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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
BOARD OF REGENTS OF 

THE SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION 

SHOWING THE 

OPERATIONS, EXPENDITURES, AND 
CONDITION OF THE INSTITUTION 
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 

1944 




(Publication 3776) 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1945 



For »ale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 2S, D. C. 

Price 21.50 cents 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, November 20, 1944- 
To the Congress of the United States: 

In accordance with section 5593 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States, I have the honor, in behalf of the Board of Regents, 
to submit to Congress the annual report of the operations, expendi- 
tures, and conditions of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1944. I have the honor to be, 
Respectfully, 

A. Wetmore, Acting Secretary. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

List of officials v 

Wartime activities of the Institution 2 

Summary of the year's activities of the branches of the Institution 4 

The establishment 8 

The Board of Regents 9 

Finances 10 

Twelfth Arthur lecture 10 

Publications 11 

Library 12 

Appendix 1. Report on the United States National Museum 13 

2. Report on the National Gallery of Art . 29 

3. Report on the National Collection of Fine Arts 39 

4. Report on the Freer Gallery of Art 44 

5. Report on the Bureau of American Ethnology 51 

6. Report on the International Exchange Service 59 

7. Report on the National Zoological Park 67 

8. Report on the Astrophysical Observatory 94 

9. Report on the library 97 

10. Report on publications 103 

Report of the executive committee of the Board of Regents 110 



GENERAL APPENDIX 



Solar variation and weather, by Charles G. Abbot 119 

Astronomy in a world at war, by A. Vibert Douglas 155 

The structure of the universe, by Claude William Heaps 165 

Industrial science looks ahead, by David Sarnoff ' 183 

The new microscopes, by R. E. Seidel and M. Elizabeth Winter 193 

Radio acoustic ranging (R. A. R.), by Commander K. T. Adams 221 

The David W. Taylor Model Basin, by Rear Admiral Herbert S. Howard. 239 

Research for aeronautics — its planning and application, by W. S. Farren._ 251 

Human limits in flight, by Byran H. C. Matthews 273 

Trans-Arctic aviation, by Lt. Elmer Plischke 285 

Our petroleum resources, by Wallace E. Pratt 297 

Woods and trees: Philosophical implications of some facts of science, by 

Frederick H. Krecker 307 

Biology and medicine, by Asa Crawford Chandler 317 

The locust plague, by B. P. Uvarov 331 

The codling moth, by B. A. Porter 347 

Grassland and farmland as factors in the cyclical development of Eurasian 

history, by J. Russell Smith 357 

Southern Arabia, a problem for the future, by Carleton S. Coon 385 

The New World Paleo-Indian, by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr 403 

Easter Island, by Alfred M6traux 435 

Brain rhythms, by E. D. Adrian 453 

The development of penicillin in medicine, by H. W. Florey and E. Chain. 461 

Recent advances in anesthesia, by John C. Krantz, Jr 467 

Aspects of the epidemiology of tuberculosis, by Leland W. Parr 477 

ui 



LIST OF PLATES 



Secretary's Report: Page 

Plates 1, 2 44 

Solar variation and weather (Abbot) : 

Plates 1, 2 154 

The new microscopes (Seidel and Winter) : 

Plates 1-5 220 

Radio acoustic ranging (Adams) : 

Plate 1 238 

Taylor Model Basin (Howard) : 

Plates 1-4 250 

Human limits in flight (Matthews) : 

Plates 1-3 284 

The codling moth (Porter) : 

Plates 1-6 356 

Grassland and farmland (Smith) : 

Plate 1 384 

New World Paleo-Indian (Roberts) : 

Plates 1-12 434 

Easter Island (M^traux) : 

Plates 1-4 452 

IV 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

June 30, 1944 

Presiding Officer ex officio. — Feankun D. Roosevelt, President of the United 

States. 
CJiancellor. — Hablan F. Stone, Chief Justice of the United States. 
Members of the Institution: 

Fbankun D. Roosevelt, President of the United States. 

Henby a. Wallace, Vice Pi-esident of the United States. 

Hablan F. Stone, Chief Justice of the United States. 

CoBDELL Hull, Secretary of State. 

Henry Moeqenthau, Jr., Secretary of the Treasury. 

Henby L. Stimson, Secretary of War. 

Francis Biddle, Attorney General. 

Fbank C. Walker, Postmaster General. 

James V. Foerestal, Secretary of the Navy. 

Harold L. Iokes, Secretary of the Interior. 

Claude R. Wickaed, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Jesse H. Jones, Secretary of Commerce. 

Fbances Perkins, Secretary of Labor. 
Regents of the Institution: 

Harlan F. Stone, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor. 

Henry A, Wallace, Vice President of the United States. 

Alben W. Babkley, Member of the Senate. 

Bennett Champ Clark, Member of the Senate. 

Clarence Cannon, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Foster Steabns, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Edward E. Cox, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Frederic A. Delano, citizen of Washington, D. C. 

Roland S. Morris, citizen of Pennsylvania. 

Harvey N. Davis, citizen of New Jersey, 

Arthur H. Compton, citizen of Illinois. 

Vannevar Bush, citizen of Washington, D. C. 

Fkedeeio C. Walcott, citizen of Connecticut. 
Executive Committee. — Frederic A. Delano, Vannevab Bush, Clarence Cannon. 
Secretary. — Charles G. Abbot. 
Assistant Secretary. — Alexander Wetmore. 
Administrative assistant to the Secretary. — Harry W. Dobsett. 
Treasurer. — Nicholas W. Doksey. 
Chief, editorial division. — Webster P. True. 
Librarian. — Leila F. Clark. 
Personnel officer. — B. T. Cabwithen. 
Property clerk. — James H. Hill. 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Keeper ex officio. — Charles G. Abbot. 
Director. — Alexander Wetmore. 
Associate Director. — John E. Graf. 



VI ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

scientific staff 

Depabtment of Anthropology : 

Frank M. Setzler, head curator ; A. J. Andrews, chief preparator. 
Division of Archeolog%; Neil M. Judd, curator; Waldo R. Wedel, associate 
curator ; R. G. Paine, scientific aid ; J. Townsend Russell, honorary assistant 
curator of Old World archeology. 
Division of Ethnology: H. W. Krieger, curator; Arthur P. Rice, collaborator. 
Division of Physical Anthropology: T. Dale Stewart, curator ; M. T. Newman, 
associate curator.* 
Collaborator in anthropology : George Grant MacCurdy. 
Depabtment of Biology : 

Waldo L. Schmitt, head curator ; W. L. Brown, chief taxidermist ; 
Aime M. Awl, illustrator. 
Division of Mammals: Remington Kellogg, curator; D. H. Johnson, associate 
curator* ; H. Harold Shamel, scientific aid ; A. Brazier Howell, collaborator ; 
Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., associate. 
Division of Birds: Herbert Friedmann, curator; H. G. Deignan, associate 
curator ; Alexander Wetmore, custodian of alcoholic and skeleton collec- 
tions ; Arthur C. Bent, collaborator. 
Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Doris M. Cochran, associate curator. 
Division of Fishes: Leonard P. Schultz, curator ; E. D. Reid, scientific aid. 
Division of Insects: L. O. Howard, honorary curator; Edward A. Chapin, 
curator ; R. E. Blackwelder, associate curator.* 

Section of Hymenoptera : S. A. Rohwer, custodian ; W. M. Mann, assist- 
ant custodian ; Robert A. Cushman, assistant custodian. 
Section of Myriapoda : O. F. Cook, custodian. 
Section of Diptera : Charles T. Greene, assistant custodian. 
Section of Coleoptera : L. L. Buchanan, specialist for Casey collection. 
Section of Lepidoptera : J. T. Barnes, collaborator. 
Section of Forest Tree Beetles : A. D. Hopkins, custodian. 
Division of Marine Invertebrates: Waldo L. Schmitt, curator; James O. 
Maloney, aid ; Mrs. Harriet Richardson Searle, collaborator ; Max M. Ellis, 
collaborator ; J. Percy Moore, collaborator ; Joseph A. Cushman, collabo- 
rator in Foraminifera. 
Division of Mollusks: Paul Bartsch, curator; Harald A. Rehder, associate 
curator ; Joseph P. E. Morrison, assistant curator. 

Section of Helminthological Collections: Benjamin Schwartz, collabo- 
rator. 
Division of Echinoderms: Austin H. Clark, curator. 

Division of Plants {National Herbarium) : W. R. Maxon, curator; Ellsworth 
P. Killip, associate curator ; Emery C. Leonard, assistant curator ; Conrad 
V. Morton, assistant curator; Egbert H. Walker, assistant curator; John 
A. Stevenson, custodian of C. G. Lloyd mycological collection. 
Section of Grasses : Agnes Chase, custodian. 

Section of Cryptogamic Collections : O. F. Cook, assistant curator. 
Section of Higher Algae : W. T. Swingle, custodian. 
Section of Lower Fungi : D. G. Fairchild, custodian. 
Section of Diatoms : Paul S. Conger, associate curator. 
Associates in Zoology : Theodore S. Palmer, William B. Marshall, A. G. Rov- 
ing, W. K. Fisher, C. R. Shoemaker, E. A. Goldman. 
Associates in Botany: Henri Pittier, F. A. McClure. 



•Now on war duty. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY VII 

Department of Biology — Continued. 

Collaborator in Zoology : Robert Sterling Clark. 
Collaborators in Biology : A. K. Fisher, David C. Graham. 
Department of Geology: 

R. S. Bassler, head curator ; Jessie G. Beach, aid. 
Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: W. F. Foshag, curator ; E. P. Hender- 
son, associate curator ; B. O. Reberholt, scientific aid ; Frank L. Hess, 
custodian of rare metals and rare earths. 
Division of Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany : Gustav A. Cooper, 
curator. 

Section of Invertebrate Paleontology: T. W. Stanton, custodian of 
Mesozoic collection ; J. B. Reeside, Jr., honorary custodian of Mesozoic 
collection ; Paul Bartsch, curator of Cenozoic collection. 
Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Charles W. Gilmore, curator ; C. Lewis 

Gazin, associate curator* ; Norman H. Boss, chief preparator. 
Associates in Mineralogy : W. T. Schaller, S. H. Perry. 
Associate in Paleontology : T. W. Vaughan. 
Associate in Petrology : Whitman Cross. 
Des'abtment op Engineeking and Industbibs : 
Carl W. Mitman, head curator. 
Division of Engineering: Carl W. Mitman, head curator in charge ; Frank A. 
Taylor, curator.* 

Section of Transportation and Civil Engineering: Frank A. Taylor, in 

charge.* 
Section of Aeronautics : Paul E. Garber, associate curator,* F. C. Reed, 

acting associate curator. 
Section of Mechanical Engineering: Frank A. Taylor, in charge.* 
Section of Electrical Engineering and Communications: Frank A 

Taylor, in charge.* 
Section of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering : Carl W. Mitman, in 

charge. 
Section of Physical Sciences and Measurensent : Frank A. Taylor, in 

charge.* 
Section of Tools : Frank A. Taylor, in charge.* 
Division of Crafts and Industries: Frederick L. Lewton, curator; Elizabeth 
W. Rosson, assistant curator. 

Section of Textiles : Frederick L. Levrton, in charge. 

Section of Woods and Wood Technology : William N. Watkins, associate 

curator. 
Section of Chemical Industries : Fi'ederick L. Lewton, in charge. 
Section of Agricultural Industries: Frederick L. Lewton, in charge. 
Division of Medicine and Public Health: ^harles Whitebread, associate 

curator. 
Division of Graphic Arts: R. P. Tolraan, curator. 

Section of Photography : A. J. Olmsted, associate curator. 
Dn^isiON OF History: T. T. Belote, curator; Charles Carey, associate curator; 
J. Russell Sirlouis, scientific aid ; Catherine L. Manning, assistant curator 
(philately). 

administrative staff 

Chief of correspondence and documents. — H. S. Bryant. 

Assistant chief of correspondence and documents. — L. E. Commebford. 



•Now on war duty. 



VIII ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Superintendent of buildings and labor. — L. L. Oliver. 

Assistant superintendent of buildings and labor. — Chaeles C. Sinclair. 

Editor. — Paul H. Oehser. 

Accountant and auditor. — N. W. Dorset. 

Photographer. — G. I. Hightower. 

Property officer. — A. W. Wilding. 

Assistant librarian. — Elisabeth H. Gazin. 

NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 
Trustees: 

The Chief Justice of the United States, Chairman. 

The Secretary of State. 

The Secretary of the Treasury. 

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

David K. E. Bruce. 

Ferdinand Lam mot Belin. 

Duncan Phillips. 

Samuel H. Kress. 

Chester Dale. 
President. — David K. B. Bruce. 
Vice President. — Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 
Secretary-Treasurer. — Huntington Cairns. 
Director. — David E. Finley. 
Administrator. — H. A. McBbide. 
General Counsel. — Huntington Cairns. 
Chief Curator. — John Walker. 
Assistant Director. — Macgiix James. 

NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Acting Director. — Ruel P. Tolman. 

FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Director. — A. G. Wenley. 

Assistant Director. — Grace Dunham Guest. 

Associate in research. — J. A. Pope. 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Chief. — ^Matthew W. Stirling. 

Senior ethnologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., John P. Harrington, John R. Swanton. 
Senior archeologist. — F^ank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Senior anthropologist. — H. G. Barnett. 
Senior ethnologist. — W. N. Fenton. 
Editor. — M. Helen Palmer. 
Librarian. — Miriam B. Ketchum. 
Illustrator. — Edwin G. Cassedy. 

Institute of Social Anthropology. — Julian H. Steward, Director; Alfred 
MfiTEAUx, Assistant Director. 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 

Secretary (in charge). — Charles G. Abbot. 
Acting Chief Clerk. — F. E. Gass. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY DC 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Director. — William M. Mann. 
Assistant Director. — Ernest P. Walkek. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Director. — Chables G. Abbot. 

Division of Astrophysical Research: Loyal B, Aldrich, assistant director; 

William H. Hoover, senior astrophysicist. 
Division of Radiation and Organisms: Earl S. Johnston, assistant director; 

Edward D. JIcAlister, senior physicist; Leland B. Clark, engineer (precision 

instruments) ; Robert L. Weintraub, associate biochemist ;*Leonard Price, junior 

physicist ( biophysics ) . 



REPOET OF THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

C. G. ABBOT 
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1944 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to submit herewith my report show- 
ing the activities and condition of the Smithsonian Institution and the 
Government bureaus under its administrative charge during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1944. The first 12 pages contain a summary ac- 
count of the affairs of the Institution ; it will again be noted that many 
activities usually included in this section are missing, wartime con- 
ditions having forced their suspension. Appendixes 1 to 10 give more 
detailed reports of the operations of the National Museum, the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art, the National Collection of Fine Arts, the 
Freer Gallery of Art, the Bureau of American Ethnology, the Inter- 
national Exchanges, the National Zoological Park, the Astrophysical 
Observatory, which now includes the divisions of astrophysical re- 
search and of radiation and organisms, the Smithsonian library, and of 
the publications issued under the direction of the Institution. On 
page 110 is the financial report of the executive committee of the Board 
of Regents. 

Change in the Secretaryship. — This will be my last report, as on 
June 20, 1944, 1 addressed the following communication to the Board 
of Regents : 

Having occupied the post of Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution since 
February 1928, and of Acting Secretary for one year prior to that, and having 
passed the age of 72 years, I wish to resign from that ofllce, my resignation to take 
effect as of July 1, 1944. 

I feel that it would be quite unfair to the Institution to continue in this re- 
sponsible position when in the nature of things my capacity must gradually begin 
to decline. In tendering my resignation, I wish to express my gratitude to the 
Board for its kindly and helpful attitude, and my desire to be of any service 
which the Board or my successor may feel disposed to suggest. 

Accordingly on July 1, 1944, I ceased to be Secretary of the In- 
stitution, and Dr. Alexander Wetmore, Assistant Secretary, took over 
the duties of the position as Acting Secretary. I wish to record here 
publicly my appreciation of the unfailing helpfulness and support 

1 



2 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

accorded to me by the staff of the Institution, and to bespeak for my 
successor and for the Institution their continued loyalty and devoted 
service. 

WARTIME ACTIVITIES OF THE INSTITUTION 

During another full year of war, the Institution again utilized its 
capabilities to the fullest extent in aiding the Army and Navy and the 
various war agencies. Its normal peacetime research and exploration 
program was largely abandoned except for those projects designed 
to promote better cultural relations with the other American re- 
publics, and its publications were restricted almost entirely to papers 
having a bearing on the war or on the other Americas. To visitors 
to the Institution, these changes would not be apparent, as its visible 
features — museums and art galleries — ^liave continued to operate on 
full schedule. In fact, hours of opening have been expanded to in- 
clude Sundays for the benefit of the large numbers of service per- 
sonnel stationed around Washington and passing through. But the 
time of the staff — aside from necessary curatorial work and the 
recording of observations the cessation of which would result in gaps 
in the scientific record — ^has been devoted largely to furnishing tech- 
nical information and assistance urgently needed by Army, Navy, 
and war agencies. 

Strategic information to Army and Navy. — ^The scientific staff of 
the Institution and its branches includes specialists in many branches 
of biology, geology, anthropology, astrophysics, engineering, and 
technology, and these scientists have been called upon constantly since 
Pearl Harbor to answer questions confronting Army and Navy 
officials. The present war, covering as it does widelj'^ scattered 
regions of the earth, many of them little known to Americans, hat 
required the assembling of large amounts of data on the peoples, 
geography, disease-harboring insects, animals and plants, and other 
features of these far-flung regions. The Smithsonian Institution has 
been able to furnish, both directly and through the Etlinogeographic 
Board, described below, replies to hundreds of urgent questions of this 
nature, and some staff members have been in almost constant con- 
sultation with Army and Navy officials. Furthermore, a number of 
war-connected research projects have been assigned to the Institution, 
and its laboratory facilities have been utilized from time to time for 
Army and Navy investigations. 

Ethnogeographic Board. — ^As stp,ted in my last report, the Ethno- 
geographic Board is a nongovernmental agency, set up jointly by 
the Smithsonian Institution, the National Eesearch Council, the 
American Council of Learned Societies, and the Social Science Ee- 
search Council, to serve as a clearinghouse between the Army, Navy, 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 6 

and war agencies on the one hand, and the scientific and educational 
institutions of the Nation on the other. Many urgent reports and 
items of strategic information have been furnished by the Board prin- 
cipally on the peoples, geography, and related features of war areas. 
The offices of the Board are in the Smithsonian building, and three 
members of the Institution's staff were assigned to assist the Director, 
Dr. William Duncan Strong. The Army and Navy found the ser- 
vices of the Board so useful that each appointed liaison officers to 
facilitate contact. The Board plans to continue in operation as long 
as needed during the coming fiscal year. 

Inter- American Cooperation. — Through invitation by other agen- 
cies and through its own initiative, the Institution engaged in a 
number of activities designed to promote better cultural relations with 
the other American republics. Work on the monumental Handbook 
of South American Indians, under the editorship of Dr. Julian H. 
Steward, was advanced materially. Volume 1, "The Marginal 
Tribes," and volume 2, "The Andean Civilizations," went to the 
printer toward the close of the fiscal year, and the manuscripts of 
volumes 3 and 4 were well on toward completion. The editorial work 
on this project is financed by the State Department, and the printing 
costs will be borne by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian 
Institution, as the Handbook will appear in the Bureau's Bulletin 
series. 

In September 1943 Dr. Steward was appointed Director of the 
Institute of Social Anthropology, an autonomous unit of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology reporting to the Secretary, created to carry 
out cooperative training in anthropological teaching and research 
with the other American republics as part of the program of the 
Interdepartmental Committee for Cooperation with the American 
Republics. The work of the Institute in Mexico was begun in co- 
operation with the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia of the Instituto 
Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, and plans were pending for 
work in several other American republics. Dr. Steward also served 
on the Temporary Organizing Committee of the Inter-American 
Society of Anthropology and Geography, which had been started on 
his initiative during the previous year. Dr. Ralph L. Beals served 
as secretary of the committee and editor of the quarterly journal of 
the Society, Acta Americana. Paid membership in the Society from 
all parts of the Americas reached a total of 800. 

A valuable biological project is the publication by the Institution 
of a "Checklist of the Coleopterous Insects of Mexico, Central America, 
the West Indies, and South America," by Dr. R. E. Blackwelder. 
No list of this important insect group now exists, and entomologists of 
all the Americas will find it indispensable in future researches. The 



4 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

first and second parts appeared in print during the year, and the 
third part was in press. 

A number of scientists on the Institution's staff made trips to other 
American republics during the year in the furtherance of cooperative 
scientific projects in biology, geology, and anthropology. 

Other wartiTne activities. — As stated above, for the benefit of mili- 
tary and naval personnel and war workers the Smithsonian and 
National Museum buildings have again been kept open all day on Sun- 
days. To accomplish this with available funds, it was necessary to 
have the buildings closed on Monday mornings. Sunday Museum 
tours for service personnel were arranged in the Natural History 
building through cooperation with the U. S. O. A Field Collector's 
Manual in Natural History was published and distributed free on 
request to Army and Navy personnel. One thousand copies each were 
turned over to the Army and Navy for distribution through their own 
channels. 

War Committee. — The Smithsonian War Committee appointed early 
in 1941, after canvassing fully all the possibilities of increasing the 
Institution's usefulness in the war and embodying the results of this 
study in recommendation for action, felt that its function was fulfilled 
and asked that it be dissolved. In assenting to the dissolution of the 
committee, I wrote to the chairman, C. W. Mitman, as follows: 

I beg to express, for myself and on behalf of the Institution, a deep sense of 
the value of the work of the committee in these several years, and the feeling 
that those of its recommendations which have been carried through cannot but 
have been very helpful to the war effort. 

SUMMARY OF THE YEAR'S ACTIVITIES OF THE BRANCHES OF THE 

INSTITUTION 

National Museum. — Again this year the time of the scientific staff 
has been largely occupied with conferences on war problems with 
Army, Navy, and war agency officials and with furnishing technical 
information on requests to military and naval organizations. The 
Museum buildings have again been kept open all day on Sundays for 
the benefit of service personnel, and Sunday Museum tours were ar- 
ranged for them in cooperation with the U. S. O. New accessions 
for the year totaled 239,640 specimens, an increase of more than 
9,000 over last year. Among the outstanding additions to the col- 
lections were the following: In anthropology, an important lot of 
material from Indian sites on DeSoto's route through the south- 
eastern United States in 1539-42, a collection pertaining to the Huichol 
Indians of northern Jalisco, Mexico, and an assemblage of Moro and 
Indonesian brasses and Philippine metalwork presented to the Tafts 
during their residence in the Philippines; in biology, 2,000 mammal 
specimens from Colombia collected by Philip Hershkovitz, a bird 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY O 

collection from the same country numbering 3,281 specimens, more 
than 10,000 mosquito specimens from the sanitary and medical corps 
of the armed forces, a molluscan collection of 51,000 Jamaican Neri- 
tidae, the valuable Chickering herbarium of 10,550 plant specimens, 
and the Albert Mann diatom collection, which with the other material 
on hand in this field makes the Museum diatom collection one of the 
most important in the world ; in geology, a number of important gems 
and minerals obtained through the Roebling, Chamberlain, and Can- 
field funds, 7 new meteorites, 6 of them undescribed falls, and 500 
specimens of rare Paleozoic fossils collected by the curator during field 
work in Mexico; in engineering, a jeep, the prototype of these vehicles 
made famous by World War II, and a Winton automobile of 1903, the 
first automobile to be driven across the United States; in history, a 
number of Army and Navy medals and decorations of types estab- 
lished during the present war. The few expeditions that were in the 
field during the year were related directly or indirectly to the war. 
Visitors for the year numbered 1,532,765, an increase of 177,496 over 
last year; approximately 40 percent were service personnel. The 
Museum published an Annual Report, 3 Bulletins, 1 Contribution from 
the National Herbarium, and 14 Proceedings papers. Staff changes 
included the loss by death of the curator of invertebrate paleontology. 
Dr. Charles E. Resser; Dr. G. Arthur Cooper was appointed curator 
to succeed him. 

National Gallery of Art. — Visitors to the Gallery totaled 2,060,071 
for the year, the largest attendance since its opening. Thirty percent 
of the visitors were men and women in the armed services. Features 
of particular interest to service personnel were the Servicemen's 
Room, which provides a place of relaxation for them, the Sunday 
evening concerts, and the special exhibitions. The Board of Trustees 
was directed by the Treasury Department to assume custodianship of 
all works of art and exhibition material sent to this country for various 
exhibitions by the former French Government, and several officers 
of the Gallery were appointed to serve as officers of the American Com- 
mission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Mon- 
uments in War Areas, the headquarters of which are located in the 
Gallery building. In March 1944, at the request of the State De- 
partment, the Gallery established the Inter-American Office to act 
as the official Government clearinghouse for the exchange of informa- 
tion concerning art activites in the American republics. The Gallery 
accepted a number of gifts of paintings, prints, and drawings, in- 
cluding 8 paintings and 196 prints and drawings from Lessing J. 
Rosenwald. Among the 13 special exhibitions held during the year 
were a number relating to war subjects. More than 72,000 people 
attended the various programs conducted by the Gallery's educational 



6 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

department ; these included Gallery tours, discussions of the "Picture 
of the Week," and lectures on special topics. 

National Collection of Fine Arts. — The annual meeting of the 
Smithsonian Art Commission was again omitted because of war con- 
ditions. The Commission lost one member by death — Dr. Frederick P. 
Keppel, a member since 1932. Four miniatures were acquired through 
the Catherine Walden Myer fund. Several proffered gifts of art 
works are being held for action of the Art Commission at its next 
meeting. A number of paintings and other art works have been ac- 
cepted by the National Collection as loans; other paintings and 
miniatures belonging to the Collection have been lent to museums and 
art galleries, mostly for special exhibitions. Only one painting was 
purchased from the Henry Ward Ranger fund, ''Fifteenth Century 
French Madonna and Child," by Harry W. Watrous. Eight special 
exhibitions were held during the year, as follows : Oil paintings and 
other art works by Ceferino Palencia, of Mexico; water colors of 
Mexico by Walter B. Swan, of Omaha, Nebr. ; miniatures by 52 artists 
of the Pennsylvania Society of Miniature Painters ; water colors and 
block prints by Ealph H. Avery, United States Navy; paintings by 
John Mix Stanley, Jane C. Stanley, and Alice Stanley Acheson ; paint- 
ings and other art works by the National League of American Pen 
Women; "Portraits of Leading American Negro Citizens," by Mrs. 
Laura Wheeler Waring, of Philadelphia, and Mrs. Betsy Graves 
Reyneau, of Washington; and mural paintings from the caves of 
India and other paintings of India by Sarkis Katchadourian, of New 
York City. 

Freer Gallery of Art. — Additions to the collections included Chinese 
bronzes, ceramics, jade, and painting; Japanese lacquer and painting; 
and one Armenian manuscript. Much of the time of the staff was de- 
voted to war work for several Government agencies, including Jap- 
anese translations, compilation of a glossary of Chinese geographical 
and topograhpical terms, and the examination of Japanese documents. 
The Director attended a meeting in New York of the Committee of 
the American Council of Learned Societies on Protection of Cultural 
Treasures in War Areas. Visitors to the Gallery totaled 62,462 for 
the year. Fifteen groups received instruction by staff members. 

Bureau of American Ethnology. — Emphasis on activities concerned 
with Latin America has continued during the year. Dr. M. W. 
Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, directed the Sixth National Geographic 
Society-Smithsonian Institution expedition to Mexico, locating sev- 
eral new archeological sites in southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and 
Campeche. Dr. J. R. S wanton read the proof of his extensive work 
on "The Indians of the Southeastern United States," and completed 
a manuscript on the much discussed Norse expeditions to America. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 7 

Dr. Swanton retired at tlie end of the year after 44 years of service. 
In continuation of his studies of Indian languages, Dr. J. P. Harring- 
ton discovered evidence that the two South American languages 
Quechua and Aymara are related to the Hokan of western North 
America, the first time a linguistic relationship between North and 
South America has been indicated. Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr., in- 
vestigated a prehistoric Indian burial near Abilene, Tex., his studies 
indicating that the burial was made about 10,000 years ago. Dr. 
Roberts also assembled and edited a manual, "Survival on Land and 
Sea," which was prepared for the Navy by the Ethnogeographic 
Board and the staff of the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. J. H. 
Steward continued work on the Handbook of South American Indians. 
He was appointed Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology, 
an autonomous unit of the Bureau reporting to the Secretary, on 
September 1, 1943. Dr. Alfred Metraux, of the Bureau staff, was ap- 
pointed Assistant Director of the above Institute on September 18, 
1943. Dr. H. B. Collins, Jr., served as Assistant Director of the 
Ethnogeographic Board, conducting researches connected with 
regional and other information requested by the Army, Navy, and 
war agencies. Dr. W. N. Fenton served as research associate of the 
Board and participated in a survey of area and language teaching 
in the Army Specialized Training Program and the Civil Affairs 
Training Schools in American universities and colleges. Dr. H. G. 
Barnett, who joined the Bureau staff in December 1943, served as 
executive secretary of a committee formed under the sponsorship of 
the Ethnogeographic Board for the purpose of assembling data upon 
the existing state of our scientific knowledge of the Pacific island area. 
Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau completed a 
manuscript on "Omaha Music." The Bureau published its Annual 
Report and six Bulletins during the year. 

International Exchanges. — The International Exchange Service 
acts as the official agency of the United States Government for the 
interchange of governmental and scientific publications between this 
country and all other countries. The total number of packages of 
such material handled during the fiscal year was 407,764, weighing 
243,180 pounds. Shipments to foreign countries continued to be 
greatly curtailed by war conditions. All countries in the Western 
Hemisphere received shipments as usual, but in the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere, the only countries to which shipments could be made were 
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Portugal, the U. S. S. R., Union 
of South Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand. In normal 
times 93 sets of United States official publications are sent abroad 
through the Exchange Service. At present, however, only 58 sets 
can be sent, the other 35 sets being held until after the war. 

619830 — 45 2 



8 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

National Zoological Park. — In spite of expected difficulties in 
obtaining food and supplies and those resulting from manpower 
shortages, the Park and the animal collection were maintained in good 
condition and continued to be used and appreciated by large numbers 
of visitors. The total for the year reached 1,803,532, including a large 
proportion of service personnel. Many requests for information on 
biological problems were received from the Army and Navy and other 
Government agencies, and numerous schools and medical and other 
groups came to study the collections. Very few animals could be 
obtained by purchase, but a number of desirable specimens were 
received by exchange and as gifts from Army personnel and others 
interested in the Park. Births and hatchings at the Park totaled 73 
mammals, 180 birds, and 126 reptiles. Losses by death included the 
African rhinoceros, the maned wolf, and other animals, birds, and 
reptiles, including a large python that measured well over 25 feet 
in length and weighed 305 pounds. At the close of the year the col- 
lection totaled 2,626 animals representing 696 species and subspecies. 

Astrophysical Ohservatory. — In the division of astrophysical re- 
search, secret war research problems occupied most of the time of two 
members of the staff; the other members were engaged in reducing 
and determining the statistical correction for the solar-constant work 
of the three Smithsonian observing stations at Montezuma, Chile, 
Table Mountain, Calif., and Tyrone, N. Mex., since 1939. Most of 
the Director's work consisted in the study of solar-constant variation 
and associated solar changes in connection with the weather, resulting 
in the publication of a paper entitled "Weather Predetermined by 
Solar Variation." As unusual weather conditions are expected dur- 
ing the coming year following a predicted depression of the solar con- 
stant, every effort was made to keep the three observing stations in 
operation. In spite of manpower shortages, this was accomplished 
by the assistance of the wives of the field directors in observing and 
computing. In the division of radiation and organisms, the staff 
was occupied mainly with war research projects. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846, according to the terms of the will of James Smithson, of Eng- 
land, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian 
Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowl- 
edge among men." In receiving the property and accepting the trust. 
Congress determined that the Federal Government was without 
authority to administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted 
an "establishment" whose statutory members are "the President, the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 9 

Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive 
departments." 

THE BOARD OF REGENTS 

The Board suffered the loss by death of one member, Senator Charles 
L. McNary, of Oregon, who died on February 25, 1944. He had served 
us a Senatorial regent since January 23, 1935. 

The roll of regents during the fiscal year was as follows : Harlan 
F. Stone, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor; Henry A. 
Wallace, Vice President of the United States; members from the 
Senate— Alben W. Barkley, Bennett Champ Clark; members from 
the House of Representatives — Clarence Cannon, Foster Stearns, Ed- 
ward E. Cox; citizen members — Frederic A. Delano, Washington, 
D. C. ; Roland S. Morris, Pennsylvania ; Harvey N. Davis, New Jersey ; 
Arthur H. Compton, Illinois ; Vannevar Bush, Washington, D. C. ; and 
Frederic C. Walcott, Connecticut. 

Proceedings. — The annual meeting of the Board of Regents was held 
on January 14, 1944. The regents present were Chief Justice Harlan 
F. Stone, Chancellor ; Vice President Henry A. Wallace ; Representa- 
tives Clarence Cannon, Foster Stearns, and Edward E. Cox; citizen 
regents Frederic A. Delano, Roland S. Morris, Harvey N. Davis, 
Arthur H. Compton, and Vannevar Bush; and the Secretary, Dr. 
Charles G. Abbot. 

The Secretary presented his annual report covering the activities 
of the parent Institution and of the several Government branches, 
and including the financial report of the executive committee, for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1943, which was accepted by the Board. 
The usual resolution authorizing the expenditure by the Secretary 
of the income of the Institution for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1945, was adopted by the Board. 

The Secretary stated that in order that the employees paid from 
Smithsonian funds might share the same liberalized retirement ad- 
vantages as the Government-paid employees in the Institution, a bill 
covering this matter (S. 1558) had been introduced by Senator Bark- 
ley and referred to the Senate Committee on the Civil Service. 

Owing to the exigencies of wartime travel, the annual meeting of 
the Smithsonian Art Commission, usually held in December, was 
again omitted. 

The Board formally ratified certain resolutions adopted by a mail 
vote authorizing the Secretary to execute an indenture dated March 
31, 1943, by Samuel H. Kress and the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 
modifying and amending an indenture dated June 29, 1939, by the 
same parties, and further authorizing the Secretary to accept the 
offer of additional art objects by these parties for the collections of 
the National Gallery of Art. 



10 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

A resolution was adopted providing for the appointment of com- 
mittees to handle matters connected with the proposed celebration 
in 1946 of the centenary of the founding of the Institution. 

In his special report the Secretary outlined to the regents some 
of the more important wartime activities carried on by the Institution 
and its several branches. 

FINANCES 

A statement on finances will be found in the report of the execu- 
tive committee of the Board of Kegents, page 110. 

TWELFTH ARTHUR LECTURE 

Under the terms of the will of the late James Arthur, of New 
York, the Smithsonian Institution received in 1931 a fund, part of 
the income from which should be used for an annual lecture on some 
aspect of the science of the sun. 

The twelfth Arthur lecture was given by Secretary C. G. Abbot 
on February 29, 1944, under the title "Solar Variation and Weather." 
The lecture will be published with illustrations in the Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution for 1944. 

The 11 previous Arthur lectures have been as follows : 

1. The Composition of the Sun, by Henry Norris Russell, professor of 

astronomy at Princeton University. January 27, 1932. 

2. Gravitation in the Solar System, by Ernest William Brown, professor 

of mathematics at Yale University. January 25, 1933. 

3. How the Sun Warms the Earth, by Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the 

Smithsonian Institution. February 26, 1934. 

4. The Sun's Place among the Stars, by Walter S. Adams, director of 

the Mount Wilson Observatory. December 18, 1934. 

5. Sun Rays and Plant Life, by Earl S. Johnston, assistant director of 

the division of radiation and organisms, Smithsonian Institution. 
February 25, 1936. 

6. Discoveries from Eclipse Expeditions, by Samuel Alfred Mitchell, di- 

rector of the Leander McCormick Observatory, University of Vir- 
ginia. February 9, 1937. 

7. The Sun and the Atmosphere, by Harlan True Stetson, research asso- 

ciate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. February 24, 1938. 

8. Sun Worship, by Herbert J. Spinden, curator of American Indian Art 

and Primitive Culture, Brooklyn Museums. February 21, 1939. 

9. Solar Prominences in Motion, by Robert R. McMath, director of the 

McMath-Hulbert Observatory of the University of Michigan. Janu- 
ary 16, 1940. 

10. Biological Effects of Solar Radiation on Higher Animals and Man, by 

Brian O'Brien, professor of Physiological Optics, University of 
Rochester. February 25, 1941. 

11. The Sun and the Earth's Magnetic Field, by John A. Fleming, Depart- 

ment of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington. 
February 26, 1942. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 11 

PUBLICATIONS 

The Institution's publication program has again emphasized ma- 
terial pertaining to the war or to Latin America as a part of its 
endeavor to make every phase of its activities serve a useful wartime 
purpose. 

The papers in the series Smithsonian War Background Studies 
continued to be in great demand, particularly from Army and Navy 
organizations and personnel. Seven numbers were issued during the 
year — Nos. 13 to 19 — and No. 20, on China, appeared soon after the 
close of the year. A list of these, as well as other publications of the 
year, will be found in appendix 10. The demand for the War Back- 
ground papers continued to increase until it became necessary to make 
a charge for copies requested by civilians and for large lots of copies 
ordered by service organizations, while continuing the free service 
distribution of single copies and small lots. Soon after the close of the 
year the total number of copies of Nos. 1-20 printed by the Institution 
had reached 203,500, and 211,525 additional copies have been ordered 
for the Army and Navy, a grand total of nearly half a million books. 

A pocket-size field collectors' manual was published with the aim 
of providing a worth-while activity for service personnel stationed in 
areas not actually in the fighting zones. The manual gives detailed 
directions for preparing, preserving, and packing specimens of 
animals, plants, and minerals. This book also is given free to service 
personnel and sold to civilians. 

In the Miscellaneous Collections series, a paper intended chiefly 
for the use of medical officers was issued under the title "The Feeding 
Apparatus of Biting and Disease-carrying Flies: A Wartime Con- 
tribution to Medical Entomology," by R. E. Snodgrass. Several 
hundred copies were made available to Army and Navy medical per- 
sonnel. Also for use in connection with wartime medical problems 
in the Pacific theater, it was necessary to reprint an edition of a 
previous paper, "Molluscan Intermediate Hosts of the Asiatic Blood 
Fluke, Schistosoma japonicum^ and Species Confused with Them," by 
Paul Bartsch. 

Many papers in all series of Smithsonian publications dealt with 
studies in biology and anthropolog;^' of the other American republics, 
as a part of the Government's progi^am of improving cultural rela- 
tions between the Americas. In the Miscellaneous Collections a sur- 
vey of existing archeological knowledge of the Andean region ap- 
peared under the title "Cross Sections of New World Prehistory : A 
Brief Report on the Work of the Institute of Andean Research, 1941- 
1942," by William Duncan Strong. The Smithsonian Annual Report 
included a comprehensive pap6r on the "Past and Present Status of 
the Marine Mammals of South America and the West Indies," by 



12 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Remington Kellogg. National Museum publications included a num- 
ber of Proceedings papers on various phases of biology in Latin 
America and a Bulletin entitled "Checklist of the Coleopterous In- 
sects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South Amer- 
ica," parts 1 and 2, by Richard E. Blackwelder. This last will be an 
essential tool for all future entomological work in Latin America. 
In the series Contributions from the United States National Her- 
barium appeared "Taxonomic Studies of Tropical American Plants," 
by C. V. Morton. The Bureau of American Ethnology published four 
Bulletins on the archeology of Mexico, among them one entitled "Stone 
Monuments of Southern Mexico," by Matthew W. Stirling. 

The total number of publications issued during the year was 
67, and 172,027 copies of the various series were distributed. 

LIBRARY 

The Smithsonian library has been increasingly used by the Army, 
Navy, and war agencies. In the Museum branch library alone, 520 
requests for information from these sources were recorded. The 
branch libraries of the Bureau of American Ethnology and the Astro- 
physical Observatory were also frequently called upon, and the 
staff of the Ethnogeographic Board used all the branch libraries in 
search of material needed to aid the armed services and war agencies. 
Through the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian library is co- 
operating with the American Library Association in collecting material 
to aid libraries in war areas. The gradual decline in the receipt of 
publications from abroad has continued, but domestic scientific series 
showed very little decline. Changes in library procedure shortened 
the interval between the receipt of new publications and their avail- 
ability for use. Statistics of the year's activities show 194 new 
exchanges arranged, 4,422 "wants" received, 6,673 volumes and pam- 
phlets cataloged, 11,360 books and periodicals loaned, and 1,683 vol- 
umes sent to the bindery. 

Respectfully submitted. 

C. G. Abbot, Secretary. 



APPENDIX 1 
KEPORT ON THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the con- 
dition and operation of the National Museum for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1944. 

Appropriations for the maintenance and operation of the National 
Museum for the year totaled $929,999, which was $37,369 more than 
for the previous year. 

THE MUSEUM IN WARTIME 

Visitors during the year numbered 1,532,765, an increase of 177,496 
over those of the previous fiscal year; approximately 40 percent of 
all visitors were men and women in uniform. 

Although the possibility of enemy attack on Washington became 
steadily less, measures for safeguard of visitors, collections, and build- 
ings were continued in force. The air-raid defense organization re- 
mained in operation under the direction of the general defense co- 
ordinator, F. M. Setzler, head curator of anthropology. Collections 
removed from the buildings as a precaution against enemy attack 
were inspected regularly, and careful guard was maintained over 
them. 

As a result of a recommendation by the Smithsonian War Committee 
a free guide service through the National Museum for members of 
the armed forces was arranged through the U. S. O. groups of Wash- 
ington. Under the direction of F. M. Setzler a route was estab- 
lished within the Natural History building and a script was pre- 
pared describing the exhibits selected for the tour. Classes for in- 
structing the volunteer hostesses were held on Sunday afternoons 
from August 22 to October 17, 1943, and during February 1944. On 
October 24 the first U. S. O. guide service for men and women in 
uniform was inaugurated. Tours were conducted each Sunday at 
15-minute intervals from 11 a. m. to 3 : 30 p. m. Each tour required 
approximately 45 minutes. From October 24, 1943, to June 25, 1944, 
5,325 military visitors were escorted through the building. Credit 
for the success of this service is due to the excellent cooperation of 
U. S. O. headquarters, to the chairman and head receptionist, Miss 
Margaret Bledsoe, and to other U. S. O. hostesses. 

13 



14 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Eequests for information from the various war agencies continued 
to come to the staff during the year, and numerous war services 
were rendered by most of the laboratories and by many individuals 
on the staff. 

Dr. Remington Kellogg, curator of mammals, served as chairman 
of the American delegation at the International Conference on the 
Regulation of Whaling in London during January 1944. At the 
request of the National Research Council, Dr. Kellogg prepared text, 
keys, distribution maps, and illustrations of monkeys known to be 
susceptible to infection by malarial parasites to aid in studies of 
malaria in man. Other services provided by the personnel of the 
division of mammals to officers of special Army and Navy units 
and other agencies concerned with the war included the furnishing of 
information relative to the distribution and identification of mam- 
mals involved in the transmission of diseases. Herbert G. Deignan, 
associate curator of birds, assisted in work on maps and on geographic 
names of the Far East and in a compilation of literature dealing with 
parts of that area. Dr. Doris Cochran, associate curator of reptiles 
and amphibians, assisted the Surgeon General's Office in the prepara- 
tion of lists of Asiatic reptiles. Personnel of the division of fishes 
furnished information in response to numerous inquiries relative to 
dangerous, poisonous, and useful fishes, methods of fishing, sound- 
making fishes, and emergency fishing equipment. Many identifica- 
tions were made in the division of insects, particularly of mosquitoes, 
mites, and ectoparasites, and information was supplied on the habits of 
these forms, at the request of the Army and Navy. About 1,200 
specimens of insects and Acarina were specially mounted on pins and 
approximately 450 slide mounts were made for use in Army and Navy 
training centers throughout the country in training programs in 
which health problems are involved. In addition, nearly 200 officers 
assigned to malaria survey or control units, or to similar activities, 
received instructions or other help from personnel of the division, and 
information on the disease-bearing insects of specific foreign areas 
was furnished the Division of Medical Intelligence of the Surgeon 
General's Office. At the request of the National Research Council, 
Dr. Paul Bartsch, curator of moUusks, served as a member of a com- 
mittee charged with the preparation of a list of helminth parasites of 
the Southwest Pacific and their intermediate hosts. Dr. E. H. Walker, 
assistant curator of plants, prepared an account of the emergency 
food plants of the Tropics. Paul S. Conger, associate curator of the 
section of diatoms, studied samples of material involved in the fouling 
of ships, mines, and other marine structures. He likewise prepared a 
bibliography of literature concerning the value of plankton as food. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 15 

Services of the department of anthropology dealt with a wide variety 
of subjects relating to people in the Caribbean islands, Pacific and 
Indonesian areas, Oceania, Micronesia, Burma, Japan, China, the 
Philippine Islands, Central America, Europe, and Africa. The in- 
formation furnished included suggestions for Tropical and Arctic 
clothing, and footgear for aviators, water supply, population, primi- 
tive weapons, house types, degree of western influence, physical char- 
acteristics, and leather products. The collections of the division were 
used in a study of the resources of particular strategic geographical 
areas with a view to conservation of shipping space. Dr. T. Dale 
Stewart was granted a 6-month furlough to teach anatomy to Army 
and Navy medical students at the Washington University School of 
Medicine in St. Louis, Mo. Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, associate curator 
of archeology, was detailed for special services to the Military Plan- 
ning Division, Office of the Quartermaster General, AVar Department, 
from September 1943 to March 1944. The division of physical 
anthropology supplied the Office of Strategic Services with photo- 
graphs of various eastern physical types. It also supplied detailed 
data on average body weights of Europeans and various peoples of 
the Far East to the Office of the Quartermaster General. 

In the department of geology, two members of the staff, in coopera- 
tion with the Geological Institute of Mexico, have continued field 
studies in the economic geology of that country as a part of the war 
effort. Curator W. F. Foshag spent the year on detail from the 
Museum in a continuation of the supervision of surveys for strategic 
minerals in Mexico. Dr. G. A. Cooper, similarly, spent 3 months in 
the field in Sonora concluding studies begun last year on the stratified 
rocks. The results, soon to be published, will be useful in the location 
of new mineral areas. Dr. Cooper also concluded field work on the 
project dealing with the subsurface geology of the Devonian rocks 
of Illinois, obtaining information for use in the oil development of 
that and neighboring States. 

Members of the geological staff in the home office have been more 
occupied than ever before in furnishing information to the various 
war agencies. These services have included such diverse items as the 
preparation of analyses, assisting in selecting and grading calcite for 
the War Production and other Boards, editing a scientific volume for 
an allied country, and furnishing information of all kinds to an ever- 
increasing number of service men and women visiting the Museum. 

Other services, especially from the department of engineering and 
industries, have included the following: 

Construction of two demonstration models of new ordnance devices 
for the National Inventors' Council; transfer of a series of model 



16 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

buildings to the War Department, Corps of Engineers, Camouflage 
Section; information on revolving airfoils to the Technical Data 
Laboratory, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio; furnishing photographs 
for Navy training films ; identification of woods ; also information on 
properties and uses of woods for Navy Department, War Production 
Board, Foreign Economic Administration, and Inter- American De- 
velopment Commission; methods of preserving specimens of dehy- 
drated foods for War Food Administration; advice on disposition 
of hemp produced in Kentucky to Commodity Credit Corporation; 
assistance in drawing up contract specifications involving a true lock- 
stitch in sewing safety seams, to United States Maritime Commission ; 
suitability of palmyra fiber as a substitute for rattan for stiff brushes 
to the Navy Department; and aid in the training of document in- 
spectors of Federal Bureau of Investigation in identification of various 
printing processes. 

COLLECTIONS 

Accessions, for the year numbered 1,159 separate lots, totaling 
239,640 specimens. This was an increase over those received last year 
of 9,409 specimens, but a decrease of 18 in the number of accessions. 
Specimens were accessioned by the five departments as follows : An- 
thropology, 852; biology, 229,546; geology, 3,466; engineering and 
industries, 1,388; history, 4,388. Most of the accessions were gifts 
from individuals or specimens transferred from other Government 
agencies. The more important of these are summarized below. 
Catalog entries in all departments now total 18,098,775. 

Anthropology. — The division of archeology received an important 
gift of 115 lots of potsherds and other materials from various Indian 
sites, many of which are on or near the presumed route of De Soto's 
expedition of 1539-42 through the southeastern United States. Two 
gold-and-silver book ends, reflecting the Tiahuanacan style of archi- 
tecture and sculpture, were presented by Vice President Henry A. 
Wallace, who received them as gifts from the Chamber of Commerce 
in Bolivia, on the occasion of his visit to La Paz. The division of 
ethnology was presented with a documented collection (159 speci- 
mens) pertaining to the Huichol Indians of northern Jalisco. Two 
other important collections received by the division were 26 oil por- 
traits of Navaho, Apache, and Pueblo Indians of Arizona and New 
Mexico, painted by Carl Moon, and an assemblage of excellent ex- 
amples of Moro and Indonesian brasses and Philippine metalwork, 
which had been presented to the late President and Mrs. William 
Howard Taft, during their residence in the Philippines. 

Biology. — The largest single collection received by the division of 
mammals in the past 25 years consisted of about 2,400 specimens from 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 17 

Colombia, collected by Philip Hershkovitz during his tenure of the 
Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship of the Smithsonian 
Institution. From the Fish and Wildlife Service came by transfer 
the year's second-largest mammalian accession, 624 mammals from 
various North American localities. A beaked whale foetus, about 7 
feet long, the largest in the National collections, is also notable. 

As in the division of mammals, the largest accession of the year 
to the division of birds came from Colombia. This collection com- 
prised 3,281 specimens, sufficient to give the Museum a reasonably 
complete representation of the bird life of northeastern Colombia. 
A smaller avian collection, 85 specimens, also from Colombia, repre- 
sents localities not included in the larger collection first mentioned. 
Another collection included 20 species of birds hitherto unrepresented 
in the study series. 

As a result of exchanges with other institutions, several species 
of reptiles and amphibians hitherto unrepresented or poorly repre- 
sented in the Museum have been added to the collections. Specimens 
from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Jamaica, and Hon- 
duras were received, and 60 turtles, lizards, snakes, and frogs were 
contributed by Philip Hershkovitz, through the Walter Rathbone 
Bacon Traveling Scholarship. 

Exchanges consummated during the year brought much valuable 
material, including 321 cotypes, to the division of fishes. Smaller 
ichthyological collections, received as gifts, also included type ma- 
terial and some specimens from type localities not previously repre- 
sented in the National collections. 

The vital and significant role played by entomology and entomol- 
ogists in the war is reflected in the host of mosquitoes and mosquito 
larvae received from the sanitary and medical corps of the armed 
forces — more than 10,000 specimens. About 67,000 bees, butterflies, 
and insects, including some holotype and paratype material, came as 
gifts and by transfer from other Government departments. 

Seven of the year's accessions in the division of marine invertebrates 
included type material. Especially noteworthy is the fact that dur- 
ing the past year seven accessions, totaling 2,380 specimens, many of 
them rare, were collected and donated to the Museum by men in the 
armed forces. 

The collection of Mexican land shells in the division of moUusks 
was materially enhanced by three gifts, totaling 1,490 specimens. The 
largest known single collection of Jamaican representatives of the 
molluscan family Neritidae, consisting of 51,000 specimens and ac- 
companying 850 microscopic slides, came as a gift. 

Several valuable accessions in the form of types and cotypes came 
to the helminthological collections as gifts. These included species of 



18 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the genera Ochoterenella^ Choledocystus, Choricotyle, Diphylloboth- 
rium, Hexostoma^ Cyclocotyla^ and Raillietina. 

Among the 89 echinoderms accessioned were 6 undescribed species, 
6 paratypes of new ophiurans, and 2 interesting abnormal starfishes. 

Outstanding among the 36,240 plants received during the year was 
the Chickering herbarium of approximately 10,550 specimens. This 
herbarium, formed by the late John White Chickering, Jr., is a valu- 
able addition as it includes material of historical importance from 
collections not at all or scantily represented previously. Also in- 
cluded are numerous specimens from the District of Columbia, of 
which many were collected in plant habitats now destroyed. Most 
of the smaller collections received came from South American or 
West Indian localities. Of special importance among these were 
about 2,500 specimens of bamboos, including an unusually good repre- 
sentation of vegetative structures important to the field identification 
of the bamboos. 

The Albert Mann diatom collection, consisting of approximately 
8,000 slides of moimted specimens, more than 10,000 samples of crude 
diatom material, and over 200 negatives and 300 lantern slides, trans- 
ferred from the Carnegie Institution of Washington, was formally 
accessioned during the year. In combination with the other material 
this makes the Museum collection of diatoms one of the most im- 
portant in the world. 

Geology. — Income from the Roebling fund, provided for the pur- 
chase of important gems and minerals, was used to procure 31 gem 
stones of rare quality and high exhibition value and 2 mineral acces- 
sions, consisting of 4 unusually formed quartz crystals and 8 trans- 
parent colorless scheelites. A beautiful pink Brazilian topaz of 34.1 
carats was acquired through the Frances Lea Chamberlain fund, and 
the Canfield endowment fund provided two specimens of libethenite 
and a covellite. Several important single accessions came as the result 
of the associate curator's efforts to interest people in making collec- 
tions for the Museum. By transfer from another Government de- 
partment the division of mineralogy and petrology received specimens 
of weinschenite (yttrium phosphate), representing the first occurrence 
of this rare mineral in the United States. 

Seven new meteorites were added to the collection, six of them being 
undescribed falls. 

The largest addition to the ore collection consisted of a series of 
manganese and chromium ores from world-wide foreign deposits. 

The most important new material received by the division of in- 
vertebrate paleontology and paleobotany consisted of 500 specimens of 
rare Paleozoic fossils collected by the curator during his field work 
in northwestern Sonora, Mexico. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 19 

Plaster casts of type fossils today have great scientific value, in 
view of the destruction taking place in foreign museums. Such a 
cast, an important English Carboniferous crinoid, the holotype and 
only specimen of which was in the ill-fated Bristol Museum, was 
received as a gift. Numerous types and holotypes of foraminifers, 
bryozoans, mollusks, echinoids, cephalopods, and corals were welcome 
additions to the collection. Important among the acquisitions of 
specimens of fossil vertebrates was a composite skeleton of an extinct 
antelope, as well as casts of the followin,g: Complete skull of a curious 
three-horned antelope ; type specimen of a flying reptile ; and skeleton 
of a rare Triassic armored reptile. The ichnite collection was en- 
riched by nine slabs containing the trails of Paramphibius didactylus^ 
once considered a vertebrate animal but now regarded as a horseshoe 
crab. 

Engineering and industries. — From the standpoints of historical 
merit and of popular appeal first honors among the acquisitions of 
the year in this department are bestowed upon two automobiles. One 
of these is a U. S. Army 14-ton, 4x4 truck, one of the first of 62 of 
these vehicles built in 1940, and the prototype of these vehicles 
made famous by World War II. The other is a Winton, 1903, the 
first automobile to be driven across the United States, a trip that re- 
quired 63 days on the road. Outstanding among the gifts to the 
watercraft collection was an original kerosene-burning brass bulk- 
head lantern of the first S. S. Mauretania, 1907-37, presented by Presi- 
dent Franklin D. Roosevelt. The lantern now stands in the exhibi- 
tion case containing the handsome model of this famous vessel pre- 
■ sented to the Museum by the President several years ago. 

Through the Textile Color Card Association of the United States, 
the textile section received the ninth edition of the Standard Color 
Card, with its two supplements, the United States Arms and Serv- 
ices Color Card and the United States Army Standard Thread Card. 
The Association is supported by textile manufacturers and representa- 
tive firms of almost every industry using color. These firms agree to 
have their products match the colors included in the ofiicial standard 
card, resulting in a great saving of time to consiuners in obtaining 
exact shades of colors in materials that are to be used together. This 
standardization is especially valuable to the United States Arms and 
Services, each service having an official color requirement for its uni- 
forms, trimmings, badges, and similar equipment. The Standard 
Thread Card is furnished by the Quartermaster General's office to 
quartermaster depots and contractors making clothing or equipage 
for the United States Army. 

An important accession in the section of chemical industries was 
an exhibit illustrating the chemistry and applications of refined alpha- 



20 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

cellulose derived from wood pulp. Since the military services' re- 
quirements for ordnance purposes cover practically all the annual 
production of cotton linters, the manufacturers of rayon found it 
necessary to turn to alpha-cellulose for their raw material. The appli- 
cations of the wood-pulp cellulose shown in the exhibit include rayon, 
molded and laminated plastics, cellophane, artificial leather, rayon 
tire-cord fabric, and electric-arc welding rods. 

An interesting addition to the collection of commercial furs was 
a gift from Vice President Henry A. Wallace of two robes made 
from strips of vicuna skins. The robes were presented to him by 
Miss Kosa Prado, daughter of the President of Peru, on the occasion 
of Mr. Wallace's good-will tour. 

In the division of medicine and public health the most valuable 
items were added to the section of pharmacy. These included a com- 
plete exhibit illustrating the manufacture and use of dried blood 
plasma now effectively employed by our armed forces ; a series of ob- 
jects picturing the method of obtaining penicillin, the recently dis- 
covered miracle-performing bacteriostatic drug ; and a collection out- 
lining the life history of Carl Wilhelm Scheele, the internationally 
famous apothecary. To the history of medicine section was added 
the first portable X-ray machine known to have been operated suc- 
cessfully on a battlefield. 

The outstanding accession in the section of graphic arts was a French 
color print of the eighteenth century, "L'Amant Surpris," by C. M, 
Descourtis after F. Schall. This type of print, the estampe galante^ 
is highly prized and much sought after by collectors. Descourtis 
was one of the important engravers of the period, and it is said that 
"L'Amant Surpris" is one of his masterpieces. Walter Tittle, a well- 
known drypoint artist, presented the section with 19 examples of his 
work, following his special exhibition in the Museum. VOKS, the 
Soviet Russian Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, 
gave the section six war posters produced by the hand-stencil process.' 
No printing equipment is necessary in making posters of this kind, 
which the Russians have developed to a high degree. Guerrilla artists 
have used this method extensively in occupied territories where the 
absence of printing and transportation facilities eliminates other 
methods. 

History. — The collection of civil, naval, marine, and military medals 
and decorations was increased by specimens of several awards of 
these types established during the present war. Among these were 
specimens of the Air Medal, awarded to members of the armed forces 
of the United States who have distinguished themselves since Sep- 
tember 8, 1939, by meritorious achievement in flight. It is second only 
to the Distinguished Flying Cross. They include also specimens of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 21 

the decorations representing the four degrees of the Legion of Merit, 
namely, Chief Commander, Commander, Officer, and Legionnaire. 
These decorations are for award to the personnel of armed forces of 
the United States and the Philippines, and of the armed forces of 
friendly foreign nations. The recipients must have distinguished 
themselves by exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance 
of outstanding services since the Presidential proclamation of emer- 
gency, September 8, 1939. These decorations are the first to be 
founded by the United States Government for award to foreigners. 
Other specimens illustrate the Merchant Marine Distinguished Serv- 
ice Medal and the Mariner's Medal. The first of these was established 
for award to an^^ person in the American Merchant Marine who on 
or after September 3, 1939, "has distinguished himself * * * jn 
the line of duty." The second is awarded to any seaman who, while 
serving on a ship during the war period, is wounded, suffers physical 
injury, or suffers through dangerous exposure as the result of an act 
of an enemy of the United States. 

The collection of uniforms was increased by the addition of several 
United States Army and United States Military Academy uniforms 
of the early part of the twentieth century. Uniforms of the types 
worn by Army nurses and officers and members of the Women's Army 
Corps were received from the AVar Department. A series of German 
and Japanese uniforms captured in Italy and the Aleutian Islands 
was received as a loan from the War Department. 

An interesting gift to the philatelic collection was a series of 
Aguinaldo (Philippine) stamps totaling more than 2,000 specimens. 
A cover franked with a 2-cent red Aguinaldo stamp postmarked 
Bataan, the locality famous for the valiant fight against the Japanese 
of the American forces under the leadership of Gen. Douglas Mac- 
Arthur, is included. Among the stamps transferred by the Post 
Office Department was a special series of 12 United States stamps 
commemorating the European countries that have been overrun and 
occupied by the Axis powers — Albania, Austria, Belgium, Czecho- 
slovakia, Denmark, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, The Nether- 
lands, Poland, and Yugoslavia. Each stamp bears in color the na- 
tional flag of the country concerned. The Soviet Union presented a 
30-kopeck and a 3-nible stamp showing the Russian, British, and 
American flags, commemorating the recent historic conference at 
Tehran. Among the stamps emanating from enemy countries that 
found their way into the Museum collections were 2 Japanese stamps 
commemorating the fall of Bataan and Corregidor, 11 stamps issued 
by the Japanese military authorities for use in the occupation of the 
Dutch Indies, and 14 varieties of Japanese stamps for the army of 



22 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

occupation in the Philippine Islands. A large number of German 
stamps also were received. 

EXPLORATIONS AND BESEARCH 

Although field explorations for the year were concerned principally 
with the conduct of the war, important research was accomplished 
along many other collateral lines. 

Anthropology. — During his assignment as teacher of anatomy to 
Army and Navy medical students at Washington University School 
of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo., studies were carried on by the curator, 
Dr. T. Dale Stewart, on age and sex changes in the human skeleton. 
This was possible because the skeletal collections preserved in the 
university's department of anatomy were obtained from the dis- 
secting rooms and therefore were accurately identified. During the 
course of this work Dr. Stewart took the opportunity also of studying 
arthritic changes in the skeleton. Since arthritis is closely correlated 
with age, it was hoped that the university's identified material would 
aid in the interpretation of the condition in the groups in the Museum 
collections where exact age is unknown. In addition to his work at 
the university. Dr. Stewart spent some time in studying Indian skele- 
tons excavated in Illinois by Dr. P. F. Titterington, a St. Louis physi- 
cian. Two cultural horizons are represented by these Indian re- 
mains, the Hopewell and the Jersey County bluff focus of the Middle 
Mississippi. 

Up to the time of his death on September 5, Dr. Ales Hrdlicka 
continued the work of analyzing his data on the human tibia. The 
year also saw the publication by the Museum of the seventh and 
last part of Dr. Hrdlicka's "Catalog of Human Crania in the United 
States National Museum Collections," a work on which he had been 
engaged for many years. The final part covers the non-Eskimo 
people of the Northwest Coast, Alaska, and Siberia and includes 
measurements of all skulls of this provenience deposited in the Na- 
tional Museum as well as of many supplementary ones in various 
Kussian institutions. The entire series of catalogs presents measure- 
ments of more than 7,500 non-White crania and has been described 
as constituting "one of the most valuable sources of basic anthropo- 
metric data in existence." 

Biology. — Under the auspices of the Division of Cultural Kelations 
of the Department of State, Ellsworth P. Killip, associate curator of 
plants, visited Colombia during April, May, and June for consulta- 
tions and work in botanical centers in Bogota and Cali. In working 
over the Museum's South American material, which includes large 
recent collections of plants, as well as a considerable accumulation of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 23 

specimens received for identification in the past, Mr. Killip assembled 
much valuable data for the proposed "Flora of Colombia." 

Philip Hershkovitz, holder of the Walter Kathbone Bacon Scholar- 
ship for 1941-43, returned from Colombia in October, after an absence 
of almost 2 years. The collection he amassed forms the largest single 
accession of mammals received by the Museum during the past 25 
years. 

Under the W. L. Abbott fund, M. A. Carriker, Jr., continued 
ornithological field work in Colombia mitil October. He brought to 
the Museum the results of two seasons' work, one of the finest collec- 
tions of birds that has ever been made in that area. 

Dr. Remington Kellogg, curator of mammals, served as chairman 
of the American delegation to the International Conference on the 
Regulation of Whaling held in London during January. Between 
sessions of the conference he studied at the British Museum in prepara- 
tion of a report on the recent porpoises. Dr. Kellogg spent part of 
September at the Museum of Comparative Zoology examining a col- 
lection of cetacean remains from Polk County, Fla. Also, at the re- 
quest of the National Research Council, for the Board for the Co- 
ordination of Malarial Studies, in collaboration with Major E. A. 
Goldman of the Fish and Wildlife Service, Dr. Kellogg prepared 
the first of a series of descriptive accounts of the kinds of monkeys 
that may carry malarial infections. 

The curator of birds. Dr. Herbert Friedmann, completed part 10, 
the gallinaceous birds, of Ridgway's unfinished monograph, "The 
Birds of North and Middle America," and began the revision of his 
own previously completed manuscript on the falconiform birds. 
H. G. Deignan, associate curator of birds, completed his monograph 
on "The Birds of Northern Thailand," now in press. 

The associate curator of reptiles. Dr. Doris M. Cochran, reports 
further substantial progress in her studies on South American frogs. 
She also undertook to expand her popular handbook on "Poisonous 
Reptiles " Number 10 of the Smithsonian War Background Studies, 
into a treatise on "Dangerous Reptiles," nonpoisonous, as well as poi- 
sonous, for the general appendix to the Smithsonian Annual Report. 

Dr. Paul Bartsch, curator of moUusks, has worked in close coopera- 
tion with a special committee of the National Research Council, in 
preparing a list of known or suspected molluscan intermediate hosts 
of human parasites. 

In connection with the preparation of survivor manuals, Dr. L. P. 
Schultz, curator of fishes, and Earl D. Reid, scientific aid, demonstrated 
to members of the U. S. Navy the use of derris root for securing 
fish for food in emergencies. 

619830 — 15 3 



24 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Dr. Schultz also made notable progress with his studies on the 
extensive material that he collected in Venezuela, finishing a report on 
the Characinidae and completing manuscript for the families Gymno- 
tidae, Cichlidae, Cyprinodontidae, Dasyatidae, Tetradontidae, and 
Centropomidae. 

The curator of insects, Dr. E. A. Chapin, made further progress 
with, the manuscript embodying the results of liis investigations 
on the beetle genus Hippodamia and continued work on other sections 
of the Coccinellidae. 

Dr. R. E. Blackwelder, associate curator of insects, continuing his 
work on Bulletin 185 of the National Museum, "Checklist of the Col- 
eopterous Insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and 
South America," submitted the manuscript for part 3. Parts 1 and 2 
were published during the year. 

Austin H. Clark, curator of echinoderms, completed part 4 of Bul- 
letin 82, "Monograph of the Existing Crinoids," except for assembling 
the plates. He also published "Iceland and Greenland," the fifteenth 
of the Smithsonian's War Background Studies, and, in collaboration 
with Dr. E. H. Walker, assistant curator of plants, prepared material 
for the biological section of another volume of this series dealing with 
the Aleutian Islands. 

All divisions in the department contributed to the Navy's "Survival 
on Land and Sea," published in December, to "A Field Collector's 
Manual in Natural History," recently issued by the Smithsonian, and 
to the preparation of nine mimeographed leaflets for distribution to 
correspondents inquiring about the animal and plant life of the 
Southwest Pacific. 

Geology. — As in the other departments of the Museum, several 
members of the staff of the department of geology are on military 
detail. The researches of the head curator, Dr. R. S. Bassler, have 
been limited to three projects; first, his monographic study of Lower 
Paleozoic corals; second, a paper on the giant Paleozoic Ostracoda 
known as the Leperditiidae ; and third, a continuation of researches 
on American Ordovician crinoids and cystids contained in the 
Springer collection. The manuscript and illustrations of all three 
have been more than half completed. 

Curator William F. Foshag was occupied the entire year in Mexico 
with his supervisory work for the Geological Survey in surveys for 
strategic minerals. In addition, he spent some time at the Paricutin 
Volcano making observations and collecting material for the Museum 
exhibition series. 

E. P. Henderson completed several analyses of new meteorites. 
"The Metallography of Meteoric Iron," a monograph by Dr. Stuart H. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 25 

Perry, associate in mineralogy, was published during the year as a 
Bulletin of the National Museum. 

Dr. G. A. Cooper, in collaboration with Prof. A. S. Warthin, of 
Vassar College, completed his survey of Illinois Devonian oil strata, 
and, in collaboration with the Instituto Geologic© de Mexico, con- 
tinued field and laboratory studies of the geology of northwestern 
Sonora. A month and a half of field work in Sonora, in association 
with his Mexican colleague, Ing. A. K. V. Arellano, resulted in note- 
worthy paleontological collections and considerable increase in knowl- 
edge of the structure and stratigraphy of the area. 

Under the Walcott fund of the Smithsonian Institution, in collabo- 
ration with Drs. Myron N. Cooper and K. S. Edmundson, of the Vir- 
ginia Geological Survey, Dr. Cooper made an investigation of the 
relationships of the limestones that occur on the flanks of Clinch 
Mountain in southwestern Virginia and northern Tennessee. 

Before his untimely death Dr. Charles E. Resser was engaged in the 
study of the Lower Ordovician trilobites of Vermont and adjacent 
areas and was continuing his Cambrian Summary and Bibliography. 
Many years of work by Drs. Walcott and Resser have gone into this 
summary and bibliography, both of which when finished will be valu- 
able contributions to science. 

Field work in vertebrate paleontology, usually one of the best sources 
of striking exhibition material, was necessarily restricted. In a 
short trip to the nearby Calvert Cliffs on Chesapeake Bay, Curator 
C. W. Gilmore and his assistants had the good fortune to excavate a 
sirenian skeleton of Miocene age, a fossil sea cow over 10 feet long. 

MISCEIJLANEOUS 

Visitors. — The number of visitors to the Museum buildings during 
the year showed an increase of 177,496 over the previous year. The 
total number, 1,532,765, is, of course, far below the peacetime record 
of 2,408,170 in 1937-38, but the increase does indicate a salutary up- 
trend in the degree to which the National Museum exhibits and col- 
lections are being viewed and studied by the people even in wartime. 
August 1943 and April 1944 saw the largest number of visitors, 162,016 
and 164,221, respectively, being recorded for these months. The 
attendance in the four Smithsonian and Museum buildings was as 
follows : Smithsonian building, 301,212 ; Arts and Industries building, 
566,496 ; Natural History building, 493,239 ; Aircraft building, 171,818. 

Since a considerable proportion of the visitors consisted of men and 
women in the armed forces, special services were proffered this group 
and every effort was made to enhance their visits. In the Natural 
History building a program of Sunday docent service, for guiding 



26 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

parties through the Museum, was inaugurated. A number of women 
U. S. O. volunteers were especially trained to act as guides, and the 
"tours" conducted by them have proved very popular. During the 
period covering the last 35 Sundays of the fiscal year, over 5,000 mem- 
bers of the military personnel took advantage of this guide service. 

Publications and printing. — The sum of $30,000 was available dur- 
ing the fiscal year for the publication of the Annual Report, Bulletins, 
and Proceedings of the National Museum. Twenty publications were 
issued — the Annual Report, 4 Bulletins, 1 Contribution from the 
National Herbarium, and 14 Proceedings papers. A list of these 
publications is given in the report on publications, appendix 10. 

The distribution of volumes and separates to libraries and individ- 
uals on the regular mailing lists aggregated 40,817 copies. 

Special exhibits. — Seventeen special exhibits were held during the 
year in the foyer and adjacent space of the Natural History building, 
under the auspices of various educational, scientific, recreational, and 
governmental groups. In addition the department of engineering and 
industries arranged 28 special displays — 5 in engineering, 12 in graphic 
arts, and 11 in photography. 

CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND STAFF 

There was no major change in the organization of the National 
Museum, but some work has been done in allocating positions to their 
proper grades under the Classification Act on the basis of the duties 
of each position. 

Honorary appointments were conferred on Maj. Edward A. Gold- 
man as associate in zoology on August 1, 1943, Dr. Floyd A. McClure 
as research associate in botany on April 21, 1944, Dr. J. B. Reeside, Jr., 
as custodian of Mesozoic collection on June 19, 1944, and Clarence R. 
Shoemaker as associate in zoology on April 1, 1944. 

In the department of biology, Dr. David H. Johnson, associate 
curator, division of mammals, was furloughed for military duty on 
November 15, 1943, and Dr. Richard E. Blackwelder, associate cura- 
tor, division of insects, was furloughed temporarily for war work on 
August 23, 1943. Other changes were the resignation on March 22, 
1944, of Walter A. Weber, assistant curator, division of birds; the 
retirement of Clarence R. Shoemaker, associate curator, division of 
marine invertebrates, and Julian S. Warmbath, taxidermist. The 
latter vacancy was filled by the promotion of Watson M. Perrygo on 
December 9, 1943. In the section of diatoms, Paul S. Conger was 
appointed associate curator on March 9, 1944. 

In the department of geology. Dr. G. Arthur Cooper was advanced 
to the curatorship of the division of invertebrate paleontology and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 27 

paleobotany on October 2, 1943, to succeed Dr. Charles E. Resser, who 
died on September 18, 1943. Miss Marion F. "Willoughby, scientific 
aid, transferred to the United States Geological Survey on October 
31, 1943. 

In the department of engineering and industries, Dr. A. J. Olmsted, 
for a number of years chief photographer of the Museum, was relieved 
of the duties of that position on November 9, 1943, and was appointed 
associate curator in charge of the section of photography, Gurney I. 
Hightower succeeded Dr. Olmsted in charge of the photographic 
laboratory on January 9, 1944, with Floyd B. Kestner as assistant. 

Other changes in the administrative staff during the year were the 
retirement of Royal H. Trembly, superintendent of buildings and 
labor, who was succeeded by Lawrence L. Oliver on December 10, 1943. 
Anthony W. Wilding was appointed property officer on December 21, 

1943. The vacancy created by the death of Miss Helen A. Olmsted, 
personnel officer, was filled by the appointment of Mrs. Bertha T. 
Carwithen on February 1, 1944; and Mrs. Margaret L. Vinton was 
appointed personnel assistant on March 9, 1944. 

Employees furloughed for military duty during the year were as 
follows : Robert L. Bradshaw, on October 12, 1943 ; Joseph R. Burke, 
Jr., on October 13, 1943; John Carl Carter, on May 5, 1944; Walter 
McCree, on April 3, 1944; and David H. Johnson on November 15, 
1943. 

Ernest Desantis returned to duty from military furlough on Oc- 
tober 18, 1943. 

Eleven persons were retired, three having reached retirement age, 
five on account of disability, and three by optional retirement, as fol- 
lows : For age, William Rice, laborer, on September 30, 1943, after 15 
years, 3 months of service ; Thomas J. Shannon, guard, on April 30, 

1944, after 18 years, 6 months ; and Clarence R. Shoemaker, associate 
curator, on March 31, 1944, with over 33 years, 4 months of service. 
For disability, Eugene C. Miller, guard, on December 9, 1943, with 6 
years, 1 month of service; Cecil R. Mulnix, guard, on March 31, 1944, 
with 13 years, 7 months service ; Arthur G. Rodgers, guard, on Novem- 
ber 10, 1943, with 8 years, 5 months service ; Ann M. Stokes, laborer, 
on October 4, 1943, with 18 years, 6 months service; and Charles O. 
Watson, laborer, on April 5, 1944, with 35 years, 3 months service. 
By optional retirement, Royal H. Trembly, superintendent of build- 
ings and labor, November 30, 1943, with over 49 years of service ; Bertie 
Turner, attendant, on November 30, 1943, with 32 years, 6 months 
service ; and Julian S. Warmbath, taxidermist, with 15 years of service. 

Through death, the Museum lost during the year five employees 
from its active roll: Dr. Charles E. Resser, curator, division of in- 



28 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

vertebrate paleontology and paleobotany, on September 18, 1943, after 

29 years, 5 months ; Miss Helen A. Olmsted, personnel officer, on Jan- 
uary 11, 1944, after 43 years, 9 months; Benjamin F. Coe, guard, on 
March 1, 1944, after 25 years, 5 months ; George E. Matheny, guard, 
on July 20, 1943, after 24 years, 6 months; and Cornelius S. Jones, 
laborer, on March 17, 1944, after 32 years, 6 months. 

From its honorary staff, the Museum lost by death on September 5, 
1943, Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, associate in anthropology since April 1, 1942 ; 
and on February 22, 1944, Dr. E. O. Ulrich, associate in paleontology 
since June 9, 1914. ' 

KespectfuUy submitted. 

Alexander Wetmore, Director. 
The Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 2 
EEPORT ON THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

Sir : I have the honor to submit, on behalf of the Board of Trustees 
of the National Gallery of Art, the seventh annual report of the Board 
covering its operations for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944. This 
report is made pursuant to the provisions of the Act of March 24, 1937 
(50 Stat. 51), as amended by the public resolution of April 13, 1939 
(Pub. Res. No. 9, 76th Cong.) . 

ORGANIZATION AND STAFF 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, the Board was comprised 
of the Chief Justice of the United States, Harlan F. Stone ; the Sec- 
retary of State, Cordell Hull; the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry 
Morgenthau, Jr.; and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, ex officio ; and five general trustees, David K. E. Bruce, 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin, Duncan Phillips, Samuel H. Kress, and 
Chester Dale. Mr. Dale was elected as general trustee on November 1, 
1943, to succeed Joseph E. Widener, who died on October 26, 1943. 

At its annual meeting, held on February 14, 1944, the Board re- 
elected David K. E. Bruce, President, and Ferdinand Lammot Belin, 
Vice President, to serve for the ensuing year. The executive officers 
continuing in office during the year were : 

Huntington Cairns, Secretary-Treasurer. 
David B. Finley, Director. 
Harry A. McBride, Administrator. 
Huntington Cairns, General Counsel. 
John Walker, Chief Curator. 
Macgill James, Assistant Director. 

Donald D. Shepard continued to serve during the year as Adviser to 
the Board. 

During the year E. Roy Bergholz was appointed as Assistant Treas- 
urer to succeed Charles Zinsner, who resigned ; John A. Gilmore was 
appointed as Assistant General Counsel ; Hanns Swarzenski was ap- 
pointed Curator of Sculpture ; and Porter A. McCray was appointed 
Chief of the Inter-American Office. 

The Board of Trustees during the year was authorized and directed 
by the Foreign Funds Control of the United States Treasury Depart- 
ment, and at the request of the State Department, to assume custodian- 

29 



30 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

ship of all works of art and exhibition material sent to the United 
States under the auspices of the former French Government for exhi- 
bition purposes at various places in the United States, including the 
World's Fairs at New York, N. Y., and San Francisco, Calif. 

On August 20, 1943, The American Commission for the Protection 
and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas was 
organized, and several executive officers of the Gallery were appointed 
to serve as officers of the Commission. The headquarters of the Com- 
mission are located in the Gallery building. 

In March 1944 the Gallery, at the request of the State Department, 
established the Inter- American Office. This office was created to act 
as the official Government clearinghouse for the exchange of informa- 
tion concerning art activities in the American Kepublics. 

The three standing committees of the Board, provided for in the 
bylaws, as constituted at the annual meeting of the Board, held Febru- 
ary 14, 1944, were : 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chief Justice of the United States, Harlan F. Stone, chairman. 

David K. E. Bruce, vice chairman. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr. C. G. Abbot. 

Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 

Duncan Phillips. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., chairman. 
David K. E. Bruce, vice chairman. 
Secretary of State, Cordell Hull. 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 
Samuel H. Kress. 

ACQUISITIONS COMMITTEE 

David K. E. Bruce, chairman. 

Ferdinand Lammot Belin, vice chairman. 

Duncan Phillips. 

Chester Dale. 

David E. Finley, ex ofBcio. 

The permanent Government positions of the Gallery are filled 
from the registers of the United States Civil Service Commission or 
with its approval. On June 30, 1944, the permanent Government staff 
numbered 243 employees. Since the beginning of the war, 58 mem- 
bers of the staff, or approximately 25 percent, have entered the armed 
services. 

The operation and maintenance of the Gallery building and grounds 
and the protection of the works of art have been continued through 
the fiscal year 1944 at as high a standard as possible with the reduced 
staffs now available. These staffs have been cut to a minimum owing 
to the fact that th» Gallery has desired to reduce expenditures and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 31 

the use of manpower to the greatest possible extent durmg the war 
period. That it has been possible to maintain a fairly high standard 
is due solely to the intensive efforts, efficiency, and interest of the main- 
tenance staff and the guard force. However, it will be necessary 
to increase both the maintenance staff and the guard force as soon 
us possible in order adequately to operate and maintain the Gallery 
building and grounds and to enable the Trustees to carry out their 
duties in the protection and care of the works of art in the Gallery's 
collections. 

APPROPRIATIONS 

For salaries and expenses for the upkeep and operation of the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art, the protection and care of works of art acquired 
by the Board, and all administrative expenses incident thereto as 
authorized by the Act of March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51), and amended 
by public resolution of April 13, 1939 (Pub. Res. No. 9, 76th Cong.), 
the Congress appropriated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944, 
the sum of $623,365.00. This amount includes the present appropria- 
tion of $541,365.00 and a supplementary deficiency appropriation 
amounting to $82,000,00 for the payment of "overtime compensation" 
as authorized by Public Law 49, 78th Congress. From these appro- 
priations the following expenditures and encumbrances were incurred : 

EXPENDITUEES AND EnCTTMBKANCBS 

Personal services $510, 665. 00 

Printing and binding 4, 047. 22 

Supplies and equipment, etc 103,315.03 

Unencumbered balance 5, 337. 75 

Total 623, 365. CO 

In addition to the above-mentioned appropriations, the Gallery re- 
ceived $15,932.16 from the Federal Works Agency, Public Buildings 
Administration, to cover expenses incurred in connection with the 
special protection of paintings and sculpture evacuated from the 
Gallery. 

ATIENDANCE 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, the visitors to the 
National Gallery of Art totaled 2,060,071, the largest annual attendance 
since the opening of the Gallery. This compares with 1,508,081 dur- 
ing the fiscal year ended June 30, 1943, or an increase of 551,990 or 
36.6 percent. The increase in popularity of the Gallery is evidenced 
by the fact that the average daily attendance during the fiscal year 
1944 was 5,659 visitors, as compared with 4,143 for the fiscal year 1943. 
On Sunday, December 21, 1943, there were 22,248 visitors, the greatest 
number in any one day. 



32 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Contributing to the public's increasing interest in the Gallery 
are the evening hours on Sunday, the special exhibitions, particularly 
those of wartime art, the Sunday evening concerts without charge, and 
the Servicemen's Room, which provides a place of relaxation for men 
and women in the armed services. Approximately 30 percent of the 
visitors to the Gallery are men and women in the armed services. 

PUBLIOATIONS 

The Information Rooms in the Gallery continue to offer an in- 
creasing variety of fine, although moderately priced, colored repro- 
ductions of paintings in the Gallery's collections, as well as post cards, 
illustrated catalogs, and a general information booklet that is of 
great assistance to visitors and which may be obtained without charge. 
With the acquisition of the Lessing J. liosenwald collection of prints 
and drawings, a large illustrated catalog of this collection and a set 
of 32 post-card reproductions of some of the prints and drawings in 
the collection have been added to the publications now available. 

During the past year there has been a great increase in the number 
of orders for the Gallery's publications from servicemen overseas, who 
are purchasing color prints and catalogs for use in recreation rooms 
at military posts all over the world. There has also been an unusual 
demand from public schools throughout the United States for color 
reproductions and text material descriptive of the Gallery's collections. 
These publications also are in demand in the Latin-American 
republics. 

WORKS OF ART STORED IN PLACE OF SAFEKEEPING 

Early in January 1942 a limited number of fragile and irreplace- 
able works of art in the Gallery's collections were removed to a place 
of greater safety. These works, stored in a place adapted for the pur- 
pose, have since been under constant guard by members of the Gal- 
lery's guard force and under supervision and inspection by a member 
of the curatorial staff of the Gallery. 

ACQUISITIONS 
GIFTS OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS 

The Board of Trustees, on December 4, 1943, accepted six etchings 
from David Keppel, five by Piranesi and one by Ugo de Carpi. Also 
on December 4 the Board accepted a gift of two drawings, "Seated 
Figure," by Pascin, and "Head of a Girl," by Puvis de Chavannes, 
from Lessing J. Rosenwald. On May 20, 1944, the Board accepted an 
additional gift of approximately 196 prints and drawings from Mr. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 33 

Kosenwald. The Index of American Design, consisting of 22,000 or 
more drawings and water colors, which was accepted by the Board on 
June 7, 1943, from the Works Progress Administration, was received in 
the Gallery during the fiscal year 1944. 

GIFTS OF PAINTINGS 

On December 4, 1943, the Board of Trustees accepted eight paintings 
from Lessing J. Rosenwald, viz : 

Title Artist 

The Stockade Forain. 

The Petitioner Forain. 

Artist and Model Forain. 

. Behind the Scenes Forain. 

Feast of the Gods Daumier. 

In Chui'ch Daumier. 

Peach Blossom Whistler. 

Arnold Hannay Whistler. 

On the same date it also accepted the painting entitled "Breezing Up," 
by Winslow Homer, from the W. L. and May T. Mellon Foundation. 
On December 18, 1943, the Board accepted the portrait of "Commodore 
John Rodgers," by John Wesley Jarvis, from the Misses Christina and 
Nannie R. Macomb. On February 14, 1944, the Board accepted two 
paintings, "The Stream," by Courbet, and "The Eel Gatherers," by 
Corot, from Mr. and Mrs. P. H. B. Frelinghuysen. From the children 
of the late Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, the Board on the same date 
accepted the painting entitled "Amos Lawrence," by Chester Harding ; 
and on May 20, 1944, the Board accepted the painting of "Horace 
Binney," by Gilbert Stuart, as a gift from Dr. Horace Binney. 

SALE OR EXCHANGE OF WORKS OF ART 

During the year no works of art belonging to the Gallery were sold 
or exchanged. 

LOAN or WORKS OF ART TO THE GALLERY 

During the year the following works of art were received on loan : 
From Mrs. John C. Clark of New York, N. Y. : 

69 etchings by Pennell. 
From Mrs. Gary Grant, Pacific Palisades, Calif. : 

Titl^ Artist 

A Fete Day, Venice Canaletto. 

The Courtyard, Doge's Palace, with the Procession of the Papal 

Legate Canaletto. 



34 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

LOAN OF WORKS OF ART BY THE GALLERY 

In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, the Gallery loaned the fol- 
lowing five paintings to the Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, 
Conn., for exhibition purposes : 

From the collection of the National Gallery of Art : 

Title Artist 

Self Portrait Benjamin West. 

Major Tliomas Biddle Thomas Sully and Thomas Wilcocks Sully. 

From the loan collection of The A. W. Mellon Educational and 
Charitable Trust: 

Title Artist 

Anna Cora Mowatt ( ?) attributed to John James Audubon. 

Gilbert Stuart's Family (?) attributed to Washington Allston. 

Peter R. Livingston ( ?) attributed to Abraham Delanoy. 

LOANED WORKS OF ART RETURNED 

During the year the following works of art lent to the Gallery by 
Chester Dale of New York, N. Y., were returned to him : 

Title Artist 

Crouching Lion Delacroix. 

Nude Woman Seated on a Bed Forain. 

Woman Seated on a Chair Forain. 

Monsieur Louis Roy Gauguin. 

Cottage Interior with Woman and Little Girl Millet. 

EXHIBrnONS 

The following exhibitions were held at the National Gallery of Art 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944 : 

Group of political caricatures by French and British artists, from 
the Lessing J. Rosenwald collection, from July 31 to September 5, 
1943. 

Nineteenth- and twentieth-century drawings and water colors from 
French museums and private collections (2d showing) from August 
8 to September 5, 1943. 

"Art for Bonds," by American artists and sponsored by the Treasury 
Department's National Committee of Honorary Patrons, in connec- 
tion with the Treasury's Third War Loan Campaign, from September 
12 to October 10, 1943. 

Marine water colors and drawings by officers and enlisted men of 
the U. S. Marine Corps, through cooperation of the Division of Public 
Relations, U. S. Marine Corps, from September 12 to October 10, 1943. 

Navaho pollen and sand paintings. Selections from a group of 
paintings executed by Miss Maud Oakes, and accompanied by a group 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 35 

collected by Miss Mary Wheelwright, from October 17 to November 
14, 1943. 

Paintings of naval aviation by American artists. From the Abbott 
Laboratories and in cooperation with the U. S. Navy, from November 
21 to December 12, 1943. 

Prints and drawings from the Rosenwald collection. The first 
general exhibition of prints and drawings from the Lessing J. Rosen- 
wald collection, comprising a group of selections from the fifteenth 
century to the present time, from December 19, 1943, to February 13, 
1944. 

Etchings and lithographs by Goya from the Gallery's collection, 
from January 23 to February 13, 1944. 

"The Army at War," paintings and drawings by American artists 
at Army bases throughout the world. Exhibition lent by the War 
Department to the Treasury Department, and shown at the National 
Gallery of Art from February 20 to March 19, 1944. 

Index of American Design. First exhibition of a selection of draw- 
ings and water colors (from the Metal Work and Hooked Rug sec- 
tions), from March 26 to April 23, 1944. 

Nanteuil engraved portraits. A selection of 35 of Nanteuil's works, 
from the Lessing J. Rosenwald collection, from March 26 to June 21, 
1944. 

British war paintings. An exhibition of official British war paint- 
ings, recording military operations and civilian activities in wartime 
Britain. Lent by the British Ministry of Information, from April 23 
to May 20, 1944. 

Rembrandt prints and drawings. A survey of the work of the great 
Dutch master, selected from the Rosenwald, Widener, Rice, and 
Nowell-Usticke collections, from April 30 to June 21, 1944. 

TRAVELING EXHIBITIONS 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, the following drawings, 
water colors, and prints were placed on exhibition : 

INDEX OF AMERICAN DESIGN 

Exhibition made up from the documented drawings and water colors con- 
tained in the Index of American Design. Six drawings, together with data sheets, 
for use in an Exhibition of Maine Art, opening April 14, 1944, were shipped to 
Colby College, Waterville, Me., and were returned to the Gallery June 15, 1944. 

Ninety-five duplicate data sheets of Texas material contained in the Index, 
from which to make a selection of photographs, were shipped to the University 
of Texas, Austin, Tex., on June 27, 1944. 

EOSENWALD PRINTS 

A traveling exhibition, consisting of 35 prints from the Lessing J. Rosenwald 
collection. Sent on May 6, 1944, to Brooks Memorial Art Gallery, Memphis, 



36 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Tenn. ; then to the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Va., on June 12, 
1944, from where it will be returned to the National Gallery of Art about August 1, 
to be held for further bookings. 

VARIOUS GALLERY ACTIVITIES 

In the period from July 1, 1943, to June 30, 1944, a total of 53 con- 
certs were given, of which 52 were in the East Garden Court on Sun- 
day evenings and one on Saturday afternoon in the Auditorium. The 
concerts were free to the public, and were attended to capacity. The 
National Gallery Sinfonietta, under the direction of Kichard Bales, 
played 13 concerts. An American Festival of works of native com- 
posers was held during March and April, 1944, when five perform- 
ances were given. 

The Sunday night suppers for servicemen have been continued 
during the year, approximately 35 being served each Sunday in the 
cafeteria at the Gallery. Funds to defray the cost of the suppers were 
contributed by members of the staff and by friends of the Gallery. 

A total of 195 special permits to copy paintings in the National 
Gallery of Art were issued during the fiscal year 1944, and 72 special 
permits were issued during the same period to photograph paintings. 

CURATORIAL DEPARTMENT 

During the year the work of the curatorial department consisted 
mainly of installing a large number of gifts and additional works of 
art from the Widener collection; arranging 17 temporary exhibitions; 
cataloging paintings, sculpture, and prints; assisting the American 
Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic 
Monuments in War Areas by providing information on damaged and 
looted works of art in war areas; and the assumption of additional 
responsibility resulting from the appointment of the Trustees of the 
Gallery as custodian of Avorks of art and exhibition material sent to 
this country under the auspices of the former French Government. 

Two publications, "Great American Paintings from Smibert to 
Bellows," edited by John Walker and Macgill James, and "Master- 
pieces of Painting from the National Gallery of Art," edited by Hunt- 
ington Cairns and John Walker, were prepared with the assistance of 
members of the curatorial department. One book, two catalogs, and 
three pamphlets were issued by the curatorial and educational depart- 
ments in collaboration. Six members of the staff contributed eight 
articles to several periodicals and pamphlet series. 

During the past year approximately 622 works of art were sub- 
mitted to the acquisitions conmiittee (the largest individual gift being 
490 prints and drawings to be added to the Rosenwald collection) with 
recommendations regarding their acceptability for the collections of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 37 

the National Gallery of Art; 45 private collections were viewed in 
connection with offers to the Gallery of gifts or loans ; 94 consultations 
were held concerning 139 works of art brought to the Gallery for 
expert opinion; and 58 written replies were made to inquiries in- 
volving research in the history of art. 

RESTORATION AND REPADR OF WORKS OF ART 

With the authorization of the Board, and the approval of the Direc- 
tor and Chief Curator, the necessary restoration and repair of paint- 
ings and sculpture in the Gallery's collection were made by Stephen S. 
Pichetto, Consultant Restorer to the Gallery. All the work was com- 
pleted in the Restorer's studio in the Gallery with the exception of 
several paintings that required restoration before shipment to Wash- 
ington, and one where the work was of such a delicate and complicated 
nature that it was necessary for the work to be done in Mr. Pichetto's 
New York studio. 

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 

More than 72,000 people attended the various programs conducted 
by the educational department during the year. The Gallery tours 
of the collection attracted nearly 15,000 people, while 22,000 attended 
the "Picture of the Week," a 10-minute discussion of a single painting 
given twice daily on Mondays through Fridays. More than 9,000 
attended the regular lectures on special topics delivered by the educa- 
tional staff and guest speakers. 

During the first 4 months of the fiscal year, a new project undertaken 
by the educational department was that of an automatic program 
(no speaker) employing 2x2 Kodachromes and titles on slides, en- 
titled "What To See in the National Gallery of Art — A Suggestion 
for Your First Visit." This program was accompanied by recorded 
music, and more than 15,000 people attended. 

LIBRARY 

The most important contribution to the library during the year was 
the art library of the late Joseph E. Widener. This gift consisted of 
1,373 books and 579 periodicals. 

As a gift from Solomon R. Guggenheim, the library received the 
Richter Archives, consisting of over 60,000 photographs and reproduc- 
tions. Mr. Guggenheim also gave 975 photographs of art objects in 
the Solomon R. Guggenheim collection. A number of books on works 
of art were also added to the library collection through funds donated 
by Capt. Paul Mellon. 



38 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

PHOTOGRAPHIC DEPARTMENT 

During the fiscal year 1944, the photographic laboratory of the 
Gallery made 6,037 black-and-white prints and 510 black-and-white 
and 1,117 color slides. 

OTHER GIFTS 

In the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, gifts of books on works of art 
and related material were made to the Gallery library by the Honor- 
able Solomon Bloom, Mrs. Juliana Force, Mrs. Victor Harris, Macgill 
James, Pvt. Lincoln Kirstein, Leander McCormick-Goodhart, Capt. 
Paul Mellon, Lamont Moore, John H. Morgan, W. Francklyn Paris, 
Duncan Phillips, and Maj. Ray L. Trautman. Gifts of money were 
made to the Gallery during the year by Mrs. Florence Becker, David 
E. Finley, Mrs. Deering Howe, Mr. and Mrs. Macgill James, Life 
Magazine, Mrs. H. A. McBride, Capt. Paul Mellon, Donald D. Shep- 
ard. Col. and Mrs. O. J. Troster, and the late Joseph E. Widener. 

AUDIT OF PRIVATE FUNDS OF THE GALLERY 

An audit is being made of the private funds of the Gallery for the 
year ended June 30, 1944, by Price, Waterhouse & Company, public 
accountants, and the certificate of that company on its examination 
of the accounting records maintained for such funds will be submitted 
to the Gallery. 

Respectfully submitted. 

F. L. Belin, Acting President. 
The Secretary, 

/Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 3 

KEPORT ON THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Sib : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts for the fiscal year ended June 
30,1944: 

APPROPRIATIONS 

For the administration of the National Collection of Fine Arts by 
the Smithsonian Institution, including compensation of necessary em- 
ployees, purchase of books of reference and periodicals, traveling 
expenses, and other necessary incidental expenses, $17,486 was allot- 
ted, of which $6,364.74 was expended in connection with the care and 
maintenance of the Freer Gallery of Art, a unit of the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts. The balance was spent for the care and upkeep 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts, nearly all of this sum being 
required for the payment of salaries, traveling expenses, purchase 
of books and periodicals, and necessary disbursements for the care 
of the collection. 

THE SMITHSONIAN ART COMMISSION 

Owing to crowded transportation conditions and lack of proper 
hotel facilities, it was decided to omit again the December annual 
meeting of the Smithsonian Art Commission. Several proffered gifts 
of art works have been deposited with the National Collection of Fine 
Arts to be passed upon at the next meeting of the Commission. 

The Commission lost one member by death during the year. Dr. 
Frederick P. Keppel, a member of the Commission since 1932, died 
September 8, 1943. 

THE CATHERINE WAXDEN MTER FUND 

Four miniatures, water color on ivory, were acquired from the fund 
established through the bequest of the late Catherine Walden Myer, 
as follows : 

42. "Charles Carroll," by Henry Inman (1801-1846) ; from Mrs. Dora Lee 
Curtis, Arlington, Va. 

43. "William E. Dickson," by Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860) ; from Mrs. J. J. 
Hooper, Washington, D. C. 

619830—45' 4 39 



40 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

44. "Katherine Douglas Dickson," by Raphael Peale (1774-1825) ; from Mrs. 
J. J. Hooper, Washington, D. C. 

45. "British Officer," by Alfred T. Agate (1812-1846) ; from Miss Elizabeth A. 
DuHamel, Washington, D. C. 

LOANS ACCEPTED 

A miniature, "Otto, Count de Mosloy," by Charles Willson Peale, 
1779, was lent by Dr. L. P. Shippen on September 24, 1943. 

An oil painting, "Portrait of Mrs. Stephen Decatur, nee Susan 
Wheeler (1776-1860)," by Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828), and four 
crayon drawings on paper, "Portrait of Ann Decatur Pine," "Portrait 
of Capt. James Mcl^ight," "Portrait of Capt. Stephen Decatur, Sr.," 
and "Portrait of Ann Pine McKnight Decatur," by Saint-Memin 
(1770-1852) , were lent by Mrs. William F. Machold, nee Sarah Morris, 
on November 22, 1943. 

Thirty Chinese jade ornaments were lent anonymously on March 1, 
1944. 

A miniature, "Col. Nathaniel Darby," by an unknown artist, was 
lent by Dr. L. P. Shippen on March 25, 1944. 

Two miniatures, "John Church Hamilton," and "Unknown Lady," 
by Alfred T. Agate (1812-1846), were lent by Miss Elizabeth A. 
DuHamel on April 7, 1944. 

A miniature, "William Parsons, 2nd, of Gloucester, Mass.," by 
Washington Blanchard (ac. 1831-43, Boston), was lent by Mrs. Alba 
Walling on May 18, 1944. 

An oil painting, "Portrait of Lt. Gen. Mark W. Clark," by M. Arnold 
Nash, was lent by Mrs. Mark W. Clark on June 7, 1944. 

LOANS TO OTHER MUSEUMS AND ORGANIZATIONS 

The following 13 paintings were lent to the Civilian Medical Di- 
vision, Office of the Secretary of War, Dr. F. C. Smith, Medical Di- 
rector, Room 1 E 356, Pentagon Building, on July 21, 1943, with the 
understanding that they can be recalled at any time. 

"Street Scene in Ajmere," by William S. Bagdatopoulos. 

"Peshawar City from the Fort," by William S. Bagdatopoulos 

"Peachbloom," by Alice Pike Barney. 

"Landscape with Pond," by John L. Bennett. 

"The Woodland Way," by William Baxter Closson. 

"Joyous Childhood," by William Baxter Closson. 

"Near the Ocean," by Robert Swain Gifford. 

"On the Lagoon, Venice," by Robert Swain Gifford. 

"Landscape with Windmill," by E. Landseer Harris. 

"Great Silas at Night," by Robert C. Minor. 

"The Brook," by Clinton Ogilvie. 

"The Patriarchs, Zion National Park," by Gunnar Widforss. , 

"The Artist's Children," by John Wood. 



I 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 41 

A marble statue, "Greek Slave," by Hiram Powers (without the 
pedestal), was lent to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 
City, for an exhibition "The Greek Revival in the United States," 
November 8, 1943, to March 1, 1944. (Returned March 7, 1944.) 

Two oil paintings, "Cliffs of the Upper Colorado River, Wymoing 
Territory," by Thomas Moran, and "Fired On," by Frederic Reming- 
ton, were lent to The Museum of Modern Art, New York City, for an 
exhibition of "Romantic Painting in America," November IT through 
February 6, 1944. (Returned February 18, 1944.) 

An oil painting, "Thomas A. Edison Listening to his First Per- 
fected Phonograph," by Col. A. A. Anderson, was lent to the Depart- 
ment of Engineering and Industries, United States National Museum, 
on February 11, 1944, to be used in connection with a special exhibition 
commemorating the ninety-seventh birthday of Edison. (Returned 
March 3, 1944.) 

The following five miniatures were lent to the Lyman Allyn Museum, 
New London, Conn., to be included in the exhibition of John Trum- 
bull and his contemporaries from March 5 to April 16, 1944. (Re- 
turned April 19, 1944.) 

"Mr. Nichol," by John Wesley Jarvis. 
"Elizabeth Oliphant," by James Peale. 
"Elizabeth Knapp," by James Peale. 
"Robert Oliphant," by Raphael Peale. 
"Rubens Peale," by Raphael Peale. 

An oil painting, "Portrait of Frank B. Noyes," by Ossip Perelma, 
was lent to the artist to be shown in connection w4th his exhibition of 
portraits held at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, D. C, May 9 to 
June 1, 1944. (Returned June 5, 1944.) 

WITHDRAWALS BY OWNERS 

The following six paintings, lent by the Rev. F. Ward Denys, were 
withdrawn November 3, 1943, by the executor of his estate, the Ameri- 
can Security and Trust Company. 

"The Salutation," copy after Albertinelll. 

"Holy Family," copy after Del Sarto. 

"Gathering Flowers," by E. Keyser. 

"St. Michael and the Dragon," copy after Guido Reni. 

"Madonna and Child," copy after Perugino. 

"St. Anthony and the Lions," by unknown artist. 

The bronze statue of Lincoln, by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, lent by 
the estate of Mrs. John Hay, was withdrawn December 13, 1943. 

An oil painting, "Portrait of a Dutch Girl," by Jan Victoors, was 
withdrawn December 31, 1943, by Mrs. Feroline Perkins Wallach, 
Administratrix of the Estate of Cleveland Perkins. 



42 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Two oil paintings, "The Windmill," by Salomon Ruysdael, and 
"Portrait of a Dutch Girl," by Paul Moreelse, were withdrawn May 
15, 1944, by Mrs. Feroline Perkins Wallach, Administratrix of the 
Estate of Cleveland Perkins. 

THE HENRY WARD RANGER FUND PURCHASES 

No. 113 entitled "Fifteenth Century French Madonna and Child," 
by Harry W. Watrous (1857-1940), was assigned by the Council 
of the National Academy of Design to the Coker College for Women, 
Hartsville, S. C, on August 4, 1943. 

THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS REFERENCE LIBRARY 

A total of 651 publications (329 volumes and 322 pamphlets) were 
accessioned during the year. This number includes 171 volumes and 
52 pamphlets added by purchase, and 60 volumes of bound periodicals. 
The Parke-Bernet priced catalogs accounted for 31 volumes and 45 
pamphlets among the purchases. The other accessions were publica- 
tions received in exchange or as gifts. 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

The following paintings have been cleaned or restored since July 1, 
1943: 

"Portrait of Andrew Jackson," by Thomas Sully. Property of the United 
States Capitol. 

"Portrait of Commodore Oliver H. Perry," by John Wesley Jarvis (or after). 
Property of the division of history. United States National Museum. 

"City of St. Louis," by George Catlin. Property of the division of ethnology, 
United States National Museum. 

"Ha-won-je-tah, the One Horn. Sioux (Dah-Co-Ta)," by George Catlin. Prop- 
erty of the division of ethnology. United States National Museum, 

"View on Upper Missouri — Back View of the Mandan Village," by George 
Catlin. Property of the division of ethnology. United States National Museum. 

"Buffalo Hunt under the Wolf-skin Mask," by George Catlin. Property of 
the division of ethnology. United States National Museum. 

"Portrait of Robert Morris," by Gilbert Stuart (or after), offered to the Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts by the Medical Society of the District of Columbia. 

SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS 

The following exhibitions were held : 

October 6 through 31^ 19Ji3. — Exhibition of 13 oil and 2 varnish 
paintings, 4 water colors, 1 gouache, 4 pencil drawings and 2 etchings, 
by Ceferino Palencia, of Mexico, was sponsored by the Mexican Am- 
bassador and the Pan American Union. A catalog was published by 
the Pan American Union. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 43 

Decemher 3, 19J^, through January ^, 19U. — Exhibition of 74 water 
colors of Mexico, by Walter B. Swan, Omaha, Nebr., was sponsored 
by the Mexican Ambassador and the Pan American Union. A catalog 
was published by the Pan American Union. 

December H, 19^3, through January 16, 19Ji4' — Exhibition of 82 
miniatures by 52 artists, by the Pennsylvania Society of Miniature 
Painters. Reprint of catalog was published by the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts. 

January 6 through 30, 19J^. — Exhibition of 21 water colors and 20 
block prints, by Ealph H. Avery, C. Sp. (P.), United States Navy. 

Fehruary Jf. through 27, 1944. — Joint exhibition of paintings by 
John Mix Stanley (1814-72), his daughter-in-law, Jane C. Stanley 
(1863-1940), and her daughter, Alice Stanley Acheson, consisting of 
30 oil paintings, 3 chromolithographs, and 7 small lithographs by 
John Mix Stanley, a photograph of John Mix Stanley, and a book 
entitled "John Mix Stanley and his Indian Paintings," by W. Vernon 
Kinietz ; 40 water colors by Jane C. Stanley, and 28 oils by Alice Stan- 
ley Acheson. A catalog was privately published. 

April 29 through May 2, 1944- — Biennial Art Exhibition of 20 
water colors, 41 oils, 4 etchings, 2 pastels and 4 pieces of sculpture, by 
the National League of American Pen Women. A catalog was pri- 
vately published. 

May 2 through 28, 1944. — Exhibilion of "Portraits of Leading Amer- 
ican Negro Citizens," 8 by Mrs. Laura Wheeler Waring, of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and 15 by Mrs. Betsy Graves Reyneau, of Washington, 
D.C. 

e/tme 2 through 28, 1944- — Exhibition of 78 mural paintings from the 
caves of India, and 16 paintings of modern India, by Sarkis Katcha- 
dourian, of New York City. A catalog was published by the State 
Department. 

PUBLICATIONS 

ToLMAN, R. P. Report on the National Collection of Fine Arts for the year 
ended June 30, 1943. Appendix 3, Report of the Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for the year ended June 30, 1943, pp. 35-40. 

Wenley, a. G. Report on the Freer Gallery of Art for the year ended June 30, 
1943. Appendix 4, Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
for the year ended June 30, 1943, pp. 41-46. 

Respectfully submitted. 

R. P. ToLMAN, Acting Director. 
The Secretakt, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 4 

KEPORT ON THE FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the twenty-fourth annual report 
on the Freer Gallery of Art for the year ended June 30, 1944 : 

THE COLIiECnONS 

Additions to the collections by purchase are as follows: 

BBONZE 



43.9. Chinese, 12th century B. C. Shang dynasty. Ceremonial vessel of the type 
ku. Light green patina with patches of silvery gray inside and out ; 
incrustations of cuprite and native copper inside and out. Surface 
design incised and filled with a reddish pigment. A two-character 
inscription inside the foot. 0.293 x 0.167 over all. 

44.1. Chinese, 12th century B. C. Shang dynasty. A ceremonial vessel of the 
type tsun. Light green patina ; incrustations of cuprite and azurite 
inside. Traces of red and black pigments in the design. A three-char- 
acter inscription with ya hsing inside on the bottom. 0.297 x 0.231 over 
all. (Illustrated.) 

44.3. Chinese, Han dynasty (206 B. C.-A. D. 221). Mirror. Surface: a black 

patina with overlay of green aerugo on the face and on the rim of the 
back. Decoration in low relief with four characters around the boss. 
Diameter: 0.142. 

44.4. Chinese, T'ang dynasty (A. D. 618-907). Mirror. Surface: a bright 

silvery patina with patches of green aerugo. Decoration of birds, ani- 
mals, insects, and flowers in relief. Diameter : 0.192. 

44.5. Chinese, T'ang dynasty (A. D. 618-907). Mirror. Surface: a silvery 

patina with occasional patches of green aerugo. Decoration of grapes, 
birds, and animals, in bold relief. Diameter : 0.212. 

44.6. Chinese, early Han, 3d century B. C. Mirror. Surface : a tarnished silvery 

patina with patches of green aerugo. Decoration : fine Incised back- 
ground with designs in flat relief superimposed. Diameter : 0.100. 

44.7. Chinese, Sui dynasty (A. D. 581-618). Mirror. Surface: a bright silvery 

patina with remains of green lacquer spilled over the edge ; boss incrusted 
with green aerugo. Decoration in relief with additions of red and 
green pigment. Inscription of 27 characters. Diameter: 0.184. 

44.8. Chinese, T'ang dynasty (A. D. 618-907). Mirror. Surface: a tarnished 

silvery patina covered with patches of green aerugo. Decoration : 
lacquer inlaid with silver and gold. 0.159 x 0.159. 

44.9. Chinese, 3d-2d century B. C. Mirror. Surface : a black patina with patches 

of green aerugo. Decoration : background incised, with a smooth circular 
band and a seven-pointed star superimposed in countersunk relief. Di- 
ameter: 0.180. 

44.10. Chinese, 3d-2d century B. C. Mirror. Surface : a black patina with patches 
of green aerugo. Decoration in low linear relief. Diameter: 0.142. 

44 



1 



Secretary's Report. 1944.— Appendix 4 



Plate 1 




<»«* . I 




44.14 

Recent Additions to the Coulection of the Freer Gallery of Art 



Secretary's Report. 1944. — Appendix 4 



PLATE 2 




44.17 




44.20 



»Vr 



^1^ 






Recent Additions to the Collection of the Freer Gallery of art. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 45 

CEBAMICB 

44.11. Chinese, Sung dynasty. Ko ware. Dish with sloping sides and six-foil 

rim. Body of hard, dark gray clay showing brown on the foot-rim, cov- 
ered with an opaque, buff-gray glaze with a medium crackle and some 
small iron spots. 0.031 x 0.132. 

44.12. Chinese, Sung dynasty. Yileh ware. Round, covered box with a design 

of three flowers carved in low relief on the top. Body of hard, fine- 
grained medium-gray clay, covered with a transparent, greenish-gray 
glaze which shows green in thicker areas. 0.052 x 0.137. 
44.13- Chinese, Ch'ing dynasty, Ch'ien Lung period. Pair of bowls, each with 

44.14. a stem attached into a free-moving reticulated base. The body of 
each is of white porcelain, covered with a pure white glaze upon which 
the decoration is painted in overglaze enamels. The base of each is 
glazed in celadon. On the foot of each stem a six-character mark of 
the Ch'ien Lung period in underglaze blue. 44.18, 0.131 x 0.1&4 over all ; 
44.14, 0.135 X 0.163 over all. (44.14 illustrated.) 

44.15. Chinese, Sung dynasty. Ting ware. Small plate, with a slight concavity 

and a narrow rim, bound in brass. The body is of white porcelanous 
clay, covered with a lustrous, cream-white glaze. The decoration of 
ducks, lotuses, and water plants in slight relief under glaze. 0.017 x 0.140 
(diameter). 

JADE 

44.18. Chinese, ISth century. Ch'ien Lung period (1736-95). A tripod vessel of 
a-b-c. the ting type with a cover surmounted by a lion sejant; annular handles 

depending from dragon heads in relief ; all carved from a single piece of 
white nephrite. Wood stand. 0.250 x 0.283 over all. 

LACQUER 

44.19. Japanese, late 17th century. Writing box (suzuri-Mko) in polished black 

lacquer (rO-iro) decorated in gold and pewter. Bronze water box (misu- 
ire) and an ink stone ; two trays. 0.051 x 0.226 x 0.221. 

44.20. Japanese, 14th century. Late Kamakura. Small cabinet (kodansu) in 

polished black lacquer (ro-iro) now turning brown. Decorations of 
chrysanthemums, grasses, butterflies, and vines executed in gold and 
mother-of-pearl. Six drawers and two doors ; lock, hinges, etc., in dark, 
chiseled bronze. 0.280x0.334x0.213. (Illustrated). 

44.21. Japanese, 16th century. Painter's box ie-lako) in two parts with cover 

and tray in upper part. Polished black lacquer (ro-iro) inlaid with 
closely set small chrysanthemums of mother-of-pearl, whose surfaces are 
engraved with the lines of the petals. 0.203 x 0.172 x 0.358. 

44.23. Japanese, late 17th century. Letter-box (fu-hako) with gold-flecked ground 
(nashi-ji) upon which the decoration is executed in varying tones of 
gold and silver. Silver fittings. 0.075 x 0.250 x 0.096. 

44.26. Japanese, dated in correspondence with A, D. 1844. By Yamamoto Shun- 
sho. Medicine chest (ynkuro). Polished black lacquer {ro-iro) con- 
taining six drawers ; silver corner mountings. Decorations executed in 
black lacquer in relief, and in gold and red. Inscription of 11 characters 
including date, signature, and kakihan. One seal. 0.338 x 0.328 x 0.193. 

44.22. Japanese, 17th-19th century. Three writing boxes (snzuri-bako). 
44.24. 

44.25. 



46 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

44.27- Japanese, 17th-18th century. Eighteen medicine cases (inro) of varying 
44.44 types and designs. 
incL 

MANUSCEEPT 

44.17. Armenian, 13th century. The Gospel according to the four Evangelists. 
Original binding of tooled brown leather, the top cover adorned with a 
cruciform design executed in silver nailheads; at its center a square 
crystal containing a Greek cross cut into it from underneath ; other small 
silver appliques (some missing). The text is written on 582 parchment 
leaves in double columns, in bolorgir or "round hand," in black, gold, and 
occasional blue, red, and green. Initials, paragraphs, title pages, arcades, 
and four full-page miniatures with figures of the Evangelists — executed 
in colors and gold. Dated colophons. 0.244 x 0.179 over all. 
0.240 X 0.169 average page. (Page 28 illustrated.) 

PAINTING 

43.10. Chinese, dated in correspondence with A. D. 1541. Ming dynasty. By 
Wen Pi (Cheng-ming), 1470-1559. Chrysanthemums and pine tree. Ink 
painting on a paper scroll. Dated and signed by the artist; two colo- 
phons, one by the artist ; 20 seals. 0.755 x 0.315. 

44.16. Chinese, dated in correspondence with A. D. 1684. Ch'ing dynasty. By 
Tao-chi (fl. circa A. D. 1662-1706) . Landscape. Ink and slight color on a 
paper scroll. Inscription, signature, and four seals on the painting ; in- 
scription and three seals on the mount. 0.264 x 3.132. 

44.45. Japanese, dated in correspondence with A. D. 1773. Attributed to Okyo. 
Pilgrims going to Hase-dera in the springtime. Color and ink on a 
silk kakemono. Inscription, signature, two seals. 0.447 x 0.812. 

STONE SCULFTDBE 

44.2. Chinese, 8th century. T'ang dynasty. Head belonging to the dancing 
figure in the processional relief 24.2 (reattached). 0.115 x 0.068 x 0.068. 

The work of the curatorial staff has been devoted to the study of 
new acquisitions and of other objects submitted for purchase, from 
the fields of Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Persian, and Indian fine arts. 
Such work involves comparative study, reading of inscriptions and 
seals, written reports, and so on. In addition to the work within the 
collection, reports, either oral or written, were made upon 658 objects 
and 122 photographs of objects submitted for examination by their 
owners, and 44 inscriptions were translated. A large part of the time 
of staff members has been given to work directly contributing to the 
war effort, summarized as follows : 

WAR WORK 

Members of the staff devoted many hours both inside and outside 
regular hours to work for several Government agencies. Five 
hundred forty-two typed pages -of Japanese translations were made 
for the Office of Strategic Services; and a revised translation of a 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 47 

Guide to Signs and Symbols used on Chinese military maps were made 
and a compilation of a glossary of Chinese geographical and topo- 
graphical terms was edited and revised for the Army Map Service. 
The Chinese character for "Victory" was made for an artist to be 
used in connection with a publication on the United Nations. Photo- 
graphs made by the Freer Gallery field staff in China were reproduced 
for the Military Intelligence Division of the War Department (27 
prints). For another agency, several Japanese documents were ex- 
amined. 

Other services have been given to various persons. For example, 
63 photographs of Chinese paintings were presented to Dr. Shih- 
chieh Wang, Secretary General of the People's Council and Central 
Planning Board of China and a member of the Chinese Goodwill 
Mission; 557 photographs were given to members of the armed ser- 
vices who visited the oflfices; 24 military students of the School of 
Foreign Service, Georgetown University, were shown through the 
Chinese exhibition galleries; and in Santa Fe, N. Mex., a lecture on 
"Flower Painting in the Near and the Far East" was given by a staff 
member using Freer Gallery material, for the benefit of the Indian 
Service Club. 

CHANGES IN EXHIBITION AND REPAIRS TO THE COLLECTIOlSr 

Six hundred eighty-eight changes in exhibition have been made, as 
follows : 

American paintings: 

Oils, 79 ; water colors, 35 ; pastels, 22. 
American prints (Whistler) : 

Etchings, 32 ; lithographs, 21. 
Biblical manuscripts, 6. 
Coptic book covers, 4. 
Chinese arts: 

Bronzes, 47 ; bronze and jade, 4. 

Ceramics, 40. 

Jade, 152. 

Marble, 2. 

Paintings, 117. 

Silver, 36. 

Sculpture, bronze, 32. 

Sculpture, stone, 30. 
Korean pottery, 27. 
Syrian glass, 2. 

Repairs to the collection were as follows : 

One Chinese bronze repaired ; 1 Persian painting remounted ; 5 Japanese paint- 
ings remounted ; 31 Chinese paintings bound in portfolio form. 

Sculptured head 44.2 cemented ux)on its original place on the figure of the 
dancer of the Chinese Buddhist relief 24.2. 



48 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

ATTENDANCE 

The Gallery has been open to the public every day from 9 until 
4 : 30 o'clock with the exception of Mondays and Christmas Day. 

The total attendance of visitors coming in at the main entrance 
was 62,408. Fifty-four other visitors on Mondays bring the grand 
total to 62,462. The total attendance on weekdays was 35,610; Sun- 
days, 26,798. The average weekday attendance was 137 ; the average 
Sunday attendance, 515. The highest monthly attendance was in 
August, with 6,789 visitors, the lowest in December with 3,394 visitors. 

There were 1,279 visitors to the main office during the year; the pur- 
poses of their visits were as follows : 

For general information 180 

To see members of the staff 505 

To read in the library 213 

To malje tracings and sketches from library books 5 

To see building and installations 37 

To make photographs and sketches 15 

To see exhibition galleries on Monday G 

To examine or purchase photographs and slides 378 

To submit objects for examination 96 

To see objects in storage 209 

Washington Manuscripts 56 

Far Eastern paintings and textiles 36 

Near Eastern paintings and manuscripts 26 

Tibetan paintings 1 

Indian paintings 1 

American paintings 8 

Oriental pottery, jade, bronze, lacquer and bamboo 72 

Gold treasure 3 

All sculpture 5 

Syrian glass, etc 1 

DOCENT SERVICE, LECTURES, ETC. 

By request, 2 groups met in the study rooms and 13 groups in the 
exhibition galleries for instruction by staff members. Total num- 
ber of persons, 321. 

January 21, 1944 : The Director attended a meeting in New York 
of the Committee of the American Council of Learned Societies on 
Protection of Cultural Treasures in War Areas. 

February 10, 1944 : A lecture by ISIiss Guest, on "Flower Painting in 
Persia and China," before the American Association of University 
Women. 

Two lectures by members of the Civil Service Commission were 
given to supervisors in the auditorium. Total attendance, 224. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 49 

PERSONNEL 

Weldon N. Eawley resigned from the Civil Service position of 
superintendent of building (CAF-8) August 15, 1943. He was ap- 
pointed by the Freer Gallery as superintendent of building, court 
and grounds, August 16, 1943. 

Rita W. Edwards resigned from the Civil Service position of senior 
tlerk-stenographer (CAF-5) October 8, 1943. She was appointed 
by the Freer Gallery as administrative secretary to the Director, 
October 9, 1943. 

Ruth W. Helsley appointed senior clerk-stenographer (CAF-5) 
October 9, 1943. 

E. Harriet Link, clerk-stenographer (CAF-4) transferred from the 
Library of the Smithsonian Institution October 9, 1943. 

Grace C. Griffith appointed librarian for a period of 1 year October 
25, 1943. 

Elizabeth Hill Maltby, former librarian, trained Miss Griffith for 
the position of librarian October 25-December 13, 1943. 

Thomas R. FuUalove, painter, who was retired on account of dis- 
ability February 15, 1937, died on November 22, 1943. 

Bertie Turner, attendant at the Gallery since November 17, 1920, 
retired on November 30, 1943. 

Ruth W. Helsley, senior clerk-stenographer, resigned on December 
4, 1943. She first came to the Gallery on November 22, 1920, resigned 
on February 28, 1922, and was reinstated on May 5, 1930. 

Alice Copeland appointed attendant (CPC-2) December 9, 1943. 

E. Harriet Link promoted to senior clerk-stenographer (CAF-5) 
December 9, 1943. 

Grace C. Griffith, librarian, was married to Charles Maxwell Bar- 
nett. United States Army Air Forces, on April 15, 1944. 

Burns A. Stubbs resigned from the Civil Service position of chief 
scientific aid (SP-8) April 23, 1944. He was appointed by the Freer 
Gallery as assistant to the Director on April 24, 1944. 

Glen P. Shephard was appointed museum aid (SP-4) from guard 
(CPC-4) April 24, 1944. 

Grace T. Whitney worked intermittently at the Gallery in the 
Near East section between December 2, 1943 and June 21, 1944. 

Other changes in personnel are as follows : 

Ap2)oint7nents. — ^Alfred Hewitt, a guard on the day watch since 
August 1, 1936, promoted to sergeant (CPC-5) July 1, 1943. Glen 
P. Shephard, guard (CPC-4), from military furlough, July 1, 1943. 
Charles W. Frost, guard (CPC-4), by transfer from Airport Detach- 
ment No. 5, Gravelly Point, Va., August 27, 1943. Ethel Anderson, 
charwoman (CPC-2), by transfer from the United States National 



50 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Museum, December 9, 1943. George Jonathan, guard (CPC-4), ap- 
pointed December 15, 1943. Pearl Fisher, charwoman (CPC-2), 
appointed December 23, 1943. Milton Williams, laborer (CPC-2) , ap- 
pointed May 1, 1944. Victoria L. Dickerson, charwoman (CPC-2), 
appointed May 4, 1944. George S. Young, cabinetmaker, appointed 
by the month for special help in the shop, May 8, 1944. 

Separations from the service. — George S. Young finished temporary 
employment as cabinetmaker, November 4, 1943. Julia A. Robinson, 
charwoman (CPC-2), transferred to the United States National 
Museum, December 8, 1943. Pearl Fisher, charwoman (CPC-2), re- 
signed March 22, 1944. Walter McCree, laborer (CPC-2), on in- 
definite furlough for naval duty, April 4, 1944. 

Respectfully submitted. 

A. G. Wenley, Director. 

The Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 5 
REPORT ON THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of June 26, 1943, which pro- 
vides "* * * for continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii and the excavation and 
preservation of archeologic remains. * * *" 

During the fiscal year emphasis on activities concerned with Latin 
America has continued. 

Dr. W. D. Strong, Director of the Ethnogeographic Board, planned 
to return to his duties at Columbia University soon after the close of 
the fiscal year, and the work of the Board will thereafter be conducted 
entirely by members of the Bureau staff. 

As the war continues and the need for specialized information grows 
less it is expected that the Bureau may gradually assume more of its 
normal duties. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

On January 28, 1944, Dr. M. W. Stirling, Chief of the Bureau, left 
Washington on the Sixth National Geographic Society-Smithsonian 
Institution expedition to Mexico. The month of February was spent 
in the states of Michoacan and Jalisco, where a photographic record 
was made of lacquer working in Uruapan and vicinity, and of pottery 
making in Tlaquepaque. Ethnological pictures were made depicting 
the activities and customs of the Tarascan Indians of Lake Patzcuaro. 

From the beginning of March until the middle of May, an archeo- 
logical reconnaissance was conducted in southern Veracruz, Tabasco, 
and Campeche, with the principal objective of finding the extent of 
the early La Venta culture in this area. Several new sites were located 
as a result of this survey, and photographic records were made of a 
number of private archeological collections. 

Dr. Stirling returned to Washington on May 22, 1944. 

During the year a report by Dr. Stirling, "Stone Monuments of 
Southern Mexico," was issued as Bulletin 138 of the Bureau. 

During the year just passed. Dr. John R, Swanton, ethnologist, 
completed the reading of proof for Bulletin 137, "The Indians of the 
Southeastern United States." 

51 



52 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

A study of the much discussed Norse expeditions to America was 
undertaken and a manuscript completed embodying the results. 

During the course of the year Dr. Swanton furnished to the Navy 
Department more than 1,000 Indian tribal names and names of prom- 
inent Indians, to be used for naming war vessels. Approximately 200 
of these have been used. 

On June 30, 1944, Dr. Swanton retired from the Bureau after 
almost 44 years of service. 

Dr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, continuing his American In- 
dian linguistic studies, discovered evidence suggesting that Quechua 
and Aymara, the languages of the two most highly civilized groups 
of aboriginal South America, are related to the Hokan stock of western 
North America. This is the first time that a linguistic relationship 
has been indicated between North and South America. In addition 
to this Dr. Harrington has reduced the number of linguistic stocks in 
South America by establishing the relationship of many groups previ- 
ously considered to be separate. 

Because of his unique knowledge of languages. Dr. Harrington has 
been called upon daily by the Office of Censorship to translate letters 
written in little-known languages from all over the world. 

During the year several short papers on linguistic subjects have been 
published in scientific journals. 

On July 5, 1943, Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., senior archeologist, 
went to Abilene, Tex., where he spent 5 days investigating a prehistoric 
Indian burial which had been exposed 21 feet below the surface in a 
bank of the Clear Fork of the Brazos River by floodwaters and which 
was in danger of being washed away by a new rise. Studies of the 
deposits at the site showed that the burial had been made during the 
closing days of the Pleistocene or the beginning of the Early Recent 
geologic period about 10,000 years ago. The skeleton was turned over 
to the division of physical anthropology of the United States National 
Museum, where it has received careful study and has added to the 
knowledge of the physical type of the early Texas Indians. 

Returning to Washington, Dr. Roberts spent the remainder of the 
summer and the months of early autumn preparing contributions 
to, obtaining pictures for, editing the manuscript, and reading proof 
of a manual, "Survival on Land and Sea," which was prepared for 
the Publications Branch of the Office of Naval Intelligence, United 
States Navy, by the Ethnogeographic Board and the staff of the 
Smithsonian Institution. He later worked on a revision of this man- 
ual for a second edition and also served as a consultant for a similar 
manual being prepared for the Army Air Forces. During this period 
he also furnished information to several other branches of the armed 
services and «ome of the war agencies. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 53 

Dr. Roberts also worked on his final report on the excavations at 
the Lindenmeier Folsom Man site in northern Colorado, a project 
completed shortly before the outbreak of the war, and also wrote a 
number of articles for publication in scientific journals. On March. 16, 
1944, Dr. Roberts was appointed a member of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution's Committee on Personnel Utilization and from that date until 
the close of the fiscal year devoted considerable time to the activities 
of that committee. 

During such periods as the Chief was absent from Washington, 
Dr. Roberts served as Acting Chief of the Bureau. 

On September 1, 1943, Dr. Julian H. Steward, anthropologist, was 
appointed Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology, an autono- 
mous unit of the Bureau, reporting directly to the Secretary. His 
work as editor of the Handbook of South American Indians also con- 
tinued concurrently. A brief statement on these two projects will be 
found later on in this report. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. Alfred Metraux, ethnologist, 
was teaching in Mexico City, through an arrangement with the Na- 
tional University of Mexico. He returned to duty on August 1, 1943, 
and assisted Dr. Julian H. Steward in the preparation of the Hand- 
book of South American Indians. Dr. Metraux was appointed Assist- 
ant Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology on September 18, 
1943. He completed four papers for the Handbook, and also gathered 
bibliographical material for several other contributions and assembled 
notes for the articles of the Handbook's fifth volume. 

During the fiscal year Dr. Henry B. Collins, Jr., ethnologist, con- 
tinued his work as Assistant Director of the Ethnogeographic Board. 
As in the previous year, the activities of the Board for which he was 
responsible concerned research in connection with regional and other 
information requested by the Army, Navy, and other war agencies. 
He represented the Smithsonian Institution and the Ethnogeographic 
Board as a technical adviser to the Emergency Rescue Equipment Sec- 
tion of the Navy and wrote the Arctic section for the booklet "Survival 
on Land and Sea." Some 750,000 copies of this official Navy survival 
manual have been distributed to the fleet and shore stations. 

Dr. Collins contributed the sections on geography, history, and 
anthropology for an article on the Aleutian Islands, which will be 
published as one of the series of War Background Studies of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

During such time as was available, Dr. Collins continued his re- 
searches on the Eskimo and the southeastern Indians. 

Dr. William N. Fenton, ethnologist, continued to serve as research 
associate of the Ethnogeographic Board. With the assistance of 



54 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Miss Mae W. Tucker, he has maintained for the Ethnogeographic 
Board the world file of area and language specialists, which has 
grown to include more than 10,000 entries for all continents and island 
areas. This file has been extensively used by the military and other 
war agencies in their search for specialized personnel. From this 
file a series of five studies were prepared, together with maps and in- 
dexes, showing domestic sources of photographs on strategic areas 
of interest particularly to the Navy Department. At the request 
of the Army Specialized Training Division, the Ethnogeographic 
Board commenced a survey of area and language teaching in the Army 
Specialized Training Program and the Civil Affairs Training Schools 
in 25 American universities and colleges. Dr. Fenton participated 
in the survey, visiting 13 institutions between December 1943 and 
March 1944, and since that time has been occupied in writing up ob- 
servations and preparing reports for the proper offices. 

In addition to this work. Dr. Fenton continued his studies on the 
League of the Iroquois, translating a number of texts collected by 
J. N. B. Hewitt and A. A. Goldenweiser. Dr. Fenton's publications for 
the year were: "The Last Passenger Pigeon Hunts of the Corn- 
planter Senecas" {with M. H. Deardorff), and "The Requickening 
Address of the Iroquois Condolence Council" {of J. N. B. Hewitt) , in 
the Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences ; and an obituary, 
"Simeon Gibson: Iroquois Informant, 1889-1943," m the American 
Anthropologist; also several book reviews and notes in scientific and 
literary journals. 

Since joining the staff in December 1943, Dr. Homer G. Barnett, an- 
thropologist, has served as executive secretary of a committee formed 
under the sponsorship of the Ethnogeographic Board for the purpose 
of assembling data upon the existing state of our scientific knowl- 
edge of the Pacific Island area. The committee includes representa- 
tives of the geological, geographic, linguistic, political science, and 
anthropological disciplines. As executive secretary Dr. Barnett 
has served chiefly as organizer and coordinator of the committee's ac- 
tions. Since some of the committee members are located outside of 
Washington, considerable correspondence has been necessary as well 
as meetings both in Washington and New York. 

When not engaged in the above activities. Dr. Barnett has worked 
on the organization of field notes on various Salishan and Northwest 
Coast tribes, having in project a series of publications stressing cul- 
tural change among the Yurok, the Tsimshian, the Yakima, and the 
Makah. He has just completed one manuscript dealing with the 
Indian Shaker cult of the northwestern United States. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 55 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

As stated above, Dr. Julian H. Steward, anthropologist, on Septem- 
ber 1, 1943, became Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology, 
an autonomous unit of the Bureau reporting directly to the Secretary. 
As Dr. Steward was instructed in the official order establishing the 
Institute to report to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
there are presented here brief abstracts from Dr. Steward's reports 
to Dr. Wetmore, Acting Secretary. 

The Institute of Social Anthropology was first conceived in July 
1942 and a project for its work was placed before the Interdepartmen- 
tal Committee for Cooperation with the American Republics in Au- 
gust of that year. Its stated purpose was to carry out cooperative 
training in anthropological teaching and research with the other 
American republics. For the fiscal year 1944, $60,000 was made avail- 
able for the work of the Institute by transfer of funds from the State 
Department appropriation. 

In September 1943 the Director visited Mexico and established the 
terms of an agreement for the work of the Institute with the authori- 
ties of the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia and the Instituto 
Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, submitting this to the Depart- 
ment of State in late September. After some months of delay encoun- 
tered in completing the agreement, Dr. George M. Foster, engaged by 
the Institute as anthropologist in charge of the work in Mexico, pro- 
ceeded to that country in May and started work in cooperation with 
the organizations mentioned above. Dr. Donald D. Brand also repre- 
sented the Institute in Mexico as cultural geographer. 

No formal agreement has yet been entered into for similar work 
in Peru. Nevertheless, Dr. John Gillin, appointed by the Institute in 
January 1944 as anthropologist, commenced work in that country on 
an informal basis. The remaining 6 months of the fiscal year were 
devoted to reconnaissance and teaching at Cuzco and Trujillo. 

A memorandum agreement for cooperative work in Colombia was 
submitted early in 1944, but at the close of the fiscal year it had not 
yet been reported out. 

A new series in social anthropology entitled "Publications of the 
Institute of Social Anthropology" was started with two papers, which 
went to the printer just before the close of the fiscal year. No. 1 was 
on "Houses and House Use of the Sierra Tarascans," by Ralph L. 
Beals, Pedro Carrasco, and Thomas McCorkle; No. 2 was entitled 
"Cheran, a Sierra Tarascan Village," by Ralph L. Beals. 



619830— 4S 



56 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

HANDBOOK OF SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS 

The editing of the Handbook of South American Indians, begun 
some years ago, was continued during the year by Dr. Julian H. 
Steward after September 1, 1943, under his appointment as Director 
of the Institute of Social Anthropology. Funds for the preparation 
of the manuscript are transferred to the Smithsonian Institution from 
the State Department appropriation for "Cooperation with the Ameri- 
can Republics," and the Bureau will pay the cost of publication in its 
Bulletin series. 

Volume 1, "The Marginal Tribes," and volume 2, "The Andean Civil- 
izations," were completed during the year and sent to the printer. The 
manuscripts of volumes 3 and 4 were nearly completed. 

The Handbook is a truly cooperative project, as one-half of the 
100 contributors are scientists of the other American republics. 

SPECAL RESEARCHES 

Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the Bureau, continued 
her work on the study of Indian music by writing a manuscript enti- 
tled "Omaha Music," with transcriptions of 64 songs. This manu- 
script was based upon research in Nebraska in 1941 and included re- 
recordings of several songs that were recorded for Miss Alice C. 
Fletcher by the same singers. The date of the previous recordings 
was said to have been 1887 to 1890 and the songs are included in Miss 
Fletcher's "Study of Omaha Indian Music," published by the Peabody 
Museum of Harvard University, and in "The Omaha Tribe," by Miss 
Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, in the Twenty-seventh Annual Re- 
port of the Bureau. Many songs in Miss Fletcher's work were recog- 
nized by men who had not the tribal right to sing them. The present 
manuscript includes old songs of Omaha military and social societies, 
songs connected with the First World War, and songs of legends and 
the hand game. 

Miss Densmore compiled and presented to the Bureau a chronology 
of her study and presentation of Indian music from 1893 to June 1944. 
This chronology was based on diaries, scrapbooks, and Reports of the 
Bureau. During a portion of the year she was engaged in completing 
the handbook of the Smithsonian-Densmore collection of sound record- 
ings of American Indian music for the National Archives. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued during the year under 
the immediate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. There were 
issued one Annual Report and six Bulletins, as follows : 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 57 

Sixtieth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1942-1943. 9 pp. 
Bulletin 133. Anthropological papers, numbers 19-26. ix+615 pp., 34 pis., 
62 figs. : 

No. 19. A search for songs among the Chitimacha Indians in Louisiana, by 

Frances Densmore. 
No. 20. Archeological survey on the northern Northwest Coast, by Philip 

Drucker; with appendix, Early vertebrate fauna of the British 

Columbia Coast, by Edna M. Fisher. 
No. 21. Some notes on a few sites in Beaufort County, South Carolina, by 

Regina Flannery. 
No. 22. An analysis and interpretation of the ceramic remains from two 

sites near Beaufort, South Carolina, by James B. Griffin. 
No. 23. The eastern Cheroliees, by William Harlen Gilbert, Jr. 
No. 24. Aconite poison whaling in Asia and America : An Aleutian transfer 

to the New World, by Robert F. Heizer. 
No. 25. The Carrier Indians of the Bulkley River : Their social and religious 

life, by Diamond Jenness. 
No. 26. The quipu and Peruvian civilization, by John R. Swanton. 

Bulletin 136. Anthropological papers, numbers 27-32. viii+375 pp., 32 pis., 
5 figs.: 

No. 27. Music of the Indians of British Columbia, by Frances Densmore. 

No. 28. Choctaw music, by Frances Densmore. 

No. 29. Some ethnological data concerning one hundred Yucatan plants, by 

Morris Steggerda. 
No. 30. A description of thirty towns in Yucatan, Mexico, by Morris 

Steggerda. 
No. 31. Some western Shoshoni myths, by Julian H. Steward. 
No. 32. New material from Acoma, by Leslie A. White. 

Bulletin 138. Stone monuments of southern Mexico, by Matthew W. Stirling. 
vii+84 pp., 62 pis., 14 figs. 

Bulletin 139. An introduction to the ceramics of Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico, 
by C. W. Weiant. xiv+144 pp., 78 pis., 54 figs., 10 maps. 

Bulletin 140. Ceramic sequences at Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico, by Philip 
Drucker. ix+155 pp., 65 pis., 46 figs. 

Bulletin 141. Ceramic stratigraphy at Cerro de las Mesas, Veracruz, Mexico, 
by Philip Drucker. viii+95 pp., 58 pis., 210 figs. 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 137. The Indians of the Southeastern United States, by John R. 
Swanton. 

Bulletin 142. The contemporary culture of the Cdhita Indians, by Ralph L. 
Beals. 

Bulletin 143. Handbook of South American Indians. Julian H. Steward, 
Editor. Volume 1. The Marginal Tribes. Volume 2. The Andean Civilizations. 

List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, with index to 
authors and titles. Revised to June 30, 1944. 

Publications distributed totaled 14,903. 

In addition to the regular work, the editorial staff of the Bureau 
edited the first two publications of the Smithsonian Institution's 
Institute of Social Anthropology, now in press. 



58 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

LIBRARY 

Accessions during the fiscal year totaled 190. There has been a 
sharp decrease in accessions owing to war conditions. 

The routine work of accessioning and cataloging new material has 
been kept up to date. About half of the cards withdrawn from the 
catalog for reclassification have been returned to the catalog, with the 
new numbers added and subject headings corrected. 

The library has been used considerably for the work of the Ethno- 
geographic Board and other war agencies. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

During the year E. G. Cassedy, illustrator, continued the prepara- 
tion of illustrations, maps, and drawings for the publications of the 
Bureau and for those of other branches of the Institution. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the 
North American Indians, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods. Various speci- 
mens sent to the Bureau were identified and data on them furnished 
for their owners. 

Personnel. — Dr. Julian H. Steward, anthropologist, was appointed 
Director of the Institute of Social Anthropology, Smithsonian 
Institution, on September 1, 1943, by transfer from the Bureau, and 
Dr. Homer G. Barnett was appointed as anthropologist on December 
30, 1943, on the Bureau roll, to fill this vacancy. The work on the 
Handbook of South American Indians was continued under the 
Interdepartmental Committee for Cooperation with the American Re- 
publics after September 1, 1943. Anthony W. Wilding, clerk-stenog- 
rapher, was appointed Property OflScer of the United States National 
Museum on December 20, 1943, by transfer from the Bureau, and 
Mrs. Catherine M. Phillips was appointed to fill this vacancy on De- 
cember 22, 1943, by transfer from the editorial division, Smithsonian 
Institution. Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, retired on June 30, 
1944. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Chief. 

The Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 6 
REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 

SiE : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the International Exchange Service for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1944. 

From the appropriation "General Expenses, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution" there was allocated for the expenses of the Service, $26,137. 

No money was allotted to the Institution this year by the Depart- 
ment of State for use in mailing packages to Argentina and Brazil, 
so that the cost of such mailings had to be met from the regular 
Exchange allotment. These are the only two American countries with 
which there are no reciprocal arrangements for the exchange of pub- 
lications under governmental frank. 

The number of packages received during the year for distribution 
at home and abroad was 407,764, a decrease from last year of 105,696. 
These packages weighed a total of 243,180 pounds, a decrease of 5,468 
pounds. This material is classified as follows : 





Packages 


Weight 




Sent 
abroad 


Eeceived 

from 

abroad 


Sent 
abroad 


Received 

from 

abroad 


United States parliamentary documents sent abroad 


303, 103 




Pounds 
127, 401 


Pounda 


Publications received in return for parliamentary documents... 


757 


1,544 


United States departmental documents sent abroad 


62,968 


43,617 




Publications received in return for departmental documents 


679 


1,530 




46,700 


62, 768 




Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications received from 
abroad for distribution in the United States .- . -. 


3,557 


6,320 










Total 


402, 771 


4,993 


233, 786 


9,394 






Grand total . . 


407, 764 


243, 180 













Packages are forwarded abroad partly by freight to exchange 
bureaus for distribution, and partly by mail directly to their destina- 
tions. The number of boxes shipped abroad was 649, an increase over 
last year of 6 boxes. Of these, 385 were for depositories of full sets of 
United States governmental documents. The number of packages 
sent by mail was 89,688. 

59 



60 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

War conditions have made it necessary for the Institution to suspend 
shipments to many foreign countries. The countries to which 
shipments were being made at the close of the year were as follows : 

Eastern Hemisphere: 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 

Portugal. 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

Union of South Africa. 

India 

Australia. 

New Zealand. 
Western Hemisphere: All countries. 

In the report for 1941 it was stated that the British Museum, Depart- 
ment of Printed Books, had requested the Institution to discontinue 
the sending of the full set of United States governmental documents 
for the duration of the war because of the possibility of destruction 
of the material through bombings of London. About the middle of 
the current year the British Museum asked that the forwarding of 
the Government sets be resumed as numerous requests had been re- 
ceived for information contained in many of the documents. Accord- 
ingly, all accumulations of oflScial documents for the British Museum 
were sent and regular transmissions have since been made. 

FOREIGN DEPOSITORIES OF GOVERNMEI^ TAL DOCUMENTS 

The number of sets of United States official publications received 
for transmission abroad through the International Exchange Service 
is 93 (55 full and 38 partial sets). On account of war conditions it is 
possible at this time to forward only 58 of these sets. The remaining 
35 are being withheld for the duration. 

During the year Iran and Iraq were added to the list of those coun- 
tries receiving partial sets. The depository in Iran is the Ministry 
of Education at Tehran, and in Iraq, Public Library at Baghdad. 

The partial-set depository in Afghanistan has been changed to the 
Library of the Afghan Academy, Kabul. The depository of the 
partial set sent to Bengal has been changed to Library, Bengal Legis- 
lature, Calcutta. 

A complete list of the depositories follows. Under present condi- 
tions, consignments are forwarded only to those countries listed on 
tions, consigmnents are forwarded only to those countries listed above. 

DEPOSITOEIES OF FULL SETS 

Aeokntina : Direcci6n de Investigaciones, Archivo, Biblioteca y Legislaci6n 
Efetranjera, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, Buenos Aires. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 61 

Australia : Commonwealth Parliament and National Library, Canberra. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland: Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 

South Australia : Public Library of South Australia, Adelaide. 

Tasmania : Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 

Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia; Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 
Bexgium: Bibloth^que Royale, Bruxelles. 
Brazil : Instituto Nacional do LLvro, Rio de Janeiro. 
Canada : Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Manitoba : Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 

Ontario : Legislative Library, Toronto. 

Quebec: Library of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. 
Chile: Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 

China: Bureau of International Exchange, Ministry of Education, Chungking. 
Colombia : Biblioteca Nacional, Bogotd. 
CosTA Rica: Oflcina de Dep6sito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 

Jos6. 
Cuba : Ministerio de Estado, Canje Internacional, Habana. 
Czechoslovak^^. : Bibliotheque de I'Assembl^e Nationale, Prague. 
Denmark: Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen. 
Egypt: Bureau des Publications, Ministere des Finances, Cairo. 
Estonia: Riigiraamatukogu (State Library), Tallinn. 
Finland: Parliamentary Library, Helsinki. 
France: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 

Germany : Reichstauschstelle im Reichsminsterium fur Wissenschaf t, Erziehung 
und Volksbildung, Berlin, N. W. 7. 

PRUSSIA : Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin, N. W. 7. 
Gbeat Britain : 

England: British Museum, London. 

London : London School of Economics and Political Science. (Depository 
of the London County Council.) 
Hungary : Library, Hungarian House of Delegates, Budapest. 
India : Imperial Library, Calcutta. 
Ireland : National Library of Ireland, Dublin. 
Italy : Ministero deU'Educazione Nazionale, Rome. 
Japan : Imperial Library of Japan, Tokyo. 
LATVIA: Bibliotheque d'Etat, Riga. 

LEU.GUE OF NATIONS : Library of the League of Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. 
Mexico : DirecciSn General de Informacion, Secretaria de Gobernaci6n, Mexico, 

D. F. 
Netherlands : Royal Library, The Hague. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Northern Ireland: H. M. Stationery Office, Belfast. 
Norway: Universitets-Bibliothek, Olso. (Depository of the Government of 

Norway. ) 
Peru : Secci6n de Propaganda y Publicaciones, Ministerio de Relaciones Ex- 

teriores, Lima. 
Polaito: Bibliothfeque Nationale, Warsaw. 
Portugal: Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 
Rumania: Academia Romans, Bucharest. 



62 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Spain: Cambio Internacional de Publicaciones, Avenida de Calvo Sotelo 20, 

Madrid. 
Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
SwiTZEajLAND : Bibliothfeque Centrale F6d6rale, Berne. 
TtXRKEY: Department of Printing and Engraving, Ministry of Education, 

Istanbul. 
Union of South Africa : State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: All-Union Lenin Library, Moscow 115. 
Ukeaine : Ukrainian Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, 
Kiev. 
Uruguay : Oficina de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 
Venezuela : Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 
Yugoslavia: Ministere de r:fiducation, Belgrade. 

DEPOSITOEIES OF PARTIAL SETS 

Afghanistan : Library of the Afghan Academy, Kabul. 

Bolivia: Biblioteca del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, La Paz. 

Brazil : 

MiNAs Gebaes : Directoria Geral e Estatistica em Minas, Bello Horizonte. 
Beitish Guiana : Government Secretary's Office, Georgetown, Demerara. 
Canada : 

Albebta: Provincial Library, Edmonton. 

British Columbia: Provincial Library, Victoria. 

New Brunswick: Legislative Library, Fredericton. 

Nova Scotia : Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 

Prince Edward Ist^and : Legislative and Public Library, Charlottetown. 

Saskatchewan : Legislative Library, Regina. 
Ceylon : Chief Secretary's Office, Record Department of the Library, Colombo. 
China : National Library of Peiping. 
Dominican Republic : Biblioteca de la Unlversidad de Santo Domingo, Ciudad 

Trujillo. 
Ecuador: Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 
Guatemala: Biblioteca Nacional, Guatemala. 
Haiti : Biblioth^que Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras : 

Biblioteca y Archivo Nacionales, Tegucigalpa. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Tegucigalpa. 
Iceland: National Library, Reykjavik. 
India : 

Bengal: Library, Bengal Legislature, Assembly House, Calcutta. 

Bihar and Orissa : Revenue Department, Patna. 

Bombay: Undersecretary to the Government of Bombay, General Depart- 
ment, Bombay. 

Burma: Secretary to the Government of Burma, Education Department, 
Rangoon. 

Punjab: Chief Secretary to the Government of the Punjab, Lahore. 

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh : University of Allahabad, Allahabad. 
Iran : Imperial Ministry of Education, Tehran. 
Iraq : Public Library, Baghdad. 
Jamaica: Colonial Secretary, Kingston. 
Liberia: Department of State, Monrovia. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 63 

Malta: Minister for the Treasury, Valleta. 

Newfoundland : Department of Home Affairs, St. John's. 

NiCAKAGUA : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Managua, 

Panama : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Panama. 

Paraguay: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Seccion Biblioteca, Asuncion. 

Salvador : 

Biblioteca Nacional, San Salvador. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 
Thailand : Department of Foreign Affairs, Bangkok. 
Vatican City : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City, Italy. 

INTEEPARLIAMENTARY EXCHANGE OF THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL 

There are now being sent abroad only S8 copies each of the Con- 
gressional Eecord and Federal Eegister, the number having been 
reduced on account of the war from 71, as fully reported on last year. 
The Library of Congress has arranged to have an extra copy of the 
Register furnished for transmission to Dr. Fermin Peraza for use in 
connection with his work as director of several pan-American organ- 
izations at Habana, Cuba. 

A list of the countries and depositories to which these journals are 
being forwarded follows : 

DEPOSITOKIES op CONQBESSIONAL BECOBD and FEDEEAL BEGISTEfi 

Aegentina : 

Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Buenos Aires. 

Camara de Diputados, Oficina de Informacion Parlamentaria, Buenos Aires. 

Boletin Oficial de la Reptiblica Argentina, Ministerio de Justica e Instruccion 
Ptiblica, Buenos Aires. 
Austbalia : 

Commonwealth Parliament and National Library, Canberra. 

New South Wales : Library of Parliament of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland: Chief Secretary's Office, Brisbane. 

Westeen Australla : Library of Parliament of Western Australia, Perth. 
Brazil: 

Biblioteca do Congresso Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 

Amazonas : Archivo, Biblioteca e Imprensa Publica, Manaos. 

Bahia : Governador do Estado da Bahia, Sao Salvador. 

EspiEiTO Santo : Presidencia do Estado do Espirito Santo, Victoria. 

Rio Gbande do Sul : "A Federacjao," Porto Alegre. 

Sebgepe: Biblioteca Publica do Estado de Sergipe, Aracajti. 
British Honduras : Colonial Secretary, Belize. 
Canada : 

Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Clerk of the Senate, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. 
Cuba: Biblioteca del Capitolio, Habana. 

Great Bbitain : Printed Library of the Foreign Office, London. 
Guatemala : Biblioteca de la Asamblea Legislativa, Guatemala. 
Haiti: Biblioth^que Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras : Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 



64 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

India: Legislative Department, Simla. ^ 

Irish Fbee State : Dail Eireann, Dublin. 
Mexico : 

Direcci6n General de Informaci6n, Secretaria de Gobernacion, Mexico, D. F. 

Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, Mexico, D. F. 

Aguascalientes : Gobernador del Estado de Aguascalientes, Aguasealientes. 

Campeche: Gobernador del Estado de Campeche, Campeche. 

Chiapas : Gobernador del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez. 

Chihuahua : Gobernador del Estado de Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 

CoAHUiLA: Peri6dico Oficial del Estado de Coahuila, Palacio de Gobierno, 
Saltillo. 

CouMA : Gobernador del Estado de Colima, Colima. 

DuKANGo: Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Durango, Durango. 

Guanajuato: Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado, Guanajuato. 

GuEEREEO : Gobernador del Estado de Guerrero, Chilpancingo. 

Jalisco: Biblioteca del Estado, Guadalajara. 

LowEK Caufoenia : Gobernador del Distrito Norte, Mexicali. 

Mfixico: Gaceta del Gobierno, Toluca. 

MichoacAn: Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado de Michoacdn, 
Morelia. 

MoEELos: Palacio de Gobierno, Cuernavaca. 

Nayarit: Gobernador de Nayarit, Tepic. 

NuEvo Le6n : Biblioteca del Estado, Monterrey. 

Oaxaca : Peri6dico Oficial, Palacio de Gobierno, Oaxaca. 

Puebla: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Puebla. 

QuEKfiTABO : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Secci6n de Archive, Quer6taro. 

San Luis PoTosf : Congreso del Estado, San Luis Potosi. 

SiNALOA : Gobernador del Estado de Sinaloa, Culiacan. 

SoNOBA : Gobernador del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo. 

Tabasco : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Secci6n 3a, Ramo de Prensa, Villa- 
hermosa. 

Tamaulipas : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Victoria. 

Tlaxcala : Secretaria de Gobierno del Estado, Tlaxcala. 

Vebaceuz : Gobernador del Estado de Veracruz, Departmento de Goberna- 
cion y Justicia, Jalapa. 

YucatAn : Gobernador del Estado de Yucatdn, M^rida. 
NEW' Zealand: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Peru: C^mara de Diputados, Lima. 
Union of South Ateica: 

Library of Parliament, Cape Tovpn, Cape of Good Hope. 

State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Ubuguay : Diario Oficial, Calle Florida 1178, Montevideo. 
Venezuela : Biblioteca del Congreso, Caracas. 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE AGENCIES 

There is given below a list of bureaus or agencies to which consign- 
ments are forwarded in boxes by freight when the Service is in full 
operation. To all countries not appearing in the list, packages are 
sent to their destinations through the mails. As stated previously, 
shipments are forwarded during wartime only to those countries listed 
on page 60. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 65 

UST OF AGENCIES 

Algeria, via France, 

Angola, via Portugal. 

Azores, via Portugal. 

Belgium : Service Beige des ^^changes Internationaux, Bibliothfique Royale de 

Belgique, Bruxelles. 
Canary Islands, via Spain. 

China : Bureau of International Exchange, Ministry of Education, Chungking. 
Czechoslovakia : Service des Echanges Internationaux, BibliothSque de I'As- 

sembl^e Nationale, Prague 1-79. 
Denmark: Service Danois des ^changes Internationaux, Kongelige Danske 

Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen V. 
Egypt : Government Press, Publications OflSce, Bulaq, Cairo. 
Finland: Delegation of the Scientific Societies of Finland, Kasarngatan 24, 

Helsinki. 
Fr^vnce: Service Frangais des ifichanges Internationaux, 110 Rue de Grenelle, 

Parig. 
Germany : Amerika-Institut, Universitatstrasse 8, Berlin, N. W. 7. 
Great Britain and Ireland : Wheldon & Wesley, 721 North Circular Road, Willes- 

den, London, N. W. 2. 
Hungary : Hungarian Libraries Board, Ferenciektere 5, Budapest, IV. 
India : Superintendent of Government Printing and Stationery, Bombay. 
Italy : Ufflcio degli Scambi Internazionali, Ministero dell'Educazione Nazionale, 

Rome. 
Japan : International Exchange Service, Imperial Library of Japan, Uyeno Park, 

Tokyo. 
Latvia: Service des :^changes Internationaux, Bibliothfeque d'lfitat de Lettonie, 

Riga. 
Luxembourg, via Belgium. 
Madagascar, via France. 
Madeira, via Portugal. 
Mozambique, via Portugal. 
Netbeklands : International Exchange Bureau of the Netherlands, Royal Library, 

The Hague. 
New South Waubjs : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway : Service Norv^gien des ^changes Internationaux, Biblioth&que de I'Uni- 

versit6 Royale, Oslo. 
Palestine : Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem. 
Poland: Service Polonais des ^changes Internationaux, Biblioth^que Nationale, 

Warsaw. 
Portugal: SecgSo de Trocas Internacionaes, Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 
Queensland: Bureau of Exchanges of International Publications, Chief Secre- 
tary's Office, Brisbane. 
Rumania: Minist^re de la Propagande Nationale, Service des ^changes Inter- 
nationaux, Bucharest. 
South Australia: South Australian Government Exchanges Bureau, Govern 

ment Printing and Satlonery Office, Adelaide. 
Spain: Junta de Intercambio y Adquisicion de Libros y Revistas para Biblote- 

cas Publicas, Ministerio de Educaci6n Nacional, Avenida Calvo Sotelo, 20, 

Madrid. 
Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 



66 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Switzerland : Service Suisse des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliothfeque C5entrale 
F6d6rale, Berne. 

Tasmania: Secretary to the Premier, Hobart. 

TUEKEY : Ministry of Education, Department of Printing and Engraving, Istanbul. 

Union of South Afbica : Government Printing and Stationery Office, Cape Town, 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Union of Soviet Sociaust Republics: International Book Exchange Depart- 
ment, Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, Moscow, 56. 

ViCTOKiA : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Austkalia : Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 

Yugoslavia: Section des Echanges Internationaux, Ministere des Affaires 
:6trangeres, Belgrade. 

M. A. Tolson, who was appointed under the Smithsonian in March 
1881, resigned December 31, 1943, after having been connected with 
the Institution over 62 years. Mr. Tolson was retired from the gov- 
ernment roll in 1934, but has since been employed by the Smithsonian 
Institution. He continued to perform his regular duties until his 
resignation. 

Clayton L. Policy was, at his own request, retired July 1, 1943. 
Mr. Policy was a veteran of the volunteer forces of the United States, 
having served in the Spanish-American war and the Philippine 
Insurrection. 

Paul M. Carey, who enlisted in the Army in August 1942 and who 
was discharged therefrom on account of disability, was, owing to that 
condition, retired from the Exchanges February 24, 1944. 

Respectfully submitted. 

F. E. Gass, Acting Chief Clerk. 

The SECRirrARY, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 7 
REPOKT ON THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the National Zoological Park for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1944. 

The regular appropriation made by Congress was $277,130, of which 
$34,732 was expended for overtime under the special legislation in 
effect for this purpose. 

GROUNDS, BUILDINGS, AND ENCLOSURES 

The primary function of the Zoo is to maintain and exhibit its col- 
lection of animals. To accomplish this under wartime conditions, it 
has been necessary to limit other activities strictly to maintenance 
work. No extensive improvements have been made during the year, 
and because of the difficulty in obtaining critical materials, even the 
maintenance work has frequently been of a temporary nature. The 
gates of the Zoo have been open from daylight to dark, and many 
visitors come to the Park after their working hours. In general, the 
Park and the collection are in good condition and continue to be used 
and appreciated by large numbers of visitors. 

PERSONNEL 

There has been a fairly consistent shortage of manpower in the Zoo 
of about 20 percent. This has necessitated the employment of tem- 
porary labor when it could be obtained, which has thrown a heavy 
burden onto supervisors to whom such untrained personnel was 
assigned. The additional supervisory burden has been well carried 
out, with the result that the care of the Park and of the animals 
has not been seriously neglected. 

On December 31, Head Keeper W. H. Blackburne retired. For 17 
years past the retirement age he had been retained by Executive 
order, and on December 31 completed service of 53 years. He came to 
the Zoo in 1891 as Keeper, and was made Head Keeper the following 
year. In 1913, accompanied by Mrs. Blackburne, he went to Egypt to 
bring back a collection from the zoo at Gizah. Jumbina, the National 
Zoo's large African elephant, was one of the specimens he brought 
back; also the pair of cheetahs that lived in the Zoo for nearly 15 

67 



68 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

years. On his retirement the Smithsonian Institution appointed Mr. 
Blackburne consultant to the Director for life. In his more than half 
a century of continuous service, Mr. Blackburne saw the Zoo grow 
from the original lot of 124 specimens that he brought to the Park from 
the Smithsonian grounds in a wagon borrowed from the Humane 
Society to its present size. 

WARTIME PROBLEMS 

All zoos have faced wartime difficulties in obtaining food and sup- 
plies. The National Zoo, however, has received valuable assistance 
from the managers of some of the large Safeway, A. and P., Giant, 
and other stores, who have put aside for the Zoo trimmings from vege- 
tables. These are picked up by truck each day and provide the Zoo 
with greens and certain types of vegetables. Through the United 
States Marshal's Office there have been obtained considerable quan- 
tities of food condemned for one reason or another as not fit for human 
consumption, including several tons of peanuts, quantities of soy beans, 
and other products, which have been of material aid. 

ATTENDANCE 

The attendance for the year was : 

July 172, 100 February 53, 200 

August 204,500 March 97,450 

September 228,500 April 207,982 

October 142,750 May 269,500 

November 143,400 June 169,000 

December 42,850 

January 72,300 Total 1,803,532 

Although no actual tabulation was made, it was apparent that mili- 
tary and naval personnel constituted a very substantial proportion of 
the total number of visitors. 

There has been a good attendance from various schools and groups 
who have come by whatever means of transportation were available. 
It is interesting to note that the number of visitors is more even 
throughout the week than hitherto, although naturally the attendance 
reaches its peak on Saturday afternoons, Sundays, and holidays. The 
number of family picnic parties has greatly increased. 

Medical groups have come to the Zoo for the purpose of studying 
certain types of animals, and the Zoo office receives many requests from 
the War and Navy Departments and other agencies of the Govern- 
ment for information on biological problems. The Zoo continues to be 
a regular study ground for art and biology classes, as well as a focal 
point for inquiries about animals by mail, by telephone, and in person. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 69 

ACQUISITION OF SPECIMENS 

The animal market has naturally been restricted by the small num- 
ber of shipments being made from abroad, but a moderate number of 
desirable specimens have been obtained by purchase or exchange. 
Among these are a trio of Dama wallabies, the two females of which 
have produced young since their arrival from the San Diego Zoological 
Society ; a Diana monkey, also from the San Diego Zoological Society ; 
a pair of cotton-headed marmosets, a pair of scarlet cocks -of -the-rock, 
and a young male jaguar. 

GIFTS 

Through the Army a number of interesting and valuable specimens 
have been obtained. Among these are a pair of those rare birds, the 
kagus, presented by the Free French Government of New Caledonia 
through Lt. Gen. A. M. Patch and brought to Washington by Lt. John 
11. Fulling while on leave. On a subsequent voyage, Lieutenant Full- 
ing obtained for the Zoo a pair of flying phalangers and a fine carpet 
python. 

The Army of the U. S. S. R. presented to the Persian Gulf Command, 
United States Army, through Maj. Gen. Donald H. Connolly, a young 
Russian bear from the southern Caucasus. This bear, "Mischa," was 
brought from Persia to Washington under the care of Lt. A. J. Miller. 

From the Medical Section, India China Wing, Air Transport Com- 
mand, through Col. Don Flickinger, came a collection of Indian rep- 
tiles, including cobras, kraits, Russell's vipers and a monitor lizard. 
These were brought to Washington by Corp. Wesley H. Dickinson. 

Another interesting addition was a baby howling monkey. 

A complete list of donors and their gifts follows : 

DONORS AND THEIB GIFTS 

W. Alderson, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Ord Alexander, Washington, D. C, red-bellied turtle. 

Army of the U. S. S. R., through Commanding General, Persian Gulf Command, 

Maj. Gen. Donald H. Connolly, U. S. Army, Old World brown bear. 
W. H. Aughinbaxigh, Arlington, Va., 3 Reeves' pheasants. 
Mrs. C. A. Baker, Washington, D. C, alligator. 
Jack Baldwin, Washington, D. C, alligator. 
George BaUou, Bethesda, Md., raccoon, short-tailed shrew, sparrow hawk, 30 

white mice, crow, fence lizard. 
Mrs. Nell Barger, Washington, D. C, horned lizard. 
Dr. Paul Bartsch, Washington, D. C, chain or king snake. 
Mrs. G. N. Bates, Alexandria, Va., raccoon. 
J. H. Benn, Silver Spring, Md., worm snake. 
Mr. Berg, Fredericksburg, Va., red fox. 
Mrs. John P. Bressler, Bethesda, Md., nine-banded armadillo. 



70 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

James G. Brunzos, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

S. M. Call, Mocksville, N. C, through North Carolina State Museum, Raleigh, N. C, 

albino opossum, 
Donald A. Campbell, Chapel Hill, N. C, vervet monkey. 
T. L. Canby, Silver Spring, Md., barn owl. 
Dr. H. J. Carter, Washington, D. C, great blue heron. 

Miss Margaret Carter and Miss Doris M. Rice, Washington, D. C, screech owl. 
Miss Frances Chatfleld, Washington, D. C, alligator. 
Peter Chittick, McLean, Va., spotted turtle, 3 milk snakes. 
Robert Clagett, Landover, Md., Pekin duck. 
Dr. Marie B. Clark, Cardozo High School, Washington, D. C, garter snake, 

hog-nosed snake. 
Tom Collingwood, Washington, D. C, tarantula. 
Mrs. Edward Costello, Washington, D. C, red fox. 
K. L. Curtis, Washington, D. C, raccoon. 
Gordon Daiger, Washington, D. C, 2 Cumberland terrapins. 
James Daphney, Washington, D. C, 2 alligators. 
Claudine DeHaven, Glasgow, Va., corn snake, black snake. 
Glenn Dixon, Washington, D. C, red-tailed hawk. 
Joanne V. Dyke, Washington, D. C, anolis. 
J. E. Ennis, Washington, D. C, barn owl. 
Colonel Evans (address unrecorded), red-tailed hawk. 
William L. Foster, Rockville, Md., barn owl. 
F. F. Fox, Hyattsville, Md., 2 box turtles. 
John Francis, Jr., Washington, D. C, opossum. 
Mrs. Jean B. Fraser, Takoma Park, D. C, 5 American toads. 
Free French Government of New Caledonia, through Lt. Gen. A. M. Patch, U. S. 

Army, 2 kagus. 
Mrs. Freeman, Washington, D. C, ring-necked pheasant. 
Lt. John H. Fulling, U. S. Army, carpet python, 2 flying phalangers. 
Stephen Gatti, Washington, D. C, sparrow hawk. 
Gordon Gaver, Thurmont, Md., indigo snake. 
William C. Gawler, Bethesda, Md., 3 Pekin ducks. 
Roger Granum, Washington, D. C, white rabbit. 
Mrs. William S. Green, through C. Purcell McCue, Appledore Orchard, Greenwood, 

Va., 2 sika deer. 
Mrs. Charles Greer, Alexandria, Va., 3 Pekin ducks. 
Granville Gude, Washington, D. C, alligator. 
Willie Haltzman, Alexandria, Va., 2 Pekin ducks. 
John N. Hamlet, Fish and Wildlife Service, College Park, Md., 4 meadow mice, 2 

northern ravens, 7 pine lizards, 2 blue-tailed skinks, 4 six-lined race runners, 

pilot black snake. 
Ernest O. Hammersla, Washington, D. C, howling monkey. 
Mrs. H. Hanford, Washington, D. C, 3 canaries. 
Maj. D. Elmo Hardy, U. S. A., 1 Hoolock gibbon. 
Richard A. Harman, Alexandria, Va., alligator. 
J. W. Harrison, Mt. Rainier, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Richard T. Heckman, Washington, D. C, 2 white mice. 

Dr. Roy Hertz, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Md., 18 American toads. 
Mrs. Hibben, Vienna, Va., pilot snake. 

Thomas M. Hopkins, Laurel, Md., water snake, snapping turtle. 
Thomas M. Hopkins and Cylde T. Miles, Jr., Laurel, Md., 3 snapping turtles, 

spotted turtle, 2 box turtles. 
C. S. Howell, Remington, Va., guinea pigs. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 71 

Gordon L. Jessup, Potomac Heights, D. C, black snake. 

Miss J, M. Jones, Washington, D. C, yellow-naped parrot. 

Mrs. W. A. Justice, Edgewater, Md., double yellow-headed parrot. 

Mrs. Kanthal, Washington, D. C, white squirrel. 

James G. Keller, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

Alfred Kendall, Washington, D. C, cardinal. 

Mrs. I. A. Kniazev, Silver Spring, Md., Cuban conure. 

Mrs. Alta Brill Kremer, Maurertown, Va., 2 Pekin ducks. 

Mrs. Martha Lawty, Washington, D. C, Texas horned lizard. 

Ralph D. Lindsey, Silver Spring, Md., snapping turtle. 

Miss Margaret Love, R. R., Leon, Kans., great horned owl. 

Mrs. Lorraine Lowe, Washington, D. C, gray fox. 

Francine Lee Lyons, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

M. K. Macknet, Takoma Park, Md., pilot snake. 

Medical Section, India China Wing, Air Transport Command, through Col. Don 
Flickinger, M. C, king cobra, Indian cobra, banded krait, common krait, 
2 monitors, 2 tree snakes, Russell's viper, 2 rat snakes, 5 pythons. 

Mrs. John C. Meikle, Washington, D. C, 2 zebra finches. 

George J. Merrick, Washington, D. C., barn owl. 

W. H. Meserole, Washington, D. C, black-crowned night heron. 

B. Miller, Washington, D. C, horned lizard. 

Billy Monroe, Washington, D. C, opossum. 

Benjamin Muller, Washington, D. C, pilot black snake. 

National Capital Parks, Washington, D. C, water snake, tadpoles, Gambusia 
holbrooki. 

Harry Neuman, Washington, D. C, 2 alligators. 

Fred Orsinger, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C, 4 hellbenders, 
10 diamond-back terrapins, mud turtle, 4 mudpuppies. 

Joseph Pignataro, Washington, D. C, 6 ring-necked snakes. 

Freeman Pollock, Washington, D. C, timber rattlesnake. 

Scott Price, Washington, D. C, green racer. 

Anna M. Rager, Washington, D. C, 3 paradise fish, three-spot gourami, 4 blood- 
fins, 100 Trinidad guppies, catfish, 300 snails. 

Miss Anna Rees, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck, mallard duck. 

R. H. Riggs, Chevy Chase, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 

Lt. Laurance S. Rockefeller, Washington, D. C., European goldfinch, white 
zebra finch. 

Mrs. M. L. Rue, Washington, D. C, 4 muscovy ducks. 

Migual A. Ruiz, Washington, D. C, hog-nosed snake. 

D. R. Sampson, Brentwood, Md., 2 red-shouldered hawks. 

Miss Eugenia Sasa, Washington, D. C, grass paroquet. 

Miss Katherine Sater, Washington, D. C, black snake. 

Daniel Schroeder, Washington, D. C, 2 blue tanagers, 3 Pekin robins, 2 diamond 
doves, Cuban bullfinch. 

Alfred L. Schwoser, Washington, D. C, red fox. 

Sandra Seymour, Riverdale, Md., great horned owl. 

Charles P. Shaeffer, Jr., West Haven, Md., alligator. 

Pfc. A. W. Sharer, United States Army, pilot snake, black snake, 2 copperheads, 
2 blue racers. 

Patsy and Linda Shaw, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

Robert B. Sherfy, Washington, D. C, screech owl. 

Robert Shosteck, Washington, D. C, 2 fence lizards, spotted turtle. 

619830 — 45 6 



72 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Mrs. J. R. Skinner, Washington, D. C, grass paroquet. 

David W. E. Smith, Washington, D. C, De Kay's snake. 

Mrs. W. R. Smith, Cottage City, Md., 3 ring-necked doves. 

Melvin Snyder, Washington, D. C, Cumberland terrapin. 

Mrs. Rebecca Spitler and Dian Suunbrun, Bethesda, Md., 4 Pekin ducks. 

K. H. Spivey, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Mrs. L. D. Staver, Washington, D. C., barred owl. 

Mrs. George Strawbridge, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

Ralph Swiggard, Washington, D. C, worm snake. 

Mrs. Taylor (address unrecorded), 5 opossums. 

Edward M. Traylor, Washington, D. C, titi monkey. 

James H. Turner, Dunn Loring, Va., coatimundi. 

Dr. H. R. van Houten, Bethesda, Md., garter snake, 

Ralph C. Wainoskey, United States Army, rhesus monkey. 

Frank J. Walker, Arlington, Va., 2 flying squirrels. 

R. E. Walker, United States Navy, Hydrographic OflBce, Washington, D. C, 

painted turtle, diamond-back terrapin, praying mantis. 
T. Wampler, Washington, D. C, 2 crows. 
Ward Farrns, Amelia Court House, Va., red fox. 
Theodore Weiner, Washington, D. C, pine lizard. 
Mrs. H. J. Wells, Washington, D. C, diamond-back terrapin. 
Richard Wells, Washington, D. C, desert tortoise. 
J. A. Wheeler, Washington, D. C., sparrow hawk. 
J. H. White, Washington, D. C., gray squirrel. 

Margie, Mary Lu, and June Aileen Wilkin, Washington, D. C, cottontail rabbit. 
C. W. Williamson, Washington, D. C, cottonmouth moccasin, 
Ray E. Wooldridge, Washington, D. C, alligator. 
J. C. Wright, Washington, D. C., wood frog. 
(Donor unknown), 2 bobwhites. 

NATURAL REPRODUCTION 

Four sets of twins of the common marmoset were born during the 
year. 

A cub was born dead to a pair of Polar and Alaska brown bear 
hybrids which were born in the National Zoological Park in 1936. 

Births and hatchings during the year included : 

MAMMALS 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Acrocodia indica Apiatic tapir 1 

Ammotragus lervia Aoudad 5 

Bihos gaurus Gaur 1 

Bison Wson Bison 1 

Bos indicus Zebu 1 

Bos taurus British Park cattle 1 

Callithrix jacchus Common marmoset 8 

Camelus bactrianus Bactrian camel 1 

Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus Green guenon 1 

Cervus canadensis Elk 1 

Choeropsis liheriensis Pigmy hippopotamus 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 73 



[Fallow deer 2 

Dama dama ^^^.^^ ^^1^^^ ^^^^ g 

Dasyprocta croconota prymnolopha Agouti 1 

DoUchotis patagona Patagonian cavy 2 

Felis concolor Puma 4 

Eemitragus jemlahicus Tahr 1 

MicroUis pennsylvanicus Meadow mouse 4 

Myocastor coypu Coypu 5 

Nasua narica Coatimundi 5 

Neotmna floridana attwateri Round-tailed wood rat 3 

Oncifelis geoffroyi Geoffroy's cat 2 

Ovis aries Woolless or Barbados sheep 1 

Procyon lotor Black raccoon 1 

ThalarctosXUrsus Hybrid bear 1 



Anas platyrJiynchos Mallard duck 70 

Branta canadensis Canada goose 50 

Branta canadensis occidentalis White-cheeked goose 20 

Cairina moschata Muscovy duck 8 

Fulica americana American coot 10 

Larus novaehollandiae Silver gull 2 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius Black-crowned night heron 18 

Turtur risorius Ring-necked dove 2 

EEFITLES 

Agkistrodon mokeson Copperhead snake 8 

Oerrhonotus coemleus principis Alligator lizard 1 

Natrix septemvittata Queen or moon snake 15 

Natrix sipedon Banded water snake 51 

Natrix taxispilota Brown water snake 39 

Thamnophis sivtalis Midwest garter snake 12 

LOSSES 

Losses include the African rhinoceros, which died after 13 years in 
the Zoo ; a slow loris, after 5 years and 10 months ; a mandrill, after 
18 years and 7 months; and the maned wolf, after 10 years and 6 
months. 

A scarlet ibis died after 19 years 11 months; a roseate spoonbill, 
after 9 years. 

A large reticulated python, deposited for exhibition by Clif Wilson, 
died during the winter. A cast has been made of this snake for 
permanent exhibition in the United States National Museum. When 
the dead snake was sent to the Museum, it measured 24 feet 8 inches. 
Since 8 or 10 inches of the tail was missing, this specimen was well 
over 25 feet in length, and the dead body weighed 305 pounds, 
making it one of the largest snakes ever exhibited. 



74 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Statement of accessions 



How acquired 


Mam- 
mals 


Birds 


Rep- 
tiles 


Am- 
phib- 
ians 


Fishes 


Arach- 
nids 


In- 
verte- 
brates 


Total 


Presented 


67 
73 

6 
15 
23 

1 


85 
180 
41 
23 

g 


122 
126 

34 
4 

25 


28 


14 


1 


1 




Born or hatched 

Received in exchange 

Purchased 


318 
379 


14 
35 








95 


On deposit 

Collected in the Park 








77 
57 










1 


Total 


185 


338 


311 


77 


14 


1 


1 






927 



Summary 
Animals on hand July 1, 1943 2 435 

Accessions during the year " ~ ' q^ 



Total animals in collection during year 3 302 

Removals from collection by death, exchange, and return of animals on 
deposit 



736 



In collection June 30, 1944 

Status of collection 



2,626 



Class 



Mammals.. 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 
Fishes 



Species 
and sub- 
species 



210 
312 
114 
20 
37 



Individ- 
uals 



677 
909 
447 
120 
368 



Class 



Arachnids.. 
Insects 

Total 



Species 
and sub- 
species 



b96 



Individ- 
uals 



5 
100 



2,626 



A list of the animals in the collection follows : 

ANIMALS IN THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK JUNE 30, 1944 

MAMMALS 

marsupialia 

^Soientiflo name common name Number 

Didelphiidae : 

Didelphis virgvniana Opossum 4 

Phalangeridae : 

Petaurus Ireviceps Lesser flying phalanger 2 

Petatirus norfolccnsis Australian flying phalanger 2 

Trichosurus vulpecula Vulpine or brush-tailed opossum 1 

Maeropodidae : 

Dendrolagus inustus New Guinea tree kangaroo 2 

Dendrolayus inustus finschi Finsche's tree kangaroo 3 

Macrop'us major Great gray kangaroo ~ 1 

Thylogale eugenii Dama wallaby ~__ 5 

Phascolomyidae : 

Vomlatus ursinus Flinders Island wombat 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 75 

INSECTIVOBA 

Scientiflo name Common name Number 

Soricidae : 

Blarina brevicauda Short-tailed shrew 1 

OABNIVOEA 

Felidae : 

Adnonyx jubatus Cheetah 1 

Felis chaus Jungle cat 1 

Felis concolor Puma 5 

Felis concolor patagonica Patagonian puma 1 

Felis concolor X Felis concolor pata- North American X South American 

gonica puma 4 

Felis leo Lion 6 

f Jaguar 5 

Felis onm 1 BI^^j^ ^^^^^ 2 

Felis pardalis Ocelot 3 

f Indian leopard__=r 3 

^elis pardus 1 ^^^^.j^ ^^^.^^ j^^p^^^.^ 2 

Felis tigris Bengal tiger 2 

Felis tigris longipilis Siberian tigei' 1 

Felis tigris sumatrae Sumatran tiger 4 

Lyrix rtifus Bay lynx 2 

Lynx rufus baileyi Bailey's lynx 1 

Lynx uinta Bobcat 1 

Neofelis nebulosa Clouded leopard 1 

Oncifelis geoffroyi Geoffroy's cat 4 

Profelis temmincMi Golden cat 3 

Viverridae : 

Arctictis binturong Binturong 2 

Civettictis civetta African civet 1 

Myonax sanguineus Dwarf civet 1 

Paradoxurus hermapJiroditus Small-toothed palm civet 1 

Hyaenidae : 

Crocuta crocuta germinans East African spotted hyena 1 

Canidae : 

Canis latrans Coyote 2 

Canis latrans X familiaris Coyote and dog hybrid 1 

Canis lupus nubilus Plains wolf 2 

Canis rufus Texas red wolf 5 

Cuon javaniaus sumatrensis Sumatran wild dog 1 

Dusicyon culpaeus South American fox 2 

Dusicyon (Cerdocyon) thous South American fox 1 

Nyctereutes procyonoides Raccoon dog 2 

Vrocyon cinereoargenteus Gray fox 9 

Vulpes fulva Red fox 11 

Procyonidae : 

Nasua narica Coatimundi 10 

Nasua nelsoni Nelson's coatimundi 1 

Potos flavus Kinkajou 7 

(Raccoon 5 

Black raccoon 1 

Albino raccoon 1 



76 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

CAENivoBA — continued 

Scientifto name Common name Number 

Bassariscidae : 

Bassariscus astutus Ring-tail or cacomistle 3 

Mustelidae : 

Arctonyx collaris Hog badger 1 

Orisonella huronaw Grison 1 

Lutra canadensis vaga Florida otter 1 

Lutra (Micraonyx) cinerea Small-clawed otter 1 

Martes {Lamprogale) flavigula lien- 

ricii Asiatic marten 1 

Meles meles leptorhynchus Chinese badger 1 

Mellivora capensis Ratel 1 

Mephitis mephitis nigra Skunk 4 

Mustela campestris Plains least weasel or ermine 1 

Mustela eversmanni Ferret 2 

Tayra Mrbara iarbara White tayra 2 

Tayra barhara senilis Gray-headed tayra 1 

Ursidae : 

Etiarctos americanus Black bear 5 

Euarctos thibetanus Himalayan bear 2 

Helarctos malayamis Malay or sun bear • 1 

Melursus ursinus Sloth bear 1 

Thalarctos maritimus Polar bear 3 

Thalarctos maritimus X Ursus mid- 

dendorfp, Hybrid bear 4 

Tremarctos ornatus Spectacled bear 1 

Ursus arctos European brown bear 1 

Ursus arctos meridianalis Euroi)ean brown bear 1 

Ursus gyas Alaska Peninsula bear 3 

Ursus middendorffi Kodiak bear 3 

Ursus sitkensis Sitka brown bear 3 

PINNIPEDIA 

Otariidae : 

Zalophus calif omianus Sea lion 2 

Pliocidae : 

Phoca vitulina richardii Pacific harbor seal 3 

PBIMATES 

Lemuridae : 

Lemur mongoz Mongoose lemur 2 

Callitrichidae : 

Callithrix Jacchus White-tufted mai'moset 8 

Callithrix penicillata Black-tufted marmoset 5 

Tamarin (Oedvpomidas) geoffroyi Geofifroy's tamarin 1 

Tamarin midas Yellow-handed tamarin 4 

Tamarin (Oedipomidas) oedipus Cotton-top tamarin 3 

Tamarin (Leontocebus) rosalia Lion-headed or golden marmoset 1 

Saimiridae : 

Saimiri sciurea Titi or squirrel monkey 2 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 77 

PRIMATES — continued 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Cebidae : 

Alouatta pallUita mexicanus Howling monkey 1 

Aotus trivirgatus Douroucouli or owl monkey 6 

Ateles vellerosus Spider monkey 9 

Cebus apella Gray capuchin 2 

Cehus capucinus White-throated capuchin 2 

Ceius fatuellus Weeping capuchin 5 

Lagothriw lagotricha Woolly monkey 1 

Cercopithecidae : 

Cercopithecus aethiops pygei'ythrus Vervet guenon 1 

Cercopithecus aethiops sabaetis Green guenon 6 

Cercopithecus diana Diana monkey 1 

Cercopithecus diana roloway Roloway monkey 1 

Cercopithecus neglectus De Brazza's guenon 1 

Cercopithecus nictitans petaurista Lesser white-nosed guenon 1 

Cercopithecus sp West African guenon 1 

Oymnopyga maurus Moor macaque 1 

Macaca fuscata Japanese macaque 2 

Macaca irus mordax Javan macaque 6 

Macaca mulatta Rhesus macaque 6 

Macaca mulatta lasiotis Chinese macaque 1 

Macaca nemestrina Pig-tailed macaque 2 

Macaca sinica Toque or bonnet macaque 1 

Macaca speciosa Red-faced macaque 1 

Mandrillus sphinx Mandrill 2 

Papio comatus Chacma 1 

Papio cynocephalus Golden baboon 1 

Hylobatidae : 

Hylohates agilis Sumatran gibbon 1 

Eylobates hoolock Hoolock gibbon 1 

Hylohates lar pileatus Black-capped gibbon 1 

Symphalangus syndactylus Siamang gibbon 1 

Pongidae : 

Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee 2 

Pan troglodytes verus West African chimpanzee 3 

Pongo aielii Sumatran orangutan 1 

Pongo pygmaeus Bornean orangutan 2 

BODENHA 

Sciuridae : 

Citellus toumsendii Soft-haired ground squirrel 1 

CiteUus tridecemlineatus 13-lined ground squirrel 2 

Cynomys ludovicianus Plains prairie dog 55 

Glaucomys volans Flying squirrel 6 

Woodchuck or ground hog 7 

Eastern gray squirrel (albino) 1 

Lesser white squirrel 3 

Eastern chipmimk 1 



Marmota monax 

Sdurus caroUnenMS 

Sciurus finlaysoni 

Tamias striatus 

Heteromyidae : 

Dipodomys merriami Merriam's kangaroo rat 1 

Dipodomys ordii Ord's kangaroo rat 3 



78 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

EODENTiA — continued 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Cricetidae : 

Mesocricetus auratus , Golden hamster 15 

Microtus pennsylvanicus Meadow mouse 11 

Neotoma floridana attwateri Round-tailed wood rat 8 

Onychomys leiicogaster Grasshopper mouse 1 

Peromyscus crinitua auripectus Golden-breasted mouse 1 

Peromyscus leucopus White-footed or deer mouse 2 

Peromyscus truei True's white-footed mouse 1 

Sigmodon hispidus Cotton rat 2 

Muridae : 

Mus musculus White and other domestic mice 8 

Rattus alexandrinus Roof rat and black rat 1 

Rattus norvegicus White and pied-colored rats 2 

Hystricidae : 

Acanthion brachyurum Malay porcupine 3 

Atherurus africwnus West African brush-tailed porcu- 
pine 2 

Hystrix galeata African porcupine 1 

Thecurus crassispinis sumatrae Thick-spined porcupine 1 

Myocastoridae : 

Myocastor coypu Coypu 16 

Cuniculidae : 

Cuniculus paca inrgatus Central American paca i 

Dasyproctidae : 

Dasyprocta Speckled agouti 4 

Dasyprocta croconota prynmolopha Agooiti 2 

Caviidae : 

^ . „ „ f Guinea pig 10 

Gavia porcellus ) ... 

I Angora gumea pig 1 

Dolichotis patagona Patagonian cavy 5 

Hydrochoeridae : 

Hydrochoerus hydrocJioerus Capybara 1 

LAQOMOEPHA 

Leporidae : 

Oryctolagus cuniculus Domestic rabbit 13 

ABTIODACTYIA 

Bovidae : 

Ammotragus lervia Aoudad 12 

Anoa depressicornis Anoa 1 

Anoa guarelsi Mountain anoa 1 

Bibos gaurus Gaur 3 

_. ,. f American bison 15 

Bison btson { .... 

[ Albino bison 1 

Bos indicus Zebu 6 

Bos taurus Texas longhorn steer 1 

Bos taurus West Highland or Kyloe cattle 2 

Bos taurus British Park cattle 4 

Bubalua bubalis Indian buffalo 1 

Cephalophus maxwellii Maxwell's duiker 1 



i 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 79 

AETioDAcTYLA — Continued 

Scientific name Common name Number 
Bovidae — Continued. 

Cephalophus niger Black duiker 1 

Cephalophus nigrifrons Black-fronted duiker 2 

Connochaetes gnou White-tailed gnu 1 

Hemitragus jemlahicus Tahr 8 

Oreotragus oreotragus Klipspringer 1 

Oryx beisa annectens Ibean beisa oryx 2 

Ovis aries Woolless or Barbados sheep 3 

Ovis europaeus Mouflon 2 

Poephagus grunniens Yak ^ 

Pseudois nayaur Bharal or blue sheep 3 

Synceros caffer African buffalo 2 

Taurotragus oryx Eland 3 

Cervidae : 

Axis axis Axis deer 4 

Cervus canadensis American elk 5 

Cervus elaphus Red deer 6 

f Fallow deer 14 

[ White fallow deer 1^ 

Muntiacus muntjak Rib-faced or barking deer 1 

Odocoileus virginianus Virginia deer 2 

Sika nippon Japanese deer 4 

Giraffidae : 

Oiraffa camelopardalis Nubian giraffe 4 

Oiraffa reticulata Reticulated giraffe 1 

Camelidae : 

Camelus tactrianus Bactrian camel 4 

Camelus dromedariiis Single-humped camel 1 

Ltoima glama Llama 3 

Lama glama guanicoe Guanaco 2 

Lama pacos Alpaca 2 

Vicvgna vicugna Vicuna 2 

Tayassuidae : 

Pecari angulatus Collared peccary 2 

Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary 1 

Suidae : 

Babirussa hahyrussa ^ Babirussa 2 

Phacochoerus aethiopicus aeliani East African wart hog 3 

Bus scrofa European wild boar 1 

Hippopotamidae : 

Choeropsis liheriensis Pigmy hippopotamus 5 

Hippopotamus amphiiius Hippopotamus 2 

PEBISSODACTTLA 

Equidae : 

Equus burchelUi antiquorum Chapman's zebra 4 

Equus grevyi Grevy's zebra 1 

Equus grevyi x asinus Zebra-ass hybrid 1 

Equus grevyi x caballus Zebra-horse hybrid 1 

Equus kiang Asiatic wild ass or kiang 2 

Equus przewalskii Mongolian wild horse 3 

Equus zebra Mountain zebra 1 



80 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

PEEissoDACTYLA — Continued 

Scientific name Common name Number 
Tapiridae : 

Acrocodia indica Asiatic tapir 2 

Tapirus terrestris South American tapir 3 

Rhinocerotidae : 

Rhinoceros unicornis Great Indian one -horned rhi- 
noceros 1 

PEOBOSCIDEA 

Elephantidae : 

Elaphas maximus sumatranus Sumatran elephant 1 

Loxodonta africana oxyotis African elephant 1 

HYEACOIDEA 

Procavia capensis Hyrax 2 

EDENTATA - 

Choloepodidae : 

Choloepus didactylus Two-toed sloth 2 

Dasypodidae : 

Chaetophractus villosus Hairy armadillo 1 

Euphractus sexcinctus Six-banded armadillo 1 

BIRDS 

OASTTABIIFORMES 

Casuariidae : 

Casuarius hennetti papuanus Papuan cassowary 1 

Casuarius casuarius aruensis Aru cassowary 1 

Casuarius uniappendiculatus occipi- 
talis Island cassowary 1 

Casuarius uniappendiculatus uniap- 
pendiculatus One-wattled cassowary 1 

Dromiceiidae : 

Dromiceius novaehollandiae Common emu 2 

SPHENISCTFOBMES 

Spheniscidae : 

Aptenodytes forsteri Emperor i)enguin 3 

Spheniscus demersus Jackass penguin 4 

Spheniscus humboldti Humboldt penguin 2 

TINAMrFOBMES 

Tinamidae : 
Eudromia elegans Crested tinamou or martineta 2 

PELECANIFOKMES 

Pelecanidae : 

Pelecanus californicus California brown pelican 4 

Pelecanus conspicillatus Australian i)elican 2 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchus White i)elican 4 

Pelecanus occidentalis Brown pelican 3 

Pelecanus onocrotalus European pelican 2 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 81 

PELECANiFOBMES — Continued 

Scientific name Common name Numier 

Sulidae : 

Moris iassana Gannet 1 

Phalacrocoracidae : 

Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus Farallon cormorant 1 

Anhingidae : 

Anliinga anhinga AnJiinga 3 

Fregatidae : 

Fregata ariel Lesser frigate bird 1 

CICONUFOEMES 

Ardeidae : 

Ardea herodias Great blue lieron 2 

Ardea occidentaUs Great white heron 1 

Egretta tliula— Snowy egret 5 

Florida caeralea Little blue heron 14 

Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis Louisiana heron 14 

Notophoyx novaehollandiae White-faced heron 1 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius Black-crowned night heron 30 

Cochleariidae : 

Cochlearius cohlearius Boatbill heron 2 

Ciconiidae : 

Dissoura episcopus Woolly-necked stork 1 

Ibis cinereus Malay stork 2 

Leptoptilus crumeniferus Marabou 1 

Leptoptilus dubius Indian adjutant 1 

Leptoptilus javanicus Lesser adjutant 2 

Mycteria americana Wood ibis 1 

Threskiornithidae : • 

Guara alba White ibis 8 

Gtiara alba x Q. rubra Hybrid white and scarlet ibis 1 

Guara rubra Scarlet ibis 1 

TliresTciornis aethiopica Sacred ibis 1 

Threskiomis melanocephala Black-headed ibis 4 

Threskiornis spinicollis Straw-necked ibis 2 

Phoenicopteridae : 

Phoenicopterus chilensis Chilean flamingo 2 

Phoenicopterus rubra Cuban flamingo 3 

ANSBHirFOEMES 

Anhimidae : 

Chauna cristata Crested screamer 7 

Anatidae : 

Aix sponsa Wood duck 7 

Alopochen aegyptiacus Egyptian goose 1 

Anas brasiliensis Brazilian teal 2 

Anas domestica Peking duck 12 

Anas platyrhynchos Mallard duck 50 

Anas rubripes Black duck 6 

Anser albifrons — American white-fronted goose 3 

Anser cinereus domestica Toulouse goose 3 

Anseranas semipalmata Australian pied goose 2 



82 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

ANSEBiFOEMES — Continued 

Scientific name Common name Numher 

Anatidae — Continued. 

Branta canadensis Canada goose 25 

Branta canadensis hutchinsii Hutchin's goose 4 

Branta canadensis minima Cackling goose 8 

Branta canadensis occidentalis White-cheeked goose 25 

Cairina moschata Muscovy duck 11 

Casarca variegata Paradise duck 1 

Cereopsis novaehollandiae Cape Barren goose 2 

Chen atlantica Snow goose 3 

Chen caerulescens Blue goose 2 

Chenopis atrata Black swan 4 

Chloephaga leucoptera Magellan goose 2 

Cygnopsis cygnoides Domestic goose 2 

Cygnus columbianus Whistling swan 2 

Cygnus melancoriphus Black-necked swan 1 

Cygnus olor Mute swan 5 

Daflla acuta Pintail 8 

Dafila spinicauda Chilean pintail 1 

Dendrocygna arborea Black-billed tree duck 3 

Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied tree duck 2 

Dendrocygna viduata White-faced tree duck 4 

Dendronessa galericulata Mandarin duck 4 

Mareca americana Baldpate 1 

Marila afflnis Lesser scaup 1 

Marila collaris Ring-necked duck 1 

Neochen jubata Orinoco goose 2 

Nettion carolinense Green-winged teal 1 

Nettion formosum Baikal teal 5 

Nyroca sp Hybrid duck 1 

Nyroca valisineria Canvasback duck 1 

Philacte canagica Emperor goose 3 

Querquedula discors Blue-winged teal 8 

Cathartidae : 

Cathartes aura Turkey vulture 2 

Coragyps atratus Black vulture 1 

Oymnogyps californianus California condor 1 

OypoMerax angolensis Tish-eating vulture 1 

Oyps ruppellii Ruppell's vulture 1 

Sarcoramphus papa King vulture 1 

Torgos tracheliotus African eared vulture 1 

Accipitridae: 

Accipiter cooperi Cooper's hawk 1 

Buteo borealis Red-tailed hawk 8 

Buteo Uneatus elegans Southern red-shouldered hawk 1 

Buteo Uneatus Uneatus Red-shouldered hawk 2 

Buteo melanoleucus South American buzzard eagle 2 

Buteo platypterus Broad-winged hawk 1 

Buteo poecilochrous Red-backed buzzard 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 83 

ANSEBiFORMES — continucd 
Scientific name Common name Number 

Accipitridae — Continued. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus — Bald eagle 6 

Haliastur Indus Brahminy kite 5 

Harpia harpya Harpy eagle 2 

HypomorpJmus urubitinga Brazilian eagle 1 

Milvago chimango Chlmango 3 

Milvus migrans parasitus African yellow-billed kite 2 

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis Osprey or fish hawk 1 

Paraiuteo unicinctus One-banded hawk 1 

Falcon idae : 

Cerchneis sparverius Sparrow hawk 5 

Daptrius americanus Red-throated caraqara 3 

Falco peregrinus anatum Duck hawk 1 

Polyborus planous South American caracara 1 

GALI-IFOKMES 

Cracidae : 

Crax fasciolata Crested curassow 2 

Crax rubra Panama curassow 1 

Crax sclateri Sclater's curassow 1 

Mitu mitu Razor-billed curassow 2 

Phasianidae 

Argusianus argus Argus pheasant 2 

Catreus ^palichii Cheer pheasant 3 

ChrysolopJius amherstiae Lady Amherst's pheasant 1 

Chrysolophus pictus Golden pheasant 5 

Colinus cristatus Crested quail 2 

Colinus virginianus Bobwhite 1 

Gallus galVus Red jungle fowl 4 

Oallus lafayetti Ceylonese jungle fowl 1 

Oallus sp Bantam chicken 1 

Oallus sp Fighting fowl 1 

Gallus sp Long-tailed fowl 1 

Oennaeus albocristatus White-crested kaleege 3 

Oennaeus nycthemerus Silver pheasant 6 

Hierophasis swinlioii Swinhoe's pheasant 2 

Lophophorus impeyanus Himalayan Impeyan pheasant 1 

Lophortyx californica vallicola Valley quail 2 

Pavo cristatus Peafowl 4 

f Ring-necked pheasant 6 

Phasianus torquatus 1 ^j^j^^ ring-necked pheasant 3 

Phasianus torquatus (var.) Melanistic mutant ring -necked 

pheasant 3 

Phasianus versicolor Green Japanese pheasant 1 

Polyplectron napoleonis Palawan peacock pheasant 1 

Syrmaticus reevesi Reeves' pheasant 2 

Numididae : 

Acryllium vulturinum Vulturine guinea fowl 1 

Numida sp Guinea fowl 2 



84 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

GEUIFOBMES 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Rhinochetidae : 

Rhinochetos Jubatus Kagu 1 

Gruidae : 

Anthropoides paradisea Stanley or Paradise crane 3 

Anthropoides virgo Demoiselle crane 5 

Balearica pavonina West African crowned crane 3 

Balearica regulorum gihbericeps East African crowned crane 1 

Orus canadensis canadensis Little brown crane 1 

Grus leucauchen White-naped crane 1 

Grus leucogeranns Siberian crane 2 

Rallidae : 

Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted rail 2 

Fulica americana American coot 6 

Gallinula chloropus cachinnans Florida gallinule 2 

Gallinula chloropus orientalis Sumatran gaUinule 2 

Limnocorax flavirostra African black rail 3 

Porphyria poliocephalus Gray-headed porphyrio 2 

Cariamidae : 

Cariama cristata Cariama or seriama 2 

ohabadkhformes 

Haematopodidae : 

Haematopus ostralegus European oyster catcher 2 

Charadriidae : 

Belanopterus chilensis Chilean lapwing 2 

Laridae : 

Larus argentatus Herring gull 1 

Larus delawarensis Ring-billed gull 1 

Larus dominicanus Kelp gull 2 

Larus glaucescens Glaucous-winged gull 1 

Larus novaehollandiae Silver gull 15 

Glariolidae : 

Glareola pratvncola CoUared pratincole 1 

COLUMBIFOEMES 

Columrbidae : 

Columia guinea Triangular-spotted pigeon 1 

Coluniba livia Domestic pigeon 3 

Columha maculosa Spot-winged pigeon 1 

Ducula aenea Green imperial pigeon 1 

GalUgolumia luzonica Bleeding-heart dove 4 

Ooura cristata Sclater's crowned pigeon 1 

Goura victoria Victoria crowned pigeon 1 

Leptotila cassini Cassin's dove 1 

Muscadivores pauliria Celebian imperial pigeon 1 

Streptopelia chinensis Asiatic collared dove 1 

Streptopelia chinensis ceylonensis Lace-necked or ash dove 3 

StreptopeUa tranquebarica Blue-headed ring dove 2 

Turtur risorius Ring-necked dove 12 

Zenaida auriculata South American mourning dove 5 

Zenaidura niacroura Mourning dove 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 85 

PSITTACirOBMES 

Scientiflo name Common name Numier 

Psittacidae : 

Agapornis pullaria Red-faced lovebird 3 

Amazona auropalliata Yellow-naped parrot 4 

Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-headed parrot 1 

Amazona oratrix Double yellow-headed parrot 2 

Anodorhynchus Jiyacinthinus Hyacinthine macaw 1 

Ara ararauna Yellow and blue macaw 2 

Ara macao Red, blue, and yellow macaw 2 

Ara militaria Mexican green macaw 1 

Aratinga euops Cuban conure 2 

CalyptorJiynchus magnificus Banksian cockatoo 1 

Coracopsis nigra Lesser vasa parrot 1 

Cyanopsittacus spixi Spix's macaw 1 

Ducorpsis sanguineus Bare-eyed cockatoo 1 

Eclectus pectoralis Eclectus parrot 1 

EolopJius roseicapillus Roseate cockatoo 3 

Kakatoe alba White cockatoo 2 

Kakatoe galerita Large sulphur-crested cockatoo 2 

Kakatoe leadbeateri Leadbeater's cockatoo 2 

Kakatoe moluccensis Great red-crested cockatoo 1 

Kakatoe sulpJmreat Lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo 5 

Lorius domicella Rajah lory 2 

Lorius garrulus Red lory 1 

Melopsittacus undulatus Grass paroquet 12 

Myopsitta monachus Quaker paroquet 1 

Nandayus nanday Nanday paroquet 1 

Nestor notaMUs Kea 1 

Nymphicus hollanidvcus Cockatiel 1 

Pionites xanthomeria Amazonian caique 2 

Psittacula eupatria Red-shouldered paroquet 3 

Psittacula krameri Kramer's paroquet 2 

Psittacula lon^icauda Long-tailed paroquet 2 

Tanygnatlius muelleri Mueller's parrot 1 

CUOUUffiOaMES 

Cuculidae : 

Eudynamis scolopaceus Koel 1 

Musophagidae : 

Turacus livingstoni Livingston's turacou 1 

STBIGIFOBMES 

Tytonidae : 

Tyto alba pratincola Barn owl 3 

Strigidae : 

Bubo virginianus Great horned owl 7 

Ketupa ketupu Malay fish owl 1 

Nyctea nyctea Snowy owl 1 

Otus asio Screech owl 3 

Strix varia varia Bax'red owl 4 



86 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

CAFBIMtTLGIFOBMES 

Scientific name Common name Number 
Podargidae : 
Podargus strigoides Tawny frogmouth 1 

COLIIFOBMES 

Coliidae : 

CoUus siriatus Streaked mouse bird or coly 2 

COEACairOEMES 

Alcedinidae : 

Dacelo gigas Kookaburra 2 

Halcyon sanctus Sacred kingfisher 1 

Momotidae : 

Momotus lessoni Motmot 1 

PICIFOBMES 

Ramphastidae : 

Aulacorhynchus sulcatus sulcatus Groove-billed toucanet 1 

Pteroglossus aracari Black-necked aracari 2 

Ramphastos carinatus Sulphur-breasted toucan 7 

Ramphastos culminatus White-breasted toucan 1 

Ramphastos piscivorus Toco toucan 1 

PASSEBIFOBMES 

Cotingidae : 

Melanotis caerulescens Mexican catbird 2 

Rupicola peruviana sanguinolenta Scarlet cock-of-the-rock 2 

Corvidae : 

Callocitta formosa Mexican jay 1 

Cissa chinensis Chinese cissa 2 

Cissilopha yucatanica Yucatan blue jay 4 

Corvus alhus White-breasted crow 2 

Corvus irachyrhynchos American crow 7 

Corvus corax principalis Northern raven 3 

Corvus comix Hooded crow 2 

Corvus cryptoleucus White-necked raven 1 

Corvus insolens Indian crow 3 

Cyanocorax chrysops Urraca jay 1 

Cyanocorax mystacalis Moustached jay 1 

Cyanopica cyana Azure-winged pie 1 

Oymnorhina hypoleuca White-backed piping crow 2 

Urocissa caerulea Formosan red-billed pie 2 

Vrocissa occipitalis Red-billed blue magpie 1 

Paradiseidae : 

Ailuroedus orassirostris Australian catbird 1 

Epimachus fastuosus Sickle-billed bird of paradise 1 

Ptilonorhynchus violaceus Satin bowerbird 1 

Seleucides niger 12-wired bird of paradise 1 

Pycnonotidae : 

Pycnonotus analis Yellow-vented bulbul 1 

Irenidae : 

Irena puella Fairy blue bird 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 87 

PASSEatiFOEMES — Continued 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Mimidae : 

Melanotis caerulescens Blue mockingbird 1 

Toxostoma rufum Brown thrasher 1 

Turdidae: 

Oarrulax pectoralis picUcolUs Chinese collared laughing thrush__ 1 

Oarrulax perspicillatus Spectacled laughing thrush 1 

Leiothrix luteus Pekin robin 2 

Turdus grayi Bonaparte's thrush 1 

Turdus ruflventris Argentine robin 3 

Sturnidae : 

Cosmopsarus regius Splendid starling 1 

Creatophora cinerea Wattled starling 1 

Oaleopsar salvadorii Crested starling 1 

Cfraculipica melanoptera White starling 1 

Ploceidae : 

Diatropura procne Giant whydah 4 

Lonchura leucogastroides Bengalee 5 

Munia maja White-headed munia 2 

Munia mala-cca Black-throated munia 1 

Munia oryzivora Java sparrow 7 

Munia punctulatus Rice bird or nutmeg finch 2 

Ploceus taya Baya weaver 3 

Ploceus intermedius Black-cheeked weaver 5 

Ploceus ruhiginosus Chestnut-breasted weaver 1 

Poephila acuticauda Long-tailed finch 1 

Poephila gouldiae Gouldian finch 2 

Quelea sanguinirostris intermedia Southern masked weaver finch 2 

Steganura paradisea Paradise whydah 5 

Taeniopygia castanotis / ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

I White zebra finch 1 

Coerebidae : 

Cyanerpes cyanea Blue honeycreeper 6 

Icteridae : 

Agelaius assimilis Cuban red-winged blackbird 2 

Cassiculus melanicterus Mexican cacique 1 

Oymnomystax mexicanus Giant oriole 1 

Icterus iullocki Bullock's troupial 2 

Icterus icterus Troupial 1 

Molothrus tonariensis Shiny cowbird 1 

Notiopsar curaens Chilean blackbird 2 

Trupialis defilippi Military starling 8 

Thraupidae : 

Piranga iidentata Orange tanager . 1 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus Crimson tanager 1 

Ramphocelus flammigerus Yellow tanager 4 

Ramphocelus icteronotus Yellow-rumped tanager 2 

Thraupis episcopus Blue tanager 2 

Fringillidae : 

Amandava amandava Strawberry finch 10 

Carduelis carduelis European gold finch 1 

619830—45 7 



88 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

PASSEKiFOEMES — Continued 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Fringillidae — Continued. 

Carpodacus mexicanus . Mexican house finch 4 

Coryphospingus cnoullatus Red-crested finch 2 

Cyanoconipsa argentina Argentine blue grosbeak 2 

Diuca diuca Diuca finch 2 

Erythrura psittacea New Caledonian parrot finch 1 

Lophospingus pusillus ,Blac!k-crested finch 3 

Melopyrrha nigra Cuban bullfinch 1 

Paroaria cucullata Brazilian cardinal 3 

Passerina oyanea Indigo bunting 2 

Passerina leclancherii Leclancher's bunting 6 

Passerina versicolor Blue bunting 2 

Phrygilus fruticeti Mourning finch 8 

Phrygilus gayi 1 Gay's gray-headed finch 4 

Serirms canaritis Canary 4 

Sicalis flaveola Mysto finch 1 

Sicalis luteola Saffron finch 3 

Sicalis minor Lesser yellow finch 4 

Spinus uropygialis Chilean siskin 3 

Sporophila aurita Hick's seed-eater 2 

Sporophila gutturalis Yellow-bellied seed-eater 2 

Tiaris olivacea Mexican grassquit 1 

Volatinia jacarini Blue-black grassquit 1 

Zonotrichia capensis Chingolo 2 

REPTTLES 
LOEICATA 

Crocodylidae : 

Alligator mississipiensis Alligator 22 

Alligator sinensis Chinese alligator 3 

Caiman latirostris Broad-snouted caiman 1 

Caiman sclerops Spectacled caiman 3 

Crocodylus acutus American crocodile 4 

Crocodylus cataphractus Narrow-nosed crocodile 1 

Crocodylus niloticus African crocodile 2 

Crocodylus palustris "Toad" crocodile 2 

Crocodylus porosus Salt-water crocodile 1 

Crocodylus rhombifer Cuban crocodile 1 

Osteolaemus tetraspis Broad-nosed crocodile 2 

SAtlEIA 

Gekkonidae : 

Oekko gecko Gecko 2 

Iguanidae : 

Anolis caroUnensis False "chameleon" 20 

Basiliscus sp Banded basilisk 4 

Ctenosaura acanthura Spiny-tailed iguana 2 

Phrynosoma cornutum Hoi-taed lizard 17 

S'celoporus undulatus Pine or fence lizard 8 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 89 

SAUKiA — continued 

Scientific name Common name Numhcr 

Anguidae : 

Ophisaurus apus European glass snake 1 

Ophisaurus ventraUs Glass snake or legless lizard 6 

Gerrhonotus coeruleus principis Alligator lizard 2 

Helodennatidae : 

Heloderma horridum Mexican beaded lizard 2 

Heloderma suspectum Gila monster 7 

Teiidae : 

Cnemidophorus sexUneatus Six-lined race runner__ 5 

Crocodilurus lacertinus Crocodile lizard 1 

Tupinamhis nigropunctatus Black tegu 1 

Scincidae : 

Egemia cunninghami Cunningham's skink 2 

Eumeces fasciatua Blue-tailed skink 3 

Tiliqua scincoides Blue-tongued lizard 2 

Varanidae: 

Varanus komodoensis Komodo dragon 1 

Varanus monitor Indian monitor 2 

Varanus niloticus Nile monitor 3 

Varanus salvator Sumatran monitor 5 

OFHIDIA 

Boidae : 

Boa cooJcii Cook's tree boa 1 

Charina bottae Rubber boa 1 

Constrictor constrictor Boa constrictor 3 

Constrictor imperator Central America boa 2 

Epicrates cenchris Rainbow boa 6 

Epicrates crassus Salamanta 1 

Epicrates striatus Haitian boa 1 

Eunectes murinus Anaconda 1 

Lichanura roseofusca California rosy boa 1 

Python molurus Indian rock python 9 

Python regius— Ball python 3 

Python reticulatus Regal python 3 

Python variegatus Carpet python 1 

Tropidophis melanurus Cuban boa 1 

Colubridae : 

Carphophis amoena Worm snake— 1 

Coluber constrictor Black snake 1 

Cyclagras gigas Cobra de Paraguay 1 

Diadophis punctatus Ring-necked snake 1 

Drymarchon corais couperi Indigo\ snake 2 

Elaphe guttata Corn snake 3 

Elaphe obsoleta Pilot snake 6 

Elaphe quadrivittata Yellow chicken snake 1 

Heterodon contortrisD Hog-nosed snake 4 

Lampropeltis getulus fioridana Florida king snake 1 

Lampropeltis getulus getulus Chain or king snake 1 

matrix piscator Water snake 15 



90 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

OPHIDIA — continued 

Scientific name Common name Numier 

Colubridae — Continued. 

Natrix septemvittata Queen or moon snake 3 

Natrix sp Water snake 1 

Pituophis catenifer Western bull snake 2 

Pituophis catenifer annectans San Diego gopher snake 2 

Pituophis melanoleucus Bull snake 1 

Ptyas mucosus Rat snake 1 

Rhinocheilus lecontei Long-nosed snake 1 

Storeria dekayi De Kay's snake 1 

Thamnophis ordinoides Western garter snake 26 

Thamnophis sirtalis Garter snake 4 

Elapidae : 

Naja naja Indian cobra 1 

Oxybelis fulgidus Green tree snake 1 

Crotalidae : 

Agkistrodon mokeson : Copperhead snake 4 

Agkistrodon piscivorus Water moccasin 1 

Crotalus adamanteus Florida diamond-backed rattlesnake 1 

Vipera russellii Russell's viper 1 

TESTUDINATA 

Chelydidae : 

Batrachemys nasuta South American side-necked turtle. 1 

Chelodina longicollis . Australian snake-necked turtle 1 

Hydraspis sp South American snake-necked 

turtle 3 

Hydromedusa tectifera Snake-necked turtle 16 

Platemys platycephala Flat-headed turtle 1 

Platysternldae : 

Platysternum megacepfialum Large-headed Chinese turtle 1 

Pelomedusidae : 

Pelomedusa galeata Common African water tortoise 2 

Podocnemis expansa South American river tortoise 1 

Kinosternidae : 

Kinosternon sp Central American musk turtle 1 

Kinosternon subrubrum Musk turtle 4 

Chelydridae : 

Chelydra serpentina Snapping turtle 8 

Macrochelys temminckii Alligator snapping turtle 1 

Testudinidae : 

Chrysemys marginata Western painted turtle 5 

Chrysemys picta Painted turtle 3 

Clemmys guttata Spotted turtle 6 

Clemmys insculpta Wood turtle 7 

Clemmys muhlenhergii Muhlenberg's tortoise 1 

Cyclemys amboinensis Kura kura box turtle 4 

Emys blandingii Blanding's turtle 1 

Oeoclemys subtrijuga Siamese field turtle 1 

Graptemys barbouri Barbour's turtle 7 

Oraptemys pseudogeographica False map turtle 1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 91 

TESTtJDiNATA — continued 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Testudinidae — continued. 

Kinixys erosa West African back-hinged tortoise. 1 

Malaclemys centrata Diamond-back turtle 24 

Pseudemys concinna Cooter 3 

Pseudemys elegans Cumberland terrapin 2 

Pseudemys ornata Central American water turtle — 1 

Pseudemys rugosa Cuban terrapin 1 

Terrapene Carolina Box turtle 50 

Terrapene major Florida box turtle 4 

Terrapene sp Mexican box turtle 2 

Testudo chilensis Chilean land tortoise 1 

Testudo denticulata South American land tortoise 2 

Testud'o elegans Star tortoise 2 

Testudo ephippium Duncan Island tortoise 1 

Testudo hoodensis Hood Island tortoise 3 

Testudo tornieri Soft-shelled land tortoise 2 

Testudo vicina Albemarle Island tortoise 3 

Trionychidae : 

Amyda ferox Soft-shelled turtle 6 

Amyda triunguis West African soft-shelled turtle 1 

AMPHIBIA 

CATJDATA 

Salamandridae : 

Triturus pyrrhogaster Red salamander 3 

Triturus torosus Giant newt 16 

Triturus viridescens Common newt 4 

Amphiumidae : 

Amphiuma means Blind eel or Congo snake 1 

Cryptobranchidae : 

Cryptohranchus alleganiensis Hellbender 4 

Necturidae : 

Necturus maculosus Mudpuppy 1 

SALIENTIA 

Dendrobatidae: 

Dendrotates auratus Arrow-poison frog 3 

Bufonidae : 

Bufo americanus Common toad 25 

Bufo empusus Sapo de concha 8 

Bufo marinus Marine toad 6 

Bufo peltocephalus Cuban giant toad 3 

Ceratophrydae : 

Geratophrys ornata Horned frog 5 

Hylidae : 

Acris gryllus Cricket frog 20 

Hyla crucifer '. Tree frog 3 

Pipidae : 

Pipa americana Surinam toad 3 



92 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

SALiENTiA — continued 

Scientific name Common name Number 
Ranidae : 

Rana catesbeiana Bullfrog 3 

Rana clamitans Green frog 3 

Ra7ia occipitalis West African bullfrog 1 

Rana pipiens Leopard frog 5 

Ratia sylvatica Wood frog 3 

FISHES 

Acanthophthalmus kuhli Banded loach 1 

Aequidens portalegrensis Blue acara 1 

Aphysemion australe Lyre-tailed fish 2 

Astronotus ocellatus 1 

Barhus everetti Clown barb 8 

Barbus oUgolepis 3 

Barbus sumatranus ■. 2 

Calamarichthys malabarieus West African ganoid 6 

Cichlasoma festivum Banded acara 10 

Corydoras melanistius Armored catfish 1 

Corydoras rabauti Rabaut catfish 1 

Corydoras sp Catfish 2 

Epalzeorhynchus talopterus Black-fin shark 1 

Oymnoeorymbus ternetzi Black tetra 4 

Hemigrammus sp Tetra Buenos Aires 6 

Hyphessobrycon innesi Neon tetra fish 3 

Kryptopterus bicirrhus Glass catfish 3 

Lebistes reticulatus Guppy 100 

Lepidosiren paradoxa South American lungfish 3 

Macropodus sj) Paradise fish 20 

MoUienisia sphenops Sailfin molly 10 

Nannostomus marginatus 2 

Nannostomus trilineatus 2 

Platypoecilus Red moon 50 

Platypoecilus maculatus Black wag-tail moon 30 

Platypoecilus maculatus Goldplaties 12 

Plecostomus sp Armored catfish 1 

Pristella riddlei 1 

Protopterus annectens African lungfish 2 

PterophylVum scalare Angel fish 2 

Puntius partipentazona Red-finned barb 8 

Rasbora heteramorpha 2 

Serrasalmus ternetzi Piranha or cannibal fish 1 

Tanichthys albonubes White Cloud Mountain fish 30 

Tilapia sp Mouth-breeding fish 2 

Trichogaster leeri ^ Three-spot gourami 2 

r Swordtail 15 

XiphophorvrS helleri I Bed swordtail 6 

I Tuxedo swordtail 12 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 93 

ARACHNIDS 

Scientific name Common name Number 
Eurypelma sp Tarantula 2 

Latrodectus tnactans Black widow spider 3 

INSECTS 
Blaiera sp Giant cockroach 100 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. M. Mann, Director. 
The Secretary, 

Smitfisonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 8 

REPORT ON THE ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activi- 
ties of the Astrophysical Observatory, including the Division of As- 
trophysical Research and the Division of Radiation and Organisms, 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944 : 

DIVISION OF ASTROPHYSICAL RESEARCH 

No male assistants could be retained at the three solar-constant ob- 
serving stations, Montezuma, Chile, Table Mountain, Calif., and Ty- 
rone, N. Mex., on account of war conditions. In this situation the 
wives of the three field directors, Greeley, Warner, and Moore, have 
stepped into the breach and are assisting with observing and comput- 
ing. It has therefore been possible to keep the three stations in opera- 
tion in this exceptionally interesting period. 

As pointed out in last year's report, the predicted march of solar 
variation through 1945 indicates a large depression of solar radiation 
beginning in October 1944, comparable to that which occurred 23 
years earlier, beginning in 1921. Figure 1 shows that the observations 
made at Montezuma observatory up to the middle of the year 1943 
support thus far the trend of the prediction published in figure 14 of 
volume 6 of the Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory. It is there- 
fore confidently expected that the depression of the solar constant 
will begin with October 1944. It is not yet possible to forecast what 
exact effects this depression (similar to that of 23 years ago) may 
produce in weather, but as stated in an article a generation ago by 
Abbot,^ unusual weather conditions may be anticipated. 

Most of the time of Mr. Hoover, Mrs. Bond, and Miss Simpson at 
Washington, and part of that of Mr. Aldrich has been occupied with 
the reduction and determining of the statistical corrections for the 
solar-constant work of the three observing stations since 1939. Ad- 
ditional types of observing, namely, polarization of the sky, and energy 
spectrum observations limited to the ultraviolet region, have accumula- 
ted in these recent years. Their bearing on the determination of the 
solar variation is of great interest. 

Mr. Aldrich has been largely occupied with special secret war 
problems, and part of Dr. Abbot's time has been thus spent also. 

» Proc. Nat. Acad. Scl., vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 194-198, June 1923. 
94 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 



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96 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

A major part of Dr. Abbot's work has consisted in the study of 
solar-constant variation and associated solar changes in connection 
with the weather. A paper entitled "Weather Predetermined by Solar 
Variation" has resulted, and appeared just at the close of the fiscal 
year. In the course of these studies it was found that variations of 
the areas of clouds of calcium vapor (calcium flocculi) as photographed 
at the Spanish Observatory of Ebro since 1910 were associated in the 
same way as solar-constant changes in predetermining the weather. 
This led to an attempt to weaken the light of the sun's disk by excessive 
spectral dispersion so far as to make visible variations of the bright 
lines of hydrogen or helium in the chromosphere. Doubtful evidences 
of such chromospheric lines were indeed recorded, but though the 
dispersion of the third order of a grating of 15,000 lines to the inch, a 
battery of prisms, and a path of 55 meters of travel of the spectrum 
rays were employed, the photosplieric spectrum was still too bright 
to disclose plainly the chromospheric lines or their variation. 

DIVISION OF RADIATION AND ORGANISMS 

As in the preceding year the work of this Division was mainly 
concerned with secret problems relating to the war. However, a 
paper entitled "The Influence of Light and of Carbon Dioxide on the 
Kespiration of Etiolated Barley Seedlings" was prepared and 
published by Drs. Weintraub and Johnston. 
Respectfully submitted. 

C. G. Abbot, 

Director. 
The Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 9 
REPORT ON THE LIBRARY 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the ac- 
tivities of the Smithsonian library for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1944: 

From the point of view of use, the year has been an outstanding 
one. Never before in the history of the world have books played so 
significant a part in the successful waging of war. As the war goes 
on, the potential importance of all recorded items of human knowl- 
edge through integration with others becomes increasingly evident, 
and often is strikingly demonstrated. It seems a far cry from the 
bookstacks of a scientific library to the battlefields of Africa or the 
South Pacific, but this is a scientific war, and many lives have been 
saved by the exactly right bit of information about an insect, a plant, 
an animal, the shore line of a far-away island, or other natural 
features of strange lands found in little-known journals and docu- 
ments on library shelves. 

In the Smithsonian library examples of the conversion to wartime 
uses of the published results of peacetime scientific investigations and 
explorations might be multiplied almost indefinitely, for the library 
has been increasingly used by the war agencies and by individuals in 
the armed forces. In the Museum library alone, where a count of 
reference questions coming from these sources was kept, there were 
520 requests for information, many of which required a very consider- 
able amount of research to answer. The library of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology was frequently called upon, and the resources 
of the Astrophysical Observatory library were often in demand, es- 
pecially through the loan of scientific journals to other libraries. The 
staff of the Ethnogeographic Board constantly searched all the branch 
libraries for material useful to its various projects in aid of the war 
agencies. 

War use also accounts for the rise in the number of interlibrary 
loans from 687 in 1943 to 1,363 during the year just past. 

The library's large collection of duplicates, too, has been drawn 
upon by other departments of the Government, and many publications 
no longer needed have been sent to fill gaps in sets in the older de- 
partmental libraries or to help build up special collections in the more 
recently established war agencies.., 

97 



98 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Through the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian library is co- 
operating with the American Library Association in its program of 
collecting material for aid to libraries in war areas, and has already 
contributed 20,806 parts of periodicals from its stock of duplicates. 
The ultimate destination of some of the longer runs of journals is 
known. 

The library has continued to be the collection center for books for 
service men and women, and by the kindness of members and friends 
of the Institution, has been able to send about 300 well-selected con- 
temporary books, mostly novels, to the United Nations Service 
Center, and to the Public Library for distribution. 

Whether in war or peace, the continuing purpose of the Smithson- 
ian library with its branches is primarily to serve as a tool in the 
scientific work of the Institution. The guiding principle of its 
growth is not to make it a museum of fine books, but an active working 
reference collection. Its main function is to put into the hands of 
the scientific investigator the publication containing the information 
he needs, as nearly as possible at the moment he needs it. All the 
detailed and sometimes complicated processes of book selection, ac- 
quisition by purchase and exchange, classification, cataloging and ar- 
rangement, as well as the functioning of its reference and loan services 
are planned and carried on with this ultimate objective in mind. 

Many of these processes are measurable statistically, and the num- 
ber of books purchased, received by exchange and gift, cataloged, 
circulated, and so on, can be given, like the production figures of auto- 
mobile parts. Such figures are useful indicators of material added 
and work done, but beyond this, the comparison with industrial out- 
put breaks down, for these library production figures cannot be finally 
reduced to a countable entity like a finished automobile. On the con- 
trary, the most important end-products of the library's functioning are 
diffused and intangible. They become an integral part of the scien- 
tific accomplishment of the Institution itself, for they go into all its 
investigations in the laboratory and the field, into the identification, 
description, and exhibition of artifacts and specimens, into the books 
and papers published to advance the boundaries of scientific knowl- 
edge. The final test of successful library accomplishment is use. 
The mere numbers of books acquired and cataloged mean little unless 
the books have been discriminatingly selected for the purposes they 
must serve, and well and fully cataloged so that the information they 
contain can be easily found. 

ACJCESSIONS 

Since the first abrupt drop in the receipt of publications from abroad 
after war was declared, there has been a continuous small gradual 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 99 

decline in the numbers received. In 1942 there were 425 packages 
delivered through the International Exchange Service, in 1943 there 
were 355, and during the year just past, 340. From England, the 
South American countries. New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa 
the receipt of publications by mail, while somewhat fewer than before, 
was steady and continuous. From other allied and neutral countries 
mail arrived less regularly. It was especially gratifying to receive 
several exchange sendings of considerable numbers of current publica- 
tions from the Akademiia Nauk of the U. S. S. R. and its branches. 
Losses of material actually shipped were extremely few. 

The publication of domestic scientific serials declined very little. 

The reorganized accessions division functioned smoothly in handling 
both exchanges and purchases. The total number of volumes pur- 
chased was 1,443, and subscriptions for 240 different periodicals were 
entered. 

A few of the most important purchases were : 

For the Bureau of American Ethnology, William Coxe's "Account 
of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America," 1780; "La 
Perouse's Voyage round the World Performed in the Years 1785, 1786, 
1787, and 1788 by the Boussole and Astrolabe," 2 volumes and atlas, 
1798; and the accompanying "Voyage in Search of La Perouse . . . 
during the Years 1791, 1792, 1793," by J. J. Labillardiere, 1800. 

For the National Collection of Fine Arts, J. J. Foster's "Miniature 
Painters, British and Foreign, with Some Account of Those Who 
Practiced in America in the Eighteenth Century," 2 volumes, 1903; 
F. Norfleet's "Saint-Memin in Virginia, Portraits and Biographies," 
illustrated with 56 crayon portraits and 142 engravings by Saint 
Memin, 1942; T. H. Ward's "Romney, a Biographical and Critical 
Essay, with a Catalogue Raisonne of His Works," 2 volumes, 1904. 

For the National Museum, J. B, Jackson's "An Essay on the Inven- 
tion of Engraving and Printing in Chiaroscuro as Practiced by Albert 
Diirer, Hugo di Carpi, &c . . ." 1754; "Bibliografiia Russkii Pe- 
riodicheskoi Pechati," 1703-1900, by N. M. Lisovskii, 1915 ; the third 
edition of Marc Rosenberg's "Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen," 4 vol- 
umes, 1922-1928 ; Prince Nobusuke Takatsukasa's "The Birds of Nip- 
pon," parts 1-7, 1932-1939 ; "The Aztec and Maya Papermakers," by 
V. W. Von Hagen, 1943. 

GIFTS 

No large gifts of special collections were received, but members and 
friends of the Institution, as always, were generous in making con- 
tributions of important books and papelrs. Donors were: Dr. C. G. 
Abbot, R. S. Adamson, the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, the American Association of Museums, the American 



100 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Council of Learned Societies, Glenn D. Angle, Miss A. Margareta 
Archambault, Miss Mary Dorsey Ashton, the August E. Miller Labor- 
atories, Silvan F. Baldin, the Balfour Library, Dr. R. S. Bassler, 
Alexander Bierig, Miss Edna Billings, Mrs. Carl W. Bishop, Bitumi- 
nous Coal Research, Inc., Col. Lawrence B. Bixby, H. H. Bloomer, 
Dr. Gregoria Bondar, the Book Farm, Hattiesburg, Miss., Fernando 
Bourquin, Dr. Adam B0ving, Dr. E. Lucy Braun, Manuel Quiros 
Calvo, the Canadian National Railway System, Senator Jose Manuel 
Casanova, Dr. Edward A. Chapin, Austin H. Clark, J. M. Cotelo Nieva, 
Mariano Cuevas, William F. Davidson, H. G. Deignan, The Honor- 
able Frederic A. Delano, Dr. Cecil H. Desch, Dr. Horace R. Descole, 
The Detroit News, Dr. Harold Edward Dickson, H. N. Dixon, Lauren 
R. Donaldson, Dr. C. J. Drake, the Engine Service and Mfg. Co., 
William Bacon Evans, Dr. William N. Fenton, Dr. Clarence E. Ferree, 
George E. Folk, Dr. Herbert Friedmann, Per K. Frolich, Dr. Samuel 
Wood Geiser, Haydn Thomas Giles, Ivon M. Glenne, William B. 
Goodwin, Jayme Fernandes Guedes, Dr. David R. Iriarte, Auguste 
and Edesio Irmao, Bernard Jaffe, Jewish War Veterans of the U. S., 
O. A. Jones, N. G. Kaye, Leon Kelso, Edwin Kirk, Laurence M. 
Klauber, Capt. A. M. Klum, A. J. Kupzow, Lankenau Hospital Re- 
search Institute, Gabriel Lasker, Mrs. M. P. LeRoy, H. L. Ludowyk, 
Miss Margaret C. McCulloch, the Manchester University Press, 
Ernesto Marcus, Eveline duBois-Reymond Marcus, Dr. Carlos A. 
Marelli, C. E. Marshall, Dr. William R. Maxon, Dr. Riley D. Moore, 
Pere Leo-G. Morin, W. C. Muenscher, Miss Helen Munroe, Joaquim 
Nabuco, the National Research Council, the New York Trust Co., 
F. J. North, Dr. T. L. Northup, Thornton Oakley, Paul H. Oehser, 
Dr. A. J. Olmsted, Dr. Victor Oppenheim, Dr. Charles Owens, Parke, 
Davis & Company, The Pennsylvania Railroad, the Pepperell Manu- 
facturing Co., Jose Perez de Barradas, William H. Phelps, the Phila- 
delphia Child Health Society, Dr. H. Pittier, Adrien Questel, Charles 
D. Radford, Dr. Frank Raw, Milton Ray, Sr. Dr. Don Adrian 
Recinos, C. F. Richter, R. Ringuelet, Alpheus J. Roberts, B. Sahni, 
F. Schmid, Dr. Waldo Schmitt, J. F. Schofield, T. J. J. See, Thorvald 
Solberg, J. M. Stanley, H. Stehle, Carlos Stellfeld, John R. Theaman, 
Dr. J. F. Torrealba, Dr. C. H. T. Townsend, the Union Diesel Engine 
Co., the U. S. Rocket Society, Inc., Mamisell Van Rensselaer, Dr. 
Egbert H. Walker, Mrs. Fiske Warren, Dr. Alexander Wetmore, Mrs. 
Eleanor White, W. Whittard, the Willard R. Jillson Library, the 
William Mitchell Printing Co., Sgt. Henry J. Young. 

CATALOGING 

The cataloging of current material was well kept up. Some changes 
in procedure and in work distribution were effective in shortening the 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 



101 



interval between the receipt of new publications and the completion of 
their preparation for use in the various libraries. 

By way of a beginning in taking accurate stock of the large amount 
of uncataloged material in the library, three small collections of 
books on miscellaneous subjects, received some years ago as gifts, and 
numbering 2,906 volumes in all, were roughly classified and listed on 
cards. 

PERSONNEL 

There were a number of changes on the staff. Miss Josephine A. 
McDevitt retired on November 30, 1943, after many years spent in the 
service of the Institution, chiefly in the office of the International Cata- 
logue of Scientific Literature, but after its discontinuance, in the 
library. Miss Elizabeth HaiTiet Link, the librarian's secretary, was 
transferred to the Freer Gallery of Art on October 9, 1943, and Mrs. 
Margaret K. Young was appointed to succeed her on November 16. On 
September 1, 1943, Mrs. Margaret L. O'Keef was appointed library as- 
sistant in the cataloging division. Mrs. Daisy F. Bishop resigned her 
position as library assistant on January 25, 1944, and Mrs. Marie H. 
Boborykine succeeded to her duties at the periodical entry desk on 
March 14. 

Temporary appointees were Miss Ruth Newcomb, who served as 
library assistant in the Museum from August 24 to September 6, 1943, 
and Mrs. Carmen G. Randall who succeeded her on September 30. 

There were upward reclassifications of the positions of Miss Miriam 
B. Ketchum, librarian in charge of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
library, of Mrs. Mary A. Baer, librarian in charge of the Arts and In- 
dustries branch of the Museum library, of Miss Marie Ruth Wenger, 
in charge of cataloging in the Museum, and of Samuel Jones, 
messenger. 

STATISTICS 
Accessions 



Total hold- 
ings June 
30, 1944 




Astrophysical Observatory (including Radiation and Organisms) _ 

Bureau of American Ethnology - - 

Freer Gallery of Art - 

Langley Aeronautical Library -- 

National Collection of Fine Arts - 

National Museum_ -.- - --- 

National Zoological Park.. 

Smithsonian Deposit... 

Smithsonian Office 



Total. 



11,508 

34,001 

16, 636 

3,610 

9,748 

230, 693 

4,087 

571,840 

31, 493 



1913,616 



1 Neither incomplete volumes of periodicals nor separates and reprints from periodicals are included in 
these figures. 



102 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Exchanges 
New exchanges arranged 194 

44 of these were assigned to the Smithsonian Deposit. 
"Wants" received 4, 422 

656 of these were obtained to fill gaps in the Smithsonian Deposit sets. 

Cataloging 

Volumes and pamphlets cataloged 6, 673 

Cards filed in catalogs and shelflists 41,929 

Periodicals 

Periodical parts entered 11,480 

3,181 of these were sent to the Smithsonian Deposit. 

Circulation 

Loans of books and periodicals — 11, 360 

This figure does not include the very considerable intramural (Cir- 
culation of books and periodicals assigned to sectional libraries for 
filing, of which no count is kept. 

Binding 
Volumes sent to the bindery 1,683 

Respectfully submitted. 

Leila F. Clark, Librarian. 
The Secretary, 

^Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 10 
KEPORT ON PUBLICATIONS 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the pub- 
lications of the Smithsonian Institution and the Government branches 
under its administrative charge during the year ended June 30, 1944. 

The Institution published during the year 4 papers in the Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections; 7 papers in the War Background 
Studies series ; 1 Annual Report of the Board of Regents and pam- 
phlet copies of 20 articles in the Report appendix ; 1 Annual Report 
of the Secretary ; 2 special publications ; reprints of 2 papers in the 
Miscellaneous Collections and 1 special publication, and additional 
copies of 1 volume of tables. 

The United States National Museum issued 1 Annual Report; 14 
Proceedings papers; 4 Bulletins; 1 separate paper in the Bulletin 
series of Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology issued 1 Annual Report and 
6 Bulletins. 

The Freer Gallery of Art issued 1 pamphlet. 

Of the publications there were distributed 172,027 copies, which 
included 54 volumes and separates of Smithsonian Contributions to 
Ejnowledge, 12,966 volumes and separates of Smithsonian Miscel- 
laneous Collections, 21,416 volumes and separates of Smithsonian 
Annual Reports, 75,749 War Background Studies papers, 4,911 Smith- 
sonian special publications, 23 reports on the Harriman Alaska Expe- 
dition, 40,817 volumes and separates of National Museum publications, 
14,903 publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 9 catalogs 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts, 2 pamphlets of the Freer 
Gallery of Art, 23 Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory, and 
1,124 reports of the American Historical Association. 

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

Four papers in this series were issued, as follows : 

VOLUME 104 

No. 1. The feeding apparatus of biting and disease-carrying flies : A wartime 
contribution to medical entomology, by R. E. Snodgrass. 51 pp., 18 figs. (Publ. 
3732.) July 19, 1943. 

103 

619830 — 45 8 



104 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

No. 2. Cross sections of New World prehistory : A brief report on the work 
of the Institute of Andean Research, 1941-1942, by William Duncan Strong. 46 
pp., 33 pis., 1 fig. (Publ. 3739.) December 21, 1943. 

No. 3. A 27-day period in Washington precipitation, by C. G. Abbot. 4 pp., 1 
fig. (Publ. 3765.) February 3, 1944. 

No. 4. The influence of light and of /carbon dioxide on the respiration of 
etiolated barley seedlings, by Robert L. Weintraub and Earl S. Johnston. 16 pp., 
2 pis., 8 figs. (Publ. 3769.) June 28, 1944. 

The following Miscellaneous Collections papers were reprinted : 

VOLUME 86 

Smithsonian Meteorological Tables. Fifth Revised Edition. First Reprint 
(additional copies printed without change), lxxxvi+282 pp. (Publ. 3116.) 

VOLUME 9 5 

No. 5. MoUuscan intermediate hosts of the Asiatic blood fluke. Schistosoma 
japonicum, and species confused with them, by Paul Bartsch. 60 pp., 8 pis. 
(With description of 2 new species, 5 pp., 2 figs.) (Publ. 3384.) 

VOLUME 104 

No. 1. The feeding apparatus of biting and disease-carrying flies : A wartime 
contribution to medical entomology, by R. E. Snodgrass. 51 pp., 18 figs. (Publ. 
3732.) 

WAR BACKGROUND STUDIES 

In this new series of Smithsonian publications, there were issued 
during the year the following 7 papers : 

No. 13. Alaska : America's continental frontier outpost, by Ernest P. Walker. 
21 pp., 21 pis., 2 figs. (Publ. 3733.) July 8, 1943. 

No. 14. Islands and peoples of the Indies, by Raymond Kennedy. 66 pp., 21 
pis., 7 figs. (Publ. 3734.) August 5, 1943. 

No. 15. Iceland and Greenland, by Austin H. Clark. 103 pp., 21 pis., 2 figs. 
(Publ. 3735.) August 19, 1943. 

No. 16. Island peoples of the western Pacific : Micronesia and Melanesia, by 
Herbert W. Krieger. 104 pp., 21 pis., 2 figs. (Publ. 3737.) September 15, 1943. 

No. 17. Burma — Gateway to China, by H. G. Deignan. 21 pp., 16 pis., 1 fig. 
(Publ. 3738.) October 29, 1943. 

No. 18. Peoples of India, by William H. Gilbert. 86 pp., 21 pis., 3 figs. (Publ. 
3767.) April 29, 1944. 

No. 19. The peoples of French Indochina, by Olov R. T. Janse. 28 pp., 25 pis., 
1 fig. (Publ. 3768.) June 12, 1944. 

War Background Studies No. 20, "China," by Archibald C. Wenley 
and John A. Pope, was in press at the close of the fiscal year. 

SMITHSONIAN ANNUAL REPORTS 

Report for 191(2. — The complete volume of the Annual Keport of the 
Board of Regents for 1942 was received from the Public Printer on 
September 24, 1943. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 105 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution showing 
the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for tlie year ended 
June 30, 1942. xiii+421 pp., 83 pis., 44 figs. (Publ. 3705.) 1943. 

The general appendix contained the following papers (Pubis. 3706- 
3725) : 

The 1914 tests of the Langley "aerodrome," by C. G. Abbot. 

The problem of the expanding universe, by Edwin Hubble. 

Galaxies, by Harlow Shapiey. 

Is there life on the other worlds? by Sir James Jeans. 

Solar radiation and the state of the atmosphere, by Harlan True Stetson. 

The sun and the earth's magnetic field, by J. A. Fleming. 

Ultraviolet light as a sanitary aid, by Louis Gershenfeld. 

Trends in petroleum geology, by A. I. Levorsen. 

Meteorites and their metallic constituents, by E. P. Henderson and Stuart 

H. Perry. 
Philippine tektites and the tektite problem in general, by H. Otley Beyer. 
Chemical properties of viruses, by W. M. Stanley. 

Industrial development of synthetic vitamins, by Randolph T. Major. 
The nutritional requirements of man, by C. A. Elvehjem. 
Past and present status of the marine mammals of South America and 

the "West Indies, by Remington Kellogg. 
The return of the musk ox, by Stanley P. Young. 
Insect enemies of our cereal crops, by C. M. Packard. 
The geographical aspects of malaria, by Sir Malcolm Watson. 
The bromeliads of Brazil, by Milford B. Foster. 
Canada's Indian problems, by Diamond Jenness. 
Dakar and the other Cape Verde settlements, by Derwent Whittlesey. 

Report for 191^3. — The Keport of the Secretary, which included the 
financial report of the executive committee of the Board of Regents, 
and which will form part of the Annual Report of the Board of 
Regents to Congress, was issued Decen.ber 21, 1943. 

Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of 
the executive committee of the Board of Regents for the year ended June 30, 
1943. ix+95 pp., 2 pis. (Publ. 3740.) 1943. 

The Report volume, containing the general appendix, was in press 
at the close of the year. 

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 

Classified li«t of Smithsonian publications available for distribution October 
1, 1943, by Helen Munroe. 47 pp. (Publ. 3736.) October 1, 1943. 

A field collector's manual in natural history, by members of the staff of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 118 pp., 66 figs. (Publ. 3766.) April 26, 1944. 

The following special publication was reprinted : 

Handbook of the National, Aircraft Collection, by Paul E. Garber. Fifth 
Edition. 43 pp., 26 pis., 1 fig. (Publ. 3635.) 



106 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The editorial work of the National Museum has continued during the 
year under the immediate direction of the editor, Paul H. Oehser. 
There were issued 1 Annual Report, 14 Proceedings papers, 4 Bulletins, 
and 1 separate paper in the Bulletin series of Contributions from the 
United States National Herbarium, as follows : 

MUSEUM REPORT 

Report on the progress and condition of the United States National Museum 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1943. Hi +108 pp. January 1944. 

proceedings: volume 91 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-viii, 521-529. October 26, 
1943. 

VOLUME 92 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-viii, 621-668. November 29, 
1943. 

VOLUME 93 

No. 8167. New species of buprestid beetles of the genus Agrilv^ from Trin- 
idad, by W. S. Fisher. Pp. 375-380. July 26, 1943. 

No. 3168. Some fungus beetles of the family Endomychidae in the United 
States National Museum, mostly from Latin America and the Philippine Islands, 
by H. F. Strohecker. Pp. 381-392, fig. 12. August 5, 1943. 

No. 3169. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in 
Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon traveling scholarship, by Hobart M. 
Smith. Pp. 393-504, figs. 13-15, pi. 32. October 29, 1943. 

No. 3170. The North American parasitic wasps of the genus Tetrastichus — ^A 
contribution to biological control of insect pests, by B. D. Burks. Pp. 505-608, 
figs. 16-21. October 26, 1943. 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-viii, 609-647. April 13, 1944. 

VOLUME 94 

No. 3171. Catalog of human crania in the United States National Museum 
collections : Non-Eskimo people of the Northwest coast, Alaska, and Siberia, by 
AleS Hrdlidka. Pp. 1-172. April 6, 1944. 

No. 3172. The catfishes of Venezuela, with descriptions of thirty-eight new 
forms, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 173-338, figs. 1-5, pis. 1-14. February 11, 
1944. 

No. 3173. Revisions of two genera of chalcid-flies belonging to the family 
Eupelmidae from North and South America, by A. B. Gahan. Pp. 339-369. 
November 26, 1943. 

No. 3174. New species of American scolytoid beetles, mostly Neotropical, by 
M. W. Blackman. Pp. 371-399, pis, 15-17. November 22, 1943. 

No. 3175. A revision of the Embioptera, or web-spinners, of the New World, 
by Edward S. Ross. Pp. 401-504, figs, &-156, pis. 18-19. January 19, 1944. 

No. 3176. Twelve new species of Chinese leaf-katydids of the genus 
Xiphidiopsis^ by Ernest R. Tinkham. Pp. 505-527, fig. 157. April 29, 1944. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 107 

VOLUME 95 

No. 3178. New American cynipids from galls, by Lewis H. Weld. Pp. 1-24, 
pis, 1-2. April 15, 1944. 

BULLETINS 

No. 183. Archeological investigations in Platte and Clay Counties, Missouri, 
by Waldo R. Wedel. With appendix, Slseletal remains from Platte and Clay 
Counties, Missouri, by T. Dale Stewart, viii+284 pp., 22 figs., 50 pis. October 
1, 1943. 

No. 184. The metallography of meteoric iron, by Stuart H. Perry, viii+206 
pp., 9 figs., 78 pis. February 15, 1944. 

No. 185, part 1. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central Amer- 
ica, the West Indies, and South America, compiled by Richard E. Blackwelder. 
xii+188 pp. March 7, 1944. 

No. 185, part 2. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central 
America, the West Indies, and South America, compiled by Richard E. Black- 
welder. Pp. 189-341. June 30, 1944. 

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL HERBARIUM 

VOLUME 29 

Part 1. Taxonomic studies of tropical American plants, by C. V. Morton. Pp. 
i-xi, 1-86. March 23, 1944. 

PUBLICATIONS OP THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The editorial work of the Bureau has continued under the immedi- 
ate direction of the editor, M. Helen Palmer. During the year there 
were issued 1 Annual Report and 6 Bulletins, as follows : 

REPORT 

Sixtieth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
1942-1943. 9 pp. January 1944. 

BULLETINS 

133. Anthropological papers, numbers 19-26. ix-f 615 pp., 34 pis., 62 figs. 
1943. 

No. 19. A search for songs among the Chitimacha Indians in Louisiana, 
by Frances Densmore. 

No. 20. Archeological survey on the northern Northwest coast, by Philip 
Drucker; with appendix, Early vertebrate fauna of the British Columbia 
coast, by Edna M. Fisher. 

No. 21. Some notes on a few sites in Beaufort County, South Carolina, by 
Regina Flannery. 

No. 22. An analysis and interpretation of the ceramic remains from two 
sites near Beaufort, South Carolina, by James R. Griffin. 

No. 23. The eastern Cherokees, by William Harlen Gilbert, Jr. 

No. 24. Aconite poison whaling in Asia and America : An Aleutian trans- 
fer to the New World, by Robert F. Heizer. 

No. 25. The Carrier Indians of the Bulkley River: Their social and 
religious life, by Diamond Jenness. 

No. 26. The quipu and Peruvian civilization, by John R. Swanton. 



108 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

136. Anthropological papers, numbers 27-32. viii+375 pp., 32 pis., 5 figs. 
1943. 

No. 27. Music of the Indians of British Columbia, by Frances Densmore. 

No. 28. Choctaw music, by Frances Densmore. 

No. 29. Some ethnological data concerning one hundred Yucatan plants, 
by Morris Steggerda. 

No. 30. A description of thirty towns in Yucatan, Mexico, by Morris 
Steggerda. 

No. 31. Some western Shoshoni myths, by Julian H. Steward. 

No. 32. New material from Acoma, by Leslie A. White. 

138. Stone monuments of southern Mexico, by Matthew W. Stirling, vii+84 
pp., 62 pis., 14 figs. 1943. 

139. An introduction to the ceramics of Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico, by 
C. W. Weiant. xiv+144 pp., 78 pis., 54 figs., 10 maps. 1943. 

140. Ceramic sequences at Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico, by Philip Drucker. 
ix+155 pp., 65 pis., 46 figs. 1943. 

141. Ceramic stratigraphy at Cerro de las Mesas, Veracruz, Mexico, by Philip 
Drucker. viii+95 pp., 58 pis., 210 figs. 1943. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE FREER GALLERY OF ART 

The Freer Gallery of Art issued 1 pamphlet, as follows : 

The Freer Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian Institution. 12 pp., 5 pis., 2 
figs. January 1944. 

REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

The annual reports of the American Historical Association are 
transmitted by the Association to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution and are communicated by him to Congress, as provided 
by the act of incorporation of the Association. The following report 
volumes were issued this year : 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the year 1942. 
Volume 1, Proceedings and list of members ; Volume 2, Letters from the Berlin 
Embassy. 

The following were in press at the close of the fiscal year : Annual 
Report for 1942, Volume 3 (The quest for political unity in world 
history) ; Annual Report for 1943, Volume 1 (Proceedings) and Vol- 
ume 2 (Writings on American History). 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY, DAUGHT'ERS OF THE AMERICAN 

REVOLUTION 

The manuscript of the Forty-sixth Annual Report of the National 
Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, was transmitted to 
Congress, in accordance with law, November 15, 1943. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 109 

ALLOTMENTS FOR PRINTING 

The congressional allotments for the printing of the Smithsonian 
Annual Reports to Congress and the various publications of the Gov- 
ernment bureaus under the administration of the Institution were 
virtually used up at the close of the year. The appropriation for the 
coming year ending June 30, 1945, totals $88,500, allotted as follows : 

Smithsonian Institution $16, 000 

National Museum 43, 000 

Bureau of American Etlinology 17,480 

National Collection of Fine Arts 500 

International Exchanges 200 

National Zoological Park 200 

Astrophysical Observatory 500 

American Historical Association 10, 620 

Total 88, 500 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. P. True, Chief, Editorial Division. 
The Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



EEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF 
THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE SMITH- 
SONIAN INSTITUTION 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1944 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following report 
in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution, together with 
a statement of the appropriations by Congress for the Government 
bureaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 

SMITHSONIAN ENDOWMENT FUND 

The original bequest of James Smithson was £104,960 8s. 6d.— $508,318.46. 
Refunds of money expended in prosecution of the claim, freights, insurance, etc., 
together with payment into the fund of the sum of £5,015, which had been with- 
held during the lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought the fund to the amount 
of $550,000. 

Since the original bequest the Institution has received gifts from various 
sources chiefly in the years prior to 1893, the income from which may be used 
for the general work of the Institution. These, including the original bequest, 
plus savings, are listed below, together with the income for the present year. 

ENDOWMENT FUNDS 

(Income for unrestricted use of the Institution) 

Partly deposited in U. S. Treasury at 6 percent and partly invested in stocks. 

bonds, etc. 



Investment 



Income pres- 
ent year 



Parent fund (original Smithson bequest, plus accumulated savings) 

Subsequent bequests, gifts, etc., partly deposited in the U.S. Treasury and 
partly invested in the Consolidated Fund: 

Avery, Kobert S. and Lydia, bequest fund 

Endowment, from gifts, income, etc 

Habel, Dr. S., bequest fund 

Hachenberg, George P. and Caroline, bequest fund 

Hamilton, James, bequest fund 

Henry, Caroline, bequest fund 

Hodgkins, Thomas O., fund (general) 

Rhees, William Jones, bequest fund 

Sanford, George H., memorial fund 

Witherspoon, Thomas A., memorial fund 

Special fund, stock in reorganized closed banks 

Total 



110 



$728,845.38 



1, 349, 626. 67 



$43, 700. 77 



60, 766. 70 


2, 133. 13 


283, 751. 87 


9, 988. 86 


600.00 


30.00 


3, 971. 01 


139. 66 


2,898.60 


164.00 


1, 194. 17 


41.98 


145, 841. 66 


8,009.64 


1, 057. 12 


51.80 


1,978.97 


96.89 


127, 421. 29 


4, 481. 58 


1, 400. 00 


70.00 


620, 781. 29 


25, 207. 44 



68, 908. 61 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



111 



The Institution holds also a number of endowment gifts, the income 
of each being restricted to specific use. These, plus accretions to date, 
are listed below, together with income for the present year. 



Abbott, William L., fund, for investigations in biology 

Arthur, James, fund, for investigations and study of the sun and lecture on 

same - . 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy, fund, for traveling scholarship to investigate 

fauna of countries other than the United States. 

Baird, Lucy H., fund, for creating a memorial to Secretary Baird 

Barstow, Frederick D., fund, for purchase of animals for the Zoological 

Park _ 

Canfield Collection fund, for increase and care of the Canfleld collection 

of minerals 

Casey, Thomas L., fund, for maintenance of the Casey collection and pro- 
motion of researches relating to Coleoptera 

Chamberlain, Francis Lea, fund, for increase and promotion of Isaac Lea 

collection of gems and mollusks 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort, fund, for preservation and exhibition of 

photographic collection of Rudolph Eickemeyer, Jr 

Hillyer, Virgil, fund, for increase and care of Virgil Hillyor collection of 

lighting objects 

Hitchcock, Dr. Albert S., Library fund, for care of Hitchcock Agrosto- 

logical Library , 

Hodgkins fund, specific, for increase and diffusion of more exact knowledge 

in regard to nature and properties of atmospheric air 

Hughes, Bruce, fund, to found Hughes alcove 

Myer, Catherine Walden, fund, for purchase of flrst-class works of art for 

the use and benefit of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Collection of Fine Arts, Julia D. Strong bequest, for the benefit 

of National Collection of Fine Arts 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston, fund, for maintenance of Alfred Duane Pell 

collection 

Poore, Lucy T. and George W., fund, for general use of the Institution 

when principal amounts to the sum of $250,000.00 - 

Reid, Addison T., fund, for founding chair in biology in memory of Asher 

Tunis .-- 

Roebling fund, for care, improvement, and increase of Roebling collection 

of minerals 

Rollins, Miriam and William, fund, for investigations in physics and 

chemistry _. 

Smithsonian employees retirement fund _ 

Springer, Frank, fund, for care, etc., of Springer collection and library 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, research fund, for development of 

geological and paleontological studies and publishing results thereof 

Younger, Helen Walcott, fund, held intrust 

Zerbee, Frances Brinckl6, fund, for endowment for aquaria 

Special research fund, gift, in the form of real estate (no income) 

Total 



Investment 


Income 

present 

year 


$104, 598. 38 


$3, 348. 29 


39,488.66 


1, 388. 87 


49, 468. 47 
23. 772. 94 


1, 739. 86 
841. 19 


751. 09 


26.40 


37, 764. 34 


1, 328. 20 


9, 056. 38 


318. 52 


27, 805. 06 


977. 94 


500. 92 


4.43 


6, 489. 28 


228. 20 


1,459.30 


51.30 


100. 000. 00 
18,899.72 


6.000.00 
664. 70 


18. 716. 49 


658. 29 


9, 871. 78 


347. 18 


7,318.99 


257.40 


92,266.68 


3, 907. 33 


29,868.86 


1, 390. 37 


119,165.01 


4, 191. 20 


92,724.31 
45, 195. 31 
17, 706. 50 


3, 249. 78 

1, 589. 57 

622. 75 


427, 479. 27 

49, 628. 70 

751. 47 

20.946.00 


13,024.00 

2, 396. 33 

26.40 




1,351,693.81 


48, 578. 50 



The above funds amount to a total of $2,701,320.48, and are carried 
in the following investment accounts of the Institution : 

U. S. Treasury deposit account, drawing 6 percent interest $1, 000, 000. 00 

Consolidated investment fund (income in table below) 1, 372, 516. 41 

Real estate, mortgages, etc 277,775.37 

Special funds, miscellaneous investments 51, 028. 70 



2, 701, 320. 48 



CONSOLIDATED FUND 



This fund contains substantially all of the investments of the Institu- 
tion, with the exception of those of the Freer Gallery of Art; the 
deposit of $1,000,000.00 in the U. S. Treasury, with guaranteed income 
of 6 percent ; and investments in real estate and real estate mortgages. 



112 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

This fund contains endowments for both unrestricted and sp'ecific use. 
A statement of principal and income of this fund for the last 10 years 
follows : 



Fiscal year 


Principal 


Income 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


Fiscal year 


Principal 


Income 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


1935 


$706, 765. 68 
723, 795. 46 
738, 868. 54 
867, 528. 50 
902, 801. 27 


$26, 808. 86 
26,836.61 
33, 819. 43 
34, 679. 64 
30, 710. 53 


3.79 
3.71 
4.57 
4.00 
3.40 


1940 --- 


$1,081,249.25 
1,093,301.51 
1, 270, 968. 45 
1, 316, 533. 49 
1, 372, 516. 41 


$38, 673. 29 
41, 167. 38 
46, 701. 98 
50, 624. 22 
50, 783. 79 


3.47 


1936 


1941 

1942 . 


3.76 


1937 


3.67 


1938 


1943 


3.83 


1939 


1944 


3.69 









CONSOLIDATED FUND 

Gain in investments over year 1943 

Investments made from gifts and savings on income $46, 061. 80 

Investments of gain from sales., etc., of securities 9, 921. 12 

55, 982. 92 
FREER GALLERY OF ART FUND 

Early in 1906, by deed of gift, Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, gave 
to the Institution his collection of Chinese and other Oriental objects 
of art, as well as paintings, etchings, and other works of art by Whist- 
ler, Thayer, Dewing, and other artists. Later he also gave funds for 
the construction of a building to house the collection, and finally in his 
will probated November 6, 1919, he provided stock and securities 
to the estimated value of $1,958,591.42, as an endowment fund for the 
operation of the Gallery. 

The above fund of Mr. Freer was almost entirely represented by 20,- 
465 shares of stock in Parke, Davis & Co. As this stock advanced in 
value, much of it was sold and the proceeds reinvested so that the 
fund now amounts to approximately three times the original value, 
or $5,881,402.17, in a selected list of securities classified later. 

The invested funds of the Freer bequest are under the following 
headings : 

Court and grounds fund $658, 864. 68 

Court and grounds maintenance fund 165, 479. 65 

Curator fund 670, 500. 62 

Residuary legacy 4, 386, 557. 22 

Total 5, 881, 402. 17 

Statement of principal and income for the last 10 years 



Fiscal year 


Principal 


Income 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


Fiscal year 


Principal 


Income 


Per- 
cent- 
age 


1935 


$4, 769. 362. 53 
4, 651, 867. 07 
4. 881, 986. 96 
4, 820, 777. 31 
6, 075, 976. 76 


$257, 510. 33 
259, 420. 73 
280, 969. 53 
255, 651. 61 
212, 751. 78 


5.39 
5.57 
5.75 
5.30 
4.19 


1940 


$6,112,953.46 
6, 030, 586. 91 
5, 912, 878. 64 
5, 836, 772. 01 
5, 881, 402. 17 


$242, 573. 92 
233, 079. 22 
241, 557. 77 
216, 125. 07 
212, 395. 27 


3 96 


1936 


1941 


3 86 


1937 


1942 


4 08 


1938 — . 


1943 


3 70 


1939 


1944 


3 61 









REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 113 

FEEEB FUND 

Gain in investments over year 1943 

Investment of gain from sale, call of securities, etc $44, 630. 16 

SUMMARY 

Invested endowment for general purposes $1, 349, 626. 67 

Invested endowment for specific purposes otlier than Freer endow- 
ment 1, 351, 693. 81 

Total invested endowment other than Freer endowment 2, 701, 320. 48 

Freer invested endowment for specific purposes 5, 881, 402. 17 

Total invested endowment for all purposes 8, 582, 722. 65 

CLASSIFICATION OF INVESTMENTS 

Deposited in the U. S. Treasury at 6 percent per annum, as author- 
ized in the United States Revised Statutes, sec. 5591 $1, 000, 000. 00 

Investments other than Freer endowment (cost or market value 
at date acquired) : 

Bonds ( 15 different groups ) $592, 791. 43 

Stocks (43 different groups) 801, 420. 91 

Real estate and first-mortgage notes 206, 604. 24 

Uninvested capital 503. 90 

1, 701, 320. 48 

Total investments other than Freer endowment 2, 701, 320. 48 

Investments of Freer endowment (cost or market value at date 
acquired) : 

Bonds (25 different groups) $2,617,447.75 

Stocks (52 different groups) 3, 250, 673. 19 

Real estate first-mortgage notes 7, 000. 00 

Uninvested capital 6, 281. 23 

$5, 881, 402. 17 

Total investments 8, 582, 722. 65 

CASH BALANCES, RECEIPTS, AND DISBURSEMENTS DURING THE 

FISCAL YEAR' 

Cash balance on hand June 30, 1943 $671, 698. 43 

Receipts : 

Cash income from various sources for general 

work of the Institution $85,530.75 

Cash gifts and contributions expendable for spe- 
cial scientific objects (not for investment) 75, 419. 86 

Cash income from endowments for specific use 
other than Freer endowment and from miscel- 
laneous sources ( including refund of temporary 
advances) 127, 460. 84 

Cash capital from sale, call of securities, etc. 

(for investment) 220,962.85 

Total receipts other than Freer endowment 509, 374. 30 

» This statement does not include Government appropriations under the administrative 
charge of the Institution. 



114 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

CASH BALANCES, RECEIPTS, AND DISBURSEMENTS DURING THE 

FISCAL YEAR— Continued 
Receipts — Continued. 

Cash income from Freer endowment $210, 663. 89 

Cash capital from sale, call of securities, etc. (for 
investment) 710, 039. 26 

Total receipts from Freer endowment $920, 703. 15 

Total 2, 101, 775. 88 

Disbursements : 

From funds for general work of the Institution : 

Buildings — care, repairs, and alterations $3,246.87 

Furniture and fixtures 33.90 

General administration * 34, 955. 20 

Library 3, 025. 26 

Publications (comprising preparation, print- 
ing, and distribution) 31,943.79 

Researches and explorations 11, 703. 21 

$84, 908. 23 

From funds for speciflic use, other than Freer 

endowment : 

Investments made from gifts and from sav- 
ings on income 46, 061. 80 

Other exi)enditures, consisting largely of 
research work, travel, increase and care 
of special collections, etc., from income 
of endowment funds, and from cash gifts 
for specific use (including temporary ad- 
vances) 118, 461. 61 

Reinvestment of cash capital from sale, call 
of securities, etc 226, 609. 13 

Cost of handling securities, fee of invest- 
ment counsel, and accrued interest on 
bonds purchased 2, 971. 51 

394, 104. 05 

From Freer endowment: 

Operating expenses of the gallery, salaries, 
field expenses, etc 45, 764. 82 

Purchase of art objects 126,774.81 

Reinvestment of cash capital from sale, call 

of securities, etc 709, 947. 31 

Cost of handling securities, fee of invest- 
ment counsel, and accrued interest on 
bonds purchased 20,962.18 

903, 449. 12 

Cash balance June 30, 1944 719, 314. 48 

Total 2, 101, 775. 88 

Included in the above receipts was cash received as royalties from 
sales of Smithsonian Scientific Series to the amount of $21,150.31. 

=" This includes salary of the Secretary and certain others. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 115 

This was distributed as follows : 

Endowment fund $9,127.36 

Smithsonian Institution emergency fund 2, 281. 84 

Smithsonian Institution unrestricted fund, general 6, 845. 51 

Salaries 2,895.60 

21, 150. 31 

Included in the foregoing are expenditures for researches in pure 
science, publications, explorations, care, increase, and study of col- 
lections, etc., as follows : 

Expenditures from general funds of the Institution : 

Publications $31, 943. 79 

Researches and explorations: 11, 703. 21 

$43, 647. 00 

Expenditures from funds devoted to specific purposes : 

Researches and explorations 29, 355. 18 

Care, increase, and study of special collections 7, 422. 06 

Publications 7, 984. 60 

44,761.84 

Total 88, 408. 84 

The practice of depositing on time in local trust companies and 
banks such revenues as may be spared temporarily has been continued 
during the past year, and interest on these deposits has amounted to 
$657.15. 

The Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts or bequests from the 
following : 

Carnegie Institution, for the support and maintenance of diatom studies. 
Thomas G. Corcoran, toward the purchase of portrait of George Washington 

Carver, 
Edith F. B. and George B. Engelhardt, for assistance in publication of bulletin 

by the late George B. Engelhardt. 
Friends of Dr. Albert S. Hitchcock, for the Hitchcock Agrostological Library. 
John A. Roebling, further contributions for research in radiation. 

All payments are made by check, signed by the Secretary of the 
Institution on the Treasurer of the United States, and all revenues are 
deposited to the credit of the same account. In many instances depos- 
its are placed in bank for convenience of collection and later are with- 
drawn in round amounts and deposited in the Treasury. 

The foregoing report relates only to the private funds of the 
Institution. 

The following annual appropriations were made by Congress for 
the Government bureaus under the administrative charge of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for the fiscal year 1944. 

Salaries and Expenses, 1944 $1,129,040.00 

National Zoological Park, D. C, 1944 270, 130. 00 

Cooperation with the American Republics (transfer to the Smith- 
sonian Institution), 1944 77,000.00 



116 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

A deficiency appropriation of $57,000 was also made by Congress to 
pay Federal employees for overtime work. 

The report of the audit of the Smithsonian private funds is given 
below : 

Septembeb 30, 1944. 
Executive Committee, Board of Regents, 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Sirs : Pursuant to agreement we have audited the accounts of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, and certify that the balance 
of cash on hand, including Petty Cash Fund, June 30, 1944, to be $721,214.48. 

We have verified the record of receipts and disbursements maintained by the 
Institution and the agreement of the book balances with the bank balances. 

We have examined all the securities in the custody of the Institution and in 
the custody of the banks and found them to agree with the book records. 

We have compared the stated income of such securities with the receipts of 
record and found them in agreement therewith. 

We have examined all vouchers covering disbursements for account of the 
Institution during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1944, together with the authority 
therefor, and have compared them with the Institution's record of expenditures 
and found them to agree. 

We have examined and verified the accounts of the Institution with each trust 
fund. 

We found the books of account and records well and accurately kept and the 
securities conveniently filed and securely cared for. 

All information requested by your auditors was promptly and courteously 
furnished. 

We certify the Balance Sheet, in our opinion, correctly presents the finan- 
cial condition of the Institution as at June 30, 1944, 

Respectfully submitted. 

William L. Yaeger, 
Certified Public Accountant. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frederic A. Delano, 
Vannevar Bush, 
Clarence Cannon, 

Executwe Corrwnittee. 



GENERAL APPENDIX 

TO THE 

SMITHSONIAN EEPORT FOR 1944 



117 



ADVERTISEMENT 

The object of the General Appendix to the Annual Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution is to furnish brief accounts of scientific dis- 
covery in particular directions; reports of investigations made by 
collaborators of the Institution; and memoirs of a general character 
or on special topics that are of interest or value to the numerous 
correspondents of the Institution. 

It has been a prominent object of the Board of Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution from a very early date to enrich the annual 
report required of them by law with memoirs illustrating the more 
remarkable and important developments in physical and biological 
discovery, as well as showing the general character of the operations 
of the Institution; and, during the greater part of its history, this 
purpose has been carried out largely by the publication of such papers 
as would possess an interest to all attracted by scientific progress. 

In 1880, induced in part by the discontinuance of an annual sum- 
mary of progress which for 30 years previously had been issued by 
well-known private publishing firms, the Secretary had a series of 
abstracts prepared by competent collaborators, showing concisely the 
prominent features of recent scientific progress in astronomy, geology, 
meteorology, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, botany, zoology, and 
anthropology. This latter plan was continued, though not altogether 
satisfactorily, down to and including the year 1888. 

In the report for 1889 a»return was made to the earlier method of 
presenting a miscellaneous selection of papers (some of them original) 
embracing a considerable range of scientific investigation and discus- 
sion. This method has been continued in the present report for 1944. 
118 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER 



By Charles G. Abbot 
Former Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 



[With 2 plates] 
NATURE OF THE SUN 

The sun is a gaseous body 860,000 miles in diameter of about 330,000 
times the mass of the earth. Though so hot that neither solids nor 
liquids exist in it, the force of gravity due to its enormous mass com- 
presses the sun's gaseous substance to an average density nearly 1.5 
times that of water, or nearly 1,100 times that of air at sea level. This 
density prevails, notwithstanding that the great temperature not only 
gasifies the chemical elements, but still further subdivides them by ion- 
izing them strongly. They are no longer composed of molecules, like 
gaseous substances that we find in the laboratory, or even complete 
atoms, for the atomic nuclei have lost some of the ions which at lower 
temperatures would surround them to make up complete atoms. The 
surface temperature of the sun is of the order 6,000° Centigrade, or 
10,800° Fahrenheit, nearly twice as hot as the arc light. Within the 
sun the temperature rapidly rises, and at the sun's center it is supposed 
to be many millions of degrees. At such enormous temperatures and 
with its immense surface, the sun is a tremendously powerful radiator, 
so powerful that at the earth's mean distance, 93,000,000 miles, the 
sun's average radiation in free space measures 1.94 calories per cm.^ per 
minute. This value is called the solar constant of radiation. It im- 
plies that the earth, which is about 8,000 miles in diameter, receives 
all the time from the sun the heat equivalent to a quarter of a quadril- 
lion horsepower (10^^/4 hp.) 

SOLAR ROTATION 

The sun, like the earth, rotates on an axis. The sun's axis is not 
exactly parallel to the earth's, but inclines toward a point halfway be- 
between the Pole Star and Vega at 26° from the North Pole. It has 



* The twelfth Arthur lecture given under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, 
February 29, 1944. 

119 

619830 — 45 9 



120 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

been observed by spectroscopic methods that the angular rotation of 
the sun's surface is much faster at the Equator than near the Poles. 
Adams found the following times of rotation as viewed from a fixed 
star: 

Solar latitude 0" 30° 45» 60° 80° 

Rotation period 24. 7 26. 7 28. 31. 2 35. 3 

The earth revolves about the sun in 365^/4 days, and approximately in 
the same direction that the sun rotates on its axis. Consequently the 
solar rotation appears slower as viewed from the earth, which adds over 
7 percent to the sun's apparent time of rotation. The effective mean 
period of solar rotation viewed from the earth may be taken as 27 
days. 

FACULAE AND SUNSPOTS 

In a telescope, as shown in plate 1, the sun's surface is seen to be 
mottled, but at some places to show decidedly brighter areas called 
faculae which are most prevalent in the neighborhood of sunspots. 
Sunspots appear as darker dots on the sun's surface, but they are 
dark only by contrast. Langley compared the faculae to white-hot 
steel in a converter, which made the molten steel look like chocolate. 
Though sunspots appear small on the enormous disk of the sun, actually 
many of them are so large that the earth, 8,000 miles in diameter, 
would only occupy a corner of one. Sunspots are seldom within 10° 
of the sun's equator or more than 30° away from it. They, of course, 
rotate along with the surface of the sun at such latitudes, and their 
average time of rotation is about 27 daj^s, as viewed from the earth. 

SOLAR VARIATION AND SOLAR ROTATION 

Sunspots are like machine guns shooting electric ions into space. 
These ions plentifully strike and are captured by the earth's atmos- 
phere. With ions from other sources they make up that high-level 
electrical reflecting surface in our atmosphere which causes radio rays 
to bounce along the surface of the earth for thousands of miles, in- 
stead of losing themselves at once into limitless space. As the sun 
rotates on its axis the conical columns of flying ions sent out from sun- 
spots sweep through space. The columns from those spots which are 
nearly central on the sun's apparent disk encounter the earth for the 
short time of 2 or 3 days. From certain observations we made in 
March 1920, it seems that such a column of ions, 93 million miles long 
between the sun and the earth, by scattering the sun's rays sometimes 
reduces the intensity of the sun beam at the earth by as much as 5 
percent. Ordinarily such effects are much less, seldom exceeding 1 
percent. But it is easy to see that the rotation of a spotted sun, by ionic 
scattering, may produce successions of small variations of the solar 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 121 

constant of radiation. The presence of areas of faculae, hotter and 
more radiative than the adjoining solar surfaces, will also, as they 
march around with the sun's rotation, produce variations of the solar 
constant. 

THE EARTH'S TEMPERATURE 

The earth as a planet is kept in its present approximately constant 
state at the mean temperature of 14° Centigrade by the balance of its 
receipt of heat from sun rays against the outgo of heat caused by the 
earth's emission to space. This earth emission arises in the invisible 
long-wave rays which lie between the gamut of visible light and the 
gamut of rays of very great wave length, which are used in radio 
transmission. To fix ideas in terms of the centimeter, the unit of 
length in the metric system, visible light rays have wave lengths 
between 4 and 7 hundred-thousandths (0.00004 and 0.00007) , earth rays 
between 4 and 40 ten-thousandths (0.0004 and 0.0040), and radio rays 
between 10 and 1 million (10 and 1,000,000) centimeters. But all of 
them are of the same fundamental nature of transverse vibrations. 

Since the earth's mean temperature keeps within fairly definite 
bounds because the total receipt of heat from the sun is in approxi- 
mate equilibrium with the total escape of heat from the earth, it is 
plain that if the sun's contribution should change permanently, the 
earth's mean temperature would change to a new state of equilibrium. 
However, the sun is so immense that no considerable general change 
of this kind is to be apprehended in thousands, or even millions, of 
years. Nevertheless, in what follows it will be shown that temporary 
changes of the order of 1 percent do frequently occur in the sun's 
output, and that these affect weather locally so much that solar changes 
must be rated as major meteorological factors. 

SMITHSONIAN SOLAR-CONSTANT WORK 

For many years the Smithsonian Institution has maintained ob- 
servatories for measuring the intensity of solar rays. Our best sta- 
tion is Montezuma, in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It 
is located on a mountain 9,000 feet high, where years frequently go 
by without a drop of rain. The observers must be supplied from the 
city of Calama, 12 miles away, with water, as well as all other ne- 
cessities. The sun shines from an unclouded sky on nearly 80 percent 
of all days. As it is very trying to the nervous system to live in such 
isolation under constantly cloudless skies, it is necessary to relieve the 
observers at intervals of 2 or 3 years. Indeed, great loyalty to the 
objects of the work, excellent ability as observers, much tact in dealing 
with the people of the vicinity, and conscientious honesty and industry 
are absolute requirements of the observers for the successful operation 



122 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

of the station. We have been fortunate that these qualities have so 
seldom been lacking in our representatives there. 

Solar radiation, by being absorbed on black surfaces, is converted 
into heat. Its intensity is measured by its heating effect. The ob- 
servatories for measuring the solar constant of radiation have no 
telescopes. To insure constant temperature surroundings, highly fa- 








<S 05 

^ O 




vorable to exact measurements, they consist of horizontal tunnels 
about 10 feet wide and 7 feet high driven into the mountain some 40 
feet. We located the tunnels on a south slope in the Northern Hemi- 
sphere, and on a north slope in the Southern Hemisphere. Within the 
tunnel is installed a large prismatic spectroscope, whereby the sun ray 
reflected into the tunnel by the coelostat outside (shown in pi. 2) 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 123 

is cast into an intense spectrum, which comes to focus on the bo- 
lometer. The bolometer, originally invented about 1880 by Dr. Samuel 
P. Langley, is an electrical thermometer so sensitive that a change of 
a millionth of a degree in temperature can be registered, A clockwork 
causes the solar spectrum to drift slowly across the fine hairlike re- 
ceiver of the bolometer, and at the same time causes a photographic 
plate to drop slowly past the tiny spot of light reflected from the 
mirror of the magnetic-needle system of the sensitive galvanometer 
connected to the bolometer. Thus is produced in less than 10 minutes 
a holograph, or curve showing the distribution of energy of radiation in 
the spectrum of the sun from far up in the ultraviolet to far down 
in the infrared. Several such energy curves are taken with appro- 
priate intervals during a morning as the sun rises higher and higher. 
A group of them is shown in figure 1. Simultaneously with each holo- 
graph the total heating effect of the rays is measured outside the 
tunnel with an instrument called the pyrheliometer (heat-of-the-sun- 
meter) . Also the altitude of the sun above the horizon is taken simul- 
taneously with the theodolite to indicate the slant thickness of the 
atmosphere. From this combination of observations it is possible 
to compute the intensity of the solar radiation as it is outside our 
atmosphere in free space at mean solar distance. This is the solar 
constant of radiation. 

DAILY VARIATIONS OF THE SOLAR CONSTANT 

For 25 years the Smithsonian Institution has been collecting daily 
measurements of the solar constant, when practicable, with a view to 
determining the march of the variations of the sun's output of radia- 
tion. These fluctuations are small in percentage, rarely exceeding 1 
percent. Figure 2 gives the still smaller variations of the monthly 
mean solar-constant values, 1920-1939. It therefore requires very 
great accuracy of observing to disclose and evaluate them, hampered 
as we are by the superincumbent highly variable atmosphere. We are 
at a disadvantage compared to astronomers who measure variable 
stars, for they can compare the star investigated with other similar 
stars nearby, all of which suffer equal percentage losses of light from 
atmospheric hindrances. The sun is unique and can be compared 
with nothing near it in the sky. One can only compare an absolute 
solar measurement of today against an absolute solar measurement of 
tomorrow, trusting altogether to the accurate determination of atmos- 
pheric transmission on each day to make the measurements comparable. 

The Institution maintains three solar-constant observatories, two 
in the Northern and one in the Southern Hemisphere, all on high moun- 
tains in desert lands. The following table and summary shows how 
well the solar-constant daily measurements at great distances apart, 



124 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

1920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 20 29 I930 31 32 33 3* 3S 3« 3T 38 39 I94< 




FiGTJBE 2. — March of monthly values of solar constant of radiation, 1920 to 1939. 
A, observed ; B, synthesis of 14 regular periodicities, all approximately aliquot 
parts of 273 months. 

and in opposite hemispheres, agree in the 5-year interval from Jan- 
uary 1932 to December 1936. All days simultaneously observed, good 
and bad alike, are included. 

These results we arranged in groups in order of their divergence, as 
shown in the table. The unit is 1/1,000 calorie. Most of the values 
concern Montezuma and Table Mountain, but there are a great many 
in which Mount St. Katherine figures with one of the other stations. 



Table 1. — Numhers of daily differences 'between stations having certain j i 

amplitudes 

Amplitudes, ^ 22-28 20-22 18-20 16-18 15 14 13 12 11 10 

Number of days 17 12 10 35 13 15 22 20 22 27 

Product lines 1 x 2 391 252 190 595 195 210 286 240 242 270 



Amplitudes, a 9 8 7 

Number of days 34 30 35 

Product lines 1 x 2 306 240 245 



6 5 4 3 2 10 

43 51 55 55 37 48 35 

258 255 220 165 74 48 



Total days 616 

Total of products 4, 682 

Weighted mean ^ 7. 6 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



125 



s s 



1934 
















23 IS 


T 


250 


83 


D 


50 


351 


135 


16 




200 


86 


D 


52 


415 


121 


17 




150 113 


D 


70 


465 


112 


5 


K 


249 


51 


C 


30 


377 


161 


6 




199 


56 


C 


32 


442 


139 


7 




150 


60 


C 


37 


505 


118 


29 6 


K 


200 


58 


C 


50 


424 


159 


6 




180 


57 


C 


51 


454 


146 


7 




150 


58 


C 


49 


502 


126 


30 6 


K 


200 


48 


C 


42 


446 


144 


6 




160 


51 


C 


43 


503 


124 


7 




150 


54 


C 


42 


516 


118 


)1 6 


K 


200 


69 


D 


66 


400 


182 


6 




180 


67 





66 


435 


166 


7 




150 


66 





61 


500 


139 


1 13 


M 


249 


62 


B 


48 


372 


123 


13 




201 


60 


B 


49 


437 


112 


14 




150 


56 


B 


41 


po 


85 


5 


K 


250 


56 


C 


56 


351 


196 


6 




199 


S6 


C 


58 


425 


164 


7 




ISO 


51 


C 


56 


510 


128 


2 13 


M 


220 


49 


B 


28 


438 


105 


13 




200 


50 


B 


32 


461 


101 


13 




ISO 


48 


8 


30 


482 


93 


6 


K 


200 


43 


B 


49 


452 


147 


6 




180 


42 


B 


49 


488 


134 


7 




150 


48 


B 


42 


53^ 


116 


3 13 


M 


220 


41 


A 


10 


456 


95 


13 




200 


40 


A 


10 


480 


90 


14 




150 


38 


A 


8 


553 


71 


15 


T 


250 


161 


D 


121 


264 


189 


16 




200 


168 D 


123 


336 


164 


17 




160 


177 





136 


393 


152 


5 


K 


249 


40 


B 


45 


386 


169 


6 




200 


42 


B 


43 


457 


141 


7 




150 


42 


B 


43 


534 


113 


4 13 


M 


220 


40 A 


2 


460 


89 


13 




200 


41 


A 


1 


483 


82 


14 




150 


36 A 


-6 


567 


64 


5 


K 


250 


68 


C 


62 


331 


215 


6 




200 


68 


C 


62 


413 


178 


7 




150 


67 


C 


65 


488 


144 


5 13 


M 


220 


45 


B 


14 


457 


93 


13 




200 


44 A 


8 


483 


87 


14 




150 


36 


A 


9 


556 


72 


15 


T 


250 


115 


D 


55 


331 


125 


16 




200 


119 





59 


399 


111 


17 




160 


122 





53 


455 


95 


6 


K 


200 


43 


B 


74 


444 


167 


6 




180 


40 


B 


78 


484 


155 


7 




ISO 


43 


B 


68 


529 


130 


6 13 


M 


220 


44 A 


26 


445 


108 


13 




200 


44 A 


25 


476 


100 


14 




150 


42 A 


20 


548 


78 


15 


T 


251 


86 


D 


31 


372 


108 


16 




200 


84 


D 


25 


438 


90 


17 




150 


82 





22 


509 


75 


7 13 


M 


220 


16 A 


-11 


507 


88 


13 




200 


IS A 


-12 


537 


83 


14 




ISO 


16 A 


-10 


601 


67 


15 


T 


250 


43 


B 


-72 


412 


100 


16 




200 


42 


B 


-67 


475 


89 


17 




160 


41 


B 


-65 


531 


79 


5 


K 


250 


59 


C 


123 


340 


279 


6 




200 


56 


C 


109 


419 


214 


7 




150 


5S 


C 


119 


504 


179 


8 


M 














15 


T 


250 


63 


C 


88 


348 


182 


16 




200 


6C 


C 


78 


416 


153 


17 




150 


5! 


C 


60 


504 


122 


5 


K 


250 


62 C 


186 


307 


358 


6 




200 


62 C 


183 


388 


291 


7 




150 


60 C 


165 


491 


214 


9 13 


M 


220 


9 A 


-20 


533 


84 


13 




200 


9 A 


-21 


557 


78 


13 




180 


8 A 


-19 


587 


75 


6 


K 


200 


49 C 


117 


425 


217 


6 




180 


46 C 


120 


458 


198 


7 




150 


51 C 


117 


521 


165 



< ::: u. 



1934 
















10 13 


M 


220 


18 A 


1 


499 


98 


53 


13 




200 


18 A 


-3 


SIS 


89 


36 


14 




150 


17 A 


-2 


600 


75 


S3 


S 


K 


250 


10 A 


-25 


433 


98 


46 


6 




200 


10 A 


-27 


546 


83 


4S 


7 




150 


11 A 


-21 


614 


68 


4S 
43 


11 14 


M 


150 


58 B 


36 


530 


81 


46 


14 




145 


58 B 


39 


538 


81 


4B 


14 




140 


61 B 


37 


5Ab 


75 


52 


16 


T 


250 


31 B 


-67 


430 


97 


55 


16 




200 


30 B 


-74 


601 


84 


SS 


17 




150 


29 B 


-83 


563 


70 


SO 



5 K 249 13 A -31 475 



199 


14 A - 


34 


532 


82 


43 




(50 


150 


13 A - 


33 


602 


63 


40 
36 




{48 


220 


55 B 


13 


An 


87 


47 






200 


57 B 


17 


463 


85 


51 






150 


54 B 


20 


538 


70 


42 






250 


34 B - 


-70 


430 


97 


61 






200 


31 B - 


-75 


497 


83 


S3 






160 


32 B - 


-72 


5-15 


76 


42 






249 


8 A 


-21 


499 


99 


S9 






200 


11 A - 


-29 


547 


83 


46 






150 


16 A - 


-32 


603 


69 


Si 
59 




SO 


220 


54 B 


27 


44a 


100 


54 






200 


53 e 


22 


467 


91 


48 






150 


54 B 


23 


536 


73 


46 






250 


19 A 


-13 


462 


94 


67 






200 


21 A 


-13 


520 


82 


55 






150 


22 A 


-17 


533 


68 


43 






200 


16 A 


36 


520 


115 


S3 






175 


16 A 


42 


553 


106 


39 






150 


16 A 


36 


579 


94 


40 




49 


220 


53 B 


59 


427 


134 


54 






200 


47 B 


48 


465 


117 


64 






150 


48 B 


41 


540 


83 


S3 






200 


26 B 


26 


475 


118 


32 






176 


28 B 


24 


517 


106 


37 




(52 


150 


31 B 


14 


556 


91 


38 




]50 


252 


29 A 


11 


432 


112 


52 






200 


30 A 


12 


498 


96 


54 






149 


27 A 


8 


575 


75 


43 
57 




51 


220 


15 A 


-16 


514 


85 


46 






200 


14 A 


-20 


537 


77 


48 






150 


13 A 


-13 


613 


63 


SO 






200 


28 B 


11 


493 


107 


47 






130 


31 B 


7 


517 


97 


41 




\4S 


150 


30 B 


1 


563 


82 


40 




146 


250 


35 B 


-1 


419 


119 


48 






200 


37 B 


2 


483 


103 


48 






150 


37 B 


2 


556 


85 


46 




47 


200 


27 A 


39 


488 


118 


48 






ISO 


26 A 


39 


519 


109 


43 






150 


24 A 


32 


563 


91 


46 






250 


25 A 


-17 


440 


115 


45 






200 


25 A 


-12 


504 


100 


44 






150 


22 A 


-24 


578 


76 


39 
53 




45 


220 


12 A 


-14 


510 


87 


37 






200 


13 A 


-14 


536 


82 


42 






150 


11 A 


-10 


607 


69 


41 






249 


25 A 


-37 


436 


104 


37 






200 


24 A 


-33 


507 


90 


43 






ISO 


•32 A 


-4S 


567 


75 


40 
56 




40 


220 


17 A 


-14 


505 


85 


48 






200 


13 A 


-12 


532 


82 


54 






150 


17 A 


^l 


604 


74 


59 






250 


98 


371 


93 


57 






200 


95 


27 


439 


86 


57 






150 


96 


25 


509 


73 


49 
59 






250 


21 A 


-34 


451 


102 


42 






200 


20 A 


-31 


516 


88 


46 






150 


32 A 


-25 


566 


82 


45 




51 



FiQTTBE 3. — Facsimile of page 133, volume 6, Annals of the Astrophysical 

Observatory. 



126 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

The weighted divergence between stations being 0.0076 calorie, 
the weighted average departure of one station from the mean solar 
constant derived from two stations is 0.0038 calorie. 

Although it is not fair to Montezuma to suppose that the stations 
are of equal merit, yet if we make that assumption, and proceed as 
usual, we find the weighted mean percentage probable accidental error 
of a single day of observation of the solar constant at one station 
to be: 

100 X 0.0038 X 0.84 -M.94= 0.164, or % of 1 percent. 

In volume 6 of the Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the 
Smithsonian Institution are contained in table 24 nearly 19,000 meas- 
urements of the solar constant observed through the years 1924 to 1939. 
Several thousand earlier observations of the years 1920 to 1923 are con- 
tained in other publications. Figure 3 is a facsimile of a part of page 
133 of the Annals, which includes the work of September 1934. The 
several observing stations are distinguished by letters M, K, T, meaning 
Montezuma, St. Katherine, and Table Mountain. The solar-constant 
values in columns "S. C." and "Pf d. S. C." are to be understood as pre- 
fixed with 1.9. Thus for "50" read "1.950." Using the result of Monte- 
zuma and St. Katherine only, which are more accurate than those of 
Table Mountain, there was apparently an increase in the column "Pf d. 
S. C." from the 1st to the 5th and from the 10th to the 14th of Sep- 
tember, and a decrease from the 14th to the 19th. These changes had 
an amplitude of the order of 0.5 to 0.9 percent, that is about 0.010 to 
0.018 calorie in the solar constant of radiation. 

SEQUENCES OF RISING AND OF FALLING SOLAR ACTIVITY 

I give in table 2 a summary of nearly 500 of the best supported in- 
stances of rise and of fall in the solar constant of radiation selected 
from table 24 of volume 6 of the Annals. The table is arranged by 
months and will readily be understood by an example. Thus, "Janu- 
ary, Rising, 24, 12" means that a case of the solar constant rising for 
a few days appeared to occur beginning January 12, 1924. 

It is of interest and importance to note that the solar variation 
increases in percentage toward shorter wave lengths. It is six times 
as great at 3500 A. in the ultraviolet as in the total solar constant. 

EFFECT OF SEQUENCES OF SOLAR CHANGE ON TERRESTRIAL 
TEMPERATURES 

Using this tabulation of the dates whereon sequences of rise and of 
fall of the solar constant apparently began, I have sought to determine 
whether such phenomena were associated with special behavior of the 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



127 



departures from normal temperature and normal barometric pressure 
at numerous cities. For this purpose I tabulated the departures, let 
us say of temperature, to illustrate, for 5 days before, and for 14 days 
after, each date included in table 2. Figure 4 is a facsimile of such a 
tabulation of temperature departures covering the months of 
January, February, and March for Washington, D. C. Two curves 
of temperature departures are shown for each month. One corre- 
sponds to the average influence of sequences of rising solar activ- 
ity, the other to the average influence of sequences of falling solar 
activity over the years 1924 to 1939. It is to be understood that these 
curves show temperatures only, not solar constants. One knows only 
that on the zeroth day of each line of the table a 3- to 4-day sequence 
of solar changes began. The upper curves of the figure show the 
average march of temperature departures at Washington in the months 
of January, February, and March, each associated with 19 or more cases 
of rising solar sequences, and the lower curves show the average march 
of temperature departures at Washington in January, February, and 
March, each associated with from 16 to 21 cases of falling solar 
sequences. 



Table 2. — Dates when sequences of rise and fall of the sun's emission of radiation 

began 



January 


February 


March 


April 


Rising 


Falling 


Rising 


Falling 


Rising 


FaUing 


Rising 


Falling 


24 12 


24 


15 


24 


4 


27 


13 


24 


17 


24 


8 


24 


2 


24 9 


18 




20 




27 


28 


11 




23 




19 




14 


18 


29 


26 


1 


27 


8 


29 


9 




30 




25 


25 


7 


23 


25 1 




9 


28 


8 


30 


28 


25 


18 


25 


22 




15 


2G 15 


26 3 




17 




17 


34 


21 




25 




29 




28 


29 


27 1 


28 


5 


29 


2 


35 


16 


26 


5 


26 


20 


26 


10 


27 16 


6 




14 


30 


18 




21 


27 


25 


28 


4 




24 


28 6 


28 9 




30 


32 


5 


36 


4 


28 


2 




20 


27 


7 


16 


28 


31 


16 


34 


12 




12 




24 


30 


16 




22 


29 5 


31 13 


34 


4 




26 


37 


8 


30 


24 


31 


30 




29 


32 5 


34 20 


36 


16 


35 


19 




23 




30 


34 


17 


28 


19 


15 


35 3 


37 


6 


36 


8 


38 


1 


31 


22 


35 


23 


29 


9 


27 


10 




26 


37 


2 


39 


24 




28 


30 


4 


30 


21 


33 4 


36 21 


38 


14 




19 






32 


5 




20 


32 


9 


13 


29 
















16 


37 


1 


33 


10 


34 9 


37 8 














35 


3 




10 




20 


17 


14 
















16 


38 


9 




28 


35 1 


31 














36 


9 


39 


16 


34 


7 


19 


38 6 














37 


6 






35 


7 


27 


18 
















12 








14 


38 12 


26 














39 


18 
25 






36 
37 
38 

39 


25 
3 

8 
7 

16 
7 

25 


39 4 

17 



128 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Table 2. — Dates when sequences of rise and fall of the sun's emission of radiation 

began — Continued 



May 


June 


July 


August 


Bising 


Falling 


Rising 


Falling 


Rising 


Falling 


Rising 


Falling 


24 8 


24 


4 


24 


12 


24 


3 


24 


7 


24 


22 


24 


13 


24 4 


12 




10 


26 


6 




20 




12 




30 




23 


31 


27 10 


28 


6 




25 


26 


15 




23 


26 


12 


28 


22 


26 10 


24 




20 


27 


4 


27 


10 


26 


5 


27 


26 


29 


15 


28 5 


28 3 


29 


21 




16 


29 


18 




17 


28 


3 


30 


24 


29 8 


9 


33 


18 


28 


11 


31 


1 


27 


13 




19 


31 


20 


21 


13 


34 


5 


31 


22 


32 


16 




24 




26 


32 


22 


30 28 


29 1 


35 


4 


32 


23 


34 


4 


28 


5 


29 


1 


33 


18 


31 15 


30 15 


36 


13 


33 


16 


35 


12 




23 




12 




26 


32 4 


33 1 




30 


34 


8 


36 


16 


29 


4 


30 


1 


34 


2 


34 8 


5 


37 


10 




14 


37 


6 




17 


33 


13 




11 


22 


35 13 


38 


6 




24 




22 


32 


25 


34 


6 


35 


8 


35 16 


38 4 




24 


35 


19 


38 


5 


33 


10 


35 


5 


36 


9 


36 17 


16 








23 




12 




19 


36 


26 




21 


24 


28 






37 


4 


39 


10 


34 


3 


37 


26 


39 


26 


37 6 


39 21 






39 


30 
13 
25 




21 


36 
37 

38 
39 


13 
22 
13 

6 
22 
16 

8 


38 
39 


20 
4 






19 



September 


October 


November 


December 


, Rising 


FaUing 


Rising 


Falling 


Rising 


Falling 


Rising 


Falling 


24 3 


24 11 


24 


21 


24 


3 


24 


28 


24 


19 


24 


6 


24 1 


23 


19 




29 




27 


27 


4 


26 


3 




23 


25 7 


26 3 


26 5 


26 


7 


26 


1 




19 




13 


25 


24 


27 8 


27 2 


27 8 




15 




10 


29 


5 


27 


24 


26 


2 


24 


17 


14 




24 




20 




19 


29 


9 


27 


4 


28 22 


19 


21 


27 


4 




28 


31 


3 




14 




19 


29 12 


26 


29 




18 


27 


10 




22 


31 


25 




27 


30 7 


28 17 


29 5 




26 




21 




28 


33 


18 


28 


14 


31 6 


23 


31 3 


28 


5 


28 


8 


32 


22 


34 


4 




20 


17 


29 4 


9 


30 


20 




21 


33 


5 


35 


17 


29 


15 


33 26 


12 


33 9 


31 


8 


30 


4 




15 




27 


31 


10 


34 17 


27 


19 




18 




13 


35 


15 


36 


2 


32 


27 


35 29 


30 10 


34 6 




28 


31 


2 




21 




19 


33 


30 


36 10 


31 11 


14 


32 


3 


33 


9 


36 


5 


37 


23 


34 


22 


37 19 


22 


21 


33 


13 




22 




13 


38 


13 


35 


1 


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33 4 


35 13 


34 


11 


34 


13 




27 




24 


37 


4 




13 


36 20 




17 


36 


12 


37 


19 






38 


7 




28 


37 7 




28 




18 


38 


8 








25 




34 10 


21 


35 


14 


37 


9 
















35 9 


28 


36 


9 




23 
















22 


38 6 




16 


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5 










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11 


37 


15 




















17 




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9 




















37 5 


























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SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



129 



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130 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

CONTROL OF TEMPERATURES BY SOLAR SEQUENCES OF VARIATION 

With this method of investigation clearly set forth, I now give 
in figures 5 to 7 results for temperatures for all months of the year at 
Washington, Albany, and Helena, and point out several characteristics 
of these curves. 

1. At every station, and in every month, the temperatures depart in 
opposite directions, attending, respectively, rising and falling solar 
activity. Thus comes about an axial symmetry of the pairs of curves 
such, for instance, as subsists with one's right hand and one's left. 

2. The march of the curves differs from month to month, and differs 
for the same month from station to station, yet the right and left 
symmetry always prevails. 

3. The effects are large. Differences of temperature of the order 
of 10 degrees Fahrenheit, or more, depend on whether a rising or a 
falling sequence of solar activity preceded them many days before. 

4. The effects of solar changes on temperature persist for many 
days. They may surely be traced from 3 days before to 14 days after 
the zeroth day of the solar sequence. 

5. The coefficient of correlation of these curves for the three stations 
and the 12 months of the year, and from 3 days before to 14 days 
after the solar change, is found to be r = — 61.2 ± 1.7 percent. 

6. Since far-separated cities respond in a similar manner to the com- 
mon system of dates given in table 2, this system of dates must have 
a cosmic significance. The system of dates, in other words, betrays 
an extra-terrestrial selection, harmonious to the claim that on these 
dates changes in radiation occurred in the sun. 

SUPPORTING EVIDENCES OF SOLAR WEATHER CONTROL 

Doubters, however, may argue to the contrary as follows : 
The changes claimed in solar radiation, they may say, are so small 
in percentage that it is improbable that observation, however accurate, 
can distinguish them from accidental errors, and from the influences of 
atmospheric sources of error. May it not more probably be that the 
series of dates was selected by chance? They were, indeed, dates on 
which, in the average, large variations of temperature followed over 
periods of 17 days, but this was merely accidental. It would then 
naturally occur that sequences of dates closely following those at- 
tributed to rising solar radiation would show opposite temperature 
tendencies, since whatever goes up must come down. That far-sep- 
arated cities would react to the same systems of dates, though not identi- 
cally, is not surprising. For, as is well known, weather travels in 
waves from west toward cast, so that a disturbance arrived at Wash- 
ington would have passed by stations to the west some days earlier. 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



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Figure 5. — Average marches of temperature departures, Fahrenheit, at Washing- 
ton, D. C, accompanying sequences of variation of the solar constant, January 
to December. 



132 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



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Figure 6. — Average marches of temperature departures, Fahrenheit, at Albany, 
N. Y., accompanying sequences of variation of the solar constant, January to 
December. 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



133 



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FiGUKE 7. — Average marches of temperature departures, Fahrenheit, at Helena, 
Mont., accompanying sequences of variation of the solar constant, January to 
December. 



134 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

These plausible arguments may be confuted, but it is doubtful if so 
complex a proposition could be made altogether clear to the lay reader. 
The simpler course is to show that these same marches of temperature, 
at these same cities, are associated with another common system of dates 
in another series of years, which system of dates has an undoubted solar 
connection. This I shall now show. 

THE SPECTROHELIOGRAPH AT THE OBSERVATORIO DEL EBRO 

The eminent astronomer, Dr. George E. Hale, in his youth invented 
the beautiful instrument which he named the spectroheliograph. This 
device photographs the clouds of vapors of individual chemical ele- 
ments, such as hydrogen, helium, iron, or calcium which float above the 
sun's surface. Hale's spectroheliograph found instant favor all over 
the world, and many observatories were equipped with it. Among 
them is the Observatorio del Ebro in northern Spain, which is main- 
tained by the Jesuits. Every available day from 1910 to 1937 the 
monks at Ebro photographed the calcium clouds on the solar surface 
with their spectroheliograph. And not only did they observe, but they 
measured the areas of these clouds as well as their mean distances from 
the center of the sun's disk, and they published all the measures. 

CHARACTER FIGURES OF THE SOLAR-FLOCCULUS ACTIVITY 

With the help of my assistants, Mrs. Bond and Miss Simpson, I have 
used these Spanish measurements of every day of observation from 
1910 to 1937 to compute character figures. These represent the solar 
activity of a given day as measured by the summation, according to cer- 
tain weights, of the areas of the calcium clouds, or "flocculi," photo- 
graphed that day on the sun's disk. These character figures having 
been assembled by months in 12 groups, it was seen at once that they 
showed sequences of rise and of fall, for intervals of a few days each, 
just as the solar-constant values do. 

Going over the tables with care, I selected dates in each of the 12 
months in the years from 1910 to 1937 when the best examples of se- 
quences of rise and sequences of fall occurred. The period of 28 
years is so long that there was no difficulty in finding enough excellent 
sequences without including doubtful cases. I thus tabulated the 
zeroth dates of the rising and the falling sequences of flocculus char- 
acter figures for each of the 12 months covering the years 1910 to 1937. 
Then the Washington temperature departures from 6 days before to 
14 days after each zeroth date were tabulated in the same way as for 
solar-constant correlation. 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



135 



CONFIRMATION OF SOLAR-CONSTANT RESULTS BY WORK AT EBRO 

Mean values were taken, and often in these tabulations more than 30 
cases entered in each mean. I show in figure 8 a computation and 



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FiGUBE 8. — Temperature departures, Fahrenheit, at Washington, D. C, in October, 
accompanying sequences of rise and of fall of the character figures of solar 
calcium flocculi, beginning zeroth day. 

graphical representation of the results at Washington for the month 
of October. Finally I show in figure 9 the march of temperature de- 



619830 — 45- 



-10 



136 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



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Figure 9. — Average marches of temperature departure, Fahrenheit, at Washington, 
D. C, accompanying sequences of solar change (a) of the solar constant in 
years 1924 to 1939; (b) of character figures for solar calcium flocculi in years 
1910 to 1937, for months January to December. Ordinates are temperature 
departures; abscissae are days from beginning of solar-constant sequence. 
Flocculi area curves are displaced 2 days to right. 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 137 

partures at Washington for the 12 months, as associated both with 
solar-constant sequences and with flocculus character-figure sequences. 

It is at once apparent that similar curves of temperature resulted, 
but that the curves based on flocculus character figures show 2 days' 
lag in phase compared to the curves based on solar constants. The two 
kinds of solar change, in other words, are not exactly simultaneous. 
The reader will see in the diagram that for comparison purposes the 
flocculus temperature curves are all moved to the right 2 days with 
respect to the solar-constant-temperature curves. This phase dif- 
ference allowed for, the correlation coefficient between solar-constant 
and flocculus temperature curves for Washington is /•= 59.7 ±1.9 per- 
cent. It will be noted that the two systems of dates used for the two 
determinations have almost nothing in common. They are spread 
over two different series of years, one interval 1910 to 1937, the other 
1924 to 1939. Owing to differences in days lost for cloudiness in Spain 
and northern Chile, only a few of the dates in the two intervals are 
adjacent. In short, in method, in the years observed, and in detail, 
the two determinations have only this in common: both purport to 
show the influence of changes of solar activity on Washington tem- 
perature. One of the methods uses photographic phenomena univer- 
sally admitted to be solar. Since the results of the two methods are 
well-nigh identical, how can critics longer reasonably deny that in the 
basis of the other method (the solar-constant variation) is also 
a truly veridical solar phenomenon ? 

I therefore claim for the Smithsonian Institution the discovery and 
measurement of variations of the solar constant of radiation, and the 
proof that these solar variations are major factors in the control of 
terrestrial temperatures. 

SOLAR SEQUENCES AND BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 

We have investigated also the dependence of barometric pressure 
on the solar variations tabulated in table 2. I will not enter extensively 
into this branch of the subject, nor show further examples of the tem- 
perature effects, because I have much else to present in this lecture. I 
will only draw attention to the march of barometric pressure at Denver 
and Ebro (figs. 10, 11) for the 12 months, as associated with rising and 
falling sequences of solar-constant changes. It will be seen that the 
curves, while not so consistent as the temperature curves, already 
shown, still generally display that right-and-left symmetry which has 
been referred to in temperature. 

POSSIBILITIES OF DETAILED LONG-RANGE FORECASTING 

I now turn to the question whether these solar variations, since indi- 
vidually they apparently produce major changes of weather for inter- 




FiGUKE 10. Figure 11. 

FiGtniES 10 AND 11. — Barometric departures associated with sequences of solar- 
constant variation for 12 months, January to December, at Denver, Colo. (fig. 
10) and Observatory of Ebro, Spain (fig. 11). Full curves, rising sequences; 
dotted curves, falling sequences. 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



139 



vals of nearly 20 days, may give hope that a method of forecasting for 
many days in advance may be evolved therefrom. I have, indeed, made 
a preliminary test of this possibility. 

It will be apparent that after computing basic curves of the tempera- 
ture effects of solar variation for a given station, it may be assumed that 
when a sequence of rise of the solar constant is descried in the daily 
observations, one may write down in a column for some 2 weeks there- 
after the departures in temperature expected to follow this sequence of 
rising solar activity. As other sequences occur, some rising, some 
falling, other parallel columns of expected temperature departures are 
written down on the proper dates, appropriate to each. 



S2.pte.7n.ber 1535 October 




?'V'M J 1'liliJ.LL 
riGUEE 12. — Forecast and 



verification of Washington temperature departures. 



By the summation of all of these columns day by day, one finds an 
expression of the total influence of solar variation. This summation 
may go on continuously, always for as much as 10 days, in advance of 
the calendar. Figure 12 gives such a summation for September and 
October 1935, prepared from solar-constant basic curves for Wash- 
ington and Ebro dates. 

Unfortunately the solar-constant daily values of first-class quality 
are too scattered as yet, with only our two first-class stations observing. 
However, I have found several months in the long record of calcium- 
flocculi measurements kept at Ebro when the breaks were so rare 



140 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

that a fair estimate of the dates of changes in solar activity could be 
made. With allowance made for the difference of 2 days in phase, the 
basic curves used were those derived for Washington temperatures 
from solar-constant work. The general result was as summarized 
below : 

Days 
Total predicted 201 

Observed and predicted, same sign 139 

Observed and predicted, opposite sign 62 

Observed departures : Plus 65, minus 136. 
Predicted departures : Plus 64, minus 137. 

Num- Percent- 
iers ages 

Differences : 0° to 2° 66 82.7) 

3° to 4° 43 21.8 [6% 69.8% 

5° to 6' 32 15.8) 

General 7° to 10° 33 16.3) 

mean= 11° to 15° 20 10.0 [6°, 30.3% 

5«.35. Over 15° 8 4.o) 

Correlation coefl5cient=56.9±3.2 percent. 

This preliminary test, which is a forecast based on solar data alone, 
gives some ground for hope that with more accurate and continuous ob- 
servation of solar-constant values, when these are obtained every 
single day, such solar forecasts, supplemented and corrected by the ex- 
tensive knowledge of terrestrial influences now available to meteorolo- 
gists, may in that combination greatly promote longer-range weather 
forecasting. Since solar changes are a major weather factor it is 
difficult to see how long-range weather forecasts can be made if they 
are neglected as always heretofore. 

THE 27-DAY PERIOD IN WASHINGTON PRECIPITATION 

I now present a curious result of investigation of the sunspot rota- 
tion period of 27 days in connection with the precipitation at Wash- 
ington. In the year 1942 I collected values of the daily precipitation 
at Washington from 1924 to 1941. These values I arranged in cycles 
of 27 days. Since 27 such cycles fill 2 complete years, lacking 1 or 
2 days depending on leap year, it was convenient to tabulate the values 
in nine 2-year tables, and take the mean values for each of them. 

I was immediately struck by the circumstance that for the mean of 
every 2-year tabulation, the 11th day of the cycle in the earlier years 
and the 12th day of the cycle in the later years was from 2 to 3 times 
as rich in precipitation as the 6th and 7th day. The cycle, whose true 
period seems to be 27.0074 days, was always taken in the phase as of 
January 1-27, 1924. On taking the general mean of 243 cycles, the 
characteristic of high values about the 12th day was very marked, but 
other parts of the cycle also were conspicuous as high or as low in 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



141 



precipitation. I then divided the data into three sections representa- 
tive of dry years, 54 cycles; intermediate, 108 cycles; wet years, 81 
cycles. The results are given in figure 13. 

A VERIFIED PREDICTION ONE YEAR IN ADVANCE 

In March 1943 I informed the Chief of the Weather Bureau that on 
a certain list of dates the average daily precipitation would be higher 
than on the remaining dates of the year. I recently tabulated the re- 
sults : Using curve 3, applicable to years of intermediate precipitation, 
the selected dates of 1943 were expected to show 166 times the average 




13 5 7 9 tl 13 IS 

Figure 13. — 27.0074-day period in Washington precipitation. Curve 1, general 
mean, 243 cycles ; curve 2, dry years, 54 cycles ; curve 3, intermediate, 108 cycles ; 
curve 4, wet years, 81 cycles. 

rainfall of the nonselected dates. The actual ratio, for the 175 selected 
dates compared to 191 nonselected (the work included December 31, 
1942) was 1.58.^ The 27-day cycle has continued so consistently for 
20 years at Washington that one is inclined to think it may be trusted 
to hold for some years to come. 

MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR CONSTAN'TTg 

We will now consider monthly mean values of the solar constant 
of radiation, the variations they disclose, the periodicities found 

* I might add that the 2 days of large rainfall in January 1944 fell on selected dates 
also. 



142 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

therein, and the effects of these long-term solar variations on weather. 
Figure 2 gives the monthly mean solar-constant values from 1920 to 
1939. The curve shows fluctuations which appear to be wholly irregu- 
lar. If one asks, are these fluctuations really true changes in solar 
radiation, their very magnitudes give a strong presumption that they 
are so. For in the comparison of daily values given above it was shown 
that the probable error of the result of a single day of observation 
from one station is but % of 1 percent. A monthly mean includes from 
30 to 80 such values. Hence, recalling that the probable error of a 
mean is the probable error of the individual value divided by the 
square root of the number of values entering into the mean, we see 
that the probable error of a monthly mean value is from a thirtieth 
to a fiftieth of 1 percent. Yet the fluctuations in figure 2 range up to 
more than 1 percent. Hence probably many of them are veridical. 

PERIODICITIES IN SOLAR VARIATION 

Although seemingly irregular, the march of solar variation shown 
in curve A, figure 2, like the characteristic voice of the violin or of 
the trumpet, comprises a long wave with many simultaneously active 
shorter waves related to it by simple ratios. However in the solar 
variation the simple relationships appear to be only approximate, 
not quite exact, to the master cycle of 22% years, or 273 months. 
Nevertheless it is very interesting that this master period, so nearly 
a least common multiple of 13 shorter ones, is approximately double 
the well-known sunspot cycle of lll^ years, and thus equal to Hale's 
period of magnetic changes in sunspots. Strangely enough, though, 
the sunspot cycle does not appear among the 13 submultiples of the 
solar-constant master period, for no evidence of this liy^-yeav period 
can be found in the variation of the solar constant.^* 

Here are the observed periods, and their approximate relationship 
to 273 months : 



1 


% 


% 


% 


Ve 


Vi 


Vs 


273 


91 


68 


54 


45% 


39% 


34 


% 


%i 


%3 


V23 


%4 


%8 


1/34 


30% 


25% 


21 


11.87 


11.29 


9.79 


8.12 



Curve B of figure 2 is made up by adding together the separate 
influences of these 14 periodicities as they were determined from 
curve A by numerical analysis. The fit of the observed curve by 
the synthetic one is so good that in figure 14 of the Annals, pub- 
lished several years ago, the curve B was carried on as a prophecy 
of solar variation to the end of 1945. Four years of observation 
have become available from Montezuma station, though only in a 
provisional, not the final, reduction. Figure 14 shows a comparison 
between the prophesied and actually observed solar variation. Not 

'• See, however, L. B. Aldrich, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 104, No. 12, July 2, 1945. 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



143 



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144 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

only in general, but in many details, there is much similarity. We 
await with very great interest the crucial test to come in the latter 
part of 1944 and 1945. If the prophecy is then verified, we may 
expect, as I pointed out occurred about 1922-23,^ unusual weather 
conditions in 1945-46. 



EFFECT OF LONGER SOLAR VARIATIONS ON WEATHER 

Among the shorter periods found in solar variation, as indicated 
by Smithsonian solar-constant measures, are periods of approxi- 
mately 8, 9%, and 11^4 months. I have sought to determine how 
these and the longer periods of solar variation affect temperature 
and precipitation in many cities. To fix ideas I give a tabulation 
(tables 3 and 4) for 8, 9%, and 11^4 months at Copenhagen to show 
how these influences are examined.* 

Table 3. — Copenhagen temperature departures, smoothed. Test of 8-month period 
[Values of January to August only. Unit: 1/10 degree C; for means, 1/100 degree C] 



Year 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


1800 ... 


-19 


-17 


-47 


33 


29 


-12 


- 4 


15 


1802 


-15 


-11 


22 


10 


-15 


-17 


-33 


6 


1804 


18 


-21 


-25 


- 8 


11 


3 


5 


11 


1806 


17 


19 


- 4 


-19 


8 


-20 


-15 


9 


1808 


8 


-11 


-19 


-17 


9 


9 


24 


26 


1810 


1 


- 5 


- 2 


-16 


-27 


- 4 


8 


6 


1812 _. 


- 1 
-53 


13 
-53 


-18 
-29 


-32 

4 


-14 
-30 


- 4 
-15 


-21 
10 


2 


1814 


- 2 


1816-.-.: 


4 


-22 


- 4 


- 6 


-27 


-15 


2 


-14 


1818 


14 


15 


20 


-21 


- 3 


11 


14 


- 2 


1820 


-32 


1 


- 4 


12 





-15 


- 7 


- 3 


Mean 


-53 


-64 


-100 


-39 


-54 


-72 


-15 


4-49 



TABLE OF MEANS 



1800 to 1820 


-53 


-64 


-100 


-39 


-54 


-72 


-15 


+ 49 


1822 to 1842 


-71 


- 6 


105 


42 


8 


15 


- 4 


18 


1844 to 1864 


-76 


4 


-17 


- 1 


- 9 


-11 


-52 


-30 


1866 to 1886 


127 


115 


44 


85 


-27 


4 


35 


24 


1888 to 1908 


123 


59 


25 


1 


- 1 


17 


-25 


-64 


1910 to 1930 


74 


108 


133 


96 


58 


-69 


46 


-16 



The maximum appears to shift 11 months and the minimum 19 months to the right in 110 years. With 
such large shifts one cannot exactly determine the proper correction to the period with one trial. These 

1 1 VJ^ 1 10^8 1 

shifts however Indicate: By the maximum, =— month; by the minimum, ^ ^ - month. 

Further trials led us to fix on the correction }i month, and to prefer the period 8H months. 



8 Proc. Nat. Acad. Scl., vol. 9, No. 6, June 1923. 

* In this publication I give only the tabulation for the 8-month period, and Its 
correction to 8% months for Copenhagen. Others were shown at the lecture. 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ^ABBOT 



145 



Table 4. — Copenhagen temperature departures, smoothed. Test of 8}i-month period 
[Values of all months employed. Means only given. Unit: 1/100 degree C. throughout.] 



Years 



November-December beginnings 



1798 to 1833- - 
1833 to 1868-. 
1868 to 1903.- 
1903 to 1937-. 
1798 to 1937.. 

Nov. and Dec. 
Jan. and Feb-. 
Mar. and Apr. 
May and June 
July and Aug. 
Sept. and Oct. 



-19 

-153 

20 

-102 

-79 



24 


21 


7 


84 


11 


18 


-55 


-48 


-4 


-10 


-75 


-41 


85 


88 


103 


33 


77 


-23 


20 


36 


44 


29 


-4 


-5 


22 


29 


65 


41 


3 


-15 



-6 
66 
-3 
■20 
29 



1798 to 1937 



-79 


22 


29 


65 


41 


3 


-15 


4 


-3 


-32 


34 


59 


-1 


-7 


-29 


-29 


-64 


-19 


-66 


-39 


-29 


-1 


45 


44 


4 


-12 


24 


33 


29 


38 


-24 


-1 


-12 


16 


8 


24 


32 


52 


6 


5 


18 


40 



-29 

-6 

15 

46 

-31 

42 



That there is here no progressive secular displacement of the phases of means of groups beginning at a 
constant season of the year, is shown by the extended table for November-December. But groups begin- 
ning at different seabons of the year do show displacement of phases with respect to one another. 

I soon found that while there seemed to be some tendency to perio- 
dicities in weather corresponding to the solar changes, these weather 
periodicities, unlike their solar counterparts, fluctuated in phase. It 
occurred to me, however, that this instability of phase is but a natural 
seasonal effect for the periods of shorter duration like 8, 9%, or II14 
months. For the phase of terrestrial response to a solar cause must 
evidently depend on local terrestrial circumstances. For instance, 
there will be a longer lag with stations under oceanic control than for 
those in cloudless deserts. Pursuing this thought it occurred to me 
that the phase, for example, of an 8-month period of response to solar 
change in weather must be different if the solar cause occurs in 
summer than if it occurs in winter. I investigated this idea for several 
periods and many stations. Figure 15 shows that my surmise was 
a correct one. 

Hence terrestrial responses to solar periods of moderate lengths 
should be expected to be in the same phases only when the solar causes 
occur at the same time of the year. If a solar period of exactly 8 
months existed, we must compare its terrestrial effects 2 years apart, 
for then their solar causes would occur exactly at the same seasons of 
the year. 

I will not delay to show exactly how we make use of the calendar to 
eliminate seasonal phase changes, but will content myself with show- 
ing for three stations, Copenhagen, Vienna, and New Haven (see tables 
3 and 4) , that when this complication is properly allowed for, and when 
the exact length of the solar period is determined, the terrestrial re- 
sponse is proved to be exactly in phase from the year 1700 to the present 



146 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

time. Figure 16 shows how necessary it is in such a long term 
of years to select the exact period. Using 8 months there is but small 
amplitude, even when seasonal influences are eliminated, but with 











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81^ months all three stations show a strong periodicity, with ampli- 
tudes of 1°.3 C, IM C, and 1°.3 F., respectively, over nearly a cen- 
tury and a half. In this way we have been able, by using tempera- 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



147 



ture records at terrestrial stations, to obtain more exact periods of the 
solar changes than could be fixed by solar-constant measurements ex- 
tending only since the year 1920. 



yiemia 



New Haven 




FiGUKE 16. — A periodicity of 8% months in temperatures at Copenhagen, Vienna, 
and New Haven, CJonn., since the year 1700. Seasonal phase disturbances are 
excluded. 

PERIODICITIES IN WEATHER 

Since the 14 periods' simultaneously active in solar variation are 
approximately aliquot parts of 273 months, we may anticipate that 
the many weather features occurring at a station in this interval of 
nearly 23 years will tend to repeat with some measure of similarity 
in successive 23-year cycles. Experience shows that this influence 
is more effective at some stations than at others. Figure 17 shows 
what has happened at one of the most responsive stations, Peoria, 111. 
It will be seen that especially in the last half of the cycles the tendency 
of features to repeat in Peoria precipitation is quite marked. Two 
attempts to forecast, made in 1934 and in 1938, are shown by heavy 
dotted lines, and by light full lines, respectively, in figure 17. 

I have made use of this 273-month master period to predict 
precipitation for some years in advance at a number of limited 
regions of the United States. I reduced the prediction to a purely 
routine computation, and used the percentages of normal precipi- 
tation smoothed by 5-month consecutive means. Thus for March 



273 



» To them must be added the sunspot cycle of approximately — s" months. For though 

it does not appear in variations of the solar constant, the ionic bombardment of the earth 
from sunspots Is not negligible as a weather factor. 



148 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



use 



^, ^. Jan. + Feb. + Mar. + Apr. + May , - . ., 
the summation = —, and for April, 



Feb. + Mar. + Apr. + May + June , rm. j; xi. ^ j ^x. j 
^ , etc. Then for the expected smoothed 

percentage precipitation value for January of a future year, take the 
smoothed value for April 46 years previously, plus the smoothed value 
for February 23 years previously, and divide by 2. This simple rule 
works very well for some stations. Thus for Eastport, Maine, from 
1935 to 1942, inclusive : 

For 96 months, average observed minus predicted ±16 percent. 

Number observed and predicted on same side of 100 percent 78 

Number observed and predicted on opposite sides of 100 percent IS 

Number, though observed and predicted on opposite sides of 100 percent, 
their difference observed minus predicted, less than ±16 percent 6 




E^GXiEE 17. — Precipitation at Peoria, 111., smoothed by 5-month running means, 
arranged in 23-year cycles. Letters represent similar features in successive 
cycles. Forecasts (dotted line, from 1934; thin line, from 1938) made by con- 
sideration of preceding cycles. 

From these figures one may fairly claim that of 96 months predicted 
84 were useful predictions, or a measure of success of 87 percent. 
For 12 New England stations similarly evaluated, 807 were useful, 
345 unsatisfactory months' predictions. 

Several years ago, at the resquest of a Colonel of Engineers I 
made in this way from records of 10 stations a prediction for 3 
months of the expected precipitation in the Tennessee Valley region. 
My prediction of precipitation was 84 to 87 percent normal. The 
event was 87 percent normal. 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER— ABBOT 



149 




YEARS 



23-YEAR PERIOD IN TREE RINGS 
FROM 5 GROUPS, SO. CALIFORNIA 

10 15 20 



FiQUEE 18. — The 23-year period as found in the thiclsness of tree rings from five 
southern California groups, 1829 to 1920. 



150 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

The double and quadruple master periods of about 46 and 91 years 
seem even more prominent than the 23-year cycle in precipitation. 
In further illustration of the effects of the 23-, 46-, and 91-year perio- 
dicities I give figures 18, 19, and 20. They show, respectively, the 23- 
year period in the growth of trees in California, the 46-year period 
in the precipitation at Bismarck, N. D., and the 23-, 46-, and 91-year 
periods in the level of Lake Huron. It seems probable that large de- 




1930 12 3 4 1935 6 • 7 8 9 1940 I 2 3 1944 

BISMARCK, S.DAKOTA. PRECIPITATION AT EPCX;HS SEPARATED 46 YEARS. 

FiGUiiE 19. — The dotted line iu the lower curve, from 1937 to 1943, was drawn in 

1937 as a prediction. 

clines in the Great Lakes levels, accompanying great droughts in the 
Northwest, will begin about the years 1975 and 2020. 

THE 14 SOLAR PERIODICITIES REFLECTED INDIVIDUALLY IN 

WEATHER 

There is another method of making long-range weather forecasts 
based on solar variation. With strict attention to the seasonal in- 
fluences on phase already referred to, one may compute from monthly 



SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 



151 



weather records of the past what are the effects of each of the 14 
solar periodicities on temperature and on rainfall for any desired sta- 
tion. Then, assuming that these influences will continue with the 
same effects in future, and still paying close attention to the seasonal 
changes of phase, one may add together all these effects, and also the 
sunspot-cycle effect, similarly determined from records of the past, 
and thus prepare a forecast for several years in the future. 

With the aid of my assistant. Miss McCandlish, I have made such 
forecasts of temperature and precipitation for several cities in the 



1837 39 41 43 4S 47 49 51 S3 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 1683 



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FiGUKK 20.— Levels of Lake Huron (minus 581 ft. ) . Note the cycles of 23, 46, and 
91 years. (Yearly means.) Great droughts in the Northwest following 1838, 
1886, and 1929 recessions. The grand cycle is 92 years (or better, 91.2). Minor 
droughts following 1859, 1906, and to be expected following 1952. 

United States. They have been very successful in some cases, not so 
much so in others. Figure 21 shows one of the most successful, again 
dealing with the precipitation at Peoria, 111. We employed the pre- 
cipitation records prior to 1930 to determine the outlines of the pe- 
riodic terms, and then synthesized the expected precipitation through 
1944. As will be seen, 10 years out of the 13 show both in phase and 
amplitude considerable similarity to the event. The later years betray 
an increasing tendency for the prophecy to anticipate in phase. This 
may indicate that some adjustment of length of periods is desirable. 



619830 — 45- 



-11 



152 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 




SOLAR VARIATION AND WEATHER — ABBOT 153 

However, if one were content with 5- or 7-year predictions, such 
shifts of phase could be corrected from time to time. 

CONCLUSION 

I have brought together many evidences which seem to indicate 
that the small percentage changes observed in the solar emission of 
radiation are effective factors in the domain of weather. Many others 
have been published by H. H. Clayton. The solar measurements in- 
volved are exceedingly difficult and require installations on high moun- 
tains in desert regions, where the largest percentages of clear skies 
with low wind velocities prevail. Tliree stations maintained by the 
Smithsonian Institution are now engaged in day-to-day measure- 
ments of the solar constant of radiation. On account of the variable 
obstruction occasioned by the atmosphere, laden as it is with clouds, 
dust, ozone, and water vapor, these three stations are insufficient 
adequately to follow and record the sun's variation. About three 
times as many mountain stations, widely separated in the most cloud- 
less and calm regions of the earth are needed. They could be installed 
for $500,000, and operated for $250,000 per annum.« 

I think there is a great probability that if such additional solar 
stations were in operation they would furnish information of major 
value to meteorology. I believe that with the solar data that would 
then be available, and using the rich store of information regarding 
terrestrial factors now familiar to meteorologists, great progress 
would ensue. The neglect of solar variation, which seems to be a 
major factor in weather, cannot continue if meteorology is to progress 
as it should. It would be like the play "Hamlet" with Hamlet's part 
omitted. 



• Very recent developments of the research, however, give hope that another approach 
to the problem not requiring additional stations may be successful. 



Smithsonian Report. 1944. — Abbot 



Plate 1 




Solar Photograph by Mount Wilson Observatory, Showing Sunspots, 
Faculae, and Prominences. 



Smithsonian Report, 1944. — Abbot 



Plate 2 




The Coelostat and the Pyrheliometer Just outside the Tunnel at 

Montezuma, Chile. 



ASTRONOMY IN A WORLD AT WAR' 



By A. ViBEET Douglas 
Queen's University 
Kingston, Ontario 



Science has advanced during the last 4 years both because and 
in spite of war. Some of the sciences have made tremendous strides 
as a direct result of the challenge of war necessities. Physics, chem- 
istry, metallurgy, and all the branches of medical science are in this 
category; some day the full story of their great achievements may 
be made known. Other branches of knowledge, while far from being 
unaffected by the war, have continued to advance largely in spite 
of the upheavals in the life of nations and individuals which world 
war inevitably brings. Astronomy is in this latter class. 

Astronomy and astronomers are playing an important part in the 
war chiefly along the two lines which have always presented funda- 
mentally stellar problems — direction and time. But the main ad- 
vances in astronomy in these last 4 years have been made in spite 
of the war. It is right and fitting and indeed very encouraging that 
this is the case. When so much that is of intrinsic beauty and of 
fundamental value is being destroyed by war, and when so many 
worthwhile activities have to cease, it is good indeed to know that 
there are astronomers on this continent, and even in some parts of 
Europe, and in Australia, Africa, India, and probably in Japan, 
who are able to carry on the continuity of observations on stars and 
starlight, sun and moon, planets and asteroids, comets and meteors. 

If the continuity of observation in many branches of astronomical 
work were to be completely broken, it would be an irreparable loss 
to science. Thus it is with satisfaction and great admiration that 
we read in the Reports of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, that 
damage done by enemy action to one of the buildings and to 
the Airy transit circle has been largely made good, and observations 
recommenced with that instrument upon Sun, Venus, and the stars 

^ Address of the president of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, January 1944. 
Reprinted by permission from The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 
vol. 38, No. 3, March 1944. 

155 



156 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

in the clock and azimuth lists ; that parallax determinations are going 
on ; that solar photography and observations of chromospheric erup- 
tions in Ha are continuing; and that the two Time Service Stations 
have operated continuously. During this period the exhaustive work 
on the solar parallax was brought to completion. 

In France solar, planetary, and stellar research have been carried 
on, and in Holland galactic problems, long-period variables, dark 
nebulosity, and theoretical astrophysics have been under investiga- 
tion even in these tragic years. In the U. S. S. R., where at least 
three observatories have been destroyed and another dismantled, plans 
are already made for resumption of activity and for the erection of 
new observatories to further the study of latitude variations and solar 
research. From two observatories east of the farthest battle front we 
know that papers have been published recently on photoelectric calo- 
rimetry and on color temperatures. 

Similar records of observations and measurements carried on des- 
pite air raids, despite reduction of staff, despite pressing war problems 
and difficulties of all kinds, could be quoted from many observatories 
in countries deeply involved in fighting for their very existence. 

In these and in countries like our own — at war, but far removed 
from the main theaters of conflict — there has been a very important 
contribution made by astronomers in the adaptation of astronomical 
observations and calculations to the problems of air navigation. The 
Director of the Glasgow University Observatory, W. M. Smart, has 
produced three books on nautical astronomy since this war began, and 
under his instruction, R. A. F. pilots and cadets are learning the art 
and science of navigation. Scores of astronomers, including Canadian 
men well known to many of us, are doing similar work, giving all 
their time, skill, and energy, and often risking their lives in the air 
with student pilots, in order to impart this so necessary instruction 
in air navigation. 

In the Koran, it is written: "God has given you the stars to be 
guides in the dark, both by land and sea." Homer tells of Ulysses 
on his raft that he sat at the helm and "marked the skies, nor 
closed in sleep his ever watchful eyes." But navigation from the 
back of a camel or from the bridge of a ship can be a relatively 
leisurely performance. Not so in a modern airplane ! The naviga- 
tor takes a sight on a star or planet, he reads his chronometer, and 
then if his calculations take him 5 minutes to perform, he and his 
plane are already perhaps 25 miles away from the ascertained posi- 
tion. Every minute that astronomers have been able to cut off the 
time for computation of position is of the greatest value to airmen 
flying over seven seas and six continents, across enemy lines, with 
objectives a mere dot on the map — a railway yard, a factory, an 
airfield. 



ASTRONOMY IN A WORLD AT WAR — DOUGLAS 157 

II 

Turning to the subject of time measurement, it is worthy of note 
that during these war years an accuracy never before dreamed of 
has been attained. It was in April 1938 that Essen described before 
the Royal Astronomical Society the researches at the National Phj'si- 
cal Laboratory which had resulted in the new quartz clock, of which 
so much was hoped. This clock makes use of the properties of the 
crystal oscillator, one of the most reliable and perfect mechanical 
systems known to man. Essen describes quartz clocks briefly as "con^ 
sisting of phonic motors controlled via frequency dividers by vibrating 
quartz crystals." In a paper presented to the Royal Astronomical 
Society last June, Greaves and Symms record the intercomparisons 
of three Greenwich free pendulum Shortt clocks, two National Physi- 
cal Laboratory quartz clocks, and three quartz clocks at the I'ost 
Office Radio Branch Laboratories. 

They analyze clock errors into three classes: (a) erratic varia- 
tions in phase, (b) erratic variations in rate, (c) a combination of 
phase and rate variations, producing a cumulative effect. They show 
that two Shortt clocks and two quartz clocks may indicate approxi- 
mately the same mean absolute second differences of relative clock 
error, but the distribution of errors between the three classes is differ- 
ent — the quartz clocks show very little error of (b) and (c) relative to 
Shortt clocks, and errors of class (a) do not affect the long-period 
performance of a clock. 

The famous Shortt clocks are now known to be incapable of giving 
the precision demanded, but the Astronomer Royal hastened to pay 
them a deserved tribute : 

Twenty years ago we had several papers dealing with the performance of 
the Shortt clocks, then looked upon with great expectations. In this clock waa 
achieved in a simple and beautiful manner what horologists had been striving 
after for years, namely, a pendulum designed solely for the purpose of beating 
time whilst being called upon to perform no mechanical work. But if the subse- 
quent performance of this type of clock did not fully come up to our high expec- 
tations, the Shortt Free Pendulum has one thing to its everlasting credit — it 
forced the astronomers to adopt the use of Mean Sidereal Time where formerly 
True Sidereal Time had been adequate. During the intervening 20 years since 
this type of clock was installed in many observatories, new requirements have 
sprung up. In the past the main purpose of a time service was to provide absolute 
tinje with an accuracy suflScient for navigational and surv^eying requiren»ents. 
But the new use of frequency standards has raised a demand for 24-hour intervals 
correct to the very high accuracy of a millisecond. 

It will be seen then that as absolute standards at Greenwich, Shortt clocks 
have become obsolete. Our long-range predictions are now based entirely on 
quartz clocks, free pendulum clocks being used only for extrapolation over an 
Interval of 24 hours. 



158 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

III 

Let us turn our thoughts to cosmology and recall that it was during 
the first World War that Einstein's general theory of relativity ap- 
peared. Two years later, in the war year 1917, came the first sugges- 
tion of an expanding universe. This was one interpretation of de 
Sitter's modification of Einstein's cosmology, implying as it did red 
shifts of the spectrum lines of faint distant objects. Incidentally, we 
may turn aside to remark that while de Sitter was then working in 
a Holland that had been allowed to remain neutral, his spirit is living 
on in the occupied and battered Holland of this war, and he, though 
dead, yet speaketh, inspiring his successors at Leiden and Amsterdam 
to carry on the tradition of astrophysical research in spite of all ex- 
ternal difficulties — thus Verweij has produced a theoretical discussion 
of Stark effect in stellar spectra which was published in Holland and 
found its way to the United States of America just before the entry 
of that country into this war. Perhaps I may add that Verweij in 
that paper dealt a hard blow at a paper by a McGill colleague and 
myself, though I do not accept it as a knock-out blow. Further re- 
search on this controversial subject is now in progress at the Dominion 
Astrophysical Observatory.^ 

De Sitter had also deduced from Einstein's theory the four con- 
clusions which offered a hope of observational confirmation. One 
of these four crucial tests was whether radiant energy passing close 
to a body with an intense gravitational field surrounding it, would be 
deflected in accordance with Newton's law of gravitation or with Ein- 
stein's modification of that law. It was Prof. A. S. Eddington who 
realized the great importance of making this test at the first favor- 
able opportunity, namely, at the time of the total solar eclipse which 
was to occur on May 29, 1919, with the Hyades as background. War 
or no war, all the plans and preparations were pushed ahead and thus 
it was that when the eventful day arrived, even though the Treaty of 
Versailles had not yet been signed, two British expeditions were in 
readiness to take the crucial photographs. I often reread the passage 
written by a learned mathematician and philosopher in which he 
described the meeting of the Royal Society when the results of these 
eclipse expeditions were announced, verifying as they did the theory 
of Einstein: 

The whole atmosphere of tense interest was exactly that of the Greek drama ; 
we were the chorus commenting on the decree of destiny as disclosed in the 
development of a supreme incident. There was dramatic quality in the very 
staging; — the traditional ceremonial, and in the background the picture of 
Newton to remind us that the greatest of scientific generalisations was now, after 



* Recent work at the D. A. O. points to a confirmation of the work of Foster and Douglas 
on the interpretation of helium profiles. 



ASTRONOMY IN A WORLD AT WAR — DOUGLAS 159 

more than two centuries, to receive its first modification. Nor was tlie personal 
interest wanting : a great adventure in thought had at length come safe to shore. 
[A. N. Whitehead.] 

De Sitter's expanding universe suggested an outward motion of 
the stellar bodies within the framework of space as defined by his 
modification of the Einstein equation of spacetime geometry. Ten 
years later, Lemaitre, who had fought with the Belgian army in the 
war years and afterward entered Louvain University, brought for- 
ward his theory of expanding space. This made the radius of cur- 
vature of space a function of time, and gave a new stimulus to the 
astronomers in those great observatories equipped to probe most 
deeply into space. In the following years, at Mount Wilson and 
Harvard particularly, the exploration of space was carried on with 
vigor, and methods were found of estimating the distances of the 
remote galaxies. A special lens was designed to obtain their spectra 
at Mount Wilson, and thanks to the broad, strong H and K lines of 
ionized calcium, red shifts could be measured to distances estimated 
as 250,000,000 light-years. The correlation between distance and red 
shift has provided a remarkable confirmation of the theory of the 
expanding universe. Recessional velocities up to one-seventh the 
velocity of light have now been observed. In the years between the 
wars a few voices were heard to question the interpretation of the red 
shift as a Doppler displacement, but since no alternative explanation 
suggested itself without postulating some entirely new law of Nature, 
the expanding universe remained as a working hypothesis in the back- 
ground of most astronomers' minds. 

One of the interesting things that these recent war years have 
brought is the reopening of this question by E. P. Hubble. Is the 
universe expanding? Is the red shift actually indicative of motion? 
Or is the framework of the universe static? And if static, what is 
the explanation of the displacement of all spectrum lines to the 
red for distant galaxies? Hubble's analysis of all available data 
based on the assumption that the universe is expanding, necessitates 
the calculation of a dimming factor due to recession. When cor- 
rection is made for this in the estimation of distances, he claims 
that a map results which is not of homogeneous density, which 
implies an increasing rate of expansion with distance, and therefore 
an "age" of the universe totally inadequate. On the other hand 
when he assumes a static framework for the universe, the analysis 
of all the data gives a map that shows a linear relation between 
red shift and distance, and a homogeneity of density. This map 
has more to commend it than has the former map, and hence the 
assumption of a static framework appears to be favored. But, as 
various astronomers have pointed out, the weakness of this result 
lies in the large probable errors of the quantities involved, so that 



160 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

even an apparent divergence of 30 percent from uniformity of den- 
sity is not evidence weighty or certain enough to overthrow the 
Lemaitre theory of an expanding universe. 

IV 

Important advances have been made recently by Gamow and 
Betlie in our understanding of the sources of energy within stars 
which permit them to radiate energy as they do. Bethe has given 
an exposition of a cyclical sequence of atomic changes and interac- 
tions whose net result leaves a star with fewer hydrogen atoms, but 
with more helium and the liberation of excess nuclear energy in the 
form of gamma rays. This is now generally referred to as the carbon 
cycle and it is too beautiful not to be recorded here, for though 
published a few months before the war, it has been during the war 
years that it has become a part of astronomical thinking. Of the 
six stages, four result from collisions with hydrogen atoms in the 
deep, hot interiors of main sequence stars, and two are spontaneous 
disintegrations of unstable nuclei. 

1. C'2 4- H^ = W -{- y 

2. W^ -> C^^ + positron 

3. 0^3 + H^ = N^* + 7 

4. W + H^ = 0^5 + 7 

5. O^^ -> W^ + positron 

6. N^s + H' = C'2 ^ He4 

The two positrons rapidly interact with electrons to give rise to 
gamma radiation. Thus is produced the penetrating radiation, most 
of which in the course of its progress toward the boundary of the 
star becomes transformed into the heat, light, and ultraviolet radiation 
that pour out from the photosphere. The central temperatures of 
the cool giant stars are insuflBcient to maintain this active cycle, but 
theory can explain their radiant energy in terms of atomic collisions 
and transmutfitions which are, however, noncyclical. Hydrogen, 
deuterium, lithium, beryllium, boron are slowly transformed into 
helium. 

If the central regions of the hottest stars are not the crucibles of 
nature wherein the elements are built up, where and under what 
conditions were they formed? A highly speculative answer is to be 
found in an intensely interesting piece of theoretical research carried 
out during the early years of this war by Chandrasekhar and Heinrich. 
They have been inquiring under what conditions of nature the basic 
units of matter — electrons, protons, neutrons, positrons — could be ex- 
pected to come together to form, in their various proportions, the 
atoms of all the isotopes of the elements familiar to the chemist. As 



ASTRONOMY IN A WORLD AT WAR — DOUGLAS 161 

these elements compose all stellar bodies as well as all things ter- 
restrial, their synthesis is a cosmic problem. They find that such 
tremendous extremes of high temperature and high density would be 
required that it is necessary to suppose that all the matter of the 
known universe was once confined to a volume of radius only about 
twenty times that of the solar system. Such a sphere drawn around 
our sun as center does not now contain a single other star. Yet into 
such a volume there may once have been packed not only all the 
thousand million stars of our own galaxy, but all the millions of 
other galaxies. This is indeed a picture reminiscent of the "giant 
molecule" of Lemaitre. Since stars and galaxies are not now thus 
packed, expansion must have taken place some time very long ago. 
The present rate of expansion is such that galactic distances are 
doubled every 1,800 million years. This gives the time elapsed, since 
the expansion began, as several thousand million years which is in 
satisfactory accord with the age of the earth as determined by other 
physical lines of approach and regarded necessarily as a lower limit 
for the age of the universe. 

The last chapter on these cosmological problems is not yet written — 
indeed there may well be many chapters yet to come and still no last 
chapter in sight. It is the glory of the quest that as men seek the 
unexplored horizon the margin fades forever and forever as they 
move. 

V 

An investigation of very recent date has led to positive conclusions 
about planetlike bodies associated with stars other than our sun. 
There is strong evidence for this in the case of 61 Cygni and 70 
Ophiuchi. This may be the beginning of a new search and a new 
certainty in a field of astronomy hitherto theoretical and speculative. 
Already several astronomers on two continents are studying the im- 
plications. 

Another astrophysical problem that has been worked upon with 
considerable success during these war years, is the old backlog prob- 
lem since 1869 of the solar corona. At Uppsala, Edlen has been 
examining the X-ray and ultraviolet spectra of some very highly ion- 
ized atoms, and a year ago his 1942 paper was received in England and 
also in the United States of America. He uses his laboratory data as 
basis for calculation of forbidden lines and altogether he identifies 17 
coronal lines with lines of Fe X, XI, XIII, XIV, XV, Ni XII, XIII, 
XV, XVI, Ca XII, XIII, A X ; and two other lines less certainly with 
Ca XV and A XIV. The ionization potentials required to produce 
such atoms are very high, actually 233 volts for Fe X, 655 volts for 
Ca XIII, and at first this seemed to offer an insuperable obstacle to 



162 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

acceptance of Edlen's proposals. The age-old question of Nicodemus 
arose — how can these things be? These atoms are many thousand 
miles from the photosphere of the sun ; and to produce such ionization, 
temperatures of 2,000,000 degrees are necessary. Speculation and 
calculation have followed. A few months ago an explanation was 
given in a letter to Nature by V. Vand of London. Even higher tem- 
peratures he shows to be possible in the low-density regions of the 
corona as a result of collisions of high-velocity atoms falling toward 
the sun from interplanetary space. With the greater density of the 
inner corona and consequent increase in radiation losses, he believes 
conditions may be favorable to just those transitions postulated by 
Edlen. 

VI 

The numbers 136, 137, 256 will awaken in the minds of many of 
you memories of a kindled interest, of perplexity, doubt, expecta- 
tion, and perhaps of moments of great thrill, as you think back 
over the last 15 years. One name alone stands central among these 
memories — that of Sir A. S. Eddington. This has been his play- 
ground pre-eminently. Some of us have stood fascinated at the edge 
of the field watching this illusive game played patiently, skillfully, 
brilliantly by one man, a master juggler with the elements of the 
theory of groups, with quantum mechanics, and with the basic units 
of measurement, producing, as from the proverbial hat, physical con- 
stants both atomic and astronomical. Some there have been who 
paused to watch briefly, to smile or even ridicule the Aristotelian 
tour de force. But steadily and doggedly the theory has been pushed 
forward, several papers having appeared in the last 3 years until 
now the evidence is overwhelmingly great that, with no observational 
data other than three basic constants, namely, the velocity of light 
and the Rydberg and Faraday constants for hydrogen, it is possible 
to calculate theoretically the following 13 physical constants : charge 
e; Planck's constant; masses of electron, proton, hydrogen atom; 
gravitation constant ; fine structure constant ; nuclear range-constant ; 
nuclear energy-constant; mass of universe; number of particles in 
universe ; Einstein radius of space ; nebular speed. This is a striking 
achievement. 

Let us look briefly at just two of these constants. The recessional 
velocity of the spiral nebulae is calculated to be 572.36 km. per sec- 
ond per megaparsec. The observational value of Hubble and Huma- 
son is 560. When the great 200-inch reflector comes into action, we 
shall expect to see the observational value come closer to Eddington's 
determination. 

The number of independent quadruple wave functions at any point 
is 2X136X22=« or 3.15X10'» and in his earlier work Eddington iden- 



ASTRONOMY IN A WORLD AT WAR — DOUGLAS 163 

tified this with the number of particles in the universe. Since 1939 he 
has found that a question of nonintegr ability in spherical space 
necessitates a reduction of 25 percent; so the number given in his 
1942 paper is 2.36X10''*. 

This theortical approach has now reached a point where its author 
can write "I think the theory now deserves to be the accepted theory — 
my definition of an 'accepted theory' being that it is the theory which 
is so far right that everyone is interested in trying to discover what 
is wrong with it." Can we wonder that he pauses in his work to refer 
to "the devastating beauty of quantum arithmetic." This entire in- 
vestigation must surely rank as one of the great adventures of the 
human mind exemplifying Blake's stately metaphor — "Imagination 
goes forth in its uncurbed glory." 

VII 

This brief survey of a few fields of astronomical research, incom- 
plete as it obviously is, will serve nevertheless to indicate that pure 
science is not dormant, much less is it dead, during the terrible years 
when the vile demoniacal God of War stands astride the earth. For 
many years the International Astronomical Union has been an in- 
fluence for understanding, and for cooperation in the search for 
knowledge with mutual respect and trust. It is temporarily in abey- 
ance, but it will once again rise to carry on its good work. The 
lesson of astronomy down the centuries has been one of international 
interdependence and mutual indebtedness. 

The problems facing mankind are very complex — the dealings of 
man with man, the attitude of nation to nation. No solutions making 
for international good will and world peace will be achieved by men 
of narrow mind, myopic sight, and dwarfed soul. The far vision 
in time and space, the winged imagination that leaps the barrier 
of here and now — these are the qualities of mind and spirit needed in 
every walk of life and needed superlatively in the leaders of every 
nation if in the years just ahead of us progress is to be made toward 
the great ideal of international unity. How can the eyes of the 
blind be awakened to the dazzling vision of the City of God? For 
some it may be by the contagious enthusiasm of a great teacher or 
leader, for others the illumination from poetry, for some the spark 
is kindled by the study of history, or of philosophy, and for yet others 
it is through natural philosophy and astronomy. Mankind needs the 
perspective of the cosmic background. "The great values," said 
Field Marshal Smuts, "retain their unfading glory and derive new 
meaning from a cosmic setting." 

There is a challenge to the scientists and to the lovers of science 
to teach the boys and girls, the young men and women of today and 



164 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

tomorrow, the ideals, the aims, the methods, and the integrity of the 
scientific approach to facts and to problems. 

We do not forget the dictum of Rabelais, "Science without con- 
science is damnation." Wartime drives this home with bitter and 
tragic intensity. But we may say with great assurance that science 
with conscience has an essential part to play in procuring and main- 
taining world conditions in which peace can endure. 

All who have the ideal of world citizenship at heart, all who have 
the far vision of things that have been and of things that may be, 
and the realistic grasp of things that are, must cooperate in the great 
task of bringing into the affairs of mankind upon this earth some 
semblance of the order, beauty, and harmony of the universe of 
stars. Toward this end, both directly and indirectly, astronomy and 
astronomers can play a part; and it may prove to be a part which 
no one else can play for them because they, the astronomers, are the 
people with the fullest understanding of the cosmic background. 



THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE ' 



By Claude William Heaps 
Professor of Physics, The Rice Institute 



It may seem, at first sight, presumptuous to attempt the discussion, 
in one hour or less, of such a comprehensive topic as the structure of 
the universe. Actually the subject is not as big as it sounds. There 
are, in one sense, as many universes as there are individuals; but the 
universe in this personal sense will be ruled out of the present discus- 
sion. A tremendous simplification is at once achieved when we limit 
our topic to the physical universe. We now inquire, what is the phys- 
ical universe? 

Eddington has defined it as the "theme of a specified body of knowl- 
edge, just as Mr. Pickwick might be defined as the hero of a specified 
novel." Such a definition emphasizes the epistemological point of 
view and therefore it suffers from lack of definiteness and simplicity. 
There is beautiful directness and decisiveness in the attitude of the 
mathematician who wrote an equation on one line in one of his pub- 
lished papers and said, "This equation contains everything we know 
about the physical universe." The conciseness of the language of 
mathematics is probably nowhere better exemplified than in this equa- 
tion. On the other hand, the universe, if it can be described in terms 
of mathematical symbols and with one equation, may not seem like 
such a big subject after all. 

To the physicist, matter, space, and time exist outside the human 
mind. The physical universe is an objective, dynamic arrangement 
of all matter, space, and time. In discussing the structure of the 
universe we merely attempt to describe some of the features of this 
arrangement. 

Before beginning such a description it seems necessary to indicate 
just how it is related to human welfare — since the general title of 
this series of lectures is "Science and Human Welfare." I am ventur- 
ing to interpret the phrase "human welfare" in the broadest possible 
sense. There are many types of scientific investigation which do not 
appear to have any direct bearing on the pleasures or pains of the 

* Public lecture delivered at The Rice Institute in the spring of 1943. Reprinted by 
permission from The Rice Institute Pamphlet, vol. SO, No. 4, October 1943. 

165 



166 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

human race. The discovery of the planet Pluto cannot be said to have 
done very much toward raising the sum total of human welfare, in 
the ordinary sense. But in the broadest sense, it may be said that 
the welfare of a nation is closely tied up with the capacity of that 
nation for untiring search after truth. Intellectual unrest, intellectual 
curiosity is, we like to think, essential to the true growth and develop- 
ment of a people. A dairy company advertises that its milk comes 
from contented cows. A rival company is perhaps more progressive 
in its views when it advertises that its cows are not contented — they are 
always trying to do better. 

The thesis is, then, that the pursuit of pure knowledge is indicative 
of a healthy national mind; that full development of intellectual 
activity, whether it be in the matter of investigating the stars or in 
building a better radio, is essential to the true welfare of a nation. 
The Russians asked a captured Nazi why he came into their country. 
He replied, "I am just a little man, I do what the Fiihrer says." A 
nation is facing tragedy when free speculation is discouraged, when 
science is devoted solely to control of men and machines and to the 
production of a workable mass of "little men." 

To begin this discussion of matter, space, and time we will try first 
to systematize our ideas of space, or size, in relation to matter. Im- 
agine a long, horizontal line drawn so as to represent the "the x-axis." 
Let all objects in the universe be placed along this line in the order of 
their sizes. The smallest objects will be placed near the beginning of 

MICROSCOPIC REGION MACROSCOPIC REGION 

Zero 
size Electron 

I Positron Neutron 

Neutrino Mesotron Proton Atom 



Solar Spiral 
Stone Mountain Earth system nebula 



Figure 1 

the line, at its left end. Larger and larger objects will be placed 
farther and farther to the right. We next divide the line into two 
parts by a vertical line. All objects to the left of this vertical line 
are too small to be seen with the naked eye, so this region is called the 
microscopic region. In it are placed different kinds of particles such 
as molecules, atoms, the proton, the neutron, the mesotron, the electron, 
positron, and neutrino. These particles are placed nearer and nearer 
to the origin of the line as they become smaller and smaller. It is 
worth noting that nature seems not to have given us anything smaller 
than the electron, in spite of the fact that there is plenty of room for 
particles between the electron and the origin of the line. 

To the right of the vertical dividing line we place all objects large 
enough to be seen with the naked eye. This region is called the 
macroscopic region. We might put in here, stones, mountain, earth, 



STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE — HEAPS 167 

solar system, spiral nebulae. The farther end of the macroscopic 
region may be given a special subtitle, the astronomical region. 

We have arranged here various matter elements in a certain spatial 
relationship. The time concept is involved because this is an arrange- 
ment which may be correct only at one instant of time. It is possible 
that the position of some of these entities on the line is constantly 
changing. When an electron gets into rapid motion its mass is 
changed a little and it shortens one of its dimensions. It thus shifts its 
position on the line slightly to the left whenever it has a high velocity. 
The solar system may be slowly running down so that the planets grad- 
ually approach the sun. If this is the case the position of the solar 
system on the line is slowly shifting to the left. 

Certain segments of this line have occupied the attention of various 
specialists. Astronomers deal with everything listed to the right of 
earth. Thousands of specialists work on the section from earth to 
atom. Physicists in recent years have concentrated intensively on the 
segment from atom to zero. The discovery of the positron, the neutron, 
and the mesotron within the last decade, has opened up a most fruitful 
field of research in physics. In this region, forever beyond the reach 
of the human eye, is probably contained most of the mystery of the 
entire universe. As K. K. Darrow has expressed it, "This field is 
unique in modem physics for the minuteness of the phenomena, the 
delicacy of the observations, the adventurous excursions of the 
observers, the subtlety of the analysis, and the grandeur of the 
inferences." 

It is not too much to say that if some American physicist could only 
make the right kind of discovery in this domain our entire oil and coal 
industries would become more or less obsolete and World War II 
would be won in a matter of days. It should also be said that such a 
discovery is possible but not probable. 

Returning now to our linear lay-out for the universe we may note 
that everything to the right of proton is constructed out of the mate- 
rial included in the range from proton to zero. All matter in the uni- 
verse exists in the form of bunches or aggregates of smaller parts. 
Protons, neutrons, electrons bunch to form atoms; atoms group into 
molecules; molecules group into stones and mountains; stones and 
mountains form the earth. In the astronomical field, planets group 
about the sun to form the solar system — a solar system which in the 
astronomical field is remarkably like the atom in the microscopic field. 

The important unit of structure in the astronomical field is a sun. 
Practically all the stars which we can see on a clear night are distant 
suns, much like our own, although it is thought that only an extremely 
small fraction of these suns have planets around them like our own. 

619830 — 45 12 



168 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

All these suns which can be recognized distinctly are grouped in a 
sort of flattened, disklike bunch which is whirling in empty space. 
Our own sun and planetary system is a member of this group, being 
located about 30,000 light-years ^ distant from the center, or hub, of 
this gigantic disk. When we look into space along the plane of the 
disk the stars seem to be distributed very densely. We see the milky 
way. This bunch of suns is called a spiral nebula. It is sometimes 
called a galaxy, or an island universe. The word "universe" in this 
sense has a restricted meaning because our island universe is not the 
only one in existence. There are millions of others distributed 
throughout space as far as our most powerful telescopes have been 
able to penetrate. 

The nebulae are by no means recent discoveries. Sir William 
Herschel, 150 years ago, suspected that they were distant groups of 
stars. The philosopher Kant believed that they were "systems of 
many stars, whose distance presents them in such a narrow space 
that the light which is individually imperceptible from each of them, 
reaches us, on account of their immense multitude, in a uniform pale 
glimmer." They have been described as looking like "candlelight seen 
through horn." A rough diagram, not drawn to scale, is given in 
figure 2 to indicate the total extent of the entire universe which has 
been observed, up to the present, with our most powerful telescopes. 

We might now indicate on the linear lay-out of figure 1 the approxi- 
mate size of the largest bunch of matter, the spiral nebula, as 100,000 
light-years. Also we might speculate as to the possibility of nebulae 
themselves forming still larger groups. Extensive surveys have been 
made by the astronomers at Harvard and Mount Wilson, of the dis- 
tribution in space of the nebulae, and there is, indeed, evidence of 
grouping of nebulae. It is legitimate to add another bunch of matter 
to the line lay-out — the supernebula, or supergalaxy. 

The supergalaxy is the largest known aggregation of matter in 
the universe. Its diameter may be of the order of a million light- 
years. At least that is the estimate made by Harlow Shapley of 
the diameter of the group of nebulae in which our own is located. 
Our local group contains perhaps 15 or 20 nebulae, but in some super- 
galaxies there are hundreds of members. 

So far, then, our picture of the universe reveals a granular, or 
atomic structure. We start near the zero point of size, with a particle 
of definite size. A fundamental law of attraction operates to cause 
the small particles to group together to form larger particles, these 
larger particles again group to form still larger particles, and so on 
until we reach the limit of observation, the enormous supergalaxy. 

' A light-year is the distance which light travels in one year. It is approximately 
6,000,000,000,000 miles. 



STRUCTUJIE OF THE UNIVERSE — HEAPS 



169 



We are unable to put a stop at the right-liand end of our line, as we 
have done at the left end. Space may go on into infinity— possibly 
matter may go on bunching up into larger and larger aggregates 
with no limit as to the ultimate size of any final bunch, because there 
may never be any final bunch. Speculations of this kind may be 
interesting but they are not of much significance otherwise, because 
they take us outside the realm of possible human experience. 




FiQUEE 2. — Sphere of view of the 100-inch telescope. Distances are in light-years, 
L. Y., and the diagram is not to scale. Our earth is about 30,000 L. Y. away 
from the center of the central nebula above. 



It seems probable that in detecting the supergalaxy man has reached 
the limits of observation in his probing of the depths of space. The 
new 200-inch telescope will be doing a fine job in helping to chart and 
analyze these enormous groups of matter. 

The line diagram of the universe, limited at one end by the electron, 
at the other by the supergalaxy, has given a rather simple picture in 
terms of two variables, space and matter. The third variable, time, 
must now be considered. We have to consider the relationship be- 
tween the various units of our structure as this relationship may 



170 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

change from time to time. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 
says that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other 
particle. If forces of attraction cause matter to bunch up into aggre- 
gates of various sizes, why may not the various bunches themselves 
start coming together until eventually there results just one large, 
static bunch of matter floating quietly in an infinity of space ? Such 
an end result seems logical, but it cannot happen until the kinetic 
energy of matter, the energy of motion, has been converted into 
radiation and transferred to infinity. Such a transfer of energy 
appears, in fact, to be going on. 

A study of the motions of the various aggregates may be expected to 
throw some light on this question. We start with the smallest par- 
ticles, electrons, for example. In addition to random motions caused 
by collisions with other particles, all electrons are supposed to spin. 
They may be thought of as being like tops which never run down. 
When an electron helps to form an atom, in addition to spinning 
it also revolves about the nucleus, just as the earth revolves about 
the sun. The aggregations of matter between atom and earth on 
the diagram of figure 1 may have various kinds of motion but when 
earth is reached we again have the spin about an axis and the revolu- 
tion about the sun. Our sun, together with all the other suns in its 
group, forms a nebula which spins with high speed about a central 
axis. The spin velocity is very high, but the size of our nebula is 
so great that it takes about 2 million centuries for it to make one 
revolution. As Shapley puts it, this is the time required to "click off 
one cosmic year." 

The motion of the supernebula is not known in accurate detail. 
It is possible that some sort of gigantic spin is present here also, but 
so far such a spin has not been detected. Instead, a very surprising 
sort of motion has been discovered, a motion which is just contrary 
to what we expect if matter is to agglomerate into one big bunch. 
The supernebulae appear to be receding from us. The supernebula 
to which our galaxy belongs maintains its fixed dimensions, and be- 
haves more or less as a unit, but all the other supernebulae appear 
to be flying away from ours with high speeds. The farther away 
from us they are, the faster they seem to recede. There seems to be 
no good way of explaining such a phenomenon. One might assume 
that a primeval explosion started all matter out in all directions 
from an original concentration, but there are serious difficulties 
involved in such a theory. 

The whole question of the expanding universe is definitely con- 
troversial. The consequences of accepting or rejecting the theory 
are so great that it will be worth while to review briefly the evidence. 



STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE — HEAPS 171 

Suppose the lights of a very distant city are observed at night 
through a telescope. The various spots of light all look much alike. 
However, they are not all the same in character. Some may be caused 
by incandescent lamps, some by neon signs, some, perhaps, may be 
due to the newer type of yellow sodium lamp used for illuminating 
highways. 

We now put a glass prism in front of the telescope objective. The 
telescope must be deviated sideways, if we are to see the city through 
the prism and the telescope. When we do see it, each spot of light 
appears to be smeared out into a band of color. The colors present 
in each spot of light are separated and spread out and we can see 
just what colors are present in the light from each source. The neon 
signs are characterized by definite colors in the orange and red; the 
sodium lamps can be recognized by the fact that only one color, 
yellow, is visible. 

If we were to photograph the lights of an enormous city from an 
enormous distance the whole city would appear as a small, luminous 
spot. The prism would smear out the separate lights of wliich the 
spot is composed, but they would all be superposed in a single 
smeared spot for the whole city. However, if there were a large 
number of sodium lamps one point in the smear would be brighter 
than the rest because there would be an excess of the yellow sodium 
light. 

A nebula, consisting of millions of suns a long distance away, be- 
haves like our hypothetical city except for one small difference. 
Light from a sun has dark absorption lines or bands from which 
color is missing as a result of absorption in the sun's atmosphere. 
There is a dark line in the spectrum of our own sun, corresponding 
to absorption of hydrogen in the sun's atmosphere. This dark line 
always appears at the same place in the spectrum no matter what 
kind of a source, and always means that hydrogen is present. Dark 
lines appear in the nearer nebulae about where they should be in the 
spectrum. For the more distant nebulae, however, they are shifted 
toward the red end of the spectrum. 

There is only one known explanation for such a shift of a spectral 
line. If the source is moving away from an observer the light re- 
ceived appears redder than when the source is stationary. This 
phenomenon is called the Doppler effect. It is a matter of common 
experience in the field of sound. The pitch of an automobile horn 
is lowered as the horn passes rapidly by an observer and recedes 
from him. 

The photographs of the nebulae show that the hydrogen absorption 
line is shifted farther and farther away from the normal position as 



172 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the pictures go to more and more distant nebulae. The amount of the 
shift gives the velocity of recession. Many nebulae have been ob- 
served and the conclusion is reached that for every million light-years' 
distance from the earth the velocity of recession is increased by 
about 100 miles per second. The farthest nebulae observed are flying 
away from us with a speed of about 25,000 miles per second. 

It is well to weigh critically the evidence for results like these. As 
regards estimates of nebular distances, the methods used by astrono- 
mers seem entirely adequate. In the nearest nebula individual stars 
can be seen. Some of these stars fluctuate in brightness with a period 
of 51/^ days. Similar stars, known as Cepheid variables, are found in 
our own nebula, and the distances of a few of them have been deter- 
mined by ordinary engineering methods. It is found that these stars 
are all of about the same size, so that if one Cepheid variable is much 
fainter than another its f aintness may be attributed solely to its greater 
distance. The distance of the nearest nebula can thus be determined 
with considerable accuracy by comparing the brightness of one of its 
Cepheid variables with the brightness of a similar star in our own 
galaxy — a star whose distance has been measured by reliable methods. 
Having a good estimate of the distance of one nebula it is legitimate to 
infer that other nebula of the same type are fainter and smaller only 
because they are farther away. It is thus possible to estimate their 
distances. The results of these estimates might give occasional large 
errors, but when a great number of observations are made the indi- 
vidual errors must average out fairly well. 

As regards the shift of the absorption line toward the red, a good 
many attempts have been made to explain it in some other way than 
by the Doppler effect. So far, all these attempts have failed or en- 
countered logical difficulties. During the last few years, however, 
certain evidence has accumulated which has brought about a para- 
doxical situation in the theory of the expanding universe. There are 
some very serious objections to the theory. First, let us suppose that 
our explosion hypothesis is more or less in accord with the facts. After 
all, if the nebulae are now observed to be scattering they must at some 
previous time have been more closely bunched. It is not difficult to 
calculate how long ago it was when the nebulae were all together and 
touching each other. We know how far away they are now, we know 
how fast they are receding, and how their velocity of recession varies 
with the distance from us. These data enable us to calculate the time 
when they must have started. According to Hubble, after all correc- 
tions have been made this starting time was about 1,000 million years 
ago. Unfortunately this is only a fraction of the age of the earth — 
indeed there is evidence that life actually existed on earth that long 
ago. It is difficult to see how our earth could exist in its present form 



STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE — HEAPS 173 

at a time when all matter in the universe was assembled and ready for 
a cosmic blow-out of such tremendous proportions. 

So much for objection number one. The second objection arises as 
follows. When a source of light moves away from an observer there 
are two effects produced. The first, the Doppler effect, has been 
mentioned as a change of color, a reddening of the light. A second 
effect is a decrease of brightness, known as the "dimming factor." It 
is easy to see why a light should appear to be dimmer when the source 
moves away from the observer. Suppose a stationary machine gun 
is firing bullets at a fixed target at the rate of five per second. Then 
every second five bullets hit the target. However, if the gun is moving 
away from the target, still firing five shots a second, there will not be 
five bullets hitting every second. The bullet discharged from the gun 
at the end of a given second will have had to traverse a greater distance 
than the bullet which was fired at the beginning of the second, so it 
will take a longer time to reach the target. Perhaps only four bullets 
will hit the target in one second. The extra bullet has gone to fill the 
extra space in the bullet stream — the extra space created by the reces- 
sion of the gun. The case of a light source is exactly analogous. 

Now in estimating the distance of a nebula its brightness is taken as 
a criterion of the distance. The question arises as to whether the dim- 
ming factor should be applied when making the distance estimates. 
If the nebulae are actually moving away from us then the factor must 
certainly be applied. If the reddening of the light is not caused by 
a velocity of recession then the dimming factor must not be applied. 
With such tremendous speeds of recession this factor makes quite a 
big difference in results. 

The following discussion is very largely quoted from the annual 
Sigma Xi lecture delivered in December 1941 at Dallas by E. P. 
Hubble of the Mount Wilson Observatory. Dr. Hubble is one of the 
world's foremost authorities on the subject of nebulae. 

Let us first suppose that the reddening of the light is not caused by a 
velocity of recession. It may be due to some hitherto undiscovered and 
unknown phenomenon. We can then estimate distances without any 
dimming factor and a survey can be made to find out how the nebulae 
are distributed throughout the region of space within our present 
range of view. Such surveys have been made at Mount Wilson and 
Mount Hamilton, out to a distance of 420 million light-years. Data 
have also been obtained and analyzed at Harvard, and the net result 
indicates a fairly uniform distribution of nebulae throughout the 
observable regions of space. There are, on the average, just as many 
per unit volume at great distances as in the immediate neighborhood 
of our own group. 



174 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

This result is intellectually very satisfactory. In fact, it agrees 
with a fundamental principle of cosmological theory, a principle 
which has been postulated by theorists for no other reason than its 
appeal to our sense of order and the fitness of things. This principle 
states that the universe, on a grand scale, will appear much the same 
from whatever position in space it may be viewed or explored. This 
principle of cosmology is satisfied, therefore, if the nebulae are not 
assumed to be receding. 

We next investigate the consequences of assuming the red shift to 
be due to a real velocity of recession of the nebulae. The dimming 
factor must now be applied in estimating distances, with the result 
that the most distant cluster is actually about 13 percent fainter than 
it would be if it were stationary. The scale of distances is thus 
altered, so that when we make our space survey to find out how the 
nebulae are distributed it turns out that they are no longer scattered 
uniformly. The number per unit volume increases steadily with 
their distance away from us. Here is a result which is intellectually 
very disquieting. The cosmological principle of no favored position 
is violated. We might be willing to accept this violation if it went 
the other way, that is, if the density of nebulae decreased with dis- 
tance. Then we would conclude, very happily, that we had discovered 
another super-supergalaxy, another big matter bunch to put out on the 
right-hand end of our linear lay-out. No such interpretation can be 
given when the nebulae are found not to thin out at big distances, but 
actually to become more dense in numbers. 

It may seem obvious to the layman that we ought to discard the 
idea of an expanding universe. It makes us worry about the short 
time which has elapsed since the original cosmic explosion occurred ; 
it bothers us with an increasing density of matter as we proceed far- 
ther and farther into the depths of space; and the only evidence we 
have to go on is a series of pictures, rather hazy, smeary pictures, in 
fact, with a light patch shifted too far to one side. 

The physicist and the astronomer, unfortunately, cannot treat these 
fuzzy pictures in such a cavalier manner. There is no denying the 
existence of the shifted light patch in the pictures, hazy though it 
may be. There is no denying the fact that all such similar shifts of 
color have been explained satisfactorily by the Doppler effect and by 
the Doppler effect alone. One is reminded of the saying of the old 
colored man, whose years of experience had developed a certain ripe 
philosophy of life. "It ain't so much what you don't know that gets 
you into trouble, it's what you do know and ain't so!" 

There are several ways, more or less unsatisfactory, of escaping 
from the dilemma of the expanding universe. The first way is not 



STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE — HEAPS 175 

a good way, but like other escapist philosophies it must be consid- 
ered and estimated for what it is worth. It involves spatial curvature. 

The idea of curved space is now quite a familiar idea to most 
people. Eddington, Jeans, Einstein, and others have written books 
for popular consumption and the sales have been very gratifying. 
Even the pulp magazines do not hesitate to invoke the fourth dimen- 
sion as a mode of escape for the hero or the villian. A simple way 
of approaching the concept of spatial curvature is as follows. Think 
of a straight line along one dimension. Given a second dimension 
at right angles to the first, then we have the possibility of curving the 
line into the second dimension. Think of a plane surface, like a sheet 
of paper flat on a desk. Given a third dimension, at right angles 
to the desk, we have the possibility of curving the paper sheet into 
this third dimension. Think of a solid filling three dimensions. Give 
a fourth dimension at right angles to the other three, we then have 
a possibility of curving the solid into the fourth dimension. It is 
only because we have three-dimensional minds that we cannot see 
this fourth dimension. 

A mathematician may speak of space itself as being curved without 
reference to any solid matter in it. For example, consider the earth 
to be perfectly smooth. If we were two-dimensional creatures instead 
of being three-dimensional, we might draw a big circle on the earth's 
surface, measure its diameter and its circumference, and then find 
that the circumference was not equal to tt times the diameter. We 
would not know that the circle was not flat (since we are assumed 
to be two-dimensional), but we could certainly infer a curvature 
of our flat space and even determine its radius if we knew enough 
about ordinary Euclidean geometry, which would work pretty well 
for small circles on the earth's surface. 

The mathematical description of the universe to which allusion 
was made at the beginning of the lecture involved curving of three- 
dimensional space in somewhat the same fashion as described above 
for the two-dimensional space. If space actually is curved in this 
way our ordinary solid geometry, Euclidean geometry, would not 
be quite correct. In order to find out whether it is correct, measure- 
ments of certain kinds must be made. For example, if a negative 
parallax could ever be observed for a single star, a spherically curved 
space would be implied. The mathematician Schwarzschild, a good 
many years ago, attempted to find what curvature of space would 
be possible according to certain types of non-Euclidean geometry. 
In dealing with these geometries he said, "One there finds oneself, 
if one but will, in a geometrical fairyland, but the beauty of this 
fairy tale is that one does not know but that it may come true." 



176 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Schwarzschild's results need not be considered here because his data 
were limited and because we have at present more detailed modes of 
procedure than he used. There are at least two mathematicians who 
have achieved the unique distinction of having a universe named 
after them. They are Einstein, and a Dutchman named de Sitter. 
Both universes are non-Euclidean and the Einstein universe appears 
to be the more popular. The curvature of the Einstein universe is 
determined by the amount of matter in it, and if it is not a static 
universe, by certain other factors. A chunk of matter produces quite 
a large local curvature, which is evidenced to us by what we call 
gravitational attraction. 

This universe is not infinite in extent. It is a closed universe with 
a finite volume but having no boundaries, just as the surface of a 
sphere is a closed surface of finite area yet has no bounding edges. 
In this universe one might expect to see a star in two directions, first 
by looking directly at it, second, by looking in the exactly opposite 
direction at light rays which have gone completely around the circuit 
of the universe in the opposite direction. Star images have not been 
seen in this way, possibly because their light is too faint after the 
long trip around the universe. There is also the possibility that the 
theory is wrong. It has, however, been seriously suggested that two 
very faint nebulae, observed in a certain direction, may actually be 
the backs of two of our nearest neighbors, as seen the long way 
around. 

The theory of a finite, closed universe is very attractive in many 
respects. We may again use the term "intellectually satisfactory'' 
in this connection, largely because this universe can be given a concise 
mathematical description and in terms that explain the gravitational 
effects of matter. There is also, in many individuals, a definite 
repugnance to the idea of infinite space. In discussing the stars 
Kant, in 1755, says, "There is here no end, but an abyss of real 
immensity in presence of which all the capability of human concep- 
tion sinks exhausted." The finite mind likes to set up a blank wall 
somewhere, in order to end it all. It is probably intellectually satis- 
factory to Imow that one can start out in imagination and not have 
to get farther away forever and ever, but will eventually get back to 
the good, old, familiar region of the starting point. 

With this picture of a finite, closed universe in mind we may now 
return to the question regarding the nebulae. Why should they 
appear to be crowded together at great distances from us? The 
answer might be that the curvature of space appears to make them 
crowd into smaller and smaller volumes as their distance increases. 
If this is true it is possible to calculate what radius of curvature of 
the universe would give the observed apparent crowding of the 



STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE — HEAPS 177 

nebulae at great distances. Such calculations have been made and 
the universe turns out to be remarkably small. In fact, it is so 
small that our largest telescopes would allow us to see about one-sixth 
of the way around it. This small universe is required in order to 
explain the apparent nonuniform distribution of the nebulae. How- 
ever, if we calculate the radius of the universe in this way we are 
" obliged to have only a certain amount of matter in it, since, according 
to Einstein, the radius is determined by this total amount of matter. 
Hubble has made surveys to find out whether the observed amount 
of matter will fit in with the radius as determined above. He esti- 
mates that if all observable stars and nebulae were smeared out 
uniformly there would be a maximum of about one hydrogen atom 
per cubic meter. This density of matter is far too small. In other 
words, there is not enough matter in the universe to give it a curvature 
great enough to spread out the nebulae uniformly. The theory of 
curvature of space has, therefore, failed to resolve the problem. 

Another way out of the dilemma is to suppose that the observa- 
tions of the astronomers are in error. Here is what Hubble has to say. 

These questions have been carefully reexamined during the past few years. 
Various minor revisions have been made, but the end results remain substan- 
tially unchanged. By the usual criteria of probable errors the data seem to be 
suflSciently consistent for their purpose. Nevertheless, the operations are deli- 
cate, and the most significant data are found near the limits of the greatest 
telescopes. Under such conditions it is always possible that results may be 
affected by hidden systematic errors. Although no suggestion of such errors 
has been found, the possibility will persist until investigations can be repeated 
with improved techniques and more powerful telescopes. Ultimately the prob- 
lem should be settled beyond question by the 200-inch reflector destined for 
Palomar. 

This telescope will have about twice the range of the best one now 
in use. Work on it has been stopped by the war, so it is impossible 
to predict just how soon it can be put to work on this problem. 

The last way which may be suggested for escaping from the 
dilemma is to suppose that in the region of astronomical magnitudes 
some new principle of nature is operative — some principle which we 
have not yet discovered in the ordinary macroscopic field. Such a 
principle would have to free us from the necessity of using the Dopp- 
ler effect, and we would no longer have to say that experimental 
observation shows the universe to be expanding. This new principle 
would, therefore, have to explain why the light from nebulae gets 
redder and redder as it travels greater and greater distances. Per- 
haps light which has been traveling for 100 million years in a straight 
line exhibits its senility by a decrease in the frequency of its vibra- 
tions. We do not know of any possible reason such as this why old 
light should be different in any way from new light. The only place 



178 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

from which we can get really old light is from the distant nebulae, 
so our chances of establishing by experiment a new principle of 
physics like this seems at present to be involved in a vicious circle 
from which there is no escape. 

It appears, therefore, that our knowledge of the structure of the 
universe at the limits of the astronomical range is unsatisfactory. 
We have to recognize that there are discrepancies between theory .and 
experimental observations. Hubble says that "a choice is presented, 
as once before in the days of Copernicus, between a strangely small, 
finite universe, and a sensibly infinite universe plus a new principle 
of nature." 

We may now go back once more for a comprehensive view of what 
we have called the linear lay-out of the universe in figure 1. The 
three components, or variables, were assumed quite simply to be space, 
matter, and time. At the right-hand end of the scale we have become 
embroiled in some rather questionable speculations regarding the 
nature of space and the behavior of light. In this region, where a 
light-year is the unit of distance and a nebula the unit of mass, we 
have good reason for suspecting that the mechanics of the universe 
cannot be described or explained in such a simple way as in the region 
of miles and mountains. 

Peculiarly enough, if we go from the enormously great region to 
the extremely small region, the region of the electron and the posi- 
tron, we encounter similar difficulties. You will remember that Dar- 
row characterized the microscopic region as unique because "of the 
adventurous excursions of the observers," and "the grandeur of the 
inferences." One or two of these inferences and excursions may be 
cited here, and it will appear that the simple concepts of space and 
matter have suffered in the microscopic field in much the same way 
that they have suffered in the astronomical field. As the result of 
investigations in the field of the small particles it has become neces- 
sary to broaden our ideas as to the nature of matter. Cloud-chamber 
pictures have allowed us practically to see two particles of matter 
created in space from the energy contained in radiation. 

The thing that happens is that a photon, an atom of radiant 
energy traveling with the speed of light, somehow gets itself into a 
peculiar situation in a microscopic field of some kind. The result 
is that the photon changes into two particles with electric charges, 
a positron and an electron. 

In the macroscopic size range an equivalent phenomenon would be 
for a quantity of sunshine, passing by an iron ball, to change sud- 
denly into a couple of buckshot. 

Needless to say, no one has ever seen anything like this happen. It 
is only when sizes become so small as to prevent direct observation 



STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE — HEAPS 179 

that the event occurs. We may well say that something peculiar is 
going on in the microscopic field. Something is happening which is 
foreign to our ordinary experience. 

Technically this phenomenon is known as pair production by a 
photon. The reverse process, conversion of matter into radiation, 
can occur when an electron and a positron come together under proper 
conditions. They disappear and two photons of radiation are shot 
out with the speed of light in opposite directions. 

Matter and energy can now be thought of as practically synony- 
mous. It thus becomes possible to make certain grand inferences 
with the object of saving the universe from running down. Millions 
of suns are slowly but surely converting their matter and their 
energy into radiation and this radiation is constantly escaping into 
infinity. Perhaps somewhere in space radiation may be changed back 
into matter. Perhaps the universe is engaged in a reversible cycle, 
instead of an irreversible one, as is commonly supposed. 

As an illustration of what Darrow calls an "adventurous excursion" 
of an observer we may take the Dirac theory of the positron. Dirac 
is a brilliant young Englishman, a mathematician who has demon- 
strated a high degree of daring and originality in his handling of 
theoretical physics. 

His theory of the positron starts out with two peculiar assumptions. 
First, a particle may have a negative kinetic energy. Second, all 
space is filled with particles of negative kinetic energy. There is a 
distribution of electrons of infinite density everywhere in the world. 
A perfect vacuum is a region where all the states of positive energy 
are unoccupied and all those of negative energy are occupied. 

When an electron, by some means or other, gets knocked out of 
this state of negative energy into a state of positive energy, it is 
observed as an ordinary electron; the hole which was left is a 
positron. This hole may wander around for a short time, but there 
are so many more electrons in the universe than holes that it is not 
long before some electron drops into the hole and both hole and 
electron disappear from the view of normal people. The very short 
life of the positron is thus explained, as is also the phenomenon of 
pair production and the conversion of matter into radiation. 

I have given this hasty outline of the theory, not that I expect 
anyone to understand it — it is hardly to be expected that negative 
energy can be understood — ^but because it illustrates the lengths to 
which a theorist has to go in creating physical explanation in this 
field. In the microscopic range of sizes a quite perfect explanation 
of things is given by a specialized type of mathematics called wave 
mechanics. It is only when this mathematical symbolism is explained 
in terms of physical symbolism that we call it an adventurous 



180 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

excursion. Dirac showed great courage in even trying to give a 
physical picture of his mathematical theory. The fact is that in 
the microscopic field things may behave in a -way entirely foreign to 
the way in which we have always seen large objects behave, hence they 
cannot be explained in the old familiar ways. 

There is in most people a strong tendency to label as "bunk" that 
which is not understood. This tendency is, on the whole, a healthy 
one. Skepticism is preferable to credulity if one is thinking in terms 
of the struggle for existence. The radio listeners who believe all the 
remarkable statements made about cough syrups, breakfast foods, 
cigarettes, etc., must certainly be struggling very hard for existence. 
However, skepticism based upon a lack of understanding is a danger- 
ous attitude of mind. Prof. P. W. Bridgman of Harvard has this to 
say in his book, "The Logic of Modern Physics" : 

It is diflScult to conceive anything more scientifically bigoted than to postulate 
that all possible experience conforms to the same type as that with which we 
are already familiar, and therefore to demand that explanations use only elements 
familiar in everyday experience. Such an attitude bespeaks an unimaginative- 
ness, a mental obtuseness and obstinacy which might be expected to have 
exhausted their pragmatic justification at a lower plane of mental activity. 

The explanation of microscopic phenomena, then, utilizes concepts 
which are not familiar to everyday experience. For that reason the 
microscopic tends to undermine any smug complacency we may have 
regarding our knowledge of nature and the universe. Take, for 
example, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This principle states 
that we can never know accurately both the position and the velocity 
of a small particle. It is easy to see why this is true. We can see the 
small particle because light has bounced off of it into our eye. We see 
it in the direction from which the light bounced. 

But the light, in bouncing from the particle, must have given it a 
push so that either its position or its velocity will have been changed 
by the mere fact that light must be used to observe it. By the time the 
light photon gets to the eye of the observer the particle will not be at 
exactly the spot from which the photon appeared to bounce. 

This uncertainty principle has been given an exact mathematical 
formulation. It turns out that if the position of an electron is known 
to within 0.004 inch then the speed of its motion is uncertain to within 
about 3 feet per second — the speed of a slow walk. 

The tendency, at first, is to consider this as rather a superficial 
principle. I can easily imagine a particle to have both position and 
momentum simultaneously; why bother so much about a mechanism 
for determining them ? However, a thorough study of the situation, 
with an analysis of every conceivable means afforded by nature for 
making determinations, impresses one with a feeling that here is a 



STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE — HEAPS 181 

conspiracy of nature to prevent man from acquiring too much detailed 
information. A conspiracy of nature is a law of nature; we cannot 
pass it over as being of no importance. It is as if nature had erected 
a wall of impenetrability around the smallest particles and forced us 
to see them only partially, as if through the cracks in the wall. 

It appears, therefore, that we are asking a meaningless question 
when we ask just where an electron is when it has a certain definite 
momentum. No possible operation can be thought of by which an 
answer to this question can be obtained without violating a law of 
nature. The conclusion is that the electron cannot have an exact 
velocity and an exact momentum simultaneously. There is an essen- 
tial fuzziness in the very foundations of nature herself. Time and 
space are a little peculiar in the microscopic region, most certainly. 

Someone has said that "the infinite, whether the infinitely large, 
or the infinitely small, seems to carry disaster in its wake." I do 
not think the word disaster is happily chosen in this connection. 
It is true that the two infinities at either end of our linear lay-out 
have shattered the beautiful, crystal-clear mechanical system which 
described the universe during most of the nineteenth century — when 
the luminiferous ether was as definitely material as a piece of iron, 
and when a scientist could say that practically all pioneer research 
in physics was over and nothing remained except to measure things 
with increasing accuracy. This complacent attitude is fortunately 
gone forever, and the two infinities have had a great deal to do with 
its disappearance. The new problems presented, the paradoxes, the 
uncertainties, all combine to give us a picture of modern science 
once more struggling, once more growing. It seems better to change 
the quotation to read, "The infinite, whether the infinitely large or 
the infinitely small, seems to have carried renaissance in its wake." 

In summing up the subject we may say that the small part of the 
universe, open to everyday experience, has given us a simple concep- 
tion of nature, a simple body of laws, which seems unable to cope 
with problems either in the region of the supernebulae or in the 
region of the extremely small particles. 

In the latter field we have found that, properly speaking, descrip- 
tions of phenomena must be mainly mathematical. Such descrip- 
tions are quite adequate at present, and we feel that the main prob- 
lems of explanation are well in hand. But we must be careful not 
to expect the same type of explanation that is used for objects of 
ordinary size, and we must remember that here there is a certain 
indefiniteness of behavior. We do not say that a small particle can 
never get over a high hill when it does not have enough energy to 
carry it to the top. We say that the probability of its getting over is 



182 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

small. It actually has a small probability of doing the job with an 
insuflBcient amount of energy I 

In the region of the supernebulae we are at present up against a 
paradox. We are at liberty to suppose that space is of a peculiarly 
curved character, or that it goes on to infinity ; that the supernebulae 
are flying away with enormous velocities, or that some unknown 
principle of nature is deceiving us. We may be affected by a feeling 
of futility because of this state of affairs, and even have a sympathetic 
feeling for St. Ambrose, who in A. D. 389 wrote : 

To discuss the nature of the earth does not help us in our hope of the life to 
come. It is enough to know that Scripture states that He hung up the earth 
on nothing. Why argue whether He hung it up in air or on water? The 
majesty of God constrains it by the law of His will. 

The spirit of modern science is not in agreement with St. Ambrose, 
and is not to be discouraged by apparent contradictions. This spirit 
demands continual arguing and speculating as to how the universe is 
hung up. Certainly we will always see as through a glass darkly, 
but just as certainly we will always keep on trying to polish the 
glass. 



INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE LOOKS AHEAD 



By Bkiqadiee Genebai. David Sabnoff 
President, Radio Corporation of America 



Industrial science at war is shaping a new world. While the bat- 
tle lines of the United Nations encircle the Fortress Europe and the 
gigantic pincers of victory tighten on the enemy in the Pacific, civi- 
lization advances ever closer to the postwar horizon. With victory 
win come the day when the scientific instruments and processes of 
war will turn abruptly to peace. Machines and tools, as well as 
industrial and economic thinking, will be converted quickly from the 
demands of war to the needs of peace. Industry will be called upon 
to relieve the strains of war with utmost speed by ministering anew 
to human welfare, health, and comfort. Postwar planners are now 
at work in many fields of industrial endeavor. 

It is not new for American industry to be surveying and planning 
for the future. That process is always at work here, whether the 
world is at peace or at war. Only by advanced thinking, research, 
engineering, and continual pioneering, can industrial science put 
new ideas into action. By doing this, industry serves its workers 
and the people, and thereby wins the right to survive. 

We have but to consider some of the outstanding wartime develop- 
ments of industrial science to realize their widespread applications 
in all fields, from automobiles to giant turbines and diesel engines, 
from cameras to facsimile and television. Endlessly these advances 
extend into every realm of our daily lives. Among the promises of 
better living we are told of new plastics, light metals, synthetic tex- 
tiles, high-octane gasoline, artificial rubber, luminescent lighting, air- 
conditioning, dehydration of foodstuffs, and many other innovations. 
We even hear of glass flatirons and plastic lenses. We are promissd 
revolutionary changes in homes, aircraft, communications, ships, 
railroads, automobiles, highways, clothing, and foods. In myrind 
ways the wartime inventions in electricity, metallurgy, chemistry, and 
physics will open new gateways for industrial science to enter and 
enrich our everyday life. 

^ Address delivered before the Lancaster Chapter of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. Reprinted by permission from Science, vol. 98, Nov. 19, 1943. 

183 
619830—45 13 



184 ANNUAL KEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

As for the great, modern art of radio, I can promise you that as 
a service to mankind everywhere it will keep pace with the march of 
science and industry in every other field. 

Today is the anniversary of a historic event that provides us with 
a timely opportunity to review the remarkable advances of radio 
within a quarter century, to reflect upon its vital role in the war, and 
to look into its future. 

Twenty-five years ago this morning, news flashed across the hemi- 
spheres that the first World War had ended. In retrospect that day 
appears as a fleeting moment. History lifted her pen and paused to 
dot the "i" of an empty victory that proved to be only the prelude 
to a global war unprecedented in fury, extent, and destruction. 

In that autumn of 1918, Germany's pleas for peace had revealed the 
jjlight of the German people. Germany was cracking. American 
radio was entrusted to transmit to a defeated nation President 
Wilson's Fourteen Points as a basis for the restoration of peace, and 
for a general armistice on land, on water, and in the air. Eadio opera- 
tors stood by for the answer. It came on the midnight air of November 
11, when silence in the "ether" over the Atlantic was interrupted by a 
flash from Europe. At 2 : 45 a. m. New York time, the news broke. 
The State Department in Washington announced the Armistice had 
been signed at midnight, and hostilities would cease at 6 o'clock in the 
morning — 11 a. m. in France. 

There was no radio broadcasting to spread the welcome word — "It's 
over, over there !" 

Under the banner headline "Peace," Americans read the news at 
their breakfast tables. The world was only a reading world at that 
time. It had not yet learned to listen. News spread slowly in 1918. 
Although powerful radio alternators relayed these tidings around 
the world to ships on the Seven Seas, homes were not yet radio 
equipped. Many days passed before news of the Armistice filtered 
into remote hamlets and farms. War correspondents were scribes, 
not eyewitness broadcasters; they had the pen but no microphone. 
Today news travels at the speed of light, in every language to every 
corner of the earth. 

In those days there were no globe-encircling short waves, no high- 
power vacuum tubes, no universal receiving sets. The radiophone 
was just learning to talk. The electron tube had not yet revealed 
its power and its unlimited possibilities. 

The radio of that day gave everything it had to win the war. Re- 
search men and engineers rushed new devices into service to main- 
tain contacts with the battle fleet, with the convoys and the American 
Expeditionary Force in France. Although ships in the mid-Atlantic 
could not maintain direct contact with American and European shores. 



INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE — SARNOFF 185 

the long waves of powerful land stations swept across the sea and 
linked America with its Allies. War bulletins moved through the air 
at the rate of 30 to 40 words a minute. Today, short waves and high- 
speed automatic machines handle news at the rate of more than 600 
words a minute. In the First World War, American newspapers had 
to wait for ships to arrive with the historic pictures of Pershing and 
the A. E. F. in France. Now radiophoto service can deliver pictures 
of Eisenhower and his forces in Italy and MacArthur and his troops 
in the South Pacific a few minutes after the camera snaps them. 

Today, largely because of radio, New York is the communication 
center of the world. In 1918, it was London. During the first World 
War the United States found itself at the mercy of foreign communi- 
cations. America learned the lesson then, that radio was the nerve 
system of war as well as of peace. Immediate steps were taken to 
safeguard the future, to give the United States supremacy in world- 
wide communications and to make sure that never again would this Ke- 
public be dependent upon the wave lengths, cables, or wires operated 
and controlled by other nations. 

As a result of this determination, the direct radiotelegraph circuits 
of RCA now reach 51 countries in Central and South America, the 
West Indies, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australasia. Radiophoto cir- 
cuits operate between New York and London, Stockholm, Berne, Mos- 
cow, Cairo, and Buenos Aires, while the terminal at San Francisco 
serves Honolulu and Melbourne. 

In this war, radio is everywhere — with soldier, sailor, marine, 
and airman. Modern warfare has put radio instruments into every 
bomber and fighter plane, into every mechanized unit, and into every 
ship. There were no walkie-talkies or handy-talkies in No-Man's 
Land, at Verdun or at the Mame. The "cease firing" order signed 
by Foch was shouted and carried by runners along the trenches. The 
radio equipment of that day was too massive and too heavy for more 
than a limited use in airplanes. Now compact, eflScient radio goes 
aloft with all planes ; wave lengths are their life lints. Coordinating 
great aerial squadrons, radio guides the bombers and swarms of 
fighters over the targets, and safely back to the airports. The para- 
trooper leaps from the skies with a miniature radio transmitter — no 
larger than a cracker box — strapped to his belt. The artillery, 
through its radio, knows at all times what the infantry wants, wlien 
it wants it, and exactly where it wants it. 

These historic comparisons dramatize the great advances made by 
radio in a quarter of a century. Industrial science and private enter- 
prise, free and unfettered, took the war-born electron tubes, the radio- 
telephone, and the short waves, and adapted them to peaceful 
pursuits. Clues to what might be accomplished in peace were, how- 



186 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

ever, in the air during those final months of the first World War. 
When a sub-chaser dashed out to sea from a port in Maine, its radio 
operator moved a portable phonograph near to his radiophone micro- 
phone to broadcast a popular wartime tune, "I May Be Gone for a 
Long, Long Time." From the Navy station at New Brunswick, N. J., 
the "Star Spangled Banner" was broadcast up and down the coast. 
These were forerunners of the day when radio music from hundreds 
of stations would encircle the globe. 

War had revealed that new instruments could be made available 
for mass communication. The time was opportune and industrial 
science was prepared to answer the challenge. Soon after the Ar- 
mistice, America became aflame with a new national pastime — that of 
listening-in. The vast industry of broadcasting came into being. Its 
achievements as a service to America and to all the world during the 
past quarter of a century are an epoch-making and dramatic story 
of American ingenuity and enterprise at its best. 

In no other nation has radio developed as it has in the United 
States. Nowhere else are people better informed. Today this 
country is served by more than 900 broadcasting stations and 4 na- 
tional networks. There are 60,000,000 receiving sets in our land. 
The owner of every set is free to listen to any wave length from any 
country. American radio dials are symbols of freedom. 

The scientists, who worked out inventions and harnessed the wave 
lengths to equip America with this unsurpassed radio system, realized 
only vaguely that their achievements might be used in a second World 
War. Theirs were the tasks of peace. They worked to make a sym- 
phony orchestra sound with perfection hundreds and thousands of 
miles distant from its source and enable the human voice to ring true 
on the other side of the globe. 

They extended the influence of news, education, and religion to all 
parts of the earth. They made the world an open-air theater in 
which countless millions of people could enjoy free entertainment. 

Thus, scientists made American radio the Voice of Freedom, so 
interwoven with our daily lives that we have come to think of radio 
as an achievement only of the twentieth century. It is, however, a 
child of the ages. Modern radio came into existence through a long 
process of evolution. The long corridors of time through which man 
has conducted research and experiments extend far into the past. 
They lead back to ancient Greece. There the first electric sparks, 
called electrum, kindled a new science and unleashed a new force — 
electricity. 

While the men of science were seeking to explain the mystery of 
these sparks, the philosophers of Greece forsaw that if democratic 
government were to remain effective, the range of the human voice 



INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE — SARNOFF 187 

would have to be greatly extended. Aristotle argued that the best 
of states might well outgrow geographical boundaries with popula- 
tions reaching such size that well-ordered and efficient government 
could not function. He said that a democratic government required 
that the citizens keep in touch with one another; that their leaders 
know each other and that they study at first hand their common poli- 
tical problems and the policies necessary to meet them. But Aristotle 
warned that it would be impossible to accomplish this in the overgrown 
state, "for who could be the leader of the people in such a State, or 
who the town-crier, unless he have the voice of a Stentor?" It 
would seem that Aristotle even forecast the need for television, be- 
cause he believed that the people needed to see their leaders, as well 
as hear them at long range. 

Two thousand years later we have seen this come to pass, for science 
has provided government and its leaders with radio. The entire Na- 
tion has become an open forum. The leader of the modern state is 
heard at one time by more people than Aristotle and Socrates reached 
in their life time. Electricity has made the microphone the voice of 
the Stentor; our leaders talk to the people, and at the same instant 
they are heard around the world. 

We of this generation have seen men of evil intent stopped by the 
very tools of science they perverted ruthlessly to extend their power. 
We have watched science halt the tyrant and dictator as the stentorian 
voice of the United Nations cried out in defense of freedom, democracy, 
and justice. 

When this war ends, we shall be on the threshold of a new era 
in radio — an era in which man will see, as well as hear, distant events. 
The first two decades of the century belonged to wireless telegraphy. 
The second two decades featured sound broadcasting; the third two 
decades promise television. It is not too bold to predict that the fourth 
two decades will introduce international television with pictures in 
color. 

It is even possible that in the two final decades, we may complete 
the century with power transmission by radio, and its use in the 
operation of vehicles, automobiles, ships, railroads, and airplanes. 
Wlien completed, the story of these first hundred years of radio will 
make fascinating reading. Even a Jules Verne could not tell us all 
that lies ahead in this magic realm of radio-electronics. 

The science of radio is no longer confined to communications. 
Among revolutionary accomplishments in other lines, we have the 
electron microscope, one of the most important new scientific tools of 
the twentieth century. Developed in EGA Laboratories, and based 
upon television techniques, this instrument has a high wartime prior- 
ity rating for use in scientific, medical, and industrial research. For 



188 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the first time it has made it possible for us to see and identify mole- 
cules, and to photograph the influenza virus. It has revealed, in in- 
finite detail, the true structures of libers, crystals, and pigments. The 
submicroscopic world is now opened wide for exploration. Bacteria, 
tissues, and minute particles of matter have been brought within 
range of man's eye, for the electron microscope, many times more 
powerful than the strongest optical microscope, permits magnifica- 
tions up to 100,000 diameters. A needle on such a scale of magnifica- 
tion would appear as huge as the Washington Monument ; a blood cor- 
puscle as large as the wheel of an automobile and a football field 
five times the size of the United States. 

Wartime industrial research and engineering have rushed into use 
still another branch of radio — the art of utilizing high-frequency 
radio waves for heating. It violates no military secret to report that 
in this new field of radiothermics, a laminated airplane propeller can 
be processed in minutes compared with hours required by ordinary 
heat and pressure methods. In many cases where uniform heat under 
accurate control is necessary in industrial processes, radiothermics 
offers great promise in efficiency and time saving. The wide scope 
of its application ranges from case-hardening steel to dehydrating 
foods, from gluing prefabricated houses to seaming thermoplastic 
materials by means of a "radio sewing machine." These accomplish- 
ments are all based upon the simple fact that microwaves, in penetrat- 
ing an object, encounter resistance and create heat. 

Farther afield from communications, research men are exploring 
supersonic vibrations, far above the range of the human ear. The use 
of these ultrasonics in chemistry may open a field in which high- 
intensity sound accelerates chemical reactions. Experiments also 
indicate important possibilities in many other fields including under- 
water communication, emulsification of liquids, and precipitation of 
dust from the air. 

We attribute all these lines of progress to the science of electronics. 
The heart of that science is the radio tube. Millions and millions of 
radio-electron tubes are on duty around the world. They are being 
manufactured in the United States at the rate of 400,000 a day. The 
communities in which they are made are on the front line of pro- 
duction. The great importance of each radio tube that moves off the 
production lines can only be envisaged by considering the many func- 
tions it performs in helping to win the war. The delicate finger of 
the worker who makes the tubes has a task as vital as the finger of a 
soldier on the trigger of a rifle. 

Likewise, radio-electron tubes are as important in peace as in war. 
They are the master keys to revolutionary advances in radio. They 
have registered the sound of footprints in the past; they are the 



INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE — SARNOFF 189 

pulse of the present and the "eye" of television that sees far into the 
future. 

The day may come when every person will have his own little radio 
station tucked away in his pocket, to hear and to communicate with 
his home or his office as he walks or rides along the street. 

We have much to learn about the microwaves, in which is wrapped 
up this new world of individualized radio. Tiny electron tubes may 
make it possible to design radio receivers and transmitters no larger 
than a fountain pen, a cigarette case, a billfold, or a lady's powder 
box. Some day people may carry television screens on their wrists 
as they now carry watches. As the useful spectrum of radio ap- 
proaches the frontiers of light, the apparatus will become simpler 
and more compact. 

Today science is leading us out of a world in which radio has been 
blind. Tomorrow we shall have radio sight. By this I do not mean 
that we shall look only at pictures in motion that travel through the 
air. Radiovision will have many uses. It will serve wherever sight 
is needed. For instance, it will be used to prevent collisions on high- 
ways and railroads, on sea lanes and on the airways of the world. 
Radio will be the new eye of transportation and commerce. Appli- 
cations of radio optics are unlimited. With radio ear and eye to 
guide them, the great stratoliners will be superhuman in their in- 
stincts of hearing and seeing as they speed through space with 
passengers and freight. Radio, which made the world a whispering 
gallery, will turn it into a world of mirrors. 

Radio's great responsibilties do not stop there. A formidable task 
lies ahead for communications in the restoration of peace, in the re- 
construction of the world, in the reestablishment of international 
trade. 

If American industrial science is to play its destined role in the re- 
construction period, government should not unduly restrict private 
enterprise or enter into competition with industry. On the other 
hand, it is of no avail for industry merely to point to the dangers of 
governmental restraints. Industry must give evidence of leadership 
by presenting practical alternatives. 

The day of pioneering in America has not ended. Trail blazing 
now calls for joint effort by government, labor, and industry. Their 
authority, experience, and vision must fuse harmoniously to achieve 
success. The same spirit of give-and-take must prevail in industrial 
statesmanship as in national and international statesmanship. There 
must be but one goal — the welfare of the people and the Nation. 

Industrial statesmanship can accomplish more than political states- 
manship in solving the postwar problems of employment, mass pro- 
duction, prosperity, and the continued uplift of the American standard 



190 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

of living. Industry can be the great motive power in the solution of 
these problems. The future of every American home and family 
depends upon it. Therefore, it is imperative that after victory is 
achieved on the battlefields, American industry devote the same all- 
out efforts to the peace that it devoted to the war. There can be no 
let-down. The problems of peace will be of great magnitude. After 
the devastation of war, mankind will be called upon to win the peace 
and to make that peace secure with happiness for all people. If in- 
dustrial statesmanship fails in this great opportunity, then the ap- 
proach to the postwar problems necessarily will be political instead 
of economic. 

America's cultivation of science has proved the Nation's salvation 
in modern warfare. It must not be otherwise in peace. Pioneering 
and research create wealth and employment. 

In considering opportunities for employment after the war we must 
lift our sights to the skies. Man, long confined in his activities to 
the surface of the earth and beneath the ground, now finds that the 
air is a new dimension, offering new adventures and pioneering by 
a new generation. The air is a universal chemical and physical lab- 
oratory in which essential elements for life on earth are created. 
Nature herself makes unlimited use of celestial space for trans- 
mission of light and heat from the sun. Only in recent years has 
man learned to use the air. Only now is he beginning to discover 
its tremendous potentialities. Literally out of thin air, chemists are 
creating new products, physicists are building new services, while 
man is talking on unseen waves and flying on invisible beams. 

On the surface of the earth, ships and railroads, automobiles and 
industrial machines have created millions of jobs. Underground 
coal, oil, and minerals provide emploj^ment for other millions. Above 
the earth aviation and radio, electronics and television can open the 
way for new opportunities in re-employment of war workers and for 
the millions of men and women who will return from service. 

It is estimated that 10,000,000 jobs which did not exist in 1940 must 
be found to solve the postwar problem of employment. One great 
hope in helping to meet this unprecedented challenge will be found in 
the fertile and unexplored frontiers of space. Science, offering new 
incentives, is beckoning capital to venture into the open skies. We 
are challenged to look upward to our future. 

Horace Greeley, if here today, might say, "Go up, young man, go 
up and grow up in space." There, lies the unfathomed "West" of this 
century, with no last frontier; there, lies a vast wilderness rich in 
resources, opportunities, and adventure. The "Forty-niners" of the 
present decade will be prospectors in research. They will travel 
through the air to stake their claims to fame, fortune, and freedom. 



INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE — SARNOFF 191 

To assure the full attainment of these results, private industry and 
the Government must play their parts with the utmost honesty of 
purpose, encouraging individual and collective initiative. The na- 
tional growth of the United States and its contributions through 
research and invention, are historic proof that traditional American 
cooperation between industry and government promotes the best 
public interest. 

The role of government in its relationship to labor and industry 
should be that of an umpire. A wise government does not seek to 
favor either management or labor. It must be impartial, not partisan. 

When the war ends, and we enter the immediate period of transi- 
tion, the Government in fairness to both labor and industry nmst 
readjust its rigid wartime controls. The emergency regulations nec- 
essary in wartime, but not necessary in peacetime, should be reduced 
as speedily as practicable. Elimination of wartime restrictions will 
enable manufacturers to produce and supply the goods needed by the 
Nation, to maintain employment, and to adapt new developments in 
industrial science for the benefit of all people. 

America must be practical. Science and industry must have 
American independence if they are to succeed in the gigantic task of 
reconversion, re-employment, and world rehabilitation. 

Never again can the United States be isolated and secure within 
its own shores. In the fact that no spot on the globe is farther than 
60 hours' flying time from any local airport, is seen the truth that 
nations must live together as good neighbors. Shriveled by radio 
and aviation, the new world is a single neighborhood. That is not a 
theoretical concept. It is a fact. 

Today man can travel by train from Chicago to New York in 17 
hours ; he can fly in 5 hours. He saves 12 hours, but it is of no avail 
if he does not use that time constructively. If people achieve more 
leisure, what are they to do with the newly found hours of freedom ? 
This is one of the paramount problems that faces the postwar world. 
Recreation and entertainment are vital to a happy life. But to be 
content man must also work. Mere idleness does not produce hap- 
piness or progress. Life is measured by time; it is too fleeting and 
precious to waste. 

Entertainment can be as refreshing as sleep. The brain to gain 
new ideas and to think clearly also must have diversion. In leisure 
some of the greatest dreams of all time have been born and have 
grown into revolutionary ideas and inventions. The complete con- 
ception of the telegraph flashed into the mind of Morse while on an 
ocean voyage. The idea of wireless flashed into Marconi's mind 
while vacationing in the Alps. Great ideas in science, art, and litera- 
tiu'e seldom come directly to the workbench; they are released at 



192 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

unsuspecting moments when the subconscious mind has opportunity 
to come into its own. 

In broadcasting we have an outstanding example of an art that is 
measured by time and linked with opportunity. The listener may 
use the hours to good advantage, or he may waste them. It is the 
use to which he puts his radio set and his freedom in selection of pro- 
grams that reveals the inherent value of broadcasting. The program 
is the essence. If it brings laughter, if it stimulates thinking, or rests 
the tired mind, or keeps the listener informed and in touch with 
his fellowmen, then radio is an antidote for idleness and loneliness. 

Science is a mighty ally of freedom — its advance has brought much 
release from drudgery and from want. However, we must progress 
still further. For better machines are not all that is needed to make 
a better life. We shall have a better world only to the extent that our 
social thinking and our social progress keep pace with the advance 
of physical science. 

We are approaching the days in this struggle when the basic chal- 
lenge of the postwar years will become sharper and clearer. It is a 
challenge that will ring out to people in all walks of life, to brains 
and initiative, to cooperation of government and industry, to labor 
and management, to religion and education. The answer will be 
found in the minds and hearts of men and women intent upon preserv- 
ing civilization and a world at peace. 

In this month of Thanksgiving, let us be thankful that America and 
her Allies have the strength and determination to hold high the eternal 
torch of freedom. May the victory be a victory of lasting peace, so 
that out of the bombed and shell-torn earth will come a happier to- 
morrow for all mankind. 



THE NEW MICROSCOPES 



By R. B. Seidel, M. D., and M. Elizabeth Winter 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



[With 5 plates] 



It is, to speak conservatively, of extreme interest to review the 
recent progress made by the scientist in his endeavor to penetrate the 
unseen world of the minute and disease-causing organisms, in particu- 
lar a world of viruses — suspected, yet lying just beyond the scope of 
human vision and the power of the microscope to reveal ; for the lab- 
oratory research worker, the doctor, the technician long have been 
familiar with the effects of these unseen enemies they have been called 
upon to treat and to cope with in man, animal, and plant, and while 
their knowledge of the infinitesimal has been growing steadily, they 
were, until very recently, unable to make the slight step "beyond" 
which would enable them to "see." But today, science is exploring — 
looking for the first time upon totally new worlds through the eyes of 
totally new types of microscopes, microscopes new in principle of 
construction and in principle of illumination. 

THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 

One of these new instruments, the electron microscope, has received 
considerable attention and is now being used extensively in both in- 
dustrial and medical research. Based on the principles of geometric 
electron optics, this microscope utilizes electrons as a source of illumi- 
nation instead of the light source of the ordinary light microscope. 

Electrons, practically speaking, are the smallest, lightest particles of 
matter and electricity. Like light, they behave like corpuscles guided 
by waves. Unlike light, however, they travel in a straight line in a 
vacuum where, subject to the action of electric and magnetic fields, 
their behavior coincides with the laws and principles set down by Sir 
William Hamilton who, more than a century ago, demonstrated the 
existence of a close analogy between the path of a light ray through 
refracting media and that of a particle through conservative fields of 
force. 

We know that these negatively charged particles, the electrons, re- 
volving about in their various orbits in the atom, serve to maintain the 



* Reprinted by permission from the Journal of the Franltlin Institute, vol. 237, No. 2, 
February 1944. 

193 



194 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

balance of the atom while the nucleus exerts the "positive" force which 
holds it together; and we also know that when this balance is upset, 
due to gain or loss of electrons, we think of the atom as "charged," 
since it is this circumstance which causes the tiny particle to attract or 
repel other electrons according to the state of its unbalance. And 
science has succeeded in unbalancing the atoms to such an appreciable 
extent that the negative electricity may be withdrawn and harnessed 
for use in such instruments as the electron microscopes. 

The fact has long been established that atoms are in a constant 
state of vibration in a heated body and that the greater the heat of the 
body, the greater the agitation of the atoms. According to the electron 
theory of metals, electrons circulate about a three-dimensional network, 
or lattice, of positive ions, some of the electrons being comparatively 
free, that is to say, the attractions of the ions are practically canceled 
by the repulsions of the other electrons. It does not necessarily follow, 
however, that the same electrons consistently remain free. They may 
be controlled by the ions eventually, but regardless of this, there is 
always a fixed number of them that are free. Moreover, there is a 
critical value of speed above which the electrons are able to rise in 
metals and thus escape from their restraining positive charges, though 
at ordinary temperatures the proportion of them moving rapidly 
enough to do this is relatively small. However, as the heat applied 
to the metal is increased, not only is the thermal agitation of the 
electrons increased also, but the proportion among them possessing 
sufficiently high speeds to enable them to leave the metal. 

Thus is heat applied to the electron source of the electron micro- 
scope which, in the case of most instruments of this kind, is a tungsten 
filament surrounded by a guard cylinder. After leaving the filament, 
or cathode, the electrons enter an electric field wherein are large 
accumulations of charge which serve to speed up steadily the motion 
of these freely moving particles. Since the electrons travel in vacua, 
none of the kinetic energy gained in crossing the field is lost, the total 
kinetic energy, or energy of motion, gained in passing through this 
region being proportional to the voltage applied. We may deduce, 
therefore, that since increase of charge in an electric field means a 
proportional increase of kinetic energy of these electrons, the higher 
the voltage applied, the greater the speed of the electrons — all of 
which has been calculated mathematically and confirmed experi- 
mentally. 

After traversing the electric field and passing through the anode, 
the electrons are concentrated on the specimen under examination by 
the first of three magnetic fields which are created by currents flowing 
through coils enclosed in soft iron shields, molded so as to concentrate 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 



195 



the magnetic fields on a short section of the microscope's axis. Wliereas 
in the ordinary light microscope glass lenses serve as the refractive 
media through which light rays are deflected, in the electron microscope 
it is these magnetic fields of rotational symmetry which are the refrac- 
tive media and serve as the "lenses" which deflect the beams of 



ELECTRON 
SOURCE 



MAGNETIC 
CONDENSER 



MAGNETIC 
OBJECTIVE 



INTERMEDIATE 

IMAGE 
PROJECTOR 



„/ 



i\ 



LIGHT SOURCE 



CONDENSER 
LENS 



OBJECTIVE 
LENS 



7\ 
La 



PROJECTOR 
LENS 

(EYE PIECE) 



SECOND STAGE 
MAGNIFIED IMAGE 



LA 



OBSERVA' 
SCREEN 

(PHOTOGRAPHIC PIATE) 



FiGXJBE 1. — Comparison of a simplified cross section of an electron microscope 
(left) with that of an ordinary light microscope. 

electrons. The first of these, the condenser lens coil, corresponding to 
the substage condenser of the ordinary light microscope, concentrates 
the beam of electrons upon the specimen. The convergence of the 
beam falling on the specimen is controlled by varying the current 
through this condenser lens. Now, having passed through the speci- 
men, the objective coil, similar in effect to the objective lens, focuses 
the electrons, and an intermediate image enlarged about 100 diameters 



196 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

is formed. Finally, the projection coil, corresponding to the projec- 
tion lens or ocular, produces a further magnified image on a large 
fluorescent screen. In some of the electron microscopes, there is a 
periscope-like attachment by means of which it is possible to locate 
and adjust for study the most interesting portion of the specimen, or 
that which it is desired should be examined, before the projection lens 
coil forms the final magnified image upon the screen, since it is some- 
times difficult to accomplish this at high magnification. Also, if it 
is desired that a photographic record be made, the screen can be 
removed and a photographic plate substituted. 

The specimen itself is supported on a thin nitrocellulose membrane 
less than one-millionth of an inch thick, and clamped in the tip of a 
cartridge which is inserted between the pole pieces of the objective coil. 
The membrane is suspended across the opening of a fine-mesh screen, 
and a plate, serving as the movable stage, supports the cartridge. The 
image is projected onto the screen according to the density and atomic 
weight of the specimen. In other words, whereas in the ordinary light 
microscope the image is seen because of refraction of the specimen or 
differences in absorption, in the electron microscope the image is seen 
through scattering of the electrons, and since electrons travel in a 
straight line in a vacuum, it stands to reason that even a fairly thin 
specimen will prove sufficient to deflect such particles. Electrons 
which strike a thick or solid portion of the specimen will, of course, 
not continue on in a straight line to the screen but will be either com- 
pletely absorbed by the specimen or scattered too far out of the beam, 
thus failing to enter the narrow aperture of the objective, so that that 
portion of the screen corresponding to the thick portion of the specimen 
will remain dark. However, those electrons which are able to escape 
complete absorption or too great deflection, because they do not happen 
to come in contact with too solid a portion of the specimen and either 
pass along on all sides of it or penetrate the thinner portions where it 
is possible they may encounter only a single heavy nucleus for consider- 
able scattering (the angle of deflection being proportional to the 
square root of the thickness) , continue on to the screen where they im- 
pinge and cause the chemically treated screen to fluoresce, thus provid- 
ing a study in light and shadow. If the atoms of a particular sub- 
stance are heavy, they will also deflect more electrons than if they were 
light. It may be readily seen, therefore, that the thinner the specimen 
and its mounting, or the greater the variations in density of the speci- 
men, the more internal structure and detail which may be seen, since 
too great density tends to absorb or interrupt the straight-line progress 
of too many of the electrons. 

Focusing of the image is accomplished by varying the strength 
of the fields and thereby altering the focal length of the "lens" coils at 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 197 

will, SO that the need of changing the specimen's position in relation 
to a fixed optical system, as would be the case with an ordinary light 
microscope, is avoided. Thus, magnification in an electron micro- 
scope can be continuously varied. 

Some specimens may be mounted directly on the fine-mesh screen 
while others may be embedded in collodion, sealed between films of 
collodion, or suspended in a gelatin film, itself supported on collodion 
film. The supporting films beside being very thin must be homo- 
geneous lest an artifact be created. For the most part, no staining 
of bacteriological specimens is done since usually they exhibit suffi- 
ciently high contrast in density to reveal readily flagella and other de- 
tail without any preparation except that of suspending the specimen in 
distilled water or other liquid and allowing a drop of the suspension 
to dry on the film surface, which method is also utilized for specimens 
of colloidal particles, pigments, and other chemical preparations. At 
times, however, as Dr. L. Marton, of Stanford University, has men- 
tioned in his article on the electron microscope (written for The Jour- 
nal of Bacteriology, March 1941, when he was associated with the 
R. C. A. Research Laboratories) , virus particles may show decided low 
contrast. One method which Dr. Marton mentioned for overcoming 
this is to obtain a number of electron micrographs at various focuses 
and simply select the best one for study. Or the virus may be per- 
mitted to absorb colloidal gold which would result in an image of high 
contrast. Dr. Marton points out that there may be future need for a 
staining in density and that already osmic acid has been tried and used 
for this purpose. 

In this microscope, voltages of between 30,000 and 60,000 are used. 
It has been previously stated that the higher the voltage, the greater 
the speed of the electrons. This might now be augmented to read, 
the higher the voltage, the greater the speed of electrons; hence, the 
shorter the wave length. An explanation of this may be approached 
through a brief discussion of short-wave diffraction as considered by 
Dr. Karl K. Darrow, of Bell Laboratories, in his book, "The Renais- 
sance of Physics." In order to obtain convenient angles of refraction 
with the ordinary diffraction grating, it is necessary that the wave 
lengths of light be smaller, but not many times smaller, than the spac- 
ing between the wires or grooves. Naturally, a limit of measurement 
is reached in the region of ultraviolet light since it is impossible to 
lessen further the spacing of these gratings. However, this limitation 
was overcome when von Laue conceived the idea of substituting a 
crystal for an artificial grating since the atoms in a crystal are a 
thousand times more closely set together than are the wires or grooves 
of a grating and are arranged in precise regular order or "lattices," 
and, like gratings, are unable to diffract waves which are longer than 



198 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the spacings between their atoms. Von Laue suggested that if a beam 
of light were directed across a crystal and made to strike a photo- 
graphic plate, there would appear a spray of narrow rays each com- 
posed of a single wave train instead of the broad fanlike arrange- 
ment of the grating, and a pattern of starlike spots where the rays 
come in contact with the plate instead of the dark irregular blot 
when a grating is used. Of course, the rays are disposed according 
to the spacings of the atoms in the lattice and according to the char- 
acter of the lattice. Von Laue confirmed this idea for waves short 
enough to be so diffracted and then advanced the theory that this 
principle might hold true for X-rays as well, which theory was almost 
immediately confirmed by Friedrich and Knipping. Shortly after 
Schroedinger began to develop De Broglie's wave theory of electrons, 
Elsasser conceived the idea that possibly these tiny particles might 
also be diffracted by crystals, and Doctors Davisson and Germer, of the 
Bell Telephone Research Laboratories, using as part of their appara- 
tus an electron gun, set out to test and to prove this theory. Due to 
their experiments and those of G. P. Thomson, it was established 
beyond a doubt that electron beams are diffracted just as are X-ray 
beams. However, it was also demonstrated in the course of these ex- 
periments that electrons of slow speeds and feeble kinetic energies are 
unable to penetrate the crystals. It was Thomson who utilized faster 
electrons and demonstrated that not only are electrons diffracted like 
X-rays, but like X-rays also they make an imprint upon a photographic 
plate at increased speeds. These three men, together with others, then 
measured the wave lengths which they compared with the momenta 
of these electrons by their diffraction. To these experiments and 
measurements were then applied the following rules of correlation: 
"Energy {E) is proportional to frequency (v), and momentum {p) is 
inversely proportional to wavelength (lambda), the same constant {h) 
appearing in both relations. (Frequency is interpreted as the velocity 
(F) of the waves divided by their wavelength.)" These rules can be 
applied mathematically to the electron microscope to illustrate better 
the principles of its operation. In making use of the first rule, how- 
ever, it is necessary to substitute "voltage" for "frequency," and in so 
doing, therefore, the rules of correlation explain the increase of energy 
in relation to the increase of voltage as well as the increase of speed of 
electrons in relation to the decrease or shortening of wave length when 
we say the higher the voltage, the greater the speed ; hence, the shorter 
the wave length of electrons. It is interesting to note in passing that 
a 150-volt electron has a wave length of one Angstrom unit, this being 
more than 10-' times smaller than the wave length of visible or 
ultraviolet light. 

Because the wave lengths utilized in an electron microscope are so 
much shorter than those employed in an ordinary light microscope, 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 199 

it is possible to obtain greatly increased resolution and magnification. 
As a matter of fact, resolution up to 20,000 or 25,000 diameters may be 
realized, and increased magnifications beyond this point up to 100,000, 
even 200,000 diameters, can be obtained, such magnifications, however, 
constituting enlargement of the image. (Definitions of "resolution" 
and "magnification" discussed under "The Ordinary Microscope.") 
This high magnification is greatly desirable since otherwise the eye 
would be unable to distinguish the fine detail of internal structure at 
a resolution of the order of 25,000. As a result of this increase in reso- 
lution and magnification over that of the ordinary light microscope 
which is between 1,600 and 2,500 diameters and in the ultramicroscope 
between 2,500 and 5,000 diameters, many surface cells and much intri- 
cate internal structure hitherto unsuspected, or at least undetected by 
ordinary microscopes, have been revealed. To cite a few examples : 

The streptococcal cells appear, not as individual cells, that is, sepa- 
rate and apart from one another, but as chainlike groups, the cells in 
each chain being bound together apparently by the strong rigid mem- 
brane or outer cellular wall which extends over a number of these cells 
and which is so plainly evident under the electron microscope. Sub- 
jected to sonic vibration, these cells suffer a loss of protoplasmic mate- 
rial from their interior, causing them to become mere "ghost" cells, 
which makes them more transparent to electron beams. That there 
exists considerable difference between the surface structure and in- 
ternal composition of these cells has also been determined and 
demonstrated. 

Using the electron microscope. Dr. Harry E. Morton, of the depart- 
ment of bacteriology of the University of Pennsylvania Medical 
School, and Dr. Thomas F. Anderson, of R. C. A. Research Labora- 
tories were able to demonstrate that in at least one instance where 
chemical reaction is induced by bacteria this reaction takes place 
"inside" the cells. The fact that diphtheria bacilli reduce potassium 
tellurite to metallic tellurium has been known for some time, but 
whether this reaction occurred inside the cell or on the cell surface 
or both had never been definitely shown until the electron microscope 
was made available. Then, obtaining unstained preparations of 
C orynehacterium di-phtheriae grown on blood infusion agar, Drs. 
Morton and Anderson demonstrated that the typical polar granules 
appear as dense spherical masses, or possibly plates, of a very black 
color and that in unstained preparations of this same Corynebacterium 
diphtherias grown on potassium tellurite chocolate agar, not only the 
polar granules are in evidence but also the tiny needlelike crystals 
inside the cell which disappear along with the black color of the cell 
masses when a drop of bromine water is added to 1 cc. of a suspension 

619830 — 45 14 



200 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

of the cells on potassium tellurite chocolate agar. From this the 
experimenters were able to deduce that tellurium metal occurs in the 
form of needles and is the cause of the black color, and that this reac- 
tion occurs within the cells since the crystals have never been observed 
to lie totally outside the cell wall, although at times there is some 
distortion of the wall. 

The electron microscope also affords such study and observation 
as that carried out by Dr. W. M. Stanley, of the Rockefeller Institute 
of Medical Research, and Dr. Thomas F. Anderson in their recent 
investigation of plant viruses. By means of electron micrographs, 
they were able to judge the exact manner and extent of attack made 
on the tobacco mosaic virus by the protein antibodies in the blood 
stream of rabbits in which an artificial immunity to the virus had been 
produced. 

Structures like that of the spirochete of Weil's disease, typhoid 
flagella, unusual internal structure of pertussis organisms, tubercle 
bacilli, the isolation and recognition of the influenza virus, the spores 
of trychophyton mentagrophytes, Spirochaeta pallida with its accom- 
panying flagellar appendages, and colloidal particles are but a few 
of the interesting revelations of the electron microscope for medical 
science. Industrial science, too, has found this new research tool of 
great value in the study of metals, alloys, and plastics, as well as in 
the study of size, shape, and distribution of particles in chemical com- 
pounds and elements. 

The electron microscope herein described is that manufactured by 
the Radio Corporation of America. There are, of course, variations 
in construction of the different instruments of this kind but all types 
are built along similar lines and upon the same general principles. 
In the electron microscope there is some aberration plus the additional 
disadvantages of having the specimen in a vacuum, not to mention the 
probable protoplasmic changes induced by the terrific bombardment 
of electrons, and finally, what is perhaps the greatest disadvantage 
insofar as medical science is concerned — that of being unable to view 
living organisms. Nevertheless, the disadvantages of the microscope 
are far overshadowed by its increased resolving and magnification 
powers which have combined to make it an invaluable research tool. 

RESOLUTION AND MAGNIFICATION OF ORDINARY MICROSCOPE 

We have stated that the resolving power of the ordinary light 
microscope is restricted to between 1,600 and 2,500 diameters and 
that of the ordinary ultramicroscope to between 2,500 and 5,000 
diameters, resolution in any microscope being the ability of the in- 
strument to reveal the most minute of component parts of a specimen 
so that each may be seen as a distinct and separate image. For in- 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 201 

stance, let us suppose an object is examined through which run two 
very fine parallel lines closely set together. If the two lines are visible 
under the microscope and are revealed as two separate images, then, 
apparently, no limit of resolution has been reached; but if the two 
lines are merged or revealed as only one, and upon further magnifica- 
tion the image merely becomes enlarged without separation of the 
lines, then a limit of resolution apparently has been reached and ad- 
ditional magnification would constitute only enlargement. Assum- 
ing now that the object is a point object in which case the images of 
the points would be diffraction disks, the disks should likewise be 
sufficiently resolved so that each may be distinguished as a single 
image. If, when these disks are seen to overlap, additional magnifica- 
tion fails to extend the distance between them, their size simply in- 
creasing in proportion to the increase of magnification, or, if they are 
all but completely merged and the image becomes just a spurious disk 
of light, it is evident that a definite limit of resolution has been at- 
tained and that further magnification would be useless. Resolution, 
in a broad sense, then, is the ability of the microscope to bring out or 
reveal internal structure and detail of a specimen, the shortest dis- 
tance it is possible to separate two component parts, according to 
Abbe, being not less than the wave length of light by which the 
specimen is illuminated divided by the numerical aperture of the 
objective lens plus the numerical aperture of the condenser lens, or 
about one-third the wave length of light utilized. 

The several factors which are generally acknowledged to be re- 
sponsible for the limitation of resolving power are interrelated. Now 
when light passes from one medium into another of different density — 
in the instance which we are considering that of light refracted by the 
specimen and passing from air into glass — the light rays are deviated 
from their straight-line course; that is to say, when they come to 
within a very short distance of this denser medium, they are acted upon 
by a very powerful force in such a manner that they execute a short, 
rapidly curving motion, or an angle, and are pulled into the medium of 
greater density. Wlien the rays of light undergo such a force, the 
momentum of the corpuscles is increased and the speed of the waves 
decreased, resulting, of course, in a shortening of the wave lengths. 
Here, again, we may make use of the second of the rules of correlation — 
"Momentum (of corpuscles) varies inversely as wavelength (of 
waves)." Once well inside the new medium, however, the light rays 
straighten themselves out again (unless the medium is so constructed 
that it possesses gradation of density, in which case they follow a curved 
path). They do this in spite of the fact that the same forces are still 
acting upon them, although now these forces issue from all sides of 
them and so cancel each other out, the momentum of the photons or 



202 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

light corpuscles continuing to increase while the speed of the waves is 
proportionately retarded. If the light is refracted normally to the 
surface, however, it does not bend, but tends to cause a shortening of 
tile optical path although the wave length is shortened regardless. It 
is only w^hen it is refracted obliquely to the surface that the light is 
bent, the greater the obliquity of the incident ray and the denser 
the medium, the greater the bending of the angle of the cone of light 
and the shorter the wave length. It might therefore seem desirable to 
obtain as great an angle of refraction as possible. However, shorten- 
ing of the wave length is not in exact proportion to the amount of 
bending except in the case of the diffraction grating. And regardless 
of how great a change there is in its angle, the numerical aperture of 
the light, or angular aperture as it is more properly called, remains 
constant. 

In order, then, that the cone of light be large enough to supply the 
aperture of the objective with sufficient light to produce an accurate, 
bright, and enlarged image of the specimen, it is first necessary that 
the specimen be refracting or emitting light of an adequate quantity, 
since both magnification and resolution are largely dependent upon the 
amount of light which the objective utilizes and receives into the tube 
of the microscope and since such light as the objective does receive 
should be only that emitted by the specimen. It is obvious, therefore, 
that it is of primary importance for the specimen itself to be amply 
illuminated. This would seem to depend entirely on the actual light 
source, yet no matter how powerful a light source is employed, it is of 
little avail unless the condenser is of sufficient quality and aperture 
dimensions to accommodate the light which it receives from the source. 
If, for instance, the numerical aperture of the objective is 1.25, the 
width of the cone of light emanating from the specimen shotild com- 
pletely fill this aperture in order for the fullest powers of the micro- 
scope to be realized. Now, since the condenser supplies the light to the 
specimen, it stands to reason that it, also, should have a numerical 
aperture of at least 1.25. However, if the condenser and specimen 
slide are separated by air, the condenser can provide light of only 
1.00 N. A. to the specimen since, according to a law of optics, no aper- 
ture greater than 1.00 N. A. (this being the refractive index of air), 
can pass from a denser medium into air. To remedy this situation, 
an immersion fluid is placed between the top of the condenser and the 
lower side of the specimen slide as well as between the specimen and 
the objective lens. 

Since no optical medium has an index of refraction greater than 
3 and no immersion fluid an index of refraction greater than 1.7, to 
increase resolving power further, then, might it not be feasible to 
widen the apertures of the objective and condenser lenses, thus afford- 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 203 

ing additional illumination for utilization by both specimen and objec- 
tive? This idea would be entirely practical except for the fact that 
such enlargement of the lenses would increase aberration, both spher- 
ical and chromatic, and apparently present-day lenses are now as highly 
corrected as it is possible for human ingenuity and skillful workman- 
ship to make them. Spherical aberration, caused by the paraxial rays 
coming to a focus at the center of the lens before those rays near the 
principal axis, is corrected by using concave and convex lenses of 
different material and, consequently, of different refractive index. In 
this manner spherical aberration of a convex lens, for instance, can be 
overcome, without its converging action being altered, by adding to 
the optical system a concave lens in which there is an equal and oppo- 
site aberration. Chromatic aberration, occurring when more than 
one wave length of light is used to illuminate the specimen, is due to the 
fact that the shortest waves of the spectrum are refracted most and 
the longest waves least, thus causing the blue-violet waves to come to 
a focus ahead of the red waves and resulting in a series of colored foci 
all along the axis. Now since, as we have said, the shortening of the 
different groups of wave lengths is not in exact proportion to their 
bending and since this circumstance varies according to the substance 
the light rays pass through, it is possible to combine lenses or lens 
systems in such a way that white light may be obtained. For instance, 
a small concave flint-glass prism produces the same amount of dis- 
persion as a large convex crown-glass prism. Thus, if these two prisms 
are placed with their edges opposite, the crown glass will bring together 
the spectrum produced by the flint glass and white light will be the 
result. However, the rays of white light will not extend parallel with 
the original direction but will bend toward the base of the crown glass 
since the mean refraction of the crown glass is greater than that of the 
flint glass. Achromatic objectives, corrected spherically for one color, 
chromatically for two ; semiapochromatic objectives, possessing moder- 
ate refractive indices and very small dispersion, in which a lens of 
fluorite is substituted for one of the glass lenses; apochromatic objec- 
tives, corrected spherically for two colors, chromatically for three ; and 
also certain monochromatic lenses for use with light of one wave 
length only are available for overcoming, at least in part, one of the 
conditions which tends to interfere with better resolution. Con- 
densers, also, can be corrected for both spherical and chromatic aber- 
ration and must be achromatic-aplanatic if the light which enters the 
objective is to come only from the specimen, for condensers with spher- 
ical and chromatic aberration are unable to direct their entire cone of 
light upon the specimen. 

In addition to being as highly corrected as possible and possessing a 
large numerical aperture, an objective should also be capable of ade- 



204 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

quately magnifying the image, being aided in this by the ocular which 
also serves at times to compensate for the defects in chromatic magnifi- 
cation which cannot be managed conveniently by high-power objec- 
tives, the magnification of the final image being the product of the 
magnification of the objective multiplied by the magnification of the 
ocular. An amplifier is sometimes inserted between the objective and 
ocular which causes the rays of light from the objective to diverge to 
a greater extent, thus doubling the size of the image. Magnification 
may also be improved by increasing the tube length, by increasing the 
distance from which the image is projected, and by altering the posi- 
tions of the various lenses in an adjustable objective. In general, the 
greater the magnification, the smaller will be the specimen field, but, 
as has been stressed, high powers of magnification should always be 
accompanied by equally high powers of resolution. 

As we have seen, resolution in the ordinary light microscope is 
definitely restricted by a number of interrelated elements. Even when 
monochromatic light is employed, there is always present some spheri- 
cal aberration with which to contend. True, better visibility of speci- 
mens is provided by dark-field microscopy in which the specimen is 
viewed by the high contrast of its own scattered or reflected light 
against a dark field, although in this type of illumination objects in 
the field must be well separated. Much fine detail and brilliant color 
of specimens can be observed by means of the polarization of light. 
Further, it is possible to illuminate the specimen with shorter and 
shorter wave lengths of light, the shorter the wave length of light used, 
the more of the fine detail of the specimen which can be seen, but a 
limit is reached here, also, for ordinary glass lenses are not transparent 
to ultraviolet rays. However, in the ultraviolet microscope, having a 
resolution twice that of the instruments using "visible light," the con- 
denser, objective, and ocular are all made of quartz and, by substituting 
the photographic plate for direct observation, many excellent micro- 
graphs of numerous varieties of organisms and cellular structures can 
be made. But when viewed directly, nothing of the nature or struc- 
ture of the specimen can be ascertained ; only the light scattered by the 
specimen is distinguishable, the size of the specimen being roughly 
estimated by the amount of light refracted. 

These seemingly unsurmountable obstacles of the ordinary micro- 
scopes would appear to indicate that Abbe's law and the contention of 
physicists that "any object which is smaller than one-half the wave 
length of light by which it is illuminated cannot be seen in its true form 
or detail" are destined to remain undefied. 

REDUCTION IN THEORETICAL LIMIT OF RESOLUTION DEMONSTRATED 

But Dr. Francis F. Lucas, of the Bell Telephone Research Labora- 
tories, and Drs. Louis Caryl Graton and E. C. Dane, Jr., of the depart- 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 205 

ment of geology, Harvard University, have very convincingly demon- 
strated a reduction in these theoretical limits of resolution and visibility 
with their instruments, designed for use in the visible light region of 
the spectrum. 

The Graton-Dane microscope is mounted on a 360-kg. steel founda- 
tion bed which, in turn, is supported by six rubber-in-sheer marine- 
engine mountings — this for the purpose of eliminating all vibration 
and insuring stability of parts, two factors upon which both men have 
laid great stress. Any type source, such as the carbon arc, metallic arc, 
incandescent filament, Point-0-Lite, mercury vapor, or any of the 
special forms of monochromators, can be used for illuminating the 
specimen with direct and dark-field transmitted, vertical and oblique 
reflected, or polarized light. The image beam itself follows a straight- 
line path in passing from the objective, the objective ranging anywhere 
from the shortest to the greatest in working distance, through the tube 
to the ocular, as few lenses as possible being placed in its way. The 
spiral-cut rack and pinion which moves the stage and substage assem- 
bly in longitudinal tracks or guides can be operated by hand or by an 
electric motor and is independent of the fine adjustment, also motor- 
driven, which moves only the objective and the carriage carrying the 
objective. Whereas manual operation of the fine adjustment which is 
100 times more sensitive than that of the ordinary instruments neces- 
sitates 500 turns of the knob to move the objective a distance of but 
1 millimeter (an adjustment calculated to require a time period of 
25 minutes) , by means of the motor it is possible to move the objective 
at the rate of 0.01 nmi. per second or 0.004 mm. per second, depending 
upon which of the two speeds is desired, rapid motion being used when 
the image appears considerably out of focus and decreased speed being 
used when the image seems to be reaching a point of perfection.^ 

Kesolution up to 6,000 diameters and magnification up to 50,000 
diameters have been achieved with this high-precision microscope 
which photographs or enables observation of both opaque and trans- 
parent preparations; in fact, polishing scratches measuring in width 
but one-tenth the wave length of light used have been clearly distin- 

' The mechanism governing the fine adjustment was completely redesigned after It was 
discovered that changes in the lubricant, used for gear threads and carriage bearings, 
seriously affected the precision of the instrument. Using a principle suggested to him by 
R. W. Vose, formerly of the Harvard Engineering School, Dr. Dane built and assembled 
a new fine-adjustment drive so designed that, as Dr. Graton describes it, "all that part 
of the mechanism which actuates the slowest, and therefore the most sensitive, part 
of the motion operates not through gears or screws, but through the diCTerential flexing of a 
train of spring-bronze strips, which have the double advantage of avoiding all chance for 
play or bacltlash and of needing no lubrication whatever. Interferometer tests with the 
new element in place give practically ideal readings as compared with the theoretical : 
the deviations are very much smaller than those recorded in our original paper, page 372. 
The operation of the fine-focusing mechanism selectively by hand knob or by motor-drive, 
and the slowness of motion, and hence the precise control over focus are the same in the 
new design as in the old." 



206 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

guislied. It is the opinion of both Dr. Graton and Dr. Dane that 
some present-day lenses are really capable of better resolution than 
claimed for them by their manufacturers, it having been their experi- 
ence to use objectives exhibiting superior qualities of resolution over 
those of identical medium and numerical aperture, proving that not 
only have already available lenses surpassed their theoretical limits of 
resolution, indicating that it might be possible to design objectives 
with still greater numerical apertures, but that the accepted theory 
regarding this resolution is sadly in need of revision. Dr. Lucas's 
microscope utilizing an objective with a numerical aperture of 1.60, for 
instance, in combination with monobromnaphalene immersion fluid, 
also yields resolution up to 6,000 diameters being, like the Graton- 
Dane scope, a high-precision instrument constructed with the idea of 
maintaining absolute stability of parts. Dr. Lucas also has expressed 
doubt as to the complete validity of the generally accepted theory of 
resolution. 

In working with a high-precision ultraviolet microcamera, into 
which a tricolor filter system has been incorporated, which he has just 
recently perfected. Dr. Lucas is able to obtain a minimum magnifica- 
tion of 30,000 diameters and a maximum magnification of 60,000 diam- 
eters. With this instrument it is possible to view living cells and 
organisms, no staining or killing of organisms being necessary, and 
Dr. Lucas has succeeded in obtaining excellent photomicrographs 
(both still and motion pictures). Of special significance to industry, 
for instance, is the ability of this scope to demonstrate the size, shape, 
and reactions in motion and affinity of the tiny particles of which 
rubber is composed under varying conditions of temperature, etc., 
while its ability to reveal living rat and mouse sarcoma and carcinoma 
cells and to demonstrate the development and behavior of the syphilitic 
organism is of far more than average interest to medical science. 

England's Dr. J. E. Barnard has succeeded in obtaining resolution 
up to 7,500 diameters with his ultra-dark-field scope in which he uses a 
combined illuminator. In this, an outer system of glass acts as the 
immersion dark-field illuminator while the inner immersion system of 
quartz makes possible the passage of a transmitted beam of light 
through the specimen. Both condensers have the same focus, one for 
visible light, the other for ultraviolet radiation, and both can be 
stopped out at will. When, for instance, bacteria are being observed, 
immersion contact is made between the condenser and quartz slide, 
the dark-field illuminator being used, thus revealing the bacteria with 
visible light. When the dark-field illuminator is closed, however, a 
beam of ultraviolet light may be directed up through the quartz con- 
denser and focused on the bacteria. The object-glass, of course, has 
to be adjusted since it does not possess the same focus for ultraviolet 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 207 

that it does for visible light. Staining of specimens is thus unneces- 
sary, making it possible to secure photomicrographs of living minute 
organisms. 

In addition to these four microscopes, a fourth, belonging to the 
Canadian Department of Mines and located at Ottawa, and almost 
identical in principle and construction to that of Drs, Dane and 
Graton, has demonstrated ability to attain equally high resolution. 
This, like the scopes of Drs. Dane, Graton, and Lucas, is fitted 
with a tube for visual observation although intended mainly for 
microphotographical work in the field of metallurgy. It is Dr. 
Graton's belief, however, that his instrument and that of Dr. Dane 
might also be adaptable to the purposes of biological research. Re- 
ferring, in the description of their "Precision, All Purpose Micro- 
camera" (Journ. Opt. Soc. Amer.), to the necessity or "desirability" of 
"reexamining the classical conception of the limit of useful magnifi- 
cation," Drs. Dane and Graton have this to say : 

So long as the makers accepted the conventional limit as valid and had already 
attained it, there was little incentive toward progress. But with that limit 
apparently surpassed, there is no present linowledge as to how far ahead the 
true limit may lie. If present-day objectives do substantially better than the 
"limit" for which they were designed, is it not reasonable to suppose that effort 
to do better still may conceivably be rewarded? 

To such an inquiry there can be but one logical answer — an agree- 
ment which, while perhaps not concurred in by all, must, for those 
stimulated to more intense interest and effort by the possibilities of 
uncovering new facts, pose further questions ; for, if the improvement 
of one part results in the improved performance of the whole, is it not 
also reasonable to suppose that additional changes of additional parts, 
yes, even changes with respect to principle and method might likewise 
bear fruit? 

THE UNIVERSAL MICROSCOPE 

It is not only a reasonable supposition, but already, in one instance, 
a very successful and highly commendable achievement on the part of 
Dr. Royal Raymond Rife of San Diego, Calif., who, for many years, 
has built and worked with light microscopes which far surpass the 
theoretical limitations of the ordinary variety of instrument, all the 
Rife scopes possessing superior ability to attain high magnification 
with accompanying high resolution. The largest and most powerful 
of these, the universal microscope, developed in 1933, consists of 5,682 
parts and is so called because of its adaptability in all fields of micro- 
scopical work, being fully equipped with separate substage condenser 
units for transmitted and monochromatic beam, dark-field, polarized, 
and slit-ultra illumination, including also a special device for crystal- 
lography. The entire optical system of lenses and prisms as well as 



208 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the illuminating units are made of block-crystal quartz, quartz being 
especially transparent to ultraviolet radiations. 

The illuminating unit used for examining the filterable forms of 
disease organisms contains 14 lenses and prisms, 3 of which are in the 
high-intensity incandescent lamp, 4 in the Risley prism, and 7 in the 
achromatic condenser which, incidentally, has a numerical aperture 
of 1.40. Between the source of light and the specimen are subtended 
two circular, wedge-shaped, block-crystal quartz prisms for the pur- 
pose of polarizing the light passing through the specimen, polarization 
being the practical application of the theory that light waves vibrate in 
all planes perpendicular to the direction in which they are propagated. 
Therefore, when light comes into contact with a polarizing prism, it 
is divided or split into two beams, one of which is refracted to such an 
extent that it is reflected to the side of the prism without, of course, 
passing through the prism while the second ray, bent considerably less, 
is thus enabled to pass through the prism to illuminate the specimen. 
When the quartz prisms on the universal microscope, which may be 
rotated with vernier control through 360°, are rotated in opposite 
directions, they serve to bend the transmitted beams of light at variable 
angles of incidence while, at the same time, a spectrum is projected 
up into the axis of the microscope, or rather a small portion of a spec- 
trum since only a part of a band of color is visible at any one time. 
However, it is possible to proceed in this way from one end of the spec- 
trum to the other, going all the way from the infrared to the ultra- 
violet. Now, when that portion of the spectrum is reached in which 
both the organism and the color band vibrate in exact accord, one with 
the other, a definite characteristic spectrum is emitted by the organism. 
In the case of the filter-passing form of the Bacillus typhosus^ for 
instance, a blue spectrum is emitted and the plane of polarization 
deviated plus 4.8°. The predominating chemical constituents of the 
organism are next ascertained after which the quartz prisms are ad- 
justed or set, by means of vernier control, to minus 4.8° (again in the 
case of the filter-passing form of the Bacillus typhosus) so that the 
opposite angle of refraction may be obtained. A monochromatic 
beam of light, corresponding exactly to the frequency of the organism 
(for Dr. Rife has found that each disease organism responds to and 
has a definite and distinct wave length, a fact confirmed by British 
medical research workers) is then sent up through the specimen and 
the direct transmitted light, thus enabling the observer to view the 
organism stained in its true chemical color and revealing its own 
individual structure in a field which is brilliant with light. 

The objectives used on the universal microscope are a 1.12 dry lens, 
a 1.16 water immersion, a 1.18 oil immersion, and a 1.25 oil immersion. 
The rays of light refracted by the specimen enter the objective and are 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 209 

then carried up the tube in parallel rays through 21 light bends to the 
ocular, a tolerance of less than one wave length of visible light only 
being permitted in the core beam, or chief ray, of illumination. Now, 
instead of the liglit rays starting up the tube in a parallel fashion, 
tending to converge as they rise higher and JBnally crossing each other, 
arriving at the ocular separated by considerable distance as would be 
the case with an ordinary microscope, in the universal tube the rays 
also start their rise parallel to each other but, just as they are about t» 
cross, a specially designed quartz prism is inserted which serves to 
pull them out parallel again, another prism being inserted each time 
the rays are about ready to cross. These prisms, inserted in the tube, 
which are adjusted and held in alignment by micrometer screws of 100 
threads to the inch in special tracks made of magnelium (magnelium 
having the closest coefficient of expansion of any metal to quartz), are 
separated by a distance of only 30 millimeters. Thus, the greatest 
distance that the image in the universal is projected through any one 
media, either quartz or air, is 30 millimeters instead of the 160, 180, 
or 190 millimeters as in the empty or air-filled tube of an ordinary 
microscope, the total distance which the light rays travel zigzag fashion 
through the universal tube being 449 millimeters, although the physical 
length of the tube itself is 229 millimeters. It will be recalled that if 
one pierces a black strip ©f paper or cardboard with the point of a 
needle and then brings the card up close to the eye so that the hole is 
in the optic axis, a small brilliantly lighted object will appear larger 
and clearer, revealing more fine detail, than if it were viewed from the 
same distance without the assistance of the card. This is explained 
by the fact that the beam of light passing through the card is very- 
narrow, the rays entering the eye, therefore, being practically parallel, 
whereas without the card the beam of light is much wider and the 
diffusion circles much larger. It is tliis principle of parallel rays in 
the universal microscope and the resultant shortening of projection 
distance between any two blocks or prisms plus the fact that objectives 
can thus be substituted for oculars, these "oculars" being three matched 
pairs of 10-millimeter, 7-millimeter, and 4-millimeter objectives in 
short mounts, which make possible not only the unusually high mag- 
nification and resolution but which serve to eliminate all distortion as 
well as all chromatic and spherical aberration. 

Quartz slides with especially thin quartz cover glasses are used when 
a tissue section or culture slant is examined, the tissue section itself also 
being very thin. An additional observational tube and ocular which 
yield a magnification of 1,800 diameters are provided so that that por- 
tion of the specimen which it is desired should be examined may be 
located and so that the observer can adjust himself more readily when 
viewing a section at a high magnification. 



210 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

The universal stage is a double rotating stage graduated through 
360° in quarter-minute arc divisions, the upper segment carrying 
the mechanical stage having a movement of 40°, the body assembly 
which can be moved horizontally over the condenser also having an 
angular tilt of 40° plus or minus. Heavily constructed joints and 
screw adjustments maintain rigidity of the microscope which weighs 
200 pounds and stands 24 inches high, the bases of the scope being 
nickel cast-steel plates, accurately surfaced, and equipped with three 
leveling screws and two spirit levels set at angles of 90°. The coarse 
adjustment, a block thread screw with 40 threads to the inch, slides 
in a 1^^ dovetail which gibs directly onto the pillar post. The weight 
of the quadruple nosepiece and the objective system is taken care of 
by the intermediate adjustment at the top of the body tube. The 
stage, in conjunction with a hydraulic lift, acts as a lever in operating 
the fine adjustment. A 6-gauge screw having 100 threads to the inch 
is worked through a gland into a hollow, glycerine-filled post, the 
glycerine being displaced and replaced at will as the screw is turned 
clockwise or anticlockwise, allowing a 5-to-l ratio on the lead screw. 
This, accordingly, assures complete absence of drag and inertia. The 
fine adjustment being 700 times more sensitive than that of ordinary 
microscopes, the length of time required to focus the universal ranges 
up to 11/^ hours which, while on first consideration, may seem a dis- 
advantage, is after all but a slight inconvenience when compared 
with the many years of research and the hundreds of thousands of 
dollars spent and being spent in an effort to isolate and to look upon 
disease-causing organisms in their true form. 

Working together back in 1931 and using one of the smaller Kife 
microscopes having a magnification and resolution of 17,000 diameters. 
Dr. Rife and Dr. Arthur Isaac Kendall, of the department of bac- 
teriology of Northwestern University Medical School, were able to 
observe and demonstrate the presence of the filter-passing forms of 
Bacillus typhosus. An agar slant culture of the Rawlings strain of 
Bacillus typhosus was first prepared by Dr. Kendall and inoculated 
into 6 cc. of "Kendall" K Medium, a medium rich in protein but poor 
in peptone and consisting of 100 mg. of dried hog intestine and 6 cc. 
of tyrode solution (containing neither glucose nor glycerine) which 
mixture is shaken well so as to moisten the dried intestine powder 
and then sterilized in the autoclave, 15 pounds for 15 minutes, altera- 
tions of the medium being frequently necessary depending upon the 
requirements for different organisms. Now, after a period of 18 hours 
in this K Medium, the culture was passed through a Berkefeld "N" 
filter, a drop of the filtrate being added to another 6 cc. of K Medium 
and incubated at 37° C. Forty-eight hours later this same process 
was repeated, the "N" filter again being used, after which it was noted 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 211 

that the culture no longer responded to peptone medium, growing now 
only in the protein medium. When again, within 24 hours, the culture 
was passed through a filter — the finest Berkefeld "W" filter, a drop 
of the filtrate was once more added to 6 cc. of K Medium and incubated 
at 37° C, a period of 3 days elapsing before the culture was transferred 
to K Medium and yet another 3 days before a new culture was pre- 
pared. Then, viewed under an ordinary microscope, these cultures 
were observed to be turbid and to reveal no bacilli whatsoever. Wlien 
viewed by means of dark-field illumination and oil-immersion lens, 
however, the presence of small, actively motile granules was estab- 
lished, although nothing at all of their individual structure could be 
ascertained. Another period of 4 days was allowed to elapse before 
these cultures were transferred to K Medium and incubated at 37° C. 
for 24 hours when they were then examined under the Rife microscope 
where, as was mentioned earlier, the filterable typhoid bacilli, emitting 
a blue spectrum, caused the plane of polarization to be deviated plus 
4.8°. Then when the opposite angle of refraction was obtained by 
means of adjusting the polarizing prisms to minus 4.8° and the cultures 
illuminated by a monochromatic beam coordinated in frequency with 
the chemical constituents of the typhoid bacillus, small, oval, actively 
motile, bright turquoise-blue bodies were observed at a magnification 
of 5,000 diameters, in high contrast to the colorless and motionless 
debris of the medium. These observations were repeated eight times, 
the complete absence of these bodies in uninoculated control K Media 
also being noted. 

To further confirm their findings, Drs. Rife and Kendall next 
examined 18-hour-old cultures which had been inoculated into K 
Medium and incubated at 37° C, since it is just at this stage of growth 
in this medium and at this temperature that the cultures become 
filterable. And, just as had been anticipated, ordinary dark-field ex- 
amination revealed unchanged, long, actively motile bacilli; bacilli 
having granules within their substance; and free-swimming, actively 
motile granules; while under the Rife microscope were demonstrated 
the same long, unchanged, almost colorless bacilli ; bacilli, practically 
colorless, inside and at one end of which was a turquoise-blue granule 
resembling the filterable forms of the typhoid bacillus ; and free-swim- 
ming, small, oval, actively motile, turquoise-blue granules. By trans- 
planting the cultures of the filter-passing organisms or virus into a 
broth, they were seen to change over again into their original rodlike 
forms. 

At the same time that these findings of Drs. Rife and Kendall were 
confirmed by Dr. Edward C. Rosenow, of the Mayo Foundation, the 
magnification with accompanying resolution of 8,000 diameters of the 
Rife microscope, operated by Dr. Rife, was checked against a dark- 



212 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

field oil-immersion scope operated by Dr. Kendall and an ordinary 
2-mm. oil-immersion objective, X 10 ocular, Zeiss scope operated by 
Dr. Kosenow at a magnification of 900 diameters. Examinations of 
gram- and safranin-stained films of cultures of Bacillus typhosus^ 
gram- and safranin-stained films of cultures of the streptococcus from 
poliomyelitis, and stained films of blood and of the sediment of the 
spinal fluid from a case of acute poliomyelitis were made with the 
result that bacilli, streptococci, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear 
leukocytes, and lymphocytes measuring nine times the diameter of the 
same specimens observed under the Zeiss scope at a magnification and 
resolution of 900 diameters, were revealed with unusual clarity. Seen 
under the dark-field microscope were moving bodies presumed to be 
the filterable turquoise-blue bodies of the typhoid bacillus which, as 
Dr. Kosenow has declared in his report (Observations on filter-passing 
forms of Eherthella typhi — Bacillus typhosus — and of the streptococ- 
cus from poliomyelitis, Proc. Staff Meetings Mayo Clinic, July 13, 
1932) , were so "unmistakably demonstrated" with the Rife microscope, 
while under the Zeiss scope stained and hanging-drop preparations of 
clouded filtrate cultures were found to be uniformly negative. With 
the Rife microscope also were demonstrated brownish-gray cocci and 
diplococci in hanging-drop preparations of the filtrates of strepto- 
coccus from poliomyelitis. These cocci and diplococci, similar in size 
and shape to those seen in the cultures although of more uniform in- 
tensity, and characteristic of the medium in which they had been 
cultivated, were surrounded by a clear halo about twice the width of 
that at the margins of the debris and of the Bacillus typhosus. Stained 
films of filtrates and filtrate sediments examined under the Zeiss micro- 
scope, and hanging-drop, dark-field preparations revealed no organ- 
isms, however. Brownish-gray cocci and diplococci of the exact same 
size and density as those observed in the filtrates of the streptococcus 
cultures were also revealed in hanging-drop preparations of the virus 
of poliomyelitis under the Rife microscope, while no organisms at all 
could be seen in either the stained films of filtrates and filtrate sedi- 
ments examined with the Zeiss scope or in hanging-drop prepara- 
tions examined by means of the dark-field. Again using the Rife 
microscope at a magnification of 8,000 diameters, numerous nonmotile 
cocci and diplococci of a bright-to-pale pink in color were seen in 
hanging-drop preparations of filtrates of Herpes encephalitic virus. 
Although these were observed to be comparatively smaller than the 
cocci and diplococci of the streptococcus and poliomyelitic viruses, 
they were shown to be of fairly even density, size, and form and sur- 
rounded by a halo. Again, both the dark-field and Zeiss scopes failed to 
reveal any organisms, and none of the three microscopes disclosed the 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 213 

presence of such diplococci in hanging-drop preparations of the filtrate 
of a normal rabbit brain. Dr. Rosenow has since revealed these organ- 
isms with the ordinary microscope at a magnification of 1,000 diam- 
eters by means of his special staining method and with the electron 
microscope at a magnification of 12,000 diameters. Dr. Rosenow has 
expressed the opinion that the inability to see these and other similarly 
revealed organisms is due, not necessarily to the minuteness of the 
organisms, but rather to the fact that they are of a nonstaining, hyaline 
structure. Results with the Rife microscopes, he thinks, are due to 
the "ingenious methods employed rather than to excessively high 
magnification." He has declared also, in the report mentioned pre- 
viously, that "Examination under the Rife microscope of specimens 
containing objects visible with the ordinary microscope, leaves no 
doubt of the accurate visualization of objects or particulate matter by 
direct observation at the extremely high magnification obtained with 
this instrument." 

Exceedingly high powers of magnification with accompanying high 
powers of resolution may be realized with all of the Rife microscopes, 
one of which, having magnification and resolution up to 18,000 diam- 
eters, is now being used at the British School of Tropical Medicine in 
England. In a recent demonstration of another of the smaller Rife 
scopes (May 16, 1942) before a group of doctors including Dr. J. H. 
Renner, of Santa Barbara, Calif.; Dr. Roger A. Schmidt, of San 
Francisco, Calif.; Dr. Lois Bronson Slade, of Alameda, Calif.; Dr. 
Lucile B. Larkin, of Bellingham, Wash. ; Dr. E. F. Larkin, of Belling- 
ham. Wash. ; and Dr. W. J. Gier, of San Diego, Calif., a Zeiss ruled 
grading was examined, first under an ordinary commercial micro- 
scope equipped with a 1.8 high dry lens and X 10 ocular, and then 
under the Rife microscope. Whereas 50 lines were revealed with the 
commercial instrument and considerable aberration, both chromatic 
and spherical noted, only 5 lines were seen with the Rife scope, these 
5 lines being so highly magnified that they occupied the entire field, 
without any aberration whatsoever being apparent. Dr. Renner, in a 
discussion of his observations, stated that "The entire field to its very 
edges and across the center had a uniform clearness that was not true 
in the conventional instrument." Following the examination of the 
grading, an ordinary unstained blood film was observed under the same 
two microscopes. In this instance, 100 cells were seen to spread 
throughout the field of the commercial instrument while but 10 cells 
filled the field of the Rife scope. 

The universal microscope, of course, is the most powerful Rife 
scope, possessing a resolution of 31,000 diameters and magnification 
of 60,000 diameters. With this it is possible to view the interior of the 



214 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

"pin-point" cells, those cells situated between the normal tissue cells 
and just visible under the ordinary microscope, and to observe the 
smaller cells which compose the interior of these pin-point cells. 
When one of these smaller cells is magnified, still smaller cells are seen 
within its structure. And when one of the still smaller cells, in its turn, 
is magnified, it, too, is seen to be composed of smaller cells. Each 
of the 16 times this process of magnification and resolution can be 
repeated, it is demonstrated that there are smaller cells within the 
smaller cells, a fact which amply testifies as to the magnification and 
resolving power obtainable with the universal microscope. 

More than 20,000 laboratory cultures of carcinoma were grown 
and studied over a period of 7 years by Dr. Eife and his assistants 
in what, at the time, appeared to be a fruitless effort to isolate the 
filter-passing form, or virus, which Dr. Rife believed to be present in 
this condition. Then, in 1932, the reactions in -growth of bacterial 
cultures to light from the rare gasses was observed, indicating a new 
approach to the problem. Accordingly, blocks of tissue one-half 
centimeter square, taken from an imulcerated breast carcinoma, were 
placed in triple-sterilized K Medium and these cultures incubated at 
37° C. When no results were forthcoming, the culture tubes were 
placed in a circular glass loop filled with argon gas to a pressure of 
14 millimeters, and a current of 5,000 volts applied for 24 hours, after 
which the tubes were placed in a 2-inch water vacuum and incubated 
at 37° C. for 24 hours. Using a specially designed 1.12 dry lens, equal 
in amplitude of magnification to the 2-mm. apochromatic oil-immer- 
sion lens, the cultures were then examined under the universal micro- 
scope, at a magnification of 10,000 diameters, where very much ani- 
mated, purplish-red, filterable forms, measuring less than one-twen- 
tieth of a micron in dimension, were observed. Carried through 14 
transplants from K Medium to K Medium, this B. X. virus remained 
constant; inoculated into 426 Albino rats, tumors "with all the true 
pathology of neoplastic tissue" were developed. Experiments con- 
ducted in the Rife Laboratories have established the fact that these 
characteristic diplococci are found in the blood monocytes in 92 per- 
cent of all cases of neoplastic diseases. It has also been demonstrated 
that the virus of cancer, like the viruses of other diseases, can be easily 
changed from one form to another by means of altering the media upon 
which it is grown. With the first change in media, the B. X. virus 
becomes considerably enlarged although its purplish-red color remains 
unchanged. Observation of the organism with an ordinary microscope 
is made possible by a second alteration of the media. A third change 
is undergone upon asparagus base media where the B. X. virus is 
transformed from its filterable state into cryptomyces pleomorphia 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 215 

fungi, these fungi being identical morphologically both macroscopi- 
cally and microscopically to that of the orchid and of the mushroom. 
And yet a fourth change may be said to take place when this crypto- 
myces pleomorphia, permitted to stand as a stock culture for the period 
of metastasis, becomes the well-known mahogany-colored Bacillus 
coll. 

It is Dr. Rife's belief that all micro-organisms fall into 1 of not 
more than 10 individual groups (Dr. Rosenow has stated that some of 
the viruses belong to the group of the streptococcus), and that any 
alteration of artificial media or slight metabolic variation in tissues 
will induce an organism of one group to change over into any other 
organism included in that same group, it being possible, incidentally, 
to carry such changes in media or tissues to the point where the or- 
ganisms fail to respond to standard laboratory methods of diagnosis. 
These changes can be made to take place in as short a period of time 
as 48 hours. For instance, by altering the media — 4 parts per million 
per volume — the pure culture of mahogany-colored Bacillus coli be- 
comes the turquoise-blue Bacillus typhosus. Viruses or primordial 
cells of organisms which would ordinarily require an 8-week incuba- 
tion period to attain their filterable state, have been shown to produce 
disease within 3 days' time, proving Dr. Rife's contention that the 
incubation period of a micro-organism is really only a cycle of rever- 
sion. He states : 

In reality, it is not the bacteria themselves that produce the disease, but we 
believe it is the chemical constituents of these micro-organisms enacting upon 
the unbalanced cell metabolism of the human body that in actuality produce the 
disease. We also believe if the metabolism of the human body is perfectly bal- 
anced or poised, it is susceptible to no disease. 

In other words, the human body itself is chemical in nature, being 
comprised of many chemical elements which provide the media upon 
which the wealth of bacteria normally present in the human system 
feed. These bacteria are able to reproduce. They, too, are composed 
of chemicals. Therefore, if the media upon which they feed, in this 
instance the chemicals or some portion of the chemicals of the human 
body, become changed from the normal, it stands to reason that these 
same bacteria, or at least certain numbers of them, will also undergo 
a change chemically since they are now feeding upon media which 
are not normal to them, perhaps being supplied with too much or too 
little of what they need to maintain a normal existence. They change, 
passing usually through several stages of growth, emerging finally as 
some entirely new entity — as different morphologically as are the 
caterpillar and the butterfly (to use an illustration given us). The 
majority of the viruses have been definitely revealed as living organ- 
isms, foreign organisms it is true, but which once were normal inhab- 

619830 — 45 15 



216 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

itants of the human body — living entities of a chemical nature or 
composition. 

Under the universal microscope disease organisms such as those of 
tuberculosis, cancer, sarcoma, streptococcus, typhoid, staphylococcus, 
leprosy, hoof and mouth disease, and others may be observed to suc- 
cumb when exposed to certain lethal frequencies, coordinated with the 
particular frequencies peculiar to each individual organism, and di- 
rected upon them by rays covering a wide range of waves. By means 
of a camera attachment and a motion-picture camera not built into 
the instrument, many "still" micrographs as well as hundreds of feet 
of motion-picture film bear witness to the complete life cycles of 
numerous organisms. It should be emphasized, perhaps, that invari- 
ably the same organisms refract the same colors when stained by 
means of the monochromatic beam of illumination on the universal 
microscope, regardless of the media upon which they are grown. The 
virus of the Bacillus typhosus is always a turquoise blue, the Bacillus 
coli always mahogany colored, the Mycobacteriuon leprae always a 
ruby shade, the filter-passing form or virus of tuberculosis always an 
emerald green, the virus of cancer always a purplish red, and so on. 
Thus, with the aid of this microscope, it is possible to reveal the 
typhoid organism, for instance, in the blood of a suspected typhoid 
patient 4 and 5 days before a Widal is positive. When it is desired 
to observe the flagella of the typhoid organism, Hg salts are used 
as the medium to see at a magnification of 10,000 diameters. 

In the light of the amazing results obtainable with this universal 
microscope and its smaller brother scopes, there can be no doubt of 
the ability of these instruments to actually reveal any and all micro- 
organisms according to their individual structure and chemical con- 
stituents. 

With the aid of its new eyes — the new microscopes, all of which are 
continually being improved — science has at last penetrated beyond 
the boundary of accepted theory and into the world of the viruses with 
the result that we can look forward to discovering new treatments 
and methods of combating the deadly organisms — for science does 
not rest. 

To Dr. Karl K. Darrow, Dr. John A. Kolmer, Dr. William P. Lang, 
Dr. L. Marton, Dr. J. H. Eenner, Dr. Royal R. Rife, Dr. Edward C. 
Rosenow, Dr. Arthur W. Yale, and Dr. V. K. Zworykin, we wish to 
express our appreciation for the help and information so kindly given 
us and to express our gratitude, also, for the interest shown in this 
effort of bringing to the attention of more of the medical profession 
the possibilities offered by the new microscopes. 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 217 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Andebson, T, F., and Stanlet, W. M. 

1941. A study by means of the electron microscope of the reaction between 
tobacco mosaic virus and its antiserum. Joum. Biol. Chem., vol. 
139, No. 1, pp. 339-444. 
Andbadb, E. N. DaC. 

1932. The mechanism of nature. G. Bell & Sons, Ltd., London. 
BATEMAN, J. B., CALKINS, H. E., and Chambers, L. A. 

1941. Optical study of the reaction between transferred monolayers of 
Lancefield's "M" substance and various antisera. Journ. Immunol., 
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BtTRTON, E. F. 

1940. The electron microscope. Proc. Roy. Canadian Inst., vol. 5, ser. 3A, 

Feb. 10. 
Daeeow, Karl K. 

1939. The renaissance of physics. Macmillan Co. 
Dunn, H. H. 

1931. Movie new eye of microscope in war on germs. Pop. Sci., voL 118, 

p. 27, June. 
EiDBiDOE, John A. 

1934. The physical basis of things. 
Gage, Simon Henry. 

1936-1941, The microscope. 16th and 17th ed. Comstock Publ. Co., Inc. 
Graton, L. C, and Dane, E. C. 

1937. Precision, all purpose microcamera. Joum. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 27, 

pp. 355-376, November. 
Haedt, Akthxjb C, and Perkin, Feed H. 

1932. The principles of optics. 1st ed. McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc. 
Hektoen, Lxjdvig, Mathers, George, and Jackson, Leila. 

1918. Microscopic demonstration of cocci in the central nervous system in 
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Hillieb, J., and Vance, A. W. 

1941. Recent developments in the R. C. A. electron microscope. Proc. Inst. 

Radio Eng., vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 167-176. 
Houston, W. V. 

1940. Telescopes and microscopes. Amer. Scholar, vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 68-73. 
Kendall, Arthur Isaac. 

1932. Filtration of bacteria ; studies in bacterial metabolism. Science, vol. 

75, pp. 295-301, Mar. 18. 
KnxEmiB, D. H. 

1940. Supermicroscopes. Rotarian, vol. 57, p. 47, August. 
LtrcAS, F. F. 

1933. A precision high iwwer metallographic apparatus. Trans. Amer. Soc. 

Steel Treat., vol. 21, pp. 1112-1134. 

1934. Late developments in microscopy. Joum. Franklin Inst., vol. 217, pp. 

661-707, June. 
LuoAs, FRANas F., and Staek, Mabt B. 

1931. A study of living germ cells by means of the ultra-violet microscope. 

Journ. Morph., vol. 52, pp. 91-115. 
Malotf, I. G., and Epstein, D. W. 

1938. Electron optics. 
Martin, L. C. 

1938. The electron microscope. Nattire, vol. 142, p. 1062, Dec. 17. 



218 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Mabton, L. 

1934. Electron microscopy of biological objects. Nature, vol. 133, No. 3372, 
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1940. A new electron microscope. Phys. Rev., vol. 58, pp. 57-60. 

1941. The electron microscope: a new tool for bacteriological research. 

Journ. Bacteriol., vol. 41, pp. 397-413, March. 
MABTON, L., Banca, M. C, and Bendee, J. F. 

1940. A Hew electron microscope. R. C. A. Rev., vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 232-242, 

October. 
McMnxEN, J. Howard, and Scott, Gobdon H. 

1937. A magnetic electron microscope of simple design. Rev. Sci. Instr.. 
vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 288-290. 
MiLLMAN, Jacob, and Seely, Samuel. 

1941. Electronics. 1st ed. McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc. 
MOETON, G. A. 

1941. A survey of research accomplishments with the R. C. A. electron micro- 
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Morton, G. A., and Rambekg, E. G. 

1939. Point projector electron microscope. Phys. Rev., vol. 56, p. 705. 
Morton, Harry E., and Andebson, Thomas F. 

1941. Electron microscopic studies of biological reactions. 1. Reduction of 
potassium tellurite by Corynehacterium diphtheriae. Proc. Soc. 
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MotTLUN, C. M. 

1940. What is cancer? A biologist's answer. Med. Press, vol. 203, pp. 512- 

514, June 10. 

MotTLTON, F. R. 

1939. The electron microscope. Scientific Monthly, vol. 49, pp. 189-192, 
August. 
Mtjdd, Stuart, and Anderson, Thomas F. 

1941. Demonstration by the electron microscope of the combination of anti' 

bodies with flagellar and somatic antigens. Journ. Immunol., vol. 
42, No. 3, pp. 251-266, November. 
MUDD, Stuart, and Lackman, David B. 

1941. Bacterial morphology as shown by the electron microscope. Journ. 
Bacteriol., vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 414-420, March. 
MUDD, Stuabt, Polevitzky, K., Anderson, T. F., and Chameees, L. A. 

1941. Bacterial morphology as shown by the electron microscope. II. The 
bacterial cell membrane in the genus Bacillus. Journ. Bacteriol., 
vol. 42, pp. 251-264, August. 
Peebus, A., and Hillieb, J. 

1939. The construction of a magnetic electron microscope of high resolving 
power. Canadian Journ. Res., vol. 17, pp. 49-63. 
Ramberg, E. G., and Moet6n, G. A. ... 

1939. Electron optics. Journ. Appl. Phys., vol. 10, pp. 465-478. 
Rhea, H. B. 

1941. The new electron microscope. Science, n. s., vol. 93, suppl. 12, Jan. 3. 
1941a. Scientific apparatus and laboratory methods. Science, n. s., vol. 93, 
pp. 357-358, Apr. 11. ' 
RIfB, Royal Raymond, and Kendall, Aethub Isaac. 

1931. Observations on Bacillus typhosus in its filterable state. California 
and Western Med., vol. 35, pp. 409-411, December. 



NEW MICROSCOPES — SEIDEL AND WINTER 219 

ROHENOW, E. C. 

1932. Observations on filter-passing forms of Eberthella typhi {Bacillua 

typhosus) and of the streptococcus from poliomyelitis. Proc. Staff 
Meet. Mayo Clinic, vol. 7, pp. 408-413, July. 

Id32a. Observations vpith the Rife microscope of filter-passing forms of micro- 
organisms. Science, n. s., vol. 76, pp. 192^193, Aug. 26. 

1942. Microdiplococci in filtrates of natural and experimental poliomyelitic 
virus compared under the electron and light microscopes. Proc. 
Staff Meet. Mayo Clinic, vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 99-106, Feb. 18. 
Smith, Theodore A. 

1941. The electron microscope. Scientific Monthly, vol. 52, pp. 337-341, April. 
SotTTHALL, James P. C 

1933. Mirrors, prisms, and lenses. 3d ed. Macmillan Co. 
Stanley, W. M., and Anderson, T. F. 

1941. A study of purified viruses vrith the electron microscope. Journ. Biol. 
Chem., vol. 139, No. 1, pp. 325-838. 
Vance, A. W. 

1941. Stable power supplied for electron microscopes. R. C. A. Rev., vol. 5, 

No. 3, pp. 293-300, January. 
Wile:, Udo J., Picard, Robert G., and Hbabney, Edna E. 

1942. The morphology of Spirochaeta pallicHa in the electron microscoi)e. 

Journ. Amer. Med, Assoc, vol. 119, pp. 880-881, July 11. 
ZWOEYKIN, V. K. 

1940. An electron microscope for the research laboratory. Science, n. s., 

vol. 92, pp. 51-53, July 19. 
1940a. Electrons extend the range. Electr. Eng., vol. 59, pp. 441-443, No- 
vember. 
ZwoEYKiN, V. K., HnxiER, J., and Vance, A. W. 

1941. An electron microscope for practical laboratory service. Electr. Eng., 

vol. 60, pp. 157-162. 
1941a. Preliminary report on the development of a 300-kilovolt magnetic elec- 
tron microscope. Journ. Appl. Phys., vol. 12, No. 10, pp. 738-742, 
October. 
ZwoEYKiN, V. K., and RAMBBajG, E. G. 

1941. Surface studies with the electron microscope. Journ. Appl. Phys., 
vol. 12, No. 9, pp. 692-695, September. 



Smithsonian Report. 1944. — Seidel and Winter 



Plate l 




R. C. A. Type B Electron Microscope Beside a Laboratory Model or i he 
Desk Type Electron Microscope. 



Smithsonian Report. 1944. — Seidel and Winter 



PLATE 2 




1. General View of Graton-Dane Precision, All-purpose Microcamera. 







i 


4^ ' '^liSl -fin^r '^^^10 




> 


-•-^ 




\^^ 



2. Close-Range View of Graton-Dane Precision. All-purpose 
Microcamera. 



Smithsonian Report, 1944. — Seidel and Winter 



PLATE 3 




Chlorophyl Cells (Algae) (The Universal Microscope). 
17.000 X on 35-iiim. film. 



Smithsonian Report, l'*44. Seidel and Winter 



PLATE 4 




% 




BH 



Tetanus Spores (The Universal Microscope). 

25,000 X on 35-mm. film, enlarged 227,000 X. 



Smithsonian Report, 1944.— Seidel and Winter 



PLATE 5 




Typhoid Bacillus (The universal Microscope). 
2.3,000 X on 35-mm. film, enlarged 300,000 X. 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING (R. A. R.) 



By CoMMANDEB K. T. Adams 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 



[With 1 plate] 



Ilydrographic surveying consists essentially in measuring water 
depths from a survey vessel and locating those depths in geographic 
position or with reference to the adjacent land features. The method 
almost universally used for fixing hydrographic surveys within sight 
of land is by measuring two sextant angles to three appropriately 
located visible control stations. This is the well-known three-point 
problem. In hydrographic surveying such a position determination 
is called a three-point fix. The method is sometimes used beyond sight 
of land, where the depths of the water permit, by utilizing systems of 
anchored buoys for control stations. 

Beyond the limit of visibility of shore objects and where buoys can- 
not be used, hydrographic surveys were formerly controlled either 
by dead reckoning or by celestial observations. At considerable dis- 
tances from the coast and in deep oceanic areas, such methods sufficed, 
even though both are notably inaccurate as compared with the three- 
point fix method. However, there was serious need for a more accurate 
method for use in coastal waters just beyond the range of the three- 
point fix method. Radio acoustic ranging (R. A. R.) was developed 
for use in such areas. 

HISTORY OF R. A. R. 

Subaqueous sound was first used in navigation to determine the 
direction of an underwater sound source by means of two hydrophones 
(subaqueous sound receivers) installed on a ship, one on each side near 
the ship's bow. A patent was granted for this device in 1894. Prob- 
ably the first practical use of subaqueous sound to determine hori- 
zontal distances at sea was by means of a submarine bell suspended 
below a lightship. Such bells were in general use by the United 
States Lighthouse Service in 1906. Other experiments were made in 
connection with the use of subaqueous sound in navigation, but the 
rapid development of radio direction finding fulfilled the need for 
position determination in navigation. The sinking of the Titanic in 

221 



222 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

1912 emphasized the need for a means to detect icebergs in the track 
of a vessel and led to experiments in the use of subaqueous sound for 
this purpose. The instruments and methods developed, however, found 
their greatest application in measuring depths of water by subaqueous 
sound, resulting in modern echo sounding. 

During World War I the transmission of sound in sea water was 
intensively studied by the world's foremost scientists in combatting 
the submarine menace. As a result, instrumental equipment for trans- 
mitting and receiving subaqueous sound was perfected, as well as 
instruments specifically designed for the measurement of sound travel. 
After World War I, the Coast and Geodetic Survey became interested 
in the possible use of the method to control hydrographic surveys. In 
collaboration with the War Department and the Bureau of Standards, 
experiments were conducted in the further development of the method 
and in the redesign of instrumental equipment. The method was first 
actually used in hydrographic surveying on the ship Guide off the 
coast of southern California in early 1924. It was an immediate 
success, although many details of procedure had to be perfected before 
it could be used with assurance. 

THEORY 

In radio acoustic ranging the position of a subaqueous sound source 
is determined with reference to two or more appropriately located 
sound receivers whose positions are known. Such a use of sound 
has also been called "phonotelemetry." Angles are not utilized in 
this procedure — the unknown position is determined by measuring 
the travel times of the sound from its source to the sound receivers. 
If the effective horizontal velocity of sound in sea water is known, the 
distances from the sound source to the receiving stations may be 
determined by multiplying the travel times by the velocity, and 
from the distances the position of the sound source may be found. 

There are several ways in which the travel time of subaqueous 
sound can be used to determine the position of an unknown point: 

{a) Three or more appropriately located receiving units may be 
interconnected electrically or by radio and the times of arrival of the 
subaqueous sound at the several stations may be recorded at a central 
station. Knowing the velocity of sound, the differences between the 
arrival times may be used to derive the position of the source of the 
sound. This is known as the "differential method" and it is in 
general military use to determine the positions of enemy gun 
emplacements. 

(6) The subaqueous sound impulse may be s3mchronized at the 
source with a radio signal. If the elapsed times between the receipt 
of the radio signal and the receipt of the subaqueous sound are 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING ADAMS 



223 



observed at two or more receiving stations at known positions, these 
time intervals may be used to determine the position of the sound 
source. 

(c) All operations may be controlled and all measurements made 
at the sound source. A subaqueous sound signal is made near a 
survey vessel and its time recorded. The instants of arrival of the 
subaqueous sound at two or more receiving stations are then signaled 




PiGUBK 1. — Radio acoustic ranging. In hydrographic surveying the ship's position 
is determined by subaqueous sound travel to sono-radio buoys anchored at 
known positions. A, the bomber throws a small TNT bomb overboard from the 
moving ship. B, the bomb explodes and the resulting sound wave travels 
toward the sono-radio buoys (g and h) via paths (C — C) and toward the 
hydrophone (e) in the bottom of the ship via the path (D — D). The sound 
wave (F) travels in all directions at a velocity of about 1.5 km. per sec. 
Instantly on arrival at a sono-radio buoy (g) a radio signal (R) is transmitted 
which is received at the ship. In the figure the sound wave has not yet arrived 
at sono-radio buoy (h) . 

automatically by radio, and received and recorded on board the 
survey ship. From these data, the elapsed time between the origin 
of the sound and its receipt at each station is known and the position 
of the survey ship may be determined. 

This is the method used by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and 
is considered the most practicable for use in hydrographic surveying 
because all operations are controlled from the survey ship and all 



224 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

data are recorded thereon and become available to the hydrographer 
in the shortest possible time. This method avoids errors made in 
transmission, which are always possible where the data are received 
elsewhere and radioed to the vessel. 

R. A. R. OPERATION 

To determine a position by R. A. R., the following data must be 
known : The receiving stations (that is, the hydrophones) must be 
established at known positions. The travel times of the subaqueous 
sound from its origin to its receipt at each receiving station must 
be measured with an accuracy of about 0.01 second. The effective 
horizontal velocity of sound must be known. (The travel path of the 
sound is not necessarily a straight line, as is explained later, but to 
determine horizontal distances by R. A. R., it is obvious that the 
velocity of sound that is required is the horizontal distance divided 
by the travel time.) 

A sheet with a projection is prepared on which the positions of the 
receiving stations are plotted. The measured travel times are multi- 
plied by the effective horizontal velocity of sound to obtain the hori- 
zontal distances between the sound source and the receiving stations. 
The position of the sound source is then at the intersection of the arcs 
drawn from the stations with the computed distances as radii. 

The following description illustrates briefly how R. A. R. is used by 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey : A subaqueous sound is produced by 
the explosion of a TNT (trinitrotoluene) bomb thrown overboard 
from the survey ship while under way. A hydrophone (subaqueous 
receiving unit) in the hull of the ship, and a radio receiver on the ship 
are connected to a chronograph. The receiving station consists of a 
submerged hydrophone connected to a radio transmitter which oper- 
ates automatically when the hydrophone is actuated by a subaqueous 
sound. 

In addition to the ordinary survey personnel, certain specialists are 
required in R. A. R. One officer is in direct charge of all operations ; 
he plots the ship's positions as determined from the R. A. R. data. 
A chronograph attendant is in charge of the chronograph and oversees 
its functioning during the time from the bomb explosion to the receipt 
of the radio signals. A radio technician is in charge of the instru- 
mental equipment on the survey ship ; he attends to the proper tuning 
of the radio receiver and assists the chronograph attendant in identify- 
ing the radio signals from the receiving stations. An explosives expert, 
called a bomber, is in charge of the explosives and the preparation of 
the bombs ; he lights the bomb and throws it overboard when instructed 
to do so by the chronograph attendant. 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING-^ADAMS 225 

One minute before an R. A. R. position is desired, an electric bell 
signals the bomber to get a bomb ready. The bell signal also indicates 
the size of bomb wanted. A detonator and fuse are inserted in the bomb 
and the fuse is lighted a few seconds before the time for the position. 
When the fuse is burning, the bomb is thrown overboard from the 
ship's quarter and a bell is rung as it strikes the water. This is the 
oflficial time of the position. (The time of the explosion, which comes 
7 or 8 seconds later, is not the time of the position, because by that 
time the ship is some little distance away from the place of the explo- 
sion.) The electric bell is heard by the officer in charge and by the 
chronograph attendant. The time and log are read and recorded and 
a sounding is taken. Any changes in course or speed are made at this 
time. At the sound of the bell, the chronograph attendant starts the 
chronograph and connects it with the ship's hydrophone. When the 
bomb explodes, the sound is received through the hydrophone and reg- 
isters automatically on the chronograph tape. After the explosion has 
registered on the chronograph tape, the chronograph is switched from 
the hydrophone to the ship's radio receiver. The sound of the bomb 
explosion travels through the water in every direction and eventually 
reaches the several receiving stations. At the instant the sound arrives 
at each receiving station hydrophone, the radio transmitter connected 
to it automatically sends a radio signal, which is received on the ship's 
radio receiver and registers on the chronograph. During this time, 
which may be from a few seconds to more than 100 seconds, a mark is 
being made each second (or each tenth second) on the chronograph 
tape. As the radio returns are registered, the chronograph attendant 
identifies them, and when the last one has been received, the time 
intervals, in seconds and hundredths of seconds, from the explosion to 
its receipt at the several receiving stations are taken from the tape. 
Each radio return and its corresponding distance must be correctly 
identified with reference to the station from which it was received. 
The time intervals are then reported by the chronograph attendant to 
the officer in charge who determines from them the position of the sur- 
vey ship at the time the bomb struck the water. Tliis entire operation 
takes on the average about 4 or 5 minutes. 

R. A. R. RECEIVING STATIONS 

Three different types of receiving stations have been used by the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. In their chronological development they 
are: Shore station, ship station, and sono-radio buoy. Ship stations 
are no longer used ; shore stations are sometimes used ; but sono-radio 
buoys are used in most R. A. R. surveys. 

Shore stations, — R. A. R. was first used by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey on the Pacific coast of the United States. Here comparatively 



226 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

deep water generally extends reasonably close to the shore and, as is 
now known, the temperature conditions of the water are favorable for 
horizontal transmission of sound. Shore stations were used at this 
time. A shore station consists of a conventional radio receiving and 
transmitting station installed on shore, connected by electric cable with 
a submerged hydrophone placed offshore in an appropriate depth of 
water where it is not shielded by shoals. The hydrophone is attached 
to an anchor, but is buoyed to float at a selected depth below the water 
surface. 

Each shore station is manned by one or more radio technicians. The 
principal advantage of shore stations is that the radio technician can 
keep the apparatus in repair, the batteries charged, and the station 
operating at maximum efficiency at all times. Surf or other uncontrol- 
lable conditions may actuate the hydrophone if it is too sensitive. 
The radio technician can vary the sensitivity of the apparatus for the 
best reception. He can also listen to the sound of the bomb explosion 
when it is received and can measure its amplitude. A knowledge of the 
strength of the received sound is valuable to the officer in charge in 
weighting the results and in determining the size of bombs to use. 

Shore stations are more expensive to establish and maintain than 
sono-radio buoys, but their efficiency is greater. Laying the cable 
from the hydrophone through the surf to the radio station is the most 
difficult part of the establishment of a shore station, and sometimes 
weather may prevent it for several weeks at a time. And unless the 
area in the vicinity of the hydrophone has been thoroughly sounded, 
one has no assurance that intervening shoals or irregular types of 
bottom will not interfere with the receipt of the sound. 

Ship stations. — When K. A. R. was first used on the Atlantic coast 
of the United States, it was soon found that shore stations would not 
function satisfactorily. The Continental Shelf on this coast generally 
extends many miles seaward, and the depths of water on it are com- 
paratively shallow. Moreover, the temperature conditions of the water 
are not so favorable for the transmission of sound as they are on the 
Pacific coast. To overcome these difficulties, small ships were anchored 
offshore at known positions and used as floating R. A. R. stations. The 
receiving stations could then be placed in deeper water, thus shortening 
the distance through which the sound had to travel. The shore appa- 
ratus was placed on the ship, and the hydrophone was anchored, as at 
a shore station, a short distance from the ship so that ship noises would 
not interfere. These ship stations were then operated just as shore 
stations. They had all the important advantages of shore stations and 
in addition they were mobile. Their maintenance, however, was ex- 
ceedingly costly, and as the ships were small, they frequently had to 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING — ^ADAMS 227 

leave their stations in bad weather or be exposed to damage by storm. 
Ship stations are no longer used by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Sono-radio huoys. — Soon after ship stations had been used success- 
fully, the idea was conceived of using a buoy in which was housed a 
fully automatic unit for receiving the sound impulse and transmitting 
the radio signal — hence the name sono-radio buoy. 

Two types of structures have been used for sono-radio buoys : One 
type in which a steel drum is held in a wooden framework, and the 
other a specially designed all-metal type. The latter requires more 
special fittings and parts than the former, but both are about equally 
successful. These buoys are constructed on the ship by the ship's 
personnel, using readily available materials. 

From its long experience with the use of buoys as water signals, the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey has evolved a more or less standard type 
of wooden structure which has been used in the construction of sono- 
radio buoys. Such a buoy consists of a 50-gallon steel drum with a 
counterweight to hold it upright and a superstructure extending about 
16 feet above the water, the batteries, the radio transmitter, and the 
necessary electric circuits being placed in the drum. A vertical an- 
tenna is supported on the superstructure and the hydrophone is sus- 
pended from the counterweight at a depth of about 7 fathoms. 

The electric apparatus in the sono-radio buoy was designed espe- 
cially for automatic use in R. A. R. The principal parts of the equip- 
ment are the audio amplifier, the keying circuit, the radio trans- 
mitter, and the hydrophone. All parts must be especially constructed 
and are generally made by the radio technicians on the survey ship. 
The apparatus used in all sono-radio buoys is very similar, although 
minor differences have been incorporated depending on the conditions 
encountered. Sono-radio buoys can be used from 1 to 3 months with- 
out attention. 

The frequency of the sound of a bomb explosion is below 300 cycles. 
The electric apparatus is designed to receive and amplify sounds in 
this frequency range. The amplifier must be stable and any time lag 
in it must be small and relatively constant. The purpose of the keying 
circuit is to cause the radio transmitter to operate automatically when 
the bomb signal actuates the hydrophone. '\t is designed so that un- 
wanted sounds of comparatively low intensity will not operate the 
radio transmitter, but that when the sound of a bomb is received the 
transmitter operates instantly at nearly full power. 

Extra circuits are sometimes incorporated in sono-radio buoys for 
the purpose of shortening the transmitted radio signal. Wlien radio 
returns are being received from several sono-radio buoys, it is obvious 
that an early return which is prolonged unduly may blanket subse- 
quent returns coming immediately afterward from other sono-radio 



228 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

buoys. Due to reverberation, multiple reflections, and other causes, a 
radio signal in such cases may be prolonged as much as 7 seconds. 
Moreover, defects occurring in the electric circuits or unwanted noises 
may tend to make a particular sono-radio buoy transmit almost con- 
stantly. The so-called shortening circuit limits the length of radio 
transmission to a half second or less, after which the sono-radio buoy 
is rendered inactive for a period of 3 to 5 seconds. There are certam 
disadvantages in using these circuits. When all the radio signals 
transmitted are of equal length, signals caused by bombs cannot be 
distinguished from other signals, as, for example, those caused by 
water noises. Moreover, if a sono-radio buoy is actuated by an extra- 
neous cause just before the bomb signal arrives, the silencing circuit 
prevents the bomb signal from operating it. Shortening-and-silencing 
circuits, therefore, are not used where prolonged signals are not par- 
ticularly bothersome. 

To obtain constancy of radio frequency, a quartz crystal is incorpo- 
rated in the transmitter. Several radio frequencies between 2492 and 
4160 kilocycles are authorized for use in sono-radio buoys, but those 
most frequently used are 4135 and 4160 kilocycles. Using these latter 
frequencies, the minimum radio frequency power required for satis- 
factory results under normal operating conditions is about 3 watts, 
although up to 26 watts has been used. 

A hydrophone is a subaqueous sound-detecting device. It is used in 
R. A. R. to receive the sound energy from a distant underwater bomb 
explosion and to convert it to electric energy. Most hydrophones con- 
sist of a watertight housing containing an electromagnetic, piezoelec- 
tric, or other electroacoustic device, which is coupled to the housing in 
such a way that the sound impinging on the housing, or on its dia- 
phragm, is transmitted mechanically to the electroacoustic device, 
which in turn converts this mechanical energy into electric energy. 

As sound passes through an elastic medium, such as water, there is 
an alternate condensation and rarefaction of the medium at a given 
point, resulting in a corresponding increase and decrease of the pres- 
sure at this point. In addition, at any point the particles of the me- 
dium undergo regional displacement forward and backward along the 
direction of sound propagation. Hydrophones are operated by this 
pressure variation and particle displacement. Several different types 
of hydrophones have been designed especially for use in R. A. R. The 
hydrophone itself does not have to be extremely sensitive, but the 
hydrophone and the audio amplifier must be designed so that together 
they will have the required sensitivity. A hydrophone must respond 
well to the frequency of a sound caused by a subaqueous explosion. 
The hydrophone must not be directive to a marked degree, for in hy- 
drographic surveying the sound which is to actuate it may come from 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING — ADAMS ' 229 

almost any direction. The hydrophone or the case in which it is housed 
must be watertight. The most frequent cause of hydrophone failure is 
leakage. A hydrophone becomes inoperative if the armature of the 
electromagnetic unit is forced against one of the pole pieces and held 
there. This may result if a bomb explodes too close to the hydrophone 
or if anything strikes the hydrophone while the sono-radio buoy is 
being placed on its station. 

Before a sono-radio buoy is put on station, the gain of its audio 
amplifier must be adjusted for sensitivity. If the gain is too low, the 
unit will be insensitive and returns will not be received from bomb 
explosions more than a short distance away. If the gain is too high, 
the unit will be actuated by the action of the waves, nearby water 
noises, or by the movement of the buoy itself. In the latter case, the 
buoy transmits continuously, and the receipt of a bomb explosion 
cannot be detected. Furthermore, the continuous radio signals inter- 
fere with the receipt of signals from other sono-radio buoys which are 
operating satisfactorily. It is obvious that a sono-radio buoy placed 
on station to operate automatically for several weeks at a time must not 
be adjusted for operation in perfect conditions, for then survey opera- 
tions would often be interrupted by weather conditions. This explains 
one of the principal advantages of a shore station. The latter being 
attended, its sensitivity can be adjusted at all times for best operation. 

Abnormal performance of a sono-radio buoy is usually disclosed in 
one of two ways — either it is too insensitive to bomb explosions or there 
is an excess of stray signals. 

SHIP EQUIPMENT 

The special equipment used on the survey ship for R. A. E.. is com- 
paratively simple and easily understood. It consists of a hydrophone 
in the ship's bottom, a radio receiver, a chronograph and amplifier, and 
a break-circuit chronometer. Except for the chronograph amplifier, 
standard commercial products are used in each case. Their coordinate 
functions from the time a bomb explodes until the radio signals from 
the R. A. R. stations have been recorded on the chronograph are as 
follows : 

The bomb explosion is received on the hydrophone, after which the 
signal is amplified sufficiently to operate the stylus of a chronograph 
which makes a mark on a moving tape. The stylus circuit is then 
immediately connected to the radio receiver. Signals from the R. A. R. 
stations are received and marked on the tape by the same stylus. 
Another stylus operated from a break-circuit chronometer marks regu- 
lar time intervals on the tape during this entire period. Then the time 
intervals from the explosion of the bomb to the reception of the radio 
signals may be measured on the tape. 



230 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



The hydrophone, through which the sound of the bomb explosion is 
received, is installed in a water-filled tank which is fastened to the 
inner side of the hull of the ship. It must be located where ship noises 
will affect it least. 

Any good commercial communication radio receiver may be used so 
long as it will cover the necessary range of frequencies. 

The chronograph amplifier is especially built by the ship's radio 
technicians. Its purpose is to amplify the impulse from the hydro- 




FiGUBE 2. — Ship equipment for radio acoustic ranging. A bomber (a) throws 
a small TNT bomb overboard from the moving survey ship. The sound wave 
produced by the subaqueous explosion travels (CCC) to a hydrophone (d) in 
the bottom of the ship. The hydrophone converts sound energy to electric 
energy, which is led (EEE) to an amplifier which operates a chronograph (f). 
The bomb explosion is registered on a paper tape at G. The sound wave of the 
explosion travels to R. A. R. stations which it actuates and which instantly 
send radio signals (HHH) which are received (JJJ) and amplified and regis- 
tered on the same chronograph (f). The returns from three stations are shown 
at K, L, and M. Knowing the velocity of sound in sea water, the time intervals 
on the tape can be converted into distances. 

phone caused by the bomb explosion and also the output of the radio 
receiver. The amplification must be sufficient to actuate the stylus in 
the chronograph. 

A chronograph is a graphic-recording time-measuring device. It is 
connected to a break-circuit chronometer, which provides the time 
record. A narrow wax-coated paper runs through the chronograph 
beneath two sharp styluses electromagnetically operated. The tape 
moves at the rate of about 2 centimeters a second. One stylus is con- 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING — ^ADAMS 231 

nected with the chronometer and makes a mark on the tape once a 
second. Another stylus is connected with the chronograph amplifier 
and is actuated by the reception of the bomb signal and later by the 
reception of the radio signals. This record permits the scaling of the 
time intervals to the nearest 0.01 second by interpolation. 

A different instrument, called the Dorsey chronograph, designed 
and built by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, is also used for the same 
purpose. It incorporates electric time measurement, starting with a 
piezoelectric crystal, and provides much more constant and correct 
time than a break-circuit chronometer. The tape in this chronograph 
runs at a speed of about 5 centimeters a second, and a mark is made each 
tenth second and the seconds are numbered. The instrument is also 
automatic in that the electric bell signal signifying that the bomb has 
struck the water starts the tape moving and the timing stylus begins 
marking tenth seconds. When the hydrophone is actuated by the 
bomb explosion, the next tenth second is marked zero and the mark at 
each subsequent second is numbered. Time intervals to the nearest 
0.01 second can be interpolated from this record by eye. 

BOMBS 

For use in R. A. R. a sound of great intensity reaching a peak almost 
instantly and one that will travel through the water in all directions is 
required. The explosion of a trinitrotoluene (TNT) bomb has been 
found best adapted for the purpose, although any type of explosive 
suitable for use under water can be used. Dynamite has been used, but 
it is more unstable and more dangerous to handle than TNT. The 
frequency of a bomb explosion is below 300 cycles, which is lower than 
most interfering noises. 

The TNT itself does not have to be in a watertight container. For 
best results the container should be made of a comparatively strong 
rigid material so that the gases generated are contained until detona- 
tion is complete, whereupon the container bursts. The resulting ex- 
plosion produces a highly compressed sound wave that has a greater 
range than one from an explosion in a comparatively fragile container. 

For long distances and best results, hollow cast-iron spheres with 
half-inch walls, containing from 1 to 4 pounds of TNT, are used. 
These spheres have to be especially cast and are expensive and heavy 
to handle. For ordinary distances and for perhaps 95 percent of the 
cases, ordinary commercial tin cans with a friction top are used. 
Three sizes of the latter are commonly used, 14, i/^, and 1 pint, depend- 
ing on the distances involved and the characteristics of the area being 
surveyed. 

Ordinary commercial detonators made of fulminate of mercury are 
used with standard waterproof fuse to detonate the TNT. Tin cans 
619830 — 45 16 



232 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

of various sizes are filled in advance with TNT compacted firmly. A 
hole is punched in the center of the lid of each can. Fuses of various 
lengths are attached to the detonators and this junction of the fuse 
and detonator must be watertight. Just before an R. A. R. position is 
required, the detonator is inserted through the hole in the lid of the 
can and pushed down into the TNT. The fuse is lighted on an electric 
heating element and the bomb is thrown overboard well clear of the 
ship, which is under way. 

The bombs must not be exploded too close to the survey ship. Also 
they should not explode too close to the surface of the water, for then 
part of the sound energy is dissipated into the air. Best results are 
apparently obtained with explosions at a depth of about 7 fathoms. 
To achieve these two results, the bombs are weighted to make them 
sink at the required speed, and the fuse is cut in lengths to provide the 
required delay in time. 

In 1940 the cost of a 1-pint bomb with fuse and detonator was about 
30 cents. 

VELOCITY OF SOUND IN SEA WATER 

To measure distances by subaqueous sound transmission, one needs 
to know not only the elapsed time intervals but the effective horizontal 
velocity at which the sound travels through the water. The velocity 
of propagation of sound in sea water may be calculated from the tem- 
perature and salinity of the water and the hydrostatic pressure. 
Tables have been prepared based on these three variables. The velocity 
of sound varies with these three characteristics by the following ap- 
proximate percentages : 

(a) Each 1° C. increase in temperature increases the velocity 0.2 
percent. 

(b) Each 1 part per 1,000 increase in salinity increases the velocity 
0.1 percent. 

(c) Each additional 100 fathoms (183 m.) of depth increases the 
velocity 0.22 percent. The velocity of sound in water is approximately 
1,500 meters per second at a temperature of 14° C, salinity 35 parts 
per 1,000, and at surface atmospheric pressure. 

To determine the velocity of sound from the tables, the temperature 
and salinity of the water must be measured, and the depth must be 
known, for pressure varies almost exactly with depth. The variation 
of salinity in sea water is small, and its effect on velocity, as compared 
with the effect of variation in temperature, is relatively unimportant. 
The temperature varies not only from place to place, but ordinarily 
decreases with the depth. For the average E. A. R. survey, the velocity 
of sound must be known within 4 meters per second, and to attain this 



4 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING — ^ADAMS 233 

accuracy the average temperature of the water through which the 
sound wave passes must be known within approximately 1° C. 

During a hydrographic survey controlled by R. A. R., frequent tem- 
perature observations are made. Observations from the surface to 
the bottom are made at various places and times, supplemented by 
more frequent observations at the surface and the bottom. Tempera- 
tures are measured with one or more reversing thermometers attached 
to a sounding wire and lowered to the desired depth. The thermome- 
ter reverses as soon as it starts upward and breaks the column of mer- 
cury so that the value registered at the greatest depth can be read 
after the thermometer has been brought to the surface. 

A bathythermograph, a comparatively new instrument, is also used 
to measure water temperatures in the upper 75 fathoms, where the 
greatest variation occurs. This instrument records automatically and 
graphically the temperatures with reference to depths. 

The variation in salinity normally encountered affects velocities of 
sound only slightly as compared with temperature, but salinity does 
vary and its value must be determined. In the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey the salinity is determined indirectly by measuring with a 
hydrometer the specific gravity of a water sample. An accuracy of 
about one-tenth part per 1,000 may thus be obtained. 

Velocity of sound as determined from the physical characteristics of 
the water and from tables is obviously the velocity of propagation of 
the sound wave, irrespective of direction. The effective horizontal 
velocity is required in R. A. R. If the sound wave is refracted, or is 
reflected from the bottom one or more times en route to the receiving 
station, as is explained later, it is apparent that the theoretical velocity 
alone will not suffice for use in R. A. R. In such cases, the measured 
time intervals are greater than they would be if the sound traveled 
by a direct horizontal path. 

Under certain conditions the effective horizontal velocity of sound 
at a place can be determined experimentally. If a bomb is exploded 
at a known horizontal distance from a receiving station and the time 
interval from the explosion to its receipt at the receiving station is 
measured, the distance divided by the time interval will give the effec- 
tive horizontal velocity of sound between the source and the receiver 
for the temperature and salinity of the water at that place and time, 
irrespective of the path of the sound wave. Where the depths of water 
permit, it is customary to make such tests throughout an area being 
surveyed and at intervals during the survey. For a survey in uniform 
depths where the temperature and salinity are relatively constant, 
results of such tests can be subsequently used in determining R. A. R. 
positions. Wliere the temperature and salinity change frequently, 
the velocity of sound determined by tests can be modified to take into 



234 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

account the temperature and salinity differences. But where the 
depths in the area vary to a marked degree, and especially where the 
depths are too great to permit tests to be made, the velocity of sound 
values must be determined from an assumption of the path of the 
sound wave. 

There is also an indirect method for determining the effective hori- 
zontal velocity of sound under certain conditions and allowing certain 
assumptions. If the time intervals from a bomb explosion to three 
receiving stations at known positions are measured accurately, and 
the same temperature and salinity conditions and depths along the 
three paths of sound are assumed, then the effective horizontal velocity 
can be computed by means of a rather involved formula. It is obvious 
that there must be no doubt regarding the accuracy of the travel times. 
If one value is doubtful or if the conditions along the three paths are 
dissimilar, an erroneous value of the velocity of sound will result. 

PATH OF A SOUND WAVE 

In an ideal water medium with uniform characteristics and unlim- 
ited dimensions in every direction, a sound from a nondirectional 
source would be propagated along straight paths in every direction. 
The arrival time at any receiving station would be the time required 
for the sound to travel the shortest path. In such a case, the theoreti- 
cal velocity of sound would be the same as the effective velocity, and 
R. A. R. would not be complicated by uncertainties due to the path of 
the sound wave. 

Unfortunately, the ideal medium does not exist in practice, and the 
propagation of sound in water is indeed complicated. The sound wave 
is propagated through a body of water bounded above by the water 
surface and below by the ocean bottom ; the horizontal dimension of 
the medium is long as compared with its vertical dimension; sound 
waves are reflected from both boundaries of the medium, and within 
the medium they are refracted by changes in the velocity of sound 
along the path. These facts complicate the path of the sound wave. 

The reception of sound is also complicated by the fact that the vari- 
ous reflected and refracted waves interfere with one another. Where 
two sound waves of the same frequency and wave form meet at one 
point, they will tend to reinforce or neutralize each other, depending 
on their directions of propagation and whether they meet in the same 
or opi^osite phases. 

It is apparent that, in a bounded water medium, the sound wave 
may travel an almost unlimited number of paths. There will be one 
direct path from the source to the receiver and a multitude of reflected 
patlis. The sound wave that first arrives at the receiver with sufficient 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING — ADAMS 235 

intensity to actuate it is, of course, the one that is used in R. A. R. — 
other sound waves arriving later serve only to prolong the received 
signal. Unfortunately, the sound traveling via the direct path is 
almost always canceled by the sound wave reflected from the surface 
of the water. This surface-reflected sound wave is reversed in phase, 
and as the length of its path is nearly equal to the direct path, almost 
complete cancelation of the two takes place. In actual experience the 
sound via the direct path is rarely received at distances greater than 
7 or 8 miles. 

The result of this is that the useful sound wave in R. A. R. is the 
one that is reflected at least once from the ocean bottom and, depending 
on the depth of the water and its physical characteristics, the sound 
may arrive at the receiving station after having been refletced a num- 
ber of times between surface and bottom. 

Another complication is the fact that the surface boundary is hori- 
zontal, but the ocean bottom is not. A sound wave is reflected from a 
boundary in the same way as a ray of light is reflected from a mirror, 
the angle of reflection being always equal to the angle of incidence. If 
the water is deep at the bomb explosion but the receiving station is 
located in comparatively shallow water, as is the usual case in R. A. R., 
it is obvious that the bottom slopes upward along the effective path of 
propagation. In such a case, each time the sound wave is reflected 
from the bottom, its direction of propagation is changed toward the 
vertical, and if enough reflections are involved and the slope of the 
bottom is sufficiently great, the successive angles of reflection may be 
decreased until the sound wave is reflected vertically upward or it may 
actually reverse its horizontal direction of propagation, and never 
reach the receiving station. This condition is aggravated in shoal 
water where more reflections take place in a given horizontal distance 
than do in deep water of the same characteristics. This partly explains 
the difficulty encountered in sound transmission from deep water on 
the Continental Slope to shoal water on the Continental Shelf. It also 
explains the difficulty encountered in R. A. R. where there are inter- 
vening shoal areas between the bomb explosions and the receiving 
stations. 

The path of a sound wave is also affected by refraction. Wherever 
a change in the velocity of sound takes place along the path, the sound 
wave is refracted. If pressure were the only characteristic affecting 
velocity of sound, its constant increase with depth would cause a con- 
stant increase in velocity, and the sound wave would be refracted in 
the arc of a circle concave upward. It is rare, however, that pressure 
is the only variable involved. The temperature of the water varies 
and normally decreases with depth more than enough to overcome the 
increase caused by pressure, until the depths become comparatively 



236 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

great. This decrease in temperature causes a decrease in velocity 
which refracts the sound wave downward. 

Thus it is seen that for any given case in R. A. R. the path along 
which the received sound has traveled may be very complicated. It 
may have been reflected a number of times from the bottom and the 
surface, and between these reflections it may have been refracted, either 
upward or downward, or perhaps in both directions at different depths. 

The excellent results obtained in R. A. R. are due to the fact that 
water is a relatively good medium for the propagation of sound, even 
though its physical characteristics, and consequently the velocity of 
sound, vary with time, place, and depth. It is due also to the good 
reflecting qualities of the water surface and the ocean bottom. The 
sound is confined vertically and is reflected and amplified, somewhat 
as it is in a speaking tube. Little of the energy of the sound wave is 
actually lost in reflections, although when the sea is rough or the ocean 
bottom irregular, some of the sound energy may be dissipated. 

R. A. R. IN PRACTICE 

Subaqueous sounds have been detected with instruments of only 
ordinary sensitivity at a distance of 400 nautical miles (740 km.). A 
sound propagated vertically downward by an electromagnetic oscilla- 
tor in a depth of about 200 fathoms (365 m.) has been heard after 
having been reflected 23 times alternately from the bottom and the 
surface. In R. A. R. the longest distance that has been measured is 
184 nautical miles (340 km.). This was in connection with a test 
which was concltided at that distance, but there was no observable 
diminution in the intensity of the received sound as compared with 
that received at somewhat lesser distances. In actual hydrographic 
surveying, distances of 100 miles (185 km.) or more have often been 
measured. Shore stations are much more efficient in this respect than 
sono-radio buoys, although returns have been received from sono-radio 
buoys at distances of 100 miles (185 km.). The type of area in which 
sono-radio buoys are preferred to shore stations ordinarily limits their 
range to about 30 or 35 miles (55 or 65 km.). 

The operation of R. A. R. to control hydrographic surveys is now a 
routine procedure. The position of the survey ship is fixed regularly 
by R. A. R. at intervals of 10 minutes or less with as much casualness 
as if three-point sextant fixes were being used. 

The positions of the receiving stations are plotted on a projection, 
just as the positions of triangulation stations are. Because of the long 
distances ordinarily involved, the distortion which occurs in a plotting 
sheet made of even the best drawing paper has considerable effect. 
For this reason, a number of uniformly spaced concentric circles are 



RADIO ACOUSTIC RANGING — ^ADAMS 



237 



drawn on the sheet from each R. A. R. station at the time the projection 
is made. 

The position of the survey ship can be plotted with a beam compass, 
by swinging distance or time arcs from the respective receiving sta- 
tions, but setting the beam compass with reference to the nearest of 




Figure 3.— An area surveyed in 1939 by radio acoustic ranging (R. A. R.), showing 
the sono-radio buoys and ordinary buoys used to control the hydrography. The 
lines of buoys were located by taut-wire traverses, but some of the outer- 
most sono-radio buoys were located by R. A. R. distances. Legend: • ordi- 
nary survey buoy ; O sono-radio buoy ; A triangulation station ; <- sextant 
fix ; taut-wire measurement ; . . R. A. R, distance. 

the concentric circles. The position of the ship is at the intersection of 
the arcs. Positions can also be plotted by using a special circular 
celluloid protractor. 

R. A. R. was originally adopted to control hydrographic surveys be- 
yond the visibility of shore signals or where survey buoys could not be 
used. Since its use, however, does not depend on visual observation, 



238 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

it is equally usable at night, or in fog. Survey ships of the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey, using K. A. R., have surveyed continuously 24 hours 
a day for periods of 10 days at a time. 

Some statistics of a survey controlled exclusively by R. A. R. may 
be of interest. They are from an offshore survey in the vicinity of 
Nantucket Shoals off the northeast Atlantic coast of the United States. 
These surveys were plotted on one 1 : 60,000 scale sheet and two 
1 : 120,000 scale sheets. Sono-radio buoys were used for receiving 
stations at 24 different locations. The surveying was done between 
May 2 and September 25, 1939. The area surveyed was 8,562 square 
statute miles (22,176 sq. km.), and the total length of sounding lines 
was 10,496 statute miles (16,892 km.) ; 5,506 bombs of various sizes 
were used, made from 3,511 pounds of TNT and 4,170 feet of fuse. To 
obtain the required temperature and salinity data, serial temperatures 
were observed at 135 different places. The positions of the sono-radio 
buoys were determined by taut-wire traverses, in connection with 
which ordinary buoys were used at 60 different locations, in addition 
to the sono-radio buoys. The total number of working days was 101, 
including 18 days used for placing or picking up buoys and running 
the taut-wire traverses for their locations. The survey vessel ran a 
total distance of 16,481 nautical miles (30,543 km.) for all purposes 
during the survey. 



Smithsonian Report, 1944.— Adams 



Plate 1 





SONo-RADio Buoy (All-metau type). 



THE DAVID W. TAYLOE MODEL BASIN 



By Re:ak Admiral He21bert S. Howard, U. S. N. 
Director, David W. Taylor Model Basin 



[With 4 plates] 



The largest and most completely equipped ship-model testing and 
experimental plant in the world operates directly under the Bureau of 
Ships of the Navy Department. 

This plant, the David W. Taylor Model Basin, staffed by a highly 
trained and capable group of officers and civilian technical and shop 
personnel, has as its basic function the solving of problems concerning 
the design and operation of naval vessels by testing models in water 
under controlled conditions. Included in its work are the determina- 
tion of the speed and powering of ships, launching, stability, action in 
waves, turning and maneuvering, and propeller design. Besides ques- 
tions of pure ship design and form, the problems presented for solution 
cover the field of mine-sweeping devices, paravanes, and torpedoes ; in 
fact, everything which has to do with forms which move through the 
water. 

In addition to the preceding problems, special problems of struc- 
tural design of ships comprise a major activity of the plant. These 
problems cover all manner of special questions relating to the strength 
of ships and their parts, the resistance of ship structures to underwater 
explosions, structural vibration, and the effect of shock, and the elimi- 
nation of such vibration and shock effects. 

In general, the chief function of this organization at present is to 
give the earliest possible solutions or answers to the wartime problems 
submitted to it. Research, which has been and is being continuously 
carried on, gives the background of knowledge which makes it possible 
to undertake and furnish the solution to these urgent problems. 

Although the Model Basin operates directly under the Bureau of 
Ships, work is carried on not only for that Bureau but for all branches 
of the Navy Department, whether for the Commander in Chief him- 
self or any of the technical bureaus. Work is also done for other 
branches of the Government, notably the United States Maritime 

* Reprinted by permission from Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 15, No. 3, March 1944. 

239 



240 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Commission, and for private companies and individuals, this practice 
fulfilling the requirements of the act which created the establishment. 

The construction of the Taylor Model Basin was authorized by Act 
of Congress of May 6, 1936. This act gave authority for the purchase 
of a suitable site and the construction of a new model basin establish- 
ment for the United States Navy. This was to replace and extend the 
work of the original Experimental Model Basin which had been in 
service at the Washington Navy Yard for nearly 40 years. The old 
experimental basin had become too small to carry out its work for the 
Navy and private individuals, and its equipment was, moreover, be- 
coming obsolete. 

To commemorate the work of that officer who had been responsible 
for the original Experimental Model Basin and under whom that basin 
had operated for the greater part of its existence, the Secretary of the 
Navy directed that the new establishment be known as "The David W. 
Taylor Model Basin" in honor of Rear Admiral David Watson Taylor, 
Construction Corps, United States Navy, Retired, former Chief Con- 
structor of the Navy. 

The location chosen for the new establisliment was in the valley of 
the Potomac some 12 miles from the center of Washington. This site 
was selected not only because land was available but principally be- 
cause three basic requirements were fulfilled. First, solid rock was 
at the surface in this location ; this meant that the foundations for the 
rails of the towing carriages of the basins could be carried down to 
solid rock and the extremely accurate alignment needed could be prac- 
tically guaranteed. Second, an ample supply of clean fresh water 
necessary for the testing basins was available, since the main conduits 
to Washington were close at hand. Finally, the location was away 
from heavy traffic which might disturb the alignment of the towing- 
carriage rails and their foundations, but it was still fairly close to the 
Navy Department which permitted easy communication and frequent 
visits. 

The new establishment was planned and laid out by Capt. H. E. 
Saunders, who had been stationed at the old Experimental Model 
Basin for a number of years. Based on long experience there and 
reports from model basins the world over, the new model basin was 
planned to provide not only the best and most up-to-date facilities and 
equipment for model testing, but in such size and capacity as to ensure, 
as far as could be foreseen, that it would meet all needs of the Navy for 
many years to come. 

The actual design was undertaken in 1933-34 by the Bureau of 
Yards and Docks of the Navy Department and construction was 
started in September 1937. The basins were filled with water in March 
1939 and the plant was completed in July of that year. Because of the 



TAYLOR MODEL BASIN — HOWARD 241 

long time required for laying the carriage tracks and for making other 
preparations, the principal activities were not transferred from the 
Navy Yard until November 1940. 

The original conception of this establishment, as indicated by the 
authorizing act, was that it should be constructed to investigate and 
determine the most suitable and desirable shapes and forms for naval 
vessels and to investigate other problems of ship design. Thus 
primarily the establishment was designed and equipped to carry out 
experimental work on the forms of ships' hulls and to estimate the 
power required to drive them, with a secondary interest in other fea- 
tures of design. This original conception has almost been lost sight 
of in an expansion and growth far beyond the fields originally con- 
templated. The war has naturally been principally responsible for 
this great expansion. Under the heading of "underwater forms and 
propulsion" the work has expanded until it has come to cover the 
proper form or shape of almost any body which is propelled, towed, or 
projected on or through the water; while under the secondary heading 
of "other problems of ship design" the expansion has been so broad in 
the fields of structural strength, shock, vibration, underwater explo- 
sions and related subjects that the primary and secondary objects of 
the original establishment have almost changed places. 

The outstanding features of the Taylor Model Basin are its test 
facilities, which are unusual both as to types and as to size and capacity. 
For an understanding of the work undertaken a general description of 
the physical plant and these facilities is necessary. 

As a testing establishment the Taylor Model Basin was made large 
enough to house equipment which would accomplish each of the vari- 
ous types of research on models with the greatest degree of accuracy 
and reliability. 

Physically the establishment consists of three buildings: a main 
building 871 feet by 54 feet ; lying parallel to it, a basin building 1,330 
feet long ; and a wind-tunnel building. The main building houses in 
its central section the offices, drafting and computing rooms, record 
storage vaults, a library, a photographic laboratory, and a museum. 

The western section of the building contains the shops where wood 
and metal models, mechanical devices, instruments, dynamometers, 
and other special equipment are made. 

The eastern end of the main building constitutes the laboratory. 
In this laboratory are located the 12-inch and 24-inch variable-pressure 
water tunnels, 30,000-pound and 600,000-pound universal static-load 
testing machines, and a 150,000-pound alternating-load testing ma- 
chine, and other equipment. 

The basin building is unique in its appearance, because of its barrel- 
arch roof 1,188 feet long. Instead of a single large model basin like 



242 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the old one at the Washington Navy Yard, there are four separate 
model basins each designed for a particular line of work. 

The principal large deep-water basin is 963 feet long by 51 feet wide 
by 22 feet deep. Here models of large ships are towed or self- 
propelled. This is the largest basin of its kind in the world. 

Joining the large basin is a shorter shallow-water basin 303 feet long 
by 51 feet wide by 10 feet deep. The depth can be varied at will to rep- 
resent rivers, canals, and channels of limited depth and width. In 
this basin models of tugboats, barges, river craft, and other types of 
shallow-water vessels are tested. 

Forming a continuation of the west end of the shallow-water basin 
is a J -shaped turning basin, for testing the maneuvering and steering 
characteristics of models. In a special enclosure over this basin, 
accurate photographic observations of the models under test are made 
with a group of cameras about 40 feet overhead. 

To the north side of the large basin there is a high-speed basin 1,168 
feet long by 21 feet wide by 10 feet deep, for the testing of models of 
high-speed motor boats and seaplane hulls. Incidentally, the site is 
large enough to permit the extension of this basin to more than twice 
its present length to meet requirements of the future. 

In the basement of the main building is a small basin, 142 feet long 
by 10 feet wide by 5^/2 feet deep, for the testing of special models and 
for unusual research problems. 

The towing carriages, which span the basins and operate on the 
precision-laid rails atop the basin walls, furnish the means of testing 
the models. The heart of a towing carriage is the dynamometer, 
which with its related recording instruments measures the forces 
arising from the motion of a model through the water. 

Two carriages are now in operation — carriage 1 over the deep-water 
basin, and a special quiet-running carriage with wood frame and pneu- 
matic-tire wheels over the high-speed basin. Under construction, and 
to be placed in service during 1944, are carriages for the shallow-water 
basin and the high-speed basin. The last carriage will have a top 
speed of 24 knots. 

The carriage which now operates on the deep-water basin is typical. 
The specifications it must fill are exacting: a testing speed range of 
from 0.1 to 18 knots, the selected speed to be constant during an 
8-second measuring run within 0.01 knot, a rigid-frame structure to 
span the 51-foot distance between the basin walls without permitting 
disturbing vibrations or deflections at the midspan where the measur- 
ing instruments are located, absolutely straight-line motion of the 
towing point where the model is attached to the carriage, a dynamome- 
ter to measure the model resistance during the measuring run to within 



TAYLOR MODEL BASIN — HOWARD 243 

0.01 pound but rugged enough to handle the forces on large, 30-foot 
battleship models at full test speed. 

Two variable-pressure water tunnels, designed primarily for testing 
model propellers but also used extensively for special hydrodynamic 
tests, are among the unusual facilities. Each water tunnel consists of a 
closed duct circuit arranged in a vertical plane, in which water is 
circulated at a known speed. In the lower limb of the apparatus is a 
motor-driven impeller which circulates the water, and in the upper 
limb is the test section, fitted with glass ports for visual and photo- 
graphic observation of the propeller being tested in a jet of water of 
uniform velocity and turbulence. The diameter of the jet nozzle is 
12 inches for one of the water tunnels, and 24 inches for the other. 

The model propeller is mounted on a motor-driven shaft projecting 
into the test chamber. The thrust and torque of the propeller at vari- 
ous speeds of revolution are measured by a dynamometer. Water 
speeds in the 24-inch tunnel up to 35 knots are available. 

Vacuum pumps lower the air pressure above the water in the test 
chamber of the tunnel, in order to create an absolute pressure on the 
model propeller corresponding to the combined effect of atmospheric 
and water pressure on the propeller of the full-sized ship. Under these 
conditions, the phenomena of cavitation occur on the model propeller 
so that the test accurately represents the behavior of the full-scale 
propeller. Cavitation is the formation of water-vapor cavities, or 
"bubbles," on the propeller blade surface, caused by high loading and 
consequent serious reduction of pressure on the back, or "suction side" 
of the propeller. Efficiency suffers when cavitation occurs. Cavita- 
tion effects are studied by means of stroboscopic illumination of the 
propeller being tested, and these effects are recorded by high-speed 
flash photographs, of 1/30,000-second exposure. 

In the laboratory building there are located two large machines for 
testing structural specimens, both full-size and model scale. One, the 
150,000-pound alternating-load testing machine, tests beams, colunms, 
riveted and welded joints, and other structural members in alternate 
compression and tension over long periods of time, to discover the 
manner, loading, and number of cycles to failure in fatigue. 

The other large testing machine is a universal static-load testing 
machine with 600,000-pound capacity in either tension or compression. 
Stress-strain data, yield point, and ultimate strength of a wide variety 
of structural specimens may be obtained with this apparatus. 

One of the most unusual and recently completed facilities is the test 
pond for underwater explosion tests. This is a pentagonal pond, dug 
partly out of the solid rock and partly formed by built-up rock em- 
bankments. It is roughly 150 feet across and will carry water to a 



244 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

depth of 25 feet. In this pond research investigations of underwater 
explosions and explosive tests against models of ship structures are 
carried out. 

Information can be obtained on the trajectories of model bombs and 
torpedoes after impact with the water surface by experiments made in 
the new transparent-wall tank, using high-speed motion pictures to 
record the paths of the models. The new tank has glass windows 
forming one side and one end ; it is 25 feet long, 9 feet deep, and 4^ 
feet wide, filled with continuously filtered, crystal-clear water to insure 
clear photographs. The windows are three-quarters of an inch 
thick "tempered" glass, four times as strong as ordinary plate glass 
of the same thickness. Intense photographic illumination is necessary 
to obtain good film records of the objects moving through the water. 

The circulating-water channel, now nearing completion, is an 
unusual hydraulic testing facility, both as to type and size. Essen- 
tially it consists of an open-top test section 22 feet wide and 60 feet 
long in which a stream of water 9 feet deep flows at a maximum speed 
of 10 knots. The object under test will be held stationary in the moving 
stream and the forces exerted by the water measured by suitable dyna- 
mometers. The walls and bottom of this channel contain windows 
approximately 4 feet by ll^ feet through which both visual and photo- 
graphic observations can be made. 

The chief advantages obtained by testing in the circulating-water 
channel are that the object undergoing test can be viewed and photo- 
graphed from all sides and that the tests may be carried on for an 
indefinite period without stopping as at the end of a straight towing 
run. 

The objects tested in this channel will consist of ship models, torpedo 
shapes, mines, and special devices which cannot be tested as well by 
towing in still water. The water channel will complement the existing 
turning basins and water tunnels but will not supplant them. 

In order that such a large stream of water may be circulated at con- 
stant speed with uniform flow throughout the test section, a structure 
about 150 feet long and 45 feet high is required. The water is pumped 
through the channel by two 12i/^-f oot-diameter propeller-type pumps 
driven by direct-connected 1,250-horsepower electric motors. These 
motors rotate at constant speed and the rate of flow of the water is 
regulated by adjusting the pitch of the propeller blades while running. 

The wind-tunnel building is located to the west of the main building. 
It contains two steel wind tunnels, each with a closed rectangular test 
section 8 feet by 10 feet, and with single return passage. These tunnels 
are equipped with 4-bladed, 16-foot-diameter wooden propellers, one 
driven by a 1,000-horsepower motor, the other by a 700-horsepower 
motor. These motors are controlled by the Clymer system which per- 



TAYLOR MODEL BASIN — HOWARD 



245 



mits speed control within plus or minus 1/2 percent. Air velocities can 
be varied from approximately 10 to 220 miles per hour. Six precision 
scales automatically record the three moments and three forces on the 
model. A seventh scale records the wind velocity. 

Airplane models up to 8-f eet wing span can be tested both for normal 
performance characteristics and for stability in yaw; two separate 
systems for supporting the model are used for these two types of test. 















^1 

11 




1 

1 












- 


i 


















- 


1 

•2 






At the present time tests for the Bureau of Aeronautics are still 
carried on principally in the old wind tunnels at the Washington Navy 
Yard, but within a short time the new tunnels will be actively 
operating. 

The organization of the Taylor Model Basin is shown on the chart. 
Bear Admiral Herbert S. Howard, U. S. N., is director; Capt. Harold 
E. Saunders, U. S. N., who laid out the establishment and was in 



246 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

charge of the entire work of preparing the facilities for operatioiij 
is technical director and head of the technical division; and Capt. 
W. C. Mehaffey, U. S. N. R., is executive officer and production officer. 

The heart of the organization and the reason for its existence 
rest in the technical division. This division is divided further into 
three main divisions: hydromechanics, structural mechanics, and 
aeromechanics. 

Each of these divisions is headed by a senior officer, with officer 
assistants, specially trained and qualified for this particular work. 
The civil technical staff is of the same high caliber, the nucleus of this 
staff possessing a national and international reputation in this highly 
specialized work. 

In the hydromechanics division the principal work falls within the 
field of ships' lines, propellers, and underwater forms such as mine- 
sweeping gear and torpedoes. After the technical design of a device 
is completed, a model is built to scale, in order to carry out the test 
necessary to check the form and to determine the power needed to 
propel or tow it ; the test is made in one of the various model basins. 
The procedure in a typical test of a ship is as follows. 

The usual ship model is about 20 feet long, hollow, and fashioned 
from layers of wood glued together. It is carefully shaped to represent 
the outer surface of the ship's hull, to exact scale, from keel to deck. 
The model is complete as to its underwater form, with rudder, propel- 
lers, shafts, struts, bilge and docking keels, but without upper works. 

The model is first towed, non-self-propelled, over one of the main 
basins by the carriage which has already been described. 

In making a towing run the carriage starts from rest, and smoothly 
and gradually acquires the speed necessary for the test. When the 
carriage is towing the model at a uniform rate at the desired speed, 
and the model is producing its characteristic wave formation, the 
actual resistance of the ship model in pounds and hundredths of a 
pound is measured. 

Later a second, self-propelled test is run, in which the model is 
driven under its own power along the basin with small model propel- 
lers. Small electric motors installed in the model, one motor to each 
shaft, operate the propellers. An operator on the towing carriage to 
which the model is attached regulates the speed of the model ship. 
From the tests so made, calculations give the corresponding results for 
the full-sized vessel. 

Under the hydromechanics division is also carried out the design of 
propellers in connection with the Bureau of Ships, and the testing of 
model propellers based upon these designs. These model tests are 
made in one of the two propeller tunnels already described. 



TAYLOR MODEL BASIN — HOWARD 247 

This division also carries out full-scale special tests aboard ships of 
the fleet, usually at the time of their trials, such as turning trials to 
determine the track of a ship under different conditions of speed and 
rudder. 

The structural mechanics division is concerned with all questions of 
the strength of ships' structure, vibration, and related subjects. 

The work in structural mechanics at the model basin had its incep- 
tion a number of years ago in the thought that if the performance of 
full-sized ships could be accurately forecast through experimental 
work with models in a model basin, it should equally well be possible 
to forecast the performance of the structure of ships by the use of 
accurately constructed models, with proper technique in carrying out 
the tests. This would permit gaining knowledge as to the performance 
of such structures long before a ship itself was finished. 

This work was started with elementary models of the hulls of ships, 
and sectional models of the hulls of submarines. Proving successful, 
it has been continued to the present time, until it now includes deck 
and bottom structures, turrets and their foundations, and similar 
projects. 

The next problem undertaken in this field was the resistance of the 
structure of ships to underwater explosions. It was soon found that, 
for this work to be effective, fundamental knowledge must be gained 
as to the nature of the underwater explosions themselves. With the 
construction of the new Taylor Model Basin an extensive research 
program was taken in hand to investigate the effect of the explosion of 
small charges against simple diaphragms, and also to study the explo- 
sions of charges themselves, by the use of extremely high-speed under- 
water motion photography. From this research, information is being 
gained as to the nature of explosions themselves, and their effect upon 
the structure of ships. 

A third most important work of this division is that of investigating 
vibration of ships' hulls and structural foundations, including support 
of instruments and other equipment aboard ship. Some of this work 
is done at the model basin but a large part of it is carried out aboard 
newly commissioned ships of the fleet when undergoing their first 
high-speed runs and gun-firing trials. 

The work of the aeromechanics division, including the operation of 
the two new wind tunnels, is concerned principally with wind-tunnel 
tests of models of new designs of airplanes for the Bureau of Aero- 
nautics of the Navy Department, and with tests to determine the effects 
of modifications to improve the performance of existing designs. 
Wind-tunnel tests are also made for the Bureau of Ordnance, and 

619830 — 45 17 



248 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

other government departments, to assist them in special problems 
requiring aerodynamic information. 

To construct the various types of models which are used in the inves- 
tigations which have been described, two separate shops, one wood- 
working, the other metalworking, form an integral part of the estab- 
lishment. The former exists particularly to manufacture the wood 
models of ships, aircraft, or other forms which are tested, while the 
latter constructs all special equipment, instruments, and other gear as 
well as any metal models used in the tests in the establishment. 

In its highly technical work which, in many of its aspects, involves 
the measurement of infinitely small units of time, stress, and motion, 
the Taylor Model Basin has taken a leading place in the development 
of special instruments. As two examples in the field of instrumenta- 
tion in which the organization has become preeminent, the work in 
ultra-high-speed motion pictures and electronics should be mentioned. 
The basin has taken a leading position in the development of high- 
speed motion-picture equipment and technique to record the details of 
lightning-fast phenomena such as shock and explosion, and also in the 
development of electronic measuring instruments accurately to record 
super-high-speed events such as the pressure curve of an explosion, or 
to measure infinitesimally small changes in displacement for obtaining 
data on vibrations and strains in structures. 

From the preceding paragraphs it can be seen how large a part the 
work at the Taylor Model Basin plays in the technical side of the war 
effort. Every new design of ship, from aircraft carrier to landing 
barge, is checked and tested as to its form and power; minesweeping 
gear, insofar as its performance in water is concerned, is tested and 
run in model or full size ; special weapons and devices which operate 
in or on the water are designed as to their hydrodynamic features ; and 
the vibration of new ships and their ability to withstand shock are 
investigated. The list could be multiplied indefinitely. 

This general description of the work undertaken and now under way 
at the Taylor Model Basin, and the special items listed, would not be 
complete without comment upon the quality of the technical reports 
which make available for use the actual results from these tests and 
projects. No matter how thorough and complete the technical studies 
and tests themselves may be, if they are not so written up and presented 
as to be understandable and clear for the use of the officials for whom 
the tests and studies are made, they might as well not have been made 
at all. Particular effort has been made in the preparation of better 
and clearer reports by progressive development of reproduction meth- 
ods, lay-out styles, and writing technique, so that these reports may be 
readily understandable by those who desire to use them. The success 
of these efforts has been made evident in the widespread demand for 



TAYLOR MODEL BASIN — HOWARD 249 

Taylor Model Basin reports throughout this country and abroad as 
well ^s by the various agencies of the Navy itself. 

At present every effort of the Taylor Model Basin staff and its facili- 
ties is being applied to the one end which is to contribute to the 
maximum of their abilities to the early winning of the war. Pure 
research must take a secondary place, but it is only through the pure 
research carried on in peacetime and the skill so developed in the 
solving of similar problems that quick and correct answers can be 
found now for the urgent problems of the war. 

The interest of the country in research has increased greatly in these 
most recent years. It is greatly to be hoped that when peace comes 
again this interest will not lag but will continue so strongly that this 
establishment may continue to operate at its full capacity, so that 
through the more extensive pure research then possible, technical 
improvements in the design and construction of our ships and naval 
weapons may increase. Thus, should war ever again be forced upon us, 
we may feel that we have kept ourselves prepared to meet the technical 
problems of that day. 



Smithsonian 


Report, 


1944.- 


—Howard 




Plate 2 




1 


! 


1 


BMnN<^JKSn^B^^^HB 






1 




■ 




1 





1. David W. Taylor Model Basin. July 1941. 
General view of towing carriage 1 over the deep-water basin with a ship model attached to the towing 

dynamometer. 




2. David W. Taylor Model basin. March 28, 1941. 

Large model profiling machine in operation. Arm and vertical shaft of the Daniels planer may be seen in 

the foreground. 



Smithsonian Report, 1944. — Howard 



Plate 3 




1. David w. Taylor Model Basin, august 20, 1941. 

Weighing a ship model preparatory to ballasting it to the proper displacement, draft, and trim. All models 
as constructed are sufficiently light to permit adding ballast weights to make their weight correspond to 
the probable range of ship displacements. 




2. David W. Taylor Model Basin 
Placing ballast weights into ship model to obtain proper trim and even keel. 



Smithsonian Report. 1 944 — Howard 



Plate 4 




1. Engineer Using Dynamometer for Measuring Model Resistance. 




2. CAViTATiNG Model Propeller under Test in i2-inch Water Tunnel. 

Picture made with l/30000th-second flash. Note heavy tip vortices, considerable laminar cavitation near 
tips, and the start of burbling cavitation of the blade face near the hub. This is a right-hand propeller 
and the water is flowing from left to right. 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS— ITS PLANNING AND 
APPLICATION 1 



By W. S. Fabeen 
Director, Royal Aircraft Estahlishment 



INTRODUCTION 

The exceptional circumstances of the times make it impossible for 
me to observe the letter of what I know is the Institute's wish in the 
choice of a subject, though I believe I can conform to it in spirit. The 
Institute desires that the lecturer shall deal with some scientific or 
technical subject on which he is, or has been, personally engaged, and 
shall not indulge in broad surveys. There will come a time when the 
lecturer's chief difficulty will be to choose from the embarrassingly 
rich store of knowledge which has accumulated during this war. But 
for the time being the door of that store cannot be opened in public. 
Moreover, I doubt whether the part that I have played in a large 
number of fascinating and exciting investigations during the last 
4 or 5 years is such that I could fairly deprive those who have done 
the work of the privilege of speaking about it. This is a difficulty 
that has always faced those who hold such positions as mine, and one 
of which your Council were no doubt well aware when they invited me. 

I have long been concerned with the problems that arise in applying 
the advances in knowledge which research for aeronautics has brought 
us and with the problems of planning the course of current research 
and of providing appropriate and timely resources for future research. 
I believe that these are matters that might with advantage be surveyed 
as a whole, in a scientific spirit. Moreover, I believe that the subject 
can usefully be treated in a purely personal way, and I have through- 
out drawn on my own experience. 

From this it follows that any conclusions I draw apply only to the 
circumstances in my own country, or rather to my own interpretation 
of what they have been and may be. It will be for you, not for me, 
to say whether you find them in any way relevant to circumstances 

^ The seventh Wright Brothers lecture, presented before the Institute of the Aeronautical 
Sciences In the U. S. Chamber of Commerce Auditorium, Washington, D. C, December 17, 
1943. Reprinted by permission from the Journal of Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 11, 
No. 2, April 1944. 

251 



252 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

in the United States. But the intimate relations that have existed 
between workers in America and in England, in the field in which 
my interests and responsibilities lie, give me the courage to believe that 
a summary of my experience may be of interest to you, and worthy of 
this occasion. 

THE AIM OF RESEARCH 

Research is one of the things we all understand but find difficult 
to define. In the foreword to a recent pamphlet on Industrial Re- 
search, Sir Harold Hartley defined it as "a habit of mind which makes 
us attack every problem, big or small, in an orderly, systematic way, 
using if possible the advantages that modern science can give us." 
I remember Lord Rutherford, in a characteristically expansive and 
emphatic mood, using almost the same words. I invite you to note 
the two words "if possible." There are limits to what "modern science" 
can do for us. In research, as in other human activities, we depend a 
good deal on our wits. There is limitless opportunity for intuition 
and initiative. 

The aim of research is to produce a theory firmly supported by 
experimental evidence. Though necessarily incomplete, it must be 
a close enough approximation to serve the man who has to make 
things work. I trust you will not infer from this statement that I am 
interested in research only for what I can get out of it. I have known 
the thrill of working solely for the fun of it. But I am interested, 
for the time being, in research with a clear and unmistakable objec- 
tive — the discovery of how to make better aircraft. It is my experience 
that, for such research to be not only fruitful but timely, it is essential 
that the practical problems involved in its eventual application shall 
always be clear to those who are doing it. This need not in any way 
restrict their freedom. Indeed, they can gain immensely from contact 
with those upon whom the burden of applying their work is placed. 

The theme I have taken is indeed that it is only by intimate and 
wholehearted collaboration between the research worker, the designer, 
the constructor, and the user that research can be intelligently planned, 
pursued, and applied. 

THE INDEPENDENT WORKER IN RESEARCH 

As a preliminary I propose to give you an example from my earlier 
experience which I feel puts the point as it appears to the independent 
research worker. 

I have been personally concerned with research in flight for nearly 
30 years. The two chief aerodynamic problems have been, and still 
are, the reduction of drag and the improvement of stability and con- 
trol. Throughout, these problems have been attacked in the light of 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 253 

the practical questions thrown up by continuous contact, on the one 
hand, with those who design and build aircraft and, on the other, with 
those who use them. In my experience it has been this intimate rela- 
tion between the three parties which has made this work so continu- 
ously exciting and, I believe, profitable. On looking back I cannot find 
any example that convinces me that we should have moved more 
quickly or more certainly had work on the fundamentals been divorced 
from that on problems of the moment. 

It is true that at times, while we were developing our theory, we 
had the advantage — and this adds to my point — of individual work 
going on in flight, under conditions which I now believe to have been 
ideal. When I was one of the team who worked on these subjects at 
Cambridge, we often felt that we could do more, or do it more quickly, 
if only we had more of something — men, airplanes, workshops — but 
chiefly more hours in the day. In truth, I think we did as much as was 
physically possible without enlarging our organization, and, if we had 
done that, our work would have changed in character and would, I 
believe, have been less effective. That it had effect, and quickly, was 
due to our close relation with the establishments that had the necessary 
resources to exploit it for practical purposes with which they were 
intimately acquainted. They seized it and rapidly developed it. Its 
practical effect can now be seen not only in many aircraft but in the 
research equipment and programs of work. 

You will remember Sir Melvill Jones's first Wright Brothers lecture, 
in which he described some of the work I have just referred to on the 
boundary layer. From my own share in that work I can say that we 
were profoundly excited by the problems themselves and by the fasci- 
nation of trying to solve them by experiments in flight. But we were 
stimulated, and all our discussions were illuminated, by the realization 
of the potential application of their results. This we obtained from 
our constant personal contacts with the experimental establishments 
and with aircraft designers. 

Thus my experience leads me to the conclusion that, while there 
should be no explicit attempt to divorce work on basic problems from 
that on immediate ones of narrower range, the fullest encouragement 
and practical support should be given to independent workers. What 
form this should take I hesitate to define. My own preference is not 
for large endowments to institutions in the hope that they may attract 
good men. I would rather make generous finance available through 
some semi-independent advisory organization when the need is made 
clear by the development of the work. This may be either in cash or 
in kind. We at Cambridge had very little money, but the country 
supplied us with airplanes and maintained and renewed them. My 
only concern is that the ponderous workings of the machinery of gov- 



254 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

ernment, when finance is involved, may result in the essential help 
coming too late. One day we shall learn to trust our scientific advisers 
with a reasonable fraction of our money on a block-grant basis and 
ask no account except at longish intervals. 

RESEARCH ON A LARGE SCALE 

I come now to that class of research for aeronautics whose scale is 
such that success depends on planning of large experimental resources 
and on planning so that application to practice may meet the foreseen 
needs of design and its capacity to exploit new discoveries. 

We must, in my view, plan research for aeronautics in three phases. 
First, we must relate all our main effort to advances in basic theory. 
Odd pieces of information without a clear, strong framework are 
worth little. Second, we must f)rovide the experimental information 
by which theory may be built up and its limitations recognized and 
reduced. Third, we must ensure that experimental application is 
made in such conditions that the practical value of the theory is 
confirmed. 

There are three chief parties to this undertaking: first, those who 
are by trade workers in the field of theory and those who have the 
flair for the associated exploration by experiment; second, those who 
make use of the results in the design and construction of aircraft ; and 
third, those who use the aircraft and on whom we rely to exploit the 
product of the efforts of the first and second. The extent to which 
these should enter into planning of research can be illustrated by an 
example — the problem of reducing the cooling drag of power plants. 

That it is possible to reduce the power wasted in cooling an airplane 
power plant to 2 percent or less of the brake horsepower was estab- 
lished many years ago. Indeed, it was shown that at flight speeds that 
were then within sight and have now been passed the cooling could be 
made to help to propel the airplane. But the cooling of a power plant 
is a matter that goes far beyond broad conceptions of this kind. It 
involves complex flows of air and liquids, demanding regulation to 
meet the varying conditions of flight and high standards of reliability 
in functioning and of ease of maintenance, which are of the greatest 
concern to the user. 

It was not until other developments had reduced the rest of the drag 
so much that the power-plant drag was a dominating factor that the 
designer became convinced that the problem demanded his serious 
attention. He has finally succeeded in producing cooling systems that 
are no less reliable and have a much lower drag. The user accepts 
the slight additional embarrassment to maintenance in return for the 
higher speed and greater range. 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 255 

But the practical problems of achieving the full result are still only 
partially solved. Few power plants will stand up to critical examina- 
tion on such points as low-loss ducting or airtight cowlings. It is a 
difficult engineering problem to design and make such features at the 
same time light and easily removable and replaceable without damage. 

Throughout the whole history of this development there has been 
intimate association between the three parties chiefly concerned. But 
in my view we can now see that a better planning of the enterprise as 
a whole would have saved much time and waste of work. In particu- 
lar, an earlier realization by the designer of the outstanding advance 
that was within his grasp would have brought him to a closer coopera- 
tion, on strictly practical lines, with his only source of specific infor- 
mation — the research establishments. They in turn were backward in 
that they did not provide themselves with the right material by which 
alone convincing information, directly applicable to practical prob- 
lems, could be obtained. This is a case in which I believe the enlight- 
ened user, if correctly advised, could have forced the pace. 

A SURVEY OF 25 YEARS' ACHIEVEMENT 

The final criterion of our success in using the knowledge with which 
we have been supplied is the extent to which the product of our efforts 
has improved as time has passed. The curve of advance is not a 
smooth one. Over longish periods we often see little beyond a slow 
rise in achievement, and we tend to believe that there is little more to 
be expected. Then there comes something in the nature of a trans- 
formation. It is often ascribed to a single cause and, generally, one 
can say that there is an outstanding stimulus. But if we compare the 
final product — in this case, the airplane itself — before and after the 
event, allowing a long enough time for the situation to reach a fairly 
stable state, we can make a fair assessment of the relative weight of all 
the influences which have contributed to the change. I believe such 
an examination of the advance of the airplane between say 1917 and 
1942 is useful in providing us not only with a means of examining how 
far we have been successful in using the results of research but also a 
guide to the part played by sheer engineering skill and initiative. 
Finally, it may serve as a base from which we may survey some of the 
potential advances that are now opening out to us and judge what 
resources we shall need in order to achieve them. 

I shall take two typical aircraft that were in general and successful 
use in 1917 and compare them with two modern aircraft of similar 
duties. Naturally there are striking differences, and we shall find no 
difficulty in tracing them to their sources. But perhaps equally strik- 
ing are the characteristics that have apparently undergone little 



256 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

change. I think, however, that we shall see that the effort to preserve 
them unchanged has made as high a demand on research and engi- 
neering skill as that required to produce the more obvious improve- 
ments. 

During the last war the Royal Aircraft Factory (which became the 
Eoyal Aircraft Establishment in April 1918) produced many designs 
for aircraft which were constructed in large numbers. One of the most 
successful was the S. E. 5, a single-seat fighter with a 180-hp. Hispano 
Suiza engine. It had a creditable history as a fighter. I propose 
to compare it with a Spitfire. Then I shall take the Handley Page 
0/400 twin-engined heavy bomber and compare it with a Lancaster. 

I shall not be giving away any information to our enemies. They 
are well acquainted, in more ways than one, with both Spitfires and 
Lancasters. Some of them may even remember the S. E. 5 and the 
0/400. For my purpose it is quite sufficient to take examples of marks 
of the modern types whose performance has long been surpassed. 

Let us first look at them in general outline. Figure 1 shows the 
1917 fighter. In Figure 2 its specifically military features have dis- 
appeared and around it is the outline of the Schneider Trophy 
streamlined monoplane, the essential product of the period between 
the two world wars. Figure 3 shows the 1942 fighter. In Figures 
4, 5, and 6 is shown the transition from the 1917 bomber, through the 
streamlined airliner, to the 1942 bomber. The most obvious differ- 
ences are the change from biplane to monoplane and the general 
cleaning-up due to enclosing the crew, abolis|iing external wing 
bracing, and retracting the undercarriage. Comparing them type 
by type, the over-all dimensions are not very different. The Spitfire 
has the same wing surface as the S.E.5, about half the drag, nearly 
twice the strength, three times the speed, four times the total weight, 
four times the military load, and seven times the power. The Lan- 
caster has about half the drag of the Handley Page 0/400 on the same 
span of wings and about three-quarters the wing surface. Its total 
weight is nearly five times as great ; the wing loading, over six times ; 
the power, seven times; and the military load, with a 25 percent 
greater range, over eight times. Let us inquire how some of these 
improvements have been made. 

DRAG REDUCTION 

The change in drag coefficient C-do is of first interest. I have not 
found it possible to get accurate figures for the older aircraft, but 
they are approximately 0.039 for the fighter and 0.046 for the bomber. 
The corresponding modern figures are 0.022 for the Spitfire and 0.030 
for the Lancaster. Thus, per square foot of wing surface, the total 
drag has been reduced to about 55 and 65 percent of the 1917 standard. 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 



257 




FiGUEE 1. 




Figure 2. 




Figure 3. 



258 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 




RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 



259 



Comparing the two fighters in more detail, we find first that the 
wing surface is the same for both. Disregarding induced drag (or 
assuming it to be the same fraction of the whole in each), the top 
speed at the same height will be proportional to the cube root of 
the thrust power divided by the drag coefficient. Since the pro- 
peller efficiency is near enough the same for both, we may use brake 
power. Taking ground-level powers in both cases — 180 hp. for the 
Hispano and 1,250 for the Merlin — the ratio is about 7. Thus the 
contributions to increase of speed are: 

(0.039X^/2 
— ^- — J =1.21 



by increase of power (7)^''^ 



= 1.92 



The product of these figures is 2.33. 

If we assume that by supercharging it is possible to keep the Merlin 
power constant up to say 25,000 feet, where the density is approxi- 
mately halved, we shall get a further rise: 

by supercharging^ (2)^/^ = 1.26 

The total ratio of increase is therefore nearly 3. 

At this point I feel that the engine people are feeling very pleased — 
and we have good reason to acknowledge the success of their effort. 
But these figures as they stand do less than justice to the aerodynamic 
contribution. All the cooling required by the seven-times increased 
power has been provided and yet the aircraft has no more than half 
the drag per square foot of wetted surface. 

How have these improvements been made? Let us look first at 
the drag account (table 1). To the saving of 47 pounds, the most 
obvious contributions are from the elimination of wing bracing and 
undercarriage — 31 pounds in all. But the body and cooling drag is 
actually reduced by over 10 percent in spite of the sevenfold increase 
of power. 



Table 1 





S. E. 5 drag 
at 100 ft. 
per sec. 


Spitfire drag 
at 100 ft. 
per sec. 


Wings 


Pounds 
28 
15 
44 
7 
16 


Pounds 
20 


Wing bracing 




Body and cooling 


38 6 


Tail surfaces 


4.4 


Undercarriage 








Total. 


110 
0.039 


63 


Cdo--- 


0.022 







260 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Table 2 





S. E.5 


Spitfire 


FW190 


Structure . -- 


Percent 
29.7 
37.1 
15.4 
17.8 


Percent 
28.9 
38.0 
16.6 
16.5 


Percent 

30.9 


Power plant . . . - 


35.7 


Fuel 


14.3 


Load - --- - 


19.1 






Total 


100.0 
6 


100.0 
10 


100.0 











For the bomber, the reduction in C-do is rather less than for the 
fighter on account of the drag of defensive armament, but otherwise 
the influences operating have been much the same. 

Toward the end of my paper I shall say something about what 
further improvements in drag are in sight and what problems we 
have to solve in order to achieve them. 

WEIGHT ANALYSIS 

Let us look next at the weight picture. The Spitfire weighs four 
times as much as the S. E. 5 ; the Lancaster, nearly five times as much 
as the 0/400. What has made it possible to carry so much additional 
weight per square foot of wing surface — for the fighter four times, 
for the bomber six times as much? In the airplane itself, first, the 
development of flaps giving higher maximum lift coefficient and higher 
drag; second, power plants of much greater power per unit weight; 
and, third, constant-speed propellers to make the power fully 
available over a wide speed range. But larger and better airfields, 
permitting higher take-off and landing speeds and better flying tech- 
nique, have contributed even more. The effective maximum lift 
coefficient has risen by about 65 percent. Even so, the touch-down and 
take-off speeds, with the higher wing loadings, are 50 to 80 percent 
higher. 

A comparison of the weight analyses and load factors of the fighters 
is given in table 2. As a matter of interest, I have given also the 
weight analysis for the FW 190. 

How has this remarkable similarity of weight distribution been 
maintained? From the structural point of view, it is essentially by 
increasing wing loading four times that it has been possible to go 
from braced biplane to monoplane with nearly double the primary 
strength, from fabric covering to a metal skin, and from a fixed to a 
retractable undercarriage with no significant changes in percentage 
structure weight. 

From the point of view of the power plant, we have to record a rise 
in the net output per pound of complete plant in the ratio of about 
7 to 4. The complete plant of 1942 includes both constant-speed pro- 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 



261 



peller and supercharging arrangements by which the power is main- 
tained up to heights at which the air density is half, or even less than 
half, of that at ground level. 

For the same percentage fuel weight the range is some 40 percent 
better at a much higher cruising speed. Specific fuel consumption 
is much the same in spite of the great improvement in specific per- 
formance achieved in the face of the burden of supercharging. We 
must acknowledge here the tremendous contribution of high-octane 
fuel. 

We are left in both cases with about one-sixth of the total weight 
for the man, his equipment, and armament. The weight of the man 
is the same as it was. In 1918 it exceeded that of his whole fighting 
equipment. Today it is but a fraction of it. The weight of the 
bullets alone in the modern fighter exceeds that of the whole arma- 
ment of the S. E. 5. 

For the bombers, weight analyses are strikingly different from 
those of the fighters (table 3). In 1917 we thought it natural for the 
structure weight of a large bomber to be greater than that of a small 
fighter — 40.4 percent compared with 29.7 percent. In fact there was 
a view, widely held and expressed somewhat forcibly by Dr. Lan- 
chester, that aircraft of larger span than say 100 feet would be 
uneconomical because of the operation of the square-cube law char- 
acteristic of geometrically similar structures. Designers, aided by 
research, have managed to avoid the consequences of this law. They 
have been so successful that the structure weight percentage for the 
Lancaster is practically the same as that for the Spitfire. The load 
factor of the bomber is, of course, much lower than that of the fighter. 
But it is probably little different from that of the 1917 bomber. 
The progress that has been made is therefore remarkable. 



Tables 





Handley 
Page 0/400 


Lancaster 


structure 


Percent 
40.4 
22.0 
19.3 
18.3 


Percent 

31.4 


Power plant 


16.4 


Fuel . -_- _ _ -. 


19 8 


Load -- -.- -- 


32.4 






Total 


100.0 


100.0 







In the achievements summarized above I think aerodynamic, struc- 
tural, and power-plant improvements can fairly claim about equal 
shares, and to each, I suggest, the contributions of research and of en- 
gineering skill and ingenuity have been about equal. To pursue the 
analysis would lead me away from my main theme. But I think we 
may, with advantage, examine the history of effort in the structural and 



262 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

aerodynamic fields a little further in order to show the nature of the 
difficulties that have been met and the methods by which they have been 
overcome. 

STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENTS 

In 1917 the great majority of aircraft structures were made of wood 
and steel. Light alloys were little used. Wing surfaces were covered 
with fabric, and torsional stiffness requirements were met by the bi- 
plane wing structure. Today, with few exceptions, we use light alloy 
for the primary structure, and torsional stiffness is derived in most 
cases from the light-alloy sheet wing covering. The very con- 
siderable improvement that has been made in aluminum-rich alloys 
contributes chiefly to the wing spars. There is as yet no marked sign of 
a development in their properties or application which will reduce the 
weight involved in meeting torsional stiffness requirements. This is, of 
course, because these involve stability rather than strength character- 
istics. 

I do not suggest that the enormous effort that has been put into im- 
proving aircraft materials has not contributed to the maintenance of 
structure weight at a remarkably low figure in spite of increases of 
speed, strength requirements, and size. But it is significant that the 
Mosquito airplane, which is made almost entirely of wood, has a struc- 
ture weight as low as that of the equivalent metal airplane. 

One feature of the modem aircraft which has undoubtedly con- 
tributed to a more economical wing structure, in particular, is the great 
increase of wing loading and therefore of wing weight per unit area, 
which has made it possible to employ the material to much greater ad- 
vantage — i. e., to have a smaller percentage of relatively lowly stressed 
material. This brings me to one of the outstanding contributions of 
research to aeronautics — namely, that derived from the investigation 
of the strength of actual structures in close association with theoretic 
analysis. It is by such work that it has been possible to increase greatly 
the useful load of practically all aircraft now in use. The most 
thorough mechanical testing of aircraft structures undoubtedly pays a 
high dividend. These tests have not only shown us that our methods of 
design have led to general forms of structure well adapted to meet the 
demands on them, and fundamentally economical in character, but have 
enabled us to discover where our knowledge of the detailed distribution 
of stresses is inadequate and at the same time to improve that knowl- 
edge and to strengthen the structure against unforeseen local weak- 
nesses. 

The determination of the loads that the structure is called upon to 
bear is fundamentally a more difficult problem. We are greatly in- 
debted to such methods as the V. G. recorder, but these give us only 
over-all figures that, useful as they are, throw little light on the load 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 263 

distrioution in flight. We have now available a method of great po- 
tency in the electrical resistance strain gauge. This is being used with 
great effect on a large scale in laboratory tests, and its application to 
measurements in flight is being rapidly developed. It will undoubtedly 
prove to be one of the greatest contributions of the research worker to 
improvement in the structures of aircraft. 

Possibly the greatest achievement of the research worker in the field 
of aircraft structures is in discovering how to avoid the dangers of what 
we comprise in the term "flutter." In my view, there is in the whole of 
aircraft engineering no better example of the power of mathematical 
analysis, of ingenuity in experiment, and of skill in interpretation. 
The successful attainment of very high speeds, with a remarkably small 
number of serious failures, can only be ascribed to the most skilled use 
of all these resources, guided by systematic review of the results of their 
application. Direct experiment in flight — the only satisfactory 
check — is almost impracticable. Laboratory determination of reliable 
numerical values of the essential quantities involved is extremely dif- 
ficult. Much more information on these is essential for progress, and 
here the designer can justifiably demand all that research can provide. 

STABILITY AND CONTROL 

Up to this point I have said nothing of the contribution of research 
to the production of stable and controllable aircraft. I am glad to 
say that the time is now long past when lack of stability is regarded 
by anyone as a virtue in an aircraft. In fact it is unquestionably a 
most serious defect, whatever the duty of the aircraft. But it has 
always been difficult to define the necessary or desirable margins of 
stability and the associated general stability and control character- 
istics. The designer must, however, have the requirements expressed 
in terms that can be reflected in his lay-out, both as a whole and in 
detail. He must be able to judge fairly accurately how the changes in- 
evitable as a design develops will react on the stability and control, 
and he must have at his disposal means of dealing economically with the 
consequences both of the variation of load distribution resulting from 
operational conditions and of the changes involved in the development 
of the aircraft. 

There is a good deal about the stability and control of aircraft in 
which there has been little apparent change over the period covered 
by the examples I have taken. I believe, however, that this is simply 
because the desirable general characteristics were attained by about 
1918. Since then our main problems have been, first, to preserve them 
substantially unchanged in spite of the profound changes in the form 
of aircraft and, second, to enable the same man to control much larger 
and much faster aircraft. 

619830 — 45 18 



264 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

The foundations of stability and control theory were laid, and well 
laid, long ago. Much labor has been spent on expanding it to embrace 
new developments, such as structural distortion, and on the analysis 
of the controlled and uncontrolled motion of aircraft. A vast amount 
of experimental evidence has been accumulated. Much of this, how- 
ever, is related rather to specific problems than to the systematic devel- 
opment of an understanding of the matter. There is room here for a 
wholesale improvement, particularly by an attack on a wider front in 
flight. I am not among those who criticize our record here on the 
grounds that we did not undertake enough basic work at the time when 
the airplane, as we now know it, first crystallized. I regret that cir- 
cumstances made it impossible to give this work high priority. Had 
we been able to do so, we might have avoided many troubles and saved 
much labor. But I do not believe that, on the balance, we would have 
reached our objective — usable aircraft — more quickly. We relied on 
our past experience, on our ability to improvise, and — most significant 
of all — on our conviction that the theory available was soundly 
founded on experimental evidence. We discovered, by the attacks we 
were forced to make on troubles as they arose, much more about sta- 
bility and control than most of us believed there was to learn. Thus, 
and I believe only thus, could we have advanced at the rate we did. 
It is an excellent example of the interworking of research and 
application. 

In the field of control balance we have made tremendous advances 
in the face of difficulties that are sometimes hardly appreciated. The 
1917 bomber operated at speeds — 80 to 100 m.p.h. — at which the pilot 
could provide the forces necessary for control with little or no aero- 
dynamic balance. Take the 0/400 ailerons. The maximum hinge 
moment required was probably equivalent to a force on the pilot's 
hand of the order of 50 pounds, with ailerons on which the aero- 
dynamic balance was probably no better than one-half. In the Lan- 
caster the same movement of surfaces of about the same size is required 
at 300 m.p.h., requiring nine times the forces. The pilot is no stronger, 
so the aerodynamic balance must reduce the hinge moment to say one- 
eighteenth of that of unbalanced ailerons. This is a difficult require- 
ment but it has been met. 

Suppose we put up the weight at the same wing loading to 100,000 
pounds, one and one-half times that of the Lancaster. The linear 
dimensions will rise in the ratio 1.5 '^''^ and the hinge moment at the 
same speed in the ratio 1.5 ^i"^. The aerodynamic balance must there- 
fore reduce the hinge moment in the ratio 

1/(2) (1.5)3/2(3)2 = 1/30 

A similar argument leads to a figure of 1/400 if the weight is increased 
to 500,000 pounds. We can certainly achieve 1/30 and possibly 1/400 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 265 

in ideal conditions. But it is doubtful whether this is a wise policy, 
since we can hardly expect to define or to maintain the shapes of 
surfaces sufficiently closely. Power-operated controls have been 
avoided so far, but it is unwise to assume that we can neglect them 
indefinitely. There seems to be no good reason to be doubtful of our 
ability to make them reliable. 

POWER-PLANT DEVELOPMENTS 

I do not propose to extend this survey to the two other main factors 
that have contributed to the changes we have seen in aircraft — the 
power plant and the propeller. I have already quoted some figures 
that show how remarkably the reciprocating engine has advanced. 
I have also said that there have since been further advances, which, 
however, serve rather to emphasize the comparisons I have made than 
to invalidate them. This is because there have been accompanying 
changes in weight and other characteristics that leave the main con- 
clusions substantially unaffected. Our debt to the engineers who, 
aided by research, have achieved these results is immense. 

To the constant-speed propeller the performance of aircraft must 
also acknowledge a great debt. But the flying man is even more 
grateful for what it has provided — almost complete freedom from his 
chief anxiety, namely, the liability to misuse his engine. We now look 
forward confidently to new methods of propulsion for aircraft. But 
I believe the propeller has a long and useful future before it and one 
in which research will play an outstanding part. 

SUMMARY— THE TASK OF RESEARCH 

I trust that this short survey has gone some way to show why I am 
convinced that the research worker and the engineer must work to- 
gether if we are to make significant progress. In his James Forrest 
lecture to the Institution of Civil Engineers in England, Dr. Southwell 
said that "Aeronautical engineering is ordinary engineering made 
more difficult." If that was true in 1930, as I believe it was, it is more 
than ever true now. We can see clear prospects of great advances in 
aircraft in size, in performance, and in safety. The curve of improve- 
ment against time shows no real signs of flattening out. But we shall 
need all our ingenuity to avoid or to overcome the barriers which we 
can see ahead. 

I think the engineer has made good use of the outstanding contribu- 
tions of research for aeronautics. If at times he has appeared slow to 
appreciate the significance of new developments, he has a good excuse 
in his preoccupation with producing something on which we can rely. 
This is a sufficiently serious responsibility and one that he has borne 
with credit. But it is this very preoccupation that emphasizes the need 



266 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

for employing as part of an engineering organization men competent 
to detect those advances in knowledge which are potentially valuable 
and to work out the technique of applying them. 

The research worker himself is not blameless in this respect. We 
can call to mind the case of Mendel, the significance of whose work in 
genetics was not recognized until he had been dead many years. His 
case is an example of discovery not appreciated because it is too far in 
advance of the general state of development of the science. Dr. Lan- 
chester's books Aerodonetics and Aerodynamics contained much 
which may perhaps be regarded in the same way. 

The instances I have mentioned may, of course, be regarded as classic 
examples of the difficulty of disseminating knowledge. As the volume 
of knowledge increases, this difficulty grows. In the hall of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, there hangs the portrait of William Whewell, 
sometime Master. It is said that he was the last man to know all 
knowledge. He died in 1866.^ 

But the research worker has, in my view, a part to play in "putting 
across" the results of research. It is reasonable to ask that he should 
put his results in such a form that they can be used. To those who 
feel that this is hardly worthy of so much of their time and attention, 
as it certainly demands if it is to be well done, I would command 
the example of one of the greatest workers in aeronautics, Hermann 
Glauert. Every one of his outstanding contributions to aerodynamics 
was finished in such a form that the method of its application was 
made clear. I am not aware that this in any way detracted from the 
value of his work on whatever basis it may be judged. And I know, 
from my long and intimate friendship with him, that he regarded 
it as the natural method, and indeed the only one that would satisfy 
his sense of craftmanship. 

PROBLEMS OF THE IMMEDIATE FUTURE 

If this review leaves us confident of our powers to use effectively 
the results that an alliance between research and engineering ingenuity 
can provide, as I think it should, how should we shape our plans for 
the future ? Let us look for a moment into what the future may hold 
for us in one field alone : still further improvement in performance — 
in speed and in range. 

Within the limits of our present knowledge the most economical 
way to fly faster is to fly higher. Let us suppose that we can extend 

* Oxford may feel that their claim has been overlooked. It is preserved In the rhyme : 

My name Is Benjamin Jowett 
Everything that's known, I know it. 
What I don't know isn't knowledge 
And I am Master of Balliol College. 
Towett died In 1893. 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 



267 



the range of operation of power plants so that propulsive power is 
independent of height. Taking an airplane with the characteristics 
of the Spitfire (table 1), and assuming that 6^00^0.022 under all con- 
ditions, the curve of speed against height is shown in figure 7 labeled 
A, The line of sonic speed, Mach number=l, is crossed at 65,000 feet. 
In practice the effect of the compressibility of air begins to be felt at 
about M=0.65 at 33,000 feet at a speed of about 430 m.p.h., and the 
rapid rise of Cdo with M brings the curve for greater heights down 
to about the level of curve A^. The loss of speed is very large. 



60O 



TRUE LEVEL SPEED KPK / 



C B 







4-00 



300 



200 



O to 20 30 40 50 

HEIGHT, THOUSANDS OF FEET. 

FiGUBE 7. — True level speed vs. height, showing influ- 
ence of reduction of Cdo and of compressibility. 
Propulsive power, 4.5 T. H. P./sq. ft. wing surface; 
wing loading, 28 Ibs./sq. ft. ; aspect ratio, 5.6. 

If, by devising forms that will ensure some measure of laminar 
flow, we can halve Ct,o and at the same time avoid compressibility 
effects, we get curve B. But if compressibility has the same kind of 
effect as on the original airplane, the result will be to depress the 
speed to curve Bi. Similarly, reducing Coo to one quarter of the 
original value, we get curves C and C^. 

If we are to reach really high speeds economically, it is clear that 
we must devote at least as much effort to avoiding or reducing the 
effect of compressibility as to reducing the "low speed" value of Cbc 
On the other hand, at speeds at which it is likely to be economical 



268 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



to cruise for long distances, compressibility will for some time be 
relatively unimportant and laminar-flow forms offer outstanding 
prospects. In round figures range and economical cruising speed are 
inversely proportional to the square root of C-do. If we can halve 
G-Do-) both range and cruising speed will rise by 40 percent. 

We must not dismiss too lightly the possibility of cruising economi- 
cally, at great height, at very high speeds — speeds at which com- 



wiNG loading; lb/sqft 



70 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



20 30 40 

HEIGHT, THOUSANDS OF FEEIT. 

Figure 8. — Critical wing loading vs. 
height. True level speed 450 m. p. h. ; 
flow laminar up to 60 percent of chord ; 
airfoil thickness IS to 16 percent. 

pressibility may well have a dominating influence on design. "With a 
laminar flow extending over the majority of the surface of the air- 
plane we may reasonably expect to be able to cruise at 450 m.p.h. — 
a Mach number of about 0.7. Considering the airfoil alone, because 
of necessary thickness and camber, sonic speed will occur at a point 
near the surface when the lift coefficient reaches a certain value. 
Hence, the wing loading must not exceed a figure dependent on the 



> 




















^ 








\THIC^ 


<ne:ss 






\l6 


K 








V \ 











RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 269 

height. At the heights at which it is likely that such speeds will be 
economical, from the power aspect, calculation suggests that rather 
low wing loadings will be required. Figure 8 shows the results of 
some preliminary calculations on this point. The wing loading cor- 
responding to the critical conditions is sensitive both to airfoil thick- 
ness and to height. For example, assuming 60 percent of laminar 
flow, 15-percent thickness, and a camber appropriate to the lift co- 
efficient, the critical wing loading at 35,000 feet is 28 pounds per square 
foot; or for a 16-percent thickness, 20 pounds per square foot. At 
30,000 feet the corresponding loadings are 44 and 35. If these calcula- 
tions are sound, the effect on the general economics of the situation 
will be marked. Here is another reason to justify extensive theoretic 
and experimental work in this field. 

Thus we see both the barriers to progress which now face us and 
the potential rewards that will be ours if we can succeed in surmount- 
ing them. I return to my main theme — the research worker, the 
designer, the constructor, and the user must join forces and, each 
fortified by the confidence and help of the others, plan the work that 
is needed to provide the information, pursue the investigations in 
the conviction that the aim is worthy of the effort demanded, and 
apply the results to produce better airplanes. 

From aerodynamics we demand not merely the bare solution of the 
problem of forms providing laminar flow, relatively immune from 
effects of compressibility. We require specific information covering 
the whole airplane, including its propulsion, stability, and control. 
It may be that the whole lay-out of the aircraft will be different from 
that to which we have been accustomed. It is for the aerodynamic 
people to say, but they must base their opinions on a sound foundation 
of experiment. 

From structural research we require to know what schemes of 
structural design are most likely to provide the necessary precision 
of form and superficial smoothness and how to cope with new strength 
and stiffness requirements. Aerodynamics must supply information 
on the loads that will be met in flight, and much thought must be given 
to the meteorologic conditions that will be encountered. 

In the future it will be impossible to consider the airplane engine 
and the airplane as separate enterprises with conflicting requirements. 
The thermodynamic problems will be aerodynamic also. Their joint 
solution will throw up more than enough of the design problems at 
which the power-plant engineer excels. 

Will the transformation of the energy of the fuel into thrust de- 
mand a propeller or a jet or a combination? There is no single 
answer. It will depend on the duty of the airplane. But the propeller 
designer will find that his task will tax all his ingenuity. 



270 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Upon the airplane designer will fall the burden of combining into 
a working proposition the contributions of all his collaborators. He 
will need to provide for pressurized cabins, ice-free surfaces, and 
the many indispensable aids to control, navigation, take-off, and 
landing. 

To the user the prospects are such that he should spare no pains in 
encouraging the research worker and the engineer in their difficult 
tasks. He must support them to the full in obtaining the resources, 
in men and material, which will be essential for solving their prob- 
lems. And he must contribute, as a member of the team, the opera- 
tional information that will guide their efforts at all stages. 

The experimental resources that such work demands are large. 
They must be generously planned to provide the greatest possible 
scope and flexibility. It will take time to devise and to create them, 
and during this time we shall inevitably meet further difficulties whose 
exact nature we cannot yet foresee. We may be confident in our ability 
to adapt and to improvise, but we must ensure that the basic equip- 
ment is on an adequate scale. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS 

I have left until last such remarks as I have to make on an aspect 
of planning research for aeronautics to which you may feel I should 
have paid more attention — namely, the organization and management 
of the work on the scale that the scope and complexity of the prob- 
lems demand. In what I said earlier I have emphasized my belief 
in the value of the independent small team of workers, who necessarily 
work on a small scale with relatively small equipment, and on one 
or at most a few problems. But we must recognize, perhaps reluc- 
tantly, that we have problems to solve which cannot be handled suc- 
cessfully in that way. 

It is not merely the large size and complexity of the equipment 
required which forces us to face the task of managing large research 
undertakings. It is rather that the many problems we must attack 
are interdependent, and that success in dealing with them depends 
on assembling and coordinating the efforts not only of a team but 
of many teams of workers. As in any large undertaking we have to 
break the work down into parts. Each part is the primary responsi- 
bility of a group of specialists under a leader. But the parts must 
be welded into a whole, and in this welding lies the problem of 
management. 

I believe that the problem is best approached not from the top but 
from the bottom — from the point of view of the individual member of a 
team. What does he need in order that he may do the best that is in 
him? In my experience, he needs the following: 



RESEARCH FOR AERONAUTICS — FARREN 271 

(1) A clear, unambiguous statement of the ultimate objective. 
This must be more than a statement of the specific problem. It must 
relate it to the general picture of which it is a part. Thus he will 
know why the work is being done. 

(2) An opportunity to give his own views on the value of the under- 
lying ideas. The basic plan must be, in part, his own. Thus he 
will start with a sound conviction that the plan is a good one. 

(3) An immediate leader in whom he has confidence, who will 
inspire him, help him, and keep him up to date in all the relevant 
parallel work on related problems. Thus he will retain the good 
spirits in which he starts. 

(4) Sufficient resources to enable his work to progress at what is, 
in his judgment, a speed commensurate with the importance of the 
objective. Thus he will feel that the value of his work is recognized 
in the only way that means anything to him. 

This formula can, in my experience, be applied to groups of work- 
ers under a central management or to separate establishments under 
a central direction. And the difficulties that one meets in applying 
it arise not from its shortcomings but from conscious or unconscious 
neglect of its essentials. 

Looked at in this way, such questions as the ideal size of research 
establishments cease to be of any great significance. Just as a team 
must have a leader who knows all about the work being done by its 
members, so a group of teams must have a leader who is recognized 
by them to know enough about their work for him to be able to guide 
it to its common objective. The limit of economical size of a com- 
plete unit is set not by some arbitrary formula but by the simple fact 
that no one man can know enough about work in more than a few 
fields to be able to inspire real confidence in his team leaders or 
their teams. The control of large equipment, the management of 
numbers of skilled industrials, and the commonplace daily problems 
of facilities are matters of consequence, but they are not the real de- 
termining factors. In any event they are well understood and can 
be broken down and shared among a properly balanced staff. 

I would summarize my views on this question as follows. There 
is no single or simple formula by which to determine the best method 
of handling research. But I believe there are a few simple prin- 
ciples in the light of which each particular situation may be reviewed 
and a good solution found. 

CONCLUSION 

You will see that my experience has led me to the view that the 
record of science and engineering in aeronautics is a creditable one. 
It justifies us in demanding the means of extending our efforts into 



272 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

those new fields that we can now clearly see. The task of organizing 
and managing the work, of devising and constructing the equipment, 
and, above all, of leading those upon whose efforts success will in 
the end depend is one of absorbing interest. 

What the world will make of our efforts is a matter on which I 
regard it as unprofitable to speculate, at any rate here and at this 
time. I am an engineer in a world where good engineering, skillfully 
used, means survival and bad engineering means the end of what I 
believe to be a good way of living. So I am content for the time 
being to confine my efforts to the work in hand and to leave phil- 
osophic speculations on its value, on some absolute scale which I con- 
fess eludes me, to those who can find time or inclination for it. For 
this reason I have confined my attention primarily to research for 
aeronautics as used in war. There is another reason — I have spent 
the best part of my life on work with this as its first aim in the con- 
viction that it had to be done. 

But I am an incurable optimist. I believe that we shall succeed 
in our present effort — in which the share of research is to provide 
information by which aircraft and their equipment can be steadily 
improved and used to greater effect. When we have achieved our 
immediate aim, I do not doubt that much of our work will be put to 
uses that are more to my taste and to yours. 

In the end, however, it is with the scientific and technical advances 
in the means of flight that we are here concerned. So far we have 
had a mere 40 years in which to show what we can do. It has been my 
purpose to point, in the light of my experience, to what we must do 
now to discharge the responsibility that is laid on us so that those 
who will follow us may find a fair field in which to explore the end- 
less vista of opportunity which will lie before them. 



HUMAN LIMITS IN FLIGHT ' 



By Beyan H. C. Matthews, C. B. E., M. A., Sc, D., F. R. S. 
Head of the R. A. P. Physiological Laboratory, Consultant in Physiology 

to the R. A. F. 



[With 3 plates] 



A modern aircraft will climb in a few minutes to heights at which 
the air is so thin that it will no longer support life. It can turn and 
maneuver so fast that the pilot may easily be rendered unconscious 
from the mechanical forces which it imposes on his body, and in an 
aircraft which is moving rapidly in three planes of space the pilot 
can be subjected to stresses beyond the limits which the human body 
can stand. 

The adaptation of which the human body is capable to new sur- 
roundings and conditions can play a considerable part in fitting man 
to these new conditions; for example, airsickness which many suffer 
on first flying in rough air or doing aerobatics, in most people soon 
passes off and they become adapted to motions which at first perplex 
and incapacitate them, though a few never become completely adapted. 
But there are several stresses placed on man in aircraft that cannot be 
met by any unconscious adaptation, which require equipment specially 
designed to meet them. Some of the necessities are obvious, such as 
windscreens to protect the man from the great wind pressures at 
high speed and a heat supply from the engine or special clothing to 
keep him warm in the Arctic cold of the stratosphere. His senses must 
be extended by a set of blind-flying instruments so that he may know 
his altitude and movement in space when in clouds or at night. He 
must learn to believe the instruments against his senses for these are 
no longer a reliable guide when he may be moving at varying speeds 
in any direction, in fact they will often be wrong. The human limit 
of visual range by day and especially by night is of paramount impor- 
tance in flying. 

But beside the stresses from wind pressure, cold, vibration, and 
noise, the pilot's body must also be protected from other less obvious 
stresses and here I propose to deal particularly with the two greatest 

1 Keprinted by permission from the Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great 
Britain, vol. 32, pt. 3, 1943. 

273 



274 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

stresses which an aircraft puts upon the pilot — those due to accelera- 
tion or rapid change of motion and those due to high flying in the 
rarefied air of the upper atmosphere. 

In the last hundred years man has increased the speed at which he 
can travel more than tenfold, but there is no reason to suppose he is 
approaching any human limit in speed for, provided that he is pro- 
tected from wind pressure by a closed cockpit and that the motion 
does not change rapidly in direction, there is no more mechanical stress 
on the pilot than if he were sitting on the ground. 

If the human body is moving uniformly there is no force acting on 
it other than that due to gravity, recognized as weight. But when the 
motion changes in either magnitude or direction, large forces come 
into play; for example, while launching an airplane by catapult. 
During this linear acceleration the pilot has the sensation of being 
driven backward against his seat by forces equaling several times his 
own weight. This is seen in the retracting of the skin of his face 
which bares the teeth like a snarling dog. In this case, the accelera- 
tion acts transversely on the body and lasts only a few seconds and in 
this direction the pilot can easily withstand many times the accelera- 
tion of gravity provided his head and shoulders are well supported. 

When a fast-moving airplane changes its direction and turns, air- 
plane and pilot are both subjected to very large forces. The phenome- 
non known as blacking-out came into prominence in the Schneider 
Trophy races ; pilots found that in turning at high speed their vision 
became blurred and that for a few seconds in the turn they frequently 
became blind. This is now a common event in aircraft and is well 
understood by fighter pilots. 

When an airplane travels in a curved path in turning or pulling out 
of a dive a large centrifugal force tends to force the airplane and pilot 
away from the center of the circle. The magnitude of this force in- 
creases with the square of the speed and decreases as the radius 
increases. Subjectively, a pilot experiences a great increase in weight 
of all parts of his body as the centrifugal force tries to drive his body 
out through the bottom of the airplane. The magnitude of the acceler- 
ation acting on the pilot is expressed in terms of ^, the force due to 
gravity normally acting on the body which causes it to have its normal 
weight. Thus in a turn producing 4:g or four times the force of grav- 
ity, if the pilot's seat were fixed to a spring balance it would register 
four times his normal weight and the pilot and all parts of his body 
become extremely heavy. This is seen in the sagging of the soft part 
of the face which occurs in a tight turn (pi. 1). A turn at 300 miles 
per hour and 1,000 feet radius produces Qg, and a pilot in effect weighs 
about half a ton and his blood virtually becomes as heavy as molten 
iron. The blood is normally being pumped to the pilot's head by his 



HUMAN LIMITS IN FLIGHT — MATTHEWS 



275 



heart but as its virtual weight increases the heart has difficulty in 
maintaining the blood supply to the head. The brain and the eyes can 
only function for a few seconds without their normal blood supply 
and loss of vision in blacking-out is due to failure of the circulation in 
the retina of the eye. If the acceleration is still greater, the whole 
blood supply of the brain fails and the pilot becomes unconscious. 

Blacking-out is a warning that the blood pressure in the cerebral 
arteries is getting low. If the control column is eased forward, the 
airplane straightens out, the centrifugal force ceases and within a few 





IS 
5 






















DATA FROM' 


'o AMtSrftOMj 
^o RUFF 


SHOFCN 




y 

.i.i 1 1 


n 


IBiiiiii] 






1111 




""Wtm 






J 


Illllll 


I 




1 


O 


so 20 30 40 5 SO 
DURATION IN SECONDS 


HUMAN UMTT OF TOLERANCE OF ACCaERATION 
ACTWG VERTICALLY ON A MAN SEATED 



FiGUBE 1. — ^Approximate relationship between duration of vary- 
ing degrees of acceleration and occurrence of loss of vision 
(lower curve) and loss of consciousness (upper curve). 
(Data from various sources.) 

seconds the circulation returns to normal. While this happens in the 
head the deficit of blood tends to gravitate to the legs and the phenom- 
enon can be regarded as the head losing blood to the feet. 

This draining of the blood from the head takes time. The graphs 
in figure 1 illustrate the limits of tolerance of acceleration — the greater 
the acceleration the less the time that the pilot can retain his sight. 

Many measures have been taken to reduce the effect of centrifugal 
force on the pilot ; much may be done by posture and seating ; if the 
pilot's attitude is crouched with his legs raised, the distance through 



276 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



which the heart has to raise the blood to his head can be reduced and 
the loss of it to his feet is again less if the feet are high. Another 
method of lessening the effect of this force which may be mentioned 
is to place the pilot in the prone position. The heart and head are 
then nearly at the same height and a man in this position can withstand 
some lOp', but this posture is a very fatiguing and inconvenient one 
for the control of an aircraft, though it is reminiscent of the very 
earliest airplanes in which the pilot frequently lay prone. The effect 
of posture on blacking-out is shown diagrammatically in figure 2. 



LINE OF 
FLIGHT 



i^ 



\ 

v^^ 



M 



m 



POSTURE 



AQCELERATION ACTING UP TO 
3-4 SECONDS 



JiMil 



3-4 SECONDS 




^ 



3-4 SECONDS 

» % 



UP TO 3 MINUTES 



UP TO 3 MINUTES 



EFFECT ON POSTURE ON BLACKING OUT 
FiGUBE 2. — ^Effect of posture on the tolerance of acceleration. (Data from Ruff.) 

The engineer has produced machines that are so strong and 
maneuverable that they can subject the pilot to forces beyond his 
tolerance and the useful limit in design for maneuverability at high 
speed changes from being an engineering limit to being a human 
limit. It would be useless for the aircraft designer to produce an 
airplane so strong and maneuverable that it could turn with a 
centrifugal acceleration of 20g because the pilot would not be con- 
scious to control it under these conditions ; the ability to out-turn the 
enemy has an important tactical advantage in dog fighting, but to 
achieve this it is now necessary to look to the man rather than the 
machine. Figure 3 illustrates how the human limit makes it impos- 



HUMAN LIMITS IN FLIGHT — MATTHEWS 



277 



sible for a fast airplane to follow a slow one in a tight turn; both 
pilots are subjected to 5^. 

The most important stress, however, to which man is subjected in 
aircraft is that resulting from the thinness of the air at great alti- 
tudes. The air pressure at ground level is 14.7 Ib./sq. in. It has 
fallen to one-half at 18,000 feet and to only one-fifth, about 2% Ib./sq. 
in., at 40,000 feet. The effects of altitude on man are those resulting 
from the lowered atmospheric pressure. 

The disabilities which a man suffers at lowered pressure first came 
into prominence on the surface of the earth as "mountain sickness." 



Turns producing 
5 times '^' on pilots 




S^SECONDS 



2I60 ft 



S*'T Jtr^^^ SECONDS 



FiGUBE 3.- 



-Showing how human tolerance of acceleration makes it impossible 
for a fast airplane to follow a slow one in a tight turn. 



Later the term "balloon sickness" was given to the troubles experi- 
enced in high balloon ascents at the beginning of the last century; 
long before airplanes had become practical flying machines, the 
problems of high altitudes had been encountered because early balloon 
ascents carried the balloonists to heights at which the air would 
hardly support life and at that time their knowledge of how to over- 
come this was lacking. 

Plate 2, figure 2, shows the first successful flight when Montgolfier's 
balloon ascended from Versailles in 1T83 carrying a sheep, a duck, and 
a cock. After the safe return of these animals to earth, Montgolfier 



278 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



himself went up some hundreds of feet. Two years later the French 
scientist Charles reached a height of 13,000 feet with a hydrogen 
balloon. 



ALTTUDE PRESSURE GRAPH 




PRESSURE CABIN 

OR SUIT 

ESSENTIAL 



ADDITIONAL 

OXYGEN 

ESSENTIAL 



ADDITIONAL OXYGEN 
NECESSARY IF FUCHT 
OF OVER ONE HOUR 



O^NO 



ADDITIONAL 
OXYGEN 
NECESSARY 



200 400 600 760 

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IN mm.Hg. 

Figure 4. — Relationship between altitude and atmospheric pressure. (I. C. A. N. 

scale. ) 



Figure 5 shows the upward progress of man's exploration of the 



air. 



It is necessary to emphasize the difference between rapid ascent 
from ground level, as in an airplane, and slow ascent in climbing 



HUMAN LIMITS IN FLIGHT — MATTHEWS 



279 



mountains. In the latter case, weeks are spent at 15,000-18,000 feet to 
become acclimatized to the thin air. Great changes occur throughout 
the climber's bodily processes which enable him to live at altitudes 
which are fatal to a "sea level" man. Acclimatization is soon lost on 
return to ground level, so it is not possible to make much use of this 
in flying. 

Climbers have reached 28,000 feet on Mount Everest, but in con- 
trast to this the first serious high-altitude accident occurred in 1875 
when Tissandier with two companions went up in the hydrogen bal- 



STRATOSPHERE 

-50°c. -70'f. I02°o( frost 



D 



U.S. ARMY 

72.400 

1935 



D 



PICCARD 

57.600 

1934 



Vadam 

•^54 

JuSwain 



PEZZI 

>56000 
^1938 



54.000 1937 



5OOO0 1936 



J^DONATI 



40000 



. - ^47 400 1934 
J^UWINS 

44.000 1932 



35000 




JuGARROS 



(XO 



laOOO 1912 < 



MONTGOLFIER 
1783 



4,LATHAM 
»^1400 1909 



EARTHS SURFACE 



Figure 5. — Balloon and aircraft altitude records. ( Heights to the nearest 100 feet. ) 

loon Zenith. The balloon ascended to about 26,000 feet and the 
occupants became unconscious. They became conscious again when 
the balloon descended to 20,000 feet but then threw out ballast and 
the balloon rapidly ascended to about 28,000 feet. All became un- 
conscious and when Tissandier regained consciousness the balloon was 
at about 19,000 feet, descending rapidly, but his two companions were 
dead. This accident focused a great deal of attention on the 
physiological problems of altitude, and to investigate these Paul Bert 
constructed a steel chamber from which the air could be removed by 
a pump to simulate altitude conditions at ground level. Since then 
a great deal of research has been carried out in such decompression 

619830—45 19 



280 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

chambers, both on mountains and in aircraft, on the nature of alti- 
tude sickness and the ways of overcoming it. 

Plate 3, figure 1 shows a modern decompression chamber at an 
R. A. F. Medical Service research unit. In this a man can be taken 
to a pressure equal to that at 30,000 feet in less than a minute, and it 
is capable of producing pressures down to a small fraction of a pound 
to the square inch. 

Plate 3, figure 2 shows a small type of decompression chamber of 
which many are in service, which will take six men to any altitude 
required so that they can become familiar with their breathing 
apparatus and the disasters that may befall them if they do not use 
it correctly. 

For life, man needs food, water, and air. He can live without food 
for weeks, without water for days, but without air he can survive 
only a few minutes. 

At increasing altitudes, although the proportion of oxygen in the 
air remains one-fifth, the density of the mixture becomes less and a 
certain pressure of oxygen is essential for living cells to function 
normally. At an altitude of 42,000 feet if the lungs are filled with air, 
they contain less than one-sixth of the normal quantity of oxygen and 
this is insufficient to support life. Much of the Battle of Britain was 
carried out in an atmosphere in which a pilot unassisted with breathing 
apparatus would be dead in a few minutes. However, long before this 
height is reached oxygen lack makes its presence felt in the impaired 
intelligence and mental performance of the pilot. As oxygen want 
comes on, judgment is lost, gross errors are made, intelligence fails, 
muscular control is lost and this is followed by unconsciousness. 
Moreover, oxygen want is very insidious because the sufferer is often 
almost unaware of it. At 20,000 feet a man without oxygen may do 
irrational things; oxygen want resembles drunkenness both in its 
symptoms and in that the sufferer is confident that he is normal and 
much resents any suggestion to the contrary. 

It would clearly be dangerous to send an aircraft up to 25,000 feet 
unless it was ensured that the crew were protected from oxygen want. 
Much research on the practical protection of flying personnel from the 
effects of altitude has been carried out by the R. A. F., particularly by 
the Medical Branch which directs research in this very important side 
of the pilot's welfare. The importance of this is emphasized by the 
following story of a recent incident which occurred over Ger- 
many. A pilot's breathing apparatus became disconnected and the 
pilot thereupon told the crew that he was going to land. He put down 
his wheels and tried to land on a cloudbank at about 18,000 feet. He 
then told the crew over his intercommunication system that they were 
below ground level and he was going to get out, whereupon the navi- 



HUMAN LIMITS IN FLIGHT — MATTHEWS 281 

gator, realizing what had happened, was in time to stop him from 
climbing out of the machine, take over the controls and reconnect the 
pilot's breathing apparatus. It is easy to see that such an incident 
might not always have a happy ending. The effects of oxygen want 
may often be extremely amusing but clearly there is no place for such 
events in the dangerous and difficult work of high-altitude flying. 

There are two ways in which altitude effects can be overcome. The 
first is to increase the amount of oxygen in the air which the pilot 
breathes by mixing oxygen from gas cylinders with it, thus giving the 
pilot a mixture rich in oxygen or even pure oxygen to breathe. In this 
way when the pressure is one-quarter of an atmosphere at 33,000 feet 
if his lungs are filled with pure oxygen he will not suffer from any 
symptoms of oxygen lack. To this end the pilot always wears an 
oxygen mask, which also carries a microphone for his communication 
with the crew or ground. 

The second alternative is to increase the amount of oxygen in the 
pilot's lungs by compressing the air in them. In an engine the loss 
of power from oxygen lack is overcome by compressing the thin 
air with a supercharger, but it is not possible to supercharge the lungs 
so easily as the pressures required would burst them. The pilot must 
therefore be completely surrounded by air at increased pressure. 
This can be done either with a pressure suit something like a diving 
dress or, if the cabin is sealed and made strong enough for it to 
withstand a raised air pressure, produced by a pump attached to the 
engine. The air around the pilot can then be kept at 14 Ib./sq. in, 
and the atmosphere he breathes can be exactly like that at ground 
level. However, it is clear that for military use such a pressure 
cabin is very vulnerable, though for civil use it is the ideal method 
in high flying because the passenger is not inconvenienced by a mask 
on his face and need not be aware, by any change in the air pressure, 
that he has left the ground. Some pressure cabins are in use in civil 
airlines in America. The pressure cabin has other advantages over 
the oxygen mask besides preventing lack of oxygen. At heights up 
to 36,000 feet a man can avoid oxygen lack by breathing pure oxygen, 
but above 44,000 feet even breathing pure oxygen he would become 
unconscious. Moreover the vapor pressure of blood equals the at- 
mospheric pressure at 63,000 feet so if a man could reach this pressure 
his blood would boil and his lungs be filled with steam. At heights 
above 40,000 feet it becomes necessary not only to breathe pure oxygen 
but also to increase the pressure acting on man. Plate 2, figure 1 
shows the machine and pressure suit in which Flight Lieutenant 
Adam broke the world's altitude record by reaching 54,000 feet in 
1937. The suit was blown up to some 2^/2 Ib./sq. in. pressure and 
filled with pure oxygen. In it man could survive even in a vacuum. 



282 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Thus the effects of oxygen want can be completely overcome up to 
altitudes of some 8 miles by breathing pure oxygen and this is done 
in military aircraft of all nations. Above this height pressure must 
be applied in addition. In the altitude-record balloon ascents by 
Professor Piccard and by the United States Army, closed gondolas 
at raised pressure were used. 

Figure 6 illustrates the time elapsing between cutting off the oxygen 
supply to a man and his becoming unconscious at various heights. 
From this it will be realized how quickly a pilot must act should his 
oxygen supply fail at high altitudes. 




20000 



Figure 6. — Time between changing from breathing oxygen to 
breathing air and the occurrence of unconsciousness. (After 
Ruff.) 

The psysiological abnormalities at altitude are not entirely solved 
by breathing oxygen as there are effects on the body at low pressure 
in addition to oxygen lack. At ground level the air pressure drives 
nitrogen into the blood which dissolves in appreciable quantity. If 
now the pressure on the man is rapidly reduced before this nitrogen 
can escape,, it will form bubbles in his blood vessels and stop the 
circulation. The possibility that something of the sort might occur 
in animals at low pressures was envisaged by Robert Boyle in 1670 
who placed a viper under a bell-jar and pumped out the air; when 
the pressure was reduced he saw a bubble within the eye of the viper. 



HUMAN LIMITS IN FLIGHT — MATTHEWS 283 

Bubbles forming in the body fluids have long been a difficulty in deep 
diving where men have been subjected to much increased pressures of 
air. The body fluids then dissolve a large quantity of nitrogen and 
if the diver comes to the surface too rapidly it cannot escape from his 
lungs in time to prevent bubbles forming and he gets decompression 
siclaiess or "bends" (caisson disease, compressed-air illness), with 
severe pain, cramps, occasionally unconsciousness and even death. A 
diver can get severe bends coming up from a depth where the pressure 
is 4 atmospheres to the surface where it is only 1 atmosphere, but for- 
tunately an airman does not get into such serious difficulties if he 
goes from ground-level to one-quarter ground-level pressure at 33,000 
feet. Bends as they occur in the air are rarely experienced at alti- 
tudes below 25,000 feet. They come on slowly and are rarely of a 
serious nature. Unconsciousness can result if the warning symptoms 
of pain in the joints are neglected. The pains are cured almost 
instantaneously if descent is made to about 25,000 feet where the air 
pressure compresses the nitrogen bubbles sufficiently to drive them back 
into solution in the blood. 

Much research has been carried out on men in decompression cham- 
bers to find ways of alleviating these effects. One method is to breathe 
pure oxygen before ascent, so replacing the nitrogen in the blood with 
oxygen. The oxygen is then used up in the tissues before it can form 
bubbles. This method has long been used to displace nitrogen from 
the blood in diving. 

There are other disturbances to man with rapid changes of altitude 
resulting from the change in air pressure. Behind the ear drum is a 
cavity filled with air which communicates through a small canal with 
the throat and it is necessary for air to leave and enter it with ascent 
and descent lest the ear drum be collapsed. The canal to the throat 
will normally open on swallowing and in a dive a pilot clears his ears 
almost unconsciously, but should he fail to do so or have severe catarrh, 
he may damage his ear drums. Enclosed gas elsewhere in the body, as 
in the sinuses surrounding the nose, has to equalize its pressure as the 
altitude changes or severe pain may result. Again on ascent the gas 
normally present in the intestines expands to a larger and larger vol- 
ume as the outside pressure falls when climbing but this is rarely a 
serious problem. 

Thus the human safety limit in height is some 10,000-16,000 feet 
breathing air and 40,000-42,000 feet breathing oxygen ; heights much 
in excess of the latter are only achieved by enclosing the pilot in an 
artificial atmosphere. 

But it is clear that starting with fit pilots on the ground much must 
be done to keep them efficient in the air and the efficiency of the man 
may often be of even greater importance than that of the machine. 



284 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

We know that in the Battle of Britain quality in men and machines 
overcame weight of numbers and although always greatly outnum- 
bered, the R. A. F. by efficiency and courage were able to rout the 
Luftwaffe. To maintain that efficiency in the air and at high altitudes 
is no mean problem. That it is done is the result of scientific research 
during the last 70 years into life at great altitudes and the successful 
application of what has been discovered to the particular problems of 
the pilot. I should like this lecture to be considered a tribute to all 
those scientists from Paul Bert onward and to many officers of the 
R. A. F. who have contributed so much to the solution of high-altitude 
flying and in particular to those medical officers who have lost their 
lives in this war in flying experiments. 



Smithsonian Report, 1944. — Matthews 



Plate 1 




1. Man During Straight and Level Flight. 



i 




-■4 


^mi 





2. In a Tight Turn producing acceleration of 4ljg 15 Seconds later. 



Smithsonian Report, 1 944.— Matthews 



PLATE 3 




1 INTERIOR OF AN R. A. F. DECOMPRESSION CHAMBER LOOKING IN FROM ONE 

OF THE Glass portholes. 




2. TR. A. F. Mobile Decompression Chamber. 
This is self-contained with an engine-driven pump, oxygen cylinders, and controls operated from the left- 
hand cab. 



TRANS-ARCTIC AVIATION 



By ELMiat Plischke, Lieutenant (j. g.), U. S. N. R. 



Frequently it is wise and profitable to spend a few moments in 
speculation on the potentialities of the future. Many improvements 
are bound to be occasioned by the necessities of the war, not the least 
of which is the impressive development in aviation. The technological 
advancements being perfected for war purposes today doubtless will 
revolutionize commercial aviation after the termination of hostilities. 
One of the most logical results is the linking of the continents by a 
network of air routes traversing the Arctic Basin. 

Belief in the physical practicability and in the commercial value of 
trans-Arctic aviation was first manifested about the time of World 
War I, and in 1919, W. Brun, a German, proposed the organizing of 
regular flights from the European capitals via Archangel, the Arctic 
Basin, and Nome or Unalaska, to either Yokohama, Vancouver, or 
San Francisco. A few years later, in 1923, Maj. Gen. Sir Sefton 
Brancker, Director of Civil Aviation for Great Britain, enthusiasti- 
cally declared in a speech at Sheffield that the carrying of mails from 
England to Japan by way of the Arctic was a probability of the next 
10 years. In connection with the preparations for the flight of the 
dirigible Shenandoah to explore the polar "white spot" between 
Alaska and the North Pole, Rear Admiral William A. Moffett, Chief 
of the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy, stated in 
1924 that polar air routes connecting England, Japan, Alaska, and 
Siberia are possibilities of the near future. 

Many writers have since expressed their belief in the future of 
trans-Arctic flying. But perhaps the most vocal of these exponents is 
the polar explorer and publicist, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, who has been 
pointing out the positional importance of the Arctic Basin for the past 
20 years. On a map which has the North Pole as its center, he explains, 
the Arctic constitutes a small hub from which the land masses radiate 
like spokes of a great wheel, thus lying in the central part of a circular 
region enclosed for the most part by northerly extensions of rich and 
densely populated modern countries. By the logic of its position, it 

^ Reprinted by permission from Economic Geography, vol. 19, No. 3, July 1943. All 
assertions and opinions are purely those of the author and are in no wise to be construed 
as reflecting the views of the Navy Department. 

285 



286 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

therefore should be one of the great transportation crossroads of the 
world. 

A glance at the globe is sufficient to illustrate the significance of 
these statements. Geographers also have designed a so-called "polar 
projection," prepared by laying a geometric plane on the Pole at right 
angles to the earth's axis, and depicting the globe with the North Pole 
as the center and with the South Pole as the outer circumference. 
Parallels of latitude are ruled off at equal intervals in concentric 
circles and meridians of longitude are straight radial lines. As a 
result, the northern continents surround the central Arctic Basin and 
the Antarctic Continent represents an outer lacy fringe. This projec- 
tion is particularly interesting if population density is indicated, for, 
with the exception of India and China, the areas of densest population 
— ^between which most aerial communication is likely to develop— lie 
immediately around the Arctic. 

Table 1. — Comparative distances* 

New York to Moscow : Miles 

Steamship and railroad — via Hamburg and Berlin__^ 5, 600 

Air — via London and Berlin 5, 000 

Arctic — via Greenland and Iceland 4, 600 

New York to Tokyo : 

Steamship and railroad — via San Francisco 8,000 

via Panama Canal 11, 200 

Air — via San Francisco and Honolulu 8,800 

Arctic — via Hudson Bay, Victoria Island, and Beaufort Sea 5,900 

San Francisco to Moscow : 

Steamship and railroad — via New York, Hamburg, and Berlin 8, 300 

via Tokyo and Vladivostok 15, 500 

Air — via New York, London, and Berlin 7, 600 

via Honolulu and Tokyo 10, 900 

Arctic — via EUesmere, northern Greenland, Spitsbergen, and North 

Cape (Norway) 5, 650 

San Francisco to London : 

Steamship and railroad— via New York 6, 425 

Air— via New York 6, 025 

Arctic — via Hudson Bay, Baffin Island, Greenland, and Iceland 5, 150 

San Francisco to Bergen : 

Steamship and railroad — via New York 7, 000 

Air — via New York and London 6, 750 

Arctic — via BafBn Island and central Greenland 4, 750 

London to Tokyo : 

Steamship and railroad — via Hamburg, Berlin, Moscow, and 

Vladivostok 12, 000 

via New York and San Francisco 11, 250 

Air — via Moscow 6, 200 

via New York, San Francisco, and Honolulu 12, 275 

Arctic — via North Cape (Norway) and Novaya Zemlya 5, 500 

•All distances, given in statute miles, are approximate, because of the Inadequacy and 
inconsistencies of available tables, maps, and charts. 



TRANS-ARCTIC AVIATION — PLISCHKE 



287 



TRANS-ARCTIC FLYING DISTANCES 

The distances of air travel between many major locations through- 
out the world, especially within the Northern Hemisphere, can be 
markedly reduced if trans- Arctic air routes are pursued, as illustrated 
by the accompanying tables. 

The distance between New York and Moscow is about 1,000 miles 
shorter via the Arctic Basin and its peripheral landed areas. From 
Seattle to Calcutta the distance is almost 5,000 miles shorter, while 
over 6,000 miles is saved along the polar route from London to Tokyo. 
Similarly, the distances between New York and Tokyo and between 
San Francisco and either Moscow or London is thousands of miles 
shorter via the Arctic. 

Further implications of polar air geography are of striking interest. 
From North Cape (Norway) it is just as far to Washington, D. C, as 
it is to Detroit, Chicago, Des Moines, or Seattle. Chicago is as close 
to every capital of Europe as it is to Buenos Aires. Milwaukee, De- 
troit, and other great midwestern war production centers, are closer 
to Russia by air than are any of the great seaports of the United States. 



Table 2. — Trans-Arctic long-distance flying 



From- 



To- 



MUes 


Hours 


4,900 


16 


5,050 


16 


4,150 


13 


5,500 


18 


5,845 


19 


8,000 


26 


4,650 


15 


, 4, 000 


13 


7,600 


25 


3,475 


11 


4,600 


15 


4,000 


13 


5,900 


19 


4,750 


15 


5, 150 


17 


5,650 


18 


4,500 


15 


7,225 


24 



Minutes 



Berlin 

Chicago 

Detroit 

London 

Los Angeles-- 
Minneapolis- _ 

Montreal 

New York 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

San Francisco 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Seattle 



Tokyo 

Moscow 

Murmansk 

Tokyo 

Murmansk 
Bombay__- 

Igarka 

Berlin 

Chungking 

London 

Moscow 

Murmansk 

Tokyo 

Bergen 

London 

Moscow 

Tokyo 

Calcutta. _ 



20 
50 
50 
20 
29 
40 
30 
20 
20 
35 
20 
20 
40 
50 
10 
50 



50 



The saving in mileage and time by following these Arctic airlanes 
is considerable. At 300 miles per hour — which is by no means an 
impossible rate of speed in the light of recent increases in flying 
rates — transports can easily carry their passengers and cargoes be- 
tween Berlin and Tokyo, Chicago and Moscow, Montreal and Igarka, 
New York and Berlin or Moscow, and San Francisco and London or 
Tokyo in less than half the time it takes a crack train to miake a 
nonstop run from New York to San Francisco at 80 miles an hour. 



288 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Planes also can bridge the gap between New York and Chungking, 
Minneapolis and Bombay, or New York and Tokyo in considerably 
less time than the special express train will require to cross our coun- 
try. Finally, at 300 miles per hour, wherever one may happen to be, 
no spot on the once wide globe is farther away than 42 flying hours. 
Unbeknown to most of us, much already has been done to utilize 
and develop these northern routes. Returning from his globe- 
girdling tour some months ago, Wendell Willkie flew from China to 
the United States, not by way of Australia and Honolulu as might 
very well be expected, but rather via Nome (Alaska) and Edmonton 
(Alberta). Strict censorship veils the full extent of the action taken 
in promoting polar aviation, but we are informed that millions of 
dollars have been spent, and that Arctic routes are constantly being 
flown. Preparations also are being made by the Government of the 
United States to sponsor and protect American interests in postwar 
aviation. 

ARCTIC FLYING CONDITIONS 

But it is frequently believed that flying conditions in the Arctic will 
prevent the establishment of dependable commercial traffic. True, 
flying conditions in the polar regions are necessarily different in many 
respects from what they are in more temperate climates. Neverthe- 
less, upon closer analysis it appears that most of the difficulties can 
be surmounted. 

It is stated that the most ardent exponents of transpolar aviation 
consider average flying conditions over the Arctic throughout the 
year to be better than they are over the North Atlantic, while the 
most pessimistic writers consider them probably worse, but con- 
querable. Stefan sson, one of the most optimistic of the publicists, 
notes that scientists were virtually unanimous by 1930 in agreeing 
that Arctic flying in Alaska, to be more specific, is as safe as it is in 
Michigan. This, he alleges, is suggested by Pan American Airways 
reports to the effect that its flyers generally are as well satisfied with 
their work in Alaska as in Brazil, that over half the pilots on its 
Alaskan lines prefer January to July, and that, assuming like equip- 
ment and ground service, schedules can be maintained through the 
midwinter period with an average regularity at least as good as that in 
the northeastern part of the United States. 

Temperature seems to be no more of a flying problem in the 
Arctic than elsewhere. The reason for this is that planes now fly in 
temperatures just as severe in Temperate and Torrid Zones while 
they are at high altitudes following their established air routes. As 
a matter of fact, today effective combat is waged at much greater 
heights than was believed possible a few years ago. It is reported 
in the press that fighter planes now are regularly flying in the low 



TRANS-ARCTIC AVIATION — PLISCHKE 289 

temperatures experienced at altitudes of 30,000 and 40,000 feet or 
more, and our larger bombers repeatedly encounter temperatures of 
25° to 50° F. below zero without considering it a limitation upon their 
effectiveness. 

In the polar regions there is less diurnal change and less tempera- 
ture variation than elsewhere. Flying temperature is said to be 
hazardous neither at extreme heat nor at extreme cold, but at an 
intermediate range in the vicinity of, and especially just below, the 
freezing point of fresh water, for it is at this temperature that ice 
forms on the aircraft and weighs it down. Such freezing is not very 
troublesome in the Tropics except at high altitudes, and even in the 
polar regions icing is less of a problem than it is in the northern half 
of the Temperate Zone — where air lines function regularly according 
to well-integi-ated schedules. 

Various technological improvements were devised to prevent, or 
at least substantially reduce, the formation of an ice covering on 
the wings and fuselage of a plane. This is evidenced by the fact 
that fighter planes are constantly flying through the lower aerial 
zones saturated with the moisture which causes the icing, and perhaps 
especially by the fact that effective aerial warfare is being waged 
in the foggy and moist atmosphere surrounding the Aleutian Islands 
and the shipping lanes to Murmansk. Planes also are used for recon- 
naissance purposes at low altitudes by the Soviets along the Northern 
Sea Koute between our northwestern coasts and the Arctic ports of 
the Soviets. 

A number of polar explorers, including Richard E. Byrd, who 
has flown in both polar regions, contend that polar flying is practi- 
cable only at certain times of the year. The spring months, from 
March to May, are said to be best suited for aviation in the Arctic, 
because the snow is still hard and smooth and there is less fog than 
there is at other times of the year. But this objection seems to be 
concerned more with landing and taking off than with flying itself, 
and it certainly does not apply to long-range nonstop flying. 

At first glance it would seem that a genuine problem of polar avia- 
tion is the prevention of oil from freezing and the difficulty of start- 
ing the motors in severe temperatures. But oil will not freeze while 
the motor is operating and can be preheated before the motor is 
started. The problem of starting the motor in sub-zero temperatures 
was solved some 15 years ago, when it was learned that fireproof 
hoods or special coverings can be used to keep motors warm when 
a landing is made, as well as for starting a cold engine. A tube leads 
from this hood down to a heater which conducts heat up to the motor, 
or powerful warming lamps may be fitted to the motor. In this man- 
ner the motor can be preheated to any temperature, and multi- 



290 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

motored planes are jBtted with so-called "communicators," rendering 
it possible to warm one motor by the action of another. 

The greatest obstacle to Arctic flying is poor visibility due to low- 
lying clouds and fog. In the 46-hour flight of the Norge from King's 
Bay (Spitsbergen) via the North Pole to the northern coast in Alaska, 
16 hours — or about 35 percent of the time — were spent in fog. Such 
fog is a common occurrence in the polar regions, especially where 
warm air, inflowing from lower latitudes over open water, meets cold 
air over pack ice or glacier-covered land, as is the case in Arctic areas 
during the summer months. Almost all floating ice is said to be ac- 
companied by fog, but when the ice is firmly attached to land, as it 
is in the wintertime, the atmosphere is relatively free from fog. 
Fog therefore seems to be a seasonal problem, but it does appear in 
winter in the region of the Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands, where 
the warm Japan Current enters the Arctic, and along the southern 
edge of the Arctic pack north of Europe where the warm Gulf Stream 
encounters it. 

But fog in the Arctic is less dense and lower lying than it is else- 
where. Since it seldom rises to a height of over 3,000 feet, planes 
can fly over it with little difficulty. It is also thin so that planes 
can cruise at low altitudes, and because there are no obstacles like 
mountains, except over landed areas such as Greenland, Spitsbergen, 
and parts of Alaska and Siberia, the Arctic pilot can see through the 
fog and still retain sufficient horizontal vision. When Arctic areas 
are properly mapped and a greater number of radio stations are in 
operation to give reliable bearings to the polar flyer at all points 
along his route, it will no longer be necessary to fly by rivers and other 
landmarks, as is now the case. 

Opinion seems to be somewhat divided as to whether dependable 
regular and emergency landing facilities are available in the polar 
regions. On the one hand, it is believed that Arctic waters provide 
dangerous landing fields, for, although the water's surface often 
appears clear from above, it may be filled with small lumps of par- 
tially submerged ice which can easily wreck a plane as it tries to 
land. Because of the movement of Arctic ice, moreover, openings 
fail to remain open, so that a plane, as it alights upon the water, 
may rapidly be hemmed in and crushed by the ice. In the summer 
months driftwood also endangers an attempt to land upon the surface 
of the water. 

As far as landing upon the pack ice is concerned, it is estimated 
that perhaps 90 percent of this surface is too rough to be used suc- 
cessfully, although there occasionally are some stretches of level 
ice upon which a plane may safely alight. But even if the landing 
is achieved without mishap, it frequently is more hazardous to take 



TRANS- ARCTIC AVIATION — PLISCHKE 291 

off from such surfaces, especially because high speeds are now neces- 
sary. 

Stefansson seems to be somewhat more optimistic concerning nat- 
ural Arctic landing facilities. He claims that the Arctic and the 
northern third of the Temperate Zone excel the rest of the world in 
number and quality of emergency landing fields, noting that there 
are millions of lakes which provide suitable spots for landing with 
pontoons or skis. These many landing fields, he continues, have given 
polar flying a greater safety percentage than exists in other zones, 
even in the Tropics. On the Arctic pack ice there are few sections 
where good landing fields are more than 20 miles apart, there gener- 
ally being a choice of two or more within the gliding range of a plane 
if its motors stop at an altitude of a mile or more. In support of this 
contention, Stefansson asserts that during a single decade at least 54 
such emergency descents were made in every sort of weather, outstand- 
ing among which was the third descent of George H. Wilkins, under- 
taken at night in a blizzard when he alighted upon the ice pack 100 
miles off the northern tip of Alaska. No life was lost in any of these 
descents, while the distance covered amounted to over 90,000 miles. 
Again, no lives were sacrificed in the search for the Russian flyer Lev- 
anevsky in 1937, in which some 50,000 miles were flown. 

Contrary points of view are held concerning the suitability of the 
ice cap of Greenland as a polar landing field. One group of writers 
contends that, despite a prolonged search undertaken by the Danish 
Government, there is no known natural landing field in all Greenland. 
The ice cap is described as an undulating plain, difficult of access be- 
cause it is girdled by a ring of mountains which must be flown over 
and which usually constitute one of the greatest hazards of aviation 
everywhere. In addition, there are steep, jagged fissures into which 
ice pours through the mountains as glaciers. Unless the plane is espe- 
cially equipped for a perilous overland journey, an emergency landing 
is apt to leave the hapless party exposed to the bitter elements on the 
ice cap. Recently two daring aerial rescues of 15 stranded American 
Army flyers were disclosed in the press, but both accounts leave no 
doubt whatever as to the dangers encountered. 

The opposite point of view argues that Greenland's ice cap is the 
world's largest and finest natural landing field. It is said to form a 
continuous and nearly perfect emergency airdrome 1,500 miles long 
and up to 600 miles wide. Local gales along its coasts probably can be 
offset by selecting nonwindy flying lanes. The use of the southern 
part of the island as a route by which military planes are f e'rried across 
the Atlantic seems to justify this opinion, at least in part. 

The majority of these hazards attending polar flying may rapidly 
be eliminated through the perfection of technological and other im- 



292 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

provements. Since most of the obstacles are mechanical, they apply to 
flying elsewhere as well. Once they are overcome, the Arctic will 
possess the inestimable advantage of shorter distances. Even the 
problem of fog can be at least partially overcome by the development 
of suitable radio facilities, supplemented with appropriate polar map- 
ping, which can itself be done by planes. 

As long-distance flying increases in both extent and security, there 
is little to gainsay the future of trans-Arctic aviation. Many aerial 
feats, which were believed to be visionary but a short time before the 
outbreak of World War II, are already looked upon as commonplace. 
Who can predict what will be possible within the next decade or two 
by a fleet of superplanes, such as the famous 82-ton B-19, with a wing- 
spread greater than the height of a 17-story building, with fuel tanks 
containing 11,000 gallons of gasoline, and with a range of almost 
10,000 miles — which can carry it on a nonstop flight from San Fran- 
cisco via New York to London and back to New York, or from Minne- 
apolis to Bombay. Current improvements in design and construction 
appear to herald fleets of mammoth 100-ton cargo and passenger planes 
possessing a size and flying range never dreamed of a few years ago. 

TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION 

It is such aerial potentialities as these that impel writers and gov- 
ernments to turn anxious eyes toward the appropriable landed areas 
that remain in the Far North. The successful establishment of trans- 
polar aerial communication will necessitate the construction of flying 
lanes, landing bases, and radio and meteorological stations. Since the 
ice in the Arctic is in constant motion and cannot be relied upon for 
the erection of permanent facilities, polar landed territory will become 
of supreme importance. The establisliment of flying auxiliaries by 
the nationals of a state unquestionably will rouse their government to 
acquire the territorial jurisdiction necessary to preserve and maintain 
these facilities properly. The race for polar territory therefore prom- 
ises to be very close at hand. 

Under the recognized principles of international law, unpossessed 
territory (terra nullius) in the Arctic, as well as elsewhere, can be 
acquired juridically only by effective occupation or by prescription. 
By occupation is meant the intention to possess the territory in ques- 
tion and both the administration of state acts and the exercise of 
police power in sufl&cient strength to protect life and property and 
render exceptional a breach of the laws of the occupying state. Pre- 
scription means the exercise of state authority over such a length 
of time as is necessary under the influence of historical development 
to create the general conviction that the present situation is in con- 
formity with the international order. Contrary to popular belief. 



TRANS-ARCTIC AVIATION — PLISCHKE 293 

discovery does not accord a perfect title to new territory, but merely 
affords an inchoate title which must be substantiated by effective occu- 
pation within a reasonable length of time. 

A recent Soviet school of thought has proposed a new theory to 
govern the acquisition of polar territory in the Arctic. It is known 
as the sector principle, according to which a subjacent polar state 
automatically possesses all territory, discovered and undiscovered, 
lying to the north of its mainland and within the area bounded by 
an extension of its longitudinal extremities to the Pole. Thus, the 
Arctic, like a huge pie, is sliced into a small number of sectors, one 
accruing to each of the following peripheral states: Norway (Spits- 
bergen), Finland, the Soviet Union, the United States (Alaska), 
Canada, and Denmark (Greenland and Iceland). But this sector 
principle enjoys no validity under international law and has been 
recognized only in the municipal law of the Soviet Union. The other 
five Arctic states have either refrained from committing themselves 
upon the principle, denied its validity by implication, or openly re- 
jected it in their state papers. Even the Soviet Government has not 
made any attempt to rely upon polar sectorism in its international 
affairs. 

What, then, is the juridical status of the territory in the Arctic 
which is so important for the development of postwar air transport? 

In some instances the reply is relatively simple. Thus, the entire 
island of Greenland belongs to Denmark, as acknowledged in a series 
of declarations made by the United States, Great Britain, France, and 
Japan, 1916-1920, and by the Eastern Greenland Arbitration of 1933 
between Denmark and Norway which recognized the Eirik Kaudes 
Land area as belonging to the former. But, according to the recent 
announcements by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Secre- 
tary of State Cordell Hull, the island lies in the Western Hemi- 
sphere and therefore comes under the aegis of the Monroe Doctrine, 
which prohibits non-American states from acquiring the island. By 
and large, the same is true of Iceland, except that it enjoys an unusual 
autonomous constitutional position with relation to the Danish 
Crown. 

Spitsbergen, together with Bear Island, was recognized as Nor- 
wegian territory by the Spitsbergen Treaty of February 9, 1920, 
following at least a quarter century of dispute involving Germany, 
Great Britain, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. Nor- 
way also possesses Jan Mayen Island, having formally announced the 
extension of its jurisdiction over the island on May 8, 1929. 

Since 1920 the Soviets have taken a more aggressive course of action 
in the Arctic than has any other state. Despite the decree of April 
15. 1926, incorporating the sector principle into its municipal law 



294 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the Government of the U. S. S. R. nevertheless has adopted an active 
policy of effective occupation, settlement, and administration for the 
islands to the north of its mainland. Thus, a number of important 
institutions were organized, especially the AU-Union Arctic Institute 
for the scientific study of the Arctic, and the Central Administration 
of the Northern Sea Route (Glavsevamorput) which exercises eco- 
nomic, administrative, and judicial supervision in the Arctic islands. 
A scientific method of exploration, annexation, and colonization is 
being pursued. In addition, some 200 Arctic scientific radio and 
meteorological stations were erected, of which about 75 are located 
on the islands. Finally, with the assistance of an elaborate state- 
owned system of icebreaker and aerial reconnaissance service, the 
difficult Northern Sea Route, which parallels the northern shores of 
the Soviet mainland, is regularly traversed by a fleet of public cargo 
vessels, the annual shipping amounting to approximately 500,000 tons 
prior to the outbreak of hostilities between Germany and the 
U. S. S. R. 

In view of this active display of jurisdictional action on the part 
of the Soviet Government, no pretensions have been raised by other 
states to territory lying within the limits of the Soviet sectoral decree, 
except those entertained by Canada and Norway with respect to 
Wrangel Island and Franz Josef Land respectively. But the 
U. S. S. R. has in any case established continuous settlements on 
Wrangel Island since 1926 and has been sending annual parties to 
Franz Josef Land to supply and maintain a network of permanent 
stations established there. 

No known territory lies to the north of Alaska, and for some years 
the United States has raised no serious pretensions to any Arctic 
possessions. But considerable interest was at one time centered in 
Wrangel Island and a number of smaller islands lying to the north 
of the eastern tip of Siberia, including especially Herald, Jeannette, 
Henrietta, and Bennett Islands. To the north of Canada, the 
American Government displayed some interest in Ellesmere Island 
and at least on one occasion refrained from applying to the Canadian 
Government for licenses to fly over the Sverdrup Islands (Axel 
Heiberg, Amund Ringnes, Ellef Ringnes, and a number of surround- 
ing smaller islands), which is required under Canadian law and 
which would have acknowledged our recognition of Canadian juris- 
diction over these islands. As far as Greenland is concerned, the 
American Government always has been actively interested. Upon 
the insistence of Secretary of State William H. Seward, a valuable 
report was prepared on the island as early as the 1860's with a view 
to possible annexation ; in 1910 there was some discussion of the ces- 
sion of the island by Denmark to the United States in exchange for 



TRANS-ARCTIC AVIATION — PLISCHKE 295 

the Philippine Islands, which in turn were to be ceded by the Danish 
Government to Germany in return for northern Schleswig; 6 years 
later the American Government agreed not to object to an extension 
of Danish jurisdiction over the entire island ; and, finally, within the 
last few years Greenland was acknowledged to constitute a part of the 
Western Hemisphere and is therefore subject to our special interests 
under the Monroe Doctrine. 

The Dominion of Canada claims all the known islands lying to 
the north of her mainland. This pretension has not always been 
respected, as indicated, so that for the past 15 years a serious effort 
has been made to subject the entire island empire — as embraced within 
the jurisdiction of the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch 
of the Canadian Department of Interior — to -effective state adminis- 
tration. This is promoted particularly by the establishment of Royal 
Canadian Mounted Police posts on the fringe of the islands area, by 
extensive police patrols centered about these posts, by an earnest 
attempt to enforce the Canadian legal system in the vast region, and 
by the exploits of the Annual Arctic Patrols, which man and supply 
the posts. The Dominion, like the Soviet Union, therefore is seeking 
to establish an absolute juridical title to the polar territory adjacent 
to its mainland. 

In this manner, Denmark, Norway, the U. S. S. R., and the 
Dominion of Canada possess, or claim to possess, all known territory 
within the Arctic Basin. Moreover, under international law, states 
enjoy all rights of jurisdiction over the air space superjacent to their 
domains, and the air routes which traverse the Arctic will cross 
the territory of these four states. If their pretensions to the territory 
are acknowledged as valid under law, they will be in a position to 
control the major share of the trans- Arctic air lanes. On the other 
hand, if their claims are controverted, serious jurisdictional disputes 
may arise, as was the case with Spitsbergen, Wrangel Island, and 
eastern Greenland. 

To avert such controversies, it would seem advisable for the post- 
war conference of states to establish a practicable solution for the 
international control of the matter. The problem of territorial 
jurisdiction should be solved in advance by an international under- 
standing through the establishment of specific principles of law, 
as was effected at the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, when the 
majority of the Powers recognized the principle of effective occupa- 
tion as essential for the juridical acquisition of African coastal lands. 
This is a matter of first magnitude and should be resolved before a 
host of jealously regarded vested interests are created. At present, 
potential disputes are largely legal in nature and therefore are amen- 
able to justiciable solution. But if proprietary interests with exten- 

619830—45 20 



296 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

sive financial backing are permitted to develop, the matter of resolu- 
tion will be infinitely more diflScult. Experience has shown beyond 
a shadow of doubt that disputes involving important economic and 
political interests are far more difficult to solve than are those of a 
purely juridical nature. 

A series of multilateral air law agreements also will have to be 
decided upon, and it might be profitable if an international body 
were established to administer such problems as reconnaissance, the 
surveying and laying out of transport lanes, the allocation of fran- 
chises, the adoption and enforcement of administrative air regula- 
tions, and the like. But these suggestions can readily be agreed upon 
if the jurisdictional issues are settled. 

On a number of occasions it has been proposed that remaining 
unoccupied polar territory be recognized as belonging to the Society 
of States (i.e., as res communis rather than as territory belonging to 
no state, res nullius). Then no state could legally acquire a valid 
title to the territory and no title of an individual state would be 
valid as against the others. Naturally this applies only to island 
territory, and does not include those islands already consigned to 
a particular state by international agreement — as was the case with 
Greenland and Spitsbergen — and those islands which can be con- 
sidered as appertaining to a state by virtue of prescriptive rights. 
All remaining Arctic island territory should be internationalized, 
to be administered either by the League of Nations or its future 
counterpart, by some special international administrative agency, or 
by some qualified individual state as a mandate. 



OUR PETROLEUM RESOURCES 



By Waixace E. Pbatt 
Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) 



As "a nation on wheels" we came long ago to rank petroleum, the 
source of lubricants and liquid fuels, close to the top of our list of 
essential commodities. Recently, as a nation at war- utilizing petro- 
leum as raw material for indispensable plastics and synthetics, includ- 
ing rubber, and even for the TNT of our bombs and high-explosive 
shells, we have accorded it a still more important place in our national 
economy. Barring the conquest of some new, revolutionary form of 
energy, petroleum must continue to be one of America's paramount 
necessities. 

What, then, of petroleum for the future? We all realize that the 
petroleum resources of the earth are a waning asset ; so far as the needs 
of mankind are concerned there is no renewal of supply. How large 
are the reserves available to us and where are they situated ? 

The following quotation is typical of recent press comment on the 
subject of our petroleum reserves in the United States : "This nation's 
proved reserves of petroleum now bulk some twenty billion barrels, a 
quantity equal to our present peace-time requirements for a period of 
about 15 years. Over the last three years our discoveries of new re- 
serves have consistently failed to balance our annual consumption." 
These oversimplified figures, though entirely accurate, lend themselves 
readily to misinterpretation. Many people conclude from them that 
15 years hence we will have no gasoline for our automobiles. They 
even fear critical shortages of petroleum products for present war 
needs. The misunderstanding might in some degree be dispelled if 
the facts were niore fully revealed. 

The statement quoted leads to the assumption that our 20 billion 
barrels of proved reserves in the United States constitute our total 
remaining resources in petroleum. Yet in fact our total resources far 
exceed our proved reserves. In the first place much petrolemn remains 
to be discovered in the United States. Less than half the total area 
promising for petroleum has been thoroughly explored. In much of 

^ Reprinted by permission from the American Scientist, vol. 32, No. 2, April 1944. 

297 



298 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTIIUTION, 1944 

the region already producing, only the upper layers of the petroleum- 
bearing rocks have been tapped by the wells so far drilled. Underlying 
the beds from which petroleum is now being withdrawn in many of 
our great oil fields there remain thousands of feet of rocks, still un- 
touched by the drill, which may very well yield petroleum when they 
are tested. 

Our total past discoveries of petroleum in the United States amount 
to about 48 billion barrels. We have explored great areas which most 
of us have agreed were of little promise. Yet our past experience has 
proved that from 1 to 2 percent of the total area in which we may 
reasonably hope to find petroleum actually produces when thoroughly 
tested. If our average experience in the area already thoroughly 
explored is valid, then thorough exploration of the entire area in the 
United States in which it is reasonable to expect to find petroleum 
should yield as much additional petroleum as we have already found. 

Moreover, the statement under consideration overlooks the fact that 
in addition to the 20 billion barrels of liquid petroleum reserves we 
have also in the United States proved reserves of natural gas equiva- 
lent in energy content to about 17 billion barrels of petroleum. Nat- 
ural gas is really petroleum in another form and with modem tech- 
nique is readily convertible into liquid fuels, although the cost of 
conversion is still somewhat higher. We should not overlook our 
reserves of petroleum in the form of natural gas. 

Again the statement ignores the fact that the American petroleum 
industry, operating abroad over the last 30 years, has developed addi- 
tional petroleum resources in other countries. The remaining proved 
reserves in these oil fields easily amount to another 20 billion barrels 
or more. These reserves in the hands of American nationals in other 
countries have always been available to the American consuming pub- 
lic in normal times, and they constitute an important supplementary 
proved reserve of petroleum. 

The current discussions of the amount of our petroleum reserves 
seldom touch on the facts that in the past we have usually recovered 
only about 40 percent, or less, of the total volume of petroleum origi- 
nally present in our oil fields, and that, on the basis of this past expe- 
rience, proved reserves are customarily estimated at about 40 percent 
of the total volume of petroleum in the natural reservoirs in which the 
estimates apply. Our estimates of reserves include only the petroleum 
that we know from experience will flow more or less spontaneously into 
the wells that are drilled. The sum of our estimates of proved reserves 
plus the petroleum already discovered in this country, some 48 billion 
barrels, represents, therefore, a total original volume of about 120 
billion barrels. After the estimated volume of our proved reserves 
has been completely recovered there will still remain underground in 



OUR PETROLEUM RESOURCES — PRATT 299 

our depleted oil fields some 70 billion barrels of petroleum. With 
improved methods of secondary recovery much of this additional re- 
serve is certain to be reduced to possession and utilized over the long 
future. 

In summary, then, the total proved reserves of petroleum in the oil 
fields already discovered by Americans, at home and abroad, are of the 
order of 40 billion barrels. Associated with these reserves of liquid 
petroleum there are proved reserves of natural gas, or gaseous petro- 
leum, equivalent in available energy to an additional 17 billion barrels, 
or more, of petroleum. Thus we have a minimum proved reserve of 
57 billion barrels of petroleum in the hands of the American petroleum 
industry. And after this entire reserve has been exhausted there will 
remain in the ground in all the oil fields in the United States from 
which our past supplies have been withdrawn an additional 70 billion 
barrels or so which we may certainly hope ultimately to reclaim in 
part by improved methods of recovery. 

As to the decline in the rate of discovery of new oil fields in the 
United States, it should be realized that our normal oil-finding effort 
has been a war casualty. The failure to discover a larger number of 
new oil fields is largely due to the fact that finding oil has been sacri- 
ficed to other objectives which we have felt were more important to 
the national welfare in time of war. Crude-oil prices were at low 
levels when we entered the war. Proved reserves had been increasing, 
there was little incentive to risk capital in exploration, a hazardous 
venture at best. In the midst of this depressed situation war broke out 
and denied to the petroleum industry the critical materials, the man- 
power, and the price increases that were essential to stimulate explora- 
tion. Except for these restrictions "wildcatting" by the thousands of 
small independent enterprises that constitute the mainstay of our oil- 
finding industry would have been multiplied and our national discov- 
ery rate would certainly have maintained a higher level. Oil finding 
is an increasingly difficult undertaking in this country at best, but 
during the recent emergency we have simply failed to sustain normal 
exploratory activities. 

A significant fact which may be deduced from the statement we 
have quoted is that our ordinary peacetime consumption of petroleum 
in the United States amounts to 450 gallons per capita annually. 
Compare this figure with the annual consumption for the average 
citizens of the rest of the world, which is 15 gallons; or with 80 
gallons for the average citizen of the United Kingdom, or 50 gallons 
for the average Russian. We use 30 times as much petroleum per 
capita as the rest of the world uses ! 

Petroleum in the modern world is potential energy. With our 
machines it is converted into mechanical work. High standards of 



300 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

living result from a large per capita production of goods. The cul- 
ture of ancient Greece was founded on the labor of human slaves. 
Our high standards of living rest largely upon the mechanical work 
done for us by petroleum. The consumption of petroleum in this 
country provides us with the work equivalent of more than 4 billion 
able-bodied men laboring 8 hours a day, 6 days a week, year in and 
year out! In effect our petroleum provides us with an average of 
36 strong, able-bodied slaves for every man, woman, and child in the 
United States; for the average American family, petroleum does the 
work of a staff of 144 servants ! 

This fortunate condition, America's abundant supply of petroleum, 
is due, we are commonly asked to believe, to the fact that our country 
has been blessed with unusually rich natural resources of petroleum. 
This is a mistaken idea and to accept it is to ignore an even more 
precious heritage with which as a nation we have been blessed. 

We have produced more than 60 percent of the petroleum the 
world has consumed so far. But this does not mean that we possess 
60 percent of the world's petroleum. Outside the United States ex- 
ploration for petroleum has hardly begun. The fact is that most of 
the really rich petroleum resources of the earth lie outside our na- 
tional boundaries. In comparison with them the quality of our do- 
mestic resources appears rather meager. The areas of first-class 
promise for petroleum over the earth's surface aggregate some 6 
million square miles; of this total, about 15 percent, or less than 1 
million square miles, are included within the boundaries of the United 
States. When the petroleum resources of the earth have finally been 
fully developed it will probably have been established that less than 
15 percent of the total petroleum in the earth's crust lay beneath the 
surface of the United States. 

What we in America have been blessed with is a native genius 
which, in combination with our political and social concepts, has en- 
abled us to explore for petroleum more effectively and to discover 
the hidden resources in our country more rapidly than any other 
people on earth. Our abundance of petroleum has come to us be- 
cause we dug down into the earth all over the land uiitil we found it. 
No other nation has made any comparable effort to develope its petro- 
leum resources. 

To the task of oil finding, in addition to the method of applied 
science and a flair for industrial organization, we have brought the 
spirit of the pioneer. To an ingenuity which enabled us to design 
and operate the ponderous mechanical equipment required to drill 
and recover petroleum from wells of unprecedented depth, we have 
added the frontiersman's characteristic risk-taking instinct. Driven 
by this instinct, equipped with this machinery, we have gone about 



^ 



OUR PETROLEUM RESOURCES — PRATT 301 

over our country searching for petroleum, setting up hundreds of 
independent wildcatting enterprises, drilling thousands of explora- 
tory wells every year for a generation. Our geographic frontiers 
having been subdued, we have searched out a new frontier in the 
vertical dimension, beneath the surface of the earth. The conquest 
of this new frontier has brought us our abundance of petroleum and 
the high living standards that it sustains. 

Every nation has this same vertical frontier but no other nation has 
explored it as we have. Over much of the earth, where the natural 
obstacles are no more formidable than those we have surmounted, 
political and social barriers have prevented the effective development 
of petroleum resources. We, too, might have failed had we not en- 
joyed our traditional freedoms. Kestrictions by the State on the 
right to drill exploratory, wells. State ownership of minerals, State 
monopoly of rights to explore — any of these restraints would have 
gravely handicapped the search for petroleum we have carried out 
in the United States. Even the presence of a landed gentry with 
unbroken ownership over large areas, in contrast to our widely 
divided ownership in small tracts, would have seriously retarded 
our efforts. Our methods could not have been employed successfully 
in any other than an atmosphere of democratic free enterprise. 

If the wells we drill into the earth are successful they usually en- 
counter petroleum in the pores and small voids of marine sedimentary 
rocks. The petroleum is derived, we believe, from the organic re- 
mains of former marine life. Sedimentary rocks are the muds, sands, 
and oozes that have accumulated on the floors of seas in past geologic 
ages. The hardening of these materials into rock has taken place 
slowly under the pressure of the load of later sediments deposited on 
top of them. 

The search for the petroleum resources of the earth, taking account 
of this theory of origin, should be directed to those regions where 
in the past marine sediments rich in organic matter have been laid 
down in great depth and volume. Marine life, the source of organic 
matter, abounds in surface waters near shore, and marine sediments 
also are deposited in greatest volume near shore, where the streams 
from the adjacent land drop their load of mud and sand. But for 
sediments to accumulate to a great depth it is necessary for the sea 
floor to subside as fast as the load of sediments is laid down upon it ; 
otherwise the area fills up and becomes land, and sedimentation 
ceases. Hence the search for petroleum turns to the unstable belts of 
the earth's crust where there is delicate, prompt response to any change 
in load. 

Also it is necessary for the organic matter that results from abun- 
dant marine life to be preserved until it sinks to the bottom and is 



302 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

actually entombed in the accumulation of sediments. It must not be 
destroyed by oxidation or devoured by the marine scavengers that 
normally feed upon such materials. 

There are two common environments frequently recurring in earth 
history in which organic matter, falling to the bottom of the sea, is 
effectively preserved for burial in the accumulating sediment: seas 
into which fine muds pour so rapidly that the stagnant bottom waters 
are too foul to permit the presence either of oxygen or of marine 
scavengers; and "desiccating" seas, those land-locked bodies of water 
all but cut off from the ocean proper, which are subjected to con- 
tinuous evaporation so intense that they become highly concentrated 
and the various salts normally dissolved in sea water are precipitated, 
settle out, and accumulate as "evaporites" — limestone, dolomite, salt, 
anhydrite, etc. — on the sea floor. The waters of such seas become so 
salty that no life and very little oxygen are found in them, except 
in the surface layer which is diluted by rainfall and by constant or 
periodic inflow of fresh sea water from the adjacent ocean. 

When we survey the earth for evidence of conditions in the past 
which would best fulfill these specifications for rich and extensive 
petroleum resources, our attention is soon drawn to the unstable belts, 
covered much of the time by shallow seas, which lies around the mar- 
gins of the main continental platforms, between them and the great 
oceanic deeps. We note particularly the shallow depressions in the 
earth's crust, which throughout much of the earth's history have sep- 
arated the several continents at their points of closest approach. 

The best known of these troughs or depressed segments between the 
continental masses is the region now occupied in part by the Persian 
Gulf, the Mediterranean, Red, Black, and Caspian Seas, lying between 
the continents of Africa, Europe, and Asia ; another conspicuous basin 
occupied by land-locked seas is the site of the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Caribbean Sea between the continents of North and South America 
in the Western Hemisphere ; a third is the shallow island-studded sea 
lying between the continents of Asia and Australia in the Far East. 

Through one geologic cycle after another these intercontinental de- 
pressions have been filled with shallow, land-locked seas, teeming with 
marine life, into which sediments poured rapidly from the land on all 
sides. Frequently, too, these depressions have been the sites of "des- 
iccating" seas. The earth's crust beneath them is unstable or mobile 
and yields readily to stresses. Altogether these depressed zones 
between the continents seem admirably constituted to serve as natural 
reservoirs for the petroleum resources of the earth ; and as soon as we 
look for petroleum in these regions we find abundant evidence of its 
presence. 



OUR PETROLEUM RESOURCES — PRATT 303 

The earliest historical records of the Near East refer to bitumen, 
burning springs, eternal fires, and other phenomena which unmistak- 
ably indicate petroleum and natural gas escaping at the surface. In 
modern times this region has developed the outstanding petroleum 
reserve of the earth, Russia's greatest oil fields are situated here, as 
are the famous oil fields of Iran and Iraq, owned largely by the British. 
Arabia, where exploration was undertaken for the first time by Ameri- 
cans only a few years ago, has already built up very large proved re- 
serves of petroleum, and undoubtedly other important discoveries will 
follow. The important oil fields of Egypt and Rumania fall within 
this area. 

Next to the Near East in importance are the environs of the Gulf of 
Mexico and the Caribbean Sea in the Western Hemisphere. Around 
the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico are situated fully one-half 
of the total proved reserves of the United States. The tremendous 
past production of Mexico, Colombia, and Venezuela has come from 
the land fringe along the western and southern margins of this region. 
Further exploration in all these countries is certain to yield many new 
discoveries. 

In the shallow depression between the continents of Asia and Aus- 
tralia in the Far East are the great oil fields, owned largely by the 
British and Dutch, on the large islands of Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and 
New Guinea. 

If we accept the prewar estimates of the Russians that their proved 
reserves of petroleum are of the order of 45 billion barrels, the total 
proved reserves for the earth may be safely placed at somewhat more 
than 100 billion barrels. Fully 90 percent of these proved reserves 
lie in these three intercontinental depressions, and it is generally con- 
ceded that these regions also include the best territory by far for 
further exploration for petroleum. 

There is a fourth great depressed segment of the earth's crust be- 
tween continents which, except for the forward-looking Russians, has 
escaped any real consideration so far by the world's petroleum indus- 
try. This region lies between the continents of North America, Eu- 
rope, and Asia. It covers the North Pole and is occupied by the Arctic 
Sea, a land-locked body of water into which sediments have been 
transported by the streams draining three continents throughout much 
of geologic time. We are accustomed to think of the waters covering 
the North Pole as the Arctic Ocean and our maps commonly designate 
them as an ocean, but they are in reality a land-locked sea, a fact long 
recognized by the Russians and other European peoples. 

Evidences of petroleum are conspicuous at many places along the 
coasts which encircle the Arctic Sea. Near Point Barrow in northern- 
most Alaska there are copious oil seepages. At Fort Norman, 65° 



304 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

north latitude, on the lower Mackenzie River, in northwestern Canada, 
a major oil field has recently been developed. On the islands north of 
the mainland of western Canada seepages of petroleum from the rocks 
hi the surface were noted by Stef ansson during his Arctic explorations. 
At numerous localities marked by surface escapes of petroleum and 
natural gas along the Arctic coast of Siberia, over a distance of 3,000 
miles, Russian engineers have been engaged for years exploring for 
and producing petroleum. 

The geological character of the Arctic region and the evidences of 
petroleum in the rocks that make up the coasts of the Arctic Sea both 
justify the belief that this region will eventually prove to contain some 
of the important petroleum resources of the earth. 

As long ago as 1888 Edward Orton, a distinguished geologist en- 
gaged in a study of the petroleum resources of the State of Ohio 
observed: "It is obvious that the total amount of petroleum in the 
rocks underlying the surface * * * jg large beyond computa- 
tion." Since Orton's time we have extended our exploration for pe- 
troleum much more widely over the earth and, although we have not 
as yet even begun to exhaust the possibilities, we have already learned 
much to substantiate his conviction that the total amount of petroleum 
in the rocks underlying the surface "is large beyond computation." 
Nevertheless the belief persists that our petroleum resources are on 
the verge of exhaustion. Even though we have been obliged repeat- 
edly to revise upward our previous estimates of their probable volume, 
we still fear imminent shortages of petroleum products. Will nothing 
we have learned serve to dispel this extreme pessimism ? 

Petroleum and coal, our mineral fuels, are fossil sunlight of 2,000 
million years of earth history. In our natural resources of coal there 
is preserved for us part of the energy of the light which has bathed 
the land ; in petroleum we recapture some of the energy of the sunlight 
which fell upon the adjacent waters. The coal resources of the earth 
we have measured, and we can calculate their volume with reasonable 
accuracy, a minimum quantity which runs into thousands of billions 
of tons — 7,500 billion long tons. But the petroleum resources of the 
earth, which we cannot as yet measure, we refuse to think of as more 
than a few tens of billions of tons — less than one-third of 1 percent of 
our proved coal resources. Why do we believe there is so much less 
petroleum than coal in the earth ? Was the life in the old seas so much 
less abundant than that on the land ? 

In recent years Parker Trask and others have made extensive inves- 
tigations of the sedimentary rocks of the earth. We know that of the 
present land surface, some 60 million square miles, more than one-third 
is composed of sedimentary rocks ; that is to say, an area of 22 million 
square miles of the present land surface of the earth has been covered 



OUR PETROLEUM RESOURCES — PRATT 305 

•by seas at times in the past. Of this total area of former sea floors the 
rocks comprising about 6 million square miles are of a general charac- 
ter which make them of first-class promise for petroleum; they are 
present in great depth and are otherwise favorable for the occurrence 
of petroleum. The remaining area of 16 million square miles may 
also contain petroleum, but its general character is less promising and 
it is rated of secondary importance. 

Among other characteristics of sedimentary rocks Trask sought to 
determine the organic content. In this research he examined the rocks 
which constitute the floors of existing seas as well as those of former 
sea floors. The rocks from the floor of the deep ocean proved to contain 
but little organic matter. But rocks formed in seas, near shore, were 
found to be much higher in organic content. Of the rocks now forming 
on the floor of the Black Sea, for example, organic matter constitutes 
more than 35 percent by weight. In the rocks from the floors of former 
seas Trask found the organic content to range up to 10 percent by 
weight, averaging 1.5 percent. Trask estimated the average organic 
content of the rocks in the floors of all present seas at 2.5 percent by 
weight. 

Do these estimates promise enough organic matter to constitute 
source material for petroleum resources larger than we customarily 
reckon on? Let us confine our attention to the area of sedimentary 
rocks of first-class promise for petroleum, some 6 million square miles, 
excluding the remaining 16 million square miles entirely. Let us 
consider only that portion of the first-class area which is within easy 
reach of the oil man's drill, eliminating all possible resources more 
than, say, 7,000 feet beneath the surface, despite the fact that a large 
proportion of our present supply of petroleum comes from greater 
depths. Let us apply to this restricted portion of the sedimentary 
rocks of first-class promise for petroleum only the average organic 
content estimated for the floors of all existing seas. 

Even on this minimum basis we obtain an estimated quantity of 
organic matter so large as to baffle comprehension — a quantity 200 
times greater in weight than the total coal resources of the earth! 
If only one-half of 1 percent of this organic matter had been con- 
verted into petroleum, concentrated and preserved for us in the 
natural reservoirs of the earth's crust, our total petroleum resources 
would equal our total coal resources. If only one-tenth of 1 percent 
had been so preserved for us, our total petroleum resources would still 
be 60 times greater than all the petroleum we have so far discovered : 
that is, all our past consumption plus all our proved reserves. 

In view of these figures it is not unreasonable to suspect that the 
problem we face is not a dearth of petroleum in the earth's crust so 
much as our failure to explore adequately and develop the resources 



306 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

that are as yet undiscovered. If we now set ourselves to the task 
all over the earth as effectively as we have already done in our coun- 
try we should be able to establish tremendous additional reserves. At 
any rate, if our total petroleum resources are as limited as we fear they 
may be, the explanation does not lie in any original lack of organic 
source material in the sedimentary rocks of the earth's crust. A very 
small fraction of the organic matter originally present in the most 
promising rocks would have sufficed as raw material for a great deal 
more petroleum than we have as yet discovered. 

REFERENCES 
Gedeoitz, N. a. 

1937. Outlook for oil in the Arctic sector of western and central Siberia. 

17th Intemat. Geol. Congr. 
Heeoy, W. B. 

1941. Petroleum Geology. Geology, 188S-1938, Fiftieth Ann. vol., Geol. 

Soc. Amer., pp. 511-548. 

ILIJNG, V. C. 

1938. The origin of petroleum. The Science of Petroleum, vol. 1, pp. 

32-38. Oxford Univ. Press, London. 
LlND, S. C. 

1938. On the origin of i)etroleum. The Science of Petroleum, vol. 1, pp. 
39-41. Oxford Univ. Press, London. 
Nalivkin, D. V. 

1937. Oil in the Arctic. Arctica, vol. 5, pp. 3-8. 
Paige, S., Foban, W. T., and Gilluly, J. 

1925. A reconnaissance of the Point Barrow region, Alaska. U. S. Geol, 
Surv. Bull. 772. 
Smibnov, L. 

1935. The problem of oil occurrence in the Soviet Arctic. Arctica, vol. 3. 
Trask, p. D. 

1938. Petroleum source beds. The Science of Petroleum, vol. 1, pp. 42-45. 
Trask, P. D., and Patnode, H. W. 

1942. Source beds of petroleum. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla. 
Wateeschoot van deb Gbacht, W. a. J. M. van. 

1938a. The stratigraphical distribution of petroleum. The Science of 

Petroleum, vol. 1, pp. 58-62. 
1938b. The geographical distribution of petroleum. The Science of 

Petroleum, vol. 1, pp. 63-65. 



WOODS AND TREES ^ 

PHILOSOPHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SOME FACTS OF SCIENCE 



By Frederick H. Krecker 
Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 



Some of you, I am sure, are wondering why a zoologist should 
presume to discuss a subject which apparently lies within the domain 
of the botanist. Of course to be strictly zoological I might have 
used the words formicaries and ants, but no one before me has said, 
"One can't see the formicary for the ants," and I do not presume to 
establish a saying. 

I have had considerable experience instructing the general arts 
college student, the student who takes zoology as a college require- 
ment and without thought of continuing in the field beyond the limits 
of the course. Each year at about this season, after all the tumult 
and the shouting of instruction have died down, in the wee small 
hours of the fading academic year, I take stock and ask myself in 
troubled seriousness, "What have I conveyed to my charges?" Facts, 
most certainly ; but facts without their significance are as food with- 
out vitamins. One is filled but does not thrive. Hence, I query, 
have I been content to show to my students merely the trees of fact, 
each after each in all their intricacy of detail, or have I also taken 
them to a vantage point and shown them the beauty and majesty of 
the forest? Have I, in other words, taken full advantage of the 
opportunities which President Brown of Denison at our last meet- 
ing so eloquently ascribed to the instructors of science. You will 
remember that in the course of his remarks he humorously itemized 
the tongue-twisting terms that met his gaze as he reviewed the requisi- 
tions of his scientific staff. President Brown, however, saw beyond 
the terms and the facts they represent. He saw them as a means, 
not as ends. Unfortunately, some members of our scientific fra- 
ternity, not to mention the man in the street, see only the terms. 
Nothing is so revealing, so pathetically revealing, as the desperate 
efforts the casual acquaintance makes to find a common ground of 

^ Address of the retiring president of the Ohio Academy of Science delivered at the 
annual meeting of the Academy held in Columbus, Ohio, April 30, 1943. Reprinted by 
permission from the Ohio Journal of Science, vol. 43, No. 4, July 1943. 

307 



308 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

conversation once he discovers you are a zoologist. All too often he 
amusingly, likewise tragically, attempts to recall a name — oh, yes, 
he says, I studied zoology once. Let me see, what is the name for 
oysters and clams? * * * That man has seen the trees. I won- 
der whether he was ever shown the woods ; whether he was trained in 
anything but bare facts. And I wonder too whether, perhaps still 
more unfortunately, the significance of significances was ever appre- 
ciated by his instructors. 

The trees and not the woods loomed large in the remarks made by 
a colleague of mine, a purveyor of the humanities, on the occasion of 
a round-table discussion between a faculty group and students on the 
ever-recurring topic of science and religion. The immediate ques- 
tion at issue was the relation of scientific facts to religion. My col- 
league was of the opinion that the two could be in no wise related. 
By way of illustration he pointed to the facts of meteorology ; certain 
conditions of temperature, moisture, atmospheric movement we 
know result in rain. How can that knowledge possibly have any 
connection with religion, he queried. The answer, as we well know, 
is simple. This certainty of results which the meteorological facts 
represent takes much of the mystery and consequent uncertainty out 
of the comings and goings of the weather. To just that extent we 
feel secure and in harmony with the powers that ride the storm. 

My colleague's query did double duty. It revealed the barren trees 
of both science and religion but the woods of neither. The funda- 
mental yearning which the appeal to religion strives to fulfill is 
the yearning for security, a yearning which grips all of us. We 
tremble before the overpowering uncertainties of enveloping fate, 
the unknowable, and strive to achieve a harmonious relationship 
through religious experience. The woods, which apparently neither 
the scientific nor the religious experiences of my colleague had 
revealed to him, were that just as the all-compelling quest manifested 
through religion is the quest for security, so the all-embracing fruit 
of science is to afford security ; the security that frees from the bonds 
of uncertainty and superstition and soothes the troubled soul with 
the peace that passeth understanding. 

This doctrine of security, the teaching that we live in an environ- 
ment ordered by dependable, understandable principles is as old as 
science itself, the leit motif that has threaded its guiding way through 
scientific thought throughout the ages from the times of the early 
Ionian teachers to the present. As F. H. Pike ^ reminds us in a pub- 
lished note within the year, "One great change which occurred in the 
period from Thales to Plato was the substitution of a world, perhaps 
even a universe, of law for the older world of caprice." And with it 

* Science, AprU 24, 1942. 



WOODS AND TREES — KRECKER 309 

there was born a new thing, "science," which as Burnet^ so aptly 
definies in his survey of Greek philosophy is "thinking about the 
world in the Greek way." 

To return to my colleague and, I fear, to many others like him, 
what a woeful void there must have been in what he reaped from 
science, perhaps also in the guidance offered him by his mentors. 
One is moved to paraphrase the biblical interrogation, what doth it 
profit a man to gather the facts of science and lose its soul ? 

One group of scientific facts, its bare, gaunt trees stripped of their 
pleasing foliage, tells us that every particle of matter is attracted 
by every other particle in proportion to the product of the masses and 
inversely as the square of the intervening distances. These few 
words represent a vast number of subsidiary facts and a prodigious 
amount of painstaking effort in their formulation. It is known to all 
who mull them over that they explain the floating of a mote of dust 
to the ground and in the same breath the grand movement of the 
planets through space. I am wondering, however, how many of those 
who have burnt the midnight oil in mastering these facts, how many 
of our students, indeed perhaps, how many of their instructors and 
how many of our friends in the humanities like my colleague of the 
religious discussion have been taken to a mountain top from which 
they have been able to see that these same facts have served also as a 
guidepost in our quest of the ultimate, in molding man's interpretation 
of his universe, in orienting himself in time and space; that they have 
been one of the things which has helped to satisfy man's wonder, the 
awesome wonder that comes over one as he gazes into the depths of a 
star-studded winter sky where wonder leads to wonder and one is 
moved to breathe the thought, "What is man that thou art mindful 
of him?" 

As Sir James Jeans * points out, "The law of gravity was important 
not so much because it told us why an apple fell to the ground or why 
the earth and planets moved around the sun as because it suggested 
the whole of Nature was governed by hard and fast laws — in the light 
of Newton's work — Man began to see that he was free to work out 
his own destiny without fear of disturbuance from interfering gods, 
spirits, or demons." Or again to partly paraphrase Dampier," New- 
ton's reduction of the phenomenon of gravity to mathematical terms, 
coupled with the work of Copernicus and Galileo, in one grand sweep 
validated terrestrial mechanics in celestial spaces and eliminated with 
finality the Aristotelian and medieval doctrine that "the heavenly 
bodies are divine, incorruptible and different in kind from our im- 

» Early Greek philosophy, 4th ed., 1930. 

* Scientific progress. 

■ Sir William Dampier, A history of science, 1938. 



310 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

perfect world." The effect was even deeper and struck at the very 
roots of religious beliefs in that it was made "impossible any longer 
to gaze into heaven just above the sky, and to shudder at the 
rumblings of hell beneath the ground." Consequently, as Brett ^ com- 
ments, "The seat of religious belief was thus moved from the heart 
to the head ; mysticism was excommunicated by mathematics, * * * 
the way was opened for a liberal Christianity which might ultimately 
supersede traditional beliefs." 

Incidentally a statement like that is indeed comforting to a zool- 
ogist. It lifts from his shoulders some of the burden placed there by 
the populace for having undermined ancestral beliefs. 

Biology's central contribution to human thought has been the doc- 
trine of organic evolution. This doctrine has brought coherence and 
order and significance to a multitude of otherwise apparently discon- 
nected facts and theories within the field of biology itself and has 
opened up wide vistas of vision in other fields as well. It is undoubt- 
edly superfluous to mention this to a scientific assemblage such as this, 
but there are scientists, even biologists, who tend to belittle the impor- 
tance of evolution in the scheme of instruction. And here again I am 
moved to wonder whether we see the woods as we look at the trees; 
whether we consider the fact of the evolutionary origin of animals 
and plants as an end in itself and the meticulous details of evidence 
as ends in themselves or whether we look upon them as means to a 
broader end. As ends in themselves they are probably pleasant bed- 
time stories, if you like that kind of story. They are facts and add 
to one's store of such things, if your hobby is making a collection. If 
that is the spirit in which one presents the matter embellished for good 
measure with much precise detail, I fear that in the words of the phi- 
losopher, Irwin Edman, once applied to some of the humanities, it 
will be shortly "dying of anemia, of archeological hardening of the 
arteries and will become a corpse handled conscientiously by solemn 
morticians." 

As means to an end the formulation of the doctrine of organic evo- 
lution, like the formulation of the principles of gravity, has served as 
the factual basis for a reorientation of human conceptions. If Newton 
paved the way for a liberalized Christianity, Darwin has paved the 
way for a liberalized sociopolitical outlook. The doctrine of organic 
evolution has once and for all destroyed the concept of the immutabil- 
ity of human institutions as well as of animal bodies. It has destroyed 
finality. If man as an animal is the product of change, his institution, 
the state, as a sociopolitical organization is not immutable. What 
served the purposes of our fathers may not of necessity serve ours. 
And so also have we been conditioned to discard the concept of absolu- 

* O. S. Brett, Sir Isaac Newton, 1929. 



WOODS AND TREES — KRECKER 311 

tism in the field of economics. With changing times come changing 
economic principles. 

Organic evolution with its handmaiden, natural selection, has de- 
stroyed the sociological equalitarianism of the French Revolution. 
All men may be equal before the law ; they are not equal before the bar 
of life. Gone, too, is the categorical dictum as a basis for morality 
and in its place has come racial experience, those standards which have 
survival value for the race. Morality in this light comes to mean 
allegiance to that code which will enable one's countrymen to live and 
to have life more abundantly. For those who may mourn the passing 
of the categorical standard, let me say that racial survival is a far 
more exacting standard than one which, perchance, permits of com- 
pensation by doing penance. The youthful monkey merrily swinging 
from limb to limb who misjudges his mark gets no second chance and 
leaves no descendants. It is, indeed, easier for a camel to pass through 
the needle's eye than to cheat the laws of life. 

There is tonight no time, even if this could be considered an appro- 
priate place, in which to trace all the ramifications of our racial expe- 
rience as a standard by which we may order our lives. However, I 
should like to enlarge upon one phase of our experience which does 
appear to be peculiarly applicable to the present state of world affairs. 
Julian Huxley,^ in discussing man's achievements points out, as have 
others, that "the next step of greater control must be over man him- 
self * * * through (among other methods) doing away with 
nationalistic drives and superimposing an international form of gov- 
ernment on the world." To a biologist there straightway comes the 
question, what evidence have we that cooperation is any more success- 
ful than isolation as a biological method ? Has not the arch isolation- 
ist, Amoeba, survived for millions of years and have not thousands of 
other rugged individualists been successful among the animal hordes ? 
That interrogation immediately poses another — what is success ? And 
to answer one must differentiate between survival and mastery. An 
animal, all of us, may survive through a variety of devious subterfuges 
and expedients, the common mark of which is that they entail sub- 
servience. However, success in fullest measure is mastery over condi- 
tions. If organic evolution has any significance it is the story of how 
living material has, through the cooperative actions of its subdivided 
units, approached, if it has not yet attained, mastery. 

I am fully aware of the fact that organic evolution does not of neces- 
sity proceed along a straight-line principle, that life has followed a 
thousand and one devious pathways and on occasion has even retro- 
gressed ; but the fact remains, nevertheless, that at each level on which 

'' Man stands alone, 1940. 
619830 — 45 21 



312 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

there has been a closer approach to mastery that approach has been 
accompanied by a greater division of labor and a closer coordination 
of the constituent units until in man, the master, they have become 
woven into an intricate pattern of cooperating parts. At the opposite 
extreme lies an ineffectual, single-celled droplet of living material 
exemplified by Amoeba. Organic evolution is thus history, as much a 
part of our history as is the history of the written word, and as such, 
in fulfilling one of its functions, it points out the road we have trod 
and lights the way that lies ahead. 

I am a zoologist, but for a moment I should like to turn historian, 
that man who has been termed by Schlegel a prophet looking back- 
ward, and as such a prophet refresh your memories by briefly tracing 
the steps of this story as others have done before me. 

It can begin with Amoeba, a creature which epitomizes individual- 
ism. Not even in the commonly shared function of reproduction is it 
dependent upon another for assistance. A thousand and one changes 
have been rung on this isolationist-individualist theme among its fellow 
protozoans, each change having brought survival but no shred of 
mastery. 

One of the early mutations leading out of the protozoan doldrums 
was that which resulted in causing proliferating cells to remain clus- 
tered together, and as such clusters to cooperate in the form of tubular 
units ; a condition exemplified in varying degrees by the Porif era and 
the Coelenterata. The rewards were those that come from numbers 
and elementary divisions of function. This condition was followed 
by an innovation which resulted in dense, compact and solid masses 
of cells being able to exist as a single unit exemplified by our friends 
and tormentors, the flatworms. This state of affairs was accompanied 
by greater diversification in the constituent units and preeminently 
by rectilinear locomotion. 

The next steps — three of them — in this mutating series were par- 
ticularly significant ; the development of distance receptors, the device 
which produced essentially compound animals, and the accompanying 
delegation of authority to subcenters which thus made possible the 
rapid and efficient control so characteristic of the metameric groups. 

Metamerism is as far as life has gone in the way of physically com- 
pounding units. The compounding has continued but on the psycho- 
logical level, or social level if you wish. If we are to consider 
psychological reactions as a specialized manifestation of physiological 
states, the continued compounding which we term our social organiza- 
tion is fully as much a physiological process as were the physical 
unions just outlined and as such must be considered a direct con- 
tinuation of this compounding tendency, a continuation made pos- 
sible by the development of distance receptors. 



I 



WOODS AND TREES — KRECKER 313 

In saying this, I am mindful of those who maintain that social 
organization is not comparable to corporate organization. I am in- 
clined to think the difference is not so much a matter of principle 
as of means. In the one case the constituent units have been held to- 
gether by bonds of physical contact, in the other they have been as 
firmly held by the influence of distance receptors. Emerson,^ the 
ecologist, has recently expressed the view that, "Regardless of how 
one interprets the unity of the more complex human societies, the 
human family, and other family systems, are real cooperative, supra- 
organismic entities. * * * Society is merely a manifestation of 
fundamental life attributes which are shared with other biological 
systems (e. g., multicellular organisms) and the division between the 
social and the non-social is not sharp." Jennings ^ goes further and 
points out that there is much to be said in favor of the conclusion 
that "mankind is a single great organism temporarily divided into 
pieces — the individuals." Through this device the essential benefits 
of physical union are retained and become enriched by the advantages 
to be derived from mobile units. The study of organic evolution is, 
indeed, from one standpoint essentially a study in populations. 
Much can be said in support of the conclusion emerging from such 
a study, that in its animal phases at least unitary masses of proto- 
plasm, whether these units be cells or bodies, under similar conditions 
follow essentially similar principles of group organization. 

The social organization of the corporate population has, as you 
know, followed along two lines, the one illustrated by certain insects, 
the other by man. Among insects the culmination is reached by the 
ants and the termites, those individually defenseless creatures and 
toothsome morsels for many a foe which have through cooperation 
lived from the Tropics to the borders of the Arctic. 

Our own social structure is an even more intricate and widespread 
culmination of increasingly interdependent component units the 
progress of which has followed one unswerving path marked by the 
milestones of free cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, compound 
organisms, then families, tribes, kingdoms, empires, major alliances, 
and still it holds its course into the future. Faintly outlined as yet 
but apparently on our course lies some type of world union. This 
last prophecy may be branded an ultra-utopian fancy, but it must 
not be thought that the pyramiding of units I have just traced, 
whether in the field of physical union or sociopolitical associations, 
came without a struggle, without false starts that led up blind alleys 
or ended in stark failure. 



' A. E. Emerson, Denison Univ. Bull., December 1941. 
• Journ. Soc. Philos., January 1937. 



314 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

For those who may be faint-hearted, the fact to be kept in mind is 
that with all the difficulties that beset the way, union was eventually 
accomplished, that with each union, with each sacrifice of self, with 
each restriction of liberty, there has been a stride toward greater mas- 
tery, toward a fuller, more abundant life for the whole. At one ex- 
treme is individualism, represented by Amoeba, beholden by neither 
jot nor tittle to anyone, groveling withal in the slime and swept hither 
and yon by every whim of nature. At the other extreme are millions 
of interdependent cells united in the form of men who, in turn, through 
their combined efforts have overcome the sufferings of famine, the 
scourge of pestilence, the barriers of distance, the mysteries of the air, 
yes, even the intricacies of creative synthesis. Optimism for the future 
is well expressed in the words of the paleontologist, Lull,^° who writes, 
"The great heart of nature beats, its throbbing stimulates the pulse of 
life, and not until that heart is stilled forever will the rhythmic tide 
of progress cease to flow." 

Among the social insects the price paid to the group for the benefits 
of cooperative action is that the individual be born to a class and have 
stamped upon him unalterably the form of his station in life — worker, 
soldier, king or queen — there to remain toiling dutifully without will 
or choice that the group may survive. That is strait- jacketed, in- 
flexible efficiency, not inviting to those of us outside the pale of Nazi 
or Fascist rule. It has, moreover, fallen short of control, probably 
because its morphological inflexibility is paralleled by inflexibility of 
nervous reaction. 

There is no gainsaying that one of the most patent of biological prin- 
ciples requires that when individual and species conflict, it is the 
individual that must give way even to the extreme of life itself. For 
us the demands of society are indeed becoming more and more exact- 
ing ; we are individually being held to a closer and closer accounting. 
There is ever-increasing regimentation. But we of the vertebrate line 
are fortunate in that we belong to a type of social organization which 
permits its members the opportunity of realizing their responsibility 
to the group and of doing their duty voluntarilj^^ and without compul- 
sion. If we but will, therein lies our avenue of escape from the fate of 
an enforced regimentation analogous to that of the insects. 

The responsibility which rests upon us individually arises from the 
division of labor inherent in society. Each sequence in the evolution- 
ary progress of living material from microscopic unit to dominating 
mass involved more and more detailed division of labor and with each 
advance there came increasing responsibility. For instance, in an 
unspecialized body like that of a sponge the entire body, as you well 
know, can be taken apart cell by cell and then the whole mass or any 

» R. S. Lull, Organic evolution, 1929. 



I 



WOODS AND TREES — KRECKER 315 

portion of it can again take on the form and function of a sponge. 
Here, it matters little whether any one or a group of cells fail. At the 
opposite extreme in man, the loss of an islet of cells in the pancreas 
means death. Clearly specialization and responsibility go hand in 
hand. 

The inexorable demands of nature that each do his duty to his kind 
need not of necessity mean that before us lies a future in which we 
shall be slaves to the State, Nazi-fashion. A slave performs his duty 
without choice, has no voice in his fate. Before us lies the opportunity 
to both exercise our choice and discharge our duty. If, however, we 
do not so choose, we shall have responsibility and no freedom, no 
chance to direct our fate. There are even now those among us who 
would impose the prototype of insect rigidity upon our form of social 
organization. Its most extreme exponents are the followers of Nazi 
philosophy. Rauschning" reports Hitler as declaring, "There will 
be a master class * * * also a new middle class * * * and 
the great mass of the eternally disfranchized. Beneath them still will 
be * * * the modern slave class. * * * Universal education 
is the most corroding and disintegrating poison that liberalism has 
ever invented for its own destruction." Carrel ^^ has expressed some- 
what similar views, as for instance, * * * "The democratic prin- 
ciple has contributed to the collapse of civilization in opposing the 
development of an elite. * * * modern civilization is incapable 
of producing people endowed with imagination, intelligence and cour- 
^gQ^ * * * ^j-^g equality of their (man's) rights is unequal." 

It is true that there are biological differences among us which cause 
difficulties in a democratic state, but gene distribution is such that few 
are wholly of inferior quality and few, if any, of wholly superior stuff. 
The mechanism of transmission and interaction of genes further com- 
plicates the picture. And who is to differentiate what is good or how ? 
As Jennings suggests, "One of the greatest difficulties in the way of 
effective human action lies in the lack of agreement as to the end to be 
attained. * * * perhaps the greatest difficulty of all lies in the 
lack of agreement as to the individuals or groups that should benefit 
by the action to be taken." 

The course upon which the physically undifferentiated and mobile 
fabric of the vertebrate social organization is set does not of necessity 
demand a society strait-laced and closely regimented in which free- 
dom of action is surrendered. It does demand and will exact the 
surrender of action for self alone. It does place upon us unalterably 
responsibility to our fellow men. The failure on the part of many of 
us, most of us I fear, to realize this fact has been an important source 

" The voice of destruction. 
^ Man, the unknown. 



316 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



of our present unrest. With a sense of allegiance to the group in the 
spirit of that larger self-interest which realizes that the greatest good 
for the individual is inextricably bound up with the good of the 
group, there need be no fear of enforced regimentation. Unlike the 
strait- jacketed insect civilization, such realization of individual re- 
sponsibility permits us freedom to pass from stratum to stratum as 
the cast of the genes may decide, and leaves us the stimulus of in- 
dividual initiative. The specializations of society without a sense of 
responsibility lead to the limited privilege of an unbridled, cancerous 
growth ; specialization with a sense of the common good leads to the 
harmony of a well-ordered body. 

As I come to the end of my remarks let me mention once again 
my thoughts at the close of the academic year, my interest in the trees 
of fact and the woods of significance. I have, as you see, directed 
your attention to but a few examples. First among them was the 
very soul of science, the sense of security which scientific facts con- 
vey. Second was the influence of what may appear to be purely phys- 
ical principles upon the liberation of man from the bonds of religious 
ignorance ; third, the significance of the facts of evolution as a guid- 
ing light upon our way and finally the significance of the individual's 
obligation to the group. I have discussed them because with all the 
immediately practical applications of fact that can be made, which 
are truly many and important, such applications alone are not suf- 
ficient. The instructor in science has not completely fulfilled his re- 
sponsibility to those who come to him for guidance unless he has 
pointed out the wider significances. These broader applications 
which carry us into the realm of ideas are required to satisfy fully 
that age-long quest which Sir William Dampier has so richly clothed 
in these words : 



At first men try with magic 
charm 
To fertilize the earth, 
To keep their flocks and herds 
from harm 
And bring new young to birth. 

Then to capricious gods they turn 
To save from fire or flood; 

Their smoking sacrifices burn 
On altars red with blood. 

Next bold philosopher and sage 

A settled plan decree. 
And prove by thought or sacred 
page 

What Nature ought to be. 



But Nature smiles — a Sphinx-like 
smile — 
Watching their little day 
She waits in patience for a 
while — 
Their plans dissolve away. 

Then come those humbler men of 
heart 

With no completed scheme, 
Content to play a modest part. 

To test, observe, and dream. 

Till out of chaos come in sight 
Clear fragments of a Whole ; 

Man, learning Nature's ways 
aright, 
Obeying, can control. 



BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 



By Asa Crawford CHANDLEit 
Professor of Biology, The Rice Institute 



My subject this afternoon is "Biology and Medicine," but I think 
a more accurate wording would be "Medicine and Other Phases of 
Biology," for to my mind medicine is a branch of biology. Webster's 
Dictionary defines medicine as the science and art dealing with the 
prevention, cure, or alleviation of disease. Biology is the science of 
life. Disease might well be defined as life out of balance, and is in a 
strict sense a biological process. Whether it be an attack by micro- 
organisms, or improper functioning of glands, or congenital mis- 
formation or maladjustment, or injury by poison or bullets, disease 
processes are in the last analysis nothing more than cells, tissues, 
or organs that have suffered injury and so not only fail to perform 
their normal functions but in most cases interfere with the normal 
functions of other parts, more often than not of the entire body. 

Of the two great divisions of medicine dealing respectively with 
treatment and with prevention, the former is much the older. It is 
far easier to observe the effects of treatment on a person suffering 
from a malady than it is to understand why someone else escaped 
it. Some knowledge of curative or alleviative medicine was possessed 
by our cave-dwelling ancestors; in fact, it is instinctive in many 
lower animals. It gradually grew up as a sort of folklore from a 
slow process of trial and error, added to the instinctive knowledge ac- 
quired from prehuman ancestors. 

With the growth of belief in the supernatural, by which man satis- 
fied his developing desire to explain things, medicine became largely 
theological. Priests and physicians were one. They conceived disease 
as the work of devils, gods, or spirits which had to be appeased by 
sacrifices, confused or circumvented by charms or incantations, evicted 
by emetics, cathartics, or bloodletting, or enticed to escape by means 
of holes in the skull, nasty medicine, or other devices. It is since the 
days of our Pilgrim Fathers that we have learned that it is more effec- 
tive to control typhoid and cholera by boiling water than by boiling 
witches. 

Although belief in the instrumentality of demons and witches in 
causing disease persisted for a long time, since Hippocrates more en- 

1 Public lecture delivered at The Rice Institute in the spring of 1943. Reprinted by per- 
mission from The Rice Institute Pamphlet, vol. 30, No. 4, October 1943. 

317 



318 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

lightened individuals have recognized at least some kinds of disease as 
natural processes. From that time to the present medicine has been 
primarily biological instead of theological or metaphysical. Some of 
the original ideas were, as would be expected, very far astray; for 
example, the theory that Hippocrates inaugurated and Galen ex- 
panded that proper proportions and relations of four humors of the 
body were responsible for health or disease. According to this theory 
people were sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, or melancholic in tempera- 
ment depending upon which of the four humors predominated. Erro- 
neous as it was, this theory was a long step forward in that it focused 
attention on natural instead of supernatural causes, and on caring for 
the patient instead of appeasing devils. 

Hippocrates was also an exponent of the great biological principle 
that nature is the greatest physician of all. Left alone, an organism 
attempts to repair damages to its parts, to adjust itself to any unbal- 
ance in structure or function that has been entailed, and to fight off 
attacks by parasites. The role of the physician is to aid the organism 
in these attempts. In many cases this involves nothing more than 
augmentation or speeding up of natural biological processes that the 
organism itself would employ, such as stimulation of immunity, sup- 
ply of additional antibodies, provision of new tissue or fluid in the 
form of grafts or blood transfusions, supply of abundant vitamins, 
regulation of hormones, removal of unhealthy tissue, and protection 
against invasion by micro-organisms. In some cases it involves meth- 
ods which are entirely foreign to the natural processes of the animal 
body, but which aid and abet these processes, such as the use of stimu- 
lants, anesthetics, specific drugs. X-rays, radium, or heat. 

The speeding up of natural processes of repair or adaptation is 
applied biology. It involves a thorough knowledge of the normal 
biology of the human body — its anatomy and all phases of its physi- 
ology. Strangely enough, even knowledge of the gross anatomy of 
the human body was extremely sketchy and mostly wrong up to the 
middle of the sixteenth century. 

Galen, of the second century A. D., was the father of anatomy for 
years, but he was a very poor father and his offspring was a very 
hodgepodge anatomy, arrived at from observations on the inner 
workings of monkeys, pigs, dogs, and cattle. For over a thousand 
years man was supposed to have a segmented breastbone like a 
monkey, a liver divided into as many lobes as a pig's, a uterus with 
two horns like a dog's, a hipbone flared like that of an ox, and a heart 
with pores between the right and left ventricles. If in the meantime 
any errors were discovered in Galen's descriptions the fault was al- 
ways thought to be either with the patient or with the later observer. 
When Vesalius, in the sixteenth century, showed that man's hipbones 
certainly were not flared as Galen described them, it was thought 



I 



BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE — CHANDLER 319 

that they had undergone a change in the intervening centuries due 
to the habit of wearing tight trousers. 

The study of anatomy was retarded greatly by religious and civic 
taboos on dissection of human bodies, but Vesalius spirited skeletons 
from beneath gallows and was not above occasional clandestine disin- 
terments. He made important contributions to human anatomy, and 
did much to start other physicians consulting nature instead of Galen. 
Vesalius even reached the threshold of the discovery of the circulation 
of the blood, but this great milestone in the history of medicine was 
planted by Harvey in the seventeenth century. Probably no other 
single physiological discovery has had such profound consequences. 
What a superlative age that was, to produce a Harvey, a Shakespeare, 
and a Galileo ! 

In the eighteenth century advances were more rapid. It was in 
that century that another great Englishman, John Hunter, discovered 
that if arteries are tied off the blood will find and develop new chan- 
nels. Prior to that discovery aneurisms, which were distressingly 
common, were treated, if at all, by amputation of limbs. John Hunter 
also learned some of the tricks of grafting skin and bones. 

In the next century, the nineteenth, two other fundamental bio- 
logical principles — the cellular structure of bodies, and evolution — 
came to light. Both of these ideas contribute so much to our knowl- 
edge of the human body and how it works that a full evaluation of 
their significance in medicine would be almost impossible. 

Even with all these advances in anatomy and physiology, nobody 
up to the middle of the seventeenth century had any good idea what 
disease was or whence it came. An important forward step was made 
in 1687 when two Italian scientists, Bonomo and Cestoni, showed that 
scabies was a disease caused by tiny mites burrowing and reproducing 
in the skin, and was spread by transmission of the mites. This was the 
first demonstration of a specific cause for a disease, and the first ex- 
planation of its spread, and was a clean break from the divine, 
humoral, or other ancient theories of the spontaneous origin of disease. 

A few pioneering minds, a century or two ahead of their times, 
propounded theories of contagion, and spread of disease by dessemina- 
tion of poisonous particles or gases, or even by invisible living organ- 
isms, but there was no experimental evidence, and these precocious 
ideas fell on barren ground. A true understanding of infectious dis- 
ease had to wait for the discovery of micro-organisms and some knowl- 
edge of their nature. 

Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch lens grinder of the seventeenth century, 
who invented a compound microscope capable of bringing bacteria 
within the range of visibility, is sometimes called the father of bac- 
teriology, but I think he might more properly be called its midwife. 
He was one of the greatest explorers of all time. Magellan and 



320 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Columbus are credited with discovering continents, but Leeuwenhoek 
opened the door to an entire new world. Wherever he looked — in 
soil, water, food, excretions, or decaying materials — he discovered 
a host of micro-organisms that nobody had ever seen before or even 
suspected of existing. Modern explorers with electron microscopes 
are having a great time too, but their discoveries of molecules and 
viruses and of the minute anatomy of bacteria is hardly to be com- 
pared with the new world that Leeuwenhoek found under his 
microscope. 

But I do not think that knowledge of the existence of insects makes 
an entomologist, or knowledge of the existence of stars an astronomer, 
so I hesitate to consider Leeuwenhoek the father of bacteriology. 
That honor, I think, should go to Pasteur who, within the lifetime 
of my parents, made bacteriology a science. He did it by providing 
final proof that germs, like all other forms of life, require parents, 
and come only from pre-existing germs. As long as it was thought 
that germs developed spontaneously from decomposing materials the 
bacteriologist was in as hopeless a position scientifically as a mathe- 
matician would be if the sum of two and two varied with the weather. 

From the standpoint of the control and prevention of disease this 
was undoubtedly the most momentous discovery ever made by man, 
for it alone provided a solid foundation for practically all our public 
health work. On it rests all our theory and practice concerning 
contagion and infection, quarantine, sterilization, antisepsis, aseptic 
surgery, purification of water, pasteurization of milk, and almost 
everything else on which modern practices of public health and hygiene 
are based. Pasteur is rightly revered for his great contribution in 
proving the germ theory of disease, but this would have been of little 
value or significance without the final abolition of the idea of spon- 
taneous generation, which for a long time extended even to maggots 
and mice. 

Pasteur's fundamental discoveries led almost at once to practical 
applications. Lister in London was quick to apply them to surgery, 
and by very generous application of carbolic acid to himself, the pa- 
tient, the bedclothes, the air, and even the floor, be brought about a 
very considerable reduction in the mortality from operations, which 
had previously been about 45 percent even in his expert hands. 

During the eighteenth century Europe suffered from great epi- 
demics of childbed fever — at one time it got so bad that in Lombardy 
it was said that for a year not one woman lived after bearing a child. 
Europe's lying-in hospitals for destitute mothers were humane in 
spirit only ; in reality they were death traps. Oliver Wendell Holmes 
proclaimed childbirth fever an infectious disease, carried from patient 
to patient by physicians and midwives. Many physicians were in- 
censed at the imputation that their hands were not clean, and Holmes's 



I 



BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE CHANDLER 321 

ideas didn't make much headway. It was Semmelweis of Vienna who 
finally dealt the death blow to childbed fever as an epidemic occur- 
rence, and proved that even an eminent gentleman's hands are not 
always clean. It is within the memory of many in this audience that 
aseptic surgery finally supplanted Lister's heroic antiseptic measures, 
and that surgeons began paying more attention to washing their hands 
before an operation than after it. 

Some 20 years after Pasteur's demonstrations of the germ cause of 
disease and the final putting to rest of the theory of spontaneous gen- 
eration, Robert Koch developed technical methods that made possible 
the easy isolation and study of particular kinds of germs, and then 
discovery followed discovery with almost incredible rapidity. In the 
short space of 15 or 20 years the causes of the majority of infectious 
diseases of man and animals were isolated and studied. The elusive 
and rather mysterious agents of disease that we call viruses, however, 
had to wait much longer for biologists and chemists to pry into their 
private affairs, and it is only now that very much progress is being 
made. 

An infectious disease is, however, an extremely complicated phe- 
nomenon. The interaction of a parasite and its host is not a static 
thing like the interaction of one chemical with another, capable of 
simple description, and following a well-defined course. We may be 
too prone to think, because we know what organism causes a disease 
and something about its biolog}^, that we understand the disease it 
causes. Nothing could be farther from the truth. We are dealing 
with the interaction of two organisms both of which are capable of 
an amazing degree of adaptation to changing conditions. Every 
change or adaptation in one entails further adaptations in the other. 
A disease may be compared with an organism — it is born, it grows, it 
adapts itself to environment, and it finally dies. During its life it is 
influenced by a host of environmental factors which may profoundly 
alter its course. 

An infectious disease depends on the presence of a specific invading 
organism, but this may be only one of the necessary requisites. In 
almost every epidemic the number of healthy carriers — people who 
temporarily acquire a colony of the germs but show no evidence of 
disease — far exceeds the number of cases. In an epidemic of cerebro- 
spinal meningitis healthy carriers of the organism that we say causes 
it may outnumber the clinical cases 20 to 1. In most epidemics of 
such diseases as diphtheria, whooping cough, dysentery, and even 
cholera, the ratio is from 5 or 10 to 1. 

If disease develops in only one-fifth to one-twentieth of the people 
reached by a particular pathogenic germ, it is evident that there are 
other factors playing very important roles in its production. Among 
these are a proper balance of the glands of internal secretion, good 



322 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

nutrition, especially with respect to vitamins, and the development 
of specific immunity or resistance. There can be no doubt that these 
same factors play a large part in determining the course and outcome 
of a disease after it has gotten a start. A physician, then, if he is to 
make the most of his effort to help in suppressing disease, must be far 
more than a dispenser of medicine. He must, indeed, be familiar with 
more phases of biology than are most biologists. He must understand 
anatomy, histology, general physiology, endocrinology, embryology, 
psychology, nutrition, immunology, and even genetics in order to have 
a proper understanding of his patient, and he must be a bacteriologist 
or parasitologist to understand the capabilities and vulnerabilities of 
the invading organism. 

Some relations of heredity and genetics to disease have been known 
for a long time, but more progress has been made in genetic control of 
disease in plants and even in domestic animals than in man. Effects 
of genetic constitution of human beings on the course of disease and 
development of resistance are still very little understood, and still less 
is known about effects of genetic constitution of pathogenic organisms 
and means of altering it. Herein lies an almost untouched field with 
vast possibilities for the future. 

Experimental breeding of mice has resulted in decreasing mortality 
from a particular disease from 82 to 24 percent in six generations, and 
to 8 percent over a period of years. In six generations of chickens 
mortality from fowl typhoid decreased from 85 to 10 percent. Recent 
studies indicate that alterations in genetic constitution comparable to 
mutations in insects and plants occur also in bacteria and even in 
viruses. In a period of a few hours many kinds of bacteria and viruses 
may reproduce in such numbers that if their rate of mutation is com- 
parable with that thought true for fruitflies, each gene the bacteria 
possesses should mutate at least once. With even slightly favorable 
selection, replacement of the parent population by mutants is possible 
in short periods of time. 

Viruses have many characteristics of genes, differing principally in 
their ability to move from cell to cell. There is evidence that the 
mutation of viruses is comparable with mutation of genes. The de- 
velopment of relatively nonpathogenic varieties of viruses or bacteria 
is the real basis for the production of effective vaccines against such 
diseases as smallpox and yellow fever, and probably for the rise and 
fall of epidemics of cholera and diphtheria. It has recently been 
discovered that the virus of infantile paralysis genetically altered by 
mouse adaptation, when mixed with the parent virus, has great power 
to protect monkeys from paralysis. What causes the protection is not 
yet known, but the result of this basic discovery may be very far 
reaching. 



BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE — CHANDLER 323 

Concomitant with development of knowledge of causes of infectious 
diseases, immunology was beginning to make its contributions to the 
cure and prevention of disease. You are all familiar with Jenner's 
discovery in 1798 of the protective value of cowpox inoculation against 
smallpox. As the result of that there is probably no one in this audi- 
ence with a pockmarked face, whereas in Jenner's day certainly one in 
four of you would have been so marked if indeed you were alive at all. 
Jenner, however, had no notion of how his method worked ; he merely 
observed that it did, and risked the ridicule of the medical world by 
saying so, and the life of his own son by testing it. 

Many decades later Pasteur, making the most of an accidental obser- 
vation, laid a foundation for modern immunology by showing that 
agents of disease can be attenuated by various means to a point where 
they are no longer capable of producing serious disease, but still possess 
the power of stimulating immunity comparable with that produced by 
recovery from a real attack. Just as bacteriology opened the gates to 
knowledge of the causes and means of transmission of infectious dis- 
eases, so the birth of immunology opened the way to knowledge of 
nature's principal means of combatting them. 

The contributions of immunology to the cure and prevention of dis- 
ease are so numerous that I can mention but a few. As aids in diagnosis 
I may mention the tuberculin test for tuberculosis in cattle and man; 
the Shick test for susceptibility to diphtheria ; the Dick test for sus- 
ceptibility to scarlet fever; the scratch test for allergies to pollens, 
foods, or other substances ; the agglutination tests for typhoid, dysen- 
tery, cholera, typhus, and many other diseases ; the Wasserman, Kahn, 
and other tests for syphilis; the typing tests for the pneumococci of 
lobar pneumonia; and many others that are less well known but no 
less useful when needed. 

As therapeutic aids I may mention antitoxins for diphtheria, tetanus, 
scarlet fever, and a number of other diseases, which have made deaths 
from some of these diseases under ordinary conditions nothing short 
of criminal negligence; the helpful injections of typed pneumococcus 
serum in pneumonia; the use of immune or convalescent serum in 
cerebrospinal meningitis, anthrax, measles, and most recently influ- 
enza ; and the life-saving properties of antivenin for snake bites. 

As preventive aids I need only call your attention to the wonderful 
records achieved by the use of vaccines against typhoid, paratyphoid, 
diphtheria, and more recently yellow fever. This once dreaded dis- 
ease is now looked upon by the United States Public Health Service 
as of less consequence than the relatively mild and tolerated dengue 
fever, merely because our Government has a bank of a million protec- 
tive doses of vaccine which it can release if ever a case occurs within 
our borders. In recent years success has also been attained in produc- 
tion of vaccines against typhus fever and spotted fever, the former of 



324 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

which has hitherto been the scourge of every gi-eat war. In the present 
war man-made implements of destruction are more deadly than ever 
before, but there is no question but that this added deadliness is more 
than compensated for by protection from diseases, which, up to the time 
of the Spanish-American war, always wrought more havoc than the 
enemy. Such diseases as typhoid, dysentery, typhus, tetanus, and yel- 
low fever have been shorn of their power by protective vaccinations. 

Closely related to the field of immunology is blood typing, which 
has placed blood transfusion on a safe and sound footing, and made 
it as routine a procedure as anesthesia or surgical asepsis. In spite 
of the accomplishments in the field of immunology in recent years, I 
think we may confidently look forward to ever greater things in the 
years to come. Within the past 12 months success has been attained 
for the first time in the artificial production of antibodies in laboratory 
flasks. This may open the door to future developments which may 
surpass anything we have yet been able to hope for. 

I wish now to turn your attention to another field of biology that 
has contributed enormously to medicine — the science of endocrinology. 
No sorcerer or magician of old ever dreamed of accomplishing the 
miracles that can be performed today by the application of knowledge 
in this field. Osier, speaking of the effect of thyroid extracts on those 
horribly misshapen, doltish creatures known as cretins, says, "Not the 
magic wand of Prospero or the brave kiss of the daughter of Hip- 
pocrates ever effected such a change as that which we are now enabled 
to make in these unfortunate victims, doomed heretofore to live in 
helpless imbecility — an unmistakable affliction to their parents and 
their relatives." 

The science of endocrinology was born of primitive beliefs in organ 
magic. When our remote ancestors began to indulge in the art of 
thinking and had reached the stage at which they could weave together 
a number of scattered observations and come out with a general idea, 
it was a natural deduction that the kind of food you ate was a big 
factor in determining what sort of person you were. Tigers were 
thought to be fierce because they ate raw meat; it was overlooked 
that a tiger fed on lettuce and carrots would undoubtedly be fiercer 
still, and that a meat eater had to be fierce to get his meat whereas a 
vegetarian could afford to be timid and fleetfooted. Such thoughts, 
traveling along a single track, eventually reached the conclusion 
that courage could be acquired from eating the hearts of courageous 
animals or men, intelligence from eating brains, and so on. The 
psychological effects undoubtedly provided ample circumstantial evi- 
dence for the truth of the assumptions. 

Modern endocrinology began in 1889 when a famous French scien- 
tist, Brown-Sequard, claimed remarkable rejuvenating effects in him- 



BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE CHANDLER 325 

self from injection of gland extracts. His results, too, were prob- 
ably psychological, but his prestige was such that his claims started 
a development in medicine that has had more profound significance 
than any since Pasteur's discoveries of the bacterial origin of disease. 
The human body is a highly automatic, self-regulating mechanism. 
Nature's primitive means of regulation of the body of an organism is 
by chemical substances secreted by its tissues. Superimposed on this, 
later in evolution, is an involuntary nervous system, useful in making 
rapid and temporary adjustments that become necessary for a body 
with ever-increasing activities and more and more complicated rela- 
tions to its environment. Still later in evolution Nature added a 
voluntary nervous system but very wisely refrained from giving it 
control over the internal regulation of the body. As Dr. Cannon 
remarks, we should be greatly bothered if in addition to attending 
to the business of other people we had to attend to our own. The 
internal affairs of the body are too important to be subject to a well- 
meaning but neglectful and incompetent intelligence, which would 
as likely as not be concerning itself with the flight of a golf ball when 
it ought to be attending to the rate of the heart beat. 

The chemical method is still the fundamental means of regulation of 
the body. Chemicals produced by tissues, which we call hormones, con- 
trol such functions as growth, development, metabolism, and reproduc- 
tion, and adapt the body gradually to climatic fluctuations, variations 
in activity, nutritional changes, pregnancy, lactation, etc. The human 
body is one of the most thoroughly integrated and communistic or- 
ganizations imaginable, every part sharing, according to need, with 
every other part, and each part influencing every other part. It is a 
prevalent view today that every tissue and organ in the body produces 
hormones or hormonelike substances that help in the integration of the 
entire organism. As bodies became more complex during the course 
of evolution, however, and the regulation more difficult, a number 
of special glands for production of particularly potent hormones were 
developed. These are what constitute the endocrine system. Some of 
the glands are completely separate organs having no other functions, 
such as the thyroid, pituitary, and adrenals. Others have developed as 
special tissues in already existing organs, as in the pancreas, liver, 
and sex glands. 

The potency of these glands is almost incredible. They very largely 
determine what we are and how we behave. They dominate our physi- 
cal stature, our mental development, our emotional status, our repro- 
ductive activity, the rate at which we live, and our ability to make 
use of our food. They are the architects of our bodies and the mould- 
ers of our character. A puppy deprived of its anterior pituitary gland 
may be converted from an aggressive, pugnacious creature to a whimp- 



326 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

ering coward, and may be returned to its former state by pituitary 
injections. Injections of prolactin into rats with no trace of maternal 
instincts will fill them so full of mother-love that they will even mother 
baby squabs instead of eating them. One is led to interesting specula- 
tion as to whether injections of prolactin might not be a good alterna- 
tive to execution for despotic dictators. 

The hormones produced by the endocrine glands, some stimulating 
and some inhibitory, not only affect the body as a whole in many 
complex ways, but they interact with each other in such an intricate 
manner that we are still very far from ideal utilization of them, and 
we may look forward to a great extension in the future. Yet even 
now, only 50 years from the birth of the science, the use of hormones 
has revolutionized a large part of medical practice and has given new 
insight into many physiological processes, such as metabolic rate, 
sugar metabolism, blood pressure, menstrual disorders, psychotic mal- 
adjustments, adiposity, sexual aberrations, and reproductive difficulties. 

Now let us turn to another contribution of biology to medicine — 
knowledge of nutrition. For lack of time I will pass briefly over 
many interesting discoveries connected with metabolism of proteins, 
fats and sugars, utilization of minerals, etc., though in passing I 
must pause long enough to mention a relatively new tool in physiologi- 
cal research — the use of ions tagged by means of atoms of unusual 
weight or made radioactive in cyclotrons. By this means it has been 
found that molecules in the body, even those supposed to be relatively 
stable in bones, teeth, or fat, are forever being shifted about and re- 
placed by new ones. The body is even less stable than it was thought 
to be. 

The most significant discoveries in nutrition, ranking close to the 
discovery of hormones in their importance to human welfare, were 
those of the vitamins. Since the days of leopard-skin dinner jackets 
and struggles with cave bears instead of dictators, man's ways of 
life have undergone many changes and so have his foods. With the 
development of agriculture and civilization his food became less varied 
and more highly manipulated. He began to live more extensively 
on grain, to store food for periods of famine, and to cook it. Later 
he began throwing away the vitamin-bearing parts of his cereals, 
developed a taste for refined sugar, protected himself from sunlight, 
and often lived for months without fresh fruits or vegetables. Beri- 
beri, scurvy, rickets, pellagra, and night blindness attacked whole 
populations. 

Except for the cure of scurvy by eating lemon juice or hemlock 
leaves some 200 years ago, nothing definite was known about these 
nutritional-deficiency diseases until Eijkmann began experimenting 
with diseased fowls in Java 45 years ago. Gradually during the last 
30 3^ears a whole alphabet of vitamins has been discovered, but it is 



BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE CHANDLER 327 

only within the last decade that they have been obtained in chemically 
pure form, and synthesized. Few people even today realize the im- 
portance of this. Although this country is probably the best fed in 
the world, I do not believe it is an exaggeration to say that 50 and pos- 
sibly 75 percent of the American people do not have optimum amounts 
of all the vitamins they should have. They do not have scurvy or 
beriberi or rickets, but they have a host of minor illnesses or troubles 
that they need not have. Some British authorities have gone so far 
as to say that 99 percent of so-called common illnesses are directly or 
indirectly due to vitamin deficiencies. Allowing 100 percent expansion 
for enthusiasm, the figue is still impressive. 

The common effects of vitamin defieiencies are such things as night 
blindness, susceptibility to colds, unhealthy teeth, poor appetite, 
gloominess, nervousness, and a tendency to fly into tantrums. An 
abundance of vitamins leads not only to a state of superhealth in people 
who have always considered themselves reasonably healthy, but it is of 
great help in recovery from acute or chronic diseases, repair of wounds, 
and resistance to infection. Even yet, many medical men tend to look 
upon synthetic vitamins as medicine rather than supplementary food, 
but gradually this is changing, and it is encouraging to see more and 
more foods fortified by added synthetic vitamins. Because of this 
and the more even distribution of vitamin-bearing foods by rationing, 
the general level of nutrition in England, in spite of several years of 
war, is better than it has ever been before. It is becoming more and 
more so in this country too. 

The definition of medicine includes the prevention of disease as 
well as its cure and alleviation. Some attempts at preventive medi- 
cine were made when disease was supposed to be caused by demons, 
for it was a natural inference that if the demons could be ejected they 
might also be prevented from entering. With the development of 
the humoral theories, preventive medicine was almost completely 
forgotten, since no one had even guessed as to how the humors could 
be kept in order before they got out of balance. Prevention of dis- 
ease is a phase of ecology, and involves knowledge of normal bodies 
and their relation to their environment, including climate, atmosphere, 
and geological formations, as well as relations to such fellow creatures 
as rats, mosquitoes, lice, hookworms, amoebae, and bacteria, to say 
nothing of viruses. 

It is only in very recent times that anything whatever has been 
known about this phase of medicine. Only in a few instances have 
the processes of trial and error that led to curative and alleviative 
procedures led to practices that prevent disease. One of the first 
great triumphs in curative medicine was the discovery, in 1640, of 
the value of extracts of cinchona bark as a cure for malaria, but it was 

619830—45 22 



328 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

not until the end of the nineteenth century that a basis for the pre- 
vention of malaria was discovered. 

A few practices of primitive people suggest attempts, probably 
unwitting, to prevent disease. In India, for instance, I found a 
primitive tribe, the Santals, who never drink water directly from a 
stream or pond, but from a little hole in the sand a foot or. so away, 
thus practicing sand filtration, one of the prime tools of modern san- 
itary engineering. The unfitness of natural water for drinking was 
recognized long ago. Cyrus of Persia carried boiled water for his 
troops 2,500 years ago. The low repute of water as a beverage even 
in the unenlightened middle ages is evidenced by a thirteenth-century 
writer who, describing the extreme poverty of Franciscan monks who 
settled in London in 1224, exclaimed, "I have seen the brothers drink 
ale so sour that some would have preferred to drink water." The 
head-hunting, carrion-eating Nagas of the Assam hills drink only a 
rice beer, carrying starters with them when they go on trips. 

Preventive medicine as practiced at present has three principal legs 
to rest on: (1) the upkeep of natural resistance by general hygienic 
measures, including a proper hormone balance and optimum nutrition ; 

(2) the artificial stimulation of specific immunity or resistance; and 

(3) protection against access of disease germs via water, food, air, 
or insect transmission. 

The general principles involved in the first of these have been known 
for a long time, but the details have only recently been filled in by 
the discoveries with respect to hormones, minerals, and vitamins that 
I have already mentioned. I have already called your attention to 
the fact that in an epidemic only a small percentage of the individuals 
that are actually exposed develop a disease. The determining factors 
are the dosage of germs that gain access to an individual, and the 
natural resistance he has. The higher the natural resistance, the 
greater the dosage he can withstand. 

The second leg on which preventive medicine rests, artificial stimu- 
lation of immunity, I have already discussed. On it we depend very 
largely for our protection against smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, 
yellow fever, spotted fever, typhoid fever, and many other diseases. 

The third leg on which preventive medicine rests — protection 
against dissemination of germs — I have so far said little about, but 
here enormous strides have been made within a short space of time. 

Famous in sanitary history is the case of the Broad Street pump in 
London in 1854, around which centered an explosive outbreak of 
cholera. After everything from the chemical nature of the soil to 
dust bins in cellars had been investigated, the relationship between 
drinking water from the well and attacks of cholera became clear 
Nature had provided a grim lesson out of which grew modern sani- 
tary engineering. In the intervening 90 years modern water purifi- 



i 



BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE CHANDLER 329 

cation and sanitary sewage disposal have developed. Whereas in 
1900 the American death rate from typhoid was 36 per 100,000, today 
it is about 1 per 100,000, and in 1942 more than half of our large cities 
had not a single typhoid death. 

Milk and food sanitation are even more recent developments. Even 
25 years ago a child ran the risk of acquiring disease every time he 
drank a glass of milk ; today the greater part of the milk supply in 
almost every city is pasteurized, and many cities can boast of having 
no raw milk. 

Just 60 years ago two American workers, Smith and Kilbourne, 
laid the foundation stone for medical entomology when they demon- 
strated the transmission of a disease — Texas fever of cattle — by means 
of a tick. Five years after that the mosquito transmission of malaria 
was proved and then, at the turn of the century, came the brilliant work 
of an American Army commission in Havana, proving the transmission 
of yellow fever by mosquitoes. 

Today medical entomology plays a large part in our lives. By con- 
trol of insects, ticks, or mites we are able to control, in some cases 
almost to exterminate, many important diseases, including some of 
the most important. I need only mention the prevention of malaria, 
yellow fever, and dengue by mosquito control, of epidemic typhus and 
relapsing fever by delousing methods, of plague and endemic typhus 
by control of rats and fleas, and of dysentery by fly eradication. 

Already we have become so accustomed to the benefits from all 
these protective devices that we take them for granted. Only when 
circumstances interfere with their practice, as is often the case in war, 
do we realize how much we depend on them. It was dysentery, not 
the Turks, that defeated the British at Gallipoli, and it was dysentery 
and malaria, not the Japs, that defeated our own troops at Bataan. 

As we go on into the future, preventive medicine will play a larger 
and larger part in our lives. Instead of being a secondary and rela- 
tively unimportant part in the curriculum of our medical schools, I 
predict that we shall have many schools devoted primarily if not 
exclusively to this fast-growing branch of medical science, which is 
still so young that it is seldom allowed to stand on its own feet. The 
subjects taught will be very largely biological ones, such as medical 
entomology, helminthology, protozoology, bacteriology, immunology, 
the newly developed field of aerobiology, and methods of sterilization 
and disinfection which are also a branch of biology, since they deal 
with the destruction of life. 

In addition to the categories of discoveries in biology that I have 
already mentioned, there are other fields of biological research which 
are making valuable contributions to both preventive and therapeutic 
medicine. I have time only to mention in passing a few of the 
discoveries made in the year 1942. 



330 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

During the past year great advances have been made in the long- 
neglected field of aerobiology, dealing with the distribution of pollens, 
fungus spores, micro-organisms, etc., through the air ; new knowledge 
of the spread of contagion through the air has been obtained, and 
new methods of control worked out, using vapors and ultraviolet rays. 
Also within the year there have been a number of new biological 
methods of controlling pathogenic organisms, including discovery 
of an enzyme-like substance in young rats, by which tuberculosis ba- 
cilli may be shorn of the waxy coats that protect them from drugs 
and phagocytes, and discovery of germ-killing substances extracted 
from molds and from various types of soil bacteria. In the field of 
nutrition, evidence for the need of particular amino acids for special 
functions in the body have been demonstrated, and may pave the 
way for better control of these functions in the future. New methods 
have been developed for the study of the ultimate connections be- 
tween nerves and muscles, which may lead to better control of paralysis 
and muscular diseases. Announcement has also been made of the de- 
velopment of germ syrups, at negligible cost, which change the bac- 
terial life of the human intestine so that, like deer and cattle, we can 
not only digest the cellulose of grass, leaves, and wood, but can also 
synthesize our own supply of B vitamins within our own bodies. In 
research on cancer, which is one biological problem that is still un- 
solved, a number of significant advances have been made. A few 
more pieces have been fitted into the mosaic, bringing the final pic- 
ture a little nearer to completion. In this field as in that of allergies, 
there is still much to be done, but there is every reason to believe that 
it loill be done before very long. 

Man's ingenuity has freed him from many phases of the struggle 
for existence to which other creatures are subject. He has gained 
an insuperable advantage over the wild beasts, and his inventive genius 
defies the attacks of climate and the elements. In his struggle against 
disease he has, as we have seen, made wonderful progress, although 
he still has far to go. There is some reason to hope that after the 
present global war has burned itself out we may be able to free our- 
selves from the one phase of the struggle for existence that man's 
ingenuity has steadily made more terrible, the struggle of man against 
man. With all the phases of the struggle for existence well in hand 
we may then turn to a struggle for improvement of our kind by the 
application of two other branches of biological science, genetics and 
eugenics. Within our own generation preventive medicine has 
grown out of therapeutic medicine; perhaps our children may live 
to see a still newer branch of "improvement medicine," in which en- 
docrinology, nutritional studies, problems of aging and rejuvenescence, 
and eugenics will lead to greater health, more happiness, longer life, 
and better evolutionary prospects than have hitherto been our lot. 



I 



THE LOCUST PLAGUE^ 



Bj' B. P. UVABOV, D. Sc. 
Entomologist, Anti-Locust Research Centre, British Museum {Natural History) 



THE OLDEST ENTOMOLOGICAL PROBLEM 

The locust problem has confronted man since the earliest beginnings 
of agriculture. Biblical references to locust plagues are well known, 
and Joel's description of a locust invasion has never been surpassed for 
its dramatic picturesqueness combined with amazing accuracy of detail. 
The earliest known record of locusts is a picture of a locust on the wall 
of an Egyptian tomb of the Twelfth Dynasty, about 2400 B. C. Ref- 
erences to locusts abound in ancient Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek, and 
Chinese texts, and Roman writers such as Titus, Livy, and Pliny have 
left us many data, some fantastic, but some of definite value. A criti- 
cal examination of this information is still awaited, and it may shed 
new light on certain sides of the problem. 

The more recent literature on the locust problem is enormous, and 
the number of books and papers on the subject was estimated 15 years 
ago at about 2,000; since then this figure has been almost doubled, 
owing to intensive new research. The more important contributions 
are published in about a dozen languages, and the task of coping with 
this flood is not an easy one. 

WORLD-WIDE PROBLEM 

It is often thought that locust plagues are restricted to a few coun- 
tries and that the world at large need not be concerned about them. 
This view is largely due to the fact that central and northwestern 
Europe is now practically safe from locusts, though its southern coun- 
tries, e. g., Portugal, Spain, Italy, the Balkan Peninsula, the Ukraine 
and the Caucasus, know their depredations only too well. 

The zone where agriculture has to reckon with locusts and their 
lesser relatives, grasshoppers, becomes even wider in temperate Asia, 

1 Lecture delivered before the Dominions and Colonies Section, Royal Society of Arts, 
London, December 15, 1942, and published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 
vol. 91, No. 4631, 1943. Revised and brought up to date by the author, and here reprinted 
by permission of the Royal Society of Arts. The object of the present paper is to give a brief 
account of the locust problem and to show how recent advances in its study have made it 
possible to envisage its, lasting solution. 

331 



332 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

where a broad belt of the fertile Siberian lands produces not only 
grain in abundance, but also grasshoppers which take their toll of 
the harvest. South of that belt, Soviet Middle Asia, producing cotton, 
fruit, etc., is subject to ravages of the Asiatic migratory {Locusta 
migratoria migratoria) and the Moroccan {Dociostaurus maroccanus) 
locusts. Farther east, in China, the Oriental migratory locust {Locusta 
migratoria manilensis) has repeatedly caused wholesale famines, and 
is actually causing untold miseries at present. The range of this 
locust extends to the Philippine Islands, where records of its ravages 
are found in the earliest Spanish chronicles, and to Borneo, Celebes, 
Indo-China and the Malayan peninsula. 

Returning westward again, we meet the vast zone where the desert 
locust {Schistocerca gregaria) holds its sway over agriculture, which 
is here carried out always under precarious conditions, making its 
products particularly precious to the population, so that a loss of 
harvest amounts to a major catastrophe. It is this desert locust that 
has been known to man since Biblical times, and which is still as 
active as it was thousands of years ago. The area of its depredations 
is enormous, stretching from India in the east to the Atlantic coast 
of Africa in the west, and from Russian Middle Asia in the north to 
below the Equator in eastern Africa. The tropical parts of Africa also 
have to cope with two other kinds of locust, the African migratory 
(Locitsta migratoria migratorioides) and the red {Nomadacris sep- 
temfasciata) locust. The latter extends its ravages to South Africa, 
which, in addition, has a very serious problem in the endemic brown 
locust {Locustana pardalina) . 

Australia, the continent where agricultural development started rela- 
tively recently, but where it has made great strides, is already paying 
a heavy tax to locusts and grasshoppers. 

Turning to the Western Hemisphere, both the United States and 
Canada have to wage an almost incessant war against grasshoppers, 
while wide regions in Central and South America are periodically dev- 
astated by swarms of the American locust {Schistocerca paranensis) . 

Thus, none of the five continents is free from these pests, which, in 
fact are absent only from the forest and the tundra belts in the north, 
from the equatorial forests, and from the high mountains. The regions 
either permanently infested by them or subject to their periodical in- 
cursions include no less than 77 separate countries (fig. 1). 

WHAT LOCUSTS COST THE WORLD 

Beginning with the Egyptian locust plague, described in the Bible, 
there runs through history a tragic tale of devastations caused by 
locusts, followed by famines decimating populations of whole countries. 
Thus, in the Roman colonies of Cyrenaica and Numidia no less than 



LOCUST PLAGUE — UVAROV 



333 




334 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

800,000 people died in the year 125 B. C. after a locust invasion. Great 
famines have been caused by locusts in India, China, and other coun- 
tries. As recently as 1930, losses of crops estimated at nearly 1,000,000 
pounds were caused by locusts in Morocco. In Nigeria, in the same 
year, 1,000 tons of grain had to be imported to prevent famine; in 
Tanganyika Territory 75 to 100 percent of native crops were destroyed 
in 1929, and in Kenya in the same year £200,000 had to be spent on 
relief from the famine caused by locusts and drought. 

These are impressive figures, but it may be argued that locust inva- 
sions occur only periodically, and that a distorted picture of their eco- 
nomic importance is obtained by considering exceptional cases. 

To assess the cost of locusts and grasshoppers to the world, the Anti- 
Locust Research Centre attempted to collect statistical data for a 
10-year period, 1925-34, which covered both bad locust years and those 
free of them. Statistics of this kind were not easy to obtain, and only 
49 countries (out of 77 suffering from locusts) submitted them. Never- 
theless, the total was staggering, showing that crops to the value of 
£83,120,800 went to feed the locusts in 10 years. The losses would cer- 
tainly have been greater if no defensive measures had been taken, but 
the latter cost another 13 million pounds. On the basis of these figures, 
it was not an exaggeration to estimate the average cost of locusts and 
grasshoppers to the world at 15 million pounds per annum. To this 
must be added the enormous figure of unpaid labor which is used almost 
everywhere for large-scale defensive measures. The data on this point 
are very incomplete, but the number of man-days often runs into 
millions in one year and in one country. 

AGRICULTURAL PROGRESS AND LOCUSTS 

It has been argued that locusts and grasshoppers represent a danger 
only in backward countries, and that the advance of agriculture should 
inevitably lead to their disappearance as pests. A long interval during 
which the United States of America were almost free from grass- 
hoppers led some of the most eminent American entomologists to 
believe that agricultural progress had made a repetition of the grass- 
hopper plagues impossible. These hopes were rudely shattered in re- 
cent years, when grasshopper outbreaks recommenced on a truly Ameri- 
can scale. 

Moreover, there are definite cases on record where direct encourage- 
ment was given to locusts by otherwise excellent developments. The 
Danube delta, for example, had become unsuitable for locust breeding 
on a large scale toward the end of the last century, but recent regulation 
of the river channel resulted in the emergence of new areas of land 
which were quickly utilized by locusts, and an area which had not 
produced locust swarms for many years became again a source of 



i 



LOCUST PLAGUE — UVAROV 335 

danger. In northern Borneo, locusts can breed only in areas where 
the jungle has been cleared for cultivation and abandoned after a few 
seasons; such shifting cultivation there, and probably in other similar 
areas, is a direct cause of locust outbreaks. In western Australia, 
the clearing of dry forests in the interests of sheep breeding has created 
a type of grassland admirably suited for locusts. Overgrazing of 
natural pastures is largely the cause of the great, and growing, grass- 
hopper menace in Argentina, some parts of the United States, Canada, 
and parts of Russia. Such facts led the Fourth International Locust 
Conference, held in 1936 at Cairo, to pass a resolution pointing out that 
the mass development of locusts and grasshoppers is furthered rather 
than hindered by man's activities, and that no hopes can be entertained 
of the problem's becoming less acute merely as a result of the general 
development of a country. 

To this must be added the consideration that the agricultural de- 
velopment of new areas, e. g., in Africa, central Asia, etc., tends to 
increase the danger from locusts in direct proportion to the increase 
in the value of crops exposed to their ravages. 

THE USES OP LOCUSTS 

It may well be asked whether it might not be possible to find some use 
for the mass of organic matter represented in locust swarms, some of 
which have been estimated to amount to hundreds of tons. Chemical 
analyses show that locusts contain protein, fats, and mineral salts, 
which would be of value in the preparation of fertilizers and of food 
for cattle and poultry. From the technical point of view the idea is 
sound, but no industry can be based on a raw material which may be 
overabundant one year and nonexistent the next. 

The use of locusts for food is well known, since John the Baptist 
lived on them, as Bedouins in Arabia still continue to do when other 
food is scarce. The Assyrians apparently considered locusts as food fit 
for kings, since a bas relief of the seventh century B. C. shows locusts 
being brought up to the table of Asshurbanipal. Locusts are still 
eaten in many countries, and the Philippine Department of Agricul- 
ture has recently published a pamphlet describing 33 different ways 
of cooking them. Some of the recipes sound rather attractive in war- 
time, perhaps, because they include such ingredients as eggs, bananas, 
lemons, and pineapples. More plainly cooked locusts were recently 
described by an entomologist as "neither repulsive nor producing any 
pleasant sensation." 

LOCUSTS AND THEIR HABITS 

We have been speaking of locusts as a plague of agriculture, but in 
order to understand the problem, it is necessary to have a clear idea 



336 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

of what locusts are and how they live. A locust is nothing but a spe- 
cies of grasshopper, but usually larger in size and characterized mainly 
by gregarious habits. 

The life cycle of locusts and grasshoppers is fairly simple. The 
eggs are deposited by the female in the soil, in packets, or "egg-pods," 
each containing 30 to 100 eggs. In countries with a cold winter, eggs 
lie dormant throughout this season, and in spring the young locusts, 
or "hoppers," emerge from them onto the surface of the soil. In the 
Tropics, the eggs may hatch in 2 to 3 weeks, if there is rain or moisture 
in the soil. The difference between grasshoppers and locusts becomes 
apparent in the hopper stage ; the former may be numerous, but each 
one lives independently of the others, whereas the latter congregate 
in dense groups, or bands. Further development consists in rapid 
growth, stimulated by voracious feeding on green vegetation, and in 
the periodic moulting which occurs 4 to 6 times before the adult insect 
appears ; these differ from the hoppers only in size and the presence 
of two pairs of wings. The whole cycle occupies a year in temperate 
climates, but in the Tropics there may be several generations within a 
year. 

The most striking feature in the behavior of locust hoppers is their 
mass movement in bands, which may cover several square miles. The 
relentless march of hopper bands which are not stopped by obstacles, 
even by water, creates an impression of a dark purpose, of a movement 
toward an objective, and many more or less fantastic explanations 
have been offered to account for it. Recent investigations have, how- 
ever, definitely proved that the movement of hoppers depends very 
largely on temperature and occurs only on sufficiently hot days, while 
excessive heat again causes it to stop. The hopper movements are not 
caused by hunger and do not aim at finding food, since hoppers, driven 
by heat, often leave a fertile area and march into open desert. 

When hoppers become adult and acquire wings, they soon begin to 
fly about in swarms. Again, a swarm does not leave an area because 
of lack of food, and it does not necessarily fly toward more fertile 
lands, but its flight is initiated, directed, and interrupted by various 
weather factors. Swarms may reach great size and contain fantastic 
numbers of individuals. Thus, a swarm in East Africa measuring 
3 by 60 miles was estimated to consist of a million million locusts ; and 
even larger swarms are on record. 

The distances covered by swarm flights may be enormous. In 1693, 
swarms of the migratory locust from the Danube delta reached Wales, 
at a distance of about 1,600 miles in a straight line, though probably 
not in a single flight. A swarm of the desert locust was encountered 
in the Atlantic midway between South America and Africa, about 
1,500 miles from the latter, whence it certainly came. This must have 







LOCUST PLAGUE — UVAROV 337 

been a single sustained flight. As will be seen later, the extent of 
migrations becomes even greater when the swarms of several succes- 
sive generations are considered. 

METHODS OF LOCUST CONTBOL 

It would be impossible even to enumerate here the many methods 
used, or recommended, for locust destruction. It is of interest, how- 
ever, to point out that some of them are centuries old and are still 
in use. The destruction of eggs by digging was practiced in ancient 
China and is still widely recommended, though it is effective only in 
some special cases. Beating of hoppers by branches and driving 
them into trenches were the methods enforced by the Romans in 
North Africa, according to Pliny, and are still practiced in spite of 
being of little value and involving the use of forced labor in astro- 
nomical quantities. 

In more recent times, endless new methods have been proposed and 
tried against locusts, such as the use of flame throwers, poison gases, 
bacterial diseases, steam rollers, balloon barrages, smoke screens, and 
even artillery. Lately, the method of poison baits has come into 
almost universal use. Bran, moistened with sodium arsenite solution, 
is scattered thinly on the ground and proves to be more attractive to 
locusts than green food. When the low dosage of poison, sufficient to 
kill locusts but not grazing animals, is strictly adhered to, there is 
no danger from baits, but it would obviously be an advantage to 
eliminate all risks. This may eventually be achieved by investiga- 
tions, now in progress, with dusts which would kill locusts by contact 
and which could be sprayed from aircraft. 

However, even some of the relatively primitive methods may be 
of use for destroying locusts. Indeed, it is definitely not the lack of 
the proper technique which hampers the solution of the problem. 

ANTI-LOCUST POLICY OF THE PAST 

The main stumbling block in the way of a solution of the locust 
problem is the fact that locust depredations do not recur annually 
but in cycles of several years, separated by clear intervals. When a 
country is invaded, no effort is spared to organize defense, which is 
rarely effective, since the organization usually lags behind the inva- 
sion. As soon as the immediate danger is over, the anxiety gives 
way to wholly unjustified hopes that perhaps the invasion will not 
recur, or at least not in our time, and nothing is done until the next 
catastrophe, which again occurs unexpectedly. It is this unfounded 
optimism that should be considered as the first cause of the continual 
recurrence of locust plagues over the centuries. 



338 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

The second reason for the failure to control locusts is the isolation- 
ist policy of practically every country subject to their depredations. 
History provides examples of great efforts to control locusts in 
Algeria, South Africa, Argentina, etc., but the results were always 
temporary and never led to a radical solution of the locust problem, 
simply because it is insoluble within a single country. We have seen 
that swarms in their flights may, and do, cover great distances, and 
that they completely lack respect for any man-made boundaries. 
Swarms of the desert locusts, bred in India, usually migrate to Per- 
sia and Arabia, and their progeny proceed to Egypt, Palestine, and to 
East Africa. It is clear that control measures in any one of these 
countries, however effective, may only protect the standing crops of 
the particular season, but will have no effect on the general situation. 

Sporadic attempts to approach some measure of international 
cooperation have not been lacking. Conventions pledging each coun- 
try to control locusts within its own confines have been concluded 
between groups of adjoining countries (e. g., South American Repub- 
lics; Iraq, Syria, and Turkey; Persia and the Soviet Union, etc.), 
but most of them remained paper agreements only and had no prac- 
tical effect, because they all aimed at defense only, and no attempt 
was ever made to take concerted measures toward a lasting solution 
of the problem. 

The most spectacular failure of such attempts to solve the locust 
problem by resolutions was the Rome International Conference of 
1920. A convention pledging their countries to take all the necessary 
measures against locusts was signed by delegates of 18 countries, 
widely scattered over the globe. It appeared incomprehensible why 
Madagascar should join forces with Mexico, or Bulgaria with Uru- 
guay, since they are threatened by entirely different species of locusts, 
and the course of events in one of them could not possibly have any 
effect on the other; and the solution of the locust problem remained 
unattainable as long as it was approached without sufficient scientific 
basis, though it was certainly right to regard the problem as an inter- 
national one. 

SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF A NEW POLICY 

The irregular periodicity of locust invasions hampered scientific 
research on the problem, just as it did the organization of locust con- 
trol. It was naturally difficult to persuade governments to spend 
money on locust research in the periods when swarms were absent, 
and little could be accomplished during the locust years, when all 
efforts were concentrated on defense. As a result, there was no answer 
to the question : "What happens to locusts when there are no swarms?" 
Since locusts matter only when they are in swarms, it appeared idle 



LOCUST PLAGUE — UVAROV 339 

curiosity to ask the question, but, fortunately, scientists are often at- 
tracted by "useless" problems. In this case, entomologists in Kussia 
and in South Africa undertook investigations, and almost simultane- 
ously, and quite independently, arrived at wholly unexpected, but 
closely similar conclusions. It was found that locusts in the years 
when they are not numerous differ from the swarm locusts in appear- 
ance and in habits. The external differences between the swarming 
and the solitary phases of locusts, as they came to be known, are some- 
times so pronounced that the two phases were considered by specialists 
as belonging to different species. As regards habits, locusts of the 
solitary phase are typical grasshoppers, showing no inclination to 
form dense bands and swarms. Should, however, the numbers of 
locusts in a restricted area increase, so that crowding results, the 
locusts acquire strong gregarious tendencies. The phenomenon of 
phase variation in locusts has since been subjected to intensive studies, 
and many interesting details have been discovered, but the point of 
outstanding practical importance was that it opened up a possible 
approach to the problem of the origin of locust outbreaks. 

NEW PERIOD OF INVESTIGATIONS 

In 1928, a serious outbreak of the desert locust started to develop, and 
the British Government decided that steps should be taken to con- 
sider not only defensive measures, but also the possibility of a radical 
solution of the problem by ascertaining the reasons for the periodical 
swarming of locusts, with a view to their control. A Locust Sub- 
Committee of the Committee of Civil Research (later transformed 
into the Committee on Locust Control of the Economic Advisory 
Council) was formed on April 29, 1929, and that date may be taken 
as the threshold of a new anti-locust policy. The actual work was 
entrusted to a special research unit, under the supervision of Sir Guy 
A. K. Marshall, then Director of the Imperial Institute of Entomol- 
ogy, and under the technical direction of the present writer. A 
scheme for collecting current information on locust movements and 
breeding in all countries of Africa and the Middle East was intro- 
duced, and several field investigators were sent out to study the prob- 
lem on the spot. The organization, set up as a purely British one, 
rapidly attracted attention in other countries, and the First Inter- 
national Locust Conference at Rome in 1930 requested the British 
organization to act as the International Centre for Anti-Locust Re- 
search, where all the information on the subject could be centralized. 
The years 1930-38 witnessed a unique concentration of scientific effort 
on locust investigations. Parties of British, French, Belgian, South 
African, Indian, and Egyptian experts systematically explored one 
area after another ; spending months in the regions which are rightly 



340 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

regarded as most inhospitable; establishing temporary field labora- 
tories; and gradually disentangling the many threads of the great 
problem. Nor was this extensive work uncoordinated, since practi- 
cally every year the experts and other representatives of the countries 
involved came together for a conference, to pool the results and to plan 
further campaigns. The accumulation of information on locusts at 
the International Centre, in the meantime, went on, with a steady im- 
provement in the unified reporting system, which by now covered the 
entire continent of Africa and a substantial portion of Asia. All 
countries in that immense region submitted monthly reports on the 
locust situation. These reports were critically examined, summarized 
and mapped, so that all developments in the situation could be fol- 
lowed step by step. 

A feature of this international ejffort was its development without 
the signing of formal conventions and on a basis of direct collabora- 
tion between experts of many nations, with the ready support of their 
governments. 

The results of this teamwork, which is certainly unique in entomo- 
logical history, have justified the effort. At the outset of the investi- 
gations, practically nothing was known on the distribution of the 
different species of locusts in Africa, on their seasonal cycle and migra- 
tions, and particularly, on the origin and the course of their periodical 
outbreaks. After 8 years of intensive work, a clear picture of the 
whole problem became available, which has made it possible to formu- 
late an entirely new anti-locust policy, aiming at a radical solution 
of the locust problem. 

NEW ANTI-LOCUST POLICY 

The investigations just outlined have provided abundant evidence 
that the periodicity of locust outbreaks is closely connected with the 
periodical transformation of the harmless solitary phase into the 
dangerous gregarious one. Such a confirmation of a scientific theory 
may appear of no importance except to experts, but actually the theory 
has supplied the key to the whole problem. It was proved that the 
transformation into the gregarious phase can happen, in the case of 
each locust species, only in certain relatively restricted areas with 
peculiar natural conditions, and it is only in these outbreak areas 
that the first swarms can be formed. In the case of the African migra- 
tory locust it was shown that a few small swarms arising about 1928 
in a restricted area on the middle Niger in the French Sudan were 
the cause of an invasion which in 5 years swept over the greater part 
of the African continent (fig. 2). The outbreak areas of the red 
locust have been located in Tanganyika Teri*itory and in Northern 
Khodesia. With regard to the desert locust, it was found that its 



^1 



LOCUST PLAGUE — UVAROV 



341 



swarms can arise from the scattered locusts of the solitary phase on 
the coasts of the Red Sea, in Baluchistan, and in Mauretania. 

The fact that the great locust invasions are due to very small be- 
ginnings has important implications, for once the original outbreak 




FiGrEB 2. — Map of Africa showing the spread of swarms of the migratory locust 
{Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. & F.) during the last outbreak. The 
outbreak commenced in 1928 in the two centers on the Middle Niger shown in 
black and spread in the same year over the area numbered 1. The areas gradu- 
ally invaded during each of the following years are numbered consecutively. 
Generally, two generations were produced each year. The arrows represent 
only the main lines of migration, smaller seasonal movements not being shown. 

areas are known, they can be put under permanent observation and 
any tendency on the part of the solitary locusts to form incipient 



342 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

swarms can be suppressed before they have had a chance to spread 
elsewhere. The new policy of locust control aims, therefore, at pre- 
venting the outbreaks instead of allowing them to develop into in- 
vasions and then trying to devise desperate defense measures. 

This policy of prevention of locust outbreaks is clearly more 
rational than the old defensive policy. It is also more economical, 
requiring a regular annual expenditure of only a small fraction of 
the average annual cost of the defensive measures, apart from eliminat- 
ing the losses due to invasions. 

By the year 1938, the international investigations had advanced 
so well that it was possible to formulate practical plans for dealing 
with the three main locust species affecting Africa and the Middle 
East. At the Fifth International Locust Conference held at Brussels 
in 1938, definite schemes were elaborated for establishing permanent 
organizations for the control of the desert, migratory, and red locusts. 
These plans, naturally, required further discussions of administrative 
and financial details, and these extended into 1939, when the out- 
break of the war made the locust problem appear insignificant. 

Very soon, however, it became apparent that the war would demand 
a maximum production of foodstuffs and that crops must be safe- 
guarded from locusts. Unfortunately, most of the outbreak areas of 
the desert locust were near, or very close to, the war zone, and the out- 
break areas of the migratory locust became inaccessible to outside 
experts after the fall of France. There remained only the red locust, 
and the scheme for its control, supported by the British colonies and 
protectorates in East Africa, by Southern Rhodesia and the Belgian 
Congo, was launched in 1940. Recently, it became known that an 
organization for preventive control of the migratory locust has been 
established by French authorities without waiting for international 
support, which must be given as soon as possible. Thus, in spite of 
the war, the foundation stone of permanent international locust con- 
trol was laid. 

LOCUSTS AND THE WAR 

It was a most unfortunate coincidence that, after a quiet interval 
of several years, the desert locust exhibited signs of renewed swarm- 
ing just as the war broke out and the first swarms had a chance to 
escape observation and destruction. By the time the areas in ques- 
tion had become more accessible, the swarms were not numerous, but 
sufficiently widespread to necessitate an urgent campaign for the 
protection of crops throughout the Middle East and East Africa. 
From the point of view of organization, war conditions proved to 
be, paradoxically, more favorable for an anti-locust campaign than 
normal times. The importance of safeguarding vital food supplies, 
both for the troops and the population, became a powerful factor in 



LOCUST PLAGUE — UVAROV 343 

obtaining the willing cooperation of all concerned. This made it 
possible, for the first time in the history of locust control, to organize 
not a dozen small national campaigns designed mainly for defense, 
but a unified campaign embracing the whole affected area and assum- 
ing the character of offensive operations. These operations are based 
on a knowledge of the seasonal movements of swarms, which has been 
accumulated in past years and which makes it possible to forecast 
the course of events with considerable accuracy. It is a matter of 
justifiable pride for the Anti-Locust Centre that in the present in- 
vasion every country has received a timely warning, and that these 
warnings have proved to be correct. 

THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-LOCUST CAMPAIGN 

Seasonal movements of the desert locust cover an enormous region. 
Swarms produced during the summer monsoon rains in India fly 
in the autumn to southern Persia and Arabia; the latter country 
receives about the same time the swarms bred on summer rains in 
Africa. The winter and spring rains in Arabia and southern Persia 
enable these locusts to multiply and the new swarms produced in 
these countries move during the spring into Sinai, Egypt, Palestine, 
Syria, Iraq, Central Persia, Afghanistan, and India, sometimes reach- 
ing as far north as Turkey and Soviet Middle Asia, breeding wherever 
they meet rains. The Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and even the Arabian 
Sea are liable to be crossed by swarms migrating between Africa, 
Arabia, Persia, and India. Many swarms from Arabia cross to the 
Sudan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, where they are able to breed again on 
summer rains. In the Somalilands, Ethiopia, and East Africa, the 
seasons are somewhat different, but the principle remains the same, 
since locust swarms always evacuate a region which becomes too dry 
and migrate to a rainy one. As a result, the whole enormous region 
stretching from East Africa to India has to be regarded as a single 
interconnected migration area. Obviously, the general strategy of 
the anti-locust campaign had to be based on the knowledge where and 
when the enemy could be best attacked. An essential principle of 
this strategy was to evolve a single plan of the campaign, with a 
view to exterminating locust swarms wherever this can be done with 
the maximum effect. 

In planning the campaign, it was essential to make full use of the 
fact that in many of the affected countries there existed eificient 
local entomological organizations. Such organizations in India, 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and the British East African colonies could 
be relied upon to organize locust control in their own territories, 
within the framework of the general campaign. Some of them went 
further, and generously offered their assistance to the surrounding 

619830 — 45 23 



344 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

territories. Thus, the Sudan supplied personnel and bait for Arabia ; 
India sent a trained staff to help in Persia and Oman; Kenya has 
undertaken to supply bait to the territories of the former Italian 
East Africa, etc. In Persia where local personnel was competent to 
deal with the situation, the extent of the operations required was 
too great for the local resources, and British, Indian, and Soviet 
Governments came to their assistance by providing additional per- 
sonnel, motor transport, bait, etc. 

The chief problem, however, remained that of Arabia, a vast sub- 
continent devoid of communications, with a sparse population, which 
has little interest in locusts as agriculture is practically nonexistent. 
On the other hand, this is one of the most important locust-producing 
areas. Fortunately, most of the peninsula is under the rule of King 
Ibn Saud who is keenly interested in the development of his country 
and he not only agreed to admit anti-locust missions but offered ready 
assistance in their work. Small motorized anti-locust missions were 
sent to various parts of Saudi Arabia and Oman in 1942-4:3, mainly 
for the purposes of studying the conditions and acquiring experience 
in desert warfare against locusts. The next winter (1943-44) it 
became possible with the assistance of civil and military authorities 
to send into Arabia several well-equipped missions, comprising over 
350 motor vehicles and nearly 1,000 men. These missions were dis- 
tributed over all the most important locust-breeding areas and have 
accomplished a magnificent piece of work in spite of many and various 
difficulties. Most of the personnel were British, but it included also 
Americans, Egyptians, Indians, Palestinians, and Sudanese locust 
officers and technical assistants. The whole anti-locust army was 
technically directed by the Chief Locust Officer (R. C. Maxwell- 
Darling, later succeeded as Senior Locust Officer in Arabia by D. 
Vesey-Fitzgerald), and various detachments kept in touch by wireless. 
Many thousands of square miles of territory, some of it never before 
visited by Europeans, have been effectively cleared (by poison bait) 
of locusts, which were killed in quantities defying all estimation. 
Apart from the immediate achievement in reducing locust hordes, 
which would have invaded the adjoining fertile countries, the Ara- 
bian campaign had a great propaganda value, showing the population 
that locusts, which used to be regarded as Allah's visitation, can be 
killed and crops saved from them. These crops may be few and far 
between, but this makes their local value even greater than it would 
have been elsewhere. The campaign has also demonstrated the sin- 
cerity of purpose of the United Nations in sending the anti-locust 
missions. For those who conceived the idea of the Arabian campaign 
and who participated in planning and in carrying it out, it was an 
encouragement to see that, as it was hoped, locusts can be beaten on 
their own ground. 



i 



I 



LOCUST PLAGUE UVAROV 345 

Anti-locust campaigns on a similar scale had to be organized also 
in East Africa, where military authorities rendered most valuable 
help with regard to transport and personnel, while the Royal Air 
Force was everywhere playing its part, helping with communications 
and transport. In order to coordinate operations in all British terri- 
tories and the occupied Italian ones, an East African Anti-Locust 
Directorate was established at Nairobi. In Kenya efforts on a par- 
ticularly great scale have been made, with the result that the agricul- 
tural production of the country, which has greatly increased during 
the war, has not suffered to any serious extent. In the past, locust 
invasions in East Africa often entailed wholesale destruction of crops 
and famine resulted. 

A gallant fight has been put up by India, where great diflSculties had 
to be overcome in order to centralize the direction of the campaign, 
since locusts were supposed to be the responsibility of each separate 
provincial government, not all of which were equally alive to the 
danger. However, good progress has been made and in 1943 a great, if 
temporary, victory over locusts was won in India, which by the end of 
the year was clear of swarms, but became reinvaded from the west in 
1944 when again a successful campaign was carried out. This rein- 
vasion served to underline the fact that no country can hope to achieve 
a lasting success by its own efforts alone, but all have to work together. 

Ethiopia presented a particularly difficult problem. As in the case 
of Arabia, many parts of Ethiopia serve for the production of locust 
swarms and it was impossible to expect that they would be controlled 
locally. Moreover, previous knowledge of Ethiopia in relation to the 
locust problem was extremely meager. Therefore, a special mission 
was sent to Ethiopia in 1942 with a view to investigate the situation, to 
organize regular locust information service, and to work toward making 
the authorities locust-conscious. By 1944, it was possible to report ex- 
cellent progress in all these directions, but there remained still large 
areas where locusts continued to breed but where it was impossible to 
organize their effective control. These areas of Ethiopia, as well as 
Yemen in Arabia, so far remain beyond the general plan of the cam- 
paign, but in both countries there are hopeful signs of improvement. 

The organization of a series of campaigns of such magnitude would 
have been impossible without the ready cooperation of all governments 
concerned, and of the many civilian, military, and air authorities of 
the Allied nations. Special credit is due to the Middle East Supply 
Centre, an Anglo-American regional economic organization based in 
Cairo, with ramifications over the whole of the Middle East. That 
Centre, advised by the Chief Locust Officer (R. C. Maxwell-Darling, 
succeeded by O. B. Lean), has undertaken to shoulder the heavy bur- 
den of organizing and administering the campaigns in Arabia and 



346 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Persia, and such successes as have been achieved are largely due to 
the efficiency of the machinery which had to translate into action the 
plans prepared by experts. 

The invasion area of the desert locust, however, is not restricted to 
East Africa and the adjoining parts of Asia, but extends across the 
French West and North African territories. Here the organization of 
control is in the hands of French authorities, and the Allied Govern- 
ments are only rendering assistance by supplies of poison. French 
experts and the administration are faced with enormous difficulties 
in organizing their anti-locust campaigns, but their efforts are meeting 
with considerable success. Great progress in the anti-locust organiza- 
tion was marked by the establishment in 1943 of the Office National 
Antiacridien at Algiers. This office, directed by the outstanding locust 
expert, Dr. B, N. Zolotarevsky, aims at coordinating anti-locust meas- 
ures throughout the French African territories. A continuous work- 
ing contact is maintained with the Anti-Locust Research Centre in 
London, and in this way the unity of the general plan is ensured. 

The great series of anti-locust campaigns just outlined is far from 
being over, and it is too early to claim their success. Nevertheless, it 
is significant that, with the invasion in its fourth year, no serious losses 
of crops occurred anywhere, in sharp contrast to what happened in 
the past invasions by the desert locust. Great efforts were needed to 
achieve this result, but their cost must be regarded in relation to the 
losses that appeared unavoidable. It should be clearly understood, 
however, that this success is only a temporary one, and any relaxation 
of effort would lead to a disaster. In fact, the year 1944-45 may see the 
peak of the present invasion which will probably continue for 2 to 3 
years more, and the campaigns will have to go on until the danger is 
overcome. The need for protecting food production in Africa and the 
Middle East was particularly urgent during the war, but it would be 
a poor introduction to the postwar world if a famine were allowed to 
develop on the conclusion of hostilities. 



i 



THE CODLING MOTH 



By B. A. POETEB 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Research 

Administration, United States Department of Agriculture 



(With 6 plates) 
INTRODUCTION 

The codling moth, C'arpocapsa pomonella L., is a conspicuous exam- 
ple of an insect species that has been able to maintain itself as a 
destructive pest of apple orchards for more than a hundred years in 
spite of the continuous development and improvement of control 
practices. Forty or more investigators employed by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, State agricultural experiment stations 
and other State agencies, and insecticide companies, are now devoting 
all or a considerable part of their time to this problem, and progress 
is constantly being made in the development of control measures. The 
literature has become so voluminous that no one person has ever re- 
viewed all of it. Yet with all of this progress the insect continues to 
cause serious losses to apple growers. Since similar trends have been 
exhibited by certain other insects, a review of the evolution of control 
measures for the codling moth, and the conditions that have permitted 
the insect species to maintain itself in spite of these control measures, 
may be of interest to students of insect control problems. 

BIOLOGY OF THE CODLING MOTH 

For the benefit of readers who are not well acquainted with the 
codling moth, a brief summary of its seasonal history will be given : 
The codling moth passes the winter as full-grown larvae in cocoons, 
in crevices in the bark of the tree, under loose flakes of bark, in debris 
on the ground, and in similar places (pi. 1, fig. 1). In early spring, 
as the buds begin to push out, the insect changes to the pupa (pi. 1, 
fig. 1), or stage in which the transformation from larva to adult moth 
takes place (pi. 1, fig. 2). The first moths appear about the time the 
apple trees come into bloomy and shortly begin to lay their white, 
scalelike eggs (pi. 2, fig. 1) on the leaves, chiefly around a fruit spur. 
Later many of the eggs are placed directly on the fruit. The newly 

347 



348 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

hatched larvae make their way to the fruit, unless the eggs were al- 
ready there, chew their way in, and feed on the pulp and seeds until 
mature (pi. 2, fig. 2). During the first part of the season many of the 
worms enter through the calyx, or blossom end of the fruit ; later most 
of them enter the fruit through the side. The minimum time required 
for a complete life cycle under the most favorable conditions is ap- 
proximately 37 days. The number of generations in a season ranges 
from one, with a negligible fraction of a second, in the more northern 
apple-growing sections, to three nearly full generations and a part of 
a fourth, in the more southern localities in which apples are grown. 
In favorable seasons in such localities, the worm population in late 
summer reaches tremendous numbers. In unsprayed orchards there 
may be five or more worms in nearly every apple, and the crop is com- 
pletely riddled; in many reasonably well-sprayed orchards losses of 
20 to 30 percent are not uncommon. Although a few growers may 
succeed, worm control is an uphill fight under such conditions, and in 
certain localities in which such conditions exist, apple production has 
undergone a serious decline 

CONTROL BY ORCHARD SANITATION 

Until late in the last century, partial control of the codling moth 
was accomplished by various practices which are often referred to as 
"orchard sanitation," including the trapping of the mature worms 
under bands. The early writers recommended the removal of loose 
bark from the tree trunks, the destruction of rough ground debris, 
and the removal of dead wood from the tree, in order to destroy the 
insects in their hibernating quarters and to eliminate their favored 
cocooning places. The removal and destruction of infested fruit, the 
screening of packing sheds, and similar measures, were also suggested. 

For the purpose of trapping the worms, a number of ingenious types 
of bands and other traps were developed during the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Banding was first suggested about the middle of the century 
(Burrelle, 1840). One of the bands most widely used for a time was 
a hay-rope band (Trimble, 1865) (pi. 3) . After a few years, however, 
this type of band gave way to materials more convenient to use, such 
as heavy wrapping paper, burlap, canvas, or flannel cloth. Some 
growers who used the cloth bands killed the worms trapped in them 
by running the bands through a clothes wringer, mounted on a wheel- 
barrow for convenience in operating it and moving it from tree to 
tree in the orchard. Then there was the Wier shingle trap which 
consisted of three shingles placed on the trunk of the tree, and held 
just far enough apart to furnish an attractive cocooning place. The 
worms were killed by rubbing one shingle against another, or by giving 
the whole device a sharp blow with a hammer. 



i 



CODLING MOTH — PORTER 349 

With the advent of spraying, the control measures just outlined — 
banding, the scraping of loose bark from the trees, destruction of 
debris, and similar practices — became supplementary or were dis- 
continued entirely. About 15 years ago, Siegler and associates (1927) 
devised a chemically treated band which automatically kills the worms 
that enter it. Such bands are now used by many growers. A revival 
of the various sanitary measures took place from 1926 to 1935, when 
difficulties with spray residues were the most acute. The use of such 
measures was, however, still looked on as secondary and supplementary 
to spraying. 

The predominant development in the codling moth problem has 
been the adoption and evolution of spraying. 

EVOLUTION OF CONTROL BY SPRAYING 

In 1878 the control of the codling moth was completely changed 
by the discovery made by two New York State growers that the 
recently developed use of Paris green against canker worms was also 
giving control of the codling moth. This was reported the following 
winter (Woodward, 1879), and in 1880 there were conducted in Michi- 
gan the first official experiments with an arsenical, known as London 
purple, for codling moth control (Cook, 1880). The favorable results 
obtained stimulated extensive experiments elsewhere with both Paris 
green and London purple. Early in the twentieth century these ma- 
terials gave way to lead arsenate, which in a short time became the 
standard material for codling moth control. Lead arsenate was first 
available as a paste, often prepared by the grower himself from sodium 
arsenate and lead acetate or lead nitrate. Soon, however, lead arsenate 
became commercially available in a powdered form, which rapidly 
displaced the paste material, because of greater convenience of han- 
dling. The effectiveness of lead arsenate has been further increased by 
the use of various accessory materials, such as fish oil or mineral oil 
emulsion. With certain accessory materials the lead arsenate con- 
tinues to build up on the fruit and foliage with prolonged spraying, 
instead of leaving the tree with the run-off. 

The spray programs followed by growers have also undergone a 
marked evolution. At first many growers obtained satisfactory con- 
trol with a single spray, applied just after the petals fell. After a 
few years, however, the need for more spray applications during the 
season became evident, and now many growers put on 8 to 10 or even 
more applications of spray for codling moth control. Many of the 
State colleges or experiment stations regularly furnish the growers 
with current information on codling moth development during the 
season, to aid them in the timing of spray applications. The use of 
traps containing baits of fermenting solutions of low-grade sugars or 



350 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

syrups, often with added aromatic chemicals, although not accom- 
plishing their original purpose of direct control, have been found 
valuable aids to the timing of spray applications, by giving informa- 
tion on moth activity and abundance in the orchard. 

SPRAY-RESIDUE PROBLEM 

In the earliest official test of arsenicals (Cook, 1880) the question 
of the effect of the material on the consumer was considered. On the 
basis of analyses which were made at that time, the conclusion was 
reached that the quantity of poison that could be carried over to har- 
vest as a result of the spraying was insignificant. With the type of 
spraying that was done in the early days this was probably a correct 
conclusion. However, as the number of spray applications increased, 
along with increases in the strength of the spray mixture, and in the 
number of gallons applied per tree, the quantities of lead and arsenic 
on the fruit at harvest constantly increased. The question of dan- 
gerous residues was raised from time to time but it was usually dis- 
missed with a statement that it would be necessary to consume an 
impossibly great quantity of the product at one sitting to obtain an 
injurious dose. During all this period the acute toxicity was the only 
consideration, but in the early 1920's there developed a realization 
that the use of lead arsenate sprays had increased to a point where 
American fruit was carrying quantities of residue actually or poten- 
tially dangerous to human health from a cumulative standpoint. The 
situation was crystallized in 1925, when British health authorities 
rejected shipments of American apples because of excessive arsenical 
residues. This episode was followed by appropriate action by the 
United States Department of Agriculture in carrying out its responsi- 
bility for the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act. This action 
caused consternation in the apple industry, but fortunately effective 
washing methods and machinery were promptly developed for re- 
moving the residue before the fruit is marketed, which has permitted 
the continued employment of lead arenate until other less objection 
able insecticides or other methods of control are developed. 

SEARCH FOR NEW INSECTICIDES 

The difficulties with spray residues and with worm control in some 
localities have led to an intensive search for better and less objec- 
tionable insecticides. This search has already proved productive. 
Cryolite is effective in the Pacific Northwest, although it is undepend- 
able elsewhere, and its use involves something of a spray residue prob- 
lem and in many cases washing the fruit is necessary. Nicotine 
bentonite has been found more effective than lead arsenate in certain 
parts of the Middle West and is used to a considerable extent there 



i 



CODLING MOTH — PORTER 351 

and elsewhere. Nicotine sulfate with oil is likewise used in some locali- 
ties. Phenothiazine, when very finely ground, has given outstanding 
control in the Northwest, but has not come into commercial use be- 
cause of the unfavorable effects on the fruit and on orchard workmen, 
and because of cost. The most recently discovered material is DDT 
(2,2-bis(parachlorophenyl)-l,l,l-trichloroethane) which may outstrip 
all the others, although a final decision on its ultimate usefulness can 
be made only after more extensive tests have indicated its effects on 
the consumer, on orchard workers, on fruit trees, and on the beneficial 
insects that aid greatly in keeping orchard pests within bounds or 
that provide for the pollination of the fruit. 

DEVELOPMENT OF SPRAY MACHINERY 

Along with the evolution of materials and programs for codling 
moth control has been the development of spray machinery for the 
application of the insecticides. The original hand-operated, back- 
breaking barrel pumps soon gave way to crude power-operated outfits 
(pis. 4, 5). Power spraying equipment has been steadily improved, 
coincident with the development of the automobile and airplane. The 
grower now has his choice of stationary sprayers, which pump the 
spray mixtures from a central plant through overhead or underground 
pipes to outlets placed at suitable intervals through the orchard, 
standard portable rigs (pi. 6, fig. 1), or the recently developed air- 
blast type of sprayer (pi. 6, fig. 2), which delivers the spray by means 
of the blast from a propeller similar to those used in airplanes. 
Present-day standard spray outfits give pressures up to 700 or 800 
pounds per square inch and will deliver 20 to 50 gallons per minute or 
more. A number of men can spray at the same time from the larger- 
capacity stationary sprayers. 

CONTINUED DIFFICULTIES IN CONTROL 

With the development of improved spray materials and mixtures, 
high-power, large-capacity spray machinery, and carefully worked-out 
spray programs, which all together result in spray deposits on fruit 
and foliage that would have been unbelievable 50 years ago, it would 
be natural to expect a corresponding improvement in codling moth 
control. Actually, however, nothing of the kind has occurred. Al- 
though in most orchards the growers are obtaining a reasonable degree 
of control, there is no indication that the worms are any less abundant 
or destructive than they were 50 years ago. In fact, in some areas 
the growers are having more difficulty than ever before in controlling 
the worms. In such areas, in which conditions favor the insect, 20 
or 30 percent of the apples are often wormy at harvest time, in spite 
of the making of 8 to 10 spray applications during the season, and the 



352 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

> 

use of supplementary control measures. It is therefore evident that 
the codling moth, instead of being a more or less fixed quantity, and 
subject to reduction in numbers, as control methods have been im- 
proved, has undergone an adaptation or evolution that has permitted 
the insect to hold its own or even to increase in numbers in spite of 
man's efforts. 

CHANGES IN CONDITIONS 

First, the standards by which control is judged have been modified 
from time to time. With the trend toward the concentration of com- 
mercial apple production in areas remote from markets, only high- 
grade fruit is worth the cost of shipping thousands of miles, and in 
such areas moderately injured fruit, which in localities near the con- 
suming centers might bring fair prices in local markets, is now a total 
loss. Also, the American public demands a higher standard of per- 
fection in its fruit products than ever before. This all means that our 
standard of satisfactory control is much higher than it was 50 
years ago. 

Many of the practices adopted by fruit growers have given advan- 
tages to the codling moth. Apple production has passed from small, 
isolated farm orchards to more intensive production in limited areas. 
In these newer areas conditions are sometimes especially favorable for 
the apple crop, but in other cases there has been extensive promotion 
of apple culture outside the range within which the apple would nor- 
mally thrive. In either case, this trend has been an important factor 
in favor of the worms. With an abundance of its favored food avail- 
able in virtually continuous, extensive acreage, with improved varieties 
and cultural methods that have to a certain extent eliminated the 
biennial bearing habit that characterized many of the older apple vari- 
eties, a factor that automatically held the codling moth population at 
a low point, it is not surprising that the present-day grower has to 
deal with a more numerous population. As these areas have come into 
full bearing, the mature trees have often reached such size that spray 
coverage has been poor. 

The benefits derived from the extensive use of insecticides have un- 
doubtedly been offset to some extent by their unfavorable effect on the 
abundance and activities of parasites and predators of the codling moth. 
Evidence has been obtained in New York State (Cox, 1932; Clollins, 
1934) that one of the most important larval parasites of the codling 
moth, namely Ascogaster quadridentatus Wesm., is adversely affected 
by lead arsenate and that in sprayed orchards the percentage of para- 
sitization is less than half of that existing in unsprayed orchards. It is 
not at all improbable that the effectiveness of other parasites and per- 
haps predators is also very much reduced by the continued use of lead 
arsenate. This factor may have been an important one in permitting 



CODLING MOTH — PORTER 353 

codling moth populations to get out of hand in certain localities. 
Closely related is the effect of other present-day orchard practices on 
the parasite population. It may well be that the intensive clean-cul- 
ture or cover-crop systems followed in many modern orchards may 
have eliminated many of the other hosts of the common parasites of the 
codling moth, thus causing the balance to swing in favor of the codling 
moth. 

ADAPTATION ON THE PART OF THE CODLING MOTH 

The factors just outlined, however, are not sufficient to explain the 
marked increases that have developed in the ability of the codling 
moth to thrive in the presence of heavy deposits of lead arsenate. 
Some change seems to be taking place in the insect itself that is modi- 
fying its ability to enter fruit in spite of the presence of a poison. 

The most extensive study that has thrown light on this problem has 
been carried on by W. S. Hough, of the Winchester field laboratory 
of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. His earliest work 
(Hough, 1929 and 1934) included a comparison of codling moth stocks 
from near Grand Junction, Colo., where the insect had become notori- 
ously difficult to control, with stocks from Virginia, where control was 
much easier. Dr. Hough showed that newly hatched codling moth 
larvae from Colorado stock were able successfully to enter fruit heavily 
sprayed with lead arsenate to the extent of 15 to 40 percent or more, 
whereas the proportion of native Virginia larvae entering similarly 
sprayed apples was usually less than 5 percent. Further, this differ- 
ence persisted through 14 or more generations reared in the insectary 
under Virginia conditions. Crosses gave intermediate results. Hough 
later (1943) found that Virginia larvae from stocks from orchards 
having a history of intensive spray programs were able to enter sprayed 
fruit in much greater proportion than those from unsprayed or poorly 
sprayed orchards. Strains from various Virginia orchards fed through 
successive generations in the insectary on sprayed fruit became differ- 
entiated from the parent strains, and showed increased ability to enter 
sprayed fruit. Steiner and associates (1944) have shown similar 
wide differences in codling moth stocks from different orchards in 
the Ohio Valley with respect to their ability to enter sprayed fruit. 
Both of these investigators have found that this condition is not re- 
stricted to lead arsenate, but that differences, although not always so 
wide, exist with respect to other insecticides, including nicotine ben- 
tonite and cryolite. Hough has reached the conclusion that these 
differences are due to differences in general vigor, but Steiner's obser- 
vations have suggested that they may result from differences in habits. 

Both of these workers believe that the different strains have been 
segregated by the elimination of those larvae that have the least 
ability to enter sprayed fruit, rather than that individuals have be- 



354 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

come immune or resistant to specific compounds and that such immu- 
nity or resistance has been transmitted to their offspring. 

Increased ability to survive in spite of insecticide treatment has 
been exhibited by a number of different insects, including the Cali- 
fornia red scale, Aonidiella aurcmtii (Mask.) , certain strains of which 
are much more resistant than others to fumigation with hydrocyanic 
acid. The tendency toward the segregation of races within economic 
species has been thoroughly reviewed by Smith (1941). 

The evidence just cited indicates that, instead of remaining con- 
stant and static while the evolution of control measures was going on, 
the codling moth as a species has undergone considerable adaptation 
or evolution on its own account in the direction of greater ability 
to survive in the presence of insecticides. The segregation of resistant 
strains, together with certain practices on the part of the fruit indus- 
try, have permitted the insect to maintain its position as the most seri- 
ously destructive pest of the apple in spite of the development of 
control by insecticides to a high degree of efficiency, at least in the 
application and maintenance of heavy deposits of insecticides during 
the periods when needed. The codling moth is only one of the several 
insect pests known to have undergone development in this general 
direction, and many other insects may be developing in a similar 
way, but at a slower rate. It is evident that ultimately insecticides 
or other control measures that are less selective in their action will 
have to be used for the control of the codling moth, or perhaps the 
problem can be solved by occasional changes from one insecticide to 
another that is selective in a different way. Whatever the eventual 
solution of the problems that have grown out of the evolution under- 
gone by the codling moth, the entomologists will undoubtedly be able 
to meet this challenge to their ingenuity and resourcefulness, and 
any solution of this particular problem may point the way to means 
of meeting similar problems with other insect pests as such problems 
arise. 

LITERATURE CITED 
BXJBKELLE, Joseph. 

1840. On the Cxirculio. New England Farmer, vol. 18, No. 48, p. 398. 
CoixiNs, Donald L. 

1934. The occurrence of Ascogaster carpocapsae in illuminated and sprayed 
areas of an apple orchard. Journ. Econ. Ent., vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 
379-382. 
Cook, A. J. 

1880. New method of fighting certain injurious insects. American Ent., vol. 
3, No. 11, pp. 263-264. 
Cox, James A. 

1932. Ascogaster carpocapsae Viereck, an important larval parasite of the 
codling moth and oriental fruit moth. New York Agr. Exp. Stat. 
Techn. Bull. 188, pp. 3-26. 



CODLING MOTH — PORTER 355 

Hough, W. S. 

1929. Studies of the relative resistance to arsenical poisoning of different 

strains of codling-moth larvae. Journ. Agr. Kes., vol. 38, No. 4, 

pp. 245-256. 
1934. Colorado and Virginia strains of codling moth in relation to their 

ability to enter sprayed and unsprayed apples. Journ. Agr. Res., 

vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 533-553. 

1943. Development and characteristics of vigorous or resistant strains of 

codling moth. Virginia Agr. Exp. Stat. Techn. Bull. 91, pp. 2-32. 
SiEGLBas, E. H., Brown, Lutheb, Ackerman, A. J., and Netwcomeb, E. J. 

1927. Chemical treatment of bands as a supplemental control measure for 
the codling moth. Journ. Econ. Ent., vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 699-701. 
Smith, Habby S. 

1941. Racial segregation in insect populations and its significance in applied 
entomology. Journ. Econ. Ent., vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 1-13. 
Steineb, L. F., Aenold, C. H., and Summeei-and, S. A. 

1944. The development of large differences in the ability of local codling 

moths to enter sprayed apples. Journ. Econ, Ent., vol. 37, No. 1, 
pp. 29-33. 
Trimble:, Isaac P. 

1865. Apple moth — codling moth. Treatise on the insect enemies of fruit and 
fruit trees, pp. 103-139. 
Woodwabd, J. S. 

1879. Fighting insects. Proc. 24th Ann. Meet, Western New York Hort. 
Soc, p. 20. 



Smithsonian Report, 1944. — Porter 



Plate 1 




1. Hibernating Codling Moth Larva and Spring Pupa in Cocoons under- 
neath Loose Bark of Apple Tree. 

(X2.) 




2. Codling Moth adult. 

(X3.) 



Smithsonian Report, 1 944. — Porter 



PLATE 2 




1. Eggs and Newly Hatched larva. 

(X30.) 

(From drawing by R. E. Snodgrass.) 




2. Full-grown Larva in small Apple in Which it Had Fed. 

(X2.) 



Smithsonian Report. 1944. — Porter 



PLATE 3 




"^^■"^ 1'^X ^'^ND' A TRAP FOR Full-grown Larvae, used about 1865 as a 

MEANS of partially CONTROLLING THE CODLING MOTH. 



Smithsonian Report. 1944. — Porter 



Plate 4 




1. A Hand-operated Barreu-pump Sprayer. 

Extensively used for codling moth control late in the ninetsenth century; still used to a limited extent in 

small orchards. 




2. Primitive Type of Gasoline Power Sprayer, used in the Early 
Twentieth Century for codling Moth Control. 



Smithsonian Report. 1944. — Porter 



Plate 6 




1. Modern Type of portable Power Sprayer. 

Because of wartime manpower shortage, the tractor driver is also applying spray to the lower parts of the 
tree by the use of a flexible broom type of nozzle arrangement. Ordinarily the spraying of the lower parts 
of the tree would be done by a man on the ground, who would apply the material from a number of direc- 
tions. (Photograph taken in 1944 by L. F. Steiner.) 




2. air-blast type of Sprayer. 

The liquid is pumped at low pressure into an air blast produced by an airplane propeller. This outfit 
permits the application of the spray in a very speedy manner and with minimum use of manpower. 
(Photograph by L. F. Steiner.) 



GEASSLAND AND FARMLAND AS FACTORS IN THE 
CYCLICAL DEVELOPMENT OF EURASIAN HISTORY^ 



By J. RussEix Smith 



[With 1 plate] 



This paper might be called a study of equipment eras — or the inter- 
acting influences of equipment and culture in certain environments. 

Man is a tool-using animal, and there is a tendency to confuse the 
results of mental or personal qualities and the results of the equip- 
ment that we may have at hand. Consider for a moment a group of 
European primitives, so-called, who left cultural and skeletal remains 
in caves of France some 20,000 years ago. Anthropologists have 
named them Cromagnon. If they were living today most of us 
would doubtless call them savages, regard them as inferior beings. 
Sir Arthur Keith tells us that the Cromagnons had larger brain pans 
than we have. But we of this generation have inherited agriculture 
with its crops and beasts, also engines and machines, transport and 
buildings, and books, the master tool, the mother of tools. 

It is easy for us in our inherited cultural riches to lose sight of the 
scanty cultural inheritance of Cromagnon man. He and his parents 
were living in the collector stage of economics. He plucked his living 
from the natural environment with the aid of his fingers, toes, and 
teeth, and with equipment of wood, fire, flint, shells, bone, sinew, and 
skins — Stone Age we call it. He ate everything that was digestible — 
beast, birds, fish, reptile, and insect, seed, leaf, stem, and root, and 
sometimes the neighbors, but that was usually ceremonial. He prob- 
ably lived a life filled with terrors and what we would regard as 
impossible hardship. 

It is one of the greatest achievements in human history that Stone 
Age man made some sort of living in every continent except Ant- 
arctica. Archeologists and anthropologists trace Stone Age man from 
shores of the Arctic Sea in Greenland to the chill and reeking wet- 
ness of Tierra del Fuego ; from Alaska to Newfoundland ; from Gibral- 
tar to Kamchatka; from the Siberian Tundra to South Africa, Tas- 
mania, and the far islands of the Pacific. Stone Age man made a living 

^ Reprinted by permission from Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 
33, No. 3, September 1943. 

357 



358 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

in every important type of environment except the glacial ice cap ; he 
was even found living cheerfully at the very foot of the ice cliffs in 
Greenland. 




Not only did Stone Age man make a living, such as it was, in every 
type of environment — he and the women supported their offspring, 
maintained the race, formed communities, developed rules of conduct 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 359 

(laws if you like), and created a literature in the form of folklore. 
They struggled with external nature, and, like the rest of mankind, 
with human nature. 

These men and women in the smoky cave, the pit house, the skin 
tent, or merely sleeping in the open by fire or without it, were vexed 
by two problems that vex us today — the struggle for possessions and 
the lust for position, preferment, power. 

Howard H. Brinton, a living Quaker writer of distinction, says: 
"Every one has within himself, a potential Hitler as well as a poten- 
tial St. Francis." 

With these two types in mind we should note that man's progress 
depends upon two things — first, keeping down his own potential Hit- 
ler, with the aid of education, morality, and religion; and second, 
fighting down his neighbor's Hitler. Controlling one's neighbor's 
Hitler presented a social problem, and for this man probably was 
forced to invent government. 

In the Stone Age, as now, the external Hitler tendency, the bully, 
had to be kept in check. Control doubtless began as family fights 
and grew into clan, tribe, and other forms of group control. Even in 
prehistoric times, government, formal or informal, developed in all 
climes, in all societies, and in well-nigh myriad forms. 

When man lived by collecting, only a few people could live together 
in any one place. Population per square mile was limited by the 
amount of available food. One group could force another group out 
of hunting grounds, but one group had difficulty in governing other 
groups. The political group, if one may use the word, was small. 
Although government may have been invested only in family, clan, 
or tribe, or in a village group, primitive government usually was 
inclusive in the scope of its control over individual freedom. Have 
not the elders of all generations said, "We do it this way" ? Anthro- 
pologists are emphatic concerning the conservatism of primitive man. 
That is certainly one reason why the Stone Age lasted so long — long 
enough to achieve its amazing uniformity of tools and economy and its 
world-wide distribution, despite difficulties of travel. 

Many anthropologists believe that this almost static period of human 
history may have existed for 500,000 years since our ancestors first 
began to use tools, and year by year the anthropologists are lengthening 
this period. 

A new era began with the use of domesticated plants and domesti- 
cated animals. When some 97 or 98 percent of the half million years 
of human history had passed, perhaps 10,000 or 15,000 years ago, 
changes began to happen. Men and women, or perhaps we should say 
women and men, began to plant seed and to grow and cultivate crops. 
It is possible that the period of primitive crop growing is much older 

619830 — 45 24 



360 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



than that. It was common in five continents. With a more stable and 
dependable food supply, human beings could settle down in a village 
for most of the year, or even, in rare instances, for a period of years. 
Soil exhaustion usually brought declining yields and a new patch was 
brought under cultivation. This process was repeated until finally the 
entire village had to move to fresh land. 

Patch farming was a great improvement over the collecting economy. 
It permitted a larger village group and lessened the need to move from 
place to place. Patch farming gave new leisure, more time for mind 




Figure 2. — This map makes it easier to consider the three valley cultures as one 
civilization. Why not call it the Irrigated Valley Civilization? Arrows show 
the trails of culture elements to China, Greece, and the land of the Hittites. 
(Base map copyright by Rand McNally & Company, Chicago.) 

to play upon mind. Nevertheless, the problem of soil fertility usually 
kept the settlement from becoming a large one. It also prevented the 
group from remaining at the same place for any great length of time. 
These conditions existed on most of the soil areas of the world. 

Patch farming was followed by the domestication of animals, espe- 
cially in Egypt, the Near East, and Central Eurasia. The tough 
shoulders of the ox and donkey began to drag man's burdens for him 
some 6,000 years ago in Mesopotamia. The sheep and goat gave skin 
and flesh by herding instead of hunting. These animals also gave milk, 
as did the cow. The tamed offspring of the wild boar gave roast pork, 



i 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 361 

and the hen gave eggs without man having to seek the nests of wild 
birds in the forest. The new environment produced by the stimulus of 
crops, domestic animals, and larger residence groups seems to have pro- 
duced a mental emancipation that gave new freedom to the inventive 
type of mind. 

A NEW ERA, BASED ON LARGER HUMAN GROUPS, HAD ITS ORIGIN IN 
THE PERMANENT FERTILITY OF THE IRRIGATED VALLEYS OF EGYPT, 
MESOPOTAMIA, AND THE INDUS 

In Egypt, Stone Age man found that the recurring floods fertilized 
his land each year with a thin but rich crust of mud. As a result he 
could stay in the same place generation after generation. Large settle- 
ments soon developed. 

This was something new in the world. Kevolutions emerged from 
it. Gradually many little governments came under one ruler, the gov- 
ernmental unit grew until finally the prowess of one ruler brought all 
Egypt, with it millions of people, under one government. For 6,000 
years the Nile Valley has continuously supported its heavy population 
by benefit of the annual automatic deposit of mud. The Nile is the 
most regular, most orderly, most easily usable large river in the world. 
It has well earned the affectionate name of "Father Nile." Large 
areas of swamp along its upper reaches become automatic reservoirs 
that tame the sudden floods that trouble the lower valleys of most 
rivers. 

The fertility of the irrigated lands along the Tigris and Euphrates 
was replenished in somewhat the same way. But, as compared with the 
Nile, the Tigris and Euphrates are wild and disorderly rivers. They 
have no controlling reservoirs. The maintenance of irrigation in 
Mesopotamia required more labor than in Egypt, and a continuously 
effective social organization was necessary. Like Egypt, Mesopotamia 
supported heavy populations, towns, cities, kingdoms more than 5,000 
years ago. 

The recent excavations of Mohenjo-daro and neighboring cities 
on the lower Indus show somewhat similar developments about the 
same time. These three populous valleys supported themselves by ir- 
rigation on wide-spreading alluvial lands with a dry, warm climate. 
Man has not yet imagined better conditions for agricultural production. 

In these hot, dry valleys men lived under the compulsion of the need 
to work their crops in a season of flowing water, and under the near- 
compulsion of leisure in the season of drought. There was also the 
further compulsion of governments. These factors of surplus food, 
leisure time, large business enterprises, the desire for self-expression, 
and the compulsion of strong government produced writing, libraries, 
codes of laws, pyramids, and temples — cultures that were in many 



362 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

respects much like our own. Among factors of production, we should 
not minimize strong government — witness the pyramids, a burst of 
energy covering only 150 years out of 5,000. 

It is now generally agreed that the wheel and axle, the cart and the 
beast-drawn plow were first used somewhere between the Persian GuM 
and the Syrian shore at or about 4000 B. C. — perhaps earlier. It is 
further agreed that this important invention was made only once 
in human history. The spread of the wheel and axle to all continents 
has been definitely traced from this one source. 

Archeologists are continually finding proof that commerce existed 
at this early time between Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley. 



WHEAT CULTURE 

-IN- 

ANTIQUITY 




FiGUBE 3. — ^Wheat culture in antiquity. (After Carl Bishop.) Wheat had 
climatic limitations to its spread. It does not thrive in the wet Tropics. 

Because of these exchanges these earliest centers of heavy population, 
cities and city culture may legitimately be considered one civilization 
in a sense similar to our use of the term Western Civilization. 

This new culture of the three valleys with its stupendous advance 
over previous cultures was, at base, a result of the enduring soil 
fertility. For the first time in human history large sedentary popu- 
lations could depend upon the permanence of their food supply. 
Generation after generation men could live in the same place. They 
could accumulate things. They had leisure. When they learned to 
write, they soon recorded knowledge and built libraries in which to 
store it. Thus three dry valleys became the cradles of civilization 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 



363 



and finally the teachers of the human race. From this base many cul- 
ture elements have spread to all parts of the world. It is fortunate 
for those of this generation that the Mesopotamians wrote on endur- 
ing tablets of clay. 

Then, as now, men who traveled carried with them ideas, techniques, 
and various culture elements. A trail of fragments of painted pottery 
leads from Shushan, near the eastern edge of Mesopotamia, and marks 
the road by which culture elements went from Mesopotamia to China. 
Through this dry land a natural road proceeds from oasis to oasis. 
Where mountain streams reach the plains at the foot of the mountains 



DISTRIBUTION 

-OFTHE- 

TRACTION PLOW 

-BEFORE THE- 

A6E0FDISC0VERY 




FiGUEE 4. — Distribution of the traction plow before the age of discovery. (After 
Carl Bishop.) The plow had wider spread than wheat. It was drawn by ox, 
buffalo, and donkey, and occasionally by the elephant. 

natural refreshment stations exist. No one knows how long these 
little Niles have been feeding humanity. These fertile spots en- 
courage travel across Iran, western Turkestan, and eastern Turkestan. 
Thence the trail continues eastward across Mongolia and down the 
Wei River valley, past the present city of Sian and on to the great 
bend of the Hwangho at the southwest corner of the province of 
Shansi. 

No one knows when culture elements first began to pass northeast- 
ward from Mesopotamia over these stepping stones of fertility. This 
seems to make logical the Chinese claim that Chinese civilization had 
its origin in the Sian Valley near the great bend of the Hwangho. 



364 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



This Sian Valley was the first place at which this route across moun- 
tain and desert delivered culture elements from the west to men 
living in good farmland. 

This first center of the present Chinese culture had a rare combina- 
tion of qualities. There was enough rain to support agriculture, 
and there was loess soil. This wind-blown gift of deserts that lay 
to the west is the closest approach on earth to the perennial fertility 
of the annually flooding river valley. Let a farmer plow the top foot 
of loess and let the soil wash away or blow away, it matters not — 
the second foot is as good as the first ; the twentieth foot is as good as 

KNOWN DISTRIBUTION 

-OFTHE- 

WAR-CHARIOT 

-IN- 

ANTIQUITY 




FiGtJBE 5. — Known distribution of the war chariot in antiquity. (After Carl 
Bishop.) The war chariot came later than the plow. It depended upon the 
horse. The open grassland of central Eurasia and the Zungarian Gate (see figs. 
6 and 18), an opening in the mountains west of China, furnish an easy passage- 
way for men and ideas. 

the second. Here then was another basis for an agriculture that 
could endure for centuries. 

Generation after generation of men in the Wei Valley loess had the 
advantages of permanent fertility of the soil. Meanwhile the mind 
of man was fertilized by the arrival of cultural elements from Meso- 
potamia and the steppes. Still another stream of culture elements 
came to the Sian Valley from India, by way of the Burma Eoad. 
Sinologists say that fowls and rice were early arrivals over this route. 

Besides the fertility base of loess vouchsafed by nature, the farmer 
adopted two fertility measures whose effectiveness is unrivaled by 



4 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 



3^5 



anything outside the three great valleys. The Chinese method of 
cultivating rice in the paddy fields conserves soil perfectly and adds 
a touch of fertilizing mud. The other fertility device is that of col- 
lecting human excrement and returning it to the land. The Chinese 
have systematically applied this device for many centuries. It is 
well-nigh impossible to overestimate its importance as a means of 
support to Chinese civilization. Thus, fertility, enduring or pre- 
served, stands out as the basis for the development and endurance of 
the Chinese civilization. These factors gave to these people the 
combination of time and continuity similar to that which accompanied 
the rise of cultures in Egypt and Mesopotamia. 

The Chinese received many culture aids from the outside, but they 
devised their own system of writing and made many important inven- 
tions on the basis of their own native wit and the stimuli from the 




'y////////A-A„LAm„ 

Figure 6.— The Eurasian grassland, as shown by Mackinder in "Democratic Ideals 
and Reality," Henry Holt & Company. Note the scale of miles. 

Near East and India. China may be regarded as one of three subse- 
quent cultures that leaned heavily in their beginnings on culture ele- 
ments from the three great irrigated valleys. 

Culture elements traveled northwestward as well as northeastward 
from the centers of its beginning. Between 2000 B, C. and 1400 B. C. 
the Island of Crete was one of the most highly civilized places in the 
world. There is evidence that the people of Crete learned from the 
people of Mesopotamia by way of Anatolia and the stepping stones 
furnished by the Aegean Islands. Knowledge also must have traveled 
by direct voyages to Egypt, only 340 miles distant, there is so much 
evidence of interchange between the isle and the Nile. 

The Aegean culture was spreading from island to island, and had 
produced the famous cities, Tiryns and Mitylene, on the mainland of 
Greece, whose cultural remains, so unlike those of the Classic Greeks, 



366 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

were long a puzzle to archeologists. Knossus, the ornate and learned 
capital of Crete, was destroyed about 1400 B. C, nearly 3,400 years ago, 
but that date was more than 2,000 years after the Sumerians had 
developed a complicated civilization and were filing away its amazing 
records on their durable tablets of clay. 

While culture was spreading outward from its places of origin 
something was brewing in the grasslands of central Eurasia — that vast 
unbroken plain that stretches from the Carpathians to the Altai and 




Figure 7. — The question marks suggest the area, limits unknown, from which the 
grassland poured out its surplus sons upon their migrations, so destructive to 
the advanced cultures of the three valleys. (Base map copyright by Rand 
McNally & Company, Chicago.) 

Tian Shan, and from the Caucasus and the mountain rim of Iran to 
the Great Northern Forest. 

This vast grassland was an inhospitable area for the Stone Age man 
before he had domestic animals. There was grass, of course, on most 
of its extent, and fleet-footed game. But wood and natural shelter 
were scarce except along the mountain and northern forest borders 
and along the banks of the few streams that crossed the plain. The 
patch farming of Stone Age man was largely limited to these spots 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 367 

in the vast plain, such as the banks of the Oxus, Syr Darya, Don, 
Volga, and other rivers that were favored with wood, water, and 
possible garden patches. 

A new and very different era began when the man of the plains got 
sheep, goats, cattle, and, lastly, the horse. The steppe people domes- 
ticated the horse (E. A. Speiser, of the University of Pennsylvania, 
concurs), and it became thoroughly integrated into every feature of 
the life of the people of the steppes. A new force, a new dynamic 
had appeared upon the Eurasian scene — the man on horseback. Here 
was revolution. It upset the affairs of man and was far reaching in 
its effects. Indeed, the man on horseback has had but two analogs in 
human affairs — steam transport and the airplane. 

Carl Bishop, of the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, says that 
the Indo-European languages were developed by these horse-using 
people on the steppes somewhere in southeastern Europe or south- 
western Asia. He further states that these people whom we call Indo- 
Europeans had the word for wheeled vehicle before they separated 
into eastern and western groups. Louis H. Gray concurs. 

These Indo-Europeans of the steppes and the horse-using Turanians 
who appeared later in the same area, have profoundly influenced the 
history of Europe and Asia, both as spreaders of culture and as de- 
stroyers of states and civilizations. It is as destroyers that they made 
their conspicuous contribution. 

The grassland nomad lives by flocks, the flocks live by grass. Ani- 
mals must move to obtain grass, and man must move with the animals. 
The nomad has mobility — here today, gone tomorrow — and mobility 
is a very important factor in warfare. It is also a sad fact that the 
grassland can produce more men than it can feed. Thus there exists 
the expulsive force of hunger. These factors make migration so easy as 
to be almost a part of the social organization. Many will be familiar 
with Ellsworth Huntington's thesis to the effect that periods of 
drought and scanty grass made an expulsive force that sent Central 
Asian nomads to overrun surrounding lands. Farmer peoples living 
east, west, and south of the Eurasian plains had abundant and oft- 
repeated cause to mourn the fact that such a region as the Eurasian 
grassland existed. 

About 2000 B. C. bands of nomads from the steppes began working 
their way around the western end of the Black Sea and southward 
through Thrace and into Greece. They were shepherds accompanied 
by their flocks and with rude carts loaded with household goods and 
drawn by oxen. These people later became the ancestors of the Classic 
Greeks. By 1400 B. C, or in about 600 years, these shepherd migrants 
had learned from the more cultured Aegeans to build ships. In their 
ships they sailed to Crete and conquered it. These barbarians burned 



368 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



the palaces, libraries, and temples of I^ossus. Those of the learned 
and cultured Cretans who could do so fled in ships to the still civilized 
shores of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt. 



'W;j 




^^^3/^A/ SB^ 



FiGUBE 8. — Louis H. Gray, specialist in the origins of languages, presents this map 
to show the locations of various groups of Indo-Europeans after they had seized 
their lands in the plateau of Iran and Turkestan. 1, Persians; 2, Medes; 
3, Margians and Bactrians ; 4, the oft-traversed route to India ; 5, Drangianians 
and Anachorians ; 6, Carmanians ; 7, Gedrosians; 8, Hyrcanians ; 9?, Indo- 
European homeland before dispersal. Note the present boundary of Iran 
(Persia). 

r, Tehran; B., Herat; M (west), Meshed; M (east), Merv ; B, Bukhara; A. D., 
Amu Darya. 

While the Greeks in the second half of the first millennium B. C. 
were driving civilization back toward its center, others of the Indo- 
Europeans of the steppes had passed north of the Caspian Sea and 
entered the plateau of Iran. They lingered there for generations — 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 369 

long enough, according to Prof. Louis Gray of Columbia University, 
to produce the literature known as Vedas. They then divided, one 
group went southwestward into Mesopotamia and the other southeast- 
ward into India. This common origin in the steppes explains the 
remarkable similarity of the Greek and Sanskrit languages. 

Beginning about 1200 B. C. many waves of these Aryans went into 
India. They overwhelmed the Indus Valley cultures. Prof. Walter 
Von Brunn, of the University of Leipzig (Science News Letter, Feb. 
19, 1938), pointed out in 1938 that the remains of Mohenjo-daro, 
Chanhu-daro, and other Indus Valley cities of 3500 B. C. had no signs 
of having had walls or other fortifications. From this fact he inferred 
that continuous peace prevailed in the era before the eruption of the 
horsemen from the steppes. Perhaps this was the Golden Age. 

These cities on the Indus plain had houses of well-burned brick. 
The present inhabitants of this area live in mud villages. Fifty-five 
hundred years ago Mohenjo-daro, built of brick, had a sewer system 
equal to that of Pompeii and other Roman cities that were built more 
than 3,000 years later. 

All this the northern invaders destroyed — destroyed it so com- 
pletely that we only learned of its existence by accidental discoveries 
in the twentieth century. Imagine if you can the thoughts and feel- 
ings of the cultured people of Mohenjo-daro as these early Nazis 
destroyed a city that had stood for centuries in peaceful prosperity. 

India received many waves of these new raw men from the steppes. 
As a result Indo-European languages prevail today over large areas 
in northwestern India. The other results of these migrations can 
be observed today by anyone who passes northwest from southern 
India to the Khyber Pass and observes the gradual change in the 
color of the skin of the inhabitants. The color of native skin is black 
in southern India, white in the Khyber Pass, with various shades 
between. 

The culture that originated in the warm and fertile valleys spread 
eastward to China, westward to the Aegean, and also, at an early 
date it spread northward to the highlands of Iran and Armenia 
where, as in China and in Crete, a civilization arose in part on bor- 
rowed culture elements. 

In the third millennium B. C. non-Indo-European peoples in what 
we now call Armenia had a considerable culture, with cities and 
written language. Babylonian colonists settled among them, and 
the Mesopotamian cuneiform characters were added to their writing. 

Early in the third millennium there came among them a migra-. 
tion from the steppes, "an Indo-European conquering people called 
by us 'Hittites.' " The invaders stayed, learned, increased, and made 
an empire. Recent excavations show that Hittite scholars mastered 



370 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

six languages and were in "no way inferior to the Babylonians and 
Egyptians" (Encyclopaedia Britannica). Hittite armies conquered 
Babylon. 

In 1685 B. C. a band of people called Hyksos, whose leaders are said 
by Speiser to have come from Turkestan, organized an army in the 
Hittite area and proceeded to conquer Egypt. This expedition took 
the horse to Egypt for the first time. The horse-drawn chariot of 
the Hittites was an early kind of "blitz" warfare. It overwhelmed 
the Egyptians, perhaps with the aid of better bronze for the cleaving 
of skulls. 

At this point in our narrative the record stands as follows: four 
civilizations — Crete, Indus, Mesopotamia, Egypt — overrun by the 
horse-using Indo-European barbarians from the steppes. It was 
indeed fortunate that the seed of civilization was not destroyed by 
these conquests. 

The Hittite empire fell before the next wave of Indo-Europeans, 
horsemen from the steppes. These were called Phrygians. These 
horsemen entered Asia Minor by way of the Hellespont. Like the 
Greeks at Knossus the Phrygians destroyed so well that it was only 
at a recent date that we knew much about them, and only in a very 
recent day that scholars deciphered the Hittite writings. Fortunately, 
these people wrote on bricks of clay, rather than the perishable and 
ephemeral rubbish on which we write so voluminously. 

This episode of the Hittites can almost be considered the West 
Asian history cycle type, a type that is repeated through several mil- 
lennia. Witness its operation in another group — the Scythians. 

Herodotus described the Scythians (sometimes called a tribe of 
Cimmerians) as being nomads of the steppes north of the Black 
Sea. The Scythians followed their flocks on the open steppes in the 
summer, back to the shelter of the wooded stream banks in winter. 
The men rode horseback with their trousers — a steppe invention — 
tucked into their boots — another steppe invention. The women rode 
in wagons. The details of their life sound strangely like those of the 
present-day Kirghiz of Central Asia. Horse flesh and mare's milk 
were standard articles of diet. The abode was a tent of felt. 

In the seventh century B. C. there was much movement of peoples 
on the steppes. "The Scythians overran and frightfully ravaged 
wide areas of Central Asia and Eastern Europe" (Bishop). Some 
crossed the Hellespont into Asia Minor, which they ravaged, and 
where they stayed for a century. Some went somewhat farther east 
and developed a kingdom in Ecbatana, within the present kingdom of 
Iran. Thus strengthened, refreshed, and multiplied, but still full of 
the barbarism of the plains, the Scythians harried the Assyrian king- 
dom, destroyed Ninevah and other cities, and advanced to the gates 




FiGUiiE 9. — Areas of language 

The ludo-Europeans dominated 
original Dravidian speech h 
out in the Ganges Valley, 
corner. 

The Turco-Mongol-Tungus grou] 
pean areas in two on the we 
The Arabs left Islam in Irai 

The Indo-European block holds 
Basque and Caucasus areai 
in the sea of migrations. ] 
languages are spoken in Tif 




HYPERBOREAN 
, HWITE-SO'ITt 

. KimDA-W)H-KHMER 
. HUNGARIAN 

FiGCEE 9. — Areas of language groups. (After LouiB H. Gray.) They mark the extent of heavy migrations. 

The IndoEuropeans dominated northern India and even Burma so thoroughly as to leave their language. The 
original Dravidian si)eech holds the south of India and an island of Munda-Mond-Khmer ( Indo-Chinese) holds 
out In the Ganges Valley. The Sino-Tibetan has pushed down and crowded Munda-Mond-Khmcr into a 
corner. 

The Turco-Mongol-Tungus group has pushed the Japanese group into corners on the east and cut the Indo-Euro- 
pean areas in two on the west. The Hamite-Semite has a crowded Indo-European in the Mesopotamian area. 
The Arabs left Islam in Iran but not their language. 

The Indo-European block holds nearly all Europe except the Finnish area, the Hungarian remnant, and the 
Basque and Caucasus areas. The Caucasus Mountain area seems to have been an island of human refuge 
In the sea of migrations. It contains much UnguiBtic and human flotsam and jetsam. It is said that 72 
languages are spoken in Tiflis. 

819830 — 45 (Face p. 370) 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND SMITH 



371 




FIGUEE 10. 




FiGTJBE 11. 

FiGTTBEs 10 AND 11. — This record from an old Chinese tile tells ns why the Chinese 
built the Great Wall. A new blitz had come from the grassland. The horse- 
man with the two-piece bow seems to have been well nigh irresistible on open 
land, hence the wall. (After Carl Bishop.) 



372 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

of Egypt. The Scythians then disappeared from history — probably 
absorbed. But note the evolutionary steps. A horde of nomads had 
left the steppes, harried the plateau. They tarried for a few gen- 
erations. Almost surely their numbers increased, and they mustered 
strength in that land of better pastures and scattered oases. They 
then moved on to a career of conquest and rapine in the fat lands and 
rich cities of the plain. Then the melting pot absorbed them. That 
is the cycle. It occurs and recurs through nearly 3,000 years B. C. 
and plenty of times later. 

The exploits of the Medes and Persians and of the Macedonians, 
conquerors all of Babylonia, fit closely into this pattern. The horse, 
the most spectacular contribution of the steppes, has played a curious 
and striking part in man's affairs in Eurasia. Bishop thinks that the 
Scythians may have been the first effective cavalrymen. Armed with 
a compound bow, which seems to have been an invention of the 
north, a cavalryman could ride circles around a charioteer. Hence, 
the use of chariots in war declined in the Near East after the Assyr- 
ians, in the ninth century B. C, adopted cavalry from their enemies, 
the Scythians. 

Man's experience in learning to use the horse serves to illustrate the 
stupidity of man rather than his cleverness. Perhaps most persons 
have thought of the horse in ancient history as a beast of burden, 
drawing the plow, the cart and the wagon with supplies for home or 
the army, with gentlemen and generals riding on comfortable saddles. 
Not so. It is now known that the first important use of horse in 
harness in the Near East was a thousand years at the war chariot. 
For this service it was speed that counted, not ability to draw heavy 
loads. 

The chariot was distributed to Ireland and Korea between 2500 and 
1000 B. C. After centuries of using the chariot as an instrument of 
warfare men began to fight from the back of the horse. But it was 
more centuries before the stirrup was invented. Moreover, man used 
the horse in harness for more than 3,000 years before a method was 
devised whereby a horse was fastened to a wagon by means of traces. 
Only then could a horse pull with more than a small fraction of its 
strength. 

The shoulders of the ox and donkey are higher than are the necks. 
These beasts with yokes upon their shoulders or upon the head of the 
ox, pulled the plows and wagons of antiquity. The anatomy of the 
horse does not encourage yoking. Nevertheless the ancients fastened 
the yoke to a band around the neck of the horse. If the horse pulled 
with a considerable fraction of his strength the band pressed upon 
the windpipe and jugular vein and choked him down. This harness 
also held his head high, but when a horse pulls a load he puts his 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 



373 



head down. Pictures of war chariots show they did not carry much 
load, and Eoman records verify. 

Early uses of the horse sift down to this — meat supply, milk animals, 
assistant to the herdsman, the pet of princes, for pageantry, religious 
ceremonies, and war — especially war. 

The horseman with a two-piece bow was the greatest "blitz" before 
gunpowder. This bow seems to have brought cavalry to the fore. 
The horseman with a lance was not so potent. This bow brought 
the horse to his Golden Age, to his zenith as an influence in the affairs 




Figure 12. — The lightly shaded area shows the bounds of the empire of Attila, the 
Hun, about A. D. 450. The heavily shaded area shows present area of Hun- 
garian language. ( Base map copyright by Rand McNally & Company, Chicago. ) 

of man. From the beginnings of cavalry with the Scythians, about 
the ninth century B. C, to the date of the effective use of gunpowder, 
more than 2,000 years later, the cavalryman of the Eurasian grasslands 
almost continuously harassed the settled cultures upon the grassland 
rim and often smashed them at will. Thus the horse, the great contri- 
bution of the Eurasian grasslands to history, had several millennia 
during which his relation to sedentary societies was not primarily in 
the field of economics, but in the field of war ; not primarily at defense, 
but rather the war of offense. The horse was an instrument of con- 
quest and destruction of peoples, cities, governments, and social 
organizations. 



374 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

In the Chou kingdom in China, 1000 B. C, the minister of war was 
known as "The Master of the Horses." The Chous had no currency. 
Taxes were collected in kind, and the chief tax gatherers were known 
as "bullock drivers." For many centuries over wide areas in three 
continents kingdoms were measured by the number of chariots they 
could put in the j&eld. (See King Solomon.) 

A recent writer. Bates, emphasizes the acute shortage of power 
among the Romans on both sea and land. This power shortage led 
to the use of the galley slave at sea and of slaves to turn the mill and 











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founded by Mohammed. (Base map copyright by Rand McNally & Company, 
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to do other drudgery on land. Bates alleges that Roman wars were 
often little more than slave-gathering expeditions. 

In the ninth century A. D., someone, apparently in France, invented 
the horse collar and traces. A horse could then pull a load. Then, 
as Mr. Bates tells us, horses could really work and enter the economic 
realm. Horsepower became cheaper than slavepower, and slavery 
gave way to serfdom. As mechanism improved, serfs became freemen. 
Inventions gave man equipment that permitted him to emerge from 
the slave age. At a much earlier time inventions had ushered in the 
Stone Age. Most important inventions change man's relation to some 
part of the earth. 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 375 

The horse, especially the horse bearing grassland man upon its 
back, seems to have carried destruction to ancient societies in a way 
that suggests a strong resemblance to the work of the airplane today. 

CHINA AND ITS RELATION TO THE GRASSLAND 

The relations of China with the grasslands of Central Asia fall into 
two epochs. In the first epoch China received culture elements. In 
the second epoch China received conquerors and destroyers. 

Considerably before 3000 B. C. Babylonia had a well-developed 
culture which included writing and a complete mastery of work in 
bronze. Babylonia also had wheeled vehicles, ox-drawn plows, wheat, 
many other crop plants, and all the common domestic animals except 
the horse (Bishop). 

There is no evidence that China had knowledge of metals before 
2000 B. C, but 500 years later peoples ruled by the Shang Dynasty 
in the central and lower Yellow River basin had a mature and devel- 
oped system of writing, evidently homegrown. These peoples also 
had a skilled technique for working in bronze. Bishop says, "Bronze 
working was carried to a pitch of technical and esthetic excellence 
hardly if ever equalled in later times in any land." Much of this 
craftsmanship was undoubtedly borrowed, together with many plants 
and animals, from the Near East. It had taken the Mesopotamians 
several thousand years to develop these things. 

Before Chinese contact with the Near East, the Stone Age man of 
the loessial area on which Chinese culture is believed to have devel- 
oped, was a sedentary agriculturist. He lived, at least for the colder 
part of the year, in a pit house which gave unusual opportunity for the 
preservation of archeological records. These pit dwellers had dogs 
and many domesticated pigs. As early as the fifth millennium B. C. 
they cultivated millet and some leafy plants (Goodrich). 

There is no sign of fortification about their villages until culture 
elements from the Near East appear — sheep, and bronze or copper 
arrow tips. The need for defense had come. The villages of the pit 
dwellers now have earthen walls. These tillers of the loessial lands 
are learning unpleasant things from the west whence they had de- 
rived so many useful things. 

About 1050 B. C. (according to Bishop), the Shangs were con- 
quered by the Chous, assisted by rebellious Shang subjects. The 
Chous came in from inner Asia — conquerors from the grasslands. 

Ellsworth Huntington will smile with satisfaction at the mention 
of the Chinese tradition to the effect that the Shang Dynasty came 
to its end during a period of protracted drought for which the king 
was held responsible because he neglected to observe the proper rites. 

619830—45 2^ 



376 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Bishop states that the conquering Chous had a culture much like that of 
the Aryans who invaded India about 1200 B. C. About this time, 
also, other outsurges of steppe peoples went into Europe, southwest 
Asia, and Egypt. 

Shang refugees fleeing before men from the grassland carried their 
culture eastward and southward to outlying regions hitherto bar- 
barous. This oft-repeated process of culture spreading is now being 
again repeated as the educated Chinese from the westernized east 
coast of China move their colleges and industries to the conservative 
western uplands to escape the Japanese destroyer. 

In the first millennium B. C. this process of grassland invasion and 
eastern culture dispersal was repeated several times. The unifica- 
tion of many kingdoms into one Chinese empire is commonly attri- 
buted to the fact that about 300 B. C. one of the western kings adopted 
a new technique of warfare from the barbarian enemies of the steppes. 
This was the mounted bowman with the two-piece bow (fig. 11) — an 
irresistible blitzkrieg much superior to the lumbering chariot, the 
preceding blitz. 

The Great Wall of China rose as a tribute to the marauding horse- 
men of the steppes. One might almost say it is a monument to the 
horse. This, the greatest structure in volume reared by man, was 
built steadily during the seventh, sixth, fifth, fourth, and third 
centuries B. C. and often thereafter even as late as the middle of the 
eighteenth century A. D, Although the wall was designed to keep 
the nomad of the steppes out of the farmlands, it was only a limited 
success as is shown by the conquests of China by Tatars, Mongols, and 
Manchus. These cavalrymen from the steppes could conquer China. 
They spread terror and rapine and made periods of chaos. The con- 
querors established dynasties. The dynasties melted away. The 
Great Wall still remains, 1,400 miles of it, in varying degrees of decay 
or ruin. But the nomad conquerors that rode through the wall in 
shouting triumph have disappeared completely, having been absorbed 
by the great mass of the Chinese people. Meanwhile the Chinese 
peasant still keeps on with his not yet so greatly modified neolithic 
type of agriculture. 

ROME AND THE NOMADS FROM THE EAST 

The unfortunate experiences of the late Roman Empire with the 
seminomadic Germans and the Huns (Turanians, not Indo- 
Europeans) of Asia and Mongolia are a standard part of school his- 
tory. Bands of marauding horsemen, recognizing no law but the 
power of conquest, came out of the land north of the Black Sea, 
crossed the Danube, harried without mercy the eastern empire and 
collected tribute from Byzantium itself. Eastern Goths, Western 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND SMITH 377 

Goths, Vandals, Huns, Alans, Bulgars in turn punished the provinces 
of Rome both east and west for having been prosperous enough to 
produce material worthy of pillage. 

The Bulgars remain as a name — their language has been absorbed 
by that of the Slavs whom they conquered and ruled. The Alans melted 
away as did the Scythians in the fat lands of Mesopotamia a thousand 
years earlier, and as the Mongols did in China a thousand years later. 
Many of the Huns of Attila's empire merged with the conquered, but 
one group went back to the grasslands of south Russia. Some 400 
years later they returned to the plain of Hungary, where today they are 
the only remaining citadel of their language. 

THE ARABIAN GRASSLAND EXPLODES 

The seventh and eighth centuries of the Christian era witnessed the 
entry of the Arabian grasslands into the history of Eurasia in a large 
way. It was not the first time that Arabia had played a part in the 
history of lands beyond its border. One of the first recorded conquerors 
of Mesopotamia was Sargon the Akkadian, 3800 B. C. Sargon was a 
Semite, presumably from Arabia. Arabia is regarded as the original 
Semite nest. 

In Roman times succeeding generations of Arab horsemen harried 
the Roman Empire. As the seventh century A. D. opened, Arabia was 
a political chaos of independent oasis settlements and endlessly 
quarreling nomad tribes. 

A genius appeared upon the scene in the person of Mohammed, who 
preached patriotism and religion. He used the sword to advance his 
precepts and when he died in A. D. 632 Arabia was united. 

The followers of Mohammed started a career of wider conquest. The 
Arab horsemen and camelmen rode east, west, and north. In a few 
years they had conquered Mesopotamia, Persia, Syria, Palestine, and 
Egypt. In less than a century they had crossed the Ganges and the 
Pyrenees, conquering all the lands between. Their defeat at Tours in 
France in 732 by Charles Martel, who drove them back into Spain, is 
one of the very important turning points of history. 

THE MONGOLS AND THE TATARS 

The eruption of the Arabs from their grassland was unrelated to 
similar happenings in the greater grassland of the present Russian do- 
main. The central grassland of Eurasia kept on producing horses and 
men and marauding. In the ninth century a Russian chronicler re- 
corded one of their many pillaging raids. "Whence they came," he 
lamented, "God only knows, and whither they went, God only knows, 
but while they were here they were terrible." 



378 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Unfortunately, later generations of eastern and southeastern Euro- 
peans knew more than this about the Mongols and the Turks. These 
sons of the grassland came and remained to rule. 

Genghis Kahn (Perfect Warrior) , 1162-1227, son of a Mongol chief- 
tain, was a supreme genius. He was probably the greatest cavalryman 
that ever lived. In 30 years Genghis the Cavalryman spread his em- 
pire eastward to the Yellow Sea and westward to the Adriatic and 
the Baltic. Medieval Europe salved its sore vanity by saying that 
Genghis overwhelmed by myriad numbers. Not so. He won by disci- 



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Figure 14. — The area with NE.-SW. shading shows the Mongol empire, A. D. 1300, 
the largest block of land ever ruled by one organization. The area with 
NW.-SE. shading is the area ruled by Tamerlane, boastful of his pyramid of 
70,000 human skulls. (Base map copyright by Rand McNally & Company, 
Chicago.) 

pline, strategy, and tactics. He was a master of speed. The armies 
he defeated were usually much larger than his own, but he had more 
men at the point of combat than had the enemy — "The mostest men 
there fustest" (Forrest, C. S. A.). In one forenoon Genghis left 
70,000 Europeans dead on the plain of Hungary, and then "reduced 
three quarters of Hungary to ashes." 

It is reported that the strategy and tactics of Genghis Kahn have 
been most carefully studied by Hitler and company in five different 
compendious reports. Equipment may change, but the effectiveness of 
strategy and surprise remains. Genghis seems to have been a true 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 



379 



Nazi. He softened up prospective victims by propaganda, got infor- 
mation by spies, and attacked because lie thought he could win. De- 
tails of his equipment and effective methods stand in reference books 
for those who wish to read them. 

These Mongols conquered cities but camped without, in tents, as 
nomad warriors should. As he walked through a gutted Russian 
city a Mongol warrior kicked a bag of gold coins out of the way, re- 
marking as he walked on, "a heap of good it did him." 





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Figure 15. — Arrows show the trail of the Ottoman Turks out of Central Asia 
into Iran and Anatolia. Shaded area is Ottoman empire at its peak, 1683. 
y= Vienna. ir=Tours, the highwater mark of Islam in western Europe, A. D. 
732. 



It is said that Genghis' generals urged him to cleanse North China 
by massacring the millions of agricultural human vermin who in- 
habited it. Genghis said "No," but his successor slaughtered the 
entire population of Baghdad, perhaps some 700,000 in number. 

If Russia has been somewhat backward in comparison to some other 
European countries in recent generations, we should remember its 
complete submergence beneath the Mongol horde nearly a thousand 
years after the Roman Empire had its somewhat similar but less 



380 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

thorough destruction at the hands of mobile horsemen from the steppes. 
Parts of European Russia are still inhabited by several groups of the 
descendants of these Mongoloid Asiatic invaders. Their numbers run 
into millions. We might call them, and the Hungarians and the 
Finns, Asia's return for the settlements of Indo-Europeans in south- 
western Asia. The Turks continued this reciprocity with ferocity. 

THE TURKS 

The Hwang Valley seems to have been the center of peoples who 
are called Mongoloid. Central and north central Asia was the center 




FiQUEE IG. — Shaded" area shows Russian conquests in Asia since 1580. Gun- 
powder and wheels quelled the horseman of the steppes. 

for peoples called Turanian. The names Turki, Turcoman, or Turk 
have been variously applied to a dozen or more ethnic groups living 
west of the Great Wall and close kin to Mongol and Hun. The mo- 
bility of these horsemen of so-called Turkish stock was so great that 
in a short period they were to be found at Lake Baikal and also in 
Morocco, 7,000 miles distant. When the Russians took Merv less than 
100 years ago, the Turcomans of the nearby steppes were known by 
their neighbors as "the man-stealing Turks." 

The Turkish group that conquered Constantinople has repeated 
the southwest Asia historical cycle with variations. They came from 



4 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 



381 



Turkestan, crossed a corner of Persia, and settled in Asia Minor. 
There they increased, organized, and crossed the Bosphorus. Pass- 
ing the walls of Constantinople the invaders established themselves 
in southeastern Europe in the early 1300's. After generations of war 
they took Constantinople in 1453 and extended their empire into 
Hungary and south Russia. In 1683 the Turkish siege of Vienna was 
raised by John Sobieski, of Poland. 

If you look at the map and locate Tours, the northernmost limit of 
the Arab invasion, and Vienna, the westernmost limit of the Turkish 
invasion, you will see that Christendom has been subjected to a men- 







Figure 17. — Human overflow from northern and southern grasslands, as shown 
by Mackinder in the book "Democratic Ideals and Reality," Henry Holt & 
Company. Small wonder that Mesopotamia, once so fruitful, has lain almost 
idle and almost empty for centuries and centuries. 

acing pincers movement. Fortunately, the different sides pinched in 
different centuries. 

If anyone is inclined to criticize the Balkan peoples for some cul- 
tural, or especially political, shortcomings, let him remember that for 
500 years (1326-1878) the Balkan peoples were subjected to the tyran- 
nous misgovernment of the Turks, from which they but recently 
escaped. 

During much of this long era of Turkish rule there was something 
like guerilla warfare here and there in the broken area we call the 
Balkans. In such a time men think of chieftains, leaders, not such 
abstractions as democracy. In 1943 and 1944 we heard much about 
Mihailovitch and Tito — two more chieftains. 



382 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

At the close of World War I, Michael Pupin, a Serb, and distin- 
guished physicist of Columbia University, was the head of many 
Serbian organizations in this country. When Woodrow Wilson, at 
Paris, was big in the European news, Pupin remarked one day, "I 
don't want a college professor, I want a king and a heroP 

The Turk ruled a wide empire of many peoples, but was able to 
establish his language only in Anatolia. 




FiGUKE 18. — ^Topography and routes of conquest and migration. Note the Zun- 
garian Gate, opening a marauders' road from grassland toward farmlands. 
(From Mackinder, "Democratic Ideals and Reality," Henry Holt & Company.) 
The second route from the left is the Khyber Pass. No one knows the number 
of bands of migrants, marauders, or organized armies that have marched 
through that very favorable opening in the mountain wall. There were those 
of Alexander, Tamerlane, and George V. Today it has a strategic railway, 
and bristles with pillboxes perched high aloft on many commanding hills. 



RUSSIA TAKES THE STEPPES 

Gunpowder with muskets and cannon ended the career of the horse- 
men of the steppes after an undisturbed independence of unknown 
duration, and after about 4,000 years during which the horsemen over- 
ran almost at will their more civilized neighbors on the east, south, 
and west. In 1580 the Eussians with muskets, cannon, and wagons 
crossed the Urals. In 300 years they subjugated the whole of central 



^ 



GRASSLAND AND FARMLAND — SMITH 383 

Asia and all its horsemen right down to the mountain walls of Persia, 
Afghanistan, and the outer provinces of the old Chinese Empire. 

The tables were turned. The mobile grassland horseman found 
himself dominated by a machine-using sedentary man from beyond 
the grassland border. 

It is interesting to contemplate the almost unchanging continuity 
of two culture types: East of the Great Wall, in the good farmland 
of the Chinese plain, the man with the hoe, the mud village, the brick 
temple. This man was, and is, a peace-loving creature untempted by 
the lure of conquest, praying to be let alone in his garden. Instead 
he has been the victim of oft-repeated pillage. 

West of the Great Wall the grassland man, riding a horse, living in a 
tent, menaced by perennial uncertainty of supplies of grass and water. 
His temptation to maraud was strong and oft-repeated. The mobile 
existence of the grassland man made it easy for him to raid and pillage. 
The grain bags of the man with the hoe offered an easy objective. 
Thus, for 4,000 years grassland culture changed but little and the raid- 
ing nomad never ceased his attacks. Almost any year cavalry could 
muster on the plains and in irresistible numbers appear unannounced 
in the farmland beyond the mountain. Thus civilization after civil- 
ization and empire after empire developed in the farmlands and fell 
before the man from the grassland. 

Grassland society permitted and encouraged military power, often 
unlimited except by the whim and fancy of him who wielded it. Temp- 
tation to yield to the power lust was more frequent m the grasslands 
than in other environments. The power lust is unique among man's 
desires. The gratification of the desire for food, drink, sex, the pleas- 
ures of the chase, of workmanship, of the intellect, of creative art — the 
exercise of all these leads to satiety and sleep. But in terrible contrast, 
the lust for power grows by gratification. It runs away with the 
human spirit. At times it unbalances the mind. The Eomans with 
the pitiful record of emperors before them had a word for it — "Impe- 
rial Madness." 

History furnishes overabundant illustrations. To read "Mein 
Kampf" and contemplate the actions of the Nazis proves the present 
and continuing menace of unchecked power. The dangerous thing is 
that the power lust is born in all individuals. It is even shared by 
some of the quadrupeds. 

If the turbulent history of the Eurasian grassland has any message 
for this generation of men it is an imperative command to so organize 
our affairs that no race, nation, or group can get into a position of 
unlimited power over other large groups. 

Gunpowder and the railway reduced grassland man to impotence. 
They made him the vassal of the man from outside whose machinery 
could outrun the horse and outshoot the horseman's bow or rifle. 



384 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

But what about this Eurasian grassland as a stage and base of opera- 
tions in the world of tooth and fang, but equipped also with plane and 
bomb? 

Mackinder pointed out at the end of World War I that land-based 
air power would soon make the Mediterranean untenable to any kind 
of shipping. Here he showed himself a most true prophet. History 
has vindicated Mackinder. It has also vindicated Woodrow Wilson's 
dictum that if any people or nation is not safe, no nation is safe. 
Immensely strengthened is the argument for world organization to 
outlaw war. If our intelligence is any greater than that of the sheep 
or the cow we will strive for international organization that is 
equipped for : 

1. The removal of international tensions before they make 
explosions. 

2. The treatment of any war as we treat smallpox and rabies. 



Smithsonian Report. 1944. — Smith 




1. Thus Did Shalmanesar, King of Assyria (Mesopotamia), Celebrate 
HIS Victories, 840 B. c, in •imperishable" Stone. 

(After des Noettes.) 










2. TIGLATHPILESAR, lAS-721 B. C, LEFT THIS MONUMENT TO HUMAN STUPIDITY. 

Note the heavy tongue of the chariot higher than the horse's back and, far up the horse's neck, the choker 
to which the tongue is attached. (Compare fig. 1, above.) The Romans were not much better. Trajan, 
A. D. 70, celebrated his Danubian victories with a half mile or so of sculptures winding round and round 
his well-known column. There are horses there but no stirrup, no horse collar, no trace (attachment to 
horse's shoulder). Trajan's horses pulled less than those of Tiglathpilesar. Indeed they pulled not at 
all— according to sculpture. Men with dangling legs sat astride them. 

(After des Noettes.) 



SOUTHERN ARABIA, A PROBLEM FOR THE FUTURE 



By Caklhtton S. Coon 
Harvard University 



INTRODUCTION 

The one corner of the Asiatic continent with which archeologists, 
ethnologists, and physical anthropologists have concerned themselves 
the least, for excellent reasons, is southern Arabia. This pardonable 
neglect stands in inverse ratio to the region's natural appeal and 
interest. The whole Arabian peninsula, from one standpoint, forms 
one of three vermiform appendices dangling from the main mass of 
Asia into the Indian Ocean. Arabia, southern India with Ceylon, 
and the Malay Peninsula, have all three served as culs-de-sac to old, 
discarded, and forgotten fragments of humanity, pressed out of circu- 
lation by the movements of more vigorous and more civilized groups 
to the north. The parallel between southern Arabia and the other 
two appendices is clear. The primitive Bedawin of the Hadhramaut, 
who form the substratum of that country's population, and the non- 
Arabic-speaking natives of Mahra and Dhofar, serve as the western 
counterparts of the Vedda, the Semang, and the Sakai. 

But there is another facet to this comparison. Just as the brilliant 
Sinhalese civilization flourished in Ceylon, just as the Mon-Khmer 
civilization reached sculptural heights in the jungles of Cambodia 
and Siam, and Hindu culture was carried over into Sumatra and Java, 
so southern Arabia has at the same time played a second role, that of 
a hothouse of high oriental civilization in antiquity. Here flourished 

1 The purpose of the author In writing this paper is to summarize the existing informa- 
tion, available to him, concerning the prehistory, archeology, and ethnology of the por- 
tions of Arabia lying south of the twentieth parallel, especially the kingdom of Yemen and 
the regions of Hadhramaut and Dhofar, and the island of Socatra, and to interpret that data 
both historically and ethnologically. In so doing the author has drawn heavily on several 
sources : Maj. H. St. John Philby's articles in the New York Times of September 12 and 
19, 1937 ; Dr. Cesare Ansaldi's book, "II Yemen" ; the sections written by Drs. Nielsen, 
Hommel, and Rhodokanakis in the "Handbuch der altarabischen Altertumskunde" ; Van 
den Berg's "Le Hadhramout et les Colonies Arabes dans I'Archlpel Indien" ; "Southern 
Arabia," by Theodore and Mrs. Bent ; and "Arabia Felix," by Bertram Thomas. 

The bulk of the information comes from the aforementioned sources, most of the rest 
from the author's field notes. The interpretation, unless otherwise acknowledged in the 
text, is original. 

Reprinted by permission from Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology 
and Ethnology, Harvard University, vol. 20, Dixon Memorial Volume, 1943. 

385 



386 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the famous kingdoms of the Sabaeans, Minaeans, Katabanians, and 
Hadhramautisj whose splendors were immortalized by the biblical 
account of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Under the encroaching 
sands of the Empty Quarter lie the feet of splendid temples and lofty 
skyscrapers, abandoned to the desert after the breaking of the Marib 
dam, and the shift of the frankincense trade from the overland route 
to the sea. 

The peninsula of Arabia can hardly be called a unit. The Empty 
Quarter, probably the world's largest stretch of sheer and utter desert 
without oasis and without relief, acts as the center of a ring, about 
which are set the Arabian kingdoms, like jewels of different hue and 
luster. The Empty Quarter divides these kingdoms as no sea could, 
for one can sail across seas, and some, such as the Mediterranean, 
and the Indian Ocean, have acted in history as highroads rather than 
as barriers. There is no barrier so great as a complete desert. The 
Empty Quarter may be crossed by camels and has been so crossed 
over long periods of time; this has been proved by the personal ex- 
perience and inquiries of Bertram Thomas. Such crossings, how- 
ever, are extremely exceptional, and most of the inhabitants of Arabia 
today entertain only fabulous notions of the actual character of this 
extensive waste. 

Although it would please exponents of pan- Arabian solidarity to 
think that all the Arabs in the whole peninsula and elsewhere form a 
racial and cultural unit, the truth is quite the opposite. Arabian 
unity north and west of the Empty Quarter may well extend into Syria, 
Iraq, and North Africa, but south of the great desert the vermiform 
appendix plays its retentive role. Here, small, ringlet-haired men, 
painted blue, swear mighty oaths over the tombs of Jnun, milk their 
cattle, sleep in caves, and initiate their sons in mass ceremonies of an 
Australoid character. These men are not Arabs in the modern. Islamic 
sense ; they are the survivors of an earlier age. 

Southern Arabia may be divided geographically into a number of 
discrete units. Most important politically, and in reference to popu- 
lation, is its westernmost segment, the divine kingdom of Yemen, where 
approximately 3 million farmers water their terraces and reap their 
barley under the spiritual sanction of their Imam. The Yemen con- 
sists geographically of two main parts, separated by a formidable 
barrier. The first part is the Tihama, a narrow coastal strip in which 
sand dunes alternate with fields of sorghum, and occupied by a mixed 
population of Negroid serfs from Africa and small elflike, brachy- 
cephalic men, whose racial origin is still a mystery. Tlie barrier is a 
10,000-foot escarpment, rising sheer from the coastal plain, crowned 
by a range of castellated peaks, and folded and eroded into countless 
^'alleys. 



SOUTHERN ARABIA — COON 



387 



This escarpment lias been almost completely terraced by man. On it 
grow crops of luscious fruits, various hard grains, and the entire supply 
of the world's finest gi^ade of coffee. Beyond the escarpment stretches 
a vast upland plateau, sloping gently eastward and drained into the 
Wady Hadhramaut and the Indian Ocean. From the edge of the 




escarpment to the ill-defined border of the gradually encroaching 
Empty Quarter stretches a wide belt of terraced land on which great 
crops of grain are grown by the Imam's subjects. The desert border- 
land, itself once the seat of garden states watered by means of huge 
dams, is now occupied by a few scattered tribes of Bedawin, who make 



388 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 



I 



their living by exploiting the natural salt deposits situated near the 
great city-sites. 

To the east of the Yemen, and to the south of the westernmost exten- 
sion of the Empty Quarter, lies the famous region called Hadliramaut, 
a country whose size diminishes as one approaches it. To the outsider, 
the Hadhramaut comprises most of Arabia east of Aden, west of Mahra, 
and south of the desert. To the Hadhramis themselves, it includes 
only the narrow valley which bears its name, and the string of towns 
built along it. The Hadhramaut, like the Yemen, is the seat of intense 
agricultural activity, but in a much more restricted sense, since only the 
river valley and the beds of its tributaries are actually productive, 
while the nearly denuded momitain region lying between the valley 
and the sea is used for camel pasture and the passage of caravans. 
The sea coast of the Hadhramaut is a negligible geographical expres- 
sion, since the cliffs which hem in this valley to the south arise almost 
directly from the water. 

East of the Hadhramaut lies what is, to most ethnologists, probably 
the most interesting section of southern Arabia. This is the half moon 
of Dhofar, a small coastal plain hemmed from behind by the Qara 
Mountains, against which the full force of the Indian monsoon unloads 
seasonal rain in abundance. Dhofar alone retains the damp tropical 
climate which, the geologists tell us, at one time characterized the 
whole southern strip of Arabia. In Dhofar survive mangrove 
swamps, miniature jungles of tropical pahns, and on the slopes above 
the plain, an abundance of those small, fleshy bushes from which are 
bled the frankincense tears so greatly prized in the ancient world. 
In the highlands behind Dhofar survive pre-Arabic Semitic lan- 
guages ; ^ and a cattle culture comparable to that of the Toda of India 
on the one hand and of the East African Hamites and Bantu on the 
other, as well as certain customs and practices of a very primitive 
character. 

When we leave Dhofar we enter the domain of Oman proper, but 
we are no longer in the strict sense concerned with southern Arabia. 
The bulk of Oman is situated in a latitude north of Mekka, and even 
with that of Medina. Except for the alleged Negrito strain in the 
population of Cape Musandam, its relationships are primarily with 
the valley of Mesopotamia and with the coast line of Iran. Southern 
Arabia, in the strict sense of the word, cannot be said to extend 
north of the twentieth parallel. 

PREHISTORY 

There can be little doubt that, during parts of the Pleistocene period, 
southern Arabia enjoyed a much more felicitous climate than it does at 

» Thomas, 1937b. 



SOUTHERN ARABIA — COON 389 

present. The Empty Quarter, after all, is nothing but an eastward 
extension of the Sahara, a part of the general belt of arid uplands 
extending across vast expanses of Africa and Asia. Since the climatic 
history of the Sahara is now partly known, it is possible to reason by 
analogy with some hope of justification. 

During the Pleistocene, a number of pluvial periods turned the 
Sahara, at alternate intervals, into a great plain of grass and park- 
lands, drained by huge rivers which carved its deep wadies, now water- 
less and denuded, into sculptural masterpieces of erosion. In south- 
ern Arabia, the size and volume of the dry river courses bear evidence 
that the same process took place here as well, and that during these 
periods of abundant rainfall the Empty Quarter itself formed a 
grassy plain of lesser size, offering food and shelter to herds of rumi- 
nant mammals, and to man. 

After the last pluvial maximum, Arabia, like the Sahara, began to 
dry out. The abandonment of Marib, the gradual disuse of the ter- 
races along the Yemen escarpment, and the turning of the northern 
Arabs to pastoral nomadism with dependence on the camel, may all 
have been secondary manifestations of this increasing desiccation, 
and we have no evidence that the drying-out process has yet come to 
an end. Arabia today holds somewhat less than 6 million people. 
Five thousand years ago, when agriculture was already old but lit- 
erate civilization new, Arabia might presumably have held twice that 
number. If we are to reconstruct the history of Arabia, however, we 
must turn back still farther, and postulate a time in which the whole 
southern border of the peninsula resembled the present Dhofar, and 
in which the Empty Quarter and the regions north of it were grassy 
plains. 

At that time, it is possible that Arabia was a home of human beings 
of ancestral European type, and advanced beyond their fellows in the 
glacial north. It is too early, however, to present this hypothesis with 
conviction, for at present Paleolithic archeology in Arabia may be 
said hardly to have begun. In the Nejd, Doughty ^ found Paleolithic 
implements, in the form of hand axes; Henry Field,* in a motor trip 
across Transjordania and the desert border of Iraq, established the 
presence of Paleolithic industries from the Acheulean stage upward, 
while Philby,^ in his recent trip along the southern border of the 
Empty Quarter, has likewise discovered Paleolithic implements of 
nature as yet unstated. 

Miss Caton-Thompson,® however, has found paleoliths in situ in 
the Hadhramaut ; these are of Levalloisian type, and poorly executed. 

'Doughty, 1923. 

* Field, 1934. 

»Philby, 1937. 

" Caton-Thompson and Gardner, 1939. 



390 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

They seem to have been used over a long period of time. So far, none 
of the hand axes so typical of northern Arabia have been found south 
of the Euba'-el Khali, which was perhaps as much of a refuge area 
in Paleolithic as in historic times. In other words, the geographical 
forces which divide northern and southern Arabia into separate cul- 
tural entities today may also have operated as far back in human his- 
tory as Pleistocene times. 

Southern Arabia may also hold the answer to some of the problems 
concerned with the rise of the Neolithic economy in the Old World. 
The Yemen highlands and the corresponding highlands of Ethiopia 
seem to be old centers of terraced agriculture. In Ethiopia, a number 
of unique local species of cereals have been found. So far, the Yemen 
has escaped the attention of economic botanists, but this region may be 
of great interest in this connection. It is just possible that some 
aspects of the Neolithic economy may have developed in this area. 

Megaliths, too, are present in southern Arabia. In his recent jour- 
ney through Asir and the desert borderland of Yemen, Philby '' 
noticed the presence of cromlechs similar to Stonehenge, made of 
double concentric circles of huge slabs of granite, with central corri- 
dors oriented to the east and west. He also found semicircular pas- 
sageways, and vast fields of dolmenlike tombs both with and without 
corridors. Further study on the spot will be needed to determine both 
the age of these structures and their relationship, if any, with the 
megalithic complex in the Mediterranean and western Europe. At 
present, however, it would seem that they have a strong continuity, 
at least in an architectural sense, with the historic cultures of southern 
Arabia. 

Aside from archeology, southern Arabia may contain the solution 
of an important question in the racial field : "What role did the south- 
ern coastal strip of the peninsula play in forming a connection be- 
tween the frizzly-haired, deep -pigmented peoples of Africa and 
Oceania?" In Africa the general Negroid family is represented by 
true Negroes, Pygmies, and Bushmen. In southern Asia and Oceania, 
from India to Fiji, one finds various kinds of Negritos, all occupying 
marginal areas, as well as Melanesians and Tasmanians. There is 
probably some genetic continuity between the Negroids of these two 
major areas, and since the fringe of southern Arabia lies in between, 
some traces of whatever group served as link might possibly be ex- 
pected to survive. Such a survival does actually occur. 

The population of southern Arabia, aside from the Yemen, consists 
of two major elements — Mediterranean and Veddoid. In the Ha- 
dhramaut Valley, the agriculturists are predominantly Mediterra- 
nean ; among the Bedawin, and among the wilder tribes of the Dhofar 

T Philby, 1937. 



SOUTHERN ARABIA — COON 391 

region, the Veddoid element increases in importance. There is, how- 
ever, a third element — frizzly-haired, short-statured, round-headed, 
which occurs among sporadic individuals, and which is presumably 
Negrito. Individuals possessing these traits are not to be confused 
with African Negro hybrids, who are well recognized and who are 
differentiated from the rest of the population in a social sense, nor 
with Somalis. The tribesmen of Cape Musandam, in Oman, are said 
to be predominantly Negrito.^ 

The tentative identification of a submerged Negrito strain in south- 
ern Arabia, which can be confirmed only by further work on the spot, 
leads one to suggest that the connecting link between the African and 
Oceanic Negroids may be Negrito — the only type which both have in 
common. It is very likely that the Negi-ito is an extremely ancient 
human type, as witnessed by its marginal position, and that it antedates 
in development both the African Negro and the Melanesian, which 
latter is probably a hybrid. Southern Arabia was presumably at one 
time merely a segment of the forested belt which the Negritos of the 
world occupied, and in it the Negrito factor may well antedate the 
Veddoid. 

THE PRE-ISLAMIC KINGDOMS 9 

When we approach the problem of the literate city-states of pre- 
Islamic southern Arabia, we reach somewhat firmer, though still 
shaky, ground. We know that there were four kingdoms, from north- 
west to southeast: Ma'an, Saba, Kataban, and Hadhramaut. Their 
capitals were, in order, Ma'an, Marib, Tamna, and Shabwa. Of these 
four, Tamna has not even been located. Ma'an and Marib were visited 
by furtive epigraphers in disguise, in the 1880's, and then left unknown 
until 1935, when Hellfritz, under escort by the Imam's soldiers, was 
hurried through the latter. The same adventurer also passed through 
Shabwa equally rapidly. In 1936-37, Philby spent a total of 8 days at 
Shabwa and peered at Marib from a distant hill. 

Under these circumstances, it is no wonder that our knowledge of 
these kingdoms is scanty. It is largely derived from Greek accounts, 
and from the translations of inscriptions — some copied in the cities 
themselves, others photographed and copied in the Imam's Museum 
at Sana'a, and still others brought out to the coast at Aden. Other 
objects in the Imam's Museum- hastily examined by the author and by 
Dr. Schlobies, contribute further evidence. The Peabody Museum 
of Harvard University and the Semitic Museum of the same institution 
have small collections which await competent study. 



* Wilson, 1928. 

» The literary evidence upon which much of this section is based is drawn largely from 
Nielsen, et al., 1927. 

619830 — 45 26 



392 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

Despite the paucity of information and the general lack of interest 
in this most important field, linking as it does the civilizations of two 
ancient worlds, the trade of the forger flourishes. The rare visitor to 
Sana'a is besieged by dealers in statuettes and inscribed stones, some 
blatantly poor and new, others clever and difficult to detect. Silver 
coins of the Sabaeans, however, are abundant, and a drug on the 
numismatic market. 

What do these objects so far found tell us? Their surface message 
is clear. The kingdoms of southern Arabia, like that of the Nabatae- 
ans farther north, were in contact with the entire ancient world, from 
Kome to India and perhaps beyond. Objects of Koman, Greek, 
Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and Indian manufacture abound. Scarabs, 
amulets, bronze statues in the Koman manner, dragon-feet and grape- 
bunch ornamentation in the Syrian and Byzantine manner, and Gre- 
cian columns all witness the especial linkage of this region with the 
Mediterranean. The names of gods monotonously repeated, the abun- 
dance of seated votive idols and ex votos, from phalli to oxen, indicate 
a devotion to religion and a belief in divine cures. Animal figurines 
show humpless cattle of the long-horned variety, like those of Hotten- 
tot and Gall a, dromedaries, horses, ibexes, and gazelles. 

Bronze is the common metal, iron rare ; gold and silver are not scarce. 
Microlithic flakes of ornamental greenish stone and of obsidian were 
apparently used as cutting tools and as arrowheads, along with metal. 
Palettes indicate the great use of mineral cosmetics, as in predynastic 
Egypt. Statuettes and bas-reliefs show the skirt or breechclout to be 
the common costume. The sculptural level in purely native art is 
not high enough to give us an accurate idea of the racial types 
present, except that the people were undoubtedly white, had prominent 
noses, and that the men wore beards. There is no reason to suppose 
that they were any different racially from the Mediterranean Yemeni 
highlanders of today. 

Without question a careful study of authentic South Arabian archeo- 
logical specimens, even those removed from their contexts, as all 
those available are, could do much to solve the problem of the contacts 
and influences of this civilization. But such a study is yet to be made. 
From the inscriptions, and from classical and Arabic documents, we 
may build a second picture — that of the ethnography of these king- 
doms ; their boundaries in time and space, their social structures, their 
religious practices, and their economic life. With the aid of the prodi- 
gious scholarship of Nielsen and his associates, we will proceed to 
discuss these in brief. 

It cannot yet be determined with any accuracy when the South 
Arabian kingdoms were first established. It is known, however, that 
Ma'an was probably the oldest, with Kataban perhaps nearly as old, 



SOUTHERN ARABIA — COON 393 

while the Sabaean kingdom was, relatively speaking, young. The 
history of southern Arabia, as an important center of civilization, 
may have started, however, as early as 1300 B. C. and it continued 
until the time of Mohammed. A more conservative, but otherwise in 
no way preferable, date is 900 B. C. Whichever or whatever date one 
accepts, there can be no doubt that this cultural emergence was pre- 
ceded by centuries of preliterate, in a sense predynastic, agricultural 
civilization. 

At some chronological point between the two dates mentioned, 
southern Arabia came into prominence as a highly civilized agricul- 
tural region, flourishing near the source of the incense trade route, 
which went up from the Hadhramaut around the western edge of the 
Empty Quarter to Mekka, Medina, and the ports of the eastern Medi- 
terranean. It also served as the principal or only route by which goods 
from India were transshipped and carried overland. This trade posi- 
tion was highly artificial and depended almost wholly upon the sup- 
pression of the sea route up the Red Sea. When this was opened, in 
the second century A. D., the kingdoms of southern Arabia fell, and 
the country lost its importance to the world. 

Of the four kingdoms, Hadhramaut alone produced incense, which 
also came from Dhof ar farther east. The other three lay on the trade 
route and served as carriers, thereby collecting their "cuts" from the 
rich trade profits. A tear of incense resin, of negligible value on the 
tree, had been doubled and redoubled many times in price before it 
reached the Mediterranean. This ancient racketeering was based upon 
two sound economic principles, as valid now as then: the first, that 
of the monopoly, and the second, that of bought protection, in which 
the Arabs and desert people elsewhere have long been experts. 

The Minaean kingdom, which was apparently the oldest, had passed 
its period of efilorescence before the Sabaeans began. It was also 
the northernmost, located in the Jauf and Nejran, with Ma'an its main 
city. Nielsen believes that the basic elements of this civilization came 
from the coastal strip along the northern Persian Gulf, which the 
Arabs call Bahrain, and the Babylonians called Magan. According 
to Nielsen, Ma'an = Magan, with the 'ain substituted for the Baby- 
lonian G. 

There were 20 Minaean kings, covering, in their combined reigns, 
a period of at least 600 years. The older estimate would place the 
Minaean period from 1300 to 700 B. C. ; the younger, from 900 to 300. 
If the alphabetic inscriptions from Ma'an go back to the oldest period, 
then the younger dating is the more likely, since, in the Sinai region 
and northern Arabia, alphabetic writing does not antedate the first 
millennium. The age of the Katabanians is also in doubt, but in all 
probability their kingdom was roughly contemporaneous with that of 



394 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

the Minaeans. At what time Hadhramaut changed from a trade depot 
to a kingdom is not known. 

The Sabaeans appear toward the end of the Minaean reign, perhaps, 
as Nielsen suggests, from the northern Arabian Jauf. They were 
perhaps also camel nomads, who carried the trade for the Minaeans, 
and who, later having decided to take their share of the business di- 
rectly, established a domain in the south, grafting themselves on the 
northern portion of what had been Katabanian territory. There are 
two Sabaean periods : the earlier, called the Mukarrib period, in which 
the king bore the title mukarrib, which indicated a primarily priestly 
office, and a later, in which he is called malik, the common Semitic 
word for king, A parallel transition took place in Kataban. The 
exact dates of these two periods are unknown, depending on a floating 
correlation. For the first Nielsen offers 1115-815 B. C, 950-650 B. C, 
and 815-510 B. C, of which he prefers the middle one. This, of course, 
goes with the early dating for the Minaeans. 

The most important Mukarrib of Saba was Kariba-Ilu (the Priest 
of the God II), who killed 4,000 men in a war against Kataban, then 
turned on Ma'an and killed 45,000 while taking 63,000 prisoners and 
31,000 head of cattle. At the same time his army laid the Nejran 
country waste, destroying the Minaeans forever. Two Assyrian in- 
scriptions, dated 715 and 685 B. C, respectively, serve to locate this 
Kariba-Ilu accurately in time. He gave presents to King Sargon of 
Assyria, although he was in no sense a vassal of the latter monarch. 
The difficulty in pinning the entire chronology to him is that there 
were several kings named Kariba-Ilu, and it is not yet known which 
one of them was the great conqueror and Sargon's friend. 

At any rate, this Mukarrib period was the period of rise and efflores- 
cence for the Sabaeans. They established themselves definitely as 
the principal people in southern Arabia; for after destroying the 
Minaeans and crippling the Katabanians and Hadhramautis, they 
turned to offer these two latter peace and alliance, which must have 
implied a Sabaean hegemony. The material high point of this period 
was the erection of the great dam at Marib, which provided irrigation 
water for the whole section. 

From about 650 to 115 B. C, according to Nielsen's correlation, the 
Sabaeans continued to be the dominant people in the incense and In- 
dian trades. This was the Malik period. In 115 B. C. their nation be- 
came the dual kingdom of Saba and Dhu Raidan, with rival families 
arising ; the Hamdanis, of whom there is still an entire tribe in Yemen, 
and the Himyarites, who were only a single noble family, although 
their name has erroneously been preserved as the title of the whole 
South Arabian civilization. Tlie Hamdanis were centered at Marib, 
the Himyarites at Dhu Raidan. From 115 B. C. to A. D. 270 these 



SOUTHERN ARABIA — COON 395 

two families jockeyed each other about in their struggle for exclusive 
power. 

The later history of southern Arabia, until the arrival of Islam, is 
relatively well known. In 24 B. C. Aelius Gallus led an expedition 
to conquer this whole section, known to the Komans as Arabia Felix, 
but the Komans never got there. Somewhere in the sands near the 
Nejran the majority of them perished, and those who survived at 
this point turned back. About A. D. 270 the Axumite Ethiopians 
conquered Arabia Felix and ruled it — they were Christians and set up 
bishops and bishoprics. But by A. D. 378, apparently, their rule 
had come to an end. The Axumites themselves were the descendants, 
in whole or in part, of earlier emigrants from the Hadhramaut, who 
had carried Semitic civilization to Ethiopia and there become 
Christianized. 

In A. D. 449 and 450 the dam at Marib burst twice, washing out the 
valley and ruining agriculture, and at this time there must have been 
a mass exodus. Perhaps it was at this time that the region of Sana'a 
became the nucleus of Yemen. The later kings, who ruled before the 
bursting of the dam, were in many instances Jewish in religion, and 
the strong Jewish colony of Yemen had before then been founded. 
In A. D. 525 the Ethiopians returned, and in A. D. 570, the birth year 
of Mohammed, the Ethiopian viceroy Abraha, who ruled Yemen, 
organized an expedition, mounted on elephants, against Mekka. This 
expedition soon came to grief, however, and in the same year the 
Persians conquered the country. In A. D. 628 the last Persian gov- 
ernor became a Moslem, and Arabia Felix was ruled from Mekka. By 
the time of the establishment of Islam in Yemen, southern Arabia had 
lost its earlier importance. This was due to the break-up of the over- 
land trade, caused chiefly by the establishment of ports along the 
coastal Tihama by the Ethiopians. Before this time we hear little of 
the coastal plain — it was ethnically a different country, as it is today. 

About the political and social organization of the four southern 
Arabian states, we have sufficient information to permit the recon- 
struction of at least a plausible if striking system. Since each of the 
four was organized in essentially the same way, it will suffice to de- 
scribe the functioning of the best known, Saba. Here society was 
graded and subdivided on two interlocking bases, kinship and in- 
heritable rank. These divisions were formally expressed by the pres- 
ence within the state of several parallel tribes and four graded classes. 
The tribe was both a kinship grouping and a geographical expression ; 
each tribe except one was a completely parallel unit, which included 
members of the three lower classes, in approximately equivalent pro- 
portions. The one asymmetrical tribe possessed in addition the entire 
personnel of the highest class, small in number, and including the 
priest-king and his near kinsmen. 



396 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

The state was named after the leading tribe, and the capital was 
situated in this tribe's territory. The king was the representative of 
godhead on earth, the chief diety which he represented was the na- 
tional god of the state, although each tribe kept its own tribal divinity 
as well. The leading tribe was concerned with the maintenance of the 
main temple and of shrines; thus, the leading tribe maintained its 
political ascendancy through a religious sanction. 

Each tribe was bound to a certain section of land and was responsible 
for the agricultural success of this allotment. The members of the 
tribe were obliged to remain on this land and could not farm else- 
where — there was no freedom of movement from the agricultural and 
residential standpoint. For political purposes, the tribe was sub- 
divided laterally into thirds or quarters, and tribes could be recom- 
bined arbitrarily for political purposes. In this way the genealogical 
solidarity of the tribe could be broken down and must eventually have 
become secondary to the geographical tie. This organization into 
tribes and subtribes made it easy for the government to levy armies 
and collect taxes, and also to provide for the poor. 

Local landholders, belonging to the upper tribal class, were also war 
leaders and were responsible for the raising of covees to execute public 
works, particularly irrigation projects, and to maintain the highway 
along which the precious frankincense traveled. Furthermore, these 
tribal leaders were charged with recruiting warriors and overseeing 
agriculture; for if any lands were neglected or poorly farmed, the 
tribal overlords were held responsible. 

The three social classes, aside from the divine upper crust, are desig- 
nated by the as yet vowel-less words Mswd^ Ksdn^ and DtyvwI. For the 
sake of simplicity, we shall designate these by the numbers 2, 3, and 4, 
leaving number 1 for the royal caste. Number 2 was a privileged class 
of landowners, with the feudal rights mentioned earlier; number 3 
formed the most numerous group, consisting of free landholders, the 
owners of small, individual properties, who provided the bulk of the 
working power. They were farmers, paid a land tax, did military 
service, and submitted themselves to the feudal authority of the noble 
families of the second class. Members of class number 3 were further 
subgraded into categories by occupation, since they apparently in- 
cluded in their numbers the skillful artisans responsible for the high 
level of South Arabian material culture. If the modern parallel in 
Yemenite society reflects an earlier condition, then the farmers proper 
must have been superior socially to the artisans. The members of 
class number 4 were landless serfs, without political freedom. It is not 
known whether or not they fitted into the genealogical scheme upon 
which the tribal structure was erected. 



SOUTHERN ARABIA — COON 397 

An officer called Kebir, in Greek irpecr^vTepos, presided over each 
tribe as head. The name itself implies that he was originally an elder, 
and that his position was determined by family precedence. His office 
was partly priestly, perhaps in the earlier stages of South Arabian 
social evolution largely so. It was he who brought sacrifices to the 
tribal temple and offered them to the tribal god. 

Besides the lands governed by the tribal princes, there were crown 
lands governed directly by the king, and the occupants of these terri- 
tories paid him taxes and military services. Presumably these were the 
lands occupied by members of his own tribe. Much of the land also 
belonged to the temple ; on it were priestly colleges, each with its Kebir. 
Thus, the prototype of the modern zoAJoiya and its sheikh or fakih 
existed in pre-Islamic Saba. Every member of society, of whatever 
class, was obliged to do some work on the temple lands, and the gods 
were offered sacrifices, ex votos, and the tithes of all produce. The 
temples themselves were built with money given or bequeathed as 
offerings to wipe away specific sins committed by the donors. 

The dual system of national partitionment, vertically into tribes and 
horizontally into classes, produced a state held together by religious 
sanction and by a specialized common economic purpose. Exactly how 
the caravans were organized, and who had control of the road taxes, 
we do not yet know, but the technique must have fitted into the system 
already described. 

One can find a number of parallels to this tightly integrated and 
overtly stratified form of organization, in various parts of the world. 
The Inca system in Peru was basically similar, and that of the Aztecs 
was, at the time of Cortez, assuming a similar form, while the germs of 
such a system may be found in the tribal organization of the Muskho- 
gean peoples of the southeastern United States. In the Old World, 
the Sumerian and Bablyonian systems were not radically dissimilar. 
In Egypt the divinity of the king and the role of the nomes and 
nomarchs might be considered parallel. The caste system, with occupa- 
tional segregation, has its parallels in India, and may there go back to 
the time of the Indus Valley civilizations. Thus the technical perfec- 
tion of the South Arabian state, as exemplified by Saba, is not surpris- 
ing, and its form relates it to the whole string of civilized communities 
reaching from the Nile to the Indus. 

But like all other systems, no matter how perfectly adjusted, it was 
susceptible to change. As the Sabaean power grew through military 
conquest, the importance of the military element naturally increased. 
A subcaste, called by the consonantal sequence ^Khms^ arose from the 
middle class, to parallel the Kshatrias in India ; this was a strong mili- 
tary caste, which came in later periods to cut across tribal lines, and 
developed into a strongly unified group which wielded great political 



398 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1944 

power. Its rise was perhaps comparable to that of the Nazi party in 
modern Germany, whose beginning was both middle class and tinged 
with military concepts. Needless to say, the rise of this fascist military 
class was entirely a Sabaean phenomenon ; the power and initiative of 
Minaeans and Katabanians had declined long before its inception, and 
we know too little about the kingdom of Hadhramaut to make com- 
parisons in that quarter. 

The Katabanians, as a matter of fact, were more democratically gov- 
erned than the Sabaeans, for each tribe had a council or assembly of 
landowners ; this was distinct from the parallel council of noblemen ; 
thus, the Katabanians had a bicameral parliamentary government, 
with a House of Lords and a House of Commons, with the king in the 
supreme position, over both. This system may well have been the 
early political formula of all of the South Arabian states, lasting 
through the Mukarrib period in Saba, and replaced during the Malik 
period by the feudal system above outlined, eventually to be thrust in 
turn into the shade by the rise of the military caste, and of the rival 
warring families of Himyar and Hamdan. 

The religion of these southern Arabian states, so intimately en- 
twined with the social and political structure, is not easy to recon- 
struct. Moslems are notoriously loath to preserve traditions of 
earlier paganism and like to garble what pre-Islamic history they 
permit to survive in anachronistic terms. Our religious sources, 
then, are confined to the body of inscriptions so far published, and a 
few superficial Greek observations. Although to competent Arabic 
scholars the reading of the southern Semitic inscriptions is not diffi- 
cult, since the alphabet may be learned in a few hours, and the gram- 
mar and vocabulary are basically the same, the knowledge of this 
writing passed out of common circulation soon after the Islamic 
penetration brought a new Semitic speech and a new alphabet. In 
the tenth century Abu Mohammed el Hamdani could still read the 
old inscriptions, so we know that the knowledge had not, in his time, 
completely died. He wrote 10 books about the olden times, of which 
only 2 survive. 

The inscriptions consist largely of the names of gods, of which 
over a hundred are known. Many of them are attribute names, such 
as IVadd^ love ; Sadik^ truth ; and Rahman, the Compassionate, which 
passed over into Islamic terminology. Besides these are a number of 
animal names: the bull, the horse, the ibex, the snake. Others are 
kinship terms: father, paternal uncle, brother, mother, etc. Still 
others symbolize the omnipotence of the god : BcCal, the ruler ; and 
Malik, the king. Personal names of individual men are often of the 
"Slave of the Compassionate" type, the pre-Islamic prototype of 
'Abd er-Rahman, and similar dedicatory terms. There is again a 



SOUTHERN ARABIA — COON 399 

class of god names which indicate tribal affiliation, the protector of 
such and such a tribe, or paternal uncle of such and such a tribe. 

Needless to say, this multiplication of god names does not imply 
an extensive polytheism. All the names, all the gods, have been 
reduced to three : the Sun, the Moon, and the Venus Star. These are 
respectively represented in sculpture as a disk, a crescent, and an eight- 
pointed star. Each of these three had many functions and attributes, 
each with a name, and the reduction of these to three is only exceeded 
by the Islamic heaping of all attribute names on a single divinity. 
Although there were but three gods, each might be worshiped sepa- 
rately in different aspects and under different names ; thus the tribes 
were still able to possess personal divinities. The state god of the 
Minaeans was Wadd^ that of the Katabanians ''Amm^ that of the Ha- 
dhramis Sin^ and of the Sabaeans II Mukah. All were the moon. 

There were no carved images of these three — the Semitic tabu 
against graven images, while by no means generally applicable, was 
in force in regard to the divinities themselves. What images we 
find are of people. These gods, however, had perches or resting 
places, in the form of crude stones, such as the Ka'aba itself. The 
sun was a woman, and the moon her husband. Once a month, at the 
time of conjunction, they had sexual intercourse; the stars are their 
children, and of these Venus is the most important. These stars 
eventually became angels ; people and animals are also the children of 
the gods. Thus, a direct kinship connection exists between this di- 
vine trinity and mankind, with the head of the state acting as the 
symbol and concentration point of godhead