would be lengthened to about 14 months. 
Here we have the first dependable determination of the rigidity of 
the earth, a result that has since been confirmed in several ways, par- 
ticularly by a measurement of " bodily tides " in the earth. 

The 14-month term (or the modified Eulerian term as it is now 
called) has been under accurate observation for a quarter of a cen- 
tury. The period can probably (though not certainly) be regarded 
as constant. This is what we should expect, for a change in this 
period would call for a sensible alteration in the distribution of the 
material within the earth, or a change in the rigidity of the earth. 
The amplitude of this term presents a very puzzling problem. Its 
usual value is about 0".27, but twice in recent years it has jumped 
to about 0".40. Such a change could be accounted for by supposing 
that the earth had received a severe blow or a succession of milder 
blows tending in the same direction. We are. reminded that both 
Milne and Helmert have suggested that there might be a direct con- 
nection between latitude variations and earthquakes. This sugges- 
tion was originally made by Milne very early in this century when 
the astronomical data necessary to test it were still very meager. It 
is to be hoped that the question will be taken up again in the light 
of the information that has been added during the past 10 or 12 
years. 

Though the Eulerian term is the largest part of the latitude vari- 
ation, it is by no means the only important one. We have next an 
annual term with a maximum amplitude of about 0".20. We may 
say with some confidence that this term is seasonal and meteorologi- 
cal in its origin, but at present no more definite statement would be 
warranted. It was early suggested that ocean currents might cause 
this variation. These currents would have to vary greatly with the 
season, either in the volume or the speed of the flow, or in its direc- 
tion; for an unvarying current would merely modify the Eulerian 
term once for all .and would leave the latitude variations otherwise 
unchanged. A similar suggestion has been made with regard to air 
currents, and appeal has also been made to unequal deposits of snow 
and ice on two opposite hemispheres of the earth to account for the 
annual term. It seems to me that these explanations have not been 
subjected to the critical numerical tests that are possible and desir- 
able. The meteorological data are doubtless competent to enable us 



THE INTERIOR OP THE EARTH. 253 

to compute at least the order of the effects in the latitude variations 
that we should expect from these various causes. Furthermore, the 
annual term is probably variable in its amplitude, and it is important 
to ascertain how (if at all) these changes are related to the corre- 
sponding meteorological observations. 

One other term must be mentioned in this brief summary. A few 
years ago Kimura of Japan made the important discovery (the 
most striking contribution to astronomy that has ever come out of 
Asia) that tlie latitudes of all stations are affected by a variation 
that does not depend upon the longitude but which is the same for 
all points in the same latitude. In other words, there is present a 
variation that is not due to the wanderings of the pole. To ascertain 
more closely the nature of this term, the International Geodetic Asso- 
ciation extended its latitude service temporarily to the Southern 
Hemisphere, with the result that the term was found to be of pre- 
cisely the kind that would be caused by an annual wandering of the 
center of gravity of the earth to and fro along the axis of rotation. 
This must be regarded merely as an illustration and not as an ex- 
planation, for so great a change (about 3 meters) in the position of 
the center of gi-avity is excluded on other and very conclusive 
grounds. No plausible explanation for the Kimura term has as 
yet made its appearance, and as a consequence the reality of the term 
has been questioned from every possible point of view. Many ex- 
planations have been advanced, each of which sought to account for 
the term as merely an instrumental effect or the like, just as v>^as the 
case 20 years earlier with the whole of the latitude variation itself. 
Against such attempts the Kimura term has held up very well. It 
is not too much to say that at the present time all but one of the 
numerous explanations of this class have been disposed of; this 
exception deserves a brief mention, particularly as it calls loudly for 
the attention of the meteorologist. Let us suppose that the layers of 
equal density in the atmosphere above a station are not horizontal, 
but that they are sensibly inclined. If this occurs without our 
laiowledge, as it would under ordinary circumstances, then w^e 
should apply refraction to our observations in a slightly erroneous 
way and we should derive a value for the latitude that is not quite 
correct. Let us suppose further that this effect were a world-wide 
one and that in any given month there would be a pronounced ten- 
dency for the inclination to be in the same sense in all latitudes, north 
and south, as well as in all longitudes. Then we should have a set 
of circumstances that would account for the Kimura term as an 
atmospheric effect, and therefore it would be excluded as a real varia- 
tion of latitude. So far as the astronomer is able to testify, the evi- 
dence is against the occurrence of such tilts in the atmosphere. The 



254 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

inclination required to account quantitatively for the amplitude of 
the Kimura term is over 2 minutes of arc, or a slope of about one 
part in fifteen hundred. Presiunably, in a few years we shall be able 
to say something more definite as to the possibility of the existence 
of such conditions. My own opinion is that this explanation, like 
so many others of similar character that have been suggested for the 
Kimura term, will be found untenable. Further, I venture to think 
that latitude variations as a whole will find their explanations less on 
the surface of the earth and more in its interior than seems now to 
be the generally accepted opinion. 



DRY LAND IN GEOLOGY.* 



By Akthub p. Cousman. 



INTRODUCTION. 

After visits to South Africa, Australia, and India to study dry- 
land deposits it has become very evident to the writer that most of 
the earth is covered with water, and also that a ship is the most 
tantalizing of all modes of travel for a geologist, since captains have 
a prejudice against an3^thing of geological interest, such as rocks 
or reefs or shoals. After 1,200 miles of sheltered voyaging behind 
the great Australian barrier one may reach Java without ever seeing 
a coral reef at close quarters. Except the oozes dredged from the 
deep sea and the contours of its bottom revealed by soundings, the 
three-quarters of the globe beneath the ocean have scarcely any 
message for the geologist. That the waves and the tides do im- 
portant geological work is true, but to hear the growl of the breakers 
and to see them pounce on their prey, one must travel in a small 
boat close to shore and not in an ocean liner. Even to study the 
action of the sea on the shore it is better to be on land. The dry 
shores of Lake Bonneville, as read by a Gilbert, give more instruction 
in regard to wave work than all the foam and tumult of the surf on 
the strand. 

The geologist is essentially a land animal, and yet until recently 
most books on geology, especially textbooks, have had surprisingly 
little to say of the land and its conditions. The writers seemed all 
to belong to the blue-water school, so much of their space has been 
given to the sea and its inhabitants. It is true that continents were 
mentioned, almost apologetically, when one came to the Cenozoic 
mammals, but even the Glacial period did not lift geology above the 
sea for some of the older writers, who preferred icebergs to glaciers 
for the manufacture of bowlder clay. 

1 Presidential address read before the society Dec. 29, 1915. Reprinted, by permls 
sion, from Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, vol. 27, pp. 175-192, Mar. 31, 
1916. 

255 



256 ANNUAL KEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

This concentration on the sea and its life went to astonishing 
lengths in the more ancient parts of geological history. Like most 
of our older geologists, my first nourishment in the science was drawn 
from Dana's "Manual." Unfortunately that earliest of textbooks 
has been lost, but curiosity led me to glance over his fourth edition 
(1895) to see how the dry land fares in its pages. 

There is the usual fiery introduction to historical geology, dividing 
Archean times alliteratively into Astral, Azoic, and Archeozoic eons, 
with a lithic era beginning at 2,500° F. and an oceanic era commenc- 
ing when the earth had cooled to 500°, followed by eras of the earliest 
plants and the earliest animals as the boiling ocean cooled to en- 
durable temperatures. When the streaming waters had permanently 
condensed in the hollows of the original crust there was left a V- 
shaped nucleus of dry land about which the continent of North 
America was to be built up. After this encouraging start with a 
quite respectable dry-land area as a foundation, historical geology 
becomes submerged in seas, mostly shallow, until the end of the 
Silurian. Out of 114 pages devoted to this part of the world's 
history the total number of lines referring to the land and its inhabi- 
tants amount to only one page, while the Devonian land plants and 
animals are given only 4 pages out of 46. It is true that most of the 
Carboniferous chapter is devoted to the rank growths of the coal 
swamps, but these amphibious plants have little to do with actual 
dry land. They never rise far above sea level and are frequently 
lowered beneath it to get a fresh covering of mud or sand. The 
araucarias of the hills inland are barely mentioned, and it is not till 
one gets well on into the Mesozoiothat the dinosaurs compel the student 
to depart a little from the seashore. Even then there is a suggestion 
that at least some of the clumsy beasts preferred splashing along the 
mud flats or paddling in the lagoons. There is no hint of lean creatures 
hastening with long strides to the shrinking water holes of a semi- 
arid region. 

Another stand-by of student daj^s, this time in Germany, was 
Credner's " Geologic," which up to the end of the Devonian gives 2 
pages out of 58 to the land and its dwellers. Only 32^ pages out 
of 300, up to the beginning of the Quaternary, have to do with 
terrestrial things, even the dinosaurs almost escaping notice. The 
dry land was evidently of small importance. 

It is not uimatural that in the beginning geology should devote 
itself mainly to things marine, for the favored haunts of men are 
almost all founded on stratified rocks. Werner's idea of a Avorld 
deposited layer by layer from a primeval sea seemed reasonable 
when he lectured in Freiberg, though the Bergakademie stands on 
eruptive gneiss; and when William Smith began stratigraphic ge- 
ology, on an island where one can never get many miles from the 



DKY LAND IN GEOLOGY COLEMAN. 257 

sound of the surf, he had to collect sea shells from the rocks as 
coins with which to date the formations. 

The regular succession of marine faunas in the stratified rocks 
laid the foundation for our chronology, showed the orderl}^ develop- 
ment of living beings, and made possible the correlation of the rocks 
of different countries. The study of marine fossils was necessary 
to the building uj) of historical geology on a sound basis, therefore, 
so that the almost exclusive attention given to the seas and their 
life was not unjustified. In those earlier days continents had a 
place in geolog}^ mainly as limiting the migi-ations of marine faunas 
or as providing sediments for the shallow seas. In other respects 
they were largely negative things, vacuums where nothing took 
place, since they provided no fossil-bearing beds, while the waters 
around them were swarming with life and activity. 

It seemed quite the correct thing 35 years ago, when the older men 
among us were students, to spend most of our time bending over 
rows of brachiopods in museum cases and memorizing lists of type 
fossils, so as to fix the age of rocks we might encounter in our field 
work. In those days the wash of the waves and the smell of the 
seashore seemed to permeate geology, and dry land was seldom men- 
tioned or thought of by professors or students. Most of geology 
consisted of stratigraphy and invertebrate paleontology. Bluff old 
Credner has some justification for devoting nine-tenths of his his- 
torical geology to a consideration of the doings of the sea and its 
inhabitants. The land had scarcely been discovered. Even the 
'"Age of Mammals" was named and subdivided in accordance with 
the proportions of extinct to living shellfish and not from the rapid 
evolution of the mammals and their differentiation into the highest 
forms of animals the world has known. 

DISCOVERY OF THE LAND. 

It can not be said that the early geologists entirely ignored the 
land. An unmistakable land surface, like the "dirt bed" of the 
English Purbeck, with its araucarian stumps still rooted in the soil, 
was occasionally recognized, though such occurrences are almost un- 
known in formations older than the Carboniferous. It was recog- 
nized, also, that heat and drought best accounted for the beds of 
gypsum and rock salt found in several of the more ancient fomwi- 
tions, though the materials might have come from the evaporation 
of inclosed arms of the sea, and so might not be really continental 
deposits. 

The most typical land deposits, those of arid and of glacial cli- 
mates, were seldom recognized as such and were generally included 
among the marine stratified rocks, though the absence of fossils was 



258 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

disquieting. Even the red sandstones, with their hot, desert colors, 
were often looked on as marine, or else possibly as formed in great 
lakes, because they contained no marine fossils. The ancient bowlder 
clays were merely coarse, water-formed deposits of some peculiar 
kind. 

In most cases, however, dry-land periods are not represented by 
deposits of any sort, but by the gaps in the sequence of formations, 
for normal land conditions mean erosion and denudation. Their 
only record is usually a discordance, and a dry-land interval shown 
only by an unconformity naturally passed almost unnoticed. Most 
of the chapters of the world's history are written under water and 
show a strong bias toward the side of the w^ater animals. 

The only continental deposits beside those of arid and glacial con- 
ditions which have a good chance of being preserved and recognized 
are those of the coal swamps, and they persist mainly because they 
are on debatable ground often invaded b}'^ the sea. During much 
the greater part of the world's history happenings on the land are 
recorded only in the most accidental way, as by some stray leaf or 
tree trunk or carcass drifting down a river to be buried in the mud 
at its mouth. It is seldom that land formations can be found on a 
broad enough scale to reconstruct continental surfaces and condi- 
tions. 

Though it is certain that lands and their inhabitants have existed 
in unbroken succession from early times, the lands themselves are in 
geology mostly shadowy things. Whether they were mountainous 
or flat we can only infer from the kind of sediments they sent down 
to the sea. 

During most of the world's history the climate seems to have been 
imiild and moist, even to the poles, and deserts and ice sheets were 
apparently absent. We are living in an exceptional time character- 
ized by extremes of climate and are apt to think of such extremes as 
normal. When Miocene plane trees grew luxuriantly on Spitzber- 
gen, in latitude 78°, the whole circulatory system of air and water 
must have been different from the one we are accustomed to. Ex- 
tremes of cold and perhaps also of dryness must have been largely 
absent. There could have been no cold ocean currents flowing beside 
warm lands to desiccate the winds blowing over them, as in southern 
California and northern Chile, at the present time. The most char- 
acteristic land deposits, those of deserts and ice sheets, belong espe- 
cially to the short periods of stress and trouble separating the long, 
genial, but unenterprising, geological ages, and hence must be rela- 
tively rare in the column of formations. 

These comparatively unusual types of deposits began to attract at- 
tention about 60 years ago in Europe, and geologists of the Indian 
survey correctly interpreted the ancient Talchir bowlder-clays in 1859. 



DRY LAND IN GEOLOGY COLEMAN. 259 

With deserts before their eyes for comparison, they recognized also 
ancient arid deposits. In America not much attention was given to 
continental formations till Davis and his brilliant physiographic 
school, 25 years ago, began to explain the Cenozoic beds of the west 
as dry-land deposits. At about the same time Walther and other 
Germans took up the careful study of desert processes, giving the clue 
to the origin of ancient red sandstones and their accompaniments. 
Of late years most of us have paid at least brief visits to deserts and 
have felt the charm of their bareness, their loneliness, their clear, cool, 
night skies and hot orange haze at noon, and have watched the dusty 
pillars of the "go-devils" transport a train-load of dust across the 
Kalihari, or have seen the low dance of the yellow sand grains as a 
hot wind builds up a barchan in Nubia. We have seen the selective 
carving of the desert sand-blast on rocks of unequal hardness, have 
wondered at the brown desert varnish on exposed rock surfaces, and 
have speculated as to the origin of " calcrete " or " kankar." 

Geologists are now on the alert for continental, and especially 
desert, formations, and there are few red sandstones which have not 
been picked out of the marine ragbag and set aside as belonging to 
the land. It is even possible that the pendulum has in some cases 
swung too far and will have to swing back again. Some of the red 
sandstones or shales handed over to the desert may yet disclose 
marine fossils and have to return to the seashore. 

A glance through recent textbooks of geology in English, French, 
and German shows how widely attention has been given of late years 
to continental, and especially desert, formations. Arid conditions 
have been recognized, or at least suspected, in nearly all the main 
subdivisions of historical geology. They have been mentioned by 
one author or another in the Pleistocene, the Pliocene, the Miocene, 
the Eocene ; the Cretaceous, and the Triassic ; the Permian, the Car- 
boniferous, the Devonian, the Silurian, and the Cambrian; the 
Keweenawan, and possibly one or two earlier of the pre-Cambrian 
series. In fact, only the Jurassic and the Ordovician seem to have 
escaped the drought, and it may be that a more careful search through 
the literature would disclose deserts there also. 

A number of the suggestions noted are only tentative, however, and 
wide-spread and unmistakable desert formations seem confined to 
the Pleistocene, Triassic, Permian, Devonian, and late pre-Cambrian. 
Of these the Pleistocene deserts may be looked on as continuing to the 
present, the Triassic deserts form an aftermath of the arid conditions 
of the Permian, and the Devonian deserts seem less extensive than 
the others. The three times of greatest aridity appear to be : (1) The 
Pleistocene continuing to the present ; (2) the Permian-Triassic ; (3) 
the late pre-Cambrian. 



260 ANNUAL REPORT. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Though well known, it may not be amiss to recall some features of 
these three periods of widely extended desert conditions. 

ARID ZONES OF THE PLEISTOCENE AND PRESENT. 

The map of the world shows two zones which are largely desert, 
one in each hemisphere, with a broad zone of heavy equatorial rain- 
fall between. To the north of the northern desert belt there are 
moister conditions, and the same is true to the south of the southern 
one. There is reason to believe that Antarctica is arid, evaporation 
exceeding precipitation, and the same may be true of some Arctic 
lands. The precipitation on Spitzbergen is stated to be only 6 inches 
per annum. 

The two belts of deserts do not run quite parallel to the Equator. 
The northern one, beginning with the Sahara and Nubian Deserts, in 
Africa, runs northeastward through the Arabian and Indian Deserts 
to those of central Asia, wdiere the desert of Gobi reaches nearly 50'^ 
of north latitude. In North America desert conditions are less ex- 
tensive and do not extend beyond latitude 40° or 45°. 

In the Southern Hemisphere the bodies of land are much smaller, 
and the deserts of South Africa, Australia, and South America are 
correspondingly small as compared w-ith those north of the Equator. 
Their southern limits are, roughly, 30°, 40°, and 45° south latitude. 

Penck has shown, I think satisfactorily, that these desert belts 
migrate toward the Equator in cold periods, narrowing the zone of 
tropic rains, and move respectively north and south in warmer 
periods. In the mildest geological periods it would almost seem as if 
the equatorial belt of warmth and moisture expanded to cover the 
whole earth, abolishing both deserts and ice-sheets, and these appear 
to be the normal conditions when peneplanation has advanced far 
and shallow seas transgress widely over the continents.^ 

ARID PERIOD OF THE PERMIAN AND TRIASSIO. 

Going back to Permian and Triassic timas, much of the evidence 
has been buried or destroyed ; jet it is certain that deserts extended 
widely in many lands. Red sa^ndstones, arkoses, and shales with mud 
cracks and footprints, beds of salt and gjq^sum, are reported from 
England, Germany, Austria, and Russia in regions now well watered. 
In North America there were the widespread red beds of the Rocky 
Mountain region and the band of desert sandstones extending from 
Prince Edward Island southwest to Virginia ; so that arid conditions 
covered far more of Europe and North America than now. In India 

1 Die Formen der Landoberfliiche u. Verschiebungen der Klimagiirtel, Koenlgliche, Preus. 
Ak., V«l. 4, 1913, 



DRY LAND IN GEOLOGY COLEMAN. 261 

the Gondwana system includes great thicknesses of coarse sandstone 
with bands of conglomerate, supposed to be of fluviatile origin, ter- 
restrial deposits, but perhaps not of a specially arid kind ; ^ but no 
other references to Asiatic land conditions have been found. I. C. 
White reports a thick series of massive red and gray sandstones, prob- 
ably of Triassic age, resting on Glossopteris beds with coal seams in 
Brazil, but expresses no opinion as to the climate during the de- 
position of these upper beds. The basal conglomerate under the 
coal he thinks glacial.^ Red beds of sandstone and conglomerate to 
the thickness of 1,600 feet occur, according to Rogers, in the Karroo 
system of South Africa, but he puts them probably above the Tri- 
assic.^ Whether the 1,100 feet of Hawkesbury sandstones of the 
Triassic in New South Wales, with their steep cross-bedding, bands 
of conglomerates, worm tracks and sun cracks, imply an arid period 
in Australia is perhaps uncertain, though they are undoubtedly con- 
tinental deposits.* 

It will be seen that land formations, often of a very arid kind, are 
found in most of the continents in Permian or Triassic times. They 
seem to occur rather later in the regions which endure the cold of 
the Permocarboniferous glaciation than in Europe and in our West- 
ern States, but the correlation is not very certain. These " Ngav Red " 
deserts following on the heels of the severest ice age on record close 
the Paleozoic calamitously. It is not surprising that such extreme 
climatic changes put an end to the lush growths of the coal swamps, 
so that only hardy plants survived, and hastened the departure of 
the semiaquatic amphibia, while giving an impetus to the develop- 
ment of the reptiles as dry-land inhabitants. 

There must have been very dry conditions during the Upper Silu- 
rian (Salina) of America, as shown by the salt and gypsum beds of 
New York, Ohio, Ontario, and Manitoba ; and the succeeding Old 
Red beds of Scotland and other European countries suggest a similar 
climate, but I have not found evidence of arid conditions on a wide 
enough scale to make it desirable to discuss them here. 

LATE PRE-CAMBRIAN DESERTS. 

Desert characters have been ascribed to sandstones, perhaps be- 
longing to the earliest Cambrian, but more probably the uppermost 
pre-Cambrian, in many parts of the world. They include apparently 
the Keweenawan and part of the Belt series in America, the Torri- 
donian of Scotland, part of the Gaisa beds of Norway, perhaps also 
the Sparagmite of Sweden and the Jotnian of Finland. Whether 

1 Oldham : Geology of India, 2d edition, pp. 150-151. 

= Brazilian coal fields, p. 31. 

^ Geology of Cape Colony, p. 216. 

* Geology of New South Wales, Suessmilch, pp. 158-160. 

73839°— SM 1916 18 



2;62 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

the Matsap beds of Cape Colony and some of the Kuddapah sand- 
stones of India, described as shore deposits, or the Vindhian sand- 
stones and conglomerates should be included is uncertain. 

If these are all of the same age and have been correctly interpreted 
as arid deposits, this was the most severe and extensive period of 
desert conditions known. In man}'^ places on the Canadian Shield 
the coarse red sandstones, usually with some conglomerate at the 
base, may be seen resting on an Archean surface of granitoid gneiss 
or Keewatin schist or Animikie slate, the original land surface of 
gently rounded hills and shallow valleys belonging to an ancient 
peneplain. In some outcrops the crumbling gneiss beneath, an old 
regolith, provides most of the materials for the basal conglomerate. 
This is true at various points on the north shore of Lake Superior 
and apparently also in Scotland, where the Torridonian rests on the 
I^ewisian. The Lake Superior Iveweenawan, though much the best 
known, is on a small scale as compared with the areas of sandstone 
of the same age farther north in Canada. The Athabasca sandstones 
of Tyrrell, those of Great Bear Lake and of central Labrador, not 
to speak of smaller areas, indicate a very broad surface exposed to 
arid conditions in North America. These red sandstones still occupy 
I ot less than 50,000 square miles, and it is certain that much greater 
a reas of such relatively soft and easily attacked rocks have been de- 
stroyed in the long dry-land periods of later times. 

It appears that in this desert period the arid districts were mainly 
in the Northern Hemisphere and to the north of latitude 48° — that 
is, very much farther north than the belt of deserts of the present 
Northern Hemisphere. It is unknown, of course, to what extent 
Keweenawan rocks are buried to the south of Lake Superior or of 
Scotland. The breadth of the belt as known in North America is at 
least 20°, since rocks of this age reach nearly to 70° north latitude 
in the region north of Great Bear Lake. The Gaisa beds on Varan- 
ger Fjord, in Norway, reach the same latitude, and the Scotch Torri- 
donian about latitude 58°. 

It is hard to imagine red soils, drifting sands, and the hot winds of 
deserts as existing in regions now tundra-covered and frigid; but this 
seems to have been true in the more northern areas. . 

GLACIAL PERIODS. 

Thus far arid conditions only have been mentioned, but the best 
preserved land surfaces of the past are those sealed up unchangeably 
beneath glacial deposits. It seems absurd to couple together deserts 
and glaciers, so opposite to one another in every respect; neverthe- 
less in running down the column of historical geology one finds these 
GQntr?^(Iictory pheno^l.e^a closely linked togeth^i\ In almost all the 



DRY LAND IN GEOLOGY COLEMAN. 263 

periods where aridity has been proved there have been found also 
proofs of ice action, the two seemingly hostile conditions occurring 
either at the same time in different parts of the world or one after the 
other in the same region. We live in the closing stages of a great 
Glacial period, extensive ice sheets still surviving in Greenland and 
the Arctic Islands, as well as in Antarctica, and yet wide deserts are 
found in all continents save Europe. 

More or less certain evidence of ice action has been found in the 
Pleistocene, the Eocene, the Cretaceous, the Triassic, the Permian, or 
Permocarboniferous, the Carboniferous, the Devonian, or possibly 
Upper Silurian, perhaps the Cambrian, certainly the late pre-Cam- 
brian, and the Lower Huronian. The list just given is closely par- 
allel to that given for the arid periods. 

Only four of these glacial times are of prime importance — those 
of the Pleistocene, the Permocarboniferous, the late pre-Cambrian, 
and the Lower Huronian. 

PLEISTOCENE ICE AGE. 

The Pleistocene ice age, from which the world is just emerging, 
unless this happens to be an interglacial period, is so familiar that 
little need be said of it. Bowlder-clay, moraines, and deposits formed 
by glacial waters occur over 6,000,000 square miles of the Northern 
Hemisphere; smaller areas are found in the Southern Hemisphere, 
and Pleistocene moraines reach thousands of feet below the present 
glaciers on high mountains all over the world, even under the Equa- 
tor, showing that the climates of the whole world were affected. Be- 
neath the glacial deposits in many places there are characteristically 
smoothed and striated rock surfaces, though near the edges of the 
ancient ice sheets there are thousands of square miles where loose 
materials were not swept away to bedrock. The central areas were 
most effectively scoured, and in many places the rocks beneath, owing 
to unequal hardness, have been shaped into roches moutonnees, 
forming hills well rounded on the side from which the ice advanced. 
Bowlder-clay is a highly specialized product of land ice; floating 
ice, such as floes or bergs, is not known to produce it, the materials 
dropped through the water when melting being necessarily more or 
less stratified. The " soled bowlders " or " striated stones " from 
bowlder-clay have special characters not caused by any other agency, 
such as mudflows or torrential action. They are manufactured arti- 
cles, easily recognized by one familiar with glacier work, and not to 
be confounded with stones scratched or smoothed in other ways. 
These familiar features are recalled because they serve as criteria 
for the recognition of the ancient ^laciations to be mentioned later. 



264 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

I'he hiimmocky, moiitonnees surfaces left by the Pleistocene gla- 
ciers on Archean rocks which have disordered structures and vary in 
durability are very characteristic and were once looked on as the di- 
rect handiwork of the ice sheets themselves. The clean and polished 
surfaces of fresh rock, generally well stwated and often deeply 
scored, are eloquent of the stripping and grinding of the glacier, but 
the original surface forms have not been greatly changed, as will be 
shown later. 

Most of the great Pleistocene ice sheets gathered on comparatively 
low ground and reached sealevel, often occupying large areas of shal- 
low sea-bottom as well as the land. Few of them began in mountain 
regions, and the flow of those on level ground was caused by the 
slope of the upper surface of the ice mass and not by the inclination 
of the floor beneath. They could even move uphill for thousands of 
feet, when the ice sheet was thick enough in the center, and their 
flow took place outward in all directions. 

Doubtless conditions were similar in earlier glaciations, and it is 
not necessary to assume great mountain ranges to account for them, 
as some geologists have done. 

PERMOCARBONIFEROUS ICE AGE. 

The first undoubted proofs of ancient glaciation seem to have been 
found by the Blandfords in India, and the first memoir of the Indian 
survey (1859) contains a brief account of the Talchir tillite in central 
India, illustrated b}'^ a rough sketch. Soon after South African and 
Australian tillites of the same age were described. There was at first 
a good deal of skepticism expressed by European and American 
geologists as to the reality of the discoveries. Ramsay's interpreta- 
tion of certain English bowlder conglomerates as glacial a few years 
before had been disputed, which cast doubt on the new reports from 
the far east and south. Was not the Carboniferous a tropical time, 
even in the Arctic regions? Glaciers and the steamy coal swamps 
did not mix well together. 

Since then, however, many northern geologists, including expert 
glacialists, have studied these marvelous deposits, and for a number 
of years no one has doubted their glacial origin, in spite of the fact 
that most of the localities are in what are now warm, temperate, or 
even tropical regions. All the evidences for the ice action on a large 
scale found in our Pleistocene are repeated, with the difference that 
the Pleistocene till ceases about 38° from the Equator, while the Tal- 
chir tillite in India reaches well within the Tropics (18° North) and 
Permocarboniferous tillite in West Australia touches the Tropics. 
In South Africa the Dwyka tillite reaches 24° 30', or even 22°,^ and 

1 For literature see Glacial periods and their bearing on geological theori*, by the 
writer. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., vol. 19, pp. 347-366 ; and Schuchert : Climates of geologic 
time. Carnegie Inst., Pub. No. 192, pp. 263-298. 



DRY LAND m GEOLOGY — COLEMAN, 265 

I. C. White and Wood worth report simihir tillites between 25° and 
30° im southern Brazil.^ New localities have been reported within 
the last few years in Argentina - and the Falkland Islands ; ^ but only 
few and unimportant occurrences are known in the Northern Hemi- 
sphere outside of India. They have been reported from Herat in 
Afghanistan, Armenia, and the Urals; and in western Europe they 
have been described from central France* and the Frankenwald.^ 
In North America tillites, probably of the same age, have been found 
by Sayles near Boston ^ and by Cairnes on the Alaskan boundary.^ 

A year ago, near Penganga River, under the hot sun of India, in 
latitude 19° or 20°, I walked across fields of ancient till strewn with 
glaciated stones and bowlders and stood on a well-polished and stri- 
ated surface of Vindhian limestone, as typical as can be found in 
Ontario or northern New York. This resurrection of an ice-worked 
surface of the Paleozoic, in what are now the sweltering Tropics, 
gives a glacial geologist something to ponder over; and to see the 
same things in Africa and Australia, only on a much larger scale, as 
I have had occasion to do within the last few years, raises some of 
the most thrilling problems in all geology. 

Our Pleistocene ice age, with its array of glacial and interglacial 
beds, was merely an imitation on a much smaller and less impressive 
scale of the tremendous Paleozoic ice age, which laid down in places 
1,000 feet or more of till and included interglacial times long enough 
to form great coal seams, as in the Greta beds of New South Wales. 

These ancient bowdder-clays and moutonnees rock surfaces of the 
southern continents bring us face to face wdth the most dramatic 
moment in geology, when a world, enervated by the moist, hot-house 
conditions of the earlier Carboniferous, found itself in the grip of 
the fiercest and longest winter of the ages, followed by the merciless 
droughts of the Permian and Triassic. 

LATE PRE-CAMBRIAN ICE AGE. 

Still more ancient tillites have been found in a number of regions, 
sometimes described as Lower Cambrian; at others as Uppermost 
pre-Cambrian. In a few cases Cambrian fossils have been collected 
in beds above the tillite, but, so far as I am aware, never beneath it. 

1 Brazilian coal fields, pp. 11-15 ; and geological expedition to Brazil and Chile. Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, vol. 56, No. 1. 

2 Keidel : Compte Rendu, Geol. Congress, XII Session, 1914, p. 676. 

3 Halle : Geol. Mag., n. s., Dec. 5, vol. 5, pp. 264-265. 

* Compte Rendu, 1895, vol. 117, p. 255. Striated stones and angular blocks up to 
12 or 15 cubic meters are describ»d. 

^J. D. G. G., 1893, vol. 45, p. 69. Bowlders occur scattered through unstratifled gray- 
wacke in the upper Culm. 

« Sayles and La Forge : Science, n. s., vol. 32, pp. 723-724 ; also Harvard Bull. Mus, 
Comp. Zool., vol. 56, No. 2. 

^ G. S. C, Mem. 67, Alaska Boundary Survey, pp. 91-92. 



266 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIA^i INSTITUTION,*1916. 

It is possible that there were two early ice ages, with an interval 
between; but it seems more probable that they are of the same age 
and all really pre-Cambrian. The Australians believe that their 
more ancient tillites are Cambrian, however. 

Tillites have been suggested at two places in the Keweenawan of 
America. They occur in the Gaisa beds of Norway, where there is a 
striated surface beneath; perhaps also in the Torridonian of Scot- 
land. In Australia Howchin describes an area of 460 miles by 250, 
and they are found also in Tasmania. They are reported from the 
Nant'ou formation in China ; the Griquatown series in Cape Colony, 
where they have an area of at least 1,000 square miles, and near 
Simla, in India. The last two mentioned may be older than the 
Keweenawan. Sir Thomas Holland thinks the Simla tillite may even 
be as old as the Huronian. 

These tillites belong to higher latitudes than those of the Permo- 
carboniferous, none coming nearer the Equator than 29° ; but some 
of them occupy regions now warm temperate, while the ice sheets of 
the Pleistocene halted at about 38° in North and South America and 
62° in Europe. In so old a period one can hardly expect to find very 
complete evidence of the area covered by glaciers; but this ice age 
seems to have been more severe than that of the Pleistocene. 

HURONIAN ICE AGE. 

Much farther off in the abj^ss of pre-Cambrian time is the Lower 
Huronian Glacial period, thus far known with certainty only from 
the Canadian Shield, unless the tillite reported by Hintze from the 
Wasatch Momitains and that from Simla in India are to be referred 
to so early an age. A characteristic tillite with well-striated stones 
has been found in the famous Cobalt region, its hard bowlder-clay 
cut by the richest veins of native silver in the world. Striated stones 
have been found also 60 miles to the east, in the Province of Quebec, 
by members of Morley Wilson's geological survey party,^ and one 
from the original Huronian region, 160 miles to the southwest, has 
been figured by Collins.^ Areas of similar coarse bowlder conglom- 
erate or tillite, sometimes inclosing blocks tons in weight and miles 
from their source, have been mapped at various points as far north- 
east as Chibougamau, 320 miles from Cobalt, and have been found 
also to the west of Cobalt. They are widely scattered over the Cana- 
dian Shield and were once much more extensive, covering, no doubt, 
many thousands of square miles. 

In most cases the tillite rests Avith gentle dips on the low hills and 
shallow valleys of a peneplain closely resembling the present Lauren- 

^G. S. C, Mem. 39, pp. 88-97. 

2 G. S. C, Museum Bull., No. 8, plate U 



DRY LAND IN GEOLOGY COLEMAN. 267 

tian peneplain. In some places the tillite passes downward, with 
no visible break, into an old regolith due to the decay of the Lau- 
rentian gneiss or Keewatin greenstone beneath. In others the rock 
below has been smoothed and polished, though no striae have yet been 
found on it. 

It is impressive to come on this old land surface half way down 
in the pre-Cambrian succession, yet as thoroughly baseleveled as the 
neighboring undulating surface of gneiss and greenstone, from which 
rain and frost are now stripping the bowlder clay. The continent 
sealed up beneath the Huronian tillite looks as finished and as ancient 
as the Laurentian peneplain beneath the bowlder clay of the last ice 
age. The strenuous history of the world since Huronian days could 
add nothing appreciable to its hoary antiquity. Great mountain 
ranges had already been gnawed down to the bare crystalline founda- 
tions before the ice of the Huronian covered the surface with bowlder 
clay, and this all happened long before a trilobite was entombed in th(j 
mud of a Cambrian sea. 

Though the extent of the Huronian ice sheet is only imperfectly 
known, it is certain that a plain in all respects like that beneath the 
tillite stretches 2,000 miles northwestward to the Arctic Ocean and 
more than 1,000 miles northeastward to the edge of Labrador, for 
flat-lying areas of Animikie or Keweenawan rocks cover a dozen 
broad areas of similar peneplain in other parts of the Canadian 
Shield. The same plain slips gently imder Silurian and Devonian 
sediments in the central depression of Hudson Bay, under Ordo- 
vician limestone and Potsdam sandstone in Ontario, and under 
Silurian, Devonian, and Cretaceous rocks toward the southwest. 
How far the unchanged pre-Huronian peneplain or its little changed 
successor extends southwestward beneath the stratified rocks is un- 
known. 

Much of this vast surface has been buried at one time or another 
and sheltered from erosion by marine sediments, and has since been 
disinterred scarcely modified, but it is probable that it was never 
all covered by the sea at once. Portions of it seem to have re- 
mained dry land as cities of refuge for the inhabitants in every 
inundation. 

That other continental nuclei have had similar histories may be 
considered certain. In Scotland and Scandinavia nearly horizontal 
pre-Cambrian beds, whether of glacial origin or not, cover a pene- 
plain closely like ours, and quartzites and conglomerates called pre- 
Cambrian may be seen resting with gentle dips on a similarly trun- 
cated plain in West Australia. Near Clackline, for instance, 
Huronian-looking quartzite rests on gneiss penetrated by pegmatitt; 
dikes, and at several places in the neighborhood of Kalgouiiie and 



268 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Koolgardie a somewhat tilted conglomerate j like that of the American 
Huronian, overlies the steeply dipping gneissoid rocks. 

PRE-HURONIAN LAND CONDITIONS. 

No unchanged land surface has yet been found below the peneplain 
just described, but important land areas can be inferred with cer- 
tainty, though now obliterated by squeezing and folding and the 
metamorphism due to eruptive granites. The great development of 
clastic sedimentary rocks included under the names of Seine Series, 
Sudbury Series, Temiscaming Series, etc., widely distributed over the 
Canadian Shield, imply broad lands and even mountain ranges far 
older than those destroyed before the Huronian. 

They generally begin with a great basal conglomerate, so coarse 
and bowldery sometimes as to suggest ice action, but squeezed and 
rolled out and folded in wdth other rocks in ways that make the find- 
ing of striated stones or a striated surface beneath quite hopeless. It 
is, however, highly probable that the climate was in general cool and 
moist, for the rocks are gray and often include arkoses, with little 
weathered feldspars, though Lawson speaks of the Seine conglomer- 
ate in one place as " fanglomerate " of desert formation. The rocks 
as a whole suggest a continental origin, and their materials must 
have come from the weathering of land surfaces. Some of the gray- 
wackes and slates are very evenly bedded and show regular altera- 
tions of coarser and finer materials, caused by varying seasons, either 
warm and cold or wet and dry. They resemble the stratified silt and 
clay laid down in glacial lakes at the end of the Pleistocene. Seder- 
hohn's Bothnian slates, with seasonal banding, probably of somewhat 
the same age, show similar conditions in Finland. 

Land can be discovered still farther down in the misty depths of 
time, for the pebbles of the Seine and Dore conglomerates include far 
older sedimentary rocks derived from the Keewatin or Couchiching 
or Grenville series, showing vast destruction of land surfaces in pre- 
Laurentian ages at the very beginning of the geological record. 

These glimpses of American land surfaces in a past twice removed 
from the ancient pre-Huronian continent give one a strange vista 
into a dim antiquity almost infinitely remote from a dweller in the 
post-Pleistocene. There is no visible beginning to dry land on the 
continent of America. 

WHY SHOULD THERE BE DRY LAND? 

Though it is commonly accepted that there were lands in the 
earliest known times, there are geologists who hold a theory of the 
origin of the world which logically excludes the possibility of land 
showing itself above the sea. The original nebular hypothesis, if 



DRY LAND IN GEOLOGY COLEMAN. 269 

followed without mishap from the stage of a cooling gas to that of 
a liquid, and then of a solid, would result in a correct spheroid of 
rotation. The lithosphere thus formed would be covered by an un- 
broken hydrosphere, followed in its turn by an atmosphere. A good 
workman would certainly have come close enough to the ideal form 
of his world to prevent errors amounting to 60,000 feet. A properly 
manufactured world, following the orthodox nebular process, would 
be completely covered by an ocean 8,000 or 10,000 feet deep. 

This ideal world without a continent or an island would have 
avoided many difficulties. Land animals, blundering, bloodthirsty, 
even cannibal in their crude instincts, could never have existed. 
The ocean itself might never have been inhabited if life originated, 
as is commonly supposed, under shallow-water conditions. How 
quiet and peaceable such a world would have been ! One almost longs 
for it under the turmoil of present conditions. 

A w^orld without land would have had its disadvantages, however. 
There could have been no geologists and no geology. 

But it is idle to speculate as to the possibilities of a landless world. 
The blunder was committed and the lithosphere was so far warped 
out of shape that more than a quarter of it rises above the sea. One 
might inquire, however, whether the blunder might not have been 
rectified by providing more water, so as to drown out the objection- 
able lands. We know that there have been times when much of the 
present continental area was encroached on by the sea. Was there 
more water then, or was it merely differently arranged? Large 
amounts of water are withdrawn from circulation by the hydration 
of various minerals. Are they balanced by the amounts restored as 
juvenile waters and the steam from volcanoes, assuming, of course, 
that volcanoes give off steam and not ammonium chloride? Prob- 
ably most geologists take it for granted that the amount of water on 
the globe is nearly constant from age to age. 

The existence of dry land at all when there is so much water on 
the earth is a profound mystery not even plausibly explained by the 
nebular hypothesis, since it demands an inexcusable irregularity in 
the working of the nebular machinery. 

HAVE OCEANS AND CONTINENTS EVER CHANGED PLACES? 

Admitting that in the beginning the lithosphere bulged up in 
places, so as to form continents, and sagged in other places, so as to 
form ocean beds, there are interesting problems presented as to the 
permanence of land and seas. All will admit marginal changes 
affecting large areas, but these encroachments of the sea on the conti- 
nents and the later retreats may be of quite a subordinate kind, not 
implying an interchange of deep sea bottoms and land surfaces. The 
essential permanence of continents and oceans has been firmly held 



2*70 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

by many geologists, notably Dana among the older ones, and seems 
reasonable ; but there are other geologists, especially paleontologists, 
as well as zoologists and botanists, who display great recklessness in 
rearranging land and sea. The trend of a mountain range, or the 
convenience of a running bird, or of a marsupial afraid to wet its 
feet seems sufficient warrant for hoisting up any sea bottom to con- 
nect continent with continent. A Gondwana Land arises in place of 
an Indian Ocean and sweeps across to South America, so that a 
spore-bearing plant can follow up an ice age ; or an Atlantis ties New 
England to Old England to help out the migrations of a shallow- 
water fauna; or a "Lost Land of Agulhas" joins South Africa and 
India. 

It is curious to find these revolutionary suggestions made at a time 
when geodesists are demonstrating that the earth's crust over large 
areas, and perhaps everywhere, approaches a state of isostatic equilib- 
rium, and that isostatic compensation is probably complete at a depth 
of only 76 miles. Hayford's results have been ably supported and 
applied by my predecessor. Dr. Becker, in his address last year, but 
some geologists hesitate to accept them. Barrell, after an elaborate 
discussion of the whole question, thinks the equilibrium much less 
complete than Hayford's results would suggest, but his arguments 
do not seem entirely convincing.^ Great stress is laid on the sub- 
marine deltas of the Nile and the Congo as loads which should have 
depressed the floor on which they were laid down, but have not done 
so. It should be remembered, however, that we know them only 
from soundings, and that assumptions regarding them are more 
or less hypothetical. On the other hand, the delta of the Mississippi 
seems to conform to the theory of isostasy, and there are numerous 
examples of depression going hand in hand with the formation of 
shallow-water deposits quite in accord with the isostatic theory. 
The 14,000 feet of coal measures at the Joggins are an instance. But 
more convincing still is Fairchild's demonstration that a wave of 
elevation followed up the retreat of the ice front during the closing 
stages of the Glacial period. The thickness of ice near its margin 
could not have been more than a few thousand feet, perhaps half a 
mile, which would mean in weight of rock only 750 feet. If the stiff 
carapace of the earth in the State of New York yielded to so slight 
a change of load it is hardly credible that 9,900 feet of sediments 
spread over 75,000 square miles of sea bottom off the coast of Africa 
could have no effect. 

If I understand Barrell's discussion aright, his differences from 
Hayford's conclusions are rather of degree than of kind. He thinks 
the earth's crust more rigid and considers adjustments to change of 

1 Articles on the strength of the earth's crust. Jour. Geol., vols. 22 and 23. 



DRY LAKD IK GEOLOGY — COLEMAN. 271 

load much less complete, and also that they are carried out by slow 
movements in the " asthenosphere " much below Hayford's level of 
complete compensation at 76 miles below the surface. 

He would probably agree that on the broad scale continents are 
buoyed up because they are light, and ocean bottoms are depressed 
because the matter beneath them is heavy. He would admit that to 
transform great areas of sea bottom into land it would be necessary 
either to expand the rock beneath by several per cent or to replace 
heavy rock, such as basalt, by lighter materials, such as granite. 
There is no obvious way in which the rock beneath a sea bottom can 
be expanded enough to lift it 20,000 feet, as would be necessary in 
parts of the Indian Ocean, to form a Gondwana land; so one must 
assume that light rocks replace heavy ones beneath a million square 
miles of the ocean floor. Even with unlimited time, it is hard to 
imagine a mechanism that could do the work, and no convincing 
geological evidence can be brought forward to show that such a thing 
ever took place. 

Discussing this question not long ago in the Journal of Geology, 
Prof. Chamberlin showed that the only typical case of deep-sea 
deposits found on land, the well known one of the Barbadoes, occurs 
on one of the great hinge lines around which motions of the earth's 
crust take place and has no real bearing on the change of ocean bot- 
toms of continents.^ The same may be said of the deep-sea deposits 
on Timor, in the East Indies, recently described by Molengraaff.^ 
In position Timor is almost the counterpart of the Barbados in the 
West Indies, 

The distribution of plants and animals should be arranged for by 
other means than by the wholesale elevation of ocean beds to make 
dry-land bridges for them. W. D. Matthew's excellent paper on 
climate and evolution suggests ways in which this may be done more 
economically. 

The elevation of mountain chains by folding or the overriding of 
blocks might be expected to make trouble for the isostatic theory; but 
the two best known examples, the Eockies and the Himalayas, seem 
to be approximately in isostatic equilibrim. In the case of the Hima- 
layas, the youngest and highest of the great mountain systems, it is 
staggering to find nummulitic beds 20,000 feet above the sea; but 
however it was managed, enough light material seems to have been 
introduced beneath to float the mountains at about the proper height. 

We may conclude that, broadly speaking, the dry-land areas have 
always been where they are now. The adjustments of the boundaries 
of land and sea have been confined to the margins of the continental 
masses. 

1 Jour. Gcol., vol. 22, pp. 131, etc. 

* Koninklijke Akad. v. Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, deel 24, pp 415-430. 



272 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1&16. 

TELEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

There are certain teleological features of the relations of land and 
water to which attention may be drawn in closing. Without water, 
no life such as we know would be possible. On the other hand, 
uniformly deep water over the whole earth, such as might have been 
expected in a rigidly mechanical scheme, would probably not have 
provided the conditions necessary for the development of life. An 
apparently accidental lack of homogeneity in the earth allows lighter 
parts to rise above what would otherwise have been a universal sea. 
The combined efforts of the epigene forces since the earliest known 
times have been directed toward the destruction of continents and 
islands and their reduction to shoals completely covered by the sea, 
but their efforts have always b^en foiled by movements originating 
in the earth's interior. No continent seems to have been completely 
submerged since Triassic times. The life of land plants and animals 
appears to have been uninterrupted since that time on all the con- 
tinents. 

There has been perpetual oscillation in respect to the area and eleva- 
tion of land exposed, but on the whole the balance has been care- 
fully maintained. But for the presence of oceans of water, of an 
abnormal lightness in some parts of the earth's crust, and an unfail- 
ing balance for 50,000,000 years between the forces of elevation and 
of destruction, life such as ours would have been impossible. Can we 
look on these surprising adjustments as merely accidental? 



THE PETKOLETJM EESOURCES OF THE UNITED 

STATES.^ 



By IvALPH Arnold. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In 1908 when the agitation for the conservation of our mineral 
and other natural resources was at its height, a paper was prepared 
by Dr. David T. Day on " The Petroleum Eesources of the United 
States."^ It Avas the privilege of the writer to contribute some of 
the data upon which Dr. Day based his conclusions. Since the prep- 
aration of that article much development work has been done in 
this country, new fields have been opened up, and the possibilities 
of the older fields have been more closely studied. The present paper 
is intended as a revision of Dr. Day's thesis in view of the latest in- 
formation pertaining to the subject. The writer wishes to acknowl- 
edge bis indebtedness to the following, among others, who have 
contributed data used in the preparation of these estimates: James 
H. Gardner, M. J. Munn, Prof. L. C. Glenn, Prof. G. D. Harris, 
and Richard R. Hice. 

EXTENT OF THE PETROLEUM FIELDS. 

The oil fields of the United States usually are classified as the 
Appalachian, Lima-Indiana, Illinois, Mid-Continent, Gulf, Rocky 
Mountain, California, and Alaska. 

Appalachian -field. — The Appalachian field extends from south- 
western New York, through western Pennsylvania, southeastern 
Ohio, West Virginia, and eastern Kentucky, into northern Ten- 
nessee. The formations yielding the oil throughout this field in- 
clude those of the Devonian and Carboniferous. The oil occurs 
along the axes and on the flanks of anticlines, parallel in general 
with the strike of the Appalachian Mountains, and on minor ter- 
races or other structures associated Avith them. Occasionally it has 

1 Reprinted by permission from Economic Oeology, Vol. 10, No. 8, December, 1915. 
»BulI. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 394, pp. 30-50, 1909. 

273 



274 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

been found in waterless synclines. The reservoir rocks are prin- 
cipally sandstones and coarse sediments. The oil from this field 
is of the best quality in the world, yielding a high percentage of 
the lighter oils such as gasoline and kerosene, and is utilized entirely 
for refining. It is of paraffin base and varies in gravity from 25° 
to 50° Beaume (0.9032 to 0.7778 sp. gr.), the heavier grades coming 
only from the southern end of the field. The price of the " Penn- 
sylvania grade" oil is always high, ranging up to $2.50 per barrel. 
The average daily production of the wells is low, being 0.2 to 0.4 
barrels in 1911. This field is almost completely developed except the 
portions in Kentucky and Tennessee, and even here recent pros- 
pecting has resulted negatively in a majority of cases. 

Limu-Indiana. fdd. — The Lima-Indiana field covers a considerable 
portion of northwestern Ohio and eastern Indiana. The oil is 
derived from the Ordovician, Silurian, and Carboniferous, largely 
from the Trenton limestone, the reservoir rock being porous dolo- 
mitic lenses or beds or sandstones. Favorable structures, such as 
half domes, terraces, etc., on the flanks of the Cincinnati uplift, 
usually harbor the commercial deposits. The oil is of paraffin base, 
varies in gravity from 30° to 35° Beaume (0.8750 to 0.8484 sp. gi\), 
carries a little sulphur, and is utilized entirely for refining purposes. 
The average initial daily production of the wells up to 1911 was 15.5 
barrels; the average daily production per well was 0.7 barrel for 
that year. This field also is practically outlined, although new pools 
are even yet being occasionally discovered. 

Illinois -field — The Illinois field occupies a strip of territory along 
the La Salle anticline in the southeastern part of the State. It also 
extends a short distance into Indiana. The oil is derived largely 
from the Pennsylvanian and a little from the upper Mississippian 
(both Carboniferous), and occurs principally in well-defined sand- 
stone horizons along the crest of the asymmetric La Salle anticline. 
Impregnation is governed locally by the lithology. A little of the 
oil comes from limestone. The oil is of paraffin base, although 
locally carrying some asphalt, ranges in gravity from 28° to 39° 
Beaume (0.8860 to 0.8284 sp. gr.), and is used principally for re- 
fining purposes. The average initial daily production up to 1911 
was 63 barrels; the average daily production of the individual wells 
for the same year was 4.2 barrels. With the exception of some 
possible territory in the western part of the State the Illinois pro- 
ductive area is well defined at the present time. 

Mid-Continent field. — The Mid-Continent field comprises the pools 
in Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, and northern Texas. The oil 
is secured from the sandstones of the Pennsylvania (Carbonifer- 
ous) formations in domes, half domes or terraces, and local anti- 
clines on the flanks of the great Ozark uplift The oil is of paraffin 



PETROLEUM RESOUECES ARNOLD. 275 

base, varying in gravity from 27° to 41° Beaume (0.8917 to 0.8187 
sp. gr.), and is used for refining. It is piped to the Gnlf and also 
to Indiana and other eastern States. The development in this field 
has been phenomenal during the past few years, some of the pools 
being exceedingly productive. The average initial daily production 
of the wells in 1911 was 119 ban-els; the average daily production 
8.6 barrels. A fair percentage of the region embraced in this field 
yet remains to be prospected, the bulk of the untested land lying 
in Texas. 

Gulf field. — The Gulf field includes the pools lying along the 
coastal plain of Louisiana and Texas. The oil occurs for the most 
part in domes or quaquaversals associated with salt and g}'psum 
deposits. The age of the containing rocks ranges from Cretaceous 
to Quaternary. The reservoir rock is usually porous dolomitic lime- 
stone or sandstone. The oil of northern Louisiana occurs in Cre- 
taceous and Eocene rocks along an uplift or fold. The oils of the 
Gulf field vary greatly in composition; those in the strictly coastal 
belt vary from 15° to 27.7° Beaume (0.9655 to 0.8878 sp. gr.) and are 
of asphalt base; those of northern Louisiana vary from 25° to 43.6° 
Beaume (0.9031 to 0.8065 sp. gr.) and are of paraffin base. Sulphur 
usually accompanies the heavy oil. The lighter oils are used for re- 
fining, the heavier for fuel. Some of the individual wells have been 
exceedingly productive, a daily flow of 75,000 barrels being recorded 
for one at least. The pools usually are quite short-lived. In 1911 
the average initial daily flow for the Gulf coastal pools was 257 
barrels; for northern Louisiana, 1,176 barrels; the daily average 
for the field, 60 barrels. Some territory still remains untested in this 
field. 

Rocky Mountain field. — The Rocky Mountain field embraces pools 
in Wyoming and Colorado and as yet untested deposits in Utah and 
New Mexico. The oil occurs in beds of Carboniferous, Triassic (?), 
and Cretaceous age, nearly always in sandstone interbedded with 
shale, though occasionally in fracture zones. Typical dome structure 
is the most favorable location, but occasionally commercial deposits 
occupy monoclines or interrupted monoclines. The oils from the 
older formations vary in gravity from 18° to 24° Beaume (0.9459 to 
0.9091 sp. gr.), are of asphalt base, and are used largely for fuel; 
those from the Cretaceous vary from 32° to 48° Beaume (0.8642 to 
0.7865 sp. gi\), are of paraffin base, and are refined, yielding high per- 
centages of gasoline, kerosene, and distillates. The productivity of 
individual Avells usually is not large, the average daily yield per well 
being about 25 barrels in 1913. The potentialities of the Rocky 
Mountain field are not great, unless the extensive deposits of oil 
ghalQ of RQi-thwestern Coiora^a ms^. northeastern Utah are taken 



276 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

into account. As these deposits Avill require a distillation process 
for the recovery of their oil contents, they are not included under the 
head of free oil deposits, 

Calif omia -field. — California is the greatest producer of petro- 
leum of any State in the Union. It secures its oil from rocks of 
Cretaceous to late Tertiary age, the great bulk coming from the 
Miocene. Nearly every type of structure peculiar to the coast ranges 
yields commercial quantities of oil, anticlines, domes, plunging anti- 
clines, monoclines, and fault zones being the principal sources. The 
reservoir rocks usually are sand and sandstone, though fracture 
joints in shale hold oil in at least one district. The oil is practically 
all of asphalt base, although paraffin up to 4 per cent is found in a 
little of the oil from the Cretaceous and Eocene. The oil varies in 
gravity from 12° to 35° Beaume (0.9859 to 0.8484 sp. gr.), about 70 
per cent of it being topped or refined. Much of the heavy oil is used 
for fuel and road dressing. The productivity of individual wells 
has reached as high as 58,000 barrels daily ; the average daily p[i'oduc- 
tion per well was 45.2 barrels in 1913. The oil districts of Cali- 
fornia are practicall}^ outlined to-day and little in the way of addi- 
tional acreage is to be expected in the future. 

Alaska field. — Small quantities of oil have been obtained from 
the Jurassic rocks of western Alaska and the lower Tertiary of 
eastern Alaska. The oil occurs in sandstone along well-defined and 
sometimes faulted anticlines. The oil varies in gravity from 39° to 
45.9° Beaume (0.8284 to 0.7958 sp. gr.) and is of an excellent refining 
grade. The wells so far drilled are small producers. The commercial 
productivity of the Alaskan deposits yet remains to be proven. 

Other fields. — In addition to the States mentioned as occupying 
the above fields, oil occurs in small quantities in Michigan (a con- 
tinuation of the Petroleo, Canada, field) and Missouri (a continuation 
of the Oklahoma conditions). These States and Alaska together 
produced but 7,792 barrels in 1914. Alabama and Mississippi also 
are said to have possibilities. 

IMPORTANCE OF THE UNITED STATES AS COMPARED WITH OTHER 

COUNTRIES. 

The following table, compiled under the supervision of J. D. 
Northrop, of the United States Geological Survey,^ giving the pro- 
duction of crude petroleum in 1914 and from 1857 to 1914, in barrels, 
illustrates the relative importance of the various oil-producing coun- 
tries of the world. 

1 Mining and Scientific Press, Aug. 14, 1915, p. 248, 



PETROLEUM EESOUECES — ARNOLD. 



277 



Table I. — World's production of crude petroleum in Wl^ and 1857 to 1914, ^<^ith 
percentage of production hy countries, in barrels of i2 gallons. 



Country. 



1857-1914 



Production. Percent. Production. Percent 



United States 

Russia 

Mexico 

Roumania 

Dutch East Indies . 

India 

Galieia 

Japan 

Peru 

Germany 

Egypt 

Trinidad 

Canada 

Italy 

Other countries 



265, 762, 
67, 020, 
21, 188, 
12, 826, 

' 12, 705, 

2 8,000, 
' 5, 033, 

3 2, 738, 
1,917, 

S995, 
777, 
643, 
214, 
39, 
• <620, 



66.36 

16.74 

5.29 

3.20 

3.17 

2.00 

1.26 

.68 

.48 

.25 

.19 

.16 

.05 

.01 

.16 



Total 400, 483, 



3, ,3.3.5, 4.57, 140 


59.63 


1, 622, 233, 845 


29.00 


90,359,869 


1.62 


117,982,474 


2.11 


138, 278, 392 


2.47 


73.979,919 


1.32 


131,873,601 


2.36 


27,051,1.58 


.48 


14,306,972 


.26 


12, 965. 569 


.23 


1,086,728 


.02 


2, 069, 430 


.04 


23, 493, 610 


.42 


802, 229 


.01 


1,322,000 


.03 



100.00 5,593,262,936 



100.00 



' Includes British Borneo, 
s Estimated. 



' Includes Formosa. 

* Includes 600,000 barrels produced in Argentina. 



The relative importance of the States in the Union is shown in 
the accompanying table, which gives the marketed production for the 
year 1914. In the case of two of the States at least, the marketed 
production is below the estimated j^roduction, the discrepancy being 
accounted for by oil put in storage. The actual production of Cali- 
fornia was probably around 103,000,000 barrels, with possibly 
7,000,000 barrels " shut in," which might have been produced. The 
estimated production of Oklahoma was 98,000,000 barrels. 

Table II. — Production of petroleum in the United States, l)y States, in 191^ and 
1857 to 191'f, in barrels of Ji2 gallons. 



1914 


1857-1914 


Alaska ... 


99,77.5,327 

222,773 

21,919,749 

1,335,456 

3,103,585 

502, 441 

14,309,435 

(•) 

(') 






741,27.3,5-50 




10, 649, 143 


Illinois . . 


232,326,616 




102,823,798 




28, 547, 074 


Kentucky. ... 


9,09.5,970 




89, 895, 433 




72,712 










New York . 


938, 974 
8,536,352 
73, 631, 724 
8,170,335 
20,068,184 
9,680,033 
3, 560, 375 
7.792 


(') 


Ohio 


432,762,004 


Oklahoma 


461, 833, 468 


Pennsylvania . . 


754,180,215 


Texas 


203, 799, 381 


West Virginia . 


260,232,815 


Wyoming . 


7,964,944 


other . .. 








Total 


265,762,535 


3, 335, 457, 130 







1 Included in " Other." ' Included in Pennsylvania. 

FACTORS GOVERNING THE PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUIM. 
Before entering into a discussion of the probable future production 
of petroleum in the United States, it will be well to outline the various 
factors which govern this production. These factors may be divided 
into two groups, natural and artificial. 
73839°— SM 1916 19 



278 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

A. NATURAL. FACTORS. 

1. Pressure. — The pressure exerted on the oil in its underground 
reservoir may be hydrostatic, hydraulic, or gas; it may be coexten- 
sive with the field or pool, in which case it is called " field pressure," 
or it may be exceedingly local in extent, when it is called " local " or 
" well pressure." Pressure in oil wells varies from to over 2,000 
pounds per square inch, usually declining as the field or well gi'ows 
old. Other things being equal, the production varies with the pres- 
sure. 

2. Viscosity. — Production varies inversely with the viscosity, and 
since the viscosity in general increases with the specific gravity (in- 
creases inverse!}' with the Beaume degrees) it may be said that, other 
conditions being equal, the production varies inversely with the spe- 
cific gravity of the oil. Natural petroleums vary from substances as 
fluid as water (low viscosity) to those having the consistency of "cold 
molasses" (high viscosity), or even to those possessing the properties 
of solids. 

3. Thickness and extent of 7-eservoir rocks. — The production varies 
with the thickness and extent of the reservoir rock. The thickness of 
the pay streaks may vary from 2 feet, as in some fields of the eastern 
United States, to over 200 feet, as in some California fields. The 
lateral extent of the layer or lens may be from a few feet to several 
miles. 

4. Porosity of reseriwir rocks. — Production varies inversely with 
the porosity within certain limits. In uniformly grained rocks the 
coarser the grain of the reservoir the less is the actual porosity ; but 
the larger the size of the interstices the less is the friction surface per 
unit of oil. Therefore, coarse sediments are really less porous and 
consequently hold less oil, but they give it up more readily than fine 
sediments and usuall}^ give a greater ultimate yield per unit of 
volume. Eeservoir rocks may be fine shale to the coarsest conglo- 
merates, or porous or cavernous dolomites or limestones. Fracture 
or fault zones also may act as reservoirs. The world's maximum 
producers obtain their oil from cavernous limestones or dolomites; 
the steadiest and longest-lived wells are in medium-grained sand. 

5. Structure of reservoir rocks. — Structure usually has a profound 
influence on oil accumulation and production, the most advantageous 
positions being in the crests of domes or anticlines, or on the flanks 
of sealed or terraced monoclines. Lithology or other causes may 
locally produce exceptions to all rules of accumulation. 

B. ARTIFICIAL FACTORS. 

1. Price of oil. — The price of oil is the dominant factor governing 
the production of oil, especially as it relates to groups of wells, fields, 



PETEOLEUM EESOURCES — AENOLD. 279 

districts, or States. The price may vary from 10 to 15 cents a barrel 
at the well, as at certain periods in the history of the Mexican or 
California fields, or it may range up to $2.50 per barrel, and in ex- 
ceptional cases much higher, when the demand is great and the sup- 
ply limited. Price of oil largely affects the other artificial factors, 
which may be summarized as follows: 

2. Depth of ivells and time required to drill. — Production may be 
accelerated or retarded by the time required to drill wells. In some 
places wells can be put down in a week or 10 days; elsewhere it may 
take from one to two years to finish a well. In a shallow well dis- 
trict production can be increased quickly by a vigorous drilling pro- 
gram ; in deep well areas much time and mone}' may be necessary to 
increase or even sustain production. 

3. Distance separating wells. — Within a certain underground 
reservoir, the quantity of oil that ultimately can be recovered and 
the rapidity with which it may be produced are largely dependent 
on the distance separating the individual wells. The thicker the 
wells the quicker the recovery of the oil and the greater the expense 
of recovery. Wells may be spaced 25 feet apart or as near together 
as the derricks will stand, as in the congested Spindle-top field of 
Texas, or they may be separated by a distance of one-fourth mile or 
mo]"e. Ownership of property often determines the spacing of the 
wells, many small tracts under separate ownership tending toward 
congestion of development and rapidity of recovery. Conservation 
is best attained by single ownership of large bodies of land, so that 
development will be determined by the principle of recovering the oil 
at the least possible expense, that is, with the least number of wells. 

4. Condition of loell, pump, etc. — The condition of the well, pump, 
and other physical properties involved in the winning of the oil 
greatly influences the production. Clean wells, efficient pumps, and 
energetic employees tend toward maximum production ; sanded up or 
improperly perforated wells, leaky pumps, and inexperienced or 
careless employees militate against successful operation. 

5. Discovery of new fields. — The discovery of new fields is a most 
potent factor in oil production. The search for new fields is stimu- 
lated by high prices; their discovery usually results in a flush yield 
and a lowering of the price. Obviously, each new field raises the 
normal production to be expected from any district or State, and it 
is this factor of new territory which lends so much uncertainty to the 
oil business. 

6. Distance from market. — The distance from market of any field 
or group of wells often determines the rate of development and con- 
sequent production. Those fields nearest to market or favorable 



280 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

transportation facilities are usually quickly developed to their maxi- 
mum capacity, while fields farther away are often left for years 
without even being adequately prospected. 

7. iTTi'proveTiients in development and recovery methods. — New 
methods of drilling and increasingly efficient methods of recovery are 
favorably affecting production in many fields. The most important 
advance in recent years has been along the line of increased use of 
compressed air in the recovery of oil, especially in California and 
Pennsylvania. 

8. 'Water comjMcations. — "Water troubles" may be either natural 
or a combination of natural conditions and human carelessness or 
ignorance. Water causes the final ruin of practically all oil fields; it 
is the omnipresent and greatest menace of the producing fields. In 
most cases w^ater troubles are inexcusable. Their results almost 
always are negative and sometimes irremediable. 

Oil in most fields of the United States and, in fact, throughout the 
world, occurs in inclined or sloping beds of sand or other porous 
rock, and these oil zones usually are overlain and underlain by water 
sands or zones which are separated from the oil zones by impervious 
clay, shale, or other strata. In these two cases the water is extraneous 
to the oil sands. These waters are called " top " and " bottom " 
waters, in accordance with their occurrence, respectively, above or 
below the oil zones. In a properly finished well the " top " water is 
cased off or cemented off before the well is drilled into the oil sand. 
The " bottom " water never is drilled into except by accident, in which 
event it is plugged off. With the " top " water shut off and the " bot- 
tom" water untouched, the oil is produced practically free from 
water. Water, being heavier than oil and often also imder a greater 
hydrostatic pressure, will replace part or all of the oil at the point 
of ingress into the well if it is allowed to reach the oil sand. In this 
way it replaces the oil, in whole or in part, and thus lessens the 
amount of oil produced and increases its cost of recovery. Water 
also occurs indigenous to the oil sands in certain fields, but in this 
case it does not at first occupy the same part of the stratum as that 
occupied by the oil, but lies in the lower or " down-slope " portion of 
the sand, and the line marking the junction of the oil in the "up- 
slope " part of the bed and the water in the " down slope " part de- 
termines the limits of the productive territory. The water under 
these conditions is called " edge " water. Upon exhaustion of the oil 
by flowing or pumping, the " edge " water, through hydrostatic or 
other pressure, usually " follows up " and replaces the oil. The ap- 
pearance of the originally extraneous " top " water or " bottom " 
water in a well indicates a failure to exclude the water properly by the 
manipulation of casing, cement, or plugs. Such a condition usually 
can be remedied and the offending fluid kept out of the oil sand, 



PETROLEUM RESOURCES ARNOLD. 281 

although what has come in already may sometimes remain in the oil 
to a greater or less extent. The appearance of '"edge" water in a 
well is another matter, for here the oil has been permanently replaced 
by the water, and, so far as the affected sand is concerned, the well 
can be considered as no longer productive. " Edge " water sometimes 
appears in a well in some particular sand, while other producing 
sands are free from water. In this instance, the " edge" water sand 
is abandoned and cased off and tlie production continued from the 
ether sands. 

Most of the water troubles are due to a failure to shut off the " top " 
water in the process of drilling. Wells, properties, and entire fields 
have been seriously damaged or entirely ruined by the water, some- 
times from only a few offending wells. This factor of water is, 
therefore, one of the most potent in oil production and at the same 
time the most uncertain, 

METHODS OF ESTIMATING FUTURE SUPPLY. 

Two methods of estimating the future production or supply of oil 
in any area or field are in use, one known as the saturation method, 
the other, the production curve method. 

SATURATION JIETHOD.^ 

The saturation method of computation involves finding the cubical 
contents of the reservoir, determining the degree of porosity of the 
volume, and then estimating the total, available, and net supply 
of oil contained under the area in question. By total supply is 
meant the total quantity of oil in the reservoir; by available supply 
is meant the quantity that theoretically can be recovered with ordi- 
nary methods in vogue; net supply is the quantity marketed after 
deducting for fuel used in development and operation, leakage, and 
other losses. 

Total supply depends on the volume and porosity of the reservoir 
and on the volume of free gas and of water which are included in the 
oil. The first factor usually can be approximated by taking the area 
involved and multiplying by the average thickness of the oil sand 
or zone. The porosity can be approximated from outcrop samples or 
drilling samples of the reservoir. Gas and water contents are un- 
certain, but in most instances can be disregarded for rough approxi- 
mations. Gas usually is in solution and the water only in the out- 
lying edges of the oil pools. Available saturation may range from 
to, possibly, 80 per cent, depending largely on the gas pressure 
and other factors, such as grain of reservoir, coherency, etc. From 
40 to 60 per cent of the total quantity ordinarily is recoverable. Of 

1 This method Is described by Chester W. Washburne, Bull. A. I. M. E., No. 98, February, 
1915, pp. 469-471. 



282 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

this quantity possibly 10 per cent to 15 per cent is lost in production 
or used for fuel, so that of the total supply but 34 per cent to 54 per 
cent ordinarily is marketed. Many years may be required to make 
even this recovery. 

It is the writer's belief that estimates based on the saturation method 
are much less reliable and satisfactory than those worked out through 
the production-curve method, but the former must be used for new 
or poorly developed fields and will be briefly described. 

The thickness of producing oil sands or oil zones varies from 2 feet 
in the Illinois field to over 200 feet in the California field. Total 
supply or saturation as marked by the porosity varies from a trace, 
in sands, up to 50 per cent in some exceedingly porous dintomaceous 
shale from California. Between 5 and 15 per cent is the average for 
sands, some, however, going as high as 30 per cent. An acre of 
ground covered with oil a foot deep (1 acre-foot) contains 7,758 bar- 
rels. This would be complete saturation for the 43,560 cubic feet. 
Assmning an average of 10 per cent saturation would give 775.8 bar- 
rels per acre-foot for normal conditions. On this basis a 5-foot sand 
would contain 3,879 barrels per acre, and a 50-foot sand 38,790 bar- 
rels. Actual yields of over 100,000 barrels per acre are known. 
Estimates of the average production per acre for the various States 
are given in Table III. Most of these figures are based primarily 
on the production-curve method, but a few are based on or checked 
by the saturation method. 

, PRODUCTION-CURVE TVIETHOD. 

General statement. — Estimating future production or supply by 
a plotting of hypothetical curves, based on actual figures in well- 
known areas or fields, is the safest method, as it involves factors 
which it is possible to obtain. Another thing in its favor from the 
standpoint of the producer and marketer of oil is that it is based 
on and has to do with actual " net " oil figures, instead of theoretical 
quantities. 

Basis of theoretical curve. — The theoretical curve shown in the 
diagram accompanying this article is based primarily on the yearly 
total production figures of New York and Pennsylvania. These 
figures cover a period of productivity of 54 years, longer by far 
than that of any other field in the United States. Furthermore, over 
this period this field has been subject to all of the vicissitudes from 
both natural and artificial causes that beset oil fields in general. The 
area involved in the Pennsylvania and New York field is greater 
than that in any other field in the United States, which is still 
another reason why the result should be conservative. 

The interesting part of the production curve is that following the 
period of maximum yield. In some instances it is fairly safe to 



PETROLEUM EESOURCES — ^ARKOLD. 



283 





































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284 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

predict just when this period is reached, although usually a great 
divergence of opinion prevails, due to whether the prophet is a pro- 
ducer or a consumer. As a rule, the crest of the production curve 
is not a sharp peak, but is represented by a more or less wavy dome, 
showing that the production remains near the maximum for several 
years. In the case of the Pennsylvania-New York curve, the period 
of high production extended over about 10 years; that of Ohio and 
West Virginia over 8 years ; and that of Illinois over 2 years. Fol- 
lowing this period the production is more or less irregular, but in 
general decreases at a fairly regular rate, the rate of decrease, based 
on the previous year's production, becoming gTadually less and less 
as is indicated in the theoretical curve in the diagram. In figures 
this decrease may be tabulated thus, the basis of computation being 
the maximum yearly production for the field : 

Per cent of maximum production. 



At end of first 10 years 50 

At end of second 10 years 30 

At end of third 10 years 20 

At end of fourth 10 years 15 

At end of fifth 10 years 12. 5 

At end of sixth 10 years 10 



Average for 10 years , 75 

Average for 10 years 40 

Average for 10 years 25 

Average for 10 years 17. 5 

Average for 10 years 13. 75 

Average for 10 years 11.25 



The usual development history in the period of high production 
is, first, a decrease of yield followed by increase in price, then re- 
newed development activity, with a resultant increase in yield, a 
fall in price, and so on until the development reaches a point where 
the production of new wells fails to make up the decrease of the old, 
when the final period of decrease begins. 

ESTIMATED FUTURE PRODUCTION. 

The following table gives the estimated future production of 
petroleum in the United States, together with the approximate 
figures as to the proven and prospective oil-bearing areas, and a 
summary of the principal points regarding the occurrence and 
character of the oil. 

The figures of future supply take into account a certain per cent 
of the prospective oil area, as the curve on which they are based 
pertains to an area where new fields have been added from time to 
time as development progressed. In the case of Texas, Wyoming, 
etc., where the ratio of prospective area to proven area is high, the 
future supply may be considerably greater than that predicted if 
the bulk of the prospective land proves productive. 

COMPARISON WITH DR. DAy's FIGURES FOR 10 08. 

Table IV is a comparison of the estimates given b}^ Dr. Day for 
1908 with those bj^ the writer for 1915. They are here presented by 
fields in order to correspond with Dr. Daj'^s divisions. 



PETROLEUM RESOURCES — ARNOLD. 



285 



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286 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1&16. 



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PETROLEUM RESOURCES ARNOLD. 287 

Comparing the writer's estimates with those of Dr. Day, it is at 
once apparent that the estimates for the older eastern fields have 
been reduced while those for the western fields have been increased. 
This is especially true for the Mid-Continent field, in which there 
w as little development at the time Dr. Day's figures were compiled. 
In the case of California ^ it has been found that the available satura- 
tion is less than was expected during the early history of the field. 
At the time the first estimates were made the field gas pressure was 
high and water trouble had not become serious. With the lapse of 
time it has become evident that a reduced gas pressure and water infil- 
tration necessitate materially cutting the original figures. 

At the present rate of consumption of approximately 265,000,000 
barrels per year, an estimated supply of 5,763,100,000 bam-els would 
last only, approximately, 22 years. However, as the total produc- 
tion of the United States w^ill gradually decrease from year to year, 
it is believed that the total available supply will spread out over a 
period of from 50 to 75 years. The price of oil, which now ranges 
from 40 cents to $2 per barrel (average, 95 cents), depending on the 
locality and grade of the product, probably will increase to figures 
approximating $1 per barrel for fuel oil and possibly $5 or more for 
the lighter grades. All other factors being equal, a barrel of fuel 
oil as compared with coal on the Pacific coast is worth to-day 
93 cents. Even were oil to be used only as a fuel, the tendency would 
be for it to rise in price until it reached a point set by the value of 
coal in the same regions. As oil has so many points in its favor, as 
regards ease of handling, cleanliness, etc., it is quite evident that 
eventually it will be sold at a higher price than is warranted by its 
heat value as compared wnth that of coal. 

Before the fi'ee natural petroleum in the earth is exhausted the 
oil shales of Colorado, Utah, California, and other States will have 
begun to be utilized as a source of petroleum. Also artificial oil 
made from animal and vegetable waste probably will be available to 
take its plac^. Even at the present time the necessities of w^ar have 
led certain of the European governments to utilize various substi- 
tutes for petroleum and its derivatives, the substitutes in general 
being made from organic substances. 

In conclusion, the writer might repeat what often has been pointed 
out by conservationists, that oil as far as possible should be used for 
those purposes for wdiich we have no other substitute, namely, for 
lubricants, refined derivatives, etc., and not for fuel. If used for 
fuel, it should not be in connection with the wasteful steam engine, 
but in the Diesel engine and similar types, which are so much more 
efficient that their use doubtless will become more and more general 
as time goes on. 

1 Dr. Geo. Otis Smith discusses the duration of California petroleum resources la Mln. 
Res. U. S. for 1910, Pt. IT, p. 416, et seq. 



THE OUTLOOK FOR IRON.^ 



By Prof. James Fukman Kemp, 
Columbia University. 



The close of the nineteenth century produced an attitude of mind 
in many students of national affairs akin to that of a merchant who 
balances his books at the end of a twelvemonth. Allien the results 
of a. year's business have been demonstrated, the merchant decides 
on his plans ^nd policies for the future. He makes a reliable esti- 
mate of his resources and leams his possibilities and his limitations. 
As a nation which looked over a hundred years instead of one year, 
we were in much the same position when the twentieth century 
opened. 

From small beginnings, all manner of industries had reached an 
impressive development. Some employed materials which were con- 
stantly reproduced either by plants or animals, and which, by im- 
proved methods, could be increased in amount; but other industries 
were rapidly drawing upon fixed reserves which could not be re- 
newed. We naturally began to forecast the future and, with a look 
ahead, to infer the course of events in the centui-y then opening. 
Among the industries, that of mining came in for special attention. 
It is a very great one in this country, and it is distinctive in that it 
destroys its raw materials in utilizing them. Forests, crops and live 
stock all grow again. Ore and coal mined are gone forever. Not un- 
naturall}^, in a fundamental industry such as iron mining — one on 
"\Ahich so many others rest, — people vitally interested began to raise 
the question of reserve for the future and to wonder in what position 
the industry would find itself fifty or a hundred years later. We are 
not surprised, therefore, to note that open expression was given to 
feelings of apprehension, nor that some prophecies were made whose 
restatement now possesses much interest. Not alone, however, in 
our own countr}' were these apprehensions felt. Abroad, they like- 
wise found expression, especially in England, whose people had been 
roused for years regarding the future of their coal fields. 

In October, 1902, Mr. Andrew Carnegie, one of our most distin- 
guished ironmasters, was installed as rector of the University of 

1 Reprinted by permission from Contributions from tlie Geological Department, Columbia 
University, Vol. 27, No. 1. 

289 



290 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

St. Andrews, Scotland. He delivered a very interesting address in 
which he stated that if the rate of consumption of iron ore in the 
ITnited States did not greatly increase, we would have a supply of 
lirst-class iron ore for only 60 or 70 years and of second-class for 30 
years longer. Mr. Carnegie estimated our demonstrated store of 
unmined ore at 1,000,000,000 tons. The consumption, at that time, 
was between twenty-five and thirty millions of tons annually. All 
persons well informed upon mining matters would infer that the 
mining of a billion tons, now demonstrated, would reveal appreciably 
more; and while a billion tons divided by 25 gives a life of 40 years, 
60 or 70 years was a not unreasonable figure. Yet this period is a 
relatively short one and the forecast justifies anxiety. Sinc€ Mr. 
Carnegie's address was delivered, the annual output of ore has 
doubled, and, unless relieved by other considerations, whatever ap- 
prehensions were justified then are twice as emphatic now. 

In 1895, from three different spokesmen cam© prophecies similar 
to those of Mr. Carnegie. Sir Robert A. Hadfield, whose words re- 
garding the iron and steel industry should carry as great weight as 
any man's, in a presidential address to the British Iron and Steel 
Institute^ forecasts the call of the world's furnaces upon the mines 
at the outset of the new century, and upon the basis of known re- 
serves also gave good ground for apprehension. In the same year, 
the late Prof. Tornebohm, long the chief of the Swedish Geological 
Survey and with special experience in iron ores, made a report to the 
Parliament of Sweden, based on a visit to this country.^ At this 
time the Swedish Govermnent was actively sharing in the develop- 
ment of the great bodies of iron ore in Lapland, far within the Polar 
Circle. The importance of knowing the part which they might play 
in the world's iron industry of the future was great, and the deter- 
mination of the limits of annual output was a matter in which the 
Swedish authorities felt a lively interest. 

Prof. Tornebohm credited the Mesabi Range with half a billion 
tons; the other Lake Superior ranges, collectively, with as much 
more ; and the Eastern brown hematites with 60,000,000. This total 
of a little over a billion tons gave cause for anxiety, since the out- 
put in 1905 of American mines had risen beyond forty millions, 
and a life of 25 years w^as thus indicated. But, of course, a moment's 
reflection shows that the estimates are incomplete, since the Clinton 
ores of the East, and especially of Alabama, are omitted entirely. 

In the same year, 1905, the late Prof. N. S. Shaler sought to rouse 
his countrymen to an appreciation of the situation with regard to 
the mining industry in a paper of a popular nature on " The Ex- 

1 Proceedings, 1905, I., 27, and especially 86-60. 
' Reprinted In the Iron Age, Nov. 2, 1905. 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON— KEMP. 291 

haustion of the World's Supply of Metals." ^ Prof. Shaler, in gen- 
eral terms, considers the supply of ores of all sorts remaining to us 
as, roughly, twenty times the amount already mined. He thinks 
another century will exhaust the European supplies of iron ore. 
The best place for the iron industry is in the Mississippi Valley, 
and the ores tributary to it are passed in revicAv without definite 
figures, except for Alabama, to whose Clinton red hematites a life of 
50 years is assigned. 

Other papers preceded, accompanied or followed the four specially 
cited and of these a list is given at the close of this contribution. 
They can not all be mentioned now, and the ones briefly reviewed 
will suffice to show the apprehensive state of the public mind, here 
and elsewhere, from 10 to 15 years ago. 

As a symptom of the widespread interest and as a natural step to 
prevent waste and to maintain as long as possible the material sup- 
ports of industries, the conservation movement sprang up in this 
country. It has taken form in annual conventions and discussions, 
and has been influential in matters of legislation. Outside the 
American boundaries, similar steps have been taken. Reports of the 
Canadian Conservation Commission regularly reach us. 

In connection with conservation in general, iron ore has been one 
of the chief subjects to be considered, and we are not surprised 
to find our Swedish colleagues, as soon as they were assured at the 
International Geological Congress held in Mexico City, in 1906, 
that their invitation for the meeting of 1910 would be accepted, 
began to plan a great work on the " Iron Ore Resources of the 
AVorld." Iron mining is one of the chief, if not the chief, single 
industry in Sweden. The subject, therefore, possessed great local 
as well as international importance. The associated authors in all 
lands began to busy themselves at once with data and estimates of 
reserves. A year after the movement had been started by the 
Swedish committee and b}^ its representative in this country, a 
special investigation of American iron ore reserves was also initiated 
under the United States Geological Survey with Dr. C. W. Hayes in 
charge of the collection of data. The result of these endeavors led 
to the preparation of as complete estimates as were practically pos- 
sible.^ They will be mentioned and utilized later on. 

Before we can actually undertake a discussion of the future, 
we must have clearly before us several matters of vital import. We 
must know the large features of production in the United States as a 
whole and in the more important individual districts. We need to 



1 International Quarterly, vol. 2, 230-247, 1905. 
» C. W. Hayes, Bull. 394, U. S. G. S., 70-114, 1909. 



292 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



briefly trace the progress of production during recent j^ears. We 
need further to know what the general run of working percentages 
has been and to answer the questions: Is the yield per ton declining 
as the years pass, and are we content now to treat ores of lower 
grade than were our fathers? How do our ores compare in yield 
with those of foreign productive areas? We can not overlook the 
vital bearing of our supply of coking coal — a factor in present iron 
metallurgy not inferior to ore supply itself. We must consider 
sources of ore outside the United States and yet so situated as to 
contribute to our furnaces. We must also consider present, or rea- 
sonably certain future improvements in processes of smelting. No 
horoscope for the future can be cast without attaching due weight 
to all these factors. 

The growth in the production of iron ore in the United States has 
been so great as to be the chief cause of anxiety for the future. The 
tabulation of a few figures, using a million long tons as the unit, 
will make the matter clear. Extended statistics are not necessary. 
I am extremely anxious that the great striking truths should not be 
lost in a maze of figures. The statistics are taken from the Mineral 
Resources of the United States Geological Survey. Detailed figures 
are not attainable for 1888 and earlier years, except in those in which 
a census was taken. 

In the years before the Civil War the production was small, but 
shortly after peace was restored the Lake Superior mines began to 
assume greater and greater importance, and later Alabama developed 
its mining and smelting industry. 

statistics in millions of long tons. 





United 
States 
total. 


Lake 
Superior. 


Alabama. 


other 
Eastern 
States. 


Western 
States. 


I860... 


2.8 

3.8 

4.0 

7.1 

8.7 

7.7 

10.0 

12.0 

16.0 

16.2 

11.8 

16.0 

19.4 

27.5 

35.5 

27.6 

47.7 

35.9 

56.8 

55.1 

43.0 










1870... 


0.8 
0.8 
1.9 
2.9 

2.5 

3.5 

5.0 

8.98 

9.50 

7.60 

10.50 

13.8 

20.50 

27.05 

20.30 

37. 80 

28.10 

46.30 

46.40 

32.91 








1875 








1880 


0.17 


5.2 


0.00 


1882 


0.05 


1884 






0.02 


1886 








1SS8 






0.03 


1890 


1.90 
2.31 
1.49 
2.04 
2.40 
2.75 
3.57 
3.70 
3.99 
3.70 
4.80 
4.60 


4.96 
4.24 
2.70 
3.10 

2.84 
3.75 
4.30 
3.28 
4.91 
3.50 
4.80 
3.10 


0.19 


1892 .... 


0.15 


1894 


0.29 


1896 


0.26 


1898 


0.37 


1900 


0.54 


1902 


0.65 


1904 


0.36 


1906 


0.80 


1908 


0.52 


1910 


0.80 


1912 


0.90 


1914 













OUTLOOK FOR IRON KEMP, 



293 



GENERAL PROGRESS OP PRODUCTION. 

By these figures a modest but steady growth in the production 
of iron ore is shown up to 1884. A marked increase then developed, 
which subsequent figures will show was chiefly due to the entrance 
of the Gogebic and Vermilion Eanges. A rapid growth followed to 
1890; and then production held steady, or, as in 1894, temporarily 
dropped back during panic times. Following 1896, the growth was 
very marked and was chiefly due to the Mesabi Eange. Hard times 
checked it in 1904, in 1908, and again in 1914. No industry is more 
sympathetic with general business conditions than is the production 
of iron and steel. 

The figures also show that the great increase in output is due to 
the growth of the industry in the Lake Superior region. Without 
the contributions from the lake, the country as a whole would be 
back in the position which it occupied in 1886, with about 10,000,000 
tons total production. 

In general, if we look back to 1860 and take time by decades, we 
may say that to-day the production is twenty times what it was in 
1860; fifteen times what it was in 1870; eight times that of 1880; 
three and one-half times that of 1890 ; and twice that of 1900. We 
can not continue in the same ratio, but must ere long reach our 
zenith. 

Production of the Lake Superior ranges in millions of long tons. 





Total 

United 
States. 


Marquette. 


Menomi- 
nee. 


Gogebic. 


Vermilion. 


Mesabl. 


Cuyuna. 


1870 


3.8 

4.0 

7.1 

8.7 

7.7 

10.0 

12.0 

16.0 

16.2 

11.8 

16.0 

19.4 

27.5 

35.5 

27.6 

47.7 

35.9 

56.8 

55.1 

42.0 


0.85 
0.88 
1.38 
1.83 
1.56 
1.63 
1.92 
2.86 
2.84 
1.93 
2.42 
2.99 
3.94 
3.73 
2.46 
4.07 
3.31 
4.63 
3.54 


0.0 

0.0 

0.52 

1.14 

0.89 

0.88 

1.19 

2.27 

2.40 

1.25 

1.76 

2.27 

3.68 

4.42 

2.87 

4.96 

2.90 

4.98 

4.46 


0.0 

0.0 

0.0 

0.0 

0.001 

0.75 

1.43 

2.91 

3.06 

1.52 

2.10 

2.55 

3.10 

3.68 

2.13 

3.48 

3.24 

4.74 

3.92 


0.0 

0.0 

0.0 

0.0 

0.06 

0.30 

0.51 

0.89 

1.23 

1.05 

1.20 

1.12 

1.67 

2.06 

1.05 

1.79 

0.92 

1.39 

1.45 


0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.03 
1.91 
3.08 
4.83 
8.16 
13.08 
11.67 
23.56 
17.72 
30.57 
32.60 




1875. . 




1880. . 




1882. 




1SS4. . 




1886 




1888. 




1890. . 




1892. 




1894 . . 




1896. 




1S98 




1900. 




1902. . 




1904. 




1906- . 




1908. 




1910- . 




1912 


0.37 


1914.. 

















A brief survey of the figures relating to the individual Lake 
Superior ranges will justify the following conclusions: The Mar- 
quette, Menominee, Gogebic, and Vermilion Ranges show a steady, 
normal increase in output, which is not startling nor one to cause, 
under ordinary circumstances, undue apprehension. Some signs of 
73839°— SM 1916 20 



294 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

declining output are manifest in the case of the Vermilion. The 
vast increase in the output of iron ore is due to the Mesabi Range, 
and from it in 1912 came nearly 60 per cent of the country's total. 
A marked decline in available supply from the Mesabi would bring 
about a greater falling off in ore supply than any possible increase 
in the other Lake Superior ranges, or than the present sources of 
supply from other mining districts, could make good. The Mesabi 
Range is the key to the maintenance of the domestic supply at its 
present grade, and when it declines we must appeal to foreign sources 
to keep the iron and steel industry in its present position. 

YIELD OF THE ORES. 

Conditions vary greatly in different parts of the country; at 
different times; with different ores; and with the entrance of new 
sources of supply. It is a general truth that the richest ores are 
obtained in the early days of mining, As time passes and the in- 
dustry becomes firmly established, lower and lower grades come 
within the range of profit. Alabama Clinton ores gave much higher 
percentages when mined wholly above the permanent water level 
than they do now, when pursued below it. For many decades only 
lump ore, and much of that over 60 per cent iron, was produced 
by the magnetite mines of the eastern Adirondacks. To-day the 
greater portion of the ore goes first through a magnetic concentrator 
before it is shipped. In earliest years on Lake Superior hard, 
specular ore at 65 and above was sought. With improved facilities 
the grade came down to and below 60, but the soft ores found slight 
sale. Now the soft, earthy ores are the principal objects of mining, 
and the average grade is well down in the fifties. Important ship- 
ments of ore with percentages below 50 have been placed on the 
steamships. 

In the summer of 1875, Prof. Albert H. Chester,^ an experienced 
chemist, ^dsited the Lake Superior region in the endeavor to secure 
average samples from the stock piles of the larger mines, all, of 
course, at that time in the Marquette range and shipping hard, specu- 
lar ores. Four samples ranged from 61.01 to 66.83 and probably give 
a fair idea of the ore at that time sent away. Iron Mountain, Mo., 
ore ran 64.87; Lake Champlain magnetites, 56.01 to 62.68; Clinton, 
N. Y., fossil ore, 44.57, but yielded 43 in the furnace. 

In September, 1890, Geo. W. Goetz^ published a tabulated series 
of analyses from the four older Lake Superior ranges, which, when 
averaged, afford the following values. To give a correct average, 
the analysis of each mine's ore ought to be weighted with the output, 
and as the data for this calculation are not available, we must be 

1 Albert H. Chester, " On the Percentage of Iron in Certain Ores." Trans. Amer. Inst. 
Min. Eng., vol. 4, 219, 1875. 

^ Geo. W. Goetz, "Analyses of Lake Superior Iron Ores," Idem, vol. 19, 59, 1890. 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON KEMP. 



content with the general significance of the results, 
they supply us with trustworthy values. 



295 
On the whole, 



Range. 



No. of 
analyses. 



Maximum. 



Minimum. 



Average. 



Marquette . 
Menominee 

Gogebic 

Vermilion. . 



69.77 
65.20 
65.45 
67.54 



53.02 
52.18 
54.95 
60.20 



62.33 
60.00 
62.09 
64.50 



These figures represent the good old times when specular ore was 
almost the only one produced and before the soft ores began to be a 
serious factor. They are, however, significant, in that customary 
working percentages, such as these, very probably were not without 
their influence in the estimates of the life of the ranges, as set forth 
by several of the writers whose opinions were cited in the introduc- 
tion to this address. 

Eaphael Pumpelly, in connection with the summaries of the Tenth 
Census,^ estimated on the best and most comprehensive data which 
we have ever had, the general average of iron ores for the United 
States at 51.22 per cent iron. The maximum average percentage 
among the States was that of Missouri, 60.01 (but Michigan had 
59.57). The minimum was West Virginia, 37.92. Pennsylvania, the 
largest producer of ore in that year, gave 45.28. On the basis of ore , 
production and pig-iron production, allowance being made for mill 
cinder, foreign ores, etc., John Birkmbine estimated for the Eleventh 
Census ^ an average of 51.27 for the country at large. An appreci- 
able error crept in, however, in assuming pig iron to be entirely iron, 
whereas it is only about 95 per cent or less metallic iron. We can 
hardly compare this figure with the one given by Prof. Pumpelly 
which was based on actual analyses of samples. If we credit the 
7,000,000 tons of pig iron, as used by Mr. Birkinbine, with 95 per 
cent iron, the average is -18.71, which indicates an appreciable falling 
off in yield in 10 years. 

General estimates of average percentages which will be trust- 
worthy are difficult to carry out on the basis of annual statistics of 
tons of ore and tons of pig iron. Foreign ores contribute to an 
appreciable degree, and their yield can only be estimated. Stocks 
of mined ore, stored at furnaces or mines at the end of a year, are 
naturally credited to that year, but they are not turned into pig 
iron until the following twelvemonth. Mill cinder is also a con- 
tributor of iron to the extent of a small percentage of the total. 
The data for all these corrections are not available for a long period 
of years, and, therefore, all could not be introduced in the following 

1 Tenth Census, vol. 15, 19, for the year 1879. 
* Volume on Mineral Industries, p. 10. 



296 



ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



estimates. The importations could, however, be deducted, and to 
them an average of 58 per cent iron has been arbitrarily assigned. 
The results obtained are so variable that their significance is rather 
one of degree than of actual individual accuracy. The statistics are 
chiefly taken from the Mineral Resources for 1910, page 76. Long 
tons are used. 











95 per 


Iron in 






Esti- 




United 


Imported 




cent pig 


imported 






mated 




States 


Pig iron 


iron, me- 
tallic 


ores at 






by E.G. 




iron ore 


thou- 
sands 
of long 
tons. 


in thou- 


58 per 




Average 


Eckel, 




in thou- 


sands 


iron,in 


cent in 


Net iron. 


per cent 


"Iron 




sands 


of long 


thou- 


thou- 




of ore. 


Ores," 




of long 


tons. 


sands 


sands 






page 




tons. 




of long 


of long 






358, 










tons. 


tons. 






1914. 


1870 


3,832 
4,018 
7,120 




1,678 
2,040 
3,802 


1,594 
1,938 
3,612 




1,594 
1,903 
3,326 


41.6 
47.3 
46.7 




1875 


56.6 
493 


33 

286 




1880 




1885 


7,600 
116,302 
117,203 
126,722 
143,433 
1 55, 246 
158,031, 


391 

1,247 

524 

898 

846 

2,591 

2,104 


4,077 
9,203 
9,446 
13,789 
22,992 
27, 304 
29, 727 


3,874 
8,653 
8,974 
13, 100 
21,842 
25, 939 
28,241 


227 
723 
304 
521 
491 
1,501 
1,220 


3,647 
7,930 
8,670 
12,579 
21,351 
24, 439 
27,021 


48.0 
48.6 
50.4 
47.1 
49.1 
44.2 
46.5 




1890 


56.50 


1895 


54.95 


1900 


51.55 


1905 


53.19 


1910 


49.42 


1912 


51.46 







1 These totals are the apparent iron ore consumptions as given in the Mineral Resources, United States 
Geological Sm-vey, for 1912, p. 162. They diller from the totals of production in the previous tables 
because corrected for unsmelted stocks, exports, and zinc residuum. No correction is made for mill 
cinder. 

The variations shown above are so pronounced as to cast some 
doubt upon the accuracy of the individual percentages, but we may 
have some confidence in the general tendencies shown. We can not 
but be impressed Avith the apparent practice of the mining companies 
of using lower grade ore in good times, as shown by high produc- 
tion, and saving higher-grade ores for bad years. So far as recent 
years are concerned, we can only say that the general grade has de- 
clined, although it does not appear to be as low as it was in 1870, 
when the brown ores of the East Avere so large a factor in produc- 
tion. It must be to-day well below 50 per cent. 

In the last column, and for the years beginning with 1890, are 
given calculations of average yield, prepared by E. C. Eckel in his 
valuable manual on " Iron Ores," published in 1914. The same 
figures for apparent iron ore consumption have been used as in the 
calculations given in the first column of the present table; that is, 
the total annual production has been increased by imports and by 
zinc residuum (i. e., used for spiegeleisen by the New Jersey Zinc 
Co.), and diminished by exports and by stocjis on hand at the close 
of the year. The zinc residuum is only 0,2 to 0,4 per cent of the 
total and makes little difference. But a decided difference arises in 
calculating the yield of American ores if one assumes that pig iron 
is pure iron, and lets the much richer importations of foreign ores 
enter into the calculation. These last two elements in the problem 
explain the wide divergence in percentages of from 4 to nearly 8 
per cent between the average values given in this paper and those 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON — KEMP. 297 

quoted by Mr. Eckel. Both calculations depart from the truth in 
so far as mill cinder, blue billy, scrap iron, etc., enter into the prob- 
lem, since no account has been made of them. Of course, there is 
also a slight loss of iron in blast-furnace cinder. 

The great importance of the decline in yield is the vastly increased 
amount of reserves which are thereby brought within the range of 
mining. As the average may still further decline until it reaches, 
say, 35 per cent, the reserves, as figures to be given later will show, 
become enormous. Thirty-five per cent, however, is by no means an 
unreasonable figure for the general yield of the Jurassic ores in the 
Lorraine and Luxembourg districts, which so largely supply Belgian, 
French, and German furnaces. The same statement will apply to 
the Cleveland district in England. The great reserves of 35 per cent 
ore in the Lake Superior district are, however, highly siliceous, 
whereas the Jurassic ores are basic. In Silesia, in southeastern Ger- 
many, even lower percentages are not esteemed beyond the possibili- 
ties. Thirty-five per cent is therefore a not unreasonable figure to 
consider, when a long look ahead is taken. On the other hand, in 
comparing the yield of the ores in different lands, a distinction should 
be made between exporting and smelting countries. Exporting coun- 
tries necessarily must furnish high-grade ore, so as to meet freight 
charges incident to long transportation. 

ESTIMATES OF RESERVES. 

Since 1905, several estimates of reserves have been made, of which 
condensed summaries may be cited.^ The amounts are in millions of 
long tons. 

1905. Tornebohm : 

Lake Superior 1, 000 

Alabama 60 

Elsewhere 40 

1,000 
1907. E. C. Eckel: 

Lake Superior 1, 500-2,000 

Alabama red ore 1,000 

Alabama brown ore 75 

Georgia red ore 200 

Georgia brown ore 125 

Tennessee red ore 600 

Tennessee brown ore 225 

Virginia red ore 50 

Virginia brown ore 300 



4, 075-4, 575 
Southern reserves for the remote future were estimated at 
10,000 million tons. 

1 The figures as given for Tornebohm, Eckel and Butler-Blrkinhlne are cited from E. C. 
Eckel, " Iron Ores," 341-351, 1914. 



298 



ANNUAL REPOiRT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



1909. Butler-Birkinbine : 

Lake Superior 1, 618 

Southern States 1, 814. 9 

New York 750 

New Jersey 135 

Pennsylvania 45 

Rocky Mountain region 100 

4, 462. 9 

1911. Minnesota-Michigan Tax Commission, J. R. Finlay, engineer : 
Minnesota and Michigan i 1, 584 

1912. E. C. Eckel : 

Lake Superior 2, 000-2, 500 

Northeastern 300- 600 

Western • 300- 700 

Birmingham 1,500-2,000 

Texas 600-1, 000 

Other Southern States 500-750 



5, 200-7, 550 



The most complete of all the estimates is that of Dr. C. W. Hayes 
in Bulletin 394 of the United States Geological Survey, 1909. The 
estimates are divided into two classes of ores; first, those available 
under present conditions ; and second, those which come within rea- 
sonable possibilities of utilization for the future. The statistics are 
given in long tons in millions and decimals of a million. 



Districts. 


Magne- 
tite. 


Specular 
and red 
hema- 
tite. 


Clinton 
ore. 


Brown 
ore. 


Carbon- 
ate ore. 


Total. 


Available ores: 

Northeastern 


160.0 
12.5 


2.0 
8.0 
3,500.0 
15.0 
4.3 


35.0 

463.5 
10.0 


11.0 
54.4 




208.0 


Southeastern 




538. 4 






3,510.0 


Minas Valley 




300.0 
2.0 




315.0 




51.5 
68.9 






57.8 


Pacific Slope 






68.9 









1 




Total 


292.9 


3,529.3 


508.5 


367.4 




4, 698. 1 


Titaniferous magnetite considered 
available by Dr. Hayes 




90.0 




211.5 

23.0 

4,525.0 


2.0 

53.0 

67,475.0 

10.0 

2.1 
10.0 


620.0 
970.5 
30.0 


13.5 
168.0 


248 
62 






4,788.1 


Not available ores: 

Northeastern 


1,095.0 


Southeastern 


1,276.5 




72,030.0 
570.0 


Mississippi Valley 


560.0 

1.6 

.1 






116.9 
13.8 






120.6 


Pacific Slope 






23.9 










Total 


4,890.2 


67,552.1 


1,620.5 


743.2 


310 


75,U6.0 





In the last group of ores I have included Dr. Hayes's estimates of titaniferous magnetite without sepa- 
rate classification. 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON KEMP. 



299 



The estimates for the Eleventh International Geological Congress 
were grouped in a somewhat different manner, as follows : 



Avail- 
able. 



Probable 
addition. 



Archean magnetites: 

Lump ores 

Concentrates 

Adirondack red liematites 

Pennsylvania soft magnetites 

Cambro-Ordovieian brown hematites 

Mesozoic and Tertiary brown hematites 

Clinton red hematites 

Alabama gray and red hematites 

Carbonate ores 

Lake Superior hematites 

Mississippi Valley specular and red hematites. . 
Mississippi Valley Palaeozoic brown hematites. 
Mississippi Valley Tertiary brown hematites... 
Cordilleran magnetites and hematites 



20.0 
40.0 
2.0 
40.0 
65.0 
10.0 
505.3 
27.5 



3,500.0 

15.0 

30.0 

2G0.O 

63.8 



Tltaniferous ores. 



4, 578. 6 
90.0 



30.0 
10.0 
2.0 



181.0 

15.0 

1,368.0 

27.5 

308.0 

72,000.0 

5.0 

45.0 

520.0 

55.0 



74,566.5 
128.6 



As shown earlier, the annual production in recent years has 
totaled between 50 and 60 millions of tons. Let us assume that 
it will be 60 millions in the near future. Dr. Hayes's estimates 
indicated practically 4,800 millions of tons of available reserves 
or eighty years' supply. The estimates for the International 
Geological Congress of 1910 are not appreciably different. By 
just so much as the annual production exceeds the amount of 60 
millions, will the time be shortened, except in so far as further 
exploration opens up new reserves. In mining enterprises in gen- 
eral, however, if the management of a company felt that it had 
eighty years fairly well assured, it would congratulate its stock- 
holders on the outlook. This attitude of mind would be justified by 
the common experience in mining the ores of such a widely dis- 
tributed metal as iron, that new reserves open up in old or new 
properties as old supplies are exhausted. 

On the other hand, if we anticipate the general decline in the yield 
of ores, so that lower and lower grade reserves may be brought in; 
and if we assume that more tons of ore will be required to furnish 
the usual output of pig iron, such that the annual output of ore may 
reach 100 millions; then from the probable addition of reserves, 
given in the second column of estimates, we forecast from practi- 
cally 75,000 million tons a life of 750 years. That iron could be 
produced in these amounts and for this period of time, there can be 
no doubt, if we omit consideration of cost and if we only consider 
possible ores down to 35 per cent. Iron-bearing rocks of still lower 
percentages are so abundant as to be inexhaustible. No one need feel 
anxiety about the physical possibility of producing iron up to the 
conceivable life of the race on the planet. 



300 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

In earlier pages, the point was emphasized that the crux of the 
present situation lies in the Mesabi Range of Minnesota. Of the 
55.1 million tons produced in 1912, 32.6 millions came from it. The 
chief point of immediate interest, therefore, is concerned with the 
life of the Mesabi. Its decline means great rearrangements in the 
present situation in the iron industry. The most recent estimates are 
those of C. R. Van Hise, C. K. Leith, and W. J. Mead, in cooper- 
ation, as given in Monograph 52 of the United States Geological 
Survey, 1911. Fifty per cent of iron in the dried ore is assumed as 
the minimum average yield at the time the estimates were made; 
1,600 millions of tons were then credited to the Mesabi (p. 489) . The 
output for 1910, for this range, was 30.57 millions, indicating a life 
of a little over 50 years. At the production of 32.6 millions for 
1912, a life of almost exactly 50 years is shown. If, on the other 
hand, a minimum percentage of 35 in iron is considered, the same 
authors assign to the Mesabi Range reserves of 30,000 million tons 
(p. 492), which would give us 300 years of life, even at 100 million 
tons annual output. 

The authors of Monograph 52 also discuss the reserves of the en- 
tire Lake Superior region. The reserves of 50 per cent ore, in the 
other ranges than the Mesabi, are less than one sixth its amount, and 
their combined output about two-fifths its total. Their estimated life 
is thus much shorter. The time period lies between 20 and 25 years. 
When, however, we consider a minimum yield of 35 per cent, their 
combined reserves are greater than those of the Mesabi, and are 
estimated at 37,630 millions of tons. If we credit them with two to 
three times their present annual output, a life of fully 1,000 years 
is shown. 

Thus one can attack the problem from various points of view, 
and with varying assumptions; but the conclusion is inevitable that 
the output of ore from the Lake Superior region can not be kept 
up at the present production and with a minimum yield of 50 per 
cent for as much as 50 years, unless unanticipated new discoveries of 
rich ore are made. With diminishing yield, however, and with the 
tenor still at percentages above 35, the shipments of iron ore, even 
in increasing amounts, can be maintained for centuries. 

Let us turn next to Alabama and its closely related States, Georgia 
and Tennessee; since, together, they constitute the second center of 
ore production. The great reserves lie in the Clinton ores, which 
are well stratified and which have been and will be explored by bore 
holes. The reserves are much increased by the brown ores of the 
region and of northwestern Alabama, and by the probable devel- 
opment of much older gray and red hematites in eastera Alabama; 
but attention will be alone directed at this point to the Clinton ores. 
The latter are so well stratified and persistent and are now proved 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON — KEMP. 301 

by such extensive exploration that with much confidence we may 
credit them, at least in the Birmingham region, with 36 to 37 per 
cent iron, and may consider the estimates of reserves as unusually 
trustworthy. Dr. C. W. Hayes, on the basis of the careful field 
work of C. F. Burchard,^ estimated them at the following amounts 
in millions of tons. 



Available. 



Not 
available. 



Tennessee, Georgia, and northeast Alabama. 
Birmingham district, Alabama 

Total 



86.5 
358.5 



440 

438 



Mr. E. C. Eckel had previously credited the Birmingham district 
with 1,000 million tons, a number not unduly above the sum of 
the two figures for Birmingham given above. The officers of the 
Tennessee Coal & Iron Co. considered, in 1909, in round numbers 
500 million tons as reliably assured. 

The combined output of these three States in Clinton ore was 
practically 4 millions of tons in 1912, indicating at this rate 111 years' 
life assured, and over 200 years' additional life as probable. In 
these estimates we do not assume an essential falling off in the 
yield of the ores below percentages actively mined to-day. 

Were we to take up the figures for the other portions of the 
country very similar results would be reached. But, as their con- 
tributions are proportionately smaller, the effects of rearrangements 
are less serious. Obviously, in a general way, viewing the country 
at large, and allowing for reasonable decline in yield, the ore supply 
is good for several centuries. 

FOREIGN SOURCES OP SUPPLY. 

The yield in the furnace is certain to be maintained, in an im- 
portant manner, by importations of rich ores from abroad. These 
contributions are already a serious factor, since they amounted to 
2.1 million tons in 1910, and had reached 2.5 millions in 1912, rang- 
ing between 3.5 and 4.G per cent of the total. 

Cuba. — The most accessible and the heaviest contributor of ore is 
Cuba. The mines in the vicinity of Santiago, on tlie southeastern 
coast, have been shipping for 20 years amounts which annually 
range below and above a half million tons of magnetite, with some 
hematite mechanically intergrown. The ores now run from 55 to 
60 per cent in iron and are of Bessemer grade. For some years addi- 
tional, these contributions will continue. The great and enduring 



» Bulletin No. 394, U. S. Geol. Survey, pp. 88-89, 1909; No. 400, pp. 129-133. 1910. 



302 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

reserves, however, are on the northeastern coast or near it. Exten- 
sive areas of serpentine have weathered in the tropical climate so as 
to afford a heavy mantle of alteration products, which when freed 
of absorbed water yield 48 per cent iron, with about 1 per cent 
nickel and 1 to 2 per cent chromium. When freed of additional com- 
bined water in calcining furnaces the ore reaches 56 per cent iron. 
The Mayari tract, already actively mined, can yield 600 million tons 
of excellent nickel-bearing Bessemer ore. The undeveloped Moa and 
San Felipe (or Cubitas) districts can swell the reserves to 2,000 
million tons. . Thus, as the output of the mines in the United States 
falls lower and lower below present percentages, more and more can 
the grade be kept at or near the above values by Cuban contributions 
to furnaces near the Atlantic seaboard. The supply of Cuban ores 
is sufficient to last several centuries, at any reasonable consumption 
of conceivable importations. They are very conveniently situated 
for low costs of mining and shipping. 

Sweden. — In recent years, the second contributer to American fur- 
naces has been Sweden. The supplies have come from the great mag- 
netite body at Kiruna, in Swedish Lapland. The ore reaches the sea 
at Narvik in Norway, a port open all the year round, and distant from 
the mines 100 miles by rail. A generally high phosphorus ore is now 
mined, with a small proportion of rich Bessemer grade. The output 
is sorted into different grades, possessing from 59 to 69 per cent iron, 
with perhaps a general average of 65. Importations in 1912 into this 
country were practically 334,000 tons. The output of the mines is 
carefully regulated by the Swedish Government with the purpose of 
conserving the supply for a long life. The United States can not an- 
ticipate more than a moderate contribution from this source. 

Norway. — In Norway, not far from the sea and adapted to mag- 
netic concentration, there are additional deposits which are possibili- 
ties for the future. One enterprise is already active on the extreme 
northeastern frontier of Norway, east of the North Cape. The Eu- 
ropean furnaces have, however, absorbed the output hitherto. 

Newfou/ndland. — The third source of importations, in recent years, 
has been Newfoundland. The shipments come from the red hema- 
tite mines on Bell Island in Conception Bay. The ores are beds of 
red hematite in Cambrian and Ordovician strata and are strongly 
reminiscent of the Clinton ores. They supply a non-Bessemer ore of 
60 per cent, or slightly less, in iron, and in their best years have ex- 
ported over 200,000 tons to the United States. The reserves which 
run beneath the sea are estimated by J. P. Howley at over 3,000 mil- 
lions of tons. The ores are generally called the Wabana. With a 
sea voyage of 1,100 to 1,500 miles, they can reach our principal ports 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON — KEMP. 303 

of entry. Their chief markets, however, are the iron and steel cen- 
ters of Nova Scotia. 

Chile. — The Panama Canal has made accessible one great deposit 
or iron ore on the west coast of Chile, called the Tof o. Tofo is 30 miles 
north of Coquimbo. The ores are only three or four miles from the 
sea. The Bethlehem Steel Co. is making extensive preparations for 
shipments on a large scale in the immediate future. Published de- 
scriptions mention reserves of 100 million tons of ore ranging above 
and somewhat below 60 per cent and prevailingly of Bessemer grade. 
A possible annual output of 1.5 to 2 millions of tons is expected. 
(Iron Age, May 11, 1914.) Other deposits along the west coast of 
South America have been reported in an incomplete way, but are not 
yet sufficiently developed to seriously enter into our forecasts, 

Brazil. — For some years past reports have been current of very 
large, rich, low-phosphorus deposits of specular hematite in the State 
of Minas Geraes, Brazil. They constitute beds in metamorphic sedi- 
ments of pre-Cambrian age, and appear some three hundred and 
seventy-five miles from the seacoast. Deposits of hard specular 
hematite and loose blocks on the surface are available in enormous 
quantity. The first estimates, for the Eleventh International Geo- 
logical Congress, by Orville A. Derby, the able State geologist of 
Brazil, gave 2,000 million tons. Since then the observations of Leith 
and Harder indicate more than three times this amount. Vast quan- 
tities run between 65 and 70 per cent in iron and are well within 
Bessemer limits. The chief handicap lies in the long railway haul to 
the sea. ^'V'liile railways tap the district, both from Eio Janeiro and 
Victoria (the latter the probable port of future shipments), the 
present roadbeds are not adapted to the hard wear and tear of a 
heavy iron ore traffic and must be rebuilt.^ Once on shipboard, the 
distance to Atlantic ports is about 4,000 miles. 

Europe and Africa. — The United States also import appreciable 
amounts of ore from Spanish, Algerian, and Grecian ports. Spain is 
the chief contributor, approximately 440,000 tons reaching Atlantic 
ports in 1910. To some extent, therefore, declining American per- 
centages may be raised by future shipments from these sources, yet 
as time passes British and continental needs will be even more press- 
ing than American and will call more insistently for supplies from 
European and northern African mines. 

The possibilities of importation and sale turn, however, upon mar- 
ket conditions. Through the kindness of Mr. Charles F. Rand, presi- 
dent of the Spanish-American Iron Co., the following figures have 

1 The latest account is by E. C. Harder, " The Iron Industry of Brazil," Transactions 
of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 



304 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

been supplied the writer. They summarize market conditions and 
ocean freights as they have prevailed in recent years : 

Ocean freight from Cuba is 95 cents a ton; from Wabana, New- 
foundland, 70 cents; from Brazil, $2.12i (i. e., 8s. 6d.) ; from Sweden, 
$1.50; from Spain, $1.37|; from North Africa, $1.25; from Chile, $3. 
When the ore reaches American ports, it brings as a general rule Y 
cents a unit, although specially rich and pure varieties may com- 
mand 8 cents. From these data, in a general way, one can see the 
market conditions which must be met by an exporter of ore from any 
one of the countries which are the chief contributors to American 
furnaces. Ocean freights, for some time to come, certainly will not 
be less than in recent years, even when seagoing bottoms can be 
secured. 

THE SUPPLY OP COKE. 

So long as iron ore is turned into pig iron as the first step toward 
steel, as in our present-day practice, coke will be no less vital to the 
industry than ore itself. The relatively great height of a modern 
stack and the heavy burden of charge which rests upon the still 
burning fuel demand strong and resistant coke. Not every coke will 
answer. From an address by Mr. J. E. Johnson before the Mining 
and Metallurgical Society of America, January 12, 1915, the fol- 
lowing figures are taken : From 52 per cent iron ore a ton of pig iron 
may be made with 1 ton of coke. These conditions are approxi- 
mately those of Lake Superior ores to-day. From a 38 per cent ore, 
a ton of pig requires If tons of coke, conditions approximately those 
of Alabama. Should we ever use 25 per cent ore, 2f tons of coke 
will be necessary to the ton of pig. Whatever may be said, therefore, 
regarding the coke supply to-day will apply with increasing force 
as the years pass and the yield of ores declines. Anthracite coal has 
been, to a certain extent, used in the iron furnaces, but its desirability 
and increasing price for household fuel and for steam purposes in our 
Eastern cities make it a factor in future iron metallurgy of diminish- 
ing importance. Open-burning bituminous coal has been used raw 
to some extent, but is not now a serious factor. 

The following table summarizes the bituminous coal reserves as 
calculated by M. R. Campbell, of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, and as given in the Mineral Resources of the United States for 
1910, page 28. Only eastern coke-producing States are selected be- 
cause the present effect of Rocky Mountain States upon the total 
result is not great. The influence which they can exercise upon the 
future is small or remote. The same is true of the Pacific coast 
and its possible future industry in iron and steel. In the table the 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON — KEMP. 



305 



total bituminous coal reserves have been reduced by an arbitrary 
fraction, which is assumed to represent the portion of coking grade 
suitable to blast-furnace use. Much difference of opinion might 
arise over this reduction. Its importance turns, however, upon the 
ultimate result; that is, if the supply of coke proves to be a less 
serious matter than the supply of ore, these fractions might vary 
widely and yet not destroy the reliability of the final result. In the 
further calculations I assume that two-thirds of the coal can be 
ultimately mined, one-third being left in pillars. In passing from 
coal to coke, I use the same percentages of yield for each of the 
States as are given in the Mineral Eesources of the United States 
Geological Survey for 1912, Part II, page 251. The estimates are, 
moreover, within the probable reserves in this additional respect 
that no account is taken of Illinois, although its weak coking coals, 
when mixed with others in by-product ovens, gi^^e suitable fuel for 
blast-furiiace use. 

Reserves of bitvminous eoal of coking grade in millions of long tons. 



Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Eastern Kentucky. 
Western Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Georgia 

Alabama 



Total 
bitumi- 
nous. 



109,174 

85, 1.56 

7,802 

22, 391 

149,120 
67,687 
36, 104 
25,509 
920 
68, 594 



Fraction for 
coking. 



572, 457 



A= 



= 27,300 
= 8,515 
= 1,950 
= 7,464 
= 37,350 
= 6,708 
= 3,610 
= 6,377 
= 460 
= 20,805 



120,659 



Two- 
thirds 
mined. 



18,200 
6,676 
1,300 
4,976 

24,900 

4,512 

2,406 

4,251 

306 

13,910 



80, 437 



Per 
cent. 



66.5 

69.2 

65.8 

62.2 

60.7 

62.4 

62.4 

54 

60 



Coke. 



12.100 

3,927 

855 

3,095 

15,114 
2,815 
1..501 
2,295 
153 
9,027 



50,882 



The production of pig iron by States in 1912 — the maximum year 
as 3'et — is given in the statistics in the next table in millions of long 
tons. The figures are taken from the Mineral Resources for 1912 of 
the United States Geological Survey. If we assume that the coke 
consumption per ton of pig iron is one ton in those States where 
Lake Superior ores or others equally rich are used, one and three- 
quarter tons in Alabama, and one and one-half tons in West Vir- 
ginia and Virginia we can make a rough estimate of the coke con- 
sumption for pig iron manufacture in a maximum year. 



306 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Pig iron production in millions of long tons, by States, 1912. 



Coke con- 
sumed. 



Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Illinois 

New York 

Alabama 

Indiana, Michigan 

Missouri, Colorado, and Califonua, 

Tennessee 

Wisconsin and Minnesota 

West Virginia 

Virginia 

Maryland 

Others 




31.26 



1 Omitted, 

We have thus an apparent available coke supply of 50,882 million 
tons, and a consumption for blast-furnace purposes, in our heaviest 
year of production, of 31.26 millions. There are thus over sixteen 
hundred years' supply at this rate. In Pennsylvania, on the assumed 
ratio of coking coal, there is about one thousand years' supply. These 
time periods are so great that despite possible errors in assumptions ; 
despite increasing coke consumption with lowering of grade of ore ; 
and despite increasing output of pig iron, we seem justified in con- 
cluding that the fuel supply is rather more abundant than the ore 
supply. The reserves of bituminous coal in 1912 were placed by the 
volume on Mineral Resources for that year at 1,651,057 millions of 
short tons of which two thirds or 1,100,705 millions of short tons 
could be mined. With an annual production, as in 1912, of 450 mil- 
lion tons, a life of nearly twenty-five hundred years would be indi- 
cated. Apparently coal for general fuel will last longer than coal 
for coke. 

THE INCREASING STOCK OF SCRAP IRON. 

Much of the iron or steel, once it is used, is lost by oxidation, wear 
and tear, or by being thrown away. A goodly proportion is, how- 
ever, returned to furnaces and worked over. For this purpose, in 
America, the electric furnace has proved of special advantage, as the 
writer learns from Prof. J. W. Richards. With grow^th of produc- 
tion and with increasing attention to the prevention of waste, now 
so generally manifested throughout the country, the return of old 
iron and steel for re-treatment is likely to ease somewhat the strain 
on the mines. 

IMPROVEMENT IN PROCESSES. 

Electrical processes of smelting, in regions of great water powers 
and low cost for current, have excited hopes of saving fuel. The 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON KEMP. 307 

fuel in the blast furnace accomplishes two purposes — the production 
of a high temperature and the reduction of the iron oxide to the 
metallic state. The electric furnace could serve to replace the former 
portion, but carbon for the reduction of the iron oxide would always 
be necessary. Some heat, of course, would be developed in the re- 
action itself, which practically implies the combustion of the carbon. 
If w^e assume a practicable electric furnace, comparable so far as the 
installation is concerned with a blast furnace, we have to balance 
against each other the cost of heat from combustion of coke and from 
electric current. Thus far coke has proved more economical, al- 
though it is conceivable that countries like Sweden and Norway, with 
abimdant water power and ores, but without coal, might develop an 
electric smelting industry. Charcoal would probably then furnish 
the reducing agent. For some time to come, we can see little chance 
for electric smelting in eastern North America. 

Improvements are then reduced to those possible for the blast fur- 
nace itself. We are reminded of the great economies introduced by 
the chilling and separation of the moisture in the air to be used in the 
blast. A great debt is due Mr. James Gayley for this invention, 
which steadies the running of the furnace and keeps conditions uni- 
form. We recall the use of the spent blast in internal-combustion 
engines, and the economical generation of power in this way instead 
of through the ordinary medium of steam. The power is then avail- 
able for all manner of applications around a works, and lowers costs. 
We note the recent and very encouraging experimental run of some 
months at the Port Henry,, N. Y., furnace, with large proportion of 
titaniferous magnetite in the charge. The reports of Mr. J. E. 
Bachman,^ in charge of the furnace, do much to remove the stigma 
from this variety of ore and to make available large reserves now 
looked upon with suspicion. By just so much as these neglected 
ores come into use the life of the nontitaniferous varieties will be 
prolonged. Dr. C. W. Hayes ^ estimated the titaniferous ores in 
1909 at 90 million tons available and 128.5 million tons as not at 
present available. Dr. J. T. Singewald ^ has concluded that in some 
of the areas used in the calculations of Dr. Hayes, the ores are too 
low for probable use. These ores have not been very generally ex- 
plored as yet because of their bad reputation, but the amount is 
quite certainly large. 

A remote possibility for improvements in the blast furnace but 
one worthy of careful consideration was suggested by Mr. J. E. 
Johnson in the address at the annual meeting of the Mining and 

1 The Iron Age, Oct. 22, 1914, p. 936 ; Dec. 24, 1914, p. 1470. A complete report Is In 
press in the publications of the Iron and Steel Institute. 

2 C. W. Hayes, Bulletin 394, U. S. Geological Survey, p. 102, 1909. 
2 J. T. Singewald, Bulletin 64, Bureau of Mines, p. 38, 1913. 



308 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Metallurgical Society of America, January 12, 1915, which has been 
already cited. The air passing through the furnace is, by volume, 
nearly four-fifths inert nitrogen, which contributes nothing to the 
reactions and is a serious absorber of heat. Were it possible to 
relatively increase the proportion of oxygen, loss of heat might be 
avoided and fuel consumption reduced. Mr. Johnson called atten- 
tion to the production of greatly enriched proportions of oxygen 
by the expansion of liquid air under suitable control, as now used in 
practicable processes for obtaining oxygen on the one hand and 
nitrogen on the other. Were it possible with the low-cost power, 
to be developed by the products of the blast furnace, to manufacture 
liquid air or to produce in the same general way a strongly enriched 
oxygenated air for the intake, the volume of atmospheric gases 
would be greatly reduced and the heat economies would ensue. The 
contrast presented by employing the coldest substance known as a 
means of facilitating one of the hottest reactions of technical prac- 
tice is so novel as to arrest attention. Costs, however, should it ever 
become practicable, place it in the remote future. 

A more immediately practicable economy, involving the saving of 
waste, is the use of blast-furnace cinder for the manufacture of 
cement. By just so much as this ordinarily rejected product can be 
made a source of financial return, costs will be reduced. While we 
ma}^ not realize the whimsical ideal presented by Mr. Johnson in 
the above address, when he pictured the furnace of the future as 
yielding pig iron at the tap and cement at the cinder notch, yet we 
may think of slag utilization as helping to usher in the next age of 
the world, the one which is rapidly displacing the present steel age — 
the one which Ave all recognize as the inevitable age of cement. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1902. Andrew Carnegie. Rectorial Address, University of St. Andrews, Oct. 
22, 1902, p. 36. 
J. Stephen Jeans. Staffordshire Iron and Steel Institute, Dec. 13. 1902. 
Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. 65, pp. 1580. 1681. 

1905. R. A. Hadfield. Presidential Address in the Journal of the British Iron 

and Steel Institute, 1905. I, pp. 56-57, 59. 

N. S. Shaler. " The Exhaustion of the World's Metals," International 
Quarterly, II, p. 230, 1905. 

Llewellyn Smith. A Blue Book of Iron Ore Deposits in Foreign Coun- 
tries, compiled for the London Board of Trade, 1905. 

A. E. Tornebohm. *' The Iron Ore Supply of the World," Teknisk 
Tidskrift, Sept., 1905. The Iron Age, Nov. 2, 1905, pp. 1158-1160. 

1906. E. C. Eckel. " A Review of Conditions in the American Iron Industry," 

Engineering Magazine, June, 1906, p. 521 ; U. S. Geological Survey, 
Bulletin 2S5, pp. 172-179, 183-189, 1906. 
C. K. Leith. " Iron Ore Reserves," Economic Geology, I, p. 360, 1906. 



OUTLOOK FOR IRON KEMP. 309 

1909. J. G. Butler and John Birkinbine. Brief filed with the Finance Committee 

of the United States Senate in 1909 (cited in E. C. Eckel's " Iron Ores," 
p. 347, in 1914). 
C. W. Hayes. " Iron Ores of the United States," in Papers on the Con- 
servation of Mineral Resources, Bulletin 394, U. S. Geological Survey, 
pp. 70-114. 

1910. James F. Kemp. " Iron Ore Reserves in the United States," in " Iron 

Ore Reserves of the World," vol. 2, pp. 753-778, Eleventh International 
Geological Congress, Stockholm, 1910. 
James F. Kemp. Discussion of the question: What shall the iron in- 
dustry of the future do for ore? Symposium of representatives af six 
chief producing nations, Sweden, Spain, France, Germany, Great 
Britain, and the United States, Eleventh International Geological Con- 
gress, Stockholm, 1910, Compte Rendu, I, 321-328. Mining Magazine, 
London, Nov., 1910, 363-367. 

1911. C. R. Van Hise, C. K. Leith, and W. J. Jlead. " Reserves in the Lake 

Superior District," Monograph 52, U. S. Geological Survey, pp. 488- 
495, 1911. 
3914. E. C. Eckel. "Iron Ores, Their Occurrence, Valuation, and Control," 
p. 430, fig. 66, New York, 1914, especially pt. 4, pp. 339-427. 
73839°— SM 1916 21 



ON THE ORIGIN OF METEORITES.^ 



By Friedkich Bkrwekth. 



In the Imperial Court Museum of National History there is pre- 
served what is literally a heavenly treasure. Its peculiar nature is 
Avell known to the professionals of cultured nations, and to all in- 
quiring friends of nature, while it is regarded by the great majority 
of people more with the vague uncertainty with which one is usually 
accustomed to present to strange, unusual things, I can assert with 
some satisfaction that, thanks to the occasional court boards of ad- 
ministration, to the intendants and to the former keepers of the collec- 
tion, we have in this scientific treasure the largest and scientifically 
the most valuable collection of meteorites, and the richest in number 
of falls in the world. Because of this circumstance you will certainly 
sympathize with me if I, as the present superintendent of this 
precious collection, consider it my patriotic duty at your worthy 
and honorable invitation to explain briefly one of the most interesting 
chapters in the lore of meteorites. 

The knowledge of stones which have fallen from heaven extends 
into the oldest history of humanity, back into prehistoric times. 
Among the Chinese the mention of heaven stones goes back to 6,000 
years, and the fact of falling stones has always been recognized by 
the people of Asia Minor, by the Greeks and Romans, and we must 
not be surprised if these " messengers of heaven " were generally re- 
garded as divine gifts. But with the advance of Christianity an- 
other opinion has become prevalent. The many meteoric divinities 
do not conform to its teaching and the system of the Roman estab- 
lished church. Gradually there was lost the oriental conception of 
them as blessings, and people began to regard them rather as " prodi- 
gies," or miraculous events, until through the whole Middle Ages and 
modern times the falling of meteorites was considered the foreboding 
of approaching misfortune, and the occurrence occasioned in human 
beings only a feeling of fear, horror, and terror. 



1 Translation from the German of a lecture given in the Scientific Club of Vienna on the 
26th of January, 1914. 

311 



312 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

By the latter part of the eighteenth century the fact of the falling 
of stones had finally so far been forgotten that a fall which occurred 
near Luce in France in 1768 caused great embarrassment to the pro- 
fessor and academicians at Paris, because they did not know what 
to make of the event as related and the until then unknown material. 
Lavoisier, at that time a young chemist, but who afterwards became 
famous, stated that the meteorite might be a kind of iron pyrites. 

In Vienna, also, there existed at that time a complete disbelief in 
meteorites. The then director of the court mineral cabinet, Andr. 
Xaver Stiitz, expressed himself concerning the mass of pure iron of 
Agram, which fell in 1751, and with the acquisition of which our me- 
teorite collection was founded, as follows : 

Certainly even the clear heads of Germany in 1751, owing to the gross ignor- 
ance prevailing at that time regarding natural history and practical physics, 
may have believed the dense iron masses of Agram and Eichstadt to have 
fallen from heaven, but In our times it would be unpardonable to consider 
such fairy tales even probable. 

A similar conception prevailed also in America, for when someone 
told President Jefferson in 1807 that two professors had described 
the fall of a stone he declared " one can rather believe that two Yan- 
kee professors lie than believe that stones fall from heaven." 

The German physicist Chladni in the year 1791 first challenged 
this disbelief in meteorites in his paper on the Pallas iron, and he 
commended meteorites to the scientific investigation which through 
the whole past century has been zealously kept up and furthered by 
certain scholars, especially here in Vienna. 

Now, what do we denote as meteorites? You have doubtless all 
observed on clear, cloudless nights the sudden appearances and 
again disappearances of light and fire in the heavens. Such are 
known to us as comets and meteors, and meteors are again distin- 
guished as Sternschnuppen (shooting stars, etoiles filantes), and as 
Feuerkugeln (fireballs or bolides). The astronomers regard these 
three heavenly bodies, which are not members of our solar system, 
as identical, one with another. They are connected by intergrada- 
tional forms, and their varying appearances are but varying phases 
of one and the same natural phenomenon. 

This identity of shooting stars and of fireballs w^e must, however, 
to-day regard as quite uncertain, since there are circumstances in- 
dicative of their independence of each other as well as of comets. 

When fireballs coming from various directions in the heavens reach 
the neighborhood of the earth, where on dark nights they afford to 
human beings a sight arousing amazement through the lighting up of 
the landscape over which they pass as bright as day, they are seen 
to burst, usually with an explosion, throwing out streams of fire, 
accompanied by a noise comparable to the firing of musketry. Dark- 



ORIGIN OF METEORITES — BERWERTH. 313 

ness follows and the solid masses forming the kernel of the fireballs 
fall to earth in separate fragments, or as a shower of stones. 

These solid masses, consisting of stone or iron, which reach our 
planet from space, and are transformed into balls of fire only in our 
atmosphere, we call meteorites. Such Weltspahne (world frag- 
ments) , as Chladni once called them, have been given different names 
at different times according to the conception which people had of 
their origin or their character, as baetylus or beseelte stones, sky 
stones, thunderstones (ceraunites, brontoliths) , thunderbolts, air 
stones, moonstones (uranoliths), and at present they are often called 
aeroliths, a name first used by Blumenbach in 1804. 

Concerning the origin of these stone and iron masses opinions have 
greatly varied from time to time. 

When Chladni's epoch-making work (The Pallas Iron, 1794) over- 
came the doubt as to the falling of stone and iron masses from the 
air, people began to seek explanations for the mysterious and still 
incomprehensible phenomena of the Feuerkugeln and to advance 
opinions as to their origin. 

Passing over the beautiful, mythical conceptions of the oriental 
peoples, which have been already referred to, and the assumption in 
the middle ages that they might be due to lightning, one can generally 
divide into two gi'oups those holding opinions as to the origin of 
meteorites — that is, into supporters of the hypothesis that they came 
from space and did not belong originally to the earth and its atmos- 
phere, and the supporters of the hypothesis that they did originally 
belong to our planet. Each of these two main groups falls again 
into subgroups, first the supported of the hypothesis that the meteo- 
rites come from unlimited space and the supporters of the hypothesis 
that they are ejected from lunar volcanoes. The second large group 
upholding the terrestrial origin of meteorites is divided into two 
sections, those who think that they originated from the constituents 
of the atmosphere and those who consider them ejected from terres- 
trial volcanoes. 

A suggestion of Proust that meteorites may come from the poles 
of our eai'th because there the iron can not have oxidized, on account 
of the eternal cold, may here be mentioned only as a curiosity. 

Chladni named the supporters of the four special hypotheses cos- 
mists, lunarists, atmospherists, and tellurists. To the cosmists 
Chladni himself belonged first of all. He considered it possible that 
the meteorites might be original or chaotic material (" Urmaterie") — 
that is, aggregates of matter which existed in space and which had 
never belonged to a larger world body, but which might furnish the 
material from which such world bodies might be formed. Many of 
the nebula may be nothing else than such shining material spread 
through enormous spaces. Originating from these world clouds 



314 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

(Weltworlken), comets and meteorites are distinguished from one 
another only through their relative size. The formations occurring 
at the boundary of our atmosphere as loose, dust-like, or gaseous 
aggregates lose their cosmic velocity through its resistance, and 
finally, by the explosions taking place, are compacted into a solid 
body. 

Chladni, however, did not consider it impossible that the meteor- 
ites might be remnants of a destroyed world body, as an illustration 
of which he mentioned the disappearance of a planet between Jupiter 
and Mars. Olbers gave occasion for this discover}^ In portraying 
the solar system the space between Mars and Jupiter caused him 
great vexation, and he anticipated that a planet might be found 
there. This ingenious idea was soon afterwards verified by the dis- 
covery of the asteroids Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta, which he 
now conceived to be broken pieces of the great planet missed by him. 
The little planets (asteroids), denoted here as fragments, belong to 
the ring now laiown as planetoids, * * * which a hundred 
years ago were reported to be angular, not always of uniform size, 
and therefore of irregular form and variable light intensity. We 
shall see further on that very recently E. Suess has claimed the 
vanished planet and the planetoids which were derived from it as 
the sources of our meteorites. 

There were many respected adherents of the hypothesis of the 
origin of meteorites from the volcanoes of the moon. Telescopic 
observation had at this time already given information as to the sur- 
face of the moon, " upon which there were overlapping mountains, 
large chains of mountains extending for great distances, depressions, 
craters, and planes," so v. Ende writes in his book "Ueber Massen 
und Steine die aus dem Monde auf die Erde herabgefallen sind," 
1904. V. Ende endeavors to strengthen Chladni's hypothesis and to 
establish, or at least make probable, the connection between the earth 
and its satellites. Olbers first expressed the moonstone hypothesis 
on the occasion of the fall of a meteorite at Siena in 1795. 

The great geometrician Laplace expressed the same supposition, 
which Blumenbach also took up with much approval and called it 
"the most plausible opinion concerning these things." Arago and 
Smith were also of the same opinion, and Berzelius, too, was an 
active follower of the lunar hypothesis in 1836. According to his 
opinion the meteoric stones came from two different volcanoes on the 
moon. * * * But when it was established that a volcano on the 
moon would not possess sufficient energy to impart to an ejected 
block of stone the necessary initial velocity to reach our earth the 
hypothesis of the lunar origin fell into disfavor. Strange to relate, 
it has, however, even at the present day, some individual upholders — 
for example, the Dutchman Verbeeck, who considers that the glasses 



ORIGIN OF METEORITES — BERWERTH. 315 

(telrtites) which are conceived by Franz Suess to be meteorites are 
glass meteorites from the moon. 

For the sake of justice I must also mention that the lunar hj'pothe- 
sis had a predecessor in the writer Paolo Maria Terzago, who, in the 
description (1660) of the fall of a stone at Milan in 1650, at which a 
Franciscan monk was killed, expressed the opinion that the " moon 
was the cause of the falling of the stones." 

The idea, according to which meteorites were formed out of con- 
stituents of the atmosphere, was held only so long as their com- 
position was yet little known. It was soon seen that iron, nickel, 
chromium, silica, etc., could not be contained in the air, and Klap- 
roth noted also that iron would necessarily be oxidized under these 
conditions. Many other reasons, such as the occurrence of the fire- 
balls at a great height, their velocity, and occurrence at all times 
of the day and year, among other things, early withdrew^ every sup- 
port from the hypothesis of the origin of meteoric masses in the 
atmosphere. 

Of longer duration was the theory of their terrestrial origin — that 
is, that they had a connection with the formation of the earth — 
even though not the ejecta of volcanoes (with which, indeed, thej^ 
do not entirely coincide). A terrestrial derivation in this sense 
was ascribed to meteorites by Lagrange and later by Tisseraud. 
According to this they are said to have been thrown out of the in- 
terior of our planet in the dim early ages with so great force that 
they were carried beyond the limit of its attraction to form a ring 
about it, like that of Saturn, out of which fragments fall to the 
earth again. Such a conception with somewhat different foundation 
we shall find later held by V. Goldschmidt. 

Little reference is made to meteorites by astronomers at the be- 
ginning of the last century. The books on astronomy of those times 
contain nothing at all about fireballs. Even Bode in his " Introduc- 
tion to the Knowledge of the Starry Heavens" (1823) devotes only 
the following lines to our subject: 

The so-called flyin.2: dragon, the leaping goat (capra saltans), torches, burn- 
ing beams, and other shining meteors probably have the same nature and 
consistency in part as the falling stones, and are only distinguished from them 
in size and shape. Partly they may also consist of thick and viscous vapors of 
the lower air, which give off a phosphorescent light through a decomposition 
of their original materials and are blown away by the wind in all sorts of 
chance forms and shapes. 

Astronomic hypotheses as to the origin of meteorites did not de- 
velop until a much later time, and took their rise from the idea that 
meteorites, shooting stars, and comets were all of the same character. 
Schiaparelli in 1871 suggested important reasons for the connection 
between the three kinds of phenomena, reasons which were also 



316 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

presented with a few changes by the Viennese astronomer Weiss. It 
was thought that they could assume with some certainty that the 
shooting stars are bodies as solid as are the meteorites which pene- 
trate with cosmic velocity the atmosphere of the earth, where they 
become glowing in the heated air and begin to shine, and after be- 
ing resoh^ed to dust or consumed become extinct or pass out of the 
atmosphere. 

After it had been shown that swarms of shooting stars have been 
returning regularly for two and one-half thousand years and pro- 
ceed from a definite point of radiation in the sky, then it was con- 
sidered the only possibility that the swarms of meteors circling 
around the sun intercept the orbit of the earth at some point, on 
the approach to which, in consequence of the density of the earth, 
a portion of them fall down upon our planet as little meteoric 
bodies. From the period of rotation, direction, and other factors 
we have learned how to calculate the course of the meteors and have 
found that their orbits very nearly coincided with those of the 
periodic comets. Thus the Leonids move in the orbits of the comet 
Tempel, 1866, the Perseids in that of the comet 1862 III, and the 
Bielids of the 27th to 29th of Novemlber in the course of the comet 
Biela. The agreement is so consistently exact that a whole series 
of meteor streams can with great probability be traced back to 
orbits of known comets. That comets are divided by the influence 
of the sun or of the planets, as has happened to the comet Biela, or 
altogether break to pieces and scatter themselves along the course 
of the comets and form a meteoric ring out of which come the 
swarms or shooting stars ; all these coordinate occurrences tend very 
convincingly to identif}^ the falling meteorites with the shooting 
stars, and to the belief, therefore, that they are broken pieces 
of comets. A difference between shooting stars and meteorites con- 
sists, then, only in that the first named pass noiselessly across the 
heavens and disappear, while the fireballs hurl their missiles, the 
meteorites, with thundering noise upon the earth. This theory is 
still ;held in esteem among astronomers, and is also taken up by 
Trabert in his Textbook of Cosmic Physics, 1912. The hypothesis 
can be quite briefly expressed in the following words : Comets which 
have become periodic split up into periodic swarms of shooting stars 
which revolve in the courses of the mother comet. The fireballs are, 
then, nothing more nor less than shooting stars which have been 
driven into lower layers of air and appear to us in larger sizes. 

According to all these conceptions one would expect that at times 
of the abundance of shooting stars, especially of the Leonid and 
Perseid swarms, there would occur an increase of meteorite falls. 
Among the about 350 known falls some, to be sure, have fallen at 



ORIGIN O*' METEOBITES BERWERTH. 317 

these times. Thus the iron of Mazapil is said to have come from the 
meteoric shower of the 27th of November, 1885, and, according to 
this, is a fragment of the comet Biela. But this must remain a 
mere assumption. The time-table of meteorite falls gives proof that 
the great majority of meteorites have not come to the surface of the 
earth at the time of swarms of shooting stars. 

In opposition to this briefly outlined theory, according to which 
the meteorites represent a part of the shooting- star phenomena, an 
hypothesis was proposed in the seventies in the past century which 
did not take its origin from astronomical assumptions. It was based 
on a mineralo-geological basis, upon the study of the component 
material of the meteorites, and upon the times of arrival of me- 
teorites of like composition. This new (volcanic) hypothesis, 
founded upon actual observations, was presented in 1875 by G. 
Tschermak, of the Viennese Academy of Sciences, and was later 
through supplemental work augmented and established. If Brew- 
ster, L. Smith, Haidinger, and Daubree have claimed the origin of 
meteorites through the dissolution of a heavenly body, so the disin- 
tegration of small celestial bodies is for the first time ascribed by 
Tschermak to a volcanic process. From the shape of meteorites 
it is to be concluded that thej are actual ruins or broken bits which 
may come from larger planetary masses. Not only th©ir shapes, but 
also the slicken-sided surfaces occurring in meteorites point to frac- 
turing in the mass, and many are like volcanic tuffs or clastic masses, 
as Haidinger and Reichenbach have already suggested. Where 
Daubree leaves it undecided whether the fragmentation of a world 
lx)dy is brought about by collision or by explosion, Tschermak based 
his decision that they resulted from explosive destruction on the 
physical condition of the meteorites, which are formed by vol- 
canic explosions unaccompanied by the pouring out of lava just as 
terrestrial stones which come from explosive craters (similar to the 
Maaren of Eifel). An explosive activity to which meteorites point 
can only be brought about by sudden expansions of gases and 
steam, among which hydrogen may have been in the first rank. 
Vulcanism as a cosmic phenomena is the destroyer of planetary 
masses, as we learn from the constituents of meteorites, in harmony 
with the solar development of stars, which all go through a volcanic 
phase. The broken bits after their separation are arranged in 
swarms w^hich cross the orbit of the earth in accordance with law. 
The most convincing examples for the existence of meteorite streams 
ai-e formed by the group of eukrites. 

If one ascertains their orbits and the intersection which they make 
with that of the earth, one finds that this intersection is progressively 
retarded, which means that the line of nodes relative to the earth 



318 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

retrogrades. From, the calculation of the time of the nodes of 
intersection and comparison with observations Tschermak was 
able years ago to predict the next falling of a eukrite for about the 
end of October, which calculation was actually borne out by the 
falling of the eukrite of Peramiho on the 20th of October, 1899. 

For the four undoubtedly similar eukrites of Stannern, Jonzac, 
Juvinas, and Peramiho, the retardation of the intersection was 
found proportional to the time by the formula (E=longitude of 
node) E=230.64-|-1.6175t, in which t denotes the number of the 
year minus 1800. 

The greatest difference between the observations and the calcu- 
lation is not more than one and one-half days. From the deter- 
mined return and the regular shifting of the lines of nodes, which 
yearly corresponds to a change of 1° 36', there is therefore very 
great probability for the astronomic connection of the eukrites. 

Although V. Niessl did not find the astronomic courses of the;^ 
eukrites to be identical, which means that they did not indicate the 
same point of origin, still one can always consider as open the pos^- 
bility that the Stannern, Jonzac, and Juvinas stones came from the 
same region in space, when one considers that the testimony of eye- 
witnesses as to the course of fireballs is subject to great error because 
of the suddenness of the occurrence. 

According to v. Niessl^ the meteorite falls move in hyperbolic 
courses, which, however, does not shut out the possibility that 
meteorites occur which move in elliptical courses like planets. Firm 
support also for this meteoric hypothesis, deduced from indisputable 
facts, comes from astronomic consideration. More recent observa- 
tions have shown that there is a difference in Idnd between the mate- 
rial of meteorites and shooting-stars. If one arranges the meteorites 
according to their specific weight, a series results, which begins with 
the carbonaceous forms, of the density 1.7 to 2.9. Then follow those 
bearing feldspar with the density 3 to 3.4, those containing bronzite 
and olivine (mostly chondrites) with the density 4 to 7, and finally 
the irons of the density 7.5 to 7.8. 

Carbonaceous meteorites 1.7-2.9 

Feldspar-bearing meteorites 3.0-3.4 

Bronzite-olivine-bearing stones (mostly chondrites) 4.0-7.0 

Iron 7.5-7.8 

In the face of the lesser densities, which are found in the moon 
(3.4) in comparison with the earth (5.6), and which decrease in the 

1 Determination of Meteor Orl>its : Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collectiona, Vol. 66, No. 
16, 1917. — Translator. 



ORIGIN OF METEORITES — BERWERTH. 319 

outer planets of the solar system to 1.4 in the planet Jupiter and 1.1 
even in Neptune — 

Density. 
Earth 5.6 

Moon 3.4 

Jupiter 1.4 

Neptune 1.1 

the supposition becomes the greatest probability that in space parti- 
cles are spread abroad in clouds of loose consistency, which consist 
of matter like rock dust, salt-like compounds, carbon, and hydro- 
carbons, which come into the solar system in streams and upon their 
entrance are consumed, leaving behind carbonic acid, vapor, and fine 
dust. 

The Tschermak hypothesis mentioned here gains in importance 
when we consider the opinions of many astronomers of to-day, ac- 
cording to which the completion of the heavenly bodies is incon- 
ceivable without vulcanism. One need but observe the conditions 
upon our earth, the moon, and the sun. Also, we find on the comets 
with elliptic courses phenomena which may be connected or com- 
pared with volcanic occurrences. Hertz considers the comet tails to 
be electric waves, Goldstein considers them kathode tufts, others 
consider them alpha rays of helium, and Svante Arrhenius declares 
them of mechanical origin, formed through pressure of light radia- 
tion. He considers the particles of the comets so tiny that they no 
longer obey the law of gravitation, but are forced out into space by 
the light rays of the sun, and by electric discharges in the heads of 
the comets, which also work repulsively upon the material forming 
the tail. All these phenomena are straightway compared with the 
great stresses in the interior of the planets, as with volcanic forces, 
which also Tschermak has applied to the explosive fragmentation of 
small world bodies and by this means has explained the origin of 
meteorites. 

Paying due respect to the opinion of Daubree on the relationship 
of meteorites to planets and to Tschermak's derivation of meteorites 
from small planetary bodies, E. Suess reminds us of the variability 
in the light of the planetoids as observed by Seeliger and TVolf. 
Since the course of the latter lies partly outside and partly inside 
that of Mars, his view is corroborated that between Mars and Jupiter 
there has existed a unified planetary mass which, according to our 
knowledge of the constftuents of meteorites, must have come from 
the basic rocks occurring in the kernel of the earth. We therefore 
find here Tschermak's conception applied to the dissolution of a 
definite planet which Olbers missed 100 years ago and in the place 
of which the planetoids were discovered. Suess says : " Meteorites 
and planetoids are nothing else than the passing witnesses of an epi- 
sode which has taken place in the history of our planetary system." 



320 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

The lively interest in the visitors to our solar realm which have 
come to us has aroused numerous other investigators to take a stand 
as to the origin of meteorites. Goldschmidt applies his " Komplikation 
law," which he has been able to prove in crystalline forms and musical 
harmony — also to harmony in space — and relegates the formation of 
meteorites to the time of the separation of the moon from the earth's 
sphere, at which time neither moon nor earth absorbed all the dis- 
rupted material, the residuals being condensed into drops which now 
probably run their course as meteorites around the earth and are 
called cosmolites. 

Svante Arrhenius, in a very recent work, puts the origin of meteor- 
ites into the realm of nebula or nebulous stars beyond our solar sys- 
tem. He considers that the little particles separated out by the suns 
through ray pressure meet in space and collect into aggregates of 
cosmic dust or meteor stones. The stony aggregates not falling upon 
the other worlds form a kind of haze, which is the reason that the 
largest part of the sky between the stars is dark. 

If we recall the differences mentioned by Tschermak between shoot- 
ing stars and meteorites, then the results of the investigation of the 
American astronomer, W. J. Pickering, give strength to the hypo- 
thesis of Tschermak, since he has found that the courses of the shoot- 
ing stars and meteorites have different fall curves and the meteorites 
form a girdle like the asteroids. He recognizes in the stony meteor- 
ites similar orbits to those of the planets. On the other hand, they 
are conceived by Goldschmidt as products of separation at the time 
of the formation of the moon, while the meteoric irons, moving with 
a greater velocity, are relegated to the comets. 

If we pass in review the changing opinions of the century regard- 
ing the origin of meteorites, we shall without hesitation grant to 
them the right of membership in our solar system. We shall con- 
sider their stellar origin and their coming in irora strange worlds as 
improbable, and shall marvel at them according to their constitution 
and their forms as broken bits of a world body destroyed by volcanic 
events. 



THE PEESENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM OF 
EVOLUTION.! 



By Prof. M. Caulleby. 



The exchange of professors between the Sorbonne and Harvard 
University for the first time brings to Cambridge a professor of 
science. In a certain way I come in return for the visits which Prof. 
M. Bocher and Prof. W. M. Davis have already made to the faculty 
of sciences at Paris. All my predecessors belonged to our faculty 
of letters. All have brought back a recollection of the hearty wel- 
come which they received, and what they told me contributed largely 
in inducing me to accept the mission which was offered to me. I had 
the assurance of good will and generous sympathy from my eol- 
leagues as well as from my pupils. 

In the beginning I must excuse myself for not being able to express 
myself, at least for the present, in English. The most important 
point in teaching is clearness in expressing thoughts. By speaking 
to you in my own language I hope to succeed much better in a diffi- 
cult subject, and for that reason to obtain forgivness for the effort 
which, to my regret, I occasion you. 

The purpose of the exchange between the two universities is to 
convey to the one the methods of teaching employed in the other. 
I have the honor to occupy at the University of Paris a chair of 
biology especially devoted to the study of the evolution of organic 
beings. It is then to the present state of this great problem that the 
lectures which I am going to give will be dedicated. I do not enter 
upon this subject here without some apprehension. Certain of my 
predecessors by the very nature of their subjects were able to have, 
at least, the illusion that Europe is still the veritable center of learn- 
ing. But I have not this advantage. The necessary conditions for 
the development of the sciences are now at least as well fulfilled — I 
will even say better fulfilled — in the United States than in Europe, 
and for many of the sciences Europeans coming to this country have 
as much to learn as to teach. This seems to me particularly the case 

1 An iHtroductory lecture In a course offered by Prof. M. Caullery as exchange professor 
at Harvard University, Feb. 24, 1916. Translated from the French by Mrs. C. H. Grand- 
gent. Reprinted from Science, April 21, 1916. 

321 



322 ANNUAL REPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

in biology and especially in the questions connected with the problem 
of evolution. 

Besides, the advance of American science in these directions does 
not date from yesterday. In the study of paleontology, which has a 
large j)lace in the questions with which we are to concern ourselves, 
your scholars have, for a long time, been working with activity and 
considerable success the marvellous layers of American deposits, and 
have drawn from them, to cite only one instance, magnificent collec- 
tions of reptiles and mammals, which we come to admire in the mu- 
seums on this side of the Atlantic. Here more than anywhere else 
have been enlarged the paths opened a century ago by George Cuvier. 
In zoology, properly speaking, the museum of comparative zoology, 
in which I have the honor to speak at this time, justly famous in 
Europe;, bears witness to the importance and long standing of the re- 
sults accomplished. Louis Agassiz, more than half a century ago, 
was one of the most eminent names of his generation. Later, when 
the investigation of the great depths of the ocean marked an impor- 
tant and consequent stage in the loiowledge of earth and life, Alex- 
ander Agassiz, his son and illustrious successor, was one of the most 
eager and skillful workers. The expeditions of the Blake and of the 
Albatross are among those which have drawn from the deep the most 
important and most precious materials, and their results have been 
the most thoroughly studied. The personality of Alexander Agassiz, 
whom I had the honor of meeting in Paris about 13 years ago, made 
upon me a striking impression. His real laboratory w^as the ocean, 
and he succeeded to the end of his life in maintaining an activity 
that corresponded to its amplitude. He was truly the naturalist of 
one of the great sides of nature. Around Louis and Alexander 
Agassiz, the museum and the laboratory of comparative zoology of 
Harvard College have been for a long time a center of studies of the 
first rank. In the domain of embryology Charles S. Minot also has 
carried on important work. But it is especially at the present mo- 
ment that American biological science has made an amazing advance 
which expresses itself in the excellence of publications and in the 
results which they reveal by the number of collaborators, the activity 
of societies, the number of laboratories, and the abundance of mate- 
rial resources at their disposal. Here occurs a special factor, which 
has considerable importance, the enlightened and large generosity of 
numerous patrons. It is incontestable that men of talent find more 
easily in America than in Europe, and especially at the age of their 
full activity, the cooperation without which their greatest efforts are 
to a certain extent barren. Now, at the point to which we have ar- 
rived, the greater part of scientific problems demands the exercise of 
considerable pecuniary resources and of collaborators of various ca- 



PROBLEM OF EVOLUTION CAULLERY. 323 

pabilities. This is particularly true of biology, where, moreover, 
many questions, notwithstanding their scientific importance, do not 
lead to practical application, at any rate immediately. We succeed 
too rarely in Europe in combining these resources, above all in com- 
bining them rapidly enough. The European public does not suffi- 
ciently realize their necessity and interest. And the action of the 
state necessarily lacks the flexibility needful for rapid realization. 
Thus Pasteur was able to organize the institution which bears his 
name only at the end of his life, and at the inauguration he was 
heard to say mournfully, " I enter here defeated by Time." In 
America the power and the eagerness which private initiative gives 
provide for this need. Truly the greatest wonder is that this liber- 
ality is generally well conceived and well employed. 

It is also true that the problems of the day in contemporaneous 
biology are nowhere else attacked at the present time with such 
activity, perseverance, and success as in the United States. As we 
look at different points on the biological horizon we see the studies 
on the Mendelian theory of heredity in full development in numbers 
of laboratories. It will be enough for me to cite in this connection 
the names of Messrs. Castle and East in this very spot, and that of 
Mr. T. H. Morgan, in New York. In the realm of the physiology 
and the structure of the cell and of the Qgg, the researches of E. B. 
Wilson, and of his pupils on the chromosomes; of J. Loeb on experi- 
mental parthenogenesis; of F. E. Lillie on the fertilization of the 
egg', of Calkins, and recently of Woodruff, on the senescence of 
the infusoria, suffice to show the share which this country has had 
in the advance of knowledge. And I ought also to mention numer- 
ous works on embryology and on the study of the filiation of the 
cells of the embryo (cell lineage), on regeneration, on the behavior 
of the lower organisms, on geographic distribution, and the varia- 
tions of the species studied from the most diverse sides ; all branches 
of biology are flourishing vigorously. In addition, the United States, 
more than any other country, has developed scientific institutions 
designed for the study of the application of biology to agriculture, 
to fisheries, etc. 

In the face of this situation, I wish to make it clear at the outset 
that I have not the least expectation of bringing here a solution 
of the problem of evolution. I have too full a realization of the 
extent of the scientific movement aroused by this question in the 
United States, and I hope to derive great benefit myself from my 
stay here, from the contact which is permitted me with my col- 
leagues and with their laboratories. This latter advantage is not 
the least which arises from the exchange between the two uni- 
versities. Nor have I the expectation of bringing to you a new 



324 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

solution of the problem, nor of examining it from a special and 
original point of view, such as might be the case in a single lecture 
or a small number of lectures. 

I will adhere strictly to the point of view of the instructor, 
taking the question as a whole, expounding it in its older aspects 
as well as in its more recent ones. The interest in these lectures is, 
above all, in my opinion, in the coordination of facts and in their 
critical examination. As this coordination is influenced in a large 
measure by the surrounding conditions, the view that a naturalist 
has of them in Paris ought to be interesting here. In questions as 
complicated and as undeveloped as these still are, where we have 
not reached a precise conclusion, the relations of facts can not be 
established in a harsh and unequivocal fashion. This is particu- 
larly true of the problem of evolution at the point we have reached. 
During the last few years very rapid and great progress has been 
made in our knowledge relative to certain kinds of data, notably 
heredity and variation. But they have not failed to shake mark- 
edly the notions which previously seemed to be at the very founda- 
tion of evolution. One of my compatriots, an ardent disciple of 
Lamarck, F. Le Dantec, wrote even as far back as eight years 
ago a book bearing the significant title "La Crise du Transform- 
isme,"^ in which he brought out the contradictions in question, 
contradictions which, according to him, were to result in the i*uin 
of the very idea of transformism. Since that time opposition has 
become even more marked, and at the present day, either tacitly 
or explicitly, certain of the most authoritative men, by their works, 
hare arrived very near to a conception which would be the negation 
of transformism rather than its affirmation. 

The term "evolution," in French, at least, has had historically 
two contrary meanings. In the eighteenth century it was the ex- 
pression of the theory of the preformation or " emboitement " of 
the germs, according to which the lot of every organism was deter- 
mined from the beginning. The succession of generations was only 
the unfolding (evolutio) of parts that existed from the beginning. 
In the nineteenth century, and it is in this sense that it is always 
used now, it had an opposite sense ; it is the synonym of transform- 
ism and it signifies the successive transformation of animal or vege- 
table organic types, not realized beforehand, in the course of the 
history of the earth, under the influence of external causes. Now, 
if one admits the general value of certain of the ideas recently ex- 
pressed, evolution would be only the unfolding of a series of phases 
completely determined in the germs of primitive organisms. It is a 
reversion, under a modern form, to the idea which the word evolution 

1 Nouvelle collection scientiflque," Paris, Alcan. 



PROBLEM OF EVOLUTION CAULLEEY. 325 

represented in the eighteenth century. It is unnecessary to say that 
I use the word evolution in its nineteenth-century sense, which is 
sj^nonymous with transformism. It is evident then that all is far 
from being clear in the present conception of transformism and that, 
in consequence, an exposition of its various aspects and an effort to 
coordinate them is not a useless thing in a course of lectures. Fur- 
thermore a comprehensive glance at the principal questions which 
we shall have to examine will make my meaning clear and will give 
me the chance to indicate the general plan of the course. 

In spite of the contradictions to which I have just alluded, the 
reality of transformism as an accomplished fact is no longer seri- 
ously questioned. We can make the statement that, in the unani- 
mous opinion of biologists, evolution — that is to say, the gradual 
differentiation of organisms from common ancestral forms — is the 
only rational and scientific explanation of the diversity of fossil 
and living beings. All the known facts come easily under this 
hypothesis. All morphology in its different aspects, comparative 
anatomy, embryology, paleontology, verifies it. By virtue of this 
same hypothesis these different branches of morphology have made 
an enormous progress since Darwin's day. The significance of cer- 
tain categories of facts, especially in the domain of embryology, may 
have been exaggerated. Scientific men have certainly overworked 
the idea that the development of the individual, or ontogeny, was 
an abridged repetition of phylogeny — that is to say, of the several 
states through which the species had passed — an idea which Haeckel 
raised to the fundamental law of biogenesis and which a whole gen- 
eration of naturalists accepted almost as a dogma. Without doubt 
ontogeny, in certain cases shows incontestable traces of previous 
states, and for that reason embryology furnishes us with palpable 
proofs of evolution and with valuable information concerning the 
affinities of gi'oups. But there can no longer be any question of 
systematically regarding individual development as a repetition of 
the history of the stock. This conclusion results from the very prog- 
ress made under the inspiration received from this imaginary law, 
the law of biogenesis. 

The first part of the course will be devoted then to the consid- 
eration of the general data which morphology furnishes toward 
the support of the idea of evolution. Thus we shall see what con- 
ception comparative anatomy, embryology, and paleontology afford 
us of the way in which evolution is brought about, and within 
what limits we may hope to reconstruct it. Evolution is essen- 
tially a process which belongs to the past and even to a past extraor- 
dinarily distant. It is a reasonable supposition that evolution 
is going on to-day, but let us remember that nothing authorizes us 
to believe that what we may observe in the present epoch about 
73839°— SM 1916 22 



326 ANNUAL REPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

organisms will necessarily explain the succession of their former 
states. Evolution is an irreversible process and one which has 
not progressed at a uniform rate. We must not, then, expect to 
verify necessarily by the present organisms all the facts disclosed 
by morphology. It follows in my opinion that morphological data 
may force upon us indirectly certain conclusions even though we 
should have no experimental proof of them in contemporary nature. 

Because of this very limitation which I have just pointed out, 
much of the difficulty of the study of the mechanism of evolution 
arises and to this may be attributed many of the profound dif- 
ferences among naturalists on the subject of evolutionary mech- 
anism. The second part of the course will be devoted to the ex- 
amination and the criticism of the solutions that have been proposed. 

In a general way, the study of the mechanism of evolution is 
that of the reciprocal influence of agents external to the organisms, 
on the one hand, and of the living substance, properly speaking, 
on the other hand. There are, then, if you wish, the external fac- 
tors which together constitute the environment, and the internal 
factors which are the specific properties of the organism. These 
two elements are very unequally accessible to us. The environ- 
ment is susceptible of being analyzed with precision, at least as 
far as the present is concerned, and we can surmise it with enough 
probability as to preceding periods. We know very much less about 
living matter, and especially about the way in which its properties 
may have varied in the course of time. Hence one meets with two 
tendencies which have been encountered ever since the evolutionary 
question arose and which are still very definite and very contra- 
dictory in their effects on the general theories of evolution. One 
of those attributes a large share to the external factors and attempts 
to explain facts by physicochemical actions which are directly ac- 
cessible. The other sees in internal factors, in the intrinsic prop- 
erties of the organism itself, preponderant if not exclusive agents. 

The first tendency attracts us more because it gives a larger share 
to analysis ; that is to say, to the truly scientific method. The second 
flatters our ignorance with fallacious verbal explanations. It is 
open to the objections brought against vitalist conceptions; and 
when, as is the case of certain old and new theories, we come to 
restrict the effective role to internal factors alone, we may ask 
ourselves whether there is a really essential difference between con- 
ceptions of this nature and creationist ideas ; between declaring that 
species have been created successively and arbitrarily by an arbi- 
trary sovereign will, without the external world having influenced 
their structure, or maintaining that organic forms succeed one an- 
other, derived, to be sure, one from another but following a suc- 
cession that is really determined in advance and independent of 



PROBLEM OF EVOLUTION CAULLERY. 327 

external contingencies. Between such views there is in reality no 
considerable difference. Such an idea substitutes for successive 
creations one initial creation with successive and continuing mani- 
festations. The present crisis of transformism, as Le Dantec and 
others set it forth, is the conflict concerning the reciprocal value 
of external and internal factors in evolution. 

The two j)rincipal and classic solutions proposed to explain evo- 
lution were based on the efficacy of external factors, both the theory 
advanced by Lamarck in 1809 in his Philosophie Zoologique, as 
well as that of Darwin, formulated in 1859, in The Origin of Spe- 
cies. Lamarck starts in fact with the statement that the structure 
of organisms is in harmony with the conditions under which they 
live and that it is adapted to these conditions. This adaptation is, 
in his opinion, not an a priori fact, but a result. The organism is 
shaped by the environment; usage develops the organs in the indi- 
vidual; without usage they become atrophied. The modifications 
thus acquired are transmitted to posterity. Adaptation of indi- 
viduals, inheritance of acquired characteristics — ^these are the funda- 
mental principles of Lamarckism. Except for its verification, it is 
the most complete scientific theory of transformism which has been 
formulated, because it looks to the very cause of the change of or- 
ganisms by its method of explaining adaptation. Darwin adopted 
the idea of Lamarck and admitted theoretically adaptation and the 
inheritance of acquired characteristics, but he accorded to them only 
a secondary importance in the accomplishment of evolution. The 
basis for him is the variability of organisms, a general characteristic 
whose mechanism he did not try to determine and which he accepts 
as a fact. This being so, the essential factor of the gradual trans- 
formation of species is the struggle for life between the individuals 
within each species and between the different species. The individ- 
uals which present advantageous variations under the conditions in 
which they live have more chance to survive and to reproduce them- 
selves; those which, on the contrary, offer disadvantageous variations 
run more chance of being suppressed without reproducing them- 
selves. There is established, then, automatically a choice between in- 
dividuals, or, according to the accepted terminology, a natural selec- 
tion^ a choice which perpetuates the advantageous variations and 
eliminates the others. And with this going on in each generation the 
type is transformed little by little. Natural selection accumulates 
the results of variation. 

This is not the time to discuss Darwin's theory. I wish only to 
observe at this time that it is less complete than that of Lamarck in 
that it does not try to discover the cause of variations ; also that, like 
that of Lamarck, it attributes a considerable participation to the con- 



328 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

(litions outside the organism, since it is these finally which decide 
the fate of the variations. And one of the forms in which the oppo- 
sition to the transformist ideas, at the time of Darwin, manifested 
itself was the very argmnent that if organisms had varied it was 
only because of an internal principle, as Kolliker and Niigeli have 
more particularly explained. 

The biologists at the end of the nineteenth century were divided 
with regard to the mechanism of evolution into two principal 
groups, following either Lamarck or Darwin. Among the neo- 
Lamarcldans some have accorded to natural selection the value of a 
secondary factor, holding that the primary factors are the direct 
modifying influences of the surroundings which according to them 
cause the variations. Selection came in only secondarily, by sort- 
.ing out these variations and especially by eliminating some of them. 
Such was the particular doctrine developed by my master, A. Giard, 
at the Sorbonne. Others have more or less absolutely refused to 
^zrant any value to selection. Such was the case of the philosopher 
Ilerbeit Spencer. We must also recognize that, since the time of 
Darwin, natural selection has remained a purely speculative idea and 
that no one has been able to show its efficacy in concrete indisputable 
Cixamples. 

The neo-Darwinists, on their side, have in a general wa}^ gone 
further than Darwin because they see in selection the exclusive factor 
v)f evolution and deny all value to Lamarckian factors. This was the 
doctrine of Wallace, and has been especially that of Weismann. I 
will digress a moment to speak of the ideas of these last-mentioned 
authors, because of the influence which they have exerted and still 
exert, correctly in some respects, incorrectly in others, at least as I 
think. 

Weismann attacked the doctrine of the inheritance of acquired 
characteristics and has incontestably shown the weakness of the facts 
which had been cited before his time in support of this kind of 
lieredity. But he went too far when he tried to show the impossi- 
l>ility of this form of heredity. In so doing, he starts from a concep- 
tion which meets with great favor — the radical distinction between 
the cells of the body proper, or soma^ and of the reproductive ele- 
ments, or germ cells. He saw in these two categories distinct and in- 
dependent entities, the one opposed to the other. Som-a, which con- 
Sititutes the individual, properly speaking, is only the temporary 
and perishable envelope of the ger^n, which is itself a cellular 'auton- 
omous immortal line, which is continuous through successive genera- 
tions and forms the substratum of hereditary properties. The germ 
alone has some kind of absolute value. The soma is only an epiphe- 
nomenon, to use the language of philosophers. The sotna is, of 



PROBLEM OF EVOLUTION — CAULLERY. 329 

course, modified by external conditions, but for one to speak of the 
inheritance of acquired characteristics, the local modifications of the 
soma would have to be registered in the germ and reproduced in the 
same form in the soma of following generations in the absence of the 
external cause which produced them in the first place. Now, says 
Weismann, the possibility of such an inscription, as it were, upon the 
germ of a modification undergone by the sOTna is not evident a priori, 
and when we go over the facts we find none supporting this con- 
clusion. There are, indeed, modifications which appear in one gen- 
eration and which are reproduced in the following generations; but 
Weismann goes on to attempt to proA^e that at their first appearance 
they were not the effect of external factors on the soma, but that 
they proceeded from the very constitution of the germ; that they 
w^ere not really acquired and somatic, but were truly innate or 
germinal. 

Such, reduced to its essential points, is the negative contention of 
the doctrine of Weismann. It rests upon the absolute and abstract 
distinction between the soma and the germ. In spite of the support 
which this conception has had and still has, I consider it, for my part, 
as unjustifiable in the degree of strictness which Weismann has attrib- 
uted to it. It is true that the advance in embryology and cytology 
often allows us to identify the reproductive tissue and to follow it 
almost continuously through successive generations, but the concep- 
tion of its autonomy is at least a physiological paradox. Though 
the continuity of the germ cells is sufficiently evident in many organ- 
isms, it is more than doubtful in others, particularly in all those 
which reproduce asexually; that is to say, many large groups of 
animals like the Ccelenterata, the Bryozoa, the Tunicata, and many 
plants. This has more than the force of an exception ; it is a general 
principle of the life of species. One can not, then, say that the con- 
ception of Weismann carries full conviction. But this conception 
exercised a tyrannical influence upon the minds of contemporaneous 
biologists, and it is exclusively through it that most of them look at 
the facts. 

Weismann, besides, exercised a considerable influence by champion- 
ing a theory of heredity based at the start on the preceding ideas. 
This theory, built with undoubted ingenuity and adapted to the 
loiowledge gained from the study of cell division, turns out on the 
other hand to agree wdth the recent works on heredity. 

Lamarckism and Darwinism shared the support of biologists up to 
the end of the nineteenth century, discussion being in general re- 
stricted to speculation. The controversy begun in 1891 between Weis- 
mann and Spencer, who represented the two extremes, gives an idea 
of the extent to which one could go in this direction. 



330 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1&16. 

The last 20 years constitute indisputably a new period in the his- 
tory of transformism where the field of discussion has been reneAved, 
and scientists haA^e sought to give it a much more positive and ex- 
perimental character. Two kinds of investigation have been devel- 
oped in this direction : On one hand the methodical study of varia- 
tions, and on the other that of heredity and especially of hybridiza- 
tion. These two categories overlap. 

Note that this new point of view is not, properly speaking, a study 
of evolution. According to it, variation and heredity in themselves, 
under present conditions, are analyzed independently of all hypo- 
thetical previous states of the organism. Afterwards the results 
obtained with the Lamarckian, Darwinian, and other succeeding 
theories will be confronted. 

The sum of these researches, which are now in high favor, is a 
new and important branch of biology, which has received the name 
of genetics: It defines for us in particular the hitherto very vague 
notion of heredity and seems certain to lead us to an analysis of the 
properties of living substance somewhat comparable to that which 
the atomic theory has afforded concerning organic chemistry. We 
can not maintain too strongly its great importance. As far as the 
theory of evolution is concerned, the results obtained up to this time 
have been rather disappointing. Taken together the newly dis- 
covered facts have had a more or less destructive trend. In truth 
the results obtained do not agree with any of the general con- 
ceptions previousl}^ advanced and do not show us how evolution may 
have come about. They have a much greater tendency, if we look 
only to them, to suggest the idea of the absolute steadfastness of the 
species. We must evidently accept these facts such as they are. 
But what is their significance? On the one hand they are still 
limited, on the other hand, as I have already stated above, and as I 
shall try to show in the following lectures, the advances made by 
the study of heredity in organisms at the present time and under 
the conditions in which we are placed, does not permit us to accept 
ipso facto the doctrines of heredity for all past time and under all 
circumstances. 

To use a comparison which has only the force of a metaphor but 
which will make my thought clear, the biologist who studies 
heredity is very much like a mathematician who is studying a very 
complex function with the aid of partial differential equations and 
who tries to analyze the properties and the function about a point 
without being able as in the case of an elementary function to study 
it in itself, directly, in all its aspects. The properties ascertained 
about one point are not necessarily applicable to all space. 

As far as the organisms are concerned, the conditions of their 
variability have not certainly been the same in all periods. The 



PROBLEM OF EVOLUTION — CAULLERY. 331 

idea of a progressive diminution of their variability has been often 
expressed, notably by D. Rosa. Le Dantec, according to his favorite 
theoretical method in which he considers only the fundamental prin- 
ciples of the problem, has tried to reconcile these facts with the La- 
marckian doctrine in his book on La Stabilite de la Vie.^ In the 
transformation of organisms as well as in that of inert matter, he 
regards every change as the passage from a less stable to a more 
stable state. The many organisms, after having varied much and 
rapidly, might then, perhaps, be for the present in a state of very 
constant stability, at least the greater part of them. But for the 
time being I must omit further consideration of this suggestion. 

We shall have then in the third part of the course to examine, 
while bearing in mind the preceding opinions, the general results 
of recent researches in variation and heredity. I shall now sum up 
the principal lines of investigation preparatory to tracing the plan 
of these lectures. 

The methodical study of variations in animals and in plants has 
led us to recognize that the greater part of these variations are not 
inherited. If we apply to them the methods of the Belgian statis- 
tician Quetelet, we shall perceive that for each property numerically 
stated the different individuals of a species range themselves accord- 
ing to the curve of the probability of error, the greatest number of 
individuals corresponding to a certain measure which represents 
what is called the mean. The term jluctuation is given to those 
variations that are on either side of the mean and the study of these 
fluctuations, begun in England by Galton, has been developed and 
systematized by H. De Vries and Johannsen. 

In short, it is the whole of the curve of fluctuations which is 
characteristic of heredity in a given organism, and not such and 
such a particular measure corresponding to a point in the curve. 
In cross-bred organisms there is, in each generation, an intermixture 
of two very complex inheritances, since these organisms result from 
an infinite number of these intermixtures in former generations. On 
the contrary, the problem is very simplified, if one considers the 
organisms regularly reproducing themselves by self-fertilization as 
is the case in certain plants. Here there is no longer in each genera- 
tion a combination of new lines, but a continuation of one and the 
same line. It is the same hereditary substance which perpetuates 
itself. The Danish physiologist and botanist Johannsen attacked, 
as you know, the problem in this way, by studying variation along 
a series of generations in linas of beans, and the conclusion of his 
researches, which have had in recent years a very great influence, is 
that each fure line gives a curve of special fluctuations under special 

1 " Biblioth&que scientifique Internationale," Paris, Alcan. 



332 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

conditions. The variations that we observe in the action of external 
agents explain the different reactions of the hereditary substance to 
the conditions of the environment, but this substance itself remains 
unaltered. The consequence is that, in what since the time of Linne 
we have considered a species, and have admitted to be a more or less 
real entity, there is an infinity of lines, more or less different among 
themselves in their hereditary properties, which are fixed and in- 
dependent of environment. This it is that Johannsen calls the hio- 
type, or genotype; a species is nothing but the sum of an infinity of 
genotypes differing very little from one another. H. De Vries on 
his side reached analogous views which prove to harmonize with 
the results and ideas formulated some 40 years ago by a French 
botanist, Jordan, an unyielding adversary of transformism. Jordan, 
too, by means of well-ordered cultures, had analyzed a species of 
crucifer {Draha vema) in 200 elementary species independent of 
one another. He deserves to be considered in any case as the pre- 
cursor of the ideas of which I have just given a synopsis. 

It is not, then, in ordinary varibility, as it was known up to this 
time, that one can, following the ideas of De Vries and Johann- 
sen, hope to find the key to evolution, since variations can not be 
the starting point for permanent changes. Examining a plant 
{(Enothera laniarchiana) ^ De Vries thought he had found this key 
in abrupt transformations succeeding one another in organisms, 
under conditions which he has not been able to determine and which 
remain mysterious. The abrupt and immediately hereditary varia- 
tions he named mMtations and set them in opposition to fluctuations 
(i. e., common variations). According to him, evolution is not con- 
tinuous but operates through mutations. The theory of mutations 
has been, since 1901, the occasion of an enormous number of experi- 
mental studies and of controversies, into which I shall not enter at 
this time, but I shall finally endeavor to extract the results won by 
this method of work. Let us note that, if De Vries and the muta- 
tionists do not formally deny the intervention of external factors in 
the production of mutations, the role of these factors is no longer 
very clearly or directly apparent, and some deny it more or less fully. 
In short, systematic study has led to an antithesis between fiuctua- 
tions produced imder the influence of the environment but not heredi- 
tary, and mutations not directly dependent upon the environment but 
upon heredity. We shall have to discuss the value of this distinction, 
the extent and the importance of mutations. 

Another and very effective branch of research which has developed 
since 1900 and which dominates the study of biology just now, is 
the study of hybridization, which has led to the doctrine known 
as Mendelism. Sometimes the name genetics is specifically applied 
to it. 



PROBLEM OP EVOLUTION — CAULLERY. 333 

Toward 1860 the study of hybridization had led two botanists, the 
Austrian monk Gregor Mendel and the French botanist Naiidin,^ 
simultaneously but quite independenth^, to conceptions which did not 
particularly attract the attention of their contemporaries, but which 
were brought to light again in 1900, and which then formed the 
starting point of very many and important investigations. The ex- 
perimental study of Mendelian heredity has been carried on, espe- 
cially here in Harvard, with great success by Mr. Castle on various 
mammals and by Mr. East on plants. This topic, therefore, is famil- 
iar to the students of biology in this university. I shall speak of it 
for the present, only to state the general results. Let me recall to your 
minds as briefly as possible the essentials of Mendelism. According 
to this doctrine most of the properties which we can distinguish in 
organisms are transmitted from one generation to another as distinct 
units. We are led to believe that they exist autonomously in the 
sexual elements or gametes, and we caft, therefore, by proper crossing, 
group such and such properties in a single individual, or, on the con- 
trary, we can separate them. The biologist deals with these unit 
characteristics as the chemist does with atoms or with lateral chains, 
in a complex organic compound. The properties which we distin- 
guish thus are nothing but the very indirect external expression of 
constituent characteristics of the fundamental living substance of 
the species. But we imagine, and it is in this that the enormous im- 
portance of Mendelism consists, that it has been the means of giving 
us a more precise idea than we have had heretofore of a substantial 
basis for heredity. In itself Mendelism is only symbolism, like the 
atomic theory in chemistry, but the case of chemistry shows what 
can be drawn from a well-conceived symbolism, and the Mendelian 
symbolism becomes more perfect each day in its form, in its concep- 
tion, and in its application. The recent works of T. H. Morgan- arj 
particularly interesting in this respect. 

Further, the facts furnished by Mendelism agree well with those of 
cytology. The results are explained easily enough, if we accord to 
the chromatine in the nucleus, and particularly to chromosomes, a 
special value in heredity. The agi-eemeht of cytology and of Men- 
delism in incontestably a very convincing fact and a guide in present 
research. 

But if we rfeturn now to the study of evolution, the data of Mendel- 
ism embarrass us also very considerably. All that it shows us, in 
fact, is the conservation of existing properties. Many variations 
which might have seemed to be new properties are simply traced to 
previously unobserved combinations of factors already existing. 

1 " Nouvelles Reeherches sur rHybriditc? dans les V6g«aux." Nouvelles Arch, du Mus. 
Hist. Nat., Paris, Tome 1, 1865. cf. p. 156. 

2Cf. Morgan, Sturtevant, Muller and Bridges, " Tlie Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity ,' 
New Yorls. 1915. 



334 ANN-tJAL HEPOBT SMITHSONIAIST IN-STITUTION, 1916. 

This has indeed seriously impaired the mutation theory of De Vries, 
the fundamental example of the (Enothera lamarcMana, seeming to be 
not a special type of variation, but an example of complex hybridiza- 
tion. The authors who have especially studied Mendelian heredity 
find themselves obliged to attribute all the observed facts to combina- 
tions of already existing factors, or to the loss of factors, a conception 
which seems to me a natural consequence of the symbolism adopted, 
but which hardly satisfies the intelligence. In any case, we do not 
see in the facts emerging from the study of Mendelism, how evolu- 
tion, in the sense that morphology suggests, can have come about. 
And it comes to pass that some of the biologists of greatest authority 
in the study of Mendelian heredity are led, with regard to evolution, 
either to more or less complete agnosticism, or to the expression of 
ideas quite opposed to those of the preceding generation ; ideas which 
would almost take us back to creationism. 

Lamarckism and Darwinism* are equally affected by these views. 
The inheritance of acquired characters is condemned and natural 
selection declared unable to produce a lasting and progressi^'e change 
in organisms. The facts of adaptation are explained by a previous 
realization of structures which are found secondarily in harmony with 
varied surroundings. That is the idea which different biologists 
have reached and which M. Cuenot in particular has developed sys- 
tematically.^ 

Two recent and particularly significant examples of these two 
tendencies are furnished us by W. Bateson and by J. P. Lotzy. In 
his Problems of Genetics, Bateson declares that we must recognize 
our almost entire ignorance of the processes of evolution, and in his 
presidential address at the meeting of the British Association in 
Australia, in 1914, he goes so far as to express the idea that evolu- 
tion might be considered as the progressive unrolling of an initial 
complexity, containing, from the first, within itself, all the scope, the 
diversity, and all the differentiation now presented by living beings. 
As Mr. Castle cleverly expressed it, carrying the idea to its logical 
issue, man might be regarded as a simplified ameba, a conclusion 
which may well give us pause. Here we clearly recognize, on the 
other hand, modernized in form, but identical in principle, the con- 
ception of the " emboitement " of the germs, and of preformation, 
ideas to which, as I have reminded you, the eighteenth century 
applied the name evolution. It is a conception diametrically op- 
posed to that of the transformism of the nineteenth century. 

Mr. Lotzy, struck by the results of the crossing of distinct species 
of Antirrhinum, has reached in the last three years the conclusion 
that a species is fixed and that crossing is the only source of produc- 

1 Cuenot, " La Gen6se des esp^ces animales," Paris, Biblioth&que Scientifique Interna- 
tionale (Alcan), 1911. — " TMorie de la priSadaptation," Sclentia, Tome 16, p. 60, 1914. 



PROBLEM OP EVOLUTION — CAULLERY. 335 

tion of new forms. Hybridization among species, when it yields 
fertile offspring, may, according to him, give rise, all at once, to a 
whole series of new forms, whose mutual relations and differential 
characteristics correspond exactly to what the natural species show. 

However subversive and delusive ideas of this kind, positive or 
negative, appear to generations saturated with Lamarckism and 
Darwinism, we must not lose sight of the fact that they were formu- 
lated by eminent biologists, and that they are the result of long and 
minute experimental researches and that many of the facts on which 
they rest msiy be considered as firmly established. 

But without thinking of rebelling against the facts resulting from 
genetic studies, we may question whether they have so general a sig- 
nificance. I have already more than once pointed out that the 
present aspect of organic heredity does not oblige us to conclude that 
it has always been the same. We may ask ourselves w^hether condi- 
tions, which have not yet been realized in experiment, do not either 
modify directly the germinal substance itself, or the correlation 
existing between the parts of the soma, and indirectly through them 
the germinal substance. The facts which the study of internal secre- 
tions are just beginning to reveal, perhaps indicate a possibility of 
this kind. Even if we admit that evolution proceeds only discon- 
tinuously bj^^ mutations, we still have to discover the mechanism of 
the production of these mutations. In short, we may believe that, 
with heredity and variations acting as recent researches have shown 
them to act, there are nevertheless conditions that are still unknown 
and that they have been realized for each series of organisms only at 
certain periods, as seems to be suggested by paleontology, and in 
which the constitution and properties of hereditary substances are 
changeable. Of course these are purely hypothetical conjectures, but 
such conjectures must be made if we wish to reconcile two categories 
of already acquired data which we are obliged to recognize as facts. 
On the one hand we have the results of modern genetics which of 
themselves lead to conceptions of fixity, and on the other hand, the 
mass of morphological data which, considered from a rational point 
of view, seem to me to possess the value of stubborn facts in support 
of the transformist conception; I will even go so far as to say in 
support of a transformism more or less Lamarckian. 

It seemed to me necessary to devote the first meeting of the course 
to this general analysis of the conditions under which the problem 
of transformism now presents itself. I believe that this analysis is 
the justification of the course itself. It shows the advantage of con- 
fronting in a series of lectures the old classic data with the modem 
tendencies, all of which have to be brought into agreement. The 
crisis of transformism which Le Dantec announced some eight years 
ago is very much more acute and more in evidence now than it was 
then. 



SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON SIGHT IN BIRDS.^ 



By Dr. J. C. Lewis. 
R. A. 0. U., Melbourne. 



[With 5 plates.] 

That continual adjustment, so necessary for life, between internal 
relations of an organism and the external world would be impossible 
were it not for the communion of the sense organs. The}'^ stand, as 
it were, midway between the organism and its surroundings, keeping 
the internal relations aware of and alive to the external happenings 
and conditions. These fimctions probably arose with the necessity 
for adaptation to environment and its ever-changing demands, and 
in the struggle for existence they are necessary factors for the 
survival of the race. 

Of the different special senses, hearing and sight stand apart in 
the degree of specialization, and this specialization, again, varies 
greatly in the divisions of the animal kingdom. In the animal 
world, for example, we find all stages from blindness to acute vision. 
Where the sight is poor, smell and hearing are, in compensation, 
extremely acute. The vision of the rhinoceros is limited to some 
50 yards or so and is poor even for that short range, but the acute- 
ness of the sense of smell makes good the sight deficiency. In birds 
specialization of sight reaches its highest degree of development; 
and though hearing is fairly acute, the sense of smell is certainly 
vestigial. One feature of the functions of hearing and sight is the 
projection of their sensory impulses. Taking sight, we find that 
light reflected from a distant object is picked up by the cornea and 
lens and brought into focus at a point on the retina. The stimulation 
of the numerous endings of the optic nerve sets up an activity which, 
after passing through many systems of relays, reaches the sight 
centers in the brain, giving rise to a complex chemical action in the 
cells, where the myriad impulses are figured out into a light pattern 
in the image of the original object. Though the action setting up 
these impulses originates in the brain, where the image is really 

1 Reprinted from the Emu, Vol. 15, Pt. 4, April, 1916. 

337 



338 ANKUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

synthetized, the sensation is projected to the object from which the 
light is reflected. A similar projection occurs with the function of 
hearing, though perhaps not so definite in its localization. 

If we consider the eye as an optical apparatus, looking at it from 
a mechanical point of view, we find that it can be likened with advan- 
tage to a camera, the convergence of rays being brought about by 
the lens and the cornea, the retina taking the place of the sensitized 
plate. This convergence of the diverging rays of light into focus 
on the retina from objects at varying distances is termed accommo- 
dation and corresponds roughly to the focusing of a camera. The 
process of accommodation differs greatly in the different classes of 
the animal kingdom. In terrestrial forms, where there is media of 
very much less density outside the eye — namely, the air — the princi- 
pal convergence is done by the cornea, the outer transparent covering 
of the eye, the amount of convergence depending upon the laws of 
refraction governing light passing from a less dense to denser media. 

Though the lens also acts to a lesser extent in the same way, the 
corneal convergence is the more important in these forms, the special 
important function of the lens being the alteration of focus. On the 
other hand, in aquatic forms, such as fish, no corneal convergence, 
or almost none, is present, the media — namely, sea water, or even 
fresh water — being of practically the same density as the media of 
the eye itself. In these forms convergence must, therefore, be 
brought about by the lens only, and for that purpose a spherical lens 
is present. 

The physiology of accommodation in birds is remarkably com- 
plicated, differing in many respects from that found in the mam- 
mals. In the latter, or to be more correct, in the terrestrial forms 
alteration of focus is brought about by alteration in the shape of 
the lens. This structure when focused for near objects becomes more 
convex, particularly on the anterior surface. There is no change in 
shape of the transparent front part of the eye. In birds, on the 
other hand, with the exception of some of the night fliers, though like 
in man and other animals, the eye is normally focused for distance, 
accommodation is a more complex process, there being change in 
shape both of the lens itself and of the eyeball as a whole. It fur- 
ther differs in that it is a positive process, relaxation of the muscle 
focusing the eye for nearer points. 

In birds there are found two main types of eyes, though inter- 
mediate forms exist — namely, the tubular eye, with rounded lens, 
which allows for a normal near vision such as in the night-flying 
birds; and the other, the almost spherical eye, with flattened lens, 
characteristic of high-soaring birds of prey, and consequently 
adapted for distant vision (pi. 1). 



Smithsonian Report, 


1916 


. — Lewis. 


[4 


( 


^ 


4 




BPPP,^ 


^^fl 




w^Bm 









f='LATE 1, 



1. Eyeof Emu dissected to show anterior and 
posterior chamber of globe, showing well- 
developed peeten, almost spherical eye, flat- 
tened lens. Type of eye normally focussed 
tor distance. 




. Globes of the eye of a Homed Owl. Skull dissected 
away to show comparative size of eyes to the brain. 
Cornea removed from right eye. Specimen shows the 
tubular eye of near-sighted night birds, the eyes 
capable of forward vision, both seeing practically the 
same field of vision. 




3. Plain Wanderer. Typo of total monocular vision. Both 
visual fields distinct. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Lewis. 



Plate 2. 




Australian Barn Owl. 

Showing eyes capable of forward double vision. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Lewis. 



Plate 3. 




Nankeen Kestrel. 

Showing eyes capable of seeing a single object with both eyes, though total visual fields 

vary greatly. 




Q. S 



o 



CONSIDERATIONS ON SIGHT IN BIRDS — LEWIS. 339 

There is little to be said of the iris in birds apart from the fact 
that the movement of this curtain or diaphragm is voluntary, the 
pupil widening or closing at will. Apart from the voluntary 
action, closing of the pupil or a stopping-down process occurs in 
the presence of strong light, and is, therefore, reflex in nature, 
widening of the pupil being noticed in weak light and also for 
distant vision. 

The retina — the sensitive plate, as it were, of the eye — consists of 
a layer of fine nerve endings which in most animals conform to 
two well-marked types — rods and cones. In birds it has been for 
a long time thought that this layer consisted of rods only, but 
closer examination shows that cones are present, though very much 
reduced in number. There is also a belief existent, with perhaps 
some reason, that the function of the cones is associated with differ- 
entiation of colors or the formation of visual purple, while rods 
determine movement, form, and shape. This is the layer which is 
stimulated by the photo-chemical action of light, the sensitizing 
substance being found in the external layer of the retina and called, 
for convenience, visual purple. It is believed that this substance 
changes under the effect of light, and the chemical changes effected 
act on and stimulate the nerve endings, giving rise to the particular 
sensation. In vertebrates this retina is not without its drawbacks. 
There is a well-marked blind spot where the optic nerve branches 
out into its numerous endings, this area being particularly large 
where the pecten is well developed. Further, many blood vessels 
ramify over the surface of the retina, and here, also, light is pre- 
vented from falling on and being registered by the sensitive layer. 

It is well known that in man there is a central small area where 
sight is keenest. This is called the fovea centralis^ and here only 
rods are present. In birds it is believed that there are two such 
areas in each eye, one on either side of the pecten. It may be 
stated here that the pecten is a pigmented, vascular structure lying 
in the posterior chamber of the eye, protruding forward from the 
papilla of the optic nerve (pi. 1, fig. 1). The size varies consider- 
ably in different species, extending in some almost to the posterior 
surface of the lens, while in others it is small and inconspicuous. It 
is absent in one bird — namely, the Apteryx — and is practically absent 
in the Nankeen night heron {Nycticorax caledordeus) . The function 
of the pecten has always been a matter of controversy. There seem 
to be no special habits or conditions in birds possessing this structure 
of equal size and shape, while birds with similar habits show great 
variations. One theory was that it was protective, guarding the 
retina from the action of excessive light, in other words, a light filter. 
Its structure being vascular suggests some functions associated with 
the tension or nutrition of the eyeball. In accommodation for near 



340 ANNUAL KEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

objects it has been found that there is, with the passage backward of 
the posterior surface of the cornea, the transference of fluid from the 
anterior chamber. This is shown by injecting methylene bhie into 
the anterior chamber and stimuhiting the nerves of accommodation, 
then noting the course of the fluid. 

Admitting then that there is a transference of fluid from one 
chamber to another to maintain an unvarying intraocular pressure, 
some governor must be present to effect this quick interchange, and 
it is believed that the pecten acts in this way. In support of this 
theory it can be shown that in high-flying birds, birds of rapid flight, 
birds of pre}^ where the eyes have to be accommodated to extremely 
rapid alteration of focus, the pecten is well developed. It is, on the 
other hand, comparatively small in nocturnal birds. Against this 
theory it may be stated that reptiles, or some reptiles, possess a 
pecten, and in these animals the above conditions hardly exist. The 
important point is that the presence of this large pecten creates a 
large blind area in the eye, and as it is heavily pigmented all light 
falling on it is naturally absorbed. It explains to some extent the 
constant shifting of the head when a bird is on the watch, as the 
visual field is considerably limited, the portion obstructed being 
toward the upper outer field of vision. Before leaving the retina it 
should be mentioned that the presence of oil globules in this layer 
has been known for a long time. These globules are colored red and 
yellow and are found only in birds. They appear to exert no effect 
on color vision, as they are in no way identical in composition with 
the visual purple or sensitizing substance. 

The numerous fibers from the endings of the rods and cones col- 
lect to form the optic nerves. The nerve from each eye converges 
and meets at what is known as the optic chiasma, where they unite 
and again separate. In all animals where binocular vision takes 
place, or to be more correct, where there is total binocular vision, 
there is partial decussation of the fiber. Those fibers leading from 
the right half of the right eye pass to the right side of the brain, 
while the fibers from the left side of the right eye cross over at the 
chiasma to the left side of the brain. 

The amount of decussation varies accordingly with the power 
of binocular vision. In some animals where partial binocular vision 
is possible, though not usual, as in the horse and some rodents, only 
a few fibers do not decussate. In animals incapable of any binocular 
vision complete decussation takes place. This latter condition is 
found in birds, or nearly all birds, the fibers entirely crossing over 
at the chiasma. One must first get a grasp of the true meaning of 
binocular vision to appreciate the difference between pure binocular 
vision and seeing the same object with both eyes. If we hold a piece 
of paper between the eyes so as to view, say, a red area with the 



CONSIDERATIOlSrs ON SIGHT IN BIRDS — LEWIS. 341 

right eye and a yellow area with the left, we do not see the two sepa- 
rate colored spots, but a spot of the color equalling the blending of 
the pigments ; this is due to a superimposing of the images registered. 
In animals and birds where the axes of the eyes are not parallel it 
means that the image of an object falling on the right half of the 
right eye falls on the left half of the left eye. Only in animals 
where the axes of the eyes are parallel do the images fall on the same 
half of each eye, notably in human beings and monkeys, thus making 
possible true binocular vision. In other words, in birds, with the 
possible exception of some of the birds of prey and some nocturnal 
birds, the sight or visual field consists of two separate views not 
capable of being superimposed and not stereoscopic in effect. 

The advantage of observing the same object with both eyes is that 
it permits of greater concentration once an object or victim has been 
perceived, and it is thus found in eagles, hawks, etc., where acuity and 
concentration are so necessary for their existence. In man the stereo- 
scopic vision gives him the judgment of distance, and it is chiefly by 
this and, to a smaller extent, by accommodation, that distance is ac- 
curately estimated. On the other hand, birds, or most birds, have 
to depend upon accommodation for their judgment of distance possi- 
bly by the focusing movement of the lens brought about by the action 
of Crampton's muscle, the pull being so strong in some species that 
a ring of bony lamina? is provided in the sclerotic coat near the 
corneal margin to prevent alteration in shape of that part of the eye. 

Monocular vision has a great advantage of giving a far more ex- 
tensive scope of vision. It is a valuable asset for the birds which 
must maintain a constant lookout for the approach of danger, and 
for that reason it is found mainly in those birds of poor defense, 
whose safety lies in speedy detection and evasion of their enemies. 
In these birds there is the range of two extensive visual fields, each 
being equally recorded and scrutinized. The moment an object of 
interest is detected the bird does not direct both eyes toward it, but 
there is a concentration of one eye, the vision of the other being sup- 
pressed at will. In some diseases of man, where the axis of one eye 
has departed from the parallel of the other, each eye sees a field 
which does not correspond with the other, yet diplopia, or double 
vision, is not present, as the one or the other field of vision is sup- 
pressed according to the automatic concentration in one or the other 
eye. Note a group of pheasants or pigeons watching the same ob- 
ject; one eye only will be directed toward the position. Watch a 
fowl or a pigeon gazing upward at a hawk ; one eye will be skyward, 
the other toward the ground. In such cases the vision of the down- 
ward eye is being suppressed. If suppression were not possible in 
birds a position similar to diplopia would be present. An idea of 
this condition can be gained by pressing one's eye, thus shifting the 
73839°— SM 1916 23 



S42 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

visual axis of one eye, when a double image is obtained. In the 
human it is possible to suppress the vision by exercise and education, 
otherwise the eye must be closed — thus, in shooting or looking down 
a microscope — but by a continual effort at concentration it is possible 
to keep both eyes open and to suppress the vision of one. 

When we come to acuity of vision in birds one must immediately 
recognize a superiority over the rest of the animal kingdom. There 
is no doubt that they possess an acuity almost immeasurable compared 
with our own standard. Normal sight in man gives an acuity of 
about 1 minute in degrees of the circle, which means that at 6 meters 
we can distinguish clearly enough to identify letters in lines 1 centi- 
meter in width. Man and monkeys are perhaps in advance of the 
rest of the mammals, but fall extremely short of the standard found 
in birds. Speaking roughly, it is justifiable to say that birds possess 
ubout a hundred times the degree of acuity found in man. Visual 
acuity for moving objects is much more keen. This probably accounts 
for the habit of small animals or birds wishing to escape detection 
};ecoming immobile, their protective coloring blending with the sur- 
I'oundings. 

Peep through the smallest hole in a fowl-yard fence, and one will 
find that some old hen has perceived the action. An instance of the 
remarkable visual acuity can be seen in the vulture and its habits. 
On the death of an animal there may notbe a vulture in sight, and in 
u few hours' time many will have arrived at the feast. These birds 
become aware of a dead beast not by smell (as that sense is vestigial) , 
but by sight. Vultures are extremel}^ high fliers, onh^^ one bird out- 
Sioaring them — namely, the adjutant. It is probably that the nearest 
vulture sights the animal and descends to the carcass. The bird's 
Jtction is observed by the vulture farther away, which is likewise led 
fo the scene, and so it goes on. In this way it is believed that birds 
come from a distance of from 50 to 100 miles by their observation of 
each other's action. A fact pointing to their ability to locate a carcass 
w\as observed in one of the outbreaks of rinderpest in Natal. It was 
found that if a carcass were covered by branches immediately after 
death, so as to obscure it from the sight of the birds, it was never 
disturbed by vultures. 

Though there is no means of measuring accurately the visual acuity 
of birds, a fair idea may be obtained by observation of their habits. 
A great brow^i kingfisher {Bacelo glgas)^ from a position on a post 
where it can inspect newly plowed land, seems to have no difficulty 
in locating the exposed part of a worm from any distance up to 100 
yards. Watch an old hen in charge of a few chicks, and nothing 
overhead, be it ever so small, will escape her notice. 

Acuity for stationary objects, though not so finely sensitive as for 
those moving, is still remarkable. Experiments have been made with 



CONSIDEEATTOISrS ON SIGHT IN BIRDS-^LEWIS. 343 

pigeons, feeding them on ca board on wheat, among which a per- 
centage of the grains have been stuck by adhesive substance. One 
mistake is sufficient to prevent them again making the error, small, 
slight alteration from the natural position of the grain giving them 
the clue. Many similar cases could be quoted. The vision of noc- 
turnal birds is enhanced by the size of the eyeball itself and the con- 
vexity of the cornea, which collects more light from an ol^ject than 
that with less convexity. They present, too, the markedly tubular 
eye. The pupil in these birds is capable of gi^eat dilatation. The 
poorness of vision of these birds in the daytime is accounted for by the 
fact that the eye is normally focused for objects comparatively near 
and, again, because of the amount of stooping down necessary to 
exclude the strong light. The eyes of these birds are probably what 
are known as dark-adapted eyes, and the attempt to see in bright 
sunlight has an effect similar to that which we experience on emerg- 
ing from a dark room into the sunlight. This is not due so much to 
the contraction of the pupil as to arrangement of the protective pig- 
ment around the endings of the optic nerve. 

The power of individual movement of the eyes is greater in birds 
than in man, extensive divergent movement being possible, while con- 
vergent movement is seen as in the human being. But, in spite of 
this, the amount present is not sufficient for the needs of the bird, 
which nearly always moves the head to shift the direction of gaze. 

Of the accessory structures of the eye not much need be said. 
The eyelids present little differing from mammals, with the excep- 
tion of the absence of eyelashes and the greater mobility of the 
lower lid. The third eyelid, known as the nictitating membrane, 
is well developed in birds, constantly sweeping the surface of the 
cornea and keeping it free of small particles, etc. In mammals it 
is not moved voluntarily, but by pressure exerted by the backward 
movement of the eye itself. This membrane in birds is moved by 
two voluntary muscles, which bring it across the eye with lightning- 
like rapidity. In aquatic birds it invests the eye while submerged, 
and is then transparent, to allow vision without endangering the 
sensitive surface of the globe. 

We come now to a more interesting though more difficult prob- 
lem — that of color vision. If one accepts the Young-Helmholtz 
iheory, it must be taken that white light consists of the combina- 
tion of three primary colors, namely, red, green, and violet. Later 
works seem to incline toward the older division according to New- 
ton — that the primary colors included red, orange, yellow, green, 
blue, indigo, and violet. In other words, the blue and yellow have 
as much right to be considered as primary colors as the other three. 
The existence of color vision in animals is, of course, very difficult to 



344 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

determine. It appears, however, that with trained dogs and horses 
there is no difficulty at all in teaching them to distinguish between 
the saturated colors. The preference of some birds, notably the 
Bower Birds, for objects of a certain color and the general evolu- 
tion of color in the different species must point to an appreciation of 
different shades. Color sensation must be appreciated by the stimu- 
lation of waves of varying lengths. In man it varies from about 
770 [X to 396 [A, the latter being the extreme of light registered at the 
violet end of the spectrum. 

It would appear, if we adopt the Young-Helmholtz theory, that 
man has a trichromatic vision, and that all the shades appreciated 
are due to the degree in which the three classes of nerve fibers are 
stimulated. Yellow, for example, is caused by an equal stimulation 
of the sets of fibers for the red and green percipients. When red is 
seen the fibers percipient of red are strongly stimulated, the others 
only weakly. Color blindness is an interesting side study in this 
respect, particularly when we come to the color vision of birds. In 
man dichromatic vision appears most commonly with a blindness 
for red or green, the violet blind being rare. In red or green blind- 
ness the subject confuses reds and greens, and in a mixture of colors 
including these colors other than red or green are the only ones 
appreciated. 

NoAv, it has been shown by feeding experiments that birds are 
blind in the violet end of the spectrum. In other words, if we accept 
the Young-Helmholtz theory they have a dichromatic vision. Their 
color vision would be restricted to red and green and the mixtures 
of these colors. They would be blind to violet and to the spectral 
violet in blue, indigo, and yellow. Such a conclusion would be dis- 
astrous to our theory of selection in the coloration of birds, where 
many blues and shades of blue are seen. It would mean that the 
development of color in the evolution of the present-day bird was 
merely incidental and apparently without reason. The flaw in the 
reasoning probably lies in our acceptance of the Young-Helmholtz 
theory instead of recognizing the other colors as primary. Again, 
the conclusion obtained from the feeding experiments may be faulty. 
The birds are fed in spectral red light and in spectral green, where 
they pick up the grains readily; but when taken to spectral violet 
remain still, fail to see the grains, and are to all intents and purposes 
in darkness. 

A man color blind in red or in green, though not seeing these colors 
as a normal person would see them, still sees the objects, but is blind 
to the color only. His vision extends right to the red end of the 
spectrum, though not recognizing the red there, so that the waves 
stimulate the eye, though not giving the color sense. It is probable 
that in birds the sight is keyed to a higher pitch than in man, and 



CONSIDERATIONS ON SIGHT IN BIRDS LEWIS. 345 

that the retina is not stimulated by wave lengths as short as that of 
the violet, while yet possessing the whole of the range of colors as 
far as the violet. In man we know that the eye is blind beyond the 
two limits of red and violet, but we are able to ascertain the presence 
of ultra red and ultra violet rays that the retina does not register. 

There is still a great field for investigation into the function of 
sight. So far the Avork done is mainly comparative, and must be 
based on the lines found existent in the human subject, where the 
subjective assistance is of great value. But of the conditions in birds 
we can only theorize, while there may be present conditions outside 
our comprehension of the powers of the eye. There is still much 
to be learned concerning accommodation, monocular vision, color 
vision, and the function of the pecten. 



PIRATES OF THE DEEP— STORIES OF THE SQUID AND 

OCTOPUS. 



By Paul Bartsch, 
Curator of Marine Invertebrates, U. S. National Museum. 



[With 19 plates.] 
INTRODUCTION. 

The largest, the most highly organized, as well as intelligent, and 
therefore, most interesting invertebrate creatures of the sea belong to 
the class of organisms known as Cephalopods, a group of marine 
mollusks embracing the Nautilus, Squid, Cuttlefish, Octopus, Argo- 
naut, as well as the Nautiloids, Ammonites, and Belemnites of the 
ancient seas. 

The old forms, geologically speaking, as far as known, were all 
shell-bearing organisms. Their changing from the cramped condi- 
tion of an inclosing and confining exoskeleton or shell to an endo- 
skeleton or pen, or even no skeleton, came only in very recent times 
and carried in its train of development not only possibilities of 
bodily expansion, as shown by the giant squid of our seas, but pro- 
duced even greater and far more important consequences, namely, 
the development of a highly specialized brain, which to-day easily 
places this group in the first rank of all the invertebrate dwellers of 
the sea when viewed from the standpoint of mentation. 

Compared with our squids, the chambered Nautilus, the relic of 
the most ancient stock, is an extremely stupid animal. 

PAST HISTORY. 

In order to follow the customary line of the biogi^apher, we must 
first give a bit of attention to the ancestors of our subjects and to 
this alone one might well devote the entire space allotted to our 
sketch. Paleontology has taught us that these wonderful creatures 

347 



348 



ANNUAL EEPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



can boast of a long line of progenitors ; indeed, there are few groups 
that can compare with them in this respect. For millions upon mil- 
lions of years ago, or to be more precise, in Upper Cambrian times, 
there existed a small nautiloid animal in the seas, whose deposits are 
known as the Chau-mi-tien limestone near Tsi-nan, Shantung, China. 
The shell of this little animal, which was christened C yrtoceras cain- 
hria by Dr. Walcott in 1905,^ is only 7 millimeters in length and 3 
millimeters in diameter (fig. 1). 

Ever since that time, and probably long before this tiny, flexed, but 
noncoiled chambered nautiloid ancestor of the Cephalopoda existed, 
chambered nautili were living somewhere in our 
seas. The Ozarkian period ushered in a number 
of families, each with its genera and species. 
The Canadian added materially to these, but the 
greatest differentiation of all took place in the 
Ordovician and Silurian, after wdnch the decline 
of the order began, resulting finally in the rem- 
nant of four closely allied species belonging to 
the single now existing genus Nautilus. In all, 
about 3,000 species have been named and to their 
number new^ forms are constantly being added b_v 
the patient paleontologist. In all these forms we 
have the shell divided into chambers by trans- 
verse concave septa whose margins may be 
straight or undulate ; a siphuncle or tube extends 
from chamber to chamber coamecting them with 
each other. The range of variation in shape and 
size is quite great. There are straight cones, as 
in Orthoceras; flexed forms, as in Cyrtoceras; 
looseh' coiled forms, as in Sphyradoceras; closely coiled forms, as in 
Nautilus; or even closely coiled and finally solute shells, as in 
Ophidioceras and Lituites. The sculpture, too, j)resents no end of 
variations, for some shells are smooth, others axially or spirally 
striate, or channeled; or Urate, or threaded, ribbed, or keeled, or 
marked by combinations of these elements, some even have tubercles 
and bosses, but whatever the sculpture or size, which varies from the 
7-millimeter ancestor to the 14-foot or more long cones of Endoceras, 
one word characterizes the entire group, and that is elegance (pi. 1). 
During the Uppier Silurian period a new offshoot of the Cepha- 
lopod stock developed, a stalk which has far excelled the Nautiloids 
in numbers as well as in diversity of structure. We refer to the order 
Ammonoidea, " the Ammon's horns," of which probably more than 




Fig. 1. — Cyrtoceras cam- 
Iria Walcott. The an- 
cestor of the Cephalo- 
poda. Side view, X 5. 
End view, X 7. 



iProc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 29, p. 22, 1905. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916.— Bartsch. 



Plate 1. 




Nautiloids. 

l.Thoracoceras corbulatvm (Banandc) 2. SphyradocerasoptatumBaTTande. 3. Ophidioceras simplex 
mrrande. 4. Endoceras timidum Barrande. 5. Hercoceras mirum Barraude. 6. Lituitcs Utum 
Monti. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916 — Bartsch. 



Plate 2. 




12 

Ammonoides. 



13 



1. Phylloceras heterophiillum (Sowh.). 2. Tun/litca catcnaiiis d'Orh. 3. Lyfoccras licbigi (Oppe\.). 
4. Chnrixtocrrnsvinri'hilia.ueT. 5. iro/'litis tiihfrciilatiix Sow. (!. A Inciifi/toi'cras gcrinainci (d'Orh.). 
7. II'i iiiili.\ mill ndnf 11!^ (Sowh.). 8. I'll tillm-, I'ls j:i i/chuicii iin( )\]fi]stvi\i). 9. Macroscapliitcs ivanii 
(d'i»rl>.). ID. Si'piii of l;?/<ocfras//(/.;(/M o|)|i(l.i.' ii. MaiUinicuux injlutum Sow. \2. Hoplites 
tuhticalatu^i Suw. lo, DoaviUdccias inamUlaic (.Schluihj. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS BARTSCH. 349 

6,000 species are known. . Here form, complexity of septation, and 
external sculpture ran riot, or, may we say, attained an overspeciali- 
zation which soon spelled exit, for the group reached its highest 
development in the upper Trias and disappeared suddenly and com- 
pletely at the close of the Cretaceous. In size their shells vary from 
the dimension of a pea to more than 6 feet in diameter. Plate 2 
will give the reader a little more intimate view of the group. 

The third order, Belemnoidea, of the Cephalopoda, is of consider- 
ably less antiquity, dating back only to the Triassic period with not 
a single living representative, for the little chambered Spirula has 
been definitely disposed among the modern 10-footed members, 
though the paleontologists still classify it with the Belemnoidea. It 
is among these Beiemnoids that we have to seek the ancestors of our 
squids and cuttlefishes for, like them, they have an internal shell, but 
of much gi-eater complexity. They also possessed the ink bag, a 
character present in all our modern Cephalopods excepting the Nau- 
tilus. It is quite possible that these members were as abundant in 
these later seas as their ancestors were in their time and as their 
descendants are to-day, but they had little of fossilizable material to 
leave behind them at death, and thus have left a rather poor, scat- 
tered and fragmentary record of their existence. Judging from 
some of the pens, however, it is well to assume that the soft body 
inclosing them may have compared favorably in size with the mem- 
bers of the now existing fauna. Some of these pens are called fossil 
"thunder bolts" by the iminitiated. Plate 3 shows a selection of 
these remains. 

We next come to the modern dwellers of the seas, our " pirates 
of the deep." In these we have either an internal skeleton or none 
at all. In the squids the shell is embedded in the dorsal part of the 
mantle and frequently reduced to a mere chitinoid remnant, called 
the pen (pi. 4, fig. 1) from its resemblance to the quill pens of old. 
At times this is decidedly reinforced by calcareous material, as shown 
by the cuttlebone (pi. 4, fig. 2) which we are accustomed to furnish 
our canaries, for this is the skeleton of our cuttlefish. The only coiled 
or chambered test is found in Spirula, but here it serves not as a 
container, but is contained within the mantle. The shell of the beauti- 
ful Paper Nautilus or Argonaut is not a skeletal shell at all, but a 
mere case used by the female for the protection of her eggs. 

In all these animals the body is enveloped in a soft mantle. The 
head is strongly differentiated from the rest of the body and is sur- 
rounded by a circle of 8 or 10 sucker-bearing arms or feet which, in 
i-eality, are modified elements of what corresponds to the anterior 
part of the foot in other mollusks. It is the position of these feet 
about the head of these animals that has gained for them the name 



350 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1&16. 

Cephalopoda, head-footed. The mouth is situated in the middle of 
the tentacular disk and is armed with a pair of formidable parrot- 
beak-like jaws. Not least conspicuous are the two large, highly 
specialized eyes situated on the side of the head. Behind the head 
is a constricted neck. Here we find a cleft, the communicating orifice 
between the exterior and the mantle cavity ; here also is inserted the 
tubular siphon which, in reality, is the modified posterior part of 
the foot and serves as the chief organ of locomotion, for much of the 
Cephalopod swimming is accomplished by the rapid expulsion of 
water through this organ by means of the sudden contraction of 
the muscular mantle. 

The posterior j)ortion of the body may be globular, conic, spindle, 
or lance shaped, or cylinclric ; it may or may not have lateral flukes, 
which may serve as organs of locomotion; or may be modified to 
form a sucker, as in Spirula. The internal organization is also 
interesting, but we shall content ourselves with the simple statement 
that the sexes are distinct and that the rather complex brain is 
shielded in most of them by a cranial cartilage that protects the 
principal nerve centers, incloses the auditory organs, and supports 
the very highly developed eyes. An interesting structure found in 
all the living forms, except the Nautilus, is the ink bag, a glandular 
sac and a reservoir connected by a duct with the rectum near the 
anus. This organ produces a dark fluid which the animal is capable 
of discharging at will. It is usually ejected when the animal is 
pursued and effectively enwraps it in an impenetrable smudge, thus 
aiding it to make good its escape. The secretion of the Cephalopod 
ink bag forms an important element of commerce and our arts, where 
it is better known under the name of sepia and India ink. 

The living Cephalopods, excepting the Nautilus, are easily divided 
into two groups or orders. One of these, Decapocla, embraces all 
the members having 10 feet, while the members of the other order, 
Octopoda, have but eight (pi. 5). 

Beautifully preserved specimens of squids have been found in 
those remarkable reliquaries, the Solenhofen lithographic limestone 
deposits of Bavaria, the hardened ooze of an ancient sea, which has 
contributed so many chapters to our knowledge of the past. These 
remains proclaim the presence of the order in the Lower Jurassic. 
Plate 6 is a photograph of a specimen, U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. 
No. 28382, which comes from this formation at Eichstatt and shows 
the perfect manner in which the soft, enfolding ooze has preserved 
its record for us. 

FACTS AND FANCIES. 

Size, power, speed, beauty, and intelligence have ever been the 
elements that have elicited the admiration of man. Add to this the 



Smithsonian Report, 1916.— Bartsch. 



Plate 3. 



^: 



i'Al^ 






Mn-. 



I'.ViJ 



)lif\ 



"^1^-^' 



Belemnoids. 

1 and 2. Bdcmnitcs mucronalus Sohloth. 3. Bclemnitcs brugicrianus Miller 
4. Restoration of same. 



Smithsonian Report, 1 91 6.— Bartsch. 



Plate 4. 




Internal Shells of Modern Squids. 
1. LoUgo vulgaris L. 2. Sepia officinalis L. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS — BARTSCH. 351 

mystery of the sea and the toothsomeness of our beasts, and you have 
a setting with possibilities that seek a rival. No wonder, then, that 
we find the ancient writers and bards and all those of j^ears be- 
tween them and our modern penman singing songs and spinning 
yarns about our Cephalopods, for they possess all the qualifications 
denoted above. Passing through the literature of the ages, one finds 
myths and fancies so wonderfully intertwined with a basis of facts, 
that even the knowing, prosaic but incisive naturalist finds it difficult 
to pass judgment on what is fact or fiction. One thing, however, is 
certain, and that is that all the legends and myths appear as clumsy 
sailor yarns when compared with the facts which are b^ing slowly 
revealed by the painstaking students of the group. 

The early writings frequently combine in their discussion of some 
one of these animals, characteristics that belong to widely different 
orders. Not only that, but the earlier authors even assigned to the 
Physalia or Portuguese Man-o'-War, and the beautiful little Velella, 
attributes belonging to the Argonauta and the Chambered Nautilus, 
for the fairy sails that were assigned to these animals are un- 
doubtedly the wonderfully colored floats of the lowly organized 
Hydrozoans (pi. 7). 

We quote from Pliny : 

The Nautilus, or Sailing Polypus. 

Among the most remarkable curiosities is tlie animal which has the name of 
Nautilus, or, as some people call it, the Pompilos. Lying with the head upward, 
it rises to the surface of the water, raising itself little by little, while, by 
means of a certain conduit in its body, it discharges all the water, and this 
being got rid of like so much bilge-water as it were, it finds no difficulty in 
sailing along. Then, extending backwards its two front arms, it stretches out 
between them a membrane of marvelous thinness, which acts as a sail spi'ead 
out to the wind, while with the rest of its arms it paddles along below, steering 
itself with its tail in the middle, which acts as a rudder. Thus does it make 
its way along the deep, mimicking the appearance of a light Liburnian bark ; 
while if anything chances to cause it alarm in an instant it draws in the 
water and sinks to the bottom. 

The Chambered Nautilus lives in the tropical Avestern Pacific, 
usually at a depth of a hundred or more feet, and, all myths to the 
contrary, has never been known to sail the surface of the sea (pi. 8). 

We quote more from the same authority, this time a story relating 
to a gigantic octopus: 

At Carteia, in the preserves there, a polypus was in the habit of coming from 
the sea to the pickling tubs, that were left open, and devouring the fish laid in 
salt there — for it is quite astonishing how eagerly all sea animals follow even 
the very smell of salted condiments ; so much so, that it is for this reason that 
the fishermen take care to rub the inside of the wicker fish kipes with them. 
At last by its repeated thefts and immoderate depredations it drew down upon 



352 ANNUAL EEPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

itself the wrath of the keepers of the works. Palisades were placed before 
them, but these the polypus managed to get over by the aid of a tree, and it 
was only caught at last by calling in the assistance of trained dogs, which sur- 
rounded it at night as it was returning to its prey ; upon Avhich the keepers, 
awakened by the noise, were struck with alarm at the novelty of the sight pre- 
sented. First of all, the size of the polypus was enormous beyond all concep- 
tion ; and then it was covered all over with dried brine and exhaled a most 
dreadful stench. Who could have expected to find a polypus there or could 
have recognized it as such under these circumstances? They really thought 
that they were joining battle with some monster, for at one instant it would 
drive off the dogs by its horrible fumes and lash at them with the extremities 
of its feelers, while at another it would strike them with its stronger arms, 
giving blows with so many clubs, as it were ; and it was only with the greatest 
difficulty that it could be dispatclied with the aid of a considerable number of 
three-pronged fish spears. The head of this animal was shewn to LucuUus ; it 
was in size as large as a cask of 135 gallons and had a beard (tentacles), to use 
the expressions of Trebius himself, which could hardly be encircled with t)oth 
arms, full of knots, like those upon a club, and 30 feet in length ; the suckers, 
or calicules, as large as an urn, resembled a basin in shape, while the teeth 
again were of a corresponding largeness ; its remains, which v,'ere carefully 
preserved as a curiosity, weighed 700 pounds. 

Denys Montf ort, who spent many years in ardent study of Cephalo- 
pods and devoted a whole volume ^ to the publication of his results, 
cites numerous incidents of marvelous encounters between man and 
some of the larger members of this group. We shall quote a few 
selections : 

An old captain named John Magnus Dens, who resided in Dunkirk, related 
that, sailing once between the isle of St. Helena and Africa, near the coast 
the ship was becalmed. He took advantage of this calm to send men over the 
side to clean off the grass which accumulates near the water line on long 
voyages. The men were standing on stages suspended near the water's edge, 
scraping with iron scrapers, when suddenly a huge cuttlefish appeared at the 
water's edge and, throwing one of his arms about tw^o of the men, tore the 
unfortunates, with their stage, from the side of the vessel and dragged them 
into the water. At the same time it threw another arm about a man who was 
just mounting the main rigging ; but here its arm became entangled with the 
shrouds and ratlines, and it was unable to disentangle itself. The man, who 
was being severely squeezed, cried out for help, and the crew immediately ran 
to his assistance. Several threw harpoons into the body of the beast, which was 
now rising along the ship's side; others with axes cut in pieces the arm which 
held the man to the rigging and took the unfortunate down on deck. 

This done, the cuttle sank down, but the captain payed out on the lines which 
were fast to the harpoons, in the hope that presently he would be able to drag 
the beast up again and recover the two men who had been dragged down. In 
fact, at first he was able to drag the animal toward the surface ; but presently 
the huge beast again sank down, and they were obliged to pay out line after line, 
till at last, having but a little left, they were forced to hold on ; and now four of 
the harpoons drew out, while the fifth line broke, and thus all hope of saving 
the unfortunates or killing the monster was lost. 

1 Histoire Naturelle Des Mollusques, Tome 2, Paris, An. X. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. 



Plate 5. 




An Octopus (Octopus vulgaris Lj Capturing a Crab. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. PLATE 6. 



/ ., '7'*-. '»".'; , 



-*' "' -»»,. 



Ai-yrl prase's 









TtzK Z-aq-- # ! 









A Fossil Squid from the Solenhofen Limestones of Bavaria. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS BARTSCH. 353 

This should be followed by the illustration of the sailing vessel 
attacked by a huge octopus, also taken from Montfort, which is said 
to be a facsimile of a painting that he saw in the Chapel of St. 
Thomas, in St. Malos, a French seaport, and of which he relates the 
following story, told by some of the crew of the vessel to which the 
adventure it depicts happened (pi. 9) : 

The ship was on the west African coast. She had just talien in her cargo of 
slaves, ivory, and gold dust, and the men were heaving up the anchor, when 
suddenly a monstrous cuttlefish appeared on top of the water and slung its 
arms about two of the masts. The tips of the arms reached to the mastheads, 
and the w^eight of the cuttle dragged the ship over, so that she lay on her beam- 
ends and was near being capsized. The crew seized axes and knives, and cut 
nway at the arms of the monster ; but, despairing of escape, called upon their 
patron saint, St. Thomas, to help them. Their prayers seemed to give them 
renewed courage, for they persevered, and finally succeeded in cutting off the 
arms, when the animal sank and the vessel righted. 

Now, when the vessel returned to St. Malos the crew, grateful for their de- 
liverance from so hideous a danger, marched in procession to the chapel of their 
patron saint, where they offered a solemn thanksgiving, and afterwards had a 
painting made representing the conflict with the cuttle, and which was hung 
in the chapel. 

But let Montfort, who was once painfully bitten in the side by an 
octopus, whose bite, he says, is not poisonous, relate one of his own 
experiences : 

On one occasion a huge mastiff which accompanied me on my explorations 
drew my attention by his excited barking. When I came to the rocks I found 
a cuttlefish, whose arms were 3 feet long. He was defending himself against 
the violent attacks of the dog, an animal of immense size and strength and un- 
daunted courage, which had already once saved my life when attacked by a 
wolf. The dog ran around the cuttle, vainly attempting to seize the arms, 
which followed him with singular dexterity and lashed him over the back like 
whips. I looked on a minute in great astonishment at the dexterity of the 
cuttle, which seemed full of rage, and showed no desire to retreat, though the 
water was just behind it. When it saw me it seemed for the first time some- 
what intimidated. There was a change in Its tactics. The arms struck out 
less often, and it endeavored to drag itself to the shore. Seeing this, my brave 
dog seemed encouraged. Watching a chance, he leaped within the arms and 
fastened his teeth in one, quite near the body. 

Instantly four arms were drawn up and twined rigidly about the dog, who 
struggled vainly to free himself, and, for once losing his courage, uttered pite- 
ous howls and cries for help. IMeantime the cuttle, whose huge protruding 
eyes seemed actually to flash fire, and whose body had turned many colors, from 
dark violet to bright scarlet, was drawing itself with considerable speed toward 
the water, dragging with little effort the heavy body of my struggling dog. 
The rough rocky ground helped him to drag the weight along, by giving his 
arms secure holds. 

Already the monster had reached the water side, when I could no longer 
bear the sight, and rushed to the help of my faithful dog. I seized two of the 
arms of the cuttle, and, bracing my feet firmly against a solid rock, pulled 
with all my strength. I succeeded in tearing loose these arms. The animal 



354 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

struggled, uttered cries of rage which resembled the growl of a fierce watch- 
dog, and finally attacked me, too, throwing two of its arms about my person. 
But my brave dog had not been idle. Gathering courage from my advance, he 
had succeeded in quite tearing off with his strong teeth two of the arms of the 
cuttle ; and with anotlier struggle he was free. Then, with a fury which I never 
saw equaled, he attacked the disabled monster, which we together soon over- 
powered. 

I determined never again to attack an animal of this kind unarmed, or to 
venture to close quarters with it. 

Beale, an English ph,ysician, v,iio made a whaling voyage in 
1831-32, described an octopus adventure worth relating. 

While upon the Bonin Islands, searching for shells upon the rocks which 
had been left by the receding sea tide, I was much astonished at seeing at my 
feet a most extraordinary looking animal crawling toward the surf which had 
only just left it. I had never seen one like it under such circumstances before; 
it therefore appeared the more remarkable. It was creeping on its eight legs, 
which, from their soft and flexible nature, bent considerably under the weight 
of its body, so that it was lifted by the effort of its tentaculae only a small 
distance from the rocks. It appeared much alarmed at seeing me, and made 
every effort to escape, while I was not much in the humor to endeavor to 
capture so ugly a customer, whose appearance excited a feeling of disgust not 
unmixed with fear. I, however, endeavored to prevent its escape by pressing 
on one of its legs with my foot ; but although I made use of considerable force 
for that purpose, its strength was so great that it several times quickly liber- 
ated its members, in spite of all the efforts I could employ in this way on wet, 
slippery rocks. I now laid hold of one of the tentacles with my hand and held 
it firmly, so that the limb appeared as if it would be torn asunder by our 
united strength. I soon gave it a powerful jerk, wishing to disengage it from 
the rocks to which it clung so forcibly by its suckers. This it effectually 
resisted ; but the moment after the apparently enraged animal lifted its head, 
with its large eyes projecting from the middle of its body, and letting go its 
hold on the rocks suddenly sprang upon my arm, which I had previously bared 
to my shoulder for the purpose of thrusting into holes in the rocks to discover 
shells. It clung with its suckers with great power, endeavoring to get its beak, 
which I could now see between the roots of its arms, in a position to bite. A 
sensation of horror pervaded my whole frame when I found this monstrous 
animal had affixed itself so firmly to my arm. Its cold, slimy grasp was 
extremely sickening; and I immediately called aloud to the captain, who was 
also searching for shells at some distance, to come to my release from my dis- 
gusting assailant. He quickly arrived, and taking me down to the boat, during 
which time I was employed in keeping the beak away from my hand, quickly 
released me by destroying my tormentor with the boat knife, when I disengaged 
it by portions at a time. This animal miist have measured across its expanded 
arms about 4 feet, while its body was not larger than a large clenched hand. 
It was that species of sepia which is called by whalers " rock squid." 

And yet another narrative is taken from Cassell's Natural Historj^ : 

The following account of a marine diver, attacked by an octopus, exhibits the 
behavior of these animals toward any being that intrudes upon them in 
their native element : On 4th November, 1879, Mr. J. Smale, Government 
diver, was at work at the bottom of the tideway of the River Moune, Mel- 
bourne. Having placed a charge of dynamite between two large stones, he 
came up and exploded it, and on descending again found one of the stones 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. 



Plate 7. 



j^^'^ 




A Sailing Argonaut. 
Showing the aiiiiual as it does iiut swim. 




o 



ILl P, 



)- M 



=1 ^ 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS BARTSCH. 355 

thrown out, which he sent up, and then hooked on to another, but could not 
start it, and having descended again, the current being pretty strong at the 
time, he stretched himself out on the stone, and reaching his right arm down 
to feel if he could get another small charge under it, not being able to do this 
in any other position. " My arm," he says, " was scarcely down, however,* 
before I found that it was held by something, and the action of the water was 
stirring up the loose clay, and therefore I could not see distinctly for a few 
minutes, but when it did clear away I saw, to my horror, the arm of a large 
octopus entwined round mine like a boa constrictor, and just then he fixed 
some of his suckers on the back of my hand, and the pain was intense. I felt 
as if my hand was being pulled to pieces, and the more I tried to take it away 
the greater the pain became, and, from past experience, I knew this method 
would be useless. But what was I to do, lying in this position? I had the 
greatest difficulty in keeping my feet down, as the air rushed along the interior 
of my dress and inflated it, and if my feet had got uppermost I should soon 
have become insensible, held in such a position, and if I had given the signal 
to be pulled up the brute would have held on and the chancesi would have 
been that I should have had a broken arm. I had a hammer down by me but 
could not reach it to use it on the brute. There was a small iron bar not far 
from me, and with my feet I dragged this along until I coidd reach it with 
my left hand. And now the fight commenced ; the more I struck him the 
tighter he squeezed, until my arm got quite benumbed, but after awhile I 
found the grip began to relax a little, but he held on until I had almost cut 
him to pieces, and then he relaxed his hold from the rock and I pulled him up. 
I can assure you I was completely exhausted, having been in that position for 
over 20 minutes. I brought the animal up, or rather a part of it. We laid 
him out and he measured over 8 feet across, and I feel perfectly convinced 
that this fellow could have held down five or six men. It is only when a person 
gets a grip from these brutes that one realizes their strength, and it was lucky 
for me that I was not an amateur, for I can assure you that I had the greatest 
struggle to get clear of it that I have ever had with any animal under water. 

Here is still another yarn by Aldrovandi, who speaks of the 
possum-playing of the octopus: 

An octopus, considered dead, was placed in a kettle and hung over the fiie, 
became revived, and gained sufficient strength to leave the kettle, climb 
through the chimney, and seat himself upon the roof, where, after considerable 
hunting, he was discovered. 

While Pennant states, on authority of a friend long resident in 
the East Indies, that — 

in those seas, the eight-armed cuttlefish has been found of such size as to 
measure 12 feet in breadth across the central part, while each arm was 54 
feet in length; thus making it extend, from point to point, about 120 feet (pi. 
10). 

He further states that — 

the natives of the Indian Isles, when sailing in their canoes, always take care 
to be provided with hatchets, in order immediately to cut off the arras of such 
of these animals as happen to fling them over the sides of the canoe, lest they 
should pull it under water and sink it. 

Quite an excellent picture made by Gustave Dore showing 
Gilliatt's fight with the devilfish in Victor Hugo's Toilers of the 



356 



ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



Sea is here reproduced (pi. 11), but we regret greatly that the au- 
thor's powers of observation were not on a par with his wonderful 
gift of dramatic diction, for a trifle more knowledge would have 
•raised this chapter from the limbo of silly yarns to a production 

worthy of Victor Hugo. The fol- 
lowing statement, which we quote 
from the above work, contains 
not a single atom of truth, al- 
though the author attempts to 
strengthen his case by referring 
to men of science, from whose 
works he undoubtedly gleaned 
some of his rare information: 

The muscles swell, the fibers of -the 
body are contorted, the skin cracks 
under the loathsome oppression, the 
blood spurts out and mingles horribly 
with the lymph of the monster, which 
clings to its victim by innumerable 
hideous mouths. The hydra incorpo- 
rates itself with the man, the man be- 
comes one with the hydra. The spectre 
lies upon you ; the tiger can only de- 
vour you ; the devilfish, horrible, sucks 
your lifeblood away. He draws you to 
him, and into himself; while bound 
down, glued to the ground, powerless, 
you feel yourself gradually emptied 
into this horrible pouch, which is the 
monster. 

It would be unfair to leave the 
Octopoda without calling atten- 
tion to the efforts of some of the 
modern story tellers. We select 
for this purpose a clipping from 
the San Francisco Chronicle, re- 
produced in figure 2. This is a 
marvelous combination of crab 
and octopus; the artist hss termi- 
nated not only every one of the 
eight arms in a pair of pincers, 
but he has even modified the body 
into a claw. 

An endless number of instances might be quoted from the daily 
press relating struggles between man and the octopus, not all 
of which have terminated as favorably as those which we have 
quoted. 




Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. 



Plate 9. 




Reproduction of a Painting in the Chapel of St. Thomas at St. Malos, 

France. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS — BARTSCH. 357 

The octopus is carnivorous, and hence must seek his animal prey. 
He lives chiefly on moUusks and fish, and even Pliny, in the long 
ago, shows a remarkable knowledge of their habits, for he states : 

They feed upon the flesh of shellfish, the shells of which they can easily 
breal£ in the embrace of their arms; hence it is that their retreat may be 
easily detected by the pieces of shell which lie before it. * * * In its own 
domestic matters it manifests considerable intelligence. It carries its prey 
to its home, and after eating all the flesh, throws out the debris, and then 
pursues such small fish as may chance to swim toward them. It also changes 
its color according to the aspect of the place where it is, and more especially 
when it is alarmed. 

The octopus, however, is not always the hunter, but frequently 
the hunted. Not least among his enemies is man, for since very 
ancient times he has been considered a choice morsel in many coun- 
tries. The Greeks and Eomans considered them the finest fish in 
the sea. Pliny tells us that the gourmands of Rome ate every 
variety of octopus known in the Mediterranean. They were cooked 
in a pie, the arms being cut off, and the body filled with spices; and 
the Romans were so careful in their preparation that their cooks 
used pieces of bamboo for drawing the body, instead of knives of 
iron, which were supposed to communicate an ill flavor to the de- 
licious morsel. How highly the cuttle was esteemed by the Greeks 
is evident from a story told of Philoxenus of Syracuse, who, de- 
siring a delicious dinner, caused a polypus of three feet spread to 
be prepared for the principal dish. He ate it alone, all but the 
head, and was taken so sick in consequence of his surfeit that a 
l>hysician was called. On being bluntly told that his case was 
desperate, and that he had but a few hours to live, Philoxenus called 
for the head which had been left over from dinner, ate that, and 
resigned himself to his fate, saying that he left nothing on the earth 
which seemed to him worthy of regret. 

The methods emploj^ed in their capture vary w^ith the people pur- 
suing them. Aristotle tells us that the cuttlefish and the octopus 
may be caught by bait. The octopus, in fact, clings so tightly to the 
rocks that it can not be pulled off, but remains attached even when 
the knife has been employed to sever it ; and yet, if you apply fleabane 
to the creature, it drops off at the very smell of it. This procedure is 
still common on the Mediterranean shores, where either fleabane 
{Inula coryza) or the even handier drug tobacco is used for this 
purpose. 

Simmonds, in his Commercial Products of the Sea, gives the fol- 
lowing quotation from Vice Consul Green's report on octopus fish- 
ing on the Tunisian coast in modern times : 

On the first arrival of the Octopodia in the shallows they keep in masses 
or shoals, but speedily separate in search of shelter among the rocks near the 
beach, covered by only 1 or 2 feet of water, and in the stony localities prepared 
73839°— SM 1916 24 



358 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

for them by the fishermen in order to frustrate the depositing of their spawn. 
Polypi are talcen in deep water by means of eartlien jars strung togetlier and 
lowered to the bottom of the sea, where they are allowed to remain for a cer- 
tain number or hours, and in which the animals introduce themselves. Fre- 
quently from 8 to 10 polypi are taken from every jar at each visit of the 
fishermen. In less deep water earthenware drainpipes are placed side by side 
for distances frequently exceeding half a mile in length, and in these also they 
enter and are taken by the fishermen. As they are attracted by white and all 
smooth and bright substances, the natives deck places in the creeks and 
hollows in the rocks with white rocks and shells, over which the polypi spread 
themselves and are caught from four up to eight at a time. But the most suc- 
cessful manner of securing them is pursued by the inhabitants of Karkeuah, 
who form long lanes and labyrinths in the shallows by planting the butt ends 
of palm branches at short distances from each other, and these constructions 
extend over spaces of two or more miles. On the ebb of the tide (the fall here is 
about 10 feet) the Octopodia are found in the pools inside the inclosures and are 
easily collected by the fishermen, who string them in bunches of 50 each, and 
from 8 to 10 of these bunches, called " risina," are secured daily during the 
season by every boat's crew of four men. 

The simplest method, probably, is that used by the Filipinos. Well 
do I recall my first octopus hunt with them in the southern islands. 
It was a dark night. The good ship Albatross lay peacefully at 
anchor some lialf mile off a Moro village, whose dim outline was 
faintly silhouetted against the sky. We had just finished our dinner, 
returned to the deck to take up submarine light fishing, when we 
noticed a torchlight procession proceeding from the village down the 
sand spit that fringed a reef. The orderliness of the procedure soon 
changed to what one at our distance might have considered some wild 
ceremonial dance. 

Our curiosity being thoroughly aroused, we low-ered a boat and 
soon joined the party of men and boys, who were clad in the con- 
ventional G-string costume, each provided with a torch varjdng from 
about 4 to 6 inches in diameter and probably 10 to 12 feet in length, 
made of slender segments of dried, split bamboo, carried on the 
left shoulder, held by the left hand, and lighted in front. The 
right hand was reserved for the ever-present bolo or a spear. The 
light of these torches would show through the shallow water and 
thus reveal the luckless devil fish, which seemed to have forsaken 
the secure caverns of the reef and to haA^e gone a-hunting on the 
shallow flats within. They are curious creatures, and their humped- 
up attitude and large eyes render them rather mirth provoking at 
such times. But there is little time given to contemplating, for a 
native bolo or spear brings him in and he is promptly strung on a 
rattan string, where he may continue to squirm with his fellow 
captives until dead. 

We secured enough specimens that night to enable us to spare 
some to the cook, for Ming assured us that they were " vely good." 
So they were — rather, I should say it was, for I chewed a single 



Smithsonian Report. 1916 — Bartsch. 



PLATE 1 1 . 




gustave. dore's illustration of gilliatt's fight with the octopus in 
Victor Hugo's "Toilers of the Sea." 



Smithsonian Report, 191 6.— Bartsch. 



Plate 12. 




., *'***'*^flSSP' '* 







An Octopus Feeding on Fish. 

By permission, from '• Denizens ot tlie Deep," by Frank T. Bullen. Fleming H. Revell 

Co., publishers. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS — BARTSCH. 



859 



tentacle the greater part of the following forenoon and relinquished it 
only, and that with regret, when my jaws, aching from overexertion, 
refused to operate more. 

On the island of Guam we found an entirely different method in 







use. Here Vv'e 
watched the na- 
tiA'es fishing for 
the octopus on 
the inside of the 
slender reef that 
stretched from 
Capra Island to- 
ward the steamer 
entrance to the 
beautiful P i t i 
; ; Bay and Ha rbor. 

The natives here take a specimen of a large, 
repulsive-looking Holothurian and tie it to a 
line with a sinker. This is lowered among 
the crevices of the reef. If it finds a cavity 
with an octopus the animal at once leaves 
the premises and is then easily speared by 
the man in the bow of the canoe. There is 
evidently something about the Holothurian 
that is so intensely distasteful to the octupus 
that he at once forsakes his lair. 

It is quite a picture to see these fishermen 
as they ^York in the very teeth of the j)ound- 
ing surf with a craft so frail that one con- 
stantly wonders how they manage to keep it 
from being dashed to pieces. 
The following is a quotation taken from an article by Dr. H. M. 
Smith on "Japan, the Paramount Fishing Nation,"^ which shows 
how the Japanese fishermen catch these animals: 

The octopus or devilfish is abundant and is an important food product in 
Japan, although my personal opinion is that it does not appeal strongly to the 

1 Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, July, 1904, p. 119. 



Fig. 3. — Torchlight octopus 
hunt in the Philippines. 



360 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



American palate. The octopus is caught in various ways, one of the most inter- 
esting of which is by the use of earthenware pots, wliich are lowered to the 
bottom by means of cords ; they are entered by the octopuses, which, having 
insinuated themselves, are reluctant to withdraw, so that the pots may be 
piilled to the surface before the animals try to escape. I bring up this fishery 
in order to refer to a very ingenious corollary, whicli was first mentioned to me 
by a professor in the imperial university and later verified by myself. More 





than a century ago a vessel laden with a very valuable cargo 
of porcelains from Korea destined for the imperial household 
M^as wrecked in the Inland 8ea ; the captain and other 
officers did what seems to have been a favorite amusement of 
the olden days ; namely, they committed suicide just before 
the vessel sank in deep water. Recently the fishermen have 
been recovering pieces of this pottery, which now has an ap- 
preciated value, by tying strings to octopuses and lowering 
them in the vicinity of the wreck. The animals enter the 
vessels and retain their hold of them while being drawn to 
the surface. Several pieces of this porcelain which I saw 
Avere gems, seeming but little the worse for their prolonged 
submergence. 

To show liow extensive the octopus fisheries 
are we again quote from Vice Consul Green's re- 
port in Simmonds's Commercial Products of the 
Sea, who furnishes some interesting particulars 
as to the fishing and trade in cephalopods in the Tunis waters: 

Octopodia and polypi are the trade names mider which these cephalopods are 
known in the Levant and Greek markets, where they are solely imported for 
consumption during Lent, the Orthodox Church not including them in the pro- 
hibition against the use of flesh in seasons of religious abstinence. In a good 
season the several villages on the island of Karkenah supply about 3,000 hun- 
dredweight, and the Jubah waters a third part of this quantity. In an average 
year the yield will be under 2,000 hundredweight, and in one of scarcity 1,000 
hundredweight. On the shores from the village of Luesa to that of Chenies. in 
the Gulf of Khabs, the natives collect from 4 to 5 hundredweight of cuttlefish a 
day during the season, but this supply generally serves for the consumption of 



Fig. 4. — Fishing 
for octopus ou 
the reef at 
Guam. 



Smithsonian Report, 1 916.— Bartsch. 



Plate 13. 




A Cuttlefish (Loliqo vulgaris L). 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. 



Plate 14. 




An Encounter with a Giant Squid. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS — BAETSCH. 



861 




the regency. The remaining coast and islands may be calculated to furnish a 
minimum of 650 to 700 hundredweight of dried molluscs. 

The Tunisian Government claims a third of 
all the polypi fished upon its coast. The sell- 
ing price varies considerably according to the 
size, supply, and demand, but at Sfax a pair 
of them may cost, as circumstances rule, from 
6d. to Is. 3d. ; however, the preparatory mace- 
ration, by beating on a stone slab or rock, 
required before drying entails a small addi- 
tional expense and brings the extremes of low 
and high prices to 25 or 50 shillings per hundredweight. To 
the cost price must be added an export duty of 5s. Id. and 
the purchaser ought to be careful to receive his merchandise 
from the seller during dry weather, as a damp day will add 
from 4 to 5 per cent to the weight of every hundredweight. 
From two to three public sales of dried polypi take place 
in a season on the island of Karkeuah; these are regulated 
according to the abundance of the fish. The average price of 
the last six years has been : During the first sale, from 45 to 
50 shillings per hundredweight; second sale, 35 to 45 shil- 
lings; third sale, 25 to 30 shillings. A few first parcels, in 
order to secure an early market, have, however, occasionally 
been sold for £5 the hundredweight. 

Malta receives the largest share of the Tunisian polypi, 
but they are only sent to that island for ultimate transmis- 
sion to Greece and other parts of the Levant. Portugal is one 
of the few countries that competes with Tunis in supplying 
the Greek markets with polypi. In Greece they are either 
sold, after being pickled, at from £12 16s. to £15 9s. the cantar 
of 176 pounds, or, in their original dried state, from £12 to 
£14 ; but these prices fiuctuate according to the favorable or 
unfavorable results of the season's fishing. 

We must not forget that while we see little of dried 
or pickled octopi in our own country except in the 
Chinese, Greek, and Italian markets of New York, 
Boston, San Francisco, and Chicago, it would be 
difficult to find a food dealer in the oriental markets 
lacking in these choice dainties. 

So much, then, for the octopus, the 
animal that in modern times has become 
the emblem of selfishness and iniquity. 
Let us next turn to the decapods, our 
squids and cuttlefishes, for it is here 
that we find the most wonderful mem- 
bers of the group. Inch for inch, the 
squids will compete in swimming power with any other creature that 
lives in the sea. 

"Well do I recall the rude awakening to which I was subjected when 
I tried to capture some slender Loligopsoid squids in the southern 




Fig. 



5.^ — Fishing for octopus 
Japan. 



362 



ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 




Philippines. I had alwaj^s been told that squids were old-fashioned,/ 
antiquated relics of the past, whose very method of backward pro- 
gression marked them as ,^ 
unfit competitors with 
other marine animals. 

It was on board the Al- 
hatross in the harbor of 
Jolo on a dark night, with 
the sea as smooth as glass. 
We were fishing with the 
submarine light, a mere 16- 

candlepower electric bulb inclosed in a glass globe 
connected to a water-tight cable. It should be 
stated that the sea about Jolo Harbor was found 
to be one of the richest plankton-bearing pieces of 
water that it has been my good fortune to visit; 
and where you have an abundance of microscopic 
life, there, too, will you find the larger forms that 
subsist upon it. A swish or two of the light and a 
raising and lowering of it at once attracted a cloud 
of minute forms, then larger elements came, in 
part attracted by the light and in part by the food. 
The protozoans accumulating about the globe were 
soon followed by worms and crustaceans, whose 
tangential course would soon have carried them 
beyond our light were it not that the fascination 
curves it more and more and apparently renders 
the animal unable to escape from the charm that 
draws, and bends its path to spin about the globe. 
Thus we soon found millions of creatures drawn 
into a spinning vortex about our light — the 
" wheel of life," as some one has aptly termed it. 
But new members were soon added; small fish of 
various kinds, a school of sardines dashing madly 
after the small crustaceans and worms, and still 
larger and larger fish at 
greater distances from the 
light, alwaj^s preying upon 
the lesser circle within; 
now and then even the 
shadowy outline of a large 
shark injected itself into 
the distant reaches of our lamp. It was a mad dance, this whirling, 
circling host of creatures. Soon a new element entered; living 




Fig. 6. — Fishing with octopus iu Japan. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS — BAETSCH. 363 

arrows, a school of Loligopsis shooting across our lighted field, 
apparently not so much attracted by the light as by the feast before 
them. They were wonderful creatures, unlike anything else; they 
shot forward or back like a shuttle, with lightning rapidity. Not 
only that, but they were able to divert their course into any direction 
with equal speed. Shooting forward, their tentacles would seize a 
small fish, and instantly they would come to a full stop, only to dart 
backward like a flash at the least sign of danger. Kill, kill, kill; 
they were bloodthirsty pirates. A bite in the neck, and the fish was 
done for; but the sport continued, and, likely as not, the fish would 
be dropped and another seized and dispatched. Never before nor 
since have I seen anj'^thing that appeared to me more beautifully 
equipped for an aquatic existence than these squids. Frequently — 
yes, very frequently — their impetuous darts would carry them away 
above the surface of the sea; flying squids, when the pumping of 
their siphons produced a popping sound. 

I tried to jig some of them, having heard that the Newfoundland 
fishermen employ a sinker with a series of hooks attached to it, which 
they bob up and down in the water, thereby attracting the squids 
and hooking them. Butj our Sulu squids refused to be hooked. 
They would dash up to the contrivance, follow it at a safe distance, 
but disdained to be caught. They would even snatch from the 
hooks the small fish used as a bait, and make good their escape. 
Even the expert jiggers aboard failed to catch them. The bright 
idea to float a pocket net from the beam and have them enmesh 
themselves in it occurred to someone. This was tried, and we found 
that our squids possessed an intelligence equal to their lightning 
movements. Did they enmesh themselves? Oh, no; not one of the 
thousand or more that composed the school, but they seemed to enjoy 
shooting through a hole in our seine and it was a comical as well as 
wonderful sight to see them dart through this opening not more than 
18 inches in diameter, like arrows fired from a rapid-fire machine 
gun. Now and then the whole school would come near the surface 
and pause, then again it would sinlc to a depth beyond our range of 
vision. Then they would line up on the far side of our net, sink 
below it, and shoot up on our side, to make an assault upon the small 
fish fry which attempted to escape by breaking from the water. 

We finally did capture some by carefully watching the speedy 
flight of an individual near the surface and quickly casting our dip 
net ahead of him. But three nights' efforts of a half a dozen fisher- 
men yielded only a couple of dozen specimens. 

These were wonderful nights in the Sulu Sea ! Tui-n off the elec- 
tric current, and where a moment before you saw a mass of circling 
life, you now have a glowing whirlpool, each spark an atom of life, 



364 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

while bright phosphorescent streaks mark the movement of the Lirger 
forms, themselves luminous or rendered so by exciting their smaller 
neighbors to flash as they come in contact. 

An endless array of species has been made known by our scien- 
tists — species large and small, slender and stout, long and short; 
species with wondrous eyes and blind species, many of the deep-sea 
forms bearing complex luminous organs, and all of them possessing 
wonderfull}^ developed chromatophores wdiich can be contracted or 
enlarged at the animal's will. The contraction may reduce them to 
a mere dot, or they may be expanded to 20 times that diameter. The 
changes in the contraction of thousands of these minute pigment 
cells, some of which are rosin colored, others yellow, blue-green, or 
l.'rown, produce the flashes and changes of color that have gained 
the name of " chameleons of the sea " for our squids. 

The literature of the past abounds in sea-serpent myths, which in 
a large measure are traceable to giant squids. For these are the only 
known animal whose arms can, without distortion, be made to assume 
a serpentine form. This is clearly show^n by our sketch which is 
proportioned, excepting partly the thickness of the tentacular arms, 
which has been slightly increased, after measurements of an actual 
specimen. The expanded end of these long arms, studded with 
suckers, might easily be mistaken for the bearded or maned head, 
usually assigned to the serpent. There would be enough basis in a 
short view of such a vision at long range to enable the untrained 
mind to supply more than enough detail from the imagination to 
create a kraken, kraxen, krabben, korven, ankertrold, soe-horven, a 
haf-gua, soe ormen, horven, aale-tust, or sea serpent. Another thing 
very suggestive in support of this explanation is the fact that the 
known distribution of the giant squids is coextensive with the re- 
gions from w^hich the above-named beasts have been reported. It 
is also interesting to note that the size of these mystic animals has 
decreased wdtli increased ocean travel and general education. While 
sea serpents are annually reported in sea-serpent season, no one ex- 
cept the fearless sailors of old who braved the dangers of the deep 
in their small vessels, have been favored with such visions as one 
finds related by the Et. Eev. Erich Pontoppidan, Bishop of Bergen 
in Norway, and member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Copen- 
hagen, in his Natural History of Norway. We quote from a trans- 
lation published in London in 1755 (pp. 199-200) : 

Another drawing also, which appears more distinct witli regard to the form 
of tliis creature, was taken from tlie reverend Mr. Egede's journal of the Green- 
land mission, where the account stands thus in page 6 : "On the 6th of July, 
1734, there appeared a very large and frightful sea monster, which raised itself 
up so high out of the water that its head reached above our maintop. It has a 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS — BARTSCH. 



365 



sharp suout, and spouted water like a whale, and very broad paws. The body 
seemed to be covered with scales, and the skin was uneven and wrinkled, and 
the lower part was formed like a snake. 

After some time the creature plunged backward into the water and then 
turned its tail up above the surface a whole ship length from the head. The 
following evening we had very bad weather. So far INIr. Egede. The drawing 
annexed gives me the greatest reason to conclude (what by other accounts I 
have thought probable) that there ai-e sea snakes, like other fish, of different 
sorts. That which Mr. Egede saw, and probably all those who sailed with him, 
had under its body two flaps, or perhaps two broad fins ; the head was longer 
and the body thicker and nnich shorter than those sea snakes of which I have 
had the most consistent accounts. Though one can not have an opportunity 
of taking the exact dimensions of this creature, yet all that have seen it are 
unanimous in affirming, as far as they can judge at a distance, it api^ears to 
be of the length of a cable, i. e., 100 fathoms, or 600 English feet ; that it lies 
on the surface of the water (when it is very calm) in many folds, and that 
there are, in a line with the head, some small parts of the back to be seen above 




Fig. 7. — Giant squid in rOle of sea serpent. 



the surface of the water when it moves or bends. These at a distance appear 
like so many ca.sks or hogsheads floating in a line, with a considerable distance 
between each of them. Mr. Tuchsen, of Herroe, whom I mentioned above, is 
the only person, of the many correspondents I have, that informs me he has 
observed the difference between the body and the tail of this creature as to 
thickness. It appears that this creature does not, like the eel or land snake, 
taper gradually to a point, but the body, which looks to be as big as two 
hogsheads, gixtws remarkably small at once just M^here the tail begins. The 
head in all the kinds has a high and broad forehead, but in some a pointed 
snout, though in others that is flat, like that of a cow or a horse, with large 
nostrils, and several stiff hairs standing out on each side like whiskers. 

It is supposed that the sea snakes have a very quick smell, which we may 
conclude from this, that they are observed to fly from the smell of castor. 
Upon this account, those that go out on Stor-Eggen to fish in the summer, 
always provide themselves with these animals. They add, that the eyes of this 
creature are very large, and of a blue color, and look like a couple of bright 
pewter plates. The whole animal is of a dark-brown color, but it is speckled 
and variegated with light streakes or spots, that shine like tortoise shell. It is 
of a darker hue about the eyes and mouth than elsewhere, and appears in that 
part a good deal like those horses, which we call moors heads. 



366 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1&16. 

I do not find by any of my correspondents, that they spout the water out of 
their nostrils like the whale, only in that one instance related by Mr. Egede, as 
mentioned above ; but when it approaches, it puts the water in great agitation, 
and makes it run like the current at a mill. Those on our coast differ like- 
wise from the Greenland sea snakes, A%ith regard to the skin, which is as smooth 
as glass, and has not the least wrinkle, but about the neck, where there is a 
kind of a mane, which looks like a parcel of seaweeds hanging down to the 
water. 

The observer iindoiibtedl}^ mistook the tail of a giant squid for the 
head of the serpent and the flukes for the limbs. 
We quote again (pp. 202-203) : 

One of the aforesaid North traders, who says that he has been near enougih 
to some of these sea snakes (alive) to feel their smooth skin, informs me, that 
sometimes they will raise up their frightful heads, and snap a man out of a 
boat, without hurting the rest ; but I will not affirm this for a truth, because 
it is not certain that they are a fish of prey. Yet this, and their enmity to man- 
kind, can be no more determined, than that of the land snake, by the words of 
the prophet Amos (chap, ix, v.3) : "And though they be hid from my sight in 
the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite 
them." 

And again (p. 207) Magnus, in his Hist or. Septentrion. Lib. 21. 
c. 24, speaks of a Norwegian sea snake 80 feet long, but not thicker 
than a child's arm. He says : 

This creature, was put to such pain by the crabs fastening on, it, that it 
writhed itself into a hundred shapes. I have never heard of this sort from 
any otlaer person, and should hardly believe the good Olaus, if he did not say 
that he affirmed this from his own experience. * * * T^g disproportion 
betwixt the thickness of a child's arm, and a length of SO feet, makes me think 
there must be an error of the press in the place, for xl. perhaps should be xi. 
ells, or 22 feet; a more proportionable length, for the thickness. 

And yet good Olaus's observation may not have been so very wrong, 
in fact much nearer the truth than the above listed yarns, in all prob- 
ability it represented the tentacular arms of a giant squid. 

To show the keenness of observation of early seamen, we quote 
the following from the same source (pp. 211-213) : 

Our fishermen unanimously affirm, and without the least variation in their 
accounts, that when they row out several miles to sea, particularly in the 
hot summer days, and by their situation (which they know by taking a view 
of certain points of land) expect to find 80 or 100 fathoms water, it often 
happens that they do not find above 20 or 30, and sometimes less. At these 
places they generally find the greatest plenty of fish, especially cod and ling. 
Their lines, they say, are no sooner out than they may draw them up with 
the hooks all full of fish ; by this they judge that the kraken is at the bottom. 
They say this creature causes those unnatural shallows mentioned above, and 
prevents their sounding. These the fishermen are always glad to find, looking 
upon them as a means of their taking abundance of fish. There are sometimes 
20 boats or more got together and throwing out their lines at a moderate dis- 
tance from each other; and the only thing they then have to observe is 
whether the depth continues the same, which they know by their lines, or 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS — BAETSCH. 367 

whether it grows shallower by their seeiuing to have less water. If this last 
be the case, they hud that the krakeii is raising himself nearer the surface, 
and then it is not time for them to stay any longer. They immediately leave 
off fishing, take to their oars, and get away as fast as they can. When tliey 
have reached the usual depth of the place and find themselves out of danger, 
they lie upon their oars, and in a few minutes after they see this enormous 
monster come up to the surface of tlie water. He there shows himself suffi- 
ciently, though his whole body does not appear, which, in all likelihood, no 
human eye ever beheld, excepting the young of this species, which shall after- 
wards be spoken of. Its back or upper part, which seems to be in appearance 
about an English mile and a half in circumference — some say more, but I 
choose tlie least for greater certainty — looks at first like a number of small 
islands surrounded with something that floats and fluctuates like seaweeds. 
Here and there a larger rising is observed like sand banks, on which various 
kinds of small fishes are seen continually leaping about till they roll off into 
the water from the sides of it. At last several bright ijoints of horns appear, 
which grow thicker and thicker the higher they rise above the surface of the 
water, and sometimes they stand up as high and as large as the masts of 
middle-sized vessels. 

It seems these are the creature's arms, and, it is said, if they were to lay 
hold of the largest man-of-war they would pull it down to the bottom. After 
this monster has been on the surface of the water a short time it begins 
slowly to sink again, and then the danger is as great as before, because the 
motion of his sinking causes such a swell in the sea and such an eddy or 
whirlpool that it draws everything down with it, like the current of the river 
Male, which has been described in its proper place. As this enormous sea 
animal, in all probability, may be reckoned of the Polype, or of the starfish 
kind, as shall hereafter be more fully proved, it seems that the parts which 
are seen rising at its pleasure, and are called arms, are properly the tentacula, 
or feeling instruments, called horns as well as arms. With these they move 
themselves and likewise gather in their food. 

Besides these, for this last purpose the great Creator has also given this 
creature a strong and peculiar scent, which it can emit at certain times, and 
by means of which it beguiles and draws other fish to come in heaps about 
it. This animal has another strange property, known by the experience of a 
great many old fishermen. They observe that for some months the kraken, 
or krabben, is continually eating and in other months he always voids his 
excrements. During this evacuation the surface of the water is colored with 
the excrement and appears quite thick and turbid. This muddiness is said 
to be so very agreeable to the smell or taste of other fishes, or to both, 
that they gather together from all parts to it and keep for that purpose 
directly over the kraken. He then opens his arms, or horns, seizes and 
swallows his welcome guests, and converts them, after the due time, by diges- 
tion, into a bait for other fish of the same kind. I relate what is affirmed 
by many, but I can not give too certain assurances of this particular as I 
can of the existence of this surprising creature, though I do not find anything 
in it absolutely contrary to nature. As we can hardly expect an opportunity 
to examine this enormous sea animal alive, I am the more concerned that 
nobody embraced that opportunity which, according to the following account, 
once did and perhaps never more may offer of seeing entire when dead. The 
Rev, Mr. Friis, consistorial assessor, minister of Bodoen, in Nordlaud, and 
vicar of the college for promoting Christian knowledge, gave me at the latter 
end of last year, when he was at Bergen, this relation, which I deliver again 
on his credit. 



368 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 



In the year 1680 a krake (pei'haps a young and careless one) came into the 
water that runs between the rocks and cliffs in the parish of Alstahoug, 
though the general custom of that creature is to keep always several leagues 
from land, and therefore of course they must die there. It happened that 
its extended long arms, or antennae, which this creature seems to use like 
the snail — in turning about — caught hold of some trees standing near the 
water, which miglit easily have been torn up by the roots ; but besides this, 
as it was found afterwards, he entangled himself in some openings or clefts 
in the rock, and therein stuck so fast, and hung so unfortunately, that he 
could not work himself out, but perished and putrified on the spot. The 
carcass, which was a long while decaying and filled a great part of that 
narrow channel, made it almost impassable by its intolerable stench. 

Let us now turn from these distorted and fanciful images to the 
animals that are responsible for them. Prof. A. E. Verrill, in his 




Fig. 8. — Jaws of the giant squid. Half natural size. 



report on the cephalopods of the northeastern coast of America, 
published in the annual report of the Commissioner of Fish and 
Fisheries for 1879, tells us many interesting things about the Ameri- 
can members of the group. Among other things he presents a table 
on page 22 which gives measurements of the various giant squids 
that he had examined to date. The largest of these had a total 
length of 55 feet. The length of the tentacular arms of this speci- 
men are cited as 35 feet, while the length of the body from tip of 
tail to the base of the arms is given as 20 feet. The greatest length 
of tentacular arms mentioned in the table is 37 and the greatest 
circumference of the body as 12 feet. The diameter of the largest 
sucker is given as about 2.25 inches, and the breadth of the eye 
opening is 7 by 9 inches. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. 



Plate 15. 




,f%^ 




A9' 



'*%tiu^ 



4m' 




"^\: ^ 
*f^ 







A Piece of Sperm Whale Skin Relating a Battle with a Giant Squid, in 
Sucker Scar Script. 

By permissiou, Irom " Tlie Depths of the UCuau," by Murray aud Hjort. The Macmillaii Co. 



Smithsonian Pnn^^ 1 01 f^ — Bs'tsch. 



Plate 16. 




A Fight Between a Sperm Whale and a Giant Squid. 
By permission, from '• The Cruise of the Caclielot," by Frank T. Bullen. D. Appleton & Co, 




THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS BARTSCH. 369 

In another place he states : 

A specimen was found alive in shallow water at Coombs Cove and cap- 
tured. Concerning this one I have seen only newspaper accounts. It is 
stated that its body measured 10 feet in length and was "nearly as large 
around as a hogshead" (10 to 12 feet) ; its two long arms (of which only 
one remained ) were 42 feet in length and " as large as a man's wrist " ; its 
short arms were 6 feet in length but about 9 inches in diameter, " very stout 
and strong " ; the suckers had a serrated edge. 

The tentacular arms of this specimen would have had a spread 
of 8-1: feet. But I have somewhere seen measurements cited of a 
specimen that carried the extension beyond the 100-foot mark. A 
splendid basis for sea-serpent yarns. We again quote from Dr. 
Verrill: 

I have been informed by many other fishermen that these " big squids," as 
they call them, are occasionally taken on the Grand Banks and used for bait. 
Others state that they have seen them 
in that region without being able to 
capture them. Nearly all the speci- 
mens hitherto taken appear to have 
been more or less disabled when first 

observed ; otherwise they probablv /■ ac ^-^ 9 

would not appear at the surface in ' i 

the daytime. From the fact that they Fig. 9. — Suckers of the giant squid. Ualf 
have mostly come ashore in the night natural size. 1. From long arm. 2. From 
I infer that they inhabit chiefly the 

very deep and cold fiords of Newfoundland and come up to the surface only 
in the night. 

That they may at times be a danger to man is shown by the 
following statement which we quote from Dr. Verrill's paper: 

The following extract is from a letter written by the Rev. JI. Harvey to Dr. 
J. W. Dawson, and published in the Montreal Gazette, February 26, 1874: 
" Two fishermen were out in a small punt on October 26, 1873, off Portugal 
Cove, Conception Bay, about 9 miles from Saint John's. Observing some object 
floating on the water at a short distance, they rowed toward it, supposing it to 
be a large sail or the debris of a wreck. On reaching it one of the men struck it 
with his gaff, when immediately it showed signs of life, reared a parrotlike 
beak, which they declare was 'as big as a 6-gallon keg,' with which it struck 
the bottom of the boat violently. It then shot out from about its head two 
huge livid arms and began to twine them around the boat. One of the men 
seized a small ax and severed both arms as they lay over the gunwale of the 
boat ; whereupoa the fish moved off and ejected an immense quantity of inky 
fiuid, which darkened the water for two or three hundred yards. The men 
saw it for a short time afterwards, and observed its tail in the air, which they 
declare was 10 feet across. They estimate the body to have been 60 feet in 
length, 5 feet in diameter, of the same shape and color as the common .squid, 
and they observed that it moved in the same way as the squid, both backward 
and forward. 

" One of the arms which they brought ashore was unfortunately destroyed, 
as they were ignorant of its importance; but the clergyman of the village as- 



370 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

sures me it was 10 inches in diameter and 6 feet in length. The other arm was 
brought to Saint Jolm's, but not before 6 feet of it were destroyed. For- 
tunately, I lieard of it and took measures to have it preserved. Mr. Murray, 
of tlie geological survey, and I afterwards examined it carefully, had it pho- 
tographed, and immersed in alcohol ; it is now in our museum. It measured 19 
feet, is of a pale, pink color, entirely cartilaginous, tough, and pliant as leather, 
and very strong." 

In a letter dated November 27, 1877, Mr. Harvey gives an account of another 
specimen, which was stranded on the shore at Lance Cove, Smiths Sound, 
Trinity Bay, about 20 miles farther up the bay than the locality of the Catalina 
Bay specimen (No. 14). He received his information from Mr. John Duffet, a 
resident of the locality, who was one of the persons who found and measured 
it. His account is as follows : " On November 21, 1877, early in the morning, 
a ' big squid ' was seen on the beach, at Lance Cove, still alive and struggling 
desperately to escape. It had been borne in by a ' spring tide ' and a high in- 
shore wind. In its struggles to get off it ploughed up a trench or furrow about 
30 feet long and of considerable depth by the stream of water that it ejected 
with great force from its siphon. When the tide receded it died. Mr. Duffet 
measured it carefully, and found that the body was nearly 11 feet long (prob- 
ably including the head) ; the tentacular arms, 33 feet long. He did not 
measure the short arms, but estimated them at 13 feet, and that they were 
nmch thicker than a man's thigh at their bases. The people cut the body open 
and it was left on the beach. It is an out-of-the-way place, and no one knew 
that it was of any value. Otherwise, it could easily have been brought to St. 
John's, with only the eyes destroyed and the body opened." It was subse- 
quently carried off by the tide, and no portion was secured. 

From Capt. J. W. Collins, of the United States Fish Conuuission, I learn 
that in October, 1875, an unusual number of giant squids were found floating 
at the surface on the Grand Banks, but mostly entirely dead and more or 
less mutilated by birds and fishes. In very few cases they were not quite 
dead, but entirely disabled. These were seen chiefly between north latitude 
44° and 44° 30', and between west longitude 49° 30' and 49° 50'. He believes 
that between 25 and 30 specimens were secured by the fleet from Gloucester, 
Mass., and that as many more were probably obtained by the vessels from other 
places. They were cut up and used as bait for codfish. For this use they 
are of considerable value to the fishermen. Capt. Collins was at that time in 
command of the schooner Hoioard, which secured five of these giant squids. 
These were mostly from 10 to 15 feet long, not including the arms, and aver- 
aged about IS inches in diameter. The arms were almost always mutilated. 
The portion that was left was usually 3 to 4 feet long, and at the base about 
as large as a man's thigh. 

One specimen, when cut up, was packed into a large hogshead-tub, having a 
capacity of about 75 gallons, Avhich it filled. This tub was known to hold 700 
pounds of codfish. The gi'avity of the Architeuthis is probably about the same 
as that of the fish. This would indicate more nearly the actual weight of one 
of these creatures than any of the mere estimates that have been made, which 
are usually much too great. Allowing for the parts of the arms that had been 
destroyed this specimen would, probably, have weighed nearly 1,000 pounds. 

Among the numerous other vessels that 'were fortunate in securing this kind 
of bait Capt. Collins mentions the following: 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS — BAETSCH. 371 

The schooner SaraJi P. Ayer, Capt. Oakly, took one or two. The E. R. Nicker- 
son, Capt. McDonald, secured one that had its arms and was not entirely dead, 
so that it was harpooned. Its tentacular arms were 36 feet long. 

The schooner Tragabigsanda, Capt. Mallory, secured three in one afternoon. 
These were 8 to 12 feet long, not including the arms. 

These statements are confirmed by other fishermen, some of whom state that 
the " big squids " were also common during the same season at the " Flemish 
Cap," a bank situated some distance northeast from the Grand Banks. 

The cause of so great a mortality among these great Cephalopods can only 
be conjectured. It may have been due to some disease epidemic among them, 
or to an unusual prevalence of deadly parasites or other enemies. It is worth 
Avhile, however, to recall the fact that these were observed at about the same 
time, in autumn, when most of the specimens have been found cast ashore in 
Newfoundland in different years. This time may, perhaps, be just subsequent 
to their season for reproduction, when they would be so much weakened as to 
1)6 more easily overpowered by parasites, disease, or other imfavorable condi- 
tions. 

Aside from man the sperm whale is imdoubtedly the greatest 
enemy possessed by these monstrous animals, for it is well known 
that parts of them are usually found in the stomach or are vomited 
by the sperm whale when the animal is captured by whalers. We 
quote from The Depths of the Ocean, by Sir John Murray and Dr. 
Johan Hjort (pp. 651-652) : 

On the 15th of August the Michael Sars arrived in Mofjord on the east 
coast of Iceland, and visited the local whaling station. On the shore were two 
freshly caught whales, one a north-caper, the other a cachalot. Inspecting 
the cachalot I saw around its enormous jaws several long parallel stripes con- 
sisting, as closer scrutiny revealed, of great numbers of circular scars or 
wounds about 27 mm. in diameter. It occurred to me that these scars must 
have been left by the suckers of a giant squid, and following up this idea I 
found in the whale's mouth a piece of a squid tentacle 17 cm. in maximum 
diameter. In the stomach of the whale many squid-beaks of various sizes 
were found, the largest measuring 9 cm. in length, besides some fish bones, 
and the men who had shot the whale told me that in its death flurry it dis- 
gorged the arm of a squid 6 meters long. 

Our illustration (pi. 15) shows the sucker scars in the skin. 

An encounter between a sperm whale and giant squid is described 
in Frank T. Bullen's book on The Cruise of the Cachalot, from which 
we quote (pp. 143-144). 

At about 11 p. ni. I was leaning over the lee rail, gazing steadily at the 
bright surface of the sea, where the intense radiance of the tropical moon made 
a broad path like a pavement of burnished silver. Eyes that saw not, mind 
only confusedly conscious of my surroundings, were mine; but suddenly I 
started to my feet with an exclamation, and stared with all my might at 
the strangest sight I ever saw. There was a violent commotion in the sea 
right where the moon's rays were concentrated, so great that, remembering 
our position, I was at first inclined to alarm all hands: for I had often heard 
of volcanic islands suddenly lifting their heads from the depths below, or dis- 



372 AI^NUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

appearing in a moment, and, with Sumatra's chain of active volcanoes so near, 
I felt doubtful indeed of what was now happening. Getting the night glasses 
out of the cabin scuttle, where they were always hung in readiness, I focussed 
them on the troubled spot, perfectly satisfied by a short examination that 
neither volcano nor earthquake had anything to do with what was going on ; yet 
so vast were the forces engaged that I might well have been excused for my first 
supposition. A very large sperm whale was locked in deadly conflict with a 
cuttle-fish, or squid, almost as large as himself, whose interminable tentacles 
seemed to enlace the whole of his great body. The head of the whale espe- 
cially seemed a perfect network of writhing arms — naturally, I suppose, for it 
appeared as if the whale had the tail part of the mollusc in his jaws, and, in 
a businesslike, methodical Avay, was sawing through it. By the side of the 
black columnar head of the whale appeared the head of the great squid, as 
awful an object as one could well imagine even in a fevered dream. Judging 
as carefully as possible, I estimated it to be at least as large as one of our 
pipes, which contained 350 gallons; but it may have been, and probably was, 
a good deal larger. The eyes were very remarkable from their size and black- 
ness, which, contrasted with the livid whiteness of the head, made their ap- 
pearance all the more striking. They were at least a foot in diameter, and 
seen under such conditions looked decidedly eerie and hobgoblin-like. All 
around the combatants were numerous sharks, like jackals around a lion, 
ready to share the feast and apparently assisting in the destruction of the 
huge cephalopod. So the titanic struggle went on in perfect silence as far as 
we were concerned, because, even had there been any noise, our distance from 
the scene of conflict would not have permitted us to hear it. 

It is quite possible that the animal observed was an octopus, which 
would better fit the geographical position of the conflict than the 
squid. Such a fight is depicted in chapter 11, The Autobiography 
of a Sperm Wliale, Frank T. Bullen's " Denizens of the Deep," from 
which we have taken plate IT. 

It is probable, from various observations, that this and the other species of 
squids are partially nocturnal in their habits, or at least are more active in 
the night than in the day. Those that are caught in the pounds and weirs 
mostly enter in the night, evidently while swimming along the shores in 
" schools." They are often found in the morning stranded on the beaches in 
immense numbers, especially when there is a full moon, and it is thought by 
many of the fishermen that this is because, like many other nocturnal animals, 
they have the habit of turning toward and gazing at a bright light, and since 
they swim backwards they get ashore on the beaches opposite the position 
of the moon. This habit is also sometimes taken advantage of by the fisher- 
men, who capture them for bait for cod fish ; they go out in dark nights with 
torches in their boats and by advancing slowly toward a beach drive them 
ashore. 

That Cephalopods furnished an attractive bait for fish was known 
to the ancients, for Aristotle tells us : 

For this reason fishermen roast the fleshy parts of the cuttlefish and use it 
as bait on account of its smell, for fish are peculiarly attracted by it ; they also 
bake the octupus and bait their fish baskets or weels with it entirely, as they 
say, on account of its smell. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. 



Plate 17. 




A Battle Between a Sperm Whale and a Giant Octopus. 

By permission, from "Denizens of the Deep," liy Frank T. Bullen. Fleming U. Revell Co., 

publishers. 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. 



Plate 18. 




An Impaled Squid Shooting Water from the Siphon. 

From "The Herring Weirs of the Maine Coast, Their Building and Their 
Use," by C. E. H., Country Life in America, August, 1904. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS BARTSCH. 373 

Our American cod fishermen will thoroughly agree with him, but 
they will say that baking or roasting is not essential, that salting 
even will do. Let us quote again from Simmonds's Commercial 
Products of the Sea: 

The squids form an important element in the North American fisheries. The 
common Loligo is the favorite food of the cod, and is therefore itself fished 
for bait. One-half of all the cod taken on the banks of Newfoundland are said 
to be caught by it. When the vast shoals of this mollusk approach the coast 
hundreds of vessels are ready to capture them, forming an extensive cuttle 
fishery, engaging .500 sail of French, English, and American ships. During 
violent gales of wind hundreds of tons of them are often thrown up together 
in beds on the flat beaches, the decay of which spreads an intolerable elHuvium 
around. They must themselves be consumed in enormous numbers, for it has 
been estimated that a single squid will lay in one season 40,000 eggs. 

A recent inquiry at the Bureau of Fisheries yielded the statement 
that about 3,000,000 pounds were captured annually,' estimated to 
have a value of about$43,500. Sixty-six per cent are caught in traps 
in moss chiefly aboiut Cape Cod, though many are obtained in the 
same manner all the way from Maine to Marjdand. Considerable 
quantities also are obtained by American fishing vessels on the coasts 
of Canada and Newfoundland. These are not noted in the above 
statistics. To a considerable extent in former times, but only to a 
limited extent recently, squids have been caught by means of jigs, 
a collection of hooks arranged in circular form along a central 
weight. Jigs are dangled in the water at the end of short lines and 
attract the squids which are caught when they attempt to seize them. 

On our west coast squids are caught for food purposes, being 
chiefly used by the Oriental element of the population. All through 
the south seas, the Philippines, and Japan, as well as the adjacent 
mainland countries, one may see split and dried cuttlefish hung in 
the stores and offered for sale as an element of proteid food. In the 
Mediterranean countries, where they are also used as food, they are 
usually pickled. Nor is the flesh the only element of commercial 
value, for the cuttlefish bone forms quite an element of commerce. 
It is not only used as an adjunct to the canary's cage, but in powdered 
form has served as a fine polishing powder, a fine dentifrice, and an 
ingredient of medicine. The ladies of ancient days knew it also, for 
they were accustomed to use the burned product, known to them 
as pearl powder, as an aid to complexion. In later days this was 
even improved upon by the addition of a bit of carmine to form the 
so-called French rouge. Sepia and India ink have been already 
referred to and need no further mention here. 

We will close our sketch with some extracts from a charming ar- 
ticle, "First Photographs Ever Made of a Paper Nautilus," pub- 
73839°— SM 1916 25 



374 ANNUAL EEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 191G. 

lished by Charles Frederick Holder, in Volume 15, No. 4, 1909, of 
Country Life in America, T\-hich gives one a glimpse of the marvelous 
beauty of some of these pirates of the deep. 

The term paper nautilus suggests the dainty structure in which the animal 
lives at times — a fragile, involuted, vase-like object, deeply fluted and coiled, 
the keel or edge sharp, having double points, while all over the calcareous and 
pearly shell are deep graceful and branched radiations. The general color is 
a delicate gray, the opening in the side of nacre, heavily coated, in sharp con- 
trast to the horny translucent shell paper. The keel is tinted a rich brown 
that often extends an inch or two up the side of the shell, which may be 2 
or 8 or 9 inches across. The shell is not to be compared with the ordinary 
covering of mollusks, as it is not essential to the animal ; it is only a dainty 
object having the shape of a shell, formed by the animal for the protection of 
its eggs. It is, then, a nest and in no way connected with the animal, as in 
the case of the pearly nautilus, where the animal forms partitions as it grows 
and is connected with them all by a fleshy pedicle or cord. The paper nautilus 
can dart out of its fairy ship at a second's notice. 

Glancing into the shell we may see a yellow bunch of miniature grapes 
hanging from the interior wall — the eggs — and percned in front of them is 
the argonaut, looking very much like an octopus or devilfish. From the number 
of empty shells found upon Santa Catalina beaches in winter and suumier it 
might be assumed that the argonaut deserts the shell at times and lives a 
roving, octopuslike life. 

In appearance it is one of the most beautiful of all animals as it rests in its 
shell, trembling with color, as waves of rose, yellow, green, violet, and all tints 
of brown are continually sweeping over it ; now irised in the most delicate shade 
of blue, now brown or green, changing to rose, vivid scarlet, or molten silver. 
So sensitive is it that every convulsive movement of the mantle of my paper 
nautilus in taking water to breathe and forcing it out of the siphon caused a 
wave of color to pass over the entire body. When the water was taken in the 
color cells contracted, leaving it pale for a fraction of a second ; when it was 
forced out they evidently relaxed and the entire surface was suffused with 
color to disappear as quickly, giving a continuous heat-lightning effect. 

Of the three living specimens that I have kept in confinement one was 4 or 
5 inches long, another 8 or 9. The small one was extremely active, leaving 
its shell to crawl about its prison and darting back with great agility, directing 
its funnel backward at the cluster of eggs hanging in the interior of the shell, 
always paying the most assiduous attention to them to prevent the intrusion 
of any parasite or enemy. 

It would recline against the weed-covered rock watching me or eyeing my 
hand as it moved about, blushing, paling, displaying remarkable sensitiveness, 
and when I touched the shell would protest by pumping violently, shooting 
the shell backward and, if I held on, aiming the siphon at my hand and pump- 
ing water at it, on one occasion filling the water with an extraordinary volley 
or cloud of ink. But ordinarily this argonaut did not resent my friendly ad- 
vances and when touched it would twine its tentacles about my fingers, hold 
them closely, and rise partly from the shell, the big black and silver staring 
eye evidently watching every movement. 

The speed with which the argonaut coiild move backward, propelled by its 
siphon, was i*emarkable when seen from the side, but when it was observefl 
from behind it was seen to be a perfect racing machine ; the sharp keel of 
the shell covered by the extraordinary velamentous arms presented a perfectly 



Smithsonian Report, 1916. — Bartsch. 



Plate 19. 




The Argonaut and Her Egg Case. 



From '■ First Photograplis Ever Made of a Paper Nautilus," by Charles F. Holder, Country Life 
in. America, Februarj-, 1909. 




2. A Fish Trap on the Cape Cod Coast, in which Large Numbers of Squid are 

Caught. 

From " King Herring: An Account of the World's Most Valuable Fish, etc.,'" by Hugh M. Smith. 
National Geographic Magazine, August, 1909. 



THE SQUID AND OCTOPUS BAETSCH. 375 

smooth surface, and the slightest current fi-om the siphon was sufficient to 
send it along, the entire animal heiug concealed, the tentacles not trailing 
hehind, as often described. When the argonaut left tlie shell it crawled about 
in the position of an octopus, mouth down, but when in the shell its favorite 
position apparently was with its mouth pointing directly upward, the two 
dorsal or upper arms thrown back, or it would fasten itself to the glass of the 
tank by the two large arms and gradually expand them until they were as 
large as the shell itself, presenting a rippling ultramarine blue on the outer 
side and iridescent frosted silver on the other. 



THE ECONOMIC IMPOETANCE OF THE DIATOMS. 



By Albert Mann. 



[With 6 plates.] 



Scientific study is constantly giving emphasis to the fact that in 
nature there is little, if any, relationship between size and impor- 
tance. Charles Darwin long ago made it plain that among the myriad 
of living creatures the earthworm plaj^s a very important role in the 
economy of nature, especially as applied to mankind, and is in fact 
a greater animal than the elephant. The lowly grass outweighs in 
importance the loftiest tree of the forest. A brilliant series of dis- 
coveries led by Pasteur has revealed to us that the most gigantic 
])ower, in some cases beneficent, in others baleful, is exercised by 
the minutest of all living things, the bacteria. It is, therefore, not 
to be wondered at that the plants here under consideration, although 
as a class quite invisible to the naked eye, and many of them so 
minute that a hundred can be laid upon the head of a common pin, 
are at the same time of great economic importance. 

But for a long time the attention of mankind was diverted from 
the more practical values that we are here to consider by that most 
striking characteristic of these plants, their surprising beauty and 
the unequaled complexity of their ornamentation. Coupled with 
their minuteness there is a daintiness of structure and an artistic 
diversity of design among the six thousand and odd species which 
has doubtless been the cause why until recent times they have been 
objects of merely esthetic interest. They have never been neglected, 
for from the time of the invention of the microscope they have been 
the darlings of the microscopists ; but only to-day are they begin- 
ning to be recognized as an important factor in the welfare of the 
human race. 

Each diatom plant secretes for itself an incasing box or invest- 
ment of pure silica, somewhat as a clam or oyster secretes its shell; 
and these crystalline walls, within which the tiny living plant is 
housed, are sculptured and carved with such bewildering complexity 
of design and yet with such perfection of finish that their attrac- 
tiveness has absorbed the attention of students to the detriment of 
their many less spectacular qualities. 

377 



378 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

Only one practical use has been developed from this esthetic study 
of the diatoms ; they have been long recognized as the most accurate 
and satisfactory test objects for determining the perfection of micro- 
scopic lenses and accessories, the ability of any microscope to render 
visible the fine lace ornamentation which overspreads some of the 
species being the best index of its optical excellence. As a conse- 
quence of this, all microscopes are to-day tested vs^ith one or both of 
two species of diatoms, Pleurosigma angulatuTn^ or AmpMpleura 
2}elliicida. 

One of the oldest of the economic uses of diatoms has been that 
of employing fossil diatom earth as a polishing powder, especially 
in metal work. These organisms appeared geologically about the 
middle of the Cretaceous period, and although, therefore, among 
the later of the now existing forms of plant life, their prolific multi- 
plication has resulted, during former periods of time, in the forma- 
tion of enormous fossil beds composed of the silica remains of these 
minute aquatic plants. Such beds are found all over the world, 
famous deposits being located at Luneburg, Grermany; Bilin, Bo- 
hemia; Sendai, Japan; Ananino, Russia; Oamaru, New Zealand; 
Moron, Spain; Keene, N. H. ; Nottingham, Md. ; the coast of Cali- 
fornia, and many other places of minor importance. The first con- 
siderable fossil deposit of diatomaceous earth used was confused 
with a polishing material called " rottenstone," mined at Tripoli, in 
Africa, and it was therefore referred to in commerce by the same 
name, " Tripoli powder," and is in fact so sold in drug stores at the 
present time. Its high abrasive value comes from the fact that tlie 
material, silica, has a high degree of hardness and the grain of the 
diatom powder is so fine as to produce as a polish the highest luster. 
Its extreme fineness of texture is shown by a computation made by 
Ehrenberg, that in 1 cubic inch of the Bilin diatom earth there are 
40,000,000 individuals. : <,!l,i -.lu/ . ; a- 

This abrasive quality of the diatoms has led to their use for other 
purposes than metal polishing, as for example, for tooth powder. 
One of the widely advertised tooth powder preparations upon the 
market is composed entirely of diatomaceous earth. It can not be 
said that this is a good material for the purpose, as the cutting 
quality of this siliceous substance is too great to be used constantl}^ 
upon the thin layer of enamel of the teeth. It is, however, interest- 
ing to think that many of the users of this diatom dentifrice would 
be amazed if they could see the thousands of exquisite gem-like organ- 
isms lying upon their tooth brush and used as a toilet preparation. 

As a curious instance of perverted use, it might be well here to 
mention the fact that diatomaceous earth was at one time extensively 
eaten by the impoverished and half-starved tribes inhabiting the 
remoter portions of eastern Europe and Asia. Generally the diatom 



ECOi^OMIC IMPOETAKCE OF DIATOMS — MAI'TN'. 379 

earth was mixed with flour, and although the nutritive value of this 
added substance is practically nothing, the advantage of its use was 
an actual one; because, when the normal requirement of the human 
stomach for a " square meal " is a quart, and the available flour for 
that meal is a half pint, the unfortunate consumer gets at least the 
semblance of a full dimier by adding to his food supply three times 
its volume of harmless and inert matter. This is probably the ex- 
planation of the custom of those tribes known as the " earth eaters." 

A number of years ago and shortly after the invention of nitro- 
glycerine, the diatoms came into an economic use of great importance, 
namely, the manufacture of dynamite. This substance, so great 
a blessing and a curse to mankind, is essentially nothing but nitro- 
glycerine absorbed into the cavities of dried diatom earth. As each 
diatom plant is a microscopically small silica box, the walls of which 
are perforated with intensely minute openings, the diatom earth 
serA'es to isolate tiny particles of nitroglycerine in such a way as to 
render the liquid practically a solid and at the same time to obviate 
the dangerous quality of free nitroglycerine of exploding by means 
of shock and at low temperatures. To-day, although diatomaceous 
earth is used to a considerable extent as an element in nitroglycerine 
explosives, it has been somewhat replaced by other substances, as for 
example, wood meal. 

If the meaning of the word economic is not too rigidly taken 
and may include our increased facility in certain lines of research, it 
is proper to mention among the economic uses of these plants their 
value in the determination of certain problems of oceanography, 
especially in the determination of the direction and the extent of 
the great ocean currents. Those familiar with this phase of research 
are aware of the great difficulties attendant upon the accurate meas- 
urement of the extent and speed of an ocean current, due to the fact 
that the vessel from which such observations have to be made is itself 
a drifting object, acted upon by the current in question, as well as 
by the wind and other forces difficult to compute. Could the ship 
be anchored, this disadvantage would vanish; but inasmuch as this 
phase of oceanographic research is carried on in the deep seas, 
anchoring is not practicable. These organisms, on account of their 
peculiar structure, composition, and size, lend themselves perfectly 
to studies of this kind. It is perhaps safe to say that they are the 
only organisms which meet fully the requirements. Being com- 
posed in part of an indestructible substance, they do not suffer the 
rapid decay of many of the microscopic organisms of the sea. This 
is equally true of other marine organisms incased in silica ; but none 
of these have a second characteristic of the diatoms which is of equal 
importance, namely, a minuteness of size sufficient to enable them to 
be carried hundreds or thousands of miles by ocean currents. Such 



380 ANNUAL KEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1916. 

animal denizens of the sea as the Radiolaria are as immortal as to 
their silica encasements as are the diatoms; but their larger bulk 
and more massive construction precipitates them to the bottom, while 
the diatoms are held in suspension like the finest dust for an indefi- 
nite distance. When we add to these two qualities a third one, the 
large number of well-defined species, diilering in kind according to 
the parts of the world in which they are found, we see that the pres- 
ence of these organisms in an ocean current, even thousands of miles 
from land, will often indicate the direction, the extent, and to some 
degree the speed of the current by which they are borne along. It 
should be here stated as a factor in this problem that the diatom flora 
of any part of the world is always peculiar to that locality, just as 
the land flora varies at diiferent latitudes and on the different con- 
tinents. Thus we have a north and south arctic, a north and south 
temperate, and a torrid diatom flora, which are in strong contrast to 
each other and which, wherever met with, indicate the place of their 
origin. In the same way the fresh-water forms, which are poured 
in large quantities into the sea by the rivers, are still more distinctive, 
and each section of the coast of our continent has at least some of 
these plants to be found nowhere else upon the earth. 

The student of these minute plants is constantly made aware of 
this sharp distinction of the diatom flora of one part of the world 
from that of the rest. Let us take some examples : A recent study of 
some living material from the Hawaiian Islands yielded a large and 
elaborately ornamented diatom, Biddulfhia imperidlis, and search 
through diatom literature revealed this in an obscure monograph, 
where it was recorded that it also had been found " at the Sandwich 
Islands." Doubtless the locality of the original specimen was prac- 
tically that of the one later found. Another species was named by a 
Philadelphia diatomist as having been found in a gathering at Mag- 
dalena Bay, Lower California, and marked as " very rare," The 
writer subsequently found it to be very plentiful in a dredging of 
the U. S. S. Albatross, and, by comparison with the record of the 
original discovery, it was shown that the two localities were within 
a mile of each other. The writer named a new species discovered in 
the Arctic Sea, and subsequently, in a study of the dust collected in 
pockets on the ice floes of the Arctic, this diatom was rediscovered ; 
and on comparison it was found that the latitude and longitude of 
the two were practically identical. Material secured by the Smith- 
sonian Institution adjacent to the openings of the Panama Canal and 
previous to its completion has yielded a great many remarkable 
forms.. A rare species known as Pleurosigma spectabile occurs 
abundantly in one of the gatherings. This was previously reported 
by Prof, Grunow, of Vienna, as occurring along the coast of Brazil; 
that is to say, it is a coastal, middle Atlantic diatom. An even more 



ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF DIATOMS — MANN. 381 

rare form known as C ampylostylus striatus was recently rediscovered 
in an irrigation ditch leading from the Everglades, in Florida. It 
was first found by Mr. Shadbolt, of England, on some mahogany logs 
shipped to London from the shores of Honduras; in other words, it 
is a Gulf of Mexico diatom. 

An argument, and doubtless a valid one, to support the theory of 
Prof. Nansen that a current passes northward from the Bering 
Strait across the north polar region and southward along the western 
shores of Norway is based upon the fact that the diatom flora of 
Bering Sea was found by Prof. Nansen to be singularly similar to 
that of Greenland and the Norwegian coast, thereby indicating a con- 
nection between these apparently remote localities. From such ex- 
amples as the foregoing it is reasonable to believe that when the nor- 
mal diatom floras of the different seas have been investigated and the 
local diatom floras of the shallower waters, and especially of the 
rivers of the land, shall be laiown, we can tell by samples taken at re- 
mote points of the ocean the parts of the earth traversed by the cur- 
rent in which are foimd the specimens in question. In this same way 
a problem of no little importance to ocean travel becomes one of easy 
and certain solution, namely, the area of contact between the cold 
Arctic water of the north and the warm w^aters of the Gulf Stream off 
the coast of Newfoundland, this contact being the cause of the dan- 
gerous fogs prevalent in that locality; for a sample of sea water 
taken anywhere in that neighborhood must reveal at once to a diatom 
expert whether the water came southward from the Arctic, or north- 
ward on the current of the Gulf Stream, or is a blending of the two. 

A consideration of the economic value of the diatoms requires 
mention of some minor uses. The large diatom beds of the western 
part of the United States, and especially those along the Pacific coast, 
where there are cliffs several hundred feet in height almost wholly 
made of this material, are coming to be of commercial value because 
of the use of this substance as a substitute for asbestos or in combi- 
nation with asbestos as a nonconducting coating for steam pipes, as 
a filler for refrigerators, and for many other uses where a noncom- 
bustible material is needed. Fossil diatom deposits are also of value 
to the art of pottery making, being combined with various other in- 
gredients in the composition of certain grades of porcelains and 
glass. 

There has recently come into notice another use for diatomaceous 
earth which bids fair to become of considerable value to medical 
science. The material is compressed into filters in the shape of 
hollow cylinders or plates to be used for the filtration of serums, 
toxins, and other sterile liquids of service in the modern treatment 
of diseases. The porosity and extreme fineness of this material. 



382 ANNUAL REPORT SMlTHSONIAISr IKSTITUTION, 1016. 

coupled with its resistance to the action of acids and most solvents, 
renders it peculiarly well suited for this purpose. 

A rather baleful use, at one time more extensive than at present, 
thanks to our pure-food laws, and reminding us of the " earth 
eaters " previously mentioned, was the employment of diatom earth 
as an adulterant of candies. A large diatomaceous earth deposit 
in the eastern United States which formerly did a thriving business 
fflong this line has been practically abandoned at the present time, 
because certain candy manufacturers who used this substance have 
been compelled to resort to other means for cheapening their prod- 
uct. It is only to be hoped that the substitute, whatever it is, is as 
little harmful to the consumer as was the diatom material. 

It seems right to revert to the artistic beauty of these minute 
organisms, mentioned at the opening of this article, because their 
economic importance should not exclude their practical value to the 
arts in the matter of designs. Those who are familiar with these 
organisms find their great beauty consists not only in the delicate 
and complex tracery of their surfaces, surpassing in this respect the 
most ingenious arabesques of the Moor, but in the symmetry and 
great diversity of form and outline displayed by the members of this 
group. Nearly every symmetrical figure possible to curves and 
straight lines is represented in the diatoms. Elongated forms of 
graceful sigmoid structures, like Plogarth's line of beauty; thin 
crescents, like the face of the new moon; triangles, rigidly exact or 
varied by all graduations in the curvature or undulations of their 
sides and by the blunted or keenly sharpened character of their 
angles; spindles and ellipses of every variety of breadth and con- 
vexity ; squares ; double squares ; stars, from five to twenty pointed ; 
circles, so accurate in their periphery as to correct the errors of the 
most perfect mathematical instruments; and combinations of these 
fundamental figures are to be seen in great abundance. It comes 
about from these qualities that the diatoms have a suggestiveness 
in the matter of design that should render them of great value to 
certain kinds of the mechanical arts. Jewelers, though they might 
well despair of copying the elaborate perfection of some of these 
forms, could doubtless obtain useful suggestions for new figures in 
ornamentation. Manufacturers of articles of artistic quality, such 
as laces, wall papers, printed fabrics, oilcloths, etc., have ready- 
made in this gallery of art, the diatom flora, new and better ideas 
in designing; and, although the difficulty of obtaining and pre- 
paring diatom material for examination will limit their use in this 
field to some extent, the expense and toil of studying these objects 
would in many cases be well repaid. 

At the risk of stretching a little the legitimate meaning of the title 
of this article, I wish to mention an element of importance connected 



ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OP DIATOMS— MANN. 383 

with these organisms, namely the value they have in throwing light 
upon a study of the differences between objects which are the product 
of mere mechanical construction and those the construction of which 
is coordinated with life. There are two things to be said in regard 
to the ornamentation of these plants. First, there is a perfection at- 
tained that is essentially absolute, and yet not so servilely exact to the 
type as to preclude the marks of individuality in each separate plant. 
Take a diatom, upon the surface of which are found some hundreds 
of glittering hemispherical beads, and a careful examination with 
the finest optical apparatus will discover no trace of crudity or 
irregularity in these hemispheres, each one being polished Avith a 
perfection and curved w^ith an accuracj^ that is absolute; and yet it 
would be hard to find two individuals with the same number of beads. 
Among the thousands of these organisms that can be found in a 
spoonful of ooze dredged from the bottom of the sea and extending 
for thousands of miles beneath its waters, each separate form will 
show the same adherence to its type, the same perfection in its work- 
manship, but the same unmistakable individuality. This is not 
mere mechanical accuracy, but an accuracy associated in some un- 
known way with the qualities of that master builder within each 
cell, cytoplasm. The distinction here insisted on is precisely that 
between the flight of a bullet and the flight of a bird. It is well illus- 
trated by the contrast to be seen in two of the accompanying illustra- 
tions ; the sculpture of the living organism being shown in the figure 
of SurireUa haldjikii copied from a photograph of that diatom, while 
the sculpture represented in the figure of a very similar diatom, 
Surlrella gracilis^ is a mechanicalh^ drawn counterfeit. How this 
living, almost formless jelly, plays the role of a peerless artificer it 
still remains for science to discover. 

The other point in a study of the structure of these organisms is 
that the principles of design are sui generis and not at all associated 
with the substance of which they are composed. Silica, like all other 
mineral matter, has its definite lines and angles of crystallization ; so 
that a particle from one part of the world fits with infinite nicety 
into a particle from any other part of the world. But this silica is 
woven on the looms of the diatoms into fabrics the mesh of which 
may be one of many thousand patterns, and no principle of curves and 
no combination of lines Icnown to geometry correspond in the slightest 
degree to those found in the ornamentation of these plants. For ex- 
ample, a line may begin straight, bend gently into a curve, gradually 
or instantaneously be changed again and thus make up, with the 
thousands of other lines of the pattern, a variety of arrangement that 
has no relationship to the principles of mathematics. And yet there 
is a law vrithin this apparent lawlessness so rigid that the individual 
species hold their characteristics through thousands of years, and 



384 ANNUAL EEPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1&16. 

a Navicula lyra newly born in the Delaware Kiver is a sister plant 
of a Navicula lyra born millions of years ago in the island of New 
Zealand. When, furthermore, it is borne in mind that we are 
here dealing with a unicellular organism the wonder becomes ac- 
centuated. Great complexity is also found in the flowers; but a 
flower consists of millions of cells and the complex of the whole is the 
sum total of the different parts. But here is one cell, with a single 
nucleus and microscopic droplet of cytoplasm, which builds for itself 
its own palace and is to itself its own architect. It is certainly not 
too much to say that here is a problem in the constructive resource- 
fulness of animate nature which must long avoo and puzzle the ob- 
server. 

There is at present a growing interest in the theory that the di- 
atoms have contributed largely to the world's stock of petroleum. 
The author does not consider the evidence for this at all conclusive ; 
as, among other things, there is a significant lack of contiguity be- 
tween the world's great oil fields and the chief diatom deposits. 
But the subject is here -mentioned because certain curious facts do 
lend a strong plausibility, if not a probability, to this theory. That 
these oils are of organic origin is generally recognized ; and a physi- 
ological peculiarity of the diatoms, their enormous secretion of oil, 
ex]3lains why these tiny organisms suggest themselves to an explana- 
tion of the origin of petroleum. Most plants, during a part of their 
existence, manufacture more food-material, that is, building mate- 
rial, than is at the time required for growth ; and this is temporarily 
stored up as a reserve supply. The chief reserve plant-food material 
is starch, with sugars, cellulose, inulin, asparagin, etc., as minor sub- 
stances. But, outside of seeds and nuts, only a few plants store up 
their reserve supply in the form of oil. The diatom is perhaps the 
most remarkable in this respect. Living diatom plants will alwaj'S 
be found to contain from two to ten shining oil globules, deep 
orange-yellow in color, and Avith a high refractive index. The bulk 
of this oil, in proportion to the size of the diatom, rarely falls below 
5 per cent; and the author has samples of diatom material in which 
a careful measurement of the contained oil shows a proportion of 50 
per cent. If we consider, therefore, the large extent of many of the 
known diatom deposits and their frequency in most parts of the 
world, it becomes evident that the potential volume of organic oil 
from this one source i