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Full text of "Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution"

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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
BOARD OF REGENTS OF 

THE SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION 

SHOWING THE 

OPERATIONS, EXPENDITURES, AND 
CONDITION OF THE INSTITUTION 
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 

1941 




a/A^cTot*;: 

(Publication 3651) 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1942 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. - - - - - - Price J2.00 (cloth cover) 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington^ December 3, 1941. 
To the Congress of the United States: 

In accordance with section 5593 of the Eevised Statutes of the 
United States, I have the honor, in behalf of the Board of Regents, 
to submit to Congress the annual report of the operations, expendi- 
tures, and condition of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1941. I have the honor to be, 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. G. Abbot, Secretary. 



ni 



CONTENTS 

Fase 

List of oflBcials ix 

Outstanding events 1 

Summary of the year's activities of the branches of the Institution 2 

The establishment 8 

The Board of Regents 8 

Finances 9 

Matters of general interest 9 

Smithsonian radio program 9 

Walter Rathbone Bacon scholarship 11 

Smithsonian main hall exhibit 12 

Tenth Arthur lecture 13 

Bequests 14 

Explorations and field work 15 

Publications 17 

Library 17 

Appendix 1. Report on the United States National Museum 19 

2. Report on the National Gallery of Art 34 

3. Report on the National Collection of Fine Arts 45 

4. Report on the Freer Gallery of Art 51 

5. Report on the Bureau of American Ethnology 56 

6. Report on the International Exchange Service 69 

7. Report on the National Zoological Park 78 

8. Report on the Astrophysical Observatory 108 

9. Report on the Division of Radiation and Organisms 111 

10. Report on the library 116 

11. Report on publications 123 

Report of the executive committee of the Board of Regents 130 

GENERAL APPENDIX 

What lies between the stars? by Walter S. Adams 141 

Artificial converters of solar energy, by H. C. Hottel 151 

The new frontiers in the atom, by Ernest O. Lawrence 163 

Science shaping American culture, by Arthur H. Compton 175 

Mathematics and the sciences, by J. W. Lasley, Jr 183 

The role of science in the electrical industry, by M. W. Smith 199 

The new synthetic textile fibers, by Herbert R. Mauersberger 211 

Plastics, by Gordon M. Kline 225 

Vitamins and their occurrence in foods, by Hazel E. Munsell 239 

Science and human prospects, by Eliot Blackwelder 267 

Iceland, land of frost and fire, by Vigfus Einarsson 285 

The genes and the hope of mankind, by Bruce Bliven 293 

Care of captive animals, by Ernest P. Walker 305 

The influence of insects on the development of forest protection and forest 

management, by F. C. Craighead 367 

Growth hormones in plants, by Kenneth V. Thimann 393 

Useful algae, by Florence Meier Chase 401 

V 



VI CONTENTS 

Page 

The excavations of Solomon's seaport: Ezion-geber, by Nelson Glueck 453 

Decipherment of the linguistic portion of the Maya hieroglyphs, by Ben- 
jamin Lee Whorf 479 

Contacts between Iroquois herbalism and colonial medicine, by William N. 

Fenton 503 

The study of Indian music, by Frances Densmore 527 

Snake bites and the Hopi Snake Dance, by M. W. Stirling 551 

The Eskimo child, by Ale§ Hrdlidka 557 

Wings for Transportation (Recent developments in air transportation 

equipment), by Theodore P. Wright, D. Sc 663 



LIST OF PLATES 

Page 
Secretary's Report: 

Plates 1, 2 12 

Plates 3, 4 52 

Plates 78 

What lies between the stars? (Adams) : 

Plates 1-4 150 

The new frontiers in the atom (Lawrence) : 

Plates 1-9 174 

The role of science in the electrical industry (Smith) : 

Plate 1 210 

Plastics (Kline): 

Plates 1-5 238 

Iceland, land of frost and fire (Einarsson) : 

Plates 1-12 292 

Care of captive animals (Walker) : 

Plates 1-12 366 

The influence of insects on the development of forest protection and forest 
management (Craighead) : 

Plates 1-12 392 

Growth hormones in plants (Thimann) : 

Plates 1, 2 400 

Useful algae (Chase) : 

Plates 1-9 452 

The excavations of Solomon's seaport: Ezion-geber (Glueck): 

Plates 1-14 478 

Contacts between Iroquois herbalism and colonial medicine (Fenton) : 

Plates 1-5 526 

The study of Indian music (Densmore) : 

Plates 1-6 550 

Snake bites and the Hopi Snake Dance (Stirling) : 

Plate 1 556 

The Eskimo child (Hrdlicka) : 

Plates 1-10 562 

Wings for transportation (Wright) : 

Plates 1-14 584 

VII 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

June 30, 1941 

Presiding officer ex officio. — Franbxin D. Roosevelt, President of the United 

States. 
Chancellor — Charles Evans Hughes, Cliief Justice of the United States. 
Memhers of the Institution: 

Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States. 

Henry A. Wallace, Vice President of the United States. 

Charles Evans Hughes, Chief Justice of the United States. 

CoRDELL Hull, Secretary of State. 

Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Secretary of the Treasury. 

Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War. 

Robert H. Jaokson, Attorney General. 

Frank C. Walker, Postmaster General. 

Frank Knox, Secretary of the Navy. 

Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior. 

Claude R. Wickard, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Jesse H. Jones, Secretary of Commerce. 

Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor. 
Regents of the Institution: 

Charles Evans Hughes, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor. 

Henry A. Wallace, Vice President of the United States. 

Charles L. McNary, Member of the Senate. 

Alben W. Barkley, Member of the Senate. 

Bennett Champ Clark, Member of the Senate. 

Clarence Cannon, Member of the House of Representatives. 

William P. Cole, Jr., Member of the House of Representatives. 

Foster Stearns, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Frederic A. Del.\no, citizen of Washington, D. C. 

Roland S. Morris, citizen of Pennsylvania. 

Harvey N. DA\^s, citizen of New Jersey. 

Arthur H. Compton, citizen of Illinois. 

Vannevar Bush, citizen of Washington, D. C 
Executive committee. — Frederic A. Delano, Vannevar Bush. 
Secretary — Charles G. Abbot. 
Assistant Secretary. — ^Alexander Wetmorb. 
Administrative assistant to the Secretary. — Harry W. Dorsey. 
Treasurer. — Nicholas W. Dorsey. 
Chief, editorial division. — Webster P. True. 
Librarian. — Whjliam L. Corbin. 
Personnel officer. — Helen A. Olmsted. 
Property clerk. — James H. Hill. 

IX 



X ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Keeper ex officio. — Charles G. Abbot. 

Assistant Secretary {in charge). — At.h:xander Wetmoeb. 

Associate Director. — John E. Graf. 

scientific staff 

Depabtment of Anthropologt : 

Frank M. Setzler, head curator ; A. J. Andrews, chief preparator. 
Division of Ethnology: H. W. Krieger, curator; J. E. Weckler, Jr., assistant 
curator; Arthur P. Rice, collaborator. 

Section of Ceramics : Samuel W. Woodhouse, collaborator. 
Division, of Archeology: Neil M. Judd, curator; Waldo R. Wedel, assistant 
curator ; R. G. Paine, senior scientific aid ; J. Townsend Russell, honorary 
assistant curator of Old World archeology. 
Division of Physical Anthropology: Aleg Hrdliflia, curator; T. Dale Stewart, 
associate curator. 

Collaborators in anthropology: George Grant MacCurdy; W. W, 
Taylor, Jr. 
Department of Biology : 

Leonhard Stejneger, head curator; W. L. Brown, chief taxidermist; 
Aime M. Awl, illustrator. 
Division of Mammals: Remington Kellogg, curator; H. Harold Shamel, senior 
scientific aid; A. Brazier Howell, collaborator; Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., 
associate. 
Division of Birds: Herbert Friedmann, curator; J. H. Riley, associate cura- 
tor; H. G. Deignan, assistant curator; Alex.ander Wetmore, custodian 
of alcoholic and skeleton collections; Casey A. Wood, collaborator; 
Arthur C. Bent, collaborator. 
Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Leonhard Stejneger, curator; Doris 

M. Cochran, assistant curator. 
Division of Fishes: Leonard P. Schultz, curator; E. D. Reid, senior scientific 

aid. 
Division of Insects: L. O, Howard, honorary curator; Edward A. Chapin, 
curator; R. E. Blackwelder, assistant curator; William Schaus, honorary 
assistant curator. 

Section of Hymenoptera : S. A. Rohwer, custodian ; W. M. Mann, assist- 
ant custodian; Robert A. Cushman, assistant custodian. 
Section of Myriapoda : O. F. Cook, custodian. 
Section of Diptera : Charles T. Greene, assistant custodian. 
Section of Coleoptera: L. L. Buchanan, specialist for Casey collection. 
Section of Lepidoptera : J. T. Barnes, collaborator. 
Section of Hemiptera : W. L. McAtee, acting custodian. 
Section of Forest Tree Beetles : A. D. Hopkins, custodian. 
Division of Marine Invertehrates : Waldo L. Schmitt, curator; C. R. Shoe- 
maker, assistant curator ; James O. Maloney, aid ; Mrs. Harriet Rich- 
ardson Searle, collaborator; Max M. Ellis, collaborator; J. Percy Moore, 
collaborator ; Joseph A. Cushman, collaborator in Foraminifera ; Charles 
Branch Wilson, collaborator in Copepoda. 
Division of Mollusks: Paul Bartsch, curator; Harald A. Rehder, assistant 
curator; Joseph P. E. Morrison, senior scientific aid. 

Section of Helminthological Collections: Benjamin Schwartz, collab- 
orator. 
Division of Echinoderms: Austin H. Clark, curator. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY XI 

Depabtment of Biology — Continued. 

Divisian of Plants {National Herbarium) : W. R. Maxon, curator; Ells- 
worth P. Killlp, associate curator ; Emery C. Leonard, assistant curator ; 
Conrad V. Morton, assistant curator ; Egbert H. Walker, aid ; John A. 
Stevenson, custodian of C. G. Lloyd mycological collection. 
Section of Grasses ; Agnes Chase, custodian. 

Section of Cryptogamic Collections; O. F. Cook, assistant curator. 
Section of Higher Algae : W. T. Swingle, custodian. 
Section of Lower Fungi : D. G. Fairchild, custodian. 
Section of Diatoms : Paul S. Conger, custodian. 
Associates in Zoology: C. Hart Merriam, Mary J. Rathbun, Theodore S. 

Palmer, William B. Marshall, A. G. Boving. 
Associate curator in Zoology : Hugh M, Smith. 
Associate in Marine Sediments : T. Wayland Vaughan. 
Collaborator in Zoology : Robert Sterling Clark. 
Collaborators in Biology : A. K. Fisher, David C. Graham. 
Depabtment of Geology : 

R. S. Bassler, head curator ; Jessie G. Beach, aid. 
Division of Physical and Chemical Geology (systematic and applied) : W. F. 
Foshag, curator; Edward P. Henderson, assistant curator; Bertel O. 
Reberholt, senior scientific aid. 
Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: W. F. Foshag, curator; Frank L. 

Hess, custodian of rare metals and rare earths. 

Division of Stratigrapliic Paleontology : Charles B. Resser, curator ; Gustav 

A. Cooper, assistant curator; Marion F. Willoughby, senior scientific aid. 

Section of Invertebrate Paleontology: T. W. Stanton, custodian of 

Mesozoic collection ; Paul Bartsch, curator of Cenozoic collection. 

Division of Vertebrate Paleontology : Charles W. Gilmore, curator; C. Lewis 

Gazin, assistant curator ; Norman H. Boss, chief preparator. 
Associates in Mineralogy : W. T. Schaller, S. H. Perry. 
Associate in Paleontology : E. O. Ulrich. 
Associate in Petrology: Whitman Cross. 
Department of Engineeeing and Industries : 
Carl W. Mitman, head curator. 
Division of Engineering: Frank A. Taylor, curator. 

Section of Transportation and Civil Engineering: Frank A. Taylor, 

in charge. 
Section of Aeronautics : Paul E. Garber, assistant curator. 
Section of Mechanical Engineering: Frank A. Taylor, in charge. 
Section of Electrical Engineering and Communications: Frank A. 

Taylor, in charge. 
Section of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering: Carl W. Mitman, in 

charge. 
Section of Physical Sciences and Measurement: Frank A. Taylor, in 

charge. 
Section of Tools : Frank A. Taylor, in charge. 
Division of Crafts and Industries: Frederick L. Lewton, curator ; Eliza- 
beth W. Rosson, senior scientific aid. 
Section of Textiles : Frederick L. Lewton, in charge. 
Section of Woods and Wood Technology : William N. Watkins, assistant 

curator. 
Section of Chemical Industries: Wallace E. Duncan, assistant curator. 
Section of Agricultural Industries : Frederick L. Lewton, in charge. 



XII ANlSrUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Department of Engineering and Industries — Continued. 

Division of Medicine and PuMic Health: Charles Whitebread, associate 

curator. 
Division of Graphic Arts: R. P. Tolman, curator. 

Section of Photography : A. J. Olmsted, assistant curator. 
DIVISION OF History: T. T. Belote, curator; Charles Carey, assistant curator; 
Catherine L. Manning, philatelist. 

administrative staff 

Chief of correspondence and documents. — H. S. Bryant. 

Assistant chief of correspondence and documents. — L. E. Commerford. 

Superintendent of 'buildings and labor. — R. H. Trembly. 

Assistant superintendent of buildings and labor. — Charles C. Sinclair. 

Editor. — Paul H. Oehser. 

Accountant and auditor. — N. W. Dorsey. 

Pliotographer. — A. J. Olmsted. 

Property clerk. — Lawrence L. Oliver. 

Assistant librarian. — Leila F. Clark. 

NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

Trustees: 

The Chief Justice of the United States. 

The Secretary of State. 

The Secretary of the Treasury. 

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

David K. E. Bruce. 

Duncan Phillips. 

Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 

Samuel H. Kress. 

Joseph E. Wideneb. 
President. — David K. E. Bruce. 
Vice President. — Ferdinand Lammot Beun. 
Secretary-Treasurer and General Counsel. — Donald D. Shepard. 
Director. — David E. Finley. 
Assistant Director. — Macgell James. 
Administrator. — H. A. McBride. 
Chief Curator. — John Walker. 

NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Acting Director. — Ruel P. Tolman. 

FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Director. — John Ellerton Lodge. 
Assistant Director. — Grace Dunham Guest. 
Associate in archeology. — Carl Whiting Bishop. 
Associate in research. — Archibald G. WENLinr. 
Superintendent. — W. N. Rawley. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY XIII 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Chief. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Senior ethnologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., John P. Haeeington, John R. 

Swanton. 
Senior archeologist. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Senior anthropologist. — Julian H. Steward. 
Associate anthropologist. — W. N. Fenton. 
Editor. — M. Helen Palmer. 
Liibrarian. — Miriam B. Ketchum. 
Illustrator, — Edwin G. Cassedy. 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 

Secretary (in charge). — Charles G. Abbot. 
Chief Clerk. — Coates W. Shoemaker. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Director. — William M. Mann. 
Assistant Director. — Ernest P. Walkee, 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Director. — Charles G. Abbot. 
Assistant Director. — Loyal B. Aldrich. 
Senior astrophysicist. — William H. Hoover. 

DIVISION OF RADIATION AND ORGANISMS 

Director. — Charles G. Abbot. 
Assistant Director. — Earl S. Johnston. 
Senior physicist. — Edward D. McAlister. 
Senior mechanical engineer. — Leland B. Clark. 
Associate plant physiologist. — Florence M. Chase. 
Junior iiochemist. — Robert L. Weintraxjb. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

C. G. ABBOT 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1941 

To the Board of Regents of tJie Smithsonian Institution. 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to submit herewith my report show- 
ing the activities and condition of the Smithsonian Institution and 
the Government bureaus under its administrative charge during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1941. The first 18 pages contain a sum- 
mary account of the affairs of the Institution, and appendixes 1 to 11 
give more detailed reports of the operations of the National Museum, 
the National Gallery of Art, the National Collection of Fine Arts, 
the Freer Gallery of Art, the Bureau of American Ethnology, the 
International Exchanges, the National Zoological Park, the Astro- 
physical Observatory, the Division of Radiation and Organisms, the 
Smithsonian library, and of the publications issued under the direc- 
tion of the Institution. On page 130 is the financial report of the 
executive committee of the Board of Regents. 

OUTSTANDING EVENTS 

Among the numerous bureaus and agencies in Washington, certain 
ones are listed as defense agencies, and the Smithsonian Institution 
was included during the year in this list. Its vast collections are 
of great usefulness in the identification and studj' of strategic ma- 
terials relating to national defense, such as rubber, tin, aluminum, 
mica, optical glass, abrasives, and many others. Its staff includes 
scientific experts and technicians with outstanding experience in 
connection with such materials, as well as laboratories and equipment 
for all sorts of delicate experimental work. The Smithsonian has 
already been assigned a number of defense problems and stands 
ready to devote all its resources to such work when called upon. 

The National Gallery of Art was completed and opened to the 
public in March 1941, bringing to fruition the late Andrew W. 
Mellon's gift to the Nation of his priceless art collection and a mag- 
nificient building to house it. 

The great hall of the Smithsonian Building was completely re- 
decorated, and in it was installed a unique exhibit designed to 



2 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

illustrate concisely for visitors all the activities of the Institution 
and its branches. Opened in January 1941, after a preview by the 
Board of Kegents, the new exhibit aroused widespread favorable 
comment. 

The Smithsonian radio program, "The World is Yours," on June 
14, 1941, put on the air an anniversary broadcast marking the com- 
pletion of 5 full years of the series. A tabulation of station-manager 
ratings of the program showed that its popularity throughout the 
country continued unabated. 

Among several bequests to the Institution announced during the 
year, the largest was that from Mrs. Mary Vaux Walcott, widow of 
the late Secretary Charles D. Walcott. Her bequest amounted to 
more than $400,000. 

New members on the Board of Regents were Vice President Henry 
A. Wallace, and Representative Foster Stearns, of New Hampshire. 

The revision of all solar-constant values collected by the Astro- 
physical Observatory from all Smithsonian observing stations from 
1923 to the present proved to be an even more tremendous task than 
had been anticipated. It was nearing completion, however, at the 
close of the year, and publication is expected to begin by the first 
part of 1942. 

M. W. Stirling made further archeological discoveries in southern 
Mexico, Avorking in cooperation with the National Geographic 
Society. Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., conducted his sixth and 
final archeological expedition to the Lindenmeier site in northern 
Colorado, his work having added greatly to our knowledge of 
Folsom man and the whole subject of the early occupation of 
America. 

The work of the International Exchange Service was seriously 
hampered by world conditions, but the scientific and other publica- 
tions intended for foreign exchange that cannot now be sent are 
being stored at the Institution until the end of hostilities. 

SUMMARY OF THE YEAR'S ACTIVITIES OF THE BRANCHES OF 
THE INSTITUTION 

National Museurn. — Appropriations for the maintenance and 
operation of the Museum during the fiscal year amounted to $818,305. 
Additional funds are needed annually for guards, curators, and im- 
provements, but in the press of defense needs the Congress has not 
found it expedient to grant them. Accessions for the year totaled 
326,686 individual specimens, bringing the number of catalog entries 
in all departments of the Museum to nearly 17,500,000. Among the 
outstanding things received were the following: In anthropology, 
a collection of Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age implements 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 6 

and ornaments from Java, nearly 1,000 potsherds and shell imple- 
ments from Indian burial mounds near Belle Glade, Fla., skeletal 
remains from Peru, and a reconstruction of the newly found remains 
of the fourth Pithecanthropus ; in biology, 74 mammals, 472 reptiles 
and amphibians, and nearly 2,000 fishes from Liberia, all resulting 
from the Smithsonian-Firestone Expedition to that country, the 
Nevermann collection of about 33,000 Costa Eican Coleoptera includ- 
ing much type material, and a large collection of marine inverte- 
brates resulting from the participation of Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt 
in the Fish and Wildlife Service's investigations of the Alaska king- 
crab; in geology, an 1,800-carat aquamarine crystal from Agua 
Preta, Brazil, the Sardis, Ga., meteorite, weighing 1,760 pounds, 
the fifth largest ever found in the United States, many thousands of 
Cambrian, post-Cambrian, and Devonian fossils collected in various 
parts of the United States by members of the Museum staff, and the 
greater part of a fossil skeleton of the primitive mammal Uintather- 
iimi ; in engineering and industries, an operating exhibit of the West- 
inghouse air brake, a fighter plane known as the Curtiss Sparrow- 
hawk, and a 93-dial display clock made by Louis Zimmer, of Lier, 
Belgium, which tells the time at many places around the world, 
the tides at various points, and many calendar and astronomical 
events ; in history, busts, costumes, or mementos of famous Americans 
including Abraham Lincoln, William Jennings Bryan, and Brig. 
Gen. Caleb Cushing. As usual, many members of the scientific 
staff took part in field expeditions, financed for the most part by 
Smithsonian private funds or through cooperative arrangements 
with other organizations or individuals. Twenty-five publications 
were issued by the Museum, and 52,170 copies of its publications 
were distributed. Visitors for the year totaled 2,505,871. Fourteen 
special exhibits were held under the auspices of various educational, 
scientific, and other groups. Changes in staff included the retire- 
ment of Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., as curator of the division of mammals 
and the advancement of the assistant curator, Dr. Remington Kellogg, 
to succeed him, and the appointment of two new assistant curators. 
Dr. Joseph E. Weckler, Jr., in the division of ethnology, and Dr. 
Richard E. Blackwelder in the division of insects. 

National Gallery of Art. — The completed building of the National 
Gallery of Art was formally accepted by the trustees of the Gallery 
on December 10, 1940, and on the evening of March 17, 1941, the 
opening ceremonies were held. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes 
briefly described the purposes of the Gallery, Mr. Paul Mellon, son 
of the donor of the Gallery, presented the building and the Mellon 
Collection to the Nation, and Mr. Samuel H. Kress presented the 
Kress Collection to the Gallery. The President of the United States 

430577 — 42 2 



4 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

then accepted the Gallery on behalf of the people of the Nation. 
The following day the building was opened to the public, and the 
attendance from that day to June 30 was 798,156, an average of 
7,529 per day. Practically all the initial staff of the Gallery had 
been employed by March 1, 1941, the number of employees on June 
30 being 229. The first catalog of the Gallery and a booklet of 
general information were ready for distribution at the time of the 
public opening, as were also a book of illustrations of all the art 
works in the collection, color reproductions, and postcards. A num- 
ber of important prints and four paintings were accepted as gifts 
during the year. Under the educational program of the Gallery, 
the docent staff has been organized so that there are at least two 
public gallery tours every day and two auditorium lectures every 
week. A memorial tablet to the late Andrew W. Mellon, donor of 
the Gallery, was installed in the lobby, and four marble panels were 
set aside for the names of important donors to the Gallery. The 
names at present carved on the panels are those of Mr. Mellon and 
Samuel H. Kress, and the names of future donors will be added as 
authorized by the Board of Trustees. 

National Collection of Fine Arts. — The National Collection re- 
ceived two additions to its endowment funds during the year: 
$5,000 from the Cornelia Livingston Pell Estate of New York, 
and $10,000 from the Miss Julia D. Strong Estate, of Washington, 
D. C. Three paintings were accepted for the National Collection 
by the Smithsonian Art Commission in December 1940, and several 
other gifts of etchings, miniatures, and paintings were deposited 
during the year to be passed upon by the Commission at its next 
annual meeting. Three miniatures were purchased through the 
Catherine Walden Myer Fund. The following eight special exhibi- 
tions were held: 48 pastels, drawings, and lithographs by Lily E. 
Smulders; the Sixth Annual Metropolitan State Art Contest, 1940, 
comprising 289 art works by 158 artists ; the work of William Baxter 
Closson (1848-1926), comprising 94 oils, 40 pastels, 21 water colors, 
112 wood engravings, and other material; 111 pastels by 17 artists, 
exhibited by the National Society of Pastelists ; 22 water colors and 
21 pastels by Ethel H. Hagen; 42 paintings by Alejandro Pardinas 
under the patronage of the Cuban Ambassador; 39 caricatures by 
Antonio Sotomayor under the patronage of the Bolivian Minister; 
and a memorial exhibition of 17 color prints and 60 black and white 
prints by Bertha E. Jaques (1863-1941). A new edition of the 
Catalog of American and European Paintings in the Gellatly Collec- 
tion was published. 

Freer Gallery of Art. — Additions to the collections included 
Chinese bronze, Chinese jade, Arabic manuscripts, Indian and Per- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 5 

sian painting, Chinese porcelain, and Chinese and Persian pottery. 
The work of the curatorial staff was devoted to the study and record- 
ing of these new acquisitions and other art objects and manuscripts 
already in the collection. In addition 693 objects and 180 photo- 
graphs were brought or sent to the Director for information con- 
cerning them, and reports upon all these were made to the owners. 
Changes in exhibition involved 84 individual objects. Visitors to 
the Gallery totaled 111,784 for the year. Six illustrated lectures 
were given in the auditorium, six study groups were held in a study 
room and ten groups were given docent service in exhibition galler- 
ies. A. G. Wenley of the Gallery staff gave a 6 weeks' lecture course 
in Chinese and Japanese art in the Far Eastern Institute at the 
1940 Harvard University Summer School. William E. B. Acker, also 
of the staff, returned from Holland, having taken his Ph.D. cum, 
laude in Chinese at the University of Leyden. 

Bureau of American Ethnology. — The Chief of the Bureau, M. W. 
Stirling, continued his archeological excavations in southern Mexico 
in cooperation with the National Geographic Society. At Cerro de 
las Mesas 20 carved stone monuments were unearthed, and 2 initial 
series dates were deciphered. At Izapa, a link between the west 
coast of Guatemala and the istlmiian region of southern Mexico, a 
large number of stelae were excavated. The collections made were 
brought to Mexico City, where they were studied by Dr. Philip 
Drucker, assistant archeologist of the expedition. Dr. J. R. Swan- 
ton brought to completion his extensive report on the Indians of 
the Southeast, comprising 1,500 typewritten pages, which the Bureau 
plans to publish shortly. Three other ethnological papers by Dr. 
Swanton were in process of publication. Dr. J. P. Harrington con- 
tinued his comparative study of the Navalio and Tlingit languages. 
His work on the Navaho was completed during the year, forming a 
manuscript of more than 1,200 pages. Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
brought to completion the sixth and final season of archeological in- 
vestigations at the Lindenmeier site in northern Colorado, wherein 
much new and valuable information on the subject of Folsom man 
and the early occupation of North America has been obtained. To- 
ward the close of the year he went to San Jon, N. Mex., to start 
excavations at a promising site suggestive of another phase of early 
man in North America, the so-called Yuma. Dr. J, H. Steward 
completed his researches on the Carrier Indians of British Columbia 
and investigated a burial site on an island off the coast of Alaska. 
He devoted the rest of the year to editorial and organizational work 
on the proposed Handbook of South American Indians. Dr. H. B. 
Collins, Jr., continued his study of collections from Eskimo sites in 
the vicinity of Bering Strait. Dr. W. N. Fenton conducted field 



6 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

work among the Senecas of Allegany Reservation, N. Y., and carried 
forward a number of other investigations dealing with Iroquois 
problems. Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, 
continued her study of Indian music, collecting additional songs, 
transcribing these and songs previously recorded, and preparing ma- 
terial for publication. The Bureau published its annual report and 
three bulletins. The library accessioned 378 items and relabeled and 
reshelved over 5,000 books. 

International Exchange Service. — The Exchange Service acts as 
the official United States agency for the interchange of parliamentary, 
governmental, and scientific publications between this country and 
the rest of the world. During the past year the Service handled 
576,282 packages of such publications, with a total weight of 388,649 
pounds. Naturally, the last 2 years have shown a marked falling off 
in the number of packages passing through the Exchange Service 
because of war conditions in large parts of the world. The material 
that cannot now be shipped abroad will be stored at the Institution 
until the end of hostilities. Transmission of shipments to and from 
Great Britain and to Latin America has been practicaly uninter- 
rupted, and some material has been forwarded to Spain and Portugal, 
although irregularly. Five consignments of exchanges have been lost 
through war activities. 

National Zoological Park. — The W. P. A. project which has been 
of such great assistance to the Park in the past few years was termi- 
nated on August 6, 1940, so that few improvements could be under- 
taken during the year. The four new waterfowl ponds were com- 
pleted and birds transferred to them at the beginning of the year. 
The new restaurant constructed by the P. W. A. was completed in 
the fall of 1940 and was opened to the public in March 1941. Visi- 
tors for the year totaled 2,430,300, including 48,050 representing school 
or other groups from 20 States and the District of Columbia. The 
Smithsonian-Firestone Expedition to Liberia for the purpose of 
collecting live animals for the Zoo returned to this country in August 
1940. The animals brought back numbered nearly 200, representing 
61 species of mammals, birds, and other forms, several of them being 
new to the history of the collection. The usual large number of 
gifts was received during the year, and 70 mammals, 49 birds, and 
14 reptiles were born or hatched in the Park. The total number 
of animals in the collection at the close of the year was 2,380, repre- 
senting 730 different species. The chief need of the Zoo is for 
three new buildings: one for antelope, deer, wild hogs, and kan- 
garoos ; one for monkeys ; and the third for carnivores. 

Astrophysical Observatory. — At Washington the work of the staff 
was devoted largely to completing for publication the immense table 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 7 

of daily solar-constant observations at the three field stations at 
Montezuma, Table Mountain, and Mount St. Katherine from 1923 
to 1939, The rest of the text for volume 6 of the Annals of the 
Observatory was also nearly completed, and the whole is expected 
to be ready for the printer before January 1942. During preparation 
of a paper on "An Important Weather Element Hitherto Generally 
Disregarded," Dr. Abbot noted that the solar variation is several 
times greater in percentage for blue-violet rays than for total radia- 
tion. This led him to consider whether the sun's variation might 
not be more effectively followed by observations limited to the blue- 
violet region of the spectrum. He finally devised a method of thus 
restricting the observations, which was introduced near the close 
of the year at the three field observing stations. There is great 
hope that the new method will j'-ield more reliable daily indications 
of the solar variations. Dr. H. Arctowski continued his meteoro- 
logical investigations relating to the effects of solar variation on 
atmospheric barometric pressure and temperature and completed a 
manuscript incorporating the results of this study which Avill be 
published during the coming year. Daily determinations of the solar 
constant of radiation were made at the three field stations whenever 
conditions permitted. A new concrete dwelling house for the 
observers was erected at the Montezuma station. 

Division of Radiation and Organisms. — The Division continued its 
program of research on the relation of radiation to various phases of 
plant growth. In continuing the project dealing with the genesis of 
chlorophyll and the beginning of photosynthesis, a large amount of 
information was obtained on the respiration of etiolated barley seed- 
lings. This material is important because of its bearing upon photo- 
synthesis as measured by the gaseous exchange method. It appears 
that conditions of carbon dioxide storage or depletion develop in 
the plant tissue depending upon the concentration of this gas sur- 
rounding the plants. In subsequent periods, when the respiration is 
measured there is an increase or decrease in the rate of CO2 excre- 
tion (i. e,, in the apparent rate of respiration) until a state of 
equilibrium with the new environment is attained. Considerable 
time was spent in improving the performance of the spectrograph 
used in measuring carbon dioxide for very short periods, and the 
new features developed have greatly improved the speed-sensitivity 
and stability of the apparatus. Further study was made of the 
spectral effectiveness of radiation for the growth inhibition of the 
oats mesocotyl, and a comparative study was undertaken of some 
other species of grasses. A paper resulting from experiments in the 
ultraviolet irradiation of algae showed that algae exposed four times 



8 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

to stimulative amounts of certain wave lengths of the ultraviolet 
exhibited 4 to 4.8 times the growth rate (expressed as number of 
cells) of the control cultures. The influence of culture conditions 
on the photosynthetic behavior of the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa 
was investigated. The growth cycle of this organism was studied 
in relation to light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and the 
composition of the nutrient solution. A number of papers were pre- 
sented by members of the staff before meetings of scientific bodies, 
and six publications resulting from the work of the Division were 
issued during the year. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846, according to the terms of the will of James Smithson, of 
England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States 
of America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." In receiving the property and accepting 
the trust. Congress determined that the Federal Government was 
without authority to administer the trust directly, and, therefore, 
constituted an "establishment" whose statutory members are "the 
President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of 
the executive departments." 

THE BOAUD OF REGENTS 

Changes in the personnel of the Board of Kegents during the 
fiscal year included the succession of Vice President Henry A. Wal- 
lace to the membership held by former Vice President John N. 
Garner, effective January 20, 1941, the Vice President being by law 
a regent ex officio, and the appointment by the Speaker of the House 
of Kepresentatives on January 22, 1941, of Eepresentative Foster 
Stearns, of New Hampshire, to succeed Representative Charles L. 
Gifford, who had resigned his membership as a regent. 

The roll of regents at the close of the fiscal year was as follows: 
Charles Evans Hughes, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancel- 
lor; Henry A. Wallace, Vice President of the United States; mem- 
bers from the Senate — Charles L. McNary, Alben W. Barkley, 
Bennett Champ Clark ; members from the House of Representatives — 
Clarence Cannon, William P. Cole, Jr., Foster Stearns; citizen mem- 
bers — Frederic A. Delano, Washington, D. C; Roland S. Morris, 
Pennsylvania; Harvey N. Davis, New Jersey; Arthur H. Comptou, 
Illinois; and Vannevar Bush, Washington, D. C. 

Proceedings. — The annual meeting of the Board of Regents was 
held on January 17, 1941. The regents present were Chief Justice 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 9 

Charles Evans Hughes, Chancellor; Senator Bennett Champ Clark; 
Kepresentatives Charles L. Gifford and Clarence Cannon; citizen 
regents Frederic A. Delano, Roland S. MoiTis, Harvey N. Davis, 
and Vannevar Bush; and the Secretary, Dr. Charles G. Abbot. 

The meeting was held in the Smithsonian main hall, which had 
recently been newly decorated and equipped with illustrative exhibits 
giving a comprehensive view of all Smithsonian activities. The new 
exhibits were viewed with approval by the regents. 

The Board received and accepted the Secretary's annual report 
covering the year's activities of the parent institution and the several 
Government branches. The Board also received and accepted the 
report by Mr. Delano, of the executive committee, covering financial 
statistics of the Institution; and the annual report of the Smith- 
sonian Art Commission. 

The Secretary informed the regents of the death of Mrs. Mary 
Vaux Walcott on August 22, 1940, and of her designation of the 
Smithsonian Institution as residuary legatee, the bequest, when re- 
ceived, to be made a part of the Charles D. and Mary Yaux AValcott 
Research Fund set up by the former Secretary. Appropriate resolu- 
tions were adopted by the Board. 

In his usual special report the Secretary mentioned briefly the 
more important activities carried on by the Institution and its 
branches during the year. 

FINANCES 

A statement on finances will be found in the report of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Board of Regents, page 130. 

MATTERS OF GENERAL INTEREST 
SMITHSONIAN RADIO PROGRAM 

The Smithsonian educational radio program, "The World is 
Yours," celebrated its fifth anniversary on the air on June 14, 1941. 
On that date a special program was prepared wherein extracts from 
specially successful previous broadcasts were woven together into 
a composite story to illustrate the way in which the various sciences 
are handled in this series. "The World is Yours," a series of weekly 
half-hour broadcasts in dramatized form on science, invention, his- 
tory, exploration, and art, is put on the air over a Nation-wide 
network through the cooperation of the United States Office of 
Education and the National Broadcasting Co. The program subjects 
are selected by the Smithsonian editorial division and the scripts are 
written by a professional script writer, employed by the Institution, 
from material furnished by Smithsonian experts in the various fields. 



10 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

The programs are produced in Radio City, New York, as an N. B. C. 
public service feature and go out over the N. B. C. red network. 

That the popularity of the program has continued undiminished 
is shown by the fact that an official rating service has twice within 
the past 2 years placed "The World is Yours" at the top of all non- 
commercial programs on all networks. A recent rating of N. B. C. 
public service programs by percentage of station program directors 
selecting them placed "The World is Yours" sixth on the list, but 
most of the five rated above it were programs devoted to discussion 
of current events, which are naturally of greatest interest in these 
disturbed times. 

The list of subjects covered by "The World is Yours" during the 
past fiscal year is as follows : ^ 

1940 

Mexico, Land of Silver July 7 

John Deere's Steel Plow July 14 

Primitive Mariners July 21 

Is There Life on Other Planets? July 28 

Glaciers Aug. 4 

Our Island Universe Aug. 11 

From Liberian Jungle to Zoo Aug. 18 

Exploring Cliff Dwellings of the West Aug. 25 

Story of the Silver Screen Sept. 1 

The Fall of a Meteorite Sept. 8 

Nature's Migrants Sept. 15 

Reaching the Upper Air Sept. 22 

The World's Most Important Chemical Reaction Sept. 29 

Prospecting for Bl^ack Gold Oct. 6 

Discovering the Source of the Mississippi Oct. 13 

With the Clipper Ships to China Oct. 20 

An Indian League of Nations Nov. 3 

Independence Hall Nov. 10 

New Wonders of Chemistry Nov. 17 

The Land Makes History Nov. 30 

500 Years of Printing Dec. 7 

Pueblo Indians on the Plains Dec. 14 

The Story of the Parachute Dec. 21 

Forward with Science __ Dec. 28 

1941 

The Dinosaur National Monument and Its Fossils Jan. 4 

Behind the Scenes at the Smithsonian Jan. 11 

Aircraft Engines Jan. 18 

The Electron Microscope Jan. 25 

The Army Medal of Honor Feb. 1 

The Story of Vitamins Feb. 8 

Treaties with the Indians Feb. 15 

Disseminating Knowledge Throughout the Earth Feb. 22 

1 No broadcasts were given on October 27 and November 24, 1940, and April 26, 1941, 
because of important addresses or other commitments by N. B. C. for the usual period 
of "The World Is Yours." 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 11 

1941 

Army and Navy Uniforms Mar. 1 

The Nation's New Art Gallery Mar. 8 

300 Years of Chemistry Mar. 15 

Coins of America Mar. 22 

Fifty Centuries of Silk Mar. 29 

Champlain in New England Apr. 5 

Smithsonian Field Expeditions Apr. 12 

Brazil, Land of Gems Apr. 19 

Ancient Crete May 3 

Birds of the Sea May 10 

The Saga of the Norsemen May 17 

Oliver Evans — Early American Engineer May 24 

Exploring Alaska May 31 

Platinum June 7 

Five Years of The World Is Yours (anniversary program) June 14 

Calendars of all Times June 21 

How Plants Grow June 28 

The Institution wag unable, because of lack of funds to employ 
additional personnel, to resume publication of the supplementary 
articles, or "listener-aids," which up to June 30, 1940, contributed 
greatly to the educational value of "The World is Yours" programs. 
It is hoped that a way will be found to reestablish this part of the 
project during the coming year. 

WALTER RATHBONE BACON SCHOLARSHIP 

A bequest made to the Institution in 1919 in the will of Mrs. Vir- 
ginia Purdy Bacon, of New York, provided for the establishment 
of a traveling scholarship, to be known as the Walter Rathbone 
Bacon scholarship for the study of the fauna of countries other 
than the United States of America. 

For the past 2 years the Bacon scholarship has been held by Dr. 
Hobart M. Smith, whose purpose was the accumulation of specimens 
of reptiles and amphibians from Mexico, on the basis of which a 
herpetology of Mexico might be compiled and the biotic provinces 
of the country more accurately defined. 

During the year 1940-41, the some 20,500 specimens of reptiles 
and amphibians obtained during the 2 preceding years were sorted 
and a portion studied and entered in the permanent collections of 
the National Museum. The collection requires study that could not 
be completed within the year, and as a result certain groups must 
be reserved for study at a later date. 

A total of 1,421 specimens of snakes was obtained, representing 170 
species and subspecies, of which 23 appear unnamed. These com- 
prise about half the species known from Mexico. Nineteen specimens 



12 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

of three species of crocodilians, all that are known from Mexico, 
were obtained. The study of these groups has been completed. 

Not all the lizards have been studied yet. Completed genera num- 
ber 22, comprising 4,547 specimens of 116 species and subspecies. 
Eleven are unnamed. Six lizard genera remain to be studied. 

The amphibians are not completed. A preliminary sorting, how- 
ever, reveals some 5,173 frogs and toads, of about 110 species; 6,064 
specimens of approximately 40 species of salamanders; and 6 speci- 
mens of one species of caecilian. Most of these are being studied by 
Dr. E. H. Taylor. 

The turtles have been turned over to Dr. Leonhard Stejneger for 
study. 

While most of the data pertaining to this collection are reserved 
for a future paper, descriptions of new species and surveys of certain 
genera have been prepared for preliminary publication. Seven such 
papers have been issued during the present year. 

SMITHSONIAN MAIN HALL EXHIBIT 

In my last two annual reports I have spoken of the project of 
installing in the main hall of the Smithsonian Building a new type of 
exhibit intended to serve as a visual index to all Smithsonian activ- 
ities. During the 95 years since the founding of the Institution, 
its activities have so expanded in scope and the buildings it occupies 
have so increased in number that it has been impossible for visitors 
to get an adequate idea of what the Smithsonian is and what it does. 
The project was brought to completion during the year, and the 
new exhibit was formally opened to the public on Monday, January 
20, 1941. The Board of Regents of the Institution had a preview 
of the exhibit on January 17, when their annual meeting was held 
in the main hall. 

As stated previously, the entire project has been handled by a 
committee consisting of Messrs. C. W. Mitman, chairman, W. F. 
Foshag, Herbert Friedmann, F. M. Setzler, and W. P. True, all of 
the Institution's staff. The great hall of the Smithsonian building, 
some 150 feet long by 50 feet wide, was first completely redecorated 
according to the committee's recommendation. Then special back- 
grounds for the exhibits were designed and constructed to form eight 
separate alcoves and four quadrants, the central aisle being left clear 
for free circulation of visitors. The eight alcoves present graphi- 
cally the work of the Institution in astronomy, geology, biology, 
radiation and organisms, physical anthropology, cultural anthropol- 
ogy, engineering and industries, and art. The four quadrants, facing 
the central area of the hall, contain exhibits on the scope of the 
Institution's work, the National Zoological Park, history, and the 
organization and branches of the Institution. 



Secretary's Report. 1941 






New 'Index Exhibit " at the Smithsonian Institution. 

Upper, part of the astronomy exhibit. 
Center, part of the geology exhibit. 
Lower, part of the biology exhibit. 



Secretary's Report, 1941 




New "Index Exhibit" at the Smithsonian Institution. 

Upper, part of the radiation and organisms exhibit. 
Center, part of the cultural anthropology exhibit. 
Lower, part of the engineering and industries exhibit. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 13 

The plan of each of the eight alcoves is the same (see pis. 1 and 
2. The name of the subject treated is stated at the top, followed 
by a brief definition. Below this, a central theme consisting of a 
diorama, working model, or other device illustrates strikingly the 
significance of the particular subject. Flanking this on either side 
of the alcove are exhibits to show as simply as possible what the 
Smithsonian Institution does in each field. The number of objects 
shown is kept small, labels are made as short and simple as possible, 
and the whole attempt is to make the exhibits interesting and popular 
and at the same time instructive. 

A valuable adjunct of the new exhibit is a separate room opening 
off the main hall in which are exemplified the Institution's methods 
of diffusing knowledge. One feature is a complete bound set of all 
Smithsonian publications from 1846 to the present. The books 
occupy 138 running feet of shelf space. Placards describe these 
publications, as well as the Institution's educational radio programs, 
press releases. International Exchange Service, exhibits, lectures, 
correspondence, and library. An important feature of this room is 
an information desk where visitors may obtain accurate information 
on special phases of the Institution's work or exhibits. 

Visitors to this new exhibit for the last 5 months of the fiscal 
year — from February 1 through June 30, 1941 — totaled 191,699. 
Comparable figures for the preceding year are not available because 
the building was closed at that time in preparation for the new 
exhibit, but the total number of visitors for the corresponding months 
of 1939 was 144,372. The present year therefore shows an increase 
of 47,327 visitors, or 32 percent, over 1939. 

The committee in charge of the project has been kept in existence 
to supervise maintenance of the exhibits and to incorporate changes 
from time to time, for the intention is to keep the whole exhibit alive 
and up to date. Wide and favorable notice has been given the ex- 
hibit by journals and newspapers. 

TENTH ARTHTIR LECTURE 

The late James Arthur, of New York, in 1931 bequeathed to the 
Smithsonian Institution a sum of money, part of the income from 
which should be used for an annual lecture on the sun. 

The tenth annual Arthur lecture was given by Brian O'Brien, 
professor of physiological optics at the University of Rochester, under 
the title "Biological Effects of Solar Radiation on Higher Animals 
and Man," in the auditorium of the National Museum on the evening 
of February 25, 1941. The lecture will be published in a forthcoming 
Smithsonian Report. 



14 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

The nine previous Arthur lectures have been as follows : 

1. The Composition of the Sun, by Henry Norris Russell, professor of astronomy 

at Princeton University. January 27, 1932. 

2. Gravitation in the Solar System, by Ernest William Brown, professor of 

mathematics at Yale University. January 25, 1933. 

3. How the Sun Warms the Earth, by Charles G. Abbott, Secretary of the 

Smithsonian Institution. February 26, 1934. 

4. The Sun's Place among the Stars, by Walter S. Adams, director of the Mount 

Wilson Observatory. December 18, 1934. 

5. Sun Rays and Plant Life, by Earl S. Johnston, assistant director of the 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution. February 
25, 1936. 

6. Discoveries from Eclipse Expeditions, by Samuel Alfred Mitchell, director 

of the Leander McCormick Observatory, University of Virginia. February 
9, 1937. 

7. The Sun and the Atmosphere, by Harlan True Stetson, research associate, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. February 24, 1938. 

8. Sun Worship, by Herbert J. Spinden, curator of American Indian Art and 

Primitive Cultures, Brooklyn Museums. February 21, 1939. 

9. Solar Prominences in Motion, by Robert R. McMath, director of the McMath- 

Hulbert Observatory of the University of Michigan. January IG, 1940. 

BEQUESTS 

Mary Vaux Walcott hequest. — Mary Vaux Walcott, widow of the 
late Charles D. Walcott, former Secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, died August 22, 1940. Mrs. Walcott had for many years been 
deeply interested in the Institution and its work, and during the years 
1925 to 1930 her beautiful water-color sketches of North American 
wild flowers were published in five smnptuous volumes under the 
auspices of the Institution. During her lifetime Mrs. Walcott mani- 
fested her interest by numerous valuable gifts, both in the form of 
specimens and of money for specific purposes connected with Smith- 
sonian researches. In her will she named the Institution residuary 
legatee, the relevant portions of that document reading in part as 
follows : 

I give, devise and bequeath all the rest, residue and remainder of my 
estate * * * to the Smithsonian Institution * * * in memory of my 
beloved husband, Charles D. Walcott, to be added to and form a part of the 
Charles D. and Mary Vaux Walcott Reasearch Fund, established by my husband 
in his lifetime, with the express stipulation, however, that the restriction as to 
the use of the income of said fund shall not apply to the income from this devise 
and bequest. 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Regents on January 17, 
1941, the following resolutions were adopted : 

Resolved, That the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution learns 
with profound sorrow of the death on August 22, 1940, of Mrs. Mary Vaux 
Walcott, widow of its late Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 15 

The noble character of Mrs. Walcott, her great skill and zeal in depicting 
wild flowers, ber personal researches in glacial geology, her deep interest in the 
paleontologic researches of Dr. Walcott, and her many gifts, over a long period, 
to the Smithsonian Institution are highly appreciated. 

Resolved, That this Board learns with profound gratitude of Mrs. Walcott's 
large bequest to the endowment of the Smithsonian Institution in memory of 
her late husband. 

Further resolved, That these resolutions be spread on the minutes of this 
meeting and that a copy of them be sent to Mrs. Walcott's executors. 

The amount of Mrs. Walcott's bequest was slightly over $400,000. 
At the close of the fiscal year, the estate had not been settled. 

Julia D. Strong bequest. — In the final accounting of the will of 
Julia D. Strong, of Washington, D. C, who died April 12, 1936, the 
National Collection of Fine Arts of the Smithsonian Institution, as 
alternate beneficiary, received the sum of $10,000. No stipulations 
as to the use of the fund were stated in the will. 

Florence Brevoort EickeiTieyer bequest. — The will of the late 
Florence Brevoort Eickemeyer, of Yonkers, N. Y., contained the 
following provision : 

I give and bequeath to the Smithsonian Institution * * * the sum of 
$10,000 * * * to use or apply the income thereof, or as much thereof as 
may be necessary, in or about the exhibition, preservation and care of my late 
husband Rudolf Eickemeyer Jr.'s photographic works and collection, the residue 
or surplus of such income, if any, to be applied to the uses and purposes of the 
Section of Photography established or maintained by said Institution. My late 
husband, Rudolf Eickemeyer, Jr., in and by his last will and testament and 
codicil thereto, intended to provide a fund for the exhibition and care of his 
photographic works and collection, bequeathed thereby to said Smithsonian 
Institution, and his estate being sufficient to provide such fund, I do hereby 
make the above bequest to carry out my late husband's purpose in that regard. 

The money thus bequeathed had not been received at the close of 
the year. 

Alfred Mussinan bequest. — The Smithsonian Institution is named 
as a residuary legatee of the estate of the late Alfred Mussinan, of 
Sumter County, Fla. His will divides his estate into two equal parts, 
and upon the death of certain legatees named in the will, the Insti- 
tution is to receive five-eighths of the principal sum of one-half of 
the estate, "the income therefrom to be used by said institution for 
the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." The amount 
of Mr. Mussinan's estate was estimated by the executor in May 1941 
to be approximately $30,000, in addition to real estate, stocks, and 
bonds in Germany which it was impossible to evaluate. 

EXPLORATIONS AND FIEID WORK 

In the furtherance of its investigations in many branches of science, 
the Smithsonian sent out or cooperated in 19 expeditions, which 



16 ANNUAL REPOlTr SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

worked not only in many States in the United States, but also in a 
number of foreign lands as well. 

Paleontological work was carried on by Dr. Charles E. Kesser in 
investigations of ancient Cambrian rocks; by Dr. C. Lewis Gazin 
in Utah and Woming, resulting in the discovery of an almost com- 
plete fossil skeleton of the primitive mammal known as an uintathere ; 
and by Dr. G. Arthur Cooper in Texas and Tennessee where an 
abundance of fossil material, much needed in the Museum's study 
collection, was obtained. 

Dr. Willian M. Mann, Director of the National Zoological Park, 
and Mrs. Mann went to Liberia on an expedition financed by the 
Firestone Tire & Kubber Co., and brought back an assortment of live 
animals for the Zoo, including a 400-pound hippopotamus, and some 
3,000 preserved specimens for the Museum. Dr. Alexander Wetmore 
spent a month in Costa Rica studying the birds of that region. 
W. L. Brown collected material in the Canadian Rockies for back- 
grounds for the Rocky Mountain goat and sheep groups exhibited in 
the Museum. Dr. Hobart M. Smith, holder of the Walter Rathbone 
Bacon scholarship, assisted by Mrs. Smith, continued his study of 
the reptiles and amphibians of Mexico. Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt par- 
ticipated in the biological investigations of the king crab of Alaska, 
initiated by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Capt. 
Robert A. Bartlett conducted another expedition to Greenland, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Russell Hawkins, Jr., visited the Gulf of California, 
both to collect marine material. Austin H. Clark carried on his 
observations of the butterflies of Virginia. Mrs. Agnes Chase made 
an extensiA^e study of the grasses of Venezuela, bringing back large 
collections including 11 species previously unknown. 

Dr. T. D. Stewart spent several weeks at the historic Indian village 
site on Potomac Creek in Virginia known as Patawomeke, exam- 
ining an ossuary that was discovered during the previous field sea- 
son. Dr. Waldo R. Wedel conducted archeological investigations in 
central Kansas in an effort to locate Coronado's "Province of Qui- 
vira." David I. Buslinell, Jr., made several trips to the vicinity of 
the Peaks of Otter in search of tangible evidence of early man in 
Virginia. Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., obtained further informa- 
tion on Folsom man, one of the earliest known inhabitants of Amer- 
ica, from excavations at the Lindenmeier site in Colorado. Dr. 
Julian H. Steward visited British Colum.bia to record culture changes 
among the Carrier Indians; Dr. John P. Harrington made a com- 
parative study of the northwestern Indians in Alaska and the south- 
western Indians in New Mexico; and Dr. William N. Fenton col- 
lected data among the Seneca in New Tork State on Iroquois masks 
and ritualism. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 17 

PUBLICATIONS 

Tlie publications of the Smithsonian Institution constitute its 
chief means of carrying out one of its primary functions, the "diffu- 
sion of knowledge." From its private funds, the Institution issues 
the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, a series containing all 
the scientific papers published by the Institution proper; from Gov- 
ernment funds are issued the Smithsonian Annual Report (with 
general appendix reviewing progress in science), the Bulletins and 
Proceedings of the National Museum, the Contributions from the 
National Herbarium, the Bulletins of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, the Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory, and Catalogs 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts. The Freer Gallery of Art 
pamphlets and the series, Oriental Studies, are supported by Freer 
Gallery funds. 

All publications of the Institution are issued through the editorial 
division, which comprises the central office where publications of 
the Institution proper are handled, the office of the editor of the 
National Museum, and that of the editor of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. The editorial division also directs the Institution's 
informational activities and its radio work. 

The year's publications totaled 78, of which 48 were issued by the 
Institution proper, 25 by the National Museum, 3 by the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, 1 by the National Collection of Fine Arts, 
and 1 by the Freer Gallery of Art. Information as to titles, authors, 
and other details concerning these publications will be found in the 
report of the chief of the editorial division, appendix 11. The total 
number of publications distributed was 125,837. 

Among the outstanding publications of the year may be mentioned 
a paper by the Secretary entitled "An Important Weather Element 
Hitherto Generally Disregarded," wherein are summarized evi- 
dences of the dependence of our weather on the variations of solar 
radiation; a revised edition of Assistant Secretary Alexander Wet- 
more's "A Systematic Classification for the Birds of the World"; 
another volume in the series of life histories of North American 
birds by Arthur Cleveland Bent entitled "Life Histories of North 
American Cuckoos, Goatsuckers, Hummingbirds, and Their Allies" ; 
a paper dealing with the very interesting Chicora (Butler County, 
Pa.) meteorite, by F. W. Preston, E. P. Henderson, and James R. 
Randolph; and part 2 of the monograph entitled "Archeological 
Remains in the Whitewater District, Eastern Arizona," by Frank H. 
H. Roberts, Jr. 

LIBRARY 

The year's accessions to the Smithsonian library totaled 6,839 
volumes, pamphlets, and charts, bringing the holdings at the end of 



18 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

the year to 894,655 items. As usual, many gifts were received, among 
the largest of which were a collection of 942 scientific books and 
journals belonging to the late Frederick E. Fowle of the Smith- 
sonian staff and presented by his widow; 622 publications from the 
Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington; 
and 612 publications from the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. Again during the past year the library's 
exchange work was carried on with great difficulty because of war 
conditions abroad. Most of the publications that failed to come 
were European and Asiatic. Some of these are being held by the 
issuing agencies for transmission after the wars are over, others have 
delayed publication, but a few have been discontinued. The library 
staff cataloged 6,693 volumes, pamphlets, and charts; prepared and 
filed 40,238 catalog and shelf -list cards; made 22,311 periodical 
entries; loaned 10,990 publication to members of the Smithsonian 
staff; and conducted an interlibrary loan service with 45 libraries 
outside the Smithsonian system. Other activities included work on 
the union catalog; a large amount of bibliographic assistance to 
members of the Smithsonian staff and others; and checking of the 
serial holdings in connection with the forthcoming second edition 
of the Union List of Serials. The funds allotted to the library per- 
mitted it to bind 958 volumes — only one-half of those completed for 
binding during the year. The most urgent need, therefore, is for 
more adequate funds for binding in order to prevent loss of parts 
of volumes that may be very difficult, if not impossible, to replace. 
Respectfully submitted. 

C. G. Abbot, Secretary. 



APPENDIX 1 
REPORT ON THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Sm : I have the honor to submit the f oUowuig report on the condi- 
tion and operation of the United States National Museum for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1941. 

Funds provided for the maintenance and operation of the National 
Museum for the year totaled $818,305, which was $6,580 more than 
for the previous year. The amount was reduced $6,500, however, 
by reason of a compulsory administrative reserve. 

COLLECTIONS 

Building up of the gi^eat collections of the Museum continued, 
and a total of 1,518 separate accessions, aggregating 326,686 indi- 
vidual specimens, was received during the year. Although this was 
about 400 fewer separate accessions tlian last year, the individual 
specimens increased by 114,000. Distribution of these additions 
among the five departments was as follows: Anthropology, 4,064; 
biology, 262,521; geology, 55,818; engineering and industries, 2,688; 
and history, 1,595. For the most part these acquisitions were gifts 
from individuals or represented expeditions sponsored by the Smith- 
sonian Institution. All are listed in detail in the full report on the 
Museum, published as a separate document, but the more important 
are summarized below. The total num.ber of catalog entries in all 
departments is now nearly 17% million. 

Anthropology. — Important archeological material included a col- 
lection of Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age implements and 
ornaments from Java; over 700 stone artifacts from western New 
York; about 450 specimens from an Indian village site in Page 
County, Va. ; and nearly 1,000 potsherds and shell implements from 
burial mounds near Belle Glade, Fla. In ethnology, many objects 
were received representing the cultures of the Navaho; Alaskan 
Indians and Eskimos; Plains, Pueblo, and Southwestern tribes; the 
Iroquois ; and others. Collections from peoples outside the Americas 
included specimens from Malayan tribes of the Philippines, from the 
Grebo of Liberia, and from the natives of Bali. Twenty-nine ce- 
ramic specimens, 30 musical instruments, and 47 pieces of period art 
and textiles were added. In the division of physical anthropology, 
skeletal remains from Peru and from southeastern Alaska and a 

19 

430577 — i2 3 



20 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

reconstruction of the newly found remains of the fourth Pithecan- 
thropits were the principal acquisitions. 

Biology. — Biological specimens, many of great scientific value, 
totaled 262,521, a considerable increase over last year, although these 
came in fewer individual accessions. The most important mam- 
malian accession was a complete skull and both sets of baleen of an 
adult humpback whale {Megaptera novae-angliae) and a fetal whale- 
bone whale skull from the North Pacific. Other mammals received 
included 74 specimens from Liberia; 102 from South Carolina; 85 
cavernicolous bats ; other bats from Mexico, the Virgin Islands, and 
Puerto Kico ; 2 fetuses of humpback whales ; a baby walrus skeleton ; 
and other specimens from Indo-Chlna, Ecuador, Korea, Costa Rica, 
Bolivia, and Brazil. Of nearly 100 mammals received from the 
National Zoological Park, the most important was a gayal {Bos 
frontalis) . 

Large representations of birds came from Indo-China, Costa Eica, 
Brazil, Antarctica, Mexico, and Manchukuo. Field work of the Mu- 
seum in South Carolina yielded 1,205 bird skins for the study collec- 
tions. 

Incorporated in the collections during the year were 4,201 Mexican 
reptiles received from the Smithsonian Institution as the major part 
of the collections made by Dr. Hobart M. Smith, under the Walter 
Eathbone Bacon scholarship, among them being types of many new 
forms and representatives of species hitherto not contained in the 
Museum. The second installment of Dr. W. M. Mann's reptilian and 
amphibian collections in Liberia consisted of 472 specimens, represent- 
ing several new forms and much valuable comparative material from 
territory hitherto little known. 

Nearly 2,000 Liberian fishes also resulted from the Smithsonian- 
Firestone Expedition headed by Dr. Mann, in addition to those acces- 
sioned last year. Among other ichthyological specimens received 
were 900 fishes from Texas and the Gulf of Mexico, 420 from Alaska, 
and 60 sharks from Florida and Texas. 

The most important accession in insects was the Nevermann collec- 
tion of Costa Eican Coleoptera, comprising about 33,000 specimens 
and including much type material. Other important entomological 
material came in many miscellaneous lots, the largest being 64,000 
insect specimens transferred from the Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine. A collection of nearly 3,000 beetles from Panama 
was donated by Assistant Curator Eichard E. Blackwelder, who col- 
lected them several years ago. 

About 500 marine invertebrates from the west coast of Greenland 
came as a result of the Bartlett Greenland Expedition of 1940. 
Through Curator Waldo L. Schmitt there was accessioned a large 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 21 

collection of marine invertebrates taken in the course of the Alaska 
king crab investigations of the Fish and Wildlife Service. From this 
same Service there was transferred a lot of nemertean worms collected 
by the Albatross and Fish Hawk. Outstanding also was a large col- 
lection of moUusks, echinoderms, crustaceans, miscellaneous inverte- 
brates, and 182 bottom samples obtained by Russell Hawkins, Jr., on 
1939 and 1940 cruises along the west coast of Baja California and in 
the Gulf of California. Over 3,000 selected molluscan specimens were 
obtained by purchase through the Frances Lea Chamberlain Fund. A 
remarkably fine collection of over 3,000 Samoan shells was contributed, 
as well as 1,000 land and fresh-water shells from Texas. Several inter- 
esting lots of echinoderms were added, chiefly from the Antarctic 
region, from Greenland, and from the Abrolhos Islands, Western 
Australia. 

About 25,000 plants from many sources were added to the collections 
of the National Herbarium. 

Geology. — Many choice minerals and gems were acquired through 
the Canfield, Eoebling, and Chamberlain funds of the Smithsonian 
Institution. The finest mineral specimen is an 1,800-carat aqua- 
marine crystal from Agua Preta, Brazil, showing the rare berylloid 
form. The extensive Diaz collection of Mexican cassiterites and 
valuable sets of minerals from Bolivia also are noteworthy. Gems 
added included a brilliant cut purple enclase of 46 carats from Cey- 
lon, and a greenish-yellow 9-carat enclase from Brazil. Another 
important acquisition consisted of 620 Brazilian gem stones trans- 
ferred from the United States Treasury Department. The out- 
standing addition to the meteorite series was the Sardis, Ga., speci- 
men, an altered iron, weighing 1,760 pounds, the fifth largest single 
meteorite ever found in the United States. Four meteoritic falls, 
all American, were represented in specimens presented by Dr. Stuart 
H. Perry, associate in mineralogy. A valuable series of tin ores 
resulted from Curator W. F. Foshag's studies for defense purposes 
of the tin resources of Mexico. 

Field work by members of the staff yielded the bulk of the in- 
vertebrate fossils accessioned: About 8,000 Cambrian brachiopods 
and trilobites from the Rocky Mountain region, Missouri, and the 
Appalachian Valley; 20,000 post-Cambrian specimens from west 
Tennessee and Texas; and 15,000 Devonian fossils from the various 
counties in the geologically classic Lower Peninsula of Michigan. 
Much valuable type material was contained in other miscellaneous 
accessions, mostly gifts, including Upper Cambrian invertebrates 
from Texas and southeastern Missouri, Ordovician Bryozoa from 
Oklahoma, Upper Triassic ammonites from Nevada, and type fos- 
sils from the Kaibab formation of the Grand Canyon. Important 



22 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

lots of Foraminifera came from such widely separated regions as 
Mexico, Peru, New Zealand, and Arabia. Casts of 256 type specimens 
of the fossil shell Turritella^ from the Tertiary rocks of the Pacific 
coast, comprised an outstanding addition to the Cenozoic collections. 

As a result of paleontological field work in central Utah several 
articulated Upper Cretaceous lizard skeletons (Polyglyphanodon) 
and fragmentary mammalian jaws and teeth from the Paleocene 
were received, in addition to 149 lots of vertebrate fossils collected 
from the Bridger Eocene of southwestern Wyoming. Also worthy 
of special mention among the new vertebrate material are the greater 
part of the skeleton of the primitive mammal TJ intatherkum^ a partial 
skeleton of a Palaeosyops^ and a perfect skull and jaws of the dog- 
like Thinocyon velox. Parts of several fossil whales and porpoises, 
from the Miocene Calvert formation of the Chesapeake Bay 
country, were acquired. 

Engineering and industries. — To the section of transportation and 
civil engineering came an operating exhibit of the Westinghouse 
air brake, and three fine scale models, the Polish motorship Pilsudski, 
the Rolls Eoyce automobile Silver Ghost, and the diesel-engined 
trawler /Storm. 

A unique accession in the section of aeronautics, received as a 
transfer from the Navy Department, was a fighter airplane known 
as the Curtiss Sparrowhawk, a type developed in 1931-35 as an 
auxiliary fighter to the dirigibles Alo^on and Macon. Several inter- 
esting airplane models were received : The original model of a steam- 
engined bombing helicopter designed in Civil War times and scale 
models of the Columbia monoplane (1910), the triplane bomber 
(1918), the U. S. Army pursuit tj'^pe P-35, the U. S. Army trainer 
type BT-8, and the amphibian SEV-3N. 

In mechanical engineering the outstanding accession was an excep- 
tional operating model made by Howell M. Winslow of a Reynolds- 
Corliss steam engine of about 1900. The section of electrical 
engineering and communication received three original Plante stor- 
age battery plates and two replicas of the posted plate batteries 
made by T. A. Willard in 1881 ; also the tone arm of a modern 
photoelectric phonograph. 

One of the most spectacular acquisitions in recent years is the 
93-dial display clock made by Louis Zimmer, of Lier, Belgium, for 
the Brussels World's Fair in 1935. It is 14 feet high, tells the stand- 
ard time of many places around the world, the tides in various 
parts, and a great variety of calendar and astronomical events. The 
section of woods and wood technology received the first letter file 
made to handle correspondence unfolded and vertical. An important 
and generous gift to the division of graphic arts was a collection 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 23 

of 200 Currier and Ives prints from a donor, who in addition lent 
183 others. There came also as a loan the original camera believed 
to have been used around 1836 by Dr. John W. Draper, the eminent 
American chemist and physiologist, while a member of the faculty 
of Hampden- Sydney College, Richmond, Va. 

History. — Nearly 1,600 objects of historic and antiquarian interest 
were accessioned, including busts, costumes, or mementos of such 
outstanding Americans as Abraham Lincoln, Mrs. Andrew Jackson 
Donelson, Col. Samuel Simpson, William Jennings Bryan, Henry 
B. F. Macfarland, and Brig. Gen. Caleb Cushing. The numismatic 
collection was increased by 176 coins and medals, including a series 
of United States bronze, nickel, and silver coins struck at the Denver, 
Philadelphia, and San Francisco mints in 1914; and the philatelic 
collection by 1,310 stamps and other items. 

EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD WORK 

Field exploration by the Museum's experienced staff and its col- 
laborators continues as one of the most important sources for addi- 
tions of new materials in the broad fields of anthropology, biology, 
and geology. As in previous years this work was financed in the 
main through funds provided by the Smithsonian Institution or 
through interested friends of the Institution. The specimens 
obtained have filled many gaps in the Museum's series. 

Anthropology. — During August and September, 1940, Dr. T. 
Dale Stewart, associate curator of physical anthropology, continued 
excavations at the historic Indian village site known as Patawomeke 
on Potomac Creek, in Stafford County, Va., completely exploring 
the ossuary discovered last year. The work this season yielded a 
number of facts that verify or supplement the meager historical 
records pertaining to the burial ceremonies of the Virginia tide- 
water Indians. Of the approximately 100 skeletons encountered in 
the ossuary, the majority had become disarticulated, or were dis- 
articulated before burial. A few, however — approximately a dozen 
adults — were observed to be fully articulated. These were found on 
the bottom or along the sides of the pit and hence may have been 
the first bodies received into the grave. Moreover, all these artic- 
ulated skeletons are possibly males and had their arms extended 
along their sides as do the bodies shown in John White's picture of 
a death house, which was drawn during his visit to Roanoke Island 
in 1585. Also, all these skeletons had their lower legs flexed un- 
naturally forward, which would have been a practicable way for 
shortening an extended body resting on its back. There is evidence, 
on the other hand, that the disarticulated skeletons were exposed 



24 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

for a considerable period before burial ; in several cases mud dauber 
nests were found in the skull or among the bundled bones. This 
finding indicates that the period in which these bodies were exposed 
in an open death house included at least one warm season. 

On February 27, 1941, Dr. Stewart went to Peru in connection 
with the program sponsored by the State Department for cultural 
cooperation with other American republics. In Lima, through the 
kindness of Dr. Julio C. Tello, director of the Museum of Anthro- 
pology, Magdalena Vieja, he had the privilege of studying two docu- 
mented series of human skeletal remains, one from Paracas and the 
other from Malena. These two series are interesting for comparison 
because that from Paracas is very early, whereas that from Malena 
is late coastal Inca. The Paracas people, although relatively ancient, 
were far from being primitive in the cultural sense. Their textiles 
are famous and among the finest produced anywhere. While in 
Lima Dr. Stewart visited many of the nearby ruins and ancient 
Lidian sites. From these trips Dr. Stewart brought back a small 
collection of the more interesting skeletal remains to supplement 
earlier collections. 

During the week of March 30 Dr. Stewart represented the Insti- 
tution and the National Geographic Society at the Third Assembly 
of the Pan American Institute of Geography and History meeting 
in Lima. Following the Assembly he visited the Museo Arqueologico 
"Rafael Larco Herrera" at Chiclin, where, through the kindness of 
Sr. Rafael Larco Hoyle, he was able to study a documented series 
of Mochica and Cupianique skeletons. These remains are from the 
oldest cultural periods of the northern coast. From Chiclin Dr. 
Stewart went south to Mollendo, and thence by way of Arequipa 
to Cuzco. Here, besides visiting some of the famous ruins, he saw 
the fine collection of mummies and trephined skulls at the University 
of Cuzco and the Instituto Arqueologico. 

Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, assistant curator in archeology, was in the 
field from June 1 to September 16, 1940, continuing the Institution's 
archeological survey of Kansas, begun in 1937. The 1940 explora- 
tions were carried on at several locations in Rice and Cowley 
Counties. Preliminary excavations show that the sites investigated 
mark villages inhabited by semisedentary, partly horticultural In- 
dians who did not live in earth lodges. These people made pottery, 
wove basketry, had a wide variety of artifacts in stone, bone, horn, 
and shell, traded with the Pueblos on the Rio Grande for turquoise, 
pottery, and obsidian, and were in contact with white men. Frag- 
ments of glaze-paint pottery represent types made on the Rio 
Grande between 1525 and 1650, and bits of chain mail suggest a 
visit from some of the early Spanish explorers. It is tentatively 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 25 

suggested that these remains, widespread in central and southern 
Kansas, may be of Wichita origin, and possibly represent some of 
the Quivira villages seen by Coronado, Humana, Bonilla, and Oriate. 

During the period from December 5 to 12, 1940, and again in 
May 1941, Dr. Wedel made a brief reconnaissance in the Holston 
River drainage near Saltville, Va. A number of extremely promis- 
ng prehistoric village sites and two apparently affiliated burial caves 
were visited, and a local collection was studied. No excavations were 
undertaken. The cultural materials indicate some relationships with 
J^Iiddle Mississippi remains in Tennessee and adjacent States, but 
pending more extended studies their exact position culturally remains 
uncertain. 

Walter W. Taylor, Jr., collaborator in anthropology, inaugurated 
archeological excavations in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. From 
January 1941 to the close of the fiscal year, Mr. Taylor surveyed a 
wide area in the various mountain valleys around Cuatro Cienegas 
and excavated several small caves and one large cave. The principal 
purpose of this program was to determine the relationship between 
the prehistoric cave inhabitants in this northern section of Mexico 
and the inhabitants of similar sites in the Pecos River and Big 
Bend area of southwestern Texas. A superficial relationship seems 
evident from Mr. Taylor's field reports, but final conclusions must 
await a careful comparison of material in the Museum. 

Biology. — During October and November Dr. Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, visited Costa 
Rica as part of the program sponsored by the State Department 
for cultural cooperation with the other American republics. He was 
received with every courtesy as the guest of the Costa Rican Gov- 
ernment, and in San Jose, the capital city, he worked at the National 
Museum and visited and conferred with officials in various branches 
as well as with scientists in other services. Following this, accom- 
panied by Dr. Juvenal Valerio Rodriguez, director of the National 
Museum, and Carlos Aguilar in charge of the zoological collections 
in the Museum, he crossed by air to Liberia, the principal city of 
Guanacaste, the northwestern province of Costa Rica. From this 
base collections of birds were made in the surrounding country. Dr. 
Yalerio returned to San Jose, while Mr. Aguilar remained for train- 
ing in zoological field work. Guanacaste is devoted mainly to cattle 
raising, with small cultivation. Liberia lies on a slightly elevated 
plain east of the swampy lowlands bordering the Rio Tempisque. 
For more than 2 weeks Dr. Wetmore and Mr. Aguilar were located 
at a great hacienda on the southera slopes of the Volcan Rincon de 
la Vieja where there was access to heavy rain forest on the mountain. 
Collections were obtained for the National Museum in San Jose as 



26 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

well as for our Institution. The several hundred birds that have 
come to Washington as a result of this work add measurably to our 
series, as our earlier investig'ations of the birds of Costa Rica did 
not cover Guanacaste, On his return north at the end of Novem- 
ber Dr. Wetmore had opportunity to spend a day in Habana, Cuba, 
where he was received by representatives of the Cuban Government 
and conferred with prominent scientists of the country. 

From March to May, 1941, Dr. Wetmore visited Colombia in con- 
tinuation of the program mentioned for closer personal contact and 
cooperation with scientists in our neighbor republics. In Bogota 
he was received at the National University, where he worked par- 
ticularly in the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales. He also conferred 
with scientists who had been in attendance at the Eighth American 
Scientific Congress in Washington the year previous, and visited 
scientific workers with whom the Smithsonian Institution has been 
in contact through correspondence for years. Following this, with 
M. A. Carriker, Jr., as assistant, and accompanied by Dr. F. Carlos 
Lehmann and his assistant from the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales 
and by Lt. Alejandro Rubiano as a representative of the Colombian 
Government, Dr. Wetmore set out from Santa Marta on a pro- 
longed expedition through the Guajira Peninsula. The party 
traveled by truck to Riohacha stopping en route for work in ex- 
tensive forest areas near the Rio Ariguani and its tributaries. Here 
in 8 days' time specimens of 100 distinct species of birds were ob- 
tained, an indication of the richness of the fauna. In Riohacha the 
party obtained another truck and here entered the Guajira proper. 
The peninsula in the main is an arid, desert country with extensive 
open savannas and broad stony plains, grown in places with heavy 
stands of mesquite and cacti that form veritable forests. In the 
eastern section there are low mountains with trails along their bases 
passable for heavy trucks except during the period of rains. On 
the highest range where the trade winds build a cloud cap with con- 
sequent more or less regular precipitation in contrast to the desert 
below, there is an island of tropical rain forest with the species 
usual to such an environment, here isolated by long distances from 
other similar areas. Dr. Lehmann and Lieutenant Rubiano com- 
pleted their work with the party in April while the others continued 
to the forested region mentioned. On the return the middle of May 
it was necessary because of disrupted steamer schedules for Dr. 
Wetmore to cross by schooner from Puerto Estrella, in the Guajira, to 
the Island of Aruba, Here after a 2-day wait he obtained plane 
passage to Curagao, and from there sailed for New York. A stop 
en route at La Guaira, Venezuela, gave opportunity to visit Caracas, 
where he was guest of honor at a luncheon given bv W. H. Phelps 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 27 

to a group of Venezuelan scientists, and had opportunity to visit 
the new Museo Nacional and the Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias 
Naturales. 

Mr. Carriker, whose expenses for this work in Colombia were 
carried by the W. L. Abbott fund of the Smithsonian Institution, 
continued in the field in the Guajira until late in June to finish the 
investigations. At the end of the fiscal year he was located in the 
Sierra Negra in the northern section of the Perija Mountains, a 
region previously unknown to naturalists. 

The collecting expeditions by W. M. Perrygo, scientific aid, to 
obtain much-needed material for the study of the vertebrate fauna 
of the Appalachian region, were continued with good results. Accom- 
panied by John S. Webb, of the division of birds, he left for South 
Carolina on September 14, 1940, working first along the Catawba 
River and in the wooded regions of the Piedmont region and later 
collecting in the swamps along the Pee Dee River. The middle of 
October he continued southward to Allendale to complete work begun 
in the spring months along the Savannah River. Two weeks were 
spent in collecting along the Lynches River, a tributary of the Pee 
Dee, and the final stay centered around McClellanville for work in 
the salt marshes near the Cape Romaine Wildlife Sanctuary, The 
expedition returned December 3. This work also was financed 
through the W. L. Abbott fund of the Smithsonian. 

Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, curator of marine invertebrates, during 
the latter part of 1940 served as biologist and leader of the field party 
organized by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service for the 
purpose of investigating the biology of the king crab in Alaska. 
He left Seattle on August 28 and on September 12 established head- 
quarters at Canoe Bay, off the northwest corner of Pavlof Bay, where 
investigations were carried on successfully for 5 weeks. Later on 
operations were transferred to Alitak at the western end of Kodiak. 
Work at a final base on the north side of Shelikof Strait, east of 
Kukak Bay, from November 15 to 20 ended the investigations for 
the season, which in addition to observations on the distribution and 
biology of the king crab yielded an extensive collection of marine 
animals of interest to the Museum. 

Clarence R. Shoemaker, assistant curator of marine invertebrates, 
in company with T. Kenneth Ellis, undertook a 2-weeks' collecting 
trip for fresh-water amphipods through Virginia and the Carolinas. 
The expedition returned with much interesting material to the 
Museum, the particular object being to extend the study series of 
certain rare species from this region. 

The Smithsonian-Firestone Expedition to Liberia under the leader- 
ship of Dr. W. M. Mann, Director of the National Zoological Park, 



28 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

obtained for the Museum a large amount of zoological and botanical 
material, including many novelties, from a region of the world 
hitherto poorly represented in our collections. Although started 
early in 1940, the expedition did not return until August 7, and is 
therefore properly referred to here, as the specimens brought back 
were accessioned during the present year. The story of the expedi- 
tion has been widely published, and a condensed account with illustra- 
tions will be found in the volume Explorations and Field Work of 
the Smithsonian Institution in 1940, pp. 13-20. 

As in past years, Capt. Robert A. Bartlett in his annual expedi- 
tion to Greenland in the schooner Morrissey brought back valuable 
additions particularly to the invertebrate collections, made with 
equipment supplied by the Museum. 

Dr. Hobart M. Smith, under the Walter Rathbone Bacon scholar- 
ship, finished his field work in Mexico in August 1940, bringing 
back to the Smithsonian Institution splendid collections that in all 
comprise more than 20,000 specimens of reptiles and amphibians now 
deposited in the Museum. During July and August, 1940, he was able 
to study the collection of the late Dr. Alfredo Duges, which contains 
many type specimens of Mexican reptiles and amphibians. 

Dr. E. A. Chapin, curator of insects, spent 5 weeks on the island 
of Jamaica during April and May, 1941. Arriving there on April 
22, he was met at customs by C. B. Lewis, curator of natural history 
of the Jamaica Institute, who during the entire period of work 
assisted in various ways. Special trips arranged by Mr. Lewis in- 
cluded a day on Goat Island, 1 on Portland Ridge, 2 at Cuna Cuna 
Pass, and a 4-day stay at Cinchona in the Blue Mountains. Except 
for 8 days spent in and around Savanna-la-Mar, headquarters was 
maintained near Kingston and short trips were made out from that 
point. Because of the poor showing made in certain groups in 1937, 
it was decided to concentrate on the termite and ant faunas. In 
addition to various rare beetles, at least 13 species of termites, mostly 
of the type living in hardwood, were found, and at least 3 of them 
are additions to the Jamaica list. Other results of the work include 
the establishment of very pleasant relations with the Jamaica Insti- 
tute and the Government Entomologist's Office. 

The United States Antarctic Service expedition returned from a 
year's stay in the Antarctic with very valuable material consisting 
of mammals, birds, and a considerable collection of lower crypto- 
gamic plants. The Museum was represented in this work by Herwil 
M. Bryant. J. E. Perkins and M. J. Lobell were detailed to the 
expedition by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of 
the Interior. 

Local field work in nearby Maryland and Virginia by various 
members of the staff has included investigations of Dr. L. P. Schultz 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 29 

on fresh-water fishes. Botanists of the staff gathered material for 
a proposed new Flora of the District of Columbia, the object sought 
being a thorough knowledge of the Washington-Baltimore region. 

Geology. — Under a cooperative arrangement with the United 
States Geological Survey, Dr. W. F. Foshag, curator of mineralogy 
and petrology, accompanied by Carl Fries, of the Geological Survey 
staff, made a 3-month survey of the tin resources of Mexico. All 
the important mining districts of Mexico included within the states 
of Michoacan, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Aguascalientes, 
Jalisco, Zacatecas, and Durango were visited and the deposits studied 
as to their geology, mineralogy, and commercial potentialities. The 
largest potential deposits are the placer sands derived from granite 
intrusions in San Luis Potosi. The deposits in the rhyolitic rocks 
are, in most cases, small and of little importance. 

Dr. C. E. Resser, curator of stratigraphic paleontology, spent 3 
months in field work, chiefly in the Rocky Mountains, assisted by 
Charles H. Frey, 3d, of Lancaster, Pa. Dr. Resser left Washing- 
ton on June 25, making first a brief stop in southwestern Virginia. 
His next objective was the Cambrian section in the Ozark Mountains, 
where several days' work enabled him to familiarize himself with 
these strata. Only indifferent fossils were found, as most of the 
Cambrian rock does not carry fossils. He continued then to examine 
Cambrian deposits in Colorado in the Front, Mosquito, and Sawatch 
Ranges and the Glenwood Springs Canyon. Ten days in the State 
permitted examination of several sections. Dr. T. S. Lovering, of 
Ohio State University, who was mapping the region about Oilman, 
assisted materially in showing the sections there. At the Grand 
Canyon National Park in Arizona Dr. Resser examined new localities 
under the guidance of Park Naturalist Edwin McKee during a 3- 
day trip to Peach Springs and Meriwitica Canyons, 150 miles west 
of Grand Canyon Village. Some fossils were found and physical 
measurements made. In the Wasatch Mountains the party checked 
on the position of certain faunas and on the stratigraphy, which had 
been questioned. Fine collections were made at critical points. At 
the Green River Lakes, one of the most beautiful spots in America, 
Dr. Resser's party found a section 850 to 1,000 feet thick, representing 
both Middle and Upper Cambrian, carrying a few fossils. Several 
sections were studied in Montana, notably on Squaw Creek in the 
Gallatin Range, Newland Creek, Little Birch Creek, and Deep Creek 
in the Belt Mountains, and several localities near Three Forks, Mont. 
Particularly fine material was secured at several of these localities. 
Advantage was taken of the new road constituting the northeastern 
entrance to the Yellowstone to study the excellent section at Bear- 
tooth Butte. Here some good collections were made. On the return 



30 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

journey a new section across the Big Horn Mountains was seen 
along Shell Creek, and about a week was spent in the Black Hills. 
During an earlier trip from May 5 to 15 to southwestern Virginia 
and eastern Tennessee Dr. Resser examined outcrops of the belt 
west of Clinch Mountain to ascertain the faunal content of the Mary- 
ville formation. Fossils were scarce and very difficult to free from 
the matrix. A visit to Austinville, Va., furnished some excellent 
fossils, and observations confirmed earlier interpretation of the stra- 
tigraphy. The exact stratigraphic position of a new brachiopod 
related to Nisusia — as yet undescribed — was discovered. 

In August 1940 Dr. G. Arthur Cooper, assistant curator of strati- 
graphic jDaleontology, joined Mrs. J. H. Renfro and daughter in 
Fort Worth and with the guidance of these expert collectors collected 
Pennsylvanian fossils in the region around Jacksboro and Graham 
in north-central Texas. An abundance of fine material for the 
biological series was obtained. Following 2 weeks in north-central 
Texas, Dr. Cooper went to the Glass Mountains in west Texas, where 
he spent another 2 weeks collecting limestone containing silicified 
specimens. About a ton of blocks was sent back to Washington, 
where almost half the material has since been etched with acid, 
yielding very beautiful rare fossils that preserve the delicate spines, 
and peculiar features of the interior of the animals concerned in a 
truly remarkable way. Proceeding to west Tennessee he collected 
Silurian and Lower Devonian fossils along the Tennessee River in 
localities that soon will be lost through the impounding of water 
behind the Gilbertsville, Ky., dam. At places the Silurian in this 
part of Tennessee teems with fossils of many kinds and fine col- 
lections were obtained, including new forms as well as many others 
not previously present in the collections. From there he went east 
to Murfreesboro, Tenn., where he joined Dr. Josiah Bridge, of the 
United States Geological Survey. They spent 10 days in the Central 
Basin of Tennessee collecting the fossils and studying the rocks of 
the Stones River (Ordovician) group, as problems of correlation 
never satisfactorily solved exist in this area. 

As the vertebrate paleontological field exploration under Dr. C. 
L. Gazin, assistant curator of vertebrate paleontology, extended into 
the present year, but brief mention was made of it in last year's 
report. The expedition, into central Utah and southwestern Wy- 
oming, was a continuation of previous investigations. In the Upper 
Cretaceous several additional lizard skeletons were collected; and 
in the Paleocene a considerable number of fragmentary mammal 
specimens. Interesting new forms contribute information to the 
known fauna of the Dragon formation. The bulk of the season 
was spent in the Bridger formation of the Eocene in southwestern 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 31 

Wj^oming, where 149 lots of fossil specimens were obtained. A 
skeleton of Uintatherimn complete enough to articulate for exhi- 
bition, probably the most complete skeleton of this animal yet dis- 
covered, was the outstanding specimen collected. Partial skeletons 
of Palaeosyops are also of high importance. 

Short trips to the Miocene along Chesapeake Bay for cetacean 
remains were made by Dr. Remington Kellogg and other members 
of the staff. Many specimens from this unique fauna have been 
added to the collections. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Visitors. — A total of 2,505,871 visitors at the various Museum 
buildings was recorded during the year, this being virtually the 
same as for the previous year. The high months this year were 
August 1940 and April 1941, when 369,942 and 320,594 visitors, re- 
spectivelj', were recorded. The attendance in the four Museum 
buildings was as follows: Smithsonian Building (main hall closed 
from July 1 to January 19), 212,464; Arts and Industries Building, 
1,302,210; Natural History Building, 803,516; Aircraft Building 
(closed from March 17 to June 30), 182,112. 

Publications and frinting. — The sum of $23,000 was available 
during the fiscal year 1941 for the publication of the annual report, 
Bulletins, and Proceedings. Twenty-five publications were issued — 
the annual report, 1 Bulletin, 1 volume of Bulletin 100, 1 separate 
paper from another volume of Bulletin 100, 1 title page, table of 
contents, and index of the Contributions from the United States 
National Herbarium, 19 separate Proceedings papers, and 1 title 
page, table of contents, and index of a Proceedings volume. Par- 
ticularly outstanding were the following: "Life Histories of North 
American Cuckoos, Goatsuckers, Hummingbirds, and Their Allies," 
by Arthur Cleveland Bent (Bulletin 176) ; "The Fishes of the Groups 
Elasmobranchii, Holocephali, Isospondyli, and Ostariophysi Ob- 
tained by the United States Bureau of Fisheries Steamer Albatross 
in 1907 to 1910, Chiefly in the Philippine Islands and Adjacent Seas," 
by Henry "\V. Fowler (Bulletin 100, volume 13) ; "Further Studies 
on the Opalinid Ciliate Infusorians and Their Hosts," by Maynard 
M. Metcalf; "The Cuban Operculate Land Mollusks of the Family 
Annulariidae, Exclusive of the Subfamily Chondropominae," by 
Carlos de la Torre and Paul Bartsch; "A Supposed Jellyfish from 
the Pre-Cambrian of the Grand Canyon," by R. S. Bassler; "Notes 
on Birds of the Guatemalan Highlands," by Alexander Wetmore; 
and "The Chicora (Butler County, Pa.) Meteorite," by F. W. Preston, 
E. P. Henderson, and James R. Randolph. 



32 AJsnsruAL report Smithsonian institution, 1941 

Volumes and separates distributed during tlie year to libraries, 
institutions, and individuals throughout the world aggregated 52,170 
copies. 

Special exhibits. — Fourteen special exhibits were held during the 
year under the auspices of various educational, scientific, recreational, 
and governmental groups. In addition the department of engineer- 
ing and industries arranged 17 special displays — 8 in graphic arts 
and 9 in photography. 

CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND STAFF 

In the department of anthropology. Dr. Joseph E. Weckler, Jr., 
was appointed assistant curator, division of ethnology, on March 1, 
1941. 

In the department of biology, on the retirement of Gerrit S. Miller, 
Jr., curator of the division of mammals, the duties of this office 
were, on January 1, 1941, assumed by Dr. Eemington Kellogg, ad- 
vanced from the position of assistant curator. To the division of 
insects Dr. Richard E. Blackwelder was appointed as assistant 
curator on October 1, 1940; to the section of taxidermy Edgar G. 
Laybourne was appointed senior scientific aid on March 20, 1941, 
and to the division of birds, John S. Webb was appointed scientific 
aid on August 1, 1940. 

In the department of engineering and industries, to the division 
of graphic arts Irwin Lefcourt was appointed scientific aid, on 
September 3, 1940. 

Other changes in appointment on the staff were as follows : Elisa- 
beth P. Hobbs to assistant librarian, on March 16, 1941; Ralph A. 
Silbaugh, foreman of laborers, on January 16, 1941 ; David L. Hubbs 
to acting foreman of laborers, on September 1, 1940 ; Ernest Desantis 
to lieutenant of guard, on July 1, 1940; and two principal guards 
(sergeants), James C. Clarke, on July 1, 1940, and Bascom F. Gordon, 
on March 16, 1941. 

Honorary appointments in connection with the National Museum 
collections were made by the Smithsonian Institution as follows: 
On July 1, 1940, Walter W. Taylor, Jr., as collaborator in the de- 
partment of anthropology; on January 1, 1941, Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., 
as associate in the department of biology. 

The scientific staff lost the services of Miss Margaret W. Moodey, 
by resignation, on May 31, 1941. 

Five employees were furloughed indefinitely for military service, 
namely: Robert E. Kirk, on October 4, 1940; John J. Queeney, on 
August 15, 1940; Charles E. Stousland, on November 27, 1940; 
Charles A. Bono, on May 21, 1941, and George V. Worthington, 
on August 21, 1940. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 33 

During the year 13 persons were retired, as follows : Through age : 
Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., curator, division of mammals, on December 31, 

1940, with 40 years 10 months of service; Gertrude L. Woodin, as- 
sistant librarian, on January 31, 1941, with 34 years 11 months of 
service ; Joseph T. Saylor, foreman of laborers, on December 31, 1940, 
with 30 years 8 months service; David H. Zirkle, guard, on June 
30, 1941, wtih 15 years of service ; Hattie L. Henson, charwoman, on 
March 31, 1941, with 19 years 6 months of service; and Emma D. 
Whitley, charwoman, on March 31, 1941, with 15 years of service. 

Through optional retirement: Anne J. B. DePue, telephone oper- 
ator, on November 30, 1940, with 40 years 5 months of service; and 
Donald MacDonald, guard, on September 30, 1940, with 33 years 9 
months of service. 

Through disability retirement: Trezzvant Anderson, guard, on 
March 31, 1941; Eugene Smith, guard, on June IS, 1941; Anna M. 
Bowie, laborer, on March 14, 1941 ; Charles Davis, laborer, on June 30, 

1941, and Lish Myers, laborer, on April 30, 1941. 

Through death, the Museum lost during the year two employees 
from its active roll, Clayton R. Denmark, engineer, on December 22, 

1940, and William G. Shields, guard, on May 31, 1941. From its 
list of honorary workers, the Museum lost by death, on January 12, 

1941, Charles W. Stiles, associate in zoology, division of marine in- 
vertebrates, since April 17, 1894, and on June 4, 1941, David I. Bush- 
nell, Jr., who served temporarily from May to June 1913 as archeolo- 
gist and from July 27, 1932, to his death as collaborator 
in anthropology. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Alexander Wetmore, Assistant Secretary. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 2 
REPORT ON THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

Sir : I have the honor to submit, on behalf of the Board of Trustees 
of the National Gallery of Art, the fourth annual report of the Board 
covering its operations for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1941. 

Such report is being made pursuant to the provisions of the act of 
March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51), as amended by the public resolution of 
April 13, 1939 (Pub. Res. No. 9, 76th Cong.). Under this act Con- 
gress created, in the Smithsonian Institution, a bureau to be directed 
by a board to be known as the "Trustees of the National Gallery of 
Art," charged with the maintenance and administration of the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art, appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution 
the area bounded by Seventh Street, Constitution Avenue, Fouilh 
Street, and North Mall Drive (now Madison Drive) Northwest, in the 
District of Columbia, as a site for a National Gallery of Art, and 
authorized the Smithsonian Institution to permit The A. AV. Mellon 
Educational and Charitable Trust, a public charitable trust estab- 
lished by the late Hon. Andrew W. Mellon, of Pittsburgh, Pa., to 
construct thereon a building to be designated the "National Gallery of 
Art." Further, the act authorizes the Board to accept, for the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and to hold and administer gifts, bequests, and 
devises of money, securities, or other propertj^ for the benefit of the 
National Gallery of Art ; also, under the creating act, the United States 
is pledged to provide such funds as may be necessary for the upkeep 
of the National Gallery of Art and the administrative expenses and 
costs of operation thereof, including the protection and care of the 
works of art so that the Gallery shall at all times be properly main- 
tained and the works of art exhibited regularly to the general public, 
free of charge. 

COMPLETION AND OCCUPATION OF THE GALLERY BUILDING 

Formal notice of the completion of the National Gallery of Art 
project, calling for the construction of the Gallery building and the 
landscaping of the area appropriated for the site of the National 
Gallery of Art, in accordance with plans and specifications approved 
by the Commission of Fine Arts, was given by the Trustees of The 
A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust under date of No- 
vember 30, 1940, to the Trustees of the National Gallery of Art and 
the Smithsonian Institution, and as provided in the trust indenture 

34 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 35 

dated June 24, 1937, the legal title to the building was deemed forth- 
with to be vested in the Smithsonian Institution, of which the National 
Gallery of Art is a bureau, and the maintenance and administration 
of the building and site became the exclusive and sole obligation of 
the Trustees of the National Gallery of Art. A copy of the notice of 
completion is attached to this report, as exhibit A (not printed). 

The Gallery building was turned over to the Trustees of the Gallery 
on December 1, 1940, and following inspection and upon certification 
by Eggers and Higgins, successors of John Russell Pope, architect 
for the Gallery, as to the final completion of the project, the Trustees 
of the Gallery, at a meeting held December 10, 1940, formally accepted 
the Gallery project. Copy of the architect's certificate is attached 
to this report, as exhibit B (not printed). At this meeting the mem- 
bers of the Board expressed great satisfaction with the construction 
of the Gallery building, as finally completed, and their appreciation 
of the efforts of the Trustees of The A. W. Mellon Educational and 
Charitable Trust, the surviving Trustees being Paul Mellon, Donald 
D. Shepard, and David K. E. Bruce, in the erection of a Gallery build- 
ing of such monumental character and such outstanding architectural 
merit. 

The Trustees have been apprised that the total cost of the Gallery, 
including approaches and the landscaping of the site, amounted to 
$15,035,597.50. 

The small nucleus of the Gallery staff, which was housed in offices 
furnished by The A. W. Mellon Educj)tional and Charitable Trust, 
moved into the building on November 27, 1940, and proceeded with 
the work of installation of furnishings and equipment. By Decem- 
ber 1, 1940, the nuclear staff, consisting of curatorial and clerical 
employees, mechanical, guard, and cleaning force, had been organ- 
ized sufficiently to take over the administration and maintenance 
of the Gallery building by the Trustees. 

During the first days of January 1941, the works of art in the 
Mellon Collection were moved into the building, and during January. 
February, and March the works of art in the Kress Collection were 
received from New York. 

Installation of the works of art in the two collections in the gal- 
leries prepared for them was undertaken immediately upon their 
receipt in the new building, and was completed the first week of 
March. 

DEDICATION CEREMONIES AND OPENING OF 
THE GALLERY TO THE PUBLIC 

On the evening of March 17, 1941, 8,822 invited guests attended 
the opening ceremonies. Included among the invited guests were 
the members of the Cabinet, Senate, and House of Eepresentatives, 

430577 — 12 i 



36 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Government officials, the diplomatic corps, artists, art critics, heads 
of educational institutions, persons generally interested in art, and 
other distinguished guests. 

The ceremonies, a half -hour program, with Chief Justice Charles 
Evans Hughes as the presiding officer, began at 10 o'clock, with an 
invocation by the Reverend ZeBarney Thome Phillips, Chaplain of 
the Senate. Following a brief talk by the Chief Justice on the 
object and purposes of the Gallery project, Paul Mellon, son of the 
late Andrew W. Mellon, the donor of the Gallery, on behalf of his 
father and the Trustees of the Mellon Trust, presented the Gallery 
and the Mellon Collection to the Nation. Samuel H. Kress then 
presented the Kress Collection of Italian paintings to the Gallery. 
The President of the United States accepted the Gallei-y and the 
Mellon and Kress Collections on behalf of the people of the United 
States. A copy of the President's address, and that of Chief Justice 
Hughes, are ottached to this report, as exhibit C (not printed). The 
ceremonies closed with the National Anthem, led by the United 
States Marine Band. During the early part of the evening, there 
was a preview of the Gallery collections. Orchestras played in the 
garden courts, decorated with the famous Widener collection of 
acacias, which had been given to the Nation for the joint use of the 
Gallery and the United States Botanic Garden, and tropical plants. 

On the following day, March 18, 1941, the Gallery was opened to 
the public and was viewed by large crowds. In accordance with 
the decision of the Board of Trustees, the Gallery building is open 
every day in the year, except Christmas and New Year's day. The 
hours are 10 a. m. to 5 p. m. on week days and 2 p. m. to 5 p. m. on 
Sundays. 

ORGANIZATION AND STAFF 

The statutory members of the Board are the Chief Justice of the 
United States, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio, and five 
general trustees. The general trustees, serving during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1941, were David K. E. Bruce, Duncan Phillips, 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin, Joseph E. Widener, and Samuel H. Kress. 
In May 1941 the general trustees elected Ferdinand Lammot Belin, 
whose term of office would expire on July 1, 1941, to succeed himself 
as a general trustee, to serve as such until July 1, 1951. At the 
meeting of the Board held on June 20, 1941, the resignation of Chief 
Justice Charles Evans Hughes was accepted by the Trustees with 
great regret, to take effect July 1, 1941, and in doing so the Board 
adopted the following resolutions : 

Whereas the Honorable Charles Evaus Hughes has I'esigned as Chief Justice 
of the United States and has consequently tendered his resignation as Chairman 
of the Board of Trustees of the National Gallery of Art, effective July 1, 1941 ; 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 37 

And whereas the Board of Trustees has learned of his resignation with 
profound regret; 

Therefore, be it resolved, That the membeis of the Board of Trustees record 
their sense of the loss which the Gallery has sustained in being deprived of the 
services of Chief Justice Hughes ; 

And he it also resolved, That the Board hereby expresses its grateful apprecia- 
tion for the devotion with which he has carried out his duties as Chairman, 
and for the wisdom and unfailing courtesy with which he has guided the affairs 
of the National Gallery during the critical years of its formative period; 

And be it further resolved, That the Board wishes to express to him its high 
regard and best wishes that he may enjoy many years of health and happiness 
after his long career of distinguished public service to his country. 

Pursuant to the provision of the act of March 24, 1937, the newly 
appointed Chief Justice of the United States, the Honorable Harlan 
F. Stone, who succeeds Chief Justice Hughes, will serve as an ex 
officio trustee of the Gallery. 

The Board at its annual meeting held February 10, 1941, reelected 
David K. E. Bruce, President, and Ferdinand Lammot Belin was 
reelected Vice President of the Board to serve for the ensuing year. 
The executive officers who continued in office were Donald D. Shepard, 
Secretary-Treasurer and General Counsel ; David E. Finley, Director ; 
Harry A. McBride, Administrator; John Walker, Chief Curator; and 
Macgill James, Assistant Director. Other officers of the Gallery con- 
tinuing in office were Charles Seymour, Jr., curator of sculpture; 
George T. Heckert, assistant to the administrator; and Sterling P. 
Eagleton, chief engineer and building superintendent. During the 
year Charles Zinsner was appointed assistant treasurer and the fol- 
lowing honorary officers were appointed by the Board: Alexander 
K. Keed, building consultant; Alfred Geiffert, Jr., consultant land- 
scape architect ; and William A. Frederick, consultant horticulturist. 

The three standing committees of the Board, provided for in the 
bylaws, as constituted at the annual meeting of the Board, held 
February 10, 1941, were : 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chief Justice of the United States, Charles Evans Hughes. 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr. C. G. Abbot. 
David K. E. Bruce. 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 
Duncan Phillips. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

The Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 
The Secretary of State, Cordell Hull. 
David K. E. Bruce. 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 
Samuel H. Kress. 



38 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

ACQUISITIONS COitillTTEE 

David K. E. Bruce. 
Duncan Phillips. 
Joseph B. Widener. 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 
David E. Finley. 

Other standing committees appointed by the Board during the 
year: A committee to make recommendations as to the acceptance 
or rejection of gifts of property other than works of art, monies, 
and securities; a committee on public relations; and a committee on 
the building. 

During the first half of the year all of the civil service positions 
for the Gallery staff had been classified and by March 1, 1941, prac- 
tically all of the initial staff of the Gallery, including the curatorial, 
clerical, custodial, and maintenance personnel had been employed. 
On June 30, 1941, 229 civil service employees were on the Gallery 
staff. Among such employees were the chief docent, the librarian, 
and the registrar. 

The cataloging of the works of art was completed so that it was 
possible to issue the first catalog of the National Gallery by March 
17, 1941, the date of the opening. 

The guard force was organized to assure not only efficiency in 
the protection of the works of art and of the building and grounds, 
but also to assure a high quality of service to the public. 

APrROPRIATIONS 

For salaries and expenses, for the upkeep and operation of the 
National Gallery of Art, the protection and care of the works of art 
therein, and all administrative expenses incident thereto, as author- 
ized by the act of March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51), as amended by the 
public resolution of April 13, 1939 (Pub. Res. No. 9, 76th Cong.), 
there was appropriated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, the 
sum of $533,300. Of the $300,000 appropriated by Congress for 
the period July 1, 1940, to June 30, 1941 (54 Stat. 137), $298,543.14 
was expended or encumbered, in the following detailed amounts, for 
personal services, printing and binding, and supplies and equipment, 
leaving an unencumbered appropriation of $1,456.86. This appropri- 
ation was based, of course, upon part-year operation and expendi- 
tures were made therefrom as follows : 

EXPENDITUEES AND ENCUMBRANCES 

Personal services 171, 786. 18 

Printing and binding 7, 352. 51 

Supplies and equipment 119,404.45 

Total $298, 543. 14 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 39 

ATTENDANCE 

The total attendance from March 17 to June 30, the end of the 
fiscal year, was 798,156, an average of 7,529 persons per day. The 
crreatest number of visitors in any one day was 24,745 on March 23, 
1941. 

A booklet of general information on the Gallery, containing a check 
list of paintings and sculpture and floor plans, supplied from Gov- 
ernment funds, has been found of gi-eat assistance to the visitors to 
the Gallery. There is no charge for this booklet and a copy is 
given to visitors who request one. 

PUBLICATIONS FUND 

Through the Publications Fund it was possible to have ready for 
the opening of the Gallery, not only a catalog, but also a complete 
Book of Illustrations of all the works of art in the collections of the 
National Gallery; color reproductions; and postcards, both in color 
and in black and white. These publications nre on sale at moderate 
cost in the Information Rooms. 

ACQUISITIONS 

GIFTS OF PRINTS 

On March 13, 1941, the Board of Trustees accepted from Miss 
Ellen T. Bullard and three anonymous donors a number of important 
prints; and again on June 20, 1941, the Board accepted a number of 
additional important prints from one of the anonymous donors who 
had previously made a gift of prints to the Gallery, all of which are 
listed in exhibit D (not printed). Also on June 20, 1941, the Board 
accepted as a gift from Lessing Rosenwald of Jenkintown, Pa., a 
collection of important engravings, etchings, and woodcuts, which 
are listed in exhibit D (not printed). 

GIFTS OF PAINTINGS 

On February 10, 1941, the Board of Trustees accepted from Mrs. 
Felix M. Warburg the gift of two valuable paintings : 

Triptych attributed to the School of Pietix) Lorenzetti 
"The Preaching of Savonarola," by Domenico Morone 

as a memorial to her husband, the late Felix M. Warburg. The 
paintings have been received and will be exhibited with the Perma- 
nent Collection. 

On June 20, 1941, the Board of Trustees accepted from Duncan 
Phillips, a trustee of the Gallery, the gift of an important painting 



40 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

by Plonore Daumier, entitled "Advice to a Young Artist," for ex- 
hibition with the Permanent Collection. Also on June 20, 1941, the 
Board accepted from Mrs. David K. E. Bruce the gift of a portrait of 
her father, the late Andrew W. Mellon, by Oswald Birley, which has 
been hung over the mantel in the Founder's Koom. 

During the year other offers of gifts of works of art were received 
but were not accepted because, in the opinion of the Board, they were 
not considered to be desirable acquisitions for the Permanent Collec- 
tion as contemplated by section 5 of the act of March 24, 1937 (50 
Stat. 51). 

OTHER GIFTS 

During the year there were also gifts to the Gallery of furnishings, 
equipment, materials and supplies, ornamental trees and plants, books 
and publications, from the Trustees of The A. W. Mellon Educational 
and Charitable Trust and others. 

SALE OR EXCHANGE OF W^ORKS OF ART 

During the year no works of art belonging to the Gallery were sold 
or exchanged. 

LOANS OF WORKS OF ART TO THE GALLERY 

During the year the following works of art were received on loan : 

An anonymous loan : 

20 Rembrandt prints — listed on the attached exhibit D (not printed). 

From Dr. Horace Binney, of Milton, Mass. : 

A portrait of his ancestor, the Honorable Horace Binney, by Gilbert Stuart. 

From Chester Dale, of New York, the following paintings of the 
American School : 

Artist Subject 

John Smibert Portrait of Oxenbridge Thacher of Milton. 

Thomas Sully The Sicard David Cliildren — Julia, Ferdinand, and Stephen. 

Jeremiah Theus Portrait of a Woman in Red Dress. 

John Neagle Portrait of John Rush. 

Thomas Sully Portrait of Mrs. William Griffin. 

S. F. B. Morse Portrait of Mrs. Henry John Auchmuty. 

Do Portrait of a Lady. 

From Samuel H. Kress and the Samuel H. Kress Foundation : 

43 paintings and 22 pieces of sculpture, listed in exhibit D (not printed) . 

From The A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust : 

187 paintings, many of which were formerly in the Clarke Collection, for an 
indefinite period to be held for study, exhibition, or use as may be provided by 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 41 

the acquisitions committee. (See exhibit D, not printed.) The following paint- 
ings from the collection have been placed on exhibition as loans : 
Artist Subject 

Robert Feke Williamina Moore. 

Gilbert Stuart Richard Yates. 

Do George Washington 

Do George Pollock. 

Do Joseph Anthony. 

John Wollaston Mary Walton Morris. 

From Duncan Phillips, a trustee of the Gallery : 

Artist Subject 

Corot The Dairy Farm. 

Courbet The Rocks at Ornans. 

From John Cooper Wiley : 

Russian icon of the thirteenth century, for study and exhil)ition in the collec- 
tion if considered desirable. 

LOAN OF WORKS OF ART BY THE GALLERY 

During the year no works of art belonging to the Gallery were 
placed on loan. 

RESTORATION AND REPAIRS TO WORKS OF ART 

During the year, as authorized by the Board and with the approval 
of the Director and the Chief Curator, Stephen Pichetto, consult- 
ant restorer to the Gallery, has undertaken such work of restoration 
and repair of paintings and sculpture in the collection as has been 
found to be necessary. 

Prior to the opening of the Gallery to the public, the work was 
done at Mr. Pichetto's studio in New York, and all works of art 
have been returned in excellent condition. Since March 17, 1941, 
such work has been carried on in the restorer's rooms at the 
Gallery. 

CURATORIAL DEPARTMENT 

The curatorial work during the first part of the year consisted 
in installing the National Gallery collections and completing the 
work on the catalog. The catalog was issued at the opening of the 
Gallery, and contains brief biographies of all the artists, descriptions 
of the works of art, and notes indicating the date or approximate 
date of the paintings and sculpture with such factual information as 
may be of interest to the student. A book of illustrations of the 
paintings and sculpture in the National Gallery was also issued under 
the supervision of the curatorial staff. 

During the year 619 works of art were submitted to the acquisi- 
tions committee with recommendations as to the acceptability for 



42 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

the collection of the National Gallery; 16 visits were made to private 
collections bj' various members of the staff in connection with offers 
of gift or loan ; expert opinion on 61 works of art was given verbally 
to various members of the public; and 101 letters were written to 
persons asking for historical data or other information regarding 
works of art in their possession. 

The curatorial staff also supervised the arrangement of temporary 
exhibitions held by the Gallery and assisted in the work of the 
Educational Department. 

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 

The docent staff has been organized so that there are at least two 
public gallery tours every day and two auditorium lectures every 
week. This program of instruction for the public has been found 
to meet a definite need. During the period from March 18 to June 
30, 1941, 11,324 persons came to the Gallery as members of special 
groups or organizations desiring special guidance by members of 
the docent staff. Many of these were school and college groups, 
including both instructors and students, from practically every State 
in the Union. 

Two thousand eight hundred and eighty-two individuals have 
been conducted through the Gallery by members of the docent staff 
in special gallery tours, available to the general public. Two thou- 
sand four hundred and eighty individuals have attended auditorium 
lectures on the collection presented twice a week by members of the 
docent staff, beginning April 8, 1941. 

In addition, members of the docent staff have conducted private 
and group conferences for 288 teachers and other individuals inter- 
ested in and learning about the Gallery and the collection. 

LIBRARY 

Books and catalogs to the number of 162 were presented to the 
Gallery; 196 publications were acquired through exchange; and 51 
books were purchased. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC DEPARTMENT 

Since February 16, 1941, 6,356 prints have been made by the 
photographic laboratory. Many were used in connection with the 
opening of the Gallerj' on March 17, 1941. Others are on file in the 
library, where they are for sale and for the use of the Gallery staff. 
Lantern slides made for use in connection with free public lectures 
in the Gallerv numbered 341. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 43 

EXHIBITIONS 

From May 15 to June 5, 1941, an exhibition was held in the central 
gallery on the ground floor, of 200 American water colors selected 
by John Marin, Charles Burchfield, Buk Ulreich, and Eliot O'Hara 
from a National Competition for the Carville, La., Marine Hospital, 
held by the Section of Fine Arts, Federal Works Agency, Public 
Buildings Administration. This was the first loan exhibition held at 
the Gallery and proved a popular one both with the public and with 
the critics. 

MEMORIAL TABLET 

At the annual meeting of the Board, on February 10, 1941, the 
Board authorized the erection of a memorial tablet to the late 
Andrew W. Mellon, with an inscription in the wording appearing 
immediately below, under a bas-relief portrait of Mr. Mellon to be 
done in marble: 

ANDREW WILLIAil MELLON 

1855-1937 

He gave the Building, with 
his Collection, for the founding 
of this National Gallery of Art. 

For the whole earth is the sepulchre of 
famous men ; and their story is not graven 
only on stone over their native earth, but 
lives on far away, without visible symbol, 
woven into the stuff of other men's lives. 

This tablet was installed, prior to the opening of the Gallery, be- 
tween the then two free standing pillars in the lobby, facing the 
Constitution Avenue entrance of the Gallery. The bas-relief portrait 
was executed by Jo Davidson. The cost of the work was contributed 
by The A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust. 

COMMEMORATIVE TABLET ON THE ERECTION OF THE BLTILDING 

Also prior to the opening of the Gallery, the Board authorized, 
and there was installed in the building, a bronze tablet recording 
the history of the erection of the building, with the names of the 
donor and others who rendered valuable aid toward the completion 
of the Gallery project. 

MEMORIAL PANELS TO BENEFACTORS OF THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

At the annual meeting of the Board, held February 10, 1941, the 
Board set aside the four marble panels on the east and west walls 



44 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

of the Constitution Avenue entrance lobby for the names of impor- 
tant donors to the Gallery, and arranged for the carving at the top 
of one of the panels the words, "Principal Benefactors of the 
National Gallery of Art," and beneath, the names "Andrew William 
Mellon" and "Samuel Henry Kress." The Board further authorized 
having such names carved in future as may be authorized by it. The 
carving authorized by the Board was completed before the opening 
of the Gallery. 

AUDIT or PRIVATE FUNDS OF THE GALLEltY 

An audit has been made of the private funds of the National 
Gallery of Art for the year ended June 30, 1941, by Price, Water- 
house & Co., a nationally known firm of public accountants, and the 
certificate of that company on its examination of the accounting 
records maintained for such funds has been submitted to the Gal- 
lery. The financial statement referred to above is attached to this 
report, as exhibit E (not printed). 

EespectfuUy submitted. 

F. L. Belin, Vice President. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Itistitution, 



APPENDIX 3 

KEPORT ON THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Sm : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activ- 
ities of the National Collection of Fine Arts for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1941 : 

Two bequests were received, namely, $5,000 from the Cornelia Liv- 
ingston Pell Estate of New York, and $10,000 from the Julia D. 
Strong Estate of Washington, D. C. 

Several proffered gifts of etchings, miniatures, and paintings have 
been deposited here to be passed upon by the Smithsonian Art 
Commission in December 1941. 

Eight special exhibitions were held in the foyer involving the 
installation of over 900 specimens. Eight special Graphic Arts 
exhibits were shown in the lobby because of alterations in the 
Smithsonian Building. 

Three paintings were restored for the Comptroller of the Currency, 
Treasury Department: "Portrait of Charles G. Dawes," by Zorn, 
"Portrait of Henry W. Cannon," by T. W. Wood, and "Portrait 
of Jolm Jay Knox," by Eastman Johnson. 

Illustrated lectures were delivered by Mr. Tolman, the Acting 
Director, before the American Association of University Women 
on January 30, 1941, and before a group of young Italian art lovers 
at the Ambassador Hotel on February 19, 1941. 

APPROPRIATIONS 

For the administration of the National Collection of Fine Arts 
by the Smithsonian Institution, including compensation of necessary 
employees, purchase of books of reference and periodicals, traveling 
expenses, uniforms for guards, and necessary incidental expenses, 
$41,715 was appropriated, of which $32,006.84 was expended for the 
care and maintenance of the Freer Gallery of Art, a unit of the 
National Collection of Fine Arts, and $1,585 for the salary for 11 
months of one clerk in the Smithsonian Institution. The balance 
of $8,123.16 was spent for the care and upkeep of the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts, nearly all of this sum being required for the 
payment of salaries, traveling expenses, books, periodicals, and 
necessary disbursements for the care of the collection. 

45 



46 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

THE SMITHSONIAN ART COMMISSION 

The twentieth annual meeting of the Smithsonian Art Commis- 
sion was held on December 3, 1940. The members met at 10:30 in 
the Natural History Building, where, as the advisory committee on 
the acceptance of works of art which had been submitted during 
the year, they accepted the following : 

"Sunny Slopes," by Gardner Symons (1863-1930). Gift of Mrs. Louis Betts, 
formerly Mrs. Gardner Symons. 

"Portrait of George Fuller (1822-1S84)," and "Self Portrait," by William 
Baxter Closson (1848-1926). Gift of Mrs. William Baxter Closson. 

"Portrait of Dr. William H. Holmes (1846-1933)," by Nicholas R. Brewer 
(1857- ). Gift of Mrs. Nicholas Webster, daughter of DeLancey Gill. 

After a visit to the National Gallery of Art building, then almost 
completed, the members assembled in the regents' room in the 
Smithsonian Building for the further proceedings, the meeting being 
called to order by the Chairman, Mr. Borie, at 12 : 30. 

The members present were : Charles L. Borie, Jr., chairman ; Frank 
Jewett Mather, Jr., vice chairman; Dr. Charles G. Abbot (ex officio), 
secretary; and Louis Ayres, Gifford Beal, Gilmore D. Clarke, David 
E. Finley, James E. Eraser, Frederick P. Keppel, John E. Lodge, 
Paul Manship, Edward W. Eedfield, and Mahonri M. Young. 
Ruel P. Tolman, curator of the division of graphic arts in the United 
States National Museum and acting director of the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts, was also present. 

The following resolutions on the death of Mr. McClellan were 
submitted and adopted: 

Whereas, the Smithsonian Art Commission has learned of the death on 
November 30, 1940, of Col. George B. McClellan, a member of this Commission 
since 1931 ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Commission desires to record its sincere sorrow at the 
loss of Mr. McClellan, who as a man and a collector had the respect of the 
entire Commission. His advice and suggestions were always timely and valu- 
able, and as a friend he will be deeply missed. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the records of the Com- 
mission, and that the Secretary of the Commission be requested to convey this 
action to the family of Mr. McClellan with an expression of our deepest sympathy 
in their bereavement. 

A set of rules for the National Portrait Gallery, prepared by Mr. 
McClellan, chairman of the executive committee, was submitted. 
Professor Mather offered an amendment to rule 3 which was accepted. 
By motion, the Commission adopted the entire set of rules as 
amended, subject to any later modifications that may be made. They 
read: 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 47 

SUGGESTED RULES FOR THE ADMISSION OF PORTRAIFS TO THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT 
GALLEKY PBEDICATED ON THOSE OF THE BRITISH NATIONAL PORTR.VIT GALLERY 

1. Admission of a portrait to the Gallery shall be based primarily oa the 
celebrity of its subject rather than on its artistic merit. Such celebrity shall 
have been acquired from the subject's contribution to the history or development 
of the United States regardless of his or her opinions, words, or deeds. 

2. No portrait of any living person shall be admitted to the Gallery unless 
such portrait is that of one of a group of persons at least a majority of whom 
are dead. 

3. No portrait of any person dead less than 20 years shall be admitted to 
the Gallery except by unanimous vote by individual ballot of those present at 
a meeting of the Commission. 

4. No gift or bequest shall be accepted or portrait purchased except by a 
three-fourths vote of the members present at the meeting of the Commission. 

The Commission recommended to the Board of Regents the re- 
election of John E. Lodge, David E. Finley, Edward W. Redfiekl, 
and Paul Manship. 

The following officers were reelected for the ensuing year : Charles 
L. Borie, Jr., chairman; Frank Jewett JNIather, Jr., vice chairman, 
and Dr. Charles G. Abbot, secretary. 

The following were elected member? of the executive committee 
for the ensuing year: Herbert Adams, Gilmore D. Clarke, John E. 
Lodge. Charles L. Borie, Jr., as chairm^an of the Commission, and 
Dr. Charles G. Abbot, as secretary of the Commission, are ex-officio 
members of the executive committee. 

The chairman stated that as the competition for the plans for 
the Smithsonian Gallery of Art had come to an end and no funds 
had been obtained for further work on the project, there was nothing 
to report. 

Mr. Clarke and the Secretary also addressed the Commission in 
regard to the activities connected witli the recent competition for 
the plans for the Gallery, but no action was taken, although the 
members expressed the feeling that the Commission was ready to take 
active steps whenever funds were available to advance the project. 

THE CATHERINE WALDEN MTER FUND 

Three miniatures were acquired fron. the fund established through 
the bequest of the late Catherine Walden Myer, as follows: 

22. "Portrait of a Young Man," by Moses B. Russell; from Miss Alice G. 
Rogers, Old Lyme, Conn. 

23. "Le Chevalier Ed. van Cockelberghe de Dulzele of Belgium," by an 
unknown artist ; from Samuel M. Crockett, Lynn, Mass. 

24. "Antoinette Bates," by Thomas Sully ; from Mrs. Eva Wilson Chadbourne. 
Washington, D. C. 



48 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

LOANS ACCEPTED 

Two oil paintings, "My Mother" and "The Dawn," by E. Hodgson 
Smart, were lent by the artist. 

Three pastels, "The Cliffs Aflame," "Portrait (Patsy) ," and "Sun- 
shine and Pine Needles," and seven oil paintings, "Looking Far 
Out," "The Woodland Way," "The Butterfly Dance," "Joyous Child- 
hood," "The Eed Barn," "Peonies," and "Springtime," by William 
Baxter Closson, were lent by the artist's widow. 

LOANS TO OTHER MUSEUMS AND ORGANIZATIONS 

The following five paintings were lent to the Carnegie Institute, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., for a Survey of American Painting from October 
24 through December 15, 1940: "Sunset, Navarro Ridge, California 
Coast," by Ralph A. Blakelock; "Cliffs of the Upper Colorado 
River, Wyoming Territory," by Thomas Moran; "Moonlight," by 
Albert P. Rj-der; "Fired On," by Frederic Remington, and "Visit 
of Nicodemus to Christ," by John La Farge. (Returned January 
7, 1941.) 

Two paintings, "The Cup of Death," by Elihu Vedder, and 
"Christ Before Pilate," by Walter Beck, were lent to the Howard 
University Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C, to be included in an 
exhibition of Christian Art in connection with the twenty-fourth 
annual convocation of the School of Religion from November 12 to 
December 23, 1940. (Returned January 9, 1941.) 

One painting, "Sheepyard — Moonlight," by Horatio Walker, was 
lent to The Art Gallery of Toronto, Canada, for an exhibition of two 
Canadian painters, Horatio Walker and Tom Thomson. The paint- 
ing was also shown in the National Gallery of Canada at Ottawa 
and the Art Association at Montreal. (Returned April 28, 1941.) 

WITHDRAWALS BY OWNERS 

Two portraits in pastel, by James Sharpies (c.l751-1811), of Gen. 
James Miles Hughes (1756-1802), original member of the Society 
of the Cincinnati, and Mrs. James Miles Hughes, his wife, were 
withdrawn by the owner, Mme. Florian Vurpillot, on November 5, 
1940. 

Marble bust of Samuel Gompers (185C^1924), by Moses W. Dykaar 
(1884-1933), was withdrawn by the owner, The American Federation 
of Labor, to be exhibited at the Department of Labor, on November 
15, 1940. 

An oil painting, "My Mother," by E. Hodgson Smart, was with- 
drawn by the owner, Mr. Smart, on November 30, 1940. 

A pastel, "Sunshine and Pine Needles," by William Baxter Closson 
(1848-1926), was withdrawn by the owner, Mrs. William Baxter 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 49 

Closson, and presented to Mr. and Mrs. H. D. Drake, Washington, 
D. C, on May 5, 1941. 

An oil painting, "The Butterfly Dance," by William Baxter Clos- 
son (1848-1926), was withdrawn by the owner, Mrs. William Baxter 
Closson, and presented to Miss Elizabeth Peet, Washington, D. C, on 
May 5, 1941. 

LOANS RETURNED 

An oil painting, "Portrait of Mary Hopkinson (wife of Dr. John 
Morgan)," by Ben.lamin West, lent to the Masterpieces of Art 
Exhibition at the New York World's Fair, 1940, was returned 
September 17, 1940. 

A bronze statue of Lincoln, by Augustus Saint Gaudens, lent with 
the consent of the owners, the estate of Mrs. John Hay, to the New 
York World's Fair for exhibition in the Illinois Building, was 
returned November 14, 1940. 

THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS REFERENCE LIBRARY 

A total of 180 publications, including 146 acquired by purchase 
and 5 by transfer, were accessioned during the year. 

THE HENRY WARD RANGER FUND 

The following two paintings, purchased by the council of the 
National Academy of Design from the fund provided by the Henry 
Ward Kanger bequest, were recalled for action on the part of the 
Smithsonian Art Commission, in accordance with the provision in 
the Ranger bequest. The Smithsonian Art Commission decided not 
to accept the paintings and they were returned to become the absolute 
property of the museums to which they were originally assigned. 

"The Offering," by Charles W. Hawthorne, N. A. (1872-1930), assigned to 
the Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, June 12, 1931. 

"Gleam on Hilltops," by Gardner Symons, N. A. (1863-1930), assigned io the 
Montclair Art Association, Montclair, N. J., June 2, 1922. 

SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS 

The following exhibitions were held : 

October 8 to ^5, 1940. — Special exhibition of 48 pastels, drawings, 
and lithographs by Lily E. Smulders. 

November 1 to 24, 1940.— The Sixth Annual Metropolitan State 
Art Contest, 1940, under the auspices of the Department of Fine 
Arts of the District of Columbia Federation of Women's CluDs. 
There were 289 exhibits consisting of paintings, sculpture, and prints 
by 158 artists. 

December 1, 1940, to January 1, i^^i.— Special exhibition of the 
work of William Baxter Closson (1848-1926) consisting of 94 oils, 



50 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

40 pastels, 21 water colors, 112 wood engravings, intaglio and relief 
prints by the Closson method with tools and necessary materials, 
and also medals which had been awarded to him. 

January 8 to 29, 19Jf.l. — Special exhibition by the National Society 
of Pastelists. There were 111 pastels by 17 artists. 

February 1 to '26, WJfl. — Special exhibition of 22 water colors 
and 21 pastels by Ethel H. Hagen. 

May 15 to 19, 191^1. — Special exhibition of 42 paintings by Alejan- 
dro Pardinas under the patronage of His Excellency the Cuban 
Ambassador. 

June 2 to 15, 191^1. — Special exhibition of 39 caricatures by Antonio 
Sotomayor under the patronage of His Excellency the Bolivian 
Minister. 

June 3 to 30, 19Ji.l. — Special memorial exhibition of 17 color prints 
and 50 black and white prints by Bertha E. Jaques (1863-1941). 

PUBLICATIONS 

ToLMAN, R. P. Report on the National Collection of Fine Arts for the year 
ended June 30, 1940. Appendix 3, Report of the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution for the year ended June 30, 1940, pp. 38-42. 

Catalog of American and European paintings in the Gellatly Collection, 20 
pp., 11 pis. 1940. 

Lodge, .1. E. Report on the Freer Gallery of Art for the year ended June 30, 
1940. Appendix 4, Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
for the year ended June 30, 1940, pp. 43^8. 

Respectfully submitted. 

R. P. ToLMAN, Acting Director. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 4 

REPORT ON THE FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the twenty-first annual report on the 
Freer Gallery of Art for the year ended June 30, 1941. 

THE CX)LLE0TI0N8 

Additions to the collections by purchase are as follows : 

BBONZE 

40.11. 
a-b. Chinese, late Shang dynasty, twelfth century B. C. A ceremonial cov- 
ered vessel of the type yu. Outside, fairly even patination in shades 
of gray green with flecks of cuprite; inside, cuprite, azurite, and 
malachite with areas of original metal; little incrustation; cast in- 
scription of one character. 0.361 x 0.269 over all. 

40.23. Chinese, late Chou dynasty, sixth-third century B. C. A quadruped, 
its surface almost entirely covered with linear and countersunk 
naturalistic and decorative designs. Smooth, gray-green patina with 
scattered incrustations of green and blue. Vent in the belly. 0.115 x 
0.182 over all. (Illustrated.) 

41.1. Chinese, late Chou dynasty, fourth century B. C, or earlier. From 
Chang-sha. A mirror, patinated in shades of gray with slight incrusta- 
tions of malachite and rust on the obverse; five long-necked birds in 
linear relief against a background of cur] and feather design on the 
reverse. Diameter: 0.164. (Illustrated.) 

41.6. 

a-b. Chinese, late Chou dynasty, fifth-fourth century B. C. A garment 
hook. Sheathed with silver, gilded and ornamented with inlaid tur- 
quoise and other stones; engraved designs showing the silver on the 
back; malachite incrustations. Carved wood stand. Length: 0.221. 

41.8. Chinese, Shang dynasty, fourteenth-twelfth century B. C. A ceremonial 
vessel of the type tui (or chiu). Gray-green patination with scattered 
spots of green inside and out ; malachite and azurite incrustations on 
the bottom. Cast inscription of two characters. 0.140 x 0.211 over all. 



41.3. Chinese, early Chou dynasty or earlier, twelfth century B. C. A cere- 
monial blade of mottled gray-green and gray-white nephrite. 0.266 x 
0.103 over all. 

51 

4a0577— 42 5 



52 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

JADE AND BBONZE 

41.4. Chinese, Shang dynasty, twelfth century B. O. A ceremonial imple- 

ment : the blade of mottled gray-brown and. white nephrite mounted 
in bronze closely inlaid with turquoise; socket for vertical shafting; 
scattered malachite incrustations. Length: 0.213. 

41.5. Chinese, Shang dynasty, twelfth century B. O. A ceremonial weapon 

of the type ko: the blade of mottled white nephrite, the tang of 
bronze ornamented with turquoise inlay ; malachite incrustations. 
0.418 X 0.223 over all. 

MANUSOBIPTS 

40.16. Arabic (Persia), thirteenth-fourteenth century. A book bound in 

tooled brown leather (repaired) : Juz' XVII of the Qur'an. Text in 
thulth script on 144 paper leaves, three lines to a page, with interlinear 
"Persian translation in naskhl scriot. Illuminated pages, chapter 
headings and marginal ornaments. 0.277 x 0.178 (single leaf). 
(Illustrated.) 

40.19. Arabic (Persia?), fourteenth century. An illuminated frontispiece 

from an unidentified book. Naskhi script in white on a gold ground ; 
floral scrolls in gold on dark blue and light green; gold borders. 
Paper : 0.393 x 0.290 ; illumination : 0.276 x 0.214. 

PAINTING 

40.17. Indian, Mughal-Rajput, seventeenth centry. A woman standing. 

In color and gold on paper. 0.127 x 0.063. 
40.21. Indian, Rajput (Deccan), early seventeenth century. A woman receiv- 
ing travelers at the door of a house. In opaque color (somewhat 
worn) on paper. 0.122 x 0.222. 
40.12- Persian, Mongol (Il-Khan) period, early fourteenth century. Two 
40.13. additional illustrations belonging to our SMhnamah ms. 30.1, painted 

in colors, silver (darkened) , black and gold on paper . 
.12. Siyawush attended by Rustam receiving the homage of Garsiwaz. 

0.095 X 0.115. 
.13. Bizhan in bonds before Afrasiyab. 0.092 x 0.115. 
40.14- Persian, Mongol (Il-Khan) period, early 14th century. Tvvo illus- 
40.15. trations from a Shdhnamah, painted in colors, gold and black on 

paper. 
.14. Piran presents young Khusraw to Afrasiyab. 0.044x0.083. 
.15. Prisoners of war brought before Shah Kawus. 0.055 x 0.121. 

40.18. Persian, sixteenth-seventeenth century. A group of dervishes. Line 

drawing in black, red, and blue Inks; lightly tinted. 0.163 x 0.100. 

40.20. Persian, Timurid, fifteenth century. An illustration on a leaf from a 

Shahndmah: Shah Kawiis and Kai Khusraw approach the sacred 
fire. Painted in colors and gold on paper. 0.095 x 0.160. 

POECELAIN AND POTTEEY 

41.2. Chinese, K'ang HsI period, seventeenth-eighteenth century. A porce- 
lain flask, covered with a luminous, pale green glaze. Date mark 
in blue enamel under the foot. Height, 0.210. 



Secretary's Report, 1941. — Appendix 4 



Plate 3 




40.22 



p 



v-_>^ 



■■Hl; 





-K.^' ^„ 



40.16 

Some Recent Additions to the Collection of the Freer Gallery of Art. 



Secretary's Report. 1941. Appendix 4 



Plate 4 




41.1 




40.23 

SOME Recent Additions to the Collection of the Freer Gallery of Art 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 53 

41.7. Chinese, Sung dynasty. Incense burner. Soft paste pottery covered 
with a glossy, celadon blue glaze. 0.095 x 0.110 over all. 

40.22. Persian, Kashan, early fourteenth century. Bowl, of a soft sandy 
body; the decoration painted in gold luster on a white ground. 
0.083 X 0.200. (Illustrated.) 

The work of the curatorial staff has been devoted to the study and 
recording of the new acquisitions listed above, and to other Arabic, 
Armenian, Cliinese, East Indian, Japanese, Persian, and Syrian art 
objects and manuscripts either already in the collection or submitted 
for purchase. Other Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Persian, European, 
and American objects were sent or brought to the Director by their 
owners for information as to identity, provenance, quality, date, or 
inscriptions. In all, 693 objects and 180 photographs of objects were 
so submitted, and written or oral reports upon them were made to 
the institutions or private owners requesting this service. Written 
translations of 24 inscriptions in oriental languages were made upon 
request, several bibliographies compiled, articles and reviews written, 
and several Gallery publications revised. 

Eighty-four changes were made in exhibition as follows: 

Chinese bronze and jade 1 

Chinese jade 44 

Chinese marble 1 

Chinese painting 8 

Chinese pottery 30 

Repairs, etc., to the collection were as follows : 

American painting 1 

Chinese panel painting 5 

Chinese scroll painting 6 

Persian pottery 2 

Maps, blueprints mounted 13 

ATTENDANCE 

The Gallery has been open to the public every day from 9 until 
4 : 30 o'clock, with the exception of Mondays, Christmas Day, and 
New Year's Day. 

The total attendance of visitors coming in at the main entrance 
was 111,656. One hundred and twentj-eight other visitors on Mon- 
days make the grand total 111,784. The total attendance for week 
days, exclusive of Mondays, was 79,246 ; Sundays 32,410. The aver- 
age week-day attendance was 305; the average Sunday attendance, 
623. The highest monthly attendance was, as usual, in April, with 
14,280 visitors ; the lowest in January, with 5,901. 



54 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

There were 1,369 visitors to the main office during the year. The 
purposes of their visits were as follows : 
For general information 186 

To see objects in storage 370 

Far Eastern paintings 50 

Near Eastern paintings and manuscripts 19 

East Indian paintings and manuscripts 3 

American paintings 60 

Whistler prints 7 

American pottery 5 

Oriental pottery, jade, bronzes, and sculpture 133 

Syrian, Arabic, and Egyptian glass 11 

Byzantine objects 4 

Washmffton Manuscripts 78 

To read in the library 172 

To make tracings and sketches from library books — 6 

To see the building and installation 3 

To obtain permission to photograph or sketch 32 

To submit objects for examination 173 

To see members of the staff — 376 

To see the exhibition galleries on Mondays 49 

To examine or purchase photographs 292 

LECTURES AND DOCENT SERVICE 

A 6 weeks' lecture course in Chinese and Japanese art was given 
by A. G. Wenley in the Far Eastern Institute held at the Harvard 
University Summer School of 1940 under the auspices of the Ameri- 
can Council of Learned Societies. 

At the Freer Gallery 6 illustrated lectures were given in the audi- 
torium (total attendance, 98) ; 6 study groups were held in a study 
room (total attendance, 80) ; and 10 groups were given docent service 
in exhibition galleries (total attendance, 269). The total number 
of persons receiving instruction at their own request was 447. 

PERSONNEL 

February 13, 1941, William K. B. Acker returned from Holland, 
having taken his Ph. D. cum laude in Chinese at the University of 
Leyden. 

September 3, 1940, Oliver W. Puckett reported for duty as watch- 
man. 

June 30, 1941, David H. Zirkle, watchman, who had been at the 
Gallery for 16 years, was retired with a record of the most faithful 
and efficient service. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 55 

October 10, 1940-June 18, 1941, Grace T. Whitney worked inter- 
mittently at the Gallery on the translation of Persian texts. 

October 12, 1940, Elizabeth Hill, librarian, was married to Wilson 
R. Maltby, a physicist in the Naval Ordnance Laboratory at the 
U. S. Navy Yard. 
Respectfully submitted. 

J. E. Lodge, Director 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 5 

KEPORT ON THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Sib : I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1941, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 18, 1940, which 
provides « * * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and 
preservation of archeologic remains. * * * » 

SYSTEMATIC RESEAKCHES 

M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left Washington on Decem- 
ber 29 to continue his archeological excavations in southern Mexico. 
Intensive excavations were begun at the site of Cerro de las Mesas 
on the Rio Blanco in the state of Veracruz, this site having been 
visited the preceding season. In addition, another expedition was 
made to the site of Izapa in the southwestern part of the state of 
Chiapas. As in the 2 preceding years, the work was undertaken in 
cooperation with the National Geographic Society. Dr. Philip 
Drucker again accompanied Mr. Stirling as assistant archeologist. 

At Cerro de las Mesas 20 carved stone monuments were unearthed 
and photographed, several mounds were cross-sectioned, and a num- 
ber of stratigraphic trenches dug on various sections of the site. 
The stratigraphic work proved unusually successful and extends the 
cultural column for this part of Veracruz to a much later date than 
did the excavations at Tres Zapotes. Two initial series dates were 
deciphered at Cerro de las Mesas, one being in the 1st katun, the other 
in the 4th katun, of baktun 9. Another stone monument at this site 
was of considerable interest because of its similarity to the famous 
Tuxtla statuette. Large quantities of jade were found including one 
cache containing 782 specimens. 

At Izapa a large number of stelae, most of them with altars, were 
excavated and photographed. This site is important because of its 
location, which makes it an interesting link between the west coast 
of Guatemala and the isthmian region of southern Mexico. 

At the conclusion of the work at Cerro de las Mesas at the end 
of April, the collections were brought to Mexico City where Dr. 
Drucker remained to work with them. 

56 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 57 

During the year Dr. John K. Swanton, ethnologist, employed most 
of his time in completing an extensive report on the Indians of the 
Southeast, upon which work had been done during several past 
years, and which covers about 1,500 typewritten pages. This is now 
ready for final copy and editing. 

The bulletin entitled "Source Material on the Ethnology and His- 
tory of the Caddo Indians," upon which he was at work last year 
is now in galley proof. It will cover about 350 printed pages. A 
brief contribution by Dr. Swanton entitled "The Quipu and Peruvian 
Civilization" has been accepted for publication in a forthcoming 
bulletin of anthropological papers and is now in the hands of the 
printer. 

Early in the year the bulletin prepared by Dr. Swanton entitled 
"Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and North- 
eastern Mexico," was completed and distributed. It contains all of 
the fragments of the Coahuiltecan, Karankawan, and Tamaulipecan 
tongues known to be in existence, and covers 145 pages. 

Considerable time has also been devoted by Dr. Swanton to answer- 
ing letters, including particularly extension of advice regarding the 
placing of markers along the route pursued by Hernando de Soto 
and work for the United States Board on Geographical Names. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. John P. Harrington, eth- 
nologist, was engaged in working over Navaho materials and those 
of the closely related Tlingit language of Alaska. Recent field 
studies had proved that something like 200 words of Navaho and 
Tlingit are almost the same despite the 2,000-mile separation of the 
two languages. Sometimes the same word was found to be applied 
to two very different organisms; for instance, what is crab apple in 
the north is cactus in the south (spininess being the trait which these 
two plants evidently have in common), and jack pine in the north 
was found to be juniper in the south. 

Tlingit was copiously recorded in southeastern Alaska, and the 
Ugalenz language, related to the Tlingit and to the Navaho, was 
discovered and studied. The Ugalenz formerly occupied 350 miles 
of southeastern Alaska coast, from Prince William Sound in the 
west to Latuya Bay in the east. 

The origin of the name Sitka, the old Russian capital of Alaska, 
was discovered. The name means "On the oceanward side of Bara- 
nov Island." Shee is the name of Baranov Island, and Sitka is 
situated on its oceanward side. 

Leaving in August for Gallup, N. Mex., Dr. Harrington worked 
on many parts of the Navaho Reservation, finding a surprising uni- 
formity in dialect. This unifonnity must have arisen from a jumb- 
ling together of earlier Navaho dialects when the Navahos were in 



58 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

captivity in eastern New Mexico in 1867 and 1868. During this 
captivity, dialects were evidently jostled together, and resettlement 
by the United States Government further dislocated them. 

Field work during the latter part of the summer was done with 
more than 10 of the leading Navaho interpreters. In a tribe of more 
than 45,000 population, there are many educated speakers, including 
university graduates, and with them were explored special features 
of the language which could not have been obtained from the tongues 
of poor and uneducated tribes without much greater expenditure of 
time. 

The Navaho language was found to have only 4 vowels and 34 
consonants, making it a true consonantal language. The sounds of 
Navaho were found to be almost identical with those of the other 
languages of the Southwest, for instance, with those of the neighbor- 
ing Tewa language. Also many words were found to be the same as 
in Tewa. Navaho was found to have, for practical purposes, a 
high and a low tone, and a falling and rising tone only on long 
vowels and diphthongs. One of the most peculiar developments 
to be found in any language is the hardening in Navaho of almost 
any consonant by placing a sound of German ch after it if it is 
voiceless, and of open g (gh) after it if it is voiced. There are also 
traces of a hardening of 1 to n, and the like. 

Returning to Washington late in the fall. Dr. Harrington continued 
his study of the Navaho, until it now constitutes a finished manuscript 
of more than 1,200 pages. Throughout the work there has been a 
constant revelation that Navaho and related languages are not as 
unlike other American Indian languages as has been thought by early 
vocabulary makers and classifiers. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, July 1, 1940, Dr. Frank H. H. 
Roberts, Jr., was engaged in a continuation of excavations at the Lin- 
denmeier site, a former Folsom camping ground, in northern Color- 
ado. From August 1 to 31 he was on leave and during that period, in 
accord with the Smithsonian Institution's policy of cooperation with 
other scientific organizations, directed the excavation program of the 
advanced students at the University of New Mexico's Chaco Canyon 
Research Station. 

From Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., Dr. Roberts went to Boulder City, 
Nev., to inspect a large cave located in the lower end of the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado River at the upper reaches of Lake Mead. 
The trip to the cave was made by motorboat from Pierce's Ferry in 
company with officials of the National Park Service's Boulder Dam 
Recreational Area. Rampart Cave is situated in the south wall of 
the canyon at the top of a steep talus 600 feet above the present water 
level. It is of unusual interest because of its extensive deposits of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 59 

sloth remains and of the bones from large creatures that preyed on 
the sloth, and the possibility that it may provide evidence of human 
contemporaneity with such extinct animal forms in that area. Plans 
and methods for a program of excavation were discussed and various 
suggestions were made concerning the advisability of providing an 
exhibit in situ for visitors to the Boulder Dam Recreational Area. 

From Boulder Dam, Dr. Roberts returned to the Lindenmeier site 
where he continued his investigations until the end of September when 
the project was brought to a close. During the six seasons of inten- 
sive exploration of this Folsom site and the adjacent area much new 
and valuable information on the subject of early occupation of North 
America was obtained. From the large series of specimens collected 
it will be possible to draw comprehensive conclusions relative to the 
material culture and economic status of the aboriginal peoples inhabit- 
ing that portion of the country during the closing days of the last Ice 
Age, and in general to broaden the knowledge on early stages in New 
World history. 

Dr. Roberts returned to Washington in October. He spent the 
autumn and winter months working on the material from the Linden- 
meier site, preparing the manuscript for his report on the investiga- 
tions there, in writing short articles for publication in various scien- 
tific journals, in identifying numerous archeological specimens sent in 
from all parts of the country by interested amateurs, and in furnishing 
information on many phases of New World archeology. Plans and 
preparations were made for an expedition to the Code region in the 
province of Penonome, Panama, but, because of the last-minute devel- 
opment of an insuperable combination of adverse circumstances, the 
proposed investigations had to be abandoned. 

On May 15, 1941, Dr. Roberts went to Bedford, Va., to initiate exca- 
vations at the Mons site near the Peaks of Otter where the late D. I. 
Bushnell, Jr., had found artifacts suggestive of a much earlier aborig- 
inal occupation of the area than previously had been supposed. Con- 
struction work on the Blue Ridge Parkway had destroyed much of the 
site, but a series of test trenches dug in various undisturbed remnants 
established the fact that it had once been an Indian camping place, 
possibly a village site of late protohistoric times. However, there was 
no evidence of its having been used by older groups comparable to the 
early hunting peoples of the western plains. 

On the completion of the work at the Mons site, Dr. Roberts returned 
to Washington and on June 11 left for San Jon, N. Mex. Camp was 
established on the rim of the Staked Plains lOy^ miles south of that 
town and excavations were started at a site where material suggestive 
of another phase of early man in North America, the so-called Yuma, 
has been found. The location is in a shallow basin that appears to 



60 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

have been an old, filled-in lake bed. Heavy erosion in recent years 
started a series of ravines and gullies and exposed extensive deposits 
of bones. Stone implements found near some of these outcroppings 
indicate the possibility that many of the creatures were killed by 
aboriginal hunters and that an association of man-made objects and 
bones from extinct species of animals can be established. Bison, 
camel, and mammoth bones, as well as those from smaller and as yet 
unidentified mammals, occur in the site. Material in the fill in the 
old lake bed probably can be correlated with other geologic phenomena 
of established age. Hence, the determination of contemporaneity be- 
tween the artifacts, animal remains, and lake deposits would constitute 
an important addition to the evidence on early occupation in the New 
World. There is also a possibility that the site may contribute infor- 
mation on the subject of relationships between some of the different 
older cultural remains. At the close of the fiscal year Dr. Roberts and 
his party were well started on the problem of the San Jon site. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Dr. Julian H. Steward, 
anthropoligist, in British Columbia completing researches on abo- 
riginal Carrier Indian ethnography and on ecological aspects of 
recent changes in Carrier socio-economic culture at Fort St. James and 
neighboring villages. While here a collection was made of more than 
100 Carrier specimens of material culture, and of more than 50 ethno- 
botanical specimens. At this time several pit-lodge sites were ex- 
amined. From here Dr. Steward proceeded to Alaska, and then by 
plane from Ketchikan to an island off the coast where he investigated 
a burial site reported by Commander F. A. Zeusler, of the Coast Guard, 
and Ranger Lloyd Bransford, of the United States Forest Service. 
Accompanied by the latter, he procured specimens of several skeletons, 
fragments of carved burial boxes and other materials, and a mummified 
body in excellent preservation. The body was dressed in buckskin, 
wrapped in a cedar mat, and deposited in a cedar box. All specimens 
were brought back by plane to Ketchikan and shipped to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. From Alaska Dr. Steward went to Berkeley, 
Calif., to hold consultations on the Handbook of South American In- 
dians, which is being prepared for the Smithsonian Institution. 
From there he proceeded to Albuquerque and Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., 
for further consultations and to attend the Coronado Quatrocenten- 
nial and the Chaco conference, finally arriving in Washington late in 
August. 

The remainder of the year was devoted mainly to editorial and or- 
ganizational work on the Handbook of South American Indians, and 
work on the project was actually initiated, $6,000 having been made 
available for thjs purpose by special appropriation for cooperation 
with the American republics through the Department of State's Inter- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 61 

departmental Committee. The collaboration of 33 contributors, each 
a specialist in some phase of South American anthropology, was ar- 
ranged. Work accomplished during the year included completion of 
manuscripts by Dr. Eobert H. Lowie and Dr. Alfred Metraux totaling 
more than 150,000 words ; completion of a new base map drawn from 
the American Geographical Society's 1 : 1,000,000 sheets, and of four 
new maps showing respectively the vegetation, climates, physical fea- 
tures, and topography of South America ; compilation of a preliminary 
bibliography of nearly 2,000 items ; substantial progress on many other 
manuscripts; and integration of the Handbook plan with research 
activities of many other institutions in different countries. Arrange- 
ment was made to engage the services of Dr. Metraux on full-time 
basis as assistant editor in the fiscal year 1941-42. The services of a 
secretary were had for the Handbook during three months of 1941. 

During the fall Dr. Steward acted as chairman of the Program 
Committee of the American Anthropological Association, arranging 
the program for the Christmas meetings in Philadelphia. He also 
served on the Committee on Latin American Anthropology of the 
National Eesearch Council and accepted membership on the Scientific 
Advisory Committee of the Pan American Trade Committee. 

The following scientific papers were published : Archeological Ee- 
connaissance of Southern Utah, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 128, pp. 
275-356 ; Nevada Shoshone, in Univ. California Culture Element Dis- 
tributions ; several short papers on the Carrier Indians ; a description 
of the Handbook of South American Indians for the Boletin Biblio- 
grafico de Antropologia Americana. An article was prepared for 
American Antiquity on The Direct Historic Approach to Archeology. 

During the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, con- 
tinued with the study and description of archeological collections from 
prehistoric and protohistoric Eskimo village sites in the vicinity of 
Bering Strait. Material was also assembled for a paper on the origin 
and antiquity of the Eskimo race and culture in relation to the larger 
question of the original entry of man into America. 

At the request of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology 
and Ethnology of Harvard University, Dr. Collins made two trips to 
Cambridge to assist in the identification and selection of materials for 
the new Eskimo exhibit being planned by Donald Scott, director of the 
Museum, and his assistant, Frederick G. Pleasants. 

Dr. Collins also served as collaborator and technical adviser for 
Erpi Classroom Films, Inc., in connection with production of a motion- 
picture record of Eskimo life on Nunivak Island, Alaska, to be made 
by Amos Burg, explorer and photographer. The film, designed for 
use in the elementary schools, will provide an authentic picture of the 



62 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

daily life and activities of the Nunivagmiut, who have retained more 
of their native culture than any other coastal-group Eskimo in Alaska. 

During July 1940 Dr. William N. Fenton, associate anthropologist, 
was engaged in field work among the Senecas of Allegany Reserva- 
tion, N. Y. Wliile here he delivered the St, Lawrence University 
series of lectures at the Allegany School of Natural History. The 
lectures on the Iroquoian Peoples of the Northeast covered prehis- 
toric cultures of the area, the adjustment of the Iroquois to their 
environment, their society and government, and their religious sys- 
tem. At the Six Nations Reserve on Grand River, Ontario, Canada, 
August 9 to September 1, the yearly cycle of ceremonies that are 
currently celebrated at the Onondaga Longhouse were outlined by 
Simeon Gibson and the principal speeches that constitute the bulk 
of the annual Midwinter Festival were taken in Onondaga text and 
translated. This study is an extension of previous investigations 
of Seneca ceremonies which Dr. Fenton has published, and it adds 
new material on the nature of village bands and their removals, 
the function of moieties,, the nature of residence after marriage, and 
the sororate which was practiced, at least by the Lower Cayugas. 
Further assistance was rendered by Deputy Chief Hardy Gibson 
with Hewitt's manuscript on the Requickening Address for installing 
chiefs in the Iroquois League, which Dr. Fenton is editing for pub- 
lication. 

Returning from the field September 15 with 300 photographic 
negatives, largely of masks studied at museums in New York and 
Ontario together with a series of their manufacture and use in 
Iroquois fraternities, much time elapsed assembling pictures and 
notes and arranging them for study. 

A special paper on The Place of the Iroquois in the Prehistory of 
America was presented before the Anthropological Society of Wash- 
ington; and Dr. Fenton also served as technical adviser for An 
Indian League of Nations, which was broadcast October 27 on 
"Tlie World is Yours" radio program. 

Work on two new research projects aimed at clearing up prob- 
lems previously outlined was begun during the year. While serving 
as consultant to the Pennsylvania Historical Commission on arche- 
ological matters. Dr. Fenton contacted local historians who are col- 
laborating in special phases of a study of Cornplanter's Senecas on 
the upper Allegheny River; and it is planned to publish their find- 
ings together with Quaker Mission Journals from 1798 which describe 
Indian life and events attending Handsome Lake's revelations. In 
quest of original sources. Dr. Fenton searched the Records of the 
Yearly Meeting of Friends of Philadelphia, and visited the libraries 
of Haverford and Swarthmore Colleges. In this project he has 
had the active help of M. E. Deardorff of Warren, Pa., and C. E. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 63 

Congdon of Salamanca, N. Y., who have located and transcribed 
other documentary sources. 

Iroquois music has long deserved serious study, and with the devel- 
opment of modem electric sound-recording apparatus, record making 
in the field has become practicable. When the Division of Music 
in the Library of Congress furnished the necessary blanks and 
apparatus for Dr. Fenton's trip to the Six Nations Midwinter Fes- 
tival, January 10 to February 17, 1941, Dr. Fenton undertook the 
task of making the recordings, first at Ohsweken, Ontario, and later 
at Quaker Ridge, N. Y. Sixty-two double-face records were mad© 
of samples of social and religious dance songs, and complete runs of 
several shamanistic song cycles and the Adoption Rite of the Tutelo 
were taken. Informants gave complete texts for all the recordings, 
and these, as rewritten after returning to Washington, should prove 
helpful to the transcriber. For this purpose the Recording Labora- 
tory is furnishing a duplicate set. Because musicologists have ex- 
pressed interest in the recordings, several were selected for a proposed 
Album of Iroquois Music, which the Library contemplates publishing ; 
and in return for the fine cooperation of the Recording Laboratory 
and the Division of Music, Dr. Fenton delivered a lecture. Music in 
Iroquois Religion and Society, illustrated with slides and records, 
as the first of a series by the Archive of American Folk-song. It 
was repeated for the Society of Pennsylvania Archaeology at its 
snnual meeting. 

In addition a series of brief informal excursions were made to 
Allegany regarding place names and to explore the area that may 
be flooded by the proposed Allegheny Reservoir, and to Tonawanda 
to collect song texts of the Medicine Society. 

Besides a number of book reviews in scientific and historical jour- 
nals. Dr. Fenton published two papers in Bureau of American Eth- 
nology Bulletin 128 — Iroquois Suicide: A Study in the Stability of 
a Culture Pattern, and Tonawanda Longhouse Ceremonies: Ninety 
Years After Lewis Henry Morgan — and an article, Museum and 
Field Studies of Iroquois Masks and Ritualism, which appeared in 
the Explorations and Field-work of the Smithsonian Institution in 
1940. Dr. Fenton prepared for publication in the Annual Report 
of the Smithsonian Institution for 1940, a paper entitled "Masked 
Medicine Societies of the Iroquois." 

SPECIAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, continued 
her study of Indian music by collecting additional songs, transcribing 
these and songs previously recorded, and preparing material for pub- 
lication. In August 1940 a trip was made to Wisconsin Dells, Wis., 



64 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

to interview a group of visiting Zuili Indians. Songs were obtained 
from Falling Star, an Indian bom in Zuni, who had lived in the 
pueblo most of his life and taken part in the dances. His father 
also was a singer and dancer. Falling Star recorded 17 songs, 15 
of which were transcribed and submitted to the Bureau. These are 
chiefly songs of lay-participants in the Kain Dance and the songs 
connected with grinding corn for household use. 

Additional data on the peyote cult among the Winnebago were 
obtained from a former informant and incorporated in the manuscript 
on that tribe. 

In October Miss Densmore went to Washington for consultation 
on manuscripts awaiting publication. During the winter she tran- 
scribed records of 71 Seminole songs, completing the transcriptions 
of recordings made in that tribe during the seasons of 1931, 1932, and 
1933. It is expected that the book on Seminole music, containing 
245 songs, will be completed in the near future. 

A paper on A Search for Songs Among the Chitimacha Indians 
in Louisiana, submitted in 1933, was rewritten, amplified, and pre- 
pared for publication. The Chitimacha is the only tribe visited by 
Miss Densmore in which all the songs have been forgotten. Musical 
customs were remembered, and several legends were related in which 
songs were formerly sung. 

In May 1941 Miss Densmore read a paper on The Native Art of 
the Chippewa before the Central States Branch of the American 
Anthropological Association at the Annual meeting held in 
Minneapolis. 

At the close of the fiscal year Miss Densmore was in Nebraska, her 
special interest being a search for songs that were recorded phono- 
graphically by Miss Alice C. Fletcher in the decade prior to 1893 
and published in that year by the Peabody Museum of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology. If Indians can be found who remem- 
ber these songs, they will be recorded again. A comparison of the 
two recordings will show the degree of accuracy with which the 
songs have been transmitted, and will be important to the subject 
of Indian music. 

The entire collection of recordings of Indian songs submitted to 
the Bureau by Miss Densmore has been transferred to the National 
Archives for permanent preservation. These recordings were made 
and submitted during the period from 1907 to 1940, all having been 
cataloged and transcribed in musical notation. Many hundreds of 
other recordings have been made, studied, and retained by Miss 
Densmore but not transcribed. Recordings submitted after 1940 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 65 

have been cataloged in sequence with the f onner collection. Thirty- 
five tribes are represented in the collection of 2,237 recordings, in addi- 
tion to a group of songs recorded in British Columbia in which the 
tribes are not designated. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau has continued during the year 
under the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There 
were issued three bulletins, as follows: 

Bulletin 126. Archeological remains in the Whitewater District, eastern 
Arizona. Part II. Artifacts and burials, by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. With 
appendix. Skeletal remains from the Whitewater District, eastern Arizona, 
by T. D. Stewart. xi-|-170 pp., 57 pis., 44 figs. 

Bulletin 127. Linguistic material from the tribes of southern Texas and 
northeastern Mexico, by John R. Swanton. v-fl45 pp. 

Bulletin 128. Ajithropological papers, numbers 13-18. xii+368 pp., 52 pis., 
77 figs. : 

No. 13. The mining of gems and ornamental stones by American Indians, 

by Sydney H. Ball. 
No. 14. Iroquois suicide: A study in the stability of a culture pattern, 

by William N, Fenton. 
No. 15. Tonawanda Longhouse ceremonies : Ninety years after Lewis Henry 

Morgan, by William N. Fenton. 
No. 16. The Quichua-speaking Indians of the Province of Imbabura 
(Ecuador) and their anthopometric relations with the living 
populations of the Andean area, by John Gillin. 
No. 17. Art processes in birchbark of the River Desert Algonquin, a circum- 

boreal trait, by Frank G. Speck. 
No. 18. Archeological reconnaissance of southern Utah, by Julian H. 
Steward. 

The following bulletins were in press at the close of the fiscal year: 

Bulletin 129. An archeological survey of Pickwick Basin in the adjacent 
portions of the States of Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, by William S. 
Webb and David L. De Jarnette. With additions by Walter P. Jones, J. P. E. 
Morrison, Marshall T. Newman and Charles E. Snow, and William G. Haag. 
Bulletin 130. Archeological investigations at Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, 
California, by Waldo R. Wedel. With appendix. Skeletal remains from Buena 
Vista sites, California, by T. Dale Stewart. 

Bulletin 131. Peachtree Mound and village site, Cherokee County, North 
Carolina, by Frank M. Setzler and Jesse D. Jennings. With appendix, Skeletal 
remains from the Peachtree Site, North Carolina, by T. Dale Stewart. 

Bulletin 132. Source material on the history and ethnology of the Caddo 
Indians, by John R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 133. Anthropological papers, numbers 19-26 : 
No. 19. A search for songs among the Chitimacha Indians in Louisiana, 

by Frances Densmore. 
No. 20. Archeological survey on the northern Northwest Coast, by Philip 
Drucker. 



66 

No. 21. Some notes on a few sites in Beaufort County, South Carolina, by 
Regina Flannery. 

No. 22. An analysis and interpretation of the ceramic remains from two 
sites near Beaufort, South Carolina, by James B. GriflSn. 

No. 23. The eastern Cherokees, by William Harlen Gilbert, Jr. 

No. 24. Aconite poison whaling in Asia and America : An Aleutian transfer 
to the New World, by Robert F. Heizer. 

No. 25. The Carrier Indians of the Buckley River: Their social and relig- 
ious life, by Diamond Jenness. 

No. 26. The Quipu and Peruvian civilization, by John R. Swantoru 
Bulletin 134. Native tribes of eastern Bolivia and western Matto Grosso, by 
Alfred M^gtraux. 

Publications distributed totaled 11,882. 

LIBRARY 

There has been no change in the library staff during the fiscal year. 
Accessions during the fiscal year totaled 378. 

The library staff has relabeled and reshelved 5,137 books. The sec- 
tions of general ethnology and non-American material, and linguis- 
tics have now been entirely reclassified and reshelved. Library of 
Congress printed cards, so far as they are available, have been 
ordered for practically all of this material, when not already in the 
catalog. Part of the work of typing these cards and filing in the 
catalog has been completed and will be finished in a month or two. 

The sorting of foreign periodicals and society transactions has 
been completed and all material not in the library field has been 
put aside for appropriate disposal. A temporary shelf list has been 
made for this material and it is hoped that this section will be 
reclassified and reshelved by the first of the year. The checking lists 
for the second edition of the Union List of Serials were marked with 
our holdings and returned. 

The sorting of the pamphlet collection has been completed and 
more than half have been classified and shelved. Library of Con- 
gress cards where available have been ordered. In the future the 
library will have no separate pamplilet collection. All pamphlets 
that are kept will be classified and shelved with the books. Work 
has also been done on Congressional documents and some of this 
material is now classified and reshelved. G^ovemment documents 
from the War and Interior Departments, publications of the Chero- 
kee and Choctaw nations, and of various special boards and com- 
missions have been sorted and classified and all Library of Congress 
cards available ordered. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 67 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Following is a summary of work accomplished during the fiscal 
year by Edwin G. Cassedy, illustrator : 

Line drawings 602 

Stipple drawings 3 

Wash drawings 4 

Maps 22 

Graphs 6 

Plates assembled 95 

Photographs retouched 14 

Lettering jobs 114 

Mural paintings 2 

Negatives retouched 5 

Total 867 

The month of December 1940 and the first half of January 1941 
were devoted to work on the new Index Exhibit in the Smithsonian 
main hall. 

COLLECTIONS 

Collections transferred by the Bureau of American Ethnology to 
the Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum, 
during the fiscal year were as follows : 

Accession 
No. 

124,559. Portions of a child's skull and skeleton collected near Kissimmee, Fla., 

and sent in by L. R. Farmer, 
157,350. Skeletal and cultural remains from burial sites on Pennock Island and 

Dall Island, southeastern Alaska, collected during the summer of 

1940 by Dr. Julian H. Steward. (36 specimens.) 
157,796. Collection of 94 ethnological specimens from the Carrier Indians, 

obtained by Dr. Julian H. Steward in the region of Fort St. James, 

British Columbia, in 1940. 
157,965. Collection of ethnological objects purchased among the Iroquois Indians 

during the past summer by Dr. William N. Fen ton. (3 specimens.) 
158,151. Collection of carved wooden masks and musical instruments collected 

by the late J. N. B. Hewitt among the Iroquois Indians of the Six 

Nations Reserve, Grand River, Ontario, Canada. (27 specimens.) 
158,498. Two unfinished wooden masks made by Tom Harris, an Onondaga Indian 

of the Six Nations Reserve, Grand River, Ontario, Canada, and 

collected in August 1940 by Dr. William N. Fenton. 

160.243. Archeological specimens from a sand burial mound on Lemon Bay, near 

Englewood, Sarasota Co., Fla. (25 specimens.) 

160.244. Archeological specimens from various mounds in the vicinity of Parrish, 

on Little Manatee River, Manatee Co., Fla. (61 specimens.) 
160,249. Archeological and skeletal material from a refuse and burial mound 
1% miles west of Belle Glade, in Palm Beach Co., Fla. (988 archeo- 
logical specimens. The skeletal material in this accession has not 
been counted this year, but the figures will be included in some future 
annual report.) 

430577 — 42 6 



68 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning 
the North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various 
specimens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them 
furnished for their owners. 

Personnel, — Mrs. Frances S. Nichols, editorial assistant, retired on 
August 31, 1940; Miss Anna M. Link served as editorial assistant 
from September 1, 1940, to April 30, 1941, when she resigned to 
accept a position in the library of the United States National Mu- 
seum; Miss Nancy A. Link was appointed on June 1, 1941, to fill 
this vacancy. Miss Florence G. Schwindler was appointed on Jan- 
uary 6, 1941, as stenographer in connection with the preparation of 
the Handbook of South American Indians ; she resigned on April 21, 
1941, to accept a position in the War Department. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 6 
KEPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 



Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the ac- 
tivities of the International Exchange Service during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1941 : 

The appropriation allowed by Congress was $44,880, the same 
amount as for the previous year. There was also received by trans- 
fer from the Department of State $500 from an appropriation made 
by Congress to that Department for cooperation with the American 
republics. This amount was allotted to the Exchange Service for 
mailing packages of publications to the Argentine Republic and 
Brazil, so that they would reach their destinations without the delay 
which occurs when shipments are made through exchange bureaus. 
To all other South and Central American countries, with one excep- 
tion, exchanges are transmitted by mail under governmental frank. 
From repayments there was collected $3,036.53, making the total 
available resources $48,416.53. 

The number of packages received for transmission during the year 
was 576,282, a decrease of 63,062. The weight was 388,649 pounds, a 
decrease of 138,896 pounds. 

The following table gives the number and weight of packages sent 
and received through the service : 





Packages 


Weight 




Sent 
abroad 


Received 

from 

abroad 


Sent 
abroad 


Received 
from 
abroad 


United States parliamentary docuiaents sent abroad.. 


349,021 




Pounds 
136, 717 


Pounds 


Publications received in return for parliamentary documents... 


1,354 


4,549 


United States departmental documents sent abroad .. 


103, 552 


99, 731 




Publications received in return for departmental documents 


3,044 


6,093 


Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications sent abroad.. _ 


92, 196 


116, 897 




Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications received from 
abroad for distribution in the United States 


27, 115 


24, 662 










Total 


544, 769 


31, 513 


353, 345 


35,304 






Grand total 


676, 282 


388, 649 













The packages referred to in the above table as sent abroad were 
forwarded partly in boxes by freight to exchange bureaus for dis- 

69 



70 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

tribution and partly by mail directly to their destinations. The 
number of boxes shipped was 965, a decrease from the preceding 
year of 929. Of these boxes, 419 were for depositories of full sets of 
United States governmental documents and the contents of the re- 
mainder were for depositories of partial sets and for distribution to 
various establishments and individuals. The number of mail 
packages was 117,700. 

As stated last year, when a decrease in the work of the office was 
reported, the falling off in the amount of material handled is due 
to the interruption of the interchange of publications between the 
United States and many countries owing to the foreign wars. Ship- 
ments to nearly all the European countries, as well as to China and 
places bordering on the Mediterranean, have been suspended tem- 
porarily. Through special efforts, however, it has been possible dur- 
ing the latter part of the year to forward large consignments to 
Sweden and Switzerland. Transmissions were made to Finland 
and the Soviet Republic almost to the end of the fiscal year, but 
when those countries became involved in the European war, further 
shipments to them were suspended. One large consignment was for- 
warded to Spain during the year and several others were sent to 
Portugal. Owing to the conditions abroad, however, the Institution 
cannot follow any regular schedule in the sending of boxes to those 
two countries. With the exception of one or two short suspensions, 
there has been no interruption to the transmission of shipments to 
and from Great Britain, although, owing to the shortage of cargo 
space, it has not been possible to dispatch consignments as promptly 
as before the war. 

The British Museum and the London School of Economics and 
Political Science, both depositories of United States governmental 
documents, have requested that no further consignments be for- 
warded to them until the close of the war, because of the possibility 
of destruction of the material through the bombings of London. 
The Edinburgh Public Library and the St. Andrews University also 
have asked that publications for them be stored until the cessation 
of hostilities. No other requests for the withholding of transmissions 
have been made by British establishments. 

The very large number of packages for shipment abroad that are 
being held here awaiting the cessation of the war has over- 
taxed the space in the Exchange rooms to such an extent that it has 
been necessary to construct a storage shed in the grounds in the 
rear of the Smithsonian Building for storing the books. The struc- 
ture is made of corrugated iron and is substantially built. When 
the emergency is over, the shed will be used for the storage of empty 
packing boxes. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 71 

Since the outbreak of the European war in September 1939, so 
far as reported to the Institution, five consignments of exchanges 
have been lost, the details of which are given below : 

Five boxes forwarded to Denmark in December 1939 were destroyed on the 
dock in Bergen by fire caused by airplane bombardment. 

Five boxes sent to France in April 1940 were destroyed by fire at the Havre 
railroad station. 

Eleven boxes forwarded to England in November 1940 were lost at sea. 

Thirteen boxes sent to Germany in August 1939 were lost at Havre after 
the consignment was disembarked. 

One box, while in the warehouse of the Smithsonian agents in London await- 
ing shipment to the Institution, was destroyed in January 1941 by fire caused by 
airplane bombardment. 

FOREIGN DEPOSITORIES OF GOVERNMENTAL DOCUMENTS 

On account of conditions in Europe due to the war, several deposi- 
tories have been removed from the list of those receiving full and par- 
tial sets of United States governmental documents. This has resulted 
in reducing the number of those publications now received from a 
total of 104 to 92—55 full and 37 partial sets. 

The depository of the partial set in Haiti has been changed from 
the Department of Foreign Affairs to the National Library. The Hon- 
duran Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been added to the partial-set 
list. 

A complete list of the depositories is given below : 

DEPOSITOBIES OF FULL SETPS 

Abgentina : Direccion de Investigaciones, Archivo y Propaganda, Ministerio de 

Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, Buenos Aires. 
Australia : Commonwealth Parliament and National Library, Canberra. 

New Soxjth Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland: Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 

South Austballa : Parliamentary Library, Adelaide. 

Tasmania: Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 

Victobia: Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia : Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 
Belgium : Biblioth^que Royale, Bruxelles. 
Brazil : Instituto Nacional do Livro, Rio de Janeiro. 
Canada : Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Manitoba: Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 

Ontario: Legislative Library, Toronto. 

Quebec : Library of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. 
Chile: Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 

China: Bureau of International Exchange, Ministry of Education, Chungking. 
Colombia : Biblioteca Nacional, Bogotd. 
Costa Rica: Oficina de Dep6sito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 

Jos6. 
Cuba: Ministerio de Estado, Direcci6n de Relaciones Culturales, Habana. 
Czechoslovakia: Bibliotheque de I'Assemblee Nationale, Prague. 



72 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Denmark : Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen. 

Egypt : Bureau des Publications, Ministfere des Finances, Cairo. 

Estonia: Riigiraamatukogu (State Library), Tallinn. 

Finland : Parliamentary Library, Helsinki. 

Feancb: Biblioth^que Nationale, Paris. 

Germany: Reichstauschstelle im Reiclisministerium fiir Wissenschaft, Erzie- 

hung und Volksbildung, Berlin, N. W. 7. 
Prussia: Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin, N. W. 7. 
Geeat Britain: 

England: British Museum, London. 

London: London School of Economics and Political Science. (Depository 
of the London County Council.) 
Hungary: Library, Hungarian House of Delegates, Budapest. 
India: Imperial Library, Calcutta. 
IRELAND : National Library of Ireland, Dublin. 
Italy: Minister© dell'Educazione Nazionale, Rome. 
Japan : Imperial Library of Japan, Tokyo. 
Latvia: Bibliothique d'Etat, Riga. 

LiLiGUB OF Nations: Library of the League of Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. 
Mexico: Direcci6n General de InformaciCn, Mexico, D. F. 
Nbtheelands : Royal Library, The Hague. 
New Zealand: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Northern Ireland: H. M. Stationery Office, Belfast. 
Norway: Universitets-Bibliothek, Oslo. (Depository of the Government of 

Norway. ) 
Peru: Secci6n de Propaganda y Publicaciones, Ministerio de Relaciones Ex- 

teriores, Lima. 
Poland: Bibliothfeque Nationale, Warsaw. 
Portugal: Bibliotheca Nacional, Lisbon, 
Rumania: Academia RomSna, Bucharest. 
Spain : Cambio Internacional de Publicaciones, Avenida de Calvo Sotelo 20, 

Madrid. 
Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
Switzerland : BibliothSque Centrale F6d6rale, Berne. 
Tuekey: Department of Printing and Engraving, Ministry of Education, 

Istanbul. 
Union of South Ajbica: State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: All-Union Lenin Library, Moscow 115. 
Ukraine : Ukrainian Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, 
Kiev. 
Ueuguay : Oficina de Can je Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 
Venezuela: Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 
Yugoslavia : Minist&re de I'Education, Belgrade. 

depositories of partial sets 

Afghanistan: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Publications Department, Kabul. 

Bolivia: Biblioteca del H. Congreso Nacional, La Paz. 

Bbazil: 

MiNAs Geraes: Directoria Geral de Estatistica em Minas, Bello Horizonte. 

Rio db Janeiro : Bibliotheca da Assemblea Legislativa do Estado, Nictheroy. 
British Guiana: Government Secretary's Office, Georgetown, Demerara. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 73 

Canada : 

Albebta: Provincial Library, Edmonton. 

British Columbia: Provincial Library, Victoria. 

New Bbunswick: Legislative Library, Fredericton. 

Nova Scotia: Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 

Peince Edwabd Island: Legislative and Public Library, Charlottetown. 

Saskatchewan : Legislative Library, Begina. 
Ceylon: Chief Secretary's Office (Record Department of the Library), Colombo. 
China: National Library of Peiping. 

Dominican Republic: Biblioteca del Senado, Ciudad Trujillo. 
Ecuadob: Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 
Guatemala: Biblioteca Nacional, Guatemala, 
Haiti: Bibliothi^que Nationale. Port-au-Prince. 
Hondubas : 

Biblioteca y Archive Nacionales, Tegucigalpa. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Tegucigalpa. 
Iceland: National Library, Reykjavik. 
India.: 

Bengal: Secretary, Bengal Legislative Council Department, Council House, 
Calcutta. 

BiHAB and Obissa: Revenue Department, Patna. 

Bombay: Undersecretary to the Government of Bombay, General Depart- 
ment, Bombay. 

BuBMA : Secretary to the Government of Burma, Education Department, 
Rangoon. 

Punjab: Chief Secretary to the Government of the Punjab, Lahore. 

United Pbovinces of Agba and Oudh : University of Allahabad, Allahabad. 
Jamaica: Colonial Secretary, Kingston. 
Liberia: Department of State, Monrovia. 
Malta: Minister for the Treasury, Valletta. 
Newfoundland: Department of Home Affairs, St. John's. 
Nicabaqua :Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Managua. 
Panama: Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Panama. 
Paraguay: Secretario de la Presidencia de la Repflblica, Asunci6n. 
Salvador: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 
Straits SEnrrLEMENTS : Colonial Secretary, Singapore. 
Thailand: Department of Foreign Affairs, Bangkok. 
Vatican City: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City, Italy. 

INTERPAEUAMENTARY EXCHANGE OF THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL 

On account of conditions arising from the war, the sending of the 
Congressional Record and the Federal Register has been discontinued 
to certain countries. Haiti has been added to the list as a recipient. 
The number of copies of the Record and the Register now sent abroad 
is 78, having been reduced from 104. A list of the present depositories 
is given below : 

depositories of congressional beooed 
Argentina : 

Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Buenos Aires. 

Cdmara de Diputados, Oficina de Informaci6n Parlamentaria, Buenos Aires. 
Boletin Oficial de la Repiiblica Argentina, Ministerio de Justicia e Instruccifin 
Pfiblica, Buenos Aires. 



74 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

AUSTEAUA : 

Library of the Commonwealth Parliament, Canberra. 

New South Wales: Library of Parliament of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland: Chief Secretary's OflSce, Brisbane. 

Westekn Australia : Library of Parliament of Western Australia, Perth. 
Bbazil: 

Bibliotheca do Congresso Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 

Amazonas: Archivo, Bibliotheca e Imprensa Publica, Man&os. 

Bahia : Governador do Estado da Bahia, Sao Salvador. 

EspiBiTo Santo: Presidencia do Estado do Espirito Santo, "Victoria. 

Rio Grande do Sul : "A Federagao," Porto Alegre. 

Sao Paulo : Diario OflBcial do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. 

Sergipe : Bibliotheca Publica do Estado de Sergipe, Aracajii. 
British Honduras: Colonial Secretary, Belize. 
Canada : 

Clerk of the Senate, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 
Cuba: Biblioteca del Capitolio, Habana. 
Egypt: 

Chambre des D^put^s, Cairo. 

S§nat, Cairo. 
Gibraltar : Gibraltar Garrison Library Committee, Gibraltar. 
Great Britain : Library of the Foreign Office, London. 
Guatemala : Biblioteca de la Asamblea Legislativa, Guatemala. 
Haiti: Biblioth^que Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras: Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 
Hungary: A Magyar orszaggyiil^s konyvtard, Budapest. 
India: Legislative Department, Simla. 
Indochina : Gouverneur G6n§ral de I'lndochine, Hanoi. 
Iran : Library of the Iranian Parliament, T6h6ran. 
Iraq: Chamber of Deputies, Baghdad. 
Irish E'ree State : Dail Eireann, Dublin. 

League of Nations : Library of the League of Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. 
Lebanon: Minist^re des Finances de la Republique Libanaise, Service du Ma- 
teriel, Beirut. 
Liberia: Department of State, Monrovia. 
Mexico : Direccion General de Informaci6n, Mexico, D. F. 

Aguasoalientes : Gobernador del Estado de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. 

Campeche : Gobernador del Estado de Campeche, Campeche. 

Chiapas : Gobernador del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez. 

Chihuahua : Gobernador del Estado de Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 

Coahuila: Peri6dico Oficial del Estado de Coahuila, Palacio de Gobiemo, 
Saltillo. 

CouMA : Gobernador del Estado de Colima, Colima. 

Durango: Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Durango, Durango. 

Guanajuato: Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado, Guanajuato. 

Guerrero: Gobernador del Estado de Guerrero, Chilpancingo. 

Jalisco: Biblioteca del Estado, Guadalajara. 

LowEB Caufoenia : Gobernador del Distrito Norte, Mexicali. 

Mfixico: Gaceta del Gobierno, Toluoa. 

Michoacan : Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado de Michoacdn, 
Morelia. 

MoBELOs: Palacio de Gobierno, Cuernavaca. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 75 

Mexicx) — Continued. 

Nayabit : Gobernador de Nayarit, Tepic. 

NxiEVO Leon : Biblioteca del Estado, Monterrey. 

Oaxaca: Peri6dico Oficial, Palacio de Gobierno, Oaxaca. 

PuEBLA : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Puebla. 

QuEBi:TABo: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Secci6n de Archive, Quer6taro. 

San Luis Porosf : Congreso del Estado, San Luis Potosi. 

Sinaloa: Gobernador del Estado de Sinaloa, Culiacfi^n. 

Sonoea: Gobernador del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo. 

Tabasco: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Seccion 3a, Ramo de Prensa, 
Villahermosa. 

Tamaxjupas : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Victoria. 

Tlaxcala: Secretaria de Gobierno del Estado, Tlaxcala. 

Vebacbuz : Gobernador del Estado de Veracruz, Departamento de Gober- 
nacifin y Justicia, Jalapa. 

TucatAn : Gobernador del Estado de Yucatan, M6rida, Yucatfl.n. 
Netherlands Indies : Volksraad von Nederlundsch-Indie, Batavia, Java. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Pebu: CSmara de Diputados, Lima. 
Rumania : 

Bibliothfeque de la Chambre des D6put6s, Bucharest. 

Minist^re des Affaires fitrang^res, Bucharest. 
SwiTZEBLAND : BibliothSque de I'Assembl^e FM6rale Suisse, Berne. 

Been : Staatskanzlei des Kantons Bern. 

St. Gat.len : Staatskanzlei des Kantons St. Gallen. 

SCHATFHAUSEN : Staatskauzlei des Kantons Schaffhausen. 

ZtiEiCH : Staatskanzlei des Kantons Ziirich. 
Tubkey: Turkish Grand National Assembly, Ankara. 
Union of South Afbica: 

Library of Parliament, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 

State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal, 
Ubuguay: Diario Oficial, Calle Florida 1178, Montevideo. 
Venezuela: Biblioteca del Congreso, Caracas. 
Vatican City: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City, Italy. 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE AGENCIES 

The bureaus or agencies to which consignments are forwarded in 
boxes by freight are given below. To all countries not appearing in 
the list, packages are sent directly to tlieir destinations by mail. 

LIST OF agencies 

AxQEBiA, via France. 

Angola, via Portugal. 

Austbia, via Germany. 

Azores, via Portugal. 

Belgium : Service Beige des ^changes Internationaux, Biblioth^que Royale de 

Belgique, Bruxelles. 
Canaby Islands, via Spain. 

China: Bureau of International Exchange, Ministry of Education, Chungking. 
Czechoslovakia: Service des ^fichanges Internationaux, Bibliothfique de 

I'Assembl^ Nationale, Prague 1-79. 
Denmabk: Service Danois des ^changes Internationaux, Kongelige Danske 

Videnskabernes Selskab, Coi)enhagen V. 



76 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Egypt : Government Press, Publications Office, Bulaq, Cairo. 

Finland: Delegation of the Scientific Societies of Finland, Kasarngatan 24, 
Helsinki. 

France: Service Frangais des ^changes Internationaux, 110 Rue de Grenelle, 
Paris. 

Geemant: Amerika-Institut, Universitatstrasse 8, Berlin, N. W. 7. 

Great Britain and Ibeiand: Wheldon & Wesley, 721 North Circular Road, 
Willesden, London, NW. 2. 

Hungary: Hungarian Libraries Board, Ferenciekterc 5, Budapest, IV. 

India: Superintendent of Government Printing and Stationery, Bombay. 

Itj\x,y: Ufflcio degli Scambi Internazionali, Ministero dell'Educazione Nazionale, 
Rome. 

Japan : International Exchange Service, Imperial Library of Japan, Uyeno 
Park, Tokyo. 

Latvia: Service des liJchanges Internationaux, Biblioth^que d'Etat de Lettonie, 
Riga. 

LuxEMBOUBG, vla Belgium. 

Madagascae, via France. 

Madeira, via Portugal. 

Mozambique, via Portugal. 

Netherlands: International Exchange Bureau of the Netherlands, Royal Li- 
brary, The Hague. 

Nevs^ South Wales: Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 

Norway: Service Norv^gien des ^changes Internationaux, Bibliothfeque de 
rUniversit6 Royale, Oslo. 

Palestine: Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem. 

Poland: Service Polonais des ^changes Internationaux, Bibliothfeque Natioiiale, 
Warsaw. 

Portugal : Secgao de Trocas Internaeionaes, Bibliotheca Nacional, Lisbon. 

Queensland: Bureau of Exchanges of International Publications, Chief Secre- 
tary's Office, Brisbane. 

Rumania: Ministfere de la Propagande Nationale, Service des ifichanges Inter- 
nationaux, Bucharest. 

South Australia: South Australian Government Exchanges Bureau, Govern- 
ment Printing and Stationery Office, Adelaide. 

Spain : Junta de Intercambio y Adquisici6n de Libros y Revistas para Bibliotecas 
Publicas, Ministerio de Educaci6n Nacional, Avenida Calvo Sotelo, 20, Madrid. 

Sweden: Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 

Switzerland: Service Suisse des !l6changes Internationaux, Biblioth5que Cen- 
trale F^d^rale, Berne. 

Tasmania: Secretary to the Premier, Hobart. 

Turkey: Ministry of Education, Department of Printing and Engraving, 
Istanbul. 

Union of South Aprica : Government Printing and Stationery Office, Capetown, 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: International Book Exchange Depart- 
ment, Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, Moscow, 56. 

Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia: Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 

Yugoslavia: Section des Echanges Internationaux, MinistSre des Affaires 
ifitrang&res, Belgrade. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 77 

After the expiration of the year's extension granted Frank E. 
Gass, he was retired from the Government service February 28, 1941. 
However, having been appointed correspondence clerk on the Smith- 
sonian private roll, effective March 1, he is continuing to carry on 
his work in the Exchange office. 
Respectfully submitted. 

C. W. Shoemaker, CMef Clerk. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 7 
KEPORT ON THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the oper- 
ations of the National Zoological Park for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1941 : 

The regular appropriation made by Congress was $239,910, all of 
which was expended with the exception of $2,440 which represents 
savings from lapses in the filling of vacant positions. 

PERSONNEL 

An important personnel change was the appointment on June 
2, 1941, of Carter H. Anthony, D. V. M., as veterinarian. He came 
to the Zoo from the University of Arkansas, where he was engaged 
in animal disease research work. This is the first time in the 
history of the Zoo that a full-time position of this character has 
been filled. It is expected that this will result in a more careful 
dietary supervision, as well as much better medical and surgical 
attendance on the animals. Also closer cooperation can be given 
the various Government departments, as well as outsiders, in any 
experiments and studies in which the facilities of the Zoo are used. 

A much larger turnover in the force than in prior years has been 
occasioned by men accepting positions in work connected with the 
National Defense program. Included in this was the recall to active 
service of William J. Grant, senior operating engineer, a member 
of the Naval Reserve. 

IMPROVEMENTS 

The closing of the W. P. A. project at the Zoo on August 6, 1940, 
prevented improvements that had been contemplated for the year. 
The regular force is hardly sufficient to maintain routine repairs, and 
therefore few improvements were begun. 

The series of four waterfowl ponds was completed, and birds 
transferred there on July 29, 1940. This now makes one of the 
most attractive outdoor exhibits in the Zoo. It is especially so 
when viewed from the terrace of the new restaurant. 

The reptile pit on the south side of the reptile house was com- 
pleted by adding a small waterfall at one corner. 
78 



Secretary's Report. 1941. Appendix 7 



Pl-ATE 5 




1. Dining Room. New Restaurant. National Zoological Park. 




2. Birds in the Refrigerated Cage, National Zoological Park. 

The five birds are those received from Antarctic Service Expedition, 1941. The three large penguins 
right foreground, are emperors; the one to the left is a gentoo penguin: rear center, a kelp gull. 



I 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 79 

The old waterfowl pond near the creek was filled in with earth 
and crushed rock, though no grading was done. Some planting was 
done in that area. It is planned to utilize this space for parking of 
cars and also to make part of it available for picnicking. 

Work was begun on remodeling the west side of the antelope build- 
ing, and at the close of the year it was about two-thirds completed. 
A cage is being constructed to house the pair of reticulated giraffe. 
This will give them a cage with a higher ceiling as well as a larger 
outdoor enclosure. 

The restaurant constructed by the P. W. A. under an allotment 
of $90,000 was completed in the fall of 1940. It is of the Virginia 
tavern type of stone construction. The main dining room is beauti- 
fully decorated with murals of carved lacquered linoleum, executed 
and mounted by Domenico Mortellito. This, with the outside ter- 
races overlooking the new waterfowl ponds, has proved to be a 
popular luncheon and dining place for the public. The new con- 
cessionaire, L. G. Leech, opened the restaurant for busilness on 
March 29, 1941. 

The area about the new restaurant was landscaped with evergreens 
and other trees and shrubs. An azalea garden of about 300 plants was 
laid out on the hillside west of the restaurant. This will greatly 
add to the beauty of the surroundings, especially when the plants 
are in bloom. In addition, about 200 wild azaleas, more than 100 
dogwoods, and about 40 redbuds, as well as other trees and shrubs, 
were planted about the grounds. 

It is with pleasure that we take this opportunity to thank C. A. 
Logan, of the Beltsville Agriculture Center, for the more than 350 
trees and shrubs that were obtained from their C. C. C. nursery. 
These included shade trees, flowering plants and shriibs, fruit- and 
nut-bearing types, and others suitable for ornamental purposes. 

NEEDS OF THE ZOO 

Proper buildings continue to be the chief need of the Zoo. Struc- 
tures most urgently needed which would complete its development 
are a new building to house antelope, deer, wild hogs, and kanga- 
roos ; one for monkeys ; and one for carnivores to replace the present 
building, which is no longer suitable for the exhibition of these 
animals. 

Since the closing of the W. P. A, project, and with the increase 
of exhibition areas, the existing personnel is inadequate to maintain 
the grounds in a presentable condition. It is therefore important 
that the maintenance personnel be increased by at least 10 men. 



80 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 



VISITORS FOR THE TEAR 

A record of the attendance for the year shows an increase of a 
little more than 300,000 visitors over the figures for last year. This 
is due in part to the increase in population in the city. 

July 221, 700 February 95, 800 

August 216, 300 March 171, 700 

April 265, 000 

May 277, 800 

June 280, 100 



September 315, 500 

October 166, 200 

November , 169,900 

December 134,700 

January 115, 600 Total 2, 430, 300 

The attendance of organizations, mainly classes of students, of 
which there is definite record, was 48,050, from 876 different schools 
or groups in 20 States and the District of Columbia. This is the 
largest number of such groups ever recorded. A complete listing 
by States follows: 



state 



Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Georgia --- 

Dlinois 

Indiana 

Kentucky 

Maine... 

Maryland-. 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

New Hampshire 



Number 


Number 


of 


of 


persons 


parties 


413 


7 


526 


12 


8,115 


142 


516 


15 


38 


1 


31 


1 


128 


4 


100 


2 


9,708 


130 


152 


3 


375 


9 


121 


2 



State 



New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania.. 
South Carolina. 

Tennessee 

Virginia 

West Virginia.. 

Total 



Number 

of 
persons 



2,365 

964 

1,457 

1,256 

10, 304 

1,474 

135 

7,663 

2,309 



48, 050 



Number 

of 
parties 



33 
23 
39 
33 

201 

38 

4 

139 



876 



About 3 o'clock every afternoon, a census is made of the cars 
parked on the Zoo grounds. During the year 56,185 were so listed, 
representing every State in the Union, as well as Alaska, Canada, 
Canal Zone, Cuba, Hawaii, Mexico, and the Philippine Islands. 

Since the total number is merely a record of those actually parked 
at one time, it is not of value as showing a total attendance, but is of 
importance as indicating the percentage of attendance by States, 
Territories, and countries. The record for the year on this basis 
shows the District of Columbia automobiles comprised 38 percent; 
Maryland, slightly more than 24 percent; Virginia, 16 percent; Penn- 
sylvania, 4 percent; and the remaining cars were from other States, 
Territories, and countries. 

This is the first year that the cars were counted on Sundays and 
holidays. In previous years, the record showed that a little more 
than 50 percent of the cars were from outside the District. This 
year it is 62 percent, which substantiates our estimate of previous 
years that adding Sundays and holidays to the count would show 
at least 60 percent from outside the District. 



REPORT OF THEi SECRETARY 81 

ACCESSIONS 
FIELD WORK 

S5IITHS0NIAN-FIKEST0NE EXPEDITION 

A partial account of this expedition was given in the 1940 annual 
report of the Director of the National Zoological Park. 

Through funds donated to the Smithsonian Institution by the 
Firestone Tire & Eubber Co., of Akron, Ohio, a party was sent to 
Liberia, West Africa, for the purpose of collecting specimens for 
the National Zoological Park. The party consisted of the Director, 
Mrs. Mann, Kalph Norris, and Koy J. Jennier. They sailed on the 
American-West African Line on February 17, 1940, for Monrovia. 

A preliminary shipment of animals collected was made from Li- 
beria to Boston in the care of Roy J. Jennier, who arrived at that 
port on May 17, 1940. A list of these animals can be found in the 
1940 annual report. The remaining members of the expedition ar- 
rived in Norfolk, Va., on August 6, 1940, with 100 specimens, several 
of which were species new to the history of the collection. We 
again wish to express our sincerest appreciation to the members of 
the Firestone staff, both in Liberia and here, for the aid and 
hospitality given the expedition. 

A list of the live animals which arrived in Norfolk on August 6 
follows : 

SMITHSONIAN-FIRESTONE EXPEDITION 

Scientific name Common name Numier 

Civettictis civetta African civet 2 

Oenetta poensis Darls genet 2 

Nandima hinotata African palm civet 1 

Oalerella melanura Dwarf civet 1 

Perodicticus potto Potto 1 

Cercocebus torquatus lunulatus White-crowned mangabey 1 

Cercocehus sp Mangabey 6 

Mandrillns sp Mandrill 1 

Papio papio Baboon 1 

Euxerus erytliropus lacustris African ground squirrel 2 

Mellivora capensis Ratel 1 

Cricetotnys gambianus Uberiae Liberian giant pouched rat 2 

Choeropsis Uheriensis Pigmy hippopotamus 2 

Atherura africana West African brush-tailed porcupine 1 

Hyemoschus aquaticus Chevrotain 4 

Cephalophus niger Black duiker 3 

Cephalophus nigrifrons Black-fronted duiker 3 



82 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

SMITH SONIAN-FTBESTONE EXPEDITION — continued 

Scientific name Common name Numier 

Crossarchus ohscurus Marsh civet 1 

Psittacus erithacus African gray parrot 2 

Agapornis pullaria Red-faced lovebird 19 

Ceratogymna elata Yellow-casqued hornbill 1 

Stephanoaetus coronatus Crowned havpk-eagle 2 

Oypohierax angolensis Fish-eating vulture 1 

Kaupifalco monogrammicus Northern lizard-buzzard 1 

Acoipiter tachiro macro scelides West African goshawk 1 

Bitis nasicomis Rhinoceros viper 3 

Bitia gabonica Gaboon viper 2 

Uaja sp Cobra 2 

Python sebae West African python 2 

Varanus niloticus Nile monitor 4 

Hyperolius sp West African tree frog 11 

Rana occipitalis West African bullfrog 4 

Osteolaemus tetraspis Broad-nosed crocodile 1 

Crocodylus cataphractus Narrow-nosed crocodile 1 

Kinixys erosa West African back-hinged tortoise 7 

Pelusios deriianus Turtle 1 

A summary of the specimens received from the expedition, 
including those in both shipments, follows : 

Class _ Species Individuals 

Mammals 23 48 

Birds 15 42 

Reptiles 20 76 

Amphibians . 2 15 

MoUusks 1 14 

Total 61 195 

GIFTS 

Pleasant contacts made by two previous expeditions have resulted 
in the receipt as gifts of a number of desirable specimens. 

From the Firestone Plantation in Liberia, through Greorge Sey- 
bold, manager, and Dr. Fuszek, Director General of Public Health 
of Liberia, the Zoo received a pigmy hippo, a western chimpanzee, 
a leopard, 2 rhinoceros vipers, a green mamba, a crowned hawk- 
eagle, and a porcupine. These resulted from associations made dur- 
ing the Smithsonian-Firestone expedition of 1940. 

Through contacts made by Malcolm Davis, Zoo staff member of 
the Antarctic expedition of 1940, an interesting lot of birds was 
received, including 3 emperor penguins, 4 Gentoo penguins, 2 kelp 
gulls, and a giant fulmar. These birds were collected through the 
cooperation of Richard Black, Dr. Paul Siple, Jack Perkins, Roger 
Hawthorne, and others of the expedition, and brought to the States 
by Herwil Bryant, Jr., whose painstaking care on the trip saved 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 83 

all the specimens. Other outstanding gifts include a pair of black 
bear cubs from Newbold Noyes, Washington, D. C, an ocelot each 
from Maj. C. V. Haynes, Langley Field, Va., and N. M. Rhodes, 
U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., and a trio of tahr goats 
from the New York Zoological Park. E. A. Mcllhenny, of Avery 
Island, La., has continued his generosity by sending a number of 
waterfowl, greatly adding to the exhibition value of the new water- 
fowl ponds. A complete list of donors and their gifts follows. 

DONOKS AND THEIB GIFTS 

Mrs. Robert Adams, Washington, D. C, 2 opossums. 

Mrs. Reed Alexander, Washington, D. C, Virginia rail. 

Richard Archbold, American Museum of Natural History, New York, 2 ring- 
tails or cacomistles. 

S. D. Ashford, Washington, D. C, opossum. 

Mrs. J. K. Atherton, Hyattsville, Md., double yellow-head parrot. 

Judith Atkinson, Washington, D. C, white rabbit. 

Vernon Bailey, Washington, D. C., 5 antelope squirrels, 2 eastern chipmunks, 
mountain wood rat. 

Robert Ball, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Herbert Barber, National Museum, Washington, D. C, mink. 

Dr. T. Barbour, jMuseum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., 3 Florida 
king snakes, 2 chicken snakes, garter snake, glass snake or legless lizard, 
horn snake. 

Mrs. Bemar, Bradbury, Md., 5 opossums. 

J. B. Berry, Washington, D. C., red fox. 

Howard Blanchard, Arlington, Va., 5 horned lizards. 

Mrs. Blumenberg, Washington, D. C, common pigeon. 

Warren Bowman, Washington, D. C, milk snake. 

Miss Wilma Bradford, Washington, D. C, 2 cottontail rabbits. 

David S. Brown, Washington, D. C, Florida diamond-backed rattlesnake. 

Mrs. R. Brown, Washington, D. C, robin. 

J. Brylawski, Washington, D. C, great horned owl. 

Mrs. J, S. Burdette, Kensington, Md., double yellow-head parrot. 

W. W. Campbell, Riverdale, Md., barred owl. 

Patricia Chambers, Washington, D. C, white rabbit. 

Mrs. Cipriano, Washington, D. C, angora rabbit. 

Charles Clark, District Training School, Laurel, Md., 2 red-tailed hawks. 

Mrs. M. O. Clarke, Chevy Chase, Md., red-tailed hawk. 

Mrs. H. Clements, Washington, D. C, white-eyed parrot. 

Elias Cohen, Washington, D. C. (through J. N. Hamlet), copperhead snake. 

H. James Cole, Bethesda, Md., 4 green tree frogs, hog-nosed snake, 2 garter 
snakes, 6 common tree frogs. 

Martin S. Cooper, Arlington, Va., ring-necked pheasant. 

Mrs. B. J. Costello, Arlington, Va., 2 alligators. 

R. E. Crouch, Washington, D. C, oppossum. 

Mrs. E. C. Davis, Washington, D. C, 20 guinea pigs, rabbit. 

Harry Day, Hyattsville, Md., king snake, 11 painted turtles, 9 spotted turtles, 
snapping turtle, 2 musk turtles. 

W. M. DeNeane, Washington, D. C, common iguana. 

Benjamin C. Dooley, National Zoological Park, red-breasted merganser. 

430577 — 42 7 



84 A]s^^}^TAL report Smithsonian institution, 1941 

Charles East, National Museum, Washington, D. C, pilot snake, fox snake. 

Robert Ellis, Washington, D. C, king rail. 

Mrs. M. J. Fadgen, Baltimore, Md., troupial. 

Dr. Ferguson, Washington, D. C, eastern cardinal. 

Albert A. Fields, Washington, D. C, rough-scaled green snake. 

Firestone Plantation, Harbel, Liberia, pigmy hippopotamus, western chimpan- 
zee, leopard, 2 rhinoceros vipers, green mamba. 

Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, East African porcupine, crowned 
hawk-eagle. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Beltsville, Md., 12 Canada 
geese. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C, 8 black 
ducks. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, Mattamuskeet Refuge, New Holland, N. 0., pintail 
duck. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento National Wild Life Refuge, Sacramento, 
Calif., 10 cackling geese. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, Seney Northwest Refuge, Germfask, Mich., 2 blue- 
winged teal. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Wichita Mountains, Wild- 
life Refuge, Cache, Okla., American elk. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, through H. A. Bailey, Pungo, Va., 3 whistling swans. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, through John N. Hamlet, Washington, D. 0., Florida 
diamond-back rattlesnake, pigmy rattlesnake, chicken snake, pine snake, 
coachwhip snake, 2 pilot snakes, 2 eastern porcupines. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, through John M. Hopkins, Waycross, Ga., bald eagle. 

Fish and Wildlife Service through William Hopkins, McBee, S. C, for Caro- 
lina Sandhills Refuge, wood duck. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, through George Mushbach, National Bison Range, 
Moise, Mont., bald eagle. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, through Sam A. Walker, Manteo, S. C, 2 blue-winged 
teal, 6 American coots. 

Ralph Fisher, Hyattsville, Md., opossum. 

W. M. Fitch, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

Wiley Ford, Washington, D. C, 3 guinea pigs. 

L. V. Friedlei, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Mrs. J. Friedman, Washington, D .C, screech owl. 

William Gee, Washington, D. C, barred owl. 

J. Gott, Washington, D. C, least bittern. 

Norman Gramam, Suitland, Md., great blue heron. 

W. B. Greenwood, Washington, D. C, 2 western rattlesnakes. 

Martha Hall, Glen Dale Sanatorium, Glen Dale, Md., Pekin duck. 

John N. Hamlet, Washington, D. C, tayra. 

Major C. V. Haynes, Langley Field, Va., ocelot. 

Helen H. Haynes, Washington, D. C, Pekin thrush. 

A. M. Hazel, Washington, D. C, barrel owl. 

Dr. A. Henry, Washington, D. C, weasel. 

Mrs. F. W. Hill, Washington, D. C, blue jay. 

G. A. Holland, Texas, 4 Texas rattlesnakes. 

Miss Hopkins, Washington, D. C, mourning dove. 

Miss G, E. Hudson, Washington, D. C, painted turtle. 

N. Hynson, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Mr. Jacobsen, Arlington, Va., 3 peafowl. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 85 

Mr. and Mrs. C. M. James, Landover, Md., horned owl, 2 valley quail, bobwhite. 

G. H. Jelinek, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Joel, "Washington, D. C, ferret. 

A. L. Johns, Washington, D. C, painted turtle. 

Sgt. D. Jones, Police Department, Rockville, Md., black widow spider. 

John Paul Jones, Washington, D. C, opossum. 

Dr. Howard A. Kelly, Baltimore, Md., 2 marmosets. 

WiUiam Kennedy, Washington, D. C, sparrow hawk. 

C. S. Kimball, Washington, D. C, Virginia rail. 

Mrs. H. Kingsland, "Blackstable," Aiken, S. C, 2 barred owls. 

Mrs. Krast, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

Mrs. H. W. Lambert, Washington, D. G., 2 painted turtles. 

Brady D. Large, Washington, D. C., ring-necked pheasant. 

George Leonard, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

O. M. Locke, New Braunfels, Tex., 52 horned lizards. 

Mr. Lovell, Washington, D. C, large brown bat. 

Mrs. A. N. Lukacs, Washington, D. C, skunk. 

Ernest Lupton, Washington, D. C., black-crowned night heron. 

Mrs. J. A. Lyon, Washington, D. C, 2 Arkansas goldfinch, painted bunting. 

Mrs. J. A. Mandley, Washington, D. C., white-throated capuchin. 

Mrs. L. O. Manley, Chevy Chase, Md., ferret. 

J. P. Marshall, Alexandria, Va., great blue heron. 

Mrs. J. J. Marvel, Takoma Park, Md., Cuban parrot. 

Edward Matteossion, Bethesda, Md., weasel. 

Sgt J. McAulifEe, Bethesda, Md., barred owl. 

B. McClellen, Washington, D. C, barred owl. 
Henry J. McDermott, Takoma Park, Md., 2 canaries. 
R. A. McGee, Washington, D. C, opossum. 

E. A. Mcllhenny, Avery Island, La., 15 pintails, 3 green-winged teal, 4 canvasback 
ducks, 7 lesser scaup, 5 coots, 24 blue-winged teal, 3 Florida gallinule, 6 blue 
geese, 2 lesser snow geese, 3 hybrid ducks (greenhead and black mallard), 
ring-necked duck. 

Evan McLaughlin, Washington, D. C, ring-necked snake. 

Dr. H R. Mills, Tampa, Fla., bald eagle. 

Vernon Mills, Fallon, Nev., 7 soft-haired ground squirrels. 

Mrs. R. T. Minahan, Baltimore, Md., common marmoset. 

Miss V. Moore, Washington, D. C, great white heron. 

6. Myers, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif., 33 California newts. 

National Institute of Health, through Dr. J. Oliphant, 2 golden hamsters. 

J. A. Nettle, Washington, D. C, screech owl. 

New York Zoological Park, 3 tahr goats. 

Newbold Noyes, Evening Star, Washington, D. C, 2 black bears, 

James O'Hagen, Washington, D, C, woodchuck or ground hog. 

Mrs. H. A. Ourand, Takoma Park, Md., red-shouldered hawk. 

Logan Owens, Jr., Washington, D. C, coot. 

Miss Nancy Pelty, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Dr. EUno Peters, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

Capt. S. Picking, Coco Sola, Canal Zone, Panama, 2 Galapagos tortoises, 

John A. Plugge, Chevy Chase, Md., snapping turtle. 

Mrs. Virginia Poore, Mount Rainier, Md., white-throated capuchin. 

Mrs. Edward Portner, Washington, D. C, 4 skunks. 

Mrs. Pratt, Washington, D. C, turtle. 

Miss G. V. Rainey, Takoma Park, Md., alligator. 



86 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Mildred Reed, Washington, D. C, water snake. 

Mrs. James Reeks Washington, D. C, 4 snapping turtles. 

Mrs. Rehbein, Washington, D. C, weasel. 

N. M. Rhodes, Dispensary Bldg., U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., ocelot. 

Dr. Waldo Schmitt, National Museum, Washington, D. C, 2 James Island 

snakes. South Seymour Island snake. 
Mrs. Scott, Washington, D. C, alligator. 
Mrs. Lizzie Shelby, Washington, D. C, 4 pine snakes. 
Mrs. Sherry, Washington, D. C, 2 common rabbits. 
Robert Shore, Washington, D. C, red fox. 

Mr. and Mrs. Phillip Shorts, Lander, Wyo., Philippine monkey. 
Robert Shosteck, Washington, D. C, fence lizard, snapping turtle. 
C. L. Sibley, Wallingford, Conn., 3 bantam chickens. 
Orville S. Simpson, Washington, D. C, tovi paroquet. 
B. Sisson, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 
Mrs. R. Sizemore, Mount Rainier, Md., 2 Muscovy ducks. 

Donald Skinker and William Wohlfarth, Washington, D. O., 3 garter snakea 
Joy Eloise Smith, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 
R. Smith, Washington, D. C., Pekin duck. 

Smithsonian-Firestone Expedition to Liberia — see field work. 
Soldiers' Home, Washington, D. C, red-shouldered hawk. 
W. H. Sterling, West Falls Church, Va., black widow spider. 
Louis Stone, Washington, D. C, mole snake. 
Rex Sullivan, Hudson, N. C, smooth green snake. 
Miss L. C. Tait, Washington, D. C, zebra finch. 

Clifton Taylor, Hyattsville, Md., snapping turtle, king or chain snake. 
Robert Thulman, Chevy Chase, Md., white king pigeon. 
Patricia and Terry Townsend, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Miss J. Tendrik, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Tropical Fruit Shop, Washington, D. C, opossum. 
Dr. W. G. Trow, Warrenton, Va., barred owl. 
TJ. S. Antarctic Service, Washington, D. C, 3 emperor penguins, 4 Gentoo 

penguins, 2 kelp gulls, giant fulmar. 
J. W. Urban, Arlington, Va., society finch, zebra finch, 
Albert Valeer, Washington, D. C, 3 common rabbits. 
Guillermo Valenzuela, Matagalpa, Nicaragua, Nicaraguan titi monkey. 
Ernest P. Walker, National Zoological Park, Washington, D. O., 5 ornate 

turtles, bull snake. 
Washington National Airport, Dispensary Building, ring-billed gull. 
Mrs. Way, Washington, D. C, 3 alligators. 

Mrs. Lena White, Harpers Ferry, W. Va., double yellow-head parrot. 
Karl Weissman, Kew Gardens, Long Island, N. Y., brown capuchin. 
Mrs. Martin Welch, Seat Pleasant, Md., opossum. 
Jess Williams, Washington, D. C, barred owl. 
Lanier Williams, Washington, D. C, water snake, milk snake. 
Shirley Ann Williams, Washington, D. C, sparrow hawk. 
Miss Katherine A. Zehrfeld, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

BIRTHS 

There were 70 mammals born, 49 birds hatched, and 14 reptiles 
born or hatched during the year. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 87 

MAMMALS 
Scientiflo name Common name Number 

Ammotragus lervia Aoudad 3 

Aotus trlvirgatus Douroucouli or owl monkey 2 

Axis axis Axis deer 2 

Bison bison American bison 3 

Bos indicus Zebu 1 

Canis dingo Dingo 3 

Canis lupus nutilus Plains wolf 4 

Canis rufus Texas red wolf 9 

Cervus elaphus European red deer 1 

Chaeropsis liberiensis. Pigmy liippopotamus 1 

Cricetus cHcetus subsp . Golden hamster 9 

Dama dama Fallow deer 4 

Dendrolagus inustus Tree kangaroo 1 

Dolichotis magellanica Patagonian cavy 3 

Felis onca Oaguar 2 

Lama paces Alpaca 1 

Leontocebus rosalia Lion-headed or golden marmoset 2 

Macaca mulatta Rhesus monkey 1 

Macaca nemestrina Pig-tailed macaque 1 

Myocastor coypu Coypu or nutria 3 

Oncifelis geoffroyi Geoffroy's cat 1 

Petatirus breviceps Lesser flying phalanger 6 

Procyon lotor Black raccoon 5 

Vulpes fulva . Red fox 2 

BIRDS 

Branta canadensis Canada goose 16 

Ouara albaXO. rubra Hybrid ibis 1 

Limnocorax flavirostra African black rail 4 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius Black-crowned night heron 16 

Pavo cristatus Blue peafowl 12 

REPTILES 

Crotalus adamanteus Florida diamond-backed rattle- 
snake 14 

EXCHANGES 

There were not a great number of specimens received during the 
year through the medium of exchange. Ennio Arrigutti, Buenos 
Aires, Argentina, continued his shipments of desirable South Ameri- 
can animals. The New York Zoological Park sent a purple-crested 
plantain eater. A pair of green Japanese pheasants was received 
from the Miami Rare Bird Farm, Miami, Fla. Several shipments 
of reptiles have again been received from C. W. Kern, Tujunga, Calif. 

PURCHASES 

The more important specimens acquired by purchase were a harpy 
eagle and a pair of South American bush dogs, three naked-throated 



88 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

bell birds, a pair of raccoon dogs, a pair of Chinese badgers and a 
pair of Peruvian viscachas. Also purchased during the year were 
a pair each of vicunas and llamas. This completed our exhibit of 
all the American representatives of the camel family. 

REMOVALS 
DEATHS 

A most serious loss during the year was the number of birds, 
mostly parrots, which died as the result of an epidemic of psittacosis 
in the bird house. A number of birds suspected of having the dis- 
ease were put to death. The entire building was closed, on advice 
of the Department of Health, District of Columbia, for about 3 
months. The parrot room is still closed to the public. It is believed 
that the situation is now well on the way to being cleared. Other 
losses included several chevrotain, and an East African leopard, the 
last of the lot received in 1926 from the Smithsonian-Chrysler expedi- 
tion. A brown hyena which had been in the collection since 1928 
died during the year. As in the past, all specimens of scientific value 
that died during the year were sent to the National Museum. 

SPECIES NEW TO THE HISTORY OF THE COLLECTION 

MAMMALS 

Scientific name Common name 

Cephalophus niger Black duiker. 

Cephaloplius nigrifrons Black-fronted duiker. 

Euxerus erythropus lacustris African ground squirrel. 

Oalerella melanura Dwarf civet. 

Oenetta poensis Dark genet. 

Lagidium viscaccta Peruvian viscacha. 

Meles meles leptorhynchus Chinese badger. 

Ncmdinia binotata African palm civet. 

BIEDS 

Buteo poecilochrous Red-backed buzzard. 

Oallirex porphyreolophus Purple-crested plantain eater. 

Oypohierax angolcnsis Fish-eating vulture. 

Larus dotninicanus Kelp gull. 

Macronectes giganteus Giant fulmar. 

Pygoscelis papua Gentoo penguin, 

BEPTILES 

Kinixys erosa West African back-hinged 

tortoise. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 
Statement of accessions 



89 



How acquired 


Mam- 
mals 


Birds 


Rep- 
tiles 


Amphib- 
ians 


Fishes 


Arach- 
nids 


Total 


Presented 


80 
70 
16 
13 
18 

41 


207 
49 
40 
67 
34 

31 
10 


165 
14 
39 
16 


10 


10 


3 


475 


Bom or hatched 


133 


Received in exchange 


34 

2 






129 


Purchased- 


60 




138 


On deposit - 




52 


Received from Smithsonian-Firestone 
Expedition to Liberia 


23 


16 






110 


Received from Antarctic Expedition 






10 
















Totals 


238 


428 


257 


61 


60 


3 


1,047 





Summary 

Animals on hand July 1, 1^40 2, 550 

Accessions during the year 1,047 



Total animals in collection during year 3, 597 

Removal from collection by death, exchange, and return of animals on 

deposit 1, 217 



In collection June 30, 1941 2,380 

Status of collection 



Class 


Species 


Individ- 
uals 


Class 


Species 


Individ- 
uals 




221 
327 
124 
23 
30 
2 


701 
980 
439 
79 
144 
3 


Insects 


1 
1 
1 


26 


Birds 


Mollusks 


5 


Reptiles 


Crustaceans 


3 




Total 




Fishes 


730 


2 380 













A list of the animals in the collection follows : 

ANIMALS IN THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK, JUNE 30, 1941 

MAMMALS 
MABSUPIALIA 

Didelphidae : 
Didelphis virginiana Opossum 4 

Dasyuridae : 
Sarcophilus ursinus Tasmanian devil 1 

Phalangeridae : 

Petaurus hreviceps Lesser flying phalanger 9 

Trichosurus vulpecula Vulpine opossum 1 

Macropodidae : 

Dendrolagus inustus Tree kangaroo 3 

Dendrolagus inustus finsehi Finsches tree kangaroo 3 

Dendrolagus ursinus X D. inustus Hybrid tree kangaroo 1 

Phascolomyidae : 
Vomhatula ursina Flinders Island wombat 2 



90 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

OHIROPTERA 

Vespertilionldae : 

Eptesicus fuscus Large brown bat 1 

CAENIVORA 

Felidae : 

Acinonyx juMtus Cheeta 2 

Felis chaus Jungle cat 1 

Felis concolor puma Patagonian puma 1 

Felis leo Lion 5 

Felis onca P^" ^ 

[Black jaguar 2 

Felis pardalis Ocelot 3 

Felis pardns M'^"" l^*^P^^<i ^ 

[Black Indian leopard 2 

Felis tigrina Margay 1 

Felis tigris Bengal tiger 2 

Felis tigris longipilis Siberian tiger 1 

Felis tigris sondaicus Sumatran tiger 4 

Lynx baileyi Bailey's lynx 1 

Lynx rufus Bay lynx 3 

Lynx uinta Bobcat 1 

Neofelis nehulosa Clouded leopard 1 

Oncifelis geoffroyi Geoffroy's cat 4 

Profelis temmincki Golden cat 3 

Viverridae : 

Arctictis hinturong Binturong 1 

Civettictis civetta Civet 2 

Oalerella melanura Dwarf civet 1 

Moschothera megaspila Burmese civet 1 

Nandinia binotata African palm civet 1 

Paradoxurus hermaphrodytus Small-toothed palm civet 1 

Hyaenidae : 

Crocuta orocuta germinans East African spotted hyena 1 

Canidae : 

Canis latrans Coyote 7 

Canis latrans X domestica Coyote and dog hybrid 2 

Cants lupus lycaon Timber wolf 2 

Canis lupus nubilus Wolf 4 

Canis rufus Texas red wolf 7 

Chrysocyon jubata Maned wolf 1 

Cuon javanicus sumatrensis Sumatran wild dog 1 

Dusicyon sp South American fox 1 

Dusicyon sp South American fox 5 

Vrocyon cinereoargenteus Gray fox 6 

Vulpes fulva Red fox 12 

Procyonidae : 

Nasua narica Coatimundi 4 

Potos flamis Kinkajou 5 

Raccoon 7 

Procyon lotor Raccoon (albino) 1 

Black raccoon 8 

Bassariscidae : 

Bassariscus astutus Ring-tail or cacomistle 3 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 91 

Mustelidae : 

Arctonyx collaris Hog badger 1 

Atilax pluto Water civet 1 

Charronia flavigula henricii Asiatic marten 1 

Oalictis barbara barbara White tayra 2 

Oalictis sp Brown tayra 1 

Ch'ison allamandi Huron 1 

Orisonella huronax Grison 2 

Gulo luscus Wolverine I 

Lutra canadensis vaga Florida otter 1 

Meles tneles European badger 2 

Mellivora capensis Ratel 1 

Mephitis nigra Skunk 16 

Micraonyx leptonyx Small-clawed otter 1 

Mustela eversmanni Ferret 1 

Mustela noveboracensis Weasel 2 

Mustela vison vison Mink 1 

Ursidae : 

Euarctos americanus American black bear 4 

Euarctos emmonsii Glacier bear 1 

Eelarctos malayanus Malay or sun bear 1 

Thalarctos maritimus Polar bear 2 

Thalarctos maritimus X Ursus midden- 

dorffl, Hybrid bear 5 

Ursus arctos European brown bear 1 

Ursus gyas Alaska Peninsula bear 4 

Ursus middendorffl Kodiak brown bear 3 

Ursus sitkensis Sitka brown bear 3 

Ursus thibetanus Himalayan bear 3 

PINNIPEDIA 

Otariidae : 

Zalophus californianus California sea lion 1 

Phocidae: 

Phoca richardii Pacific harbor seal 3 

PEIMATES 

Lemuridae : 

Nycticebus coucang Slow loris 4 

Perodicticus potto Potto 1 

Callitrichidae : 

CallitJirix jacchus Common marmoset 1 

Leontocebus rosalia Lion-headed or golden marmoset — 2 

Mico argentata Black-tailed marmoset 1 

Oedipomidas oedipus Pinche tamarin 1 

Saimiridae: 

Saimiri sp Nicaraguan titi monkey 2 

Cebidae : 

Actus trivirgatus Douroucouli or owl monkey 8 

Cebus apella Brown capuchin 7 

Cebus capucinus White-throated capuchin 1 

Cebus fatuellus Weeping capuchin 3 

Cebus sp Gray capuchin 1 

Pithecia monacha Saki monkey 1 



92 AKNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Cercopithecidae : 

Cercocebus fuUginosus Sooty mangabey 19 

Cercopithecus aethiopa aethiops Grivet monkey 1 

Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus Green guenon 7 

Cercopithecus diana Diana monkey 1 

Cercopithecus neglectus De Brazza's guenon 1 

Cercopithecus petaurista ^ Lesser white-nosed guenon 1 

Cercopithecus roloway Roloway monkey 1 

Erythrocebus patas Patas monkey 2 

Macaca fuscata Japanese monkey 2 

Macaca lasiotis Chinese macaque 2 

Macaca mordax Javan monkey 9 

Macaca mulatto Rhesus monkey 4 

Macaca nemestrina Pig-tailed macaque 6 

Macaca silenus Wanderoo monkey 1 

Macaca sinica Toque or bonnet monkey 3 

Magus maurus Moor monkey 5 

Mandrilhis leucophaeus Drill 1 

Mandrillus sphinx Mandrill 3 

Papio comatus Ohacma 1 

Papio papio West African baboon 1 

Papio sp West African baboon 1 

Presbytis senex nestor Western purple-faced monkey 2 

Hylobatidae : 

Eylobates agilis Sumatran gibbon 1 

Hylobates lar pileatus Black-capi)ed gibbon 1 

Symphalangus syndactylus Siamang gibbon 1 

Pongidae : 

Pan satyrus Chimpanzee 4 

Pan satyrus verus Western chimpanzee 1 

Pongo abelii Sumatran orangutan 2 

Pongo pygmaeus Bornean orangutan 1 

EODENTIA 

Sciuridae : 

Ammospertnophilus leucurus Antelope squirrel 4 

Citellus mollis Soft-haired ground squirrel 4 

Cynomys ludovicianus Prairie dog 16 

Olaucomys volans Flying squirrel 1 

Marmota monax Woodchuck or ground hog 3 

Bciurus finlaysoni Lesser white squirrel 2 

Sciurus niger Southern fox squirrel 3 

Tamias striatus Eastern chipmunk 3 

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Red squirrel 1 

Heteromyidae : 

Dipodomys deserti Desert kangaroo rat 1 

Dipodomys m^erriami Merriam kangaroo rat 1 

Jaculidae : 

Jaculus jaculus Egyptian jerboa 1 

Castoridae : 

Castor canadensis Beaver 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 93 

CJrlcetldae : 

Cricetus cricetus subsp Golden hamsters 23 

Cricetomys gambianus Gambia pouched rat 6 

Neotoma floridaria attivateri Round-tailed wood rat 1 

Ondatra zibethica Black muskrat 1 

Peromyscus califomicus Long-tailed mouse 1 

Peromyscus leucopus White-footed mouse 6 

Peromysciis leucopus noveboracensis^. Northern white-footed mouse 2 

Peromyscus maniculatus White-footed mouse , 2 

Peromyscus maniculatus osgoodi Black-eared deer mouse 1 

Peromyscus polionotus polionotus Old-field mouse 1 

Muridae : 

Rattus norvegicus (albino) White rat 2 

Hystricidae : 

Acanthion trachyurum Malay porcupine 5 

Atherunis africana West African brush-tailed porcu- 
pine 3 

Hystrix galeata East African porcupine 2 

Ttiecurus sumatrae Brush-tailed porcupine 1 

Erethizontidae : 

Coendou prehensilis Prehensile-tailed porcupine 2 

Erithizon dorsatum Eastern porcupine 1 

Erithizon epiasanthum Western porcupine 1 

Myocastoridae : 

Myocastor coypu Nutria 19 

Capromyidae : 

Capromys pilorides Hutia 1 

Guniculidae : 

Cuniculus paca virgatus Central American paca 1 

Dasyproctidae : 

Dasyprocta croconota prymnolopha Agouti u 2 

Chinchillidae : 

Lagidium viscaccia Peruvian viscacha 2 

Caviidae : 

Cavia porcellus Domestic guinea pig 25 

Cavia porcellus Domestic guinea pig (angora 

breed) . 3 

Dolichotia magellanica Patagonian cavy 5 

Pediolagus salinicola Dwarf cavy 1 

LAGOMOBPHA 

Leporidae : 

Oryctolagus cuniculus Domestic rabbit 7 

AETIODACTYLA 

Bovidae : 

Ammotragus lervia Aoudad 19 

Anoa depressicornis Anoa 2 

Bihos gaurus Gaur 3 

Bison bison f American bison 19 

[Albino bison 1 

Bos indicus Zebu 4 

BubalU'S bubaVs Indian buffalo 1 



94 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Bovidae — Continued. 

Cephalophus niger Duiker 2 

Cephalophus nigrifrons Black-fronted duiker 3 

Connochaetes gnu White-tailed gnu 2 

Hemitragus jemlahicus Tahr 4 

Oryx beisa annectens Ibean beisa oryx 2 

Ovis europaetis Mouflon 2 

Poephagus ^runniens Yak G 

Pseudois nahura Bharal or blue sheep 5 

Synceros caffer African buffalo 2 

Taurotragu^ oryx Eland 3 

Cervidae : 

Axis axis Axis deer 9 

Cervus canadensis Wapiti 3 

Cervus duvaucelii Barasingha deer 2 

Cervus elaphus European red deer 14 

„ , r Brown fallow deer 11 

Dama aama \ -rrrt.-^ ^n ^ -• a 

\ White fallow deer 14 

Muntiacus muntjak Rib-faced or barking deer 1 

Mu/ntiacus sinensis Chinese rib-faced deer 1 

Odocoileus costaricensis Costa Rican deer 1 

OdocoileU'S virginianus Virginia deer 3 

Sika nippon Japanese deer 2 

Tragulidae : 

Tragulus javanicus Javan mouse deer 1 

Giraffidae : 

Oiraffa camelopardalis Nubian giraffe 4 

Oiraffa reticulata Reticulated giraffe 2 

Camelidae : 

Camelus hactrianus Bactrian camel 3 

Lama glwma Llama 2 

Lama huanacus Guanaco 2 

Lama paeos Alpaca 2 

Vicugna vicugna Vicuna 2 

Tayassuidae : 

Pecari angulatus Collared peccary 3 

Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary 1 

Suidae : 

Bdbirussa elfurus Babirussa 3 

Phacoclioerus aethiopicus massaicus- East African wart hog 1 

Sus scrofa European wild boar 1 

Hippopotamidae : 

Choeropsis liberieiisis Pigmy hippopotamus 5 

Hippopotanvus amphiMus Hippopotamus 2 

PEJUS SODACTTLA. 

Equidae: 

Equnis grevyi Grevy's zebra 1 

Equus grevyirasinus Zebra-ass hybrid 1 

Equus grevyi-cahallus Zebra-horse hybrid 1 

Equus Mang Asiatic wild ass or kiang 2 

Equus prsewalskii Mongolian wild horse 3 

Equus quagga chapmani Chapman's zebra 7 

Equus zebra -^ Mountain zebra 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 95 

Tapiridae : 

Acrocodia indica Asiatic tapir 2 

Tapirella bairdii Central American tapir 1 

Tapirus terrestris Soutli American tapir 2 

Ktiinocerotidae : 

Diceros Vicornis Blacls rhinoceros 1 

Rhinoceros unicornis Great Indian one-horned rhinoceros. 1 

PBOBOSCIDEA 

Elepliantidae : 

Elephas sumatranus Sumatran elephant 1 

Loxodonta africana oxyotis African elephant 1 

EDENTATA 

Choloepodidae : 
Choloepus didactylus Two-toed sloth 1 

Dasypodidae : 

Chaetophractus villosus Hairy armadillo 1 

Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-banded armadillo 1 

BIRDS 
STEUTHI0NIF0EME8 

Struthionidae : 
Struthio camelus South African ostrich 1 



BHEIFOBMKS 

Rheidae : 

„, „ . I Common rhea or nandu 3 

Rhea, ameitcana 1 ,„, . , 

White rhea 3 

CASUAEHFOBMES 

Casuariidae : 

Casuarius bennetti Bennett's cassowary 1 

Casuarius sp cassowary 1 

Casttarius unappendiculatus Single-wattled cassowary 3 

Dromiceiidae : 

Dromiceius novaehollandiae Common emu 2 

SPHENISCIFOEMES 

Spheniscidae : 

Aptenodytes forsteri Emperor penguin 3 

Pygoscelis papua Gentoo penguin 3 

Spheniscus demersU'S Jackass penguin 4 

TINAMIFOBMES 

Tinamidae : 

Calopezus elegans Crested tinamou 2 

Nothura maculosa Spotted tinamou 1 

PEXECANirOEMES 

Pelecanidae : 

Pelecanus californicus California brown pelican 2 

Pelecanus canspicUlatus Australian pelican 5 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos American white pelican 5 



96 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Pelecanidae — Continued. 
Pelecanus erythrorhynchosxP- occi- American white and brown pelican 

dentalis (hybrid) 1 

Pelecanus occidentalis Brown pelican 2 

Pelecanus onocrotalus European pelican 2 

Pelecanus roseus Rose-colored pelican 2 

Sulidae : 
Morus bassanus Gannet 1 

Phalacrocracidae : 

Phalacrooorax auritus albociliatus Farallon cormorant 1 

Plialacrocorax auritus floridanus Florida cormorant 1 

Anhingidae : 
Anhinga anhinga Anhinga 1 

Fregatidae : 

Fregata ariel Lesser frigate bird 2 

CICONIIFOEMES 

Ardeidae : 

Ardea herodias Great blue heron 1 

Ardea occidentalis Great white heron 1 

Notoplwyx novaehollandiae White-faced heron 1 

Nyoticorax nycticorax naevius Black-crowned night heron 20 

Ckjchleariidae : 

Cochleariiis cochlearius Boatbill heron 3 

Ciconiidae : 

Dissoura episcopus Woolly-necked stork 1 

Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis Saddle-biUed stork 1 

Ibis cvnereUrS Malay stork 2 

Leptoptilus crumemferus Marabou 1 

Leptoptilus dubius Indian adjutant 1 

Leptoptilus jaivanicus Lesser adjutant 2 

Mycteria americana Wood ibis 1 

Threskiornithidae : 

Ajaia ajaja Roseate spoonbill 1 

Chiara alba White ibis 2 

Ouara albaxO. rubra Hybrid ibis (scarlet and white) 1 

Ouara rubra Scarlet ibis . 2 

Threskiornis aethiopica Sacred ibis 2 

Threskiornis melanocephala Black-headed ibis 4 

Threskiornis spinicolUs Straw-necked ibis 2 

Phoenicopteridae : 

Phoenicopterus chilensts Chilean flamingo 2 

PEOCEtlAEirFOEMES 

Procellaridae : 
Macronectes giganteus Giant fulmar 1 

ANSEEIFOBMES 

Anhimidae : 

Chauna cristata Crested screamer 9 

Anatld^e : 

Aix spoTua Wood duck 9 



i 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 97 

Ajiatidae — Continued. 

Alopochen aegyptiacus Egyptian goose 1 

ATMS brasiliensis Brazilian teal 2 

Anas domestica Pekin duck 27 

Anas platyrhynchos Mallard duck ^ — 28 

Anas ruhripes Black or dusty mallard 1 

Anser alMfrons American white-fronted goose 3 

Anser cinereus domestica Toulouse goose 1 

Anserinas semipalmata Australian pied goose 2 

Branta hemicla Brant 1 

Branta canadensis Canada goose 20 

Branta canadensis minima Cackling goose 10 

Branta canadensis occidentalis White-cheeked goose 15 

Cairina moschata Muscovy duck 8 

Casarca variegata Paradise duck 1 

Cereopsis novaehollandiae Cereopsis or Cape Barren goose 1 

Chen atlantica Snow goose 7 

Chen caerulescens Blue goose 8 

Chenopis atrata Black swan 4 

Chloephaga leucoptera Magellan goose 1 

Chloephaga poliocephala Ashy-headed upland goose 2 

Coscoroba coscoroba Coscoroba 2 

Cygnopsis cygnoides Chinese goose 3 

Cygnus columbianus Whistling swan 5 

Cygnus melancoriphus Black-necked swan 2 

Cygnus olor Mute swan 2 

Daiila acuta Pintail 8 

Dafila spinicauda Chilean pintail 1 

Dendrocygna arborea Black-billed tree duck 3 

Dendrocygna autum-nalis Black-bellied tree duck 2 

Dendrocygna viduata White-faced tree duck 4 

Mareca americana Baldpate 1 

Marila affinis Lesser scaup 2 

Marila collaris Ring-necked duck 1 

Nettion carolinense Green-winged teal 1 

Nyroca sp Hybrid duck 1 

Nyroca valisineria Canvasback duck 2 

Plectropterus gambensis Spur-winged goose 2 

Querquedula discors Blue-winged teal 13 

FAXCX)NIFOEMES 

Cathartidae : 

Aegypius monachus Cinereous vulture 1 

Cathartes aura Turkey vulture 3 

Cathartes auraxCoragyps atratus Black vulture and turkey vulture 

hybrid 1 

Coragyps atratus Black vulture 1 

Ch/mnogyps califomianus California condor 2 

Chfpohierax angolensis Fish-eating vulture 1 

Oyps rucppelli Ruppell's vulture 1 

Kaupifalco monogrammdcus Northern lizard-buzzard 1 

Sarcoramphus papa King vulture 1 

Torgos tracheliotus African eared vulture 1 

Vultur gryphus South American condor 3 



98 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Sagittariidae : 

Sagittarius serpentarius Secretary bird 2 

Accipitridae : 

Accipiter tachiro maoroscelides West African goshawk 1 

Buteo iorealis Red-tailed hawk 8 

Buteo Uneatus Red-shouldered hawk 2 

Buteo melanoleucus South American buzzard eagle 2 

Buteo poecilochrous Red-backed buzzard 3 

Buteo swainsoni Swainson's hawk 1 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald eagle 12 

Haliastur indus Brahminy kite 3 

Harpia harpya Harpy eagle 2 

Hypomorphnus urubitinga Brazilian eagle 1 

Milvago chimango Chimango 3 

Milvus migrans parasitus Yellow-billed kite 3 

Pandion haliaetus ca/rolinensis Osprey or fish hawk 1 

Parabuteo unicinctus One-banded hawk 1 

Stephanoaetus coronatus Crowned liawk-eagle 3 

Uroaetus audax Wedge-tailed eagle 1 

Falconidae : 

Cerchneis sparverius Sparrow hawk 1 

Cerchneis sparverius cinnamomimis-- Chilean sparrow hawk 2 

Daptrius americanus Caraucho 3 

Polyhorus cheriway Audubon's caracara 2 

Polyborus plancus South American caracara 1 

GAUJrOEMES 

Cracidae : 

Crax fasciolata Crested curassow 3 

Crax rubra Panama curassow 1 

Crax sclateri Sclater's curassow 2 

Mitu mitu Razor-billed curassow 3 

Penelope sp Guan 2 

Phasianidae : 

Alectoris graeca Chukar partridge 1 

Argu^ianus argus Argus pheasant 2 

Chrysolophus amherstiae Lady Amherst's pheasant 1 

Chrysolophus pictus Golden pheasant 7 

Colinus virginianus Bobwhite 1 

Cotumix coturnix Migratory quail 5 

Excalfactoria ohinensis Blue-breasted button quail 4 

Oallus gallus Jungle fowl 2 

Oallus lafayetti Ceylonese jungle fowl 1 

Oallus sp Bantam fowl 2 

Oallus sp Araucanian fowl 4 

Oallus sp.xNumida galeata Chicken and guinea fowl hybrid 2 

Oennaeus Uneatus Lineated pheasant 1 

Oennaeus nyothemerus Silver pheasant 2 

Eierophasis swinlioii Swinhoe's pheasant 1 

Lophophorus impeyanus Himalayan impeyan pheasant 1 

Lophortyx californica vallicola Valley quail 2 

Lophura rubra Malayan fire-back pheasant 1 

Pavo oristatus Peafowl 13 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 99 

Phasianidae — Continued. 

Pavo muticus Green i)eafowl 1 

fRing-necked pheasant 1 

Phasianus torqmtus j^j^.^^ ring.necked pheasant 2 

Phasicmus torquatus formosanus Formosan ring-necked pheasant 1 

Phasianus torquatus (var.) Melanistic mutant ring-necked 

pheasant 3 

Phasianus versicolor Green Japanese pheasant 4 

Polyplectron napoleonis Palawan peacock pheasant 1 

Syrmaticus reevesi Reeves' pheasant 1 

Numididae : 

Acryllium vulturinum Vulturine guinea fowl 1 

Numida sp Guinea fowl 4 

GBUIFOBMES 

Gruidae : 

Anthropoides paradisea Paradise crane 2 

Anthropoides virgo Demoiselle crane 7 

Balearica pavonina West African crowned crane 3 

Balearica regulorum gibiericeps East African crowned crane 1 

Fulica americana American coot 10 

Grus canadensis canadensis Little brown crane 1 

Orus leucauchen White-naped crane 1 

Orus leucogeranus Siberian crane 2 

Rallidae : 

Oallvnula chloropus cachinnans Florida gallinule 4 

Oallinula chloropus orienialis Sumatran gallinule 2 

Ldmnocorax flavirostra African black rail 10 

Porphyrio poliocephalus Gray-headed porphyrio 2 

Eurypygidae : 

Eurypyga helias Sun bittern 1 

Cariamidae : 

Cariama cristata Cariama or seriama 2 

CHABADRIIFORMES 

Haematopodidae : 

Haematopus ostralegus European oyster catcher 2 

Charadriidae : 

Belonopterus chilensis Chilean lapwing 2 

Scolopacidae : 

Philomachus pugnax Ruff 1 

Laridae : 

Larus argentatus Herring gull 1 

Larus delawarensis Ring-billed gull 1 

Larus dominicanus Kelp gull 2 

Larus glaucescens Glaucous-winged gull 1 

Larus novaehollandiae Silver gull 16 

COLtlMBIFOBMES 

Columbidae : 

Columbia guinea Triangular-spotted pigeon 1 

Columba livia (domestic) Archangel pigeon 1 

Columba livia (domestic) Fan-tailed pigeon 1 

Columba maculosa Spot-winged pigeon 1 

430577—42 8 



100 ANlSrUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Columbidae — Continued. 

Columba palumius Wood pigeon 1 

Dxicnia aenea Green imperial pigeon 1 

Ooura O'istata Sclater's crowned pigeon 1 

Ooura victoria , Victoria crowned pigeon 1 

Lamprotreron janibu Pinli-headed fruit pigeon 1 

Leptotila rufaxilla Scaled pigeon 1 

Muscadivores paulina Celebian imperial pigeon 1 

Streptopelia chvnensis Asiatic collared dove 3 

Streptopelia chinensis ceylonensis Lace-necked or ash dove 6 

Streptopelia semitorquata African red-eyed dove 1 

Turtw risorius Turtledove 7 

Tympanistria tympanistria fraseri Tambourine pigeon 2 

Zenaida auriculata South American mourning dove 11 

Zenaidura macroura Mourning dove 3 

PSITTACIFOHMES 

Psittacidae : 

Agapornis puUaria Red-faced lovebird 12 

Ara ararauna Yellow and blue macaw 3 

Ara chloroptera Red and blue macaw 1 

Ara macao Red, blue, and yellow macaw 2 

Ara manilata Illiger's macaw 1 

Ara militaria Mexican green macaw 1 

Ara severa Severe macaw 1 

Aratinga euops Cuban conure 1 

Calyptorhynchus magnificus Banksian cockatoo 1 

Coracopsis nigra Lesser vasa parrot 1 

Cyanopsittacus spixi Spix's macaw 2 

Domicella flavopalliata Red lory 3 

Eolectus pectoralis Eclectus parrot 2 

Eolophus roseicapillus Roseate cockatoo 2 

Eupsittula canicularis Petz paroquet 1 

Kakatoe alba White cockatoo 2 

Kakatoe galerita Large sulphur-crested cockatoo 3 

Kakatoe leadheateri Leadbeater's cockatoo 1 

Kakatoe tnoluccensis Great red-crested cockatoo 1 

Kakatoe sulphurea Lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo 5 

Kakatoe tenuirostris Slender-billed cockatoo 1 

Lorius domicella Rajah lory 2 

Loritis garrulus Lory 2 

Melopsittacus undulatus Grass parakeet 6 

Microglossus aterrimus Great black cockatoo 1 

Myopsitta monacUus Quaker paroquet 1 

Nandayus nanday Nanday paroquet 1 

Nestor notabilis Kea 2 

Nymphicas hoUandicus Cockatiel 1 

Pionites xanthomera Amazonian caique 2 

Psittacula eupatria Red-shouldered paroquet 4 

Psittacula krameri Kramer's paroquet 4 

Psittacula longicauda Long-tailed paroquet 2 

Psittacus erithacus African gray parrot 2 

TanygnatJius muelleri Mueller parrot 1 

Trichoglossus cyanogrammus Green-naped lory 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 101 

CUCUIJFOBMES 

Cuculidae : 

Centropus sinensis Sumatran coucal 1 

Eudynamis scolopaceus Koel 1 

OalUrex porphyreolopJius Purple-crested plantain eater 1 

STEIGIFOBMES 

Tytonidae : 

Tyto alba pratincola American barn owl 2 

Strigidae : 

Bubo virginianus Great horned owl 11 

Ketupa ketupu Malay fish owl 1 

Otus asio Screech owl 2 

Strix varia varia Barred owl 6 

CAPBIMULQIFOBMES 

Podargidae : 

Podargus strigoides Tawny frogmouth 1 

COKACIIFOBMES 

Alcedinidae : 

Dacelo gigas Kooka burra 2 

Halcyon pyrrhopygius Red-backed kingfisher 1 

Halcyon sanctus Sacred kingfisher 3 

Momotidae : 

Momotus lessoni Motmot 1 

Bucerotidae : 

Buceros rhinoceros Rhinoceros hornbill 1 

Bucorvus abyssinicus Abyssinian ground hornbill 2 

Ceratogymna elata Yellow-casqued hornbill 1 

Dichoceros hicornis Concave casque hornbill 1 

PICIFOEMES 

Ramphastidae : 

Ramphastos carinatus Sulphur-breasted toucan 3 

Ramphastos piscivorus Toco toucan 3 

PASSEBirOEMES 

Cotingidae : 

Procnias nudicollis Naked-throated bell bird 1 

Rupicola rupicola Cock of the rock 1 

Corvidae : 

Calocitta Formosa Mexican magpie jay 1 

Cissa chinensis Chinese cissa 2 

Corvus albus White-breasted crow 2 

Corvus brachyrhynchos American crow 2 

Corvus cornix Hooded crow 2 

Corvus coronoides Australian crow 1 

Corvus cryptoleucus White-necked raven 4 

Corvus insolens Indian crow 3 

Cyanocitta crlstata Blue jay 2 

Cyanocorax chrysops Urraca jay 2 

Cyanocorax cyanopogon White-naped jay 1 

Cyanocorax mystacalis Moustached jay 1 



102 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Corvidae — Continued. 

Oymnorhina hypoleuca White-backed piping crow 3 

Pica nuttallii Yellow-billed magpie 1 

Pica pica hudsonia American magpie 1 

Vrocissa occipitalis Red-billed blue magpie 1 

Paradiseldae : 

Ailuroedus orassirostris Australian catbii'd 1 

Epimachus fastuosus Sickle-billed bird of paradise 1 

Ptilonorhynchus violaceus Satin bowerbird 1 

Seleucides niger 12-wired bird of paradise 1 

Uranornis rubra Red, bird of paradise 1 

Pycnonotidae : 

Otocompsa jocosus Red-eared bulbul 1 

Pycnonotus analis Yellow-vented bulbul 2 

Pycnonotus iindentatus Orange-spotted bulbul 2 

RuMgula dispar Red-throated bulbul 1 

Trachycorrms zeylonicus Yellow-crowned bulbul 1 

Turdidae : 

Mesia argentauris Silver-eared mesia 1 

Mimocichla ruhripes Western red-legged thrush 3 

Turdus grayi Bonaparte's thrush 1 

Turdus rufiventris Argentine robin 3 

Laniidae : 

Lanius dorsalis Teita fiscal shrike 1 

Sturnidae : 

Cosmopsaris regius Splendid starling 2 

Creatophora cinerea Wattled starling 1 

Galeopsar salvadorii Crested starling 1 

Oracula religiosa Southern hill mynah 1 

Molothrus bonariensis Shiny cowbird 1 

Trupialis defilippi Military starling 11 

Ploceidae : 

CoUuspasser ardens Red-necked whydah 1 

Diatropura procne Giant whydah 4 

Munia maja White-headed munia 12 

Munia molucca Black-throated munia 11 

Munia oryzivora Java sparrow 25 

White Java sparrow 1 

Mmiia punctulatus Rice bird or nutmeg finch 5 

Ploceus baya Baya weaver 5 

Ploceus intermedius Black-cheeked weaver 2 

Ploceus rubiginosus Chestnut-breasted weaver 2 

Poephila acuticauda Long-tailed finch 1 

Quelea sanguinirostris intermedia Southern masked weaver finch 8 

Stegamira paradisea Paradise whydah 6 

Taeniopygia castanotis Zebra finch 2 

Icteridae : 

Agelaius assimilis Cuban red-winged blackbird 3 

Oymnomysta^ mexicanus Giant oriole 2 

Icterus icterus Troupial 4 

Notiopsar curaeus Chilean blackbird 8 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow-headed blackbird 3 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 103 

Fringillidae : 

Amcmdava amandava Strawberry finch 27 

Coryphospingus cuculJatus Red-crested finch 2 

Cyanocompsa argentina Argentine blue grosbeak 2 

Diuca diuca Diuca finch 2 

Loplwspingus pusillus Black-crested finch 4 

Melopyrrha nigra Cuban bullfinch 1 

Paroaria aucullata Brazilian cardinal 5 

Passerina ciris Painted bunting 1 

Pheucticus tibialis Yellow grosbeak 1 

Phrygilus fruticeti Mourning finch 16 

Phrygilus gayi Gay's gray-headed finch 7 

Serinus canarius Canary 1 

Sicalis flaveola Mysto finch 1 

Sicalis minor Lesser yellow finch 6 

Spinus psaltria Arkansas goldfinch 1 

Spinus uropygiaUs Chilean siskin 3 

Sporophila aurita Hick's seed-eater 2 

Sporophila gutturalis Yellow-bellied seed-eater 2 

Tiaris olivacea Mexican grassquit 1 

Uroloncha levcogastroides Society finch 1 

Volatinia jacarini Blue-black grassquit 1 

Zonotrichia capensis Chingolo 3 

REPTIIiES 

Crocodylidae : loeicata 

Alligator niississipiensis Alligator 38 

Alligator sinensis Chinese alligator 3 

Caiman latirostris Broad-snouted caiman 1 

Caiman sclerops Spectacled caiman 3 

Crocodylus acutus American crocodile 1 

Crocodylus cataphractus Narrow-nosed crocodile 1 

Crocodylus niloticus African crocodile 1 

Crocodylus palustris "Toad" crocodile 2 

Crocodylus porosus Salt-water crocodile 1 

Osteolaemus tetraspis Broad-nosed crocodile 2 

Agamidae : squamata 

Physignathus lesueurii Lesueur's water dragon 1 

Gekkonidae : 

O^ecko gecko Gecko 4 

Iguanidae : 

Anolis carolinensis False chameleon 25 

Anolis equestris Giant anolis 1 

Iguana iguana Iguana 1 

Phrynosoma comutum Horned lizard 25 

Saiiromalus obesus Chuckwalla 2 

Sceloporu^ undulatus Fence lizard 1 

Anguidae : 

Ophisaurus apus European glass snake 1 

Ophisaurus ventralis Glass snake 3 

Helodermatidae : 

Heloderma horridum Mexican beaded lizard 2 

Heloderma suspectum Gila monster 6 



104 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Teiidae : 

Tupinambis nigropunctatns Tegu lizard 3 

Tupinamhis rufescens Red tegu lizard 2 

Tupinainbis teguixin Yellow tegu lizard 3 

Scincidae : 

Egernia cumiinghami Cunningham's skink 3 

TiUqua nigrolutea Mottled lizard 2 

Tiliqua scincoidcs Blue-tongued lizard 2 

Varanidae : 

Varanus komodoemis Komodo dragon 1 

Varanus niloticus African monitor 7 

Varanus salvator Sumatran monitor 10 

OPHIDIA 

Boidae : 

Boa cooTcii Cook's tree boa 1 

Constrictor constrictor Boa constrictor 2 

Epicrates cenchris Rainbow boa 7 

Epicrates crassus Salamanta 1 

Epicrates striatus Haitian boa 2 

Python molurus Indian rock python 3 

Python regius Ball python 1 

Python reticiilatus Regal python 2 

Python sebae African rock python 2 

Tropidophis melanurus Cuban boa 1 

Colubridae : 

Acrochordus javaniciis Elephant-trunk snake 1 

Coluber constrictor Black snake 2 

Cyclagras gigas Cobra-de-Paraguay 6 

Diadophis punctatus Ring-necked snake _ 1 

Dromicus dorsalis James Island snake 1 

Dromicus sp South Seymour Island snake 1 

Drymarchon corais couperi Indigo snake 5 

Elaphe guttata /^o'^^ ^^^^^ ^ 

[Night snake 1 

Elaphe obsoleta jP^^^t snake__ 6 

[White pilot snake 1 

Elphe quadrivittata Chicken snake 3 

Heterodon contortrix Hog-nosed snake 1 

Lampropeltis getulus floridana Florida king snake 2 

Lampropeltis getulus getulus King or chain snake 1 

Lampropeltis triangulum Milk snake 1 

Leimadophis poecilogyrus South American green snake 1 

Liophis miliaris South American brown snake 1 

Liopeltis vernalis Smooth green snake 1 

Natrix cyclopion Water snake 2 

Natrix sp Water snake 3 

Pituophis catenifer Western bull snake 1 

Thamnophis ordinoides California garter snake 1 

Thamnophis sirtaUs concinnus Pacifiq garter snake 1 

Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis Garter snake 15 

Elapidae : 

Naja hannah King cobra 1 

Naja tripudians sumatrana Sumatran black-hooded cobra 1 

Naja sp African black cobra 2 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 105 

Crotalidae : 

Agkistrodon mokasen Copperhead snake 2 

Affkistrodon piscivorus Water moccasin 1 

Crotalus adamanteus Florida diamond-backed rattle- 
snake 4 

Crotalus cerastes Sidewinder rattlesnake 7 

Crotaltts cinereous Texas rattlesnake 6 

Crotalus horridus Banded rattlesnake 2 

Sistf^rus miliarius Pigmy rattlesnake 1 

Viperidae : 

Bitis galonica Gaboon viper 2 

Bitis nasicornis Rhinoceros viper 1 

TESTUDINATA 

Chelydidae : 

Batrachemys nasuta South American side-necked turtle— 3 

Chelodina longicollis Australian snake-necked turtle 2 

Clielys fimbriata Matamata turtle 1 

Hydrapis sp South American snake-necked turtle- 4 

Eydromedusa tectifera South American snake-necked turtle- 16 

Platysternidae : 

Platemys platycephala Flat-headed turtle 1 

Platystemum megacephalum Large-headed Chinese turtle 1 

Pelomedusidae : 

Pelomedusa galeata Common African water tortoise 2 

Podocnemis expansa South American river tortoise 1 

Kinostemidae : 

Einosternon sp Central American musk turtle 1 

Kinostemon sul)ruJ}rum Musk turtle 2 

Chelydridae : 

Chelydra serpentina Snapping turtle 8 

Macrochelys temminckii Alligator snapping turtle 1 

Testudinidae : 

Chrysemys picta Painted turtle 13 

Clemmys guttata Spotted turtle 6 

Clemmys insoulpta Wood tortoise 3 

Clemmys muhlenbergii Muhlenberg's tortoise 1 

Cyclemys amboinensis Kura kura box turtle 6 

Deirochelys reticularia Chicken tortoise 1 

Emys blandingii Blanding's turtle 1 

Gopherus polyphemus Gopher turtle 1 

Oraptemys geographica Geographic turtle 1 

Kinixys erosa West African back-hinged tortoise 4 

Malaclemmys centrata Diamond-back terrapin 9 

Pseudemys concinna Cooter 4 

Pseudemys decussata Haitian terrapin 1 

Pseudemys d'orbignyi D'Orbigny's turtle 3 

Pseudemys elegans Cumberland terrapin 8 

Pseudemys fioridana Florida terrapin 2 

Pseudemys malonei Fresh-water turtle 2 

Pseudemys omata Ornate turtle 2 

Pseudemys rubriventris Red-bellied turtle 1 

Pseudemys rugosus Cuban terrapin 1 

Terrapene Carolina Box tortoise 15 



106 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Testudinidae — Continued. 

Terrapene ornata Ornate box turtle 5 

Testudo chilensis 9 

Testudo denticulata 2 

Testudo elegans Star tortoise 2 

Testudo emys Sumatran land tortoise 1 

Testudo ephippium Duncan Island tortoise 3 

Testudo hoodensis Hood Island tortoise 3 

Testudo tornieri Soft-shelled land tortoise 4 

Testudo vicina Albemarle Island tortoise 3 

Trionychidae : 

Amyda ferox Soft-shelled turtle 6 

Atnyda triunguis West African soft-shelled turtle 2 

Trionyx cartilagineus Asiatic soft-shelled turtle 1 

AMPHIBIA 

CAUDATA 

Salamandridae : 

Triturus pyrrhogaster Red-bellied Japanese newt 1 

Triturus torosus California newt 12 

Triturus viridescens Common newt 2 

Triturus vulgaris Salamander 2 

Ambystomidae : 

Ambystoma maculatum Spotted salamander 2 

Megalobatrachus japonicus Giant salamander 1 

Amphiumidae : 

Amphiuma means Blind eel or Congo snake 2 

Amphiuma tridactylum Blind eel or Congo snake 1 

SAXIENTIA 

Discoglossidae : 

Bombina bombina Fire-bellied toad 6 

Dendrobatidae : 

Atelopus sp Spotted atelopus 1 

Dendrobates auratus Arrow-poison frog 3 

Bufonidae : 

Bufo americanus Common American toad 1 

Bufo empusus Sapode concha 12 

Bufo marinus Marine toad 10 

Bufo peltocephalus Cuban giant toad 5 

Ceratophrydae : 

Ceratophrys omata Horned frog 2 

Ceratophrys varius Horned frog 6 

Hylidae : 

Hyla caerulea Australian tree frog 1 

Hyla versicolor Common tree frog 1 

Pipidae : 

Pipa americana Surinam toad 1 

Ranidae : 

Rana catesbiana American bullfrog 3 

Rana elamitans Green frog 3 

Rana occipitalis West African bullfrog 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 107 

FISHES 

Astronotus ocellatus 3 

Botia macracanthus Clown loach 2 

Carnegiella strigata Striped hatchet fish 4 

Corydoras melcmistius Armored catfish 5 

Epalzeorhynchus talopterus Black shark 4 

Hemigrammus unilineatus 1 

Hyphessobrycon innesi Neon tetra fish 16 

Kryptopterus bicirrhus Glass catfish 4 

Lebistes reticulatus Guppy 25 

Lepidosiren paradoxa South American lungflsh 3 

Leporinus fasciata Leopard fish 1 

Monocirrhus polyaoanthus Leaf fish 1 

Nannostomus anomalus 4 

Nannostomus marginatus 2 

Nannostomus trilineattts 2 

Nannostomus sp 2 

Pantodon buchliolzi Butterfly fish 2 

Platypoecilus maculatus Goldplatles 10 

Plecostonvus sp Window cleaner 4 

Pristella riddlei 3 

Pterophyllum, scalare Angel fish 4 

PuntiMs laterstrigga 1 

Puntius partipentazona Red-finned barb 3 

Rasbora heteramorpha Rasbora 8 

Serrasalmus ternetzi Piranha or cannibal fish 1 

Tanichthys albonubes White Cloud Mountain fish 20 

Tilapia sp Mouth-breeding fish 3 

Trichogaster leeri ^ 3-spot gourami 3 

Xiphophorus helleri Sword-tail 1 

Black knife fish 2 

ARACHNIDS 

Ewrypelma sp Tarantula 2 

Latrodectus mactans Black widow spider 1 

INSECTS 

Blabera sp Giant cockroach 26 

MOLLUSKS 

Achatina variegata Giant land snail 5 

CRUSTACEANS 

Coenobita clypeatus Land hermit crab 3 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. M. Mann, Director. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 8 
REPOKT ON THE ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the Astrophysical Observatory for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1941: 

WORK AT WASHINGTON 

Messrs. Aldrich and Hoover, with assistance of computers Mrs. A. M. 
Bond, Miss L. Simpson, and Miss N. M. McCandlish, prepared in 
manuscript the immense table of daily solar-constant observations 
from 1923 to 1939. The table contains all individual observations 
in detail for the three stations, Montezuma, Table Mountain, and 
Mount St. Katherine. A single day sometimes involves in itself alone 
a subtable of 10 lines, 10 columns wide. Every solar-constant deter- 
mination was scrutinized in detail from the original records before 
entry into the great table, and in very many instances recomputed to 
check discordant results. Mean values giving the most probable result 
of each day at each station were computed, and all were plotted on an 
extended scale. This plot made up a roll about 15 inches wide and 
200 feet long. 

In this form every day's values were scrutinized by C. G. Abbot, and 
discordances noted. As one result of his work in preparation of a 
paper entitled "An Important Weather Element Hitherto Generally 
Disregarded," ^ Dr. Abbot had been strongly impressed by the fact 
that the solar variation is several times greater in percentage for blue- 
violet rays than for total radiation. This led him to investigate 
whether on discordant days the shorter wave length parts of the 
energy spectrum of the sun, as computed for outside our atmosphere, 
were also discordant. It proved that in many cases they were not, 
showing that errors had been made in other than the spectral parts of 
the determinations. Hence, the entire great table was gone through, 
and for all discordant days the blue- violet extra- atmospheric spectrum 
was reduced to comparable units by bringing all days to equality in 
the infrared region, where solar variation is nearly nil. Nearly a i 
hundred pages of newly computed manuscript tables were required 
to set forth this information. 

With this new information available. Dr. Abbot in many cases 
marked "improved preferred" daily values on the great chart for one 



» Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 101, No. 1, 1941. 
108 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 109 

or more of the stations, as dictated by the blue-violet spectrum. He 
then took the general mean for each day, not only of the untreated 
results, taking into account only the grades assigned by Messrs. Aid- 
rich and Hoover for the separate stations, but also an "improved pre- 
ferred" mean for perhaps one-fourth of all the days. These new 
means were the results preferred after considering the blue-violet spec- 
trum. Both of these daily means were entered in the great table, so 
that when it is published, readers may use either the preferred general 
mean or the "improved preferred" general mean, as they please. 

As the great table was thus being finished in manuscript, it was being 
typewritten by Miss M. A. Neill in preparation for the printer. By 
the end of the fiscal year it was almost finished for publication. In 
the meantime the rest of the manuscript for volume 6 of the Amials 
had been finished as far as possible by Dr. Abbot and typed by Miss 
Neill. But some changes and additions will be made after the inspec- 
tion of the great table is completed. There appears every reason to 
hope that the entire manuscript of volume 6, including the great table 
and its subsidiaries, tables of 10-day and monthly means, will be in 
the printer's hands before New Year's Day. 

The study of the great table led Dr. Abbot to reconsider whether 
the sun's variation might not be more effectively followed by observa- 
tions limited to the blue-violet region of spectriun. He was at length 
able to devise a method which appears promising, and which has been 
introduced just at the end of the fiscal year at all three field stations. 
In brief, the method contemplates inserting in front of the spectro- 
bolometer slit a glass filter which restricts the radiation to the desired 
blue-violet region. An exactly similar glass filter is inserted before 
the aperture of the pyrheliometer. Knowing from the usual solar- 
constant work of the day the atmospheric transmission coeflScients for 
blue-violet rays, it is possible to compute the extra-atmospheric energy 
spectrum of the restricted blue-violet spectrum given by the screened 
spectrobolometer. A comparison of the blue-violet energy spectra at 
the station and as computed for outside the atmosphere gives a factor 
to multiply the screened pyrheliometer reading to what it would be 
outside the atmosphere. 

In this way we restrict the observations to the most variable part 
of the observed solar spectrum, and avoid those spectral regions where 
ozone, water vapor, and extreme short and long wave lengths introduce 
great errors. We greatly hope that this new method will yield more 
reliable daily indications of the solar variation. 

The necessary instrumental changes for introducing the new method 
were done by A. Kramer. He has also prepared special apparatus 
for solar distillation of sea water after Dr. Abbot's design, and many 
other required small jobs for the Observatory. 



110 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Dr. H. Arctowski continued his meteorological investigations re- 
lating to the effects of solar variation on atmospheric barometric 
pressure and temperature. His studies led to researches on the 
upper air. By courtesy of the Chief of the United States Weather 
Bureau a long series of daily nocturnal radio-meteorograph records 
were procured. Dr. Arctowski did very extensive computations and 
graphical representations with these data. At the end of about 18 
months of strenuous investigation he prepared a paper illustrated by 
many plots and much tabular matter which will be found of source 
value hereafter. This paper will soon issue under a Roebling grant. 
Dr. Arctowski finds the important influence of solar variation on 
weather plainly obvious, but the manner of its operation extremely 
complex. He regards this first paper as merely introductory, and 
sees a great field for future investigation. 

FIELD STATIONS 

As far as possible daily determinations of the solar constant of 
radiation were made at three field stations, Montezuma, Chile, 
Table Mountain, Calif., and Tyrone, N. Mex. A commodious rein- 
forced concrete dwelling house was erected at Montezuma under 
H. B. Freeman's direction. 

PERSONNEL 

L. A. Fillmen, for many years instrument maker in the Division 
of Kadiation and Organisms under private support at the Smith- 
sonian Institution, was transferred to the Astrophysical Observatory 
Government roll. 

SUMMARY 

The immense task of preparing the solar-constant work of the 
past 20 years for final publication was practically finished. A new 
method of following solar variation was devised and installed at 
all field stations. An extensive research on the effects of solar vari- 
ation by Dr. H. Arctowski approached publication. Dr. Abbot pub- 
lished a paper entitled "An Important Weather Element Hitherto 
Generally Disregarded," in which many proofs of solar variation 
were assembled, and the effects of it on weather were shown, to- 
gether with preliminary attempts at 3- to 5-year weather forecasts 
and verifications. These ambitious forecasts, while not as success- 
ful as was hoped, are promising. 

Kespectfully submitted. 

C. G. Abbot, Director. 

The Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 9 

REPORT ON THE DIVISION OF RADIATION AND 
ORGANISMS 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the 
activities of the Division of Radiation and Organisms during the 
year ended June 30, 1941 : 

The operations of the Division have been financially supported by 
funds of the Smithsonian Institution and in part by a grant from 
the Research Corporation of New York. 

For several months during the past year actual work in the 
laboratories was suspended during the construction of a new sewer 
system and the preparation and actual work of electrical rewiring 
throughout the building. Also three of the laboratories and the 
machine shop were repainted. 

Considerable time has been given by members of the division in 
the planning and construction of an exhibit now on display as part 
of the "Index Exhibit" in the Main Hall of the Smithsonian Building. 
A detailed description of this exhibit appears in the July 1941 
number of the Scientific Monthly. 

INFLUENCE OF RADIATION ON RESPIRATION 

Following the preliminary experiments and improvement in tech- 
nique as reported last year on the project dealing with the genesis 
of chlorophyll and the beginning of photosynthesis, many data have 
been obtained on the respiration of etiolated barley seedlings. This 
information is highly desirable because of its bearing upon photo- 
synthesis as measured by the gaseous exchange method. Further- 
more, a comprehensive review of the literature on respiration as 
affected by radiation is being completed and will soon be made 
available. 

The rate of respiration (carbon dioxide evolution) of etiolated 
barley seedlings (i. e., seedlings grown in complete darkness and 
devoid of chlorophyll) increases following illumination, whether 
measured in dark or in light. Under favorable conditions this rise 
amounts to as much as 20 percent of the previous dark rate and is 
maintained for at least 7 hours after the light exposure. 

Ill 



112 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

The maximal effect of illmnination for a 30-minute period occurs 
at a fairly low intensity (60 foot-candles or less). The magnitude 
of the effect produced by 60 foot-candles of light increases with 
the time of illumination up to an exposure period of about 20 min- 
utes and remains constant with longer light periods. These results 
are graphically illustrated in figure 1. 

In many of these studies it was observed that the rate of respira- 
tion was not as constant as one would desire during the periods 
prior to irradiation. It was thought that perhaps the metabolic 
reactions of the seedling were affected in transferring them from 
the germination conditions to those of the respiration chamber. A 





Figure 1. — Effect of illumination on respiration of etiolated barley seedlings. Percentage 
increase in rate of respiration Is plotted against intensity of Illumination in upper 
grapli and against duration of exposure in lower graph. 

number of changes were made in the germination conditions and 
in the preliminary treatment of the experimental plants in the 
respiration chamber. After many experiments of this nature it 
appears that the rate of respiration either increases or decreases 
continuously for a period of time following exposures of the seed- 
lings to low or high carbon dioxide concentrations respectively. For 
example, figure 2 shows the relative rates of respiration for succes- 
sive half -hour periods following a conditioning period of 5 percent 
carbon dioxide. 

From data of this type it would appear that conditions of car- 
bon dioxide storage or depletion develop in the plant tissue depend- 
ing upon the concentration of this gas surrounding the plants. In 
subsequent periods, when the respiration is measured there is an 
increase or decrease in the rate of CO2 excretion (i. e., in the apparent 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 



113 



rate of respiration) until a state of equilibrium with the new environ- 
ment is attained. If this phenomenon is of widespread occurrence 
in green plants as well, it must be of considerable importance also 
in experiments in which rates of photosynthesis are measured. 

Considerable time has been spent during the late winter and spring 
in improving the performance of the spectrograph used in measuring 
carbon dioxide, for very short periods. A 15-cc. volume absorp- 



lOO 



30 



^ 60 

^ 40 



20 



CONDITJONeo 
iN 

FOR 
/7.5 HRS. 






I 






I 



cOi f=K£e 

A I PL 






I 






r 



9 /O II 
A.M. 



12 



4 S 
P.M. 



r/M£ 



Figure 2. 



-Effect of previous CO2 environmental conditions on succeeding rates of respira- 
tion of etiolated barley seedlings. 



tion cell providing a 15-cm. optical path was made in the shop and 
installed on the instrument. The spectrograph case was lagged 
with 4 inches of rock wool and the whole room thermostated to 
maintain a temperature of 30° C. These features have improved the 
speed-sensitivity and stability of the set-up very materially. The 
assembly has been used recently in measuring the solubility of CO2 
in water at very low concentrations where a marked departure from 
Henry's Law was discovered. Further experiments on this are 
in progress and will be published soon along with a detailed descrip- 
tion of the spectrographic method of CO2 measurement. 



114 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

INTLUENCE OF LIGHT IN EARLY GROWTH OF GRASS SEEDLINGS 

Further study of the spectral effectiveness of radiation for the 
growth inhibition of the oats mesocotyl has indicated that the maxi- 
mum response occurs at 6600 A. It is highly suggestive that both 
chlorophyll a and a pigment as yet unidentified which has been found 
in dark-grown oats seedlings exhibit an absorption band at this 
position. 

A comparative study has been undertaken of some other species 
of grasses that have been reported in the literature as having meso- 
cotyls insensitive to light. All of those so far investigated have 
been found to be suppressed by light although the intensities required 
are much greater than in the case of Avena. 

Since the growth of the oats mesocotyl is decreased, even in dark- 
ness, by higher temperatures it is of interest to compare the effects 
of temperature and of radiation. The high temperature inhibition 
appears to differ fundamentally from the light inhibition inasmuch as 
the growth of other organs of the seedling, notably the roots, is also 
greatly suppressed in the former case. Some preliminary experi- 
ments have indicated that in certain varieties of rice, on the other 
hand, mesocotyl growth is greater at higher temperatures. 

INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS ON THE GROWTH OF ALGAE 

The influence of culture conditions on the photosynthetic behavior 
of the alga Chlorella fyrenoidosa has been subjected to further 
investigation. The growth cycle of this organism has been studied in 
relation to light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and the 
composition of the nutrient solution. This work is far from com- 
plete but has suggested certain changes in the composition of the 
nutrient solution and in the design of the apparatus. Equipment 
is being constructed for the continuous culture of algae in order 
to obtain completely reproducible quantities of biological material 
for irradiation experiments. 

Experiments were also conducted to ascertain suitable light condi- 
tions and culture media for optimum growth of the alga Haema- 
tococcus pluviaUs in preparation for research on the comparative 
effects of short wave lengths of the ultraviolet on the green pigment, 
chlorophyll, and the red pigment, haematochrome, in algae. 

As a result of inquiries regarding the use of algae in industry 
and because of its importance to producers of kelp, Irish moss, agar, 
and alginic acid in the defense program, a paper is being prepared 
containing the latest statistics and information about the economic 
uses of algae. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 115 

PERSONNEL 

No changes have occurred in the status of the Division's per- 
sonnel during the past year. Dr. Jack E. Myers has continued his 
work with algae and on photosynthesis under his National Research 
Fellowship grant. 

PAPERS PRESENTED AT MEETINGS 

Photosynthesis and fluorescence. Presented by E. D. McAlister at the Marine 
Biological Station, Pacific Grove, Calif., and at Stanford University, Palo 
Alto, Calif., in August 1940. 

Quantum efficiency of photosynthesis from fluorescence measurements. Pre- 
sented by E. D. McAlister before the Physics Colloquium, George Washington 
University, Washington, D. C, on October 23, 1940. 

Fluorescence and photosynthesis. Presented by E. D. McAlister before the 
Philosophical Society of Washington, D. C, on October 26, 1940. 

The efficiency of photosynthesis in relation to fluorescence. Presented by 
E. D. McAlister before the Botanical Society of America, Philadelphia, Pa., 
December 30, 1940. 

Inhibition of first internode of Avena sativa by radiation. Presented by 
Robert L. Weintraub before the American Society of Plant Physiologists, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., December 30, 1&40. 

Influence of light on the respiration of etiolated barley seedlings. Pre- 
sented by Earl S. Johnston and Robert L. Weintraub before the American 
Society of Plant Physiologists, Philadelphia, Pa., December 30, 1940. 

Culture conditions for Chlorella in relation to its photosynthetic behavior. 
Presented by Jack Myers before the American Society of Plant Physiologists, 
Philadelphia, Pa., December 30, 1940. 

Photosynthesis in past ages. Presented by E. D. McAlister before the 
Paleontological Society of Washington in April 1941. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Chase, Flokencb Meieb. Increased stimulation of the Alga Stichococcus 

bacillaris by successive exposures to short wave lengths of the ultraviolet. 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 99, No. 17, pp. 1-16, 1941. 
McAlister, E. D., and Myers, Jack. The time course of photosynthesis and 

fluorescence observed simultaneously. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 99, No. 6, 

pp. 1-37, 1940. 
McAusTER, E. D., and Myers, Jack. Time course of photosynthesis and 

fluorescence. Science, vol. 92, No. 2385, pp. 241-243, 1940. 
McAxister, E. D., Matheson, G. L., and Sweeney, W. J. A large recording 

spectrograph for the infrared to 15m- Rev. Scientific Instr., vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 

314-319, 1941. 
Meier, FI/jrence E. Plankton in the water supply. Ann. Rep. Smithsonian 

Inst, for 1939, pp. 393-412, 1940. 
Weintraub, Robert L. Plant-tissue cultures. Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst. 

for 1940, pp. 357-368, 1941. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Earl S. Johnston, Assistant Director. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

4.30577 — 12 



APPENDIX 10 
REPORT ON THE LIBRARY 

Sm: I have the honor to submit the following report on the 
activities of the Smithsonian library for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1941 : 

THE LIBRARY 

The library, or library system, of the Smithsonian is made up 
of 10 major and 35 minor units. The former consist of the main 
libraiy of the Institution, whicli since 1866 has been in the Library 
of Congress and is known as the Smithsonian Deposit; the libraries 
of the United States National Museum, Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, Astrophysical Observatory, Freer Gallery of Art, National 
Collection of Fine Arts, National Zoological Park, Division of Radi- 
ation and Organisms; the Langley Aeronautical Library — deposited 
in 1930 in the Division of Aeronautics at the Library of Congress — 
and the Smithsonian office library. The minor units are the sec- 
tional libraries of the National Museum. Although the collections 
in these 45 libraries are on many subjects, they have to do chiefly 
with the matters of special moment to the Institution and its branches, 
namely, the natural and physical sciences and technology and the fine 
arts. They are particularly strong in their files of standard mono- 
graphs and serials and of the reports, proceedings, and transactions 
of the learned institutions and societies of the world. 

Cooperating with the Smithsonian library system, but independent 
of it, is the library of the National Gallery of Art, which, during 
the year just closed took its first steps, under a competent staff, to 
meet the reference needs of the Gallery personnel and of others 
outside. The libraries of the Institution welcome the opportunity to 
further, in every way possible, the interests of this new friendly 
neighbor. 

PERSONNEL 

The year brought an unusually large number of changes in the 

staff. Among these were the following: The retirement, on account 

of age, of Miss Gertrude L. Woodin, after long and valuable service 

as assistant librarian; the promotion of Miss Elisabeth P. Hobbs, 

116 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 117 

junior librarian, to succeed her, and the transfer of Miss Anna 
Moore Link from the editorial office in the Bureau of American 
Ethnology to the vacancy thus created; the advancement of Miss 
Nancy Alice Link to the position of editorial assistant in the Bureau ; 
the resignation of Mrs. Dorothy E. Goodrich, under library assistant, 
and the selection of Miss Elizabeth Gordon Moseley as her successor. 
The position of minor library assistant was reclassified to that of 
junior clerk-typist and filled by the appointment of Miss Elizabeth 
Harriet Link. Charles McDowell served part of the year as assist- 
ant messenger. The temporary employees were Mrs. Georgeanna 
H. Morrill, library assistant, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Bendure, assistant 
clerk-stenographer, Miss Anna May Light, junior clerk-stenographer, 
Mrs. Marie Boborykine, special library assistant, and Arthur W. 
Gambrell, assistant messenger. 

EXCHANGE OF PUBLICATIONS 

The exchange work of the library was again carried on with the 
greatest difficulty, owing to abnormal world conditions. The pack- 
ages received through the International Exchange Service were only 
515 — fewer by 814 even than those of the year before, when there had 
been a similar decrease from the normal number; the packages that 
came by mail were 17,038, or 3,283 fewer than came the previous 
year. Most of the publications that failed to come were, of course, 
European and Asiatic. Fortunately, some of these are being held 
by the issuing agencies, to be sent to the library as soon as the wars 
are over; others have merely delayed publication; but a few have 
been discontinued. Altogether the influence of the disturbed condi- 
tions that prevailed was far from favorable to the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge by means of the exchange of learned 
publications. 

There were received, however, a number of rather large sendings, 
notably from the Clube Zoologico do Brasil, Sao Paulo ; Bataviaasch 
Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschaffen, Batavia ; Royal Swedish 
Academy of Letters, Stockholm ; Eoyal Society of Edinburgh, Edin- 
burgh; Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart; and Wellington Accli- 
matisation Society, Wellington. 

Dissertations came from only 4 universities, 2 of which are in 
a neutral European country — Basel and Ziirich ; and 2 in the United 
States — Johns Hopkins and Pennsylvania. These totaled 452 — quite 
a contrast to the 5,190 received in 1939 from 34 foreign institutions 
and 3 American. Of the 452 dissertations 261 were assigned to the 
Smithsonian Deposit, and the rest, being on medical subjects, were 
turned over, as usual, to the library of the Surgeon General. 



118 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Most of the 2,316 letters written by the staff pertained to the 
exchange interests of the library. They naturally showed a de- 
crease from 1940, as did the new exchanges arranged for. There 
were 284 of the latter, however, nearly all of which were on behalf 
of the Smithsonian Deposit and the libraries of the National Museum, 
National Collection of Fine Arts, and Astrophysical Observatory. 
Although the number of want cards handled — 795 — was smaller by 
87 than the year before, the publications obtained, both by special 
correspondence and by search among the recently organized and listed 
duplicates in the west stacks of the Institution, were 8,824, or 1,278 
more than in 1940. The result of this successful effort was that a 
great many gaps — some of long standing — were filled in several of | 
the Smithsonian libraries. In addition to these publications, which * 
were assigned to the regular sets, others to the number of 6,112 were 
selected from the duplicate material and put in reserve for use in 
the future. Among these were many foreign items — not a few of 
them rare — closely related to the work of the Institution and its 
branches. Thus again did the surplus collection in the west stacks 
prove of no little value to the library system. And it bids fair to 
prove so for years to come, as this rich store of material is made 
increasingly available through listing and through checking against 
the needs of the various libraries. 

From time to time, too, during the year files of serials, long and 
short, not wanted by the libraries were exchanged for publications 
that otherwise would have had to be purchased. This plan of ex- 
changing duplicates for other publications essential to the Institu- 
tion was adopted by the library some years ago and has met with 
much success. It has added to the collections many valuable items 
and has placed a considerable number in other research institutions 
where, instead of standing useless on the Smithsonian shelves, they 
have contributed their part toward the advancement of knowledge. 
The year just closed brought to the library, under this special ex- 
change plan, a goodly number of important monographs and serials 
that could not be obtained by regular exchange. Among them were 
such works as Drawings in the Fogg Museum of Art, vols, I-III, by 
Agnes Mongan and Paul J. Sachs ; The Material Basis of Evolution, 
by Kichard Goldschmidt; The Ferns and Fern Allies of Wisconsin, 
by R. M. Trj'on, Jr., N. C. Fassett, D. W. Dunlop, and M. E. Diemer; 
and Nomenclator Zoologicus, in 4 volumes, edited by Sheffield A. ,|i 
Neave. ^ 

In connection with both its regular and its special exchange 
activities, the library continued its effort, in cooperation with 
the offices of publications, to replenish the depleted stock of Smith- 
sonian publications by encouraging the return of material from 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 119 

libraries throughout the country in which it was not needed. It 
also continued to act as a clearing-house, thus sending out again 
much of this material to institutions that were waiting for it. The 
libraries of more than 25 museums, colleges, and universities eagerly 
shared in this give and take effort, which was to the advantage of 
all participants, but chiefly of the Smithsonian library, for by this 
means it was able not only to make many of the publications of the 
Institution more widely available to readers and investigators, but 
to increase in no small measure the supply of such publications — some 
of which had long been out of print — that could be used for future 
exchanges, 

GIFTS 

Many gifts came to the library during the year. Among these 
were 622 publications from the Geophysical Laboratory of the Car- 
negie Institution of Washington ; 612 from the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science ; 72 from the American Association of 
Museums; 66 from the Public Library of the District of Columbia; 
42 from the National Institute of Health; and 94 from the recently 
discontinued Bureau of the International Catalogue of Scientific 
Literature. Among them, too, were a large number of publications 
from the Honorable Usher L. Burdick, Member of Congress from 
North Dakota, from the late Mrs. Charles D. Walcott — always a 
generous friend of the library — and from the Secretary and Assistant 
Secretary and other members of the Smithsonian staff. The largest 
gift, however, came from Mrs. Frederick E. Fowle — that of 942 sci- 
entific books and journals which had belonged to her husband, the 
late research assistant of the Astrophysical Observatory. 

Other gifts were Hiroshige, by Yone Noguchi, from the Japanese 
Embassy; The Herbarist, Nos. 1-7 (1935-1941), from Mrs. Foster 
Stearns; Chinese Jade Carvings of the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth 
Century in the Collection of Mrs. Georg Vetlesen — an illustrated 
descriptive record compiled by Stanley Charles Nott, volume III, 
from Mrs. Georg Vetlesen ; A Catalogue of Rare Chinese Jade Carv- 
ings (2 copies), compiled by Stanley Charles Nott, from the com- 
piler; Two Early Portraits of George Washington Painted by 
Charles Willson Peale, by John Hill Morgan, from the Princeton 
University Press ; Bird Reserves, by E. C. Arnold, from the author ; 
Moss Flora of North America North of Mexico, volume II, part 4, 
by Dr. A. J. Grout, from the author; The Young Mill-Wrights & 
Miller's Guide (1807), by Oliver Evans, from Edna E. Switzer; 
Charles Goodyear — Connecticut Yankee and Rubber Pioneer — A Bi- 
ography, by P. W. Barker, from Godfrey L. Cabot, Inc. ; The Shorter 



120 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 



Scientific Papers of Lee Barker Walton, with an Introduction by 
Herbert Osbom, edited by George P. Faust, from the editor; Genus 
Labordia, Hawaiian Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae and Compositae, by 
Dr. Earl Edward Sherff, from the author; Seventh Report of the 
Chester County Cabinet of Natural Science (1834), from Dr. Rob- 
ert B. Gordon; Barbed Fencing, by Charles G. Washburn — a type- 
written copy of an original in the possession of the donor, Reginald 
Washburn, who had the copy made especially for the Smithsonian 
Institution ; Atlanta City Directory, 1940, from the Carnegie Library, 
Atlanta; Men and Volts, by John Winthrop Hammond, from the 
General Electric Company; The Cranial Bowl, by Dr. William G. 
Sutherland, from the author; Military Medals and Insignia of the 
United States, by J. McDowell Morgan, from the author; The 
Stapelieae, in 3 volumes, by Alain White and Boyd L. Sloane, from 
Alain White ; The Old Bay Line, by Alexander Crosby Brown, from 
the Mariners' Museum, Newport News; By Their Works, by H. 
Phelps Clawson, from the Buffalo Museum of Science ; and Flora of 
Indiana, by Charles C. Deam, from the Indiana Department of 
Conservation. 

SOME STATISTICS 

The accessions to the libraries were as follows : 



Library 



Volumes 



Pam- 
phlets 
and 
charts 



Total 



Approxi- 
mate 
holdings 
June 30, 
1941 



Astrophysical Observatory 

Bureau of American Ethnology ..- 

Freer Gallery of Art _ 

Langley Aeronautical 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Museum 

National Zoological Park 

Radiation and Organisms .- 

Smithsonian Deposit, Library of Congress 
Smithsonian office 

Total 



173 
378 
398 

32 

240 

1,979 

36 

67 
1,350 

65 



138 



20 

157 

942 

34 

2 

758 

4 



311 
378 
464 

52 

397 

2,921 

70 

69 
2,108 

69 



10, 156 

« 33, 140 

16, 225 

3,550 

7,689 

219, 760 

3,916 

696 

568, 662 

30, 961 



4,718 



2,121 



6,839 



894, 655 



I From this total have been omitted a large collection of pamphlets hitherto included in the holdings 
reported for the library of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and quite a number of other publications 
recently removed from the library as not being closely related to the work of the Bureau. 



The staff cataloged 6,693 volumes, pamphlets, and charts ; prepared 
and filed 40,238 catalog and shelf -list cards; made 22,311 periodical 
entries; loaned 10,990 publications to the members of the Institu- 
tion and its bureaus; and conducted an interlibrary loan service 
with 45 libraries outside the Smithsonian system. They rendered 
more reference and bibliographical assistance than ever before, in 
response to requests in person, by telephone, and by mail, from the 
fetaff of the Smithsonian, other Government employees, visitors, 



REPORT 0^ THE SECRETARY 121 

and correspondents far and near — requests often involving hours 
of search not only at the Institution but at the Library of Congress 
and elsewhere. They kept the index of Smithsonian publications up 
to date, and made considerable progress with the index of Smith- 
sonian explorations begun the previous year, and some with that of 
exchange relations. Their work on the union catalog may be sum- 
marized as follows: 

Volumes cataloged 2, 472 

Pamphlets and charts cataloged 1,947 

New serial entries made 178 

Tjrped cards added to catalog and shelf list 3,880 

Library of Congress cards added to catalog and shelf list 13,662 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

As has already been suggested, one of the main activities of the 
staff, apart from their routine duties, was that of making lists of 
the longer runs of surplus items in the west stacks and checking 
them against the needs of the Smithsonian libraries. Another task 
was that of bringing nearly to completion the checking of the serial 
holdings of several of the libraries, to be included in the forthcoming 
second edition of the Union List of Serials. When this work is 
finished, it will have involved the examination of the records of more 
than 7,000 sets of serial publications, not including, of course, the 
thousands in the Smithsonian Deposit and the Langley Aeronautical 
Library, which, as they are housed in the Library of Congress, are 
reported by that Library. Still another task was selecting consign- 
ments of duplicates for exchange, especially with such universities 
as Brown, Columbia, Harvard, Pennsylvania, Princeton, and Yale. 
And another was preparing the exhibition set of Smithsonian pub- 
lications — by completing it and having many of its volumes bound — 
for transfer to the shelves provided for it as an outstanding part 
of the exhibit of Smithsonian interests in the "Diffusion of Knowl- 
edge" room at the Institution. And, finally, among other tasks were 
the following: Sending a large number of foreign documents, which 
had come to light in course of checking the surplus material, to the 
Library of Congress; sorting 2,500 or more reprints by subject and 
assigning them to the appropriate sectional libraries of the National 
Museum; carrying forward the inventorying of the technological 
library, with revision of its catalog and shelf list, and the rearranging 
of the oflBce library; and continuing, with excellent results, the work 
of reorganizing the library of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

BINDING 

Again, lack of funds seriously limited the libraries in meeting their 
binding needs. This was true in respect both to the thousands of 



122 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

older serial volumes still standing unbound on the shelves and to 
hundreds of new ones added the last fiscal year. As it was, the 
library of the National Museum sent to the bindery 800 volumes ; that 
of the Astrophysical Observatory, 50; of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts, 59 ; of the Freer Gallery of Art, 38 ; and of the National 
Zoological Park, 11 — a total of 958, only about one-half the number 
of volumes completed during the year by these libraries. 

NEEDS 

First among the needs, then, is adequate funds for binding, to the end 
that the publications — some of them almost priceless now, in the light 
of the destruction that is taking place abroad — may be safeguarded 
for the permanent use of the Institution. 

Another need, which has become acute, is that of more shelf room 
for the collections, especially those of the National Museum library. 
Unless this can soon be provided, it may be necessary to resort to the 
unfortunate measure of placing some of the less-used files in dead 
storage. 

And, finally, five new positions should be established, for the follow- 
ing : An assistant librarian, to take charge of the acquisition depart- 
ment; a junior librarian and a library assistant to strengthen the 
under-staffed preparation department, especially the catalog division ; 
a junior typist, to relieve the catalogers of much clerical routine; a 
messenger, to serve primarily the libraries of the Institution proper. 

Respectfully submitted. 

WiiiLiAM L. CoRBiN, Libra/nan. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution, 



I 



i 



APPENDIX 11 

REPORT ON PUBLICATIONS 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the publi- 
cations of the Smithsonian Institution and the Government branches 
under its administrative charge during the year ended June 30, 1941 : 

The Institution published during the year 16 papers in the Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections series, and title page and table of 
contents of volume 98; 1 annual report and pamphlet copies of 27 
articles in the report appendix ; and 3 special publications. 

The United States National Museum issued 1 annual report; 19 
Proceedings papers, and title page, table of contents, and index of 
volume 86; 1 Bulletin, and 1 volume and 1 part of a volume of Bul- 
letin 100; and title page, table of contents, and index of volume 26 
of Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. 

The National Collection of Fine Arts issued 1 catalog, and the 
Freer Gallery of Art, 1 pamphlet. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology issued 1 annual report and 3 
bulletins. 

Of the publications there were distributed 125,837 copies,^ which 
included 66 volumes and separates of the Smithsonian Contributions 
to Kjiowledge, 32,031 volumes and separates of the Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections, 24,022 volumes and separates of the Smith- 
sonian annual reports, 5,243 Smithsonian special publications, 52,170 
volumes and separates of the National Museum publications, 11,882 
publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 9 publications of 
the National Collection of Fine Arts, 3 publications of the Freer 
Gallery of Art, 16 reports on the Harriman Alaska Expedition, 12 
Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory, and 383 reports of the 
American Historical Association. 

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

There were issued title page and table of contents of volume 98, 
and 15 papers of volume 99 and 1 paper of volume 101, making 16 
papers in all, as follows : 

VOLUME !)8 

Title page and table of contents. (Publ. 3590.) 



1 This does not include the Brief Guide to the Smithsonian Institution, the catalog of the 
National Collection of Fine Arts, or the pamphlet of the Freer Gallery of Art. 

123 



124 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

VOLUME 99 

No. 6. The time course of photosynthesis and fluorescence observed simul- 
taneously, by E. D. McAlister and Jack Myers. 37 pp., 16 figs. (Publ. 3591.) 
August 28, 1940. 

No. 7. A systematic classification for the birds of the world, by Alexander 
Wetmore. 11 pp. (Publ. 3592.) October 10, 1940. 

No. 9. Recent Foraminifera from Old Providence Island collected on the 
Presidential Cruise of 1938, by Joseph A. Cushman. 14 pp., 2 pis. (Publ. 3594.) 
January 24, 1&41. 

No. 10. Coelenterates collected on the Presidental Cruise of 1938, by Elisabeth 
Deichmann. 17 pp., 1 pi., 4 figs. (Publ. 3595.) January 27, 1941. 

No. 11. A new cephalopod mollusk from the Presidential Cruise of 1938, by 
Helen C. Stuart. 6 pp., 2 figs. (Publ. 3596.) February 4, 1941. 

No. 12. Acarina collected on the Presidential Cruise of 1938, by G. W, 
Wharton. 8 pp., 4 figs. (Publ. 3597.) January 29, 1941. 

No. 13. Euphausiacea and Mysidacea collected on the Presidential Cruise 
of 1938, by W. M. Tattersall. 7 pp., 2 figs. (Publ. 3598.) January 31, 1941. 

No. 14. The male genitalia of Hymen optera, by B. B. Snodgrass. 86 pp., 33 
pis., 6 figs. (Publ. 3599.) January 14, 1941. 

No. 15. Evidence of early Indian occupancy near the Peaks of Otter, Bedford 
County, Virginia, by David I. Bushnell, Jr. 14 pp., 5 pis., 4 figs. (Publ. 3601.) 
December 23, 1940. 

No. 16. New fossil lizards from the Upper Cretaceous of Utah, by Charles 
W. Gilmore. 3 pp., 2 figs. (Publ. 3602.) December 9, 1940. 

No. 17. Increased stimulation of the alga SticJwcoccus hadllaris by suc- 
cessive exposures to short wave lengths of the ultraviolet, by Florence Meier 
Chase. 16 pp., 2 pis., 3 figs. (Publ. 3603.) January 10, 1941. 

No. 18. Two new races of passerine birds from Thailand, by H. Q. Deignan. 
4 pp. (Publ. 8605.) December 11, 1940. 

No. 19. Notes on Mexican snakes of the genus QeopTiis, by Hobart M. Smith. 
6 pp. (Publ. 3629.) February 19, 1941. 

No. 20. Further notes on Mexican snakes of the genus Salvadora, by Hobart 
M. Smith. 12 pp., 7 figs. (Publ. 3630.) February 21, 1941. 

No. 21. A new shipworm from Panama, by Paul Bartsch. 2 pp., 1 pi. (Publ. 
3632.) March 31, 1941. 

VOLUME 101 

No. 1. An important weather element hitherto generally disregarded, by 
0. G. Abbot. 34 pp., 11 figs. (Publ. 3637.) May 27, 1941. 

SMITHSONIAN ANNUAL REPORTS 

Report for 1939. — The complete volume of the Annual Report of 
the Board of Eegents for 1939 was received from the Public Printer 
in October 1940. 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smlth.sonian Institution show- 
ing the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1939. xiii+567 pp., 139 pis., 58 figs. (Publ. 3555.) 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 125 

The appendix contained the following papers : 

Is there life in other worlds? by H. Spencer Jones, F. R. S. 

Use of solar energy for heating water, by F. A. Brooks. 

The fringe of the sun : nebulium and coronium, by C. G. James. 

Our knowledge of atomic nuclei, by G. P. Harnwell, Ph. D. 

Spectroscopy in industry, by George R. Harrison, Ph. D. 

Physical science in the crime-detection laboratory, by J. Edgar Hoover. 

Physical interpretation of the weather, by Edgar W. Woolard. 

Hurricanes into New England : meteorology of the storm of September 21, 

1938, by Charles F. Brooks. 
Humanity in geological perspective, by Herbert L. Hawkins, D. Sc, 

F. R. S., F. G. S. 
Geologic exhibits in the National Zoological Park, by R. S. Bassler. 
The structure of the earth as revealed by seismology, by Ernest A. Hodgson. 
Our petroleum supply, by Hugh D. Miser. 
Biologic balance on the farm, by W, L. McAtee. 
On the frontier of British Guiana and Brazil, by Capt. H. Carington 

Smith, R. E. 
The sea bird as an individual: results of ringing experiments, by R. M. 

Lockley. 
Birds and the wind, by Neil T. McMillan. 
Bookworms, by E. A. Back. 
The problem of conserving rare native plants, by M. L. Fernald, D. C. L., 

D. Sc. 
Plankton in the water supply, by Florence E. Meier. 
Trichinosis in swine and its relationship to public health, by Benjamin 

Schwartz. 
Closing the gap at Tepe Gawra, by E. A. Spelser, 
Sun worship, by Herbert J. Spinden. 
The use of soapstone by the Indians of the eastern United States, by 

David I. Bushneil, Jr. 
The modern growth of the totem pole on the northwest coast, by Marius 

Barbeau. 
Historic American highways, by Albert 0. Rose. 
Modern trends in air transport, by W. F. Durand. 
The story of the Time Capsule, by G. Edward Pendray. 

Report for 19Jfi. — The report of the Secretary, which included 
the financial report of the executive committee of the Board of 
Regents, and which will form part of the annual report of the Board 
of Regents to Congress, was issued in January 1941. 

Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report 
of the executive committee of the Board of Regents for the year ended June 
30, 1940. ix-fll5 pp., 4 pis. 

The report volume, containing the general appendix, was in press 
at the close of the year. 

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 

Brief guide to the Smithsonian Institution (fourth edition). 80 pp., 74 figs. 
(Publ. BL.) July 1, 1940. 

The Smithsonian Institution, by C. G. Abbot. 25 pp., 13 pis., (Publ. 3604.) 
January 18, 1941. 



126 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Explorations and field work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1940. 100 pp., 
100 halftone figs. (Publ. 3631.) April 3, 1941. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The editorial work of the National Museum has continued during 
the year under the immediate direction of the editor, Paul H. Oehser. 
There were issued 1 amiual report; title page, table of contents, and 
index of volume 86 of the Proceedings, and 19 separate Proceedings 
papers from volumes 87, 88, 89, and 90; 1 Bulletin, and 1 volume 
and 1 part of a volume of Bulletin 100; and title page, table of 
contents, and index of volume 26 of Contributions from the United 
States National Herbarium, as follows: 

MUSEUM EEPOBT 

Report on the progress and condition of the United States National Museum 
for the year ended June 30, 1940. iii+118 pp. January 1941. 

PKOCEBDINGS : VOLUME 86 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-ix, 593-626. July 22, 1940. 

VOLUME 87 

No. 3077. Further studies on the opalinid ciliate infusorians and their hosts, 
by Maynard M. Metcalf. Pp. 465-634, figs. 21-157. October 29, 1940. 

VOLUME 88 

No. 3090. Seven new species and one new genus of hydroids, mostly from 
the Atlantic Ocean, by C. McLean Fraser. Pp. 575-580, pis. 32, 33. September 
13, 1940. 

VOLUME 89 

No. 3093. Two new anuran amphibians from Mexico, by Edward H. Taylor. 
Pp. 43-47, pis. 1-3. August 13, 1940. 

No. 3094. The West Ajuerican Haliotis, by Paul Bartsch. Pp. 49-58, pis. 
6-8. August 15, 1940. 

No. 3095. Revision of the scarabaeid beetles of the phyllophagan subgenus 
Listrochelus of the United States, with discussion of related subgenera, by Law- 
rence W. Saylor. Pp. 59-130, figs. 1-13. November 15, 1940. 

No. 3096. The Cuban operculate land mollusks of the family Annulariidae, 
exclusive of the subfamily Chondropominae, by Carlos de la Torre and Paul 
Bartsch. Pp. 131-385, i-x, pis. 9-57. April 2, 1941. 

No. 3097. Seven new crayfishes of the genus Cambarus from Florida, with 
notes on other species, by Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. Pp. 387-423, figs. 14-22. 
November 23, 1&40. 

No. 3098. Echinoderms from Greenland collected by Capt. Robert A. Bart- 
lett, by Austin H. Clark. Pp. 425-^33, pis. 58, 59. February 27, 1941. 

No. 3099. A revision of the keyhole urchins (Mellita), by Hubert Lyman 
Clark. Pp. 435-444, pis. 60-62. December 12, 1940. 

No. 3100. Enrlioptodes, a remarkable new genus of Philippine cryptorhynchine 
weevils, by Elwood C. Zimmerman. Pp. 445-448, fig. 23. November 1, 1940. 

No. 3101. The polyclad flatworms of the Atlantic coast of the United States 
and Canada, by Libbie H. Hyman. Pp. 449-^95, figs. 24-31. February 27, 1941. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 127 

No. 3102. New species of heterocerous moths in the United States National 
Museum, by William Schaus. Pp. 497-511. March 6, 1941. 

No. 3103. Dinotocrinus, a new fossil inadunate crinoid genus, by Edwin Kirk. 
Pp. 513-517, pi. 63. February 28, 1941. 

No. 3104. A supposed jellyfish from the pre-Cambrian of the Grand Canyon, 
by R. S. Bassler. Pp. 519-522, pi. 64. February 27, 1941. 

No. 3105. Notes on birds of the Guatemalan highlands, by Alexander Wetmore. 
Pp. 523-581. March 26, 1941. 

VOLUME 90 

No. 3106. New fishes of the family Callionymidae, mostly Philippine, obtained 
by the United States Bureau of Fisheries Steamer Albatross, by Henry W. 
Fowler. Pp. 1-31, figs. 1-16. April 8, 1941. 

No. 3108. Synopsis of the tachinid flies of the genus TacMonmyia, with 
descriptions of new species, by Ray T. Webber. Pp. 287-304, fig. 17. June 30, 
1941. 

No. 3111. The Chicora (Butler County, Pa.) meteorite, by F. W. Preston, E. P. 
Henderson, and James R. Randolph. Pp. 387-416, pis. 54r-59, fig. 19. June 

17, 1941. 

No. 3114. A new genus of sea stars (Plazaster) from Japan, with a note of 
the genus Parasterina, by Walter K. Fisher. Pp. 447-456, pis. 66-70. June 

18, 1941. 

BULLETINS 

No. 100, volume 13. The fishes of the groups Elasmobranchii, Holocephali, 
Isospondyli, and Ostariophysi obtained by the United States Bureau of Fisheries 
Steamer Albatross in 1907 to 1910, chiefly in the Philippine Islands and adjacent 
seas, by Henry W. Fowler, x + 879 pp., 30 figs. March 10, 1941. 

No. 100, volume 14, part 1. Report on the Echinoidea collected by the United 
States Fisheries Steamer Albatross during the Philippine Expedition, 1907- 
1910. Part 2 : The Echinothuridae, Saleniidae, Arbaciidae, Aspidodiadematidae, 
Micropygidae, Diadematidae, Pedinidae, Temnopleuridae, Toxopneustidae, and 
Eehinometridae, by Theodor Mortensen. Pp. i-iv, 1-52, pi. 1, figs. 1-3. July 
25, 1940. 

No. 176. Life histories of North American cuckoos, goatsuckers, hummingbirds, 
and their allies, by Arthur Cleveland Bent, viii + 506 pp., 73 pis. July 20, 
1940. 

CONTBIBUTIONS FEOM THF U. S. NATIONAL HERBARIUM I VOLUME 2 6 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-xii, 531-554. March 6, 1941. 
PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Catalog of American and European paintings in the Gellatly Collection, com- 
piled by R. P. Tolman. 20 pp., 11 pis. 1940. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE FREER GALLEKY OF ART 

The Freer Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian Institution. 8 pp., 1 pi., 2 figs. 
1940. 



128 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The editorial work of the Bureau has continued under the immediate 
direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. During the year the follow- 
ing Bulletins were issued : 

Bulletin 126. Archeological remains in the Whitewater District, eastern Ari- 
zona. Part II. Artifacts and burials, by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. With 
appendix, Skeletal remains from the Whitewater District, eastern Arizona, by 
T. D. Stewart, xi+170 pp., 57 pis., 44 figs. 

Bulletin 127. Linguistic material from the tribes of southern Texas and north- 
eastern Mexico, by John R. Swanton. v-1-145 pp. 

Bulletin 128. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 13-18. No. 13, The mining of gems 
and ornamental stones by American Indians, by Sydney H. Ball. No. 14, Iroquois 
suicide : A study in the stability of a culture pattern, by William N. Fenton. No, 
15, Tonawanda Longhouse ceremonies : Ninety years after Lewis Henry Morgan, 
by William N. Fenton. No. 16, The Quichua-si)eaking Indians of the Province of 
Imbabura (Ecuador) and their anthropometric relations with the living popula- 
tions of the Andean area, by John Gillin. No. 17, Art processes in birchbark of 
the River Desert Algonquin, a circumboreal trait, by Frank G. Speck. No. 18, Ar- 
cheological reconnaissance of southern Utah, by Julian H. Steward. xii-|-368 
pp., 52 pis., 77 figs. 

REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL. ASSOCIATION 

The annual reports of the American Historical Association are 
transmitted by the Association to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution and are communicated by him to Congress, as provided by 
the act of incorporation of the Association. 

During the year there was issued the Annual Report for 1936, volume 
2 (Writings on American History). At the close of the year the 
following were in press: Report for 1936, volume 3 ("Instructions of 
the British foreign secretaries to their envoys in the United States, 
1791-1812") ; Report for 1937, volume 2 (Writings on American His- 
tory, 1937-1938) ; Report for 1939, volume 1 (Proceedings) ; Report 
for 1940. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL SOCLETT, DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN 

REVOLUTION 

The manuscript of the Forty-third Annual Report of the National 
Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, was transmitted to 
Congress, in accordance with law, December 9, 1940. 

ALLOTMENTS FOR PRINTING 

The congressional allotments for the printing of the Smithsonian 
Annual Reports to Congress and the various publications of the Gov- 
ernment bureaus under the administration of the Institution were 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 129 

virtually used up at the close of the year. The appropriation for the 
coming year ending June 30, 1942, totals $88,500, allotted as follows : 

Smithsonian Institution $16,000 

National Museum 43,000 

Bureau of American Etlinology 17,480 

National Collection of Fine Arts 500 

International Exchanges 200 

National Zoological Park 200 

Astrophysical Observatory 500 

American Historical Association 10, 620 

Total 88, 500 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. P. True, Chiefs Editorial Division. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OP 
THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE SMITH- 
SONIAN INSTITUTION 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1941 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following 
report in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution, to- 
gether with a statement of the appropriations by Congress for the 
Government bureaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 

SMITHSONIAN ENDOWMENT FUND 

The original bequest of James Smithsou was £104,960 8s. 6d. — 
$508,318.46. Refunds of money expended in prosecution of tlie 
claim, freights, insurance, etc., together with payment into the 
fund of the sum of £5,015, which had been withheld during the 
lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought the fund to the amount 
of $550,000. 

Since the original bequest the Institution has received gifts from 
various sources chiefly in the years prior to 1893, the income 
from which may be used for the general work of the Institution. 

To these gifts has been added capital from savings on income, 
gain from sale of securities, etc., and they now stand on the 
books of the Institution as follows : 

Avery, Robert S. and Lydia T., bequest fund $51, 445. 64 

Endowment fund, from gifts, income, etc 258,328.92 

Habel, Dr. S., bequest fund 500.00 

Hachenbei'g, George P. and Caroline, bequest fund 4, 044. 06 

Hamilton, James, bequest fund 2, 905. 94 

Henry, Caroline, bequest fund 1, 216. 20 

Hodgkins, Thomas G., fund 146,392.62 

Parent fund 728, 867. 62 

Rhees, William Jones, bequest fund 1, 065. 72 

Sanford, George H., memorial fund 1,995.18 

Witherspoon, Thomas A., memorial fund 129,774.35 

Special fund 1, 400. 00 

Total endowment for general work of the Institution 1, 327, 936. 25 

The Institution holds also a number of endowment gifts, the 
income of each being restricted to specific use. These are invested 
and stand on the books of the Institution as follows: 

Abbott, William L., fund, bequest to the Institution $103, 969. 99 

Arthur, James, fund, income for investigations and study of the 

sun and lecture on the sun 40, 217, 77 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy, fund, for a traveling scholarship to in- 
vestigate fauna of countries other than the United States 50, 381. 96 

130 



A 



REPORT OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 131 

Baird, Lucy H., fund, for creating a memorial to Secretary 
Baird $16, 296. 07 

Barstow, Frederic D., fund, for purchase of animals for the 
Zoological Park 764. 93 

Canfield Collection fund, for increase and care of the Canfield 
collection of minerals 38,461,71 

Casey, Thomas L., fund, for maintenance of the Casey collection 
and promotion of researches relating to Coleoptei-a 9, 223. 59 

Chamberlain, Francis Lea, fund, for increase and promotion of 
Isaac Lea collection of gems and mollusks 28, 318. 52 

Hillyer, Virgil, fund, for increase and care of Virgil Hillyer col- 
lection of lighting objects 6, 609. 11 

Hitchcock, Dr. Albert S., Library fund, for care of Hitchcock 
Agrostological Library 1,375. 68 

Hodgkins fund, specific, for increase and diffusion of more exact 
knowledge in regard to nature and properties of atmospheric 
air 100, 000. 00 

Hughes, Bruce, fund, to found Hughes alcove 18,248.71 

Myer, Catherine Walden, fund, for purchase of first-class works 
of art for the use of, and benefit of, the National Gallery 
of Art 19, 062. 41 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston, fund, for maintenance of Alfred Duane 
Pell collection 2, 427. 09 

Poore, Lucy T. and George W., fund, for general use of the 

Institution when principal amounts to the sum of $250,000 81, 367. 65 

Reid, Addison T., fund, for founding chair in biology in memory 

of Asher Tunis 30,134.19 

Roebling fund, for care, improvement, and increase of Roebling 

collection of minerals 121, 359. 54 

Rollins, Miriam and William, fund, for investigations in physics 
and chemistry 99, 963. 23 

Smithsonian employees retirement fund 11,651.48 

Springer, Frank, fund, for care, etc., of Springer collection 
and library 18,033. 47 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, research fund, for develop- 
ment of geological and paleontological studies and publishing 
results thereof 11, 635. 83 

Younger, Helen Walcott, fund, held in trust 50, 112. 50 

Zerbee, Frances Brinckle, fund, for endowment of aquaria 765. 33 

Special research fund, gift, in the form of real estate 20, 946. 00 

. Total endowment for specific purposes other than Freer 

endowment 881, 326. 76 

The above funds amount to a total of $2,209,263.01, and are carried 
in the following investment accounts of the Institution : 

U. S. Treasury deposit account, drawing 6 percent interest $1, 000, 000. 00 

Consolidated investment fimd (income in table below) 1,093,301.51 

Btiscellaneous special funds 115, 961. 50 



2, 209, 263. 01 
430577 — 42 10 



132 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

CONSOLIDATED FUND 

Statement of pHnclpal and income for the last 10 years 



Fiscal year 


Capital 


Income 


Percent- 
age 


Fiscal year 


Capital 


Income 


Percent- 
age 


1932 


$712, 156. 86 
764, 077. 67 
754, 570. 84 
706, 765. 68 
723, 795. 46 


$26, 142. 21 
28, 185. 11 
26, 650. 32 
26, 808. 86 
26, 836. 61 


3.67 
3.68 
3.66 
3.79 
3.71 


1937- 


$738, 858. 54 

867, 628. 60 

902, 801. 27 

1, 081, 249. 25 

1, 093, 301. 51 


$33, 819. 43 
34, 679. 64 
30, 710. 53 
38, 673. 29 
41, 167. 38 


4.67 


1933 - 


1938... 


4 00 


1934 


1939... 


3 40 


1935— - 


1940- 


3.47 


1936 - - 


1941 .. 


3 76 









FREER GALXERY OF ART FUND 

Early in 1906, by deed of gift, Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, gave 
to the Institution his collection of Chinese and other Oriental objects 
of art, as well as paintings, etchings, and other works of art by 
Whistler, Thayer, Dewing, and other artists. Later he also gave 
funds for the construction of a building to house the collection, and 
finally in his will, probated November 6, 1919, he provided stock 
and securities to the estimated value of $1,958,591.42 as an endow- 
ment fund for the operation of the gallery. From the above date 
to the present time these funds have been increased by stock divi- 
dends, savings of income, etc., to a total of $6,030,586.91. In view 
of the importance and special nature of the gift and the requirements 
of the testator in respect to it, all Freer funds are kept separate 
from the other funds of the Institution, and the accounting in 
respect to them is stated separately. 

The invested funds of the Freer bequest are classified as follows: 

Court and grounds fund $675, 573. 37 

Court and grounds maintenance fund 169, 656. 83 

Curator fund 687, 507. 68 

Residuary legacy 4,497,849.03 

Total 6, 030, 586. 91 

SUMMARY 

Invested endowment for general purposes $1, 327, 936. 25 

Invested endowment for specific purposes other than Freer endow- 
ment 881, 326. 76 



Total invested endowment other than Freer endowment 2,209,263.01 

Freer invested endowment for specific purposes 6, 030, 586. 91 



Total invested endowment for all purposes 8,239,849.92 

CLASSIFICATION OF INVESTMENTS 

Deposited in the U. S. Treasury at 6 percent per annum, as 
authorized in the United States Revised Statutes, sec. 5591 $1, 000, 000. 00 



REPORT OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 133 

Investments other than Freer endowment (cost or market value 
at date acquired) : 

Bonds (30 different groups) $467,455.26 

Stocks (41 different groups) 663,791.62 

Real estate and first-mortgage notes 71, 249. 00 

Uninvested capital 6,767.13 

$1,209,263.01 

Total investments other than Freer endowment 2, 209, 263. 01 

Investments of Freer endowment (cost or market value at date 
acquired) : 

Bonds (48 different groups) $2,433,088.10 

Stocks (57 different groups) 3,584,772.34 

Real estate first-mortgage notes 9,000.00 

Uninvested capital 3,726.47 

6, 030, 586. 91 

Total investments 8, 239, 849. 92 

CASH BALANCES, RECEIPTS, AND DISBURSEMENTS' DURING THE FISCAL TEAR ^ 
Cash balance on hand June 30, 1940 $391,308.66 

Receipts : 

Cash income from various sources for general 
work of the Institution $90, 769. 51 

Cash gifts and contributions expendable for 
special scientific objects (not to be invested) — 43,063.26 

Cash gifts for special scientific work (to be 
invested) 20, 713. 17 

Cash income from endowments for specific use 
other than Freer endowment and from miscel- 
laneous sources (including refund of temporary 
advances) 59, 800. 43 

Cash received as royalties from Smithsonian 
Scientific Series 23,404,41 

Cash capital from sale, call of securities, etc. 
(to be reinvested) 157,121.07 

Total receipts other than Freer endowment 394, 871. 85 

Cash income from Freer endowment 233, 079. 22 

Cash capital from sale, call of securities, etc. 

(to be reinvested) 1,059,332.29 

Total receipts from Freer endownment 1, 292, 411. 51 

Total 2, 078, 592. 02 

iThis statement does not include Government appropriations under the administrative 
cliarge of tlie Institution. 



134 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Disbursements : 

From funds for general work of the Institu- 
tion : 

Buildings — care, repairs, and alterations — $2, 852. 33 

Furniture and fixtures 182.43 

General administration' 34,184.52 

Library 2, 129. 85 

Publications (comprising preparation, 

printing, and distribution) 20,378.94 

Researches and explorations 23, 720. 74 

$83, 448. 81 

From funds for specific use, other than Freer 

Endowment : 

Investments made from gifts, from gain 
from sale, etc., of securities and from 
savings on income 26, 774. 50 

Other expenditures, consisting largely of 
research work, travel, increase, and care 
of special collections, etc, from income 
of endowment funds, and from cash gifts 
for specific use (including temporary ad- 
vances) 90,339.94 

Reinvestment of cash capital from sale, call 
of securities, etc 154, 138. 09 

Cost of handling securities, fee of invest- 
ment counsel, and accrued interest on 
bonds purchased 2, 090. 48 

273, 343. 01 

From Freer Endowment : 

Operating expenses of the gallery, salaries, 
field expenses, etc 43, 399. 19 

Purchase of art objects 96,719.64 

Investments made from gain fi'om sale, 
etc., of securities 15,976.19 

Reinvestment of cash capital from sale, 

call of securities, etc 1, 047, 577. 09 

Cost of handling securities, fee of invest- 
ment counsel, and accrued interest on 
bonds purchased 20, 986. 95 

1,224,659.06 

Cash balance June 30, 1941 497,141.14 

Total 2, 078, 592. 02 

* This includes salary of the Secretary and certain others. 

Included in the foregoing are expenditures for researches in pure 
science, publications, explorations, care, increase, and study of col- 
lections, etc., as follows : 

Expenditures from general funds of the Institution : 

Publications $20, 378. 94 

Researches and explorations 23,720.74 

44, 099. 68 



REPORT OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 135 

Expenditures from funds devoted to specific purposes: 

Researches and explorations $60,879.90 

Care, increase, and study of special collections 4, 836. 80 

Publications 5,470.90 

$71, 187. 60 

Total 115, 287. 28 

The practice of depositing on time in local trust companies and 
banks such revenues as may be spared temporarily has been continued 
during the past year, and interest on these deposits has amounted to 
$715.42. 

The Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts or bequests from the 
following : 

Mrs. W. W. Daly, for Smithsonian endowment fund. 

Friends of Dr. Albert S. Hitchcock, for the Hitchcock Agrostological 
Library. 

Cornelia L. Pell, for the Pell Collection. 

Research Corporation, further contributions for research in radiation. 

John A. Roebling, further contributions for research in radiation. 

H. Nelson Slater, for investigations in connection with early cotton ma- 
chinery. 

Julia D. Strong, for National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Mrs. Mary Vaux Walcott, for purchase of certain specimens. 

All payments are made by check, signed by the Secretary of the 
Institution on the Treasurer of the United States, and all revenues 
are deposited to the credit of the same account. In many instances 
deposits are placed in bank for convenience of collection and later 
are withdrawn in round amounts and deposited in the Treasury. 

The foregoing report relates only to the private funds of the 
Institution. 

The following annual appropriations were made by Congress for 
the Government bureaus under the administrative charge of the 
Smithsonian Institution for the fiscal year 1941 : 

General expenses $386,260. 00 

(This combines under one heading the appropriations heretofore 
made for Salaries and Expenses, International Exchanges, 
American Ethnology, Astrophysical Observatory, and Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts of the Smithsonian Institution 
and for Maintenance and Operation of the United States 
National Museum.) 

Preservation of collections 627,470.00 

Printing and binding 73, 000. 00 

National Zoological Park 239,910.00 

Cooperation with the American Republics (transfer to the Smith- 
sonian Institution) 28, 500.00 

Total 1, 355,140. 00 



136 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

The report of the audit of the Smithsonian private funds is printed 

below : 

September 8, 1941. 
Executive Committee, Board of Regb:nts, 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
Sirs: Pursuant to agreement we have audited the accounts of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1941, and certify the balance 
of cash on hand, including Petty Cash Fund, June 30, 1941, to be $499,041.14. 
We have verified the record of receipts and disbursements maintained by 
the Institution and the agreement of the book balances with the bank balances. 
We have examined all the securitites in the custody of the Institution and in 
the custody of the banks and found them to agree with the book records. 

We have compared the stated income of such securities with the receipts 
of record and found them in agreement therewith. 

We have examined all vouchers covering disbursements for account of the 
Institution during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1941, together with the au- 
thority therefor, and have compared them with the Institution's record of 
expenditures and found them to agree. 

We have examined and verified the accounts of the Institution with each trust 
fund. 

We found the books of account and records well and accurately kept and 
the securities conveniently filed and securely cared for. 

All information requested by your auditors was promptly and courteously 
furnished. 

We certify the Balance Sheet, in our opinion, correctly presents the financial 
condition of the Institution as at June 30, 1941. 
Respectfully submitted, 

William L. Yaeqeb, 
Certified Public Accountant. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Frederic A. Delano, 
Vannevar Bush, 

Executive Gom/mAttee. 



GENERAL APPENDIX 

TO THE 

SMITHSONIAN EEPOET FOR 1941 



137 



ADVERTISEMENT 

The object of the General Appendix to the Annual Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution is to furnish brief accounts of scientific dis- 
covery in particuhir directions; reports of investigations made by 
collaborators of the Institution ; and memoirs of a general character 
or on special topics that are of interest or value to the numerous 
correspondents of the Institution. 

It has been a prominent object of the Board of Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution from a very early date to enrich the annual 
report required of them by law with memoirs illustrating the more 
remarkable and important developments in physical and biological 
discovery, as well as showing the general character of the operations 
of the Institution; and, during the greater part of its history, this 
purpose has been carried out largely by the publication of such papers 
as would possess an interest to all attracted by scientific progress. 

In 1880, induced in part by the discontinuance of an annual sum- 
mary of progress which for 30 years previously had been issued by 
well-known private publishing firms, the secretary had a series of 
abstracts prepared by competent collaborators, showing concisely the 
prominent features of recent scientific progress in astronomy, geology, 
meteorology, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, botany, zoology, and 
anthropology. This latter plan was continued, though not altogether 
satisfactorily, down to and including the year 1888. 

In the report for 1889 a return was made to the earlier method of 
presenting a miscellaneous selection of papers (some of them original) 
embracing a considerable range of scientific investigation and discus- 
sion. This method has been continued in the present report for 1941. 

139 



i 



WHAT LIES BETWEEN THE STARS 



By Walter. S. Adams 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Mount Wilson Ohservatory, Pasadena, Calif. 



[With 4 plates] 



We are accustomed to think of the material upon which the astron- 
omer works as consisting mainly of the sun and its planetary system, 
occasional comets, and the vast array of stars and nebulae which dot 
our skies at night. In other words the astronomer is largely con- 
cerned with matter in a sufficiently condensed form either to radiate 
light like the hot sun and stars or to reflect light like the cool planets 
and satellites. In recent years, however, new information has obliged 
us to consider more seriously what lies between the stars, and it is 
this subject which I should like to discuss briefly with you this 
evening. 

In the first place it is interesting to realize how much space there 
really is in our stellar universe and how little of it is actually occu- 
pied by the stars. If this room represented an average portion of 
space and we let a floating speck of dust represent a star, we could 
not allow another speck within the room to represent another star 
because no matter where we put it the two would be too near each 
other. The star nearest to the sun is about 25 million million miles 
away. Another way of realizing how much of space is compar- 
atively empty is through its average density. If we put together 
everything we can observe directly, such as the stars and nebulae, 
in the general neighborhood of our sun, and divide the total by the 
volume of the space in which it lies, we find for each cubic inch 1 
grain of matter divided by 1 followed by 22 ciphers. At the center 
of our galaxy the density is probably 10 times greater. These values 
may perhaps be in error by a factor of 10 but we need not feel the 
deep concern of the individual who thought the lecturer gave 1 
billion instead of 10 billion years for the possible life of our sun 
and was enormously relieved when he discovered his error. 



1 Alexander F. Morrison Lecture. Reprinted by permission from Publications of the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol. 53, No. 312, April 1941. 

141 



142 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

If, at the turn of the century, a layman or even an astronomer 
had been asked what lies in the vast spaces between the stars he 
M^ould probably have answered, "Little or nothing." There might 
be an occasional wandering mass of cold rock like an asteroid or a 
meteorite or specks of dust such as produce our "shooting stars" 
when they strike the earth's atmosphere; but in general, space was 
considered as essentially empty, with practically all the material in 
our galaxy condensed into the stars. 

About 1900 several observations raised serious questions regarding 
the supposed emptiness of space. The most important of these were 
Barnard's photographs of the Milky Way which showed great lanes 
and holelike structures in the huge clouds of stars which compose 
this shining ring of light. To interpret these as real vacancies where 
no stars exist was the natural impulse, but gradually observations 
accumulated which made it impossible to retain this view. The 
"holes" were too sharply bounded and in many cases were associated 
with visible cloudlike luminosity which veiled the region. Moreover 
the presence of numerous long "tunnels" among the stars pointing 
toward the earth seemed altogether improbable. The final evidence 
was afforded by the photographs made at the Lick Observatory of 
the outer universes of stars, the extragalactic nebulae, many of which 
showed definite streaks of absorbing material crossing the main body 
of the nebula. The apparent vacancies were due to the presence of 
dark clouds of cosmic dust which absorb and scatter the light from 
the stars behind, either obliterating them completely or leaving 
them comparatively faint and inconspicuous. 

These cosmic clouds are composed of very finely divided particles 
of dust and are often of enormous extent, especially in the region 
of the Milky Way. When their thickness is great they blot out the 
stars behind them, and when thin they redden the starlight passing 
through them just as dust or smoke in the earth's atmosphere red- 
dens sunlight, especially near sunrise or sunset when the path through 
the dust is long. The importance of these cosmic clouds in astron- 
omy is very great: they affect the brightness and color of every star 
whose light passes through them, and calculations of the distances 
of remote stars, the size of our universe, and the quantity of matter 
within it are all profoundly influenced by the absorption and scatter- 
ing of light in interstellar space. 

I shall not dwell longer on this most interesting question of dust 
clouds in space since many of you heard Dr. Scares give a lecture on 
this subject a few months ago on the occasion of the award to him 
of the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. To 
those of you who may not have heard him I can recommend a 
reading of his admirable presentation of the whole subject in the 



WHAT LIES BETWEEN THE STARS — ADAMS 143 

Publications of the Society .^ Modern observations with blue and 
red color filters show the remarkable degree to which the presence 
of such obscuring clouds modifies the appearance of great areas of 
the sky, especially in the region of the southern Milky Way, and 
illustrate the use made by astronomers of the power of red light to 
penetrate cosmic dust. 

We now know at least three forms of solid matter in interstellar 
space. There are probably dark stars, that is, stars with temperatures 
so low that they give out little or no visible light. If we knew 
where to look we might be able to detect some of them with sensitive 
heat-measuring devices — which will measure the heat given out by a 
candle at a distance of many miles — but as it is we can only infer 
their existence. We know that in the descending scale of stellar 
temperature we find cooler and cooler stars until finally we observe 
objects which give out only a faint red light. It seems reasonable 
to assume that there may be many others with still lower temperatures 
which have become invisible and are gradually approaching the con- 
dition of cold bodies like our planets or asteroids. They are probably 
small stars which have gone through the successive temperature stages 
of stellar development at a rather rapid rate. 

In addition to these occasional dark stars there are in the spaces 
between the visible stars great numbers of smaller masses of matter, 
"chunks" as Dr. Hubble has called them, such as now and then fall 
upon the earth in the form of meteorites. They are cold bodies with 
the chill of the depths of space upon them, commonly ranging in 
mass from a few pounds to a few tons. 

Finally and most important, we have the dust of space, often 
gathered into huge cosmic clouds which weaken or even blot out the 
stars behind them and give us much of the variegated pattern of the 
Milky Way. 

There is, however, another form in which we find matter existing 
in space, matter not in the solid state but in the form of gas, consist- 
ing of molecules, atoms, and even portions of atoms, the tiny elec- 
trons of the physicist. Much of our knowledge of this subject is 
of very recent date, and because it is new and because it is certain 
to afi^ect our views of the conditions in interstellar space I should 
like to discuss it in a simple way this evening. 

This brings us at once to a consideration of a few elementary facts 
about the spectrum, for it is from the spectrum that we gain essen- 
tially all our knowledge of matter in the gaseous state. As you all 
know, white light is a mixture of several primary colors and the 
eye combines them into an impression which we call white. The 



» Pnbl. Astron. Soc. Pacific, vol. 52, p. 80, 1940. 



144 AKNTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

spectrum is simply a map of the colors spread out into a band begin- 
ning with violet at one end and passing through blue, green, and 
yellow into red at the other. It can be produced in several dif- 
ferent ways, the simplest of which is by a triangular piece of glass 
called a prism. Wlien white light passes through a prism the violet 
part of the light is bent a certain amount when it comes out, the 
green a little less, and the red still less. The final result is a con- 
tinuous band of color extending from violet to red. You have all 
seen flashes of such a spectrum when sunlight falls upon a cut-glass 
bowl or the edge of a beveled mirror. 

Now the important fact is that any chemical element, when heated 
to the point where it vaporizes and gives out light, gives it in a 
pattern of colored bright lines which is unique for each element 
and defines it absolutely. Some patterns are comparatively simple, 
while others are exceedingly complex. For example, sodium has 
relatively few lines in its spectrum and nearly all the light which 
sodium vapor emits is concentrated in two strong lines of orange 
color. These are so dominant that they define the color of a sodium 
lamp completely, as you all know who have ridden through the 
yellow glare of the street lights now in such common use. Similarly 
neon gas has its strongest lines in the red portion of the spectrum 
and hence neon signs are red to the eye, while mercury light with 
an exceedingly strong green line in its spectrum is predominantly 
green in color. On the other hand the vapor of iron produced in an 
electric arc has an extraordinarily rich spectrum consisting of some 
2,000 lines distributed throughout all the colors of the spectrum. In 
the absence of predominant lines of one color, luminous iron gas 
appears nearly white to the eye. 

One other fact should be remembered before we pass to our 
immediate astronomical applications of the spectrum. A hot, solid 
body or one consisting of dense gases gives out a spectrum which is a 
continuous band of color, not one of bright lines. When the light from 
such a body, a star for example, passes through a gas of somewhat 
lower temperature the gas will absorb light of just the color of its 
characteristic lines, and we shall have a pattern of absorption or 
dark lines. For example, when the light from the filament of an 
ordinary incandescent lamp is passed through a slightly cooler tube 
of sodium vapor we see the two strong yellow lines of sodium as dark 
lines on the yellow background of light given by the filament. 

In astronomy we have almost a precise analogy to the filament and 
tube of sodium vapor. The body of the sun or of a star corresponds 
to the filament and gives out a continuous band of color, while the 
gaseous atmosphere corresponds to the sodium tube and produces the 
absorption lines. The principal difference is that the atmosphere of 



WHAT LIES BETWEEN THE STARS — ADAMS 145 

a star like our sun contains not only sodium but a great variety of 
other elements and so we get not only sodium lines but an immense 
number of other lines as well — such as those of hydrogen, calcium, 
iron, and some 60 other elements. 

It is hardly necessary to say that the spectra of the elements, these 
characteristic patterns of bright lines which define them uniquely 
and individually, have been studied with extraordinary care by physi- 
cists and astronomers alike for many years. Maps have been made, 
the intensities of the lines measured, and their positions determined 
with an almost uncanny degree of precision. As a result astronomers 
know almost every element which enters into the composition of the 
sun and even the most distant stars, merely through comparison of 
the positions and intensities of the dark lines produced in their at- 
mospheres with the well-recognized bright lines of terrestrial 
elements. 

One other point should be considered. When we observe a star, its 
light comes to us through the earth's atmosphere which is itself com- 
posed of various gases. These gases are cold and because they are 
cold remain in the form of molecules. Intense heat will break up 
molecules into atoms, and in the atmospheres of the hotter stars we 
find only the lines due to atoms. Molecules, however, can also emit 
and absorb light and give spectrum lines arranged in characteristic 
patterns, the principal difference from those produced by atoms being 
that molecules usually give an enormous number of closely packed 
lines arranged in the form of bands. As a result when we observe the 
spectrum of a star we find superposed upon it the bands of gases 
such as oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere 
of the earth. These bands lie mainly in the red and infared portion 
of the spectrum. 

About 40 years ago two very narrow sharp lines were observed in 
the violet part of the spectrum of a star in the constellation of Orion. 
They were at once identified with well-known lines of calcium, but 
their positions did not vary periodically as did those of the lines from 
the star, and it was clear that they were not of stellar origin. They 
were called provisionally "stationary" lines, and Sir Arthur Edding- 
ton suggested the bold hypothesis that they originated in the absorp- 
tion of the atoms of calcium gas in interstellar space. Some 20 years 
later two more such lines were discovered at the Lick Observatory in 
the yellow portion of the spectrum. These are due to sodium and 
are the characteristic lines to which we have already referred. In 
1936, observations with a spectroscope on the 100-inch telescope at 
Mount Wilson led to the discovery of several additional lines, a few 
of which were identified as due to titanium and potassium. By this 
time the interstellar origin of all such lines had been fully established. 



146 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 194 1 

and through the work of Struve, of the Yerkes Observatory, the in- 
tensities of the calcium lines were being used as a measure of the 
distances of the stars in which they were observed. The greater the 
distance of the star, the greater the amount of interstellar gas through 
which its light passes, and the stronger the lines. Several broad hazy 
lines, apparently originating from interstellar gases but differing 
greatly in appearance from the normal sharp lines, had also been 
discovered by Merrill at Mount Wilson. 

Until recent months, accordingly, the situation was that the gases 
of calcium, sodium, titanium, and potassium had been identified in 
interstellar space but that the origin of several fairly conspicuous 
lines still remained unknown. The identified lines all arise from the 
atoms of the elements, and naturally astronomers searched for identi- 
fications of the remaining lines in the atomic spectra of other ele- 
ments. This led to no success, however. The possibility was then 
considered whether the unidentified lines could arise from molecules 
instead of atoms. As I have already said, under ordinary conditions, 
molecules of compounds produce bands consisting of hundreds or 
even thousands of closely packed lines as contrasted with the simpler 
spectrum of relatively few lines arising from the atom. Under the 
conditions of interstellar space, however, with extraordinarily low 
densities and temperatures, the molecular spectrum might well be 
simplified and even reduced to a few observable lines. The suggestion 
that the broad diffuse lines observed by Merrill might have a molecu- 
lar origin was put forward by several investigators, and in the 
specific case of one of the sharp lines discovered at Mount Wilson a 
tentative identification with a line of the common hydrocarbon gas 
CH was offered by Swings and Rosenfeld. An identification resting 
upon a single line, however, necessarily remained somewhat doubtful. 

The next step was taken by McKellar at the Dominion Astro- 
physical Observatory. Applying to molecular spectra the principles 
derived from a study of some of the identified atomic lines, he was 
able to predict the positions of several additional lines for each 
molecular spectrum. Thus if the single relatively prominent line 
tentatively assigned to CH were correctly identified, there should be 
at least three other fainter lines present in another region of the 
spectrum. Similarly McKellar could predict the positions of certain 
lines of the familiar cyanogen gas CN. 

Hence the final solution of the question came back to the observer. 
Since the predicted lines were faint and narrow, it was clear that 
photographic plates of high contrast and fine grain must be used and 
that exposure times would be long. Fortunately a bright star was 
available, Zeta Ophiuchi, lying near the southern Milky Way. The 
100-inch telescope and a spectroscope 114 inches long were used with 



WHAT LIES BETWEEN THE STARS ADAMS 147 

exposure times of about 4 hours. The results were conslusive. The 
predicted lines of hydrocarbon gas CH all appeared in their correct 
positions with their calculated intensities. In the case of cyanogen 
gas CN, the evidence is based upon fewer lines but is equally strong. 
Hence the existence of the gases CH and CN in interstellar space 
may be regarded as practically certain. 

After this brief description of how these discoveries were made, a 
few comments upon the meaning of the results may be of interest. 
In the first place, we have learned that several of the common ele- 
ments exist in space in the form of atoms; sodium, calcium, potas- 
sium, and titanium have been identified, and it is very probable that 
many if not all of the others could be recognized if only conditions 
were favorable for the appearance of their spectra. Then we have 
very recently found that two common gases, or at least two slightly 
modified common gases, are present, cyanogen and hydrocarbon gas. 
This is the first discovery of molecules in interstellar space. That 
hydrogen, the most abundant element of all in the universe, has not 
been discovered directly is due to the fact that the lines which it 
could show under the conditions present in space are in an inaccessi- 
ble part of the spectrum, and, like the lines of many other important 
elements, are cut off by the ozone in the earth's atmosphere, which in 
the words of Russell "lies like a black pall upon the dreams of the 
astrophysicist." However, we do find hydrogen combined with 
carbon in hydrocarbon gas and thus have ample evidence for its 
presence. 

Although the lines of hydrocarbon gas are well marked and at 
least one of them is fairly conspicuous, it is the enormous length of 
the path of light from the stars rather than the density of the gas 
which provides enough absorbing molecules. The actual density is 
extraordinarily low. In a cubic mile of space there are probably 
only a very few thousand molecules ; and when we remember that the 
diameter of a molecule is less than one ten-millionth of an inch it is 
easy to see that very little of the space is occupied. But if the path 
is long enough, a good many molecules will be encountered by the 
light from a distant star, and observable absorption lines will result. 
The same reasoning holds true for lines originating from atoms such 
as sodium and calcium. Dunham estimates that there is one sodium 
atom in about 25 cubic yards of space, and yet in the spectra of very 
distant stars the interstellar sodium lines are conspicuous. 

A calculation by Russell of the average density of interstellar gas 
in general gives a value of about 2 preceded by 24 ciphers of the 
density of water. So great are the distances, however, that in the 
volume of space whose radius is equal to that of the nearest fixed 
star, the mass of the interstellar gas amounts to about one-fourth 

430577 — J2 11 



148 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

the mass of the sun. So if we consider the huge dimensions of our 
galaxy, the amount of matter contributed by interstellar gases is by 
no means negligible. 

An interesting and somewhat amusing subject is that of the tem- 
perature of these gases in space. We are accustomed to dwell upon 
the intense cold of outer space far removed from the heat of any 
nearby star and we are quite right in doing so. A thermometer placed 
in interstellar space would show a temperature of about 3° above 
absolute zero on the Centigrade scale or about 455° below zero on the 
usual Fahrenheit scale. But this is by no means the temperature of 
the atoms or molecules of a highly diffuse gas. In such a gas the 
effect of the radiation of a star which falls upon an atom is to drive 
out electrons, or, to use a technical word, to ionize it. It is the same 
process which happens when light falls upon a photoelectric cell: 
electrons are driven out and the energy of these electrons when ampli- 
fied rings a burglar alarm or opens a garage door. The electrons in 
space have a temperature depending upon the mean energy with 
which they are driven out of the atom, and when they collide with the 
atom they raise its temperature. Thus the atoms and molecules of | 
gas are lifted to a high temperature estimated at some 10,000° to j 
20,000° on the Fahrenheit scale. The interesting feature about the 
process, as Eddington has shown, is that it depends upon the quality 
and not the quantity of the radiation, so that the temperature of a 
gas far in space will be just as high as if it were near a star. The 
rate of production of electrons will be slower but the temperature will 
not be affected. So we may say that we have two kinds of tempera- 
ture in space, one of space itself as registered by a thermometer, and 
a very different one for the gases, which through their remarkable 
structure are able to build up and maintain a temperature of thou- 
sands of degrees in spite of the bitter cold of the medium which 
surrounds them. 

There is one other interesting characteristic of the molecules and 
atoms in our interstellar gases. Under ordinary conditions such as 
in a physical laboratory they are in a wild state of excitement, flying :^ 
about rapidly, colliding with one another and knocking off and 
picking up electrons in a fraction of a millionth of a second. In the 
extremely rarefied conditions of gas in space, however, the situation 
is quite different. Collisions are extremely rare and the atoms and 
molecules can remain for weeks and perhaps even months in the least 
excited state which the state of their being will allow them to have. 
To use a homely comparison, if we touch a sleeping cat the cat 
responds with a a twitch of an ear or a leg which represents the least 
possible disturbance to its equilibrium. So the lazy molecules of 
space when disturbed by a ray of light or heat from a star seek to 



WHAT LIES BETWEEN THE STARS — ADAMS 149 

move as little as possible from their condition of rest and the spec- 
trum lines which we observe are those due to transitions of this sort. 
This is the reason why the complicated spectrum of a gas like cyano- 
gen, consisting of hundreds of closely packed lines, is reduced to a 
meager three or four lines when observed in interstellar space. 
These are the only lines which the molecule in its lowest state of 
energy can absorb. 

In this brief outline we have discussed the gaseous material of 
space, how it is studied, and what we know about its composition, 
temperature, and density. We have seen that three of the most im- 
portant elements which enter into the composition of the universe, 
hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon, are present in the form of compounds, 
and that others as yet unidentified are represented by spectral lines in 
the interstellar gases. If in most of our considerations we have had 
our ciphers on the left-hand side of the significant figures instead of 
the right, it is because we have been dealing with atoms and molecules 
instead of stars and universes. Even so, such is the volume of space 
that the mass of the dust and gas which lies between the stars may 
well exceed by several fold all the matter actually visible with our 
greatest telescopes. 



Smithsonian Report. 1941. — Adams 



PLATE 1 




Ked 



FIELD OF NGC 6553. 

Photographed bv Baade in blue and in red light. The exposure times were so chosen that an unobscured 
field of normal color would have appeared similar on the two photographs. Clouds of cosmic dust be- 
tween us and the stars scatter and absorb the blue light much more than the red. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Adams 



PLATE 2 



AVg> 4000 



CONTINUOUS 



INTER- 



STELLAR 



HYDROGEN 



COMBINED 



Ca H H Na 



EARTH 



Diagram Showing the Origin of the Continuous Spectrum and Various 
Types of absorption lines in Stellar Spectra. 



'^^H'S 


He 




K H 




'-'" ■ 




4232.6 


4300.3 . 






3874.6 


3886.4 3890.2 



i 



2. Stellar Spectra Showing Absorption lines Due to Interstellar Gases. 

a, 55 Cygni. H and K lines due to interstellar ionized calcium, and diffuse lines due to stellar elements. 

b, f Ophiuchi. Interstellar lines \ 4232, unidentified, and X 4300, hydrocarbon cas (CH). 

c. ^O nhiuchi. Interstellar lines of CH, X 3886 and X 3890; also X 3874.6 and a trace of X 3874.0, both cyanogen 
(ON). 



'^-^2*. 



z 
J 

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< CO 

-J ro 

-I m 

LU . 

I- tM 

(/) -T 

UJ t^ 



«y 



5 

t 




Ul 

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a: -B 

< ° 

X > 

I 

5 I 

u £ 

UI t* 




ARTIFICIAL CONVERTERS OF SOLAR ENERGY ^ 



By H. C. Hotter 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



A study of the literature on solar energy utilization has convinced 
me of the existence of an unalterable tradition among speakers and 
writers on the subject. One must always begin such a discussion by 
expressing the earth's reception of solar energy in units no one has 
thought before to use, the more startling the better. In keeping 
with this tradition, I shall mention a few old figures and add my 
own. The earth and its atmosphere intercept the equivalent in 
energy of 21 billion tons of coal per hour ; 6 million tons per second ; 
the equivalent in 3 minutes of the annual American energy consump- 
tion of about 1 billion tons; energy at a rate sufficient each year to 
melt a layer of ice 114 feet thick ; on an acre at noon the equivalent 
of the discharge of a healthy stream from a garden hose spouting 
fuel oil instead of water. 

Having made the conventional beginning, let me add what many 
of you know : that figures such as these are almost irrelevant to the 
problem of practical utilization of solar energy. They have attracted 
uncounted crank inventors who have approached the problem with 
little more mental equipment than a rosy optimism. Now, an in- 
formed pessimism is sometimes the healthiest mood in which to 
approach an engineering problem ; and I want to use a little space in 
an endeavor to put you in that mood. Consider a solar power plant 
utilizing 1 acre of land, and operating on the principle of conversion 
of solar energy to heat in steam used to run an engine. There is 
incident at noon, normal to the sun's rays and outside the earth's 
atmosphere, 7,400 horsepower of solar energy. On a clear day, of 
this quantity about 5,000 horsepower arrives at the earth. Allowing 
for the efficiency of collection of the sunlight as heat in the working 
fluid to be used in the engine, the quantity drops to about 3,300 horse- 
power. Utilizing the highest achieved efficiency of conversion of 
solar heat to useful power (results of Dr. Abbot's experiments), the 



1 Presented before the symposium on Solar Energy, Harvard Chapter, Spring, 1940. Re- 
printed by permission from Sigma Xi Quarterly, vol. 29, No. 1, April 1941. 

151 



152 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

horsepower output drops to 490. These calculations have so far all 
been on the assumption of normal incidence of the sun on the collector 
systems. To achieve this the collector must be mounted to turn with 
the sun and must be far enough from its neighbor not to shade the 
latter in morning or afternoon. Introducing a ground-coverage fac- 
tor of one-third to allow for this, the output is cut to 163 horsepower. 
But this figure applies only to the hours when the sun shines with 
full intensity. Converting to a 24-hour basis of operation on clear 
days in summer in Arizona, the output drops to 83 ; or in winter to 
46 horsepower ; or for the year to 68 horsepower. Passing on to the 
average year of New York weather, the output is down to 30 horse- 
power. Even if one stops at a reasonably attainable value of 50 
horsepower in Arizona, that figure is one one-hundred-and-fiftieth 
of the original 7,400 horsepower. 

For rough orientation as to the meaning of these figures, suppose 
the possibility of a 50-horsepower steady output from an acre in 
Arizona be accepted. To evaluate this power, let it be assumed that 
electric power can be produced in a large modern steam plant at a 
cost of 0.6 cents per kw.-hr., or $53 a kilowatt year, making the out- 
put of our 1 acre worth $1,900 per year. In the absence of knowledge 
of labor costs, maintenance, etc., one can only guess the capital value 
of such an output. Capitalization at 15 percent is almost certainly 
overoptimistic, and even that yields but $13,000 to spend on the en- 
tire plant, or about $2.60 per square yard. Since the ground coverage 
is but one-third, $8 are available to build each square yard of re- 
flectors, mounts, and accessories. The result is one so often encoun- 
tered in engineering projects : indecisive. It may be possible to build 
a plant for such an amount ; much more exact knowledge of perform- 
ance and costs is necessary than was at hand in making the above 
rough estimate. What I have particularly wanted to emphasize by 
this preliminary consideration is perfectly obvious to the engineer, 
namely, that solar power is not there just for the taking! 

However, this preview has at least indicated that solar power is 
not completely outside the realm of economic feasibility. It is worth- 
while, then, to examine in more detail the problem of use of solar 
energy by conversion to heat, a problem which has commanded the 
attention of engineers for three-quarters of a century. 

First, a moment on some elementary principles of heat transmis- 
sion. If a black metal plate is exposed to the sun, and cooling water 
is run under the plate fast enough to keep the plate from rising 
appreciably above the surrounding air temperature, substantially all 
the energy of the sun's rays intercepted by the plate shows up as 
energy in the water; the efficiency of collection of heat is nearly 100 
percent, but the value of the heat is low because of its low tempera- 



CONVERTERS OF SOLAR ENERGY — ^HOTTEL 153 

ture level. If the water enters 50° F. above the surrounding air 
temperature and flows through fast enough hardly to rise in tem- 
perature, there is the same interception and absorption of solar 
energy by the plate ; but now much of it is used in keeping the plate 
up to temperature; it is lost to the surroundings by radiation and 
convection, and very little of the absorbed energy appears in the 
water stream. To improve the efficiency the losses must be cut down. 
There are several ways. The back side of the plate may be insulated, 
since it never sees the sun. Or a plate of glass may be placed over 
the metal plate and parallel to it, with an inch or so of air space 
between. Then the plate receives and absorbs almost as much sun- 
light as before — the glass transmits about 90 percent — ^but the losses 
from the metal to the outer atmosphere are reduced : the convection 
loss because of the imposed stagnation of the air, and the radiation 
loss because glass, though transparent to the sun's rays, is opaque 
to the long- wave infrared radiation emitted by the hot metal plate. 
Variations of this idea include the use of several glass plates and of 
glass vacuum chambers. Another method of cutting down losses is 
to reduce the area at which losses occur relative to the area of the 
interceptor of the energy to be collected. This may be done by 
choosing the most favorable orientation of the plate, that is, normal 
to the sun's rays, or by use of a concentrating device, such as a mirror, 
which intercepts rays covering a large area and brings them to a 
focus on an object of much smaller area where the heat loss is 
consequently correspondingly small despite the high temperature. 
From this discussion there emerges a threefold basis of classifica- 
tion of solar energy collectors: (1) By nature of orientation of the 
collector (whether and how completely it follows the sun), (2) by 
amount of concentration achieved by mirrors, (3) by amount and type 
of insulation of the receiver surface. It is perfectly obvious that 
many of the early inventors and engineers in this field were familiar 
with these principles in a general way. 

One might now ask, "With all this work, have not the possibilities 
of energy production by conversion to heat been so thoroughly studied 
as to yield a definite answer?" Unfortunately, no. Qualitative 
familiarity with the principles involved, these men had certainly ; but 
with the exception of the work of Dr. Abbot, their experiments and 
records indicate inadequate quantitative knowledge of the problem. 
As an exemple, consider the simplest possible collector, the flat plate 
insulated with several air-spaced glass layers. Willsie's work at 
Needles in 1909 indicated the possibilities of this simplest of solar 
plants, but it left unanswered the question of merit relative to the 
much more efficient— and more expensive— plant of Abbot, and did 
not yield data permitting the design of such a plant for any given 



154 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

climate. Among the projects at M. I. T. made possible by Dr. God- 
frey Cabot's endowment for research on utilization of solar energy 
is one having as its first objective the determination of the perform- 
ance characteristics of solar energy collectors of different types, the 
performance, of course, being correlated with records of incident 
solar energy so as to permit calculations of expected performance 
in any locality where sunlight records are available. The first and 
so far the only type of collector studied has been the flat plate, which 
will now be considered briefly. 

Since each additional layer of glass and air cuts down the losses 
from such a plate, it is apparent that with glass having perfect 
transmission one could build a collector which, without any focusing 
or concentrating device, would still collect efficiently at a very high 
temperature level. But the best glass is not perfect. It doesn't ab- 
sorb much solar energy when one picks the right glass — and there is 
ample evidence that early experimenters were too casual in their choice 
of glass in that respect — ^but there is a reflection loss of about 4 per- 
cent at each surface. Consequently, as glass plates are added the 
point is ultimately reached where the reduction in heat loss from the 
metal plate is more than offset by the reduction in intensity of in- 
cident radiation due to reflection losses. The optimum number of 
plates to use will be less the more intense the sunlight, more the 
colder the weather and the higher the temperature of collection of 
heat. 

The controlling part played by reflection losses in the design of 
flat-plate collectors having been brought out, the desirability of a low 
reflecting glass was discussed with Professor Hardy, of our Physics 
Department. The result was the invention by Drs. Turner and Cart- 
wright of a method of processing glass to give it a permanent sur- 
face of reflectivity approaching zero at one point in the spectrum. 
The process has already demonstrated its importance in a great many 
uses ranging from spectacle lenses through bomb sights to high-speed 
cameras and the solar-corona camera which was described in the first 
article of this series. Here is an excellent example of a need in one 
field stimulating research, the results of which have many applica- 
tions in other fields. The special glass has not yet been used for an 
experimental solar-energy collector, but calculations indicate that 
its use should make possible the attainment of temperatures up to 
800° F. without any mirrors or lenses or so-called concentrating 
devices. 

Another problem of flat-plate collectors is that of optimum tilt. 
Obviously they are too cheap a type of collector system to warrant 
being mounted to follow the sun, but they may profitably be tilted 
permanently toward the Equator. A little consideration will in- 
dicate that the optimum tilt depends very definitely on the use to 



CONVERTERS OF SOLAR ENERGY — HOTTEL 155 

which the collected heat is to be put. If the objective is the max- 
imum collection during the entire year, tilting should favor the sum- 
mer season. If, on the other hand, the objective is to supply heat for 
a load which varies throughout the year, the tilt should be chosen to 
favor that part of the year in which the load is highest. 

As to the use of such collectors, it has already been indicated that 
one must find first just what they can do. But speculation is permissi- 
ble. One might visualize a large artificial lake with sloped sides 
formed by throwing up an earthen ring around a surface-scraped cen- 
ter, the bottom and sloping sides being surfaced with asphalt. Float- 
ing on this lake, which is, say, 20 to 40 feet deep, is an enormous raft 
covering it completely. On the raft is a layer of insulation, then a sys- 
tem of flat-plate collectors. Forced circulation of lake water through 
the collectors whenever they attain a temperature above the reser- 
voir will produce a large body of hot water available for continuous 
operation of a power plant. The working fluid in the engine might 
be low-pressure steam or, to cut down engine size, a fluid which 
boils at lower temperatures. It is not possible to state at this time 
whether such an idea has possibilities. 

Another less ambitious use of flat-plate collectors might be that of 
house heating in relatively cold but sunny climates, or summer air 
conditioning. Some preliminary figures may indicate the prospects 
in this direction. Consider house heating in New England, and 
take as a basis the furnishing of one therm of heat throughout the 
heating season — 100,000 B. t. u. : the heat obtained by burning 1 
gallon of fuel oil with normal efficiency of combustion. If 1 square 
foot of flat-plate receiver covered with three plates of glass and 
tilted 40° southward is operated in connection with 1^/^ cubic feet 
of water in a well-insulated tank, and the water is pumped from 
the tank to the receiver and back whenever the receiver is hotter 
than the tank, the combination will supply all but 15 percent of the 
100,000 B. t. u. required during the season; the 15 percent has to be 
supplied as auxiliary heat in December, January, and February. 
The value of the heat saved is the cost of 0.85 gallons of fuel oil, or 
about 6 cents. Capitalizing this at 6 percent gives only $1 available 
to be spent on the roof collector and tank. This is plainly not enough, 
but the answer is interesting because we have not determined the 
optimum number of glass plates, or tilt, or ratio of roof to tank 
area, or considered the possibility of some day having treated glass of 
lower reflectivity. More particularly, the idea looks interesting for 
localities where the ratio of winter to summer sunshine is somewhat 
more favorable than in Boston, and the winter heating requirements 
somewhat lower. According to a recent publication of Dr. Abbot's, 
Dr. F, G. Cottrell has proposed a somewhat similar storage system 
in which sand is to be used instead of water. Whether the ad- 



156 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

vantages of low-cost installation and ability to store heat at a higher 
temperature would be offset by the disadvantage of lower efficiency 
of collection is a point requiring study. 

Wliether the use of flat-plate collectors together with a storage 
system is economically possible for house heating or air conditioning 
in certain areas of the earth, whether other types of collector will 
prove cheaper for these uses or for power generation, whether power 
generation from solar heat demands the development of a new 
heat-engine cycle, and whether power generation by any process 
dependent on direct conversion of sunlight into heat with consequent 
unavoidable losses due to the degradation of energy is sound — these 
are questions which it is hoped this program will help to answer. 
Regardless of the result, the present considerable and increasing 
importance of solar heat for hot water in certain parts of this coun- 
try indicates the need for a comprehensive study of the factors 
involved in the design of collectors. 

Now to come to a second project, related to the one just dis- 
cussed. Conventional heat-power plants are characterized by a cost 
of power production depending enormously on the capacity of the 
plant; and we have seen that solar power does not now look very 
attractive when compared to large-scale operation of steam plants. 
If, on the other hand, it were possible to operate small solar plants 
with an efficiency comparable to large ones, the comparison with 
fuel-fired plants might lead to some very different conclusions. 
So far as the collectors of the sunlight are concerned there is little 
indication that the cost should be other than proportional to the 
amount of collector area. If then it were possible to devise an 
engine with moderate efficiency even in small units, one might have 
something worthwhile. The second project is, in effect, a study 
of a type of engine which may have just such desired characteristics. 
When two dissimilar conducting materials are joined to form a 
loop and the two junctions are kept at different temperatures, heat 
flows into the loop at the hot junction, a portion of its energy is 
converted to electrical energy and the rest flows out of the cold 
junction as heat. The phenomenon involved here has itself long 
been known; many investigators have been led to speculate upon it 
as a possibility for large-scale thermoelectric power production, but 
then to dismiss it as unimportant because the effect is small. Of the 
early experiments in this field, the best yielded an over-all efficiency 
of conversion of energy from gas to electricity of only 0.6 percent. 
Consequently, until recently, thi>, sole use of the phenomenon has been 
in the measurement of temperature. 

In trying to better these results, one naturally asks, first, the ques- 
tion "What property must a metal or alloy have besides high thermo- 
electric power if it is to be of interest for heat-power generation?" 



CONVERTERS OF SOLAR ENERGY — ^HOTTEL 157 

Plainly, the material should have a low thermal conductivity to 
minimize the loss of heat flowing from the hot to the cold junction. 
Moreover, the electrical conductivity should be as high as possible 
in order not to dissipate an excessive amount of electrical energy 
as heat within the "engine." The ratio of the two quantities, thermal 
conductivity to electrical conductivity, is known as the Wiedemann- 
Franz ratio; and it has just been shown that this ratio should be 
as low as possible. A correlation of data from the literature and a 
consideration of theoretical limitations indicate a sort of conspiracy 
on the part of Nature to prevent the finding of any material with 
a Wiedemann-Franz ratio less than a certain minimum value. A 
study of the properties of zinc-antimony alloys indicates that the 
thermoelectric power is a maximum for an alloy containing 36 per- 
cent zinc, but that, owing to the extremely abnormal value of the 
Wiedemann-Franz ratio in this alloy, there is an advantage in use 
of an alloy containing 43 percent zinc, since the thermoelectric power 
of such an alloy is almost as good as the best, and the Wiedemann- 
Franz ratio is very much more favorable. 

An "engine" consisting of an alloy of zinc and antimony contain- 
ing 43 percent zinc against the alloy copel has been found to produce 
a 5 percent useful conversion of heat to electrical power in the 
external circuit, when the temperature difference of the hot and cold 
junctions of the system is maintained at 400° C. To the layman 
this may not sound very imposing, but it is to be remembered that 
25-percent efficiency is attained only in the best of modem steam 
power plants and that 5 percent would not be considered bad for a 
small engine. Moreover, it is to be remembered that a great many 
alloys and compounds exist, the thermoelectric properties of which 
are unknown, that it is not inconceivable that further study of the 
problem may produce a material increase in efficiency in this kind 
of an engine. With such an idea in mind, there has been initiated 
at M. I. T. a program of study of the thermoelectric properties of 
various compounds and alloys. The work is in too early a stage to 
justify consideration at the present time. 

So far in this discussion only the so-called heat engine has been 
considered as a means of conversion of solar enregy to useful power. 
The term, to an engineer, means a device which receives energy as 
heat at a certain temperature, converts part of that energy to useful 
power and throws away the rest to a so-called heat sink at a second 
lower temperature. That this discussion was concerned in the first 
instance with the use of steam in the engine and in the second in- 
stance with the use of a thermocouple for conversion to power is 
immaterial; in each case the first step has been the conversion of 
solar energy to heat. Now, there is available to the scientist and 
engineer a powerful tool, known as the second law of thermodynam- 



158 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

ics, that permits him to appraise the possibilities of the heat engine ; 
and it tells him, for example, that the enormous reservoir of heat 
which the earth's atmosphere constitutes is not available for use in a 
heat engine. This same second law of thermodynamics states that, 
in the act of collecting sunlight and converting it to heat at a lower 
temperature level, a degradation of solar energy has occurred; the 
energy has been made less available for conversion to power even 
though none of it has been lost; and no process — no matter how 
clever the inventor — can restore the energy to a form as intrinsically 
useful as when it arrived here as solar energy just before its conver- 
sion to heat. 

In consequence of this important limitation on what can be ex- 
pected so long as one's interest is restricted to heat engines, it is 
appropriate to consider other means of conversion of solar energy to 
power which do not involve as a first step the collection of the energy 
as heat, but which instead make use of the special nature of the 
energy as it arrives. Solar energy reaching the earth consists of a 
jumbled mass of radiations of wave lengths varying from the short 
ultraviolet through the visible spectrum and out into the infrared, 
roughly one-third of the total energy lying in the visible spectrum. 
The radiation might be likened, if the analogy is not pushed too far, 
to a shower of bullets — unit quantities of energy, known as quanta, 
each of a particular wave length. The quanta of shortest wave 
lengths have the greatest unit energy content ; and almost two-thirds 
of the total energy consists of relatively impotent quanta in the 
infrared. If, instead of pouring all these quanta into the funnel of 
a heat engine, they are given a chance to show their individuality, 
what are their specialties? One, of particular interest to us at pres- 
ent, is the phenomenon of photoelectricity, the ability of light quanta 
of certain wave lengths to knock electrons out of atoms or atomic 
lattices in crystals and produce an electric current. 

Many of you have encountered this phenomenon in using that type 
of camera exposure meter which indicates on a dial the intensity of 
illumination. Light is there being converted into electrical energy 
which is in turn used to make the galvanometer needle move. The 
light-sensitive unit of such a device is one of two kinds, each referred 
to as a blocking-layer photocell. The copper oxide cell is typical ; it 
consists of a massive plate of copper which has been oxidized on one 
face and then etched, to produce thereby a layer grading from 
cuprous oxide through all proportions of oxygen down to pure cop- 
per. The cuprous oxide surface is covered with a thin film of an- 
other metal, so thin as to be transparent to light quanta. There is 
thus produced a sandwich in which the outer layers are metal and 
the inside layers consist of material graded in character in a direc- 
tion normal to the surface. If a quantum of visible light strikes 



CONVERTERS OF SOLAR ENERGY — ^HOTTEL 159 

the thin metal cover of the cuprous oxide, it passes through that and 
through the cuprous oxide layer, penetrating to some point in the 
structure where the composition lies between that of cuprous oxide 
and copper (the so-called blocking layer) ; and there the quantum — 
the bullet of energy — succeeds in knocking out an electron from the 
crystal lattice. The electron, being liberated in territory where the 
view depends on which way it looks, finds, in general, that the going 
is easier when it migrates toward the copper rather than through the 
cuprous oxide to the other metal film. This preferential movement 
of the electrons in one direction constitutes an electric current. 

How important is this phenomenon for power generation from 
sunlight? Tests on copper oxide photocells indicate that of the 
visible light quanta falling on such a cell only about 5 percent suc- 
ceed in causing an electron to show up in the external electric circuit, 
that, furthermore, the voltage efficiency of the system is only about 
10 percent, with a consequent over-all efficiency of conversion of 
luminous energy to power of one-half of 1 percent. Preliminary 
calculations indicate that a tenfold increase in this efficiency would 
make copper oxide cells interesting for solar power production ; and 
there is no present reason to believe such an accomplishment im- 
possible. It is not easy, however, for the physicist doesn't really 
know just what goes on in the blocking layer of the photocell. 
Clearly the problem is one which demands a fundamental study com- 
pletely divorced from any present considerations of a practical nature. 
Such a project has been initiated in our Electrical Engineering Depart- 
ment in connection with a broad program of study of insulators and 
semiconductors — the cuprous oxide of our photocell is such — from the 
atomphysical viewpoint. The problem is really one of studying the 
laws of motion of electrons in semiconductors; the effect of crystal 
versus amorphous structure; of crystal structures in which there is 
strong ionic binding, such as sodium chloride versus crystal struc- 
tures in which the bonding is atomic, as in sulfur; the effect of tem- 
perature on conduction and break-down in insulators; the effect of 
an excess of one of the components of a crystalline compound present 
in the crystal. When the nature of the migration of electrons in 
semiconductors is better understood, when their interaction with the 
lattice structure is able to be formulated quantitatively, then one can 
attack with some hope of success the difficult barrier-layer photocell 
problem. Whether such an attack succeeds or not, the knowledge 
acquired in the course of the problem is certain to be of enormous 
value in a field of great practical importance, insulation research. 

I come now to the last of the M. I. T. solar-energy projects, one 
which like the previous one depends on the special properties of 
sunlight rather than its over-all energy content. Dr. Thimann 



160 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

pointed out in his contribution ^ our complete dependence on the proc- 
ess known as photosynthesis : the use by green plants of solar energy 
in the visible spectrum to produce carbohydrates out of carbon doxide 
and water. He also emphasized the extreme complexity of the proc- 
ess — the fact that no one has been able to extract the essential 
chlorophyll and carotenoids from a plant leaf and make the reaction 
go in a test tube. By some process, which we have hardly begun to 
imderstand, the leaf structure succeeds in capturing the energy of 
sunlight and transferring it to the reaction: carbon dioxide + 
water = carbohydrate + oxygen, a reaction absorbing 112 kilocal- 
ories per gram atom of carbon. But to store solar energy chemically 
one does not have to carry out the same reaction that nature does; 
any chemical reaction which absorbs energy and produces a fuellike 
product capable of later combustion to return the energy for use at 
the proper time would be acceptable. Chemical industry has often 
succeeded in competing with nature in the production of a material 
of desired characteristics, not by attempting a complete imitation of 
nature, but by focusing attention on those properties of the natural 
material important to its use and imitating them with a synthetic 
product, perhaps chemically quite different from nature's product. 

In the photochemical field, then, a combination of sensitizers and 
catalysts might be attempted that would allow us to perform some 
relatively simple energy-storing reaction such as the decomposition 
of water. A major problem woulH be to provide suitable inter- 
mediate steps in the process in order that the relatively small energy 
quanta, which constitute visible light, could be used in stepwise fash- 
ion such as nature apparently uses them in the photosynthetic ap- 
paratus of green plants. The photochemical system would probably 
have one of the characteristics of the photochemical system of the 
plant, namly heterogeneity. But the heterogeneity might be accom- 
plished not by constructing some sort of imitation leaf, but rather, 
for example, by a colloidal solution. 

Another approach to the problem is possible. We may renounce 
the production of metastable products or mixtures with a high con- 
tent of chemical energy — fuels or explosives — and turn our attention 
to the utilization of the energy of the unstable intermediate products 
obtained in almost every photochemical reaction. Among the ways 
of utilizing these products is to convert their high energy content 
into electrical energy. A reaction must be found in which passage 
from the unstable to the stable state can be made to proceed as an 
electrode reaction in a galvanic cell. Examples of this kind are 
oxidation-reduction reactions in electrolytes. The properties of such 
a reaction, carried out in what is known as a photogalvanic cell, are 

»Thlmann, Kenneth V., The action of light on organisms. Sigma XI Quart., vol. 29, 
No. 1, pp. 23-35, April 1941. 



CONVERTERS OF SOIAR ENERGY — ^HOTTEL 161 

being studied at the Institute. The system chosen consists of an or- 
ganic dye, thionine, and ferrous iron in the form, for example, of a 
ferrous sulfate solution. The two components form in the solution 
a reversible oxidation-reduction system. 

(dyestuff) +Fe++?± leukodyestuff+Fe+++ 

t 
(colorless) 

Ferric iron is a much stronger oxidizing agent than thionine ; there- 
fore, in the dark, all the thionine is in the form of the dye, and all 
the iron in the ferrous form. If, however, the mixture is illuminated 
by the light absorbed by thionine — i. e,, visible light in the region 
5000-7000 A. (green, yellow, red light) — the thionine molecules are 
activated by light and become capable of oxidizing ferrous iron. 
Since the reduced thionine is colorless, the reaction is recognized by a 
decoloration of the solution. This bleaching proceeds to a steady 
state, whose exact character depends on the intensity of illumination. 
In this state, the velocity of the photochemical bleaching reaction 
is exactly compensated by that of the back-reaction restoring the 
equilibrium. As soon as the light is switched off, the system reverts 
to its original state. 

Experiments have been conducted on the kinetics of this interesting 
photochemical process, using a photometric method for the determina- 
tion of the concentration of the dye under different conditions. Of 
more interest in the present connection is the electrochemical effect of 
light in the thionine-iron system. As the composition of the solution 
changes through illumination, its electrode potential is also changed ; 
if two platinum electrodes are placed in the solution and the electro- 
lyte surrounding one of them is illuminated while the other is kept 
dark, a potential difference is established between the two electrodes 
and a current flows from the dark to the illuminated electrode. 
The problem of the photogalvanic effect demonstrated by this experi- 
ment has two elements : the first and simpler question is that of the 
electromotive force produced by a given illumination; the second is 
that of the current that can be drawn from such a photogalvanic 
cell. 

So far, experiments have been concerned with the first part of the 
problem. The photogalvanic potential of the thionine-iron system 
has been measured in relation to the concentrations of all the compo- 
nents and the light intensity. A pronounced maximum of potential 
is found at a certain concentration of the dyestuff, and a strong in- 
crease in effect with decreasing acidity of the solution. From such 
experiments, it has been possible to develop a quantitative picture of 
the photogalvanic effect in satisfactory agreement with the experi- 
mental results. The next step is a study of the factors affecting cur- 



162 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

rent withdrawal from such a device, a phase of the program which 
has just commenced. 

As to whether photogalvanic cells of this or similar types have 
practical importance as solar energy converters it is too early to 
hazard an opinion. Certainly their study has the merit of presenting 
problems in photochemistry which, while complex, are not so complex 
as to defy analytical treatment. In that respect they satisfy the 
condition which the scientist has learned to impose on himself, namely, 
not to ask questions of Nature which are so difficult that he cannot 
yet begin to understand her answer. 

In summary, I have tried to point out that the best-known method 
of utilizing solar energy by artificial means is the relatively simple 
one of first converting the energy to heat; that, today, engineering 
data are inadequate properly to determine the value of such heat, 
whether for conventional use as heat or for conversion to power; 
that, if heat is converted to power, we are limited in possible efficiency 
by the second law of thermodynamics ; that consequently it is necessary 
to turn to the fields of photochemistry and photoelectricity where 
theoretical limitations on expected output are less severe; that in 
turning to these fields it is found that the problems which arise are 
of so complicated a nature as to point plainly to the need for a long- 
range program of research into fundamental phenomena, research 
divorced almost completely for the time being from any considera- 
tions of a practical nature. To summarize this summary, with respect 
to the future of solar energy utilization, your guess is as good as 
mine. 

REFERENCES 

Abbot, C. G. 

1929. The siin and the welfare of m'an. Smithsonian Sci. Ser., vol. 2. 

New York. 
1939. Utilizing heat from the sun. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 98, No. 5. 

ACKEEMANN, A. S. E. 

1915. The utilisation of solar energy. Journ. Roy. Soc. Arts, vol. 63, No. 
3257, pp. 538-562, April. 
Beooks, F. a. 

1936. Solar energy and its use for heating water in California. Univ. Cali- 
fornia, Coll. Agr. Bull. 602, November. 
Epstein, Leo F., Kaeush, F., and Rabinowitch, E. A. 

1941. A spectrophotometric study of thionine. Journ. Opt. Soc. Amer., 

vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 77-84. 
HoTTEL, H. C. and Woebtz, B. B. 

1942. The performance of flat-plate solar heat collectors. Trans. Amer. 

Soc. Mech. Eng. February. 
Rabinowitch, E. 

1940a. The photogalvanic effect. I. The photochemical properties of the 

thionine-iron system. Journ. Chem. Phys., vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 551-559. 

1940b. The photogalvanic effect. II. The photogalvanic properties of the 

thionine-iron system. Journ. Chem. Phys., vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 560-566. 



THE NEW FRONTIERS IN THE ATOM^ 



By Eenest O. Lawbence 
The University of California 



[With 9 plates] 



The anniversary celebration of a great university is indeed an 
important occasion, and it is appropriate to signalize the event by a 
symposium on "The University and the Future of America," for a 
a great institution of learning is eternally youthful, and youth looks 
always to the future. I am greatly honored to be included in this dis- 
tinguished gathering, and it gives me especial pleasure to join in wish- 
ing our sister institution many happy returns. 

In a discussion bearing on the future, the scientist is always in some- 
thing of a dilemma. On the one hand, he is cautioned to make only 
very limited prognostications, for he has learned the very limited 
region of applicability of existing knowledge and the likelihood of 
error in speculation. On the other hand, he faces the future with eager 
excitement and curiosity about what is beyond the present frontiers 
of knowledge, and he is naturally tempted to speculate and indeed 
to indulge in day dreams. Perhaps I may convey something of whajfe 
is in the minds of physicists these days by a brief discussion of some' 
recent developments of the current intensive attack on the new frontier 
in the atomic world — the nucleus of the atom. 

ATOMS 

The atomic constitution of matter has long been a keystone of 
natural science. At the beginning of this century it was a keystone 
in a structure having as pillars the principles of the conservation of 
energy and the indestructibility of matter. In the nineties, it was 
almost axiomatic to say that the building blocks of nature are the 
atoms — indivisible, indestructible entities, permanent for all time. 
But the discovery of radioactivity altered all this. There followed 



1 An address delivered at the symposium on "The University and the Future of America," 
on the occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration of Stanford University, June 16-19, 
1941. Reprinted by permission from volume entitled "The University and the Future of 
America," published by Stanford University Press. 

430577 — 42 12 

163 



164 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

the discovery of the electron and the proton as smaller and more 
fundamental constituents of matter and the atom itself became the 
happy hunting ground of the experimental physicist. Atomic physics 
developed rapidly ; for the atom was found to be a domain of almost 
incredible richness, and today, thanks perhaps to the newspapers, 
our children speak knowingly of smashing atoms ! 

To explain the wonderful phenomenon of radioactivity, Eutherf ord 
came forward in 1904 with a revolutionary hypothesis which reduced 
the complicated and mysterious observations of radioactivity to simple 
order. According to Rutherford, not all of the atoms have existed 
for ages and will exist for all time, but there are some atoms in nature 
that are energetically unstable and in the course of time, of their own 
accord, blow up with explosive violence. These are the natural radio- 
active substances, and the fragments given off in the atomic explosions 
are the observed penetrating rays. 

It was not long before Rutherford's hypothesis was established as 
a law of nature and formed a greater keystone, replacing the chem- 
ists' conception of the atom and serving as a foundation for a new 
science, the science of the atomic nucleus. 

Time does not permit an adequate historical resume of the develop- 
ment of nuclear physics, but for the present purpose it is sufficient 
to say that the ideas of Rutherford and Bohr on the structure of 
atoms are now firmly established. There is an abundance of evidence 
that an atom consists of a nebulous cloud of planetary electrons 
whirling about a very dense sun, the positively charged nucleus, 
and that it is in the nucleus that the atomic explosions of radioactiv- 
ity occur. Indeed, our assurance that this is so rivals our confidence 
that the planets revolve about the sun ! 

ATOMIC NUCLEUS 

Let us now proceed immediately to a consideration of the structure 
of the nucleus. The nucleus consists of a closely packed group of 
protons and neutrons, elementary building blocks of nature some 
2,000 times heavier than the electrons. The neutrons are electri- 
cally neutral while the protons carry positive charges, and for each 
proton in the nucleus there is a corresponding negative electron out- 
side, for the atom as a whole is uncharged. Since the number of elec- 
trons outside determines the ordinary chemical and physical proper- 
ties of the atom, it follows that the nuclear charge determines the 
place of the atom in the periodic table of the elements. 

Thus, the nucleus is the body and soul of the atom. More than 
99.9 percent of the atom's mass is in the nucleus and the nuclear 
charge determines the nature of the atom, its chemical and physical 
properties. 



NEW FRONTIERS IN THE ATOM — LAWRENCE 165 

TRANSMUTATION OF THE ELEMENTS 

These considerations reduce the age-old problem of alchemy to 
simple terms. For we see to change one element into another is sim- 
ply to change the nuclear charge, i. e., the number of protons, in the 
nucleus. The subject of transmutation of the elements has recently 
received a great deal of attention in the laboratory. All sorts of 
transmutations have been produced on a minute scale — helium has 
been made from lithium, magnesium from sodium, and even mercury 
has been turned into gold. The day may come when we will indeed 
possess the philosopher's stone and will be able to transmute the ele- 
ments on a grand scale. But interesting as these developments are, I 
should like to draw your attention to two other subjects, artificial 
radioactivity and the question of tapping the vast reservoir of energy 
in the nucleus of the atom. 

ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 

One of the early results of atomic bombardment was the discovery 
that neutrons could be knocked in or knocked out of the nucleus 
to produce radioactive isotopes of the ordinary elements. Thus, for 
example, the nucleus of the ordinary sodium atom contains 11 neu- 
trons and 12 protons, 23 particles in all, and so it is called sodium 23 
(or Na") ; and by bombardment it was found that a neutron could 
either be added to make sodium 24 or subtracted to make sodium 22, 
both isotopic forms not occurring in the natural state. The reason 
that these synthetic forms are not found in nature is that they are 
energetically unstable. They are radioactive and in the course of time 
blow up with explosive violence. Sodium 24 has a half-life of 14.5 
hours, i. e., it has an even chance of disintegrating in that time, 
turning into magnesium by the emission of an electron. Sodium 22, 
on the other hand, has a half-life of 3 years and emits positive elec- 
trons to turn to stable neon 22. 

These artificial radioactive isotopes of the elements are indistin- 
guishable from their ordinary stable relatives until the instant they 
manifest their radioactivity. This fact deserves emphasis, and it 
may be illustrated further by the case of chlorine. Chlorine consists 
of a mixture of two isotopes, 76 percent of Cl^"^ and 24 percent of 
CI", resulting in a chemical atomic weight of 35.46 which is the 
average weight of the mixture. By elaborate technique, to be sure, 
it is possible to take advantage of the extremely slight difference in 
chemical properties and bring about separation of these isotopes, but 
in ordinary chemical, physical, and biological processes, the clilorine 
isotopes are indistinguishable and inseparable. The artificial radio- 
active isotopes CI" and Cl^* are likewise indistinguishable. In fact, 



166 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

CP* is more nearly identical in properties to the natural isotope 
CI" than is the other natural isotope CP^. And again I would say 
that the radioactive characteristic of CP* becomes evident only at the 
moment it blows up to turn into the neighbor element sulfur. 

RADIOACTIVE TRACER ATOMS 

In these radioactive transformations of the artificial radioactive 
isotopes, the radiations given off are so energetic that the radiations 
from individual atoms can be detected with rugged and reliable 
instruments, called Geiger counters. Thus, radioactive isotopes can 
be admixed with ordinary chemicals to serve as tracer elements in 
complicated chemical or biological processes. 

As an illustration of the power of this new technique of labeling 
and tracing atoms, let us consider iodine in relation to the thyroid 
gland. It is well known that the thyroid takes up and stores iodine, 
and this fact can be demonstrated strikingly by feeding an individual 
iodine including a small quantity of radioactive iodine. Before the 
feeding, the radioactivity of the food can be measured by placing it 
near a Geiger counter, thereby giving a measure of the iodine con- 
tent. Later the progress of the iodine through the body can be 
observed by placing the Geiger counter next to various parts of the 
body. Likewise, the proportion of the fed iodine in the various 
body fluids at any time can be determined quickly by taking small 
samples of the fluids and measuring their radioactivity. After some 
hours it is found that a large part of the iodine taken in has col- 
lected in the thyroid, a fact that is readily established by placing a 
Geiger counter next to the gland (pi. 1, fig. 1) and observing the 
activity while finding no appreciable activity elsewhere. This tech- 
nique makes it possible to study the behavoir of the thyroid in 
health and in disease, and much interesting work along this line has 
been carried out recently. 

RADIO-AUTOGRAPHY 

Although the tracer elements are readily detected with the Geiger 
counter, there is a photographic method which for many purposes 
has obvious advantages. This method is sometimes called radio- 
autography and is illustrated by plate 1, figure 2. Here a minute 
amount of radioactive phosphorus in the form of sodium phosphate 
was added to the nutrient solution of a tomato plant, and after a 
day or so leaves were placed against a photographic film enclosed in a 
light tight paper envelope. The penetrating rays from the radio- 
active phosphorus produced the developed contact image shown in 
the figure, which gives an accurate and detailed picture of the uptake 
of phosphate by the plant. Now, indeed, the same method works 



NEW FRONTIERS IN THE ATOM — LAWRENCE 167 

very well also for the thyroid, as is shown in plate 2, which is a 
photomicrograph of a thin section of thyroid tissue containing 
radio-iodine; alongside is the radio-autograph obtained from the 
same microsection by placing it against a photographic plate. The 
distribution of the iodine in various parts of the gland is shown in 
surprising detail. 

Similarly striking radio-autographs of the distribution of phos- 
phorus and strontium in rats are shown in plate 3, figure 1. Here 
two rats were fed radiophosphorus and radiostrontium respectively, 
and then some hours or days later they were sacrificed, and frozen 
sections of the entire bodies of the animals were placed against a 
photographic plate. The resulting radio-autographs show clearly 
that both strontium and phosphorus are selectively deposited in the 
bones, phosphorus being more widely distributed in other tissue. 
The distribution of the strontium in the bones also appears to be 
quite different from that of phosphorus as radio-autographs of the 
sections of bones clearly show (pi. 3, fig. 2). 

These examples serve to illustrate the power of the new technique 
of radioactive tracer atoms. It has often been said that the progress 
of science is the progress of new tools and new techniques, and I 
think we may look forward to accelerated developments in biology 
resulting from the tracer elements. 

ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN THERAPY 

It is somewhat afield for me to discuss medical problems, but I 
should like to direct your atention to the possibilities of the artificial 
radioactive substances in the treatment of cancer and allied diseases. 
It is well known that at the present time there are two main ap- 
proaches to the treatment of neoplastic disease, surgery and radia- 
tion. It is sometimes possible to cut out a cancer completely and 
effect a cure, and in other circumstances, it is possible to destroy a 
tumor by irradiation with X-rays or radium. The mechanism 
whereby the radiation destroys the tumor without destroying an 
excessive amount of surrounding normal tissue is doubtless extremely 
complicated, but in any case it is evidently important to localize the 
radiation to the tumor as much as possible. Perhaps the idea would 
be approached if a means were at hand to irradiate each and every 
malignant cell without irradiating a single normal cell. 

The artificial radioactive substances open for the first time the 
possibility of an approach to such selective irradiation of tissue. 
The above examples of tracers suggest the treatment of thyroid 
tumors with radioactive iodine, bone tumors with radioactive 
strontium and radioactive phosphorus. These possibilities are being 
investigated as is the more specific problem of finding a radioactive 



168 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

substance that is selectively taken up by tumor tissue. If there 
were time, I should like to describe work along this line in progress 
in several laboratories, and especially to speak of the important 
progress that is being made in the treatment of leukemia, but I must 
content myself with only mentioning these new developments in 
medicine, which are so promising for the future. 

ATOMIC ENERGY 

For a long time astronomers have been vexed with a problem, the 
problem of the source of stellar energy, for there is evidence that the 
sun has been blazing at its present brilliance for thousands of millions 
of years, and no ordinary fuel could be responsible for such an eternal 
fire. 

The discovery of radium posed to the physicist a similar difficulty ; 
for it was found that radium gives oflf every hour enough energy to 
heat its own weight of water to boiling, and this it continues to do for 
more than a thousand years. Such a vast source of energy in the 
radium atom was as difficult to understand as the evidently limitless 
store of heat in the sun. The problem was of fundamental interest 
and all sorts of possibilities were considered even to the abandonment 
of the principle of the conservation of energy. 

But the first clue to the solution of the problem appeared in 1905 
when Einstein announced the theory of relativity. One of the revo- 
lutionary consequences of the theory was that matter is a form of 
energy and that presumably in nature processes go on in which 
matter is destroyed and transformed into more familiar forms of 
energy such as heat, radiation, and mechanical motion. The rela- 
tivity theory gave as the conversion factor relating mass to equiva- 
lent energy, the square of the velocity of light — a very large number, 
even to an astronomer! Thus, the theory indicated that, if a glass 
of water were completely destroyed, more than a billion kilowatt 
hours of energy would be released, enough to supply a city with light 
and power for quite a time ! 

This exciting deduction was immediately accepted by the astron- 
omers, who said, "Doubtless within the sun conditions are such that 
matter is being transformed to heat. Thus, slowly through the ages 
the sun is losing mass ; its very substance is radiating into space." 

Likewise, the physicists, who had other compelling reasons for 
accepting the Einstein theory, concluded that the source of the energy 
in the radium atom was a destruction of matter in the atomic 
explosion giving rise to the penetrating rays. 

Although the fundamental assumptions on which the relativity 
theory was based were evidently sound, and the explanations of 
the source of energy of the sun and stars and radioactivity were 



NEW FRONTIERS IN THE ATOM — LAWRENCE 169 

most attractive, until direct experimental verification was forth- 
coming, Einstein's great deduction could not be regarded as an 
established lavs^ of nature. 

The first direct evidence of the truth of this fundamental prin- 
ciple was obtained in the first atom-smashing experiments a decade 
ago. It was observed that, when the nucleus of a lithium atom is 
hit by a proton having a kinetic energy of less than a million electron- 
volts, the result is the formation of two helium nuclei which fly apart 
with an energy of more than 17 million electron-volts; thus in the 
nuclear reaction in which hydrogen and litliium unite to form two 
helium atoms, there is a great release of kinetic energy. 

Now one of the interesting and important occupations of the ex- 
perimental physicist has been the measurement of the masses of 
atoms and the weights of atoms are known with great precision — 
much greater than any individual knows his own weight. In par- 
ticular, it was known precisely that a lithium atom and a hydrogen 
atom have a total weight slightly greater than the weight of two 
helium atoms, and it was a great triumph for the Einstein theory 
when measurements showed that the excess kinetic energy with which 
the helium atoms flew apart in the hydrogen-lithium reaction corre- 
sponded exactly with the disappearance of mass according to the 
mass-energy relation. Literally hundreds of similar nuclear reactions 
have been studied in the intervening years, and in each instance the 
Einstein relation has been verified. At the present time this great 
principle has as firm an experimental foundation as any of our laws 
of nature. 

URANIUM FISSION 

Now that it is an experimental fact that matter can be converted 
into energy, it becomes of great practical importance to inquire 
whether the vast store of energy in the atom will be tapped for 
useful purposes. This question has recently taken on added interest 
through the discovery of a new type of nuclear reaction involving 
the heavy element uranium. 

It has been known for some years that the heavy elements, such 
as lead, gold, and uranium, are relatively heavier than the middle- 
weight elements, such as copper and iron, or more precisely that the 
average weight of the neutrons, protons, and electrons in the heavy 
elements is greater than their average weight in the atoms near the 
middle of the periodic table. Accordingly it is to be expected that, 
if heavy atoms were split approximately in two forming correspond- 
ing middle-weight atoms, there would be a vast release of energy 
corresponding to the disappearance of matter in the transformation. 
Indeed, from known values of the masses, it can be calculated on the 



170 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

basis of Einstein's mass-energy relation that each splitting or fission, 
as the process is called, of a uranium atom into two approximately 
equal parts releases an energy of about 200 million electron-volts, 
which is millions of times more heat per atom than is given off when 
ordinary fuel is burned. Thus, calculations show that 100 pounds 
of uranium would yield a billion kilowatt hours, which at 1 cent 
per kilowatt-hour would be 10 million dollars' worth of electrical 
energy. 

For some time these considerations were largely academic because 
no way was known for producing fission of the heavy elements. But 
interest in the matter has now become extremely lively as a result 
of the discovery that fission of uranium is actually brought about by 
bombarding it with neutrons. 

The phenomenon has, during the past 2 years, received intensive 
study in laboratories all over the world and several salient facts have 
emerged. First, the rare U^^° isotope undergoes fission after absorp- 
tion of a slow neutron. Second, the energy released in the fission 
process has been measured ; and, as expected, it is found that, when 
a neutron having an energy less than an electron-volt enters the U^^'' 
nucleus, about 200 million electron-volts of energy is released. Third, 
it is found also that the fission process is so violent that usually the 
U^^^ nucleus does not break up into two parts only, but more often 
several neutrons are given off in addition to the two large fragments. 

That neutrons are generated in the fission process is of the greatest 
interest because it opens up the possibility of a chain reaction, a 
series of nuclear reactions wherein the neutrons liberated in one fission 
process go to produce additional fissions in other atoms which in 
turn give rise to more neutrons which produce further fissions and 
so on. It is this possibility of a chain reaction that has excited the 
interest in uranium as a practical source of atomic energy. 

Without going into further detail, it is perhaps sufficient to say 
that there is some evidence now that, if IJ-^^ could be separated in 
quantity from the natural mixture of the isotopes, a chain reaction 
could, indeed, be produced. But herein lies the catch, for there is 
no practical large-scale way in sight of separating the isotopes of 
the heavy elements, and certainly it is doubtful if a way will be 
found. 

But I should not want to indicate that the uranium matter is a 
disappointment, that after all we shall never find a way to bring 
about fission of the heavy elements for useful purposes. Quite the 
contrary ! 

The present situation is not unlike the circumstances 50 years ago 
surrounding the then great question of whether man would ever be 
able to fly. In those days the fundamental laws of classical mecha- 



NEW FRONTIERS IN THE ATOM — LAWRENCE 171 

nics were known, and they allowed the possibility of heavier-than-air 
flight. Moreover, there was an abundance of supporting observa- 
tional evidence that flight should be possible; there were kites and 
there were the birds of the air. But man's realization of the dream 
awaited primarily the development of the combustion engine, a cir- 
cumstance not so evidently connected with the fundamental problem 
of flight. Likewise the fundamental laws of nature recently revealed 
to us allow the possibility of obtaining useful nuclear energy, and 
radium and the sun and stars bear witness that this vast source of 
energy is being tapped in nature. Again success in this direction 
may await the development of a new intrument or technique just as 
the airplane depended on the gas engine. 

Perhaps the problem awaits a deeper understanding of the forces 
that hold nuclei together. That there are little-understood forces 
operative in the nucleus is more than evident ; especially from obser- 
vations of the cosmic rays, it has been established that particles of 
matter called mesotrons of intermediate mass between electrons and 
protons play a dominant role in nuclear structure. Theoretical con- 
siderations suggest that the mesotrons may be connected with the 
primary forces in the nucleus, and accordingly, an understanding of 
mesotron forces may ultimately yield the solution of the practical 
problem of atomic energy. 

THE GIANT CYCLOTRON 

In order to study experimentally the mesotron problem, it is neces- 
sary to bombard nuclei with atomic projectiles having energies in 
the range of 100 million electron-volts rather than in the neighbor- 
hood of 10 million electron-volts at present available in c3'clotron 
laboratories. To this end a giant cyclotron is now under construc- 
tion on Charter Hill in Berkeley ; some pictures of this great machine 
are shown in plates 8 and 9. Whether it will be the key to the vast 
store of energy in the atom, what new discoveries, what new insight 
into nature it will bring — only the future will tell ! 

THE PRINCIPLE OF THE CYCLOTRON 

The principle of the cyclotron has been described as follows in a 
popular article by Henry Schacht.^ 

A circular chamber was placed between the poles of the magnet. Then all 
air was removed from the chamber and heavy hydrogen gas allowed to flow in. 
This so-called heavy hydrogen behaves in the same way as ordinary hydrogen. 
However, while the nuclei of ordinary hydrogen atoms contain one positively 
charged particle, or proton, heavy hydrogen nuclei contain two such particles 



' Schacht, Henry, Lawrence's cyclotron, Part I and Part II. California Monthly for 
May and June, 1940. 



172 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

plus one electron. Consequently, they weigh just twice as much as the nuclei 
of ordinary hydrogen atoms. They are known as deuterons. 

The deuteron's added weight makes it an ideal atomic bullet. And here is 
how Dr. Lawrence planned to send streams of deuterons crashing into the nuclei 
of other atoms in a constant, destructive barrage: Inside the cyclotron cham- 
ber was a heated filament that emitted streams of elec^trons. These particles 
would collide with the electrons surrounding the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms 
and in the ensuing mix-up the nuclei and their satellites would become sep- 
arated. The deuterons would be left free to float around the chamber. 
Eventually, the magnetic force set up by the cyclotron's magnet would pull 
them between two metal grids separated by a space across which an alternating 
electrical current of 10 or 15 thousand volts would be operating. As the 
deuterons floated into this space, they would receive a heavy shock, and under 
this stimulus fly off toward the side of the chamber. But the magnetic field 
would pull them back again in a semicircular path until they again came 
between the two grids. Again they would be shocked and be sent flying out 
toward the side. And again the magnet would pull them back to complete one 
full circle of the chamber and be shocked again. 

At each jolt from the current the deuterons would gather more energy. This 
meant that they would go flying out from between the grids with constantly 
increasing force and in constantly widening circles. So you get the picture of 
the atomic bullets receiving shocks one right after the other from a weak 
electrical force. Each time the bullets receive a shock their energy is increased 
and they go on, describing wider and wider circles around the cyclotron 
chamber. Finally, they circle so widely that they reach a slit in the chamber 
wall and go flying out into the open air. The whole secret of the thing lies in 
making sure by means of the magnet that the atomic bullets are forced to 
come back for successive shocks until their energy is built up to the point where 
they can force their way to the exit. Dr. Lawrence figured that to bombard 
any substance with his atomic bullets, all he had to do was clamp this sub- 
stance over the slit and let the onrushing stream of deuterons crash into it. 
This then was the theory put to the crucial test in 1934 at the Universiy 
Radiation Laboratory. Dr. Lawrence threw the switch that sent a high-pow- 
ered radio transmitter pumping energy into the cyclotron and the first experi- 
ment with the 85-ton machine had begun. 

Within a short time, physicists were amazed to hear that Lawrence and his 
cyclotron were not only changing familiar elements like platinum into other 
elements like iridium and gold, but were actually producing substances never 
before seen on earth. These were the artificially radioactive elements. Perhaps 
their character is best explained by illustration. 

One of the experiments performed with the cyclotron involved the bombard- 
ment of iron atoms with the high-speed deuterons produced by the cyclotron. 
When the deuterons crashed into them with a force of about 8 million volts, 
the iron atoms were broken up. Some changed into atoms of cobalt or man- 
ganese. But others were converted into a new form of iron which, like radium, 
emitted streams of electrically charged particles. In other words, this new iron 
was radioactive. Thirty-four different elements were subjected to bombard- 
ment with the 85-ton cyclotron and all of them underwent a transformation, 
many turning into radioactive substances. Among the artificial radioactive 
materials produced by the cyclotron were sodium, phosphorus, iron, and iodine. 
It was even possible by bombarding bismuth to produce a degenerate form of 
radiima called Radium E. 



i 



NEW FRONTIERS IN THE ATOM — LAWRENCE 173 

Another interesting product of these atomic bombardments was the neutron, 
a particle often found in the atomic nucleus. It adds to the weight of the 
nucleus but has no electrical charge, hence its name. When atoms were smashed 
by the bullets from the cyclotron, they flew into two parts. One might be an 
atom of a new radioactive element, and another an atom of a light element such 
as hydrogen or helium. But more often than either of these two, a neutron 
would appear. When the cyclotron was going full blast, 10 billion of these 
particles could be liberated every second. 

It was found that radioactive elements, such as sodium and phosphorus, had 
certain advantages over radium which might make them extremely valuable 
for treatment of human disease. Preliminary experiments indicated that 
radioactive phosphorus might solve the problem of leukemia, the wasting blood 
disease for which no cure has yet been found. Radioactive sodium, iodine, 
phosphorus, and many other of the newly created elements proved to be price- 
less instruments in the hands of scientists interested in finding out more about 
our fundamental body processes. Finally, streams of released neutrons gave 
every indication of being a more powerful weapon against cancer than the 
X-ray. These discoveries marked the end of the first cycle of the cyclotron's 
career. So promising were the medical applications of its products that plans 
were laid to build a new 225-ton cyclotron. This machine was finished and 
housed in the William H. Crocker Radiation Laboratory on the University 
campus during the spring of 1939. 

In its first performance the new atom smasher produced deuteron beams with 
a strength of 17 million volts, and "alpha rays," or beams of helium atoms, 
with an intensity of 34 million volts. These voltages were greater than any 
obtained with the original machine even though the electric current used to 
energize the particles within the cyclotron chamber was only 60 kilowatts. 
Such results were entirely unexpected, far exceeding anything Dr. Lawrence 
had hoped for on the first trial run. 

On April 8, 1940, The Kockefeller Foundation of New York City 
announced its willingness, under certain conditions, to contribute 
$1,500,000 toward construction of a 4,900-ton cyclotron at the Uni- 
versity. It would be 56 feet long, 15 feet wide, and have an over-all 
height of approximately 30 feet. About 12 feet of the vertical struc- 
ture would be underground. It is estimated that 3,700 tons of steel 
and 300 tons of copper windings would be used in the construction. 
It is believed that such a machine could produce a deuteron beam 140 
feet in length as compared with the 5 -foot beam produced by the 
present 225-ton machine. This next cyclotron is now under con- 
struction at the University of California (see pis. 8 and 9) and when 
it is completed the problem of subatomic energy may be solved and a 
new power may be released to run the wheels of industry. 




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PLATF 5 




1. Anotherearly working model of the "pan" in which the speed of the atomic bullets is generated. Photo, 
graph by Dr. Donald Cooksey, Assistant Director, Radiation Laboratory. 




2. Thechainbei begins III assume somewhat its presfiil luiiii. I'lioiduraph liy Dr. Donald Cooksey, Assist- 
ant Director, Radiation Laboratory. 

Two Phases of the Early History of the Cyclotron. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Lawrence 



Plate 6 




1. The First Large Cyclotron Which is Still in Operation in the Radiation 

Laboratory. 

Photopraph by Dr. Donald Cookscy, Assistant Director, Radiation Laboratory. 




2. The 225-TON Medical Cyclotron. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Lawrence 



Plate 7 




1 . The "Working Side" of the 225-ton Medical Cyclotron. Where Neutron- 
ray Treatments for Cancer Are Administered. 




2. The Cyclotron Releases a Beam of Deuterons. the "Atomic Bullets" 

OF Transmutation. 



Smithsonian Report. 1941 .— Lawrence 



Plate 




1. The first base plate being placed on the concrete foundation. The plate is 52 feet long, 75 inches wide, 
and 2 inches thick, and weighs 13H tons. There is about 1,200 tons of reinforced concrete in the founda- 
tion. 




2. The lower core of the magnet prior to placing of the final pole face. The diameter of the pole face is 184 
inches, and the gap between the poles will be 40 inches. 



Progress pictures of the New Giant Cyclotron at Berkeley, Calif. 




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SCIENCE SHAPING AMERICAN CULTURE ^ 



By AfiTHtTB H. COMPTON 

Professor of Physics, University of Chicago 



In no other part of the world and at no previous time in history 
has life been so greatly influenced by science as in the United States 
today. This influence extends not only to the supplying of the means 
of living, but likewise to our thought, our amusements, our art, and 
our religion. 

American civilization is based upon science and technology. That 
civilization includes great cities, which need for their very existence 
mechanical transportation, steel rails and girders, electric elevators, 
refrigeration systems to preserve food, careful control of sanitation, 
and means of preventing the spread of communicable disease. It 
embraces great areas of thinly populated but highly productive farm 
land. Here farmers live relatively complete lives, and supply the 
nation with an unparalleled abundance and variety of food, because 
of the agricultural knowledge and tools and convenient communica- 
tion and transportation that science has supplied. With the help 
of science, labor and capital are efficient, the Government coordinates 
the activities of a widely spread people, and our continent has become 
a national community. 

American thinking is strongly influenced by science. Whereas at 
Oxford it remains doubtful whether science has yet earned a true 
place in education, at Chicago three of the four main divisions of 
the university are called sciences. Of the older learned professions, 
the minister needs to pay close attention to science if he would retain 
the respect of his congregation ; the lawyer who would deal with pat- 
ents, or corporations, or even crime must acquaint himself with the 
rudiments of science, and, as for the doctor, the more science the 
better. Most of the newer professions, such as engineering and archi- 
tecture, are based upon science. A survey of current literature can 
leave no doubt but that in American society most of our creative 
thinking is in the field of science. 



1 Read April 19, 1940, Symposium on Characteristics of American Culture and Its Place 
In General Culture. Reprinted by permission from Proceedings of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society, vol. 83, No. 4, September 1940. 

175 



176 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

It is typical of contemporary American cultural life that good 
reproduction of the best paintings, and radio programs of the best 
music are available to nearly everyone. Here is an opportunity for 
widespread vicarious enjoyment of fine art and music. Yet the soul 
of art is in its individual expression. While the widespread use of 
color printing may seem to have discouraged the amateur painter, 
his place is perhaps taken by the amateur photographer, and the 
recent rapid growth of school orchestras and bands seems to be 
ascribable to the growing familiarity with orchestral music as heard 
over the radio. It is not impossible that use of the radio may mark 
the birth of a new era in American muscial expression. 

On the credit side of the ledger we can certainly count the intro- 
duction of new techniques in music and art. Among these may be 
mentioned the electric "organ," which affords rich, new tone possibili- 
ties, and photography and motion pictures. Though the possibilities 
in these directions are only beginning to be explored, it is already 
clear that in both still and moving pictures there are new fields 
opening for both the professional and the amateur. In particular, 
the possibility of adding action and sound to pictures is comparable 
in importance with the discovery of representing a third dimension 
in perspective drawing. 

In our recreation we may try to live a primitive life. Having 
motored hundreds of miles over hard highways, we arrive at the 
cabin in the wildwood, cook Chicago bacon on a stove using oil from 
Texas refined in New Jersey, and go fishing with an outboard motor 
made in Michigan. Or it may be that we go so completely native as 
to canoe down the river, relying only on our Pittsburgh steel ax and 
matches made in Ohio from Louisiana sulfur to light our fires, fruit 
canned in California for our food, and mosquito netting woven in 
New England to keep off the pests. Though we want to be free 
from the ring of the telephone and to use the sun as our clock, we 
must take care that the milk we drink is pasteurized. Thus the 
American frees himself from technology ! 

SCIENCE MAKES MEN HUMAN 

In his recent book, "Science and the New Humanism," George 
Sarton shows how throughout history man's cultural growth has 
followed the gradual growth of his scientific knowledge. In art, 
except for new pigments, tools, and photographic technique, the 
American certainly does not excel the Greek nor hardly even the 
prehistoric European who painted lifelike animals on the walls of 
his cave. In music the Russian peasants and the natives of Hawaii 
give us lessons. It is Sarton's contention that those aspects of our 
culture which have been developing owe their growth primarily to 



SCIENCE SHAPING A]VIERICAN CULTURE — COMPTON 177 

the advance of scientific knowledge. Thus by learning more and 
more about the world in which he lives, man has distinguished him- 
self from his animal cousins. If this claim is valid, it means that 
the primary responsibility for humanizing man lies with science, and 
that the society in which scientific knowledge is most rapidly growing 
is the spear point of man's advancing culture. 

Let us then examine Sarton's argument more closely. He points 
out that each stage has been ushered in as some inquirer, more per- 
sistent or more fortunate than his predecessors, and building on the 
foundation of their techniques, has learned new facts regarding the 
properties of matter, the chemistry of metals, or the laws of 
mechanics. Thus when we speak of the stone age, the bronze age, 
the iron age, and the machine age, we are summarizing the growth 
of man in terms of the tools with which he does his work. Not that 
mechanical inventions are the only ones. Language and writing 
are among the most significant inventions of all, giving as they do 
means of thinking more clearly, of communicating ideas, and of 
remembering ideas with definiteness. When the invention of print- 
ing, telegraphy, the telephone, moving pictures, and the radio are 
added, it becomes possible for people to share thoughts widely, to 
become quickly aware of what is happening to all mankind, and to 
"remember" what has happened to men in the past. A great change 
thus comes in men's attitudes toward each other. The world becomes 
almost a conscious unit, very similar to a living organism. Thus 
even the noimiechanical inventions have found their most effective 
application through the aid of scientific developments. 

Hand in hand with this development of invention has gone the 
increase in our knowledge of nature. Skillfully made lenses made 
possible a telescope, and Jupiter was found to be a miniature solar 
system. As high-vacuum pumps were developed, X-rays were dis- 
covered, giving new knowledge of the structure of matter, with 
resulting advances in metallurgy. "If I saw farther, 'twas because 
I stood on giant shoulders," is the statement ascribed to Isaac 
Newton, who clearly recognized the way in which one advance makes 
possible another. 

The knowledge of nature, which from the beginning had been 
man's gradually but accidentally increasing heritage, at length be- 
came the conscious objective of alert minds. Three centuries ago 
the hobby of a few amateurs, there are now in the United States 
nearly 2,000 research laboratories, equipped with refined apparatus, 
where men of the highest training are striving to enlarge our under- 
standing of the world. As a result, our life differs from that of 
two generations ago more than American life of that day differed 
from the civilized life at the dawn of written history. 



178 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

The growing rate of this increase in knowledge and of the re- 
sulting social changes may be strikingly presented by using the 
historian's device of compressing the time scale until the whole 
growth of man through a million years is concentrated within the 
lifetime of a middle-aged man of 50. It was then as a child that 
our man was learning how to use certain odd-shaped sticks and 
stones as tools. The meaning of sounds became definite as he learned 
to talk. By the time he was 40 he had developed the art of skill- 
fully shaping stones to fit his needs. Man soon became an artist, 
and by half a year ago had learned to use simplified pictures as 
symbolic writing. Some 6 weeks ago the Phoenicians introduced the 
alphabet, and within a fortnight came the brillant art and science 
of ancient Greece. Then came the fall of Rome, hiding for some 
weeks the values of civilized life. Less than a week ago, as the 
report has it, Galileo dropped the heavy and the light cannon balls 
from the Leaning Tower of Pisa, refuting a proposition of Aristotle 
and starting the period of modern science. Three or four days ago 
the first practical steam engine was built and it was at about this time 
that the United States came into being. Day before yesterday the 
laws of electromagnetism became known, which by yesterday had 
given us the telegraph, the telephone and incandescent electric light. 
Only last night X-rays were discovered, followed quickly by radium 
and wireless telegraphy. It was this morning that automobiles 
came into general use. Air mail began to be carried only at noon 
today. Popular short-wave broadcasts, practical color photography, 
and fluorescent lighting have been with us for only an hour. It is 
clear that our American scene is staged in the midst of a period 
of unparalleled advance in science and rapidity of social change. 

AMERICAN CULTURE IS THAT OF A CHANGING SOCIETY 

Even before the outbreak of the present wars, America had be- 
come the leader in most fields of scientific endeavor. The tradition 
of the pioneer has made it relatively easy for the American to alter 
his habits as required by the introduction of new techniques, with 
the result that in this country social changes have gone ahead with 
a speed not found elsewhere. Our culture is thus that of a new 
community, with our customs and ideas only partly adapted to 
the rapidly changing conditions of life. 

For a week I have been living in an apartment on a corner by 
which a streetcar clangs its noisy course. When first installed, these 
cars gave the rapid transportation that made the city possible. Now 
the demand is insistent that the streetcars be replaced by quieter 
buses that will permit conversation by day and sleep by night. 
Thus the first application of technology was to meet the primary 



SCIENCE SHAPING AMERICAN CULTURE — COMPTON 179 

need of transportation; but eventually the refinements come that 
add to life's enjoyment. 

Our older habits no longer fit the new conditions of life, and 
we have not yet learned how best to use the new possibilities placed 
at our disposal. Nor as long as such rapid changes in our social 
life continue can we hope to make a completely satisfactory adapta- 
tion of our mode of life. For as one aspect of the problem becomes 
solved, changes will lead to maladjustment somewhere else. It would 
for this reason be futile to hope to attain within the next generation 
an art of living in a technological world that can compare in re- 
finement with the classic culture initiated by the Greeks and developed 
through centuries of such tradition as that carried on by European 
and English society. In course of time, though it may require 
centuries, we may expect the development of science to approach 
a new plateau of knowledge and invention. Then we may hope again 
to refine our mode of living to fit precisely the conditions of our 
greater world. 

Does this prospect of generations of incomplete adaptation, with 
resultant discontent and hardship seem discouraging? One is 
reminded of the legend in which the people complain to Daedalus 
that the steel sword he has given to King Minas will bring not happi- 
ness but strife. Daedalus replies, "I do not care to make man happy, 
but to make him great." For those who have courage, the new pow- 
ers thus given by science present a challenge to shape man's life on a 
more heroic scale. Here is a vision of a new world which only the 
brave may enter. 

Yet we can thus appreciate the dread felt by those who have 
followed the tradition of classic culture as the life they have loved 
and whose values they have cherished is threatened by the advance 
of technology. They see science replacing the human interests pres- 
ent in literature, art, and music with technological developments in 
which the human factor becomes less and less significant. The most 
fundamental values of morality and religion are ruthlessly shaken, 
with the implication that their value is negligible. It is just because 
so many scientific men seem blind to these human difficulties that one 
feels the greater concern lest in following science mankind may lose 
its soul. 

There is a passage in Plato's Phaedo in which Socrates describes 
his early interest in physics and how he had found that physics fails 
to account for the important things in life. Thus, he explained, 
Anaxagoras would say that Socrates sat on his cot waiting to drink 
the hemlock because of certain tensions of tendons acting on his 
bones. The true reason was rather because he had been condemned 
by the people of Athens, and as a man of honor he could not creep 
stealthily away. Such moral forces as honor were not to be explained 

430577—42 13 



180 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

by science ; yet it is these forces that shape men's acts. Since it did 
not meet their human needs, the followers of Socrates and Plato 
abandoned science, and the study of the truths of nature was for- 
gotten for a thousand years. 

We have now once more come to fear the unhuman implications 
and the inhuman abuses of science. Yet science has enriched our 
lives and has helped us catch a vision of a new and better world. 
Shall we then again give up science and with it the tools by means 
of which that better world may be attained ? 

The truth is that we cannot cast away science even if we would. 
In a time of intense social strife the knowledge of the world that we 
call science is a source of tremendous strength. Nothing is so clear 
as that a nation which abandons science must soon become weakened. 
The world's leadership must go to those who are served by science 
and technology. That we shall live with science is thus decreed by 
the immutable laws of evolution. 

THE HUMAN MEANING OF SCIENCE 

For those who Imow science, its inhumanness is a fiction. It serves 
to satisfy the human hunger for a better understanding of man's place 
in his world. In this age when men throughout the world are trying 
to formulate a philosophy by which they can live, it is to science that 
they are turning with confidence in its truth. But perhaps of great- 
est importance is the fact that science is making man develop into a 
social being. 

One of the most striking of biological phenomena is the change of 
man in a short thousand generations from an individualistic to a 
social animal. As has been indicated above, this change is due largely 
to the development of science and technology. If we would assess 
the cultural significance of science, it is thus important to consider 
what the more specific directions may be along which this social 
evolution will proceed. It is clear that we may expect those modifica- 
tions in our mode of life to survive which give strength to the social 
group. Among these strengthening factors three may be empha- 
sized. These are: knowledge, cooperation, and a common objective. 

In science and technology lies our approach to the laws of the 
world of nature and the application of these laws. Enough has been 
said regarding the strength that comes through such knowledge. In 
a highly competitive, warlike world, that society cannot long survive 
which neglects the truths of science. 

Without cooperation, knowledge cannot be made effective. If men 
divide into antagonistic groups, it becomes terribly destructive. Ex- 
perience as well as theory has shown the superior strength of those 
social groups which work together. The evolutionist thus sees as 
inevitable the growth of social cooperation. 



SCIENCE SHAPING AMERICAN CULTURE — COMPTON 181 

Just as the automobile demands sobriety, or congested life makes 
necessary careful sanitation, so the mutual dependence of a techno- 
logical civilization implies consideration of the rights of others. 
Breasted has shown how the growth of community life along the Nile 
stimulated among the Egyptians the "dawn of conscience." Cheyney, 
in his retiring presidential address before the American Historical 
Association, lists prominently among his "laws" of history the trend 
toward a greater consideration of one's fellows as society grows more 
complex. Thus in the technological society of which American cul- 
ture is a supreme example, science and industry are emphasizing as 
never before the need of the will toward cooperation, that is, of the 
love of our neighbors. Perhaps the urgency of the universal accept- 
ance of this central doctrine of Christianity is not generally 
recognized. This is merely because the social implications of our 
increasingly complex life have not yet become evident within the 
brief decades of the world's growing social unity. 

Most significant of the factors that give strength to man is, how- 
ever, the vision of a goal w^hich he recognizes as worthy of his supreme 
effort. If we would truly live, we need a purpose. To many of its 
followers, science gives a basis for the appreciation of man's place in 
the universe. It helps him to see himself as he is, a creature with 
animal limitations, but with godlike powers, sharing with his Creator 
the responsibility for making this world a fit place for life. The man 
of science may not feel qualified to choose for others that which gives 
life dignity and worth ; but he can at least supply the data on which 
that choice must be made. How can we correctly orient ourselves 
without learning the facts about the world and dispassionately con- 
sidering their implications. It is, I believe, in just this direction that 
science must ultimately make its greatest human contribution. Science 
must clarify the vision of the seers who would point out to us the 
goal of life. 

It is noteworthy that these things which give strength to society 
are likewise those that make life worthwhile, the understanding of 
man and nature, the love of one's neighbor with the acceptance of 
responsibility for his welfare, the finding of a goal worthy of our 
best efforts. Though American technological civilization may lack 
the refinements and nice adjustments which perfected the classic cul- 
ture, its growth is toward the greater social development of man. 
In this sense it is truly humanistic. 

The role of science in American culture is thus threefold. First, 
it supplies more adequate means of life, giving men longer life, better 
health, and a richer variety of experience. Second, it stimulates man's 
social growth by rewarding more abundantly cooperative effort and 



182 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

punishing more severely his antagonisms. Third, science serves as a 
direct means of expression of the human spirit. 

It was the greater variety of life that was the great reward of 
science seen by Francis Bacon as he wrote in his "New Atlantis" : 

The end of our society is the knowledge of causes, and the secret motions of 
things, and the enlarging of the bounds of human empire to the effecting of all 
things possible. 

After three and a half centuries of experience with modern science 
this aim has been so realized that the president of one of our leading 
technical institutes can say, 

In the last 50 years physics has exerted a more powerful beneficial influence 
on the intellectual, economic, and social life of the world than has been exerted 
in a comparable time by any other agency in history. 

It is its responsibility for man's social evolution which leads Sarton 
to describe the growth of science as the central thread along which 
may be traced the biography of mankind. 

To the man of science himself, however, it is as an effective method 
of developing the human spirit that he values his science. His study 
affords exercise of imagination and broadening of perspective. 
Whereas to Plotinus it appears that 

It is through intuition rather than through reason that we may approach 
our highest aspirations, 

the scientist finds that in the discipline of unprejudiced search for 
truth lies the beginning of wisdom. Thus, in the words of Thomas 
Huxley : 

Science seems to me to teach in the highest and strongest manner the great 
truth which is embodied in the Christian conception of entire surrender to the 
will of God. Sit down before a fact as a little child, be prepared to give up 
every preconceived notion, follow humbly wherever and to whatever abysses 
nature leads, or you shall learn nothing. 

This is the aspect of science recognized by the Greek philosophers, 
who would seek "of what and how the world is made" in order that 
they might find a better way of life. To a certain degree this 
humanizing aspect of science is esoteric, since it can be fully appre- 
ciated only by those who have themselves submitted to the discipline 
required to share in the effort to widen the horizons of knowledge. 
Certain aspects of science, notably astronomy, have been more effec- 
tive than others in opening the way for many amateurs to take part 
in their enterprise. As in art and literature, here in advancing hu- 
man understanding is an opportunity for enriching life. With find- 
ing new knowledge comes the satisfaction of knowing that one has 
not only made a permanent addition to man's heritage, but that the 
new knowledge is a seed that will grow from more to more. With 
Democritus the scientist can truly say, "I would rather learn the true 
cause of one fact than become King of the Persians." 



MATHELIATICS AND THE SCIENCES 



By J. W. LESLEY, JE. 
Department of Mathematics, The University of North Carolina 



INTRODUCTION 

At the outset I wish to express my very sincere appreciation for the 
evidence of trust on your part which makes this occasion possible for 
me. It is quite a surprise when a group of scientists so honor a 
teacher of mathematics, for it is a moot question as to whether 
mathematics is a science. It is more than a surprise when that 
teacher is your speaker, whose association with science has been more 
that of a worshiper from afar than he likes to have to admit. 

The duties of this office resolve themselves in large part to the 
retiring address which brings us here tonight. Upon asking myself 
what I might say to you that might in part compensate you for 
coming here, I thought it pertinent to consider with you the relation 
between mathematics and the sciences. With this purpose in mind 
I asked a philosopher colleague what he considered that relation to 
be. His reply was quick and pointed. "There is no relation," he 
said, "science thinks a thing in terms of other things; mathematics 
thinks a thing in terms of itself." His inference was that the two 
are mutually exclusive. This was very discouraging. 

The history of science, however, does not seem to bear out the 
philosopher's contention. Until the time of Galileo (1600) that 
history is practically a history of mathematics. Although we have 
some knowledge of perhaps 6,000 years of mankind's intellectual ac- 
tivity, we search in vain for any trace of science before 2,500 years 
ago. True we have the pyramids, some 5,000 years old, and their 
structure indicates the employment of scientific ideas. We have, 
too, the Ehind papyrus, 3,500 years extant, and within its pages 
a kind of mathematical science. But the first scientist to emerge 
from the mists of antiquity was Thales, the mathematician of 2,500 
years ago. Almost contemporary with him is Pythagoras, a strange 
mixture of scientist and pseudo scientist. Two centuries later came 



* Retiring address of the president of the North Carolina Academy of Science, Wake 
Forest, N. f^.. May 5, 1939. Reprinted by permission from the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell 
Scientific Society, vol. 55, No. 2, December 1939. 

183 



184 AKNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Democritus with the beginnings of an atomic theory which even the 
opposition of an Aristotle could not down. Another century brings 
us to Euclid, but we must wait yet another century until, around 
200 B. C, appeared that resplendent figure of old, Archimedes, bring- 
ing with him the law of buoyancy, the principle of the lever, the 
discovery of light reflection and the cry of "Eureka," which White- 
head says should be celebrated as the awakening cry of mathematical 
physics. 

In the 17 centuries from that day to the time of Copernicus (1500) 
physics was to remain at practically a standstill. In another century 
these latent stirrings of the scientific spirit were brought to light for 
the first time in the father of modern science, Galileo Galilei, whom 
we know so well that we invariably call him by his first name. Im- 
portant it is that he should be the first to formulate inertia, to dis- 
cover the law of falling bodies, to invent the pendulum and the 
telescope, to discover the four satellites of Mercury and the sun- 
spots. More important still, says Millikan, that he should see "that 
force is proportional not to motion, but to the rate of change of 
motion, an idea the most profound in human thought." I dwell on 
Galileo because he is generally regarded as the originator of the 
modern viewpoint in science. He, asserts Einstein, "saw that all 
knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it." Thus, 
as Whitehead so aptly puts it, "the world waited 1,800 years from 
Archimedes to Galileo for someone who could relate abstract mathe- 
matical ideas to experimental investigation of natural phenomena." 

Modern scientific inquiry as such seems to have begun with Koger 
Bacon in the thirteenth century. Leonardo da Vinci was indeed a 
voice crying in the scientific wilderness of the fifteenth century. 
Tycho Brahe's tables of 1601 were a first step in scientific observa- 
tion. By means of them one could tell the position of the planets. 
It took a Kepler (1610) to see in them the three fundamental laws 
of planetary motion. Kepler could then tell us where the planets 
would be. In 3 inches he condensed the voluminous tables of Brahe, 
a tremendous scientific advance. 

And then came Newton ! Whitehead says that science came of age 
that day with Newton in his garden. Einstein regards Newton's 
laws of motion as expressed in differential equations as the "greatest 
advance in thought that a single individual has ever been privileged 
to make." He says further that Newton was the first creator of 
a comprehensive, workable system of theoretical physics. This one 
man, he continues, gave intellectual guidance to science for 200 years." 
Perhaps no man, then or since, has known Newton's scientific view- 
point as has his modern prototype, Albert Einstein, who has done 
more than any man to supplement his work. He says of Newton, 



MATHEMATICS AND THE SCIENCES — LASLEY 185 

"He believed that the basic laws and concepts of his system could 
be derived from experience. This is the meaning of ''hypotheses 
non ■fingo.'' Newton was uncomfortable about absolute space, abso- 
lute rest and action at a distance, since he found no basis for them 
in experience. The successes of his theories prevented discovery of 
the fictitious character of his foundations." 

Daniel Bernouli (1700) following shortly after Newton has been 
called the founder of mathematical physics. 

From this era dates the origin of organic chemistry. Lavoisier 
(1743-94) transmuted alchemy into a rational science. Perhaps, as 
his judges said when he faced the guillotine, the republic had "no 
need of savants." Certain it is that chemistry had great need of 
Lavoisier. 

Mathematics through the calculus as we know it today was shaped 
largely by the hand of Euler (1707). 

Sedgwick and Tyler state in their history of science that at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century general physics and chemistry 
were "still in the preliminary stage of collecting and coordinating 
data, with attempts at quantitative interpretation, while in their 
train the natural sciences were following somewhat haltingly." 

Geike adds that at this time "geology and biology were not yet 
inductive sciences." 

But the stirrings of science in the eighteenth century projected 
themselves into the nineteenth. Dalton (1803) with his law of 
multiple proportions for the formation of compounds supplied the 
first scientific approach to the atomic theory. 

Lyell with his publication of his "Principles" in 1830 raised 
geology to the dignity of a science. 

Biology was admitted to the union of sciences in the Victorian age 
through the efforts of Darwin, Spencer, Huxley, Wallace, and others. 

By 1850 the older universities had founded scientific schools. 
Academies of science began to be formed. The public by the open- 
ing of the twentieth century was science-minded. A new era was 
about to dawn. 

This new era took the form of a new conception as to the structure 
of matter. There were significant undercurrents in the world of 
physics. Sir Humphrey Davy made what he called his greatest 
discovery, Michael Faraday. Faraday (1791-1867) discovered the 
principle of magneto-electricity, and originated the electromagnetic- 
field theory. The world was little aware of these tremendous hap- 
penings. Even at a time when the Atlantic cable was in operation 
Gladstone could (and did) ask Faraday whether electricity had a 
use. And Faraday replied, "Why Sir, there is every probability 
that you will soon be able to tax it." 



186 ANNUAL REJPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

In 1850 Maxwell placed a mathematical support under Faraday's 
theories, to be followed by the experimental verification of Hertz. 

Joule (1818-89) found a mechanical equivalent for heat, namely, 
energy, giving the world the first law of thermodynamics. 

Plank gave a description of radiation as incapable of emission in 
aught but units, the quanta. In this quantum theory fractions of a 
unit of energy simply do not exist. 

De Broglie and Schrodinger combined the energy theory of Einstein 
with the quantum theory of Plank and compelled the joint wave- 
particle view of the atom. (Since then the physicist has been accused 
of teaching the wave theory on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 
and the particle theory on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday.) 

Heisenberg proclaimed the doctrine that nature abhors not a 
vacuum so much as it does accuracy and precision. 

Dirac extended the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg to the 
entire realm of atomic physics. 

Pauli furnished us with his exclusion principle, 

Millikan and Cameron gave us cosmic radiation. 

Minkowski offered his space-time world. 

Einstein supplemented the Newtonian mechanics, proclaimed the 
invariance of natural laws in inertial systems, the constancy of the 
velocity of light, the abandonment of simultaneity, the identity of 
mass and energy, claimed absolute motion incapable of detection, 
related time and motion, connected space and matter. Gravitation, 
that most elusive of concepts, appeared as the curvature, or crum- 
pling, of a space-time continuum. But the electromagnetic fields 
were not expressed in the field equations of general relativity. Later 
came a field theory in which gravitation and electromagnetic radia- 
tion were welded together. Only the expression of the atomic 
structure in terms of the field theory was, and still is, missing. 

Here we are, and what a long way we have come. Let us examine 
some of the high and low places along the path. Let us see again 
something of the view from a few of the peaks and depressions along 
the way. Let us inquire of Mathematics, the guide in this long and 
fascinating journey. 

CONTINUITY 

Perhaps we never realize its subtlety until we really try to find 
out the meaning of continuity. The writer of radio script uses the 
term to refer to his product. We have heard his programs. Can 
such an idea be hedged about with difficulty ? As is so often the case, 
an understanding of the concept implies an understanding of its 
opposite. The opposite of the continuous is the discrete. 

Long ago there lived an excellent gentleman named Zeno. It was 
back in the time of the Pythagoreans, 600 years before Christ. This 



MATHEMATICS AND THE SCIENCES — LASLEY 187 

Zeno saw the conflict between these opposites, and used what he saw 
to deny the possibility of motion, to discourage placing bets on 
Achilles in his historic race with the tortoise, and for other strange 
and bewildering purposes. Even today one doesn't just rush in to 
show where Zeno was wrong. In his antinomies are found the baffling 
ideas of the infinite, the deceiving implications of continual divisi- 
bility. Down the years we trace these difficulties like a colored skein 
in the pattern of scientific thought. They face the scientist in his 
effort to understand the constitution of matter. Is this paper from 
which I read smooth and unbroken, or is it made of discrete particles 
bounding about hither and yon — a veritable beehive ? The physicist 
leans to the latter view. (This opinion may help explain the nature 
of what is being read from these pages.) What, then, about action 
at a distance? How are light, radiation, energy, gravitation con- 
veyed from here to there? What? No ether? Can we have ether 
without continuity? If the ether is a jellylike mass, is it not com- 
posed of particles? If it is composed of particles, will not the 
quantum behavior of matter nullify the continuity of the action ? If 
we have a continuous exciting cause, is it not strange that energy 
should emerge in units (quanta), or not at all? Are there no frac- 
tions? The physicist says, "No, no fractions." De Vries claimed 
that evolution proceeds by "explosions." But Darwin, Newton, 
Kant, Leibniz all believed in continuity. Plank's quantum theory 
replaces a continuum of states in an isolated system by a finite number 
of discrete states. 

The mathematician has been through — I should say, is in — this 
same turmoil. He has never fully recovered from the Pythagorean 
shock of the irrational. For a time it was thought that Weierstrass, 
Dedekind, and Cantor had laid the spectre, but the contrary views of 
Knonecker, Brouwer, and Weyl on the calculus of Leibniz and New- 
ton, the feeling that this calculus is making "bricks without straw," 
must at least have a hearing. The critics of continuity claim that 
nothing which cannot actually be constructed by a finite number of 
steps can hope to lead to a discipline free of paradox. They maintain 
that all analysis must eventually subject itself to the domination of 
the positive integer. Karl Pearson, one of the nonmathematical 
scientists who shares this view, states the position thus, "No scientist 
has the right to use things unless their existence can be demonstrated." 

Some may meet these difficulties by what has been called "a con- 
tinuous but discreet silence." 

Certain it is that a Thomas Wolfe may write "Of Time and the 
River" with a much more glib assurance than may an Einstein. 

Simple things these — in time such a perfect continuity ; in number 
such discreteness (I came near saying "discretion"), and in the 
shadows an infinity trying to bridge the gap. 



188 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

CAUSATION 

Jeans maintains that the "steady onward flow of time is the essence 
of the cause and effect relation." It is but natural, then, that when 
continuity is in question, causation should take its place under the 
microscope of scientific scrutiny. There is more at issue than the 
mere post hoc ergo propter hoc argument. We are so used to draw- 
ing inferences from data, that it is hard to realize on what flimsy 
grounds many of our conclusions rest. It is hard, too, to see how 
we may do intellectual business at all without the ability to infer 
effect from cause. The great seventeenth century of Galileo and 
Newton encouraged the scientist to think of causation as something on 
which he could definitely rely. Modern physics takes the position, so 
ably formulated by Pearson, that causation is intelligible only in the 
perceptual sphere as "antecedence in a routine of sense impressions." 

With the precision of measurement in studying natural phenomena 
came the realization of the statistical character of those measure- 
ments. Into the relations connecting the numbers arising in this 
way began to enter questions of doubt. The descriptions of the phe- 
nomena exhibited by the relations were seen to be more exact than 
the uncertainty of the data warranted. It began to appear that the 
descriptions described little more than what Weyl has called "statisti- 
cal regularities." Pearson has put it thus bluntly, "In the order of 
perceptions no inherent necessity can be demonstrated * * * 
necessity has a meaning in the field of logic, but not in the universe 
of perception * * * causation is neither a logical necessity, nor 
an actual experience," 

This position seems at first glance to be at variance with the "if 
this, then that" of mathematical disciplines. The causation which 
inheres in logic, whose presence we so naively hope for in our scientific 
thinking, seems actually to emerge in the tenets of the mathemati- 
cian. How, then, may the scientist fit data patently statistical in 
character into mathematical form, clearly nonstatistical in character? 
If, as Pearson claims, "contingency and correlation replace causation 
in science," how does the mathematical equation tell us a true story of 
natural phenomena? Pearson answers this in part by saying, "Con- 
tingency is expressed in a table with cell-dots forming a band. This 
band viewed through an inverted telescope gives a curve. This curve 
is the mathematical function." 

In the language of the mathematician, the scientific relation ap- 
proaches the mathematical formulation asymptotically. Perhaps a 
more nearly correct statement is that both the scientific data and the 
mathematical description near each other in a process of successive 
approximation which would warm the heart of a Poincare. 



MATHEMATICS AND THE SCIENCES — LASLEY 189 

Although many scientists feel, with Jeans, that the advent of 
Plank's quantum mechanics has dethroned continuity and causation, 
they in large measure share his belief that the appeal to a purely 
statistical basis may be a cloak for ignorance and that cause and 
effect of an unknown character may actually be in operation. 

DETERMINISM 

One would expect that questions about cause and effect should have 
philosophical implications. There arise the old questions of deter- 
minism and freedom. Determinism, according to Dantzig, "consists 
of the assumption that, given any natural phenomenon, the various 
features that characterize it are completely determined by its ante- 
cedents. The present knowledge permits prediction of the future 
course." "Each extension of the law of causation," says Jeans, 
"makes belief in freedom more difficult." Pearson claims that "our be- 
lief in determinism is the result of supposing sameness instead of 
likeness in phenomena." Eddington asserts that "physics is no longer 
pledged to a scheme of deterministic law." When asked why one 
magnet repels another, Whitney replied, "By the will of God," and 
added "science can enslave us, or it can make us free, but it is we who 
make the choice." Others hold the view that our bodies and our 
minds are as physical as inert matter, made of the same chemical ele- 
ments to be found in the remote stars, subject to the same inevitable 
laws; that the same determinism which holds for them holds also for 
us. Compton, speaking at the University last November, refuted the 
claim that man's actions depend on physical law. But he claimed it 
a vital question for science to find out whether man's actions are 
determined ; and if so, by what factors. He maintained that it is no 
longer justifiable to use physical law as evidence against freedom. 

Into this confused picture comes mathematics with its law of aver- 
ages and its probability theory. Almost within the last decade the 
uncertainties of the situation have been amplified by Heisenberg into 
an Uncertainty Principle, which says, "To any mechanical quantity 
Q there corresponds another quantity P in such a way that the 
product of the uncertainties in our knowledge of Q and of P can 
never be less than a certain constant A, Plank's constant; hence the 
more accurately we determine Q, the more ignorant we are of P." 
In the Newtonian mechanics a knowledge of the position and of the 
velocity of an electron at an instant determines the future position 
of that electron, but Heisenberg assures us that we can never know 
both. The more accurately we determine the position, the less accu- 
rately we know the velocity; and vice versa. This concept of un- 
certainty seems to put the coup de grace on determinism. But who 



190 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

shall say that the very law of averages which replaces determinism 
may not itself be as great a despot as the dictator which it displaces? 
May there not be still a new determinism dominated by probability, 
just as there may be a new causation whose source is unknown to us? 
Or shall we, with Compton and others, align ourselves with freedom 
because, as he says, "I find reason to believe in freedom, and wish 
to find whether such freedom is consistent with the recognized laws 
of physics." It would be a fine irony, indeed, if science, the greatest 
liberator of men's minds, denied to itself that freedom which it has 
so unstintingly given to mankind. 

LAW 

This outlook brings us to consider our ideas of law anew. When 
we say law, what do we mean ? Do we think of brass buttons and a 
uniform? Do we think of statutes to which as citizens we owe 
obedience ? Do we think of natural law, such as Newton's universal 
law of gravitation, or of mathematical law, such as Gauss' law of 
quadratic reciprocity, or of the philosopher's definition: "Law is 
Unity in action difference"? 

Weyl tells us that the mathematical lawfulness of nature "is a rev- 
elation of Divine reason." "The world," he says, "is not a chaos, but 
a cosmos harmoniously ordered by inviolable mathematical laws." 
We speak of Boyle's law for a perfect gas, of Kepler's three laws of 
planetary motion, of Dalton's law of multiple proportions and many, 
many other laws. The scientist maintains that his chief concern is 
the discovery of nature's laws. Just what does he mean by that? 
Is civil law one thing, and natural law another? Does law mean 
one thing to some of us, and quite another thing to others of us? 
Or, is there a philosophic pattern behind all law? 

In trying to understand the world we live in we observe and we 
experiment. We assume the validity of sense perception. We as- 
sume that normal human beings observe and experiment in much the 
same way. If we have ever listened to witnesses testify in court, we 
know just how much of an assumption that is. And furthermore, 
what, pray, is a normal human being? Many of us feel that all the 
knowledge that we obtain of natural phenomena comes through the 
senses, despite Pearson's continued insistence that in thinking we deal 
not only with sense impressions but with stored-up opinions of for- 
mer sense impressions. We measure with all the uncertainties at- 
tendant thereto; we think, or try to, amid all the doubts above 
mentioned as to continuity and causation and determinism weighing 
upon us. How in this atmosphere can we get at law ? 

The mathematician stands serene in his confusion. To him law is 
simply the matter of an invariant under a set of transformations. 



MATHEMATICS AND THE SCIENCES — LASLEY 191 

This invariant incorporates the unity, if any, jji-esent in the differ- 
ences of action in the situation in question. This unity answers the 
question as to how we may see the permanent in the transitory. The 
scope of it tells us how we may see the general in what is particular. 
In civil law we have to make the statute. Whether we like it or 
not, that statute may be broken. Still in the changing pattern of 
civil law the statute formulates what unity is possible in the diversity 
of action which it seeks to control. In natural law these differences 
in action take the form of the great dissimilarities in observed phe- 
nomena. The unity is the common part, if such there be. The 
natural law expresses this unity amid the action differences. Its 
form is never final until it partakes of the form of the mathematical 
invariant. 

POSTULATION 

Keflections on the nature of law bring forcibly to our minds the 
postulational character of our thinking. We do well to examine the 
meaning of our most fundamental concepts as well as the lines of 
argument leading to our most important conclusions. Every science 
has its undefined terms. Aught else is an infinite regression. When 
analysis fails, we rely on the properties of our concept to define it 
for us. In setting up the discipline for a science, some of the prop- 
ositions must be accepted without proof for similar reasons. The 
criterion for choice is simplicity. This is not as simple as the name 
indicates. By simplicity, as used here, is meant logical simplicity. 
As Einstein so aptly words it, "By 'simplest' we mean that system 
which contains fewest possible mutually independent postulates, or 
axioms." This attitude of modern science is far removed from New- 
ton's hypotheses non fingo. It is an attitude undoubtedly provided 
by the mathematician. Einstein continues, "Nature is the realiza- 
tion of the simplest conceivable mathematical ideas. I am convinced 
that we can discover by means of purely mathematical constructions, 
the concepts and the laws connecting them with each other, which 
furnish the key to the understanding of natural phenomena. Exper- 
ience may suggest the appropriate mathematical concepts, but they 
most certainly cannot be deducted from it. Experience remains, of 
course, the sole criterion of the physical utility of a mathematical 
construction. But the creative principle resides in mathematics." 

Such a postulational approach to mathematical thinking was seen 
by Euclid insofar as our inability to define satisfactorily all our 
terms. The fact that even a mathematician cannot prove every- 
thing was not formulated until Pasch, almost in our own time. Now 
the necessity of a postulational approach to both definitions and 
theorems is a universally accepted tenet of the mathematician. 



192 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

SYMBOLISM 

Whether we agree to this postulational so-called simplicity, we 
can have no doubt of the existence and efficacy of symbolism in both 
mathematics and the sciences. The desire for constructibility, so 
ably championed by Knonecker, has found its way into our search 
for an understanding of the nature of matter. We hear Lord Kelvin 
exclaim that he "can understand nothing of which he cannot make a 
mechanical model." To meet this desire we have the dynamic Euth- 
erford-Bohr model of the atom and the static Lewis-Langmuir model. 
But we are told these are too simple and definite to be regarded as 
other than intellectual conveniences. The ether is symbolized for 
us as a jellylike mass with remarkable properties. We are warned, 
however, that the universe is not completely picturable in a graphical 
sense. Radiation and gravitation elude such a mechanical descrip- 
tion. We speak of particles and waves as describing the behavior 
of light and radiation, but we are reminded that the electron is 
only a symbol for convenience of speech. Eddington tells us that 
matter and all else in the physical world has been reduced to a 
"shadowy symbolism." When we ask what the symbols stand 
for, the reply is that it doesn't matter. (One is reminded of the 
story that is told of Professor Lefevre, of the University of Vir- 
ginia. He is said to have greeted his philosophy class one fine morn- 
ing with the startling pronouncement, "What is mind? No matter. 
What is matter? Never mind.") "Physics," continues Eddington, 
"has no means of probing beneath the symbolism. Nor does one 
have to understand the symbols. What we have to understand are 
the conditions to which the symbols are subjected." The symbols 
themselves are dummies. Any other would do as well. 

The mathematician is thoroughly in accord with this use of sym- 
bolism. He has likened his subject to a game of chess. The rules 
of the game play the role of postulates. In such a game Bell tells 
us there is no question of "truth"; there is merely a question as to 
whether the rules have been complied with. To Hilbert mathematics 
is "a game played according to certain simple rules with meaningless 
marks on paper." 

PREDICTION 

We have heard of old that a prophet is not without honor. For 
the man in the street the ability of science to predict the future 
holds a particular fascination. He is thrilled by the story of an 
Adams and a Leverrier working apart, each computing from the 
perturbing influences of an unknown source on Uranus, the position 
of a new planet, Neptune, just 52 minutes from where Galle later 
found it. He reads of the electromagnetic waves predicted by Faraday 



MATHEMATICS AND THE SCIENCES — LASLEY 193 

and Maxwell and verified by Hertz. He Las heard of the more recent 
prediction by Einstein of the shift toward the red end of the spec- 
trum, caused by the deflection of light in a gravitational field, verified 
in the solar eclipse of 1919. These and many others, such as Men- 
delejeff's prophecy as to the discovery of gallium, scandium, and 
germanium, and such as Hamilton's prediction of conical refraction, 
have cast science in the role of one of the major prophets. Even 
Pearson concedes science the ability to predict, as well as to describe. 
Mathematics provides in its differential laws a pattern for these 
predictions. "A differential law," says Einstein, "tells us how the 
state of motion of a system gives rise to that which follows it in 
time." "If we know how the velocities and accelerations depend 
on position, we can trace out the past and future of our universe," 
says Pearson. This is done by means of differential equations with 
proper boundary value conditions. The chemist does it when he 
predicts the position of the electron in its orbit. The astronomer 
does it when he predicts the position of the planet in its orbit around 
the sun. Despite Heisenberg's uncertainty as to our ability to 
measure both position and velocity, the schedules of the planets are 
much better known than are those of the crack Chicago to New 
York trains. 

INVENTION 

Science is known to many only for its inventions. Much of its 
popularity with the masses is due to the added comforts and en- 
joyments with which it supplies them. Their eye is open for the 
so-called practical things of science. The auto, the radio, and the 
thousands of gadgets which give us our arm-chair civilization, endear 
science to the heart of the multitude. 

But this has not been the path of scientific progress. These things 
have usually been but byproducts. Hertz little thought when he 
verified Maxwell's electromagnetic waves that he was laying the 
foundation for radio. Perhaps as often the practical leads back 
into the fundamental principles, as do the principles lead to inven- 
tion. Again, when the scientist thinks himself most theoretical, he 
may be near a very useful practicality. "Indeed," says Kichards, 
"the developments of the wave mechanics now in progress may be 
fraught with graver practical consequences for humanity than the 
approaching commercialism of television or rapid transoceanic pas- 
senger flying." 

It is an old story to the mathematician, whom the cry of "prac- 
ticality" fails to arouse. Archimedes, tracing his conies in the 
sand when Marcellus' soldiers snuffed out his genius, had no thought 
of a Kepler using them to describe the paths of the planets. Argand, 
Gauss, Wessel in their abstract imaginings about the complex num- 



194 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

ber little fancied that they would later in the hands of Maxwell 
place a firm footing under modern electrical theories. Riemann, 
Cayley, and Sylvester had no thought that they were preparing the 
way for Einstein. Sturm and Liouville had no concern for the 
wave mechanics of De Broglie, which their researchers made pos- 
sible. The meditations of Cayley appear in the modern theories of 
Heisenberg and Dirac. Fermat, Gauss, De Moivre, Pascal could not 
possibly have foreseen that their probability theory would one day 
revolutionize physics. Indeed, the theory of today is so often the 
practice of tomorrow. If it were not, it would be no great matter. 
But, as Philip has said, "it is only against the background provided 
by the pure research of yesterday that the technical problems of 
today can be viewed in their proper setting and tackled with a reason- 
able prospect of success. Work in the pure sciences, however remote 
from the practical issues of the moment, is building up a reserve of 
knowledge and technique for future workers to draw on." 

COSMOGONY 

One of the reasons why one studies mathematics and the sciences 
is this: to obtain a better understanding of the world in which he 
finds himself. As the sciences and mathematics have developed, so 
have developed our views of the cosmos. To primitive man who 
thought of himself as the center of the universe, to men who with 
Ptolemy regarded the earth as the center, to men who with Coper- 
nicus placed the sun in this strategic position, the cosmos presented 
a very different view. This view colored many aspects of their 
thinking. It led to the formulation of a very different philosophy 
of life. So much so that someone has said "tell me a man's view of 
the Universe, and I will tell you what sort of man he is." There 
have been religious upheavals attendant upon man's change in his 
views of the world about him. In our own day his view is suffering 
what is perhaps its greatest change. Not only has the sun been dis- 
placed from its central position, but in its place nothing has been 
substituted. We are told that there is no known center; no refer- 
ence frame in which to orient a path in the cosmos. We have myste- 
rious cosmic rays beating down upon us from an unknown source 
with unknown effects. Out in an unknown place somewhere, Milli- 
kan suspects cosmic radiation may be rebuilding matter — an inverse 
phenomenon never dreamed of until our time. These are tremendous 
disturbances in man's view of the cosmos. That there have been no 
attendant religious disturbances is a conspicuous testimonial to intel- 
lectual freedom. The lay world is becoming accustomed to regard 
almost as commonplace views which former generations held to be 
impossible in some instances unintelligible. That the world can 



MATHEMATICS AND THE SCIENCES — LASLEY 195 

achieve this transition complacently is due in large part to the tough 
intellectual fiber provided by mathematics and the sciences. 

SOCIAL IMPLICATION 

Einstein asserts that "concern for man himself and his fate must al- 
ways form the chief interest of all technical endeavors * * * jn 
order that the creations of our minds shall be a blessing and not a 
curse to mankind." That scientific findings have the potentiality 
of becoming the latter is the thought of many at this time when mod- 
ern warfare threatens the very existence of civilization. May not our 
very scientific endeavors prove a Frankenstein? It has even been 
suggested that science take a holiday in order to let the rest of the 
world, particularly the world of good will, catch up. But, as Hill 
has pointed out, the scientist is after all a human being. Can he 
know which of his discoveries will be put to harmful ends ? Mankind 
must learn to take the good and the bad together. "It is ironical," 
says Gregory, "that grenter productivity through invention should 
bring more distress an* unemployment rather than an increase in 
human welfare." Soci J progress has not kept pace with scientific 
progress. Russell takes the position that if mankind were rational, 
his conquest of nature would increase his happiness and well-being. 
"Only kindness," he says, "can save the world, but even if we knew 
how to produce kindliness, we should not do so unless we were kindly." 

This dilemma, many believe, is caused by our failure to apply to 
social and economic problems the same intelligent analysis that has 
been applied to scientific problems. They assert that scientific think- 
ing is definitely on a plane above thinking in other fields — and that 
this explains the fact that science has outdistanced nonscience. The 
ideal of thinking is presented in the perfectly welded chains of mathe- 
matical proofs. The sciences approximate this norm more closely 
than do the nonsciences. Social, as well as scientific progress, comes 
with the finding of truth. The pattern for the search for truth is 
mathematical thinking. 

FAITH 

One rarely thinks of faith as an element essential to the scientist. 
The scientist is by definition one who knows. What need then can he 
have of faith? Mark Twain says that, "Faith is believing what you 
know ain't so." Somewhere Hilaire Belloc exclaims, "Oh, one should 
never, never doubt what no one can be sure about." Does this levity 
contain some truth ? Does not the worker with facts need faith as a 
sort of whistle to keep up his courage ? If he is never really sure, does 
he not need faith to bolster up this insecurity ? Or is it that a calm, 
pervading faith is one of the necessary tools in the kit of the scientist? 

430577 — 42 14 



196 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

That the latter is the attitude with which the scientist should ap- 
proach his task we are assured in the retiring address of President 
George D. Birkhoff, of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, delivered this past year at the Christmas meeting in Rich- 
mond. There one of America's foremost mathematicians spoke to 
America's scientists of the faith that is his. It is fitting that we here 
try to catch an overtone of that meeting. 

Mr. Birkhoff claimed that whether it is the mathematician dealing 
with number, or the physicist with matter, the biologist with organism, 
the psychologist with mind, or the sociologist with social values, there 
is behind one and all an inherent faith guiding the reasoned super- 
structure which they create upon intuitional concepts. Whether it is 
the mathematician's belief in the existence of infinite classes, the phys- 
icist's belief in the presence of a discontinuous process at work in 
the theory of radiation, the biologist's belief in a vitalistic theory of 
life, the psychologist's belief in a physiological accompaniment to 
every psychical fact, or the sociologist's belief in societal progress, 
Birkhoff emphasizes faith as an ''heuristically valuable, more general 
point of view, beyond reason, often in apparent contradiction, 
which the thinker regards as of supreme importance as he endeavors 
to give his conclusions the greatest possible scope." 

Some think that there is an opprobrium attached to any belief, that 
belief and science are mutually exclusive. Do these same people believe 
in the processes of logic ? Do they have faith in the rationality of the 
human mind, in the similarity of the perceptive and reasoning fac- 
ulties of normal, civilized beings ? Is it not in their code that nature 
is orderly, and that there are spiritual values underlying material 
facts? 

CONCLUSION 

In the foregoing we have traced in broad outline the advance in 
scientific thought from the earliest time down to the present. We 
have pictured the scientist journeying down this path with his guide, 
the mathematician. We have noted some of the scenes from certain 
plateaus and valleys in the path. Continuity, causation, deter- 
minism, law, the postulational method, symbolism, prediction, inven- 
tion, cosmology, social implication, faith, have passed in review. We 
have endeavored to point out how the guiding hand of the mathema- 
tician has aided the traveler along the way. The physical aspects 
of science, particularly those relative to the structure of matter, have 
been stressed because they are better known and because of the major 
importance of matter as "the building blocks" of the universe. There 
has been no disposition to indulge in propaganda for mathematics. 
Mathematics needs no "sales talk" to the scientist. It has been rather 



MATHEMATICS AND THE SCIENCES — LASLEY 197 

an effort to understand its function in the domain of scientific think- 
ing. This relation seems to be much like that of the guide to the 
mountain climber. Hardly could a guide be better fitted for his 
task. Bound to the traveler by a philosophical bond they rise or fall 
together. The assistance is by no means all on one side. Many are 
the instances in which the problems of the scientist have enriched the 
theories of the mathematician. Many are the instances in which the 
theories of the mathematician have aided in the solution of the prob- 
lems of the scientist. The equations of the mathematician are re- 
garded by many as the only language which nature speaks. Helm- 
holtz expressed this thought in the words, "the final aim of all na- 
tural science is to resolve itself into mathematics." Jeans has this 
in mind in his statement, "all the pictures which science draws of 
nature, and which alone seem capable of according with observational 
fact, are mathematical pictures * * * the Universe seems to 
have been designed by a pure mathematician." Even Galileo back 
in the beginning of what we are pleased to call modern science said, 
"Nature's great book is written in mathematical language." Wliite- 
head maintains that the aim of scientific thought is, "to see what is 
general in what is particular and what is permanent in what is 
transitory." In this vision science utilizes the general abstraction 
of mathematics and adopts its theory of invariants. The concept of 
progressive change is basic in the study of natural phenomena. This 
same idea is the mud sill of the calculus. "With the calculus as a 
key," continues Whitehead, "mathematics can be successfully applied 
to the explanation of the course of nature." Wlien classical physics 
suffered the impact of the Michelson-Morley experiment it was forced 
by its own findings to reexamine its foundations. "In this emer- 
gency," to quote Dantzig, "it was entirely due to the flexible mental 
apparatus with which the mathematician supplied them, that the 
physical sciences have at all survived this drastic revision." Kich- 
ards asserts that "when we reach the core of physical reality, the 
truth is presented in mathematical equations." Weyl claims that in 
the long ago the Pythagoreans held that the world was not "a chaos, 
but a cosmos harmoniously ordered by invariable mathematical laws." 
Jeans expresses it in the words, "Nature seems to know the rules of 
mathematics as the mathematicians have formulated them in their 
studies without drawing on experience of the outer world." 

We come now to the end of tonight's account of this amazing jour- 
ney of the scientist. In saying farewell to our scientific traveler we 
hear that insistent injunction from the mouth of his guide, so aptly 
put by Dantzig, "Read your instruments and obey mathematics; for 
this is the whole duty of the scientist." 



THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY 



By M. W. Smith 

Member American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vice President in Charge 
of Engineering, WestingJiouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 



[With 1 plate] 



Behind the phenomenal growth of the electrical industry lies an important 
fact: "The industry has consistently accepted and adapted to its own use the 
new ideas and developments of science." 

The story of the electrical industry is one of growth in giant, 
breath-taking strides and great technical advances. Turbine- 
generator units have progressed to the stage where ratings of 100,000 
kv.-a. at 3,600 r.p.m. and 300,000 kv.-a. at 1,800 r.p.m. can now be 
built. Hydraulic generators, the size of which may ultimately be 
limited by manufacturing facilities because of their large diameters, 
have exceeded 100,000-kw. rating. Efficiencies of some of the large 
hydrogen-cooled turbine generators, synchronous condensers, and 
frequency changers have approached 99 percent in individual units. 
Transformers have increased to present-day ratings of over 150,000 
kv.-a. per bank, and efficiencies of well over 99 percent have been 
realized. Circuit breakers are capable of interrupting several million 
kilovolt-amperes— equal to that of the short-circuit capacity of some 
of the large interconnected systems. Lightning arresters ^ are avail- 
able with sufficient capacity to handle a direct lightning stroke of 
over 100,000 amperes and yet limit the voltage to safe values. 

Behind this growth, the rate of which has shown no diminution 
since the birth of the industry, lies a significant, important fact. 
The industry has consistently accepted and adapted to its own use 
the new ideas and developments of science. In fact the industry has 
fostered and encouraged fundamental research to the point that the 
research laboratory has become an integral part of the industry 
itself. It also recognizes the value and importance of the scientific 
accomplislmients of the universities and other research institutions, 
and maintains a close contact with their work. 



' Reprinted by permission from Electrical Engineering, vol. 59, No. 2, February 1940. 

"A liglitning arrester is an electrical device used to protect electrical equipment from 
daiuage wtien exposed to lightning or other voltages that are higher than that for which 
the equipment was designed to operate. 

199 



200 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Although the industrial laboratory has become the basic element 
in the electrical industry, the manner by which its fruits are put to 
practical use is complex. Not only are there many ways by which 
a new idea is transformed into a practical thing, but also there are 
many problems in connection with making the fullest use of scientific 
effort. These ways and these problems merit a closer examination. 

EFFICIENT USE OF SCIENCE PRESENTS MANY PROBLEMS 

The task of the industry is not only to uncover new principles and 
make new discoveries, but also to determine which ones can be put to 
practical, profitable use, and how. It is difficult to recognize the 
potential value of new discoveries and to determine at an early stage 
the possibilities of applying them to industrial processes and 
products. 

THE PROBLEM OF TIMING 

The rate of application of new ideas is not dependent solely upon 
the time necessary to conceive and develop them. It is also influenced 
by the time required for public acceptance. Household refrigeration, 
the basic principle of which is very old, required a relatively long 
time for both instrumentalities and public acceptance. Numerous 
problems had to be solved in the commercial development of such 
items as suitable refrigerants, sealed compressor shafts or the alterna- 
tive of hermetically sealed units, systems of proper lubrication that 
would be effective for a period of years, elimination of noise, quan- 
tity-production methods such as those previously developed in the 
automobile industry, electric- welding methods, and many other items, 
including even such things as a system of time payments. 

During the first two decades of radio the efforts of radio engineers 
were directed toward developing methods by which radio could be 
used as a means of private communication. It remained for a new 
idea, the opposite of this notion, to, allow radio to assume its present 
etature. Public acceptance of radiobroadcasting was almost instan- 
taneous. This case is an exception to the rule that the exploitation 
of new products and devices usually results in unprofitable operation 
for prolonged periods. 

The course of carrier current' also supports this point. In the 
middle 20's carrier current came into successful use for communica- 



' Carrier current is a term used to define currpnts that are superimposed on circuits 
such as transmission lines which are already carrying power currents. These carrier cur- 
rents are induced in, and collected from, these circuits by the use of high-frequency trans- 
mitting and receiving equipment which is not metallically connected to the circuits over 
which they are carried. These carrier currents are generally used for communication and 
control purposes, and this scheme of operation eliminates the necessity of providing parallel 
telephone or transmission circuits. 



ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY — SMITH 201 

tion along transmission lines. Then came a quiet period of several 
years in its development, followed about 1935 by an intensified ac- 
tivity which shows no signs of any immediate slackening. The need 
for high-speed relaying of long lines, the development of better tubes, 
and other changes in the industry spurred engineers to adapt the 
fundamentals of carrier current to relaying and supervision as well 
as communication. 

Spot welding has been a practical, though limited, industrial tool 
for many years. However, some 6 or 8 years ago, the idea was con- 
ceived of using the ignitron * to control exactly the duration of the 
welding current. Since that time, spot welding has grown enor- 
mously both in total use and in diversity of applications. The ig- 
nitron, incidentally, was originally developed not with welding in 
mind but to increase the reliability of mercury-arc rectifiers. 

THE PROBLEM OF OBSOLESCENCE 

The industrial laboratory poses the inexorable problem of obsoles- 
cence. Fortunately the leaders of the electrical industry have taken 
the far-sighted view that, in order to make sound progress, the seem- 
ing ruthlessness of obsolescence must be accepted. Unless one has 
studied the rates of development and consequently the rates of obso- 
lescence, it is seldom realized how relentless is the march of progress. 

A plant that is modern today may be out of date tomorrow. As 
a matter of fact, the more progressive companies attempt to antici- 
pate obsolescence. Capital expenditures are made on the basis of 
the time at which the new plant or equipment will be obsolete, not 
when it is worn out. 

The discovery of a new fact in science may completely upset an 
existing design. Even though the style or performance of a product 
may not be greatly modified, the practice of the art or process by 
which it is produced may be radically changed. With the steep rise 
of welding not long ago, in a few short years the method of con- 
structing most large machines swung from casting to welded fabri- 
cation. Neither the appearance nor the performance of the machines 
was fundamentally altered by this change; the principal motive is 
economy of time and of construction cost. 

It behooves all managements to keep themselves keenly alive to the 
necessity of meeting changes resulting from progress. Of all com- 
petition, there is none quite so ruthless as that which replaces. We 
all can remember that during the early stages of radiobroadcasting, 
several plants rapidly grew up for the making of radio headsets. 



♦The Ignitron is a special form of the mercury-arc rectifler, and is generally used to 
convert alternating current to direct current. 



202 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

The development of the loud-speaker practically ruined this active 
business. The early sets used vaccuum tubes supplied by direct cur- 
rent, requiring plate and filament batteries. This created a heavy 
production of dry batteries that was subsequently curtailed by the 
development of plate-battery eliminators. Later, the development 
of the copper-oxide rectifier eliminated the use of the storage bat- 
tery for filaments, and still later, the development of a.-c. tubes so 
completely changed the design of radio receivers that it rendered 
many inventories and factory equipments obsolete. 

The most recent step in this evolution — and one that shows the 
cyclic character of many industrial developments — is the battery- 
operated portable set that has suddenly become so popular. It is 
additionally significant that although a tube development displaced 
the early battery set, another development of tubes brings the bat- 
tery back — ^the perfection of a tube that operates successfully on li/^ 
volts. 

This last development also shows the rewards from the policy of 
letting the obsolescence caused by science take its seemingly ruthless 
course. The new battery-operated radios do not offer new competi- 
tion for established types of radio sets, but instead simply create or 
uncover an additional demand for radios. The demand for batteries 
and for tubes promises to reach an all-time peak. 

Similar successive steps of development occurred in illumination. 
A large kerosene-lamp industry was rendered obsolete, particularly 
in metropolitan districts, by the coming of the gas mantle. It, in 
turn, was replaced by the electric lamps. Now a new family of 
lamps — the gas-discharge lamps, which include sodium-vapor, high- 
pressure mercury-vapor, and fluorescent units — with eflSciencies sev- 
eral times those of incandescent lamps, have demonstrated their 
practicability. It is still too soon to predict to what extent they will 
become the universal illuminants, but there is more than a hint that 
illuminant evolution is not at an end. No one in the industry thinks 
for a minute that the more efficient light sources presage a decrease 
in the requirements for energy or equipment. On the contrary, as 
in the past, this improvement should promote further expansion. 

INDUSTRY FINDS MANY BENEFITS FROM ORGANIZED RESEARCH 

The industrial laboratory has served the march of electrical prog- 
ress in many ways. Not the least of these is that it has served to 
bring the scientist, the design engineer, and the application engineer 
into closer contact. They now talk the same language and use the 
same tools. Universities are giving more attention to the training 
of industrial scientists, and within the last few years, important 
meetings have been devoted to discussions of the application of 
physics to industry. 



^ ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY — SMITH 203 

The cooperation of university and industrial scientific effort has 
also contributed much to the progress of development by bringing sci- 
entists of different training closer together on specific problems. For 
instance, much of the recent progress in the improvement of insula- 
tion for electrical apparatus has resulted from the combined efforts 
of physicists, chemists, and electrical engineers working harmoni- 
ously in close-knit groups. For many years, only a limited number 
of scientists in the universities had shown any interest in dielectrics, 
particularly solids. The engineer stumbled along rather blindly, and 
little progress was made until all phases of the problem were coor- 
dinated through the industrial laboratory. This relationship not 
only has served an important function in coordinating the efforts of 
individuals, but also has exerted a strong influence in bringing to- 
gether the various departments within an organization as well as 
outside agencies on problems of mutual interest. A new develop- 
ment for one department is often seen to be of value to another. 
Thus, research acts as a clearing house for information and stimu- 
lates its flow from one department to another. 

JOINT RESEAECH BETWEEN MANUFACTUKER AND SUPPLIER 

Another coordinating function of the industrial laboratory is the 
cooperative work between electrical manufacturers and the suppliers 
of raw materials. For many years, electrical manufacturers have 
carried on cooperative research with manufacturers of steel, carbon 
brushes, insulating materials, and other raw materials. As a result 
greatly improved materials have been developed. These in turn 
enable the electrical manufacturer to build more reliable and more 
efficient apparatus, which can be extended into new and larger fields 
of application. 

IiroUSTRIAL RESEARCH SHORTENS TIME BETWEEN DISCOVERY AND USE 

Another important accomplishment of the industrial laboratory 
has been to effect a marked reduction in the time between the dis- 
covery of a new idea and its commercial application. For example, 
only a few years ago scientists conceived the idea of using as a 
germicidal agent a certain type of lamp the rays from which are 
lethal to bacteria. In the last 2 or 3 years the resulting Sterilamp 
has been put to regular daily use in tenderizing meat, retarding 
spoilage of foods, killing bacteria on drinking glasses, helping to 
prevent infection following surgical operations, and many other 
important tasks. 

Even today, however, special attention must be given to this phase 
of the problem: After the research work has been completed and 
the theory or principle of operation has been verified, there still 



204 AIOTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 194^ 

remains the decision as to the commercial possibilities of the new 
device or product. Usually sufficient information is not available at 
this stage on whch to base an intelligent decision. Information as 
to probable costs (including equipment investment), processes, pro- 
duction methods, market analyses, and distribution methods must be 
obtained before a decision to manufacture and sell can be made. 
This requires that the new product be carried through some prelim- 
inary stage of development, where a study of these factors is made. 
Usually this takes the form of some kind of pilot-plant activity 
under the direction of a special experimental or development group 
that has the responsibility of carrying new products through this 
incubation stage following the completion of research work. This 
form of development is particularly conspicuous in the chemical 
industry. 

PATENT SYSTEM STIMULATES NEW DEVELOPMENTS 

Our patent system has had a stimulating influence on industrial 
research and developments in the electrical industry that should not 
be overlooked. It costs money to develop and exploit inventions. 
The protection afforded by patents provides an incentive to develop 
new things under conditions such that they may be exploited long 
enough to become established. Quite often a strong urge toward a 
particular development seems to become manifest and inventive effort 
starts simultaneously in many places. This seeming chaos that 
theorists would like to control from some central throne eventually 
turns into true cooperative effort through the practical necessity for 
cross-licensing of patents before a useful product can be obtained. 
Television is a present-day example. Patents themselves are pub- 
lished and the protection afforded does away with the necessity for 
secrecy. The new progress that has been made impinges upon other 
minds, thereby starting new chains of ideas that result in coordinated 
group effort leading to rapid progress. 

Without the protection provided by patents, capital would be re- 
luctant to venture into new fields. Industrial research would become 
secretive, and because of the resulting lack of cooperation and coor- 
dinated group effort, our progress in technical accomplishments and 
standards of living would be seriously retarded. 

In the light of these advantages, many times verified by experi- 
ence, it is disturbing to observe the tendency in some political circles 
to propose legislation that would destroy these values and place seri- 
ous limitations on individual right. Even the uncertainties surround- 
ing such proposals create a lack of confidence, tending to retard initia- 
tive and technical progress. This same condition exists to a large 
extent throughout the industry, and particularly in the public-utility 



ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY — SMITH 205 

field where political threats and limitations have seriously curtailed 
expansion and thus retarded the use of scientific developments di- 
rectly in the generation and distribution of electricity. 

ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY DRAWS FROM ALL BASIC SCIENCES 

Contributions to the development and progress of the electrical 
industry have come from practically every branch of the basic 
sciences. This is not surprising when we consider the large variety 
of materials used in the manufacture of electrical equipment. 

Metallurgy. — Improvement in electrical apparatus is largely de- 
pendent on the improvement made in the properties of the materials 
used. This applies to both physical and chemical properties of vari- 
ous kinds. The limitations in physical properties of materials are 
most likely to be encountered in high-speed rotating machinery such 
as steam turbines, where centrifugal and steam forces are likely to be 
large under conditions of high temperature, which in turn tends to 
lower permissible stress limits. 

Research work done in recent years by both electrical and steel 
manufacturers to determine and improve the fatigue, creep,^ cor- 
rosion, and other physical properties of various alloy steels used 
in highly stressed machines has resulted in such marked advances 
in design that output ratings have been more than doubled at the 
highest operating speed in less than 5 years. 

The electrical industry has also called on the metallurgist for new 
and improved magnetic steels and alloys. Magnetic steel, particularly 
electrical sheet steel, has been a subject of continued research by both 
electrical and steel manufacturers. This has involved studies of 
molecular and grain structures as well as of chemical compositions 
and purity. This work has resulted in a steady decrease in iron 
losses ® in the cores of transformers and machines of such magnitude 
that they have been reduced by more than half in the last 20 years, 
with a saving to the industry of millions of dollars annually. 

Until recently, the improvement in electrical sheet steel was con- 
fined largely to iron losses. Practically no improvement in perme- 



' When a load or strain is applied to a structural member such a? a steel bar, the bar 
elongates or stretches proportional to the load applied up to the elastic limit of the material. 
For most practical applications, this elongation for a given stress is presumed to remain 
fixed or constant. Actually, most materials will continue to elongate at a very slow rate 
(in some cases over a period of years), even though the stress remains constant at a value 
below its elastic limit. This property or characteristic of materials to slowly elongate 
on a constant stress with time is commonly referred to as "creep." 

* In the iron cores of electrical devices, such as generators, motors, and transformers, 
which either generate or receive alternating current, the magnetic flux is subject to 
reversal at the same frequency as the generated or applied alternating current. This 
reversal of magnetism produces a molecular friction loss inside the iron core which results 
in an energy loss that appears in the form of heat. This energy loss is commonly referred 
to as "iron loss." 



206 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

ability had been accomplished. As a result of recent research and 
development we now have a magnetic steel that has not only lower 
iron loss but also much better permeability. 

New alloys are sometimes discovered and developed as byproducts 
of other research work. In the electrical industry, the need for new 
alloys with special characteristics often arises in connection with 
new electrical developments. It is therefore often necessary to de- 
velop special alloys to meet limitations encountered in electrical 
developments, particularly when the volume required is too small 
to be attractive to alloy manufacturers. For example, a recently 
developed alloy containing only a few percent iron, is stronger at 
1,100° F. than any low-carbon steel at room temperature. It creeps 
very little. It survives a 6,000-hour creep test at 1,000° F. that 
causes cast carbon-molybdenum steel to fail and high-strength nickel- 
chromium steel to creep 100 times as much. As an amazing demon- 
stration of how it retains its elastic properties when hot, a bar of 
steel and one of this alloy were heated to 1,100° F. When struck with 
a hammer, the steel bar responded with a dull thud; the alloy with 
a clear, bell-like tone. 

Chemistry. — The application of chemistry to the electrical industry 
has been almost unlimited. Chemists have been called on principally 
to produce new and improved insulating materials, compounds, var- 
nishes, oils, etc. There have been many other developments, however. 
For example, a fireproof chlorinated compound has been developed 
to replace transformer oil in applications where fire hazards exist. 
Many fireproof liquids have been made available, but a great amount 
of research and development work has been required in recent years 
to obtain a material that also had satisfactory electrical properties 
such as high dielectric strength, low power factor, and viscosities 
comparable with transformer oil, particularly at low temperature. 

Physics. — ^The foundation of the electrical industry is supported 
to a large extent on the laws of physics. Some of the most impor- 
tant scientific discoveries and applications therefore have come from 
this field. The discovery of electromagnetism, the electron, and the 
X-ray are outstanding examples. From researches on the mechanics 
of the ion came the principle of circuit interruption by deionization 
that has been applied to a whole family of interrupting devices from 
the giant circuit breakers that handle millions of kilovolt-amperes 
down to the new practical circuit breakers for the home that are 
little larger than a wall switch. In the field of electronics, numerous 
electrical developments of far-reaching importance have been based 
on these and similar discoveries. 

Mathematics. — Probably no other industry rests on such a precise 
mathematical basis as the electrical industry. From its very begin- 



ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY — SMITH 207 

ning its every step in the design, construction, and operation of 
electrical apparatus has been guided by computation. In fact, the 
electrical engineer has invented several mathematical tools to serve 
his purposes, such as the complex quantity and symmetrical com- 
ponents. He has even placed his mathematics on a mechanical basis, 
such as that amazing creation, the calculating board. 

Pure mathematical concepts have given birth to many electrical 
devices. Particularly has this been true of relays for the protection 
of transmission lines and terminal equipment. A conspicuous recent 
example is a new, simplified pilot-wire relay that greatly extends 
the practical field of this type of relaying. This relay was conceived 
directly from the mathematical conception of positive, negative, and 
zero-sequence components of alternating currents. 

AS TO THE FUTURE 

We know so little about nature's basic underlying principles that 
it is incredible that anyone should think that our knowledge of 
natural laws is anything but exceedingly small when compared with 
the vast amount that is listed in the unknown column. This alone 
should be encouraging, for if we can accomplish all that we have 
with such a poor understanding, it is reasonable to expect vastly 
better results as we obtain more basic knowledge. 

While our human limitations may prevent us from seeing very 
far into the future, present developments give us some idea of future 
trends and in what fields expansions are likely to occur. 

In the processing industries, electricity will probably assume an 
increasingly important role in the way of metering, regulating, and 
controlling numerous phases of new as well as existing processes. 
Recent improvements in electric furnaces and their controls, including 
the control of the atmosphere inside of the furnace as well, indicate 
various possibilities in this field. For instance, heat treatment of steel 
sheets for automobiles by continuous processes in less than 15 min- 
utes has been accomplished. In the presence of highly purified at- 
mospheres, various steels and alloys can now be bright-annealed. In 
controlled-atmosphere furnaces, dies can be heat-treated without 
oxidation or carburization, thus eliminating subsequent grinding. 

In the broad field of air conditioning, electricity will play an im- 
portant part, not only in applications requiring power but in the 
processing and treatment of the air itself. Electrical means are now 
available for cleaning and sterilizing air. These new aids in air 
conditioning, coupled with the available services of heating, cooling, 
and humidity control, make it possible to improve man's living con- 
ditions so profoundly that he may live in a clean spring or fall 
atmosphere all the year around in any locality. 



208 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Lightningproof electrical systems were but the dreams of engineers 
a few years ago. They are still not a reality, but the day is coming 
when they will be. Much has been done in this direction ; more is 
yet to be done. The recent development of a device for recording 
natural lightning strokes that is relatively inexpensive and simple, 
so that dozens of them can be installed over wide areas, will be of 
tremendous assistance in collecting that quantity of statistical in- 
formation about lightning necessary for the construction of protective 
devices and self-protecting apparatus. We now have reason to believe 
that in the not too distant future lightning, once the great disturber 
of electrical systems, will be eliminated as a hazard to power 
continuity. 

Vast new vistas are being opened by high-frequency electric energy. 
High frequencies, which broadly include everything beyond 60 cycles, 
are already being used for numerous tasks of melting, heat-treating, 
and drying. Packaged raw materials are being dried without open- 
ing the containers ; bearing surfaces of finished engine crankshafts are 
being given additional hardness by localized heating induced by high- 
frequency currents. With the rapid developments in high-frequency 
generators, both of the rotating and electron tube types, it is not in- 
conceivable that all gasoline and Diesel engines, machine tools, and 
other machines will be treated by high-frequency when assembled or 
partially assembled to harden the wearing surfaces. 

The great field of electronics, which is now best known in radio, 
television, and communication, can be expected to find a greater 
number of future applications in the electrical industry, particularly 
in those fields having to do with automatic machine operations, in- 
spection of materials and safety methods. Recent progress in the 
development of larger and more reliable metal-tank tubes indicates 
that electronics may also be expected to play an increasingly im- 
portant part in electric-power distribution, both in transformations 
and control. 

Wlien it is considered that the power consumption in many small 
homes today is from 3 to 10 times the national average, due to the 
increasing acceptance of electric ranges, water heaters, forced air 
circulation, high lighting levels, and other conveniences, we can ex- 
pect domestic power consumption to double in a reasonable time. 
This indicates the need for an improved low-voltage distribution 
system as well as rewiring of homes. 

Agriculture is another field that has scarcely been touched by the 
electrical industry. In addition to the usual applications of power 
and light, there appear to be many possibilities of applying treat- 
ments and radiations for the stimulation of plant growth and control 
of insects that now infest grains, plants, and seeds. 



ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY — SMITH 209 

Present researches in nuclear physics in many institutions may re- 
sult in obtaining information that will be just as extensive in its 
influence on the developments in the electrical industry as was the 
discovery of the electron. The production of radioactive substances, 
through the disintegration of the atom may provide a very useful 
tool. Naturally, one thinks of using these radiations instead of the 
X-ray for radiography or for radium in the treatment of disease. 
Wliile they no doubt will be used to some extent for such purposes, 
the possibility of using these radiations as a means of studying 
certain atomic reactions and structures may be even more useful. 
For instance, by the use of electrical -detection methods, it appears 
feasible to follow the migration of radioactive atoms through a metal 
during heat-treating processes. Similarly, it is possible to trace 
the movement of radioactive substances through a plant or the 
human body and thus learn more about how and where these sub- 
stances are assimilated. In contrast to radium, most of these arti- 
ficial radioactive substances have such a short life that no permanent 
harm is done to the human system. 

The present methods of generating electric power are so well 
established that we are inclined to accept them as permanent. 
Gradual improvements in present methods have reduced the amount 
of coal used per kilowatt-hour to approximately one-fourth that 
required 20 years ago. Wliile this improvement is indicative of real 
progress in steam-power generation, it is still small when compared 
with the theoretically possible energy that could be gotten from a 
highly efficient method of energy conversion. 

With an increasing knowledge of the fundamental properties of 
matter and a better understanding of the conduction of electricity 
in gases, recent calculations and experimental work indicate that it 
may be possible to use the electromagnetic properties of the rapidly 
moving ionized products of combustion of certain fuels in conjunc- 
tion with some suitable electrical transforming device as a means 
of generating electric energy. A practical development of this idea, 
which at least appears to be a possibility at the present time, would 
result in the use of static electrical devices extracting power from 
the kinetic energy of the gases of combustion without the intervention 
of rotating electrical machinery. 

Although these and many other prospective developments that 
might be mentioned are indefinite and difficult to evaluate, we can 
look forward with the expectation that the electrical industry will 
continue to grow under the stimulation and impetus of new scientific 
discoveries and advances. 



Smithsonian Report. 1941. — Smith 



Plate 1 




Research Studies of Vibration in large steam Turbine Blades. 



THE NEW SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FIBERS ' 



By TTkrbebt R. Mauebsbeegeb 
Technical Editor, Rayon Textile Monthly 



We are living in a fast and progressive age as far as textiles are 
concerned, recently referred to as a "fiber revolution." The old nat- 
ural fibers do not any longer limit the ability of the textile industry 
to create and supply new fabrics of unusual character, beauty, and 
usefulness. These new developments mark an advance in fiber tech- 
nology, which must be examined and evaluated with the greatest care 
by all who wish to keep up-to-date. They create both opportunities 
and hazards for the progressive textile manufacturer— opportunities 
for those awake to the possibilities they offer of meeting our human 
needs more fully; hazards for the ultraconservatives, who let prog- 
ress pass by. To the technical man, they are fascinating and worthy 
of careful examination and study. 

In my investigation of these new synthetic fibers I have not in- 
cluded the cellulosic filaments and fibers, such as rayon or modified 
rayons. I believe that the word synthetic has never been applicable 
to rayon in its various textile forms. True synthesis would involve 
the union of chemical elements to form the basic substances from 
which a textile fiber is obtained. This stage has not as yet been 
accomplished, but the new man-made fibers I shall discuss come very 
close to this ideal. 

My information has been obtained from sources I believe authentic, 
such as patents, chemical abstracts, newspapers, both local and foreign 
technical publications as well as private correspondence with the 
companies directly involved. 

In discussing them with you, I will take them up in the order of 
their present relative importance. I will also include a few in which 
research work has been practically completed but which have not 
been marketed as yet in this country for economic or other reasons, 
which I shall state. In each case I will state the origin, comparative 



* Paper presented before American Society for Testing Materials, Papers Session, October 
17, 1940. Reprinted by permission from Rayon Textile Monthly, November and De- 
cember 1940. 

211 
480577- 



212 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

properties as far as they could be ascertained, and their present or 
past uses. 

The importance of these new synthetic fibers may be more fully 
understood when it is considered that the supply of some of our 
natural fibers may be cut off or prices become prohibitive. At a 
recent technologists' meeting, the Army, Navy, and Air Force have 
taken serious recognition of this and are making tests on substitution 
for silk and wool in particular. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. von Bergen, Director of Research 
Laboratories of Forstmann Woolen Co., prints of a number of new 
synthetic fibers, both in longitudinal and cross section, are found in 
the new Textile Fiber Atlas to be published soon. 

NYLON 

Nylon is the generic name chosen by the du Pont Co. for "a man- 
made proteinlike chemical product, which may be formed into fibers, 
bristles, filaments and sheets, and when drawn is characterized by 
extreme toughness, elasticity and strength," to quote from the com- 
pany's statements. This means that it has to some degree the same 
chemical composition as the proteins, of which silk, hair, and wool 
are common textile examples. The term "nylon" does not refer to 
any particular chemical form of the polyamide any more than glass 
refers to any particular form or item of glass. 

It is an outgrowth of considerable research begun by du Pont in 
1928 and its success was announced by the company on October 27, 
1938. To explain how it was conceived and how it is made today 
would be a paper in itself. I shall confine myself only to the textile 
aspect and its various desirable properties. While nylon is com- 
monly stated to be made from "coal, air, and water," much more is 
involved. To the technical man, it can be made from a dibasic acid 
derived from phenol and a diamine, likewise derived from phenol. 
Oxygen from the air is needed in the dibasic acid, and ammonia is 
used in making the diamine. Since phenol is commonly derived 
from bituminous coal and since ammonia is made synthetically by 
causing the hydrogen from water to unite with nitrogen from the air, 
it follows that this particular nylon is derivable from coal, air, and 
water. 

In regard to its physical and chemical properties, it must be said 
that nylon is the first synthetic textile fiber that has reached practical 
use and thereby has proved definitely that it is possible to make 
textile fibers synthetically and with raw materials other than cellu- 
lose. Nylon has a crystalline polyamide structure, can be drawn 
cold, and is exceedingly strong and elastic. This is attributed to 



SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FIBERS — MAUERSBERGER 213 

the orientation of molecules in the drawing process, which can be 
altered to suit any particular condition or demand. It is the proper- 
ties of the yarn resulting from this control of molecular arrangement 
which caused the compan}'' to introduce it in the manufacture of fine 
hosiery. Nylon is also extremely tough, standing long wear and 
abuse, making it ideal for the bristles in tooth and hair brushes, fish- 
ing leaders and the like. It is resistant to abrasion. Its resistance 
to heat is good, i.e., its melting point is around 480° F., which is 
above the temperature normally used in ironing fabrics. Nylon 
does not burn or blaze or propagate a flame. It merely melts. 
Hence, no fire hazards are involved in its use. It is not injured by 
water or any liquid commonly used in the home. It is attacked by 
phenol (carbolic acid) and certain mineral acids normally found 
in the laboratory only. It is readily wet out by water, but absorbs 
much less water than common textile materials. Hence, nylon 
articles dry extremely rapidly and are just as strong wet as when 
dry. Hot water and saturated steam impart a substantially "perma- 
nent set" to nylon yarn and fabricated materials, which serves to 
retain its shape. Of course, nylon can be made waterproof or water- 
repellent by customary treatments. 

Nylon, like all ordinary textile fibers, is subject to injury by 
ordinary light. It is claimed to be at least equally as resistant to 
indoor and outdoor light as corresponding unweighted silk fabrics. 
It can be stored in the absence of light for long periods without 
injury. Nylon is absolutely proof against attack by moths, fungi, 
and bacteria. Nylon has good insulating properties and high abra- 
sion resistance. Its refractive index in the textile form is 1.53 to 
1.57 Nylon is doubly refractive and when examined between crossed 
Nicol prisms, all colors of the rainbow appear. 

Of its present 4,000,000-pound production, 90 percent goes into the 
manufacture of fine, full-fashioned women's hosiery. It has found 
application in the manufacture of sewing thread known as "Neophil." 
It is also used for corset fabrics and for shroud lines for parachutes, 
and is now being developed for the parachute fabric itself. As a mono- 
filament and bristle, it is used in "Exton" and "Miracle Tuft" tooth 
brushes and hair brushes; also as surgical sutures. 

While nylon is produced at Seaford, Del., with a capacity of 
8,000,000 poimds, another plant is being started at Martinsville, Va., 
which will bring the production to 16,000,000 pounds by the spring 
of 1942. 

Much of this information is already available to technicians, sci- 
entific workers, and textile experts. It is merely repeated for the 
sake of A. S. T. M. records and also as a summary for you. Nylon 
serves as an excellent example of what can be done to construct and 



214 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

manufacture textile filaments and fibers to suit specified needs and 
modern demands. 

VINTON 

This is probably the most promising new synthetic textile fiber. 
While already hinted at by Dr. Robert Hooke in 1664, and by Rene 
Reaumur, the production of a suitable and practical textile fiber 
from gums and resins did not become a reality until synthetic resins 
were made. 

Vinyon was originally made by Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Cor- 
poration and described in a United States patent, No. 2,161,766, 
granted to Rugeley, Field, Jr., and Conlon in 1937. Later in 1939 
the American Viscose Corporation took up the manufacture of the 
filament yarn and fiber. 

Vinyon is the result of extensive research on vinyl polymers, 
specifically a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate produced 
by polymerization rather than by condensation. The raw polymer 
in the form of a white fluffy powder is dispersed in acetone and a 
dope is obtained containing 23 percent of the copolymer by weight. 
After filtering and deaerating, this solution is spun the same as ace- 
tate and coagulated by the dry- or warm-air process. After condi- 
tioning on take-up bobbins the yarn is wet- twisted to 6 turns per 
inch, whereupon it is given a stretch of over 100 percent of its orig- 
inal length, giving the yarn its high tensile strength and true elas- 
ticity. It is also produced in the partially stretched condition for 
certain purposes at a lower price. They are now produced in 40, 
60, 80, 120 deniers and up. 

Delustering is done by incorporation of pigments and a new 
process has been found to produce a mild delusterization directly in 
spinning. The yarn has no abrasive action and, owing to its high 
tensile strength of 1-4 grams per denier and elongation from 18-120 
percent, will stand abrasion well. The tensile strength is the same 
when wet or dry. Dyes are rapidly being found so that it can now be 
colored in a wide variety of shades. 

These unusual properties have caused the yarn to be employed for 
many industrial fabrics, such as filter cloths, pressed felts, sewing 
threads and twines of various types, chemical workers' clothing, sail 
and tarpaulin fabrics, fish nets, parachute cords, chemical-resistant 
hose, noninflammable fabrics, awnings, curtains, and upholstery. 
Vinyon staple fiber has been mixed with cotton, wool, and rayon, and 
fabrics made from it will retain their pressed shape, fold, or crease 
^ery well. Maximum concentrations of mineral acids, caustics, alka- 
lies, bleaching agents do not affect vinyon. It has no affinity for 
moisture, does not support bacteria and virus growth, and is not sub- 
ject to damp rot, mold, or mildew. 



SYKTHETIC TEXTILE FIBERS — MAUERSBERGER 215 

It is truly a synthetic fiber, of truly amazing properties and not 
like any natural fiber — another excellent example of what can be done 
in creating fibers of special character to meet special needs. 

Modifications and further experimentation in this category of 
synthetic textile fibers have produced other very interesting and 
valuable materials in Europe known as Pe-Ce fiber, Synthofil, Igelite, 
and Permalon. The latter is a vinyldene chloride derivative which 
the producer, The Dow Giemical Co., calls Saran. According to 
Pierce Plastics, Inc., of Bay City, Mich., they take this white powder 
and exude it after heating through a die. When the filament issues 
from its die it is hot, and thence is passed through a tank of water. 
It is then taken to a stretching device, where the size of the threads 
is controlled and at the same time acquires a tensile strength of 
40,000-50,000 pounds per square inch. When the company first 
started, it made Permalon threads solely for fishing-leader material. 
They now make small tubing, which is used for catheters in hospitals. 
A number of textile concerns are now making a narrow fabric and 
upholstery seat fabrics of Permalon threads — a very remarkable and 
interesting development of considerable importance. 

Dow Chemical has also made experiments with ethyl cellulose deriv- 
atives, known as Etho-raon, Ethocel, and Ethylfil. I am informed 
that Dow Chemical is not ready to disclose any details, but has stated 
that these materials are very similar to cellulose acetate rayon. It 
was first made known at the National Farm Chemurgic Council in 
Detroit. More information on these new textile fibers may be 
available later. 

CASEIN FIBERS AND FILAMENTS 

Probably the most extensive and costly research was done on the 
possibility of producing synthetic textile filaments and fibers from 
milk casein, first mentioned by Todtenhaupt in 1904. He dissolved 
casein, which is the coagulable portion of milk, in an alkaline fluid 
and then allowed the solution to fall, or pressed it in the form of thin 
threads, into an acid bath. Later the spinning solution was dissolved 
in zinc chloride, spun and insolubilized in a formaldehyde solution 
which made the filaments softer and more pliable. The principal 
objections and early difficulties were the proneness to swell, soften, 
and stick together at normal temperatures during dyeing. Many ex- 
periments were necessary to overcome this and finally resulted in the 
Ferretti process of Italy in 1935, which has produced a satisfactory 
cormnercial product known as Lanital. 

In Ferretti's process the casein is dissolved in dilute aqueous alkali, 
allowed to stand 2 to 3 days until the solution becomes thick and 
viscous. A solvent is gradually added to the desired volume and 
viscosity, then spun, rendered insoluble, and deacidified. This fiber 



216 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

has shown closer resemblance to wool than any other synthetic fiber 
yet produced. This fiber was imported into this country as Lanital 
until Italy entered the war. 

Owing to certain weaknesses in the casein fibers, particularly 
tensile strength in dyeing, attempts have been made to mix viscose 
and casein together. Such products as Raiian and Cisalfa are the 
result of such experiments. Further, casein has been mixed with 
Latex and glue with some success in fibers known as Tiolan (German) 
and Lactofil (Dutch). 

In this country Whittier & Gould in their United States patent 
No. 2140274, of December 13, 1938, and later No. 2204535 in June 
1940, offered a process of making casein fiber and assigned the patents 
for public use. 

Recently in this country a new synthetic staple fiber has been an- 
nounced by F. C. Atw^ood, president of the Atlantic Research Asso- 
ciates of Boston, under the trade name of Aralac. It was announced 
at the National Farm Chemurgic Conference in March 1940, at De- 
troit. This casein material is made in natural or opaque form, or 
in a delustered condition; also in a softened condition to simulate 
the softness of high-quality wool, as well as in an unsoftened con- 
dition, possessing a scroop. It is made in less than 20 microns and 
over 30 microns to match the thickness of every grade of wool. It 
is now being produced commercially by the Aratex Division plant 
of the National Dairy Products Corporntion, at Bristol, R. I. 

The present physical and chemical properties are about the same 
as Lanital, reported on by von Bergen. It has a high afiinity for all 
wool dyes. Its dry strength is about one-half that of wool and its 
wet strength is about one-fifth that of wool. Compared to viscose 
rayon it has about 10-20 percent less strength. Of course, lack of 
strength is not always a drawback to its introduction, as was the 
case with rayon. 

The longitudinal structure of Aralac is more or less smooth and 
shows no pronounced indentations or .striations like rayon, but its 
surface is peculiarly "rippled," the only word I can find to describe 
it. Its cross section is nearly circular and highly uniform. The 
contour shows hardly any deviation from a smooth circle. Its dif- 
ferentiation from soybean and Lanital is not easy, because of its 
close chemical composition. 

The price of Aralac is now fi-om 40 to 55 cents per pound. Its 
principal use at present is in the felt-hat industry, as an admixture 
with wool and rabbit hair. It is claimed that hats and hat bodies 
containing up to 50 percent of Aralac are already on the market. 
Experiments in other woolen fabrics and admixtures are now in 
progress and all uses will consume almost a million pounds in the 
first year of its existence. 



SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FIBERS — MAUERSBERGER 217 

According to an announcement last week the National Dairy 
Products Corporation has a new casein fiber known as R-53 - (finer 
than Aralac), which is furnished to the Hat Corporation's three 
plants in long continuous strands of 15,000 filaments each. These 
are cut to %-inch staple lengths and blended with natural fur in 
proportions of 10-15 percent casein fiber to 90-85 percent rabbit hair. 
They claim men's hats made from this blend are the equal of ortho- 
dox felt hats in appearance, feel, resistance to wear and crushing, 
and superior in color fastness, 

SOYBEAN FILAMENTS AND FIBERS 

Wliile the major part of research work in soybean has been in 
connection with the preparation of plastics, foods, paints, oils, and so 
forth, some work has been done to utilize the protein meal or pulp 
after the oil has been extracted. The work on the casein pulp has 
been a side study, rather than a direct study on the part of chemists, 

Heberlein & Co,, back in 1929, submitted the extracted protein 
from soybean to a swelling operation with water under pressure and 
heat or a dilute acid with simultaneous treatment with phenols, after 
which the filaments are formed by extrusion in the usual manner. 

In this country, the first announcement of research work on the 
production of a synthetic textile fiber from soybean pulp came with 
the opening of the World's Fair in 1939, A part of the Ford exhibit 
was devoted to its manufacture. The Dearborn Laboratories of the 
Ford Motor Co, had been working since 1937 on the idea of producing 
a synthetic textile fiber that would simulate wool very closely. From 
20,000 acres of soybeans under cultivation, they had been using the 
soybean oil for paints and the meal for plastics. 

The process used is about as follows : After the soybean is crushed 
under pressure and the oil extracted with hexane it is passed through 
a weakly alkaline solvent, which extracts the protein. The soybean 
meal is exceptionally rich in protein value — as high as 50 percent. 
The protein is then combined with various chemicals and/or dyestuffs 
in a secret process and made into a viscous solution. It is then forced 
through a spinnerette and coagulated into filaments in a bath con- 
taining sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, and sodium chloride or alumi- 
num sulfate. A formaldehyde solution is used to set the filaments 
during the winding process. They are bleached and dyed, if desired. 



' R-53 is the laboratory name used for this new fiber by the Hat Corporation of America 
during the present experimental state of its use. The R stands for research, and the 
number indicates that this was the fifty-third fiber tested by the company in the course 
Of a 20-year search for a fiber that could be used in making top-quality felt hats. R-53, 
as used by the Hat Corporation, cannot be regarded as the same as Aialac, because while 
Aralac rovings are the original raw material from which the company produces R-53, 
much additional processing is necessary before the fiber is ready for hat making. It must 
be specially combed to remove noils and knots, and it must be cut to the proper staple 
length for blending with rabbit fur. 



218 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

and are then ready for commercial use. The filaments are also cut to 
produce a staple fiber. The skeins have the consistency and texture 
of silk and wool, which are our present protein fibers. Ford officials 
have informed me that Henry Ford himself has shown considerable 
personal interest in these experiments. The yarn has been woven 
and knitted into goods and the company considers its suitability for 
auto upholstery definitely satisfactory and practical. Later, the 
Glidden Co. at Chicago set up a pilot plant for experimental purposes 
of fiber production for the textile trade. 

The physical and chemical properties of textile fiber produced 
from soybean are particularly interesting. I submitted a sample of 
the product to Mr. von Bergen, of the Forstmann Woolen Co., late 
in 1939. He reported that it closely resembled Lanital in color, lus- 
ter, touch, and crimp. Its tensile strength was 0.94 gram per denier 
dry and 0.26 gram per denier wet. The elongation of the filaments 
was 112 percent dry and 47 percent wet. This means that soybean 
fiber is about four tunes weaker than wool when dry and approxi- 
mately eight times weaker than wool when wet. 

The fineness and diameter of the soybean fiber is exceptionally 
uniform, approaching nylon in this respect. The fibers are more or 
less smooth with fine dots and streaks or short striations, presumably 
caused by air bubbles. Similar to protein fibers, soybean fiber does 
not burn, but chars and produces the same odor as wool, which is 
like burned feathers. He found traces of sulfur present and 
yellowish-brown alkali fumes issue when it is heated in a test tube. 
The fiber shows a high affinity for acid colors with no visible change 
in the fiber itself. For identification purposes Mr. von Bergen sug- 
gests a sulfur-content test to distinguish it from Lanital, if this is 
ever necessary. Water does not wet soybean fiber as readily as it 
does casein fiber and wool. Its specific gravity is 1.31. Recent 
samples are more resistant to carbonizing and to boiling in dilute 
acids and alkalies. 

Hence, the only deficiency is its tensile strength ; the filaments and 
fibers otherwise show remarkable qualities. I am informed that in 
more recent samples from Ford and Glidden the strength had been 
improved. Development work on upholstery fabrics has progressed 
satisfactorily and it looks as if the soybean fiber will soon be a com- 
mercially practical textile fiber, ready for the textile trade to use. It 
is now used in hat felts, suitings, upholstery fabrics, etc. A com- 
mercial plant for the production of this fiber at the rate of about 
IjOOO pounds per day is now planned. 

FIBERS FROM CORN 

A protein fiber can be obtained from corn meal, which is a corn 
proteid, often called zein or maisin. It has received considerable 



SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FIBERS — MAUERSBERGEB 219 

prominence since a patent was granted in May 1939 to Corn Products 
Refining Co., of Argo, 111. Zein is obtained from corn and is soluble 
in 75 percent alcohol, phenol, mixed solvents such as alcohol and 
toluol, alcohol and xylene, and others. The zein, according to Swal- 
len, of Corn Products Refining Co., is dissolved in aqueous alcohol 
containing a proportion of formaldehyde, which is extruded into an 
aqueous coagulating medium and the withdrawn filaments subjected 
to a current of air heated to not above 100° C, skeined, then baked at 
60°-90° C. for 8-10 hours. Up to the present time there have been 
no difficulties in spinning zein filaments, but the product obtained, 
when sufficiently insoluble in water, has been deficient in elasticity, 
resiliency, and tensile strength in the dry and wet condition. They 
can be dyed. Latest reports from Corn Products are that the work 
on it has been suspended but may be revived at a later date. 

FIBROIN FILAMENTS 

The idea of obtaining a merchantable fiber from fibroin, a proteid 
substance and the chief ingredient of raw silk, is in itself not new. 
It is composed mainly of two constituents — probably proteins — which 
comprise chemical combinations of alanine and glycocoll, with some 
tyrosine. The problem for a long time was to find solvents for this 
substance, which could be obtained from silk waste, old silk stockings, 
and silk threads. 

The Japanese did considerable work in this field and samples of 
some yarns, then termed "regenerated silk," came to this country in 
1937. Samples from Max Baker were analyzed and investigation 
showed that a patent and process had been devised in this country in 
1923 by Abraham Furman. The patent was assigned to Corticelli 
Silk Co., of New London, on May 13, 1924. The company tried the 
process out and produced a 75 -denier yarn on a small scale from 
cocoon waste and other raw and dyed silk noils and waste. The pro- 
cedure in brief was as follows : The silk waste was cut into very short 
lengths, boiled off twice, hydroextracted and dissolved in a chemical 
solution, probably copper or nickel sulfate. The solution was then 
forced through filters and piped to storage tanks. It was then de- 
aerated and spun on spinnerettes, similar to rayon, with refrigeration, 
and coagulated into an acid bath. Bleaching was not necessary and 
the yarn was washed and finished in skeins. The lack of sufficient 
strength and elasticity finally caused the Thames Artificial Silk Co. 
and the Corticelli Co. to discard the process. The Japanese samples, 
while a little better in strength, did not satisfy textile requirements. 
Many other investigators, such as Galibert, Hoshino, Millar, Lance, 
and others, are still trying to perfect this method, but so far none 
has succeeded or undertaken commercial production anywhere. 



220 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

This is merely an instance of how many efforts have been made and 
what types of processes have fallen by the wayside. This does not 
mean that they are impractical or that under favorable conditions 
they would not be revived. 

GLASS FIBERS AND FILAMENTS 

Fiberglas (or glass fibers) has been lifted out of the category of 
curiosities, and is now a textile raw material, with many potential 
applications. It is being produced by two processes — the continuous- 
filament process and the staple-fiber method — by Owens-Corning Fiber 
Glas Corporation. In its manufacture glass marbles are fed into an 
electrically heated furnace, which has a trough or V-shaped bushing 
made of metals of a higher melting point than glass. In the continuous 
process, molten glass, entering the wide top end of the bushing, is 
"drawn" downward by gravity, the glass emerging from 102 tiny holes 
in the bottom of the bushing. The filaments, averaging 0.00017 to 
0.00020 inch in diameter, are combined to make one strand measuring 
0.024 inch in diameter for winding on bobbins. A number of strands 
can be plied together to produce a yarn of any size. 

In the staple process, the molten marbles are forced downward 
through holes of the same type as in the continuous process, but, in- 
stead of being "drawn," they are blown downward by steam under high 
pressure. Passing through a burst of flame to eliminate moisture, the 
fibers, averaging 8 to 15 inches in length, gather upon, and are drawn 
from, a revolving drum. The accumulation of "sliver" follows 
grooved wheels to be wound on revolving spools. The subsequent 
spinning operation is carried out on regular textile machinery. 

Spun yarns have been made as fine as 100s cotton count. The yarn 
is put up on beams, cones, tubes, bobbins, and spools, as desired. The 
physical and chemical properties of glass filaments and fibers are very 
interesting. The fibers are produced in various colors which are not 
affected by heat, light, or weather. The fibers are solid, circular in 
cross sections, and smooth. Fiberglas is fireproof, resistant to acids 
(except hydrofluoric and phosphoric) , weatherproof, and mildewproof . 
Good dialectric properties and good thermal-insulating characteristics 
are very pronounced. Glass fiber is attacked by strong or hot solu- 
tions of caustic soda. 

Fiberglas has a high tensile strength which can be varied by chang 
ing the glass formula. In general, finer yarns have a greater tensile 
strength than coarser yarns of the same size. The tensile strength and 
elongation of the basic 102-filament fiberglas yarn are as follows: 
Tensile strength, 6.3 grams per denier ; elongation, 1 to 2 percent. 

The strength expressed in grams per denier of yarns spun from the 
staple fiber type is somewhat lower and elongation is higher, 2i/^ to 4 



SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FIBERS — MAUERSBERGER 221 

percent. The fibers lose strength when abraded and hence, unless they 
are protected by a flexible coating, are not suitable for applications 
involving severe bending or creasing. While the fibers themselves are 
waterproof, fabrics woven from them are more susceptible to mechan- 
ical damage when wet than when dry. Resistance of j-arns and 
fabrics to abrasion has been improved considerably since fiberglas was 
first introduced, and further progress along that line is expected. 
At temperatures above 600° F. there is a loss in tensile strength, and 
at 1,500° to 1,600° F. the fibers start to soften or melt. Fiberglas 
yarns are approximately two to two and a half times as heavy as 
cotton yarns of the same diameter. 

Fiberglas yarns can be woven, braided, or knitted on the usual types 
of textile equipment. During manufacture a small amount of lubri- 
cant is added to the yarn. Special formulas for warp sizing have been 
worked out. Fiberglas cannot be dyed satisfactorily by any of the 
usual processes. Some experimental work has been carried out on 
printing fabrics with lacquer colors. 

For the present, fiberglas textiles have been confined to industrial 
and decorative purposes. Some knitted fabrics have been produced 
experimentally. Aside from shoe fabrics, no attempt has been made 
commercially to manufacture fabrics for wearing apparel. Among 
the more important industrial applications are filter fabrics; yarns, 
braids, tapes, and other materials for electrical insulation purposes; 
anode bags used in the electroplating industry ; wicking for oil stoves 
and lamps; pump diaphragms, and belts for resisting high tempera- 
ture, fumes, and acids. Draperies made from fiberglas are now on 
the market in a wide range of designs and colors. Among other po- 
tential household uses are tablecloths, bedspreads, curtains, uphol- 
stery, wall coverings, and awnings. Still other applications are rope, 
twine, and sewing thread for sewing glass textiles. 

FILAMENTS AND FIBERS FROM CHITIN 

Chitin was discovered in 1811 by Braconnot and is a polysaccharide 
containing nitrogen, present in the cell walls of fungi and the skeletal 
structure of such invertebrates as crabs, lobsters and shrimps. Like 
cellulose it may be acetated, but has little resemblance to cellulose 
and is quite different from fibroin. Rigby in his United States 
patents deacetylated chitin in 1936, and the product as well as many 
of its salts may be used for the manufacture of films and filaments. 
He has used a 3-percent aqueous solution of medium viscosity 
deacetylated chitin acetate for films, filaments, and for cementing 
paper sheets, the product being insolubilized by exposure to 
ammonia fumes. 



222 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Kunike, of Germany, in 1926 found that purified chitin is soluble 
in acids, from which the filaments can be spun wet or dry. It has a 
round or heart-shaped cross section and its tensile strength is 35 kilo- 
grams per square millimeter as against 25 kilograms per square milli- 
meter of cellulosic silk. The pale lustrous filaments resemble acetate 
rayon and real silk. He claims that the production of textiles from 
chitin offers no commercial difficulties. 

Thor and Henderson, of Visking Corporation of Chicago, 111., have 
described the production of filaments from regenerated chitin 
products. The purified chitin in a modified process is xanthated and 
filaments are obtained by treating it with an alkali and then with 
carbon bisulfide, filtering, deaerating, and extruding through minute 
orifices into a setting bath. The films obtained from regenerated 
chitin resemble those of regenerated cellulose, but differ from the 
latter in their affinity for dyestuffs. Its dry tensile strength is some- 
what better than regenerated cellulose, but its wet strength is much 
lower. The only drawback to its commercial introduction is the 
insufficient supply of chitin, I understand. 

GELATIN SILKS 

The earliest attempt to produce a commercial textile fiber of a 
gelatin base was Vandura silk by Adam Miller of Glasgow in 1894, 
which was not successful owing to its partial solubility in water, 
and could not be dyed in filament form. This was followed by Bi- 
chromate silk by Fuchs and Bernstein, in which the glue or gelatin 
is insolubilized by potassium or sodium bichromate. Gerard, Men- 
del, and Ohl worked on producing a gelatin filament, but so far no 
satisfactory and economical textile filament has been produced as far 
as can be learned. 

OSSEIN FILAMENTS 

Ossein is closely related to gelatin and is obtained from bones by 
dissolving out the mineral part with phosphoric acid and recovering 
the ossein by evaporating the mother liquor. There are several 
methods of obtaining the ossein. Helbronner and Valee have pre- 
pared such filaments. Early difficulties were brittleness. Carbofil 
is a German protein fiber obtained by mechanical treatment of horse 
or ox muscle, previously treated chemically to remove the major 
portion of soluble proteins. The fibers are 3-8 centimeters long and 
resemble flax in structure. They are resistant to boiling water and 
have been used in surgery. 

The Swiss have made a protein fiber known as Marena fiber from 
hides and leather wastes, which may be mixed with wool in textiles. 



SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FIBERS — MAUERSBERGER 223 

FILAMENTS FROM LICHENIN, PECTIN, ICELAND MOSS, AND AGAR- 
AGAR 

Vegetable mucilages such as lichenin, pectin, Iceland moss, and 
agar-agar have been experimented with in England, for use in 
gauzelike fabrics. By incorporating into the viscous mass before 
extrusion glycerol, borax, or gluten the fibers become rather flexible. 
Such fibers are said to be sufficiently resistant to atmospheric moisture 
and to be nonhygroscopic. Colored fabrics are made by incorpora- 
tion of ground colored pigments or by spraying on dyes. 

ALGINIC ACID FILAMENTS 

A synthetic textile fiber has been produced in Germany by Goda 
from a jelly like substance containing algin (alginic acid) prepared 
from seaweed by dissolving it in ammoniacal copper solution con- 
taining alkali metal hydroxide, and spinning it into a bath containing 
a salt prepared from furfural and caustic soda, an aliphatic acid, 
alcohol and formaldehyde. The filaments are afterward treated 
with solution containing a sulfate and sulfite. Sarason, of Great 
Britain, also has a method of preparing such filaments; also the 
Japanese have a method for forming filaments. Nothing is known 
of their success or their commercial introduction. It is merely cited 
here to show the possibilities for future synthetic textile filaments 
and fibers. 



PLASTICS ^ 

By Gordon M. Kline 
Chief, Organic Plastics Section, National Bureau of Standards 



[With 5 platesl 



The parade of new applications in plastics went on in 1940 as 
the industry continued its phenomenal growth, as evidenced by the 
increased volume of production and greater annual dollar value of 
the finished products. This progress can be aptly surveyed by a 
glance at the winners of the 1940 Annual Modern Plastics Competi- 
tion which drew approximately 1,000 entries, representing the com- 
bined contributions of chemists, engineers, designers, molders, and 
fabricators in extending the frontiers of the plastics industry. 

In the architectural classification awards were given for decorative 
and functional uses of plastics in the beauty salon and theater and 
for a crystal-clear doorknob resembling the expensive glass knobs 
formerly imported from Czechoslovakia and Belgium. In business 
and office equipment, new achievements in telephone equipment, hous- 
ings for portable sales registers, and drafting devices were recog- 
nized. Midget and portable radios in the communications group 
and ingenious seasonal displays in decorators' accessories were out- 
standing. The judges selected the woven plastic porch and terrace 
furniture, transparent acrylic resin tables, and colorful "period" 
pieces veneered with cast phenolic sheets for top awards in furniture 
applications. Such prosaic but essential items as bathroom scales, 
brooms, and shower heads revealed further extension of plastics 
into the household domain. Plastic diffuse reflectors for fluorescent 
lamps won most of the honors in the lighting group. Electrical 
and refrigerator equipment, soldering paddles, and nylon-bristle 
brushes for industrial purposes represented advances of plastics in 
machinery and appliances, and transparent oil containers, electric 
razor housings, and greeting cards were selected from a host of 
novelty and miscellaneous items. Laboratory dialyzers, portable mo- 
tion-picture projectors, and arch supports won recognition in the 



' Reprinted by permission from The Progress of Science, a Review of 1940. Published 
by the Grolier Society. 

225 



22G ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 194 1 

scientific group, and transparent plastic belts and suspenders, shoes, 
raincoats, and smocks topped the style and fashion group. In the 
sporting goods, games, and toys classification, model boats, chess- 
men, and harmonicas of exceptional interest were made of plastics. 
The shipping, airplane, and automotive industries were all repre- 
sented in the awards made in the transport group. Special listing 
was given to the development of resin-bonded plywood, which has 
expanded the market for this material to cover many outdoor ap- 
plications, such as home construction, boats, concrete forms, outdoor 
signs, airplanes, truck and bus bodies, farm silos, and refrigerator 
cars. 

A consideration of the classification of plastics and of some de- 
tails of each type will promote a better understanding of what 
plastics are and why they can take on many important tasks. 

SCOPE OF THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY 

The dictionary definition of plastics as materials which are "readily 
responsive to shaping influences" does not place a convenient limita- 
tion upon this field. It implies, but does not state, that the material 
should maintain its new form when the shaping influences are re- 
moved. Even this more limited definition of a plastic would include 
a great variety of materials — from the metals which are readily 
shaped when heated to the solid rocks of the earth which exhibit 
zones of flow at great depths because of the pressure of the overlying 
mass. 

The modern plastics industry deals chiefly with moldable materials 
manufactured from organic compounds, that is, combinations of 
carbon with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements. The 
inorganic molding materials, such as concretes, cements, and ceramics, 
and also rubber, an organic substance, are not generally included 
within the scope of the plastics trade as it is known today, inasmuch 
as the industries utilizing these materials are considerably older 
and were already individually organized and developed prior to 
the advent of the newer plastics. 

Classification on basis of chemical source. — The four principal 
types of organic plastics are (1) synthetic resins, (2) natural resins, 
(3) cellulose derivatives, and (4) protein substances. A brief de- 
scription of each of these groups will serve to indicate to the reader 
who is unacquainted with this field the essential characteristics of 
each type and the distribution of the various commercial plastics 
according to this classification. 

Synthetic resin plastics. — Public interest has probably centered 
largely upon the synthetic resin plastics because of their multiplicity 
and versatility. The chemist has been able to produce at will resin- 



PLASTICS — KLLNE 227 

ous materials having the hardness of stone, the transparency of 
glass, the elasticity' of rubber, or the insulating ability of mica. These 
synthetic resins, in combination with suitable fillers, are readily 
molded into products characterized by excellent strength, light 
weight, dimensional stability, and resistance to moisture, moderate 
heat, sunlight, and other deteriorating factors. They lend them- 
selves especially to the rapid manufacture of large quantities of 
accurately sized parts by the application of heat and pressure to 
the material placed in suitable molds and to the use of original or 
imitative effects in a variety of colors. Some of the cheap raw 
materials used in their production include phenol, urea, formalde- 
hyde, glycerol, phthalic anhydride, acetylene, and petroleum. Syn- 
thetic resin plastics are known commercially under such trade 
names as Bakelite, Catalin, Beetle, Glyptal, and Vinylite. They 
are used in an ever-growing variety of applications, such as electrical 
parts, automotive parts, closures, containers; costume accessories in- 
cluding buttons, buckles, and jewelry; hardware, tableware, and 
kitchenware, and miscellaneous novelties. 

The powdered molding compositions are generally sold to custom 
molders who produce the finished parts. Casting resins and lam- 
inated resinous products, described in more detail later, are, how- 
ever, usually made into sheets, rods, or tubes by the manufacturer of 
the resin. Blanks are cut from these for the preparation of the 
finished product by machining operations. 

Natural resins. — These are more familiarly known to the public 
by their common names, such as shellac, rosin, asphalt, and pitch, 
than by the proprietary names attached by manufacturers to mold- 
ing compositions prepared from them. They are used in industry 
for the production of the fusible type of molded product as dis- 
tinguished from the infusible articles formed by some of the syn- 
thetic resins. Hot-molding compositions are prepared by mixing 
shellac, rosin, and asphalts with suitable fillers. Compositions con- 
taining chiefly shellac as the binder are used in electrical insulators 
for high-voltage equipment, in telephone parts, and in phonograph 
records. The terms rosin and resin are often confused. Eosin is a 
natural resin recovered as a solid residue after distillation of turpen- 
tine from pine tree extracts. 

Cellulose derivatives. — The third type of organic plastics, the cellu- 
lose derivatives, is probably the most widely used and best known 
of any of these materials. To this group belong celluloid plastics 
used for making toys, toiletware, pen and pencil barrels, and the 
like; cellulose acetate commonly used in the Celanese type of rayon, 
safety film, and in place of the slightly less expensive nitrated cellu- 
lose when noninflammability is desired; and regenerated cellulose, 

430577—42 16 



228 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

familiar to all as the wrapping material Cellophane and the common 
or viscose type of rayon. 

The basic raw material, cellulose, is obtainable in fairly pure, 
fibrous condition as either ordinary cotton or pulped wood. Treat- 
ment with chemicals converts cellulose into compounds which are 
characterized by the ease with which they can be formed into desir- 
able shapes. Cellulose plastics excel in toughness and are especially 
useful in thm sheets which have remarkable flexibility. These plas- 
tics conduct heat slowly and can be made substantially tasteless, 
odorless, and transparent. Their principal applications, in addition 
to those mentioned above, include photographic film, safety glass, 
flexible window material, artificial leather, airplane dopes, and 
lacquers. 

Protein plastics. — These are perhaps best known according to the 
source of the raw material — for example, casein from skimmed milk 
and soybean meal from soybeans. These protein substances are thor- 
oughly kneaded into a colloidal mass, which is then formed into 
sheets, rods, or tubes by suitable presses or extrusion devices. The 
formed pieces are hardened by treatment with formaldehyde. The 
finished products, such as buttons, buckles, beads, and game counters, 
may be machined from blanks cut from the hardened material or may 
be shaped from the colloidal casein mass and then hardened. This 
latter process is now common practice because of the shorter curing 
time required for the thin pieces. 

Classification on basis of heat effect. — The plastics used in the 
molding industry may be divided into two groups, based on their 
behavior toward heat, as (1) thermoplastic and (2) thermosetting. 
The thermoplastic materials are permanentl}'' fusible, that is to say, 
they alternately melt or soften when heated and harden when cooled. 
If they are subjected to very high temperatures, vaporization or 
decomposition takes place. The cellulose derivatives, some synthetic 
resins, and most of the natural resins are examples of this type. The 
thermosetting plastics, on the other hand, may be made permanently 
infusible. This group is usually further subdivided into three stages 
on the basis of changes in physical and chemical properties. The 
product of stage (A) is called the initial condensation product and 
may be liquid or solid; it is both fusible and soluble. The inter- 
mediate or stage (B) product is insoluble and difficultly fusible, but 
it can be molded by the proper application of heat and pressure. 
This is the usual condition of the resin in the molding composition 
when it is received from the manufacturer. Further heating of 
this material, as in the process of molding, converts it to the final 
or stage (C) product, which has a permanent set and maximum 



PLASTICS — KLINE 229 

hardness, strength, resistivity, and insolubility. Most of the molded 
products of synthetic resin composition which are on the market 
belong to the thermosetting type. 

HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICS IN AilERlCA 

A chronological survey of the development of plastics in America 
is presented in the following paragraphs. By discussing them in 
the order of their appearance on the market a better idea of the 
underlying needs which led to their production and their relative 
importance in the plastics industry today will be obtained. The spe- 
cial properties which characterized each new material and which 
in many instances were there by design and not by mere chance alone 
will be described. The important uses which have been made of 
these various plastics will be recounted. 

Cellulose nitrate plastic. — The oldest of the synthetic plastics is 
the cellulose nitrate or pyroxylin type. It is amazing that a material 
so hazardous to handle and so readily decomposed by heat has held 
an important share of the plastics business for so many years. How- 
ever, it has many unique properties which until recently have made 
it the best available thermoplastic material for many purposes. 
Alexander Parkes, an Englishman, prepared various articles from a 
solution of cellulose nitrate and camphor during the period 1855 to 
1865, but John Wesley Hyatt, an American, is generally credited 
with being the first to attempt to work with cellulose nitrate as a 
plastic mass rather than in solution. He is said to have been moti- 
vated by a desire to find a substitute for ivory in the manufacture of 
billiard balls, in order to win a prize ojffered for that achievement. 
Although unsuccessful in obtaining the award, Hyatt with his 
brother, Isaiah S. Hyatt, took out a patent in 1869 for making solid 
collodion with very small quantities of solvent, dissolving the 
pyroxylin under pressure, thus securing great economy of solvents 
and a saving of time. The Albany Dental Plate Company was or- 
ganized in 1870 to handle the first application of the cellulose-nitrate- 
camphor plastic. By January 28, 1871, the demand for the material 
for miscellaneous uses had become sufficiently great to bring about 
the formation of the Celluloid Manufacturing Co., which moved in 
1872 from Albany to Newark, its present location. Today Celluloid is 
only one of a number of trade names, such as Nixonoid and Pyralin, 
that are used to designate cellulose nitrate plastics produced by 
various firms in America. 

Cellulose nitrate plastic was one of the first to be used in the auto- 
mobile, being employed in sheet form as windows in the side cur- 
tains of early models. Its flexibility and nonfragility were impor- 



230 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

tant factors in this application, but its susceptibility in the trans- 
parent form to ultraviolet light resulted in rapid deterioration of 
these sheets. Typical applications of this plastic include bag 
frames, brushes, buckles, clock dials and crystals, drafting instru- 
ments, fountain pens, piano keys, shoe eyelets and lace tips, spectacle 
frames, toilet seats, tool handles, toothbrush handles, toys, and covers 
for wooden heels. The contributions of this first synthetic plastic to 
the plastics industry have been extensive and lasting. It not only 
paved the way for the advances which have been made in formulation 
and pigmentation of all thermoplastics, but it also supplied much of 
the mechanical and operative means of manufacture and fabrication. 
It was the real pioneer in the development of the market for plastics 
and in many of their uses. 

Shellac 'plastic. — The next plastic to become of importance in this 
country was shellac molding composition. Shellac is of natural 
origin, being produced by an insect which lives upon certain trees 
in India and southern Asia, and has been known and utilized for 
many centuries for various purposes, such as a component of sealing 
waxes, polishes, and varnishes. In 1888, Emile Berliner had worked 
out the details of the method that made it possible to engrave a sound 
groove on a flat disk, but means of duplicating these recordings in 
large numbers remained to be perfected. He tried both cellulose 
nitrate and hard rubber, but neither of these materials was satisfac- 
tory for his purpose. In 1895 he turned to a plastic composition 
containing shellac as a binder, and soon the technique of molding 
shellac-base phonograph records was under full development. It 
remains today the largest single outlet for shellac in the plastic 
molding field. The properties which make it especially suitable for 
the manufacture of records are ease of molding, toughness, hardness, 
fidelity of reproduction, low cost, and the possibility of reusing the 
scrap material. Developments in the past 20 years have been pri- 
marily in its application as a resinous binder for cloth, paper, silk, 
mica, and other electrical insulating components. 

Bitumen plastic. — The third plastic to become industrially impor- 
tant in America was the bituminous type, more commonly known as 
cold-molded. Emile Hemming was the pioneer in its development 
in the United States and introduced it on the market in 1909. The 
raw materials used in the preparation of cold-molded plastics are 
asbestos, asphalts, coal tar, stearin pitches, natural and synthetic 
resin, and oils. The asbestos in the proportion of 70 to 80 percent 
contributes the body of the material and the bituminous or resinous 
ingredients in the proportion of 20 to 30 percent function as the 
binder. The molding is done at or near room temperature, hence the 
name cold-molded. The pieces are removed immediately from the 



PLASTICS — KLINE 231 

mold and cured in electrically heated ovens to drive off the volatile 
constituents, oxidize or polymerize the oils or resins, and so trans- 
form the plastic into a hard, infusible state. The cold-molding 
operation is faster than hot-compression molding since the curing 
is not done in the mold, but the higher pressures required for cold 
molding and greater abrasive action of the mineral filler make mold 
maintenance much more of a problem than it is in hot molding. 
Typical applications of cold-molded plastics include connector plugs 
on household electrical equipment, heat-resistant handles and knobs 
for cooking utensils, and battery boxes. 

Phenol-formaldehyde resin. — The first and still the most versatile 
of the commercial synthetic resins, the phenol-formaldehyde con- 
densation product, was described and patented in 1909 by Leo Hendrik 
Baekeland, Thus, both the original thermoplastic material, cellulose 
nitrate plastic, and the original thermosetting material, phenol- 
formaldehyde resin, were first developed commercially in America. 
Johann Friedrich Baeyer had reported in 1872 that the reaction be- 
tween phenols and aldehydes leads to the formation of resins, but 
no products of industrial interest were obtained for the next 35 years 
because of the inability of investigators to control the reaction. 
Baekeland's fifth-mol patent provided this essential feature, and his 
heat and pressure patent described the technique for converting this 
resin in a relatively short time into a molded article of excellent 
mechanical and electrical properties. The basic patents covering the 
preparation of solutions of this resin and their use in impregnating 
fibrous sheets to make laminated products were issued to Baekeland 
in 1910 and 1912, respectively. 

The manufacture of Bakelite phenolic plastics was begun in Baeke- 
land's Yonkers, N. Y., laboratory in 1907. The General Bakelite 
Co. was organized in 1910 and was merged in 1922 with the Condensite 
Co. and the Redmanol Chemical Products Co. into the Bakelite Cor- 
poration. Since the expiration of the basic patent in 1926, many 
other firms have marketed phenolic resins under other trade names, 
for example, Durez and Resinox. 

An important modification of this general type of resin is the use 
of furfural, produced from waste oat hulls, in place of formaldehyde 
for the condensation reaction with phenol. 

Typical applications of phenolic plastics include distributor heads, 
coil parts, switches, and related elements in automobiles and air- 
planes, camera cases and other housings, corrosion-resistant apparatus, 
and telephone and radio equipment. In combination with paper and 
fabrics, phenolic resin produces laminated products which are used 
for gears, bearings, trays, table tops, refrigerator doors, wall coverings, 
doors, and counter and cabinet paneling. 



232 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Casein plastic.— Th& discovery of the tough, insoluble, hornlike mass 
produced by the action of formaldehyde on milk casein is said to 
have been made by two men who were looking for a composition ma- 
terial to replace slate for blackboards. These two men, Wilhelm 
Krische and Adolph Spitteler, began production of casein plastic 
about 1900 in Germany and France, respectively, using the trade name 
Galalith, meaning milk stone. It was 1919 before successful produc- 
tion in America was realized, and its use has been limited because 
of the marked variations in climate throughout the year, which lead 
to warping and cracking of this plastic. Its use is confined to small 
articles like beads, buckles, buttons, game counters, novelties, and 
trimming accessories. 

Cellulose acetate plastic. — A period of very active development of 
new plastic materials in America started with the appearance of 
cellulose acetate in the form of sheets, rods, and tubes in 1927. The 
firm which pioneered in the development of pyroxylin plastic also 
introduced cellulose acetate plastics to the American market. This 
was accomplished by a combination in 1927 of the Celluloid Co. with 
the Celanese Corporation, already a large producer and consumer of 
cellulose acetate for rayon manufacture. In 1929 the first cellulose 
acetate molding powder was marketed for use in compression molding. 
The appearance of the injection molding press in the early thirties 
greatly increased the speed with which molded articles could be pro- 
duced with this thermoplastic material. Cellulose acetate plastics and 
molding powders are now available from several commercial sources 
and have outstripped the cellulose nitrate type in the quantity and 
dollar value of annual production. 

Cellulose acetate very early found use as a safety photographic 
film to replace the hazardous cellulose nitrate product. Many of the 
applications of this plastic — for example, protective goggles, oil gages, 
screw-driver handles, and flexible window material — ^have been 
brought about by the safety factor introduced by its high resistance 
to impact. It is employed in practically every make of automobile 
and the total number of acetate parts involved is well over 200, includ- 
ing such items as knobs, handles, switches, escutcheons, steering 
wheels, instrument panels, horn buttons, and dials. Some of the 
trade names for cellulose acetate plastics are Lumarith, Plastacele, 
and Tenite I. 

Urea-formaldehyde plastics. — The appearance of the urea-formal- 
dehyde resinous molding compound on the American market in 1929 
meant the extension of unlimited color possibilities into the field of 
thermosetting molding. Two such urea molding powders, Aldur and 
Beetle, became available that year, while another, Plaskon, was mar- 
keted in 1931. Extensive use of urea plastics in the illuminating in- 



I 



PLASTICS — KLINE 233 

dustry has resulted from their efficiency in providing a diffused light, 
plus their lightness in weight and shock resistance. The fact that 
they are insoluble, infusible, tasteless, and generally chemically inert 
has made possible their successful use for bottle closures and light- 
weight tableware. The urea-formaldehyde resins have also been in- 
troduced into the field of laminated plastics as paneling and trim for 
bathrooms, libraries, and hotel and theater lobbies, in order to take 
advantage of the many stable colors in which they are produced. 

Cast phenolic plastics. — Phenolic resin for casting is prepared in 
the form of a viscous syrup which is poured into lead or rubber molds 
and hardened by heating. Products were made as early as 1910 from 
cast Bakelite resinoids, but in their modern form cast phenolics were 
first introduced in America in 1928. Cast phenolics are known by 
such trade names as Catalin, Gemstone, and Marblette. They owe 
their popularity quite largely to their beauty and decorative value, 
and this type of plastic is often referred to as the "gem of modern 
industry." Typical application include advertising igns and dis- 
play, clock cases, game counters and pieces, radio housings, and 
lighting fixtures. More recently their ue in indutrial adhesives and 
laminating varnishes has been promoted. 

Vinyl resin plastics. — Resins formed by copolymerization of vinyl 
chloride and vinyl acetate were first made in the United States by 
the Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation under the trade name 
Vinylite in 1928. This type of resin has found its most important 
uses in phonograph records, coatings for concrete and metals, can 
linings, adhesives, and electrical insulation. In a highly plasticized 
form, it is now employed for making transparent belts, suspenders, 
and shoe uppers. The resins formed from the individual esters — 
vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate — are also important commercially 
for the manufacture of wire and cable coverings, coated fabrics, ad- 
hesives, and plastic wood-filled compositions. Polyvinyl butyral plas- 
tic has been found to be outstandingly superior for use as the binder 
in laminated glass for the automotive and aircraft industries. Three 
plants were built for its manufacture during 1937 and 1938, and it 
has now largely supplanted cellulose acetate in this particular appli- 
cation. Production of vinylidene chloride resin was initiated by the 
Dow Chemical Co. in 1939, and 1940 saw its successful use in fishing 
lines and seat coverings. 

Styrene resin. — In 1937 the Dow Chemical Company made avail- 
able a synthetic monomeric styrene of high purity and a correspond- 
ing polymeric product, Styron, in clear, transparent form. The 
Bakelite Corporation also started to manufacture Bakelite poly- 
styrene this same year. The most significant properties of polysty- 
rene are its low power factor and practically zero water absorption. 



234 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

These remarkable properties make styrene resin exceptionally well 
suited for radio-frequency insulation. Its transparency and chemical 
resistance are responsible for most of its other uses, such as bottle 
closures, refrigerator trim, automotive accessories, and indirect light- 
ing of mileage and other indicators. 

Acrylic resins. — The acrylic resins were jQrst prepared industrially 
in America in 1931 for use in coatings and as a binder for laminated 
glass. The better-known and very interesting methyl methacrylate 
resin is a product of more recent origin. The cast resin, called Plexi- 
glas and Lucite, respectively, by its two manufacturers, reached the 
production stage during 1937-38. The airplane industry has found 
these cast sheets particularly well adapted to their requirements for 
gun turret and cockpit enclosures because of their lightness, weath- 
ering resistance, nonfragility, and clarity. The resin's high internal 
reflection makes possible spectacular and useful lighting effects in 
edge-lighted signs and dental and surgical instruments. This type of 
resin has been found to be preeminently suited for dentures. Its 
optical qualities make it suitable for spectacle and camera lenses and 
for reflectors for indirect highway lighting. 

Cellulose acetate hutyrate. — The Hercules Powder Co. introduced 
this material in 1932 as a protective coating base. The Tennessee 
Eastman Corporation started manufacture of a cellulose acetate 
butyrate molding composition in 1938 and designated it as Tenite II, 
the original Tenite being their cellulose acetate molding compound. 

Cellulose acetate butyrate compositions are superior to cellulose 
acetate plastics in weathering resistance and in freedom from warp- 
ing. The requisite plasticity can be produced with a relatively low 
percentage of plasticizer and with comparatively nonvolatile and 
water-insoluble plasticizers. The applications of cellulose acetate 
butyrate plastic are primarily such as result from its combination of 
toughness and resistance to weathering, for example, woven furniture 
for exterior use, automobile accessories, and fishermen's equipment. 
Its record of achieving new applications during 1940 was outstanding 
among the plastics. 

Ethylcellulose. — The first cellulose ether to be made commercially 
in America was ethylcellulose. The Hercules Powder Co. began 
making it in 1935 and the Dow Chemical Co. undertook its manu- 
facture in 1937, marketing their product under the trade name Etho- 
cel. Ethylcellulose plastic has not as yet come into general use for 
molded parts. Its chief applications to date have been in protective 
coatings, adhesives, paper and fabric coatings, wire insulation, and 
extruded strip. Another cellulose ether, methylcellulose, was an- 
nounced by the Dow Chemical Co. late in 1939. Methocel, as it is 
called, is water soluble, odorless, tasteless, and nontoxic. It yields 
films which are greaseproof and highly flexible. 



PLASTICS KLINE 235 

Lignin plastics. — The utilization of waste wood and sawdust for 
the production of molding compositions has been the objective of a 
considerable number of investigators for the past 10 years. Wood 
contains approximately 25 percent of lignin, a complex and highly 
reactive organic compound. In 1937 a lignin plastic first became 
available under the trade name Benaloid, manufactured by the Ma- 
sonite Corporation. The development of lignin molding compo- 
sitions of both the thermoplastic and thermosetting types was 
announced in 1939 by the Marathon Chemical Co. The possible 
commercial applications of this tj^pe of plastic have just begun to 
be explored. The low cost of the necessary ingredients makes this 
plastic of interest for industrial applications which require large 
quantities of material, such as certain automotive parts, building 
units, furniture, and wall paneling. 

Alkyd resins. — A survey of plastics would not be complete without 
mention of the alkyd resins. They are used primarily as coating 
materials which, incidentally, are the largest single outlet for syn- 
thetic resins. Over 75,000,000 pounds of these resins were produced 
in 1939, out of a total resin production of about 215,000,000 pounds 
for that year. They are made by the reaction of phthalic anhydride 
or maleic anhydride with glycerol or other polyhydric alcohols. 

Finishes based on these resins, Glyptal, Dulux, and Rezyl, are 
characterized by rapidity of drying, good durability outdoors, excel- 
lent flexibility, tenacious adhesion, and electrical insulating qualities. 
These resins during the thirties replaced the pyroxylin lacquers to a 
large extent for finishing the bodies and fenders of motor cars. 

Nylon resins. — These polyamide resins are made from polyamines 
and polybasic acids. They could be called amkyd resins, following 
the terminology used in the name "alkyd" for resins made from 
polyhydric alcohols and polybasic acids. The basic raw materials 
for nylon resins are castor oil from which sebacic acid (a 10-carbon 
dibasic acid) is obtained, and phenol which by hydrogenation and 
oxidation yields adipic acid (a 6-carbon dibasic acid) . Hexamethyl- 
ene diamine made from adipic acid, and decamethylene diamine made 
from sebacic acid are typical diamines used in synthesizing these 
resins. Nylon resin was made available on a large scale by E. I. 
du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., during 1940. It has already 
proved its suitability to manufacturer and consumer alike for hosiery 
and has been accepted as a superior bristle material for tooth brushes, 
hair brushes, and brushes for miscellaneous industrial purposes. 

C oumarone-indene resins. — The manufacture of this type of resin 
from certain coal-tar distillates was begun in 1919 by the Barrett 
Co. using the trade name Cumar. In 1929 the Neville Co. marketed 
such resins as Nevindene. The low softening points and brittleness 
of these resins have restricted their use to serving as plasticizing 



236 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

agents and tackifiers with various organic binding materials in rubber 
compounding, floor-tile compositions, and other industrial applica- 
tions. Annual production in 1935 was 8,000,000 pounds and the 
output is said to have increased appreciably in recent years. 

Molding technique. — The discovery of the fundamental principle 
involved in the operation of the hydraulic press is generally conceded 
to have been made by Blaise Pascal in 1653. The adaptation of this 
principle to a practical machine is credited to Joseph Bramah in 
1795. Little industrial use was made of it until after the discovery 
of the vulcanization of rubber by Charles Goodyear in 1839. A 
simple hydraulic rod-type press, between the platens of which a 
2-piece mold was inserted, was developed for handling the manu- 
facture of rubber products and was subseqently employed for 
molding the thermoplastics. 

The advent of the phenolic thermosetting resin in 1909 provided 
the stimulus for introducing features in the compression molding 
press which would increase the output from a given mold. However, 
realization of the fully automatic compression molding press has 
come about only in the last 2 to 3 years. These presses perform all 
the operations of routine molding of thermosetting plastics, consist- 
ing of measuring the charge of molding powder, preheating it, loading 
it into cavities, closing the mold, opening it slightly for breathing, 
that is, expulsion of gases, closing it again for a predetermined 
curing period, opening the mold, ejecting the finished pieces, blowing 
flash from the cavities and plungers, and then repeating this cycle 
hundreds and thousands of times with the only manual labor required 
being to keep the hopper supplied with the molding powder. 

The original conception of the injection molding principle is com- 
monly attributed to Edmond Pelouze, who in 1856 developed a die- 
casting machine for forcing molten metal into a die by mechanical 
or hydraulic means. The industrial history of the injection molding 
machine for plastics in the United States is only about 5 years old, 
a fact which seems almost incredible when one looks at the huge 1940 
model capable of taking a mold 3 by 4 feet in cross section and 
turning out four 36-ounce moldings every minute. 

The need for the injection molding machine came with the com- 
mercial development in 1929 of the heat-stable thermoplastic mold- 
ing material, cellulose acetate, which required an uneconomical 
chilling period when molded by conventional compression methods. 
The cellulose acetate plastic, however, unlike the older cellulose 
nitrate type, could be kept hot for a relatively long period in a heating 
chamber and injected hot into a cold mold, wherein it cooled in a 
few seconds to a temperature at which it would maintain its shape 
and hence could be ejected from the mold. 



PLASTICS — ^KLINE 237 

At the close of 1935 there were approximately 75 injection mold- 
ing machines in use in America, mostly of i/o to 11/2 ounces per cycle 
capacity and suitable only for the molding of small articles, such as 
buttons, pocket combs, and costume jewelry. The demands of molders 
for machines of increased capacity and sturdier construction to be 
used for turning out parts for industrial applications led domestic 
press manufacturers to construct injection molding machines with 
radical changes in the design of the heating cylinders, spreading de- 
vices, injection plungers, and clamping devices. By combining sev- 
eral cylinders, each feeding into a different inlet in the same mold, 
parts of considerable size weighing up to 36 ounces can be produced. 
It is estimated by the Institute of Plastics Research that at the close 
of 1940 there were in the United States 1,000 injection molding 
presses, 11,000 compression presses, 650 preform presses, and a rapid- 
ly growing number of plastic extruding machines. 

SUMMARY OF 1940 ADVANCES 

No really new plastics appeared on the market during 1940, but 
outstanding progress in developing increased volume and new mar- 
kets can be credited especially to the vinyl ester resins and cellulose 
acetate butyrate. Vinylidene cliloride resin is commanding attention 
in its applications as high-strength fibers and seat coverings. Nylon 
resin is entering the industrial field as bristles for brushes used in 
the textile-printing trade. There was further activity in the manu- 
facture of melamine resins, which, in combination with the chemically 
similar urea resins, are finding ready acceptance by the automotive 
industry as a hard, durable, rapid-baking finish for car exteriors. 

Improvements in injection and compression molding presses have 
been concerned primarily with various operating features, partic- 
ularly heating and automatic controls. The technique of continuously 
extruding thermoplastic materials also advanced considerably dur- 
ing 1940, and extruded plastics are replacing reed and rattan in 
woven furniture. A process for forming molds by spraying metal 
against a model has been perfected to the point where production 
molds have been made and are being tested in service. 

The aircraft industry was spotlighted during the past year, and 
further important strides were made in the use of plastic plywood 
for molding airplane wings and fuselages. An outstanding develop- 
ment in this field was the laminated plastic tab for insertion in 
aileron, elevators, and rudders to aid in balancing and controlling 
the aircraft during flight. The reinforced plastic contributes a saving 
in weight and greater rigidity in this part. Other military applica- 
tions of plastics include transparent plastic windshields for airplanes, 
luminescent resins for various devices, cellulose acetate chutes for 



238 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

conveying ammunition from boxes to machine guns, plastic face pieces 
and lenses for gas masks, molded parts for shells, and the use of 
synthetic fibers in parachutes. 

Resin-bonded plywood in 1940 expanded into many industrial fields. 
Refrigerator cars constructed largely of this material are said to be 
6,000 pounds lighter than the previously used type and to provide 
an economy in fabrication costs because of an 86.5 percent reduction 
in the number of joints. Simplification of small-boat construction 
and improved weather-resistant decking and planking for larger 
craft have also marked the introduction of this material into the 
shipbuilding industry. The use of laminated plastic for bearings 
and cams in high-speed industrial machinery was further extended 
during 1940. Jigs and fixtures made of laminated plastic represent 
a new development for light milling operations. Laminated sheets, 
rods, bars, and tubes of various cross sections and lengths are avail- 
able so that these tools can be produced with very little machining. 

Progress in plastics applications during 1940 may be summed up 
by noting that many branches of industry, such as the automotive, 
radio, refrigerator, and mechanical handling fields, which had pre- 
viously made extensive use of plastics, added new molded parts to 
their products, and that other manufacturers of consumer goods, 
faced with military priorities for light and heavy metals, turned to 
the synthetic plastics as readily available and suitable materials for 
structural parts of many types of equipment. 



Smithsonian Report. 1941.— Kline 




Successive Steps in the Manufacture of a Plastic. 

1. At the starting line are these snowy cottcin linters. Taken from the eotton.seed after the spinnable 
cotton has been ginned, these short, fuzzy fibers are bleached and scoured to a flulTv mass of pure cellulose. 
2. Into this aeetylating mixer go the cotton linters, catalysts, and a vinegary solution of acetic anhydride 
and acetic acid. Powerful machinery stirs the mixture during reaction. 3. Drastic transformation. 
Acetylator tips up, and out pours an entirely new substance— cellulose acetate. 4. The cellulose acetate 
is then hydr.)lyzed (or ripened) in huge storage .jars. .5. Cellulose acetate reappears in cakes which may 
eventually become photographic film, transparent wrapping material, acetate rayon, or other plastics. 
6. The plastic, Tenite, shown here is supplied in granular, blank, and sheet forms for molding. It is 
available in plain and variegated colors, and in all degrees of transparency from crystal clear to opaque. 




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PLATE 3 




1 . Weaving a Plastic Material. 
Wovt'n Saian makes a rattaiilike seat covcrina 




2. NYLON BRUSHES IN INDUSTRY. 

The operator is inserting new brushes into the machine which is used by a bottling company. 




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VITAMINS AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN FOODS 



By ELazel E. Munseu. 
Nutrition Chemist, Washington, D. C. 



INTRODUCTION 



The first vitamins were discovered less than 3 decades ago, but 
since then an ahnost phenomenal number of substances has been 
classified in this nutritionally important group. A complete listing 
at the present time would include as many as 40 or more and there 
are indications of the existence of still others. 

The presence of vitamins in foods was recognized from observa- 
tions of the almost spectacular effect certain foods have on growth, 
function, and general well-being of the body. For centuries it had 
been known that the juice of limes or lemons would prevent or cure 
scurvy, but there had never been an adequate explanation of this 
relation. Wlien it was demonstrated that a substance in the outer 
coating of the whole rice grain would cure or prevent the disease 
known as beriberi, and that butter and egg yolk contained a sub- 
stance required for growth and for the prevention of a peculiar type 
of inflammation of the eye, it became apparent that foods contain 
certain substances other than protein, carbohydrate, fats, and min- 
erals which are likewise essential for normal nutrition. 

The substances in foods credited with these properties were dis- 
tinguished by descriptive terms as the antiscorbutic, antiberiberi, 
and antiophthalmic factors, respectively, or on the basis of their 
solubility, as water-soluble C, water-soluble B, and fat-soluble A. 
When the name "vitamin," from the term "vitamine" originally used 
for the antiberiberi substance, was suggested for them as a group 
they were designated vitamin C, vitamin B, and vitamin A. Since 
the chemical composition of the vitamins became known, several of 
them have received names related to their chemical structure. Thus, 
vitamin C is now known as ascorbic acid, vitamin Bi as thiamin, 
vitamin G or B2 as riboflavin, and vitamin Be as pyridoxine. 



1 Reprinted by permission from The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, vol. 18, No. 4. 
October 1940. 

239 



240 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

For various reasons a number of the water-soluble vitamins have 
been grouped together as the vitamin-B complex. Vitamin Bi and 
vitamin G were the orginal members of this group which now in- 
cludes nicotinic acid and vitamin Be as well as five or six other 
factors not mentioned in this discussion. 

The number of vitamins actually known to be essential in human 
nutrition is relatively small. The importance of vitamins A, Bi, and 
C in the diet is now well known. It is certain that vitamin D is a 
requirement of children, and while it may be needed by adults as 
well, perhaps in lesser amounts, this is yet to be demonstrate^. Evi- 
dence of the significance of riboflavin (vitamin G) in the Hiet of 
man has been obtained within the last 2 years, and we now have a 
clear picture of the external symptoms that follow the use of a diet 
deficient in this factor. Since the announcement in 1937 of the value 
of nicotinic acid in the cure of the disease in animals which is com- 
parable to pellagra in man, considerable information has accumu- 
lated to establish the value of this substance as a pellagra preventive. 
There is still some question as to whether nicotinic acid and/or 
nicotinamide can unreservedly be designated the pellagra-preventing 
or P-P factor or factors, but there can be no doubt that they are 
specific in their effect on certain symptoms of pellagra. The sub- 
stance in foods which is referred to as vitamin K helps promote the 
clotting of blood, and the supposition now is that it functions in 
man, as well as in animals, in maintaining a normal level of pro- 
thrombin in the blood. An anemia which occurs in chicks given a 
diet deficient in vitamin K responds to treatment with extracts 
containing this vitamin. 

These are the vitamins definitely known to be required by man. 
There is also considerable evidence in favor of two others, vitamin 
E and vitamin Be. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) has been shown to 
be important for normal reproduction in several species of animals 
and it may be required for successful reproduction in the human 
species as well. Both vitamin E and vitamin Be are being actively 
investigated at the present time. 

The importance of the vitamins to normal nutrition is now fully 
recognized, although there is still a great deal to learn about these 
substances. In planning foods for the day it is essential to know 
how to select them for vitamin values as well as for their content of 
protein, carbohydrate, fat, and minerals. The purpose of this article 
is to give a brief and not too technical presentation of our knowledge 
of the properties and food sources of these vitamins. A brief de- 
scription of the method of quantitative expression used for them and 
a table of values for vitamin A, vitamin Bi, vitamin C, and riboflavin 
content of common foods are also included. 



VITAMINS — MUNSELL 241 

PROPERTIES AND FOOD SOURCES 
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

The most distinctive common characteristic of the vitamins is the 
fact that they occur in foods in almost infinitesimal quantities and 
are effective in the body in similarly small amounts. Beyond this 
they have little in common since they differ markedly both in their 
physical and chemical properties. Some are soluble in water while 
others dissolve only in fats and fat-solvents. Some are easily de- 
stroyed, especially at high temperatures and when oxygen is present, 
as when foods are heated in air. Others are fairly resistant to de- 
struction by heat even when heated for several hours at temperatures 
well above the boiling point of water. In the case of nearly all of 
them, however, destruction takes place more rapidly in alkaline than 
in acid solution. 

In estimating the vitamin value of foods in the diet it is essential 
to know and keep in mind the properties of the various vitamins in 
order to be able to take account of possible losses. Consideration 
of changes that occur in the vitamin content of foods during processes 
connected with preservation and preparation, such as storage, freez- 
ing, cooking and canning, and drying, is of as much importance as 
consideration of the vitamin content of the fresh or untreated food. 
A food which, in its original state, is a perfectly good source of one 
or more of the vitamins may have its content of one or all of these 
factors reduced to insignificance as a result of the treatments it un- 
dergoes during preparation for consumption. Loss of vitamin value 
may be brought about not only as a result of inactivation or destruc- 
tion of the vitamins but also through their mechanical removal by 
solution, the vitamin passing out of the food material into the sur- 
rounding liquid. 

Wliile vitamins are found in foods of both plant and animal 
origin, plants — generally speaking — should be considered the pri- 
mary sources since animals depend upon plants for their supply of 
most of the vitamins. This does not mean that the substance re- 
sponsible for vitamin value in plant tissue is always the same as that 
having a similar function in animal tissue. Vitamin A, for instance, 
does not occur in plants, the vitamin-A value of plants being due to 
certain orange-yellow substances called carotenoids. These are broken 
down in the liver of the animal so that vitamin A is derived from 
them, and for this reason the carotenoids are sometimes called the 
"precursors" of vitamin A. 

It is now well known that foods show marked differences both in 
the kinds and amounts of vitamins they supply. Differences in the 
vitamin values of different foods do not constitute the only problem 



242 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

of variation that must be considered, however. There is the equally 
important matter of variation from sample to sample of a single 
food item. While it may generally be taken for granted that samples 
of a given food, selected at different times, will contain the same 
kind or kinds of vitamins, it does not necessarily follow that they 
will contain equal quantities of any kind. The idea must not be 
held with respect to any natural food, that it has a definite and fixed 
content of any vitamin — unless, perchance, it is zero. 

The problem of sample variation in vitamin content of foods is 
responsible for some of the newer phases of vitamin research, espe- 
cially in connection with studies related to food production. Some 
of the factors associated with this variation have been identified but 
there is still much to be learned. In foods of plant origin, variety in 
a given kind is very often an important factor in relation to vitamin 
content. Age and maturity of the product, its size, the amount and 
kind of fertilizer used in cultivation, the amount of moisture present 
in the soil, and the degree of exposure to sunlight may also have 
considerable influence. In foods of animal origin the breed of the 
animal from which the food comes, as well as its age and physical 
condition, is sometimes of significance, but the most important fac- 
tors are the vitamin content of the animal's food and, in the case of 
vitamin-D value, the length of time the animal was exposed to sun- 
shine. This sums up to the conclusion that values for vitamin con- 
tent can in no sense be considered exact unless correlated with an 
adequate knowledge of the conditions that might have had an 
influence on them. 

A point of considerable practical importance in dealing with vita- 
min values for foods is the fact that relative vitamin potency may 
easily be discussed by reference to food groups or food types. A diet 
can be planned on the basis of food groups rather than individual 
foods, thus lessening the tendency to place undue emphasis on one 
food that may have been shown to be very rich in a particular 
vitamin. 

VITAMIN A 

Properties. — Vitamin A belongs to the group of fat-soluble vita- 
mins and is practically insoluble in water. The pure vitamin, pre- 
pared by freezing it out of solution, is a pale yellow, viscous, oily 
substance. It is not readily broken down by heat but is inactivated 
by oxidation, especially when heated in a medium where there is 
free access of oxygen. 

As already explained, the vitamin-A value of foods of plant origin 
is due not to vitamin A, since this substance does not occur in plants, 
but to the presence of orange-yellow pigments called carotenoids — 
"precursors" of vitamin A. There are four of these substances: 



VITAMmS — MUNSELL 243 

alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carotene, and cryptoxanthin. Beta-caro- 
tene is by far the most important and most widely distributed in 
natural food products. Cryptoxanthin occurs in only a few foods. 

The carotenoids, like vitamin A, are soluble in fats and fat-solvents 
and are not readily inactivated by heat except as oxygen is present. 

Food sources. — The vitamin-A precursors may occur in any part 
of a plant root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, and seed. There is con- 
siderable variation, however, in the amounts present in foods of 
plant origin. Many contain them in abundance, and some carry only 
small amounts or none at all. 

An orange-yellow color in foods of plant origin indicates the 
presence of one or all of the plant carotenoids from which vitamin 
A may be derived and furnishes a rough index of vitamin-A potency 
in many vegetables as well as in fruits. Carrots and sweet potatoes 
are outstanding examples of this relationship. This index holds 
good where there are yellow and white varieties of a given product. 
Yellow turnips, yellow peaches, yellow corn, and yellow tomatoes 
are sources of vitamin A whereas the corresponding white varieties 
are not. To avoid confusion as to the application of these findings 
a word of caution seems advisable here. The fact of the presence of 
vitamin A in yellow varieties of foods is no reason for ignoring the 
white varieties. They may have values the yellow ones do not have. 
There is a place in the diet for all types of foods and there is little 
or no reason for consistently using certain ones and excluding others. 
Care should be taken to avoid applying factual information on food 
values in a fanatical way. 

A yellow color is not invariably associated with vitamin-A po- 
tency, for there are yellow plant-pigments that do not yield vitamin 
A. A red color has no relation to vitamin-A value and is not indica- 
tive of it except that in some foods a red color may mask the orange- 
yellow of carotene. An example is the red-fleshed tomato containing 
carotene either in the flesh or the skin. 

Experience has led to the recognition that a green color ^ in plants 
indicates vitamin-A value. Green leaves, and more especially thin 
green leaves like those of spinach, kale, dandelion, and leaf lettuce, 
are among the richest sources of vitamin A. Other green foods that 
are notable in this respect are green string beans and green peppers. 
The stems of asparagus, celery, and broccoli, and many other plants, 
may be appraised for vitamin-A value on the basis of greenness. 
Bleached parts of plants that would normally be green but do not 
have the green color, either because the chlorophyll never developed 

* Chlorophyll, the green coloring matter of plants, does not Itself form any part of 
vitamin A, but the high concentration of this vitamin in parts of the plant where chlorophyll 
functions has led to the suggestion that it may play a role In the formation of the vitamin. 
Vitamin-A potency in other parts of the plant would in that case be due to substances 
transported to them for storage. 

430577 — 42 17 



244 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

or because it was destroyed as in the case of winter cabbage, the 
inner leaves of lettuce, and the bleached stems of asparagus and celery 
have practically no vitamin-A value. 

In general, roots and tubers may be accepted as low in vitamin-A 
value with the exception of carrots and sweet potatoes, as noted above. 
Seeds, including nuts, cereal grains, and legumes (peas and beans), 
are on the whole low in, or totally devoid of, vitamin-A value unless 
they have some green or yellow color as peas and yellow corn. 

Vegetable oils contain little or no vitamin A. 

Among the foods of animal origin, eggs and milk are important 
sources. The hen and the cow do not convert all of the carotene 
obtained from their feed into vitamin A, and eggs and milk contain 
both vitamin A and carotene. In both cases the proportion of vita- 
min A is much higher than that of carotene. The ratio between the 
quantities of these two substances in milk from different breeds of 
cows may be significantly different, some breeds, for instance, con- 
sistently giving milk which contains a higher proportion of carotene 
than others. Since vitamin A is soluble in fat and only slightly, if at 
all, soluble in water, the vitamin-A value of the egg is in the yolk 
and that of milk is in the cream. Butter is an important source of 
vitamin A, and other milk products, such as cheese, contain it in 
proportion to the quantity of milk fat present. 

Eggs and milk show wide variations in vitamin-A values. The 
total quantities of both vitamin A and carotene in eggs and milk are 
influenced by the quantities present in the feed of the respective ani- 
mals producing these foods. During the summer months, when 
green feed is available, milk and eggs may show radically higher 
values than during other months of the year, although present-day 
feeding practices, by the use of feeds of high vitamin-A value 
throughout the year, tend to eliminate seasonal variation. 

In contrast to its precursors, the carotenoids, vitamin A has very 
little color. Inasmuch as milk and eggs contain both carotene and 
vitamin A, color is of little value in judging their vitamin-A po- 
tency. This is especially true of eggs. If the hen derived vitamin-A 
value from green feed or products rich in carotene, the yolk of the 
eggs will be deep yellow in color and will have a high vitamin-A 
value. If the hen did not have access to green feed or other highly 
colored food, but was given feed containing cod-liver oil, which 
contains vitamin A but not carotene, then the yolk of the eggs will 
be very light in color and still will be rich in vitamin A. 

Meats vary considerably in their vitamin-A value since much 
more of this factor is stored by some tissues than by others. Liver, 
especially, retains large amounts of it when there is an abundance of 
the vitamin in the diet, which makes it a rich food-source but from 
the standpoint of cost it can hardly be considered an important one. 



VITAMINS — MXJNSELL 245 

Glandular organs, other than liver, contain fairly large amounts of 
the vitamin but, like liver, they are available in limited quantities. 
Lean muscle meats contain only small quantities of vitamin A. 

Losses of vitaniin-A value. — Vitamin A and its precursors are not 
greatly affected by any of the processes connected with food preser- 
vation and preparation unless there is considerable chance for oxi- 
dation. Foods that are stored show a loss only after prolonged stor- 
age. This is greatest in foods that have been dried preparatory to 
storing, such as dried grasses and dried fruits. Even though such 
foods were good sources to begin with, they may lose as much as 50 
percent of their vitamin-A value in a few months' time. Boiling and 
steaming cause practically no diminution in vitamin-A content. 
Losses have been noted as a result of baking but they are not serious ; 
in roasting, destruction of vitamin A is appreciable. 

As would be expected there is little or no loss of vitamin A when 
foods are canned. During storage the vitamin-A content of canned 
foods may decrease but this change takes place gradually and usually 
is not appreciable up to 9 months. 

VITAMIN Bi (THIAMIN) 

Properties. — ^Vitamin Bi is a white crystalline material that is solu- 
ble in water. In plants it seems to exist in relatively simple combina- 
tion and may be removed fairly easily by extraction with water. In 
animal tissue it is present in more complex form combined with 
phosphate. 

Vitamin Bi is described as heat-labile — that is, unstable when 
heated. Inactivation depends entirely, however, upon conditions 
under which it is treated. In acid solution it is relatively stable but 
in neutral or alkaline solution it is readily broken down, the rate of 
destruction being higher with increase in alkalinity, temperature, 
and time of heating. The rate of destruction of the vitamin is also 
higher when it is heated in solution or in mixtures that are moist 
than when heated in dry mixtures. 

Food sources. — ^Vitamin Bi occurs in practically all foods derived 
from plants with the exception of fats and oils, but there are very 
few concentrated sources. Vitamin-Bi values of foods seem to be less 
subject to the influence of conditions of production and are therefore 
somewhat more constant than other vitamin values. 

The relatively low concentration of vitamin Bi in foods and the 
lack of sensitivity of the methods for measuring it have not made it- 
possible to determine its distribution in the different parts of plants 
as closely as in the case of some other vitamins. Seeds, including 
grains, nuts, and legumes, are known to be among the richest sources. 
In grains, the vitamin is concentrated in the embryo and outer cover- 



246 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

ing. In the process of refining, these parts are largely removed, 
hence the importance in the diet of whole-grain breads and cereals 
from the standpoint of vitamin Bi. 

All fruits and vegetables contain some vitamin Bi. Although 
none of them is a rich source, they should be considered important 
sources since they comprise a part of all diets and are usually eaten 
in relatively large amounts. Potatoes should be considered especially 
in this respect. 

Milk is a good source of vitamin Bj in that it is generally con- 
sumed without having been subjected to treatment other than pasteur- 
ization which entails little loss of the vitamin. Eggs are also a 
good source, the vitamin being in the yolk. 

Meats should probably be rated as good sources of vitamin Bi, 
although there is considerable destruction during cooking. For 
reasons not yet determined pork has a vitamin-Bi content two or 
three times greater than other meats, and the dark meat of chicken 
may be richer than the light meat. Glandular organs, liver and kid- 
neys for example, are somewhat richer than muscle meats. 

Fats and oils do not contain vitamin Bi. 

Losses of vitamin B^. — In considering loss of vitamin Bi in foods 
it is essential to keep certain facts clearly in mind: (1) The vitamin 
is soluble in water; (2) it exists in foods in different combinations 
which may have a bearing on the ease of removal and also on its 
destruction; and (3) inactivation of the vitamin depends upon con- 
ditions,^ and the quantity destroyed cannot very well be expressed by 
a definite percentage but is more a matter of rate of destruction. 

When foods are cooked by boiling, the proportion of vitamin Bi 
destroyed is relatively small up to cooking periods as long as 1 hour, 
and generally does not exceed 10 to 15 percent unless the food is 
distinctly alkaline or has been made so by the addition of soda. 
The loss by solution, on the other hand, may be considerable, de- 
pending, in addition to other factors noted, upon the proportion of 
water used. Larger amounts of water remove more of the vitamin. 
The proportion of vitamin Bi found in water in which food has 
been cooked has been reported as high as 50 percent of that origi- 
nally present in the food. If this water is used there will be little 
loss of the vitamin. 

Baking causes only slight, if any, destruction of vitamin Bi but 
the higher temperature and longer time required for roasting results 
in appreciable destruction. 



' Acid solutions containing vitamin Bj liave been heated as long as 1 hour at 120° C. 
without appreciable deterioration of the vitamin. In slightly alkaline solutions losses ap- 
proximated 30 percent during 1 hour of heating at the boiling point of water. Dry mix- 
tures containing vitamin B^ have been heated at 100° C. for as long as 48 hours and have 
shown no detectable change in their vitamin-Bi content. 



VITAMINS — MUNSELL 247 

In canning there is apparently no loss of vitamin Bi from process- 
ing, the greatest loss taking place during blanching or other proce- 
dures where there is a chance for solution. There are very few data 
to support a statement concerning the effect of storage on vitamin 
Bi in canned foods. Losses noted were determined after about 6 
months' storage and ranged around 40 percent. 

Practical information on the inactivation of vitamin Bi in foods 
during drying is almost entirely lacking. The vitamin seems to be 
retained fairly well by foods dried at a temperature of 60° C. but at 
higher temperatures destruction is probably considerable. 

VITAMIN O (AS(X)RBIC ACm) 

Properities. — Vitamin C in its pure form is a white crystalline 
material with an acid taste and is readily soluble in water. It is 
inactivated by oxidation and the rate of destruction increases 
rapidly with increase in temperature. The degree of acidity of the 
mixture also has a marked influence on the stability of vitamin C. In 
an acid mixture like tomato juice it is destroyed only slowly, but in 
less acid solutions the rate of destruction is much more rapid. 

Inactivation of vitamin C by oxidation proceeds in two steps. By 
mild oxidative processes a substance called dehydroascorbic acid is 
formed. This substance, which functions in the animal body as vita- 
min C but does not respond to the usual chemical test, may be re- 
duced to ascorbic acid. Under more drastic conditions of oxidation 
the vitamin is completely inactivated and its activity may not be 
restored. 

Food sources. — Vitamin C maj^ well be called the vitamin of fresh 
foods. This does not mean fresh from the market, but fresh from 
the plant or animal that produced the food. One authority has said, 
"with the exception of ripe seeds, practically all fresh foods of either 
plant or animal origin contain generous amounts of vitamin C." 

Fruits and vegetables are, on the whole, the richest sources of 
vitamin C. There is a tendency, however, to limit the emphasis to 
fruits and vegetables that can be eaten raw, and more especially to 
the citrus fruits and tomatoes. Since these specific products are not 
only outstandingly rich sources of the vitamin but also retain their 
potency remarkably well during the various treatments to which 
they may be subjected, they have come to be considered almost 
essential in the diet. This tendency should probably not be encour- 
aged to the extent of diverting attention from other fruits and vege- 
tables that are equally important for vitamin C. In some localities 
and at certain times of the year other fruits and vegetables, if 
handled so as to conserve their vitamin-C value, might be more 
economical than citrus fruits or tomatoes. 



248 AKNTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Other fruits that may be considered important from the stand- 
point of vitamin-C content are strawberries, blueberries, and cran- 
berries. Among the vegetables, peppers are outstanding in the quan- 
tity of vitamin C they contain. Cabbage and other members of the 
cabbage family, cauliflower and brussels sprouts, and turnips and 
rutabagas also contain large amounts. Vitamin C occurs in fairly 
high concentration in all leaves such as spinach, collards, turnip 
greens, and watercress. 

Variation in vitamin content according to variety has been studied 
more extensively with respect to vitamin C than for any of the other 
vitamins. Rather wide varietal differences have been shown for 
apples, tomatoes, oranges, and cabbage. In the case of oranges sev- 
eral other factors are known to influence vitamin-C content, making 
varietal differences as studied of lesser importance. Fully ripe fruit 
contains more of the vitamin than partially ripe fruit, and that ex- 
posed to sunlight is richer than that from the shaded side of the tree. 
The vitamin-C content of a given variety of orange decreases pro- 
gressively as the season advances although this change is less pro- 
nounced for some varieties than others. Conditions of cultivation 
also have an influence, but these are not as well defined as other 
factors. The extent of differences that exist in the vitamin-C content 
of oranges may be illustrated by values obtained in the Bureau of 
Home Economics on a dozen oranges examined individually. These 
oranges were of uniform size and appearance and were purchased 
at one time and came from a single bin in a store in Washington, 
D. C. The vitamin-C content ranged from 24 to 60 milligrams of 
ascorbic acid per 100 milliliters of juice. 

Factors other than variety that may influence vitamin-C content 
have also been studied with apples and tomatoes. With apples, size 
is significant. In this fruit the vitamin is concentrated in the skin 
and in the flesh just under the skin. Since the proportion of skin to 
flesh is greater in small than in large apples, a small apple contains 
more vitamin C in proportion to its weight than a large one. In 
tomatoes there is a gradual increase in vitamin-C content as the fruit 
matures while during the actual process of ripening there may be a 
decrease. 

Milk and meats should not be considered significant sources of 
vitamin C. Milk as it comes from the cow contains an appreciable 
amount, but this is inactivated rapidly as the milk stands. Meats are 
not important sources because whatever vitamin C they contain is 
destroyed during cooking. Eggs do not contain vitamin C. 

Vitamin C is not present in fats and oils since it is soluble in water 
and not in fats. 



VITAMINS — MUNSELL 249 

Losses of vitamin C. — Loss of vitamin-C value from foods may 
occur as a result of inactivation by oxidation or removal of the vita- 
min by solution. 

Consideration of losses from oxidation require mention, at least, 
of factors pertaining especially to this vitamin. Some fruits and 
vegetables contain substances called oxidases that accelerate the rate 
of inactivation of vitamin C by oxidation. These substances in turn 
are inactivated by heat and are destroyed in a short time when kept 
at the boiling point of water. Small amounts of copper coming from 
utensils and containers also catalyze, or hasten the oxidation of vita- 
min C. Some foods also contain within their tissues an amount of 
oxygen sufficient to be a factor in the oxidation process. 

Deterioration of vitamin C begins in all foods as soon as they are 
removed from the environment in which they were produced. This 
is the reason for indicating carefully what is meant by "fresh foods" 
from the standpoint of vitamin-C content. The rate of inactivation 
of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables that are allowed to stand seems 
to depend upon their physical characteristics. Thin leaves like spin- 
ach lose vitamin C rapidly and may retain no more than 50 percent 
after standing 2 or 3 days. Peppers having a smooth compact 
outer covering, show little loss. In apples the loss is gradual and 
ripe tomatoes may be stored as long as 10 days without detectable 
change in vitamin-C content. Rate of inactivation in all such prod- 
ucts increases with increase in temperature so that loss is less when 
they are kept under refrigeration. 

In plant products inactivation is more rapid when the plant cells 
have been opened up so that the vitamin is exposed to oxygen. De- 
crease in vitamin-C content takes place in vegetables that are pre- 
pared for cooking or canning and then allowed to stand. Foods that 
are chopped or crushed lose vitamin C rapidly and may contain ap- 
preciably less of the vitamin after standing only a few hours. The 
rate of destruction of the vitamin is less, however, at low tempera- 
tures in such cases. Expressed juices like orange juice and tomato 
juice may be stored in covered containers at household refrigerator 
temperatures for as long as 24 hours with no detectable change in 
vitamin-C content. Rate of destruction after that time depends 
upon whether the oxidases have been previously destroyed by heat- 
ing. Canned tomato juice, after the can is opened, shows little 
change in vitamin-C content after several days' storage in a 
refrigerator. 

Heat markedly accelerates the rate of destruction of vitamin C 
and cooked foods are not dependable sources of this vitamin. Toma- 
toes are a notable exception since they are rich sources to begin with 
and due to their high acidity they show loss of the vitamin only 



250 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

after prolonged heating. In foods that contain oxidases destruction 
of vitamin C during cooking is very rapid at first or until the tem- 
perature is reached at which the oxidase is destroyed when it pro- 
ceeds at a much slower rate. To preserve vitamin-C content during 
cooking, foods should be cooked quickly. They should also be 
served immediately since cooked foods lose vitamin C more rapidly 
when allowed to stand than do raw ones. 

When foods are boiled some of the vitamin C they contain may 
dissolve in the cooking water. This dissolved vitamin may be con- 
served, obviously, by using the water. The proportion of vitamin C 
destroyed in foods that are boiled averages 20 to 25 percent while 30 
to 40 percent may be present in the cooking water depending upon 
the amount used. 

Foods that must be cooked at temperatures higher than that of 
boiling water do not retain enough vitamin C to require 
consideration. 

Reduction in vitamin-C content from canning is less than in foods 
cooked by other methods since air is largely excluded during proc- 
essing. Decrease in vitamin-C content is greater in foods that are 
preheated in an open kettle before they are put into the can than in 
those canned by the cold pack method. Blanching may cause some 
loss of vitamin C through solution, but this procedure at the same 
time effects inactivation of any ascorbic acid oxidase present. 

Canned foods may be stored several months without showing 
serious decrease in vitamin-C content, but when deterioration once 
begins it proceeds rapidly. Inactivation of vitamin C in canned 
goods is directly and specifically related to the size of the bead space, 
hence, this should be kept as small as possible. Conditions of stor- 
age do not seem to be closely related to rate of loss of vitamin C in 
canned foods. The question as to whether loss is greater in foods 
canned in tin or in glass is still in the controversial stage. 

In considering canned foods as sources of vitamin C, one impor- 
tant point must be kept in mind. Such foods have been cooked at a 
fairly high temperature and the cellular structure is largely broken 
down. If they are allowed to stand after removal from the can or 
are heated and then allowed to stand they will not have very 
much vitamin C. Tomatoes are an exception since they retain vita- 
min C well under most conditions because of their high acidity. 

Drying of foods is very destructive of vitamin C. Some dried 
products — fruits — have been reported as containing small quanti- 
ties, and sulfured foods are supposed to contain more than others; 
but the amounts left even in foods that have just been dried are so 
small that it seems safer on the whole to disregard dried foods as 
probable sources of this vitamin. 



VITAMINS — MUNSELL 251 

VITAMIN D 

Properties. — At least 10 different substances are known to have 
vitamin-D activity but only two of these are of practical importance. 
They are vitamin Dj or activated ergosterol, known also as calciferol, 
and vitamin D3 or activated 7-dehydrocholesterol. Ergosterol which 
is found only in plant tissue, and 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is asso- 
ciated with cholesterol, the sterol in animal fats, are often called pro- 
vitamins. Under the influence of ultraviolet light (irradiation) they 
are changed into active forms of vitamin D. The commercial prep- 
aration known as Viosterol, is a solution of activated ergosterol in 
oil. 

The relative activity of these two forms of vitamin D is different 
for different species of animals. A preparation of vitamin D2 or 
calciferol, judged by tests with rats to have the same activity as a 
given preparation of vitamin D3, will be judged to be considerably 
less potent when examined by tests with chicks. Thus, while, for a 
given effect, chicks may require the same amount of vitamin Ds, 
they will require more vitamin D2. 

Vitamin D (D2 and D3) is soluble in fats and is not affected by 
heat or oxidation. 

Food sources. — Vitamin D does not occur to any extent, if at all, 
in foods of plant origin, but plants do contain the provitamin, ergos- 
terol. Dried plant tissue containing ergosterol acquires properties 
of vitamin D on exposure to ultraviolet light. Yeast contains large 
amounts of ergosterol, and irradiated dried yeast is an important 
source of vitamin D. 

The only significant natural sources of vitamin D are among the 
foods of animal origin. These include milk, eggs, liver, and fish that 
are rich in oil, like salmon and herring. The value of these foods 
as sources of vitamin D may well be questioned, however. The 
quantities of the vitamin that they contain are so small compared 
to the quantities needed by children for protection against rickets as 
to be of little practical value in this respect, and if adults require 
vitamin D it is difficult to believe that the quantity is as small as 
that ordinarily supplied by the use of these foods. This statement 
does not apply to fish-liver oil, which is the richest natural source of 
vitamin D. Since foods of animal origin are the only ones that 
contain vitamin D naturally, and they contain only vitamin D3 this 
form of the vitamin is sometimes referred to as natural vitamin D. 

The vitamin-D content of milk and eggs may be increased by 
feeding the animals producing these foods some rich source of the 
vitamin. Cows may be given irradiated yeast. "Metabolized" vita- 
min-D milk is produced in this way. The greater proportion of 



252 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

the vitamin D in such milk will be vitamin D2 with the small quantity 
of natural vitamin D normally present. Eggs of high vitamin-D 
activity are obtained by including cod-liver oil in the hen's feed so 
that eggs generally contain only natural vitamin D. 

Milk may also be enriched in vitamin D by irradiating the cow, 
by irradiating the milk, or by adding concentrates of the vitamin 
directly to the milk. Only the last two methods have been used 
to any extent commercially. 

RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN G) 

Properties. — Pure riboflavin is a yellow crystalline material readily 
soluble in water, giving a yellow green-fluorescent solution. Ribo- 
flavin is not readily destroyed by heating but is less stable in alkaline 
than in acid solution. 

As it occurs in nature, riboflavin forms part of a protein phos- 
phoric acid complex that must be broken down before the pure 
vitamin can be obtained. 

Food sowces. — Food sources of riboflavin are less completely 
known than are sources of the other vitamins so far discussed. This 
is due partly to its later discovery but largely to the lack of a 
satisfactory method of measurement. 

Milk, eggs, and lean meats are the richest sources. The yolk and 
the white of eggs contain it in about the same concentration. As 
riboflavin occurs associated with protein, it is present in milk in the 
skimmed milk and not in the butterf at. 

In plants, riboflavin seems to be concentrated in the green parts. 
Thin green leaves are especially rich sources. Green stems are much 
richer than the flower or the root. Although the vitamin is more 
concentrated in the green parts, the bleached parts of plants are not 
devoid of it, as they are of vitamin A. Most root vegetables and 
tubers contain some riboflavin. In fact, riboflavin is present in 
practically all vegetables of one sort or another. 

Seeds vary considerably in the amounts of riboflavin they con- 
tain. Legumes, peas, beans, and especially soybeans are good sources, 
while nuts and cereal grains are not so rich. The germ portion of 
the seed usually contains a high concentration of riboflavin, as it 
does of vitamin Bi. 

In general, fruits are low in their content of riboflavin. The ma- 
jority can be rated only fair and some fruits such as grapes, lemons, 
oranges, and grapefruit, contain little more than a trace. If there 
is a basis for classifying fruits as to riboflavin content, it is not 
apparent in the few data now available. 

Fats and oils have already been described as not containing the 
water-soluble vitamins Bi and C. They are also about the only 
foods that do not contain at least traces of riboflavin. 



VITAMINS — MUNSELL 253 

Losses of riboflavin. — There is not a great deal of information 
available on losses of riboflavin in foods. From the fact that the 
vitamin is soluble in water it might be anticipated that there would 
be loss during boiling or any process where food is kept in contact 
with water for any length of time. It will be remembered, however, 
that in foods riboflavin is combined with other substances. The 
difficulty experienced in removing the vitamin from foods by those 
who have undertaken quantitative estimation by chemical tests indi- 
cates that probably no great amount would be removed during 
boiling, blanching, or soaking. 

Riboflavin is described as heat-stable, which again might lead one 
to think that losses during cooking would be small. Milk whey, 
having an acidity comparable to that of tomato juice, was found to 
lose only 10 percent of its riboflavin value when heated at the boiling 
point of water for 1 hour, and 4 hours of heating was required to 
reduce the original value by 30 percent. When the mixture was 
made only slightly alkaline, the rate of destruction reached 30 to 40 
percent for 1 hour of heating. This is a clear indication that con- 
ditions within the medium influence inactivation of riboflavin as they 
do inactivation of vitamin Bi. Under similar conditions, in a liquid 
medium the rate of destruction of riboflavin was found to be slightly 
less than the rate of destruction of vitamin Bi. This relieves the 
situation relative to lack of specific information on loss of riboflavin 
in foods, since any measures designed to reduce losses of vitamin Bi 
during boiling apparently would also operate to protect against losses 
of riboflavin. 

In contrast to vitamin Bi, riboflavin is less stable when heated in 
a dry mixture than in one that is watery or even only moist. This 
may afford partial explanation of the fact that the most extensive 
losses noted have been in the baking, roasting, and frying of meats. 
These ranged from 30 to 60 percent. 

There is no indication that storage causes loss of riboflavin irre- 
spective of whether foods are fresh, canned, or dried. Canning per 
se does not seem to reduce the riboflavin content of foods or at least 
not significantly. Information on the effect of drying is not 
available. 

NICOTINIC ACID (PELLAGRA-PREVENTING FACTOR) 

Properties. — Nicotinic acid is a white crystalline substance soluble 
in water and fairly resistant to heat. The amide, nicotinamide, is 
also effective as a pellagra preventive. Like some of the other vita- 
mins discussed, nicotinic acid as present in foods is combined with 
other substances and is not easily removed until these complex 
compounds are broken up. 



254 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Food sources. — No consistent effort has been made to determine 
the nicotinic acid content of foods accurately. Most of the studies 
along this line have been concerned with determination of pellagra- 
preventing value directly. Some of these studies have been made 
with dogs as subjects and some with human beings. It is difficult to 
correlate the two kinds of data. Appraisal of pellagra-preventing 
value of foods on the basis of content of nicotinic acid depends upon 
the quantity of this substance required for the cure and prevention 
of pellagra ; and this has not yet been deJBnitely determined, although 
it can be stated approximately. 

Milk, lean meats, eggs, fish, liver, and some vegetables have long 
been known to be valuable in the cure and prevention of pellagra. 
Among the vegetables, green leaves are especially effective, and the 
legumes (peas and beans) and tomatoes have some value. 

Losses of nicotinic add. — The pellagra-preventing value of foods 
is not reduced easily. Foods have been heated in an autoclave or 
pressure cooker as long as 6 hours without showing a decrease in 
effectiveness. Canned foods seem to be equally as good as the 
corresponding fresh ones. 

VITAMIN K (THE ANTIHEMORRHAGIO VITAMIN) 

Properties. — ^Vitamin K is one of the newer vitamins. It is a color- 
less or slightly yellowish crystalline substance soluble in fats but 
not in water. It seems to be resistant to heat but is destroyed by 
alkalies and certain substances that bring about oxidation. 

Food sources. — Vitamin K is fairly widely distributed in foods. 
It occurs abundantly in green leaves, alfalfa having been one of the 
chief sources from which concentrates have been prepared. Flowers, 
roots, and stems of plants contain less than leaves. The vitamin is 
present in soybean oil and some other vegetable oils and in tomatoes. 
It is not present in fish-liver oils, but decomposed fish meal has been 
the source of a substance having vitamin K activity, differing slightly 
from the vitamin K of alfalfa. A number of compounds are known 
to have properties ascribed to vitamin K but how many of these occur 
naturally is not known. 

VITAMIN E 

Properties. — Vitamin-E activity is shown by several substances. 
The one of most importance from the standpoint of its natural occur- 
rence is alpha-tocopherol. This has been separated from wheat-germ 
oil and cottonseed oil as a light yellow viscous oil. 

Food sources. — Vitamin E occurs in many of the various types of 
foods considered essential in a well-balanced diet and it is not dif- 
ficult to obtain an adequate supply. Foods known to contain vita- 



VITAMINS — ^arUNSELL 255 

min E in abundance are milk, meat, eggs, whole seeds, including both 
cereal grains and legumes, and lettuce. It is also present in many 
vegetable oils including, in addition to the two already mentioned, 
corn oil, rice oil, and Eed Palm oil. 

Losses of vitamin E. — ^Vitamin E is soluble in fat and occurs asso- 
ciated with oils. It is stable toward heat but is inactivated when 
oils containing it become rancid — presumably because of oxidation. 

VITAMIN Be OR PYRIDOXINE 

Properties. — Vitamin Ba is a white crystalline substance and is 
soluble in water. It is stable toward heat even in alkaline solution, 
but is destroyed by long exposure to light. 

Food sources. — Vitamin Be is found in seeds; in some vegetable 
fats and oils such as linseed oil, peanut oil, rice oil, soybean oil, 
cottonseed oil, corn oil, and wheat-germ oil; and in butterfat, beef 
fat, meats, and fish. Most vegetables and fruits are poor sources. 

THINGS TO REMEMBER 

The array of information relating to the vitamins is extensive and 
complex. Unless one is making almost constant use of it, it is next 
to impossible to keep even the essential details in mind, and very few 
people wish to be hampered by the need of a pocket handbook in 
order to remember their vitamins. In the selection and preparation 
of foods for a diet adequate in vitamin content a few rules or sum- 
mary statements are usually sufficient. Those given below are sug- 
gested as helpful and others may be formulated if need requires. 

1. Use a variety of all types of foods giAdng especial attention to the use 
of milk, eggs, green leafy vegetables, fres/i fruits and vegetables, lean meats, 
and whole-grain cereals and breads. 

2. To avoid loss of vitamin value in cooking: 

Cook foods as quickly as possible. 

Use small amounts of water and use any that is left. Special utensils 
are not necessary for so-called waterless cookery. 

Steaming is an excellent way to cook many vegetables and some other 
foods. 

Do not peel vegetables or fruits and cut them up and then let them stand 
before cooking. Cooking them whole and with the outer covering on helps 
preserve vitamin content. 

Never add soda to vegetables during cooking. It serves no useful pur- 
pose and makes for destruction of vitamins. Cook green vegetables in an 
open kettle and they will stay green. 

Serve foods as soon as possible after they are cooked. 

Do not fry foods if they can be cooked in some other way. Frying 
and roasting are very destructive of vitamins. 

3. Give very careful attention to sources of vitamin Bi in the diet. It is 
more difficult to obtain an adequate amount of this vitamin than any of the 
others. It is probably the one in which American diets are most deficient. 



256 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Take special care to conserve the vitamin Bi in foods during cooking. Many 
of the foods that contain an abundance of vitamin Bi are cooked before being 
eaten, and next to vitamin C, vitamin Bi is the vitamin most likely to be lost 
when foods are cooked or canned. The precautions necessary to conserve vita- 
min Bi will conserve other vitamins as well. 

4. Store foods at low temperatures and in closed containers. 

5. Do not chop or crush fresh fruits and vegetables and allow them to stand. 
They lose vitamin C rapidly. 

6. Frozen foods have practically the same vitamin content as fresh ones. 
Care must be taken to conserve it during preparation for serving. Do not 
defrost and then allow to stand. If frozen foods are to be cooked put them on 
to cook while they are still frozen and use all of the liquid. 

7. Dried foods are not especially recommended for vitamin value. 

8. Canned foods retain vitamin value well, with the possible exception of 
vitamin C, provided they have not been stored too long. To obtain full value, 
use the entire contents of the can. Canned foods are cooked foods and should 
be treated accordingly. 

9. In canning foods observe the same precautions for conserving vitamin 
content as suggested for cooking. 

VITAMIN VALUES 

As soon as the existence of any one of the vitamins was recognized 
it became a matter of concern to know not only in what foods it oc- 
curred but also in what quantities. The development of methods of 
measurement was, therefore, of considerable importance. Chemical 
identification of the vitamins has usually not been made until some 
time after their discovery and for this reason development of chemi- 
cal or physical methods of measurement proceeded uncertainly. 

Many of the studies on the physiological effects of the vitamins 
have been made with laboratory animals. It was natural in some of 
these studies for information to be obtained on the relation between 
the quantity which an animal ate of a food known to contain a par- 
ticular vitamin and the response of that animal in terms of growth, 
or cure or prevention of the disease associated with the vitamin. As 
these observations were made, consideration was given to the possi- 
bility of using a relationship of this kind as the basis of a quantita- 
tive method of measurement for the vitamin concerned. Methods of 
determination in which the reactions of animals are used are called 
biological methods. 

To determine actual vitamin content by a biological method it is 
necessary to carry out a test in comparison with a substance con- 
taining a known amount of the vitamin in question. Wlien the bio- 
logical methods were first suggested, this condition could not be 
met because the chemically pure vitamins had not yet been prepared 
and natural products vary too much to be used as reference mate- 
rials. As a result of this situation it became the custom to express 
content with respect to a particular vitamin in terms of the quantity 



VITAMINS — ^MUNSELL 257 

required to produce a given response in the animal used and under 
the conditions specified for the test. Such a quantity was known as 
a "unit." Several of these biological units have been defined and 
used but the best known are probably the Sherman units for vita- 
mins A, Bi, and C, and vitamin G or Bg (riboflavin). 

As interest in the importance of the vitamins increased, attempts 
were made to devise more satisfactory methods of evaluating them. 
A committee appointed by the Health Organization of the League 
of Nations has established standards of reference called Interna- 
tional Standards of Keference for vitamins A, Bi, C, D, and E to be 
used in determining the content of these vitamins in foods and other 
materials. A definite quantity of each standard was specified as the 
International unit in terms of which the content of the respective 
vitamin was to be expressed. 

Definitions of the International Units for Vitamins A, Bi, C, and D 

Vitamin A. — The International unit of vitamin A is the vitamin-A activity 
of 0.6 microgram (0.0006 milligram) of the International Standard beta-carotene. 
One U. S. P. (United States Pharmacopoeia) unit of vitamin A presumably 
has the same value as 1 International unit (I. U.) of vitamin A. 

Vitamin Bi. — The International unit of vitamin Bi is the vitamin-Bi activity 
of 3.0 micrograms (0.003 milligram) of the International Standard crystalline 
thiamin chloride (vitamin Bi). One U. S. P. (United States Pharmacopoeia) 
unit of vitamin Bi has the same value as 1 International unit (I. U.) of 
vitamin Bi. 

Vitamin C. — The International unit of vitamin C is the vitamin-C activity of 
0.05 milligram of the International Standard crystalline ascorbic acid (vitamin 
C). One U. S. P. (United States Pharmacopoeia) unit of vitamin C has the 
same value at 1 International unit (I. U.) of vitamin C. 

Vitamin D. — The International unit of vitamin D is the vitamin-D activity of 
1 milligram of the International Standard solution of irradiated ergosterol in oil. 
One U. S. P, (United States Pharmacopoeia) unit of vitamin D presumably has 
the same value as 1 International unit (I. U.) of vitamin D. 

Enumeration of vitamin potency in terms of International units 
is now the accepted mode of expression. As more satisfactory chemi- 
cal and physical methods of measuring vitamin content are developed, 
this somewhat cumbersome device will doubtless be abandoned for 
the more usual procedure of giving composition on the basis of 
weight of chemical substance. This is already the case with vitamin 
C where values are given more often in terms of milligrams of as- 
corbic acid per gram or per 100 grams of material than in terms of 
International units. 

No International Standard for riboflavin has been established. 
The Sherman or Sherman-Bourquin unit is frequently used for de- 
noting vitamin-G potency, otherwise riboflavin is given directly as 
milligrams or micrograms of riboflavin. 



258 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Values for vitamin-A, vitamin-Bi, and vitamin-C content of foods 
and other materials determined prior to the adoption of the Inter- 
national Standards of Reference are for the most part expressed in 
terms of the Sherman units. For some foods the only values avail- 
able are expressed in these units and for this reason attempts have 
been made to derive factors showing the relation between the Sher- 
man and the International units. Since there has been some divided 
opinion as to what these should be, it seems well to reemphasize the 
fact that a biological unit does not have an exact value. These 
units are defined in terms of animal behavior which, however well 
controlled, is certain to vary. This simply means that the ratio be- 
tween an International unit and the corresponding biological unit 
varies according to conditions, and a fixed figure cannot be estab- 
lished for it. Values expressed in International units which have 
been derived from Sherman unit values by use of conversion factors 
cannot be considered more than rough approximations. International 
unit values so obtained should be clearly designated if pre- 
sented with other material. The ratios given below for these two 
units represent general experience with comparative values. 

Suggested Interrelation of Sherman Units for Vitamvrts A, B, C, and O and the 
Corresponding International Units 

Vitamin A. — Sherman units of vitamin A corresponding to 1 International unit 
of vitamin A have been found to vary from 0.8 to 2.5. The ratio of 1.5 is 
suggested as most representative, that is, 1 Sherman unit of vitamin A=0.7 
International unit. 

Vitamin Bi. — Sherman unit values of vitamin Bi corresponding to 1 Inter- 
national unit of vitamin Bi have been found to vary from 0.7 to 4 or 6 Sherman 
units. The most general relation for the majority of values obtained by the 
Sherman technique is suggested as 1 Sherman unit equivalent to 1 International 
unit. 

Vitamin C. — One Sherman unit of vitamin C is generally considered equivalent 
to 10 International units. 

Riboflavin. — One Sherman-Bourquin unit of vitamin G is equivalent to 3.0 
to 3.5 micrograms of riboflavin. 

VALUES FOR THE VITAMIN" CONTENT OF FOODS 

For some purposes, and especially for dietary calculations, it is 
desirable to have a set of values showing the quantities of the vari- 
ous vitamins in different foods. In the general discussion of food 
sources of the vitamins it was made clear that no food has a fixed 
and invariable content of any vitamin. Values for different samples 
of any food may vary over wide ranges depending upon the factors 
that influence the content of the vitamins it contains. The deriva- 
tion of average values, in the strict sense of this term, is not possible 
without using an unreasonable amount of descriptive material con- 



VITAMINS — ^MUNSELL 



259 



cerning each individual food item. In lieu of this it might seem 
advisable to indicate a range in place of a single value. The diffi- 
culty in that case is that anyone requiring a single value will use 
the median of the range which may not be in any sense the best 
value to use. This reduces the problem to one of arbitrarily select- 
ing what are considered the most representative values. 

The values in the table presented here, which is offered as an 
aid to those who must use single values expressive of vitamin con- 
tent, were selected on this basis. The selections were made from a 
summary of all of the data that could be obtained in the literature 
or elsewhere up to July 1, 1940. Careful consideration was given to 
the methods of analysis used and the nature of the food material 
studied. The values given should be taken as applying to foods that 
are reasonably fresh and of good quality. This is especially im- 
portant to keep in mind relative to vitamin-C values. "Market fresh" 
vegetables are often far from "fresh" as far as vitamin-C content is 
concerned. Adjustments should be made in the vitamin-C values 
for fruits and vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, when the 
products to which they are being applied are not strictly fresh. 

Some values in the table may differ materially from correspond- 
ing ones in other summaries. Too much concern should not be felt 
over such discrepancies, perhaps, since all values of this kind are, 
as explained, arbitrarily selected and their approximation to actual 
fact is problematical in any case. If specific information about a 
food is available, other values might be selected as more suitable. 



Table 1. — Values selected as representative of the vitamin-A, vitamin-Bi, vitamin-C, 
vitamin-D, and riboflavin content of common foods 

[Unless otherwise stated, the values given are for the edible portion of the fresh food] t 



Food material 



Vitamin A 



Vitamin 
B, 



Vitamin C 



Vitamin 
D 



Riboflavin 
vitamin Q 



Units per 100 grams ' 



Alfalfa leaf meal, dried. 
Almond 

Apple 



Apricot, fresh 

Apricot, dried 

Artichoke, Globe 

Artichoke, Jerusalem. 

Asparagus, green 

Asparagus, bleached. 

Avocado 

Banana 

Barley 

Beans, snap: 

Green 

Wax 



See footnotes at end of table. 
430577—42 18 



Int. 

8,000 
75 

75 

4,000 

5,000 

200 



700 

0-50 

100 

300 



1,000 




Int.i 



75 

15 

10 
30 
60 
50 
70 
50 
30 
15 
120 

25 
25 



Int.» 



(30-400) 

av. 100 

100 

60 

175 

115 

700 

650 

400 

200 



300 
300 



Int. 



Sherman * 
500 
200 

10 

17 

35 

Fair 



40 

Fair 

30 

30 

3 

40 
40 



260 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 



Table 1. — Values selected as representative of the vitamin- A, vitamin-Bi, vitamin-C, 
vitamin-D, and riboflavin content of common foods — Continued 



Food material 



Vitamin A 



Vitamin 
B, 



Vitamin C 



Vitamin 
D 



Riboflavin 
vitamin O 



Units per 100 grams ' 



Beans, shelled: 

Lima 

Runner 

Soybean 

Beans, shelled, dried: 

Lima 

Navy 

Red kidney 

Soybean 

Beef, lean 

Beet 

Beet tops 

Blackberry 

Black-eyed peas (see Cow- 
peas) . 

Blueberry 

High bush 

Low bush 

Brazil nut 

Bread: 

White 

Whole wheat 

Rye 

Broccoli, entire plant 

Flower 

Leaf 

Stem 

Brussels sprouts 

Buckwheat 

Butter, average 

From cows on dry feed 

From cows on green feed. 
Cabbage, head: 

Young, partly green 

Mature, bleached 

Red 

Chinese 

Cantaloupe 

Carrot 

Cauliflower 

Celery stalks: 

Green 

Bleached 

Chard 

Cheese: 

Cheddar 

Cottage 

Cream 



Int. 

500 

1,000 

200 

100 




100 

50 



Excellent 

150 



100 



10 

Trace 
Trace 
Trace 
9,000 
5,000 
16, 000 
1,000 
200 



2,400 
1,200 
4,000 

100 




Cherry 

Chicken, muscle: 

Dark 

Light 

Clam 

Codfish 

Cod-liver oil 

Collards 



2,000 

300 

2, 100 

30 

1,000 

10 

9,000 

2,000 
500 

2, 100 
15-550 
av. 200 



14 
5 
(*) 
7,000 



InU 

115 
100 
175 

175 
170 
150 
400 
40 
15 



15 



15 



350 

20 
100 
70 
37 
45 
45 
25 
60 
150 



25 
25 



25 
20 
20 
50 

10 

10 

Fair 

15 



15 

50 
30 

7 
30 


50 



Int.' 



600 
500 
800 









100 

1,000 

140 



120 
90 









1,400 

2,000 

2,500 



1,500 





1,200 

1,200 

1,200 

800 

600 

100 

1,500 

100 
100 
750 





200 







800 



Int. 



80 

40 

150 



(*) 



Sherman * 
100 



100 
300 



300 
75 
10 

150 




30 



75 

80 

150 



30 
15 



15 
20 
20 
35 

10 



30 

250 

Good 

60 



Excellent 
Excellent 



Good 



100 



See footnotes at end of table. 



VITAMINS — MUNSELL 



261 



Table 1. — Values selected as representative of the vitamin- A, vitamin-Bi, vitamin-C, 
vitamin-D, and riboflavin content of common foods — Continued 



Food material 


Vitamin A 


Vitamin 
B, 


Vitamin C 


Vitamin 
D 


Riboflavin 
vitamin G 




Units per 100 grams ' 


Corn, sweet: 

White 


Int. 

0-50 
500 



550 






Int.i 

45 
45 

100 

100 






Int.3 

200 
200 






130 


Int. 


Sherman * 


Yellow -. - -.. _.- 


0' 


20 


Corn dried: 

White 


Fair 


Yellow 


Fair 


Corn oil, refined __ 





Cottonseed oU, refined 

Cowpea: 

Fresh 





Dried.-- .- 


50 

20 

600 

20 

400 


300 

'"io" 

15 

10 

15 

""25" 




100 


Cranberry 


225 




Traces 





Cream, 20 percent _ 




Cucumber 


200 

3,000 

900 

2,000 




8 


Currant: 

Black 




Red - ._- 






Dandelion 


12, 000 
150 

14, 000 
1,000 



2,800 

35 

15, 000 
Good 

50 
60 






Good 


Dates, cured 


15 


Dock, leaves 


Good 


Ese. whole 


50 

140 
15 
28 
25 

25 
22 

30 

160 

30 








200 

400 




110 


White 


100 


Yolk 


115 


Eggplant- _ 


10 


Endive (escarole) 


40 


French- 


20 


Fig: 

Fresh_- 


30 







15 


Dried 


25 


Flour: 

White, patent 




Whole wheat 




Fair 


Garden cress- 


Excellent 








Gooseberry 


500 

60 

30 

850 

900 

800 

1,500 








Grape 


Trace 


15 




8 


Grape juice 












200 

5 


23 
25 
25 
14 
5 
30 
220 

200 

200 

180 






Trace 


Juice _ 


Trace 


Canned 


Trace 


Guava. 


3 


Haddock 


Good 


Halibut 




Hazelnut 


100 

Trace 
Trace 








Heart: 

Beef 






300 


Lamb 








Pork _.. 








Honey 







2,000 

800 

2,500 








Horseradish 




Huckleberry 










Kale 


20, 000 
1,000 
1,000 


50 
60 
75 
150 
20 
80 




200 


Kidney, beef or veal . 


700 


Lamb 








Pork _ 








Kohlrabi 




1,200 






Lamb, muscle, lean 






70 



See footnotes at end of table. 



262 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 



Table 1. — Values selected as representative of the vitamin-A, vitamin-Bi, vitamin-C, 
vitamin-D, and riboflavin content of common foods — Continued 



Food material 



Vitamin A 



Vitamin 



Vitamin C 



Vitamin 
D 



Riboflavin 
vitamin Q 



Units per 100 grams ' 



Lard 

Leek 

Lemon juice 

Lentils, dried 

Lettuce, green 

Bleached 

Romaine or cos 

Lime juice 

Liver, beef 

Calf 

Chicken 

Lamb 

Pig 

Mango 

Milk 

Whole fresh, average mar- 
ket. 
From cows on dry feed- 
From cows on pasture. 
Whole dried: 

Average 

From cows on dry feed- 
From cows on pasture.. 

Skim 

Skim, dried 

Molasses 

Mushrooms 

Mustard greens 

Oats (rolled or oatmeal) 

Okra 

Olive, canned: 

Green 

Ripe 

Olive oil, refined 

Onion: 

Green 

Mature 

Orange juice 



Int. 

4 

Fair 



Trace 

4,000 

100 

800 



9,000 

7,000 

Excellent 

Excellent 

Excellent 

1,500 



Oyster 

Papaya 

Parsley 

Parsnip 

Pea: 

Green, fresh 

Green, dried 

Peach: 

White 

Yellow 

Yellow, dried 

Peanut: 

Jumbo 

Roasted 

Spanish 

Spanish, roasted 

See footnotes at end of table. 



110 

55 
175 

875 

450 

1,400 

2 

20 





Excellent 

Trace 

400 

190 

125 



Fair 


45-350 

140 

2,500 

30, 000 

Trace 

1,000 
1,200 

5 
1,000 
3,000 





Int.' 

60 
10 
170 
25 
25 



75 
70 
75 
75 
100 
30 



20 

20 
20 

120 



15 

120 



30 

45 

180 

40 



10 
30 



25 
40' 



140 
175 

10 
10 



320 
90 

300 
60 



Int» 



400 
900 

250 
250 



750 

Fresh 750 

Fresh 650 

Fresh 450 

Fresh 750 

Fresh 525 

600 

Raw 40 

Past. 25 

Raw 30 
Raw 50 













Trace 

2,500 



400 






275 

160 

f 450-1, 200 

\ av. 900 

5 

900 

2,000 

450 

500 



200 

200 





45 
15 
50 
20 
45 



Sherman * 



Fair 

Trace 

105 

75 

15 

30 



600 
550 
Excellent 
550 
600 
20 



75 

60 
80 



16 

8 


500 


24 






Excellent 
600 







Excellent 

35 

Fair 



30 
5 



60 



65 
100 



20 



Good 
"250 



VITAMINS — ^MTJNSELL 



263 



Table 1. — Values selected as representative of the vitamin- A, vitamin-Bi, vitamin-C, 
vitamin-D, and riboflavin content of common foods — Continued 



Food material 


Vitamin A 


Vitamin 
B, 


Vitamin C 


Vitamin 
D 


Riboflavin 
vitamin Q 




Units per 100 grams ' 

1 


Pear -. 


Int. 

10 
400 

5,000 

5,000 

90 


Int.' 

15 

350 

10 
10 
25 
30 
25 
35 
400 
40 


Int.i 

50 


Int. 


Sherman * 
20 


Pecan 


100 


Pepper: 

Green _ 


2,500 
3,000 
500 
600 
300 
100 




40 


Red 




Pineapple - . 




12 


Juice, fresh 




Juice, canned 








Plum 






15 


Pork, muscle, lean _ __ 


Trace 
30 


75 


Potato, average. -- 


250 
350 
100 




15 


New 




Stored, old 










Prune: 

Fresh _. . 


1, 500 
2,500 
2,500 


20 
50 
15 






Dried.- . . - 


50 
60 
250 
400 

600 
400 





100 

400 

400 






Good 


Pumpkin 


15 


Quince 




Radish 


Trace 
50 


20 
30 
10 

75 
10 
30 

15 

15 

140 




10 


Raisin 




Raspberrv 






Rhubarb 


Trace 

Trace 



2,000 



25 



30 

750 
100 
325 






Rice: 

Brown 




50 




Trace 


Roe -- 


Fair 


Rutabaga: 
White 




Yellow. 






Rye 


225 
275 
625 
800 
Good 


Fair 


Salmon, canned: 

Chum 












Pink - -- 








Red 


Trace 
10 

40 

15 
15 
Trace 
30 
30 

23 

25 
25 





75 


Sardine 


Good 


Soybean (see under Bean). 
Spinach _ 


25, 000 

1,000 
4,000 
Trace 
3,500 


1,500 


125 


Squash: 
Summer 


15 


Winter 


100 

1,000 

400 

700 

r 260-600 
1 av. 450 
1 260-600 
1 av. 450 
av. 450 
1 150-575 
1 av. 375 

600 

600 

3,000 




25 


Strawberry . 


Trace 


Sweet potato 

Tangerine 


30 
10 


Tomato, mature: 

Green _ _ 


700 

1,000 
1,000 


15 


Ripe 


20 






Juice, canned commercial.. 






Turnip: 

White - -- 




20 

10, 000 


12 
12 
40 




12 


Yellow 


12 


Turnip greens 


120 


See footnotes at end of table. 





264 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 



Table 1. — Values selected as representative of the vitamin-A, vitamin-Bi, vitamin-C, 
vitamin-D, and riboflavin content of common foods — Continued 



Food material 


Vitamin A 


Vitamin 
B. 


Vitamin C 


Vitamin 
D 


Riboflavin 
vitamin O 




Units per 100 grams ' 


Walnuts: 

Black 


Int. 

130 

100 

4,000 

Trace 

Trace 


Int.' 

110 

150 

40 

20 

180 


Int.3 


Int. 


Sherman * 


English . 








Watercress _. 


1,500 

150 




o' 


90 


Watermelon. _ _ 


10 


Wheat.. 


35 







1 Where there are no values, data were not available for making estimates. 100 grams is approximately 
3.5 ounces. 

' International units of vitamin Bi multiplied by 3 give micrograms of thiamin. 

' International units of vitamin C multiplied by 0.05 give milligrams of ascorbic acid. 

* For the calculations made in this table, the relation of 1 Sherman unit equivalent to 3.0 micrograms 
(0.003 milligrams) of riboflavin was used. Sherman units multiplied by 3 give micrograms of riboflavin. 

*For vitamins A and D use values given on the container. 

t The author suggests the following revisions for table 1: A value of 100 for the vitamin-A content of cottage 
cheese instead of 500, a value of 10 for the vitamin-C content of dried prunes instead of 50, and a value of 78 
for the riboflavin content of jumbo and roasted peanuts. 

SELECTING FOODS TO MEET VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS 

In planning or assessing diets for adequacy in vitamin content, it 
is obviously necessary to have information as to the quantities of 
each of the vitamins needed in the daily diet. Suggested values for 
vitamins A, Bi, C, D, and riboflavin are summarized in table 2.* 

At the present time considerable interest is being shown in studies 
to determine the requirement of the various vitamins known to be 
essential in the diet of man. The main problem has been the 
development of methods giving results that could be interpreted in 
relation to nutritional well-being. The first knowledge of the 
requirement of any vitamin came as a result of determining the 
quantity required to cure or prevent the disease associated with that 
vitamin. Such quantities have usually been referred to as minimum 
protective quantities. It soon became apparent that the quantity 
needed for normal nutrition was considerably in excess of the mini- 
mum protective quantity. As information and experience accumu- 
lated the aim has been to obtain values of vitamin requirements that 
apply more nearly to normal nutrition. 



* See also the Table of Recommended Dietary Allowances prepared by the Committee on 
Food and Nutrition, National Research Council, May 1941, available through Nutrition 
Division, Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C. 



VITAMINS — MUNSELL 



265 



Table 2. — Values suggested as expressive of the daily requirement for vitamins A, 

B\, C, D, and riboflavin^ 





For the average adult under average conditions 


During preg- 
nancy and lac- 
tation 


For growing children 
and adolescents 


Vitamin 


Absolute 
minimum 


Adequate 


Optimum 


A - 


2,000 1.U 

200 I.U. or 
0.6 mg. 

20 to 25 mg. 

or 400 to 500 

I.U. 
Not known.. - 


3,000 to 5,000 

I.U. 
300 to 400 I.U. 

or 0.9 to 1.2 

mg. 
40 to 60 mg. or 

800 to 1,200 

I.U. 


6,000 to 8,000 

I.U. 
500 to 600 I.U. 

or 1.5 to 1.8 

mg. 
80 mg. or 1,600 

I.U. 




8,000 to 10,000 I.U. 


Bi (thiamin) . 

C (ascorbic 
acid). 

D 


Several times al- 
lowance for 
average adult 

Twice that for 
the average 
adult. 

800 I.U. suggest- 
ed as adequate 


Considerably more in 
proportion to their 
weight than adults 

Only slightly less than 
that for adults. 

300 to 400 I.U. suggest- 
ed as adequate for 
protection against 
rickets; 675 I.U. sug- 
gested for optimum 
growth. 

At least 400 Sherman- 


Riboflavin 


Approximatelv 600 Sherman-Bourauin units 


(vitamin 
G). 


or 2 milligra 


ms. 






Bourquin units. 



• Previously published. Mimsell, Hazel E., Planning the day's diet for vitamin content. 
Amer. Dietetic Assoc, vol. 15, p. 639, October 1939. 



Journ. 



In summarizing data on vitamin requirements, it seems desirable 
to give the quantities determined as minimum as well as those con- 
sidered adequate. In some instances data have been obtained indi- 
cating that nutritional well-being is enhanced by a diet supplying 
quantities of a vitamin in excess of that considered adequate. Such 
quantities have been designated as optimum. 

Studies to determine the requirement of the various vitamins are 
still in the preliminary stage. It is problematical whether the 
requirement of any vitamin can ever be expressed with precision. 
Many factors operate to influence the quantity of each that is needed. 
Data already at hand indicate that the requirements may vary from 
individual to individual according to sex, age, size, and activity, and 
vary in the same individual from day to day depending upon the 
physiological condition, activity, or environment. 

The material offered in table 2 should be used with certain con- 
siderations in mind. With the exception of vitamin D the values 
for the requirement of each of the vitamins represent quantities 
that may be supplied readily by the use of natural foods. These 
quantities indicate the daili/ requirement of the normal individual 
with no allowance made for variation in the vitamin value in dif- 
ferent foods or losses that may occur from cooking or other processes 
to which the food may be subjected. 

There is no evidence of harm from the ingestion of vitamins as 
they occur in foods in quantities considerably in excess of those given 
as requirements. In planning diets the aim should be to provide 
foods that will supply at least as much and preferably more than the 
adequate allowance of each vitamin and several times this allowance 
in cases where there is indication of a greater need. 



SCIENCE AND HUMAN PROSPECTS 



By Eliot Blackweldeb 
Stanford University 



On facing the duty of preparing the customary presidential address 
for this year, I gave some thought to the question of what contribution 
I could best make. Having been for many years a field geologist and 
at times even an explorer, I might have gathered up the results of 
many local studies and generalized them. Being engaged more re- 
cently in studying desert physiography and the Pleistocene history 
of the western States, I might have chosen one of those subjects — and 
indeed they are well worth considering. 

However, in such a fateful year as 1940, it seemed to me that the 
occasion called for a subject of greater importance and one that has a 
more direct relation to the welfare of this nation ; and so I decided to 
ask your attention this evening to a subject that has long been one 
of my chief concerns — namely, education in science and its relation 
to the future welfare of humanity. 

It seems to me that a teacher of geology, or indeed of any other 
science, should devote himself not only to giving his students informa- 
tion, and explaining processes and theories — ^however important those 
educational duties may be — ^but especially to training young people 
in the scientific way of thinking and helping them to acquire the 
scientific spirit. To my mind, that is his most important function. 

Since geology is considered a science — albeit not one of the so-called 
exact sciences — and since we call ourselves scientists, it may be well 
to ask at this point, what, essentially, is science? In general terms 
the dictionaries say that it is knowledge established, organized, and 
systematic. To me, however, this concept is not adequate. In the 
words of the great French mathematician, Poincare: "A collection 
of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house." Verified 
knowledge is one element, organization and classification are necessary 
and so is the testing of hypotheses, but I cannot regard any of these 



* Address as retiring president of The Geological Society of America, delivered at the 
annual meeting of the Society in Austin, Tex., December 26, 1940. Reprinted by per- 
mission from the Bulletin of The Geological Society of America, vol. 52, Mar. 1, 1941. 

267 



268 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

as the core of science. To me the basic thing about science is an attitude 
or habit of mind, a way of thinking which is characteristic of those 
entitled to be called scientists. If that is so, most subjects of human 
concern may be dealt with in a scientific way. The essential basic 
condition is freedom from bias and prejudice. The major objective of 
the scientist is truth, no matter how unpleasant it may be or how 
much discomfiture it may cause among those who hold cherished 
beliefs which happen, nevertheless, to be errors. Dr. Crapsey once 
remarked that : "Truth is a brand new virtue." And it may be added 
that as such it is not yet as widely sought and valued as it should be. 
It has been well said that "the purpose of science is understanding." 
This is only a modern version of the well-known admonition of King 
Solomon to "get understanding." 

The scientific method is relatively new. As recently as four cen- 
turies ago it was a rarity even among the most learned thinkers ol 
the time. Today it is used only incidentally by most of the people 
in even the most civilized countries. It is hardly an exaggeration 
to say that the majority of educated persons — even those with college 
degrees — do not really understand it. Often it is confused with in- 
vention or the mere cataloging and classifying of knowledge. Some 
years ago, in a nation-wide poll which was taken for the purpose of 
finding out who was popularly considered to be the greatest scientist 
in the United States, the choice fell upon Edison, the inventor. But 
inventions, however useful and ingenious, are only the outgrowth, 
the byproducts, of science. Although invention was originally a 
matter of mere cut-and-try experiment it now makes more and more 
use of science, until much of it is now highly scientific in the true 
sense. Even so, the one should not be confused with the other. 
Science is not invention. The purposes of scientists and inventors 
are fundamentally different, even when they use similar methods. 

As for the majority of mankind, in the less-developed countries, 
their lives have scarcely been touched by science except in the form 
of some of its tangible products such as machines, the radio, or by 
the services of the sanitarian; and their understanding of science is 
hardly greater than was that of their ancestors a thousand years ago. 

Even among the most cultured of civilized people some misunder- 
stand science so completely that they think they disapprove of it and 
consider it dangerous. Not infrequently do we hear the ills of the world 
today blamed upon the advances of science, by which is evidently 
meant inventions such as dynamite, poison gas, or the airplane. Some 
writers have even called for a moratorium on scientific research, 
lest the dangers they ascribe to science overwhelm our civilization. 
But we do not abolish automobiles just because criminals use them 
in bank robberies and child snatching. On the contrary, it would 



HUMAN PROSPECTS — BLACKWELDER 269 

seem better to extend the scientific method to those fields of study 
which are not yet making the required progress. One might para- 
phrase a famous remark about democracy by saying : "The best cure 
for the evils of science is more science" — at least better and more 
widespread science. 

The genuine scientist searches out the facts he requires, testing and 
evaluating them as he goes. He must try to discriminate the true 
from the false, and the trivial from the significant. His disciplined 
imagination, always at work even during the fact-gathering process, 
suggests explanations for the things observed— usually for the de- 
tails and later, as the picture takes shape, for phenomena of wider 
scope. All these ideas must be impartially tested before they can be 
either accepted or rejected, just as an engineer determines by calcu- 
lation the strength of the arches in a projected bridge, and for a 
similar reason. How high shall we appraise the value of the for- 
tunate speculator who happens without much evidence to hit upon 
the right explanation far ahead of others, as compared with the 
patient investigator who carries a firm structure of fact and con- 
trolled theory with him all the way? The former has uses, but it 
is chiefly to the latter that steady scientific progress is due. Loose 
speculation is an ingrained habit of humanity, but the careful scien- 
tist realizes that many problems are now insoluble because the nec- 
essary data are not yet obtainable. He will, therefore, restrain his 
fancy, devoting his efforts to objectives that are within his reach, 
content to leave to his better-informed successors those other ques- 
tions which are not yet ripe for consideration. 

The critical testing of ideas is a habit diflScult for the average hu- 
man being to adopt. An original idea is a brain child and tends 
to be jealously cherished as such. To expose it to the cold light of 
reason takes a sort of Spartan courage that is too often undevel- 
oped and yet is one of the essential attributes of anyone who aspires 
to be called a real scientist. To be merely logical with facts selected 
for a purpose is much easier than to divest oneself of bias. Stead- 
fast courage and a renunciation of false pride are required in the 
search for opposing rather than supporting evidence. 

The unrealized assumptions hidden in his theory are the sunken 
rocks on which the ship of many a hopeful scientist is wrecked. Our 
literature affords examples without number, especially in the earlier 
times. Geologists will find a good illustration even in the writings of 
that thoughtful old Scot who is regarded as the founder of their 
science — James Hutton. Writing about the granite boulders from 
Mont Blanc that are sprinkled over the slopes of the Jura Moun- 
tains near Geneva, he concluded that the Rhone River must have 
excavated its valley after they were deposited. The erroneous as- 



270 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

sumption, hidden in his mind and unrecognized, was that only 
streams could have moved the boulders, and he knew that streams 
cannot flow uphill. He overlooked the glaciers, although it is 
evident that he already knew something of their power and habits. 
Perhaps he assumed that those he saw around Mont Blanc had never 
been much larger than they were in his day. 

Failing to understand what the real scientist must be and what 
the essentials of science are, part of the public today is led to accept 
as science various elaborations of intuition, speculation, and fancy, 
such as were much more widely current a few centuries ago. To the 
practitioners of this pseudo science, David Starr Jordan (1924), in 
a humorous paper, once gave the name "Sciosophists." The term, he 
explained in mock seriousness, comes from two Greek words, skios 
meaning shadow, and sophos meaning wisdom, or in short "the 
shadow of wisdom." Sciosophists, he said, are happily free from 
the ordinary limitations of science for they are not hindered by the 
need of evidence. To them one idea is as good as another, and so 
why go through the laborious process of examining facts, searching 
out all the evidence, and testing each explanation before accepting 
it? A glittering and imposing structure can be built up with ease 
by a sciosophist out of many such unverified suppositions; but, of 
course, Jordan scarcely needed to say that it is as vulnerable to 
critical analysis as a child's tower of blocks is to a touch of the hand. 
It is regrettable, but in a free country perhaps unpreventable, that 
the cloak of science should be donned and worn by faith healers and 
other mystics who have no comprehension of the meaning of the 
term. As a result, however, it is hardly surprising that part of the 
general public has a rather confused impression about science, when 
it reads serious accounts of such absurdities as a "science of astrol- 
ogy," "the science of phrenology," and many others. 

That the scientific method had its beginning in the ancient Greek 
and probably even earlier civilizations is clear enough, but it was 
displayed by only a few of the philosophers of that era and not con- 
sistently even by that few. This is all the more strange in view of 
the fact that the art of reasoning — logic — was highly cultivated by 
the Greeks. True, men like Anaxagoras at Athens had many sound 
ideas and employed the scientific method to a notable extent, but at 
the same time they entertained, as firm beliefs, some notions that 
would now bring a laugh to any schoolboy. 

If one examines the writings of the founders of ancient Greek 
science in the sixth century B. C. — men like Thales and Anaximan- 
der — ^lie finds that many of their opinions were mere suppositions, 
elaborated and bolstered with such support as labored argument and 
ingenuity of words could give. These men were the precursors of 



HUMAN PROSPECTS — BLACKWELDER 271 

modern scientists but can hardly be called scientists themselves. No 
true scientist would have seriously put forth as a conclusion so fan- 
tastic and wholly unverified a notion as the great Aristotle's dictum 
that earthquakes are due to the surging of the wind through caverns 
in the earth. Even allowing for the inaccuracies of translation from 
the Greek, one can find only the slenderest evidence to support this 
opinion. It was a result of pure speculation upon a subject about 
which the author had not even the most elementary knowledge. Yet 
it was quoted with approval for 20 centuries. This is all the more 
inexcusable because a considerable body of definite information about 
earthquakes was available in the Greek world of Aristotle's day, and 
there were many pertinent observations on geology that could easily 
have been made in that epoch, even without modem instruments, if 
serious attention had been devoted to the problems. 

In its early stages the cultivation of science was often too largely 
a contest between champions of rival theories. In ancient Greece the 
celebrated master gathered about liim a group of disciples who too 
often came to regard his pronouncements as infallible. In the school 
of such a man as Pythagoras of Sicily, to quote the leader was suf- 
ficient to settle any disputed point. The ideas of the master thus 
became dogmas and took on a kind of sanctity. 

It must be admitted that dogma has been the fashion of the past. 
For millions of the earth's inhabitants it still remains so. Today we 
see the current of progress being reversed in the despot-ridden coun- 
tries of Europe, where the privilege of freely drawing conclusions 
from evidence is being restricted and the blind acceptance of official 
dogma is exalted as a duty, if not a necessity. 

Even in the last century or two the history of science was marred 
by many a bitter controversy between rival leaders and their followers 
over theories. A theory was defended like a home citadel, and 
doubters were considered enemies actuated by the darkest of motives. 
Among such bickerings there was by contrast the magnanimity of 
Charles Darwin who said, regarding the storm of criticism that 
raged after the publication of "The Origin of Species," "If my book 
cannot stand the bombardment, why then let it go down and be 
forgotten." 

Fortunately, rancorous disputes have nowadays largely ceased to 
afflict the relations of real scientists. Yet there is still far too much 
of that spirit in the world at large. It has been well said that "Most 
men think with their emotions rather than their intellects." The 
ancient method of verbal combat is still employed in our law courts 
and legislative halls. Each participant adheres to his thesis. Search 
is then made for evidence to support it and at the same time to 



272 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

refute its opponents. An equal effort is made to suppress or 
depreciate any facts that may prove to be embarrassingly adverse. 

The debating society may be a good place to train lawyers, but the 
partisan attitude of "win the argument and confound the opponent" 
is an unhealthy state of mind for a young scientist. Indeed, he can 
never become a true scientist until he outgrows that mental attitude. 
Kather he should cling to the advice of that wise old Quaker, William 
Penn: "In every debate, let truth be thy aim, not victory." Per- 
haps it is our sporting instinct, derived, it may be, from our age-long 
struggles against each other, that makes us usually more interested 
in winning a contest than in finding the truth. 

By those who have not considered the matter thoroughly, scientists 
are often adversely criticized for devoting so much of their energy 
to problems that seem to lead to nothing of any human value. No 
doubt there is considerable merit in this charge. But we shall never 
know to what extent it is justified, because we can only guess what 
kind of knowledge and what kind of understanding may become 
useful in the future. The history of science is full of examples sup- 
porting this statement. Our huge electric motor industry grew out 
of the simple discovery by Faraday that when a magnet was moved 
in a loop of wire an electric current was generated in the wire. Why 
should the knowledge of that bare fact have been of much value, 
and why should the public have been impressed at the time ? In fact, 
it was not. Only a few men of science gave it some attention, as 
revealing a new principle — that of electromagnetic induction. Sim- 
ilarly, the oil industry of Texas has been greatly aided by the in- 
telligent combining of many bits of scientific information no one of 
which by itself has much commercial value — such items as undula- 
tions in strata, earth vibrations, soil analyses, and Foraminifera in 
drill-hole samples. 

Although the gathering of facts cannot in itself develop a science, 
yet facts we must have, in infinite number and variety, even though 
they are only the bricks to be used by the builder. The mere multi- 
plication of facts, the piling up of observations closely similar to hun- 
dreds of others, is properly regarded as of less value than the search 
for explanations, principles, and laws. While the layman thinks 
of Major Powell as the intrepid explorer of the Colorado River and 
its Grand Canyon, discovering, even at the risk of death, the wild 
beauty of its scenery and the details of its geologic section, it is 
fitting that geologists should honor him even more for his clear 
exposition of the principles of the base level of stream erosion and 
the antecedent river. 

In view of the fact, already mentioned, that we can seldom foresee 
what utility any scientific fact or principle will eventually have, we 



HUMAN PROSPECTS — BLACKWELDER 273 

cannot afford to neglect any aspect of science. Discoveries in one 
field often release obstructions that have held back progress in other 
branches of science, and thus permit further advances. On the other 
hand, by regimenting scientific work and even opinion, along with 
all other phases of life, for their own immediate purposes, modern 
tyrants are violating this principle. This they can do with some 
measure of success for a short time, but eventually their countries 
will almost surely suffer a degeneration of science, and therefore of 
the civilization which is based upon it. 

Along with the increasing complexity of modern life there has 
grown up an urgent need for the scientific expert. The demand is 
being met by many persons who are real scientists but unfortunately 
by others who do not deserve the name. On that score Dean Roscoe 
Pound lately said in sarcastic vein that "the administrator is not 
appointed to office because he is an expert but he is an expert because 
he has been appointed." We all know of cases that fit this satire, 
but in all seriousness we may trust that they are not numerous and 
that they are decreasing. 

Since the public must depend on its experts, it is essential that it 
should be well justified in placing confidence in them, to the end 
that such respect will endure. That puts a heavy responsibility upon 
the individual expert. As Grover Cleveland once said, "a public 
office is a public trust," no less so should any degree of leadership in 
science be regarded as a public trust; and so the expert scientist is 
under great obligation to deserve the confidence of the public. His 
intellectual honesty will need to be outstanding and unwavering. 
Today, in this country, the scientist has already won such esteem 
to a large degree, although he is compromised and discredited now 
and then by the shortcomings of the less conscientious and careful 
of his colleagues. Unfortunately, too, it is among the latter that the 
most vocal types are apt to appear, and it is they who often attract 
the most public attention. Perhaps it is expecting too much of man, 
as we know him, to hope that a time will some day arrive when our 
most influential leaders will be persons who have the true scientific 
spirit and have been trained expressly for the work they are to do, 
as humble in the face of their own limitations as they are wise and 
honest. 

Many years ago a former president of our Society, R. A. Daly, 
speaking informally as a visitor to one of my classes, advised the 
boys to "think to scale." It would be hard indeed to pack more 
meaning into three words. The person who thinks to scale sees the 
relative value of each fact he uses and of each objective before him. 
He can then economize his time by confining his attention chiefly to 
the important and the significant problems. On that point the wisest 



274 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

of the Roman emperors, Marcus Aurelius, is said to have remarked 
that "Every man is worth just so much as the things are worth to 
which he devotes his earnest efforts." It might be somewhat dis- 
quieting to many of us if we should measure ourselves by that 
principle. 

More than three centuries ago Sir Francis Bacon urged the appli- 
cation of the scientific method, as he then conceived it, to human 
affairs and problems in general, but we are still far short of having 
adopted his advice, although all our experience since his day confirms 
its value. 

The greatest progress has been made thus far in the physical 
sciences and scarcely less in the biological. The scientific method 
and attitude of mind also pervade to a very large degree the related 
professions of engineering and medicine. Engineering and inven- 
tion, based in increasing measure upon science and pursued largely in 
the scientific spirit, have given us nearly all our modern transport 
and communication facilities, our great water control and power de- 
vices, our vast numbers of useful and convenient new materials such 
as rayon, plastics, alloy metals, and other benefits too well known 
and too numerous to mention. But for the application of medical 
science we should be decimated not only by typhoid, tuberculosis, 
and smallpox, but also by yellow fever, cholera, and even the plague. 
Were it not for the deficiency of science in politics, statecraft, and 
ethics we might not find ourselves today threatened by the plague 
of military despotism, wliich is more deadly in its modern form 
than any pestilence. We have used the scientific method in engineer- 
ing and medicine for a century and have found it good — far more 
effective than the old ways of speculation or of trial-and-error. In 
spite of the difficulties involved, why not then extend it to other 
fields ? Is there any reason to suppose it will not bring great improve- 
ment there also ? 

In such fields of study as economics and sociology, the complex 
and fluid nature of the basic data that must be used and the influence 
of human prejudice, which closely touches these subjects, have greatly 
impeded their emergence from speculative philosophy and their rise 
toward the scientific level. In addition they need a more general 
adoption of the scientific attitude and method. Why not apply these 
to human affairs, subdue the emotional considerations, and brush 
away the cherished errors of the past? Then we should be able to 
move more rapidly toward a real understanding of principles, for we 
are justified in believing that such principles do exist. 

In ethics, which is in some respects the most important of all 
subjects of human inquiry, we have made no great progess beyond 
the Greeks of Aristotle's day; and most of them were, except in 



HUMAN PROSPECTS — BLACKWELDER 275 

mathematical studies, philosophers rather than scientists. Even to- 
day the study of human conduct is but slowly emerging from its 
age-long status as an appendage of religion. Would it not bring 
fruitful results to study ethics in the same scientific spirit that 
already pervades such a field of research as physiology? Without a 
firmly based and widely accepted science of ethics, the other natural 
sciences alone may lead us eventually to ruin for want of adequate 
control. Under the direction of the engineer, dynamite is an effective 
aid in construction and promotes industrial progress; but in the 
hands of the criminal it means murder and destruction. The differ- 
ence is only one of ethics. 

To have science flourish, there must be complete freedom of in- 
quiry and discussion. The beneficial influence of such freedom is 
indicated by the extraordinary development of philosophy and the 
sciences among the Greeks in the fourth to the sixth centuries B. C, 
in the Germany of the nineteenth century, and in modern America. 
Scholars properly insist on this necessity and guard their hard- 
earned right to intellectual liberty; nor is this freedom of research 
so firmly held but that it takes a little defending all the while from 
the bigots who would close to discussion certain trends of thought 
of which they chance to disapprove. 

But if the scientist is to deserve and therefore keep his freedom, 
even in a democracy, he should be equally scrupulous about his own 
responsibility to the public. He has no right to claim on the one 
hand immunity from restraint and on the other license to be unre- 
liable. It is the few irresponsible members of our profession who 
endanger our freedom of expression, for it is their words that tend 
to discredit the very science to which they are nominally attached 
and thus bring all science into disrepute. 

One of the best indicators of the scientific maturity of a nation 
is the standing accorded scientists in their own communities. In 
Greece science and philosophy flourished not only because they were 
free, but because they brought honor and even wealth to those who 
distinguished themselves in scholarship. In Germany 40 years ago 
the great scientist, like Helmlioltz, was appointed a Geheimrat and 
on the whole stood higher in the social scale than the banker or the 
industrial magnate. In our own country we are lately beginning 
to appreciate our thinkers, but their value to the world is not widely 
comprehended, nor are we very discriminating in recognizing them. 
We are apt to rate too highly the man who makes a spectacular but 
very definite and easily apprehended discovery, as compared with 
another who slowly develops an idea or principle which in time 
unlocks for us another room of progress. 

430577 — 42 19 



276 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Jefferson, Franklin, and other founders of our American Union 
fully realized that a well-informed people was essential to the suc- 
cess of the republic. Although a lover of freedom, Goethe under- 
stood the difficulty of making a democracy succeed, remarking that 
"the trouble with democracy is that it has to wait for an enlightened 
public opinion." More pessimistic commentators, like Disraeli, were 
confident that the experiment could end only in failure, because they 
believed that even the best popular education that was practically 
attainable would be inadequate. 

A system of education, to be good, must be suited to its time in. 
history. The boys of ancient Persia were taught "to ride and to 
shoot and to speak the truth." In their day, nearly 3,000 years ago, 
that was education enough, but now it would be of little avail, 
although the last item (speak the truth) has eternal value. 

If we were willing to accept the Nazi plan of society we should need 
only a small highly educated upper caste. The rest of the people 
would be given only training and indoctrination. But if we want 
freedom and the so-called democratic way of life, then we need the 
most widespread and effective education that our mental equipment 
will permit. In our own system, a few wise leaders would be help- 
less in the face of a grossly ignorant populace, swayed chiefly by its 
emotions and prejudices. Too often this has been true in democracies 
thus far, and in America it is still a dangerous factor. So I conclude 
that we must have, as soon as we can provide it, far better and more 
extensive education, and a general adoption of the scientific attitude 
of mind. Is that a large order? It surely is — perhaps too much to 
expect — but it may well be the price of our liberty and the survival 
of the American type of civilization. 

Hitler is quoted as having said that no people is capable of govern- 
ing itself or even of planning its own affairs. If the majority of the 
people are to be kept in ignorance, he is doubtless right. As our life 
becomes more complex our problems become more difficult. To solve 
them badly may mean disaster. To solve them well requires adequate 
knowledge and especially clear thinking. Bias and prejudice are lia- 
bilities or handicaps that we cannot well afford and hence should 
try by all means to reduce. If, in a republic, we are to have affairs 
well handled, we must rear millions of capable unbiased persons to 
make those varied problems their life concerns. That, it seems to me, 
demands the scientific attitude of mind and an efficient system of 
education expressly devised for that purpose ; for it is not something 
which we gain by inheritance or in the common experiences of life. 

To insure a well-informed and intelligent people is a most difficult 
task. History affords no good example of such a nation. It is by 



HUMAN PROSPECTS — BLACKWELDER 277 

no means certain that it is even possible. The eugenicists will prop- 
erly assert that their advice must be followed, and no doubt there 
is some hope in their principles and plans; but beyond that it seems 
evident that education is our best chance. It means educating more 
people and educating most of them longer — perhaps continuously 
throughout life. Most important of all, it means educating them far 
more wisely and efficiently. As a scientist I am perhaps biased in 
believing that the most important element in this education is the 
scientific attitude of mind. That does not mean that every person 
must become a scientist, but that he must acquire the habit of think- 
ing as a scientist. It means that the great majority should under- 
stand what science is, what it stands for, and its value to society. 
They should then be able to recognize the true scientist and distin- 
guish him from the sciosophist or the imposter. It will also enhance 
their capacity to judge the merits of their leaders and the general 
issues of the day. 

Having harped at length on the importance of science, I must ask 
you not to misunderstand me as implying that science is all we need. 
It is no panacea for our troubles. Indeed, if we were exclusively 
scientific we should not be human at all. There are other things that 
are also necessary — love, art, imagination, intuition, loyalty, poetry, 
and many others. I merely emphasize the opinion that science is one 
of the most indispensable factors in civilization. We must become 
more scientific and especially more widely scientific. 

To say that one vital function of society is more important than 
another is as pointless as to say that the lungs are more important 
than the heart. We may, however, be sure that effective education is 
one of the indispensable concerns of a free civilized nation. In the 
opinion of Dr. Copeland (1928) "education is incomparably the most 
important function of society." Without it the state could not en- 
dure for even a century, for in no other way can the long, slowly won 
progress of the past be effectively transmitted. Good education is 
one of the greatest means of national advancement. Poor education 
insures the decline of a people and even their disappearance as a 
nation. 

Many of the ablest thinkers in the past, from Plato down to our 
own day, have felt sure that democracy was an unworkable plan. 
Much as I hope that they were mistaken, I should feel constrained to 
agree with them if I did not have some grounds for hoping that we 
can devise and continually improve a process of education adequate 
for the requirements of the country; but it will need to be much 
better than anything we have had thus far. This hope is encouraged 
by the view of so experienced an educator as ex-President Morgan of 



278 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Antioch College, who has said that "results as revolutionary are 
possible in education as in engineering, and they are even more 
necessary." 

Conditions in our schools and even in our colleges and universities 
today are far less satisfactory than they should be in view of our 
acute need of the best education we can provide. As recently 
remarked by Professor Curtis (1939) : 

Even in this so-called scientific age we find, among our high-school, college, and 
university graduates, many who believe nothing definite and have no convictions, 
while many others will believe anything, no matter how fantastic * * * 
there is little difference between many college graduates and those who have 
not gone beyond the eighth grade, insofar as their mental attitudes or judgments 
in the fields of science are concerned. 

This he is inclined to ascribe partly to the fact that many teachers, as 
well as students, have had little or no training in science and partly 
to the type of teaching that is all too prevalent, especially in our 
lower schools. Too much of it is dogmatic, and the student is not 
trained to think for himself. There is far too much emphasis upon 
the learning of facts, on the mistaken supposition that knowledge, 
as distinguished from understanding, is the chief object of schooling. 

Since in order to progress we must constantly improve our educa- 
tion, we shall have to have more teachers, especially better and wiser 
teachers, and teachers who are not only competent to train youth but 
who are allowed to utilize their competence in teaching, under a 
minimum of administrative control. In my opinion no mature 
teacher who needs to be told by a principal or dean how to teach 
deserves to be employed as a teacher. There has grown up in recent 
years a widespread tendency to overstress the importance of teaching 
methods and to give school executives wide powers of direction over 
the daily work of the individual teacher. Such practice overlooks 
the fact that good teaching is a matter of individuality, that the 
teacher to be successful must be a true scholar, and that scholars can- 
not be regimented. Also, our system has always been less effective 
than it should be, because we have left so much of the education of 
our rising generation to relatively inexperienced young persons. This 
seems almost as shortsighted, and in the long run as likely to prove 
disastrous to the Nation, as to leave our military defense largely to 
young recruits. The only apparent advantage to this is that it is 
less expensive than the alternative ; but the cheapest system may prove 
in time to be the least economical. 

At this point it may be asked what results we can fairly expect 
from such improvements in our educational arrangements in the next 
decade or century. The experienced scientist will understand that 
sound improvement in human affairs will come only by evolution and 
after cautious experiments on a small scale rather than by sudden 
revolutionary changes on a large scale. 



ITUIMAN PROSPECTS — BLACKWELDER 279 

One of our greatest dangers lies in the impatience of many people 
to gain great results quickly. This is natural enough, in view of the 
brevity of our individual lives. But it is inconsistent with the prin- 
ciples which govern all life. We are a part of Nature and, however 
much we may seem to influence natural processes, there is every rea- 
son to believe that we are in fact and on the longer view controlled 
by Nature. Wliether we like it or not, slow evolution is Nature's 
way. And so we can hardly hope to elaborate some theoretical new 
scheme of social or economic organization, put it into practice on a 
national or world-wide scale in a few years, and have any reasonable 
prospect of success. Hidden faults and weaknesses are likely to cause 
failure, and that in turn may exhaust for decades even the healthy 
impulse toward improvement. The fascination that these schemes 
have for our youth doubtless has a complex cause, but it may well 
be due in part to th( faulty character of our current education, which 
has not given them t he advantages of the scientific viewpoint. Again, 
as Daly said, they should learn to "think to scale." 

However difficult it may be to forecast future trends more than a 
few years ahead, the geologist can hardly be expected to overlook 
the longer view ; and so I may now raise a few questions about what 
may be in store for humanity in another epoch — not a matter of 
centuries but probably of tens or even hundreds of thousands of years. 

There are many who expect that man will make continuous progress 
toward higher and better things, becoming in the course of time so 
much wiser, more sensible, and reasonable that the world's life will 
be vastly more happy than it has ever been in the past. War, sick- 
ness, and poverty would then be abolished. Cruelty, hate, and in- 
justice would become obsolete, and we should be living in a sort of 
Golden Age the like of which we have never even approached. That 
is a beautiful vision to contemplate, especially in these dark times. 

The lessons of historical paleontology may throw a beam of light 
ahead on this speculation, for of course it is no more than that. As 
we look back over the history of man we find evidence of great cul- 
tural progress since the time of the primitive cave man, who made 
crude stone implements but lived in isolated families competing with 
the wild beasts of the day for such food as could be found or seized. 
He was indeed only one of the beasts, and it is hard to point out 
more than a few respects in which he was superior to them. Did 
the early Stone Age men gradually develop, by slow practice and 
learning, into modern man? We do not know, but there is little 
reason to suppose so. All that we know today of human paleontology 
indicates that what we loosely refer to as man comprised a group 
of at least five and probably eight or more distinct animal species 
which are generally grouped by zoologists in several genera. These 



280 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

may have originated in various parts of the world, each lived many 
tens of thousands of years, and then with one exception all became 
extinct. At certain times two or more such species may have co- 
existed, although probably in different regions. Perhaps they even- 
tually killed off each other, just as the white race in historic times 
has exterminated the Tasmanians and certain other primitive tribes. 
But today only one species survives, and he has apparently had the 
field all to himself since the middle of the last glacial epoch, or about 
30,000-50,000 years ago, according to current estimates. Each of 
these species appears to have been as distinct from the others as 
species and genera of animals usually are. 

There is nothing to indicate that the very primitive Sinanthropus 
made much progress in culture during his long career in China. He 
learned to use fire — probably to make it — and to fashion a few simple 
tools of stone and bone; but that seems to have marked the limit of 
his inventive capacity. For shelter and safety from attack he seems 
to have crept into caves, like many another beast. 

Neanderthal man, generally placed in the genus Homo^ shows evi- 
dence of a distinctly higher culture. He made more varied and better 
tools of chipped flint, of wood, bone, and other materials ready to 
his hand. But with a brain which appears to have been inferior, 
even his long career as a species seems not to have sufficed for him to 
invent pottery, polished or ground stone tools, to learn to domesticate 
and use other animals rather than to hunt them, or to grow crops, 
not to mention building houses or using metals. Apparently he had 
some ideas about spirits and a future life, for he buried his dead 
with some care and placed in their graves some of their ornaments 
and weapons ; but we have no evidence that he developed any art of 
drawing or sculpture, and none of his tools were finely wrought. 
There is evidence of only slight progress during the long age 
through which he lived, and at his best his cultural level was dis- 
tinctly lower than that of the most primitive savages now known to 
anthropologists. 

How these various species of men came into existence is unknown 
and may well remain so. But there is nothing to suggest that their 
origin differed in any way from that of the other mammals. To 
suppose that it did would be gratuitous speculation. Indeed, had it 
not been for the achievements of the latest of these species, the 
Hominidae would never have been entitled to special notice as 
anything more than somewhat peculiar mammals. 

From biological friends whom I have consulted, I learn that they 
are not yet agreed upon the question of how a new species originates. 
In fact there is some difference of opinion as to just what constitutes 
a species, as contrasted with a race, a variety, or even a genus. While 



HUMAN PROSPECTS — BLACKWELDER 281 

waiting for the biologists to work out these problems, we may use 
the term "species" a bit vaguely in its current meaning, and we may 
tentatively adopt the now preponderant view that new species origi- 
nate not by gradual imperceptible changes but by sudden mutations, 
either extensive enough to produce a distinct species at once or 
occurring in series which eventually culminate in full specific status. 

However any new species actually originated, its parental species 
doubtless continued to exist for a time without much change. The 
new kind expanded in numbers and, if more effective, eventually over- 
ran and exterminated the older one. It then went on living without 
important physical change until it was in turn crowded out by more 
efficient animals or until it succumbed to other adverse factors in its 
environment. 

Have we any reason to suppose that Eomo sapiens is not subject to 
the same process or that his fate will not be similar? He differed 
from earlier species of men very slightly in physical form and struc- 
ture. His achievements and the shapes of his crania suggest that he 
possessed, from the outset, not only a larger but probably also a dis- 
tinctly better brain, which has enabled him to learn more extensively, 
to devise complicated languages, and eventually to develop what we 
now call civilization. This progress seems to have gone forward on 
a steadily rising curve. For perhaps 20,000 years Homo sapiens was 
only a savage, a wandering hunter. In the next 5,000 years or more 
he advanced locally to the status of a shepherd and even a village 
farmer. In another 3,000 years he learned to extract and use metals, 
form city states and even nations, and become skillful in many of the 
finer arts. Accelerated advance in the next 1,000 years lead to books, 
commerce, literature, and philosophy. The last century or two has 
witnessed a rapidity of material progress in communication and far- 
flung organization that exceeds anything previously known; and 
with it has come much growth in ideas and in the complexity of eco- 
nomic and social arrangements. Are we justified in assuming from 
the contemplation of that curve that it will continue to rise indefi- 
nitely, and at a similar rate? Is there in all geologic or human his- 
tory any precedent for that? Other animal species of the past have 
followed career curves that involved a rise, culmination, and decline. 
We have seen the same law controlling the nations and even races of 
humanity. Will our own species also reach its climax and then 
deteriorate? And if that happens, how and when will it occur? 
As yet we have but little basis for answers to such questions. 

In contrast to his progress in ways and ideas. Homo sapiens seems 
to have undergone only slight physical changes, even in the estimated 
30,000 years of which some records have come down to us. Anatom- 
ically there seems to be no evidence whatever of any progress — no 



282 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

increase in cranial capacity, probably no appreciable change in brain 
anatomy. In the last 3,000 years, in which some evidence is available, 
there is no sign of any improvement in native intelligence. Man's 
actions are still governed more by his emotions and subconscious 
mental elements than by his intellect. His savage instincts, that we 
like to think began to be conquered thousands of years ago, are still 
present beneath the surface and reappear at unexpected intervals 
even in civilized man. Among the more backward modern races of 
humanity they have scarcely changed. 

In short, our surviving species of Homo^ being one of the mam- 
mals, is probably as definitely limited in his possibilities as are the 
other species of that class. Just as we do not expect a dog to learn 
algebra, although he can learn to open a door, so we probably ought 
not to expect more from present-day man than his brain is capable 
of attaining. As Hawkins (1930), the English paleontologist, sees 
it : "Our mental capacity is a specific character." If this is the truth 
of the matter, it may be over-optimistic to expect our own species to 
rise far above his present stage of mentality. Notable improvement 
along lines already established, and a raising of the other two-thirds 
of the earth's population to or above the level of the present civilized 
minority, may well take place over the centuries and thousands of 
years yet remaining in the expectable future life of this species. 
His contribution to biological progress will then have been made, 
and, if history is to repeat itself, he will then be ready for conquest, 
if not extermination, by some other type of being, perhaps some new 
species of the Hominidae that has more innate capacity for progress. 

Whence may such a higher species originate? Will it be an out- 
growth of the most highly civilized nations of today? The general 
testimony of history suggests the contrary. The ancestral mammals 
did not spring from the most advanced dinosaurs of the Mesozoic 
era. Man and the great apes are traced back, not to the large special- 
ized mammals of Eocene times, but to primitive generalized animals 
related to the humble insectivores. The extraordinarily successful 
Mongol dynasty of the Middle Ages arose not from the cultivated 
Chinese of Nanking, but from a tribe of barbaric nomads of the 
steppes. Likewise the most civilized nations of modern Europe did 
not spring from the Romans of Caesar's day but from the forest bar- 
barians around the Baltic. Perhaps, therefore, the progenitors of 
the newer and better man will appear unnoticed in some remote and 
backward corner of the world, where they can develop in obscurity, 
while the well-known modern races of Homo sapiens contend with 
each other for a transient supremacy. 

Just as it would have been difficult for even a most intelligent 
trilobite to imagine the fish, which was destined to drive him from 



HUMAN PROSPECTS — BLACKWELDER 283 

the scene, so it is not easy for us to forecast the nature and potential- 
ities of that new species of Homo which may appear in the distant 
future, unless indeed our genus itself has by that time run its course 
and it is not destined to oflfer the world anything further. It is of 
little consequence whether such a new species may have smaller 
teeth, a skin less hairy, or taller stature. The only way in which 
he is likely to outstrip Homo sapiens effectively is in the quality of 
his brain. Will he be able to absorb knowledge more rapidly and re- 
member it better? Will his imagination be keener; will he reason 
out his problems more effectively; and, above all, will his life and 
conduct be controlled by his intellect rather than by his feelings? 
If so, he may be able to take knowledge in larger doses, profit more 
by the stored-up experience of others, instead of merely his own, and 
by the lessons of history. He should be far more educable than any 
earlier species in the family. 

It may be objected that these speculations are hardly optimistic, 
that they do not present a hopeful picture, and that they do not neces- 
sarily envisage continued progress toward a far higher and better 
human world. To this I must reply that a scientist is under no 
obligation to be an optimist. His only concern must be to approach 
nearer to the truth. If the truth offers hope, we may rejoice. If it 
fails to do so, we are not thereby justified in denying or even ignoring 
it. As King Solomon long ago advised, let us get understanding, and 
by so doing we may reach a serenity of outlook that will fit us better 
to play a worthy part in the great drama of human evolution. 

REFERENCES 

COPELAND, E. B. 

1928. Natural conduct, Stanford Univ. Press. 
Ctjbtiss, O. F. 

1939. Education by authority or for authority? Are science teachers teach- 
ing science? Science, n.s., vol. 90, pp. 100-101. 
Hawkins, H. L. 

1930. A paleontologist looks at life. Cotteswold Nat. Field Club, Proc, 
vol. 23, p. 219. 

JOEDAN, D. S. 

1924. Science and sciosophy. Science, n.s., vol. 59, pp. 563-569. 



ICELAND, LAND OF FROST AND FIRE ^ 



By ViGFUS EiNABSSON 

Ministry of Industries and Communications, Iceland 



[With 12 plates] 



Remote from all other countries, in the middle of the Atlantic 
Ocean, a stepping stone between the New and Old World, lies Ice- 
land. It is the largest island in Europe after Britain, having an 
area of 40,000 square miles. 

Iceland is a very mountainous country, consisting of basalt lava 
and other volcanic rock, with, however, a large area of lowlands, espe- 
cially in the south and the southwest. Otherwise there is very little 
lowland, except at the heads of the fjords and in the great many 
valleys which stretch from the numerous fjords and bays up into the 
highlands. Except for some rounded hills and shallow depressions, 
the central part of the country is an unbroken plateau, 1,100 to 2,600 
feet high. In the interior, a great deal of the territory, especially 
the higher mountains, is covered with a cap of eternal snow. 

Iceland is the most volcanic country in the world, and is, perhaps, 
most widely known for her volcanoes. Volcanic signs can be seen 
everywhere. Not only the mountains but great plains are covered 
with lava, often like a furious sea which has suddenly become stilled. 
This is something more than a simile, because the lava was once a 
roaring current of boiling rock. Over a hundred eruptions have 
been recorded since the country was first inhabited. In later years, 
however, volcanic eruptions have not been frequent, and most of 
them have taken place in the center of the country far from human 
habitation. 

The most famous of all volcanoes in Iceland is Hekla, a familiar 
name in every country. In former times this mountain was con- 
sidered unmistakable proof of the existence of Hell. For several 
centuries people refrained from climbing Mount Hekla because it 
was believed to be the chimney of the dark abode underneath, but 
during later years it has become quite popular. A return trip to the 



1 Reprinted by permission from the Canadian Geographical Journal, vol. 21, No. 4, 
October 1940. 

285 



286 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

top of Hekla, with a neighboring farm as a starting point, takes 10 
to 12 hours. The view from the top is magnificent and well worth 
the somewhat strenuous trip, which is accomplished partly by the 
aid of ponies. 

In Iceland there are many glaciers under which are volcanic craters 
in various places, as for instance, in the western area of VatnajokuU, 
which, in recent years, has commanded attention on account of vol- 
canic eruptions. A number of Icelandic and foreign scientists have 
climbed the glacier in order to investigate this peculiar phenomenon 
of ice and fire. It is fantastic to visualize these two opposing forces 
in conflict, fire breaking its way through hundreds of feet of solid ice. 

Hot springs and geysers are to be found all over the country, even 
in the rivers, on the sea bed, and under the glaciers. The most 
famous of all the hot springs is the Great Geysir about 80 miles 
from Reykjavik; from it spouting springs all over the world have 
derived their name. After having witnessed an eruption of the 
Great Geysir which lasted for 20 minutes, a Scottish captain re- 
marked : "This power would have sailed half a dozen Queen Mary's 
right across the Atlantic." This unbroken column of scalding water 
and steam that rises from 160 to 180 feet up into the air is impres- 
sive and affords a spectacle never to be forgotten. The internal heat 
of the earth is a tremendous source of power. During recent years 
the Icelanders have been busy harnessing this heat and power. This 
is done chiefly by heating houses, buildings, swimming basins, and 
greenhouses. Not only are a great number of individual farms 
heated by the thermal springs, but certain public buildings as well, 
such as the larger country schools. It is of special interest for the 
traveler to note that many of these country schools are used as hotels 
during the summer season. In these places one can have outdoor 
and indoor swimming in warm water. The houses, in a considerable 
part of Reykjavik, are already heated by the thermal springs near 
the city, and we have reason to hope that a heating system of this 
kind will cover the entire city within a few months. After that no 
chimneys will be built in Reykjavik. The greenhouses, supplied with 
natural heat, are already busy procuring flowers as well as tropical 
fruit. 

There are numerous rivers in Iceland and some of them have great 
volumes of water. Most of the larger ones have their origin under 
the glaciers and are of an opaque grayish color, on account of the 
glacial clay. Others rising from springs are crystal clear. Most of 
the rivers are now spanned with bridges, but one can still imagine 
what it meant to ford them on ponies. 

These huge rivers, rapid and powerful, sometimes run peacefully, 
although with a hidden strength, over fertile plains; sometimes 



ICELAND — EINARSSON 287 

plunge in tremendous falls, thundering on their way, and where the 
rivers drop down from the highlands, magnificent and beautiful 
waterfalls are formed. The most remarkable of these are Dettifoss 
in the north and Gullf oss in the south. 

The water power in the country is enourmous, and year by year it 
is being more and more utilized. At present it is giving light and 
heat to thousands of homes in Iceland. But the rivers in Iceland 
provide another asset ; in a number of them the salmon are abundant, 
as are the trout in the many lakes in different parts of the country. 

The lava fields of Iceland are numerous and extensive, especially 
in the uninhabited part of the country, the most remarkable of these 
being Odaoahraun, the largest lava field in the world. 

Iceland has often been called "the land of contrasts" and it justly 
deserves the name. This is a land where the snow-white caps of the 
mountains cover the intense fire beneath, where you can take a bath 
in hot-spring water out in the open during the severe part of the 
winter; the inhabited valleys and plains are friendly, inviting, and 
charming, the lava deserts desolate, barren and awe-inspiring. Beau- 
tiful lakes and rivers winding through green pastures and fertile 
meadows with their gushing geysers are a sharp contrast to the 
sparkling glaciers, those fields of snow and ice, where no birds sing, 
and where nature is dead and silent except when the wind sweeps 
over the white desert. 

THE CLIMATE 

The name of the country and its geographical situation have given 
rise to the prevalent erroneous ideas about the island. Fortunately, 
however, there is very little similarity between the name and the 
country itself. 

The climate of Iceland is a maritime climate: not particularly 
warm in summer and not very cold in winter. As for the tempera- 
ture, it is interesting to note that the mean temperature in January 
in Keykjavik, the capital, is about 30° F. The mean summer tem- 
perature is 52° F. The mean temperature of the whole year is 39° 
F., which is similar to Quebec. In Reykjavik we very seldom have 
snow, and on the lowlands snow rarely lies for long ; on the mountains, 
however, it lies deep, making ideal conditions for winter sports. 

THE POPULATION 

And now, who are the people who inhabit this "land of frost and 
fire" as Iceland is sometimes called ? 

The people of Iceland are descendants of Scandinavian vikings 
who were full of vitality, eager in exploiting new countries and 



288 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

seeking freedom as Leifur the Lucky, the Icelander who discovered 
America. 

Iceland was colonized mainly by Norse vikings, who wanted to 
throw off the political yoke of Harald the Fairhaired of Norway. 
But a considerable part of the early settlers came from the British 
Isles, principally from Scotland and Ireland. The Icelanders are 
therefore a Scandinavian people with a mixture of Celtic blood. 

Hrafna-Floki was the first viking who intended to settle down in 
Iceland, but he left the country after a short stay, somewhat disap- 
pointed, as due to lack of foresight he gathered no hay for the sheep 
he had brought with him and therefore lost them all. Before he left 
the country he climbed a high mountain and saw a firth full of ice. 
This gave him the idea of giving the country the uninviting and rather 
misleading name it bears. 

In the year 874 the first settler of Iceland, Ingolfur Arnarson, 
landed on the south coast of the country. Three years later he 
built his homestead where Reykjavik now stands. Reykjavik claims 
the distinction of being specially selected by the gods themselves to 
become the leading place of the country. According to the tradition, 
Ingolfur, when he sighted land, threw overboard his high seat pillars, 
declaring that he would settle down where the gods deigned to have 
them driven ashore. After a 3-year search he found them where is 
now the harbor of Reykjavik. 

Sixty years after the settlement of Ingolfur the population was 
about 50,000 ; these self-willed vikings made their homes here, becom- 
ing a nation of farmers and creating their own history and culture. 

In the summer of 930 the people established a code of laws. This 
legislative assembly, the Althing, the oldest parliament in the world, 
used to gather every summer at a place called Thingvellir. 

In the year 1000 the Christian faith was adopted by law. In the 
same year Leifur, called the Lucky, discovered America, which he 
called Vinland. In commemoration of this event, the Congress of 
the United States of America presented Iceland with an impressive 
statue of Leifur the Lucky at the one-thousandth anniversary of the 
Icelandic Parliament in 1930. 

THE LANGUAGE 

Icelandic, the language of Iceland has remained pure and prac- 
tically unchanged since the time when it was the common tongue 
of all northern people. Consequently, it might be called the mother 
tongue of the Scandinavian languages; a great many words in the 
English language are derived from this same source. 



ICELAND — EINARSSON 289 

In Iceland there are no dialects, thanks to the national literature 
the Icelanders created long before any such thing was known in 
other parts of northern Europe. 

Early in the twelfth century the Icelanders began to write their 
laws and the history of their country on parchment, which was 
followed by the writing of the famous Icelandic "Sagas." 

POLITICAL RELATIONS 

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, through changes in 
political relations, Iceland became united first with Norway and later 
with Denmark. 

The loss of political freedom, epidemics, and widespread poverty 
and hardships for many years caused the population to diminish to 
about one-third of what it was at the time of the republic. But 
during the last few decades the Icelandic people seem to have taken 
on new life. In 1918, after a long and strenuous political struggle, 
Iceland became an independent and sovereign state in personal union 
with Denmark through a common king. Since the restoration of 
the power of administration, a steady and far-reaching change has 
taken place in the mode of living and general conditions in the 
country. 

FISHING, AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, TRADE 

The Icelandic nation is one of the smallest nations in the world 
(population about 120,000), but its influence in the world trade is 
felt far beyond what one might expect. 

The greatest factor in Iceland's economic life is the fisheries. The 
sea around the country is enormously rich in fish. There are two 
currents striking the coast of Iceland. A branch of the Gulf Stream 
encompasses the larger part of the coast so that the country is almost 
surrounded by warm water. This is the reason the climate on this 
Arctic island is much milder than one would expect when its geo- 
graphical position is taken into consideration. The other current, 
polar in character, comes from the north and strikes the north and 
east coasts of the country. 

On account of these two currents with their different types of 
marine plant and animal life, the sea around Iceland is rich in the 
growth which is the basis of life for various kinds of fish such as 
cod, saithe, haddock, halibut, herring, and many others. Seals are 
numerous and millions of sea birds breed and make their homes on 
the seashore, on the rocks, and on the many small isles around the 
coast. The most important of these sea birds is the eider duck, from 
the nests of which the eider down is gathered. 



290 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

The Icelandic fisheries are as old as the nation itself. For cen- 
turies the Icelanders used virtually only rowing boats. Later on 
came sailing vessels, which again, in their turn, were replaced by 
steam trawlers, other steamships, and motorboats. Now the fishing 
is run on the most scientific modern lines. 

But it is not only the Icelanders who enrich themselves with the 
abundance of the sea. There are thousands of ships of different 
nationalities fishing around the coast of Iceland. During the winter 
nights some of the fishing banks look like moving towns, light with 
light, ship with ship, all fighting for the cod. But the Icelanders 
are, of course, best situated for these fishing grounds, and indeed 
they exploit them with diligence, being the fourth largest fishing 
nation in Europe. 

Agriculture, second largest occupation of the Icelandic nation has 
undergone a great change although the development has been slower 
than in the fishing industry. Stock raising is largely pursued, the 
qualities of the soil being suited to it. The production of vegetables 
is considerable and increasing. An interesting feature of this occu- 
pation is, as has been stated earlier, the ever increasing use of natural 
heat from the thermal springs for growing all kinds of vegetables, 
fruit, and flowers. The possibilities in this respect are practically 
without limit. 

There is a considerable amount of industry in Iceland, particu- 
larly in connection with the fisheries, and it is increasing rapidly. 

Trade, both at home and with foreign countries, is extensive in 
proportion to the size of the population. The foreign trade is greater 
per person than that of any other country from which statistics are 
available. This is because Iceland has need of a great many products 
for which there are no raw materials in the country. On the other 
hand, the products are somewhat one-sided. The exports consist 
mainly of sea products, such as fresh fish, frozen, salted, and dried 
herring, cod-liver oil, fish meal, and agricultural products such as 
meat, wool, butter, cheese, hides, and skins, and eider down. Manufac- 
tured goods, groceries, and all kinds of cereals have to be imported. In 
Iceland there are no mines, no coal, no salt or oil. These and all kinds 
of machinery must therefore be imported. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Communication is, as may be expected, rather difficult in Iceland. 
The country is mountainous and intersected by great rivers, but the 
population is small. Perhaps the first thing that would strike the 
visitor wanting to travel about in Iceland is the absence of railways. 
There have never been any railways in Iceland, and it is improbable 
that any will ever be built. Nevertheless, roads fit for motor traffic 



ICELAND EINARSSON 291 

total altogether over 3,000 miles with about 330 bridges, of which the 
majority have been built during the last two decades. The roads 
cover most of the populated districts, linking them together across 
highland and mountain passes. Motor roads are also beginning to 
reach up into the highland plateau. Motor vehicles are the chief 
means of transport, and have replaced the horses. But travelers want- 
ing to reach places outside the motor roads have to resort to ponies 
both for riding and transport of goods. The Icelandic ponies are the 
most delightful animals ; they are strong, sure-footed and intelligent. 
As a matter of fact there are a great many who prefer the ponies to 
the motor vehicles, and it is difficult to imagine a more pleasant way 
of spending a holiday than by going with a group of friends on 
horseback through certain parts of Iceland. 

Before the outbreak of the war passenger steamers sailed regularly 
from Iceland to England, Denmark, Norway, and Germany. This is, 
of course, somewhat changed now, and two steamers have been put on 
the Reykjavik-New York route. Iceland hopes for improved com- 
munications with the American countries in the near future and 
wishes to establish a closer cultural and commercial relationship, par- 
ticularly with Canada and the United States. 

Telegraph lines extend over the whole country, and submarine 
cables, as well as a wireless telephone system, link Iceland with the 
rest of the world. 

EDUCATION 

Illiteracy is unknown in Iceland, and the general level of education 
is considered very high. Attendance in school is compulsory for every 
child up to 14 years of age. In towns the school system is not unlike 
what is common in the English speaking countries. But in the 
country, schools have not yet been built in every district, so that in 
some places the teachers have to use the individual homes where the 
children gather. A number of schools for adults have been built in 
the country districts. These schools are preferably erected at the side 
of a hot spring, and are not only heated but are also equipped with 
swimming baths and even steam baths. 

The University is small and a number of students go abroad to 
various European and American countries for special studies. 

The art of writing seems to be a strong inheritance because a com- 
paratively great number of people have shown their talent in this 
respect. Perhaps they are encouraged by the knowledge that if they 
have something to say and say it well, it wiU be read by a whole 
nation, even if a small one. Nowhere are so many books and news- 
papers published yearly in proportion to the size of the population, 
and, in addition, there is imported a great number of foreign books, 

430577—42 20 



292 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

for many people read one or more foreign languages. On the book- 
shelves in the farmsteads may often be seen a selection of world litera- 
ture in the original languages. 

ICELAND AS A TOURIST COUNTRY 

Iceland lies off the beaten track and has therefore not yet been dis- 
covered as a tourist country, except to a very limited extent. But the 
country has great possibilities in this respect. The number of tourists 
visiting Iceland has been increasing steadily in recent years and to 
those who love the open air and the pleasures and recreations afforded 
by nature, Iceland has much to offer. 



Smithsonian Report. 1941. — Einarsson 




1. Many Waterfalls Are Formed Where the Streams from the Lava 
Plateau Plunge Over Its Bounding Escarpment. 

The lava banks show the typical columnar structure formed in many lava flows when they cool. 




2 A Waterfall Formed Where a Stream Drops into a Crack in the Lava 

Plateau. 





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2. Sink-hole Depressions Are Quite Common, Either at the vents of Gey- 
sers Where the Water Wells out or Where Gases Escape from the 
Heated interior. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Einarsson 



PLATE 9 




1. Coastal SCENE IN Iceland. 




2. A Stream in Iceland. 
Note the peculiar pinnacles due to erosion in thu volcanic rock. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941.- Einarsson 




1. Canadian and British Troops in Iceland. 




2. Canadian and British troops in Iceland. 



Smithsonian Report. 1941. — Einarsson 



Plate 1 1 




1. Canadian and British I roops in Iceland. 




2. Canadian and British Troops in Iceland. 




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THE GENES AND THE HOPE OF MANKIND 



By Bruce Bliven 
Editor, The New Reputlic 



Amazing strides have been made in recent years and even months 
in relation to the most fascinating of all scientific riddles — that which 
has to do with the origin and development of life itself. These 
recent achievements would have attracted far more attention than 
they have were it not that the world has been distracted with war 
and politics. Nevertheless it is quite possible that some of the work 
done in the past few years may be remembered for many centuries 
after the political and military leaders of today are gone and for- 
gotten. In some of the great research laboratories of the United 
States I have recently had the privilege of seeing the extraordinary 
achievements in this field that science is now accomplishing. 

It is hard to realize how rapidly progress has been made in rela- 
tion to this subject. It is only since the year 1901 that the Mendelian 
law has been rediscovered after having lain forgotten for more than 
35 years in a paper written by the fat Austrian monk. (It was 
ridiculed, when first published, by some of the leading scientists 
of the day.) It was more than a decade later before the extensive 
usefulness of the tiny banana fly in laboratory experiments was 
fully realized. Only in 1927 did science discover that bombarding 
the individual with X-rays or neutrons could produce a wide variety 
of mutations in the next generation, thus speeding up the evolution- 
ary process a hundred or a thousandfold. Not until 1934 did the 
scientists learn that the giant chromosomes found in the salivary 
glands of this banana fly (Drosophila) could be studied under the 
microscope to great advantage. Finally, only within the last year 
or two have the scientists found out that remarkable things happen 
to plants when they are treated with the miraculous drug called 
colchicine, obtained from the roots of the bitter autumn crocus. 
As a result of aU these things, the doors have swung open on a 

1 This Is the sixth of a series of articles under the general title, "The Men Who Make 
the Future." They are based on interviews with numerous leading American research 
experts who were promised that they would not be quoted by name. Reprinted by per. 
mission from The New Republic, vol. 104, No. 15, April 14, 1941. 

293 



294 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

wonderland of new knowledge, although as yet we have only crossed 
the threshold. 

If justice is done, there will some day be monuments all over the 
world to the banana fly. This tiny, light-colored insect has great 
advantages in the genetics laboratory. It thrives in captivity, pro- 
duces one generation in only 12 days, and each female may have 
several hundred young; thus 2 years of the banana fly are equal 
to 2,000 years of mankind. Its unique giant salivary chromosomes 
seem almost made to order for the research of the scientists. 

One of the first things to impress a layman about the new knowl- 
edge of the geneticists is the similarity of the life principle in plants 
and animals. In the great genetics laboratory of the Carnegie In- 
stitution at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, the other day I saw a 
chart of the genes and chromosomes of the jimsom weed, a favorite 
plant for colchicine experiments. Only across the hall was a similar 
chart for the banana fly. While there were of course differences, 
the similarities were even more apparent. In both cases, the living 
matter consists of cells. In both cases each of these cells contains 
a nucleus equipped with a definite number of chromosomes. In 
both cases these chromosomes are filled with genes. In both cases, 
each gene or group of them supplies a definite characteristic to the 
living organism. It is not too much to say that from the stand- 
point of science plants are only stationary animals, or that animals 
are perambulating plants. 

In order to understand the startling new information which science 
has unearthed regarding all living things, with its searching impli- 
cations for our own social conduct, it is necessary to describe briefly 
the mechanism of birth and growth, as the scientists now understand 
it. For the sake of simplicity, I shall use the human body as my 
illustration, although the process is similar throughout all organic 
matter. 

The body consists of microscopically small cells, each containing 
in its nucleus 48 chromosomes that are very much smaller still. 
Twenty-four of these are contributed by the father and an equal 
number by the mother. (This rule holds good throughout the world 
of plants and animals, although the number of chromosomes differs 
with each species.) The microscopic chromosomes contain the genes 
and these have the clue to the very riddle of life itself. They are 
known to control the growth and development of so many character- 
istics that geneticists believe they probably dictate all growth proc- 
esses. How many different genes there are in a human being no one 
knows; it is believed that Drosophila has about three thousand. 
Man probably possesses at least as many. 



GENES AND MANKIND BLIVEN 295 

Under the microscope the giant salivary chromosomes of Droso- 
phila (100 to 170 times larger than those in other tissues) look some- 
what like tiny snakes with alternate transverse markings of light 
and dark. You must not think, however, that each dark area is one 
gene or even that the genes are concentrated in them. All that the 
scientists are willing to say is that certain genes are associated with 
certain dark areas and that the bands in some sense mark the limits 
within which certain genes are known to lie. There are of course 
many genes in each part of each chromosome. 

There is one important exception to the rule that there are 48 
chromosomes in every human cell. The male sperm and the female 
ovum which meet to start a new life have only 24 chromosomes each. 
They meet and join at the moment of fertilization and the chromo- 
somes which appear in the cells of the offspring come from both 
parents. This meeting of the chromosomes and genes is not a 
matter of mere blind chance. Genes for the same characteristic of 
the individual (color of hair or eyes, pigmentation, etc.) are located 
always in the same chromosomes. (Any one character, such as eye 
color, is not, however, controlled only by genes from a single chromo- 
some.) The genes from both father and mother jointly dictate the 
characteristics of the child. 

As science discovered more than a hundred years ago, there are 
dominant and recessive characters. When they meet, we now know, 
the dominant will win out, as the word itself suggests. In Mendel's 
famous experiment, he crossed a true-breeding form of red peas 
with white ones. Red is dominant; white is recessive. In the next 
generation all the plants had red flowers, but they were carrying 
the white genes none the less. The self-fertilized grandchildren of 
these peas were 25-percent pure red and 25-percent pure white. The 
other 50 percent were red in color, but they, too, carried white genes, 
so that their descendants would not breed true to the dominant red. 

Sometimes characteristics are controlled according to whether 
the organism possesses one gene of a certain type, or a pair of them. 
For example, there are two genes which, when they appear in pairs, 
cause a man to sing bass and a woman to sing soprano. Two other 
genes, in pairs, produce tenors and altos. One gene from each pair, 
together cause baritones and mezzo-sopranos. As Dr. Herluf 
Strandskov has pointed out, the children of a basso and a soprano 
can only sing bass or soprano; a tenor and an alto can have only 
children of those voices. A baritone and a mezzo-soprano is the 
only mating that can hope to produce a quartet ! 

How does a child grow from an almost invisible, microscopic fer- 
tilized Qgg into a 200-pound football player? He grows, and so 
does everything else in nature, by cell division. Did you ever put 



296 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

a bubble pipe in soapsuds and blow until a mass of tiny bubbles rose 
above the surface of the water and almost overflowed the basin ? The 
analogy is inaccurate, but the mental picture you will get is similar 
to what happens in the process of cell division. Each of the 48 
chromosomes in a cell divides by splitting lengthwise into two parts, 
which separate, half of them going to the right, so to speak, and 
the other half to the left. Then the nucleus begins to narrow in 
the middle, into a dumbbell shape, with 48 chromosomes in each end. 
The bar in the middle grows shut; the two ends break off, and we 
have two cells each containing all the chromosomes of the original 
one. This process is repeated; the two cells become four, the four 
become eight, and so on, until their number rises into billions. 

The almost unbelievable work that has recently been done is to 
identify the genes which create certain characteristics of the living 
creature. With enormous patience and countless hours of weary 
industry, the scientists have tracked down the characteristics 
associated with individual genes. (This had been worked out in 
theory some years before it was verified under the microscope 
through experiments in artificial mutation.) In the case of the 
jimson weed, for example, about five hundred new genes have been 
discovered, of which more than seventy have been located in par- 
ticular chromosomes. The scientist can put his finger on the 
chromosome chart of the jimson weed and can say: "At this point 
are found the gene or genes that cause the plant to have a rough 
skin, or to carry tufts, or to be an albino." In the banana fly, simi- 
larly, the scientists know where in the chromosome lie the genes 
associated with certain definite characters such as the color of the 
eye, the size of the wings, bands on the abdomen, and so on. More 
than 500 genes in Drosophila have been definitely located. 

A few years ago it was discovered that carefully controlled bom- 
bardment with X-rays, neutrons, or other radiation would affect the 
genes. Sometimes they are altered or destroyed, sometimes the 
arrangement of the sections of the chromosomes is changed. In a 
state of nature, once in many times the genes are spontaneously 
changed by extreme heat or cold, by old age, or for other reasons. 
When the organism is subjected to X-rays, the process of change is 
enormously speeded up. Large numbers of mutations can be 
detected in the short space of two generations, and the scientists are 
perhaps beginning to see the mechanism of evolution in operation 
before their very eyes. 

The almost incredible fact is that the experts now know in 
advance in a general way what will happen when Drosophila is sub- 
jected to a moderately severe dose of X-ray. Perhaps half the flies 
will be killed. Among the survivors some will have descendants, 



GENES AND MANKIND — BLIVEN 297 

and among these descendants certain types of mutation will appear 
lin definite percentages which the scientists can now predict in 
advance. They can tell you before the baby Drosophilae are born 
(when they are considered in sufficient quantities) about how many 
will have dwarfed wings, or white eyes resulting from lack of 
pigmentation, or other abnormalities. If mankind has ever come 
any nearer than this to usurping the privileges of the Deity, I do not 
know where. 

These changes in characteristics which the scientists create in the 
laboratory will breed true for all time in the future unless affected 
by additional mutation later on. Ten thousand years from now, if 
these DrosopMlae were to continue having descendants that long, 
their remote offspring would still have white eyes or dwarf wings, 
because the genes creating the normal characteristics, colored eyes, or 
large wings, are lacking or altered. To illustrate this with a more 
familiar laboratory animal : you could cut off the tails of 1,000 gen- 
erations of mice and the one-thousand-and-first would have tails as 
long as those of the original ancestors. But destroy the chief long- 
tail-producing genes in a single pair of mice, and their descendants, 
if inbred and selected for taillessness until they are pure for this 
characteristic, will be tailless forever more. 

The action of the genes must certainly be one of the most interest- 
ing mechanisms in the realm of nature. It is hard to believe, yet it 
is increasingly being proved, that almost every hereditary char- 
acteristic of the individual is to be found packed away in these 
microscopic particles. The genes, acting together, seem literally to 
plan the growing organism. Science does not yet know just how 
this is done, or the relation among the genes, the mysterious and 
miraculous glands of internal secretion, and the tissues. It is 
assumed that the genes control the shape that growth takes from 
the beginning of the new life. There are embryonic tissues, called 
by the geneticists "organizers," which evoke specific growth-reactions 
in other embryonic tissues. In the human being each of the glands 
of internal secretion — the pituitary, the thyroids, parathyroids, 
pancreas, adrenals, and gonads — secretes one or more hormones which, 
poured into the blood stream, keep the body functioning. Most of 
them, indeed, are vitally necessary for the maintenance of life itself. 

It staggers the imagination to think of the genes at work 
through the months and years creating every organ of the complex 
electrochemical-physical machine for living that is the body. Either 
directly, or indirectly through the endocrine glands, they bring each 
of the organs to full usefulness at the proper time and in co-ordina- 
tion with each other. Then think of the hundreds of thousands of 
species of animals and plants, in each of which the genes follow the 



298 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

proper and unique pattern of the species, and you begin to have 
some idea of the wonders of this universe. 

When you lift your arm or bend your finger the process is an 
electrochemical one. The nerve impulse from the brain sets up at 
the proper places in the muscles an electrically induced chemical 
alteration. It is possible that the genes do their work in the same 
way ; we do not know. 

Nothing is more mysterious in this whole complex story than that 
the genes, and the tissues and glands which they help to build up, seem 
to work on an elaborate and intricate time schedule. In human 
beings, for example, there are characteristics that do not develop 
until many years have passed. There appear to be "bad" genes, from 
the individual's point of view, which lurk unsuspected for half a cen- 
tury and then cause a man to become bald in just the way his father 
did. Others seemingly wait for decades to produce hereditary blind- 
ness or insanity. A marvelous mechanism is that operated by the 
gonads which brings about the characteristics of adolescence at 13 or 
14, produces hair on the face of the male (in certain races) at 18 or 19, 
and either creates the changes of the menopause in the forties and 
fifties or, by ceasing to function, permits them. There are even pre- 
sumably old-age genes which determine, before you are born, how 
long you will live — if you don't terminate your life prematurely with 
whiskey, a bullet, or a speeding automobile. For longevity, as every- 
one knows, "runs in families," and whatever runs in families, if 
actually inherited, is controlled by the genes. That is to say, the 
tissues and organs of the individual have a gene-determined life cycle 
that will be carried out if other factors do not intervene. 

The miracle of the "time-clock genes" is clearly shown in the case 
of identical twins — twins which arise from a single fertilized egg 
which for some reason divided early in embryonic life to produce two 
human beings with, so far as science knows, the same genes and 
chromosomes. Identical twins develop the same physical character- 
istics, throughout life, at almost exactly the same time. This prin- 
ciple holds even if three, four, or five children have developed from 
a single egg. This is the case with the Dionne quintuplets, who have 
the same genes. 

Let me emphasize again that it is wrong to think of a single gene 
as performing a specified function unaided. It is now believed that 
every gene influences every other, just as all the genes occur in every 
chromosome and there are 48 chromosomes in every cell of the body 
except the sperm and ovum from which the new life will be created. 
There are eye genes in your toe, and toe genes in your eye. Science 
now knows that there are certain groups of genes which are inherited 



GENES AND IVIANKESTD — BLIVEN 299 

together. Often such genes appear to have no logical relation to one 
another, at least in the present state of our understanding. In some 
families of human beings, for example, a given color of hair is asso- 
ciated with the lack of one or more of the incisor teeth. By studying 
family strains it is possible to predict that a child born to certain 
parents, and having hair of a given color, will possess only six or 
seven incisors instead of eight. 

This innocent-sounding fact is likely to prove of the very highest 
practical value to the future of the human race. Many diseases are 
not predominantly hereditary, but others are, and often you can inherit 
a predisposition. Among the hereditary ones are some that are par- 
ticularly terrible in their effects, which nevertheless do not manifest 
themselves until middle life, after the victim has unwittingly married 
and had children to whom he can pass on his taint. An example of 
such a disease is Huntington's chorea, which does not appear until 
the individual is 35 or 40 years of age. Previously he may have been a 
fine physical and mental specimen. When Huntington's chorea strikes, 
he goes to pieces mentally and physically ; his muscles fail ; he sinks 
into hopeless insanity which usually terminates, after a few years, 
in death. 

Medical science knows no way to cure this terrible malady; but 
the knowledge that is coming out of the laboratory gives us the 
hope of a means by which we could stamp it out in only a few gen- 
erations. If linked genes could be discovered that are inherited to- 
gether and transmitted with the disease, latent Huntington's chorea 
could be identified far in advance through other seemingly harm- 
less and unrelated characteristics. No civilized person would marry 
and have children if he knew that such a fate overhung him and 
them. The time may not be far distant when, thanks to the ad- 
vance of science, society can say to such an individual long before 
he reaches the age for fatherhood that it is forbidden to him. Other 
dread diseases, believed to be hereditary, for which there is now 
similar hope are muscular atrophy, which brings death at about the 
age of 20, and hereditary blindness, which may also begin in the 
late teens. 

Opinion is divided among the experts as to whether it is possible 
to inherit a predisposition toward diabetes or whether its seeming 
to "run in families" is due to quite different causes. Whatever 
the scientific explanation, it is desirable that one who may develop 
diabetes should be forewarned and should take the necessary steps 
to safeguard himself by following a hygienic routine of living. 
Science is now prepared, by the study of family histories, to give 
warnings of this sort. 



300 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

These new secrets of the laboratory have resulted in greatly alter- 
ing our concepts of many aspects of our individual and communal 
life. Here are a few : 

1. Geneticists are no longer interested in the old debate as to 
whether environment is more important than heredity. From their 
point of view, both are of tremendous significance. What the or- 
ganism inherits is not so much characteristics as the tendency to 
produce these characteristics provided the environment is favorable — 
a profound new discovery which, if it could be grasped by political 
leaders in all its implications, might well make over our society. 
For example, there is a species of rabbit whose hair is mostly white ; 
but if exposed long enough to low temperature, black hair grows 
out. Pink-flowered hydrangeas can be changed to blue by adding 
iron salts to the soil. Tall corn planted too close together will 
grow only a quarter of its normal size. Yet the offspring of these 
rabbits, hydrangeas, and corn, in a normal environment, will again 
have white fur, pink flowers, and tall stalks. When the hereditary 
influences are strong, those of environment are correspondingly weak, 
and vice versa. 

These changes, however, could not have taken place unless the or- 
ganisms carried the special genes that make them possible. Not 
all rabbits have fur that changes color; there are "Tom Thumb" 
breeds of corn that never grow tall no matter how widely the hills 
are spaced; some flowers remain the same color when fed iron salts. 
In other words, environment can change you, but only on a basis 
of what you originally possess — or lack. It is like the developing 
chemical in the photographer's dark room; it creates nothing, but 
it can bring out what is on the plate. The tragedy of life is that 
we so often discard the plate without ever finding the perhaps rich 
and beautiful picture concealed on it. 

2. For practical purposes, at least, we may assume that almost 
nothing in our biological heritage is transmitted from one generation 
to the next except what is passed on in the genes. This does away at 
one stroke with a multitude of conceptions of the popular mind. It 
is nonsense to suppose, for example, that because a mother before the 
birth of her child receives a fright or sees a snake, the child will be 
"marked," any more than he will be musical or artistic if she goes to 
concerts and galleries. 

3. There is a popular theory that whole families can be subjected 
to continuous decay and degeneration. This might be true under 
very special circumstances, if, for instance, all the good men in a 
community had been killed off in war, or in the case of isolated 
groups where inbreeding would serve to reinforce undesirable strains 
instead of desirable ones. The chances are, however, that when a 



GEISTES AND MANKIND — BLIVEN 301 

family seems to go rapidly downhill from generation to generation, 
it is only partly because of bad heredity. The rest of the story is 
environment — poverty, ignorance, and imitation of their elders driv- 
ing down one crop of children after another. 

Science nowadays looks with deep suspicion on conclusions drawn 
from the famous "degenerate families" such as the Jukes and the 
Kallikaks, with which sociologists regaled us a generation ago. No 
doubt there were some "morbid" genes among the members of 
these families ; but the sociologists made a bad mistake in attributing 
the whole evil record to the genes alone and ignoring environmental 
factors. What chance would even a normal child have had, brought 
up in a household composed largely of drunkards, thieves, and pros- 
titutes ? His family record would be enough to turn the community 
against him from the start. The geneticists of today try to balance 
the evils transmitted by the genes against those caused by imperfect 
surroundings. 

4. Alcoholism, as such, probably cannot be transmitted from par- 
ent to child, though an unstable neural system, predisposing to dip- 
somania, may be. When the son of a drunkard takes to drink, it is 
possible that his genes are involved; but it is also possible and even 
probable, that it is by imitation or in response to a bad environment 
in which the father's alcoholism played a part. Koughly the same 
is true of other human weaknesses — drug addiction, sexual promis- 
cuity, improvidence, love of gambling, habitual lying. 

5. The common belief that the mother's blood circulates through 
the body of the child before birth is now known to be false. The 
two blood streams are separated by the placenta, through which 
nourishment passes by osmosis, which is roughly the way that blot- 
ting paper picks up moisture. Mr. Justice Holmes in a famous 
decision once held that an unborn child is "a part of the mother's 
bowels"; but science has overruled the great Justice. The number 
of abnormal conditions the mother can transmit to the unborn child 
is much smaller than is commonly supposed. She can infect her 
baby with syphilis, but this is not a hereditary form, and responds 
to treatment. She cannot transmit gonorrhea, although she can 
infect the child during birth itself. Until a few years ago, thou- 
sands of children all over the world became blind at birth because 
of venereal infection transmitted in this way. There are a few 
drugs which manage to find their way through the placenta, and it 
is believed, for example, without much reliable evidence, that an 
unborn child may become a cocaine addict. Certainly the child's 
genes can be injured before birth by lead poisoning. But such path- 
ological conditions, at least as between mother and child, are not 
hereditary and can be treated just as postnatal infections are. 



302 ANKTUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

As scientific knowledge improves, we learn more and more about 
inherited susceptibility, or predisposition, toward certain diseases, 
as well as resistances or even immunities. We learn that some types 
of illness formerly supposed to be hereditary are only partially or 
not at all in this category, while in other cases inherited character- 
istics are found to predispose an individual toward a given disease. 
Among those in which inheritance is a definite factor are rheumatic 
fevers in childhood, a few rare types of cancer, color-blindness, a 
number of disorders of the eye, baldness, and albinism. Certain 
sorts of feeble-mindedness are hereditary. The geneticists are in- 
creasingly reluctant to draw a hard and fast line between environ- 
mental and hereditary factors; yet in regard to 10 of the 12 most 
serious diseases, environment on the whole seems more important 
than heredity. 

These recent scientific revelations have enormously altered our 
conception of eugenics. We understand now for tlie first time how 
mutations occur, through destruction or alteration of the genes. 
From the individual's point of view, there are good and bad genes, 
but the good ones enormously outnumber the bad. Since nearly all 
changes in the genes are destructive, and consist in taking something 
away, under the law of averages most mutations are undesirable. 
They produce an organism limited in some respects, in comparison 
with its parent, and therefore probably somewhat less fitted to cope 
with its environment. 

In a state of nature, this does not matter greatly, for it is offset 
by natural selection — the survival of the fittest. Mutations that are 
disadvantageous tend to die out ; good ones help the organism to sur- 
vive and to transmit its desirable "symphony of genes" to the next 
generation. But unfortunately civilization as it has existed for the 
past few centuries tends to reverse this process. We are moving in 
the direction of keeping everyone alive, the unfit as well as the fit, 
and permitting nearly all of them to transmit their genes to their 
children. Many of the leading geneticists of the world believe that 
this process, continued long enough, would so reinforce the morbid 
genes as to bring about the degeneration of the race. 

To say this is not, however, to accept the theories of those who are 
demanding wholesale compulsory sterilization of the unfit. The 
geneticists realize better than the amateur enthusiasts what an 
enormously difiicult and complicated subject this is. They advocate 
sterilization in certain definite cases of proved hereditary feeble- 
mindedness and insanity, partly to put an end to bad genes and partly 
because people of low or unstable intelligence bring up their children 
badly. In other cases of undesirable heredity, the experts recom- 
mend voluntary abstention from parenthood. 



GENES AND MANKIND BLIVEN 303 

Amazing things have been done in only a few generations to per- 
fect plants and animals, and impatient persons often ask why the 
same should not be possible for mankind. It is a legitimate ques- 
tion and the assumed answer holds an exciting promise for the 
future. There is little doubt that if genetic principles could be ap- 
plied to humanity, the average of our population could be brought 
up to the level of our best examples within a few generations. If 
you want a slogan, here it is: "Every man a genius by the year 
2141." 

The difficulty is that somebody would have to decide what are the 
desirable traits, after we had agreed that hereditary feeble-minded- 
ness and insanity are undoubted handicaps. His judgments would 
be subjective, and that is where the trouble comes in. Who is to ac- 
cept the fearful responsibility of saying what are good traits for a 
future society, and what are bad ones? For that matter, who is to 
say what the future society will be like? Will you assume a con- 
tinuance of our present social organization, which seems to require 
large numbers of not-too-bright toilers and soldiers? Or will you 
envisage an ideal state of universal peace and all the heavy work 
done by machines ? 

The overwhelming obstacle is that most human beings today live in 
environments so unsatisfactory that we cannot tell what their genetic 
possibilities are. We know by scientific research that there are 
thousands of geniuses in this country alone who remain swamped by 
poverty and ignorance and never get a chance to demonstrate their 
abilities. Before we can live up to the promise of our genetic future, 
we must remove the shackles which prevent full development of our 
present capabilities. Otherwise, the effort at improvement is like 
trying to carve a statue in the dark. 

The geneticists, on a basis of solid science, hold forth a glorious 
picture of the future of mankind. They tell us that by improving 
our environment and our heredity simultaneously we can in a few 
generations abolish nearly all human afflictions. It is sober truth to 
say that it lies within our power to create a race of superbeings, liv- 
ing in Utopia, and to do so in perhaps the length of time that has 
elapsed since George Washington was born. No more exciting pros- 
pect was ever offered mankind. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS^ 



By Ebnest p. Walker 
Assistant Director, National Zoological Park 



[With 12 plates] 
INTRODUCTION 

Tlie purpose of this article is not to stimulate the keeping of 
animals in captivity, but rather to make more tolerable and, if 
possible, more happy the lives of those that are inevitably to be kept 
in captivity. Most pets are kept because the captor is fond of them. 
Yet in altogether too many instances the animals are not properly 
cared for. The result is often suffering, ill health, or death due 
largely to lack of knowledge on the part of the captor, who would 
gladly provide his pet all it needed if he but knew how. 

Anyone not sufficiently fond of and interested in animals to be 
willing to provide the proper quarters for pets and thereafter give 
them proper and regular care should not attempt to keep them. 



* Animals of many kinds have not yet been successfully kept In captivity, or if they have 
been so kept, the fact is not generally known. Therefore the information now available 
about the best ways of keeping many kinds is necessarily very incomplete. It is hoped 
that readers of this paper who have had experience in the keeping of animals whose needa 
in captivity are little known, will communicate with the author in order that the benefit of 
their experience may be added to his records and so be made available for others who are 
interested in the subject. 

Acknowledgment is made to the following persons for information, assistance, and advice 
in the preparation of this paper : Dr. Carter H. Anthony, veterinarian. National Zoological 
Park ; Mr. Vernon Bailey, retired, chief field naturalist, U. S. Biological Survey (now the 
Fish and Wildlife Service) ; Dr. Doris Cochran, as.sistant curator, Division of Herpetology, 
U. S. National Museum, for examination and considerable work on the reptile and amphib- 
ian sections ; Mr. Malcolm Davis, principal keeper. National Zoological Park ; Dr. Herbert 
Friedmann, curator of birds, U. S. National Museum, for examination of the bird section ; 
Mr. John N. Hamlet, of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service ; Mr. Roy H. Jennier, principal 
keeper. National Zoological Park, who has given consideration to the reptile and amphibian 
sections ; Dr. David Johnson and Dr. Remington Kellogg, of the Division of Mammals, 
U. S. National Museum, for examination of the mammal section ; Mr. Charles E, Kellogg, 
Section of Fur Resources, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service ; Dr. J. E. Shillinger, Section of 
Wild Animal Disease Studies of the same service; and numerous others who have at various 
times supplied me with information which Is incorporated herein. Such a work as this is 
necessarily a composite of information obtained from innumerable sources, all of which 
cannot be specifically credited. 

Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, jr., associate in biology, U. S. National Museum, has painstakingly 
gone over the entire manuscript to review it from both biological and editorial points of 
view. 

305 



306 ANNTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

When man takes wild animals into captivity and endeavors to 
maintain them, he sets up for himself a definite obligation to furnish 
them with the comforts and necessities to which they are accustomed 
in their native state. 

The basis of the entire problem is to view the subject from the stand- 
point of the animal and its requirements. Experience gained in 
handling one animal is often of great value in the handling of related 
kinds, but this is not an infallible guide, as frequently related forms 
will have different feeding habits and requirements. 

Within the scope of such a brief work as this, it is not possible 
to treat in detail each kind of animal ; the most that can be attempted 
is to point out a few of the basic principles that may generally be 
applied, and to cite additional sources of information where further 
details regarding certain groups may be obtained.^ Perhaps it will 
also encourage those who keep live animals to view the subject from 
the broadest possible standpoint, so that they may obtain new informa- 
tion regarding the care and requirements of their captives. 

Fairly satisfactory information can frequently be obtained by cor- 
respondence or personal inquiry from well-informed sources, such as 
the personnel of zoos, museums, biology departments of universities 
and high schools, State and governmental agencies, and local natural- 
ists. 

The work of agencies for the prevention of cruelty to animals is 
to be commended, and well-run zoos and parks cooperate with them. 

Altogether too often animals are kept as exhibits merely to attract 
attention to a business enterprise, and the captor has no real fondness 
for the animal, knowledge of its requirements, or interest in its wel- 
fare. 

Unhappy, sick, or diseased animals are not pleasing pets or attrac- 
tive for exhibition. Therefore, any effort on the part of the captor 
that will keep the animals happy, contented, and in good health, is 
well justified. The more one knows of the conditions under which 
the animal lives in the wild, the better able he will be to plan for its 
welfare. 

It is sometimes said that certain animals cannot be kept in captivity. 
A better way of stating the fact would be that we do not yet know 
enough about the requirements of certain animals to be able to keep 
them successfully. Often certain people have excellent success not 
only in keeping but in breeding animals that others have said could 



* The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C, 
has available for distribution many publications formerly is'sued by the U. S. Biological 
Survey and the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries relating to food habits and care of many different 
kinds of animals, including earthworms and other forms used for bait or food of animals. 

The Bureau of Animal Industry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture has issued many 
publications on the care of domestic stock, including chickens and ducks, that contain 
useful information. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 307 

not be kept in captivity. The sooner we admit that we really know 
very little about the lives and requirements of wild animals, the 
sooner we will be in a frame of mind to learn more about the subject, 
with correspondingly increased success in keeping them. 

The observing, thoughtful person can amplify the sketchy outline 
given herein and find many more foods, methods, and materials use- 
ful in keeping animals. He will realize that the animals in any re- 
gion eat only the plant, animal, or mineral products in their own 
generally restricted ranges. This will suggest many local products 
that are potential foods. 

Adoption of the rule that "the animal is always right" will go far 
toward smoothing the road for both the pet and the owner. We are 
fond of animals because they are animals; therefore they should be 
allowed to live the lives of animals rather than forced to ape our 
lives, actions, and methods. 

GENERAL CARE 

In providing for animals, it is important that we give considera- 
tion to the range of temperature under which they normally live, 
whether their home climate is dry or humid, what kind of food they 
eat, and whether or not they vary their food from season to season 
as many animals do. We should also provide the proper type of 
shelter or nest, meet their requirements as to drinking water, tem- 
perature of water, and know whether or not they need to swim or to 
wallow in dust or mud. These are major necessities; but there are 
many other important details in the life of every captive animal that 
must be heeded if they are to be successfully kept. 

Before obtaining animals,^ persons should endeavor to ascertain 
the proper care for them and be prepared to render such care upon 
the animal's arrival. If specimens are obtained from dealers or 
others who have had them in captivity, it is frequently possible to 
obtain fairly satisfactory information as to their care. In some 
instances irresponsible or poorly informed dealers will give erroneous 
or incomplete instructions. An example of this is the advice given 
by circus vendors to feed anolis, which they sell under the name of 
chameleons, sweetened water. The animals saon die on this diet. 
They eat live insects, and will thrive on flies. 

Obviously man cannot provide animals with exactly the same con- 
ditions they would enjoy in the wild. It is therefore of great im- 
portance that he give very careful heed to providing the substitutes 

' Almost every nation, country, State, and Province has restrictions on the capture, pos- 
session, transportation, and importation of wild animals. Anyone who wishes to obtain 
animals should first familiarize himself with the restrictions of the region in which he 
expects to obtain the animals, and any of the restrictions that may apply to the method of 
transportation contemplated and within the region in which he expects to keep them. 

430577 — i2 21 



308 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

that most closely approximate the conditions and foods they would 
obtain in their natural state, and that he give the animals a sufficient 
variety so that they may select those that are best adapted and 
thereby show the captor the foods and conditions preferred. 

Newly acquired animals are usually much worried, fretted, and 
tired from a trip, and often have not had water or proper food 
en route. The first step in their care is, therefore, to provide them 
with clean, fairly roomy quarters, proper food, water for drinking 
and bathing, and fine sand or dust for cleaning themselves, if they 
use that method. Birds that require grit have usually not received 
it on their trip. A small amount should be given immediately. 
They will take too much if given a large quantity. 

Let them be quiet and undisturbed so they may rest. If they are 
just received from the wild and are to be placed in a collection with, 
or in close proximity to, other animals, it is an excellent plan to 
exercise some quarantine precautions, such as maintaining them in 
quarters well isolated from the main collection, and, at the same 
time, treating them with insect powders and sulfur to remove ex- 
ternal parasites, doctoring serious injuries, and taking any other 
safety measures that may appear necessary. Some animal custodians 
also follow the practice of giving some medical treatment to elimi- 
nate internal parasites, or to at least make observations of feces to 
determine whether or not such parasites do exist. 

The shipping crates or cages in which the animals are received 
should be burned or cleaned and sterilized thoroughly to prevent 
introduction of parasites or disease. 

Too often animals are displayed in the hot sun without an oppor- 
tunity to get into the shade, often without water, and in other 
instances they are exposed to bleak winds without shelter, and with- 
out straw, leaves, or bedding to insulate themselves from cement, 
iron, or board jfloors. Such treatment is inhumane, to say the least. 

Almost all animals have some sort of a home in the wild. In 
some instances it is a burrow deep enough so that there is almost 
no change in temperature in it throughout the year. In others, it 
is a nest made of fibrous material that is good insulation from 
changes in temperature. Wild animals are free to move about and 
choose for themselves the locations and conditions most to their 
liking. This is not possible for captives, so it behooves the captor 
to heed their needs closely, for they cannot talk our language to tell 
us of their wishes and sufferings. 

Sunlight is essential to the welfare of many animals, but like other 
good things, it can be overdone. It is important that cages be placed 
so that the animals can choose whether to be in the sun or in the 
shade. Even a comparatively short period in the direct rays of the 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANEMALS — WALKER 309 

sun is often fatal to snakes and lizards that are inhabitants of 
desert regions and are supposed to enjoy the sun. They regularly 
seek the shade during the hot portion of the day in hot weather; or 
they burrow in the sand or under stones to get out of the intense 
heat. Small den houses become unbearably hot when in the sun. 
Shade should be provided for such enclosures in hot weather. 

Animals that particularly require sunshine frequently develop ill 
health and become unsightly because they do not get enough sunlight 
or ultraviolet rays. This can frequently be remedied by installing 
ultraviolet lamps at the cages so that the animals can go into the 
rays to such extent as they wish. Such rays can be harmful if the 
animal is subjected to them too much. 

Sunlight is not essential or even desirable for certain animals, 
for, being nocturnal, many of them never see the sun, not coming out 
into the open until the sun is set, and going to bed before the sun 
rises. Others live subterranean lives entirely away from the sun- 
light. Presumably such creatures obtain, through their food, the 
materials that are manufactured by other animals in sunlight. 

Developments in air conditioning, refrigeration, and special types 
of lighting now make it fairly easy to provide physical surroundings 
that closely approximate those of the climate in which animals would 
normally live. The big problem is to furnish suitable substitute 
foods. In the wild, some of the animals are what we term "speci- 
alized feeders," that is, they eat but very few kinds of food. At first 
thought such foods may not appear to furnish well-balanced diets. 
However, careful consideration will disclose the fact that their 
limited diet does provide a well-balanced ration for them. Feeding 
these animals is sometimes the most difficult of all problems, and at 
other times it is very simple, depending on whether or not we are 
able to furnish palatable substitute foods that contain the necessary 
constituents. Other animals take a wide variety of foods in the wild, 
a nibble of this and a nibble of that, obviously selecting things that 
are palatable to them and that contain the constituents necessary for 
their well-being. Careful study of the feeding habits of such animals 
in the wild discloses a surprising variety of food consumed. Some- 
times they may eat a limited variety for a short period, but with 
the changes of the season, the diets may be radically changed. In 
some instances, such changes appear to be necessary for physical de- 
velopment and growth. For example, many young birds, such as 
finches and others, are fed insects by their parents, whereas the adults 
eat mainly seeds for most of the year, and insects for only a short 
season. In others, the changes appear to indicate a wide food toler- 
ance that permits the animal to survive under seasonal conditions that 
vary greatly from one time of the year to another. 



310 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

The examination of stomach contents of wild animals, which has 
been carried on so extensively by the United States Biological 
Survey * over a long period, has been of great value in showing what 
North American animals eat. The studies carried on in this manner 
are valuable as guides in the keeping of captive animals. 

One of the most common errors in the feeding of carnivorous ani- 
mals is to give them only choice red meat, on the assumption that 
carnivores limit themselves strictly to such food. On the contrary, 
in many cases when carnivorous animals make a kill, they eat the 
viscera of the prey or drink its blood or eat its brains before they 
will eat any of the red meat. Kecent studies in vitamins reveal that 
the viscera of animals are rich in several vitamins ; liver is especially 
rich, as are other glands of the body. Furthermore, it is probable 
that the digestive fluids in the stomach and intestines, which are 
regularly consumed by the carnivores, are really needed by these 
animals. The fur or feathers and skin of the victims are regularly 
consumed, and are obviously needed as roughage and bulk if they 
serve no other purpose. The bones of the victims are relished in 
many instances and are valuable as a source of minerals such as 
calcium and phosphorus; also, red bone marrow is a valuable food. 
Furthermore, the chewing of bones stimulates the flow of digestive 
fluids and strengthens the teeth and jaws. 

Almost all carnivores will occasionally take plant foods to some 
extent, as witness the cat that will frequently chew grass, apparently 
taking it as a medicine or for the vitamins. Dogs do likewise. Bears, 
other than polars, eat mainly plant products. 

Overfeeding is a frequent cause of animals becoming sluggish or 
excessively fat, and even dying. Care should be taken to give an 
animal only as much as it will clean up fairly promptly at its usual 
time to eat. Surplus food that remains in the cage is likely to spoil 
and poison the animal, and also to attract ants, flies, cockroaches, 
and other pests. 

Nocturnal animals will not, of course, ordinarily take food that 
is given to them in the daytime. Their failure to take it promptly 
should not be construed as indicating that they are not hungry. 
They should be fed in the evening. 

Fur farms are probably the most outstanding examples of progress 
in the care and keeping of wild animals in captivity, for if a fur 
farm is to profit, it must not only be able to keep its animals alive, but it 
must be able to induce them to reproduce prolifically and to be in such 
excellent health that their fur is of superior quality. Furthermore, 



* On July 1, 1940, this organization was consolidated with the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, 
formerly of the Department of Commerce, under the new title of U. S. Fish and WUdlife 
Service, and transferred to the U. S. Department of Interior. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 311 

these conditions must be produced at a minimum of cost. The many 
fur farms in the northern United States, in Canada and Alaska, as 
well as elsewhere in the world, carry on a variety of research work 
looking toward more successful fur farming. Veterinarians have 
been employed who are not merely animal doctors and surgeons, but 
who carry on active research in well-equipped laboratories and make 
many painstaking and accurate observations. Experimental fur 
farms of governmental agencies, such as that operated by the former 
Biological Survey and now carried on by the Fish and Wildlife 
Service at Saratoga Springs, N. Y. ; their rabbit experiment station 
at Fontana, Calif., the Canadian fox experimental station at Sum- 
merside. Prince Edward Island, and others are at work on these 
problems. As a result of these studies by individuals, companies, and 
governmental agencies, a wonderful fund of information about the 
care of fur-bearing animals has been developed. Some of this is avail- 
able in Government or other publications that are cited in the bibliogra- 
phy at the end of this paper. Naturally most of the information 
developed relates to the raising of foxes, minks, muskrats, rabbits, 
chinchillas, coypus, and a few other animals, as these are the 
fur bearers that are commonly raised. However, the researches and 
experiments have so clearly demonstrated the need of many animals 
for vitamins, certain foods, and certain types of treatment and care, 
that the basic principles can well be applied to a much wider variety 
of animals and to man. Research laboratories that have carried on 
experimental work with mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, monkeys, and 
other animals for the purpose of developing information relative to 
medicines, vaccines, serums, foods and food deficiencies, and for other 
purposes, have likewise made outstanding contributions. These were, 
of course, mainly designed to advance the cause of human medicine, 
but their findings should be freely used by persons interested in 
keeping animals in captivity in the best possible condition. 

Various studies have been made to determine the chemical constitu- 
ents necessary for proper diet for animals. These have been carried 
on in various ways and much valuable information has been devel- 
oped. Among the studies is the work of Dr. C. P. Richter, of the 
Psychobiological Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Hospital, who over 
a long period of years has carried on studies, principally with rats, 
in which he has clearly demonstrated the importance of furnishing 
animals with the proper amount of the various food constituents 
needed by them. He has carried on long feeding experiments with 
a great number of rats fed on diets composed entirely of solutions 
of starch, proteins, salts, and other ingredients. On these the ani- 
mals thrived, remained active and in good health, and developed 
good coats. He found that by removing certain of these foods, he 



312 ANIMAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

could induce the evidences of ill healtli that frequently can be recog- 
nized in captive animals. These experiments obviously showed that 
some captive animals do not receive all of the food constituents 
needed by them. In some of his experiments, he supplied the rats 
with what would normally be considered good varied diets, but he 
also offered them the test-tube foods so that they could choose from 
them any ingredient that they might feel they needed. He found 
that they would frequently take certain test-tube food, thereby dem- 
onstrating that the supposedly good general diet they were receiving 
was deficient in certain constituents necessary for their welfare, and 
realizing this lack, they made it up by taking the relatively unpalata- 
ble test-tube material. 

An example of deficiency due to an inadequate diet, and what can 
be accomplished by supplying a suitable diet, is the case of a wood- 
chuck that was in the National Zoological Park. It became almost 
completely naked, and remained so over a period of 2 or 3 years. It 
was fed by Dr. Richter on his chemically complete diet, and at the 
end of 4 months was returned to the Zoo with as good a coat of fur 
as a wild marmot would ordinarily have. This animal, together with 
others of its kind in the National Zoological Park, had been fed with 
what was supposedly a varied, well-balanced diet, but obviously some- 
thing was lacking which prevented its growing good fur. This is a 
clue which should be followed up in the hope that the specific food 
requirement may be found for the growing of hair. It would benefit 
many mammals that have a tendency to become naked in captivity, 
and perhaps some of the birds that suffer from feather loss. Con- 
ceivably it might even be useful to bald-headed men. 

Grooming is an important activity in the lives of animals, and they 
will ordinarily take good care of their coats if they feel well. If 
they fail in this, it may be because of ill health or because they lack 
proper facilities. Some must have water for bathing; others, fine 
sand or dust ; others enjoy a shower bath, and still others need to bathe 
in mud. Large mammals, such as elephants, rhinoceroses, and hogs, 
delight in daily baths of mud or water, which assist them in avoiding 
msect pests and parasites. 

If a mammal does not shed its old fur and keep sleek and well- 
groomed, it is a sign that something is wrong, probably in the diet. 

In addition to correcting the diet, it is well to provide bundles of '■ 
brush in the cage so that the animal can comb out its fur by rubbing 
against it, as it would comb its fur in the wild by going through 
vegetation. 

Human standards of cleanliness should not be the sole factor in 
determining cage arrangements and accessories. Fresh soil and mud 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 313 

with normal bacteria is often of great value to animals, whereas 
human beings are likely to consider it dirty, and therefore objection- 
able, forgetting that the real menace to the health of their pets 
may lie in dangerous bacteria that multiply in food left exposed, or 
in food and drinking dishes not entirely clean. It is well to adopt 
a regular routine of sterilizing the utensils frequently, and, if possible, 
cleaning the cage with disinfecting solutions which are not harmful 
or objectionable to the animals. 

The National Zoological Park is now using a disinfecting and 
cleaning solution made up as follows: Stock solution — 5 gallons of 
6 percent solution of sodium hypochlorite and 18 ounces of caustic 
soda (lye). Dissolve the lye in 1 to 2 gallons of water in enamelware 
or earthern container, then pour lye solution slowly into hypochlorite 
to avoid violent reaction. Stir while pouring. For use add 1 pint of 
stock solution to 2 gallons of water. The stock solution costs only a few 
cents per gallon to make and is very similar to, if not better than, a 
commercial product that sells for about $2 a gallon. This mixture 
is good for disinfecting cement floors, walls, and dishes, but is injuri- 
ous to paint. 

Disinfectants and deodorants should not be confused. In general, 
if cleaning and disinfecting is well done, there is little need for 
deodorants. In some cases, however, a deodorant is desirable to mask 
an odor which cannot be eliminated. For such, use about 4 ounces 
of oil of pine to a gallon of water. This is excellent and is not 
known to be harmful to any animal, unless it be reptiles. Many 
deodorants and disinfecting preparations, such as carbolic acid, 
phenol, creosote, and others, are harmful to animals and should not 
be used. 

There appears to be a widespread but erroneous belief that an 
animal can thrive under a wide range of temperature. As a matter 
of fact, only a few can withstand extremes of heat and cold as great 
as man regularly endures. The majority have some means of avoiding 
extremes. Some migrate. Those that burrow obtain equitable tem- 
peratures in their dens. Others go into caves, hollow trees, masses of 
dead leaves, or other locations where there is good insulation from 
heat and cold. Further, the cavities are usually small so that the 
body heat of the animal is conserved. 

Exercise is important in maintaining the health of most animals 
in captivity, though to provide suitable means for exercising is a 
problem for the ingenuity of the caretaker. He must, of course, know 
something of the type of activity that each animal normally carries 
on. A few suggestions are made. The larger the cage, the more 
likely the animal will be to obtain some exercise by moving about. 



314 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

(Some caretakers maintain that certain parrots do better in small 
cages than in large ones.) If it is a climbing animal, trees, horizontal 
bars, swings, ropes, rings, and poles will all stimulate activity. 
Wooden or rubber balls, or other toys, even dolls, are sometimes useful, 
either as playthings or as companions. Wlieels that will give the 
animal a sense of progress are particularly good. They may be of 
the inclined disk type, or of the ferris wheel type. (See pi. 1.) It is 
also probable that successful exercising devices might be developed 
for the small cats, or other animals of similar size, after the model 
of the endless-belt treadmills, such as were at one time made to utilize 
dog and horse power for man's purposes. 

Some animals that do not thrive in captivity when kept alone do 
very well in groups with others of their kind. An excellent example 
of this is the ani; lone individuals promptly die in captivity, but 
groups of four to six have lived for several years in the National 
Zoological Park under exactly the same treatment as previously given 
single birds. Others thrive when a companion of another kind is with 
them, if one of their own kind is not available. There have been 
numerous odd companionships of this kind, such as the friendship 
between an African rhinoceros and a goat. We have in the Zoo a 
Javan macaque monkey that lovingly fondles its pet guinea pig, and 
IS thus provided with an interest in life. One black-tailed marmoset 
in a cage by itself at the National Zoological Park was gradually 
failing. Presently two other marmosets of a different species were 
put in the cage with it. At first, it was very much afraid of them 
and stayed as far away as possible. After a few days, it gained a 
little courage and would occasionally come near the others, and finally 
it was participating in their play. Thus, the lethargy and so-called 
cage paralysis which had been coming on was averted. This example 
rather definitely suggests that one type of cage paralysis is the result 
of a wasting away of muscles due to inactivity, which can be prevented 
by providing animals with a good-sized cage and inducement to 
exercise. 

When placing animals of the same kind or different kinds together, 
care must be taken to prevent fighting. It is a good plan to keep 
them in adjacent cages so they may see and smell each other for a 
few hours, days, or even weeks, and thus become acquainted. Wlien 
they are first put together, it should be done very quietly and the 
animals should be allowed to make their own approach to each other. 
Careful watch should be kept until it is seen whether or not they 
will get along together. Nocturnal creatures should be watched the 
first night. Many animals have a very definite sense of ownership 
of their homes and resent intrusion by another. It is therefore 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 315 

sometimes desirable to put both animals into a new cage so that 
neither will feel that it is the owner. 

Sometimes animals will get along well together for some time, 
and later begin fighting. Males should usually be removed from a 
cage before a female is to give birth. 

If captive animals are to he successful in rearing their young, it 
is generally essential that the female should have a nest, den, or 
secluded quarters of some kind during the earlier life of the little 
ones. 

Many nocturnal animals are attractive and can become interesting 
pets. Their habit of sleeping during tlie day and being active at 
night is a disadvantage in some instances, and in others, an ad- 
vantage. Some animals can be induced to reverse their days and 
nights by keeping them under a very subdued light during the day- 
time and at night giving them a nest box and flooding their cage 
with bright lights. The daylight can be reduced by filtering it 
through one of the celluloidlike materials sprayed with a blue-black 
lacquer, or blue cellophane. Special arrangements must be provided 
for properly cooling and ventilating the cage. 

The toenails and hoofs of many animals grow rapidly in order to 
be adequate for their function in the wild. It is well to provide 
facilities for such animals to wear down their hoofs or claws. If 
this cannot be accomplished, it is often necessary to trim the nails or 
hoofs. 

Many animals that would normally hibernate ' do not if kept under 
unfavorable conditions. In order to hibernate they must become fat 
and have cool quarters so well insulated against winter weather that 
they will not be subject to freezing. There should be little fluctua- 
tion in temperature and the atmosphere should be definitely moist. 
Animals appear to have a remarkable instinct in this matter, and 
with a few exceptions will refuse to hibernate as long as they do not 
have a snug nest in a well-insulated den; but if supplied with such 
facilities they will promptly go to sleep. Apparently such a period 
of rest is required by many animals if they are to thrive. 

Hibernation appears to be essential to female bears if they are to 
be successful in rearing their young, which are born while the mother 
is in hibernation. Rodents that normally hibernate rarely survive 
the second summer, if not allowed to sleep during the winter. 

Dry leaves, grass, straw, hay, paper, cloth, and many other ma- 
terials may be used for nest material and bedding. While soft tissue 
paper is excellent for small mammals, it sometimes sticks to the wet 



^ The ninth, tenth, and eleventh editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica contain good 
articles on hibernation. 



316 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

newborn young. Sugarcane pulp, a byproduct, is available in bales, 
and is an excellent absorbent and insulating material which can be 
spread on cement, metal, and wooden floors to help keep the cage 
clean and to insulate the animal from the cold cement that is so com- 
monly used in cage floors. This is much better than sawdust, which 
often contains resins that get into the fur or feathers of animals 
and make the animal's coat look dirty and unkempt, or sometimes 
causes actual staining of the coat. Most furry creatures need to have 
fine sand or soil in which to roll to keep their fur clean. This is 
particularly true of the finely furred little desert creatures that ap- 
parently cannot keep their coats in good shape unless they have very 
fine sand constantly available. Slightly moist soil appears to be 
desirable for furry creatures that regularly burrow in moist regions. 

HANDLING ANIMALS 

In handling practically all wild creatures, strategy, gentleness, and 
patience must be exercised. Most wild things will struggle violently 
if forcefully restrained, particularly if they are suddenly seized. 
Often they will dislocate wings or legs, or injure themselves. Until 
the animal has become well accustomed to its captor and is willing to 
submit to him, actual physical handling should be avoided by the 
use of shifting crates or cages, or the placing of a small box over the 
creature so that it will be quiet while the cage is being cleaned or 
other activities are carried on. 

In handling the smaller of the small mammals in the National 
Zoological Park, "telescoping" cardboard nest boxes are provided. 
A hole is made in one end which goes through both of the walls. Wlien 
the animal is in the nest, it is a simple matter to slip a piece of wire 
fabric in front of the hole between the two walls. This provides 
a very effective temporary method of restraining the animal while 
the cage is cleaned or in which to shift the animal to another cage. The 
animal feels perfectly at home in its own nest, and does not fret 
itself or struggle. (See pi. 2, fig. 1.) 

A very effective means of transferring small and medium-sized ani- 
mals from one container to another when the containers are of such 
type that it is difficult to place the entrances opposite each other so 
that the animals can go directly from one to another, is to use a large 
cloth bag of moderate weight, placing the entrance of the cage con- 
taining the animal in the bag, inducing the animal to go into the 
bag, removing the now empty cage, and then placing the bag with 
the animal in it in the new cage and gradually and gently working 
the animal out of the bag into its new quarters. Ring nets, that is, a 
bag or net securely fastened to a ring from 10 inches to 2 feet in 
diameter on the end of a pole, can often be used to excellent advantage 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 317 

in capturing and transferring animals. The use of such a net elimi- 
nates the need of grasping the animal ; and, when yielding materials 
such as cloth are used, the animals do not ordinarily hurt themselves 
by struggling violently. 

Often a slow approach, best accompanied with gentle, slow-spoken 
tones, will reassure the animal, and it can then sometimes be picked 
up without danger of injury to itself or to its captor. 

One should never grab an animal suddenly by the tail, wings, or 
legs. Almost invariably the animal will make a sudden start, and 
the tail feathers of birds may be pulled out or the skin of the tail 
of mammals may be stripped off the bone. If the wings or legs are 
clumsily grabbed, the long bones may be broken or dislocated. 

Wlien animals are to be liberated in a new cage or new enclosure, 
it is good practice to hang burlap or other material that appears as 
a definite obstacle in front of the glass or wire, so that the animal 
enters a place of subdued light and can see that it is enclosed. It 
is then less likely to dash into the glass or wires of the cage or fence. 
The box or shipping crate in which it was transferred to the new 
quarters can often be placed inside the new cage or at the entrance 
of the cage and left there for a time. The animal is thus permitted 
to choose its oAvn opportunity to go into the new quarters, and is 
thus less likely to make a sudden dash and suffer injury. 

When large animals, such as elephants, rhinoceroses, and other 
hoofed animals, are liberated from their shipping or shifting crates 
into their paddocks or cage rooms, it is well to place the crate so 
that they back out of it into the new quarters. This will often 
prevent a sudden charge out of the crate that might result 
disastrously. 

To one not accustomed to working with a wide variety of animals, 
it is inconceivable the number of difficult situations that can arise. 
Animals have an abundance of time, are often energetic, can get 
into many predicaments, some of which may be fatal to themselves, 
or at other times, may be merely annoying or embarrassing to the 
captor. Careful thought will go far toward avoiding such unhappy 
incidents. 

Practically all animals are much quieter when being shipped if 
they are screened from the view of the public. Burlap or other 
more or less porous material placed around or in front of the prin- 
cipal opening of the cage helps to make them feel secluded. Such 
material cannot be used if the animal is able to get its paws or hands 
out through the openings. In this event, small-mesh wire fabric 
through which the captives cannot put their hands or paws should 
be placed before the openings in the case or crate, and then the cloth 
material placed beyond it at a distance of a few inches, so that it 



318 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

will be out of reach of claws or fingers. The cloth can be arranged 
as a curtain so that it can be raised for inspection of the interior 
when necessary. 

FOODS 

Under this heading we might include everything that can be eaten, 
but obviously it is impossible to list all foods that might be available 
or desirable for animals. Therefore, the best that can now be done 
is briefly to list foods that are ordinarily obtainable, or that in general 
must be supplied to meet the requirements of a considerable variety 
of animals. The saying, "What is one man's meat is another man's 
poison" is particularly true of animals. Some thrive on foods that 
would be fatal to others; therefore, if one does not know definitely 
just what a particular animal requires, it is important that careful 
heed be given to determine as nearly as possible what it probably 
eats, and to offer a wide variety within this range, in order that it 
may find among the foods offered something that will serve its pur- 
pose and not be forced to satisfy hunger by eating foods injurious 
to it. In general, very few animals will eat foods that are harmful 
to them if they are supplied with a wide variety. The instances of 
animal deaths from the eating of foods that are harmful are usually 
the result of endeavors to satisfy cravings arising from the lack of 
some necessary element in the food given, but sometimes they may 
be from actual hunger cravings. 

Persons interested in maintaining animals in good condition should 
consider every possible food obtainable in their native haunts. It 
would be ideal to supply a complete array of such material, but 
obviously from the practical standpoint, this is impossible. It be- 
comes necessary, therefore, to offer the animal such food as can be 
obtained. 

In the wild, many animals that are normally supposed to feed 
principally on fruits or other plant life supplement their diet with 
insects or other animal material, and most carnivores do not strictly 
limit themselves to meat. Wliile the quantity of supplementary food 
may be small, it appears to be of great importance, in some cases at 
least. Many rodents should be offered small bits of meat, mealworms, 
or other forms of insect life, and eggs, either fresh or boiled; also 
bones with dried meat on them. This material takes the place of 
the insects, animal carcasses and bones they would find in the wild. 
Carnivores should likewise be offered fruits, vegetables, and bread. 
The rejection of any given food on one or two occasions is not 
necessarily conclusive evidence that the animal will never eat it; 
therefore, it is a good plan to continue offering such food from time 
to time. 

When it becomes necessary to offer animals food to which they are 
unaccustomed, it will frequently be found that they are hesitant about 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 319 

eating it. It may appear that they are not hungry, when in reality 
they are, but lack confidence in the food. For this reason, new food 
should be left long enough for them to become accustomed to it. 
Such unfamiliar food will sometimes be taken only after it has been 
repeatedly offered to an animal. If it is possible to make a gradual 
change in the diet where such change becomes necessary, it is prefer- 
able gradually to reduce the food that the animals have been receiv- 
ing, supplementing with the food that they are expected to consume 
in the future. In the course of any such change, it is important that 
the animal be offered as wide a variety of foods as possible, in order 
that it may make a selection. It is frequently found that animals 
eat and relish foods that experienced so-called animal authorities 
say they will not eat. 

Protein, carbohydrate, and fat should form parts of every diet, 
since these are always present to some degree in every animal cell. 

In general, carnivores have a higher protein requirement than 
herbivores and omnivores. Therefore, lean meat or so'me other pal- 
atable food of high protein content should constitute the major por- 
tion of their diet. Carbohydrates and fat can be utilized by these 
animals, but neither should replace the meat entirely because of the 
essential amino-acids and vitamins contained therein. Carbohydrates 
and fat can be used to supplement exclusively protein diets, though 
the former nutrient is of limited value to most carnivores. Red meat 
or muscle is not the sole source of protein. Tendons, connective tis- 
sue, cartilage, bone, brain, and nerves, as well as the viscera, are 
excellent sources of protein that are frequently wasted. 

Herbivorous animals are able to digest large amounts of roughage. 
The latter should be of good quality in order to insure adequate pro- 
tein, minerals, and vitamins. Small amounts of grain are commonly 
used as a supplement to the roughage. 

Omnivorous animals stand somewhere between the carnivorous and 
herbivorous species as to requirements. Apparently they can utilize 
more carbohydrates than carnivores, and less roughage than 
herbivores. 

Presumably most of the known vitamins required by man are neces- 
sary to most lower animals as well, but perhaps not in the same 
proportions. It is likely that furred and feathered creatures may 
require certain vitamins in greater proportions than mankind, at least 
during the seasons for growing hair and feathers. 

The vitamins ^ known at this time, and a brief summary of infor- 
mation regarding them, are given below. Since vitamin studies have 
been made primarily of foods used by human beings, and evidences 



• Most of the information regarding vitamins has been condensed from the Physicians' 
Vitamin Reference Book issued by the E. R. Squibb Co. and the Nutritional Charts issued 
by the A. J. Heinz Co. 



320 ATsnsnjAL report Smithsonian institution, 1941 

of lack of vitamins are usually expressed as to effects on human be- 
ings or laboratory animals, the statements should be evaluated 
accordingly. 

Vitamin A. — Known to exist in oil from cod, halibut, and certain 
other fishes ; egg yolk, whole eggs, spinach, liver, raw carrots, cheese, 
fresh prunes, squash, butter, sweet potatoes, green lettuce, cream, 
peas, tomatoes, peaches, salmon, bananas, milk, yellow corn, and al- 
falfa, arranged in the order of their richness in this vitamin. In 
vegetables, vitamin A occurs as carotine and is known as provitamin 
A. Lack of the proper supply of this vitamin is evidenced by eye 
and skin defects, possible susceptibility to infections, and retarded 
growth. 

This vitamin can be given to animals in the form of cod liver oil, 
halibut liver oil, and several well-known medicinal concentrates. 
The vitamin A value in cod liver oil is seriously impaired by expos- 
ing the oil to light or heat, or when the oil becomes rancid. It 
should be used sparingly because of injurious effects due to overdos- 
age. Green plants eaten in sufficient quantities will ordinarily sup- 
ply the animal with enough of this vitamin. Apparently all verte- 
brate animals require this vitamin. Pregnant and nursing females 
require unusual quantities. 

Vitamin B^ (thiamin hydrochloride). — Found in yeast, wheat 
germ, rice polishings, whole-grain cereals, peanuts, dried beans, 
liver, milk, nuts, malt, ham, bacon, almonds, spinach, prunes, pars- 
nips, carrots, corn (canned), and greens, in order of the richness of 
their content. 

Deficiencies in this vitamin in man are evidenced by lack or loss 
of appetite, retarded growth of young, and increased nervous excit- 
ability, pains, tremor, and muscular fatigue. 

Can be supplied in cod liA^er oil, halibut liver oil, commercial con- 
centrates, capsules, and drop dosages. Thought to be required by 
all animals, but it is Imown that ruminants manufacture this in their 
digestive tracts. Others of the B group are also manufactured by 
certain animals. 

This compound is readily destroyed by heat and alkalines. 

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin). — Good sources are dried yeast, liver, 
kidney, eggs, meat, wheat germ, spinach, milk, cheese, milk whey, 
turnip greens, carrots, and carrot tops, kale, and cottonseed. 

Deficiency in this vitamin is associated with digestive disturbances, 
retarded growth, reduced lactation, loss of hair and other skin 
troubles, eye diseases, and irritation of the gums and tongue. 

Can be supplied in commercial tablets. 

This compound is destroyed by strong light. 

Nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid amide. — Good sources are dried 
or concentrated yeast, liver, lean meat, kidney, heart, buttermilk. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 321 

cabbage, spinach, wheat germ, salmon, dried whey, eggs, kale, milk, 
peas, potatoes, tomatoes, and turnip greens. Deficiency of this vita- 
min in human beings is associated with soreness of mouth, redness 
and itching of skin, swelling of the tongue, diarrhea, vomiting, 
nausea, loss in weight, indigestion, and nervous disturbances. 

Can be supplied in medicines as tablets and solution for hypodermic 
administration (intramuscularly) . 

Vitamin Be (pyridoxin). — Good sources are dried yeast, liver, rice 
polishings, meat, fish, maize, whole wheat, egg yolk, wheat germ, 
legumes, milk. 

Deficiency of this vitamin in man is associated with retarded 
growth, anemia, and muscular disorders. Can be supplied in cap- 
sules, or solution for intravenous injections. 

Vitamin G (antiscorbutic vitamin, ascorbic acid; cevitamic acid). — 
Found in oranges, lemon and grapefruit juice, raw cabbage, toma- 
toes (fresh or canned) or tomato juice, strawberries, cranberries, 
fresh peas, peaches, apple juice, blueberries, asparagus, canned pine- 
apple, lettuce, broccoli, parsley, brussels sprouts, turnip greens, spin- 
ach, and red and green peppers, in the order of their content. 

Deficiency in supply of this vitamin in man is responsible for 
spongy, bleeding gums, loose, poratic teeth, hemorrhagic tendencies, 
sore and swollen joints, increased capillary fragility, edema, and 
scurvy. Deficiencies more frequently appear in the young than in 
adults. Essential for primates and guinea pigs, but known to be 
synthesized in the body of some animals. In addition to the foods 
listed above, this vitamin can be supplied in the form of cevitamic 
acid tablets. So little is known about vitamin C that anything given 
herein should be considered as suggesting watchfulness and experi- 
mentation. 

Vitamin D (antirachitic factor). — Good sources are fish liver oils, 
butter, egg yolk, irradiated milk, and liver, arranged in the order 
of their richness. 

This vitamin is in such small quantities in human foods that 
deficiencies are usually made up by giving the patient viosterol, cod- 
halibut liver oil, or cod liver oil. Lack of the proper supply of this 
vitamin in man is evidenced by improper development of bones, 
muscular weakness, protruding abdomen, delayed development of 
teeth and dental deformation. No doubt many cases of rickets, cage 
paralysis, and other instances of poor bone development in captive 
animals are the result of deficiency of this vitamin. Animals that 
will eat fish livers might obtain enough from this food. Some zoos 
now regularly use viosterol or halibut or cod liver oils to make up 
the deficiency. 

Vitamin E (antisterility). — Good sources are wheat-germ oil, 
cottonseed oil, lettuce leaves, whole rice, watercress, ^gg yolk, meat, 



322 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

milk, and grains, palm oil, peanuts, and rice oil, arranged in the order 
of their richness. 

Evidence of lack of the vitamin is sterility, placental failure, re- 
tardation of growth, degenerative diseases of nervous system, mus- 
cular weakness, muscular dystrophy, habitual abortion. Enough of 
this vitamin will probably be obtained by most animals that are sup- 
plied with plenty of grain and green food. It is known to be essen- 
tial for dogs and chickens, not essential for goats, sheep, or rabbits. 
Habitual abortions in cattle and pigs have been successfully treated 
with vitamin E preparations. It can be supplied in the form of 
medicine, as wheat-germ oil. 

Vitamin F. — Certain unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, 
were known at one time as vitamin F. There is little evidence to 
justify its use for skin abnormalities when added to the diet or 
when applied externally. The Bureau of Investigation of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association holds much the same opinion. However, 
Weinstein and Glennar state that vitamin F may be of value in some 
diseases of the skin, including allergic eczema. 

Vitamin K (antihemorrhagic). — Good sources are alfalfa, kale, 
spinach, dried carrot tops, tomatoes, chestnuts, soybean oil, and 
certain other vegetables, putrefied fish meal, bran, casein, alfalfa leaf 
meal, hog liver, hemp seed, cabbage, carrot greens, cauliflower, egg 
yolk, rice bran. The sources listed are not necessarily arranged in 
the order of their value, as little is known about the occurrence of 
this vitamin or the amounts necessary for animal welfare. Lack 
of the vitamin results in prolonged coagulation time of blood, and 
anemia. It can be supplied in oil, capsules, and tablets. 

Pantothenic acid (filtrate factor — antidermatitis). — Good sources 
are dried yeast, liver, rice polishings, whole-grain cereals, lean beef, 
egg yolk, milk, peanuts, yeast, molasses, peas, rice bran, salmon, 
wheat bran, wheat germ. Lack of this vitamin is evidenced by corni- 
fied skin, dermatitis, desquamation of skin, granulation of eyelids, 
incrustation of mouth, retarded growth. This vitamin has been 
found essential for the nutrition and growth of chicks, rats, dogs. 

Choline occurs in bran, Qgg yolk, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas, 
sweetbreads, tongue, fish, fruits, grains, meat, milk, root vegetables; 
it is most plentiful in the first eight. Evidence of the lack of this 
vitamin in human beings is impairment of liver and kidney functions, 
hemorrhagic degeneration of the kidneys, regression of thymus, en- 
largement of spleen. It has been found essential for normal satis- 
factory metabolism, lactation, growth, and structural elements in 
body tissues, and is known to prevent fatty livers and "perosis," 
or slipped tendon, in turkeys. 

There is no proved commercial source. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIAIALS — WALKER 323 

Vitamin P. — The "permeability" vitamin (citrin, hesperidin) is a 
factor, other than vitamin C, in paprika and lemon peel. It is 
necessary for normal capillary resistance in guinea pigs. This vita- 
min is present in material (called hesperetin or hespendrii) flavone, 
a colorless crystalline substance. From it are formed numerous yel- 
low dyestuffs, some of which (atrin) have an antiscorbutic vitamin 
influence. 

Vitamin T. — This is a factor present in sesame oil. It is reported 
to produce with regularity an increase in the number of platelets 
in the blood of normal children. A fat, soluble substance not pres- 
ent in cod liver oil or olive oil — therefore not vitamin A ; it has been 
called vitamin T. 

Vitamins A and D are the ones most likely to be lacking in diets. 

Many elements available in minerals are known to be essential 
parts of a properly balanced diet for animals. Calcium, phosphorus, 
sodium, magnesium, chlorine, iodine, potassium, and sulfur are re- 
quired in some quantity. Smaller amounts, or mere traces, are re- 
quired of copper, manganese, cobalt, zinc, iron, and fluorine. 

MEATS 

All animal products will be treated under this heading. 

Beef, horsemeat, chickens, rats, mice, and rabbits are most com- 
monly used. However, almost all meats will be eaten by some animals. 
Wlien the flesh of larger animals such as cattle, horses, sheep, goats, or 
pigs is fed, efforts should be made to feed not only the red meat but 
also the skin, glands, such as the liver, blood, viscera, fat, bones, bone 
marrow, and brains. 

Chickens, pigeons, mice, rats, rabbits, and other small animals 
should be given freshly killed, and whole, if possible. 

Milk is an excellent food, especially for building bones. It is often 
taken by sick animals when other food is refused. Adults in good 
health sometimes take milk alone ; and milk is a good vehicle for giv- 
ing medicines to an animal. Raw eggs can frequently be mixed in 
it to provide very nutritious food for such animals as anteaters, car- 
nivores that are not well, and young animals. Dried skim milk is 
especially useful for travelers. Evaporated milk can be used wher- 
ever raw milk is needed, and need only be diluted with water. 

Chicken and other eggs are excellent foods and can be used raw or 
boiled, alone, or mixed with other foods. 

Cheese and cottage cheese are valuable for supplying the important 
protein of milk. 

Insects are eaten by such great nmnbers of animals that they should 
not be overlooked in providing foods for many different species. 

430577 — 42 22 



324 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

One of the most convenient means of maintaining a supply of in- 
sects is to raise mealworms {Tenebrio Ttiolitor, or Tenebrio ohscurus). 
These are generally fed in the larval or worm state, which is about an 
inch long and y^ inch in diameter. Such larvae are easily raised and 
appear to be almost ideal food. 

In the National Zoological Park, the mealworm cultures are kept 
in deep trays or drawers about 40 inches long, 20 inches from front to 
back, and 8 to 10 inches deep, with metal bottoms and a metal over- 
hang at the top. Bran is put in the drawer to a depth of 3 or 4 inches 
and two layers of burlap are placed on the bran. The culture is occa- 
sionally sprinkled lightly with water to supply moisture, and pieces of 
potato, apple, and various green foods are put into the bran to supple- 
ment the mealworms' diet. 

Because the larvae congregate between the two layers of the burlap, 
it is an easy matter to scoop up quantities of them after raising the 
top layer. It is also possible to separate them from the bran by sifting 
through a coarse mesh screen, allowing the bran wdth the dusty residue 
and small worms and eggs to fall back into the tray. 

Small cultures can be kept in pound coffee cans, or almost any con- 
tainer that has ventilation and will retain the insects. 

Grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets are favorite foods. Wlienever 
they can be captured alive, they afford excellent variety in the diets 
of the many creatures that eat them. It is probable that grasshop- 
pers or crickets could become staple articles of food for many ani- 
mals by arranging for the capture and proper drying of them in 
regions where they are especially plentiful, as for example, in the 
grasshopper-infested regions of the western United States and of 
Africa. Analysis of grasshoppers shows that they are excellent 
food, and cliickens fed on grasshoppers have made good growth.'^ 

Wuxworms and the adult waxmoths {Galleria mellonella) are 
excellent food for small toads, frogs, and many other creatures — 
particularly those that require very soft, tender insect food. They 
are pests of bee culturists and can sometimes be obtained from bee 
raisers. Cultures can be maintained in almost any sort of box or 
container that is tight enough to prevent the insects from escaping 
and that provides some ventilation, such as that given by screen wire 
openings. The waxworms are supplied with old bee comb on which 
they feed. If bee comb is not available, the insects will thrive on 
the following mixture: 1 part of fine corn meal, 2 parts of whole- 



'' Information on the value of grasshoppers as food for animals and methods of capture 
and treatment are to be found in Locusts versus agriculture (pp. 35-37), by Igmieio 
Villamor, published by the Agricultural Service of the Philippine Islands, Manila, P. I., 
1914. This article tells of excellent success in feeding chickens with locusts ; Grasshopper 
control in Indiana, by J. J. Davis, Circ. No. 88, Indiana Agr. Exp. Sta., Lafayette, Ind., 
January 1919 ; Grasshoppers and their control, by J. R. Parker, Farmers Bull, No. 1828, 
U. S. Dep. Agr., Washington, D. C. 



CABB OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 325 

wheat flour, 2 parts skimmed-milk powder, 1 part powdered dried 
yeast, and 2 parts of standard wheat middlings. This should be 
thoroughly mixed. When ready for use, it should be mixed with 
equal parts of honey and glycerine until about the consistency of 
wet sand.^ 

The adults, maggots, and pupae of the common housefly {Musca 
domestica) and the bluebottle or blowfly {Calliphora sp.) are good 
and convenient forms of food for a number of animals. They can 
be caught and raised fairly easily. One method of capturing the 
insects and of starting the cultures is to place in the open, where 
flies can get to it, a conical or pyramidal screen wire cage with a 
small hole in the top plugged with a cork or a piece of paper, and 
with a door on the side that can readily be closed. This is usually 
placed in a pan or tray in which is meat or fish to attract the flies, 
and the door of the cage is left open. The flies enter the cage to lay 
their eggs on the meat or fish. If one desires the adult flies at that time, 
he closes the door and removes the flies by inverting a wide-mouth 
bottle or screen wire bag over the opening in the top of the cage 
after the stopper or paper is removed. Now, by tapping on the 
sides of the cage, the flies can be induced to go upward into the 
jar or screen wire container in which they can then be transported 
to the cage containing the animal that is to be fed. The eggs are 
permitted to hatch into maggots. These feed on the meat or fish, and 
in this stage can be fed to animals, or they can be allowed to pupate 
and permitted to hatch into adult flies, thus maintaining the cycle. 
If there is a layer of sand or sawdust an inch or two in thickness on 
the bottom of the pan on which the meat is placed, the maggots will 
enter this to pupate. The pupae will hatch into adult flies in 6 to 
15 days, depending on the temperature. However, by placing the 
pupae in a refrigerator, hatching can be delayed indefinitely. The 
pupae can be removed from the refrigerator from time to time in 
such numbers as needed, and permitted to become warm, whereupon 
they will hatch into flies that can be supplied to chameleons, aniles, 
and such other creatures as require this food. Shrews and a few 
other mammals, and many birds and some reptiles, will enjoy the 
maggots and pupae when they might not take the flies. 

Cockroaches can often be readily obtained and are freely eaten by 
many animals. Cultures can easily be maintained. 

Earthworms {Lumhricus) are excellent food for many animals, and 
cultures can be kept in rich garden soil in almost any container that 
will prevent the worms from escaping. Earthenware or wooden 
containers are preferable to tin. The soil should be slightly moist 



* This formula was developed by Dr. Mykola H. Hydak and described by him in the 
Ann. Ent. See. Amer., vol. 79, No. 14, pp. 581-588, December 1936. 



326 ANNTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

and the temperature never allowed to go over 75° Fahrenheit. Earth- 
worms may be fed on well-decayed leaves, powdered bread crumbs, 
pieces of boiled potatoes, and crumbled hard-boiled eggs. The orig- 
inal stock can often be obtained by offering boys a small sum of money 
for capturing them. (The yellowish-green earthworms that are about 
manure piles are almost invariably refused by animals. Persons pur- 
chasing worms from boys should make certain that they are not sup- 
plied with worms from such sources.) 

White worms, or enchytrae (Enchytraeus) are from 1 to 2 inches 
long and scarcely larger than threads. They are very good food for 
small fishes and some other small animals, and can be raised in a 
small container such as a granite pan 8 to 10 inches in diameter and 
5 inches deep, filled to a depth of about 31^ inches with good garden 
soil. Moisten the soil occasionally, but do not allow it to be wet. 
Give the worms mashed potatoes, boiled rice, bread soaked in milk, 
and see that all the food is covered with soil. The temperature should 
be maintained between 45° and 70° Fahrenheit. Keep the top of the 
pan covered with a piece of slate or glass to prevent the soil from 
drying. 

Common green frogs {Rana) are excellent food for otters, minks, 
raccoons, herons, and some snakes. They can usually be obtained 
from biological laboratories and supply houses, or local boys will fre- 
quently capture them for a small price. Various sizes can be obtained 
from those just past the tadpole stage to full-grown frogs. They are 
generally readily obtainable from dealers in the southern United 
States. The same type of material, however, is obtainable throughout 
most temperate and tropical regions. 

Tadpoles, the tailed, early stage of frogs and toads, are excellent 
food for some animals and can be obtained at a small price from deal- 
ers, or can be captured in quantities with a dip net in their native 
haunts. 

Toads are almost the exclusive diet of the hog-nosed snake. They 
can be obtained from dealers or captured by local boys. 

Small lizards, particularly anolis, the so-called chameleon of the 
southeastern United States, Cuba, and Central America, are inex- 
pensive and good food for small snakes, such as green and garter 
snakes. The principal food of many snakes consists of smaller snakes 
of their own kind or of related species. 

Minnows and other small fish can usually be obtaine^l locally by 
the use of dip nets or small seines, or they can be purchased from 
dealers. 

Shrimp of various sizes, from the large kinds commonly used for 
human food, down to the minute forms, are excellent food for various 
animals. They can be used either fresh or dried. Large shrimp. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 327 

when used as food for birds that are accustomed to feeding on the very 
small kinds, should be crushed or ground and given in shallow water. 
Dried shrimp can be obtained from dealers in pet foods. 

Crabs, crayfish, and other Crustacea of numerous kinds, including 
lobsters, are eaten by many animals. They can be fed fresh, or the 
dried meat can be soaked or mixed with other foods. Crab scrap, 
the refuse remaining from the commercial packing of crab meat, con- 
tains some meat mixed with a considerable quantity of crab shell. 
This material is used by some zoos with success. It is probable that 
the chitinous material of the shells contains valuable constituents 
necessary for certain animals. In particular, it may assist in keeping 
pink in the plumage of flamingos and roseate spoonbills. This mate- 
rial when fed to such birds must be finely ground and placed in water. 

Fish, canned, dried, or frozen, is extensively used on fur farms and 
is an excellent food for foxes and other fur bearers. The livers of 
some fish are known to be as valuable as cod livers as a source of 
vitamin A. 

PLANT PRODUCTS 

There are probably only a few kinds of plants that do not produce 
material consumed by one or more animals at some time during the 
year, and practically every portion of the plant is used — buds, flowers, 
seeds, seedpods, leaves, twigs, bark, roots, and the various fleshy roots 
and modified underground stems that are rootlike in appearance. Such 
material is generally readily accessible and for the most part can be 
freely offered to animals. If animals generally have had a satisfac- 
torily varied diet and do not have some particular craving due to a 
dietary deficiency that prevents them from using customary good 
judgment, they will rarely eat plant products that are not good for 
them. 

Bananas are perhaps the most universally accepted of all foods. 
Many animals that have never had an opportunity to become 
acquainted with them eat them freely at the first opportunity. Bananas 
should be well ripened, preferably to the point of the skins becoming 
freely marked with brown or black. Most animals do not eat the 
skins, but there is no harm in giving the animal the whole fruit. 

Oranges, prunes, apples, figs, grapes, plums, melons, apricots, and 
practically any fruit that is available will be eaten, fresh or dried, 
by some animals. Raisins are particularly convenient. 

Seeds of a great variety are excellent food, and relished by many 
animals. The seeds most readily available in the United States are 
the common grains — corn (cracked), wheat, oats (whole, crushed, or 
rolled), rye, barley, Kaffir corn, milo maize, hemp, canary, millet, and 
cooked rice. Sunflower seeds are especially enjoyed, but are too rich 



328 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITTJTION, 1941 

and fattening to be the major portion of a diet. Soybean meal, beans 
(cooked) , and other leguminous products are excellent foods. 

Wheat middlings, a byproduct of the manufacture of white flour, 
is largely composed of wheat germ. It is, therefore, an excellent 
material to put into bread and mashes, and to use otherwise. 

Nuts are particularly good food for many animals. Such hard nuts 
as walnuts and hickory nuts, and somewhat softer nuts such as pecans, 
hazel nuts, or filberts, are especially valuable in providing such animals 
as squirrels with a means of wearing down their incisor teeth. How- 
ever, if the teeth have grown to much more than normal length before 
the nuts are given to the animals, it may be impossible for the cutting 
edges to come to bear on the nuts. This will make it necessary to 
cut the teeth to give the animal itself a chance to keep them worn down. 

Acorns, which grow throughout much of the world, are relished by a 
surprisingly wide variety of animals, including squirrels and other 
rodents, skunks, hogs, deer, bears, and many more. 

Peanuts (not only the unroasted nuts, but also the roasted and the 
salted ones) are relished by great numbers of animals. The seeds of 
cherries, peaches, and almonds can be safely offered to animals. 

Germinating grain and the young green grain plant are particularly 
rich in vitamins A and E. Many animals are very fond of this food, 
which can readily be supplied them by germinating the grain in pans 
or boxes containing a little moist earth or sand, or merely with moist 
cotton. A new pan of germinating or growing grain can be placed in 
the cage each day, or as often as is necessary. 

Many waterfowl, particularly geese, normally are grass eaters. 
They therefore relish lawn clippings and some of the common garden 
weeds. A suitable substitute for fresh material of this kind can be 
supplied by slightly soaking bright alfalfa hay and chopping it up 
into short lengths. Chopped hay is especially valuable in the winter, 
when green food is not readily available. 

Alfalfa leaf meal is now available through poultry and livestock 
feed houses. It is an excellent food for many animals that habitually 
eat hay, and for a great many that eat only a small amount of dried 
vegetation. 

Hay of the various leguminous plants (especially alfalfa, clover, soy- 
bean, cowpea, etc.) is particularly high in protein and vitamin A and 
is very nutritious. 

If several different kinds of hay of first-class quality can be obtained 
and offered to the animals, the best results will ordinarily be obtained. 
However, if several different kinds are not available, it is possible to 
do very well with hay that is well cured but which contains a mixture 
of weeds, grass, clover, and other legumes. The refuse left by the 
animals after they have picked through this should be carefully 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — ^WALKER 329 

examined to ascertain what proportion of it is not acceptable to them, 
and if the proportion seems unduly high, efforts should be made to 
obtain a different mixture. 

It is very important that hay should not be moldy or musty, and 
that it does not contain the so-called foxtail and other grasses and 
grasslike plants {Eordeum, Bromus, and others) that have seeds bear- 
ing barbed awns that penetrate the mouths of the animals, causing bad 
sores which frequently lead to serious ulcers, and occasionally permit 
infectious organisms to enter through the injuries. 

The custodian of animals that will eat any green food should be 
constantly alert to obtain the wide variety that is available through- 
out the year. In this category are lawn clippings, comprised mostly 
of grass and clovers, weeds from vacant lots, roadsides, and fields, 
leaves, twigs, and small branches of woody plants. Small branches 
are particularly desirable during the winter, when grass, clover, 
weeds, and leaves are not readily available. It should be borne in 
mind that great numbers of animals browse and make such coarse 
vegetation a considerable portion of their diet. 

Root crops such as beets (red and sugar), sweet potatoes, and yams 
(raw and cooked), carrots, potatoes, parsnips, and others are valuable 
foods and constitute a convenient means of supplying almost all 
animals with fresh green food that they like. 

Cabbage, lettuce, kale, spinach, celery, and other such garden prod- 
ucts are good, and can usually be obtained. 

A food mixture that meets the requirements of many animals is 
composed of chopped vegetables such as beets, carrots, sweet potatoes, 
cabbage, kale, crushed oats, and bread. 

In the Tropics there are many fruits, vegetables, leaves, and stems, 
insects and other animals that are readily available. Such are not 
mentioned herein because few of them can be obtained in the Tem- 
perate Zones where most captive animals are kept. 

Persons who have access to the seacoasts might well try out some 
of the algae (such as the so-called sea lettuce and the coarser kelps) 
as elements in food mixtures calling for green food. This material 
is found in the stomachs of many animals, and the extent to which 
it is taken intentionally is not known. It is known, however, that 
sea lettuce is used by aborigines. The seaweeds are rich in iodine, 
a good preventative of thyroid disturbances. 

Water, fresh, clean, and pure, should with few exceptions always 
be accessible. Various animals in the wild have developed many 
different ways of satisfying their requirements for water. Some 
can and will drink freely from pans of water; others might die for 
lack of water, even when there was plenty in their pans. Certain 
lizards, for example, take water through their skin, and need to be 



330 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

sprinkled occasionally or dipped in water. Some of the little desert 
mammals apparently do not know how to drink water from a con- 
tainer, as they are accustomed to obtaining only occasional drops 
of dew or rainfall from leaves and stems. Their food may be 
sprinkled with a little water so that they can get a few drops at a 
time. Animals that inhabit arid regions usually obtain most of the 
moisture for their systems either by manufacturing it from dry seeds 
they eat, or from the vegetation. In captivity, they will obtain much 
of their required moisture from fresh vegetation, but they should 
also from time to time be offered a wisp of cotton saturated with 
water. They may be supplied with water from a little glass sipping 
tube somewhat like a medicine dropper, with the point bent in U shape 
so that it operates as a fountain, but will give out the water only a 
drop at a time as the animal takes it. 

It is entirely possible that the general lack of success in keeping 
various marine animals in captivity has been due to the failure of the 
captor to supply them with salt water of suitable composition. Some 
are accustomed to living alternately in salt and fresh water a part of 
each year ; others spend their entire lives in either. Some appear to 
require salt water either for drinking or for its healing and curative 
properties. However, many marine animals appear to adapt them- 
selves gradually to fresh water. 

Very satisfactory artificial sea water can be made by dissolving 31^ 
pounds of Turks Island salt in 100 pounds of fresh water. 

Minerals essential for building body tissues will ordinarily be 
obtained from the food if the diet is sufficiently varied and the animals' 
glands are functioning properly. It is, however, often desirable to 
supply calcium in the form of calcium phosphate, ground bone, or 
old dried bones on which the animals may chew. 

Enough iodine can usually be supplied in iodized or rock salt if 
the animal will take it. If not, iodine can be given in organic form, 
or with the feed. 

Salt requirements seem to vary widely. Salt appears to be essen- 
tial to the welfare of cattle, sheep, deer, goats, horses, and rabbits, 
but is rejected by many animals. A safe plan is to offer it to almost 
all, and let them accept or refuse. 

Many prepared foods can be used advantageously, such as some of 
the canned meats and meat mixtures. In addition, zoos and animal 
keepers have developed certain other foods which are listed below, 
together with formulas for two of them. 

Bear bread. — The National Zoological Park uses bread made up in quantities 
of about 200 pounds at a time as follows : 100 pounds of flour, 60 pounds of bran, 
2 pounds of salt, Va pound of yeast, and 1 pound of blackstrap molasses. This 
is thoroughly mixed with water, allowed to rise, and is baked like other breads. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 331 

MockingUrd food. — This is made up by preparing a stoclc food consisting of 5 
parts of zwiebacli, 1 part of crissal (meat meal), V2 part of ant eggs. To this 
stoclf food add as used : hard-boiled eggs, grated carrots, ground hemp seed, and 
cod liver oil. The stock food can be made up in quantities and stored indefinitely. 

Ensilage (silage) has been so extensively and successfully used in 
feeding cattle and other livestock that it might well be tried as a food 
for some of the wild animals kept in captivity, such as bison, antelopes, 
deer, sheep, goats, and others. 

The prepared fish foods are the most convenient and economical 
diet for small aquarium fish that are kept in most homes. 

"Ajit eggs," which are really the dried eggs of termites, are valuable 
food for many insectivorous birds, and are particularly valuable when 
birds of paradise are moulting and growing their new plumage. It is 
entirely possible that these eggs would also be valuable for small 
insectivores. 

Honey is particularly enjoyed by bears. 

SOURCES OF FOOD 

To obtain suitable foods for various animals kept in captivity will 
frequently tax the resourcefulness of the caretaker. It should be 
borne in mind, however, that pet stores and animal dealers generally 
carry some of the unusual types of material required. In addition to 
the markets and stores that sell the usual vegetables, meats, fish, seeds, 
and fruits, bakeries can supply stale bread which is still palatable and 
excellent animal food. Meat-packing plants and abbatoirs can fur- 
nish animal offal, some of which is particularly valuable. In poultry 
markets, the viscera and heads of chickens, turkeys, and other fowl 
can be obtained. Fish livers can often be obtained at fish markets, 
wharves, and canneries. 

Biological supply houses are also usually able to furnish articles 
that are not on the ordinary market, such as frogs, tadpoles, toads, 
snakes, and other wild material. Another means of obtaining food is 
to solicit the help of local boys, who are almost invariably interested 
and willing, for a small consideration, to obtain such material as 
insects, worms, frogs, toads, salamanders, crabs, crayfish, and plants. 
Valuable help can also be obtained from fishermen, hunters, and trap- 
pers, who may be willing to supplement their incomes or to tell one 
where and how to capture material. 

CAGES AND ENCLOSURES 

Animals are so varied in their needs that many different types of 
cages, enclosures, shipping crates, and other devices are needed for 
safekeeping and displaying them under conditions which will main- 
tain them in good health. In general, all devices for restraining 



332 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

animals must be made adequate as to safety, must provide ample 
space for the animals to move about and obtain exercise, and should 
be so constructed as to be easily cleaned. Large enclosures that are 
fenced for retaining such animals as horses, zebras, deer, antelope, 
kangaroos, etc., may be of almost any convenient size, depending on 
the area available. They may be large pastures in which people 
may walk or drive. If the general public is to view the animals from 
outside the enclosure, it is preferable that the enclosures have a depth 
from front to back of from 150 to 200 feet; a greater depth is likely 
to permit the animals to get so far away that the public does not 
obtain a good view of them. The front, w^here the public is to pass, 
may be of any convenient length, but should not be less than 50 
feet for the larger animals. The restraining barriers for enclosures 
of this type can be wire fences, palisades, rock walls, or moats, or 
combinations of any or all of these. The moat treatment requires 
greater ground area, but is particularly effective in that there is no 
obstruction of the view. If the moat is properly constructed, the 
animals can be entirely secure. 

The conventional cage varies from small bird cages made of wire 
or partially of glass, to large cages adequate for gorillas and other 
powerful or dangerous animals. The size and, to some extent, the 
type of material to be used will largely be determined by the kind 
of animal to be enclosed. In general, no cage should be smaller 
than five times the length of the animal, although probably the 
majority of animals are kept in smaller enclosures. Since maximum 
visibility of the animal is particularly desirable, the cage should be 
of strong material of small dimensions so that it will cause the 
minimum obstruction to the visitor's view, at the same time furnish- 
ing adequate security. Glass can be used for many cages. 

In constructing cages side by side, there should either be a solid 
partition between them so that the animals cannot get their toes, 
fingers, arms, or legs through into the adjoining cage where they might 
be bitten or otherwise injured, or, if mesh partitions are used, these 
should be double and far enough apart so that the animals cannot 
reach into the adjoining cage. 

Aquaria and tanks can vary in almost infinite degree, from the 
cans or pans in which small boys frequently and sometimes success- 
fully keep fishes, toads, frogs, and turtles, up to elaborate aquariums 
and large tanks. 

Restraining the animal by means of a collar about the neck or, in 
cases of some monkeys, a belt immediately in front of the hips, or a 
strap on the legs of birds is frequently practiced. Before leaving 
an animal entirely unwatched in the early stages of making it secure 
in this manner, it is well to make certain the animal does not become 
entangled in the chain or leash attached to the collar or belt. Some 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANEVIALS — WALKER 333 

animals regularly become entangled, with the result that they strain 
or injure themselves. Others appear to learn quickly how to avoid 
such troubles. 

When animals are so restrained, it is particularly important that 
the chain be short enough so that it cannot become entangled with 
such objects as pegs in the ground, limbs in trees, crossarms on posts, 
or other obstructions. 

If careful attention is given to choosing species that will not harm 
each other, and sufficient space and suitable conditions are provided, 
very attractive and interesting groups can be maintained. For 
example, in a large cage or outdoor enclosure with pools or other 
natural features, several different species of birds (see pi. 4, fig. 1), 
reptiles, and mammals can be exhibited if properly selected. Large 
cages with many individuals of a single species afford considerable 
activity; and if belligerent individuals are eliminated, such groups 
frequently do well and multiply, if provided with the proper facilities 
for nesting or rearing young. 

Heed should always be given to placing cages, aquaria, or chained 
animals where conditions can be comfortable regardless of the weather 
and without too much dependence on the thoughtfulness of caretakers. 

Modern steel alloys, particularly the so-called stainless steel of the 18 
and 8 group, are exceptionally good material for cage construction, as 
they are very strong and do not corrode under contact with excretions 
and secretions of the animals. The dull finishes are preferable, as they 
are less conspicuous to the eye. Electric welding is particularly desir- 
able in the construction of such cages, as it provides a maximum of 
strength with a minimum bulk of material. The aluminum alloys 
should be avoided, as all that have come to my attention when used for 
making cages have been subject to very rapid corrosion from the ex- 
cretions and secretions of the animals. Wlien in contact with steel, 
this action is still further accelerated. 

In regard to all cage and paddock construction there should con- 
stantly be borne in mind the fact that there must be no sharp projec- 
tions about the cage on which animals can hurt themselves. Ends of 
wires should be carefully bent or otherwise guarded to prevent animals 
from injuring themselves or leaving tufts of hair or fur on them. If 
there is to be more than one animal in an enclosure, it is well to avoid 
having any of the walls come together at angles less than 90°. Angles 
of about 135° are to be preferred as they will provide no narrow cor- 
ners into which one animal can drive another and harm it. The same 
idea should be borne in mind in constructing shelter houses for the 
larger hoofed animals. 

Practically every enclosure should have some kind of a shelter or 
nest box. Houses may be built in the corner of the yards for large 



334 AJilNUAL REPORT S^UTHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

animals, or dens just outside tlie cage with an opening into it, or for 
small creatures, nest boxes placed in the cage. 

It is desirable to provide the most natural type of surroundings 
possible. Well-drained earth, sand, or gravel surfaces for animals 
that are not vigorous diggers should be provided. Burrowing animals 
can often be provided with soil in enclosures having cement or brick 
walls, and bottoms several feet below the ground level. These are 
good for such animals as badgers, skunks, prairie dogs, and many 
others. 

Cement floors are extensively used, but in many respects are very 
bad for animals. It is to be hoped that more resilient, less absorbent, 
less heat-conductive material will be found and generally adopted. 

It is preferable not to ship male deer when they have large antlers, 
but if this cannot be avoided, due heed should be given to providing 
ample protection so that the animal cannot get into situations in which 
it will harm itself, or from which it cannot extricate itself. Never 
ship deer while the antlers are in the velvet if it can possibly be avoided. 

Shipping containers should be carefully constructed to make certain 
that there are no sharp or rough places inside on which the animals 
can injure themselves. Furthermore, there must be no point at which 
the animal can get its hands or feet out through cracks, or it may 
break its legs or strike at other animals or transportation employees. 
The bottoms of crates should be so constructed that they drain quickly, 
and bedding should be provided on the floor. Crates for hoofed 
animals should be provided with shallow cleats or roughened suffi- 
ciently to provide good footing. 

Mangers or other containers for food and water should be so placed 
that they can be refilled by transportation crews with a minimum 
of trouble, and it is important that they be so placed that they can 
readily be removed, cleaned, and put back into place after refilling. 
Full instructions should be placed on the outside of the crate as to 
the care of the animal — that is, as to range of temperature at which 
it should be maintained, whether it is to be kept away from steam 
pipes or must be kept warm, not to leave in the hot sun, the kinds of 
food, quantities, and times it should be fed and watered and, if the 
trip is a long one, full instructions relative to cleaning the cage. Cages 
intended for long trips should be provided with so-called foot boards 
or long, narrow, clean-out doors at the bottom which will permit keep- 
ing the cage clean without allowing the animal to escape. Such doors, 
however, must be so attached that they can readily be unfastened and 
fastened by the caretakers, and so secured that the animal cannot get 
its legs out through them. 

In place of foot boards, a false movable bottom like a very shallow 
drawer can be used for animals that are not heavy or do not stand 
on the floor all the time. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 335 

In general, only a single animal should be placed in a shipping 
crate or compartment in a crate. Often animals that would get 
along nicely together in large quarters under normal quiet sur- 
roundings will fight and injure each other when placed in close 
quarters and subjected to the irritations and excitement of transpor- 
tation. Many entirely unnecessary losses occur by crowding animals 
together under such conditions. If two animals are accustomed to 
being together and they are especially fond of each other, it is some- 
times safe to send them in this manner. A safer way, however, of 
permitting them to have the benefit of companionship and at the 
same time not take risks on their fighting, is to place them in the same 
crate with a partition between. The partition should be of such 
small mesh that the animals cannot get their toes, tails, or ears into 
the adjoining compartment where they might be injured. 

The size of the crate for shipping animals is subject to great 
variation, depending upon the kind of animal and the length of the 
trip. In all cases, however, the crate should be large enough so 
that the animal can take its normal position without being crowded. 
Under no circumstances should the crate be so small that the animal 
must be shoved into it and compelled to hold itself in a strained 
position. It should be unnecessary to mention such a subject, but 
occasionally it is found that animals have actually been shipped 
under such conditions. The larger animals, such as horses, cattle, 
and large antelope, are most often shipped in crates that are slightly 
more than the length of the animals, and suflSciently high so that the 
animal does not injure its head against the top, and but little wider 
than the body so that the animal cannot turn around in it. However, 
if the animal is to go on a long trip, it is desirable that the crate be 
large enough so that it can move about freely. In some instances, 
animals in narrow crates have thrown themselves over backwards, 
landed on their back and been unable to get up. 

Most of the small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and some birds 
regularly take shelter if they have the opportunity to do so. It is 
therefore an excellent plan to provide in the shipping crate a small 
box with appropriate nest material so that the animal can go into it 
and feel secure and sheltered. This greatly facilitates cleaning the 
cage, for the animal will soon learn to stay in the box while the cage 
is being cleaned, or if it does not do this, it is an easy matter to close 
the entrance to the box while such work is being done. Pains should 
be taken to make certain that animals can keep themselves clean and 
dry. This is sometimes accomplished by providing a shelf slightly 
above the floor, on which the animal can repose much of the time, or 
by furnishing a wire-mesh bottom to the cage. Occasionally such 
animals as beavers and other semi aquatic creatures are shipped with 



336 AisnsnjAL report Smithsonian institution, 1941 

water, but without opportunity to dry themselves. This often results 
fatally. 

Exterior handles should be provided on shipping crates so that 
transportation crews will have no difficulty handling the containers. 
Express charges are by weight, so shipping containers should be as 
light as possible consistent with strength and adequate size. 

MEDICAL AND SURGICAL CARE 

In spite of the extensive studies that have been made of human ail- 
ments by the medical and allied professions, much remains to be 
learned about these ailments, and how they should be treated. It 
should be borne in mind that great numbers of people, with vast 
resources at their command, have participated in these studies, and 
their subjects — other human beings — have been able to cooperate with 
the research workers by telling of their ailments and otherwise facili- 
tating the study. With wild animals the problem is radically dif- 
ferent. We must assume that they are subject to more or less the same 
general types of ailments that their human relatives suffer; but, nat- 
urally, every one of the thousands of different kinds of animals has 
its own particular reactions to its own particular ailments. 

Very little has been done in the stud}^ of animal diseases, except as 
to fur-bearing and domesticated species. Because the subjects cannot 
cooperate by describing their symptoms we must assume, for all prac- 
tical purposes, that we know very little about the details of their ail- 
ments, and the precise medical and surgical treatment that should be 
given. This emphasizes the importance of preventive measures to 
keep captive animals fit, rather than depending on medical or surgical 
treatment after ill health has set in. Proper feeding and the preven- 
tion of undue exposure to contagion or injury will go far in helping 
us toward the desired goal. 

Evidences of ill health should be constantly watched for, and any 
unusual condition should be carefully observed. Diarrhea, constipa- 
tion, failure to eat, excessive thirst, dullness of the eyes, unusual 
lethargy, and convulsions are indications that something is wrong. 
Other symptoms, such as purulent discharges from the eyes and nose, 
rapid or labored breathing, ragged or rough-appearing pelage and 
plumage should also be looked for. A trained observer can use these 
various symptoms as guides to the probable nature of the disease. 

A few treatments are now fairly well known, and can usually be 
applied safely by competent veterinarians with fair chances of suc- 
cess. Medicines should ordinarily be given only by veterinarians. 
Sometimes, however, physicians will give advice when a veterinarian 
is not available. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 337 

Struggling with an animal to control it while giving it medical or 
surgical treatment often does more harm than can be offset by the 
treatment. If treatment is essential, care and strategy should be 
used. Animals can be rendered sluggish by giving certain drugs in 
their drinking water. Small creatures can be anesthetized in closed 
containers. Medicine can often be given in food without arousing 
the animal's suspicions. 

The size of the dose of medicine should in general be proportionate 
to the size and weight of the animal; that is, a small animal should 
be given a small dose, and a large animal a large dose. 

So-called cage paralysis probably has numerous causes. Inactivity 
has been mentioned. Rickets is another frequent cause. Proper 
food, sufficient sunlight, and in some cases supplementary feeding of 
ricket-preventing medicines and foods will go far toward obviating 
this condition. 

Occasionally some mammals lose their hair gradually or fairly rap- 
idly and do not grow new coats. A corresponding condition some- 
times exists in birds. The cause of this loss of hair and feathers is 
not definitely known, but in some instances it is caused by deficiency 
in diets, though just what dietary measures can be used to prevent it 
is, in the majority of cases, still uncertain. 

Some birds, particularly parrots, develop the habit of plucking 
their own feathers and eating them, or plucking the feathers of their 
cage mates. Apparently this indicates a dietary deficiency, which 
has been remedied in some cases by giving salt, fat, bones, and meat. 
On other occasions such methods have been without beneficial effect. 

The incisor teeth of rodents in captivity are often found to be so 
long the animal cannot eat. In such cases, it is necessary to cut the 
overgrown teeth to a proper length. These teeth grow continuously 
throughout the life of the animal, and the animal will usually keep 
them worn down if it has plenty of wood, nuts, or other hard mate- 
rials to gnaw. If one of these chiseling teeth is broken, the opposing 
tooth must usually be cut at frequent intervals. 

If animals are kept on cement floors without earth or other mate- 
rial over them, careful watch should be kept for corns on the soles of 
the feet, or actual wearing away of the skin and flesh to the bone. 
(See pL 8, fig. 2.) 

Toenails must sometimes be trimmed. 

It is often desirable to render flying birds flightless so that they 
can be kept on lawns or in large enclosures without wire covers. Here- 
tofore this has generally been accomplished by amputating the ter- 
minal joint of one of the wings. This is a more or less brutal and 
disfiguring method. Another method — eutting one of the flight ten- 
dons — which causes little pain and does not disfigure the bird, was 



338 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

developed and described by Dr. Charles K. Shroeder and Karl R. 
Koch.® Persons attempting to use this method should be certain that 
they sever the proper tendon, for otherwise the birds are not rendered 
flightless. 

In some regions flies {Stomoxys calcitrant) persistently bite the 
ears of dogs, wolves, coyotes, and foxes. If the animals cannot get 
into a dark den away from the insects, it is well to saturate a cloth 
with a mixture of 10 parts kerosene, 1 part pine creosote, 1 part tur- 
pentine, and 1 part oil of murbane, and hang it at such a location that 
the animal will rub its ears on it as it walks about the cage, or spray 
the animal lightly and the cage heavily with this solution, or some 
other that will keep the flies away. Tar put on the edges of the 
ears has a beneficial effect in preventing fly injury. 

Some animal keepers have placed quinine in the drinking water 
of ailing animals even though there was no specific diagnosis to show 
that quinine was desirable. However, there is no evidence that 
quinine is useful in the treatment of animal ailments in general. 
On the contrary, pure palatable drinking water is known to be of 
great value. Therefore, the indiscriminate dosing with quinine is 
mentioned only to discourage the practice. 

Apparently it is essential that the females of some animals eat the 
placenta or afterbirth in order to start their milk flow. Many animals 
do this. 

SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CARE OF ANIIVIALS 

The greatly abridged information that follows relative to the care 
of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, is presented to help 
inexperienced persons in caring for the animals that may fall into 
their hands. The order of arrangement in each of the groups follows 
a more or less widely accepted scheme of scientific classification, each 
group starting with the lowest or least specialized, and going to the 
highest or most specialized. 

In the case of animals that are more or less regularly kept in cap- 
tivity or that are known to have been successfully kept, the instruc- 
tions are specific and very abridged. In the case of those that are 
not known to have been kept in captivity, or only rarely or with poor 
results, information will be given about their known habits in the 
wild in the hope that this may furnish clues to successful handling. 

MONOTEEMES : EGG LAYERS ( MONOTREMATA ) 

ECHIDNAS or SPINY ANTBATERS (Echidnidae). Primitive burrowing, egg- 
laying mammals, inhabitants of Australia and Tasmania. Feed mainly on 



» Journ. Amor. Vet. Med. Assoc, vol. 97, No. 761, pp. 169-170, August 1940. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 339 

insects. Rarely kept in captivity, but one has lived for 38 years in the Phila- 
delphia Zoo on a diet of one rav? egg and one pint of milk daily, with one 
teaspoonful limewater added to the milk. The yolk of the egg is unbroken when 
placed in a shallow dish separate from the milk. 

PLATYPUS or DUCKBILL (Ornithorhynchidae). A primitive egg-laying 
mammal of Australia, now rare in the wild, and almost never kept in cap- 
tivity. Inhabits streams, and burrows in the banks. Feeds on small mollusks 
and probably on water insects. One captured young was kept 4 years on a 
diet of tadpoles, worms, grubs, beetle larvae, duck eggs beaten up and placed 
in a vessel of boiling water until the mixture boiled up like milk, then fed 
in water. The platypus lacks teeth, so apparently needs fine grit with its food. 

marsupials: mostly pouched mammals (MARSUPIALIA) 

OPOSSUMS, MOUSE-OPOSSUMS and WATER OPOSSUMS (Didelphiidae). 
Almost omnivorous. Should be fed on meat, insects, milk, bread, eggs, green 
corn, fruit, vegetables, green leaves, and honey. The smaller kinds are so mouse- 
like in appearance that they are frequently mistaken for rodents, but they have 
sharp-pointed noses and lack gnawing teeth. 

DASYURES (Dasyuridae) . Almost omnivorous animals of varied habits. 
Should be offered meat, insects, eggs, bread, bananas and other fruit, some green 
vegetation, seeds, grain. 

TASMANIAN WOLF (Thylacinidae). Feed meat, supplemented with bread, 
fruit, vegetables, milk, and eggs. 

BANDED ANTEATER ( Myrmecobiidae ) , An insect eater not known to have 
been successfully kept. Try meat, eggs, milk, bread, fruit, and soft or soaked 
seeds. 

BANDICOOTS (Peramelidae), The feeding habits of these marsupials are 
varied and little known, some of the animals being very rare. Offer grass, clover, 
and other green vegetation, hay, seeds, meats, insects, bread, and eggs. 

MARSUPIAL MOLE (Notoryctidae). Mainly insectivorous, but probably also 
eats bulbs and fleshy roots and stems. Offer insects, meat, bread, vegetables, green 
vegetation, seeds soaked in water. 

CAENOLESTES (Caenolestidae). Extremely rare and little-known inhabit- 
ants of Andes. Not known to have been kept in captivity. Try same diet as for 
opossums. 

PHALANGERS (Phalangeridae). This group contains some specialized feeders, 
but most of its members eat fruit, honey, and vegetation. The koala, or Aus- 
tralian bear, eats almost nothing but eucalyptus leaves. The smaller kinds are 
known to eat petals of flowers, flower nectar, and insects. If feeding habits are 
not definitely known, offer wide variety of green vegetation, fruits, bread, in- 
sects, and honey. 

KANGAROOS and WALLABIES (Macropodidae). Give them grass, clover, 
weeds, leaves and twigs of trees, vegetables, grain, hay, bread. 

WOMBATS (Phascolomyidae). Burrowing, herbaceous feeders. Offer vegeta- 
bles, grain, grass, clover, weeds, and hay. 

EDENTATES (Edentata), HAIRY ANTEATERS (Myrmecophagidae). In the 
wild, these animals feed almost exclusively on ants or termites, perhaps supple- 
mented with other small insects. In captivity, individuals sometimes do fairly 
well on a diet of mealworms and raw eggs and milk stirred up together. Will 
not survive chilling. 

SLOTHS (Bradypodidae and Choloepodidae). Tropical inhabitants of trees. 
Leaves, buds, twigs, and fruit furnish almost all of their food. The three-toed 

430577 — 42 23 



340 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Sloth (Bradypus) has not generally been successfully kept in captivity, but the 
two-toed sloth (Choloepus) thrives on a diet of lettuce, bananas, leaves, and 
twigs. They like to go into the water to bathe, but are easily killed by chilling. 
Sloths hang beneath limbs and cannot stand upright. Therefore, they should be 
provided with substantial limbs or vines on which to climb. 

ARMADILLOS (Dasypodidae, Euphractidae, Chlamyphoridae, and Tolypeu- 
tidae). Powerful diggers that feed almost exclusively on insects and perhaps to 
some degree on carrion. Some of them have been very successfully kept when 
fed mealworms, ground meat, eggs, and milk. Some are so nearly toothless as to 
be unable to tear pieces of meat. Armadillos probably thrive best when permitted 
access to the ground, but the walls and bottom of the cage in which they are to 
burrow must be of well-constructed cement. They cannot survive cold weather. 

PANGOLINS (Manidae). Large-scaled inhabitants of Africa and southern I 
Asia. Powerful burrowers. Feed mainly on insects, termites, and ants. Have 
not generally been successfully kept in captivity, although some have done fairly 
well when fed on mealworms, ground meat, milk, and eggs. One very young 
animal thrived in the hands of a sailor for more than a month on a diet of green 
beans that had been chewed by the sailor. It also received some canned milk. 

CLO\'EN-HOOrED ANIMALS ( ARTIOD ACTHTLA ) 

CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, OLD WORLD ANTELOPES (Bovidae). Feed 
grass, clover, weeds, leaves and twigs of trees, chopped vegetables, grain, and 
hay. Keep rock salt constantly before them. 

AMERICAN PRONGHORN ANTELOPE (Antilocapridae). Feed grass, clover, 
alfalfa, weeds, grain, hay, chopped vegetables, and rock salt. Do not generally 
thrive in captivity, especially in the eastern United States, Possibly large en- 
closures and a wide variety of food might give better results in keeping them. 

GIRAFFE and OKAPI (Giraffidae). Browsing animals, but giraffe are suc- 
cessfully kept on a diet mainly of hay, chopped vegetables, grain, green vegeta- 
tion, and rock salt. The few okapies that have been taken into captivity have 
been fed a wide variety of green vegetation, hay, grain, and vegetables. Probably 
require salt. 

DEER, ELK, MOOSE (Cervidae). Feed grass, clover, weeds, leaves and twigs 
of trees and shrubs, hay, grain, chopped vegetables, and rock salt. Moose (Alces) 
forage extensively in swamps and stream bottoms, consuming lily roots and 
leaves, grasses, leaves, and twigs. Have not generally done well in captivity. 
Caribou and reindeer (Rangifer) do not require the so-called reindeer mosses 
(lichens, Oladoivia), although they of necessity feed on them extensively on j 
their northern ranges. " 

MOUSE DEER, WATER DEER OR CHEVROTAIN (Tragulidae). Feed grass, 
clover, weeds, leaves and twigs of trees and shrubs, hay, grain, chopped vege- 
tables, and rock salt. Keep warm. 

CAMELS and LLAMAS (Camelidae). Feed green vegetation, chopped vege- 
tables, hay, grain, and rock salt. 

HOGS and PIGS (Suidae). Feed chopped vegetables, grain, grass, weeds, 
leaves and twigs of trees, acorns and other soft nuts, meat, and bread. Some 
must be kept warm. 

PECCARIES, (Tayassuidae). Same care as hogs. 

HIPPOPOTAMI and PIGMY HIPPOPOTAMI (Hippopotamidae). Feed grass, 
clover, weeds, hay, and a mixture of chopped vegetables and grain. 



CARE OF C-\PTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 341 

ODD-TOED HOOFED ANIMALS ( PERISSODACTTLA ) 

HORSES, ZEBRAS, and ASSES (Equidae). Feed grass, clover, weeds, leaves 
and twigs of trees, chopped vegetables with grain, hay, and rock salt. 

TAPIRS (Tapiridae). Feed wide assortment of green vegetation, chopped vege- 
tables with grain, hay, and salt. Tropical animals ; require warmth, but some indi- 
viduals have thrived outdoors in northern climates. Give them a good-sized pool 
of warm water. 

RHINOCEROSES (Rhinocerotidae). Grazers and browsers in the wild. Feed 
wide assortment of green vegetation, hay, chopped vegetables, grain, and rock 
salt. They enjoy mud wallow or shower. Avoid chilling. 

ELEPHANTS (PROBOSCIDEA) 

ELEPHANTS (Elephantidae). Feed wide variety of green vegetation, hay, 
bread, vegetables, grain, and salt. Will survive moderate cold. 

HTRACES (HTRACOIDEA) 

HYRACES or OLD WORLD CONIES (Procaviidae). Small creatures sup- 
posedly related to the elephants. One group lives in trees, the others live 
mainly around cliffs and rocks. Feed grass, clover, leaves and twigs of trees, hay, 
chopped vegetables, grain. 

SIBENIANS (SIRENIA) 

SIRENIANS or SEA COWS, MANATEE (Trichechidae) and DUGONG (Du- 
gongidae). Marine inhabitants of tropical seas, feed on marine and brackish- 
water vegetation. Offer lettuce, kale, and other fairly soft green foods if marine 
and brackish-water vegetation is not available. Must have tank of warm 
water. Will not survive chilling. Have not generally been successfully kept. 

WHALES, PORPOISES, AND DOLPHINS (CETACEA) 

WHALES, PORPOISES, and DOLPHINS. Mostly large marine mammals, 
some of which are specialized feeders. Only a few of the smaller porpoises 
are known to have been kept in captivity for short times. Occasionally porpoises, 
dolphins, and belugas or white whales are kept in tanks and fed mainly on fish. 

FLESH EATERS (CARNIVOEA) 

LIONS, TIGERS, LEOPAJIDS, JAGUARS, PUMAS, and SMALLER CATS 
(Felidae). Feed meat, viscera of animals, skin, hair and feathers, milk. The 
smaller ones will thrive best on whole chickens, pigeons, rabbits, guinea pigs, 
mice, rats, and milk. Some of the cats will take bananas and other fruits, also 
bread and vegetables. The fossa of Madagascar is so rare that it is seldom seen 
in captivity. Little is known of its habits or the best care for it. Try same 
treatment as for medium-sized cats. 

CIVETS, GENETS, BINTURONGS, and their relatives (Viverridae). Feed 
mice, rats, birds, meat, including skin, hair, feathers, and glands, liberally supple- 
mented with fruit, vegetables, bread, milk, and eggs. Certain animals of this 
group normally feed mainly on fruits ^d pthe? vegetfit}op, and apparently all of 



342 ANlSrUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

them use considerable fruit. They are all tropical and subtropical animals that 
require protection against cold. 

MONGOOSES and their relatives (Herpestidae). Feed meat with skin, hair, 
feathers, and glands; small birds, mice and rats are particularly good. Some 
of this family are especially fond of snakes, and others like crustaceans, such 
as crayfish, shrimp, and crabs. Also offer fruit. Tropical and subtropical 
animals that require protection against cold. The importation of mongooses 
into the United States is prohibited by law. 

HYENAS (Hyaenidae). Feed the large brown, spotted, and striped hyenaa 
meat with skin, hair, feathers, and plenty of bones. The aardwolf has weak 
jaws and small teeth, and is primarily an insect eater. Feed it cooked ground 
meat, insects, eggs, and try mice and small birds. 

DOGS, WOLVES, COYOTES, and FOXES (Canidae). Feed meat with skin, 
hair, feathers, bones, and viscera; also fruits, vegetables, bread, milk, and eggs. 
Much has been written about the care of dogs and foxes. (See bibliography.) 

CACOMISTLE, RINGTAIL ©r BASSARISCUS (Bassariscidae). Feed meat, 
mice, small birds, insects, and some fruit and green vegetation. 

RACCOONS, COATIMUNDIES, KINKAJOUS (Procyonidae). The kinkajous 
will thrive best on fruit, boiled sweet potatoes, eggs, and some meat, including 
mice and small birds. Raccoons and coatimundies will eat meat, fish, frogs, 
occasionally snakes and lizards, fruit, bread, and some vegetable materials, such 
as corn in the milk, acorns, and boiled sweet potatoes. Kinkajous and coati- 
rnundies are tropical animals and should not be subjected to chilling. 

PANDAS and LESSER PANDAS (Ailuridae). Feed the lesser pandas meat, 
eggs, bread and milk, fruit, honey, bamboo, grass, clover, and other green vege- 
tation. The large panda is generally supposed to feed mainly on bamboo, but 
is apparently almost omnivorous, and should be offered a wide variety of vege- 
tation and fruit, milk, and some meat. 

BADGERS, MARTEN, SABLE, SUN BADGERS, SKUNKS, OTTERS, and 
their relatives (Mustelidae). These carnivores eat a wide variety of food. 
Feed whole mice, rats, birds, meat with hair, feathers, viscera, and bones, 
insects, fruit, some green food, soft nuts, bread, milk. Many of these animals 
consume quantities of insects and crustaceans; also some fish, frogs, and 
snakes. Otters have been generally supposed to feed mainly on fish and crus- 
taceans, but the most succcessful otter keeper has found that they thrive best 
with a wide variety, such as crayfish, frogs, snakes, worms, insects, and a 
limited amount of fish. Sea otters have not been kept in captivity. They feed 
mainly on sea urchins (Echinodermata), mollusks (Mollusca), and small 
amounts of crab, mussel, fish, as well as other marine animals and some marine 
plants. 

BEARS (Ursidae). Omnivorous. Feed meat with skin, hair, feathers, viscera, 
and bones, insects, fish, liberally supplemented with fruits, grass, clover, and 
other vegetation, including acorns and other soft nuts, bread, milk. Fond of 
honey and other sweets, which may be given in moderation. In temperate and 
cold regions they should be permitted to hibernate quietly in a secure den suffi- 
ciently insulated and provided with bedding so that there is no danger of their 
being subjected to freezing temperature. Captive bears in general do not raise 
their young (which are born while the mother is in hibernation) unless they 
can have such conditions. 

SEALS, SEA LIONS, WALRUSES (PINNIPEDIA) 

SEA LIONS, SEA BEARS, EARED SEALS, AND FUR SEALS (Otariidae). 
Feed almost exclusively on fish and squid. Sea lions fed on fish are readily kept 
in capitivity. Fur seals have not generally thrived. Should have large pool. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 343 

WALRUSES (Odobenidae). Walruses mainly eat clams and other moUusks— 
possibly other sluggish marine animals and perhaps some plants. Have not 
generally been successfully kept in captivity, although young animals have 
survived on milk and fish for a few months. 

EARLESS or HAIR SEALS (Phocidae). The crab-eating seal of the Antarctic 
feeds mainly on small crustaceans, but has survived for a few months in cap- 
tivity when fed small pieces of fish. The remaining seals are primarily fish 
feeders, and do well on a purely fish diet, although some will occasionally take 
birds and warm-blooded animals. Should have pool. 

RODENTS OR GNAWERS (RODENTIA) 

TREE SQUIRRELS, "FLYING" SQUIRRELS, CHIPMUNKS, SPERMO- 
PHILES, MARMOTS, and PRAIRIE DOGS (Sciuridae). Feed a wide variety 
of vegetable material, such as nuts, acorns, tree seeds, bark, twigs, leaves, fruit, 
green grass, clover, weeds, roots such as beets, carrots, sweet potatoes, and dried 
materials such as hay, grains, seeds. Some meat and bones with or without 
meat should be constantly available for them to gnaw to wear down their teeth. 
Insects are relished by many. Young squirrels and others of this group have 
been successfully raised with cats as foster mothers. Numerous requests are 
received as to how to raise young squirrels. No known method is well tested ; 
but the following formula for human babies has been used with excellent suc- 
cess in some instances: 3 parts whole milk (impasteurized), 1 part prune juice, 
1 part water, a very small amount of calcium gluconate or other invert sugar. 
A little beaten egg is added about every other day; and it has been suggested 
that the addition of a very small amount of the vitamin B group and a drop 
of viosterol might improve the formula. Very young squirrels should be fed 
about every 2 hours with an eye dropper or a doll nursing nipple. When they 
are ready to take some solid food, give uncooked rolled oats, seeds of maple 
and elm and other soft seeds, also lettuce, grapes and other fruit, carrots, bread, 
and, later, nuts. 

Some squirrels are tropical and will not stand chilling. Others are hardy. 
Always provide nest boxes with plenty of nesting material ; likewise trees and 
branches with rough bark, and exercise wheels. 

POCKET GOPHERS (Geomyidae). Feed green or dried grass, clover, weeds, 
vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, beets, seeds, bone, and wood on which 
to gnaw. These rodents are burrowers that rarely come to the surface of the 
ground. Unless they have dirt in which to dig, they generally do not thrive. 

KANGAROO RATS, POCKET MICE, and SPINY MICE (Heteromyidae). 
Feed assorted seeds, small amounts of vegetables, green and dried vegetation, 
and bread. All of them should have fine, clean sand constantly before them 
with which to keep their fur in good condition. They enjoy running exercise 
wheels. Several members of this group become delightful pets. 

BEAVERS (Castoridae). Feed twigs and limbs of a wide variety of trees and 
shrubs, but preferably of aspen or cottonwood ; also grass, clover, weeds, bread, 
and vegetables. Should have a tank of water, but must have a well-drained 
place on which to dry their fur and also a nest den. They must have plenty 
of wood on which to gnaw to keep their incisors worn down. Even then, the 
teeth of captive beavers sometimes require cutting. 

DORMICE (Muscardinidae). Feed same food as listed for squirrels and mice. 

MOUSELIKE CREATURES (Cricetidae). This family contains many attrac- 
tive and interesting little rodents whose combined ranges embrace almost the 
entire world. The habits of many cricetines are not well known, but some of 
these animals can be successfully kept when fed with a considerable variety 



344 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

of seeds, vegetables, green vegetation, fruit, and meat, and supplied with bones, 
wood, cardboard, and other material for keeping their teeth worn down. Nest 
boxes should be well supplied with nest material. Animals from the Tropics 
should not be subjected to chilling. 

MALABAR SPINY MOUSE (Platacanthomyidae). Little-known inhabitants 
of southern India and Cochin China, and not known to the author to have 
been kept in captivity. Try same food as for Cricetidae. 

BAMBOO RATS (Rhizomyidae). Feed vegetables, green leaves and stems, 
hay, seeds, fruit. Must have wood or bones to gnaw. May consume some meat. 
Inhabitants of the Tropics ; should not be subjected to chilling. 

MOLE RATS ( Spalacidae) . Same care as for bamboo rats. 

MICE and RATS (Muridae). This very large family contains, in addition 
to the well-known house mice and house rats, many attractive and interesting 
animals that inhabit most of the Old World. The habits of some kinds are 
little known, but many have been successfully kept by the same care as out- 
lined for the mouselike creatures (Cricetidae). Those from the Tropics should 
not be subjected to chilling. 

AFRICAN DORMICE (Graphiuridae). Not known to the author to have been 
kept in captivity. Try same materials suggested for Cricetidae — the mouselike 
rodents. 

MOUNTAIN BEAVER, SEWELLEL (Aplodontiidae). Almost all of the nu- 
merous efforts to keep it in captivity have resulted in prompt failure. In the 
wild the animal inhabits a very humid region and feeds on a wide variety of 
vegetation, burrowing into hillsides for shelter, but spending much time on the 
surface of the ground or in low vegetation. 

LARGE AFRICAN "FLYING" SQUIRREL (Anomaluridae). Not known to 
the writer to have been kept in captivity. Try foods similar to those of tree 
squirrels. 

DWARF or LONG-TAILED AFRICAN "FLYING" SQUIRREL (Idiuridae). 
Not known to the writer to have been kept in captivity. Try foods similar to 
those of tree squirrels and mouselike creatures. 

JUMPING MICE (Zapodidae). Feed seeds, green vegetables, grass, clover; 
provide with plenty of nest material. Must be given facilities for hibernating in 
winter. 

JERBOAS and their relatives (Dipodidae). Feed assorted seeds, bread, and 
small quantities of green vegetation such as lettuce, and vegetables. Should 
have fine, clean, dry sand constantly available to keep fur in good condition. 

AFRICAN JUMPING MICE or GUNDI (Ctenodactylidae). Not known to the 
author to have been kept in captivity. Try same treatment as that recommended 
for the Cricetidae — mouselike and ratlike creatures. 

AFRICAN JUMPING HARE (Pedetidae). Feed vegetables, lettuce, grass, 
clover, and other greenery ; also grains and hay. 

CAPE MOLE RATS, or NAKED SAND RATS (Bathyergidae). Feed vege- 
tables, lettuce, grass, clover and weeds, seeds, and plenty of live roots ; also give 
them bones and woody plant stems on which to wear down their teeth. These 
are burrowing rodents of the Tropics, some of them practically naked. They 
should have soil in which to burrow and a uniformly warm temperature. 

OLD WORLD PORCUPINES (Hystricidae). Feed vegetables, greenery, some 
hay, and keep well supplied with wood and bones so they can keep their teeth 
worn down. Animals of the Tropics ; should be fairly warm. Unlike the Ameri- 
can porcupines, they are not tree climbers. 

AMERICAN PORCUPINES (Erethizontidae). Feed vegetables, grain, and a 
wide variety of twigs and leaves, and, for the North American porcupines, there 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 345 

Should be a generous inclusion of spruce, fir, and pine twigs. Should have heavy 
trees and limbs to climb. 

SPINY RATS (Echimyidae). Feed the same as mouselike creatures 
(Crlcetidae). 

AFRICAN ROCK RATS (Petromyidae). Not known to the author to have been 
kept in captivity. Try feeding like Cricetidae. 

NUTRIA or COYPU (Myocastoridae). Feed grain, vegetables, green vegeta- 
tion, hay, including an abundant supply of twigs and limbs so that they may keep 
their teeth worn down. They need a pool in which to swim and dry land on 
which to sun themselves ; also a nest box. Now being extensively raised in cap- 
tivity for their fur. 

HUTIAS or TREE RATS (Capromyidae). Feed grain, vegetables, green mate- 
rial including twigs and branches so that they may keep their teeth worn down. 
Should have heavy, rough-barked trees and branches on which to climb. 

AFRICAN POUCHED RATS ( Thryonomyidae ) . Feed similarly to Muridae 
and Cricetidae. 

BRANICKS RAT (Dinomyidae). Very rare, but can probably be kept in 
captivity by being fed chopped vegetables, grain, green vegetation. Possibly will 
eat some dried green material such as alfalfa hay. 

PACAS (Cuniculidae). Feed vegetables, green material (including twigs and 
limbs), hay, grain, and meat. Supply bones for gnawing. 

AGOUTIS (Dasyproctidae). Feed vegetables, green material, dried vegeta- 
tion. Supply wood and bones for keeping their teeth worn down. 

VISCACHAS and CHINCHILLAS (Chinchillldae). Feed grains, vegetables, 
green vegetation. Snipply wood and bones for gnawing. 

SOUTH AMERICAN CHINCHILLA RATS (Abrocomyidae). Try feeding 
same as Cricetidae. 

GUINEA PIGS and CAVIES (Caviidae). Feed grain, vegetables, greenery, 
hay, meat. Supply bones for gnawing. 

CAPYBARA (Hydrochoeridae). Feed grain, vegetables, green material, and 
meat. Supply wood and bones for gnawing. Should have pool of warm water 
in which to bathe. A tropical animal and should not be subjected to chilling. 
The largest of living rodents. 

HARES, RABBITS, AND PIKAS (LAGOMORPHA) 

HARES and RABBITS (Leporidae). Feed vegetables, green vegetation, hay, 
grain, and salt. Certain animals of this group are now extensively raised, 
while other wild ones are almost ne\er successfully kept in captivity. Scrupu- 
lous cleanliness, and the keeping of the animals in coarse-mesh wire-bottom cages 
or in large pens, might facilitate the successful keeping of some of the more 
delicate kinds. (See bibliography.) 

PIKAS (Ochotonidae). Animals of the higher mountains of the Northern 
Hemisphere. They have not been much kept in captivity. Try same methods 
as outlined for rabbits and hares. 

AARD-VARK ( TUBULIDENTATA ) 

AARD-VARK (Orycteropidae). Feed insects (such as mealworms), milk, and 
eggs. 

INSECnVORES (INSECnVORA) 

Many of the insectivores are very small, nervous creatures that have not been 
successfully kept in captivity. &ome of them must eat almost continuously or 



346 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

they will starve to death. Therefore, food and water should be left before them 
almost constantly. 

TREE SHREWS (Tupaiidae). Feed insects, such as mealworms, waxmoths 
and larvae, ground meat, eggs ; also try ripe bananas, and other fruits. Tropical 
animals that will not survive chilling. 

ELEPHANT SHREWS (Macroscelididae). Feed mealworms and other 
insects ; also meat. Try eggs, ripe bananas, and earthworms. Tropical animals. 
Must not be chilled. 

GOLDEN MOLES ( Chrysochloridae ) . Feed insects, earthworms, meat, eggs; 
also try green material, vegetables, and fruit. 

HEDGEHOGS (Erinaceidae). Feed mealworms, ground meat, earthworms, 
milk, eggs ; may take some fruit and green food. 

MOLES (Talpidae). Feed mealworms, earthworms, ground meat, eggs, milk; 
make available small quantities of seeds that have been soaked in water, and 
small quantities of green vegetation and vegetables. Moles are burrowing 
animals, and apparently soon fret themselves to death if they cannot burrow 
or at least keep themselves well sheltered from light. They are most likely to 
thrive if the soil is slightly moist, but not wet. 

SHREWS, WATER SHREWS, SUN SHREWS (Soricidae). Feed mealworms, 
earthworms, ground meat, milk, rolled oats, eggs, nut meats; offer thoroughly 
ripened bananas, tender green vegetation, vegetables, seeds soaked in water. 
Shrews are burrowers, mostly inhabiting moist locations. They should be given 
water in which to bathe or swim, and moist moss in which to seek shelter, but 
should have a dry nest. 

SOLENODONS (Solenodontidae). Feed insects, mealworms, earthworms, 
ground meat, eggs, milk. Burrowing animals that probably thrive best it pro- 
vided with soil in which they can burrow. Should not be subjected to chilling. 

TENREC (Tenrecidae). Not known to have been kept long in captivity. Try 
feeding same as shrews. 

C»LUGO (GALEOPITHECIA) 

COLUGO or FLYING LEMUR (Galeopithecidae). Not known to the author 
to have been successfully kept in captivity. Presumably omnivorous. Offer 
insects, ground meat, eggs, milk, bread, thoroughly ripened bananas, and other 
fruits ; also good assortment of green vegetation. Inhabitants of the Old World 
Tropics. ChiUing must be avoided. 

BATS AND FLYING FOXES OR FRUIT BATS (CHIROPTERA) 

FRUIT BATS or FLYING FOXES (Pteropidae). Feed bananas, oranges, and 
a wide variety of fruits. Perhaps will take some meat and eggs. The importa- 
tion of fruit bats into the United States is prohibited by law. 

INSECTIVOROUS BATS (Rhinopomidae, Emballonuridae, Noctilionidae, 
Nycteridae, Megadermidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae, 
Natalidae, Furipteridae, Thyropteridae, Myzopodidae, Verpertilionidae, Mysta- 
copidae, Molossidae). Mainly small insectivorous bats, most of which occur in 
the Tropics, although some of them range extensively through the Temperate 
Zones and even into the sub-Arctic region. Very few have been kept in cap- 
tivity; but the success that has attended the keeping of some kinds indicates 
that others might be kept by similar methods. The author kept a big brown 
bat (Eptesicus) in his home. The animal was shut in a cage during the day- 
time, but each evening it was given an opportunity to fly about the rooms. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 347 

Others of the same genus have been kept in the National Zoological Park for 
more than 2 years. The author's bat and those kept in the National Zoological 
Park have been fed almost exclusively on mealworms. Other people have had 
fair success when they fed various insects or meat. Cheese, cream, and dog 
food have likewise been found satisfactory. It would be a good plan to offer 
well-ripened bananas and other soft fruit to any captive tropical bat as some of 
them probably consume such material in the wild, in addition to their principal 
diet of insects. Some of the insectivorous bats are known to be carnivorous, 
killing and eating other bats and small birds. Some also eat flower petals. 
Water should be available at all times, as they drink frequently and copiously. 
A slightly moist atmosphere appears to be favorable to all bats, and many are 
inhabitants of the exceedingly humid Tropics. If the bat is to remain active, 
the temperature should not fall much below 70", as bats either hibernate or 
migrate to avoid cold weather. If they are to hibernate, they should be 
maintained in a temperature of between 40° and 50° with very high humidity. 

VAMPIRE and FALSE VAMPIRE BATS (Desmodontidae). Can be success- 
fully kept when fed defibrinated blood, or fresh uncoagulated blood. Keep in 
uniformly warm temperature. 

FISH-EATING BATS (Noctilionidae). Bats of this family catch small fish 
and perhaps insects from the surface of the water. Try feeding tiny fish or 
small pieces of fish, insects, meat. They may also eat some fruits. 

LEMURS, MONKEYS, APES (PRIMATES) 

Most monkeys do not survive chilling, but a few can withstand moderate 
winter weather. Some individuals of species from the Tropics become hardy 
and spend much time outdoors in winter if they are given the opportunity. 

AYE ATE (Daubentoniidae). An inhabitant of Madagascar, uncommon in. 
the wild and exceedingly rare in captivity. Apparently feeds mainly on insects, 
but probably also eats fruit. Natives say it eats bamboo. Try feeding insects, 
ground meat, eggs, fruit, leaves. 

TARSIUS (Tarsiidae). Feeds mainly on insects, and probably also eats fruit. 
Try feeding insects, meat (raw and cooked), eggs, fruit, some soft green leaves 
such as lettuce. 

LORIS, SLOW LORIS, POTTO, GALAGOS, and LEMURS (Nycticebidae). 
Apparently omnivorous in the wild. Feed insects, meat both raw and cooked, 
eggs, fruit, green vegetation, seeds, milk, bread. 

MARMOSETS (Callitrichidae), HOWLING MONKEYS (Alouattidae), NIGHT 
MONKEYS (Aotidae), CACAJOUS, OUKARIS, SQUIRREL MONKEYS, SPIDER 
MONKEYS, WOOLLY MONKEYS, CAPUCHINS (Cebidae), BABOONS, 
MACAQUES, VERVETS, GRIVETS, PATAS, LANGURS, and COLOBUS (Cer- 
copithecidae). Almost omnivorous in the wild. Feed the widest possible 
variety of fruits, vegetables, lettuce, cabbage, kale, sweet potatoes and other 
root vegetables, meat (cooked and raw), eggs, bread, milk, leaves, seeds and nuts 
that are not too hard for them to open. The langurs and colobus monkeys are 
primarily leaf eaters and will consume a higher proportion of leaves of a wide 
variety than most of the other monkeys. It is well to vary the diet from day 
to day. 

GIBBONS (Hylobatidae), ORANGS, CHIMPANZEES, and GORILLAS 
(Pongiidae). Feed similarly to the preceding families. Young animals should 
be given practically the same care as babies and young children. 



348 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

BIRDS 10 

OSTRICHES ( STRirrHIONirORMES, STRUTHIONIDAE ) 

RIIEA8 (RHEIFORMES, RHEIDAE) 

CASSOWARIES AND EMUS ( CASUARITFORMES ; CASUAKUDAE, DROMIOEIIDAE ) 

Birds that are members of the four groups listed above can be kept under 
essentially uniform treatment. They eat vegetables, sweet potatoes, carrots, 
white potatoes, apples, and some form of green food such as Isale, cabbage, or 
alfalfa hay, ground or cut into pieces about the size of a man's thumb. To 
such mixture may be added "bear bread" cut in 1-inch cubes ; also small stones 
and oyster shell as grit. Supply water for drinking. Emus enjoy bathing and 
should have a pool of sufficient size. Ostriches are fond of dust baths. 

KIWIS (APTERTGIFORMES, APTERYGIDAE) 

Nocturnal birds. Feed in the evening by burying mealworms or small strips 
of meat (the size of an earthworm) in the soil on the floor of the cage. The 
bird probes for its food. This method is used in the Zoo in Wellington, New 
Zealand. 

TINAMOUS (TINAMirORMES, TINAMIDAE) 

Feed grain, ground bread, green food, mealworms, and a pinch of ground 
meat. 

PENGUINS (SPHENISCITORMES, SPHENISCIDAE ) 

Specialized feeders; some eat small Crustacea (Euthosia), which form a red 
thin scum on the Antarctic Sea (Ross Sea) known as krill to the whalers; this 
feed is impossible to supply or imitate in captivity. The large and medium- 
sized penguins do fairly well when fed fish cut into strips about 3 inches long 
and 1/4-inch wide, with the vertebrae removed. It is desirable to soak the fish 
occasionally in cod liver oil. The jackass penguin will eat some oyster shell. 
The Antarctic penguins are accustomed to very low temperature and all of 
them appear to be particularly susceptible to respiratory infections. It is 
therefore desirable to provide them with artificially cooled rooms (pi. 2, fig. 2), 
the air of which is frequently changed by the introduction of air that has been 
filtered to free it of dust and micro-organisms, and from which most of the 
moisture has been removed. This type of care should be provided continuously 
from the time the birds are brought to temperate regions. The throat infection 
to which penguins are subject is caused by mold of a type that grows freely 
on hay and straw. Such bedding should be kept away from them until they 
are in their permanent quarters and even then should be introduced only 
when needed as nesting material and only after it has been subjected to treat- 
ment that will kill the spores of the plant. The black-footed or jackass pen- 
guins do fairly well in captivity in the Temperate Zone without elaborate 
facilities for their care. They appear to thrive best in temperatures ranging 
from about 55° to 60°. The Galapagos penguins do not require artificial cool- 
ing, as they are accustomed to live on desert islands at the Equator. 



" Cod liver oil should be supplied to practically all birds that are kept Indoors. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 349 

LOONS (GA\^rFORMES, GAVIIDAE) ; GREBES (CX)LTMBIFORMES, COLTMBIDAB) 

In the wild these birds eat mainly fish and small aquatic animals. Although 
common in the wild, they are so rare in collections as to indicate that the 
proper procedure for successfully keeping them has not been hit upon. It is 
possible that if they were supplied with large tanks or pools in which they 
could feed on small live fish, and perhaps were given some finely chopped or 
ground green material, such as lettuce or kale, they might be kept successfully. 
Most of the loons that are brought into zoos have been captured on the ground 
where they have failed in making migrations. Therefore, it is possible that 
these captives are injured or in poor health. If healthy birds were captured, 
or young taken, they might be kept successfully. 

ALBATROSSES, SHEARWATERS, PETRELS, AND THEIR ALLIEB 
( PROCELLARIITORMES ) 

These are oceanic birds that fly a great deal and obtain minute crustaceans 
and perhaps other small life from the surface of the ocean. The albatrosses 
are, to some extent, scavengers and will devour refuse from ships' galleys after 
the manner of gulls. They are almost never kept in captivity. If one would 
attempt to keep these birds in captivity, he should provide them with a pool 
of salt water in which to swim, and offer them meat, shrimp, crab meat, cray- 
fish, or other Crustacea, all finely ground, fed to them on the water. They might 
be induced also to take other foods, as is suggested by the observations that the 
albatross will feed on ships' refuse. It should be remembered, however, that 
the mouths of all the birds of this group are small, and food for them must 
be in very small pieces. 

TROPIC-BIRDS, PELICANS, GANNETS, FRIGATE-BIRDS ( PELECANIFORMES ) 

TROPIC-BIRDS (Phaethontidae). Feed small fish, or strips of fish, dipped 
in cod liver oil. Provide them with a pool of water. Do not allow to be chilled. 

PELICANS (Pelecanidae). Thrive on a wide variety of fish, either small 
ones weighing about a pound, or pieces of large fish cut up. They take the fish 
freely from the hands or when tossed to them, and will also take them from 
the water. The average pelican will eat from 3 to 4 pounds of fish a day, but 
care must be taken to prevent them from overeating and 1 day's fast a week 
is desirable to keep them in good condition. Pelicans should have a good- 
sized pond for swimming and bathing, and some ground area. They will nest 
and rear young. Do not subject to freezing. 

BOOBIES and GANNETS (Sulidae), CORMORANTS (Phalacrocoracidae), 
SNAKE-BIRDS (Anhingidae). Feed small fish whole thrown into the water, 
or pieces of larger fish cut into strips roughly an inch in cross section and 3 
to 4 inches long. Provide with pools or tanks with a little land to rest upon, 

FRIGATE-BIRDS (Fregatidae). Powerful fliers of the high seas, rarely kept 
in captivity. Most likely to thrive if kept in a large flight cage containing a 
pool of water. Can be fed on the wing by tossing to them fish which they will 
catch in midair. If such a cage cannot be provided, it is sometimes necessary 
to hand-feed them, or they may take the fish from the surface of the water. 

HERONS, STORKS AND THEIR ALLIES ( CICONIIFORMES ) 

HERONS, BITTERNS (Ardeidae). Feed fish, frogs, meat, mice, some 
ground bread and green food. These are wading birds that obtain much of 



350 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

their food in the shallow water of streams and ponds. If pinioned, they can 
be kept in fenced enclosures with pools, or they may be kept in cages. 

WHALE-HEADED STORKS (Balaenicipitidae). Habits and food similar 
to the above. 

HAMMERHEADS (Scopidae), STORKS and JABIRUS (Ciconiidae), IBISES 
and SPOONBILLS (Threskiornithidae). Should be given a wide variety of 
food, including fish, meat, ground bread, finely chopped green vegetation and 
vegetables. These birds are waders, but they will take their food from solid 
surfaces. They can be kept pinioned in fenced enclosures, or in cages. 

FLAMINGOES (Phoenicopteridae). Specialized feeders that obtain their 
food while wading in shallow water. They subsist mainly on small Crustacea 
and other minute animals found in swampy regions. Can be successfully kept 
in captivity on a mixture of bran, rice, wheat, bread crumbs, crab meat, crab 
scrap or ground shrimp, and bone meal. These materials should be in small 
particles mixed together and fed in shallow water so that the birds can obtain 
it by straining it out as they pump the water through their beaks. 

SCREAMERS, DUCKS, GEESE, SWANS (aNSERIFORMES) 

SCREAMERS (Anhimidae). Feed mixture of grains, bread crumbs, chopped 
green vegetation and vegetables, with a small amount of ground meat. Can 
be kept in large fenced enclosures if pinioned, or in cages. Should have ponds 
in which to wade and swim. 

DUCKS, GEESE, and SWANS (Anatidae). Require same food as the scream- 
ers, but take less meat. A flock consisting mainly of geese and swans should 
be fed proportionately more green food than is required by the ducks. Should 
have good-sized ponds or pools. Mergansers are fish-eating ducks that thrive 
best if they are given a plentiful supply of small live fish to catch. Will some- 
times survive on a diet of fish cut in small strips and meat finely ground or cut. 
The sea ducks, such as the eiders, scooters, and harlequins, consume a consider- 
able variety of small animal life and also some vegetable material. Not gen- 
erally kept in captivity ; but with care might survive on fish, meat, crab scraps, or 
shrimp, clams, bread crumbs, some soaked grain and green material, all ground 
together. Should have large, deep pools in which to dive. 

VULTURES, HAWKS, FALCONS (rALCONIEDRMES) 

All the birds of this order will eat either meat or fish or both. The larger 
kinds can be fed meat in large pieces or on large bones. The smaller kinds 
thrive best on whole small animals, such as rabbits, pigeons, mice, or sparrows, 
and the larger ones should have such food at frequent intervals, in order to 
obtain the fur, feathers, and viscera, which appear to be essential to their 
welfare. Bald eagles are particularly fond of fish. Vultures thrive on fresh 
meat, and there is no reason to give them spoiled meat. Ospreys feed almost 
exclusively on fish. 

MEGAPODES, OURASSOWS, PHEASANTS, HOATZINS, CHICKENS, TURKEYS, 
GROUSE, PEACOCKS, QUAILS, GUINEA-FOWL ( G ALLIFORMES ) 

Feed a mixture of grains, green feed, ground meat, and fruits, especially 
bananas. Mealworms and other insects and mice are relished. Supply crushed 
shell, coarse sand, or fine gi-avel for grit. Dust baths should be provided. Size 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS WALKER 351 

of enclosures can range from cages to yards with moderate-height fences, pro- 
vided the birds are pinioned. Ample ground area for exercise is desirable; also 
plenty of sunshine. Some of these birds are hardy inhabitants of rigorous 
climates; others are natives of the Tropics and cannot survive cold weather. 
There is an extensive literature regarding the raising of many of these birds. 
See bibliography for a few citations. 

CRANES, RAILS, AND ALLIES (GRUIFORMES) 

BUSTARD-QUAILS (Tumicidae), COLLARED HEMIPODES (Pedionomidae). 
Feed same as cranes, rails, coots, and gallinules. 

ROATELOS and MONIAS (Mesoenatidae). Feed same as cranes, rails, coots, 
and gallinules. 

CRANES (Gruidae). Feed a mixture of grain, chopped or ground leafy mate- 
rial and vegetables, bread crumbs and meat. They also enjoy mice, lizards, 
and insects, and some take a small amount of fish. 

LIMPKINS (Aramidae). Same as above. 

TRUMPETERS ( Psophiidae ) . Feed same as poultry. They easily become tame 
enough to eat out of one's hand. 

RAILS, COOTS, GALLINULES (Rallidae). Feed finely cut or ground mixture 
of meat and fish with a small amount of grain, plenty of green feed, and bread 
crumbs. They are not primarily grain feeders nor fish eaters, so there must be 
a plentiful supply of green food and all of the material should be finely divided, 
as the mouths of the birds are small. Some swim and wade extensively, so 
should have ponds. Others prefer to perch and spend little time on the ground 
or water. 

SUN-GREBES (Heliornithidae). Give same food as for Gruiformes, but it 
should be ground or chopped more finely. 

KAGUS (Rynochetidae), SUN BITTERNS (Eurypygidae). Feed fish and a 
mixture of meat, green vegetation, bread crumbs, mice, mealworms, and small 
pieces of bone. 

CARIAMAS (Cariamidae). Feed grain, meat, bonemeal. Mice and young 
or small birds, such as sparrows, are essential for the fur and feathers. 

BUSTARDS (Otididae). Feed meat and a mixture of green feed, bread, and 
grain. The birds of this order can be kept in cages, but thrive best in large 
outdoor runs. 

SHORE BIRDS, GULLS, AND AUKS ( CH ARADRIIFORMES ) 

JACANAS (Jacanidae). Tropical marsh birds that probably feed mainly 
on insects, insect larva, small fish, and green material. No information is avail- 
able to the author as to the keeping of these birds in captivity. Try mealworms, 
and finely ground meat, green vegetation, and shrimp. 

PAINTED SNIPE (Rostratulidae). Feed the same as rails. These birds 
probe in the earth to find their food. Worms are essential. 

OYSTER CATCHERS (Haematopodidae). They frequent ocean beaches, 
where they pick up a wide variety of small animal life and perhaps some plant 
material. In captivity feed small pieces of fish, worms, bread crumbs, green 
leafy vegetation. 

PLOVERS, TURNSTONE, and SURFBIRDS (Charadriidae), Inhabitants 
of seacoasts and streams, lakes, and ponds. Some live on the drier uplands. 
Offer a wide variety of fish, meat, grain, green food, bonemeal, crab meat, 



352 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

crab scraps, or shrimp — all ground, as the mouths of the birds are rather small. 
Mealworms are particularly relished by the birds. 

SNIPE, WOODCOCK, and SANDPIPERS (Scolopacidae). The feeding hab- 
its of the snipe and sandpipers are somewhat similar to those of the plover and 
the turnstones. Woodcocks are specialized feeders that in the wild live largely 
on earthworms obtained by boring into the ground with their long beaks which 
have flexible tips that open in the ground, grasp the worm, and pull it out. 
They are rarely kept in captivity, but a few have survived when fed mealworms 
or earthworms in earth. Finely cut strips of meat, mealworms, and earth- 
worms might be placed in earth to tempt them. 

AVOCETS and STILTS (Recurvirostridae). These beautiful birds inhabit 
the shores of shallow lakes and alkali ponds. They feed on minute animals 
such as tiny shrimp, brine shrimp, and other forms; probably they take some 
plant food as well. They are not known to the author to have been kept in 
captivity; but it seems probable that they might survive if given mealworms, 
meat, fish, shrimp, crab, and a variety of green material finely ground and fed 
in water. The birds spend much time wading and swimming and should be 
provided with shallow pools and plenty of ground on which to exercise. 

PHALAROPES (Phalaropodidae). These little swimming, snipelike birds 
might thrive on the same mixture suggested for avocets and stilts, but they 
have rarely, if ever, been kept in captivity. 

CRAB-PLOVERS (Dromadidae). Feed same as shore birds. 
THICK-KNEES (Burhinidae). Feed a mixture of ground or finely chopped 
fish, meat, seeds, bread, green vegetation and mealworms. 
PRATINCOLES and COURSERS (Glareolidae). Feed same as shore birds. 
SEED-SNIPES (Thinocoridae). Feed same as shore birds. 
SHEATH-BILLS (Chionidae). The birds of this family have not to our 
knowledge been kept in captivity. They inhabit the southern shores of the 
Southern Hemisphere and their habits appear to be somewhat between those 
of the gulls and petrels. It is possible that they could be successfully kept by 
offering them mixtures of ground or finely chopped meat, fish, mealworms, 
shellfish such as clams, crabs, shrimp, and some green food, fed on or in 
shallow water. They should have pools in which to bathe and swim. 

SKUAS and JAEGERS (Stercorariidae). Feed small pieces of meat, mice, 
small rats, small birds, and fish. They should have a pool in which to bathe. 
GULLS and TERNS (Laridae). Feed fish, mice, fruit, meat, bread. Pool 
for bathing. 

SKIMMERS (Rynchopidae). Feed fish and meat. Should have plenty of 
water for bathing and swimming, and some shore space. 

AUKS, AUKLETS, and MURRES (Alcidae). These are heavy-bodied, small- 
winged seacoast birds that obtain fish and perhaps other food from the sea 
and usually nest on ledges, in crevices, or in burrows in the ground or under 
rocks. They are rarely kept in captivity, but should not be difiicult to keep. 
It is suggested that they be fed small strips of fish, squid, and perhaps some 
shellfish, meats, and shrimp. Young tufted puffins thrived when they were 
fed from the hand with strips of fish from % to i^ inch in diameter and 
2 to 4 inches long that had been dipped in salt water. 

The birds should be provided with a pool in which they can swim and dive, 
and with rocks or ground on which they can rest. They do not need much 
land on which to exercise. They are not able to take off on the wing from the 
small areas in which they will normally be enclosed so they can be kept in 
open-top enclosures, as well as in cages. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 353 

SAND-GROUSE, PIGEONS, DOVES ( CXDLUMBITORMES ) 

SAND-GROUSE (Pteroclidae). Despite its name, the sand grouse is closely 
related to the pigeons and doves, both in structure and habits. Lilie these 
birds, it will thrive on a mixture of grain and green food. It should be 
given plenty of gravel or grit. 

PIGEONS and DOVES (Columbidae). Grain, small amounts of green leafy 
vegetation, fruit, and grit are needed by these birds. Many of the ti'opical pigeons 
are fruit eaters and should be supplied with grapes, bananas, apples, small pieces 
of oranges, etc. Raisins might be given if no other fruit is available. 

LORIES, PARROTS, AND MACAWS ( PSITTACIFORMES ) 

These birds will eat a considerable variety of food and will thrive on a diet 
mainly of sunflower and other seeds (such as canary and hemp seed), fruits 
(such as apples and bananas), bread, carrots, some green food, and some 
ground meat. Lories, being primarily fruit eaters, will not consume many 
seeds or much bread. They should have a plentiful supply of fruit, honey, 
milk, and bread. 

All the birds of this group should have limbs or wood on which to bite so 
that they may keep their beaks properly worn down. Some parrots enjoy 
bathing, but the grass parakeet (Melopsittacus) prefers to roll in wet grass 
and does not ordinarily bathe in water. Occasionally parrots take to plucking 
their own feathers to such an extent that they become naked. This probably 
indicates a dietary deficiency. On occasions it has been remedied by feeding 
meat and fat or by giving them an opportunity to chew on bones. 

In other cases, these methods have been useless. These birds may be kept 
in moderate-sized cages either alone or in small groups, or in large cages with 
a variety of other birds. Their cages should be strongly constructed, as they 
have powerful beaks and will frequently bite persistently at a single place in 
the cage covering. 

Most of these are birds of the Tropics with the exception of a few such as 
the kea of the high mountains of New Zealand and the grass parakeet (also 
called budgerigar). These two birds can be kept outside throughout the year 
in a climate such as that of Washington, D. C. Others must be carefully 
safeguarded against cold. 

PLANTAIN-EATERS AND CUCKOOS ( CUCULTFORMES ) 

PLANTAIN EATERS (Musophagidae). These thrive on bananas, raisins, 
oranges, grapes, apples, bits of boiled egg, ground meat, mealworms, and 
mockingbird food. 

CUCKOOS, ROADRUNNERS, ANIS (Cuculidae). These birds are insecti- 
vorous and carnivorous in their native haunts. The cuckoos should be fed 
mealworms, ground meat, boiled egg. The roadrunner eats mice, lizards, small 
birds, and insects, and when these cannot be given, it can be supplied with 
small pieces of meat and hard-boiled egg. 

OWLS (STRIGirORMES) 

BARN OWLS (Tytonidae), OWLS (Strigidae). These are nocturnal birds 
of prey, and should be fed in the evening. To this rule the snowy owl is an 
exception. This bird may be fed either in the evening or during the day. 



354 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Owls should be supplied with small mammals such as mice and rats, or with 
birds, such as small chickens. A number of the smaller owls eat insects. They 
will also eat meat, preferably fragments left on the bone, from which they 
may tear it off. It is important, however, that they be given plenty of small 
animals that can be swallowed whole in order that the owls may have the 
skin, feathers, bones, and viscera. These birds should not be exposed to bright 
light. It might be possible to reverse their normal round of activities, if they 
were given very subdued light during the daytime and artificial light at night. 
They should have an opportunity to get into a box or other cavity or a dark 
corner to sleep. 

OIL-BIEDS AND GOATSUCKliKS ( OAPRIMULGIFORMES ) 

OIL-BIRDS (Steatornithidae). Feed mealworms, ground meat, small rodents, 
Insects, reptiles, and possibly hard-boiled eggs. 

FROGMOUTHS (Podargidae). A frogmouth has been kept in the National 
Zoological Park by feeding it one mouse a day. If mice are not available, 
other food might be offered it, such as mealworms, gromid meat, small rodents, 
Insects, reptiles, and possibly hard-boiled eggs. 

POTOOS (Nyctibiidae). Same as above. 

OWLET-FROGMOUTHS (Aegothelidae). Same as above. 

GOATSUCKERS (Caprimulgidae). These birds live by capturing insect 
prey when on the wing. They are rarely kept in captivity, although a nestling 
nighthawk that was brought to the National Zoological Park thrived for several 
years on a diet of mealworms, mockingbird food, and gi'ound meat rolled into 
gmall balls. A similar diet might be successful with others of this group and 
some of the related forms. 

SWIFTS AND HUMMINGBIRDS ( MICKOPODIFORMES ) 

SWIFTS (Micropodidae). Like the goatsuckers, these birds obtain all their 
insect food on the wing. They might be successfully kept on food similar to 
that listed under goatsuckers. Outside cages lighted at night to attract insects 
have been suggested. 

CREST SWIFTS (Hemiprocnidae). Same as above. 

HUMMINGBIRDS (Trochilidae). Hummingbirds can be kept in captivity 
fairly successfully on a mixture of 1 teaspoonful of Mellon's baby food, 2 
teaspoonfuls of honey, 1 teaspoonful evaporated milk, 1 drop of beef extract, 
and 4 teaspoonfuls of water. A convenient feeder is shown in the accompany- 
ing diagram (pi. 7, fig. 1). Food containers should be so constructed that 
these birds can get only their bills in to reach the food. They should also 
have the opportunity of capturing fruit flies, which can usually be made avail- 
able to them by leaving a bit of fruit such as a banana in the cage to attract 
the flies. They will bathe under a fine shower if it is available. They are so 
small that glass fronts to the cages are desirable. Wire fabric of about i/4-inch 
mesh can be used on the sides, back, and top. Sunshine or ultraviolet light 
is necessary in winter. 

COLIES (COLTTFORMES) 

COLIES (Coliidae). These birds can be successfully kept on a diet of 
fruit such as bananas, grapes, raisins, oranges, small bits of meat, hard-boiled 
eggs, mockingbird food, and mealworms. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIJVIALS — WALKER 355 

TROGONS (TROGONITORMES) 
Trogons (Trogonidae). These can be kept on the same diet as the colies. 
KINGinSHERS, BEE-EATERS, ROIXERS, A^D HORNBILX.S ( CORACIIFORMES ) 

KINGFISHERS (Alcedinidae). The North American kingfisher can be fed 
a diet almost entirely of fish. The tropical kingfishers and those of the other 
parts of the world feed on a wide variety of animal life such as large insects, 
lizards, and fish. The kookaburra of Australia is included in this group. They 
should be fed mice, worms, lizards, and small birds, such as finches. The birds 
vary greatly in size, and the smaller kingfishers cannot, of course, take full- 
grown mice or lizards. 

TODIES (Todidae). May be fed hard-boiled eggs, small bits of meat, meal- 
worms, bananas, oranges, and raisins. 

MOTMOTS (Momotidae). Same as for todies. 

BEE-EATERS (Meropidae). In the wild, these birds eat insects and are 
particularly fond of bees, apparently suffering no ill effect from stings. In 
captivity, they should be offered as wide a variety of insects as can be obtained, 
such as mealworms and grasshoppers, as well as finely ground meat, boiled 
egg, and mockingbird food. 

ROLLERS (Coraciidae). Same as for motmots. 

CUCKOO-ROLLERS and GROUND-ROLLERS (Leptosomatidae). Mostly 
insectivorous. Feed mealworms, gi'asshoppers, meat, boiled egg, mockingbird 
food. 

HOOPOES (Upupidae). The hoopoes will thrive on the same food recom- 
mended for the bee-eaters. 

WOOD-HOOPOES (Phoeniculidae). Feed same as bee-eaters (Meropidae). 

HORNBILLS (Bucerotidae). Hornbills thrive on a diet of mockingbird food 
rolled with boUed rice into balls about the size of marbles; also balls of meat, 
bananas, grapes, oranges, apples, pears, boiled egg. Mice, lizards, or small 
birds are essential to their welfare. 

JACAMARS, BARBETS, TOUCANS, AND WOODPECKERS ( PICIEORilES ) 
JACAMARS (Galbulidae). Feed insects, mealworms, mockingbird food, boiled 



PUFF-BIRDS (Bucconidae). Same as above. 

BARBETS (Capitonidae). These birds will thrive on the same diet as that 
recommended for hornbills. Balls of food must be made much smaller than 
those given to the hornbills. 

HONEY-GUIDES (Indicatoridae). Feed insects, mealworms, mockingbird 
food, boiled eggs. 

TOUCANS (Ramphastidae). They thrive on the food recommended for horn- 
bills. Make the balls of food smaller. 

WOODPECKERS and PICULETS (Picidae). Rarely kept in captivity. In 
the wild they feed on insects, ants, fruit, acorns, and some other plant food. 
In captivity they can be given mealworms, meat, suet, fruit, and should be 
offered some bread, grain, hard-boiled eggs, and mockingbird food. Most of 
these birds regularly cliug to the sides of trees and should have rough-barked 
limbs in a more or less vertical position to which they may cling. They will 
also perch crosswise on larger limbs, but do not care for small perches. 
430577 — 42 24 



356 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 194 1 

PERCHING BIRDS ( PASSERITORMES ) 

BROADBILLS (Eurylaimidae). Feed fruit, bananas, oranges, apples, grapes, 
boiled eggs, mockingbird food. 

WOOD-HEWERS (Dendrocolaptidae), OVENBIRDS (Furnariidae), ANT- 
THRUSHES (Formicariidae), ANT-PIPETS (Conopophagidae), TAPACULOS 
(Rhinocryptidae). The birds of these families are known as soft-billed birds, 
and will eat fruit, mockingbird food, boiled egg, and mealworms and other 
insects. Live worms and insects are essential. 

COTINGAS, BELL-BIRD, COCK-OF-THE-ROCK (Cotingidae), MANAKINS 
(Pipridae). Feed fruit, boiled egg, mockingbird food. 

TYRANT FLYCATCHERS (Tyrannidae). Aerial feeders in the wild, and 
difficult to keep in captivity. Feed mealworms, ground meat, boiled egg, 
mockingbird food. Insects are almost essential. 

SHARP-BILLS (Oxyruncidae), PLANT-CUTTERS (Phytotomidae). Same 
as above. 

PITTAS (Pittidae). Feed mealworms and any other available insects, mock- 
ingbird food, and ground meat. The floor of the cage should be covered with 
soft material, as their feet are tender. 

NEW ZEALAND WRENS (Acanthisittidae), ASITIBS (Philepittidae). Feed 
insects, mealworms, mockingbird food, boiled egg. 

LYRE BIRDS (Menuridae). Feed fruit, insects, seeds, and green vegetation. 
They spend much of their time on the ground. 

SCRUB-BIRDS (Atrichornithidae). Soft-billed birds. Feed the same as 
thrushes. 

LARKS (Alaudidae). Feed mockingbird food, mealworms, boiled eggs, 
ground meat, fruit, lettuce. 

SWALLOWS (Hirundinidae). Give them mealworms and any other avail- 
able insects, also ground meat. Try bread, soft, well-ripened fruit, and cheese. 
These birds are rarely kept in captivity, and no method is known to be par- 
ticularly successful with them. 

CUCKOO-SHRIKES (Campephagidae). Soft-billed birds. Feed meat, mock- 
ingbird food, insects boiled egg. 

DRONGOS (Dicruridae), OLD WORLD ORIOLES (Oriolidae). Feed meal- 
worms and other insects, ground meat, mockingbird food, fruit, boiled egg. 
Insects are essential. 

CROWS, MAGPIES, JAYS (Corvidae), These omnivorous birds thrive in 
captivity if given a wide variety of meats, soaked grain, bread, fruit, vegetable 
material. They enjoy mealworms, insects, and mice; some of them will eat 
small birds. 

BIRDS OF PARADISE (Paradiseidae). Feed mockingbird food with liberal 
addition of grated carrots and boiled eggs, apples, raisins, bananas, oranges, 
meat, insects. When the birds are growing new plumage, they apparently 
become greatly exhausted. At such times they should have ant eggs and plenty 
of insects. 

PARROT-BILLS, SUTHORAS (Paradoxornithidae). Soft-billed birds. Feed 
same as thrushes. 

TITMICE (Paridae), NUTHATCHES (Sittidae). Feed mockingbird food, 
boiled eggs, ground meat, mealworms, seeds, soft nuts, bread, meat, insects. 

CORAL-BILLED NUTHATCHES (Hyposittidae). Soft-billed birds. Feed 
mealworms and other insects, ground meat, bread, fruit, and tender green 
leaves. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 357 

CREEPERS (Certhiidae). Feed mealworms, other insects, and ground meat. 

WREN-TITS (Chamaeidae). Soft-billed birds. Feed same as thrushes. 

BABBLING THRUSHES (Timaliidae). Feed mockingbird food, mealworms, 
and other insects, ground meat, fruit, lettuce, raisins, grapes. 

BULBULS (Pycnonotidae). Fruit, insects, mockingbird food, ground meat, 
bread crumbs, boiled eggs, canary seed. 

DIPPERS (Cinclidae). Not known to the author to have been kept in 
captivity. Frequent streams, into which they dive to capture aquatic insects. 
Try feeding mealworms, waxworms, and any other insects available, and ground 
meat. Also lettuce and soft green vegetation. Should have water in which 
to bathe; preferably a continuous shower falling into a small stream or pool, 
which might make them feel more at home. 

WRENS (Troglodytidae), MOCKINGBIRDS and THRASHERS (Mimidae), 
THRUSHES (Turdidae). Feed fruit, mockingbird food, boiled eggs, meal- 
worms and otlier insects, ground meat, some green food, bread crumbs. 

OLD WORLD WARBLERS (Sylviidae), KINGLETS (Regulidae), OLD 
WORLD FLYCATCHERS (Muscicapidae), ACCENTORS, HEDGE-SPARROWS 
(Prunellidae), WAGTAILS, PIPITS (Motacillidae),WAXWINGS (Bombycil- 
lidae). Feed mealworms or any other insects available, and ground meat. 
Also try soft, well-ripened fruit and a small amount of bread crumbs. Rarely 
kept in captivity, and no well-proved diets are known to the author. 

SILKY FLYCATCHERS (Ptilogonatidae). Aerial feeders. Try mealworms 
and any other insects, also mockingbird food, boiled eggs, and ground meat. 

PALM-CHATS (Dulidae), WOOD-SWALLOWS (Artamidae), VANGA 
SHRIKES (Vangidae). All insect eaters. Feed soft food, meat, mealworms, 
flies, small animals. 

SHRIKES (Laniidae). Feed mealworms and any other insects available, 
also meat, mice, small birds, mockingbird food, boiled egffs, bread, lettuce. 

WOOD-SHRIKES (Prionopidae), PEPPER-SHRIKES (Cyclarhidae), 
SHRIKE-VIREOS (Vireolaniidae). All insect eaters. Feed soft food, meat, 
mealworms, flies, small animals. 

STARLINGS (Sturnldae). Feed the same as crows and jays. 

HONEY-EATERS (Melithreptidae), SUN-BIRDS (Nectariniidae), FLOWER- 
PECKERS (Dicaeidae), WHITE-EYES (Zosteropidae). Feed mealworms and 
other insects, ground meat, mockingbird food, boiled egg, fruit. Some of these 
birds like honey. 

VIREOS (Vireonidae). Feed mealworms and other insects, ground meat, 
fruit, mockingbird food. 

HONEY-CREEPERS (Coerebidae), HAWAIIAN HONEY-CREEPERS (Dre- 
panididae). Feed fruit, such as oranges, bananas, apples, with honey, meal- 
worms and other small insects. If flowers are in the cage, they will thrust 
their long, curved beaks into the flowers to obtain the nectar. Orange and 
pineapple juice in small tubes might be accepted. 

WOOD-WARBLERS (Compsothlypidae). Insect eaters in the wild. Feed 
mealworms, small insects, ground meat, and well-ripened soft fruit. Rarely 
kept in captivity, and no tested diet is known to the author. 

WEAVER FINCHES (Ploceidae), BLACKBIRDS, TROUPIALS (Icteridae). 
Feed seeds, bread, fruit, green vegetation, vegetables, mealworms and other 
insects, and ground meat. 

SWALLOW-TANAGERS (Tersinidae). Feed mockingbird food, boiled eggs, 
fruit, mealworms and other insects. 



358 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

TANAGERS (Thraupidae). Feed soft ripe fruit, such as bananas and 
oranges, mockingbird food, mealworms and other insects, boiled eggs, and 

lettuce. 

PLUSH-CAPPED FINCHES (Catamblyrhynchidae). Feed mockingbird 
food, boiled eggs, mealworms and other insects, green vegetation, seeds, and 
fruit. 

GROSBEAKS, FINCHES, BUNTINGS (Fringillidae). Feed assorted seeds, 
fruit, lettuce, and other green vegetation, mealworms, ground meat. 

REPTILES 

Reptiles are known as cold-blooded animals because their temperature fluctuates 
with that of their surroundings. They are mainly creatures of warm climates, 
and must be kept warm to be active. When the temperature gets low, they 
become sluggish and torpid, like other hibernating animals. If they are con- 
tinuously subjected to daily warming and nightly chilling, they will refuse to 
eat, and, while they mey be active during the daytime, they will become weak 
and presently die. It is therefore important that they be given a fairly constant 
and uniform temperature within the range preferred by the species. In general, 
the temperature for reptiles should not go below 70° and the animals will be 
more active and interesting at a temperature of 80° to 90° or upward. Cages 
for reptiles should be provided with some means of warming such as electrical 
heating units controlled by thermostats, or other devices that will aid in main- 
taining a fairly constant temperature at all times. A convenient means of 
providing uniform temperature for tliose animals that burrow is a thick layer 
of sand that can be warmed and that will retain the heat. 

Almost all reptiles need plenty of sunshine, or the substitute, ultraviolet light. 
However, they cannot endure extremes of either light or heat. 

Most snakes drink frequently and should be provided with water. Some 
lizards drink, others do not even though there is an abundance of water avail- 
able, as nature has provided that they shall take moisture through their skins. 
These animals should be sprinkled with water occasionally, or placed in a shallow 
pan of water. 

The shedding of skin by snakes and lizards is facilitated if the animals have 
access to water in which to soak. In some instances, gentle manipulation assists 
shedding. 

Some reptiles and amphibians will not notice food that is not moving. There- 
fore, if an individual will not eat when all other conditions seem to be suitable, 
try impaling the food on a stick and moving it about in front of the animal. 
This procedure is sometimes successful. 

ALLIGATORS, CROCODILES, CAIMANS AND GAVIAI.S (LOEIOATA; CBOCODTLIDAE ) 

All of these thrive on fish or meat, or both. If the temperature is maintained 
at 75° to 100°, and they refuse to eat at least once a week, they can sometimes 
be tempted by placing the fish or meat on the end of a stick and annoying 
them until they snap at the food. By this method they can sometimes be 
induced to eat freely. Provide with a pool of water of about air temperature 
into which the food can be thrown. There should be earth or rocks upon which 
they may climb to bask in the sunshine or the rays of powerful electric lights. 
They are not particularly active and do not require much space to exercise. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 359 

TURTLES, TORTOISES, AND TERRAPINS (TESTUDINATA) 

The baby turtles often sold with gaudily painted shells never develop properly, 
as the paint stunts their growth and eventually kills them. The paint may 
be removed by swabbing with turpentine or alcohol, but these fluids should 
not be allowed to come in contact with the young turtle's skin. 

LEATHERBACK TURTLES (Dermochelidae). Feed flsh. They must have 
fair-sized tanks of salt water of about 85° to 95° Fahrenheit. In the wild state, 
they come out of the water only to lay their eggs, so will not need any area 
above the water unless the females are to be encouraged to lay their eggs in 
the sand. They may be kept for a limited time in fresh water, but where 
so kept they usually succumb within a short time. See formula on page 330 for 
making salt water. Water should be changed sufficiently often to keep the 
tank from becoming cloudy, but need not be changed as often as for some other 
animals. 

If whitish films develop around the eyes, it is ordinarily a fungus growth 
and is usually fatal. Sometimes this condition can be controlled by the following 
methods : 

Add enough potassium permanganate to the water to give a slight tinge of 
color. The animals should be placed in this for 3 days, then in plain salt water 
for 1 day, changing again to the permanganate bath for 3 days, next remaining 
for 9 days in clean salt water, again 3 days in the permanganate water, then 
finally remaining in salt water. This latter method is used in some aquaria to 
kill various invertebrates as well as fungi. 

Another method is to add about 1 ounce of tincture of iodine to each 10 
gallons of water in the tank. 

Chlorine in the proportion of % to 2 parts per million of water will also 
kill fungi. Care should be exercised not to make the solution so strong as to 
injure the turtles or flsh. 

SNAPPING TURTLES and ALLIGATOR SNAPPERS (Chelydridae). Feed 
fish or meat. Provide with sufficient water in which to swim, and earth, sand, 
or rocks on which they can rest when out of the water. 

MUSK or MUD TURTLES (Kinosternidae). Feed fish and meat. They 
should have water in which to swim and some ground, rocks, or other space 
above the water on which to rest. 

LARGE-HEADED CHINESE TURTLE (Platysternidae). Will eat meat, 
snails, worms, and fish. Usually lives in mountain streams. Nocturnal. 

BOX TURTLES, LAND TORTOISES, and many FRESH-WATER TURTLES 
(Testudinidae). The land forms need plant food such as lettuce, kale, bananas, 
melons, prickly pear cactus, mushrooms, tomatoes, and occasionally a little fish 
or ground beef and soft bread. The aquatic types should be fed fish, meat, 
insects, shrimp, some green vegetation, fruit, and bread. Provide sufficient 
water in which to swim, and space to roam about out of the water. Some 
of the dry-land forms do not swim, and will drown in water. If one is not 
certain of the swimming or water requirements of this group, it is well to 
provide the cage with a tank with sloping edges so that the animal can readily 
climb out of water. The dry-land forms enjoy soaking in shallow water, as 
they may obtain their water in this manner rather than through drinking. 

SNAKE-NECKED TURTLES (Pelomedusidae). Fish, meat, and insects should 
be offered; also occasionally lettuce, bananas, and bread, until one is certain 
the individuals he has will or will not take it. Since they are semiaquatic, 
they should have water in which to swim ; also a fair amount of area outside 



360 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

the water. It is said that some of these turtles cannot swallow unless they 
have their heads beneath the water. The writer has seen them take cockroaches 
beneath the water to swallow them. 

WATER-TURTLE OF NEW GUINEA (Carettochelys), Habits unknown. 
Supposedly like those of other fresh-water turtles. (See Testudinidae — aquatic 
types.) 

SOFT-SHELLED TURTLES (Trionychidae). Fish and meat appear to be 
adequate foods. These turtles spend most of their time in the water or mud, 
but enjoy sunning themselves, so in addition to an ample swimming tank, they 
should have a place to rest above the water. 

LIZARDS AND SNAKES (SQUAMATA) 
LIZAKDS (SrrBOBDEE SAUBIA) 

GECKOES (Gekkonidae). Tropical animals. Keep warm. Feed cock- 
roaches, mealworms, and other Insects. 

CAT-EYED GECKOES (Eublepharidae). Nocturnal. Feed insects. 

BARK GECKO (Uroplatidae). Habits presumably same as those of the true 
geckoes. Try similar food. 

"WORM" LIZARD (Pygopodidae). Habits not known. Try feeding earth- 
worms, enchytrae, and insects. 

AGAMAS and their allies (Agamidae). Ground-dwelling and arboreal. Feed 
insects, fruit, meat, tender green leaves. 

IGUANAS and their allies (Iguanidae). Small species eat insects and small 
invertebrates. Large forms devour birds and small mammals, and rob birds' 
nests. The marine iguana of the Galdpagos Islands feeds on seaweed. The com- 
mon iguana of tropical America is largely herbivorous. Feed fruit and green 
vegetation. The chuckwalla of the southwestern United States eats cactus 
and other flowers. Feed flowers, buds, and green vegetation. Some desert 
forms, such as the horned lizard (horned "toad"), need sand in which to burrow. 
Feed ants and other insects. 

XENOSAURUS (Xenosauridae). Related both to the Iguanidae and the 
Anguidae. Food habits are presumably the same. 

ZONURUS (Zonuridae). Feed ground meat, boiled egg, and lettuce. 

SLOW-WORMS, ALLIGATOR LIZARDS, and their allies (Anguidae). The 
burrowing forms feed on small earthworms, enchytrae, and possibly slugs. 
The more active terrestrial ones catch insects. Feed enchytrae, mealworms, 
waxworms, other insects, and meat. 

"WORM" LIZARD (Anniellidae). Burrowing. Feeding habits probably sim- 
ilar to Anguidae. Provide with earth. 

GILA MONSTERS (Helodermatidae). Feed eggs mixed with raw chopped 
beef. Will sometimes take mice. 

MONITORS (Varanidae). Feed mice, rats, lizards, snakes, fish, birds, meat, 
eggs. Extremely voracious. 

NIGHT LIZARDS (Xantusiidae). Feed same as Teiidae (next family). 

RACE-RUNNERS and their allies (Teiidae). The small species eat insects, 
mealworms, grubs, grasshoppers, crickets, and other invertebrates of suitable 
size. Large ones, such as the tegus, devour young chickens, eggs, raw meat, 
and rats. 

"WORM" LIZARDS (Amphisbaenidae). Burrow in sand or soil. Feed earth- 
worms, enchytrae, and raw beef. 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 361 

WALL LIZARDS (Lacertidae). Insectivorous. Some are cannibalistic. 
Feed insects, meat, boiled eggs, and lettuce. 

GEKRHOSAURUS (Gerrhosauridae). Presumably insectivorous. Try meal- 
worms, waxworms, small mice, and lettuce. 

SKINKS (Scincidae). Feed insects, worms, slugs, meat, and fruit. Tlie 
stump-tailed lizard is known to eat meat, lizards, and snakes. The smaller 
species are satisfied with insects and slugs. 

ANELYTROPSIS (Anelytropidae). Feeding habits not known to the author. 

DIBAMUS (Dibamidae). Blind, subterranean. Try enchytrae, earthworms, 
and soft insects. Provide earth in which it can burrow. 

CHAMELEONS (Chamaelontidae). Feed grasshoppers, crickets, spiders, flies. 
Provide plants or limbs on which the animal may climb. 

SHINISAURUS (Shinisauridae). Feeding habits not known to the author. 

SNAKES (SUBOKDEJa SEEPENTES) 

BLIND SNAEHE or WORM SNAKE (Typhlopidae). Burrows. Feed earth- 
worms, enchytrae, soft insects, mealworms, fly larvae, maggots, and waxworms. 
Provide earth in which it can burrow. 

BLIND SNAKE or WORM SNAKE (Leptotyphlopidae). Same habits as 
Typhlopidae. 

SHIELD-TAILED SNAKE (Uropeltidae). Burrows. Feed on earthworms, 
enchytrae, and insect larvae. 

SUN-RAY SNAKE (Xenopeltidae). Eats other snakes. Provide earth for 
burrowing. 

BOAS and PYTHONS (Boidae). Feed mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, pigeons, and 
ciickens. Some will eat other reptiles. 

ANILIUS (Anilidae). Eats other snakes. Provide earth in which to burrow. 

COLUBRID SNAKES ( Colubridae) . About 1,200 different species. This family 
includes most of the harmless snakes, as well as venomous rear-fanged serpents. 
Feed mice, rats, small birds, eggs, insects, frogs, toads, and fish. 

COBRAS, CORAL SNAKES, KRAITS (Elapidae). Feed mice, rats, birds, 
snakes. The coral snake eats smaller snakes and baby mice. 

SEA SNAKES (Hydrophidae). These snakes inhabit tropical seas. Feed eels 
or strips of fish. Keep in tanks of warm salt water. 

CHUNK-HEADED SNAKES (Amblycephalidae). Feed snails and slugs. If 
these are not available, try mealworms, waxworms, baby mice, and meat. 

TRUE VIPERS (Viperidae). Feed mice, small rats, and small birds. 

RATTLESNAKES, WATER MOCCASINS, COPPERHEADS, FER-DE-LANCE, 
P.USHMASTER (Crotalidae). Feed mice, small rats, small birds. Moccasins 
also take fish. 

AMPHIBIANS 

Amphibians are cold-blooded but do not require such high temperatures as 
reptiles and cannot endure drying conditions, for their skin is moist and evapora- 
tion takes place rapidly. They will dry up and die if they do not have water, 
mud, moist vegetation, or other similar materials in which to harbor. Tempera- 
tures for salamanders generally should not exceed 90°, and many of these animals 
thrive best under temperatures of about 70°. Some will remain active in tem- 
peratures as low as 40°, but below that point will become torpid, as for hibernation. 
Shade is necessary. 



362 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Tadpoles (immature stage of most amphibians) are aquatic. They feed on the 
green scum and microscopic plant life found in standing water. This material 
must be provided if they are to survive in aquaria. 

FROGS AND TOADS (SALIENTIA) 

NEW ZEALAND FROG (Liopelmidae). Semiaquatic. Should have both 
water and a bank of mud or sand on which they can come out. Feed earthworms, 
small insects, scraps of raw beef moved about in front of them. 

DISCOGLOSSUS (Discoglossidae). Eats earthworms dropped into water. 
Semiaquatic, so should have pool and mud bank. 

SURINAM TOAD and its allies (Pipidae) . Feed scraps of raw fish or meat and 
mealworms dropped into water. Aquatic, so must have tank of water. 

PELOBATES and its allies (Pelobatidae). Feed worms, slugs, and insects, 
especially beetles. Burrows, so should have soil in cage. 

TOADS and their allies (Bufonidae). Must have moist soil and water. Feed 
mealworms, cockroaches, or any crawling insects, spiders, and earthworms. Some 
keepers have observed that where two or more species of toads or frogs have 
been put together, there have been unusual losses. This suggests that it may be 
advisable to keep each species to itself. 

TOADLIKE AMPHIBIANS (Brachycephalidae). A mixed group. Feed as 
for Ranidae (below). 

TREE TOADS (Hylidae). Feed soft-bodied insects, preferably alive, and pro- 
vide plants in the cage so that the animals can rest on the foliage. 

TRUE FROGS (Ranidae). Feed live insects to the small and medium-sized. 
Some of the larger frogs will take small mice. 

ASIATIC TREE TOADS (Polypetidae). Give same food as Hylidae. 

NARROW-MOUTHED TOADS (Brevicapitidae). Feed earthworms, slugs, 
ants, and other small invertebrates. Burrows, so should have soil in cage. 

SALAMANDERS (OAUDATA) 

COECILIANS (Coeciliidae). Legless, wormlike creatures that live in the 
moist soil, mud, or swamps of the Tropics. Try earthworms, enchytrae, and soft- 
bodied insects. 

HYNOBIUS (Hynobiidae). Try earthworms, enchytrae, and small incects. 

GIANT SALAMANDER, HELLBENDER, and aUies (Cryptobranchidae). In- 
habit clear streams of fairly cool water. They possess neither lungs nor gills and 
obtain the necessary oxygen from the water through their skins. Therefore, they 
should be provided with well-aerated water in a pool or tank. Feed worms, 
insects, meat, liver, boned fish. 

SPOTTED SALAMANDER and allies (Ambystomidae). Feed earthworms, 
enchytrae, mealworms, waxworms, and soft-bodied insects. 

MUD-"EEL," BLIND EEL, CONGO SNAKE (Amphiumidae). Inhabitants of 
sluggish, warm streams, where they spend much time in the mud. Provide with 
mud in the bottom of the aquarium, if possible, and feed mealworms enchytrae, 
soft-bodied insects, and small particles of meat. 

SLIMY SALAMANDER and allies (Plethodontidae) . Must have moist soil and 
water. Feed earthworms, enchytrae, slugs, small insects, and small pieces of 
meat moved in front of them on the end of a straw. 

CAVE SALAMANDERS (Proteidae). The white or colorless cave salamander 
of the United States and Europe (Proteus) is accustomed to cool water in almost 



CARE OF CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 363 

total darkness. Feed sparingly on enchytrae, ground shrimp, daphnia, waxworms, 
cr bits of raw meat. Necturus, the two North American colored forms, inhabit 
warm, sluggish streams. Feed fish eggs, enchytrae, mealworms, small bits of fish, 
and acquatic insects. 

SIREN ( Sirenidae) . Feed small fish, fish eggs, tadpoles, aquatic insects or their 
larvae, enchytrae, earthworms. Aquatic, so should have pool of water. 

FISH 

Fish kept in captivity for exhibition purjwses may be roughly divided into two 
classes, as follows: 

Small, mainly tropical fish, often beautiful, brilliantly colored creatures, can be 
kept in small aquaria without inconvenience, and sometimes add real beauty to 
the home. Great interest has been taken in so-called tropical fish raising, and 
Some excellent publications have been issued on the subject. (See bibliography.) 

Larger fish require large tanks with special provisions for aeration, filtering, 
cooling or warming the water, and to keep them involves numerous problems 
which only a large aquarium could undertake. It is therefore not advisable to 
attempt to treat the keeping of fish in this work. 

Such large aquaria as the John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, the Aquarium of 
the New York Zoological Society, New York City, the Steinhardt Aquarium, San 
Francisco, the Regents Park Aquarium operated by the Zoological Society of 
London, and numerous others have issued publications relative to the raising of 
fish. The United States Bureau of Fisheries, now a part of the United States 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, has issued many publica- 
tions relating principally to commercial fish. In addition, many facts are con- 
tained in articles and reports issued through various biological laboratories. 

INVERTEBRATES 

There are a vast number of invertebrates, including protozoa, worms, soft- 
bodied marine forms, crabs and crayfish, insects and mollusks that are attractive 
to many people. Many of these make interesting and sometimes beautiful exhibits, 
but a discussion of their care is beyond the scope of this paper. Information 
regarding the keeping of such creatures can be obtained from entomologists or 
other biologists. The raising and study of such forms can be a fascinating work 
or hobby for persons who are interested. 

LITERATURE RELATING TO THE CARE OF ANIMALS 

A vast amount of material on the subject of animals and their 
care has been written. It is not possible to give here even a reason- 
ably complete list of such literature. Governmental agencies of 
practically all countries throughout the world have issued publica- 
tions on domestic and wild animals. In our own country, the United 
States Fish and Wildlife Service, of the Department of the Interior, 
has many bulletins and leaflets on North American birds, mammals, 
reptiles, amphibians, and fish, some of which treat of the raising of 
fur-bearing animals, certain birds, fish, and invertebrates. Scientific 
societies and various research agencies have put out many excellent 
works. Natural histories and similar works — dealing specifically 



364 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

with certain animals, groups of animals, or the animals of certain 
regions — and encyclopaedias contain much information of value to 
those interested in the care of animals. Periodicals on fur farming, 
aviculture, and general natural history contain many articles of 
interest to one keeping pets. A few of these works are cited below, 
not because they are necessarily the best, but because they are readily 
accessible, or known to the author to be useful. 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

MAMMALS 

PUBLICATIONS ON FUR AND FUR ANIMALS. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Leaflet No. 3-1024, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1940. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON FUR BREEDING. Imperial Bureau of Animal Genetics, 
The University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1931. Mimeographed; fairly com- 
plete to 1930. Supplements to be issued. 

CARE AND HANDLING OF DOGS. By J. L. Leonard. Garden City Publish- 
ing Co., New Yorlc, 1928. 

A PRACTICAL CAT BOOK FOR AMATEURS AND PROFESSIONALS, By 
Ida M. Meller. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New Yorls;, 1939. 

RABBIT PRODUCTION. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1730, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, 1939. 

MINK RAISING. Fish and Wildlife Service Leaflet No. 191, U. S. Department 
of the Interior, 1941. 

DISEASES OF FUR ANIMALS. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1777, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, 1937. 

ELEPHANTS AND THEIR DISEASES. By G. H. Evans. Superintendent of 
Government Printing, Rangoon, India, 1910. 

THE CAMEL, ITS USES AND MANAGEMENT. By Maj. A. G. Leonard. 
Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1894. 

WILD ANIMALS OF NORTH AMERICA. By E. W. Nelson. In National 
Geographic Magazine for November 1916 and May 1918, National Geo- 
graphic Society, Washington, D. C. 

LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTHERN ANIMALS. By E. T. Seton. 2 vols. 
Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York, 1909. 

FIELD BOOK OF NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS. By H. E. Anthony. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1928, 

AMERICAN ANIMALS. By Witmer Stone and W. E. Cram. Doubleday, Page 
and Co., New York, 1920. 

AMERICAN MAMMALS. By W. J. Hamilton. McGraw Hill, New York, 1939. 

NATURAL HISTORY OF ANIALA.LS (Mammals). By George Jennison. Mac- 
millan Co., New York, 1927. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRICA (Mammals). By F. W. Fitz- 
simons. 4 vols. Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1920. 

BIRDS 

PUBLICATIONS ON CAGE BIRDS. Processed leaflet of the Fish and Wildlife 

Service No. 3-173, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1940. 
AVICULTURE (issued monthly). Published by the Avicultural Society of 

America, Chicago. 



CARE OP CAPTIVE ANIMALS — WALKER 365 

THE AVICULTURAL MAGAZINE (issued monthly). Stephen Austin and Sons, 
Ltd., Hertford, England. 

CANARIES : THEIR CARE AND MANAGEMENT. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1327, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1923. 

HINTS ON THE CARE OF PARROTS. Processed leaflet of the Fish and Wildlife 
Service No. 3-521, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1934. 

PARROTS IN CAPTIVITY. By W. T. Greene. G. Bell and Sons, London, 
1884-1887. 

THE BOOK OF THE PIGEON. By C. A. Naether. David McKay, Philadel- 
phia, 1939. 

ORNAMENTAL WATERFOWL. By R. E. Hubbard. Simpkins, Marshall, Ham- 
ilton, Kent and Co., London, 1907. 

PROPAGATION OF AQUATIC GAME BIRDS. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1612, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1930. 

FOOD OF GAME DUCKS IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA. Technical 
Bulletin No. 634, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1939. 

DISEASES OF UPLAND GAME BIRDS. Farmers' BuUetin No. 1781, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, 1937. 

A MONOGRAPH OF THE PHEASANTS. By Chas. W. Beebe. published under 
the auspices of the New York Zoological Society by Witherby and Co., London, 
1918-1922. 

LIFE HISTORIES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. By A. C. Bent. U. S. 
National Museum Bulletins Nos. 107 (1919), 113 (1921), 121 (1922), 126 
(1923), 130 (1925), 135 (1927), 142 (1927), 146 (1929), 162 (1932), 167 
(1937), 170 (1938), 174 (1939), 176 (1940). 

BIRDS OF THE WORLD. By F. H. Knowlton. H. Holt and Co., New York, 
1909. 

REPTIIiES AND AMPHIBIANS 

THE HABITS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ALLIGATORS. By Rem- 
ington Kellogg. Technical Bulletin No. 147, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
1929. 

TURTLES OF THE U. S. AND CANADA. By C. H. Pope. A. A. Knopf, New 
York, 1939. 

SNAKES OF THE WORLD. By Raymond L. Ditmars. Macmillan Co., New 
York, 1931. 

SNAKES ALIVE AND HOW THEY LIVE. By C. H. Pope. Viking Press, 1937. 

THE AMERICAN CHAMELEON AND ITS CARE. Processed leaflet of the Fish 
and Wildlife Service No. 92, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1937. 

REPTILES OF THE WORLD. By Raymond L. Ditmars. Sturgess and Walton 
Co., New York, 1910. 

THE FROG BOOK. By Mary C. Dickerson. Doubleday, Doran and Co. Inc., 
New York, 1931. 

THE TOAD. Processed leaflet of the Fish and Wildlife Service No. 8-664, 
U. S. Department of the Interior, 1922. 

REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS. By Thomas Barbour. Houghton-Mifflin Co., 
New York, 1926. 

FISH 

THE AQUARIUM (a periodical). Innes Publishing Co., Philadelphia. 
AQUATIC WORLD (a periodical). Roth Press, Baltimore, 1917-1941. 
TROPICAL FISH. By L. Q. Mann. Leisure League Book No. 6, Leisure League, 
New York, 1934. 



366 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

EXOTIC AQUARIUM FISHES. By Wm. T. Innes. Innes Publishing Co., 

Philadelphia, 1935. 
TROPICAL FISHES FOR THE HOME : THEIR CARE AND PROPAGATION. 

By F. H. Stoye. Frederick H. Stoye, Sayville, N. Y., 1935. 
GOLDFISH: THEIR CARE IN SMALL AQUARIA AND PONDS. By F. C. 

Fearuow. Appendix 7, Report of the Commissioner, Bureau of Fisheries, 

U. S. Department of Commerce, 1924. 
GOLDFISH VARIETIES AND TROPICAL AQUARIUM FISHES. By Wm. T. 

Innes. Innes Publishing Co., Philadelphia, 1931. 

GENERAL 

WILDLIFE REVIEW (issued at irregular intervals). Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, U. S. Department of the Interior. 
PUBLICATIONS OF INTEREST TO GAME BREEDERS. Fish and Wildlife 

Service Leaflet No. 182, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1941. 
COPEIA (a periodical). American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 

Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1913-1941. 
MANAGEMENT OF ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY IN LOWER BENGAL. By 

R. B. Senyal. Bengal Seccariat Press, Calcutta, 1892. 
ANIMALS AS FRIENDS AND HOW TO KEEP THEM. By M. Shaw and J. 

Fisher. E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc., New Yorli, 1940. 
PETS, THEIR HISTORY AND CARE. By L. S. Crandall. Henry Holt and 

Co., New York, 1917. 
ALL ABOUT PETS. By Margery Binaco. Macmillan Co., New York, 1929. 
OUR SMALL NATIVE ANIMALS : THEIR HABITS AND CARE. By Robert 

Snediger. Random House, New York, 1939. 
THE BOOK OF WILD PETS. By Clifford B. Moore. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 

New York, 1937. 
THE PET BOOK. By A. B. Comstock. Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca, 

N. Y., 1930. 
MEDICAL CARE OF ANIMALS IN THE ZOO. By W. R. Blair. Scientific 

Monthly, vol. 35, pp. 454-457, November 1932.; also quoted in Literary 

Digest, vol. 117, pp. 28 ff., January 14, 1933. 
DISEASE IN CAPTIVE WILD MAMMALS. By Herbert Fox. J. B. Lippincott 

Co., Philadelphia, 1923. 
ROYAL NATURAL HISTORY. Edited by Richard Lydekker. F. Warne and 

Co., London and New York, 184&-1915. 
THE AMERICAN NATURAL HISTORY. By W. T. Hornaday. Chas. Scrib- 

ner's Sons, New York, 1914 edition. 
THE RIVERSIDE NATURAL HISTORY. By J. S. Kingsley. Houghton- 
Mifflin Co., New York, 1888. 
THE CAMBRIDGE NATURAL HISTORY. By H. Evans. Macmillan Co., 

New York, 1900. 
FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA. Taylor and Francis, London, 1888-1928. 

Note: Requests for Farmers' Bvilletins, Technical Bulletins, and processed 
leaflets prepared by the former Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, and Bulletins prepared by the former Bureau of Fisheries, should be 
addressed to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D. C. 



Smithsonian Report. 1941.- Walker 




1. A choice specimen of American mink running a ferris-type wheel in its glass- fronted cage. A small 
stump and limb on which the animal can climb is behind the wheel. 




1 u(. luL'-i-ared cliff mice running on an inclined disk wheel while a third beneath the wheel watches the 

photographer. 



All photographs taken by the author unless otherwi.se indicated. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941.— Walker 



PLATE 2 




2. Syrian hamster coming out of a telescoping type of nest box, showing wire fabric sHde used to close the 

entrance when desired. 




2 Three emneror penguins, one gentoo penguin, four jackass or black-footed penguins, and two kelp gulls 
in glassTonted cool room in the National Zoological Park. The.glass front is of two layers of glass with 
a dead air space between. A temperature of about 50° is maintained. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Walker 



Plate 3 




1. Plains pocket mouse with fur in good condition as the result of cleaning her coat in very fine dry sand 


















'^^*r< 



K 









2. Plains pocket mouse with fur beginning to show bad condition, owing to Inning been (jn coarse sawdust 
for 72 hours. The cracked appearance in the fur is the result of the sticking together of the hairs, partly 
by the oily secretion of the skin and partly by the resinous material in the sawdust. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Walker 



PLATE 4 




1. Scene in flight cage in bird house, National Zoological Park, showing Chilean flamingoes, demoiselle 
cranes, scarlet ibis, Egyptian ibis, white ibis, black-billed tree ducks, Chilean pintail, gallinules, Ameri- 
ican coot, European oyster catchers, fireback pheasant, Chilean lapwing, sun-bittern, wood pigeon, 
golden pheasant, New Zealand mudhen. 




2. Walerlowl on one of a scries ot lour pond?. National Zoological Park. About 30 species ol waterfdwl 
are usually in this enclosure. Whistling swans, snow geese, blue geese, Hutchins geese, pintail ducks, 
canvasbacks, mallards, blue-wing teal, wood ducks, Pekin ducks, and coots appear in this scene. 




§a 







Smithsonian Report. 1941. — Walker 



Plate 6 





1. Woodchuek or marmot that was almost nudr lor si\(ral years, apparently because of a dietary deficiency. 
After 4 months on a suitable diet it grew a heavy coat of hair. Photograph by C. P. Richter. 




2. Pinche tamarin in glass-fronted cage in small-mammal house, National Zoological Park. 










03 C c8 



» <u > g 






=3 a-a^-S 
^ g ^ o a 




3 bO 

— o 

<5" 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Walker 



Plate 8 




1. Skull of marmot or woodchuck with both upper and lower incisors grown so long that the animal could 
not gnaw or eat normally. The left upper incisor had penetrated the roof of the mouth. 




2. Left, end of tail of coypu or nutria, probably originally injured by fighting, but worn to the bone at the 
tip by dragging on concrete; right, foot of ring-tailed monkey or capuchin, showing area on bottom of 
heel from which the skin and flesh had been worn to the bone as a result of walking on the concrete floor. 
The animals give no evidence of pain caused by such injuries. 



Smithsonian Report. 1 94 1. — Walker 



Plate 9 




1. Malayan porcupines gnawing on a freshly cut tulip tree limb about 20 inches long and 4 inches in diam- 
eter. Within 10 hours, the five porcupines in this cage had reduced the limb to a mass of chips and a 
spindle-shaped piece about a foot long and not more than 2 inches in diameter at its largest point. 



^-^\ 


^<^>^' ^~*-~-4-_ 




n 


^^p^ 


^^^^^ .4 'K 


'""^""^-^ /"I 


^"^^ 


^ \'W» 








1 A ^.^ 


r 




1 


^ ^'^^''i^ 



Binturong on artificial rock work in Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, 111., separated from the public by a moat 
and a low, irregular imitation rock wall. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Walker 



PLATE 10 




Reptile pool in yard enclosed by moat, low fence, and guard rail, in front of reptile house National Zc 

logical Park. 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. — Walker 



PLATE 1 1 




1. Three gaboon vipers in glass-fronted eage in rejitile house, National Zoological Park, 
iranu'diatel.v beyond the snake clo.sest to the glass in front. 



A small i)ool is 




2. American alligators in glass-fronted room in reptile house, National Zoological Park. A skylight com- 
prises almost the entire roof. Both iilants and alligators thrive in the temperatures of 80° to 100°, and 
the high humidity that prevails in this enclosure. 



I 



Smithsonian Report, 1941. Waike 



Plate 12 




t-,i 






1. Horned lizards and ivuw lizanis in ca^ic m itli clear-Klass front, publ)k'-};lasii sides, bark, and tup, a small 
cactus, and an artificial rock with a hollow in the top for water. 




2. Argentine horned frog in cage in reptile house, National Zoological Park. The sides and back of the 
cage are of pebble glass, with front of clear glass, A small pool shows in the background. 



THE INFLUENCE OF INSECTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT 
OF FOREST PROTECTION AND FOREST MANAGEMENT ^ 



By F. C. Ckaighe:ad 

Principal Entomologist, Division of Forest Insect Investigations, Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine 



[With 12 plates] 



Forty years ago, when the idea of forest conservation was acquir- 
ing momentum, few people realized that insects were in any manner 
a part of this picture. Today, with our coordinated Federal, State, 
and private organizations for the protection of our forest properties, 
over a million dollars are expended annually in measures designed 
to protect these forests from insect depredations. At the same time 
the cooperative efforts of a group of highly trained entomologists, 
pathologists, and foresters are devoted to the development of plans 
for growing new timber crops so as to circumvent the numerous forest 
pests of our second-growth forests. 

EARLY INSECT OUTBREAKS 

There are historical records of several destructive insect outbreaks, 
both bark beetles and defoliators, in earliest colonial times. These 
early affairs appear to have been regarded as more beneJBcial than 
injurious, coming as they did when the dense forests were a handicap 
to settlement and farm expansion. 

Probably the first insect outbreak that aroused suflScient concern 
among lumbermen to give rise to technical investigation occurred in 
West Virginia, Virginia, and Maryland from 1890 to 1892 from 
attacks of the southern pine beetle {Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) 
A. D. Hopkins (1899) studied this outbreak in great detail and 
reported on it in a publication of the West Virginia Agricultural 



' Inyestigations on forest insects by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 
are carried on at nine field laboratories. Their leaders and locations are as follows : R. C. 
Brown, New Haven, Conn. ; C. W. Collins, Morristown, N. J. ; J. C. Evenden, Coeur d'Alene, 
Idaho ; C. H. Hoffman, Ashville, N. C. ; F. P. Keen, Portland, Oreg. ; H. J. MacAloney, 
Milwaukee, Wis. ; J. M. Miller, Berkeley, Calif. ; D. E. Parker, Columbus, Ohio ; T. E. Snyder, 
New Orleans, La. Substations are also located at Saucier, Miss., Miami and Hat Creek, 
Calif., Cass Lake, Minn., La Grande, Wash., and Beltsville, Md. Many unpublished reports 
from these laboratories were drawn upon for the factual material used in this presentation. 

367 



368 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Experiment Station. In an area of over 75,000 square miles a large 
percentage of the pine and spruce was killed. A few years later, 
around 1900, the eastern spruce beetle {D. piceaperda Hopk.) was 
responsible for extensive depredations in the forests of Maine. Here 
again Hopkins (1901), collaborating with Austin Gary (1900) of 
the Forest Service, made a study of the conditions. Just prior to and 
during the Maine outbreak, 1895-1905, the Black Hills beetle {D. 
ponderosae Hopk.), which was not laiown to science at this time, 
destroyed more than a billion feet of timber in the Black Hills 
National Forest in South Dakota (Hopkins, 1902). This outbreak 
crystallized the realization that more technical knowledge was needed 
concerning these destructive bark beetles, and resulted in a small 
appropriation of $5,800 for the Bureau of Entomology for forest 
insect investigations and an allotment of $2,700 in 1906 for the control 
of this outbreak. 

WESTERN BARK BEETLES 

Recent outbreaks of bark beetles have been even more widespread 
and spectacular. To quote from a recent unpublished report of 
F. P. Keen, in charge of our Portland, Oreg., laboratory : 

The ponderosa pine forests of the Pacific States have suffered a continuous 
and serious drain from western pine beetle attack for the past 20 years or 
more, while in the Rocliy Mountain region sporadic outbreaks of the Black 
Hills beetle have taken a heavy toll of this species of pine in many local 
areas. Most spectacular of all has been the destruction of lodgepole pine for- 
ests in the northern Rocky Mountain region and local areas in the Cascades 
from uncontrolled outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle. Sugar pine [pi. 2, 
fig. 1; pi. 4], western white pine, and other si)ecies of pine are from time to 
time also seriously damaged by pine beetles. 

Records from annual surveys in the Klamath region of southern Oregon 
and northeastern California show that on an area of 4,300,000 acres 5,273,000,000 
board feet of ponderosa pine timber, representing 17.5 percent of the stand, 
was killed during the 20-year period 1921 to 1940 inclusive. This, of course, is 
not all a direct loss, as some of it was offset by growth. In portions of this 
region from 60 to 90 percent of the stand was destroyed. The western pine 
beetle {Dendroctonus hrevicomis Lee.) was a major factor in this mortality. 
[PI. 2, fig. 2.] 

An outbreak of the Black Hills beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Sopk.) on 
the Kaibab Forest of northern Arizona between 1917 and 1926 is a good example 
of the potential destructiveness of this species. During this outbreak it was 
estimated that 300,000,000 board feet of timber, representing 12 percent of 
the stand, was killed. In the heaviest centers of infestation, on areas 1,000 acres 
or more in extent, all trees down to those 2 inches in diameter were killed. 
Large openings in the forest, with remains of fallen snags showing the markings 
of beetle galleries, attest the fact that similar outbreaks have occurred in the 
past and may occur from time to time In the future. 

Outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus monticolae Hopk.) in 
lodgepole pine forests as described by Evenden [1940] are the most devastating 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 369 

of all in respect to extent and completeness of kill, although this tree species 
is not so valuable as several other species of pine. In the northern Rocky 
Mountains an outbreak originating in the Bitterroot Valley in 1922 swept down 
the Continental Divide and laid waste lodgepole pine forests over thousands 
of square miles. Estimates placed the total destruction at 7,250 million board 
feet, with more than 36,000,000 trees having been killed in one national forest 
alone. [PI. 5, fig. 2.] 

Taking the pine forests of the western States as a whole, recent estimates 
place the annual mortality associated with bark beetles at 2.8 billion board 
feet. The magnitude of this yearly figure can best be visualized by comparing 
it with the 4.4 billion board feet of lumber produced by all western pine saw- 
mills and the 1.4 billion board feet of saw timber killed by forest fires 
throughout the entire United States in 1936. 

DEFOLIATING INSECTS 

Defoliating insects have been even more destructive than bark 
beetles. The larch sawfly {Lygaeonematus erichsonii (Hartig) ) had 
practically wiped out larch as a commercial species in the eastern 
States and Canada by 1910 (Hewitt, 1912) and is now attacking 
stands west of the prairies. The spruce budworm {Cacoecia fumi- 
ferana (Clem.)) has repeatedly invaded our forests. (PI. 9, fig. 2.) 
An exceptional outbreak in the northeastern States and Canada 
(Swaine and Craighead, 1924) ravaged the spruce and fir forests for a 
period of 10 years (from 1910 to 1920), and it has been estimated that 
in spruce-fir types of Maine, Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick 
from 40 to 70 percent of this timber was destroyed, i. e., the equiva- 
lent of more than 25 years' pulpwood supply for current annual 
American paper requirements (Senate Document 19). Certain 
species of defoliators, even if they do not kill the timber, cause a ces- 
sation or reduction of growth which may increase the rotation period 
of the stand from 5 to 10 years or more. Such defoliations may be 
local and confined to a single species of tree or they may spread over 
enormous areas involving several species. The most recent outbreak 
of the Pandora moth {Coloradia 'pandora (Blake)) in the ponderosa 
pine stands of southern Oregon (pi. 7, fig. 2; pi. 9, fig. 1) occurred be- 
tween 1918 and 1925 and covered approximately 400,000 acres (Pat- 
terson, 1929). Growth measurements from plots in this area showed 
that for a period of 11 years the normal forest growth was reduced an 
average of 32 percent, or suffered a loss of increment of approximately 
100 million board feet. The spruce sawfly {Diprion polytomum 
(Htg.) (pi. 10, fig. 2) ) has more recently threatened the spruce forests 
of the New England States and Canada. In the Gaspe Peninsula in 
Canada it has already (1940) killed 10,000,000 cords of spruce (Balch, 
1941). Late in 1940 it was suddenly checked by a disease which 
decimated its number throughout its range. 



370 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

FIRE AND INSECT RELATIONS 

Insect outbreaks are occasionally of more importance because of 
the fire menace they create than because of the value of the timber 
killed. This condition is described in "A National Plan for American 
Forestry" (Senate Document 12, 1933), as follows: 

When extensive outbreaks of insects develop in forest types composed chiefly 
of one species of tree, a high percentage of the stand may be destroyed. These 
standing dead trees go dovpn in the course of a few years, making an almost 
impenetrable tangle of logs and tops. Under proper conditions a flash of 
lightning may set off the mass, resulting in a widespread conflagration almost 
impossible to fight. Past experience has shown that epidemics of the mountain 
pine beetle in lodgepole have been followed by fires more often than not. 
[PI. 5, fig. 1.] 

The old snags of insect-killed trees scattered throughout our mature forests, 
which average for some areas as many as 10 per acre, stand for many years 
and greatly increase the cost, diflSculty, and danger in fire control. Snag 
felling is required in many sales of national forest timber, and many private 
operators have already adopted this regulation. The increased cost of control 
of fires which have spread from burning snags within fire lines would alone 
justify insect control even at a high cost. 

It should be understood that in making any comparisons between 
losses from insects and from fire, a certain percentage of this destruc- 
tion by insects occurs in what are called normal or endemic in- 
festations in timber stands of such low commercial value that an 
expenditure for control would not be warranted. Such losses are 
inevitable and are in most cases offset by the annual increment of the 
stand. Also, as stated in Senate Document 12, 

Forest fires, beside destroying variable amounts of mature timber, kill all 
the smaller trees and reproduction, and repeated fires leave the land in a 
totally unproductive condition for generations to come. Forest insect epidemics, 
on the other hand, destroy only the mature timber and not only leave the 
regeneration already existing in a better condition for rapid growth but 
frequently induce copious reproduction. 

SCENIC AND PROTECTIVE VALUES 

The preceding citation of insect damage in commercial timber is 
only a part of the picture. To quote again from Senate Document 
12, 

The importance of the forest cover in national parks, game preserves, and 
recreational areas cannot be estimated in monetary values. Here aesthetic 
and protective values far outweigh those of commercial timber. One of the 
greatest attractions in these areas is a green forest cover on which much of 
the natural beauty of the parks is dependent. The trees also give protection 
to the birds and animals. 

Insect depredations which mar the scenic value or destroy the 
protective values of the forest cover in these parks and recreational 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 371 

areas have in late years become of even greater moment than those 
involving only commercial timber. 

DEVELOPMENT OF BARK BEETLE CONTROL 

As our reserve supplies of timber became depleted from utilization, 
fire, and insects, and recreational activities continued to spread into 
more and more remote areas, private timberland owners and Federal 
administrators of timbered areas became more conscious of the need 
of any action that would delay part of this depletion. A short 
sketch of this work is of interest. 

The first control project, as mentioned previously, was initiated 
on the Black Hills National Forest in South Dakota in 1906, 
when $2,700 was expended in an effort to check an epidemic 
of the Black Hills beetle. Since then many projects have been car- 
ried out, some of them covering areas of more than 1,000,000 acres. 
Up to the present time (fiscal year 1941) approximately $8,000,000 
has been expended in the control of bark beetle infestations, mainly 
in reserves of timber which are being held until conditions warrant 
logging and marketing of the lumber. 

The annual expenditures from 1906 to 1921 were small — rarely 
over $20,000 and usually much less. Since 1922, with the fuller 
appreciation of the importance of insect losses, increasing amounts 
have been spent each year for the protection of valuable timber 
stands. From regular appropriations the Forest Service has spent 
$100,000 to nearly $200,000 annually, the Park Service from $40,000 
to $50,000, and the Office of Indian Affairs from $10,000 to $20,000. 

During late years it has been possible to meet the needs for forest 
insect control more adequately by means of increased funds avail- 
able to land-managing agencies through emergency legislation and 
Civilian Conservation Corps labor. During the fiscal year 1937, and 
for several years since, nearly a million dollars or its equivalent in 
manpower was utilized in insect control work on Federal lands. 

As control work proceeded, year by year the need for competent 
technical advice became more and more apparent. Trained men were 
needed to appraise the character of the insect infestations, to make 
recommendations to the timberland owners or administrators, and to 
direct technical features of control. This resulted in the development, 
within the Bureau of Entomology, of a service for these purposes. 
The objectives of such a service were set forth in a memorandum by the 
Secretary of Agriculture dated February 16, 1920, covering the re- 
sponsibilities of the Bureau of Entomology and the Forest Service. 
In time this understanding has been interpreted as applying to all 
other Federal agencies managing timberlands. Briefly, the instruc- 
tions stated that the Bureau of Entomology shall be responsible for 

430577—42 25 



372 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

surveys, for making specific recommendations on the need of con- 
trol work, and, when necessary, for the technical direction of con- 
trol. This service was extended to private owners as well. A fine 
spirit of cooperation between the several national agencies manag- 
ing timberlands, namely, the Forest Service, the National Park Serv- 
ice, the Office of Indian Affairs, and the Bureau of Entomology 
(lately the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine) has facil- 
itated this plan. 

Gradually these surveys have been developed to cover many of 
the more important timber types in the western States although 
the job is still far beyond the appropriations available. During 1940 
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine covered in these 
surveys over 23 million acres in all types of forests. Much of the 
country was covered by general reconnaissance surveys, while certain 
areas required intensive detailed estimates. These results were re- 
ported to the agencies administering these timberlands and in many 
cases recommendations for control were suggested and carried out. 

As this control program increased, it stimulated new ideas and 
technique and provided large-scale tests for these developments. 

To quote Craighead et al. (1931), 

Control methods necessarily must be based upon Information regarding the 
seasonal history and habits of the insects, and also, until thoroughly tried out 
in practice, upon certain conceptions and theories. Each species of bark beetle 
presents its own special problem, and even the same species may present prob- 
lems which differ in different regions. 

Control of bark beetles is admittedly expensive. (PI. 3 ; pi. 6 ; pi. 
7, fig. 1.) According to Craighead (1938) , 

It involves the spotting of infested trees in the forest, followed by felling, 
barliing, and often burning of the bark to destroy the beetles and thus pre- 
vent new broods from emerging from infested trees and attacking nearby 
green trees. Usually the largest trees in the forest are attacked and the labor 
required for spotting, felling, barking, and burning costs from $2 to $20 per 
tree, depending on its size, accessibility, type of timber, and other factors. 
Such costs are a limiting factor in the application of control, as frequently 
the expenditures run too high to make control economically feasible. In recent 
years several new methods have greatly reduced these costs. 

The so-called solar-heat method was tested out on a large scale 
in lodgepole areas in Oregon by Patterson (1930) and found to be 
successful under certain conditions. It consists of simply felling the 
tree and exposing the trunk to full sunlight, later turning the log 
to expose the underside. The heat generated under the bark by the 
direct rays of the sun is sufficient to kill the brood. In California 
the thick bark of yellow pine and sugar pine is first peeled and then 
spread out in the sun. 

About 1926 a method was devised for burning the infested bark from 
standing lodgepole pines. It was tested on several large projects in 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 373 

southern Idaho and proved to be effective and economical. (Arrivee, 
1930.) 

The possibility of injecting chemicals into the sap stream of the 
tree and thus preventing the development of the bark beetle broods 
and doing away with the costly operations of felling and barking 
or burning the tree for the control of bark beetles has been experi- 
mentally tested during the last few years. There appears to be some 
promise in this field, both from control and salvage standpoints, 
but it has a practical difficulty in that treatment is necessary shortly 
after the beetles attack, i. e., before the blue stains in the sap wood 
cut off conduction. (Craighead and St. George, 1938.) 

One of the disadvantages of bark beetle control has been the 
loss of the lumber from the trees that are treated. Studies by Keen 
(1931) of the salvage possibilities of beetle-killed timber have led 
to some practical methods of treating this problem. He says : 

A great deal of attention has been devoted by our entomologists in the last 
few years to the use of so-called salvage methods of control, and the Forest 
Service and private timberland owners have cooperated heartily. In the pon- 
derosa pine types of eastern Oregon and northeastern California when the 
terrain permits caterpillar logging, prompt spotting and salvage of these trees 
is feasible. [PI. 3, fig. 1.] 

It has long been desirable to have a method of treating infested 
trees through the summer period, one that would be quick in action 
and avoid the use of fire, which is so dangerous at that time of year. 
After considerable experimentation several penetrating sprays were 
developed which, when applied to the trees, promise to meet this 
need effectively. The most satisfactory chemical is orthodichloro- 
benzene carried in light fuel oil. This method is particularly well 
suited to the control of mountain pine beetle broods under the thin 
bark of lodgepole and white pines in the Rocky Mountain regions. 
(Salman, 1938.) 

The lethal effect of low winter temperatures has been taken advan- 
tage of to call off control work on projects already under way when 
temperatures dropped to a sufficiently low level to destroy the broods. 
(Miller, 1931; Keen, 1937.) 

RESULTS OF BARK BEETLE CONTROL 

A review of the control work against bark beetles in our forests 
and an appraisal of its values were summarized by Craighead, Miller, 
Keen, and Evenden in 1931. It should be explained here that con- 
trol work is carried out only against a small percentage of the out- 
breaks. In inaccessible timber, where new trees will replace those 
destroyed before the area is logged or where commercial values do 
not warrant large direct expenditures, control is seldom undertaken 



374 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

unless recreational or scenic values are at stake or unless outbreaks 
in remote areas threaten commercially valuable stands. In general 
only where utilization is anticipated in the next 10 to 25 years is 
control economically feasible. 

The results might be said to be more or less in direct proportion 
to the aggressiveness of the beetle. The Black Hills beetle, which 
appears to be one of the most destructive of all species of Dendroc- 
tonus, seems to build up into aggressive outbreaks rather suddenly 
and, after locally killing extensive areas of timber, disappears quite 
as rapidly. Control efforts against this species have been uniformly 
successful if thoroughly applied. The southern pine beetle is 
equally as aggressive. Its outbreaks have been definitely shown to 
be tied in with deficiencies in rainfall extending over a period of sev- 
eral months. Direct control is, however, more difficult here because 
of the short duration of many outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle 
in lodgepole pine behaves much like the Black Hills beetle and has 
wiped out tremendous volumes of mature timber. Here, again, 
control work has been successful when persistently applied. On the 
other hand, this beetle's activities in the white pine type of the north- 
ern Rocky Mountain region and the sugar pine type of California 
are quite different. The western pine beetle in the ponderosa pine 
type of Oregon and California may be classed as the least aggressive 
of all these species, in that it seems to show a definite predilection 
for certain weakened trees and its activities appear to run in cycles 
associated with definitely unfavorable weather. This correlation 
has been frequently noted and recently developed by Keen in a study 
of tree growth, precipitation, and bark beetle activities. The climatic 
influences that dominate the growth pattern undoubtedly have a 
direct effect on the insects. (Keen, 1937.) 

CONTROL OF FOREST DEFOLIATORS 

Even greater efforts have been expended against some defoliating 
insects. The gypsy moth is a European insect which reached eastern 
Massachusetts in 1869. Some 20 years later it had become well- 
established and attracted popular attention because of its widespread 
defoliation of hardwood trees. The State of Massachusetts undertook 
control work, which continued until about 1899. Then there was a 
period when no work was done and the insect increased rapidly. 
In 1905 the Federal Government stepped into the picture in an effort 
to prevent its spread to other States to the south and west. Since 
that time more money has been spent on the control of the gypsy moth 
than has been spent on all other forest insects combined. In 1934, 
total expenditures. State and Federal, to date were approximately 
$40,000,000. Since then, through C. C. C. and relief funds, some $20,- 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 375 

000,000 additional has been spent. This is obviously out of all propor- 
tion to the immediate damage in the infested area, notwithstanding 
the fact that in the early days of the gypsy moth, before it had been 
acclimated to behavior more or less like that of a native insect, it 
did cause tremendous destruction of oaks and associated pines in 
eastern Massachusetts. It was the danger that it might spread south 
and west throughout the eastern hardwood regions that warranted 
large-scale, continued effort. 

Aside from the value of local suppression and prevention of spread 
of the gypsy moth, this program developed many features of inesti- 
mable value in the control of forest, shade, and fruit-tree insects. 

Spraying of woodland areas has developed into something of a 
"big business" with a scientific background. Modern high-pressure 
spraying machines and other equipment have been evolved to meet 
the necessity. This technique now has wide application in all parts 
of the country. The adaptability of the autogiro (pi. 10, fig. 1) for 
applying arsenicals over forested areas has been demonstrated, and 
this type of equipment bids fair in time to supplant completely the 
use of ground machinery. It may lower the cost of the application of 
insecticides to such a figure that it will be economical to protect forest 
lands on the basis of the value of the threatened stand rather than 
on the additional threat of spread to, and destruction of, forest in 
other areas. Lead arsenate, one of the most widely used arsenicals, 
was developed commercially. 

For many years an extensive program of parasite introduction was 
carried on in an effort to establish the principal insect enemies of the 
gypsy moth in this country. Most of the important foreign parasites 
are now firmly established here and several of them have spread 
throughout the gypsy moth infested region. This was the first large- 
scale undertaking of this kind, and the knowledge gained has served 
as a basis for studying parasites of a large number of injurious 
insects. 

Many other destructive outbreaks of defoliators have occurred from 
time to time in our forests but most of these developed unobserved 
to such magnitude and declined with such abruptness that it has 
been impossible to organize a control campaign. Suppression work 
on many smaller direct-control projects in scenic and recreational 
areas in our national parks and national forests have been carried out 
during this period and will undoubtedly be conducted more frequently 
in the future as the use of these recreational areas increases and costs 
of application are reduced. 

CONTROL OF VEC5T0RS OF THE DUTCH ELM DISEASE 

The Dutch elm disease can logically be referred to here inasmuch 
as its spread is entirely due to insect vectors, chiefly the small bark 



376 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

beetle Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham) (pi. 11), introduced from 
Europe, and a native bark beetle, Eylurgopinus ruflpes (Eich.). 
Without these associates the disease could do no damage. In this 
case, control emphasis has been placed on the disease, although actu- 
ally the case is a close parallel to our bark beetle problems, where 
several species of Ceratostomella^ or blue stains, are introduced by 
Dendroctonus into the stems of pine and spruce to bring about their 
destruction. More and more the control of this disease is becoming 
a problem in the control of the vectors. 

Scolytus was introduced from Europe many years ago and is 
widely distributed. When the disease first appeared in 1930 a survey 
showed that it was well established in New Jersey and that a few 
outlying infections existed. An eradication program was undertaken 
in 1935. At the present time over $25,000,000 has been spent. 

As in the case of the gypsy moth control campaign, this large 
intensive campaign has perfected methods, particularly in scouting 
and chemical control, suitable for application to future similar 
emergencies that may arise. 

RfiSUM^ ON DIRECT CONTROL 

Thus during a period of some 40 years, beginning at a time when 
many of the most destructive of our forest pests were still new to 
science, the threat of insects to our reserve timber stands, their 
capacity in marring scenic and recreational values, their destruction 
of second-growth forests, and their importance as a fire menace have 
become widely appreciated, and highly specialized organizations for 
the prevention or control of these losses have been developed. 

During this period more than $100,000,000 has been spent and in 
recent years $5,000,000 to $10,000,000 annually has been utilized in 
protective measures. The annual expenditures by the United States 
Forest Service for fire protection is approximately $15,000,000. 

PROTECTION THROUGH MANAGEMENT 

The foregoing discussion presents a broad picture of insect activi- 
ties in our forests and of man's efforts to counteract their destructive 
tendencies where the timber stands are of sufficient value to warrant 
direct expenditures for control. Such effort has been based, on the 
theory that the necessary expenditures are justified because of the 
greater value of the green timber saved by this action or because 
of the recreational values involved. 

Gradually, while this was going on, entomologists and foresters 
were thinking of the future, toward a time when methods for growing 
timber crops so as to avoid insect losses could be substituted for 



I 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 377 

artificial control. Definite suggestions along these lines were 
expressed very early by Hopkins (1909a) : 

The desired control or prevention of loss can often be brought about by the 
adoption or adjustment of those requisite details in forest management and 
in lumbering and manufacturing operations, storing, transportation, and utiliza- 
tion of the products which at the least expenditure will cause the necessary 
reduction of the injurious insects and establish unfavorable conditions for their 
future multiplication or continuance of destructive work. 

Curiously enough the principles for growing or handling forests 
to avoid insect attack are best learned from the study of the insects 
themselves. As mentioned previously, insect losses are only serious 
when they interfere with man's need. For generations certain types 
of forests have been destroyed by insects and rebuilt through growth, 
and this process is still going on unnoticed and of little concern to 
man in the more remote areas. Nature also uses msects for the 
removal of certain shade-intolerant or temporary species of trees 
from the forest, thus hastening the arrival of the climax type. 

Many excellent examples of such activities have been observed and 
recorded. The first might be illustrated by the activities of the Black 
Hills beetle on the Kaibab Plateau, an area relatively undisturbed by 
man. To quote Craighead (1924) : 

This beetle has been present in this forest, killing enormous quantities of 
timber, probably since the forest has been in existence, although absolute 
records can only be dated back 400 years. The activities of these beetles have 
been almost continuous with intermittent periods of greater epidemicity * * * 
Generally speaking, the forest consists of a densely stocked immature stand. 
Stands of old mature timber are very limited in extent * * * These beetles 
have in reality been putting into effect a form of management — cutting by a 
group system the annual increment of the forest for hundreds of years in the 
past and providing at the same time good conditions for reproduction. But 
little study is needed to convince one that this system has been higlily successful 
from the standpoint of producing rapid growth and fully stocked stands. 

An illustration of the action of insects in effecting natural forest 
succession is provided by the 1910-20 spruce budworm outbreak in 
eastern Canada and the northeastern part of the United States, as 
described by Swaine and Craighead (1924) and by Graham and Orr 
(1940). This outbreak was one phase of a slow process of natural 
forest succession over extensive areas. The temporary types, com- 
posed largely of aspen and birch, were gradually replaced by mix- 
tures of balsam fir, spruce, and red and white pine. The forest tent 
caterpillar {Malacosoma disstr-ia Hbn.) probably aided in this con- 
version by killing some of the aspen and birch and thus releasing 
the coniferous understory. By the time the fir and spruce reached 
maturity they formed a considerable part of the upper crown canopy 
and thus made conditions favorable for an outbreak of the spruce 
budworm. The budworm killed most of the mature fir and some of 



378 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

the spruce. The eastern spruce beetle was also a factor in killing 
overmature spruce. Insects were thus important in the production 
of the extensive stands of white pine of early logging days — giant 
trees 300 or more years of age overtopping a spruce-fir-hardwood 
understory. 

The application of entomological knowledge to forest management 
must go hand in hand with practical developments in forest utiliza- 
tion. Many schemes have been suggested for handling timber stands, 
particularly second growth, to avoid some specific insect damage. 
Many of these may eventually be applied but most of them are still 
impractical because of economic considerations. 

FROM DIRECT BARK BEETLE CONTROL TO SELECTIVE LOGGING OF 

SUSCEPTIBLE TREES 

Probably the most persistent effort in the application of entomo- 
logical knowledge to the management of timber stands has been 
expended for the prevention of bark beetle losses in the ponderosa 
pine type of California and Oregon. 

During the period of increasing control work, while we were utiliz- 
ing our overmature reserves of timber, many of the disadvantages 
of direct control became apparent, particularly the costliness and 
the variability of the results and the fact that much of the timber 
treated could seldom be utilized but had to be left in the woods to 
decay. 

That the western pine beetle (pi. 1) should have been one of the 
first insects for which definite suggestions were made for substituting 
management for direct control is easily understood. Extensive stands 
of increasingly valuable timber were at stake, losses in the best-quality 
timber were increasing, biological studies and control efforts were 
pushed more energetically than for any other beetle, and, most impor- 
tant, it was realized early in the study of this species that it showed a 
decided preference for trees with certain recognizable characteristics 
and that advantage might be taken of this preference in marking 
timber sales. 

Hopkins (1909b) notes the preference of this beetle for "larger, best 
matured trees." 

Pearce (1920) pointed out that "beetle activities in our pine forests 
not only represent a serious economic loss but must be taken into con- 
sideration in planning for sustained yield." 

Craighead (1925a) expressed this idea as follows: 

Generally speaking, the western pine beetle appears to prefer overmature, slow- 
growing, decadent trees, particularly those on poorer sites * * ♦ There is no 
doubt, however, that successful management of the western yellow pine is Just 
as intimately tied up with this beetle problem as it is with fire or with the 
silvical characteristics of the tree and that the beetles' ability to increase ia 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 379 

numbers is conditioned by physiological changes in the trees brought about by 
deficiency in rainfall or opening of the stand which allows greater desiccation. 

Person (1928*) was the first to give this predilection of the beetle for 
certain trees a definite terminology, using "tree susceptibility" and 
"beetle selectivity." His work showed that 

• * * tree selection, as used in this paper, is not Intended to mean a con- 
scious selection of certain trees by the insects, but rather that trees having certain 
characteristics are more apt to be killed by the western pine beetle than trees 
which do not have them. 

The preference of the western pine beetle for the slow-growing trees varies 
with the area and the status of the infestation, being more marked under endemic 
or increasing conditions than under decreasing epidemic conditions. 

The slow-growing trees, which are of least value for producing wood, are the 
trees most likely to be killed by the western pine beetle. If these trees can be taken 
out in the earliest cutting of timber the condition of cut-over areas will be 
materially improved from the standpoint of insect damage and of subsequent 
growth. 

In a later paper (1931) Person states: 

Any increase in our knowledge of how the western pine beetle selects the trees 
which it kills will make it possible to reduce this loss by leaving on our cut-over 
areas only such trees as will have the best chance of surviving until the next cut. 

A greater knowledge of tree attractiveness and stand susceptibility will 
make it possible to determine the probability of insect loss when the logging 
plan is first drawn up, before the insect loss occurs, thus obviating the necessity 
of later changes, which are usually costly. 

Dunning (1928) , in presenting a tree classification for western yellow 
pine, recognized the importance of bark beetles as a mortality factor. 
To quote: "The greatest single cause of mortality was bark beetles 
{Dendroctonus) which killed 61, or 35 percent, of the 172 trees and 
accounted for 50 percent of the basal-area loss." He also comments 
on the possibility of using in management, the selectivity shown by 
these beetles, stating that "The elimination of susceptible trees in cut- 
ting would doubtless lessen endemic insect damage, the most important 
cause of loss on cut-over areas." 

In presenting an appraisal of control, Craighead, Miller, Keen, and 
Evenden (1931) point out that the results of control work against the 
western pine beetle have "not been spectacular or outstanding * * * 
and the benefits only temporary. * * * Such (control) work may 
be combined with selective logging to remove susceptible trees and 
produce better growth conditions in order to give permanent pro- 
tection for long periods." 

Further developments with this idea were reported in 1933 (Senate 
Document 12) following actual experimental tests in removmg 
beetle-susceptible trees (fig. 1) : 

Much progress has been made in recent years toward establishing sustained 
yield on both Federal and private timberlands in the ponderosa pine type of 
California and Oregon. The management of these stands is based on an initial 



380 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 



partial cutting, leaving a sufficient reserve of timber for future growth, so as 
to enable a second cutting in from 30 to 40 years. Bark beetle losses in these 
stands reserved for future grovpth have in certain areas not only offset all incre- 
ment, but have reduced the original forest capital from 1 to 15 percent. Recent 
experiments have indicated the possibility of avoiding this loss by reinovina; 
insect-susceptible trees in the initial cutting. These susceptible trees are those 
of slower growths which can be detected at the time of marking the timber for 
sale. Recent sales have been marked on this plan. 

RISK CLASSES FOR PONDEROSA PINE 






M^ 



Low Risk 



Hiqh Risk 



FiGUBE 1. — Touched-up photographs to illustrate types of ponderosa pine sus- 
ceptible to bark beetle attack. Lowered vigor and resistance and greater 
susceptibility indicated by higher numbers. (Salmon and Bongberg.) 



Keen (1936) was the first definitely to classify ponderosa pine on 
the basis of susceptibility to bark beetle attacks. He proposed a 
classification based on age and vigor (crown size, shape, and density) 
that has served very well for this purpose and has been widely 
adopted by foresters for other purposes as well (fig. 2). He says: 

Once the type of tree most likely to be killed can be recognized with a fair 
degree of certainty, it is possible to make partial cuttings of beetle-susceptible 
trees, either for the purpose of salvaging valuable high-risk trees before they 
are damaged by beetle attack or for the silvicultural objective of reducing mor- 
tality and Increasing net growth. 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 



381 



A PONDEROSA PINE TREE CLASSIFICATION 

BASED ON AGE AND VIGOR 





A B CD 

FiGTJRB 2. — Keen's tree classification based on age and vigor. 



382 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

These studies have revealed that the risk of being killed by western pine 
beetles is distinctly greater for trees of certain types than it is for other trees 
in the same stand. In general, the trees more susceptible to attack are the 
weaker, less vigorous individuals and, to a certain degree, those more advanced 
in age. The problem, therefore, is one of recognizing the combination of char- 
acters which indicates susceptibility. 

Silvicultural management of our ponderosa pine forests should eventually 
lead to the solution of the present pine beetle problems. Although forest manage- 
ment may not eliminate all future bark beetle troubles, it is at least a step in 
the right direction of improving the chances of ponderosa pine stands to escape 
such injury. 

The practicability of Keen's scheme was quickly recognized, and 
actual marking of timber sales by this classification was carried out 
in Oregon and Washington and adaptations of the system were used 
by foresters in the Southwest and in the Rocky Mountain regions. 
The results were good and led to further study and refinement of the 
characteristics of "bug trees." 

About this time thought along these lines had crystallized suffic- 
iently to demand further experimental plots for testing the possibili- 
ties of marking beetle-susceptible trees. In 1936, on the Blacks 
Mountain experimental area, the California Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion set aside certain areas for use of the Berkeley laboratory of the 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, and Bongberg and 
Salman marked the "bug trees" on the basis of their ideas of the 
characteristics that indicate susceptibility. After 4 years the results 
of this work have been highly satisfactory and are being applied by 
private interests and the United States Forest Service in Oregon and 
California. Salman and Bongberg (1941) have shown that on these 
experimental areas they were able to mark and remove before attack 
85 percent of the trees that would have been destroyed by bark beetles 
from comparison with the losses on adjacent areas. 

Thus after many years of direct-control efforts against the western 
pine bettle and the testing of several methods for marking and cut- 
ting of ponderosa pine on Federal and private lands in an effort 
to obtain sustained yield, we are now anticipating nature's ruthless 
but effective method — selection by climate and beetles. For many 
years this selection system has been going on before our eyes but 
only recently have we seen it — no doubt, we still see only a part of 
it. It is still too early to predict the success of this method, aptly 
phrased "beating the bettle to it." Theoretically it looks good. If 
we remove the susceptible trees before the beetle broods develop 
in them, it seems reasonable to believe that beetles cannot increase in 
numbers and become aggressive to the point of killing nonsusceptible 
trees. In practice, success will depend on several considerations. 
Logging methods and terrain, as well as the lumber demand, will 



INSECTS AND FOREST IVIANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 383 

govern the size of the cut. The "beetle system" will demand low- 
volume removals at frequent intervals in most stands. Can we mod- 
ify our usual cutting practices so as to remove more frequently the 
susceptible crop of trees? Under favorable weather and beetle con- 
ditions, as have recently prevailed, it seems possible to do this with 
a light cut every 5 years or so. Under adverse conditions, such as 
prevailed 10 to 15 years ago, it would have been necessary to remove 
25 to 50 percent of many stands in a few years. 

This discussion pertains to overmature and usually understocked 
stands. It does not consider the conditions that will prevail once 
these stands have been removed and abundant reproduction occupies 
the ground. Obviously the competition in these younger stands will 
offer conditions favorable to group attacks by the bark engravers 
{Ips) and the mountain pine beetle, even if the western pine beetle 
is not abundant, and judicious thinnings will be required to prevent 
the excessive opening of the stands by large group attacks, thus 
bringing about local understockings or conversion of type to less 
desirable species (Craighead, 1936; Eaton, 1941). Pearson and 
Wadsworth (1941) recognized this need in their experimental work 
with ponderosa pine on the Colorado Plateau and show preliminary 
favorable results from thinnings by poisoning and pruning of crop 
trees. 

This marking and removal of low-vigor trees has been recom- 
mended and applied only to the east-side ponderosa types of California 
and Oregon. In the west-side types of more vigorous growth, beetle 
outbreaks are less important. They occur in definite short periods 
and die out as suddenly as they develop. 

THEORIES OF BARK BEETLE SUSCEPTIBILITY 

As indicated in the preceding discussion, the susceptibility of cer- 
tain trees to bark beetle attack has been recognized for a number of 
years. Various explanations have been advanced for this suscepti- 
bility. Some of these are published and others are developed in 
reports and correspondence in the files of the Division of Forest Insect 
Investigations. A thorough understanding of what makes these trees 
susceptible to bark beetle attack would aid materially in the applica- 
tion of preventive measures. 

Observations in the field have shown that mortality in the ponderosa 
pine type varies tremendously from periods of low (endemic) loss 
to periods of excessive (epidemic) loss; that during certain periods 
many trees die with few or no insects present; that others may be 
infested by wood borers only; and still others are attacked by bark 
beetles wliich introduce blue-staining fungi into the sap wood, thus 
cutting off the transpiration stream between the roots and the crown. 



384 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

This same picture applies more or less to all bark beetle outbreaks 
in all parts of the United States. 

It is obvious that any satisfactory explanation for the susceptibility 
of trees to bark beetle attack must also explain all the observed facts 
during the ups and downs of these outbreaks. It is the writer's 
opinion that the condition is induced primarily by lack of moisture, 
chiefly from drought but also from excessive competition within 
the stand. It is probable that in the case of ponderosa pine, as with 
other trees, the roots are first affected.^ Then, in turn, the foliage 
thins out to compensate for a reduced root system. The topmost 
branches often die. Certain insects that kill the twigs (such as scale 
insects and the birdseye pine midge, Retinodiplosis sp., pi. 8, fig. 1) 
may bring about additional defoliation. This all results in the manu- 
facture of less food and consequently narrower rings, which in turn 
may reduce the volume of conduction, all of which contributes to 
lowered vigor to the point where many trees cannot recover. 

Thus it could be that under adverse conditions many trees die 
from the effects of the physical environment without insect attack; 
others are attacked by borers which in themselves are not very 
important — at least no sound physiological explanation of the effects 
of their attack has been offered — but are only symptoms of a deeper 
malady. These "predisposing insects" of Graham (1939, p. 226), 
Keen and Salman (1941), and West (1941), with their special senses 
can recognize this moribund condition before we can, and act 
accordingly. Such insects appear to be the principal factor only 
because they are immediately associated with visual symptoms of 
death. Others of these trees in slightly better condition do not 
fade (die) until conduction is completely and quickly cut off by 
blue-staining fungi introduced into the sapwood by bark beetles 
(Nelson and Beal, 1929). This theory implies that many trees go 
out of the stand from the effects of an adverse physical environment 
and may serve as hosts to numbers of borers and other insects, 
whereas other trees less seriously affected by drought serve as suitable 
host material for breeding up large populations of bark beetles. It 
is conceivable that the lowered water content and possibly higher 
oxygen content of the wood associated with drought (Nelson, 1934; 
Caird, 1935) are necessary for development of the blue stains, which, 
in turn, condition the tree for optimum development of bark beetle 
broods (Leach, Orr, and Christensen, 1934). 

From this it should by no means be inferred that these bark 
beetles cannot by their attack kill healthy trees. The aggressiveness 

* Secrest, MacAloney, and Lorenz (1941) have shown that the foliage of drought-affected 
hemlocks may remain green several years even when the tree has a dead root system 
(apparently sustained by stored food in the trunk and moisture received through the 
dead roots). 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 385 

of the beetles depends on their abundance, as they kill by gregari- 
ous attack, introducing into the active sapwood fungi that cut off 
conduction. When they become abundant their gregarious attack 
will kill trees that are apparently in full vigor and which show no 
characteristics of susceptible trees, but as the condition of the border- 
line trees improves with increased moisture more bettles are required 
to kill a tree, poorer broods develop, and the insects decrease in 
abundance and consequently are of decreasing importance. 

This theory appears to be supported by evidence collected from 
other insect outbreaks and drought periods in the more humid parts 
of the United States. That such comparisons are not too far- 
fetched is supported by the following recent statement by Pearson 
and Wadsworth (1941) : 

Notwithstanding local variations in size and growth rate, ponderosa pine 
behaves in much the same way wherever it is found. There is also more in 
common between different species in widely separated regions than foresters 
generally realize. The influence of light and shade and of root competition, 
though differing in degree, is fundamentally the same whether one is dealing 
with ponderosa pine in Arizona, with pines in the South, or the Lake States, 
or with Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest. 

The southern pines (shortleaf, loblolly, and longleaf ) have from 
time to time been subjected to sharp local droughts which have 
killed large volumes of timber. Outstanding among these was the 
summer drought of 1924 in Texas and Louisiana, when a deficiency 
in precipitation of some 15 inches, occurring from June to January, 
resulted in the destruction of over 100,000,000 board feet of timber. 
Although Ips were prevalent in the dying trees, much of the timber 
was very lightly infested. (St. George, 1925.) 

A few years later Gary (1932) reports a similar drought in 
Florida and Georgia extending through 7 months, which destroyed 
nearly as much pine timber. The southern pine beetle was notably 
absent in these occurrences, as outbreaks are rare in longleaf and 
slash pines, although this insect does attack these species. Personal 
experience in both these cases was very convincing as to the greater 
effect of drought and the secondary importance of the associated 
insects. 

Blackman (1924) showed that the attack of the hickory bark 
beetle was dependent on a moisture deficiency and that the attacking 
insects were destroyed when normal rainfall was resumed. Craig- 
head (1925b) analyzed a series of outbreaks of the southern pine 
beetle in shortleaf pine and found that the same conditions held. 
Subsequent observations have upheld this evidence and have per- 
mitted issuance of warnings when precipitation has dropped below 
normal. 



386 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

For some time it had been recognized that a more systematic 
study of the interrelationship of tree susceptibility and climate was 
necessary in the ponderosa pine type. Any direct connection between 
timber losses and deficiency of precipitation has been much more 
diflScult to establish in the ponderosa pine type because of the lack 
of adequate records in the timber areas and the apparent adjustment 
of this pine to the rainless summers of the region. Three years 
ago at our Berkeley laboratory R. C. Hall initiated such a field study, 
establishing locations in several timber types and on several timber 
sites, amply supplied with instruments to measure various environ- 
mental factors. In these areas insect records and timber losses are 
available over a long period of years. Already, after 3 years of 
observation, very striking information (unpublished reports) has 
been obtained indicating a close tie-up between climate, past timber 
losses, and beetle activities, even definite variations within the 
different sites of the ponderosa type. 

MANAGEMENT FOR INSECT CONTROL IN SECOND-GROWTH STANDS 

In the eastern States, particularly in some private forests, silvicul- 
tural systems primarily designed to circumvent insect damage have 
been applied in pine and hardwood stands. Such insects as the 
gypsy moth, the white pine weevil, the locust borer, the turpentine 
borer, and the bronze birch borer have each been the dominant factor 
in shaping management plans of the forest types in which they are 
active. 

Fiske (1913) was probably the first in this country to realize the 
possibility of controlling the gypsy moth through forest management. 
He suggests taking advantage of the preference shown by the larvae 
for certain Sf)ecies of trees and removing these, especially oak, from 
the stands. 

This possibility of control through adjustment of food plants stim- 
ulated extensive studies by the Bureau of Entomology which were 
published by Mosher (1915). Mosher classified the plants in the 
regions into the following four groups: (1) Species highly favored 
by all stages of gypsy moth larvae; (2) species that are favored food 
for the gypsy moth after the early larval stages; (3) species that are 
not particularly favored but upon which a small proportion of the 
gypsy moth larvae may develop ; and (4) species that are unfavored 
food. 

The gypsy moth develops normally and becomes destructive only 
on plants of group 1. 

From the germ of Fiske's suggestion and the definite classification 
proposed by Mosher, the possibility of silvicultural control gradually 
gained recognition and resulted in a cooperative study between the 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 387 

Forest Service and the Bureau of Entomology to obtain more specific 
data and to test out theories by means of experimental plots. This 
study was assigned (Clement, 1917) to Clement and Munro, who re- 
ported on their work in Bulletin 484 of the United States Department 
of Agriculture. They indicated certain possibilities and certain limi- 
tations, chiefly economic, in the application of management to gypsy 
moth control. The proposals were a little ahead of the times and no 
general application resulted. 

A more recent study of this problem in central Massachusetts 
through cooperative efforts of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine, the Harvard Forest, and the Northeastern Forest Experi- 
ment Station developed more specific information. First, Baker and 
Cline (1936) showed that no serious defoliation occurred unless more 
than 50 percent of the stand was composed of species of group 1. 
Continued study led to definite recommendations by Behre, Cline, and 
Baker (1936) and indicated that there are very far-reaching possi- 
bilities for applying the principles of forest management to the con- 
trol of the gypsy moth in the New England States, because of the 
favorable conditions which existed, namely, (1) the composition of 
much of the forest with regard to the distribution of favored and 
unfavored food plants was suitable to work with in thinning prac- 
tices; (2) there were large areas of second-growth hardwoods, many 
of them with understories of conifers, which needed release; (3) the 
Federal and State agencies were then spending considerable sums on 
less permanent methods of control, such as spraying and creosoting 
egg masses. This money would do more permanent good if diverted 
to forest improvement; and (4) considerable manpower was avail- 
able (at the time of writing) through C. C. C. camps and relief 
organizations. 

The ice is now well broken and it is likely that silvicultural meas- 
ures will be given more and more emphasis and the present control 
program will change from one of temporary practices, such as spray- 
ing and creosoting, to one involving the permanent improvement of 
forest stands. It is reasonable to believe that with such measures a 
large part of the present infested area can be made relatively immune 
to the gypsy moth and a considerable reduction in expenditures for 
control can be effected. 

These writers (Behre, Cline, and Baker, 1936) showed how the cut- 
ting practices of the past 30 years and frequent fires led to the increase 
of secondary types which are primarily composed of species of group 
1, and thus brought about more favorable conditions for the gypsy 
moth. To quote : 

Thus it becomes evident that the forest types which present most favorable con- 
ditions for gypsy moth attaclc are the direct result of a transient agriculture 
and the destructive liunbering practices of the past. 

430577 — 42 26 



388 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

Definite recommendations are made for treating the predominant 
stands of the regions, namely, coniferous plantations, coniferous un- 
derstories, mixed conifers and hardwoods, and mixed hardwoods of 
commercial importance. The writers conclude : 

Consideration of the history of the gypsy moth and of existing forest conditions 
in New England leads to the conclusion that, in spite of all control effort to date, 
epidemic outbrealjs with serious defoliation may continue to occur within the 
infested area. 

Increasing the proportion of woodland in which conditions are unfavorable for 
the development of the insect should lessen the need for artificial control and 
reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks. * * * With few exceptions, 
elimination or reduction of highly favored food species will conform to desirable 
silvicultural practices. Silvicultural control, therefore, has the added advantage 
of serving the objectives of forest improvement. 

An introduced insect may thus prove to be the dominant factor in 
shaping plans for the management of large areas of New England 
forest land, provided our present appraisal of its economic importance 
has not been too pessimistic. 

A dominant factor in shaping cultural practices for white pine in 
the Northeast has been the white pine weevil. As farm lands were 
abandoned a generation or more ago, they seeded in to stands of white 
pine. In addition many acres were planted. Gradually it dawned on 
the landowners and foresters that many apparently vigorous stands 
were worthless "cabbage pines" as the result of repeated attacks of 
the white pine weevil. The many desirable characteristics of this 
tree, particularly its rapid growth and high-quality wood, led to 
repeated investigations of the weevil problem, cuhninating in recom- 
mendations by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, the 
New York State College of Forestry, and Harvard Forest for growing 
mixed stands of hardwoods and pine to avoid weevil damage (Mac- 
Aloney, 1932) and for the reclamation of merchandise boles from 
badly weeviled stands. (Cline and MacAloney, 1931, 1933, 1935.) 

Continued experimental work on the Harvard Forest tracts with 
pines planted among hardwood seedlings was recently verbally re- 
ported to the writer by A. C. Cline, director of Harvest Forest, indi- 
cating simplified measures of growing these mixtures to avoid weevil 
damage (pi. 8, fig. 2). It is obvious that white pines of value cannot 
be grown commercially in the Northeast unless these methods or sub- 
sequent modifications of them are utilized. 

Dying white and yellow birch in overmatured stands or following 
logging operations or severe droughts have invariably been found 
infested with the bronzed birch borer {Agrilus anxius Gory) in the 
Northeast and in the Lake States. Studies of this insect (Hall, 1933) 
have led to the conclusion that "changes in the physical factors of the 



INSECTS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT — CRAIGHEAD 389 

environment brought about through the medium of logging are often 
such that trees left will succumb without the attack of either insects 
or fungi, and the borer plays only the role of a secondary factor in 
hastening post-logging decadence." 

Thus a study of this insect has led to a better understanding of the 
silvical characteristics of these trees and the need of modification in 
cutting practices. 

The turpentine borer, Buprestis apricans (Herbst) (pi. 12), has 
been a contributing factor in shaping plans for the management of the 
turpentine groves of the South. This borer attacks the faces of 
turpentined trees, riddling the entire bases of the trees with its 
mines and so weakening them as to cause extensive wind throw. It 
was found that only "dry-faced" or fire-scorched faces from which 
the protective coating of resin had been removed were attacked. 
This emphasized the value of conservative practices, such as narrow 
chipping and fire protection — practices which were advocated for 
obtaining better yields of gum (Beal, 1932). 

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390 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1941 

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